VIEWS May 2018

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REFLECTIVE PRACTICE Spring 2018 Issue 35 Volume 2

FEATURES Two Heads are Better Than One Mastery in Mentoring: Lifelong Learning Mobbing in the Workplace Articulating Your WHY A

P u b l i c a t i o n

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R e g i s t r y

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VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2




FEATURES Jenna Curtis

Two Heads are Better than One YouTube Link:

Two Heads are Better Than One/ 28 Mastery in Mentoring: Lifelong Learning / 32 Mobbing in the Workplace /38 Articulating Your WHY / 42

Betty Colonomos Kelly Decker


Mastery in Mentoring

Letter from the Editor / 4 President’s Report: Reflective Practice /6

YouTube Link:

Regional Conferences/ 8 Face-to-Face Board Meeting Summary/ 9 From the Desks at HQ / 10


Danielle Thompson-Ochoa Joseph Batiano

Note from Uncle Dale / 12 Encounters with Reality / 14

Mobbing in the Workplace YouTube Link:

Honoring Diversity / 17 President Walker: My Experience in Mentorship/20 CALI Northeastern University / 24 Humble Pie/46 NDEC / 48 CATIE Center: Graduation to Certification/50 Self-Care /54 Reflective Art for Self-Discovery/56

News DBI Corner / 26

Audrey Ramirez-Loudenback Articulating Your Why YouTube Link:

Deaf Grassroots Movement/ 37 Member Spotlight/52 Thank You Board of Editors!/59

To view all articles in ASL, visit our SPRING VIEWS playlist HERE This issue’s photography gathered from collections at and


A Letter from the Editor This issue of VIEWS has been so rewarding. We have undergone a dramatic redesign of the publication thanks to Maxann Keller and facilitated by Don Giannatti. More professional photography and eye-catching design has been incorporated to match the professionalism of content in our articles and columns. We have also established a beautiful new layout that will give you access to the ASL production right up front and feature the first couple pages of each piece, then direct you to overflow pages at the end of the publication which have compact text for our speed readers. We have also seen a stronger response than ever before to our topic for this issue - Reflective Practice: Mentorship and Mastery. Those who submitted to this issue have felt the pressing need for our community to “break the fourth wall” in interpreting, so to speak. The work is about our client first and foremost, our preparation, our team… but the topics presented here help to broaden the discussion in our community as a whole. Our featured authors include Jenna Curtis, President of ORID, talking about the scientific benefits of reflective dialogue; Betty Colonomos and Kelly Decker, from the Etna Project, discussing ongoing learning and mastery; Danielle Thompson-Ochoa and Joseph Batiano, talking about the prevention of mobbing in the community, especially in schools; and Audrey Loudenback, encouraging introspection to find our “WHY.” Finally, we have had an amazing amount of participation by columnists and sister organizations to provide research and program updates as well as advice and food for thought. Our columns serve as field vignettes about mentoring practice, novice interpreting, and the importance of self-care. This issue is our longest ever and we hope that it will be a wonderful archive of information for you to come back to as you encounter mentorship opportunities in the near future, or find yourself needing guidance in your reflective practice. We are thrilled to have an ever-expanding avenue of communication for our organization, especially during this time of transition with a new CEO. The VIEWS Board of Editors is also transitioning with the release of this publication and we are grateful to them for blazing the trail for a smooth, professional, and collaborative review process. Thank you for VIEWing! Julia Wardle Editor-in-Chief YouTube Link:


VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

RID BOARD OF DIRECTORS President Melvin Walker M.Ed., CRC, CI and CT, NAD V Vice President Sandra Maloney, M.A., CI and CT, SC:L Secretary Joshua Pennise, M.A., CI and CT, NIC Adv Treasurer Billieanne McLellan, CI and CT, NIC, Ed:K-12 Member at Large Len Roberson, Ph.D.; SC:L, CI and CT Deaf Member at Large Branton Stewart CDI, CLIP-R Region I Representative LaTanya Jones, M.S.M., NIC Region II Representative Brenda Sellers, NIC, CI and CT Region III Representative Byron Behm, NIC, NAD V Region IV Representative Sonja Smith, NIC Region V Representative Mish Ktejik, NIC, SC:L

RID HEADQUARTERS STAFF Chief Operating Officer Elijah Sow

Director of Finance and Operations

Jennifer Apple

Operations Specialist Charlotte Kinney Accounting Specialist II Tong Rogers

Accounting Specialist Joshua Sechman

Director of Standards Ryan Butts and Practices

Ethics Administrator Tressela Bateson Professional Development Manager

Certification Coordinator

Director of Member Services and Government Affairs

Ashley Holladay Neal Tucker

Member Services Khianti Thomas Specialist

Director of Communications and Outreach

Carol Turner

Communications Manager

Bill Millios Julia Wardle

Communications Maxann Keller Coordinator

Communications Jenelle Bloom Specialist



Reflective Practice: Mentorship and Mastery Melvin Walker, President of RID Board of Directors M.Ed., CRC, CI and CT, NADV YouTube Link:


ello, and welcome to the April 2018 issue of VIEWS. This is our largest issue ever!

The theme for this issue is “Reflective Practice: Mentorship and Mastery,” which is a great theme for our field, and opens up a lot of opportunities for learning, discussing, and sharing. If we look up the word “mentorship” in a dictionary, it says, “the guidance provided by a mentor, especially an experienced person in a company or educational institution.” I think that in our field, we perhaps need to consider an expanded definition. I agree with the concept of getting guidance from an experienced person - but the question becomes, who has the experience? As an interpreter, when I walk into a situation at a Deaf person’s place of employment - who has experience with the setting? They do. When I join a less experienced interpreter at an assignment that they’ve been doing every week for the past six months, who has more experience with that client? They do. So, where are the mentorship (or learning) opportunities as an interpreter? They are all around us - from Deaf clients, from our peers, and from more experienced interpreters - not just with years in the field, but with time in specific settings. 6

Often when new (and not-so-new) interpreters ask the questions, “How do you sign [this concept]?” or “What should you do when [this situation] occurs?” The answer is, “it depends...” and what they’d hoped would be a simple response turns into a complicated decision tree. Many classes cover specific skills - but knowing how to navigate “it depends” situations requires mentorship. As interpreters, we should always seek mentorship opportunities, and from all participants in the process. Sometimes that one “ah-ha” moment comes from a casual remark by a Deaf person or a peer. This leads me to “mastery” - defined as “comprehensive knowledge or skill in a subject.” We strive for mastery in every setting, with every client - with mixed success. Increasing mastery is increasing your ability for finer and finer discernment - being able to have a more complete decision tree for what to say, how to say it, and how to navigate the linguistic and cultural obstacles that are present in our work. This issue of VIEWS has a wonderful collection of articles that I hope will assist you in your journey through mentorship and mastery.


Read President Walker: My Experience in Mentorship on Page 20 VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

DHH Insurance partners with RID to offer members Liability and Benefits 1-866-371-8830 WHY DHH? Blanket Coverage for Professional & General Liability NO COST to obtain Certificate of Liability Added Value Coverage for Business Content 24-48 Hour turnaround time Coverage is underwritten by Philadelphia Insurance Company, who are Rated A+ Our program is an Admitted Product It's written as an Individual Policy Endorsed by RID

D H HIns ur ance .c om

What types of claims can be made against an interpreter? Error in the substance of the interpreting information; use of the "wrong words," that is, a failure to proper translate otherwise clear language Use of different nuances of meaning, such as where a word or phrase can have more than one reasonable translation, or the misinterpretation of idioms.


REGIONAL CONFERENCE UPDATE 2018 July 2-7, 2018 Hartford, CT



August 2-5, 2018 Milwaukee, WI

July 19-22, 2018 Albuquerque, NM



July 11-14, 2018 Vancouver, WA


VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2


Face-to-Face Meeting April 26-29, 2018


hursday, April 26, 2018: Thursday’s Board meeting discussion started with the CEO search process. The Board of Directors is grateful for membership feedback on the CEO candidates and will announce the outcome of the CEO search soon. The Board also discussed the outcomes of the Strategic Planning that was held during the 2017 Leadership conference and, subsequently, the direction of the 2019 national conference. Finally, the Board reported that the updated Policy and Procedures Manual will soon be ready to post on the RID website for the membership to view.


unday, April 29, 2018: The Board and Headquarters staff conducted face-to-face interviews with the final CEO candidates prior to the Board’s final deliberations on the selection of a new CEO, incorporating both membership and staff feedback. The Board revisited the five “big picture” items of the Strategic plan and worked on identifying more specific details under each major topic. The Strategic Planning Committee will be able to include these objectives in a concise document, ready for the membership to view this summer. Finally, the Board worked on the FY2019 Budget, and will be prepared to vote on it next month. For a full description of the FIRST and FINAL updates for the April Face-to-Face Board meeting, visit


From the Desks at HQ Archived Webinars (pg 16) View the recently archived webinars- available now!

Law Enforcement

Independent Study Opportunity for 2.0 CEUs available! Visit: for more information


Students! Are you looking for scholarship opportunities? Check out RID’s scholarships page:

Sponsor Renewal

Sponsor renewal forms have been emailed to RID approved sponsors. If you are an active RID approved sponsor and have not received a renewal form please email the Professional Development Department at

ADVOCACY On Wednesday, April 4th, RID Director of Member Services and Government Affairs Neal Tucker presented the DHHCAN (Deaf and Hard of Hearing Consumer Advocacy Network) executive board with a check for $1,000 to sponsor their 25th anniversary celebration this coming September. This was an incredible privilege and RID is humbled to have the opportunity to contribute to DHHCAN’s ongoing advocacy efforts for the rights of Deaf, DeafBlind and Hard of Hearing persons. fovernment A rvices and G Se y, r ar be et cr em Se M (For mer ector of l Tucker (Dir Tayler Mayer ), ea N N : A C ht ig H R H ,D From Left to , Esq. (Chair CAN). ainab Alkebsi asurer, DHH re (T hl ra fairs, RID), Z st en nn So d re Alf DHHCAN), 10

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Note From Uncle Dale COLUMN

t h g i , g R n s i i r h o T t n o e M If I D ob J a f o t u O m ’ I

Dale H. Boam, CI Attorney at Law Dale is an Associate Professor of Deaf Studies at Utah Valley University, attorney advocating for the rights of persons who are Deaf, an interpreter and a blogger at “Uncle Dale’s Rules for Interpreters.” He consults and presents nationally on both interpreting and legal topics, including: The Physiology of Interpreting; The Physics of Processing Time; Cohesion and Orphans in Interpretation; Legal Rights of Individuals with Disabilities: Law, Deafness and Personhood; Voting; Making the ADA Effective for the Deaf Community; and Attorneys Serving the Client Who is Deaf. Dale recently received a favorable decision from the 9th Circuit Court that makes Section 504 more accessible to persons who are Deaf (See Ervine v. Desert View Regional Medical Center). Dale has served on advisory committees for NAD, the organizing boards for Deaf Studies, Today!, and the 2007 Deaflympic Games. YouTube Link:

A teacher teaches you something you didn’t already know. A mentor helps you realize how much you do know. A teacher instructs you on a principle or skill. A mentor helps you to figure out how to apply it. A teacher gives you a grade. A mentor gives you a perspective...

#uncledaleVIEWS 12

VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

I am both a teacher and a mentor and despite what I said above the VERY end goal of both jobs is the same. I want you not to need me. If I do my job correctly, I will teach you more than just skills and applications. If I do this right, I will have instilled in you a love of the process and a desire to improve your abilities because you love to, not because you have to. Most importantly, I will have helped you develop the internal structure and foundation so you know how to continue learn, to teach yourself, when I am gone. In order to be the best mentor I can be, there are some things that both you and I have to clearly understand. IF YOU COULD DO IT, YOU WOULD NOT NEED ME. The whole reason we are meeting is to develop your skills. If you could produce a perfect interpretation, you would not need me. (I, on the other hand, would love to make an appointment to have you mentor me!) You should not be shy or embarrassed to show me your work. That is why I’m here. If you hold back, I can’t get a good read on your current levels - in other words, I can’t evaluate what I don’t see. Don’t apologize at the beginning or the end of an exercise. You don’t have to. I’m not offended by gaps in your skill sets. Don’t stop in the middle of an exercise to tell me you messed up. (Psst. Big secret? I know when you messed up... I can see it.) Just take a breath in through your nose and out through your mouth and move on. Once again, that is why we are here! Don’t worry about screwing up in front of me! Take risks. Be creative. If you are going to be wrong, be definitively wrong! I will pull you back if you are getting too far out there. If you play it safe the whole time, you will just produce the same work, and therefore the same errors, over and over. Keep this in mind: no matter what happens in this interpreter lab, there is ZERO POSSIBILITY that anyone will go to the morgue or that anyone will go to jail. It is my job to make sure you succeed in your work. (Because the client trusted me enough to agree to have you come to her work or doctor’s appointment or other meeting. She trust-

Don’t get discouraged if it looks easy for me. The operative word in that sentence is “looks.” It’s never easy, even for me.

ed me enough to agree to let you learn while she lives. I will NOT let either of you down.) WE ARE NOT HAVING A COMPETITION. I am not competing with you so don’t try to compare yourself to me. Unbalanced comparisons lead to hopelessness. Let me put that another way. I’m better than you at interpreting (at least right now). If I wasn’t, you would have no reason to want me to mentor you. But I do not have more inborn ability than you. Any natural talent I may have started with has ceased to be important a long time ago (I will explain that in a minute). What I do have is time invested in doing this work. If you are just starting out, I could have very close to 30 years of experience more than you. (Wow, that made me choke just a little... I’m so old.) It’s not about talent. Talent gets you two years of people saying “Oh you are so talented” and after that, people want to see skill. So, I am better than you, but not because I have more ability. I just have more practice. Don’t get discouraged if it looks easy for me. The operative word in that sentence is “looks.” It’s never easy, even for me. What looks like ease is the application of years of interpreting things just like this. I have a full toolbox to choose from and I will help you build yours! You must always remember that behind my smooth production and calm eyes there is a massive amount of mental danc-

ing happening!

