Ripon Forum Summer 2004

Page 1

Si nce 1969 Cou ntryw ide has been focused on reducing the barriers to homeownershi p and lowering costs. Fa nnie Mae shares this visio n, and together we're working harder than ever before to make horneownership accessible to more Americans. "When we started, we offered one prod uct; today we offer over 180, many designed with Fannie Mae, to make homeownership more obtainable for more people. Right now only 50 percent of minority families own homes. The task for companies like Countrywide is moving it from SO percent to 80 perce nt. Fannie Mae is invaluable in helping to reach this goal. Our uni fying mission is to close the gap in minority homeownership." sta tes Angelo Mozilo, chairman and CEO. As Mozilo notes. "You can't quantify the emotional impact of homeownership in people's lives." So as long as there is a gap in the homeownership rates, Fannie Mae and Coun tr)'\v ide will co ntinue to make sure all Americans have the chance to real ize the dream of homeowners hip. Beca use as the American Dream grows, so do we.™

~ FannieMae www.rannicnl:lc .com



Note From the Executive Director

POLITICS 5 6 7 8 011 fbe cover: Drmomllic pmiMmiJl / (Illl(/Mtltl' jolm Kary speaks III Ir"lJnt $tlllt Uniwniry March 26, 2004 ill Dmoil, Michigllll. l'hot. by IMII"'tI.m.!Gmy Imal"



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Ripon Forum ' Summer 2004

26 27 28 29

Europe's New Fault Line - by Jeffrey 1: Kuhner Balkan Tinderbox - by J.P Mackley Iran's WMD Build-Up - by Michael Rubin Roll Back North Korea - by Frank J. Gaffney, Jr.


www. rip<>n)OO;.org


Closing the Racial Gap - by Abigail T hernstrom Reforming the Tax Code - by U.S. Rep. Phil English Keeping Americans Safe - by U.S. Sen. Orrin G. H atch Defending the Homeland - by U.S. Rep. John E. Sweeney


rroduelion Rania Corp.


The New Censorship Czar . by Nichol as Gaffney Freedom's Music - by Jack Valenti


Fo,""ign I'oliey £.dilOr


Drug Wars - by Roben Goldberg Expanding Health Insurance - by U.S. Rep. Sue Kelly Defending Medicare Reform - by Brent Curtis, Rut/mid H~mld Virtues of Health Savings Accounts - by U.S. Rep. Melissa A. Hart Putting Progress First - by U.S. Rep. James C. Greenwood


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Perils of WMD Proliferation - Imerview wilh Under Secretary ofS{are John R. Bolton

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The Soros Empire - by Jeffrey 1'. Kuhner


I'ubli shcr The Ripon $ociely

One-Nation Republicanism - by Jeffrey T. Kuhner The Center Still Holds - by U.S. Sen . Susan M. Coll ins The Nader Factor . by Donald umbro PETA's Death Wish - by Rachel K. Ayerst

Lies About Vietnam - by Jeffrey T. Kuhner


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Note From The Executive Director


me 2004 marks a significam hcnchm:l.rk for The Ripon Society and its me mbe rs. OUT corporate :lnd personal membership rallies arc on the risc by a STrong margin and the Belrway buzz is dl:lt T he Ripon Society is one of a seleci few grou ps prepared to coumcr the Democrats' 527 messaging (see cover s{Ory on George Soros), In this pivotal election year, action and communication arc our p;lramount goals. Thus, this issue of The Ripon Forum offers potCIII fodder for communicating your thouglHS and values with friends, famil y and colleagues.

Medicare cards will have already begun


assist hundreds of thousands of

senio rs with their prescription drug expenses by the tinte we have gone TO prim. It is far easier than they say - just go to, rype in yo ur zip code and Ihe medicatio ns yo u rake, and compare the lOp [\\10 card options to make your best card choice. That's righi , welcome to democrncy - it's your choice - nor the governmem's, not the liberal medi:l, nOt your H MO. This benefit to our elders, srrongl y promoted by our Republican Congress, is soon to be promoced nationally by Ripon wich Iclevision commercials. The Ripon Sociery's own Congressional Advisory Board co-chair, Congresswoman Nancy Johnsol1 (R-CT), :ldeptly promotes the Medicare reform p:lckage she cO-:lUl hored. So, be 011 Ihe lookout for our info rmacional piece on the airwaves soon. Also, be sure to read Congressional Advisory Board co-chair Congressman Jim Greenwood's (R-PA) article on che importance of Slem cell research. Congresswoman Melissa Hart (R-PA) devoted her lime to write an ode to Health Sa\'ings Accoums on our behalr. Also read Robert Goldberg's case againsc Canadian drug reimportation. Our heahh :lnd medic:l1 contenl is strong in Ihis issue, as is o ur dedication to delivering faclllal informatio n to you . As Len ny Bruce and Andy Kauffman roll in their graves at the aoo\'e-ground rumblings generated by :lnti-free speech squadrons in the FCC and Congress, I am especially proud of our Capitol Forum this Issue. Avid First Amendment suppOrter Nicholas Gaffney's piece is formidably flanked by none OTher than Jack V:llenti's succinct elocution emi lled "Freedom's M usic." A special thank you 10 those who exercise yo ur personal or familial authority to choose what is righl to view or listen to as opposed to encouraging more heavy-handed federal intervention in your lives. As yo u read our Table of Contenls, you will nou' thai T he Ripon Forum cOlliinues to be a provocative, open medium fo r schola rs, members of Congress and concerned cilizens. Our topics range from the illiernational impact of Islamic eXlTemism in the Balbns 10 Ra!ph Nader's effect on our national presidemial election. Our scope is as broad as our parry is di verse. We encou rage you to write to us via e-mail at and your opinions with us. Your important issues arc our important issues - that's Ihe benefit of members hip with T he Ripon Sociery. Thank yOli once again for your support of The Ripon Society. Pass chis issue on to a frien d : Remem ber actio n :lnd communication arc our keys 10 success.

SÂŁh(}fky '0

Elvis Oxley . Exccmive Direc[Qr (ox/ry@ripo llsOC.O'X


Ripon Forum ¡ Summer 2004


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One-Nation Republicanism Bush outlines a new governing approach ______~B~y~J~,~ffi~ rey TKul~ ,,~ , ,~,____________________

n Ihis new age of global and (uhuT;!.1 pobriz3rion, (he Republican Parry has an hislOric opportunity to establish itself as the dominant voice for the disaffcclcd broad middle of the American



Polls consislcntly show that voters trust the Repuhlicans more Ih an the Democrats on issues such as raxes, expanding glo bal markets and national securiry. Even on so-called wedge issliCS like gay marriage and a mrmati\"(.~ action. the Gor enjoys a decisive advantage. Yel

Republicans have so fa r failed


Re publicans shou ld seck to a ppeal to pOlenrially very fertile ground: the vas t center- right majority of the ek-ctorate. By cham pioni ng a "one-nation Republicanism~ that re:lches OUi nOI only to white, middle-cbss \'0Ier5, but also ro African-Americans, Hispan ics, blue-collar workers :lnd \\'omen, the GO P ca n craft an almost in vincible electoral formula : political progressivism combined with economic conservatism.


about a new political rcalignmem similar to Richard Nixon's "SilcnI Majorir{ c1cclOr:ll strategy or Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal coali rion. The major reason for this is thaI the media and the Democratic Party have

largely succeeded in portraying the Republican Parry as being hostage t'O ilS social conservative wing. The GOP is wi<leIy viewed as the party of God and guns. The result is that man)' independent and centrist-leaning voters, who generally agn't' with Republic.ln positions on mOSI breadand-bUller issues, are turned ofT by whal they perceive as :I party which has slrong overtones of religious fundamentali sm . In fil ct, the reality is very different. Social conservatives are only a small t:lction within the GO I~ based primarily in Ihe Bible Belt. The pany is composed of several other wings such as economic conservati ves, nco-con hawks and eyen neo-liberals (for example, Arnold Schwarzc:ncgger and Rud y Giuliani). Moreove r. cultural traditionalists have been in retreat for over a decade. Regarding abortion, I>ornography, euthanasia and gay civil unions. the coumTY has been moving increlsingly leftward on these hod y contested policy debates. The culture wars of the 19905 and the Clinton imreachment debacle demonstrated that socia conservatives have bc<:ome a political minori ty: their numbers and influence are waning. Social conserva ti ves may occupy the commanding heighlS of ["".Ilk radio. bUi lhey arc thin on Ihe ground. While social conservati ves arc an esselllial elemellf of die GOP and arc indispensable in fi ghting the culture war. the parry would be wise ro broaden its baSi". Ripon Forum '

Sum m~r


President George W Bush

In fun, Presidcnr Bush has incrcmenrally adopted the one-nalion Republican model in his approach to governance albeit in rudimentar y form. The :ldministration has come under fire from conservative activists for deviating from right-win g ort hodo xy on governmclll spending and immigration. However, President Bush is not an old-fashioned Reaganitc. He I>clicves dla! the GOP. instead of w:aging a hor~el css batlie 10 roll back cosily but nevenheless popular emitlemelll programs, needs 10 forge a viable alternat;ve 10 the mod ern welfare statt·. From creating private Social Security accoulltS 10 Medi c,1rc reform , President Bush has r.roposed am b itious policy ini ti:lIi ves t I:It sim ultaneously seck to

maintain a basic social safety net while also fostcri nl? the virtues of personal responsibility and lIldividual empowerment. His goal is to creatc :1 nation of middle-class investOrs, who will ha ve a grealer Slake and owncrship in many social progr:lI11s traditionally TUn by Big Government . By attempti ng to create a conservative wdf.1re state, the administration is hoping to cobble together a new polilical coa[ilion . PresidcIH Bush has made some bold allemplS to rcach OUt to several non-tradilional Republican vOling grou"Ps - mainly Hispanics and "soccer moms - through his proposed guest-worker program for illegal immigrants and the No Ch ild Left Behind ACt (which , despite harsh conservative criticism , has succeeded in raising education siandards in much of the nation's public school s),stem). Iksides being good policy, these initiatives arc important 11m steps in forgi ng a new Republican electoral majority. But they arc not enough. The GOP net.'<ls to craft a comprehensive legislati ve age nda that will substantially broaden the party's base: such as urban renewal, the creation of empowerment wnes in inner cities, greater funding for programs that enable workers 10 upgradc their skills in Ihe New Economy lnd subslanrially boosling die tax credit for working mothers 10 hdp wit h risi ng day-care COSts. These policies will not onl), slrengthell America's economy and its tattered social fabri c, but dKj' will also help bring new supponers infO the Republic lIl Big Tent. Presidelll Bush's one-nation Republicanism is an altempt to transce nd Ihe traditional left-right debates of the past cenmry. He is seeking to articulate a conservative ve rsion of ~ Th e T hird Way. ~ If successful. President Bush will go dow n in history as :l first-r"Jnk leader alongside such gianlS as Abraham Lincoln, FOR and Ronald Reagan - all of whom transformed Ihe Americ.ln political landscape during Iheir time in office and beyond. However, can the p,,:sident pull it off? He and Ihe Republican Party mUSt address this challenge. ~ - JI'ff"y T KIII"'tr is till' tditor of 71)1' Ripo'l FOrllm tlnd ("olll,mmimtions ({irmor lit TlJI' Ripon Soriny.



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The Center Still Holds A Moderate Republican call to action By U.S. $en:nor Susa n M. Collins has been my privilege to serve Ihe pcople of Maine in the U.s. $elmc since 1996, and during thaI lime I have made it my priority ro rra\'cI home 10 see my consfilllelHS nearl y every weekend. [consider



it esS(:mial


be able


see my neighbors

back home and hea r their thoughts firsthan' !. It's not only enjoyable, bUl it's also highly informative. Mainers orlCn have a \'cry different SC I of concerns than Lhose of opinion -makers in \'(fash ington. The specific subjccu may vary. but I always hear that Americans arc fed up wilh partisan bickering. My consclmenrs wa nt Congress 10 make progress on the issues they carc about, the issues that altect their li\"cs. WashinglOll could use a dose of this common sense. I know ,his is an election year, and I know what a difle re nc~ having , he right m:m in rhe White House will make for the next four years. Bur at the sanle time, our system req uires a certai n level of mUlUal respect, cooperalioll. :lI1d. above all . moderation. In the m idst of the lOugh competition that lies ahead, I hope that both sides will remember that in order 10 win the support of undecided voters, they wi ll need 10 persuade those Voters of their sensi ble judgment, not their comm itmem 10 narrow ideology. Voters are looking for sensible, pr:lgmalic solurions and a willingness to compromise in ord er to get the job done. Any progress wiJJ be forged at the center. That is where I will he - and ha\'e been since I began serving in [he $cnate in 1997. Throughout my time in Washington, I have worked hard 10 provide the people of Mai ne with se n s ibl~ , independent representa tion. In th ~ tr:tdition of former Main ~ senalO rs such as Margaret Chase Smith and William Cohen, I have made every effort to p rovid~ balanced, co mm o n -se n s~ leadership on issues like the environmen t, health care, the economy, civillihcrt ics :md Amcricd's role in world affai rs. This h:15 meant [h:l(, while I am a stron~ supporter of our Republ ican leadership and in particul ar of Presiden t Bush , I have nonetheless had to express my disagrttment with the d irection in which certain policies would rake our parry and ou r COUnt ry. I bel ieve. for example, that our stewa rdship of our country's n:llu ral rC50urces is one of rhe richest legacies that we can provide for future generat ions. Proposals that would weaken importa nt


existing protections or erode the basic principles underlyi n ~ o ur envi ronmenral laws do ,he Republican ?any no service because rhey do America no service. Voters know that a benef balance can be SIruck between industry on the one hand and limiting pollution and preservi ng our environmental treasu res on the other. It is time that we in Ihe Republican Parry make it dear that we know it too. Perhaps no issu~ is more contentious tha n the protect ion of a woman's right (0 choose. Pro-choice Republicans have a proud history within our party and we mUSt not be afraid to make ou rselves known and o ur voices heard. Our positio n is in keeping wilh the principles of freedom Ihat have long gu ided our p:HIy: rhe government should not be involved in a woman's personal Emlily pl:lI1ning decisions. Rather. those choices sho uld be the responsibility of the woman herself, in consultation wi th her r.1m il)' and her docto r. It is very encouragi ng that in a range of areas, howe\"er, moderates within our party have been able to shape the Republican agenda and have met with legislative success. Congress' apr,roval of sweeping Medicare reform (0 inc ude a prescriprio nd rug benefit. and the president's endorsemenr of our effons. :Ire accom plishments about which we can be proud. Similarly, the enactmem of rhe McCai n-Fei ngold c.1mpaign finan ce reform bill is evidence of the will ingness of Ollr parry to put the integrity of the system ahead of ideology, and evidence as well that the goals we moder:lles propose can be achieved. We mooer:tles are nOI si mply Ihe outliers in an mherwise unbroken consensus. We have the power ro bring about real change on terms that arc mOSt au racti\'e to the American ptople, and it is important not to forget our own strength . The Republica n Parry has always been my home and will always be my home. T here is certainly more [0 uni le us than to divide us. O ur pl atform, based as much today as at our fou ndi ng on the freedom that America has always symbolized and provided , is Strong enough ro support all sons of Americans in our political life. Our ('Conomy still needs relief from excessive regulation; our govern mrnr still needs to be more accountable: the tax bu rden on families is still tOO high: and our national defense always requires vigilance and


Sen Susan M CoIhns

support. With a proper em phasis on these commo n co mm itments, Ollr p1 rry can continue (0 grow in numbers :lnd strength and we ca n help to unleash the greilt potential stored up in the American people. (f Maine has an)' Sol Y, this political vision can certainly become a reality. Maine has a great tradition of electing centrist leaders, and sending leaders in that mold to Washington will be mo re importalll than ever before. But it requires suppOrt from OUiside, which irsclf depends on the courage of our convict iom and our willingness to support each other. T hai is what makes groups like The Ri pon Society so effective and essential, both for the forum they provide and the organi7.:lIional opportuni ties they afford. With o nly Ihe barest eiecroral majoriry, this is the right time for mod~r:t[e Republicans 10 remind o ur leadership, our members and ou r independent-minded const ituenrs of [h~ Republican principles that bind us and the vision of America we have to offer. ~


Us. Sm. Susan M. Collilll is a Mlt;fI~ Rrpub/ifllll and cbaimlllli oflhr Sri/air GOllrTllmr1ll11! Affill',s Commillrr Ripon f'()rum ' Summer 2004