DON’T DEIFY ME, I WORK FOR A LIVING! I send students out to work with experienced interpreters and sometimes when they come back, I hear, “She is so great at interpreting! I will NEVER be that good!” Don’t do that. She was not born interpreting like that. She had to work to get there. Note from Uncle Dale continued on page 60...



s r e t n u o c Dear En With

y t i l Rea COLUMN


“My neighbor is an interpreter and was telling me about all the gory things she has to face on a daily basis as an interpreter: feces, fungus, blood, naked bodies, nasty smells, foul language, etc... No client names were disclosed, but I couldn’t help but wonder how Deaf people would feel if they knew that she was talking and laughing about them. I remember when I was in the hospital, I was so sick I puked. I’m sure my poop stank. I’m sure I looked like crap. I hope my nurses didn’t talk about me. I think the same should apply to interpreters. What is your opinion about this?” AN EXPERIENCED INTERPRETER’S PERSPECTIVE:

Brenda Cartwright, CI and CT, CSC

Brenda Cartwright is an experienced interpreter, teacher and presenter. She is the Director of the Sign Language Interpreter Program at Lansing Community College. She holds a Comprehensive Skills Certificate (CSC), Certificate of Transliteration (CT), and Certificate of Interpretation (CI) from the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf. YouTube Link:

It certainly sounds like this interpreter enjoys telling these stories because of their sensationalism and for her own “visceral kicks.” If I heard an interpreter telling stories about Deaf clients in their most vulnerable moments, I would ask her straight out, “Where is your compassion?! Where is your discretion?!” Interpreting is a job. We are there to work, not to collect stories to impress our friends.

AN EXPERIENCED DEAF CONSUMER’S PERSPECTIVE: This interpreter shows a complete lack of respect for her clients. We are vulnerable and dependent on interpreters during some of the most scary and embarrassing moments of our lives. What was this interpreter’s intention? Yes, there are indeed unsavory and upsetting aspects of the job. But telling stories and laughing about us is oppressive.



VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2


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VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

Honoring Diversity Written and signed by Billy Sanders, NIC

Full YouTube Link:

Abigail Lockhart, NIC, Maryland

At first glance, one may not believe that Ms. Abigail Lockhart has been interpreting professionally for fifteen years. As a CODA who was uniquely embedded in the fabric of the Black interpreting community throughout the Washington, DC metropolitan area, Abigail believed herself to be more than her parents’ interpreter. Currently pursuing her Bachelor of Communications degree from Regent University and mother of one, she is a respected interpreter who multi-tasks on a daily basis. Abigail grew up in a strong religious household where “the Lockhart sisters” (Abigail’s sister, Eliza, is also an interpreter) were first exposed to a plethora of Black sign language interpreters on a weekly basis. Armed with passion to interpret for her parents and friends of the family, Abigail applied the same vigor to drive her pursuit of becoming a certified professional. Subsequently, Abigail enrolled in a mentorship program, attended a plethora of workshops, and sought the support and guidance of surrounding interpreters who believed in her promise. Ms. Lockhart encourages aspiring interpreters everywhere to “Follow your passion and dreams, and never let anyone intimidate you. We all started from somewhere; you have to keep pursuing your interpreting goals and you will get better! Stay in touch with seasoned interpreters and peers, and stay involved in the Deaf community.” Well said, scholar. YouTube Link for Abigail and Ayorkor:

Ayorkor Adjei, Ed:K-12, Texas

Armed with a unique name and a unique gift, Ms. Ayorkor Adjei decided while sitting in her ASL 1 class that “…I want to do this [interpret professionally] for the rest of my life.” Much credit is given to Ayorkor’s first ASL teacher who not only exposed her to the profession, but taught her about the wide variety of signed languages across the world. Ironically, Ms. Adjei grew up as a SODA (Sibling of a Deaf Adolescent), and became passionate about including her Deaf older brother in all family affairs and conversations. The lifelong desire to improve her interpreting skills in order to communicate with her brother and people in the Deaf community more effectively is the admirable drive which led Ayorkor to interpret, serve, teach, and give back with an infectious smile. Ayorkor set an eager and aggressive path before becoming certified in 2013. Ms. Adjei knew her skills would best be improved by enrolling in an interpreter training program in Catonsville, MD, which led to her current role as a staff interpreter with Sorenson Video Relay. Ayorkor’s passion lies in both bringing more Black interpreters to the field via mentoring, and in the “aha” moment when those she interprets for reach the intended level of understanding. Grounded in faith, Ayorkor is actively involved in the Deaf ministry at Oak Cliff Bible Fellowship Church. Skilled in a multitude of interpreting facets, Ayorkor’s experience covers educational, medical, video relay, theatre, and performance interpreting.


Brent Tracy, NIC, Ed:K-12, Massachusetts

One of the few prominent young advocates for Deafblind equity and civil rights, Brent Tracy is no stranger to the movement. Born to a Deafblind parent, Brent and his siblings grew up in Boston, Massachusetts with dreams of empowering that very community in an impactful way. Brent leverages his influence as CEO of Equal Access Resources on social media and other public platforms to foster open dialogues and galvanize stakeholders to champion change. Before that moment where Brent knew “this was it”, both of his brothers had modeled what a certified professional looks like in practice. Brent became a scholar and went to hone his skill and applicable knowledge by earning a Bachelor of Education degree. Having first-hand experience of witnessing barriers to adequate access fueled Brent’s drive to experience the “aha” moment that keeps him coming back. Ironically, Brent grew up in Boston where there was a unique plethora of Black male interpreters, and did not realize the demographic disparity in the profession until attending his first RID conference. Determinedly disproving the negative stigmas of interpreters of color is what reinvigorates Brent. Ultimately, Brent believes that for every young Black male aspiring to become an interpreter, there is a strong support system of colleagues and organizations ready to welcome them into the field.

YouTube Link for Brent and Charles:

Charles Lynch, NIC, North Carolina

Husband. Father. Child of God. Charles Lynch is always humble when describing himself and the amount of experience and credibility he has lent to the Deaf and interpreting communities over the last twenty-one years! Eager to make a difference in the lives of young brothers and sisters who want to become interpreters, all you have to do is: find him, call him, email him… then practice, educate yourself, and improve your receptive skills - because they go a long way. Although Valerie McMillan is the first Black interpreter Charles met, he first learned of the profession via “John” from Vocational Rehabilitation, who came to fix his parents’ broken doorbell one day. Following that point of inspiration, Charles eventually drove to the nearest interpreter training program 48 miles away, 5 days a week, for 2 years. He followed the golden rule of always giving back, while en route to becoming the best at his craft. Respect. To be a young, Black, certified male interpreter has been more of a boost for Charles than a hindrance. Sought after and in high demand, interpreting is allowing Charles to live his best life. “Each one, teach one,” is the credo to live by. Serving as a vessel for Deaf people is Charles’ mission. Born to help Deaf people is all he knows and cares to know. With both parents being Deaf, service and interpreting is the best way Charles shows his gratitude.


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Hijrah Hamid, NIC, Georgia

Having not met one Black male or female interpreter before becoming a professional interpreter, Ms. Hijrah Hamid has been challenged to expand her thinking and world-view, and to push the limits of what she thought she was capable of doing. Committed to Deaf academic achievement, Ms. Hamid specializes in post-secondary and professional education interpretation. Extremely modest and a language nerd at heart, Hijrah was further humbled while a student in her interpreter training program, where she began to learn how much she didn’t know. With a Bachelor’s of Interpreting and a Master’s of Public Administration, she has lent her vast knowledge of theory to practice as an advocate within our profession. Currently the Region II representative of the Interpreters and Transliterators of Color member section, and a part-time instructor in Georgia State University’s sign language interpreting program, Hijrah serves with dignity and passion. She intends to remind every aspiring young brother and sister that they are not alone; that interpreters of color are here, and that we are amazing. As someone who loves the mechanics of what we do as interpreters, Hijrah concords with and strategically navigates through many oppressed identities. She feels connected to the grit, endurance, and beauty of the Deaf community. Perseverance is key, and she applies her golden rule to self-care, guard, and care for her humanity. In this capacity, Hijrah has the opportunity to make an immediate positive impact on others’ lives. #blackgirlsrock YouTube Link for Hijrah and Kenya:

Kenya McPheeters, NIC, Kentucky

Genuine. Giving. Driven. Having transitioned out of high school from a teaching assistant to an educational interpreter for nearly a decade, Kenya accidentally stumbled into the interpreting profession. After receiving motivational feedback from a seasoned interpreter on her first interpreting assignment, Kenya never looked back. She persevered by always passing the gift of inspiration and encouragement forward. Kenya’s passion lies in being able to create equal access of communication between Deaf and hearing constituents. Innovator. Resourceful. Dynamic. Kenya teamed with an amazing cadre of noted visionaries to create an internal niche through a professional development conference for Black interpreters who worked for Sorenson Communications. Kenya can be seen building strategic partnerships with industry leaders and stakeholders just as fluently as she can be seen mentoring and showing an aspiring interpreter how they can be their best self. She holds a kaleidoscope of talent and promise to share within our profession and the Deaf community. Trendsetter. Mover. Shaker. Hard to compartmentalize leaders like Kenya McPheeters. One of the few, shining, Black Directors Sorenson Communications has benefitted from over the years, Kenya is a force to be reckoned with, and widely respected as a rising star in our field. Multi-faceted in her mission to light the world around her, Kenya also owns and operates #MaintainingMySexy, LLC, which promotes positive affirmation, exercise, diet, health, and self-presentation. Kenya’s words of empowerment: “Be humble, and keep learning!”



My Experience in Mentorship: Encouraging Potential to Accelerate Performance wn, o y m of y or st a e r a sh to e k i l d ’ I

about mentorship and mastery.


remember a situation many years ago when I was al- that he had heard many good things about me and that I ready an experienced interpreter. However, I had very was his scheduled interpreter for the keynote address! little experience with conference interpreting – either standing on stage or voicing for presenters from the stage. As you can imagine, I was quite surprised by this. It so happened that the person sitting next to me at the table I attended a conference with the expectation that I would was a good friend of mine, and also an interpreter, and she be interpreting for workshops and smaller settings. There confirmed what the presenter said. I was surprised, and had been no prior information that I was expected to work confused, as this was beyond the scope of my expectain a larger setting. After I arrived at the conference, I met tions for this assignment. The presenter then proceeded a Deaf man who had come to the conference from another to tell me about his upcoming speech – sharing his talkstate. He was scheduled to give the keynote address to ing points, specific topics and vocabulary, city names and share his personal experience and motivational message other details. to the attendees. We sat down for lunch at the same table and started chatting. He asked me my name, and I intro- After lunch, I was walking with my friend (who had been duced myself. When I told him my name, he informed me sitting next to me), and when I was able, I asked her what was going on. She replied that they had decided on me to interpret, saying, “You are a good match for him, you can Melvin Walker voice for him best.” President of RID Board of Directors M.Ed., CRC, CI and CT, NADV I countered with, “No, I don’t have experience doing this, I can’t do this.”

YouTube Link:



She was adamant that I could do it. She shared specifics about other assignments she had seen me do. However, VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

I was still very anxious about this assignment and did not believe I could handle it. As we discussed the assignment, she continued to insist that I would do a good job and it would be fine.

who had voiced for the presenter at the conference.” They all told her that the interpreter must have had a script – that “you were reading from the script, keeping up with the presenter, right?”

Finally, she told me that if I truly could not do it, then she would take over the assignment – but she reiterated her confidence in my ability. She mentioned the name of another interpreter who also attested to my ability to handle the assignment. Both of these people – the woman who had sat next to me, and the second person that she mentioned, were professionals that I had great respect for and looked up to.

They told her there was no other way for the interpreter to be that smooth, to match with the presenter so seamlessly, to match voice intonations with his facial expressions, to voice his jokes and make them funny, and to just keep going through the entire presentation.

I really didn’t know what to do at that point. I remember sitting in my chair before the start of the presentation, holding the microphone in my sweaty hands, still feeling like I was not able to meet the expectations of this assignment. I continued to protest, to express my self-doubt.

Sometimes a mentor just has more faith in a person than a person has in themselves. You (as a mentor) believe in them more than they believe in themselves.

Suddenly, the presentation started, I flipped the microphone on and began voicing for the Deaf presenter. One word followed another. I could feel my friend sitting next to me - who had encouraged me to accept the assignment, had shared her confidence in my skills and strengths, and had taken the time to talk with me before the assignment began. As the presentation progressed, I could feel her hand on my leg, squeezing it with enthusiasm, giving me positive support for my work. It was support for my word choices and for my ability to keep up with the presentation. I completed voicing the presentation and turned off the microphone. Of course, as soon as the microphone was turned off, I became anxious again! So, I worked the rest of the conference, and then returned home. When I arrived home, my friend who had sat next to me contacted me by phone. She said, “Melvin, I want to tell you something.” She told me that when she had returned to work (we worked for the same agency but at different locations), several people had come up to her to talk about the “man

She told me, “You know, that’s a huge compliment; I know you did not have a script. I know you voiced live for that speaker. He was funny, and you matched his humor with your voicing. You didn’t add things that weren’t there. You stayed on his message. As he mentioned different towns in his state, you remembered them from your preparation with him during lunch, and voiced them without hesitation.” I have to admit, this praise felt good. It was validation for me – that I could do assignments like this.

This made me realize that a mentor isn’t always someone who works with a person ahead of time to prepare them for a situation. Sometimes a mentor just has more faith in a person than they have in themselves. You (as a mentor) believe in someone more than they believe in themselves. As their mentor, you sometimes have to push them into uncomfortable or scary situations, to help them learn what they are capable of. From that experience, I learned to observe and assess other people’s strengths that they may not have recognized in themselves. When the opportunity arises, I encourage placing them in challenging situations, to prove to them that they have the skills, knowledge, and ability to succeed. They may not know – but they have it. As mentors, we should not just compliment what a person already sees in themselves, but look for and compliment the qualities they don’t know they have. Provide support in a way that is positive and trusting – this is critical. In my situation, I trusted my mentor; she said I could do it. I 21

was nervous and anxious, but I did it because she told me I could, and I trusted her. I also knew that if I was unable to do the assignment, she would step in to support me or take over. After the assignment was over, I realized that she knew me and my skills better than I knew myself.

Imagine being in a situation where there is an interpreter. After you’ve left the event, what do you remember? You remember that you attended the event and that there was an awesome presenter. You remember the name of the presenter, their story, and the details they shared. Then someone asks, “Who was the interpreter?” And you can’t remember.

So, I’ve taken the lesson that I learned from her and applied it to my own mentees. It’s become my goal to build people’s skills and their confidence in themselves. That’s That is a sign that the interpreter did an awesome job. The my mentorship example. I hope that you will share your interpreter didn’t make it about themselves – they made examples, as well. it about the presenter, the situation, and the people who were involved. If the first thing you remember is the interpreter, and you can’t remember the speaker or their message, then that issue needs to be explored. It’s a sign that attention was focused on the interpreter, instead of on the event as a whole.

As mentors, we should not always compliment what they see in themselves – but look for and compliment the qualities that they don’t know that they have.

In addition, I want to emphasize that we should not forget we get the best mentorship from the Deaf community. I grew up in the Deaf community. When I started interpreting, it was for people I knew personally. I grew up with them, and they were forthright and candid in their feedback to me. I didn’t mind their criticism; I didn’t mind them pointing out the things that I did wrong. I just accepted their input – because I didn’t know better, and this was a learning opportunity for which I was grateful.

My point is that we, as interpreters, become the medium of communication that provides access for both parties. Through us, these parties build trust and respect for each other. When we do our job correctly, they are successful. If the assignment turns into something where they are more dependent on the interpreter, then the interpreter is becoming successful at the expense of the two parties. That’s not the point of what we do. I want to thank you all sincerely for your work and for your involvement in the Deaf community. The Deaf community is my home, and I truly appreciate what you do every day. Thank you.


Was I a “perfect student”? Of course not. Sometimes I felt like they just wanted to complain, not necessarily because of any inability or lack of skills on my part. I came to realize that yes, maybe they did “complain” – but did I actively seek out ways to accept their input so I could improve my skills? This type of thinking helped me to understand how I could be a better interpreter and how to facilitate communication in a better way. Let me share an example to illustrate my point.


VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2



CALI Launches 2018 Pilot Program of Study Produced by CALI at Northeastern University ASL Translation by Laurie Achin Building on the Language Analysis Team’s findings and further research about effective practices, dozens of consultants have participated in the development of CALI’s Program of Study. The program, designed to provide interpreters with specialized skills to serve d/Deaf and DeafBlind persons with atypical language, includes three parts: online modular instruction, face-to-face Communication Negotiation Classroom experience, and Practical Experience Placement (the latter two making up the Practical Application Week). In this pilot year, the online instructional modules are available only to those accepted into the full Program of Study through our partner interpreter referral agencies. However, starting in 2019, the online modules will be open to all interpreters, interpreting educators, and other stakeholders who wish to study the content. On January 22, 2018, the first cohort of interpreters began the pilot Program of Study. These twelve brave Deaf, Deaf-Parented, and hearing interpreters came from three different referral agencies (Civic Access, DEAF, Inc., and Sign Language Resources, Inc.) who agreed to have the interpreters track employment data related to consumers with atypical language before, during, and after the Program of Study. The interpreters are also required to complete pre-/post-tests and evaluations throughout their participation in the program so that we canreport its success to our funding agency.


Online Modules

The four online modules, running from January through June, are: Module 1: “An Introduction to Atypical Language: Contributing Factors” Module 2: “Atypical Language among Diverse Populations” Module 3: “Interpreting Strategies for Individuals with Atypical Language” Module 4: “Decision Points: Working with Diverse Consumers Exhibiting Atypical Language”

Practical Application Week After completion of the above modules, our interpreter cohort will fly to Boston to attend the Practical Application Week, a five-day, face-to-face training July 23-27, 2018 to participate in both the Practical Experience Placement and the Communication Negotiation Classroom. Running simultaneously, these training opportunities will provide supervised, onsite, work- related experience, as well as opportunities for observation, interaction, and when appropriate, actual supervised interpreting experience with Deaf and DeafBlind persons whose language is atypical. VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

Supervisor Training

Interested in CALI Programming?

Six experienced Deaf, Deaf-Parented, and hearing interpreter practitioners from the three referral agencies mentioned above are currently taking a separate online supervisor training which runs from April 1-June 30, 2018. These supervisors will support the twelve trainees through the induction process and participate in online Communities of Practice.

During the 2018 pilot year, we are evaluating and updating the curriculum content, conducting focus groups, and interviewing module facilitators to gather input and feedback on how to improve our programming before offering it to a wider audience beginning in 2019. As mentioned above, the online modules will be open to all interested stakeholders in 2019.


In years three to five (2019-2021), we will work with five new interpreter referral agencies per year from across the Upon completion of the Program of Study, our interpret- U.S. to recruit interpreters to participate in our full Proers will engage in a supervised induction process for 40 gram of Study/Induction. If you are an agency represenhours over approximately 16 weeks. This post-program tative and are interested in collaborating, please contact induction is designed to provide interpreters with ongo- Diana Doucette, CALI Director, at d.doucette@northing supervision and guidance on the job. The goal is to provide the interpreters with a clear path toward obtaining or advancing employment in working with Deaf and Stay tuned to the CALI website and CALI Facebook page DeafBlind persons whose language is atypical. for updates on our program, as well as our upcoming fall webinar focusing on the Language Analysis Team’s findCommunities of Practice ings. Finally, the interpreter cohort will participate in online Communities of Practice during the induction period. These will be private, online discussion boards where interpreters and supervisors will participate in collective learning through shared experiences and challenges, with discussions lead by a facilitator.

Thank You to Our Partners Visit Our Partners page for a list of CALI’s outstanding partners and consultants. This program would not be possible without their hard work.


CALI at Northeastern University Northeastern University’s American Sign Language Program was awarded a U.S. Department of Education, Rehabilitation Services Administration grant (H160D160002) to establish the Center for Atypical Language Interpreting (CALI).The project addresses the growing demand for interpreters with specialized skills to serve d/Deaf and DeafBlind persons with atypical language.



DBI MOVING FORWARD: FROM RESEARCH TO PRACTICE This webinar is an introduction and opportunity to learn about the work and progress that the DeafBlind Interpreting National Training & Resource Center has made since beginning research into effective practice in DeafBlind interpreter education. Through in-depth surveys, focus groups and interviews, DBI has identified key findings as well as core competencies and domains that any interpreter working with DeafBlind individuals should be aware of. This webinar will introduce the emerging research into protactile ASL as linguistically distinct from Visual ASL. At the conclusion of this webinar, participants should be able to identify the domains and competencies related to DeafBlind interpreting work and determine how it is different from visual ASL interpreting.

Heather Holmes, NIC Advanced & CM Hall, NIC Advanced, Ed K-12 YouTube Link:



Read author bios page 60...


VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

The Conference of Interpreter Trainers is a professional organization dedicated to laying the educational foundations for interpreters to build bridges of understanding. We hope you will consider joining! Come out and learn more about teaching, mentoring and recent research in the field of interpreting at our 2018 conference! Do you know an interpreter trainer or mentor who is worthy of recognition? Consider nominating them for the Mary Stotler Award! This prestigious award recognizes a person who has made significant contributions to the field of interpreting and interpreter education. The award, started in 1985, is a national award jointly awarded by the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Inc. (RID), and the Conference of Interpreter Trainers (CIT).  The recipient of this award is recognized at both the RID and CIT conventions. Deadline for nominations: July 1st, 2018. To learn more go to our website: CIT is also accepting nominations for 4 other awards! Go to our website today to nominate a deserving colleague! Deadline for nominations: June 1st, 2018. Scholarship Award The scholarship award will recognize one recipient per conference who have demonstrated outstanding track records of academic scholarship related to the field of Interpreter Education, Interpreting, and relevant fields. Award for Excellence in Teaching The award for excellence in teaching in the field of Interpreter Education will recognize one recipient per conference who have demonstrated excellence in teaching and contributed the most to enhance student learning.

Leadership Award The award for leadership in the field of Interpreter Education recognize one recipient per conference who have demonstrated excellence in leading their Interpreter Education Program(s) and dedicating to faculty development and shows commitment to student learning.

Mentoring Award The award for mentoring student interpreter(s) and/or novice-level interpreter(s) will recognize one recipient per conference who have demonstrated excellence in mentoring and contributed the most to student growth through mentoring.



Two Heads Are Better Than One: Collegiality and Supervision as Reflective Practice By: Jenna Curtis, NIC YouTube Link:

Two Heads Are Better Than One: Collegiality and Supervision as Reflective Practice

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VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

The growth of any craft depends on shared practice and honest dialogue among the people who do it. Palmer, 2007 p. 144


supervision and require it as a component of the licensing and credentialing (Corey, Haynes, & Moulton, 2014). Within the interpreting field, scholars have made continual calls for the application of supervision for signed language interpreters. Back in 1986, Fritsch Rudser suggested the interpreting field adopt a practice of supervision, similar to that of health professionals, in an effort to improve standards and provide confidential spaces to discuss the work. Dean and Pollard (2001, 2005, 2011, 2013) have published extensively on supervision and the demand control schema (DC-S), a theoretical framework used to explore the interplay of complex workplace demands (environmental, interpersonal, paralinguistic, and intrapersonal) and controls (e.g. skills, knowledge, decisions, and resources) an interpreter brings to an assignment. Dean and Pollard suggest the DC-S framework be used as foundation for supervision in order for practitioners to access benefits such as: increased critical thinking skills, development of professional identity, enhanced ethical decision-making, a more thorough understanding of confidentiality in a practice profession, ensuring quality services for consumers, moving the field toward a pracSupervision in Practice tice profession model, reducing interpreter burnout, and Professions supporting autonomy, agency, and self-determination for One research-supported approach to reflective practice is interpreters. However, to date, little research has been supervision, sometimes referred to as peer consultation done on if and how supervision is happening in our field or case conferencing (Dean & Pollard, 2013). Bishop and what outcomes there are for interpreters who particiand Sweeney (2006) define clinical supervision as “a des- pate in DC-S supervision. It was with these questions in ignated interaction between two or more practitioners mind that I embarked on my graduate research. within a safe and supportive environment, that enables a continuum of reflective critical analysis of care, to ensure Survey Design quality patients services, and the wellbeing of the practitioner” (as cited in Bishop, 2007, p. 1). Researchers in In July 2017 I sent out an invitation to colleagues through the medical and mental health fields have a long history email and Facebook to participate in an online survey if of conducting clinical supervision and have documented they met the following criteria: 18 years or older, identify benefits such as increased professional accountability, as professional signed language interpreters, and had parpractitioner skill and knowledge development, and im- ticipated in at least three supervision sessions where the proved collegial/social support (Brunero & Stein-Par- DC-S framework was used as the foundation for profesbury, 2008). The American Association of Marriage and sional discourse. I used a non-probabilistic snowball samFamily Therapy, American Counseling Association, Na- pling method commonly used in interpreting research tional Association of Social Workers, and American Psy- (Hale & Napier, 2013) in which I asked participants to chological Association have all published standards for pass along the survey to other colleagues in their pro-

n today’s world practitioners in every field are researching and promoting communities of practice and discovering the benefits of working in multi-disciplinary teams. With all this collaboration going on around us, why do we interpreters still find ourselves so isolated when we reflect on our work?Our work as interpreters is embedded within complex systems and consists of countless interpersonal layers. This complex work dynamic is impacted by the multitude of split-second decisions we make and is all seen from our own lens and world-view. Such complexity requires dedicated time and intentional unpacking. Yet many of us sit in our cars trying to sift out what happened at that last assignment or lie in bed turning that decision we made over and over with no resolution. Chatting with another VRS interpreter on a 10-minute break or debriefing with a team quickly in between freelance jobs lacks the necessary structure and time that’s required to delve into the richness of our work. We need another approach to fully engage in and benefit from professional reflective practice with our colleagues.


fessional network who would also meet the criteria. A snowball sampling method was chosen because there is currently no centralized database of interpreters participating in supervision, making a probabilistic randomized sample impossible. The limitation of this method is that there is no way to guarantee the entire population was reached and there is a potential for professional networks to hold common characteristics not generalizable to the larger population. Despite these limitations, the results provide rich data about the 113 respondents’ experiences with supervision and a starting place for future research.

Research Findings To contextualize the results of this study, a general profile of the survey respondents is as follows: 25-34 years of age (30.91% of respondents), has 11-15 years of experience as a professional interpreter (30%), has a bachelor’s degree (50%), holds a professional credential (97.3%), currently works in some capacity as a freelance/community interpreter (83.64%), and resides in Oregon (15.85%) or New York (15.85%). For a more thorough discussion of participant demographics see Curtis (2017). When asked, “Why do you attend supervision?” respondents overwhelmingly (91.3%) cited the benefits they experienced as their primary reason for attending sessions. After analyzing the results, benefits were grouped into the categories of formative (enriched learning), normative (increased professional standards) and restorative (support for the wellbeing of the practitioner) (Proctor, 2000). Table 1 (below) provides a breakdown of the main benefits experienced by respondents.

The research results show there are benefits to peer-group supervision, but how are practitioners engaging in it? The results show that participants of supervision accessed formative, normative, and restorative benefits through relationships and interactions with their colleagues in these sessions. 30

From “Supervision in signed language interpreting: Benefits for the field and practitioners” by Curtis, 2017, Western Oregon University, Monmouth, Oregon. Reprinted with permission.