The Nader Factor Ralph Nader may deliver the election to Bush By Donald Lambro


cmocr:ltiC Party officials say chat President Gcorge W. Bush wouldn't be

in the While '-louse t'Oday if Ralph Nader had n Ot run for president in 2000 and there is certai nly a lot of !nuh to thai claim. T hey also say that Mr. Nader's plan 10 get o n the ballol again this year, this lime as an indepe ndent. is going to get a 101 of help (rom Republicans who want him to do to John Kerry what he <lid (0 AI Gore. And there's a 101 of u llIh [0 lhat, [00. Republicans lIIill eagerly line up 10 sign Mr. Nader's ballol petitions in as many stales as possible - from Mainc 10 California. Mr. Nader. who f"JIl (or presidem o u the Grcrll Party {ieke!. ero(lcd the Democr;uic \'011' JUSt enough in 2000 10 lip key statcs into the Republican column , giving (hen-Gov. Bush dll.' microscopic elcclOral margin he nct.'ded 10 beal Bill Clinton's mercurial vice: president. The fur-left, anti-apitalist crusader, who nonedJ<:less made a bundle in Ihe stock market boom of the 19905 when no one was looking, won 2.6 percent of rhe vote last rime. ThaI tells yo u how popular his ideas werc. BUI Mr. Nader was able to win 97.488 votes in Florida. If those vOles Iwd gone 10 Mr. Gore, even a small portion of Ihem, President Hush - who WOIl the Sr:lte by 537 votes - would have lost Florida and the election. A similar ~ituat ion occurred in New Hampshire where Mr. Hush heal Mr. Gore hy only 7,211 vOles while Mr. Nader won 22,198 votes - many of which could have gone!O Mr. Gore if Mr. N:ldcr ha<1 nOt rurl. Nt"t..-dlcss \0 say, Democrats are OUlraged over Mr. Nader's dccision to run again and Ihere are dHeatS of polilical warb re to block his allempts to get his namc on thc ballot. Each state SCtS its own rules on ballot applicllions and Ihe cenifiarion process and it an be brur:llly complicated and bureaucrat ic - a legal and political obsracle cOursc that is host ile to independent candidacies. Top Democratic officials tell me dlere Jrc going 10 be legal and procedural challen~cs lodged against Mr. Nader's ballot petitions wherever possible. One of those officials is Florida Democratic Chairman SCOtt Maddox, who tOld me that Mr. Nader is going to encoulller some heavy opposit ion when he Ripon Forum ' Summer 2004

Ralph Nader prepares to address supporterS. ApnI5. 2C04, rn Portiand. O'egon

tries 10 get on the Sunshine ~tate'~ ballol . Mr. Maddox, a studelll of political hardball , thinks that M r. Na(ler is acting in "his own sclf-imerest and fe~-ding his own ego to the detriment of the nation." ~ He reminds me of anmher American who had done great lhings for his coumry in the past bllt then decided 10 act in his own sclf-imerest rathe r than in thc country's interests. Ralph Nader i~ the Benedici Arnold of modern democ racy,~ he said. What ca n Mr. N:lder's ca mpaign expect to encoulHer in Florida this lime ~ round ? "We arc going to be looking :It (the b:lllol certification process] very closely :IS we go forward , very closely. I would imagine that he will receive assist:lllce in collecting signatures from Republican operatives so they can pull votes away from the Democratic nominee," Mr. Maddox said. Mr. Maddox is nOI ofT on :111 independent stop-Nader stratcgy of his own making here, Th is appears to be thc emerging plan at the Delllocratic N~rional Commirrce and the Kerry canlpaign. When I poin tt.-dly asked DNC chief spokesman Debra DeShong if the party planned to takc steps 10 challenge Mr. Nader's efforts to gel on rhe ballot in ker. StatfS, she did nOl react negatively to nlC I action. MAt this point. it's premature as to what we arc goi ng 10 do. It's Illuch tOO ea rly co be discussing sirualions like [hat. ~ she said. But this is in facl wh;!t Dcmocrat.~ at the party's highcst levels arc talking about doing. "Nader robbed us of onc c1('Ction, wc're not going to leI him do il to us again.~ one parry official cold lIle.

A srare-by-srate guerrilla war against Mr. Nader might be what many parry leaders ha\'e in mind, but the Democratic l..e~d e rs hip Counci l is urgi ng a straregy of l)C ni ~n neglect. 'We hope DemocratS will fi nally adopt the approach that Nader so richly descrvcs - and ignore him altogether," the DLC ~aid in ~ political bro:ldside againsr Ilint in Fchruary. "Nader's only real hope for relevance in 2004 is that panicky Democr.l.Is will urge their nom inee to run as hard and fa r to the left as possible in order to minimize his VOte ...and Democrats should not make il come true fo r Nader," the DLC analysis said. DLC officials bel ieve Ihat lea\'ill8 Mr. Nader alone will leavc him "on the margin of politics where he belongs." But three years ago the Democrats learned that elections a n IX" won or lost 011 the margins and that's where Mr. Nader exerts his greatest srrength. In 2000, the U.S. economy was still in good shape and Mr. Nader's far -left , :Itl li-trade, anti-corporate tirades had only a ver)' limited potential. T his year. however, his message could have a much bigger im paci in battleground statcs like Michigan :Irld Ohio where the loss of millions of man uF.icturing jobs is a much bigger issue. All dIOse angry De:m Democrats, wllO ca nnol forgive Mr. Kerry's vorcs for NA f.i A and other free lrade pacts, could become Nader voters this fall and pave the way for President Bush's second terlll. Ci -

DOl/aid umbro is a flnriolJlll/y syndiCdt~d rolunmist

On the forefront of Re publican politics and ideas Visit our Web site for infonna1ion ane! the latcst ncws aoout the Bipon Society. W\\' W. ripollso(' .org

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PETA's Death Wish When fried chicken becomes Auschwitz By luchel K. Aycrsr f People for the Ethical Trealment of Animals is corrcct. ,hen millio ns of Arm'rican F.tmilies are sitting down fo r dinner each night to a "Holocaust" on thei r plates. According (0 the orga nization. humans eating animals is the moral equi valent of Nazis murdering Jews in concent ration camps. T his ad vertisi ng cam\,aign, wh ich is just olle of many taste C$S StuntS slaged by PETA in the ];1S( few }"t:ars, proves that the ani mal rights group can no longer be taken seriously by reasonable Americans. Founded in 1980 , PETA has as its operating pri nciple "Ihat animals are not ours to e:lt , wear, experimelll on, or usc for entertainment. " Bur they have mOiled f:lr beyo nd edu cating responsibl e citi1.etl S abom animal cruellY, By adopling a policy of fear mongering in order to gain some easy :mention, PETA has finall y succeeded in discrediting itsclf The " Holocaust o n Yo ur Platc~ camp:tign, which lxb'"3n in February 2003, brought large-scale posters to cities and college campuses across the nation. T he posters compare the slaughter of animals to the slaughter of Jews by Hiller's Nazi thug5. T he disturbi ng billboards juxtapose graphic images of the lifeless bo<lies of concenrra tio n ca mp victims with the corpses of various farm animals. Accordi ng to PETA, the United Stares' inllention of [he slaughterhouse has provoked as much, if not more, horror in the world as the boas cham ber did under the Nazis. By equating human life with the lives of animals, PF:rA has nOt only trivializcd the sufferi ng of I-loiocausl victims, bUi offended the morn] sensibili ties of millions of Americans who re:lli·te that the life of a rat is not equal to the life of a hum an being. If I'ETA's perverse moral equivalence isn't enough to completely marginalize it, decent Americans should be outraged at its deliberate attempts to indoctrinat e children widl fri ghtening prop:lganda. In R'CeO! mOl1lhs. PETA has begun targeting KFC restaura nts for cruelty [0 chickens. In order to raise aWJ.reness for their cause, members of PETA have ~un disrribm ing "buckets of blood ~ to children outside KFC restaurants. By specifically targeti ng children widl these buckets. which incl ude FolkI.'



bones, bloodied feathers and a rubber chicken, PETA has sunk 10 an all-time low. [n a s~ial section of a PETA-sponsored Web site aimed at elementary school-aged children, the most basic fears of children are exploited with p ro~aga nd a like "chickens on Colonel Sanders f.1rms never get to be loved by their moms. T hese bi rds' lives are awful and SCouy e\'cn before they are killed and CUt up for food."

According to the organization, humans eating animals is the moral equivalent of Nazis murdering Jews in concentration camps. Contrary 10 popular belief, PITA does not use the bulk of its operating budget to figh t animal cruelty. R:lIher, it puts the money toward offcnsive ideological campaigns designed to remake American society. Accord ing 10 the Center for Consumer Freedom , a Wash ington-based coal ilion of consumers, food companies and restaurants, less thart one percelll of PE.TA's IOtal budget is dedicared to actually "helping animals." They report that in 1999 alone PETA "cut hanized more lhan 1,300 catS and dogs ... preferring to spend its money on cheap publicity stunts and criminal defense rathcr than finding the animals suilable homes." Unfoflun:ncly. indecent ad\'enising campaigns and misspent funds are not [he only serious problems F.tcing PETi\. In 2001 , PETA made do nations 10 the Earth

Liber.uion Front. ELF has been responsible for :l num~r of arsons and other inci(]c:nrs of ceo-terrorism lround the country, provoking the FBI ro add it 10 its list of domeuic te rrorist organiz:llions. As a charitable orga nization th ar receives millions of dollars in ann ulI donations from Americans, PETA's tax-exe mp t statuS depends o n its ability 10 abide by the law. The Center for Consumer Freedom has undertaken a massive campaign to expoS(' PETA's r:adiCllism. [I has begun a petition abrai nst PETA th:J.t highlighTS the group's invo]vcmcm with criminal organi7.ations and calls on the government 10 revoke PETA's tax-exempt stat us im med iately. With morc than 35,000 signatures. it appears that the Center for Consumer Freedom is having a noticeable impact on Americans. In addition (0 the petition, the Cemer for Consumer Freedom has also begun :III awareness campaign designed to eduC'.ue Americans about I'ETA's twisted morality. PETA opposes any organization that uses animals for medical testing, and has R'Cently direcwd its membership (0 boycoH such org;tt1i1.ations as the Pediatric AIDS Foundation :lnd the Susan G. Ko men Breast Ca ncer Foundation. Some of the Celller for Consumer Freedo m's advertisements, which have been Strategically placed in the Capital District's Melro system for maximum exposure, q uote PETA's President Ingrid Newkirk as s:J.ying "C'.'en if animal research resuhed in a cure for AIDS we'd be against it ." ThiSIYpe of n:uemem reveals just how OUt of (Ouch PETA has become, PETA's radicalism, howe\'er, appears to be cal'ching up with it. With groups like the Center for Consumer I:reedolll mounting a sweeping coumer-offensille, it seems only a mailer of time before Americans become fully aware or P ETA'~ actillities, and as a res ult, cease m:tking donations to the organization. In the most ironic of endings, perhaps it's now PETA's goose that may be cooked. C7


RIlcJul K AJt'nl is tlJt' cullllrr t'ditor ofT/It' RipoJ/ ForulII.

Ripon Forum ' Summer 2004




Answers That Matter.

The Soros Empire Billionaire George Soros declares war on Bush · Kuhner Mr. Soros was always a man of the democratic Left. The collapse of comnHlIlism enabled him 10 pursue his real objectives: transforming the forme r comm uniSI bloc into a bastion of social democracy and "civil society." He pumpt.. J millions of dollars intO left -leaning non-governmental organ izations (NGOs). In some countries, the financier's aid exceeds Ihal of rhe U.S . gm'ernment. He often boasts that "Ihe former Soviet Em pire is now called the Soms Empi re." Mr. Soros and his NGOs ha\'e plared a ma jor role in toppling nationalist governments in Serbia, Slo\'akia and Georgia. Emooldened by his successes, Mr. Soros has now SCt his sights on President Bush. Yet the finan cier-philanthropist is nOl simply a Democratic partisan who wants to see a Republican administr.ltion £.1 11 from power; rather, he is an elitist leftist who has embraced an increasingly extremist world\'iew during the past decade.

Capitalism: The Enemy

Congress must censure the president. MoveOnOf"Q. Cl'1tJClZlflg

a political group funded by Soros. has placed ads

PreSIdent Bush's war against Iraq

[as shown above).

inancier George Soros is seeking to defeat President Bush in this year's election. " I have made rejection of the Bush dOClrine the cent ral project of my life," Mr. Soros declared in January. He added that "I am determined to do what I can" to assure that President Bush is nOI re-elected this November. o rmally. such partisan COfll melliS from a wealthy Democratic donor would be dismissed as typical election-year rhetoric. BUI Mr. Soros' st;lIemems rightly have aurac((.·d considerable medi a auention. The international currency speculator has developed a well-earned repuration for being a can-do individual who accol1l\)l iShes his goals - oolh in business and po il ics. Having fled communism in his nalive



Hungary. Mr. Soros came 10 America HI 1956 at the age of 26. He Ihen proceeded to tr.lde and speculate his way to an immense fortune. The finan cier is estimated to be worth aro und $6 billion, making him one of the richest men in the world. His prominent nOloriery, however, is based nOI on his considerable w(:llth but on his pol itical activism. Mr. Soros firSI became a political force to be rt.'ckoned wilh during the J 980s, when he helped to finance numerous anti-communist grou/" throughout Eastern Europe. However, tIe f.tll of the Berlin Wall released Mr. Soms from his self-imposed, tenralive alliance of convenience wilh the regio n's numerous conservat ive and natio nalist dissidenl S.!

Always I,rone 10 a kind of sentimenlal liberalism, t Ie maverick billionaire has in the past several years embraced a radical left-wing agenda thaI champions legalizing drugs, euthanasia, open oorders and ,he repeal of welfare reform. Bm his main target is economic globalization. ~ Capi talism is coming apart at the sea ms,~ Mr. Soros said at the rime of the Asian finan cial crisis. He believes that the rise of klaisscz_faire capit:llism~ threatens democratic governance and imernarional slabili£}' by concentrating 100 much power in the hands of corpor.ltions. To offset the ravaging effects of global markets, Mr. Soros argues that nations shou ld be made subservient to imernational institutions. The billionaire insists Ihat , in order 10 Slahilize and regulate ,he global economy, there needs to be "some global system of political decision-making. " In other words, the solution 10 the supposed capitalist crisis is 10 create one-world government. His ideological kookim:ss extends to Rip<l!l Forum ' Summer 2004

Referring to himself as a "stateless statesman," Mr. Soros confessed to biographer Michael Kaufman that his "goal is to become the conscience of the world." He has also admitted that he has "godlike, messianic ideas" and that he sometimes thinks of himself as "superhuman." "I am a kind of nut who wants to halle an impact," he told Mr. Kaufman .

American foreign policy as well. In his new book. ~ Thc Bubble of American Supremacy," Mr. Soros decries the Bush adrnin istr:Hion's "u nilateralism~ and ~arrogance~ in in ternational :affairs. He compares the Unilcd SlalCs under President Bush's leadership to Naz.i Germany. "\'Vhen I hear President Bush say that, 'either you are wilh us. or ),ou an: with the terrorists: I hear alarm bells," Mr. Soros writes. I-Ie is a ferocious critic of the war in Iraq. I-Ie bdie\'es that America has degener.lted inlO a mililaristic fasc isl empire belli on spreading ilS ~ id eo l ogy of American supremacy. " His world view ca n be distilled to one simple idea: Americ:an "unilat eral ism" is evi l, while Un ited Nations-slyle multilateralism is good.

Backing MoveOn _org nil' billionaire now hopes 10 inject his anri-American, :lnti-capiralist message into this year's U.S. presidential r.lce. Although campaign finance reform has pbced srringelH limits on the amount of money that can go 10 candidates and political parties, the law sti ll allows unlimiled conlributions to so-called ~inde pendelll" political committees. As of last November, Mr. Soros has :already given over $18 million iO anri-Bush groups. The most infamous of lhe groups is, an organization originally formed ro defend President ClinlOn during his impeachment. Mr. Soros has said he is "willing to pm my money where Illy mouth is," vowing "to gi\'e more" if "necessary." T he financier has become the sugar daddy of the ~shadow" Dcmocr:llic P;Lrty - a collection of eight progressive 527 groups dedicated 10 defeating I'residell1 Bush (527s take their name from a section in the feder.ll lax code). As C hristine Iverson, spokeswoman for the Republican National Comm ill"ee, put ir: wGcorge Soros has purchased the Democratic Party. By virtue of his enormous we:a1!h Soros is the IllOSt powerful person in the DemOCr.llic Parry." The Bush campaign should nOi allow the billionaire's growing influence among Democrats to go unchallenged. Presidem Bush needs to ask Sen. John Kerry whether

Ripon Forum ¡ Summrr 2004

George Soros, fOl.lnder and chalMnan of the Soros Fund Management LLC .. addresses the 2004 graduaMg class of the Columbia University School of International and PublIC Affalf'S M onday, May 17 , 2004 in New York

the presumptive Democratic nominee shares any of Mr. Soros' exrreme views. The eleCtorate has :a right to know if Ihe financier's money comes with strings :a1l:achOO. For ultimalely what is dan~erous about Mr. Soros is nOI his frin~e polItics, but his messiah complex. Referring to himself as a "stateless stalesman, " Ihl' fi n:allcicr confessed to biographer Michael K:wfman Ihat his "go:!1 is to become the conscience of lhe world." He has also admim:d thai he has "godlike, messianic ideas" and that he sometimes thinks of himself as "supt'rhuman. ~ ~ I am a ki nd nut who wants to have an imp:act," he told Mr. Kaufman.


The Lenin of the 21st Century The 20rh century is littered with examples of messi:!nic visionaries - Lenin, Hider :and Casno - whose megalomania

and absolute desire for power have wreaked uni maginable havoc. Mr. Soros' brand of nco-Marxism is no d ifferent. His one-world globalism and hostility to capitalism arc pa rt of Ihe radic:al left's long-term ambilions ro alter human reality through social engineering. Like the N:az.i and commu nist projl'CtS, the results would be dis:astrous. The financier's call for ilHernalional income redisrribmion would significantly undermine the \'(/est's prosperity, increasing F~overry and instability around the world. Meanwhile, his desire tor a system of global government would in reality empower numerous Third World dictators al Ihe expense of Westefll democr.lcics Ih:at are milch smaller both in number and population. Ir impiemellll.J, Mr. Soros' utopianism would evenrually lead 10 a form of one-world authoritarianism and economic collectivism. Mr. Soros is a rabid ideologue who is sceking to use the Democr.ltie Party to advance his own radical aims. The Delllocr.ll$ need to understand that their alliance with Ihis man may come with a heavy price tag. Their associ:ation wi th a sdf-confessed MnUl" undermines their cred ibility and opens them up to charges of ~e ing sympathetic to his ideologic:ll persuaslOn. If Ihe Democrats will nOt cut their ties ro him , then the GO P would be wise to make Mr. Soros a m3jor campaign issue. The billionaire- turned ~aCliviSI has boastfully declared war on President Bush. It is time for Republicans to declare war on him. ~

- JrfJrry T Klllmrr il tb~ ditor ofTlg Ripo1/ For/I11/. A Jhorur/J~rsiOIl ofthil 'SJDy IIPPMrYd ill tI)~ May 4, 2004 ,dilio/IJ of ImJNiorr BlIsillffl Dilify. You can also read

Jeffrey T. Kuhner's commenraries in Th, \'(IlZShington Tim N







Perils of WMD Proliferation An exclusive interview with Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security John R. Bolton _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~B~y~Jc,~ffi:rey c T. Kuhner ohn R. Bolton was sworn in as Unde r Sec.ret"ary ofSt";1I(.路 for Arms Corurol and iruern:uional Security on May II. 200 1. Prior to his appointment, Mr. Bohon was senior vice president of the American Enterprise Institute. a Washingron-based conservat ive think tank. Mr. I!olton has spent nuny years of his ca.reer in public service. Previous positions he has held are Assislaru Secretary for [ruemarional Organi7.acion Affuin at the Depanmeru of Slate, 1989-1993: Assistant AtlOrney General, Department of Justice. 1985- 1989; Assista nt Administrator for Program and Policy Coordination, U.S. Agency for International Development , 1982-1983; General Counsel, U.S. Agency for I nternatiol\al Deve1opmenl. 198 11982. Mr. 8011011 is also an attorney. From 1974- 1981 he was an associate at the WashinglOn office of Covington & Burli ng. where he rl'lllrned as a member of the firm from 1983- 1985. after public service at the U.S. Agency for International Development. From 1993 thro ugh 1999. he was a partner ill the law fir m of ~ rn c r, Reed, Holton & McMan us. Mr. Bolton was oorn in Baltimore on Nov. 20, 1948. He graduated with a B.A., sum ma cu m laude. from Yale Univt.'tsiry and receivl-d his J.D. from Yale Law School. Mr. Bohon kindly agreed TO a face-IOface interview in his office at the State Department. We also wish 10 thank members of his staff - especially, Sarah linsley Demarest - for their generosiry, rime and cooper.nion. Here arc excerpts fro m Ihe interview.


H.F: Under Secrelary Bolton. you have been a leading critic of the Internalional C riminal Court within Ihe I!ush administration. \Vhat arc your primary objections to tllC ICC? Under Secretary Bohon: The ICC prosecutor has enormous aUthority. power and discrerion 10 bring invcsligations and ptosecmions :lgainst people alleged with


Under' Secretary John R Bolton

having commiued war cri mes :lIId cri mt'S againsl humaniry. Thai aUlhoriry is nO! checked by any democralic institutions. The only supervision the prosecutor has is by Ihe coun. which is. of course. a conct'pl we rt'jected when we created Ihe separation of powers inherem in the Constiturion. The substantive authority of the prosecutor is very vague and we are quite conceTiled tbat the inherent unaccountability of the prosecutor would result in making essentially politicized prosecution decisio ns direcloo against top officials of the Unitl'd Slares. The United St:ltes IS absolutely com minoo , whl're appropriate, to invcstigate and prosecUie aIk'gatlOllS of war crimes and crimes against hUlllanity. And. Secretary of State Colin Powell said we would be happy to match our record on that score againsl anyone in the world. The issue is whether an instinllioll like the ICC is the best way 10 make thoSt: decisions, and as you can sec in after case. as in the form er Yugoslavia and in SoUlh Africa. and in Eastern Europe and in many countries around (he world where there have been allegations of crim es against humanity, Ihey have also been associated with the l)(liitical resolutions to the d isputes in qucslion and the risk of poliricized prosecmion - especially against the United Statcs - is quile high. So oll r feding is that rhe best way to handle gross abuses of human rights is 10 /"C([uire the

cOlllHry in question 10 decide [about] what il wams to do. whether to prosecute the people, as for example will happen in the case of Iraq when sovereignty is resrored 011 July I, or whether ~ country wants 10 sc.-ek other ahernath路es. South Africa, for example, after the fall of tht路 apartheid regiml', creaTed the Truth and Reconciliation Commission becausc the new govern men! of President Mandela felt that the important thing was to gel out the facls of whal had happened under apartheid, not to usc prosecution as a form of TCrribllt;on. Other countries, like the count ries of Celllral Europe, could have had Ihe prosccurions of Ihe communist regimes, but decided thar the 001 thing was to have a general amnesry and to look toward the future. I am nOI saying that any of these alrernalives is righT or wrong. My point is that t'ach country has 10 decide on liS own. And the ins[iltllion of the ICC, which is purely prosecutoria!. prej udges that <[uestion. HF: What do yo u think U.S. policy should be tOward clLfI:Liling North Ko rea's nuclear weal)(lns program?

Under Secretary Bohon: PresidelH Bush has I>cen very clear that our prefef('nce is to resolve the North Korean nuclear issue through peaceful, democr.uic means. So that has been our goal: Ihe peaceful elimination of North Korea's weaponS. We have Ix-en engaged in six-parry talks for quite some dme now, and we are continuing to pursue Ihal. \'(Ie hope lO have another round of six-pany ralks within the next ft'w mOlHhs. But our objective has always been two-fold: the peaceful resolution of the issue. and the elimination of North Korea's weapons program . And, National Security Advisor Condi Rice was asked a short time ago how long we would pursue the diplomatic fome. She said, ~as long as il is produCl i ve.~ The vice presid('1H JUSt took an imporl'.llH trip to Asia, where he warned lhat the colltinued North Korean nuclear weapons program means that tillle lTlay not be on our side on Ripon Forum 路 Summef 2004

:oi{lI n

rhis. Delay may be the North Korean

Stn l -

egr. Maybe their st rategy is TO dday past our election, hoping President l1ush is

defeated. , hope that is nor the Nort h Korean strategy. But the fil ct is that North Ko rea's behavior on a broad variety of froms shows rhat we simply can't





nu clear weapons. \Vle can't allow Ih:lI fC5ult

bOlh bcc.!.usc of the insrabili:r Iha! would create in on ht'3Sl Asia. an 1x"CI1lSl' the North Ko reans an: known prolifcrarors and if they C1fllC 10 possess nuclear wC;lpons or nuclear weapons technology the re wo uld be

every reason 10 thi nk that they would try 10 sell it {Q somchody else. They miglH .~c ll it to rogue 51:II CS in the Middle East. They migl}! sell it to (erroris! groups. They would sell it 10 anybody who would pay them for il. So it's nOl just the Northeast Asia threat - alt hough that is our most importalll concern - it is a global threat \Je('ause of the n:llure of the North Korean n;nion.

R F : I'residem Bush's critics charge the administration has been contradictor... in its policies toward Iraq and North Kore~, bOlh of whom were singled OUI as rogue Sfat eS with dangerous \XIMD J)rograms. Yet the adminiSII";ltioll advocate mil itary fo rce co '"I)ple Sadd:Hll Hussein from power, while ca ling fo r peaceful diplomacy to deal with North Korea, How (10 )'ou respond to the cri tics? Under Secretary Boho n: Well, I think the si tuatio ns art' dr:tmatically differelU. T he use of fOKe in Iraq follo\\'lxi 12 rears of Iraqi defian ce of ceasefi re resolutiolls going back to the war in 1991. And I think you have to look al Irat1 as something that began in 1990 with the invasion of Kuwait and finishlxi IlSt year with the overth row of Saddarn Hussein. It is one 10llg srory and the onc celU ral element was Saddam Hussein's unwill ingness to demoll5t ra te Ihat he was giving up wea pons of mas~ destruction. North Korea is a \'ery different sel of circumstances and therefore. we have approached il "cry differently. I would say til is: if you wa nt co know how to gi,'t.' up weapons of m:1SS dl'St ruction look at the Libya example. They made a strategic decision that the pursuit of nuclear we:1pons :1nd other weapons of mass dest ruction were not making Libya Illore secure, it was making it less secure. So they opened up completely and WI,." have had a very producti ve relat ionship wi th them. \'(Ie packed up their nuclear weapons program and moved them to O ;,kridge, Tennessee. Thai is completely different than the way [mq behaved, and com pletdy different thal1 the way [ran and North Korea have been bcluving. Ripon Forum 路 Summer 2004

Exclusive interviews with leading politicians in every issue.

IlF : H ow extenSl,'e do yo u think the dam:1ge was 10 Ameriatn nation;,1 securi ty reg:1rd ing thl' feCent revdalions tha t l'akisT:1n's fOp nuclea r $Ciemis!, A.Q. Kh:1Il, sold sensiti ve nuclear secrets to Libya, Iran and North Korea? Under Secretary Bo lton : Well. the A.Q . Khan network was an unquestionably ve ry d:1ngerous, very threatening opcralion. Bur our judgment is that Kh:1n opt'rated withom dlt, approval of Ihe govern ment of i'akist:1n. T his is what I'residt'llI Musharraf has told us and based on al l lhe information we have, we don't have :1I1y reaSo n 10 doubt his word on that. Now, I might say that that doesn't make me fl~1 more comfortable; it nukes me feel Ie'ss comfortable thaI ~o ll1 ebody like Khan could operate so successfull y without the support of a nat ion-state. He creatl-d an internalional network, fac ilities, fin ancial nH:chanisms and transportations that allowed him 10 engagt.' in this proliferation of activity ... So it was a great success of our intelligence and our :1llicd intelligence opt路rations to bt, able 10 bring the Khan network down . I think it was a direct contributor 1"0 LibY:1's decision to s.ive up its weapons of Il1:1SS destruction. rhe derailing of the netwo rk was made possible in part by Preside/ll Bush's Proliferation Sccurity Iniliative. which played a majo r role in uncoveri ng Khan's operation. So I would view it as having very positi" e aspects - the success of o ur at;;tfessi,'e pursuit agai nst the black m;,rket m \VMO rn:1ttrials, but a real warning sign of JUSt how severe th is problt1l1 is on a world basis. n F : \'(IhaT do you S:1Y to anrl -war opponents who cha rge that the U.S.-[ed invasion of Iraq was mornlly illtgiti mate and a straregic blunder? (Nou to r({ld~n:



687 was pllss~d ill 1991. lr for Snddam Htlss~ill. "'lIong ol"~r things. to v~rifiably dmroJ his \flMD progmm linda imrTllatiolllrl mprrvisiofl.' ar"~d

Under Secretary Bo h o n : I thin k rhe premise of the deci.~ ioll to usc military force was that tlte conti nued existence of Sad dam Husstin's regime W;I~ :1 thre:n 10 ilHtTl1ational ptace and security. [fhe had tliled to compl y with his obligations under Ihe ceasefire resolution in 687 for ovcr 12 years and if he had been able to free himsclffrom the U.N.'s constrai nts. th t econom ic constraillls, the weapons cOllstr;l.illlS. based on his record in office, he wo uld have relu rn(xi m the pursuit of wt:lpons of mass destr uction as soon as he was free of them. The concern of \\' h:1t we:1pons he might have had was no t simply b:1sed on intelligence; it was bastd on S:ldd:1m's own

declarations of chemical and biological we:tpons, fo r example, of declaratio ns of weapons, weapons of related maferbls he had. T hert.' was no evidl'nce that they had been deslroytd. And fhat was somethi ng S:1dd:1m Hussein had decb rtd m Ihe United N:1tions in the early 19905. The Un ited Na tions searched for these materials for ye;u's and never foun d them. W hen confrOl m-d with these fa CTS, the regime had said, ~we destroyed those materials - we JUSt d id n't keep any reco rds ofit. ~ ... [IJut l you don't destroy chemical WC:l.pons and don't keep records. So it wasn't sim ply a question of intelligence. It was a qucstion of what S:1ddarn Hussein had m Id the Uni ted Nal ions and we have no evidence of the material being destroyed . Let'S not fo rget: there is undisputed C"\'idence Ihal , in the missile fields, Saddam W:1S in violation of 687 through missiles that unquest ionably had a range greaTer than that ycrmincd by 687 rh:11 the Uni ted Nations found. So you can'r say he w:1s n路[ building those missiles and tha t m issile capacilY withou t havi ng found some use for it. There was :, range of evidence to that dK,c!. Now, what the full STory is of the WMD remains to be seen. I suspecr we wi ll find Ihat Saddam Hussein kept the imcllec路 tual capabili ty to rec reate the weapons capacity and that he was simply waiting for Ihe Uni ted Nations and the imernarional com munity to rufll its altelll ion elsewhere. So lei's corne back to the reason, So the reason for force was the threat posed by Saddam's regimt - not that we said it was an imminent thrtal. President Bush never made th:H :1rgumt::nt. [n fact, back in the 2003 Sl"3te of the Un ion addrtss, Ilc expressly said, ~somc have said that we musl wait until the threa t is imminent but since when have diclators ever given notice of their intentions. " So the argument ofilllillinent threat was made by those who opposed military fo rce at all. And the president considc red that argument and rejecrcd il - and so d id C ongrtS5 because we made that case expressly. I lhi nk the threat posed by weapons of mass destructio n and the devastating damage they can do to in nocen t civilians is wh;1I justifies the use of force. These wC~l po ns arc al most ent irely weapons of terrorism . T hey don't pose :1 signi fi ca nt military thre:1t to the United States, T hey do pose a ris k ro our civi li:111S and civilian populat io ns and our frien ds and :lll ies. and no responsible president can lct those people be held at risk. <::7

- ltjfiry T. Kulllll" illlJl' rdiror ofT" .. Ripoll Forllm


."- -~





Drug Wars

Perils of importing drugs from Canada By Robert Goldberg he adage ,ha( if something sc.;:ms [0 be roo good ro be true it usually isn', (TU e,


could h;ave originated widl the idea that importing drugs from Canada :lIld other coumries wilt save America about $63 billion a year on drug cxpcndirurcs. Bus trips to C anada and internet pharmacies dr;un;uizc these difTcrcnces in

ways that suggest iml>ormtion can save consumers and govern lllents up to 80 percent of what they spend o n all drugs forcllcrmorc. But the feui1 purchase of drugs by individuals - o r even some slllall buying groups - is a misleading indicator of what importation could really save. Indeed. mOSt. if nOt all of the evidellce about price differences and importation indicn es that. ellen before the seriOliS concerns aboUT the safcty of drug importS em be addresscd, Amcricans will not save much monev now . and even less in the fUllIre. The reali ty is and will be quite diffe rent e\'en without mking into accounr the significam cosrs of pfott.'Cling Ihe American medicine suppl y :tgai nsl c riminals, counte rfeile rs and terrorists. Like anecdotal bus Hips, most previolls st udies are based on a few widcl y used brand-name drugs :lJld o mit all generics, t."Ve n though generics now account for roughly half of the unit vol ume in the United $[';I\e$. And Ihey ig norc the fa ci rhar m:Ul y health plans CXtr;Kt discounts from drug compan ies and from pharmacies. Finally. different cost of living and fl uctuating exchange rales between nations explain much of the remaining drug price differences. Patric ia Danwn. from the Wharton School ofllusiness aT the University of Pennsylvania, found that exchan!?e r.ues pb.yed a crucial role in cxplaintllg price differences between the United Sratcs and Canada. In FolCI, she found that by "netting Out " exchange roues, the C anada-U.S, drug price differential was reduced from 33 ~rcent to 14 percent. and Ihal afTer taking into acco ulll " health purchasing power pariti es~ for common medical srrvic('s the re lative dn'g price differential betwccn E.urope and the United States is largely eliminated. t As long as a relatively small group of seniors take adv:ulmge of the favorable exchange rates and retail price different ials for a relati\¡cly small group of med icines, impon:uion m ight seem to wo rk. BIlt all


importation proposals being considered in Congress would allow any distribu(or, wholesaler, pharmacy or chain store to import directly from Canada or anywhere else. That would make the American market for pharmaceuticals more like Europe's, whi ch has e ncouraged the imponation of low price drugs as a way of reducing drug costs. To the ex(ellt IhM America could implement importation - again assu ming that serious issues about (he violation of a company's parent and drug safety can be addressed - iT would likely rrsult in almOSI no savings at all. Rather, drug imponers would rear Ihe benefits of price differcnct."$ ix'Cause 0 Irice contro ls on drugs, Indee . a study conducted by the London School of Economics found thai parallel importation importing drugs from counrries with lower prices to (heir higher priced EU counterparts - producc:-d very linle savings for importing countries. The slUdy found Ih al intra- European importation in 2002 to ti,e 6 major deslination countries accounted for only 0.3-2% of national med ic ine bud ~e (s, represctHing a to tal saving of jusl EU R44.7 millio n OUI of the EUR82 billion EU pllarmaceurical market. On the o ther hand, the parallel importers who bought these same medicincs from across the EU m:lde enormous profits ( EU R64 8 million). In the United )(jngdom , the LSE swcly found that on the most heavily imported drugs rhe ~ N:lliol1:t l Healrh Service saved EUR55.9 million [if the markup on imported drugs take n by pharmac ists is included], or 2.8% of the medicines budl?et from parallel imporrs in 2002.~ ThiS small benefit is contrasted, again. with f:lr- larger gains for par:,lld iml>O rt:lrion firms, garnered through markups of 49% that yielded EUR469 million in profits. Not surprisingly, middle men will find Ihat not every drug is o r will be worth illll>Orting, In Europe only a handful of drugs in an y country offer wide enough of a price spread, are prescribed often e nough, and :lfe in e nough supply ro m:lke importation profitable. According 10 IMS G lobal Health, 50% of plrallc1 imporrs in the United Kingdom were accounted for by just 12 brands and only fo ur companies ~ve re responsible for 55% of all paralld Imports.