As an example, one participant stated the main benefit they receive from supervision was that “I feel supported and learn from the others in the group, it allows me to be more reflective on my own practice.” This interpreter was able to access the benefits of feeling supported (restorative), learning something (formative) and reflecting on their own practice (normative) all through their interactions with a group of colleagues. This type of response was representative of other responses to this question and provides evidence that benefits of reflective practice might be difficult for us to achieve alone. As indicated in Table 1, the most frequently cited benefits were in the normative category (44.69%) and the top benefit in this category was the development of collegial relationships (39.8%). This finding helps to support the use of peergroup supervision as reflective practice in the interpreting field. The research results show there are benefits to peergroup supervision, but how are practitioners engaging in it? The main types of supervision reported were categorized as participative or co-operative, where the group has a facilitator or monitor that supports the group in moving through the session (Proctor, 2000). Approximately half of respondents attended supervision in-person, while the other half joined online sessions using a webcam.... Two Heads continued on page 60...


VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2



Mastery in Mentoring Lifelong Learning

By: Betty Colonomos, MCSC & Kelly Decker, NIC Advanced YouTube Link:

#masteryVIEWS18 32

VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

Outlined below is an English version of the video article Mastery & Mentoring: Lifelong Learning. We suggest that you view the article in its original intended format, ASL, with this version as a supplement. Kelly Decker​: Betty and I have collaborated on this article for the Mentoring edition of the VIEWS. We realize there are a variety of mentoring approaches and opportunities in our field. We wanted to share our experience and relationship with a particular kind of Mentoring. Betty Colonomos: Yes, I would agree that there are a variety of approaches to mentoring. I see a distinct difference in the framework of mentoring that you and I are working with. Kelly, could you outline the difference? KD​: The first difference is that one approach is tied to measurable gains - for example, passing an exam, obtaining RID certification, or some other type of credential. These measurable goals are performance goals. They create a frame for specific targets for mentoring activity. Once the goal is obtained, the mentorship relationship often comes to an end.

by the end user’s (i.e. consumer’s) criteria. What a recipient of services deems as mastery in interpreting may be vastly different from what a performance test of interpreting measures. Similarly, if I go to the doctor’s I can see that my doctor has a diploma verifying they graduated from medical school and they are licensed to practice. As we know all too well, not all doctors have the same abilities, expertise, or overall patient satisfaction even though ​they all ostensibly have some form of qualification. This idea led me to further my pursuit of the mastery approach to mentoring. I believe that by practicing a mastery model of mentoring, the attainment of performance goals will follow naturally. The opposite is not necessarily the case. A performance approach does not guarantee mastery. KD​: In addition to that, in my experience, mastery goals respect the person where they are in their development and involve a long-term commitment to the process and the relationship. This approach allows a person to reflect on where they are and where they have been to gain further insight into their own growth. Performance goals usually have a shorter, specified time for meeting the criteria set out in the goals. These differing expectations concerning longevity and reflection are the biggest differences I’ve noted between performance and mastery approaches.

“I believe that by practicing a mastery model of mentoring, the attainment of performance goals will follow naturally.”

The approach we use is a holistic view regarding both the task of interpreting and the interpreter. It is rooted in continuous learning and self-reflection with no fixed timeline for the mentoring relationship and no specific intended goal. This framework is a mastery framework. The mastery approach supports the interpreter’s journey of growth as a practitioner. This approach is reciprocal in nature, without any overt or direct teaching. It is a mutually beneficial partnership. This approach is what Betty and I have been utilizing for the past number of years. Both types of mentoring, performance and mastery, are necessary. Both approaches are significant to the development of an interpreter.

BC​: If I may, I’d like to create an analogy to clearly delineate mastery and performance goals. I see a performance goal as akin to obtaining a driver’s license. You may have a goal to drive, and to do so you need a license. Once you pass the driver’s test, you’ve reached your goal. Whether you are a good driver or not - is another matter. Mastery, on the other hand, and who defines mastery, is determined

BC​: In my 35+ years of teaching it has become clear to me that telling people what to do, directing them to a particular answer, or coming from a place of evaluation does not bring our field forward in any way. I do recognize the value of exposure to ideas, but those ideas need to lead to critical thinking and self-reflection. Without self-inquiry and reflection we often see an academic, performancedriven measurement of knowledge without application. In order to become skilled in the task of interpreting, a person must internalize and understand their own processes for managing the operations required for the successful completion of a task. 33

An understanding of a person’s why - why they decided to do something, why something happened, etc . . . leads to the possibility of changing the how - how it was done, how something could be handled, etc… While mentoring I develop cognitive activities that help to discover why.

of exploring what is happening in our minds while we are interpreting.

Interpreting is a series of decisions and the best way to examine those decisions is to talk about the why with the decision maker (the interpreter). Often a decision is Another tool is dialogue. This particular practice of in- made that may affect subsequent decisions, and the more tentional dialogue is framed within the teachings of the we uncover these decisions, the more we are able to deRussian psychologist Lev Vygotsky. The cornerstone of velop strategies and modifications that we can use in our Vygotsky’s theory of development is that in order to de- work. Many times an interpreter’s decisions seem outvelop higher cognitive functions, a person must engage in side of their control. It could be that the rate of speed of active dialogue with another person. a speaker drives the nature of the product, or that decisions are based on an emotional reaction to the content or KD​: The practice of dialogue also includes the art and skill something in the environment. Uncovering what stimuof listening. Truly listening with an open mind, lates interpreting decisions by themselves is without evaluation, is essential to this apfundamental to this process of reflective proach. Listening with respect allows discovery. the other person to be in the place where they are without judgment. Another important point I There are no expectations imwould like to address is that posed from the outside. all too often I am told by interpreters that the environBC​: I agree with you comment where they talk about pletely, listening is not as easy the work (i.e. a workshop, as it may seem. This all ties into their interpreter training prothat reflective practice we’ve gram, a group of colleagues) been talking about. Another facet is not conducive to this type of dialogue and listening is the abilof dialogue. They sense a lack of ity to seek clarification of ideas by asktrust and fellowship from their coling probing questions that reflect back to leagues. Moreover, the conversations in the mentee. These tools promote discovery by the these environments conflate the act of interpretmentee in a non-evaluative way. On this journey there is ing and the value of the interpreter as a person. Without an even playing field. The belief that both the mentor and separating the two (the work and the person) it is easy to mentee contribute to the mastery of one another is critical understand why these conversations can be unwanted and to the success of the mentoring relationship. unhealthy.

“The belief that both the mentor and mentee contribute to the mastery of one another is critical to the success of the mentoring relationship.”

KD​: I’d like to add that within the framework of dialogue there is an understanding that this journey is not a “quickfix,” something readily changed within one conversation. Often these conversations leave a colleague thinking further about the conversation on their own, where new understandings of their work will come to them several days (or perhaps weeks) later.

KD: This leads me back to our original thoughts about performance vs. mastery goals. The reason that an interpreter might feel negatively about a conversation is that the conversation is tied to the interpreter’s performance. The performance is evaluated as good or bad - which leads the person to feel good or bad about themselves. In my experience with a mastery approach to mentoring, I have yet to feel good or bad about the work I do. What I know BC: Absolutely...and that is where the notion of lifelong is that my decisions are what they are and exploring why learning comes into play. More to your point, there are they happened is a cognitive, and not an emotional, activtimes where shifts in understanding of the work happen ity. within a single conversation. As we have seen over the years...there are multiple ways to engage in learning and BC​: And that exploration is never-ending, which is why growth. All of these tools have developed through years the practice and application of these tools is critical. Cre34

VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

ating a safe container to explore the work, aside from the person, in a way that honors the journey is, exactly, mentorship in a mastery framework. Mind you, performance goals have a purpose and are important, particularly if someone’s job depends on obtaining some type of approval or endorsement. At the same time, they may be limiting the potential to go further as they are bounded by the exact thing they want to achieve. Mastery approaches follow the person and their journey without bounds. Performance goal-setting is integral to America’s society and educational system. Throughout K-12 schooling, we understand that grades are important and the need to pass through the hierarchical system. It is understandable that we would be quick to apply this same philosophy to our professional practice. With decades of experience in this field, I am fairly certain performance goals alone do a disservice to the mastery of our craft. In closing, Kelly, could you talk about where our audience can find more information about the tools and philosophies we’ve outlined? KD​: As Betty and I have described, interpreters have been gathering for the past 15 years in Etna, New Hampshire to practice this dialogue and further refine the tools needed to engage in non-evaluative conversations. This group is called The Etna Project. We meet roughly four to five times per year and have had over 200 participants over the past 15 years. There are participants from all over the country who are familiar with this work and we are sure they would be eager to connect with you to talk more about Vygotsky and this approach to mentoring. If you would like to know more about The Etna Project and see past participants you can visit

References Colonomos, B., & Moccia, L. (2013). Process Mediation as Mentoring. In Mentorship in Sign Language Interpreting (pp. 85-93). Alexandria, VA: RID. Svinicki, M. (2010). Fostering a Mastery Goal Orientation in the Classroom. In S. A. Meyers & J. R. Stowell (Eds.), Essays from Excellence in Teaching (Vol. 9, pp. 25-27). Retrieved from Society for the Teaching of Psychology: documents/ebooks/eit2009.pdf. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes (14th ed.). M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner & E. Souberman (Eds.). Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. In an effort to leave the learning in the hands of the learner, we (the authors) would like to share additional resources to the readers as opposed to a list of definitions, given the VIEWS editorial board finds this acceptable. We feel that these resources, particularly the Senko chapter, are robust and frame the concepts of performance and mastery goals better than a listing of definitions can provide. Senko, C., Durik, A.M., & Harackiewicz, J.M. (2008). Historical perspectives and new directions in achievement goal theory: Understanding the effects of mastery and performance-approach goals. In Handbook of Motivation Science. J. Shah & W. Gardner (Eds.). Retrieved from ResearchGate of_mastery_and_performance-approach_goals. This is quick reference that may be useful to readers should they choose to pursue further exploration into performance and mastery goals:

Read author bios on page 62...


BC​: I hope after viewing this you may be interested in establishing a group of reflective practitioners in your area to honor the need for variety in both types of mentorship that come from performance- and mastery-based mentoring philosophies and practices.

Sponsor CONNECT April Issue now available for RID Approved Sponsors! Contact for more details!



VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

Deaf Grassroots Movement! O

n Thursday, March 8th, the DEAF Grassroots Movement Rally gathered hundred of individuals in the began at Gallaudet University and marched to the US Capitol in Washington, DC. This historic day marks a major step forward in the movement for equality. Members of the Deaf and Hearing communities joined the rally to stand up for Deaf Rights, with the goal to be heard, not ignored! The march brought awareness of equal access to communication for the Deaf community. It is a time for change, and the DEAF Grassroots Movement Rally brought forth passionate, change-making individuals from across the country.


YouTube Link: Photo Credit: Jenelle Bloom, RID




by Danielle Thompson-Ochoa & Joseph Batiano YouTube Link:

#againstmobbingVIEWS18 38

Addressing Professionalism Among Professionals Working in Schools Serving Deaf/Hard of Hearing Students and How School Counselors and ASL Interpreters Can Advocate in Promoting a Culture of Zero Tolerance. VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2



veryone has the right to a workplace environment that is fair and equitable, in which they are treated with respect and dignity. Working in a collegial manner is challenging when staff engage in unprofessional behavior. Anti-bullying measures have been implemented in schools across the United States of America, often intended for children and adolescents. However, mobbing, which is defined as adult or emotional bullying, is often dismissed and/or perceived as an issue that does not impact the entire school system. The purpose of this article is to explore the term mobbing and to illuminate examples of mobbing that are frequently witnessed, discussed, and reported among professionals working in schools and programs serving Deaf and Hard of Hearing (D/HH) children and adolescents. It should be noted that mobbing is one part of a systematic problem in schools serving the needs of the D/HH. If the morale of staff in a work environment is low, it ultimately affects the individuals being served.

What is Mobbing? Mobbing is a term defined by Swedish researcher and industrial psychologist Dr. Heinz Leymann in the 1980s. Leymann defines mobbing as “psychological terror involving hostile and unethical communication directed in a systematic way by one or few individuals mainly toward one person” (Leymann, 1993). Mobbing is bullying without the physical force. The five ways in which Dr. Leymann categorized mobbing are described below with broad examples of how each category could be identified among professionals working with D/HH students.

Five Categories of Mobbing Mobbing is aggression towards anyone, without discrimination towards an individual’s gender, age, race, religion, nationality, disability, pregnancy, or sexual orientation. • Category One: Aggression against an individual’s self-expression and the way they communicate; • Category Two: Attacking one’s social relations; • Category Three: Attacking one’s reputation; • Category Four: Attacking one’s professional and personal life; • Category Five: Directly attacking a person’s health.

Category One: Aggression against an individual’s self-expression and the way they communicate.

Sloan et al. (2010) remark that there is nothing benign about bullying within the mobbing framework, although behaviors within an organizational or business context may be seen as non-aggressive at times. The buildup to total terror is what forms the overall damage to the victim. An example of this is an individual who is a native signer attempting to express themselves in ASL and being constantly interrupted, yelled at in front of others, criticized for how they communicate, given verbal or written threats, or receiving innuendoes of gestures or “looks”. The target individual will be constantly criticized and subjected to “nit picking” and/or trivial fault finding. An unfortunate common occurrence of this is when the only Deaf teacher in a school is using ASL as their primary language and participates in an Individual Education Plan (IEP) meeting with the assistance of an Educational Interpreter (EI). The school district may have poorly screened applicants for the position of EI by not consulting with organizations such as RID, NAIE (National Association for Interpreters in Education), or local interpreting agencies. Therefore, they choose an individual who is incompetent – did not attend a recognized ITP (Interpreter Training Program), has not attended interpreter trainings or continuing education programs, and/or is not a member of the Deaf community. During the IEP meeting, the teacher’s use of language is poorly interpreted which reflects 39

How can school counselors and ASL interpreters be advocates against mobbing?

An unusual “marriage” is often the best approach to addressing mobbing in schools. School counselors and ASL interpreters share unique job characteristics: they both have to adhere to a stringent code of ethics and confidentiality.