Europe and Canada also lag in thei r launch of breakthrough medicines such as Clcevec, Xolair (fo r severe asthma), and Ali nU:l (for lun g cancer) and renrict their usc in order to control d rug spending. These drugs are usually launched at about the same price wo rldwide. For drugs bunched in the laST [\\10 years, :all countries ('xcept GeTm:any usc new drugs about half as much as America. Consequently, importarion will be of no value in making newc:r medicines cheaper or more available. Importation won't save money and it won't benefit seniors who lack drug coverage and pay rerail for their medicines, particularl y those who are chronically ill and poor. Howe\'er, Ihese seniors will immediately gel assistance with the combination of the new Medicare discolltll c rd combined with a $600 subsid y until the Media re drug plan is added to traditional Medicare in 2006. The discount crd alone makes man y of the mOSt commonly prescribed drugs about the same price or cJ,ell>cr than buying drugs from Canadian internrt pharmac ies (which is still illegal and carries safety risks) and paying the added shipping COSts. An additional 40 pe rcent sav ings, and in some cases, a month's supply of medicines for a small monthly fcc will also be available for over 200 of the most commonly prescribed medicines through pharmlceutical company programs that will in turn be coordinated with fh(' Medicare drug effort, Such programs arc no substitute for prescription (lrug coverage as part of a health plan. However, they offer more comprehensive and direct suppOrt to seniors than an imporration scheme which fa ils to full y address concerns about misleading ilHernel sites. counterf('iters and shoddy drugs, Most importantly, drug discount plans provide competition for customers, and this will ensure that seniors get the beSt and newest medicines ;lS quickly as possible. In comrast, drug iml>orration moves America IOward uni\'('rsal drug price controls, wilh less access to c urting-edge drugs and less overall medical innovaTion. C7


Rob", Goldb~rg is director of th~ Crmrr for A1idicol Progrtif lit tI)t M,whllttll1l Insritutt for Policy Rntnfch.

Ripon Forum ' Summer 2004


Expanding Health Insurance Helping small businesses overcome their most difficult challenge s a form er slIlall business owner and a member of the House Small Husi ness Cornm iutt. one of my top priorities in Washinpron is to prOtee! and enhance ou r n;uion s small businesses. The Hudson Valley region of New York where I lillt' is fill ed wit h vih ralll slIlall businesses [11:11 arc [he lift· blood of our local economy. Pt'Oph.' li ving in cilies and towns Ihrougho ul America rel y on small businesses for their t'\'eryday nettl5. and small business owners rely on the success of their business co support thei r fa milies and create additional jobs 10 employ morc and more workers in


o ur



In cont inuing quest to boost the health am success of OUf small businesses. I recently held :m open forum with small business owners in my congress io nal district. I w:uw.:cl to learn more, di rectly from them , abo ut the challenges they arc F.tcing every day as they run Iheir businesses. Thq confi rmed what I suspected: the mosl daulli ing challens;e faci ng small business owners today is hnding affordable health insurance cove rage for themselves, their F.tmilies and their employees. percent of Approximatel y 60 uninsured Americans arc the employees or owners o f small businesses :and th eir F.lInilies. The problem of America's lininsun.-d is clearl y a problem of small business access 10 health c,1re at a reasonable COSI . My objeC(ive is to find ways that we, at the federalle\'cl. can bring those COStS down . Th e small business owners at my fo rum stressed that it isn't so much a problem of finding health insurance :as il is paying fo r it. MWe know health insurance is OUI there, we jusl can't afford it," one small business owner wid me. They sincerel y want to offer health insuran ce to all em ployees . but Ih e enormo us expense wOLLld cripple them finaLLci:all), :md likely force them to later CUi rhe jobs of those same employees they were trying to insure. In 2002, mo nthly premiums fo r employer-spo nsored hcalill insurance increased by 12.7 percent - the largest increase in 12 years. One survey reports thai 7 out of 10 small businesses do 1I0t provide health coverage to their employees, and increasing COStS :lre cited as the chief reason for this trend. If we cotllinlte to allow a lack of Ripon Forum · SU(11tner 2004

US Rep Sue Kelly

affordable health insurance 0l, tions for small businesses alHI their emp oyees, the numher of uninsured Americans will COlHin ue to swell. It is iml>er:u i\'e that we act quickl y 1"0 reverse this !Tend in the small business health insurance 1ll;lrkel befo re we reach :a paim where 110 small businesses can afford health coverage. Reducing untlect:S1iary rcgulatiom and administrative COSts would :allow more owners of businesses to obmin affordable health eoveragc for themselves :and their employees . Th e premiulll s tku sma ll businesses pay for health insurance are ty picall y 20-30 p<'rcent higher than dlOse paid by larger companies or uniotls that can sc:lf-insure. Additionally, Ihe administrative COStS incurred by small businesses are higher: 2 5 to 27 percent for small businesses \'ersus 5 to II percent for larger businCSSC$. In the U.S. House of Repn."sentari\'cs, we have approved legislation [hat would allow small businesses to b:and together and reduce their health insurance COStS th rough Association H ealth Plans (AHPs). This would level the playing field and give participating sm;11I employe rs the same ad vantages that larger el1l\,lo)'eTS have under ERI SA. AHPs could a low as many as 8.5 million currently uninsured Americans to gain :access 10 private sector health insurance with premiums that wo uld be an estimated 15 to 30 l)('rcel1l lower than they arc currently forced to pay. A n:ational survey <Ietcrmined that more dIan 90 pe rcclll of AmeriC'.I.IlS suppOrt the creatio n of AI·IPs. We also need medic;11 li :lbili ty reform in our coullI ry to gt'l our health insurance www. riponsoc.o rg

cOStS back under control. Muliiplc surveys have found lhat the majori ty of America ns (:1Vor medical li:ability reform and believe Ihal it would lower health insurance premiums. Congress nl-eds to aCt on behalf of this majority. In Ihe House of Represelllativ{'S, we passed the HEALT H ACI 10 help reduce the skyrocketing COStS of m edical li:ability insuranCe that are pUlting doctors out of work or forcing them to charge higher fees for their services. Th is drives up the COSt of health ill sur:ance premium s fo r all America ns. :md the loss of docto rs and cutS in services :arc severel y limiting patient access ro vital heallh care ser.... ices. The HEALTH Act does nOI limit Ihe :alllount· fo r which injured patients can sue for econo m ic d:amages after legit imate medical eTrOTS. SI)CCi fically. Ihe H EA LTH Act would PUt a 5250,000 cap on non -ecolIomic d:a m:lges in lawsui ts. Ag:ain , there :arc no limits on such economi c damages as lost wages. home services, medical COStS, drtlgs. tht·rapy, or lifctime rdlabilil:uion care. Nor docs the HEALTH Act in allY lVay limit a patient's access to our court system. T his legislation should impro\'e patient access to the courtS by implementing reforms that speed up the sculement of claims. According to the no n-p:artisan Congressional Budge r Office, th(, H EA lTH Act would CUI premiums for medic:al m:al p r:lctice insur:an ce by an ave rage of 25 pe rcent to 30 percent , :and this savings would ultimately be returned to patients. The C ongressional Budget Office concluded th:u the HEAlTH ACt would bring about "an increasc in the number of employe rs o ITering insurance to their employccs and in the number of employccs enrolling in employer·sponsored insu ra nce, changes in the types of health plans that are offered . and increases in the scope or g('nerosity of hcalth insurance benefits. ~ With AHPs and the HEALT H ACI. we have r assed legislation in the House Ihal woule immedial"ely slash health insurance cOStS for small business workers Ihroughout our coul1lry. Now our cOlllHerparts in the Sen:ate nt"Cd 10 act. Our small business workers suffer each day that the Senate delays passing this common-senlit' legislation. Our small busincsscs dcsc.'rvc better. C"6


U.S. Rtp. Slit K~11y is n Ntl/) Yor~' alld is II IIItmbrr 0/ tiN HOlllt FillnncinlStrtlicN Commitru R~pll blicnll

Itfld t/,t 51111111 Bmilll's$ CO li/ m il/ ft.



Defending Medicare Reform Prescription drugs are the hot topic at gathering By Brent CUflis. Rutland Hmzid NOIr 10 rradm: This artie!' is rrprinttd from tin' April 6, 2004 editions of tiM Vrrmom

Rut/lmd Herald. U.s. Rtp. Nancy L. Johmon nddrnsrd a group of Vrrmont Rtpublicdm


a Ripon Society DUlrrarh

dimltr fl/tIlt JMId on April 5 i" Rutumd, VT. ep, Nancy Joh nson, R-Conn .• is used to thinking aboUi the big picture on nalional legislation affecting evc:rything from educuion 10 the econom y. Bm she £old a gathering of about 100 Republicans and a handful of ~mocrats


prescriptioll drug benefi ts on a vol un tary basis, pays rurnl physicians and hospitals a higher rnte as an incentive to work in isolated areas, provides comprehensive chron ic ill ness covera~e , encourages prevemative docto r viSits and allows employers to establish health savmgs accounts fo r people under age 65.

and independents :u Howe u nter on Monday that federal legislation coming out of Washington, D.C., was setting goals rather than diClaring srra regies Slates must follow to meet ,hem. MWe arc in an era whe re the babnce of power is changing. We have the ability to lay down our wants, but have the inability to d ictate how it is done," Johnson said. Johnson, 69, came to Vermont at the behest of the Ripon Society, a nonp rofit organ ization that encourages moderate views within the Republican Party. Johnson is co-chairwoman of the Ripon Society. T he group was in Vermont as part of a nationwide campaign to promote grassroots participation in the organi7.ation, which is based in Wash ington , D.C. , according to Elvis O:ltley, the society's e:ltecutive director. T he CVem was well ;m ended by nate lawmakers. Eleven state represen tati ves from Rutland Coumy and beyond were on hand. as well as all three Rutland County senators and Republican candidates for the U.S. House and Senate. But Johnso n's speech didn't focus on T he Ripon Society. Instead , the 22-year incumben t focused on the changing dynamics dri ving heah~ care. education, the economy and terrorism. As one of the architects of the Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003, Johnson said the govern ment had taken an importam Sfep roward filling a number of covcrnge gaps. The multifaceted legislation installs


U.S Rep. Nancy L Johnson

Some of the act's cri tics have poi nted (he legislation's high price - $400 billion over 10 years. £Jut Johnson said the estimates that she's .seen assume almost universal use of the voluntary components, and don't account fo r potential savings from the health y living and preventative medicine components of the law. "They have to be smoking something [0 believe that over 99 percent of eligible people will use it.," she said. Johnson's fami liari ty with prescription drug issues piqued the interest of Rep. T homas DePoy, R-Rutland. DePoy, a member of the House Health and Wdfare Comminec, said (hat body is preparing to consider prescription drug COStS and (he possibility of importing drugs from Canada. "The things you've said tonight have caught my attention," DePoy said. ~ I was hoping you could talk abo ut Canadian 10

importation and I was also wonderi ng if you would be available to tes tify. ~ His request drew a chuckle fro m Johnson , who said she was hardly available fo r anyt hing. BUI she was glad to answer his <{lien ion on Canadian drug imports, which she said Sttm like a cheaper alternative but could ultimately COSt American companies their lead status in the global economy. The problem, she claimed, is that whether they arrive imported drugs from Canada or Bangladesh - are largely imitations of drugs that were researched and developed by American firm s which had to spc!nd more 10 make to resea rch and devcloJl the drugs in the first place. If nates turned to the global market, it would hurt American companies' abilities to Stay at the lOp of the industry because (hey would have less money 10 put toward research and d l.'velopm~nt , she said. The pharmaceutical ind ustry isn't the only one where: American companies are: in jeopardy, she said. Compared 10 the re:St of the world , U.S. busi nesses afC at a disadvantage because of high corporate (ax laws, she: said. ~ Th e U.S. has [he second highest corporate tax rate in tile world," she said. ~Othe r eountries have adjusted thei r tax structures to the point where: if we don't adjust, if we don't modify, we can't survi ve.· Johnson said there are: differe:nt W<lys to make Amerian industry more: competitivc and ways 10 protect intellectual property for dru$ companies which are: being pirnted by foreign fi rms. But she said there: is only one way to deal with terrorism. "We need to pld less Monday mom ing quane rback an figure OU t what institutional srrengths we have and how we a n work with different nati o ns,~ she said. " If we don't do (hat , we'll live in a world where ambass;tdors and diplomats don't mattet.• MTerrorism ddi"ers the same fOTCe that big governmentS deliver, but they don't have embassies and diplomats. There's no one to talk to and nothing to talk about,· Johnson said. <:J

Ripon Forum ' Summer 2Q(}4

Virtues of Health Savings Accounts Making health care more consumer driven By U.S. RepresentaIive Melissa A. '-lart ublic policy should assisl people: in


making prudcm decisions affecting life's most irnporram issues. Among the mos t im portalll decisions is providing for our retirement yea rs and making choices with respect to our medial care. Both of th~ decisions were addressed in D«ember when Presidenr Bush signed into law the Medicare Moderni'l3tio n and Prescription Drug Act ~ in particular, wid} the provision creating Health Savi ngs Accounts (H SAs). [ supported the legislation. and one of the main reasons was the (re:llion of HSAs. HSAs arc tax-free savings accounts for prescripTion drugs, medical expenses surgery, long-Term care, insuran ce and other medical services - thai could well reform private and retiree health c.1re. During an employee's working years, H SAs are available 10 those who have health insurance wi dl an nual deductibles of ar least $1,000 fo r ind ividuals or $2.000 for f.tmilies. Employers may also make tax-free comributions into an employee:'s account. Unlike prior plans like Medical Savings Accounts (MSAs), H SAs ha\'e no caps on participation, no e)!:piration, and are available 10 anyone ullJ cr 65 yea rs of a~c. In our retirement years, HSA savmgs can be drawn upon to pay for retiree: health care once an individual reaches Medicare eligibility age. Catch-up contributions during peak saving yea rs allow ind ividuals to build a nest egg to pay for retiree health nee:ds. Carch- up conuibutions allow a married couple to save an additional $2.000 annually (once fully phased in) if both spouses arc at least 55. Additionally upon death, HSA ownershi p may be tra nsferred to the spouse on a tax-free basis. HSAs provide an important option for many Americans 10 fund their health care e)!:pcnses. The: recent legislation gives consumers new and beuer choices and encourages the m to take more responsibility fo r their medical and retireme nt needs. H SAs are \'ery attractive as well because they are portable. that is to say that they can follow an employ« from job to job. Another exciting aspect of HSAs is the impact they could have on reforming an increasingly expensive health care system Ripon rorum · Summer 2004

whose COSIS are excessive. The savings accounts will encourage individuals to buy health plans that better suit their needs so that insurance kicks in only when it is truly needed, saving dollars which will no longer drain the system. Moreover, HSAs will nudge the system away from the currem scenario where insurance companies dominate the health care transaction. Instead, the HSA will enable transactions bcnlleen doctor and patient in which the patient controls how dollars are spent. In effect, these savings accounts are e)!:acdy what is needed to respond to steadily increasing demands for taxpayers to fi na nce more and more of the health care system through higher taxes. In Congress. we halle heard reportS that the avernge American spends more time choosing their home entertainment systems than in select ing their health insurance plans. Alternatively. HSAs will encourage indilliduals 10 shop for health plans {hat beSt fit their needs and to make Cost-conscious decisions abour how to direct their own hea.1th dollars as opposed to a third party making these decisions. Individ\l~ls who manage their own health dollars should be discriminadng consu mers of health services. The new Medicare bill and its provisions for H $As allows indilliduals to take control of thei r own health care spending. This will enable them to provide beller health for themselves with a collateral benefit of contributing rather than detracting from the c<:onomy. Previously. health cafe was a prime candid;lIe for rellision for government reform that would have resulted in fewer options and less individual choice in medical decisions. For many years. tax policy has encouraged people to finance their healt h care through their employers. resulting in grear inffation. However. due to the tax-friendly IIlcenrives involved in H SAs. Americans have Ihe potential to restructure the health care marketplace US to shifr the focus where it should be: on

individuals who pay Out of pocket for their own routine health-care needs. This adllance should lead 10 many improvements that naturally follow from free-market principles: consumers will be empowered, a rational rricing StruCtu re will emerge, and COSIS wil fall. Throughout my career in Congress and in the Pennsylvania State Senate, I have been a big pro\?onent of responsible spending. Therefore. [ am lIeryellth usiastic O\'er th is new provision of the Medicare Moderni7.ation ACI thar allows individuals to have a grealer input in their own health care decisions. I encourage employees to consider these more consumer-driven options when considering fun d ing their retirement plans. ~

- u.s.

R~p. M~/iJSll A. Ha rt is a Pmllsylvllllia R~publicall alld a m~m,"r of I"~ Houu jlldirillT] Commiuu, Fimmrill/ Sr:rvius Commitru Imd Scimu Commirtu

Rep Mehssa A. Hart




Putting Progress First Benefits of stem cell research ________---'Boy'-=U.S.

Rcprescnralivt' James C. Grecollwood

egenerative medici ne and cellular therapies represent the newest a11(1


most exciting frontiers in medicine. O\'cr the past century, our nation's bold commimlclII (0 scientific research has enabled us 10 lake gTeal suidcs in mit igating damage :lIld alleviating pain as well :15 curing disease. For many conditions and diseases, though, (he cure conti nues to elude us. Consider spinal cord injuriC!l and juven ile diabetcs - while we ha\'c made great strides in treating bOlh, much remains

to be done. Advances in regenerative medici ne hold the greatest promise for irnprovct\ trc:ltlllcrns and therapies. Regenerative medicine is the science of

replacing damaged or dead cells with healthy and \¡igorous new ones. T hese transplanted cells can then either repair malfunctioning cells so they fUllctioll properly again or even replace dead or irreparably damaged cells widl fn'Sh healthy ones. Eve n more hopeful is the prospect that these cdls can be frequ e",ly drawn from the l,atieJII's own bod)'. dram:llically reducing tIC need for costly and dangerous o rgan transpl:t tlls and ending our reliance on IOxic immunosuppressive drugs. These new regenerative therapies will rel y on what are referred [0 by scientists as "stem cells." According [0 the National Institute of Health , stem cell ~ have two impon ant characteristics that distinguish them from OIher types of cells. First. they are unspecial ized cells that renew themselves for long jX'riods through cel l di vision. The second is that, under certain cOl1<lilion5, they are also able to become cells with slx:cial functions such as the beating cells of the heart muscle or the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas.

"Studies of human embryonic stem cells have shown that they can develop into multiple tissue

types and .. hibit long-term self-renewal in culture, features that have not yet been demonstrated with many human adult stem cells." - National Academy of Sciences


This is nOI science fi ction. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recentl y ga\'e the go-ahead to the firs! cli nical trial fo r 30 patiellls in tile Unite(1 Stat es 10 test a slem cell therapy for severe he!1Tt f:1ilure. In this trial . stem cells will be imroduced into the hean through a c llheter. the same way ,hat doctor.; prt.'SCnd y insert ste rns into arteries to re move blockages. Stem cells call be derived either from an individual's blood or bo ne marrow, or from embryonic stem cells. While the f(.'Celltly approved heart failure clinical trial relies on stem cdls derived from bone marrow. not embryonic stem cells, a 2002 N:l1ional Academy of Sciences srud y concluded that it is embryonic stem cells which may hold the greatest hope for progress in regenerati ve medici ne. And it is for ,hose reasons ,hat we must press forWard on all fronts to evaluale how these very remarklble cells can take the place of damaged or missing cells. At the saml' time th:l1 embryonic stem cells are seen as presenting some of the greatest promise in research, Ihei r use also represe nts an area of cominuing COllnovers}, - and as a result . it is the one area that has I)(''ell limited in scope with respect to federal funding for sciemific research. In 200 I. after much deliberation. Presidelll Bush alllhorized fed eral support for resea rch in onl), a limited number of embryonic stem lines. Specifically, the president allowed federal dollars to be 115(,'(\ www.

for research on a select number of cell lines which had already been established al the tillle of his announcement. At t hat time, il was also thought that there were ro ughly 75 exist ing cell lines available for research. Since then. though, this estimate has been reduced, as sollie lines which were ,hought to ha ve existed have been found \0 be contaminated or damaged. As a result. fewer than 20 such embryonic stem cel l lines actually exist. This is a number that man y of Ihe moS[ renowned rese;lrchers in this field believe is tOO small to support the kind of scielllific breakthrou ghs of which a more robust policy of ~s t e m cell" research would produce. Consequently. whill" there is still much that can be learned from usi ng existing stem cell lines if Ihey arc made widely ava ilable for research, the careful and ethical develo pment of new stcm cell lines should also be pursued. Tile National Institmcs of Health is the world's greatest engine fo r advanced medical research. The N IH should be encouraged to establish a newer prolocol for research in regenerative medicine; olle Ihat recognizes the existing deanl! of stem cell lines aCHmlly avai lable for smdy and inc rease this limiu.'(\ number of embryonic slem cell lines el igible for usc in federally funded resl..'3rch projeCIS. An ethical and responsible solution to this challenge, I Ix:lievc, alrea(ty presents itself. It is estimated. as an e:rc:lmple. [b ~tt nearly 400.000 reserve embryos arc JTesenrt y stored in the pri\'ate sector. argdy ,he result of the process of in-viuo fcrrili7.atioll, in which many more fertilized cells are produced than will subsequently be used. Of tbat tllullber, many, if not most, of these will ultim;ttely be disposed. Allowing the uS/." of no more than a very limited number of these cells for research rcscarch that can benefit one of our loved ones - is, t would argue, a fur mo re benefi cialuse fo r society than disposing of them. As William Haseltine, the chairman and C EO of Human Genome Sciences and one of the 1ca(lers in Ihis field has said, ~ Th e era of regenerati\'e medicine is upon us . ~ We must not turn away from it. Instead. we must embrace it in a way Ihat is consistelH with the highest standards of ethical conduct, which honors the dignit y of all livi ng things, even as it e mbraces the equally valid and universal human desire to labor nobly 10 end suffering. ~


- u.s. Rl'p. jl/lIIt's C. GrUIIUlood is


Pf'IIflJyillllllitl Rtpllhiirtllllllld rimimlllll

oftiN HOlISt Elltrgy IIlId Commtr'Ct' Slibromllliuu 011 Ownigllllllld hn't'Slig(lliollS. HI' is (liso (I tntm/X, of fbt HOIiIt SlibrOllllllilltt 01/ /-If'(lftll. Ripon Forum ¡ Summer 2004


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The New Censorship Czar FCC crackdown threatens to chill free speech By Nicholas Gaffney I first blush, the recent ru ling by the Federal Com munications Commission that a rock Slar's livc, onair utlcl'!lnce of lin expletive, described as a varianl oflhc ~ F-wo rd. ~ violated indecency and profanit), standards may seem like a common sense move to keep Ihe ai rwaves dear of offensive 1:lI1guage. 13m the decisiol1 vasdy expands Ihe kinds of comlllUnications prohibited by the FCC. and d1featcn ~ to st'riously ch ill free speech. A coalit ion ofbroadCllslers, anisrs, and publ ic and professional organizations is as king till: FCC to reconside r its decision. The group look action citing language in Ihe commission's decision indicating its aggress~ve intelllion to mo re vigo rously police Ihe alnV3\·es. The I:CC should c1C3rly I"«onsider irs policy. As cilizens of a society 11131 benefits tremendousl), from freedom of sp«eh, we should reconsider the FCC's role in o~'ersl-eing content deli\'ered via the public :l1n\'aves. The current COllnO\'erd' stems from U2 sinl?,er Bono's rcpo rte use of the phrase, ·f.-ing brill i afl[~ while receiving all award at the January 2003 Golden Globe Awards program aired by N ile. Though NBC deleted the offendi ng word for man y :lffi li ales carrying a delayed versiol! , th e FCC neverthel ess received complaints, In O cwber, the com m ission's Enforcement Bureau found that Bono's Ulterance did nOI violate a stalUto ry prohibition on indL'Cency because !lit' use of the expleti ve was fleeting and in a nonsexual contex!. G rant ing a re(luest by the Pare nts l elevision COuncil , Ihe FCC commissioners reviewed and overlufllt-d the enforcement arm's ruling. In its March dl'Cision . the FCC determined thai Bono's use of Ihe "F-wo rd ~ violated both indecency and profanity standa rds. The FCC further held that previolls C' which indic ted isolated or f1ccting usc of Ihe "F-word" was not indecem - arc no longer good law. The FCC emphasized thaI broadClsters arc now on ~dea r 1I00ice" ,hat they <Ire subj t'Ct ro enforce ment actions for any broadcast of Ihe ~ F-Word~ or va rialion thereof. By ruling the e \)illlet Ilono u~ed was prof.1ne as well as ill( ecelH. the FCC COI11mu niCHI'd its ill temion to regulate material



Ihat extends beyond the indecency standard - wJtich covers malerial with offending sexual connotations - to other types of ~vu lgar, irreverent or coarse language." According ro its opinion, Ihe Commission will nOt lim it its use of Ih e proflni ry standard ro words and ph rases that conrai l! clemenls of blasphem y or divine imprecation. Fai ling 10 add much more specifi city, the FCC noted tha t ~[ w le will anal)'7.e other potentially prof.lIle words or phrases on :t case-by-case basis. " T he Golden G lobe /\ wa rds decision was handed down as Congress is considering bills [hal would allow Ihe FCC 10 increase i[~ maximum fin e for indt'Cc ncy IO $275,000 from S27.500 per inS[ancc. T he Senate ve rsion of the bill would extend liabiliry IO performers whose amics arc ruled indecenl. Furthermo re, the FCC has bej;u n issuing fines for each instance that prof-miry is used, ram er rhan levying one fine per proflnity-spiked program. And while thl:' FCC's jurisdiction only covers broadcast media, some would like to expand the Commi ssio n's authori ty to cable :lI1d satellite ourlets. It appears that j anet jackson's Super Bowl performance, Bono's awards show adlib. yea rs of Howard Stern, and the specter of a tight presidential election have com bined forces 10 crean: the perfecl censorship storm.

Chilled Speech AJ rcady, there is plenty of evidence tha t the FCC's increasingly aggressive censorshi p is substa ntially restricti ng I:im Amendment-protected free sfX'Cch. Local television and radio 5tat io ns, fearin g multimillion-dollar fin es for broadClst ing syndicated and ne twork shows, are pressuring programmers 10 change content or drop programs. Petitioners as king the FCC to change irs course include C BS and MTV parent Viacom Inc., Fox Emeruinment Group [nc., the Screen Actors Guild. the Americn Federation ofTdevision and Radio Art ists, the Recording Industry Association of America. Inc., and man y OIhers. This gro up poims out fhar the FCC decision labeling Ihe use of unplanned and unscripted expleti ves as indecent and profane has prompted broadcasters to abandon live programming - the vaSI t~aj or ity of wh ich i$ unquestiona bly cOIlSl itutionaU ),- prolccl!:d free speech.

1V programmers are scrambling (0 edit or drop ma.instrcam ShOWl, including public television documentaries and several prime time hil shows such as ~ ER ~ and ~NYPD Hluc.~ Radio s(:l.Iions are scouri ng play lists and dropping or hClVily editing songs tha t have been played for yea rs like Pi nk Floyd's "Money, M DJ s are being required m sign COnt ractS that hold them financially liable for FCC fines resulting from material a.irt'd on their shows. These ;!( Iions follow rhe news that Mr. Stern and olher so-called ~s hock jocks haw been dropped from Ih(' Clear Channel radio network and ol her stations subject to the FCC's increasingly steep fines. T hese chilling effects are exactly the types of behavio r fcared by our Founding Fathers. T he govern ment's power to ceilsor indecent speech is 311 anomaly tim applies only 10 broadCl.Sling. As radio and lelevision evok ed, Ihe airw~l\'es were: considered ;t public frUSI, and from [he: beginning, broadClslers did nOI enjoy Ihe same Firsl Amendment righ rs as print media. E\'cn IOd ay, govern ment officials may nOI regulate Ihe conten! of cable TV, DVDs, movies, the Inrernel or OIher non-broadcast media. Alt hough material labeled obscene f.1JtS otl(side of First Amendment protection in any cornext, m:lte ri:ll the FCC determines is indecelll or proflne is protcaN by the Fi rst Amendment. CourtS h:lv{'" warned the FCC to interprel its :lulhoriry narrowly. H ence, the FCC only polices the airwaves from 6 :I.m. to 10 p.m., [he hours child ren arc most likely to be wning in. Although man y age ncies :Ire charged wilh regulating various public goods, the Golden Globe Awards decision underscores the undemocratic and authoritarian danger of ceding 10 one adminisrrative body the power 10 make subjecti\'e content delerminations. M

What's the Harm? Those suffering the most harm from Ihe FCC's !alest actio ns are those least in need of prOtecrion. jacobs Media and Edison Media resea rch recemly released a survey in which radio listeners were asked :lbom thei r views on indecency. Sun'cyors targeted listeners of classic rock, active rock and alternative programming - the music aired on man)' of the slations struggling most with rhe FCC's recent crackdown. Unsurp risingly, the vast majoriry of Ripon Forum ' Summer 2004

respondents w~rc happy with the programming they IUned in to, supported the rights of others 10 listen to programming that offended them and expressed a willingness to turn the dial whell they've had enotll;\h. II would seem that radio stations are domg a good job of monitOring their audiences' preferences. Yet the FCC has skirted the administrative rulemaking to broaden its




censor ra k shows, politica.l dia-

logue. and :lTliSlic endeavors on radio and television. This is nothing shon of a patefnalistic determination of (om ell(. [n this clim:ltc, stations across the country arc adopting policies of "when in doubt, leave it out. ~ So increasingly, television viewers and radio listeners won't know

what they're missing -

unless they fUrn


cable or s:ndJite channels, which plenry of whom are doing. The FCC's cbim Ihal irs aClions arc being laken 10 prOlect children from an increasi ng decline of public morals rings hollow in a world where non-broadcast media options include cable TV, satellite radio, Imernet coment, DVDs, etc. Even

with the FCC's watchful ere, parents mllst be \'lgilantlO create environments in which they feel comfortable raising kids. Giving any govcrnmcnt agcncy the power [Q ccnsor whatcvt:r is deemed "pawllt ly offensive" or " indt.'Ccllt,~ is dangerous. When rhose with I>olilical authority - rather rhan our fellow cilizcns and consumers - determine what we as a public can watch, it's easy to see those wi th unpopular opinions being forced fron1frhe debate. For e,..ample, Howard Stern has been closed off from several markets. The FCC usually acts in reaclion to public compbints - affording a minoriry of sensi tive viewers, listt:ners and public policy activists leveroge to threaten the prograrl1ll1i~l!? choices of the majority of market partICIpants. The Marketplace of Idcas is not a new concept. Howe\'er, il bears repeating today thai the mosl effcC[i\'c way to ensure liberty and prosperiry is to give members of socie!), access to the full range of viewJ?Oinrs. The Firs! Amt:ndment was drafted for the very purpose of protccting unpopular. controversial e,..pression. We need

constitutional prolt.'Ction the mosl precisely when segments of society are offended by an idea. Broadcasters air material in response to the demands of the market. The government ca nnOI raise public moraliry by edict. The government can, however, threaten our liberty. In the long fUn. our children are unlikely to benefit from the broadcast ~ledia's S;rowi l~g fear of being charged with word cnmes. More than censorship, children are served by media lileracy educ:tlion, t.'<iucation and alternatives to massmarkel, lowest-co mmon de nominat or culture. The Founders understood the values required for a rree, peaceful :lIld prosperous sociery: individual libcny, economic freedom and limited government. Our children's future depends upon guarding Ihesc principles. ~


- NichoLlS C'iffi1ry iJ a pamur wit" IlIfilliu flllhlic R~LltiofIJ ill San FrallciJco

Freedom 's Music In defense of the First Amendment ithin the Constltutton is a 45-word clause inhabited by a majestic simplicity expressed In spare . unadorned prose and absolutely barren of ambigUity. It is called the First Amendment. Too many of us don't remember Its words or haven't read it in years . So listen carefully: "Congress shall make no law respectIng an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the govemment for a redress of grievances." That's It. Simple words marching In serried ranks. Compact. concise. To the pOInt. Clear and pure . It's freedom's music. It's not easy to be for the First Amendment. For you must endure that which you might count to be profane , meretricious , tawdry and vulgar. Sometimes you become so aggrieved that you want to call your congressman and demand that he pass a law to protect you from thiS slime . But before you make that call , be cautious , be wary. You must remember that W'hen a tyrant first appears, he comes as your protector. The First Amendment IS our shield against the seductive embrace of those. In and out of Congress wflo. in their periodic fits of public virtue . prooounce themselves the Guardians of Truth and Good, ready to combat unwholesome intrusions


Rip<lIl Forum ' Summer 2004

whIch they both define and condemn. These Guardians of Goodness are nrmble footed. They leap from generatIOn to generation and , like a gramophone, repeat ~d repeat the defunct mythology of the rigid-minded - that they and they alone speak personally to God, doubtless on a gold MCI card. Whenever I meet one of those GuardIans of AU Truth, I utter an old Texas prayer: "Dear God, let me seek the Truth, but spare me the company of those who hava found It." From the first day of my entrance into the movie world until thiS very hour I have had but one objective. It is to fortify the right of creative artists to tell their stories as they choose to tell their stories, WIth personal responSIbility for what they create. but With no govemment Intervention of any kind . For me. it is all very clear and aU very necessary I want to stand with all other Americans who believe it is their solemn duty to preserve , protect and defend 45 simple words , to lay claim for generations of Americans yet unborn that the First Amendment remains for them as it does for us, the rostrum from which spnngs the ornaments and the essentials of thiS free and loving land. May God save the First Amendment.