• School counselors and ASL interpreters need to take one the role of “allies” in helping to make school-wide climate change. • Schools can create and promote the implementation of a “Mobbing Proof” policy to include possible consequences for engaging in mobbing. • Schools should include diversity awareness and multicultural initiatives focused on working with D/HH individuals, Deaf Culture, and Deaf Education. • Counselors and interpreters can encourage school administrators to allow written information on bulletin boards and in school brochures detailing resources and community activities for students, family members, and employees who are D/HH. • ASL interpreters can assist school counselors in recognizing common inclusive language among non-signing staff, which in turn will allow school counselors to challenge mobbing behaviors and attitudes. • ASL interpreters can display Deaf-related symbols or art in their offices or on personal clothing to demonstrate being an ally of the D/HH. • School counselors can collaborate with the school community to facilitate ongoing communication about the climate of the school. This becomes especially helpful during difficult situations at the school. • Both school counselors and ASL interpreters can actively search for ways to encourage the Deaf community to promote a “mob-free” environment. *Adapted and modified from “School Counselors as Advocates for Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Students: A Call for Action from the U.S. Supreme Court,” in the Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development.* 40

on the teacher rather than on the “bigger” issue - that the district hired an incompetent EI. The administrator, who lacks understanding of Deaf education and the Deaf community and is unable to communicate with staff in ASL, begins questioning the teachers’ competency and attacking the teacher for their lack of knowledge. This eventually leads to the teacher being terminated by the “mob”, i.e. the administrator and others who engaged in attacking the teacher’s lack of “proper English.” Category Two: Attacking one’s social relations.

Category two is attacking one’s social relations by excluding individuals who belong to a social group that is different from the school norm or culture. The ultimate goal is solely for personal gain. A common example that has been witnessed in various work place settings is an employee being “friendly” with the person responsible for re-hiring or promotion. The employee attempts to gain personal satisfaction by forming a “mob” to belittle competitors in the workplace. One example that has been unfortunately witnessed among the Deaf community in United States of America has to do with Deaf awareness week at school. A “mob” will design, create, and implement the ASL/Deaf activities without including the main audience - D/HH students and/or staff. The “mob” indirectly ensures the hiring of individuals (usually friends or family members) to fill the role of an ASL specialist, a D/HH resource teacher to teach emerging signers, an EI or freelance ASL interpreter, an Assistant Principal for the Deaf Program, etc. It should be noted, the “mob” does not have to consist of D/HH individuals or allies of the Deaf community, simply individuals who are in the aggressor’s exclusive social network. Category Three: Attacking one’s reputation.

Attacking one’s reputation in mobbing situations includes negative gossiping or spreading unfounded rumors among the work environment, treating specific employees as if they are mentally ill, forcing others to undergo psychiatric evaluation, intimidating others through speech, gestures, walk, or political/religious beliefs, ridiculing others for their sexual orientation, i.e. Gay, Lesbian, Bi-sexual, Transgender and Questioning (GLBTQ), VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

A recent non-deaf example of this was the firing of a transgendered elementary school principal in Swampsott, Masschusetts. The school principal, Shannon Daniels, chose to be open about her transgender status after learning of a “mob” who was attempting to remove her. Ms. Daniels was selected over a dedicated employee at the school. A “mob” of individuals within the school community were infuriated that she became the school’s new principal instead of their colleague. The mobbing behaviors performed by the group of employees at the school consisted of false complaints, posted pictures and blogs on social media providing inaccurate information about Ms. Daniels, exclusionary tactics like not inviting Ms. Daniels to school related events, and in some extreme cases, posted pictures on social media of Ms. Daniels’ before and after transgendered life with horrific comments. Similarities to the Deaf community could be seen in the event of an announcement by the board of directors at a school for the Deaf,hiring a Deaf individual for an administrative position. Other individual(s) who are not selected for the position may become angry and begin to form a “mob” in an attempt to eliminate this administrator. The “mob” could include members and allies of the Deaf community as well as members of the hearing community. Category Four: Attacking the quality of one’s professional and personal life.

The unfortunate public story of Adonia Smith, Ph.D. could be an example of this type of mobbing. Dr. Smith was a Deaf elementary teacher at Louduon County Public Schools in Virginia (Withrow & Vecchio 2010). She was denied tenure status, and ultimately terminated with “incompetence” as the cited reason. During Dr. Smith’s employment, she was unfairly evaluated and given additional tasks to demonstrate her ability to be an effective teacher. The principal took away assignments from Dr. Smith and gave her meaningless jobs to carry out; these tasks were below her qualifications and given with the intent of discrediting her. She was continuously given tasks that demeaned her self esteem, which lead to financial burden, as she no longer had a steady income to support herself. Furthermore, Dr. Smith was denied access to qualified or certified ASL interpreters to communicate effectively with school administrators during her tenure. The principal replaced Dr. Smith with a non-deaf elementary teacher to teach at the county elementary D/HH program. The message the school board conveyed in this instance was

that a D/HH person could not do the job, and that the position was better filled by a hearing person. Category Five: Directly attacking a person’s physical or mental health.

In this category, the “mob” forces the victim to do physically strenuous jobs, threatens the victim physically, or in extreme cases, sexually harasses the victim. The victim is left feeling guilty, at fault, and humiliated in front of others. For example, individuals fluent in ASL sometimes suffer from Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). CTS is a painful condition affecting the hands and fingers that is caused by repetitive movements over a long period of time. Tingling, numbness or burning are often symptoms reported by individuals suffering from CTS. In cases of mobbing, the EI or freelance interpreter working in a school with D/HH students is denied requests to file workers compensation, to have a team member work alongside them, or to be temporarily replaced until their CTS symptoms have been relieved. This directly affects the Deaf and Hard of Hearing students and staff, as they are left with an interpreter who is unable to effectively interpret information, which eventually creates a negative perception of the interpreter.

Standing up to the mob Every employee naturally wants to fit in with the group of individuals at their work. It is crucial for victims of mobbing to take a stand against workplace mobbing (Sandvick, 2013). It is also important for victims of mobbing to find someone they trust. Addressing mobbing does not mean having to physically attack someone. In most cases, the situation warrants a report made to the administration, the union, or a grievance committee. Unfortunately, not all of these bodies are culturally competent in Deaf culture. As a result, there may be times when these bodies side against the victims. Mobbing is often a symptom of a poorly managed administration that is either avoiding the issue or hoping the problem will resolve on its own. Mediation with the administration via an attorney or the union that represents the department as well as and positive thinking are some ways to help improve the situation. Read references and author bios on page 63...




Artciulating Your


Adding motivational values to the discussion By: Audrey Ramirez-Loudenback, MA, NIC YouTube Link:

#whatsyourwhyVIEWS18 42

VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

How often have you been asked about your reasons for becoming an interpreter?


know I have responded to this inquiry countless times since I first decided to pursue this path and apply for my Interpreter Education Program (IEP). Many of us have developed our ‘go-to’ response to these kinds of questions and may have several variations depending on who is asking and that person’s knowledge of the field. This article will expand on a 2015 study that explored how we articulate our reasons for becoming an interpreter and how those statements may conflict with our personal value system. One of the reasons I researched motivational values in the field of ASL/English Interpreting for my Master’s thesis is because I believe we can all benefit from digging a little deeper into our motivations for entering the field, leading to a more genuine articulation of our reasons for pursuing this line of work. And understanding these motivational values can lead us to a deeper reflective practice. There is substantial literature to support the impact our values have not only on the occupation we choose but also on ethical decision-making processes within our chosen profession (Amentrano, 2014; Ben-Shem, & Avi-Itzhak, 1991; Brown, 2002; Glover, Bumpus, Logan, & Ciesla, 1997; Karacaer, Gohar, Aygun, & Sayin, 2009; Macedo, Sapateiro, & Filipe, 2006; Watt & Richardson, 2007). In the field of signed language interpreting, several scholars have discussed the importance of values in the way we frame ethical conflicts (Cokely, 2000; Dean & Pollard, 2013; Meckler, 2014). In my experience as an interpreting student in both undergraduate and graduate programs, values were discussed but never explored deeply or in a way that was personal to my own experiences. The further I dove into this research, the more I realized that this discussion could enlighten not only our understanding of who we are and why we choose this work but also how these values impact our professional practice. For the purpose of my study, the Schwartz’s (1994) definition of values was applied. This definition contains five components:

Components (1) Belief (2) Pertaining to desirable end states or modes of conduct (3) Transcends specific situations (4) Guides selection or evaluation of behavior, people, and events (5) Is ordered by importance relative to other values to form a system of value priorities. (Schwartz, 1994, p. 20) In May of 2015, I developed a survey that was posted on various social media pages. I collected 298 completed surveys, filled with useful data about the motivational values of practicing interpreters and IEP students. There were three components to the survey: 1. Demographic questions 2. Open-ended question asking respondents to ‘Briefly describe your reasons for pursuing a career as an interpreter.’ 3. 40 item questionnaire developed by a psychologist, Dr. Shalom H. Schwartz, to assess motivational value types, called the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ). Below is a chart showing the PVQ results for the entire sample of 298 respondents. The results show the following ranking (one being ranked the highest and ten the lowest) of Schwartz’ ten value types (For more information about how these means were calculated please refer to the full thesis). 43

brought to mind is why the hedonism value seems to be expressed frequently in the open-ended responses, while being ranked quite low (sixth) within the overall PVQ results (Ramirez-Loudenback, 2015, p. 37).

Click to enlarge

The second part of the online survey included an openended question about reasons for entering the field. This provided another point of interest. One of the most prominent discoveries was the discrepancy between a respondent’s value systems (identified in the ranking of value types from the PVQ, as shown above) and the values expressed in their response to the open-ended prompt “Please briefly describe your reasons for pursuing a career as an interpreter.” Why would a response to this prompt stand in contrast with a person’s value system? One theme identified in the responses to this prompt, coded as “hedonistic/language responses,” referenced the pleasure derived from using American Sign Language (Ramirez-Loudenback, 2015, p. 59). Generally, these responses were a variation of the response “I fell in love with the language.” The coding of responses was based on Schwartz’s ten value types. The value type of hedonism is defined as the goal of pursuing “Pleasure and sensuous gratification of oneself” (Schwartz, 1994, p. 22). While the term ‘hedonism’ can have negative connotations depending on an individual’s background, it is important to recognize that each value type describes an essential aspect of the human experience. We all want to derive pleasure from and enjoy what we do, which is captured in this value type. This research seeks to start a discussion about the way we prioritize these essential values, not to disparage or judge anyone for expressing a value. One of the questions that this data

The purpose of my research is not to provide any solid answers, but to propose questions for us all to ponder and explore individually and in our professional communities. There are many possible reasons for the contrasting values expressed in the individual value system versus the open-ended question. I think one possible reason is that we hear responses to these questions and we mimic them, such as “I fell in love with the language and culture.” Personally, I have heard that type of response countless times in my journey as an ASL student, as an interpreting student, and now as a professional. It may also be that some interpret this question more as ‘How did you get involved with ASL or the Deaf community?’ because for some individuals, the two choices are linked or happened simultaneously. My research shows that all of the responses that were coded this way, except for one, did not list ASL as their native language. I believe that these conflicting values may also be an indication that many of us have not fully examined our motivations for entering this field. Interpreters can benefit from a closer examination of our motivations and work toward articulating a more authentic, value-based answer to this question. This research aims to encourage all professionals to think more deeply about what drew us into and keeps us working in this field, leading us to reflect on how these motivations and values impact our current practice.

“Interpreters can benefit from a closer examination of our motivations and work toward articulating a more authentic, value-based answer to this question.”


As a result of this research I have actively tried to articulate competing values in my own reflective practice and I feel that it brings me a greater ability to empathize with multiple perspectives and an awareness of how my personal values impact my work as well as how I feel about my work. So, the next time someone asks you why you chose to become an interpreter, take a breath, and take notice of your response. Read references and author bio on page 64...


VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

What is Intersectionality? Find out in

Intersectionality in Behavioral Health Interpreting, a new online webshop from the CATIE Center.

Intersectionality is “the complex, cumulative way in which the effects of multiple forms of discrimination (such as racism, sexism, and classism) combine, overlap, or intersect especially in the experiences of marginalized individuals or groups� (Merriam-Webster).

What is a webshop? An online workshop that can be completed in about 90 minutes

Join Najma Johnson in an exploration of how intersectionality impacts the experiences of people who are Deaf, DeafBlind, and hard of hearing in behavioral health settings.

How much? Free!

Where? Online, via Canvas When? Any time, registration will remain open until December 3, 2018. RID CEUs: This activity will offer .15 RID CMP continuing education units in professional studies. St. Catherine University is an RIDapproved CMP sponsor.

Learn more and register The Behavioral Health Interpreting project is funded by grant H160D160003 from the Department of Education, Rehabilitation Services Administration. However, materials developedAnnouncing do not necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education, and45 you should not assume endorsement by the Federal government.

Humble Pie COLUMN

t a e r g f o y r o t s a e r a h s o t e k i l d ’ I . u o y h t i w failure Adam Bartley CI and CT, NIC Master, SC:L

Interpreting professionally since 1990, my journey brought me to Gallaudet University in 2003 with the intent to stay for a 10 month work program. 15 years later, I am still here and always grateful to have the opportunity to work in such a vibrant community. My areas of specialization in interpreting include certification for legal settings, and deep experience in academic post-secondary, rhetoric, theater, arts, biological sciences, and humanities settings. Beyond interpreting I am also an artist (many media, but known especially for pumpkin carving), a fire performer, yo-yo enthusiast (I am rarely without a yo-yo on my person), writer, and avid rock climber. So many of my interests have proven to be ways of connecting with and contributing to the Gallaudet community and larger Deaf community and I am thankful to find so many kindred spirits here. YouTube Link:



’ve been blessed to work at Gallaudet for nearly fourteen and a half years.

My first year at Gallaudet (but an experienced interpreter already), I was assigned to a linguistics lecture in a public forum. I had prepped, read the research, and conferred with my team, and I felt ready to do a good job. I stood up at the beginning of the lecture and looked at the audience; I saw famous Deaf persons X, Y, and Z, saw interpreter trainers A, B, and C, whose research I’d read. The lecturer began but had a heavy East European accent, and I was working hard just to understand their words. I began interpreting. My brain was in a fog from the get-go. I was signing, perhaps even interpreting at a phrasal level, but not producing the coherent, clear work I know I’m capable of. The room began to black out into a tunnel and all I could see was famous scholar X. They looked at me with an expression of sympathy and worry. We were less than five minutes into this presentation, and I wanted to disappear. I knew if I plugged away, my brain would wake up and I would do good work. VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

I didn’t do that.

Maybe I could have, but I wasn’t. I knew my colleague could and would.” So, what could have been the worst crash and burn of my career, turned out to be the first and I looked at my stunned team and signed SWITCH, NOW. most potent thing I did to earn the trust of my community. I turned to the speaker, interrupted them and said, “My For nearly fifteen years since that day, I have worked to apologies, could you pause a moment and we will switch continue to be worthy of that trust. interpreters.” I sat down in the front row nearly in tears, a rare shade of scarlet, and wished myself into non-existence. Eventually, my brain cleared, I switched back for the Q&A and did a passable job. When the event was over I wanted to disappear immediately, but was instantly cornered by an interpreting faculty member who asked my name. Assuming it was to put me on the Do Not Send list, I gulped and said “Adam Bartley.” The faculty member called all of the interpreting students to us, every one. I was dying there, my heart pounding when they said, “Students, I want you to meet Adam Bartley, my new hero. Adam, could you spare a minute to tell them why you sat down?” Too confused to be anything but honest, I said, “I wasn’t making sense, not doing the job the audience deserved.

Curious about the Exam Development Process?

Testing Committee Search Email us:

Be humble enough to sit down, or to refuse the work. It’ll do you better in the long run.5

Deaf Interpreter Focus Group Subject Matter Experts (SMEs)


Board of Managers Search Call us: 703-988-4543

Visit for more information


National Deaf Education Conference: Its Appeal and Relevance to Interpreters COLUMN

There are many wonderful conferences and professional development opportunities out there. What about crossover conference opportunities? Tawny Holmes, Esq. Tawny Holmes, Esq. is one of the rare (if not only) Deaf attorneys with a Masters’ Degree in Deaf Education and experience in teaching Deaf students in all grade levels. She graduated from Alabama School for the Deaf, obtained her B.A. degrees in Deaf Studies, Sociology, and a M.A. in Deaf Education from Gallaudet University and received her her J.D. from the University of Baltimore School of Law. Tawny currently resides in Washington, D.C. and is the Education Policy Counsel at NAD. She also serves as the chair of the national Language Deprivation Taskforce and as the coordinator of the Education Advocates Program at the NAD. She is also an assistant professor in the ASL and Deaf Studies department at Gallaudet University, focusing on sign language rights and policies. Tawny is the proud godmother of four Deaf children: Avant, Leilani, Oriana and Talon, ages 6 to 14. YouTube Link:



f you are an interpreter that primarily works in the medical field, then you may be interested in interpreting conferences, medical conferences, and of course, medical interpreting professional development, right? We’re fortunate to live (and work) in a day and time where it’s possible to attend all three types of conferences for your professional growth. Now the next question is - is it a local opportunity? A state opportunity? A national opportunity? An international opportunity? Each has its own pros/cons in building your network, and the expertise available often varies from level to level. Choosing may be hard! Crossover conferences can help with that - receiving the benefit of two conferences or more by attending one at the same location and time. For instance, what types of opportunities do educational interpreters have for professional development? Do you have a chance to attend workshops by teachers of the Deaf, including those who are Deaf themselves, to discuss bilingual strategies for conveying new information or lessons to students? VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

At the national level?

ing opportunities with an international influence, as more than ten countries have expressed interest in attending the NDEC. So, what are you waiting for? Come experience a crossover conference if you haven’t!

NDEC No? That’s where the National Deaf Education Conference* comes in. Due to the need for a national conference focused on teachers and other professionals providing cutting-edge ideas direct from their classrooms or practice, the National Association of the Deaf (NAD) welcomed a new conference partner in 2016. The brainchild of Patrick J. Graham, professor at Western Oregon University, and Tawny Holmes, Education Policy Counsel at the NAD, the National Deaf Education Conference set out to create a place where professionals of all types could come together to network and learn. And yes, that includes interpreters! We know that with the increasing trend of mainstreaming Deaf and hard of hearing students, interpreters and itinerant teachers of the Deaf are often at the front lines of service and need every bit of support they can get. High quality workshops by teachers, university researchers, and resource providers truly enrich an interpreter’s toolkit. For instance, what signs do you use in a biology class? Those signs aren’t often taught in a regular interpreter training program, or found in an ASL dictionary, much less used regularly in the Deaf community. At every NDEC conference, there has been a workshop providing ASL STEM resources, including specific signs that follow the phonology of ASL and are concept-accurate!

The third National Deaf Education Conference is coming up on July 3rd-7th in Hartford, Connecticut, hosted alongside the 54th National Association of the Deaf conference and its additional partners, Deaf in Government, and Region I of the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf. Excellent keynote presenters have been selected: Dr. Peter Hauser, focusing on the effects of language deprivation and its multi-pronged impact on Deaf and hard of hearing students; Evon Black, on how to support Black Deaf students; and Gallaudet University President Bobbi Cordano, on revitalizing the future of Deaf education. In sum, the 2018 NDEC theme “COME GATHER REVITALIZE” says it all. Commemorating the sunset of the 200th anniversary of Deaf education in its birthplace is an experience you can’t miss! Go to http://hartford.nad. org/ for more information, including registration packages and CEUs. See you there!


*For more information about NDEC, go to

There have also been workshops discussing IEP advocacy, interpreting strategies, language deprivation issues, and more. Educational interpreters have reported back to the NDEC committee that they have found many of these workshops beneficial and relevant to their work. This pleases the NDEC committee and in turn, the NAD, because again - educational interpreters are often serving on the front lines, and it is our aim to provide support and resources to all professionals working with Deaf and hard of hearing children in schools. Support includes opportunities to earn CEUs, as workshops are always CEU-certified by the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf. Workshop attendees come in rich variety - including teachers of the Deaf, administrators, and education advocates, resulting in plentiful


Supervised Induction:

ge d i r AB

Between Graduation and Certification COLUMN An update on the CATIE Center’s Graduation to Certification (GTC) Project YouTube Link:

The St. Catherine University CATIE Center’s Graduation to Certification (GTC) program is designed to be a bridge between graduation from an interpreter education program and successful entry-to-practice. As part of this objective, the GTC program provides the additional training needed to decrease the length of time necessary for recent graduates to gain certification.


he program includes partnering with agencies, institutions, organizations, and individuals to provide these novice interpreters with supervised induction through a 20 hour per week, 12-week supervised work experience. Induction refers to the process through which recent graduates learn and adapt to the norms and expectations of the profession and its stakeholders with the goal of achieving maximum productivity. Supervised induction differs from general perceptions of mentorship in that there is direct oversight of work performance that occurs and a system of supervisor intervention in place when and if it is required. To support the transition from graduation to work-readiness process, the CATIE Center has developed a Supervised Interpreting Guidebook to assist agencies, institutions, and organizations in providing induction pathways for novice practitioners. The Guidebook will be available from by May 31, 2018. 50

The Guidebook addresses a range of topics, including the essential elements of an effective induction program, case studies of established induction programs, and resource materials for observing and providing feedback to novice interpreters. It also addresses the topic of identifying and placing novice practitioners in low-risk assignments, which is discussed further in this article.

Why is Induction Necessary and Important? The gap in readiness between completion of an interpreter education program and certification and/or entry-towork has been discussed in the literature for more than two decades (Cogen & Cokely, 2016; Geier, 2016; Godfrey, 2011; Intelligere Solutions, 2017; Patrie, 1994; Ruiz, 2013; Stauffer, 1994; Volk, 2014; Witter-Merithew & Johnson, 2004, 2005). The nature of this gap has been tied to the dramatic shift in how interpreters are recruited, vetted, and guided into VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

So, the key reason supervised induction is important and necessary is to ensure that new practitioners are adequately prepared to provide effective and reliable services to the employers and consumers who rely on their performance. It also serves as a structured process by which new interpreters are guided and supported as they become acclimated to the practices and expectations of the field. practice. Prior to the 1970s, sign language interpreters entered the profession by invitation from the Deaf community (Mathers & Witter-Merithew, 2014; Shaw, 2014). Deaf community members would identify someone with potential—often a person with Deaf parents or someone with regular and on-going contact with the Deaf community—and encourage them to start interpreting. This often involved the Deaf community advising new practitioners regarding what assignments they were prepared to take on and which they were not. With the advent of interpreter education programs, members of the Deaf community have been less and less involved in the vetting process. Recruitment now more commonly occurs from ASL classes comprised of individuals who typically have had little to no interaction with Deaf people prior to learning ASL. This absence of prior relationship with Deaf people means individuals entering interpreting do so with less ASL and cultural competence and less motivation to engage in Deaf community interactions to develop deep connections and language proficiency. As a result, the gap in readiness has expanded. Supervised induction is important and necessary to ensure that new practitioners are adequately prepared to provide effective and reliable services. It also serves as a structured process to guide and support new interpreters as they become acclimated to the practices and expectations of the field.

Johnson (2005) offer the following to guide assignment decisions: • Complexity of communication demands; • Predictability of outcome; • Cognitive requirements necessary to provide the task; • Technical requirements associated with the task; and • Level of risk/liability and potential for a negative outcome. Assessing risk, liability, and potential for a negative outcome must always be considered when placing novice interpreters in assignments. Understanding what brings the parties together and what they need or want to achieve is an important factor. If the interaction involves any type of contract or informed consent, the level of risk and liability increases. For example, court assignments carry a higher risk and more liability because the outcome impacts a person’s freedoms, income, property, and privileges. Medical assignments also carry potentially more risk and liability because the outcome impacts a person’s health. Supervised Induction continued on page 64....


Determining Appropriate Assignments for Recent Graduates Determining the appropriate assignments for a recent graduate of an interpreter education program who is not yet certified can be challenging. Witter-Merithew and


MEMBER SPOTLIGHT Michael Cain Associate Member Loganville, GA Region II How Long Have You Been a Member of RID? Four years

Describe a favorite assignment or accomplishment you’ve achieved as an interpreter.


As a Deaf Interpreter, my favorite assignment is working on call with Gwinnett County Police Department and Animal Control Department. I am also a Deaf Professional at Georgia State University teaching in their ASL and Interpreting Programs.

What are your professional goals as an interpreter?

My goal is to become a Certified Deaf Interpreter and help interpreting students improve their signing skills. My other goal is to start training the local Police Department about the Deaf Community and Interpreting Community.

Tell Us Any Fun Facts About Yourself! (Hobbies, favorite vacation spots, etc...)

My hobbies are hunting, fishing, camping, hiking, mountain bike riding, horse riding, scuba diving, ASL and Interpreter mentoring, etc... My favorite vacation was a cruise to Bahamas and Coral Island. I love adventures and I challenge myself to find new adventures every year.


Do you know an interpreter who is doing excellent work in the field? Nominate them today!


VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

Complete your bachelor’s degree ONLINE in SIGN LANGUAGE INTERPRETING! • SAVE TIME by enrolling in ACCELERATED, ONLINE eight week classes to fit your busy schedule. • Transfer up to 90 semester hours towards your degree SAVING THOUSANDS in tuition costs. • RECEIVE CREDIT from your certificate or associate degree program, interpreting work experience, and NIC certification.





e r Ca

lf Se



The Daily Work of a Reflective Practice

hen roomful after roomful of interpreters open up about their experiences of burnout, they paint a common picture:

I’ve gained weight...

Breana Hall CI and CT Breana Cross Hall holds her CI/ CT from RID, B.S. in Interpretation from Western Oregon University and is a Certified Life Coach. She has led thousands of interpreters in preventing burnout and finding the passion again in their lives through developing habits of self-care. Brea is a native of Portland, Oregon, where she can usually be found writing, reading, or playing near water with her partner, 4 kids, and 2 dogs. YouTube Link:



I’ve lost my passion... I’ve lost patience...

My relationships are affected... I don’t look forward to going to work... I get frustrated with consumers... I have health problems... I struggle to fall asleep...

I withdraw from my friends and family.

VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

A 2015 study found that 76% of interpreters within the VRS industry alone had experienced burnout (Bower, 2015, p. 9). This seems to be just the tip of the iceberg highlighting the widespread issue. In this three-part series, we will explore techniques and ideas to incorporate self-care into daily life. When done consistently, these practices contribute to greater resiliency in life and work. According to Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1997, burnout is “a psychological syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment that can occur among individuals who work with other people in some capacity.” In short, we cannot pour from an empty cup. We become burned out when what we’re taking in is outweighed by what we’re putting out.

Sleep is one basic need that can provide an extraordinary return on investment. The average adult needs 7-9 hours of sleep per night (Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency Why Is Sleep Important?). Gallup (2013) estimates that adults in the US actually sleep an average of 6.8 hours a night. 40% of people get less than the recommended amount. A few of the ill effects of not getting enough sleep: foggy brain, impaired attention, problem-solving, memory function, judgement, increased hunger and desire for fat/carbs to replace energy, and depressed mood. As interpreters, these consequences are detrimental to our careers and our consumers’ access to communication, not to mention our capacity for joy.