""''W. ri

- Jack Valenti is the president of the Motion Picture Association of America


Closing the Racial Gap GOP should push education reform By Abigail Thernmom (publicans have a bad rap on civil rights in pan, a self-inflicted wo und. In fact , they should be: the truc voice of racial equality. Certainly. the Dcmo<:rats have left the high grou nd unoccupied.


Take the radal gap in academic achievemcnI the most obvious and critical of all civil rights issues wday. The typical black or Hisra nic 12ch-gmdcr now t"eaves high schoo with an 8th grade education. America Hill has a racially idc:ntifiablc group of educational have-oms. ii's a moral outrage, and the main source of ongoi ng racial inequality. Ie should

prompt radical demands and gnus



And yet. cruise the Web sitcs of the mai nSII\ civil rights groups and you find boiler-pl ate ani i-discrimination rhetoric. aecompani<.'<i by vague and tame remedial proposals. Thus, the NAACP education department talks about "preventing racial discrimination in education pro§rams and ser v i c~sn and the need to empower students, parents and local advoc ltes ... {tO produce] subsranth-e research on key educuional equity issues." In 2004, discrimination is nOi a cent ral problem affecting educational outcomes. No r do we need more research: we need to act o n what we already know. Moreover, ~e mpowe rmem" is a good idea o nly' if power is used for the right ends. rhe Urba n League talks of Ws tructural inequality" in education , but the structure it has in mind does not seem to include collecti ve bargaining agreemem s that act ually reward excellent teachers with better pay; changi ng the teacher licensi ng rules that aHract few academic.tlly skilled, entreprene urial , and ideali stic young people; repealing the federal rules that keep disruptive children in a classroom in which others want to learn; or implementing real school choice, wh ich is almost never available to low-income parents. Republicans in tal king about structural impediments to ed ucational equali ty - can tread where no Democra rs dare 10 go. Princi pals with the authority and autono my to hire and fire te.achers, pay linked to srudent perform:mc.... ch:m ... r schools and vouchers to provide impove rished fa milies with the SO rt of choice that the middle class already enjoys: These are a


The racial gap in academic achievement is not an 10 story. It is a tale of children who need to acquire skills and knowledge , but who have been tragically and needle.slv left behind. few of the clelllents in a civil righls program that Republicans should naturally and enth usiasticallyembl'1lc.... The racial liap in academic achievem... m is no t an IQ story_ It is a tale of children who need 1'0 acq uire skills and knowledge, but who ha ve been tragically and needlessly left behind . That gap between blacks and Hispanics. on the one hand, and whites and Asians, on the other hand - is the m:lill source of ongoing racial inequality in America. Equal skills and knowledge today mean equaf earn ings down (he road. That point about a chang...d America is tOO often missed because ~educa tion " is measured by the nu mber of years Sludents spend warming a sea t in school. rat her than what they aClually know. The best source of d:lIa on how much American childre n know is the National Assessme nt for Edu cational Progress (NAEP), oft en called the nation's report NAEP, which is card on educatio n . federally funded and mandated, samples large numbers of students at va rious points in their school careers. and the data can be: broken down by rac.... cthnicity and other demographic characteristics. On thc basis of NAEP, we know that at age 17, the typical black or Hispanic student is scoring less well on these reliable assessments than at least 80 percent of his or her whit ... classmates. The result : T he em ployer hiring the typical black high school graduate (or the college that admits the average black student) is, in dreet. choosing a yo ungster who has made it only through 8th grade. Here's anot her way of judging the magnitude of the ga p. In five of the seo,'en subjects rested by NAEP. a majority of black studellls perform in rhe lowest category - Below Basic. That mea ns that a majo ri ty of black students do nOt have even

a "partial" mastery of the ~fun dam ... ntal ~ knowl ... dge and skills expected of Sludents in Ihe 12th grade. H ispanics are doing only a lad beller. T he news is no happier when we switch our gaze from students at the bottom to those who are at the tOp. math . In m:uh . only 0.2 percent of black student s F.!II into NAEP's Adv;\nced category: the figure for whites is II times higher and fo r Asians 37 times higher. Again. Hispanic students are only slighdy ahead of blacks. Wi th so few blacks and Hispanics with superb acad ... mic skills by the end of high school, the pool of those ready to do the work at selecti ve. demanding colleges and likely 10 become part of the American professional and busi ness elit e is inevitably ve7 small. Black students were 0 course even further behi nd three decades ago. when NAEJ> data fi rst became available. But th ... modest that occurred through m uch of the 19805 has largely come to an end, :md there are some indications that the racial g3p is widening. Thus, current [rends offer no grounds fo r complacency. The Bush ad ministration can justly celebra[e the passage of No Child Left Behind, which (with all its flaws) do..-s correcdy lIame the racial ga p as the central educational issue of our rime. But that 2001 federal legislation will 1I0t, by itself, close the ga p. the record of state-level reforms suggests_ Nor is there any evidence that the OIher traditional bag of tricks busing, mo re teachers with conve ntional licenses, high... r per pupil spending - will ha\'e Ih ... red effl."Ct. Republicans need to speak loudly and dea rl y widl a civil righ ts voice, and say th3t only Republican policies - wi th thei r emphasis on elHreprcneu rship. a bottom li ne (slUdelll outcomes). and markers arc likely to close the tragic racial gap in learning that is leaving so Illany non-Asian minority swdents unlikely to realize the American dream. <::7

- Abigail Thl'nUlrom is II smior follow III tiN IYlnnlJattnn Instituu, and tiN cO-/luthor. with Han-am historian SuplJaIl 77J",flStrom, ofMNo b;cuSt'S: Closing 11K &Icial Gnp in Ll'aming." Thq p"vious/y co-authortd '"Am",icn ill Black and lVIJiu: 0111' NariOIl, Illdi/lisibtl'.• Ripon Forum · Summer 2004

Reforming the Tax Code No real economic growth without AMT repeal By U.S. Represclllal i\'e Phil Englc;,=h_ _ __ _ s individuals and businesses filed Iheir r('Celll 2003 lax returns, fruSlr.llion wilh Ihe complexity :md inanity of our [ax code ccnainly rcsulted in al least a few filers banging thei r he:lds on their dc~k~.


OncJarticlllar component of our (ax code calle the Alterna tive Minimum Tax (AMT) h!IS forced mally file rs (0 pay excessive nuts, even as they suffer financial

losses. We


fix liti s problem or

undercut the pace of Ihis coullIry's economic grow"l and rurn our backs on the

middle class. T he 200 I and 2003 faX cuts have bt"Cn sliccessful in igniting the c!l!?incs of economic growth. yet the stimulative effect of these eUls arc being undermined by the AMT Essentially. Ihe I':\X code wilh the new CutS ('llcO llragcs




offering expensing and depreci:uion incemives with one hand, while the law pre\'iou~ly on till路 books pushes these same companies into the punitive AMT with the other. By the same token, the tax CUT spurred spend ing by individuals though the child tax credit and rdieffrom the marriage penalty, hut allowed the old law to throw more Families into Ihe IhruS[s of the AMT keeping Ihem from realizing their full benefits. Surely, this was nOI the imention of the AI\-IT when il was tnacted in 1986. Congress must act now 10 repeallhe AMT and prevent furthe r erosion of Ihe previously passed t:IX relief. When Congress created the AMT in rhe Tax Reform ACt of 1986, il was envisioned as a stop-gap to prevent profitable companies :lIld very wealthy indi\'iduals from dodging their tax obligations. Since then, the dollar amount triggering the AMT rate has not been adjusted for inllation. so more and llIore comp:lII ies and individuals arc being subject 10 die AMT

U S Rep. Phil English

This is why the issue of repealing the AMT is so urgen!. I have heard many of my colleagues in Ihe House and Senate express similar concern abom Ihe AM' I: and I bcliev{' Ihat a bip:misan consensus could be formed 10 take Ihis obviously stifling and grotesquely complicaled tax meaSUT(' off the books. With Ihe laSt two Imjnr tax bills, Congress had, and ultimately forfeited, a prefL"C1 opportunity !O repeal , or al least knock some sign ificant holes in the AMT. But with each missed opportunity, El.1nily earnings, real businesses and real jobs are pUi al risk. That the corporate AMT is a jobkilling tax is no longer in serious dispute. lne tax is particularly harsh for capital intensi\'e, cyclical indust ries - the very industries that lend 10 provide the beSI salaries for workers :lnd their families.

That the corporate AMT is a job-killing tax is no longer in serious dispute, The tax is particularly harsh for capital intensive. cyclical industries - the very industries that tend to provide the best salaries for workers and their families . Indeed, in an increasingly global economy. intensive reinvestment in cutting-edge technology and equipment is essential for the survival of our nation's employers. Ripon Forum 路 Summer 2004


Indeed, in an increasingly global economy, inrensive rein vestlllent in cu(( in g~edge technol0/P' :lnd cquipmell1 is essenri:ll for the stlrv.v:ll of otlr nation's employers. Y{'t it is this crit ical investment which is threatened by the AM1: It is no surprise then that Ihe Bush administr:uioll has listed in its budget year afler y{'ar {har the AMT mUSt be addressed by Congress. Yet, I am frustrated by Ihe lack of movemcllI on the AMT bec:luse it is widely viewed as bad policy :md one [h:lt st:llls economic growth and pl:lgues middle-class Americans. Left unchanged, the AMT will affect increasing numbers of taxpayers. If Ihe 2001 and 2003 lax CUIS are ma(lc permanent, rhe number of taxpayers wilh increased taxes due 10 the MIT will grow from 3.3 million in 2004 10 16.2 million in 2005 and 10 46.4 million in 2014. Some people say it's tOO expensi,,{' 10 address right now - $20 billion for the repeal of the corporate AMT and lip 10 5300 bill ion for repeal of the individual AMT - but that cOSt will only incfCas<' o\路er lime. Meanwhile, if the 2001 and 2003 tax CUtS are ex tended, by 2014 individuals' AMT payments will increase by $28 billion to $ 177.2 billion. The AMT, in practice, docs nOI guarantee Ihe rich pay [axes; rather, the law raises taxes on many companies which arc unprofitable, while pushing individuals of average means illlo a system designed for the '路rich. The COSt is paid in uncompeti . live industries and unemployed wo rkers. It's the ullimate kick-'(.'m.wh(.'n-they're~ down tax, and a terrible way to raise mom:}'. As Ihe federal budget deficit looms o\'cr policymakers' heads, we must be responsible and forward thinking in our ap proach to the fi5C:I1 year 2005 budget. This means finding a balance belween measures to keep our deficit from explod ing and keeping our l'Conomy on a growth palh. I belicv(.' tim repealing the AMT would be sound lax policy for businesses and individuals now. and in the fmllre. ~ K

- U.s. Rrp. P"i/ EngliJ" is n Pnmsyl/!llllin Rtpllblirall imd il II mtmbtr oflilt HOlut \\WJ1ll11d kltaw Committtt IIl1d tilt }oim Ecollomic COllllllittl't.


Keeping Americans Safe Bolstering local law enforcement By U.S. Senator Orrin G. Hatch any federa l officials we re surprised task al hand. I believe the cooperation !O learn , in the aftermath of demonstrated in Salt Lake City should be a Seplember II , 200 I, just how benchmark for law enforcement personnel who are facing day-to-day security and law important stale and local first responders are to our national security. That lesson was enforcemelll challenges. That's wh y I was tremendo usly not news 10 me - I have spenl a great deal of time and energy during my career in Ihe disappointed 10 find the president's budgel Senale fighting against the Beltway request for fi scal year 2005 did not include preference for federal connol and pressing any money specifically for the Byrne Gralll hard fo r more resources and respect for state and local law enforcemenl. Unfortunately, some of \X1ashington's most powerful and Olherwise. prudent policymakers sti ll wo n't acknowledge the plain and unmist;lkable trulh: stale and local law enforcement , properly coo rdinal'ed with feder:ll :agencies, hold the key 10 keeping our nation safe. T he Bush adminislr:l tion :and I Sl'Cm to disagree on this. I support President Bush and think he has done a remarkable job responding to the challenges of post-WI I Americ;l. But despite my high opinion of the president and his advisors, I cannot to(' the line when it comes ro their decision to CUI severely the fund ing avai lable for st:lle and local law enforcement. The wa r ag:ainsr terrorism has presented a br:lnd-new challenge for the United States: sc<:uring ou r homeU.S. Sen. Ornn G. Hatch land not only from outside enemies. but also from internal, asymmetric attacks. program or the Local Law Enforcement Block Grant (LLEBG) progr:a.m. Rather, In this way. the even ts of September II , 200 I and the intelligence that we COlllinue Pr~i d ent Bush proposes 10 consolidate to gather aboul our enemi~' plans and these programs il1lo one Ihe JUSlice Assisrance Grant Program - and, in Ihe methods have forever changed Ihe relalionship between federal agencies process. seeks to eliminate a number of components of these programs and slash and state and local governments. There has never been a time when ou r funding for them. In addition. the budget proposes to reduce funding for the office of CIllzens rely so heavily upon th e C ommunity Oriented Policing Services cooperation of federal, state and local law enforcement to protect them from (COPS) al the Justice Oep:at!mellt, thus physic:al harm . slashing over:a]] law enforcement assistance I had the pleasure of seeing firSI*hand funding by 63 percell! or just ove r the am:azing results thai such cooperation SI billion. can produce during Ihe 2002 W in ler Byrne grams, LLEBG grants and the Olympic G:ames in Salt Lake City. Only CO PS program are highly popular nve months afler the September II attacks, programs Ihat provide needed assistance 10 Ihe awesome responsibility of protecting Slate and local law enforcemelll fo r a wide va riety of progr:lms and services. Among the world's alhletes - not to mention Ihe president and dozens of other heads of slale other things, those programs have enabled - forced the many federal, state and local local police and sheriffs depanments to organizations 10 lay their lurf fi ghts aside acq uire much-needed efficiency-enhancing and focus acutely on Ihe enormous technology and equipment. Eliminating




,h= rr~grams would be a severe blow 10 federa efforts ro assiM our communities in the war agai nst terrorism - and would come at a lime when federal policymakcrs arc ;J.Sking


:md morc from



local agencies. That's why [ must dcpan wil h the ad ministration and have offered an am cndm clH (0 the Budget ResoluriOIl to reSlore $600 million ro the DcpanmcllI of

Justice's budget for law enforccmc'lll and juvenile just ice assistance. Of COUfse, the federal government has made extremely valuable contributions 10 the mission of combalingcrime and terrorism in the United States.

Con$feSS h35 p3Ssed. and [he prt'Siclem has Signed, new laws providing CS$ClHial tools for the investigation and prosecution of c riminals and te rrorists. At Pres ident Bush's request, Congress created the Department of Homeland Security, which - although f.1ecd with enormous reorganization tasks - is working 10 prevent terrorist auacks, reduce our vulnerabili ty 10 such ;macks, minimize the damage that could be caused by an atrack and prepare for rttO\'cry afte r any disaster. But it is beyond question that we, as a natio n. could not have attained the level of security we enjoy without heavy reliance o n stare and local law enforcement. They are our nadon's first responders. They are on the front lines of the wa r againsl terrorism , and much of the burden of securing our coumry reslS on them. Our first responders, who selflessly pUl thei r lives on the line day after day. deserve more than our apprccialion: they deserve ou r unqualified $upporl. If the federal government is 10 rel y upo n st,ue and local law enforcement to fight crime :lI1d terrorism on our frontlines, then Ihe federal budget should provide what is needed to ensure that state and local law enforce ment have the neceuary resources to get that job done. I urge the Bush administ ration to rethink its proyosed budget and increase dramatically fed eral fundin g for state and loc:!:1 law enforcemem . ~

- u.s. Sm. Orrin G. HlIlch is a Ult1h Rrpublican and chainnan of flu Sri/au: judiciary Committrt. Ripon Forum ' Summer 2004

Defending the Homeland Taking politics out of homeland security By U.S. Represenrative John E. Sweeney


he panel invcsrigaring the Scplcmber I I arracks has put an imcilsc spotlight on how we have gone about the business of 5.1fcguarding our nation si nce thai terrible day nearly thrtt years ago.

While the! has become poliricatly polarized at rimes (to the dClrimem of its credibi lity). it has raised numerous valid issues, many of [hem rega rding the Dcpanmcnt of Homeland Securil}' (D HS), which is j U5I over one year old.