Our bodies often signal to us when they are getting tired. These signals are triggered by the release of hormones that usher in sleep. This cascade of hormones is our Sleep Train. When we notice yawning and tiredness setting in, if we can get on the Sleep Train (a.k.a. get in bed), our bodies have their best chance of falling asleep more quickly, getting higher quality sleep, and waking more easily in the morning. If we wave off the Sleep Train as it pulls through our station, we will soon get a second wind, but may have a harder time catching a later train and the quality of our sleep will be reduced. This reminder to “get on the Sleep Train” is permission Tip #1: Get On The Sleep Train to capitalize on the natural processes of your body and to harness the best sleep-aid you have: your body’s own restThe body is a wonderful place to start on your self-care inducing chemical concoction. journey. Your body is constantly giving feedback and throwing up flags to warn you of its needs. When we cultivate a habit of listening and responding to our bodies’ Tip #2: Name That Feeling signals, we have a much better chance of avoiding serious physical issues. As we attend to the needs and desires of Humans are complex creatures. So much happens behind our bodies, we release tension, open up creativity, and your exterior façade that you may or may not be aware of and may or may not attend to. Noticing what’s happening stimulate repair and healing throughout or system. Many times when we think of self-care, physical self-care in our inner world and caring for our internal needs is the is what we’re thinking about. A day at the spa, a massage, basis for self-compassion. This can include being aware of a haircut - something that helps us feel better about our emotions as they pass through, understanding our biases bodies and helps our bodies to feel better. These are valid and judgements, acknowledging fears, and finding ways examples, and, I encourage you to expand your view of to be there for ourselves as we would be there for a friend physical self-care to include and prioritize the basic needs who’s going through a similar situation. of your body. Self-Care continued on page 66... Self care is the ability to recognize our needs and the willingness to meet those needs in a kind and loving way. As a self-care coach, I work with sign language interpreters who are facing burnout. We focus on cup-filling input that keeps our bodies, minds, and spirits running smoothly. In this article I’ll introduce you to two tips that you can incorporate into your everyday practice to help you function as a clear and compassionate channel for the people you serve.



Interpreter as Person l a n io ss fe ro P s a r te re rp te In

t r A e v i t c e l f e R for Self­-Discovery COLUMN

Amanda R. Smith, M.A, CI and CT, NIC Master, SC:L, Ed:K-12 Amanda R. Smith is a certified, professional interpreter and interpreter educator focusing on reflective practice. She is an Associate Professor at Western Oregon University and continues to engage in private practice as an interpreter. Current research interests include examining the nature of the gap between graduation and certification and the impact of professionals’ intrapersonal landscape on their practice. She strives to support and equip working interpreters with tools to improve the experience of consumers. YouTube Link:

#selfdiscoveryVIEWS18 56

VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2


ho we are as a person and as a professional are solidly intertwined.

There are certainly a number of critical aspects involved in interpreter preparation including language competence (Taylor, 1993, 2002), ethical competence (Dean & Pollard, 2004), and even business practices and cultural competence (Mindess, 2014). These perspectives make up much of the picture of interpreting; however, they do not adequately address the intrapersonal landscape of the individual interpreter and how that may or may not impact the provision of interpreting services. The reality of interpreting is that it is a practice profession that takes place in a dynamic and ever-changing environment; we need to equip students and practitioners to navigate the landscape of practice (Wenger, Fenton-O’Creevy, Hutchinson, Kubiak, & Wenger-Trayner, 2015). I believe the intrapersonal landscape is a critical arena that impacts interpreters’ choices in their daily work, from accepting the assignment to how they perform, how they internalize their experience, and even how they impact the settings and people with which they work.

try narratives to their research interests, posting final artwork for discussion on most weeks. Approximately midterm, students were tasked with a collaborative project to engage with future interpreters around intrapersonal aspects and identity development. The creation was a videoheavy Google slide show that incorporated storytelling,

“The reality of interpreting is that it is a practice profession that takes place in a dynamic and ever-changing environment; we need to equip students and practitioners to navigate the landscape of practice.”

In a 10-week online class consisting of 60-90 hours of work individually, collaboratively, and in small groups, six students opted to participate in a pilot research study. The purpose of the study was to determine the words, images, and phrases that define the inner landscape (intrapersonal aspects) of a group of working interpreters engaged in academic study of the interpreter as a person and the interpreter as a professional. They were assigned readings from Brown (2015), Cameron (2002), McNiff (2003), among others on issues of self-awareness, courage, and various ways of knowing. The readings were then applied and discussed in online discussion forums using various strategies such as visual introductions, visual synthesis, and text-based discussion. Additionally, each week students were assigned a reflective art activity to process various topics within interpreting from self-talk to

advice, and encouragement. Throughout the term, students shared personal stories, personal and professional applications of assigned readings, research outside of interpreting applicable to intrapersonal development, and personal artwork. In the course of discussion the main themes identified were gratitude, encouragement, connections (“me too”), and curiosity. The result was a highly connected community able to embrace, endure, and overcome challenging situations in professional and personal realms. The power of shared language with which to explore the inner landscape of themselves and their peers and colleagues, has proven to be a powerful tool in connection and growth among these professional interpreters.

Observations: When these interpreters were afforded a “brave space” to engage, they explored and challenged their professional identity narra57

tives, engaged in rigorous self-reflection, and made bold Will connections between those served improve? What moves to be more effective and high quality interpreters would/could that look like? (Arao & Clemens, 2013). What about the quality of the professional community? If Additionally, they invested in individuals and small groups engaged in this whole-heartthe community, invested in ed and brave work, would that eventually spill over to imone another, and provided pact the industry narrative to be one of hope and courage? a supportive place for growth and development. Many of the participants in this study made life changing decisions during the course including shifting jobs, applying for new jobs that had previously seemed a stretch, and moving locations/communities to fit their skill set and mindset. This required unpacking discontent and making intentional choices to address it. Having time and space to explore their inner landscape freed up space for these interpreters to be more fully present in their interpreting work.

Recommendations for Future Research & Actions: As a result of this pilot study, new questions have arisen to find out more about which tools equip interpreters to engage in their work in meaningful ways. One theme that came up during a synchronous supervision session was the idea that is best demonstrated by the idiom, “when all you have is a hammer, everything is a nail” (Maslow, 1966). As interpreter educators and interpreters, our main tools are ASL and Deaf Culture, and that tool is important, but it cannot be the only item in our toolbox, or we end up applying it to situations that are not a fit - like trying to paint a room with a hammer. What are the other tools we need to develop to be competent, engaged, and healthy interpreters serving consumers in ways that are sensitive to their inner landscapes as well?

Further questions for consideration: Will attention to intrapersonal aspects impact the quality of interpretation offered? If interpreters get out of our own way, will the work improve? 58

References Arao, B., & Clemens, K. (2013). From safe spaces to brave spaces. The Art of Effective Facilitation: Reflections from Social Justice Educators. Stylus Publishing, Sterling, VA, 135-150. Brown, B. (2015). Rising strong. New York, NY: Spiegel & Grau. Cameron, J. (2002). The artist’s way. Penguin. Dean, R. K., & Pollard, R. Q. (2004). A practice ­profession model of ethical reasoning. V​iews,​2 1 ( ​9 ), 1. Dean, R. K., & Pollard Jr, R. Q. (2005). Consumers and Service Effectiveness in Interpreting Work: A Practice Profession Perspective.


VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

Board of Editors

Jonathan Webb, CI and CT, NIC Advanced

Since becoming Editor of VIEWS, I’ve been so humbled to work with such prolific and outstanding members of the interpreting community. I see a profound bond created as authors express their feedback about the engaging and constructive nature of the review process with the Board of Editors. These individuals on the Board of Editors have been so instrumental in giving VIEWS relevancy by keeping in touch with the leaders in our profession. They have thoughtfully guided the dialogue of the profession through their interactions with authors, and have been faithful to the bilingual goal of the publication. As our first Board of Editors reaches the end of their term, I express my gratitude to them for their dedication and passion. They have paved the way for successful publications to come! Julia Wardle Editor-in-Chief

Michael Ballard, M.A

Lianne Moccia M.Ed., CI and CT, TC

Jill Radford, M.A Su Isakson, M.A, NIC, Ed:K-12

Christina Healy Ph.D, CI and CT, Ed:K-12

Erica Alley, Ph.D, NIC-Advanced

View the Board of Editors Bios here


(Note From Uncle Dale- Continued from page 13)... As you are now, that highly skilled and experienced interpreter once was, and as she is now, you may someday be - if you put in the work and time. She didn’t get there by rubbing a lamp or answering a wizard’s riddle or winning the lottery. She tried and failed and got up and dusted off and tried again. If you knew how many times she failed, you would know how dangerous it is to put her on a pedestal. Every time she fell down on her journey she got back up.

MY FINAL POINT. My job is to help you to stand up when you stumble until you can stand up without me. If I do my job right, you will call me long after you have become that skilled, experienced, working interpreter to help you help the next generation. My job as a mentor is to help you to become the mentor who comes after me.

(DBI Corner- Continued from page 26)... About the Authors: CM Hall, Ed.M, NIC Advanced, Ed:K-12 CM Hall is Co-Director of the National Center on DeafBlind Interpreting and from 2007-2016 served as the Project Coordinator of the Western Region Interpreter Education Center at Western Oregon University. She holds a Master’s degree in Education with an emphasis in LGBTQ and Gender Studies from Oregon State University and a Bachelor’s degree in ASL/English Interpreting from WOU and completed their one-year interpreter training program prior to that. CM has worked in K-12 and post-secondary environments as a staff interpreter and also brings considerable experience with platform and DeafBlind interpreting. CM has volunteered in the DeafBlind community since 1992 and created an academic service-learning project for ASL-fluent students to engage with the DeafBlind community, partnering with the Washington State DeafBlind Citizens organization and the annual Seabeck DeafBlind Retreat. CM teaches DeafBlind Interpreting in WOU’s interpreting program and is a past co-chair of the National Task Force on DeafBlind Interpreting. She is currently the Communications Chair for the DeafBlind Member Section of RID and formerly served as Secretary for DBMS, as well as having served on the national RID board as the former Member 60

at Large. Among other roles, she previously served as Oregon RID President and Vice President and currently serves as ORID Scholarships Chair. In 2014, under the NCIEC grant collaborative initiative, CM co-coordinated the first-ever DeafBlind Self Advocacy Training of Trainers with ten DeafBlind leaders from across the country. In 2015, CM was recognized by the Oregon Association of the Deaf for her advocacy work and was a featured TEDx presenter on the topic of linguistic access as a social justice issue. In her spare time, CM produces the Coming Out Monologues, a storytelling event highlighting LGBTQ+ community members’ experiences across the state of Oregon and gleefully lives oceanside in Newport, Oregon. Heather Holmes, M.S, NIC Advanced Heather Holmes is Co-Director of the DeafBlind Interpreting National Training and Resource Center (DBI). Her responsibilities include development of online materials and courses, management of a national online resource repository, and provision of technical assistance to stakeholders across the country. Her areas of interest include online accessibility, adult learning, content and course development, and curriculum design. Heather codeveloped Map It: What Comes Next, an online, interactive, transition program and curriculum for Deaf and and Hard of Hearing youth. This program focuses on the development of self-advocacy and self-determination skills, and is currently being used by students across the United States. Heather also teaches an Assistive Listening Technology course at Western Oregon University. Heather has a Master of Science degree in Education: Information Technology from Western Oregon University, and a Bachelor of Arts degree in Psychology from Arizona State University. She is a nationally certified (NIC Advanced) American Sign Language interpreter and a member of the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID). Heather has a Deaf partner and son and understands first-hand the importance of quality interpreters and equal access to information. Heather believes in the power of collaboration, creative thinking, and that laughter and kindness make every interaction more effective. (Two Heads- Continued from page 30)... The majority of participants (85%) had been involved at some point in a supervision group that met regularly. Ultimately, the supervision taking place in our field is typiVIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

cally on-going, highly participative, and is available both Smith may be the first step in developing a mechanism for online and in-person. For a full discussion of the findings a more formalized practice of supervision in the interpretfrom this research see Curtis (2017). ing field. Case Study of a Supervision Program Although not yet common practice, there are precedents for ongoing peer reflective practice programs for signed language interpreters (see Anderson, 2012; Hetherington, 2012; Judd, 2015; Maffia, 2014; Smith, Cancel, & Maroney, 2012). One example of such a program is the Professional Supervision for Interpreting Practice Program (PSIP) an ongoing year-long transition program for recent graduates of Western Oregon University’s undergraduate interpreting program (Smith et. al., 2012). Throughout the life of this grant-funded program (20122018), 26 supervision leaders and 15 mentors were trained and 73 recent graduates were provided with postgraduation mentoring and supervision. In the PSIP program, supervision leaders and recent graduates log in to virtual meeting rooms once a month. Recent graduates take turns sharing cases from their interpreting practice and the group helps flesh out the context using the DC-S framework. Participants may then discuss the interplay of demands and controls and the role of values in decision making, brainstorm additional control options, or role play how to implement control options within the given context. Benefits of these supervision sessions for graduates include the opportunity to discuss their work in a safe, confidential, professional place; improved selfreflection; a better understanding of decision-making; increased control options; supportive relationships with colleagues; not feeling alone; and validation (Smith et al., 2012). Recommendations and Moving Forward A final salient finding from this research was that there may be barriers to accessing supervision and the results suggest there is not yet enough supply to meet demand. How then do we move forward in promoting the practice of supervision in our field? The first step would be to develop an infrastructure that would a) provide opportunities for supervision, b) develop criteria for the training and credentialing of supervision leaders, and c) serve as a hub for iterative research. New organizations such as the Interpreting Institute for Reflection-in-Action and Supervision (IIRAS) founded by Robyn K. Dean and Amanda R.