DHS has played a significant role in making America safer. Whilc the progress h;lSn't been as swift or sweeping as some would like. it is impossible !O deny progress has been made. Homeland Security Secrclary Tom Ridge has unde rtaken a monumental (ask, and has performed wid} the best imerem of OUf nation in mind. We must also recognize that this is merc:ly the beginning of a long-term suuggle to prO('eC[ our n:uion from experiencing again [he horrors of Scptembcr I I. While we have achieved man y successes since the creal ion of OH 5, [he defense of our homeland is still far from perfec!. OH S is Still in its infancy, and we musl realize there will be growi ng pains associated with making such a large bureaucr.tcy perform at the standards that ensure success in protecti ng our country I!oth from future te rrorist ~H:lcks. Congress and OHS can help move us in the righl direction, provided everyone purs politics aside and remains focused on the objectives at hand. The most frustr~ting aspect of homeland security discussions is the increasingly partisan tone the debates have raken on during this elecrion yea r. This is extremely delfimental to our ultimate go:tl of a safe, secure Ameria. Politicizing stich an issue will only ser\'e to desensiti'l e AmeriallS to the real thre:lls we face as a nation, which is trring its beSt to protect irs citizens from cvi forces that consl1lntly st rive to do us harm. Congress needs to once again work in the same spirit of cooper.ttion we had in the aftermath of the September II terrorist attacks, when, fo r a time, we were able to put aside peny partisan bickering and do our pari to help a nation in crisis. Homeland security should not be :t way to score cheap politial points by alarming the public while not bringing solutions to the table. Our debates, and the Ripon Forum · Summer 2004

U.S Rep. John E. Sweeney

The most frustrating aspect of homeland security discussions is the increasinglv partisan tone the debates have taken Dn during this election vear. This is extremelv detrimental to our ultimate goal of a safe, secure America, work of the September II Commission, must focus on stri ving to constantly impro\'c our preparedness for and response 10 any future attacks. In order to foster bener wo rking relations berween Congress and DHS, twO longstanding schools of thought must be [Om down. FirSI and foremost, Congress needs 10 realize DHS is not just anot her source of pork. There needs to be a fundamental shift in thl' thinking of members of Congress away from viewi ng the agency as a veh icle 10 get funding for projects in their districrs. It is of critial irnporr:ance Ihal funds are allocated based on where Ihey arc needed most, not because of the seniority of a particular representative. The reality is that not all fire departments will TC<:cive new fire trucks or chernial suits with DH5 funding, nor should they. New York City has been the targel of muhiple t('frorist WW'oOo·

plots; most other U.S. cities cannot say with any cerrailllY whether they l1a\'e been targeted . More importantly, firs t responders themselves realize lhe importance of threat-based funding; the International Association of Fire Fighters, the National Troopers Coalition and Ihe Im ernational Union of Police Associations have endorsed my first-responders reform legislation. Some of my colleagues in Congress have been harshly critical of Ihe Bush administrat ion's handling of first resjJonder funding when in reality it's the fault of Congress. Until we \',ut aside partisan squabbl ing and pass my ill, HR 2512, and move toward threat-b:ued funding of firs! responders, we will be unable 10 distribute money where it's most needed. Second, OH S staff. :It all le\'els. need to real ize they are nOt part of JUSt another bureaucracy. Because of both its inf.1ncy and ils criti cal imponance, Congress expects full cooperation at all levels of DHS, JUSt as DHS deserves our full assista nce. Unfortunately, this has not always Reporls of turf been the case. wars within DHS and with other executive branch organizations 3re rampant, and ha\'e been brought 10 light as the September II panel continues its investigation. Just as Congress needs 10 change its way of thinking about funding for homeland securiry, DHS needs to change its workplace culture from that of a giam bureaucracy 10 one of cooperation and a sense of urgency 10 SC I things done. The enemies of freedom will go to incredible extremes to inflict J,ain and suffering on our citi1.ens an anyone suspected of sympathizing with Ollr cause, as was shown by the Spain bombings and the recent wave of hostage raking ill Iraq. To succeed, we must t:tke politics completely OUI of the policy-making process of homeland secu rity and the war on terro r and focus on the bottolll line: a safe, secure America. Nothing short of this is accept3ble. ~

- u.s. Rl'p, John E. Sl/Jl'tnry is (/

NI'I/J York Rl'publiCtln find is fI ml'mbl'r oftiN HOllse 5t'll'ct Commiuu on Homilond Security find the Homrlond 5«ilriry Approprintions Subcommiurt:.


Europe's New Fault Line Neo-communism is making a comeback on the Continent


By Jeffrey T. Kuhner fter [he f.11l of the Herli n Wall,


American conservatives cdcbr:noo the defeat of communism. Confidcnr that their viclOry was complete, they rurnccl

and weapons to Baghdad from Bosnia, Ukraine :U1d Russia. A report by the International C risis Croup (ICC) think

(ank Vojisla concluded thai close Serbia's aJlietL'"" 1r1r:~'~'~( of v Koslunica, curren! prime minister, visited Baghdad in 2001 for a conference aimed at undermining U.S. policy in the Balkans and the Middle East. ~ The confercllce reso lution unanimously co ndemned 'A merican imperialism and hegemony,' and everything the United States was doing in Afghanistan. Palestine :l.Ild Iraq, and had NATO. AI an official reception at the clont' in Yu gos lavia,~ ,hl' ICC report said. Croatian Embassy in WashinglOn in What has been occurri ng in E.:1Stern February. Mr. C rdesic, ill a speech in front rcvc;r ls an increasingly :lUdlOrilaria n Russia. Europe is that :1 F.1U1c line is emerging of numerous dignitaries that included St:ue DepaTlment officials, proclaimed Illat st"j>arating Easlern, Sbvic civili7.ation from T he form er KGB chief seeks 10 reconsritulc C roatia's desire to elller NATO was an a Grcli Russia n Imperium composed of the largely - although not exclusivc1y "impossible d rea m, ~ according to a former So\路ict republia. Belarus is ruled by C'u holic civilization of Central Europe. Stalinist Strongman Alexande r Lll kashcnko, The cenlllries-old divide betwee n the C roalian Embassy official present at tilt路 who has illl l>oscd a onc-p:my l>alice srale. Aust ro路 Hungarian Empire and Tsarist met'ting. ~ The enti re embass), staff was Russia is slowly reappearing. shocked and dt-eply disturbed by the fuct Mt'anwhile, in Ukraine. Bulgaria and Serbia. nco-communist react ionaries have This civilizational chasm. howen'r, has tim the ambassador was openly disparaging sought 10 derail their countries' efforts 10 now taken a modern gUise, ptn ing our dforrs 10 promote Croatia's elllry into tile Western military alliance," the official enter NATO and become full members of democratic capitalism wrsus authoritarian pan-Slavism. The Weslernizcrs tend 10 be said on the condition of anonym it)'. the West. In all of these nations, the Red pro-AmeriC'JII, reform-minded and eager to In facl, Mr. C rdeslc has made no secret old guard contmues to exercise a predominant influence over the media, the join insl itutions such as NATO and the of his contempt and hat red for his own . European Union. The Slavophiles, on the coumry. At a recent ban<luel reception ill milirary and the political class. The res ult is that the fortne r comm u- other hand , champion an anti-American, Cllicago sponsort'd by rhe Croatian American As)ociation, Mr. G rdesic anri-Western foreign policy and 10llg for nist bloc is slowly being divided inlO twO denounced C roatia as a ~stra (('gi ea ll y the return of communism. c.1.mps: those who share the West's moral irrek'1fam" eoum ry, which "has not h in g~ to valucs and those who do not . Nothing Yel there is nOlhing inevitable about crystallized this emergi ng geopolitical the unfolding division taking pbce on the offer the Uni ted Slates. European Continent. The Bus h adminisfissure more clearly than the recent war in His olltr.lgeo us comments should tratio n should foster closer tics with corne as no surprise. For decades. Mr. Iraq. For while milch of New Europe Grdesic and his leflist allies were nurtured reformists in the Balbns and Ukraine, and Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia and the Baltic States provide them wilh assismnce to dismantle by com muni st propaganda 10 despise supported the U.S,-Ied military campaign, the old communist structures and impleNAT O , the democratic West and C ro:ll i:I'S crucial states such as Russia, Belarus and ment feal democratic reforms. legilimate national aspirations. The real Mo r("Over, the Uniled Statcs needs 10 scandal is not that ,he ambassador has Serbia actively opposed it. In fan, Ihe dirty litrle secret of the Iraq provide ~reater support for pivotal demo- betrayed his country and violated his crJtic alltcs, such as the new conservative public office, but that many in Zagreb's war is thai form er com muniSI die-hards in media and di plomati c corps share his Moscow, Minsk, Kiev and Belgrade played governrnelll in Croatia. A good fi rst step is the administration's commitment 10 supreactionary brand of nco-communism. a pivot:11 rolt' througho ut the past <Iecade in port C roatia's fast track cntry into NATO. T he sooncr thaI \VashinglOn's consersupplying Saddam Hussein's regime with Croatia. howe\"er. will never become a vati\'cs realize Ihat Eastern Europe TCmains milit'J.ry and intelligence assistance. During the 19905, Russia provided Saddam with rife wilh consequential individuals such as full .member of the :Vest as as its dogvital missile technology. manc neo-commullIsts COll1 l1l ue 10 occupy Mr. Grdf'S ic, then Ihe SOOI1t'r they can begin positions of power. An obvious eX:1I11 ple of helping those nations overcome the Even Serbia's democratic ~u l ing this is the country's ambassador 10 the crippling legacy of communism. 'C7 coali tion was implicated lasl year 111 an United SImes, Ivan Grdcsic. arms路 for-Iraq sca ndal. Jugoimpon , a The forlller 'lilOist ap paratchik has Bclgrade-bast.-d Stalt' arms export agt'ncy, - Jdl:,.ry T Kuh"rr;1 t1Jr rditor 'Oflllt Ripon Forlllll. was ilwolved in brokering radar systems been underm ining Z;lgrebs bid 10 join

tbelT guns on other issues such as Ir:lq , Bill C linton and the risins th reat of C hina. T he prevail ing assumpt ion among conscrv;ui\'cs is thaI the break~lIp of Ihe Sovit'l empire signaled the death kndl of MarxiSi-Leninist ideology throughout F_1Slcrn Europe. T heir assumption is wrong. Communism ma y he dead. btu [he rrevailing communist mindsct continues 10 live on. Prcsidt'llI Vbdimir PUlin's fe-election


Ripon FOfum ' Summer 2004




Balkan 1inderbox Rise of Islamic extremism in Bosnia Nove mber, former Ambassador Richard Holbrook. the architect of the 1995 Dayton Peace accords that ended the inter-ethn ic fighring in BosniaHen.egovina. notoo in a spttch that rhe posr-war Bosnia experience would be a fin e model for rhe United Sta.tCS to follow in rebuilding lra.q . Since the speech was delivered in Sarajevo, the a\,pl:mse was m inimal, and it [eft people w 10 generally view Dayton as a badly fuiled policy namely, the coulllry's Croats, Muslims and Serbs - speculating al)()ut JUSt whar he meant. Mr. Holbrook, who is Jo h n Kerry's foreign policy guru and ;1 [ikely ca.ndidate 10 be sccretary of state under a Kerry ad ministration, [cd a largely U,S. taxpayer fund ed experi ment designed to impose utopian democracy on Bosnians who were used to roralit:uian communism. \Vilat Mr. Holbrook's projecr did succe('d in providing was plenty of uto p1an s:l[a ries for thousands of United Nations cmr.lo)'l'Cs :tnd humanitarian conlractors. rhe peace accords also left plenty of room for the unchecked spread of Islamic fundamcntalism. Under co mmunist strongman Josip Bro'L Tito, one could be I)()th a Muslim , albeit a secular IYI)(.', :IS well as a loyal Yugoslav. Afu:r Mr. Ho[brook decided to ~democratizc~ the country, Bosn ian Muslims openly embraced the Iranian Shias, and began attending new mosqucs and schools erected by Wahhabi fundamentalisTS. Certain Muslim politicians, vwed by the United Stales, already had long rdationships with Libyan dictator Moammar Ghaddafi, the PLO and Osama bin Laden. What we should ha\'e lea rned from Bosnia, and then Kosovo. is how not to encourag(' the spread of Islamic fundamenlalism. Unfortunatelv, Ihis lesson has eluded us, as is ev iden~ed by th(' un inhibited now of terrorist traffic across the tho usand-mile land border of Hosnia today. T his is a serious fui[ure , since the very saille fundamen talists who we know arc li nked to al Qa(-da now exert broad influence in Bosnia and Kosovo, and thl:)' appear to be unifying opposition against Ihe United Sratcs in Iraq. Si nce the war in lra.<1 began, U.s. trOOps have been dying at a ra te of about five per day. Hut during one day in early


:' Sf








suppon bodes ill for the West. BUI no one who looks at the m3Ssacres of Muslims in Bosnia during Ihe 1992- 1995 w:!r, when these people were supposedly under lhe

protection of the United SI3ICS, the European Union and the United Nations, can argue that fheir growing alliance with April, 12 U.S. Marines were killed wh ile fun damcnralisr Islam is surprising. banling guerri llas in 31 Fallujah. Ii meant By 1998 , when President Bill C linwn that the insurgency in the Sunni lrianglc finally decided 1'0 end Serb Sl'rong rnan had been rekindled. It also signa led Slobodan Milosev ic's genocide, Isla mic something worse: Sunni guerillas arc collabfundamentalism had already gained a firm o raring with Sllias, their traditional fomhold in Bosni:l. and in adherelllS were adversaries. This happened a.t the same time spreading to Kosovo and beyond. A the new American -buill Iraqi Army number of Bosnian passport holders were rel)()rtedly refused ro fiplu alongside U.S. captured fighti ng with rhe Ta[iban against forces against other IraqiS. U.S. forces in Afgh:lIl istan, and, undoubtedly, there will be a number of Bosnian passpon holders found among the guerrillas in lra.q. After 9/11. gra.ffiti supporting Thl Farml' YulOllavil the an acks on the United States materialized on walls in EaSt Monar. Sarajevo and other places. The Bosnian news media suggested the 9/11 :uracks were part of a contin uing Israeli conspiracy ro d ispara.g(' Mus[im s. Six months [ater, Sta.te ,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department securit), officials uncover<-xi an al Qaeda plot to launch an :mack against rhe U.S. embassy in Sarajevo. The individ uals arrested for Ihe p[OI were of Algerian origin. but they held Ilosnia.n passportS. ~ After the March I I train s.. bombings in Madrid, Europe realiu."<i it had also become a target. Severa.l •• • I. connections were made berv.·ttn the al Qaeda bombers in Madrid and the Muslim com munity in Bosn ia. Spanish police ;Ire currently holding a Iraqi insurgents arc no longer fighling Bosnian Muslim from East Most:lr. Press to suppOrt the totalitarian regime of reports in both ha[ y and Bosnia. claim that Sadclam Hussein - they arc fighting as the Madrid bombers rl'Ceived at [cast some members of a unified. radiC".l1 Muslim force. of their training at the fundamenta l is! whose mission is to driv(' out the Infidd , Muslim stronghold ofZcnica in Bosnia. and to establish a lot:llitarian Islamic T he United States and Europe theocracy. Every day, this force becomes continue ro fuce a dilemma of unknown proponiolls. Although we confront a new more organized , and mo re i1llcrn:nional. and that is not by chance, Islamic radicals threat, we are nO! n('w to the need to are traveling freely across the Middle East defend Ol1rsel\'es or unfumiliar with the and throughout Europe. orchestrat ing need w contain enemy forces. 10day, an offensive Ihat is ga thering power Bosnia is a passageway into the heart of and speed. Europt', and it appears. a training ground Islamic fundamentalism breeds best in for increasing numbers of Islamic radicals. countries already broken ro some form of [t is imperative that w (' take Sleps to secur(' totalitarianism. Absent any social or Bosnia's porous thousand-mile border, to polit ic:.1 tenlphue for democracy, Bosnian ident ify foreign tramC inlO a.nd OUt of thaI Muslims were una ble to resist when the country, and by cloing so, to dis rupt :H1d Iranian Shias, the Afghani Sunnis and dismantle (he organizarion on which Saudi Wahhabis quickly mo\·('d in and Islamic lerrorism depends. ~ fi lled the po[ilica[ :lnd cu[tural \'oid left by the W('st. - j. P Macklry is n (omur collgmsio",t/ The fact that Bosnian Muslims have stllDio,. who Ims trtwrln{ in Imq lind work,d turned 10 internatiOnal Islamic interests for in BOSllia, Kosooo IlIId Salldi AmY;II.

r-------- -------'.. ==-=:".'""::::-=; "

Ripon Forum •






Iran's WMD Build-Up

u.s. policy adrift on rogue state By Michael Rubin n April I , 2004, Iran's Islamic Republic turned 25. But, mo rc than a quarrer-century after the Islam ic Revolu tion, U.S. policy remains in flux. of interagency wrangling, After thltt there is slil no agreemenr on a N:uional Security Presidential DircCli vc governing U,S' llOlicy IOwa rd the Islam ic Republic. . -he result is policy chaos. One year after President Bush labeled Iran part of the "Axis of Evil, Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage calted Iran a ~d emocra­ cy." Current and former National Secu ri ty Cou ncil officials engage not only with diplomaTs, bUI also with members of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps. A bi partisan g rollp of senamTs and congressmen led by Sen. Arlen Specter, Pennsylvania Republican, has dim.xi with Mohammad-J:lvad Zarif, Iran's Un ited Nat ions amhassador. In April 2004 , Mr. Specter explained. MWe need to c.~ tahli ~h :l di:aloguc widl lr:an ... We need to have:a line of communication 10 StOp Irnll from developi ng nuclear wc:apons. ~ Other Re publicans :agree, arguing th:at dialogue with Tehran will foster a move toW'..ud 11I111Ian rights and democracy. Unfortunately, engagement comes at a COSt both to U.S. n:ational security and 10 Iran's illlern:al refo rm. The Islamic Republic uses the space created hy engagement to furth er its weapons program and demoralize democrats. T he European Union has engaged with Iran for more than a decade, douhling bihllel":ll trade. Iran's hardliners have used their :access ro bolster Tehrnn's weapons of mass dcsHucrion programs. The Islamic Republic has incorporated components purchased from Swiss, German, lralian and Spanish firm s into its biological weapons program. In March 2000. the Islamic Republic co ntracted with the German company Salzgi n er Anlagenbau 10 build a 1,450 kilogra m-per-hou r phosge ne generator. When weaponized. phosgene causes filtal lung damage. Irnn's nuclear program has also benefited. Michael Eisenstadt. senior fellow:al the Washington Institute for Near EaSt roliey, wrote in his 1998 study. " Iranian Milirary Power: Capabilities and Intentions," that, in addi tion t'O oven Russian assistance. iranian government from companies purchased cemrifuges and calulrons from Swit-lerland and Germany. In March 200 I,



President Mohamm:ad Kh:llami signed a $7 hillion deal to buy weapons from Russia. A year later, Mr. Kharami boasted, "Today our army is one of the most powerful in rhe wo rld ... 1t has hecome self-sufficient, and is on the road to fu rther (I evelo p ment. ~




Reform has withered as d ialogue has legiti mized the Islamic Republic. Since Mr. Khatami's 1997 call for a ~ Dialogue of Civi li zatio n s,~ capi tal punishment has doubled. the Islamic Republ ic has shuttered 80 n{'Wspapers, banned private internet service providers, thousands of satellite dishes and staged 1h" largcst [(ial of dissidents since the Islamic Re\'olution. On April 13, 2004, Mr. Khatami formall y withdrew [',\'0 reform hills from Iran's parliament, even as U.S. and British officials s:n down with Irnni:1Il colleagues to discuss Iraq. Dialogue proponents argue tha t engagement encourages internal reformers, but their parmers are often insincere. During his tenure as minister of culture, for example, Mr. Khatami himself banned more than GOO books and 90 publicatio ns. An August 2002 telephone survey (randomi1xd by exchange) of 505 Teh ran residents found that onl y 33 percent believed M r. Khatami had delivered on his reform ist promises. On May 9, 2004, a judge in the Western Ira nian town of Hamadan suggested that the United Natio ns Hum an Rights Commission ~should p!":ly for God's forgiveness for not issuing any resolution agai nst lrnn." Family members of imprisoned disside nts say that Irnni:an illlerrogalOrs usc published reports www.

of U.S.-Ira nian dialogue to ddbte and demoralize political prisoners. Iran ians are incre:lSi ngly bccoming convinced that reform cannot resolve fundamental problcms in the Islam ic Republic's ideology. Many Ir:lIIiallS have concluded that elections are meaningless. Iranians visiting Irnq in the wake or the February parliamentary elections estimated voter {Urn-out to be no mo re than 10 percen t in many districts. In 1953 and 1979. Washingron supported an unpopular Irnnian governmem against the will of the people. The United States should not make the same mi stake three times. Moral clarity has its rewards. There is a direct correlation between President Bush's condemnation of rhe Iranian regi me and the freq uency of pro-democracy demonstl":ltions in l!":lll. Dialogue with Iran also comes at a tremendous cost in Iraq. Iranian imelllions are belied by the appointment of H assan Ka7.cmi Qomi to be thei r charge d'affaires in Baghdad. Mr. Kazemi is not a diplomat. but r:lIher a member of the Qods Force, an d ire uni t of the Isla mic Rcvolutionary Guard Corps dedicatcd to expo rt ing the revolut ion. Asking Iranian assistance to quell Iraqi un rest is akin 10 asking an arsonist to extinguish a fire. Dialogue legitimi1.e5 Iranian activities that have led to the dcat h of American servicemen. An April 2004 Italian m ilitary intelligence rtport submined to the lralian parliament concluded that the Qods Force is subsidizing firebrand cleric Muql'ada al-Sad r and Iraq i insurgents to the nme of approximately $70 million monthly. Arabic newspapers report that c:~ptured Irnnian oper:lIi lles in British custody have supported the Italian accusations as h:ave Iranian journalists. Nevert heless, Bush admin istration National Security Council officials have recen tly engaged l!":lnian counterpartS in Iraq. l!":lnian journalist Ardeshir Moa\'eni suggested discussions focused on t!":lding Iranian assistance in ending the Shia uprising in exchange for mitigation of U.S. pressure o n Iran's nuclear progrnm. I-Jerein lays the trouble: T he Islamic Republic is neari ng nuclear weapons capahility. Not only will this shift the strategic halance in the Middle East. hut it will also seal any hope fo r meaningful reform. A nuclear-capahle Ira n needs not fear retaliation ifit cracks down on its own dissidems or sponsors terrorist attacks against AmeriClIlS and our allies. Ti me is ticking. Engagement , however well-intentioned, may allow Iran to rull OUt the clock. ~ -

MiriJluf Rubin is a mid~1lt sr/Jofllr at

II)/' Ameri(flll

Ellterpris~ hm;fUlr.

RillOn Forum ¡ SUJnI1l(:r 2004

Roll Back North Korea Regime change needed in Pyongyang By Frank J. Gaffney, Jr.



Roman Emperor Nero has bcC:11 vil ified for over twO millennia for madly playing the fiddle as his capital city was consumt.-d by fire. The question occurs: Will hislOry accord the Clin[Qn and Bush administrat ions a similar. dubious distinction fo r having negotiated whi le one of the planet'S maddest despots sysre m :uic~llJy pursued a goal that threatens to inflame the world? T he despot in question, of cou rse, is North Korea's leader, Kim Jong-II. Although isolated by Kim's paranoid attachmem 10 Stalinist loralirarianislll and impoverished by thai failed ideology's commitment to a ruinous ÂŤonomic sySlcm and a succession of natural dis::asters. North KOTe:l. has, nonetheless, found the means 10

get illio the nuclear weapons business. For Kim Jong~ll, it [(uly is a husiness: On the one h:md, he literally has on offer not only ballistic missile delivery syStems but also the nuclear know~how and technology to arm them. Nations with the cash - or commodities, like oil - find North Korea a ready and reliable purveyor. Thus, over the years, Pyongyang has forgl'<i slr:l.tegic partnerships wilh other rogue states like Iran, Syria. Libya, Pakistan and Yemen. Of ever greater concern is whether Kim's regime has already acted on a threat 10 which its spokesman alluded a while hack - I1lmely, to enahle dIe nuclear ambitions of sub-state actors like Osama bin Laden's II Qaeda netv.ork. Even jf Pyongyang has not done so to dlte, chances are good Ihat - left to irs own devices terrorist groups will be able in due course to ~go nuclear- wilh Norlh Korean help. Unfortunately, given the murderously capricious nature of }(jm Jong-II, little comfort cm be taken from what would appear to be - at least in relative te rms rhe "best case,~ i.e., thlt North Korea might ehoose to wield nuclear rhreats irself, r:ltilt.'r than prolifer:ll'e them. Already, we have seen the fruits of Pyongyang's effon s ro parlay ilS violation of successive international obligations and acquisition of a nuclear arsenal into tangible political, financial and str.llcgic concessions. During the Clinton years, the upshot was a so~ca l1 ed MFramework Agreemenl," whereby the Uni red States, Japan and Somh Korea I,ledged to give North Korea billions of do lars worrh of nuclear reactors and fuel oi l in exchange for the laner's Ripon Forum ¡ Summer 2004

promises to abjure nuclear weapons. The Bush administration's skepticism abom this accord was vindicated when Pyongyang confirmed illleitigence that it was pursuing a covert, uranium-based weapons program . The Bush team, nonetheless, has been persuaded that, in light of the un:lHractivencss of the option of using force, it has no choice but 10 pursuc the path of negollatlOns that proved SO futi le for its predecessor. It has made much of its su c~ cess in broadening the participants 10 include, in addition to the Framework Agreement states, the North's twO principal sponsors - Communist China and. 10 a lesser extent, Russia.


North Kore.



China's inclusion reflects a hope as well as a possibly fa tal conceit: The belief that Beijing shares our opposition to a nuclear~free North Korea and is prepared to usc its consider:l.ble economic and political 1C\' on Kim Jo ng~1I toward that end. The reality is quite different. Without China's sustained technical and financial support, it is unlikely that North Korea could long remain a goi ng concern , let alone have become a nuclear power. I! has served Beijing's intereSlS for North Korea to be seen by the United St:JIes as a problem thaI the Red C hincse are uniquely posi tioned 10 ameliorate. JUSt as Chi na has parlayed America's desire for a partner in the war on terrorism intO WashingtOn ignoring mounting evidence of the PRC's ominous emergence as a ~pee r competitor" (and attendant trode, military :111<1 itltel li~ence henefits), I!eijing is now in the drivers scat on Ihe S i x~Parry lalles.

Never mind that Ch ina has used North Korea and its other proxy Pakistan as cut-ours for nuclear Iroliferation. It is viewed as the beSt, an perhaps only brake on Ihe North's nuclear misconduct, so the Chinese are bein~ allowed extraord inary latitude in convellmg the negotiations and sening their agenda. All the while, the Nonh Korea n nuclear p ro~ra m apparently continues apace. U.S. IIltdligence recently increased the number of weapons in Pyo ngyang's arsenal from twO to perhaps as many as eight. And, since no one ourside the Hermit Kingdom knows for sure either the size or disposition of this stockpile (not even Kim's Pakistani supplier, A.Q. Khan), this is JUSt a guess that could well be in error on the low side. Alternatively. it could be aCCUr:l.te as f.1r :IS it goes but fails 10 accoum for tr:l.nsfers overseas that might already have been completed. In short, the North Korean nuclear time bomb is certai nly ticking but we do not know when it will go off. Fortunately, as Presidcm Ronald Reagan demonstrated two decades ago, there is an alternative to appeasement or open warfare with such a monstrous regime. Shortly after he came to office, and President Reatpn mapped out a ordered the Implememation of comprehensive str:m.'gy for destroying what was at the time the planet's most brut:llly repressive and th r('atening dictatorshi p, that of Ihe Soviet Un ion. This slr:.J.teg)' involved the coordinated application of military strength, economic and financial coercion, export controls and va rious forms of strategic pressure (notably, via information oper:l.tions such as fTl'Cdom radios beaming into Soviet territory and that of irs client states). At its core was an cssential ingrediem: the truth. Like the Soviet Union , Norrh Korea's regime is evil incarnate and must be treated as such. And like President Reagan a gen er~ ation ago, President Bush must rejeer new dcals with today's most evil regime. The strategy should once again be one of roll back, aimed at ending this blight once and fo r all, nOt signing agTl'Cmenrs that will permit it to [>ersi$[ and become sti ll mort' dangerous in the future. <7

- Frank j. GII/fot"}.}r. jonller/y held smior positiQIlJ in the Reagan DeftnJe Departmem. He is CIIr"miy the president of the Celller for Semriry Policy in Wnshillgtoll.


Lies About Vietnam

u.s. was right to have

fought in Southeast Asia By Jeffrey T. Kuhner


n his presiden tial C<lI11I):lign, John Kerry

is usi ng his distinguis led Viemanl War record to holsrer his crcdcllIials on national securi ty. Furthermore, his subsequent OPl>osition 10 the Vicrnam Wa r now serves as a basis for his criticism of Presidcn[ Bush's conduct of the war in Iraq. The presumptive Democratic nominee is CO ll v in Cl-O that rhe Middle E:lSllhrcatens 10 become another "Vietnam -like" qU3gmire.

T he myth about the supposed "u agic lq;acy~

of ViclIlam has been al the core of the liberal worldvicw since !lle 19605. This is a false and dange rous idea thai even today undermina our resolve 10 sray the course in Iraq. The underlying assumption of Mr.

Kerry and his liberal allies in the media is that the conflict in Southe:ast Asia W:lS a strategic defeat and nation:al humiliation fo r the United Starcs; it was a coloss:al error in which nearly 60,000 Americans lost thei r lives for an unwinnable and immoral war. ~ We saw America lose her sense of morality," Mr. Kerry said in his 197 1 tcstimOllY before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. ~ I-I ow do ro u :ask a man to be the last man to die for a m i st akc? ~ However, figllting dIe war in Viellla m was nOt a mistake; aba ndoning the war was our mistake. T he wi thdrawal of American power from Ihe region resulted in Ihe imposition of a Marxist- Len inist police

state upon the people of Vietnam. T he com munist regime comm itted numerous atrocities. Over 200,000 Sou th Vietnamese m ilita ry and government officials were derorted to slave labor camps, where man y 0 them were systematically starved to death. Also, sever:al m ill ion Vietnamese - urba n capit~l 1is ts. non-col11munists, human rights dissidents, priest¡s and monks - were sent 10 uncult iva ted, usually barren are:as in the coumryside, called New Economic Zones (N EZ) . It is not known how many citizcns perished in the NEZ's, but most of the dcportees considered their assignment to be a de:ath sentence. Furthermore, H anoi unle...shed :a massi\'e campaign of eth nic cleansing ... gainst the country's minorities. During the 19705, nea rly 1.5 m illion eliHlic ChinCSt' were expelled and their prorerty and businesses confiscau:d. Vietnams hill tribes were nearly wiped OUI. The most F.UTlOUS victims we re the Hmon g, who faced savage retribution for havi ng fought with tfle United States during the wa r. Us ing chemical and biological weapons, Hanoi deliberately targeted illnOCell\ civilians. Emi re vi llages were des troyed. Moreover, Red Victlla m waged wars of aggression ;"Igainsl its neighbors. In 1979, Vietnamese troops in vaded Ca mbodia,

John Kerry, 27. former navy lieutenant who was wounded three times In Vietnam and who has won the Silver Stat", speaks to the Senate Foreign RelatIOns Committee on beha~ of the Vietnam Veterans Against the War on Capitol Hillin Washington, D.C. , April 22, 1971


installing :a brutal puppet d ictatorshi'f ;" Phnom Penh. The Marxist regime 0 the odious Heng Samrin launched a terror famine against small farmers ,ha, led to the deaths of 700,000 Cambodians. It h:as been nearly 30 years since the com munist takcover of Vietnam. Yet it is remarkable how little the country has changed si nce U.S. forces pulled out. Vietna m remains mired in poveny, corruption and government repression. The count ry's per capita income is little more than one-ren dl Ihat of nearby Thailand. Seeki ng to join the modern societies of Asia, Hanoi has abandoned eco nom ic collectivism in favor of';M arket Leninism" - the attempt to fuse capital ist refo rms with authoritarian rule. The irony is thaI this is very similar to the kind of socio-econo m ic model that South Vietnam possessed prior 10 1975. It is obscene that countless Vietnamese have been sacrificed in order for the country to remrn 10 the level of development it had reached 30 years ;"Igo. Liberals, however, collIinue to insist that the anti-war mo\'ement in the United States was correct in opposing American intervention in Southeast Asia. This demonstrates the moral obtuseness at the heart or modern liberalism. The communist viclOry in Vietnam resulted not only in the slaughter of millions of innocent VietnamCSt', Cambodians, Laotians, eth nic C hi nese and Hmong, but in the 5a\'age conquest of Cambodia and Laos, the establish ment of an extensive system of concentration camps and the sub jection of an entire generation 10 the miseries of Marxist rule. Rather than bei ng an unjust war, America's fight in Vietnam was one or the most JUSt in history. Nor did U.S, trOOpS sacrifice their lives for a "mistake." The struggle in Southeast Asia was integral 10 the larger bailie agains t Soviet communism. Scholars now claim that Marxist-Leninism was responsible for the mass murder of over 100 million people. The war demonstrated 10 Moscow and its proxies around the world that the United States was will ing 10 sacrifice immense blood and treasure to curtail the spread of tOialirarianism. This was pivotal 10 America's viclOry in the Cold War. Nazi lropagandist, Joseph Gocbbels, procl:aime tha t if a statement is repea ted often enough, even if it is a lie, it will be e\'enlUally accepted :IS true. This axiom is especially peninelll with ff1,>a rds 10 the connict in Indo-China, W{' were right [0 ha ve fought in Vietnam. It's about li me soml'One told Mr. Ke rry. C#

-Je./Jrry T Kuhner is rhr rdiror of Tht Ripon Fomm and conmllmicnriollS dirr(for at The Ripon Socirry. Ripon Forum ' Summer 2004

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