The results of my research indicate that practitioners who engage in peer group supervision experience improved collegial relationships; might these normative benefits help us increase collegiality, reducing instances of horizontal violence, and expanding and strengthening communities of practice? Might the evidence of restorative benefits of supervision such as support, validation, and stress management, help us mitigate the harmful impacts of vicarious trauma and burnout? Could formative benefits such as gaining a new perspective on our work, increasing control options for addressing work demands, and a providing a better understanding of decision making help recent graduates bridge the gap between graduation and certification? Perhaps by putting our heads together with our colleagues in reflective practice we can start to address these issues for the benefit of practitioners, consumers, and the field. References Anderson, A. (2012). Peer support and consultation project for interpreters: A model for supporting the well-being of interpreters who practice in mental health settings. Journal of Interpretation, 21(1), 9–20. Bishop, V. (1998). Clinical supervision: What is it? Why do we need it? In V. Bishop (Ed.), Clinical supervision in practice: Some questions, answers and guidelines (pp. 14–21). London, England: Macmillan Press LTD. doi:10.1007/978-0-230-20817-9_1 Brunero, S., & Stein-Parbury, J. (2008). The effectiveness of clinical supervision in nursing: an evidenced based literature review. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25(2), 86-94. Retrieved from handle/10453/12822 Corey, G., Haynes, R., & Moulton, P. (2014). Clinical supervision in the helping professions: A practical guide (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association. Curtis, J. (2017). Supervision in signed language interpreting: Benefits for the field and practitioners. (Master’s thesis). Western Oregon University, Monmouth, Oregon. Retrieved from Dean, R. K., & Pollard, R. Q. (2001). Application of demand-control theory to Sign Language interpreting: Implications for stress and interpreter training. 61

Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 6(1), 1–14. doi:10.1093/deafed/6.1.1 Dean, R. K., & Pollard, R. Q. (2005). Consumers and service effectiveness in interpreting work: A practice profession perspective. In M. Marschark, R. Peterson, & E. A. Winston (Eds.), Sign Language Interpreting and Interpreter Education (pp. 259–282). Retrieved from https://intrpr. Dean, R. K., & Pollard, R. Q. (2011). Context-based ethical reasoning in interpreting: A demand control schema perspective. The Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 5(1), 155–182. doi:10.1080/13556509.2011.10798816 Dean, R. K., & Pollard, R. Q. (2013). The demand control schema: Interpreting as a practice profession. North Charleston, SC: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

About the Author: Jenna Curtis, MA, NIC Jenna Curtis is a freelance ASL/English Interpreter in the Portland area, working primarily in post-secondary and community settings. She graduated from Western Oregon University with a BA in ASL/English Interpreting in 2011 and a MA in Interpreting Studies with a teaching emphasis in 2017. She is currently serving as President of the Oregon Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf and coordinates the Professional Supervision for Interpreting Practice Program (PSIP), which provides supervision and mentoring to recent graduates entering the field.

(Mastery in Mentoring - Continued from page 35)...

About the Authors: Betty M. Colonomos, MCSC, IMI Practitioner, ABD Fritsch Rudser, S. (1986). The RID code of ethics, con- Lingistics, MA Counseling, BS Speech Pathology, fidentiality, and supervision. Journal of Interpretation, 3, Audiology, and Deaf Education 47–51.

Hale, S., & Napier, J. (2013). Research methods in interpreting: A practical resource. London, UK: Bloomsbury Academic. Hetherington, A. (2012). Supervision and the interpreting profession: Support and accountability through reflective practice. International Journal of Interpreter Education, 4(1), 46–57. Maffia, D. V. (2014). The transition from participation to facilitation of supervision: An autoethnography (Master’s thesis). Western Oregon University, Monmouth, Oregon. Retrieved from Palmer, P. J. (2007). The courage to teach: Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher’s life (10th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Proctor, B. (2000). Group supervision: A guide to creative practice. London, England: SAGE Publications Ltd. Smith, A. R., Cancel, P. D., & Maroney, E. M. (2012). Creating innovative opportunities for interpreter education program graduates: Transitioning to the professional world. In Robertson, L. & Shaw, S. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Twentieth Conference of Interpreter Trainers, Charlotte, NC. Retrieved from past-conferences/proceedings/2012-cit-proceedings/


Betty M. Colonomos currently serves as Director of the Bilingual Mediation Center and is a fluent ASL/English bilingual. Her academic training has been in Deaf Education/Speech Pathology (undergraduate), Counseling (graduate), and Linguistics (doctoral). Betty was awarded the Masters Comprehensive Skills Certificate (MCSC) from RID in 1980. She was the second recipient of the Mary Stotler Award for Excellence in Interpreter Education from CIT. Betty has chaired many national committees on standards and evaluation of interpreters. She recently served on RID’s Council of Elders. Ms. Colonomos is well-known as an educator of interpreters and a consultant. She has developed the most widely used model for teaching processes used in interpreting (Integrated Model of Interpreting - IMI). She is the founder of the Etna Project in NH (since 2002) and MD (since 2009), working to develop collaborative communities of Reflective Practitioners. She co-authored a chapter (with Lianne Moccia) in RID’s publication, Mentorship in Sign Language Interpreting. Her articles on Deaf Heart and Integrity appear on Street Leverage. Kelly L. Decker, NIC Advanced, IMI Practitioner, BA Psychology Kelly Decker, Certified Interpreter, Vermont. Kelly is highly invested in the development of the interpreting field. She is engaged in leadership at the local, regional, VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

and national level of the interpreting profession. She has coordinated and implemented countless communitybased projects and events primarily focusing on social justice and Deaf-parented interpreters. Kelly has been working throughout RID Region I in private practice since 2005. She currently serves as the chair of the DeafParented Interpreter (DPI) member section within RID. As an Integrated Model of Interpreting (IMI) practitioner, Kelly is involved in the dedicated practice of professional dialogue at the Etna Project. (Mobbing in the Workplace- Continued from page 41)... References

Ebbet, S. & Vaznis, J. (2018, March 15). Swampscott Wouldn’t Renew Contract for Transgender Principal. The Boston Globe, Retrieved from https://www.bostonglobe. com/metro/2018/03/15/swampscott-won-renew-contractfor-transgenderprincipal/3YGY21939y67Ct4MNkumvI/ story.html Leymann, H. (1993). The content and development of mobbing at work. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Volume 1993. Sandvick, P. (2013). Adult bullying, a nasty piece of work: Translating a decade of research on non-sexual harassment, psychological terror, mobbing and emotional abuse on the job. ORCM Academic Press, St. Louis, MO. Sloan, L. M., Matyók, T., Schmitz, C. L., & Short, G. F. L. (2010). A story to tell: Bullying and mobbing in the workplace. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 1(3). Withrow, A., & Vecchio, M., (2010, November 10). Silence and solitude: Deaf teacher recounts struggle in Loudoun Schools. Loudoun Times-Mirror. Retrieved from http://www. deaf_teacher_recounts_struggle_in_loudoun_schools/

About the Authors: Danielle Thompson-Ochoa, PhD, NCC, NCSC Danielle Thompson-Ochoa, PhD, currently teaches graduate school courses in school counseling and clinical mental health counseling at Gallaudet University. She loves her department (Department of Counseling), Gallaudet University, and teaching/watching her students succeed in becoming phenomenal school counselors. She has her Master’s degree in School Counseling from Gallaudet University and her Doctor of Philosophy in Behavioral Health from the International University of Graduate Studies from St. Kitts & Nevis in the West Indies. Dr. Thompson-Ochoa is a native of Trinidad (Trinidad and Tobago) in the West Indies. She currently she lives in Virginia with her husband and two children. Joseph Batiano, MA, LMHC, NCC Joseph Batiano, Deaf himself, is a licensed mental health counselor for the State of Rhode Island and a school & guidance counselor for the Rhode Island School for the Deaf with over ten years of experience providing counseling services for individuals, family, or group therapy. Batiano graduated from Gallaudet University with a Master of Arts degree in School Counseling with a mental health emphasis. Batiano has published several articles, including, “Searching for the ‘Ah-Ha! Moment in Counseling,” “Can You Hear My Hands? Counseling the Deaf,” “Keeping ADARA Relevant,” and more. He travels around the country giving presentations on topics ranging from providing appropriate services for the Deaf, trauma informed care, and systematic changes and creative techniques in counseling. Batiano is a member of a variety of associations pertaining to the field of counseling and Deafness. He is a strong advocate for accessibility to mental health services for those who are Deaf and/or Hard-of-Hearing. Batiano grew up in the New England area and is excited to return to his New England roots after living in different parts of America. He enjoys hiking, camping, traveling, and spending time with his family.


(Articulating Your WHY- Continued from page 44)... For more information about this research refer to the full Master’s thesis paper at: http://digitalcommons.wou. edu/theses/25/ References

Amentrano, I. R. (2014). Teaching ethical decision making: Helping students reconcile personal and professional values. Journal of Counseling & Development, 92,154 -161. doi: 10.1002/j 1556-6676.2014.00143.x Bardi, A., & Schwartz, S. H. (2003). Values and behavior: Strength and structure of relations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(10), 1207-1220. doi: 10.1177/0146167203254602 Brown, D. (2002). The role of work and cultural values in occupational choice, satisfaction, and success: A theoretical statement. Journal of Counseling & Development, 80(1), 4856. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6678.2002.tb00165.x Ben-Shem, I., & Avi-Itzhak, T. E. (1991). On work values and career choice in freshmen students: The case of helping vs. other professions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 39(3), 369-379. doi: 10.1016/0001-8791(91)90045-N Cokely, D. (2000). Exploring ethics: A case for revising the code of ethics. Journal of Interpretation 10(1), 25-57. Dean, R. K., & Pollard, R. Q. (2013) The demand control schema: Interpreting as a practice profession. North Charleston, SC: CreateSpace. Glover, S. H., Bumpus, M. A., Logan, J. E., & Ciesla, J. R. (1997). Re-examining the influence of individual values on ethical decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(12/13), 1319-1329. doi: 10.1023/A:1005758402861 Karacaer, S., Gohar, R., Aygun, M., & Sayin, C. (2009). Effects of personal values on auditor’s ethical decisions: A comparison of Pakistani and Turkish professional auditors. Journal of Business Ethics, 88(53), 53-64. doi: 10.1007/ s10551-009-1012-4 Macedo, P., Sapateiro, C., & Filipe, J. (2006). Distinct approaches to value systems in collaborative networks environments. In L. Camarinha-Matos, H. Afsarmanesh, & M. Ollus (Eds.), International Federation for Information Processing, Volume 224, Network Centric Collaboration and Supporting Fireworks (pp. 111-129). Boston, MA: Springer. 64

Meckler, A. (2014, June 17). Beyond Ethics: Rules Versus Values for Sign Language Interpreters. Retrieved November 20, 2014, from beyond-ethics-rules-versus-values-for-sign-language-interpreters/ Ramirez-Loudenback, A. (2015). Are we here for the same reason? Exploring the motivational values that shape the professional decision making of signed language interpreters. (unpublished Master’s thesis). Western Oregon University. Retrieved from Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values? Journal of Social Issues, 50(4), 19-45. Watt, H. M., & Richardson, P. W. (2007). Motivational factors influencing teaching as a career choice: Development and validation of the FIT-Choice Scale. The Journal of Experimental Education, 75(3), 167-202. doi: 10.3200/ JEXE.75.3.167-20

About the Author: Audrey Ramirez-Loudenback, MA, NIC Audrey Ramirez-Loudenback lives in Salem, Oregon with her husband and two children. She completed her BA in ASL/English Interpreting from Western Oregon University in 2009 and her MA in Interpreting Studies from WOU in December 2015. She interprets mainly in post-secondary and community settings. She has had her NIC since 2009. (Supervised Induction- Continued from page 51)... So, what characterizes a low-risk assignment? Low risk assignments are those communication events that are common within everyday life, where the outcome of the interaction between participants is predictable and the matter being addressed is not of a critical nature. The outcomes in these situations do not have potentially serious ramifications for any of the parties involved. Examples of low-risk placements include assignments that are reoccurring and allow all the parties involved to become well acquainted and to have established patterns for how to address misunderstandings and clarifications. Such assignments are often interactive in nature, are not time-sensitive or time-driven, and allow for paced interacVIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

tion that is conducive to quasi-consecutive or consecutive interpreting. Because of the interactive nature of such assignments, there is frequent opportunity to elicit and verify understanding and comprehension. Specific examples of low-risk assignments might include a job training program, a college lab, a regularly scheduled staff meeting, parenting classes or adult education classes that involve a lot of demonstration and hands-on interaction, museum tours, a meeting to discuss car insurance coverage, or an auto repair consultation.

To download the Guidebook and find further information on this project visit

It is important to note that within any assignment it is possible for the risk to change quickly. When this happens, the shift needs to be recognized and alternatives in place for managing the change. Often these risk shifts are only temporary—the result of confusion, misunderstanding, or external stressors that the parties bring into the interaction—and with the opportunity pause for clarification can be resolved and the assignment returns to a low-risk situation. For this reason, one of the important competencies of the novice interpreter is the ability to negotiate clarifications and misunderstandings, and to use effective interpersonal skills to help restore confidence and move the communication forward. Allowing the novice interpreter to experience and work through natural ebbs and flows of an assignment is part of their acquisition of discretion and autonomy in decision-making. However, during the supervised work/induction experience there must be the option of intervention and replacement of the novice interpreter if necessary. This is another reason that direct supervision during the induction period is so important.

The contents of this article were developed under a grant from the Department of Education. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal government.

Summary Induction into practice through a period of closely supervised work is an essential element in helping recent graduates become work-ready. The pathways to induction are currently limited and there is a need for collaborative effort to increase supervised work opportunities. The CATIE Center’s GTC project is committed to creating innovative partnerships with agencies, institutions, organizations, and individuals who have experience, or are interested in, providing induction pathways for novice interpreters.

To discuss opportunities for collaboration, contact Richard Laurion at or 651-690-6973. The St. Catherine University CATIE Center, Graduation to Certification project is funded by the US Department of Education, Rehabilitation Services Administration, #H160C160001.


Cogen, C. & Cokely, D. (2016). Preparing interpreters for tomorrow: Report on a study of emerging trends in interpreting and implications for interpreter education. Boston, MA: National Interpreter Education Center. Godfrey, L. (2011). Characteristics of effective interpreter education programs in the United States. International Journal of Interpreter Education, 3, 88-105. Geier, C. A. (2016). An evaluation of an American Sign Language interpreting internship program (Doctoral dissertation). Walden University, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Retrieved from article=4199&context=dissertations Intelligere Solutions. (2017). Graduation to certification: Expanding the quality and quantity of certified American Sign Language Interpreters. Retrieved from Maroney, E. & Smith, A. (2010, Fall). Defining the nature of the “gap” between interpreter education, certification and readiness-to-work: A research study of bachelor’s degree graduates. RID Views, 27, 35-27.


Mathers, C. M. & Witter-Merithew, A. (2014). The contribution of Deaf interpreters to gatekeeping within the interpreting profession: Reconnecting with our roots. In D. I. J. Hunt & S. Hafer (Eds.), Conference of Interpreter Trainers 2014 Proceedings, Our roots: The essence of our future (pp. 158-173). Oct. 29-Nov. 1, 2014, Portland, Oregon. Retrieved from proceedings/2014-proceedings/

Witter-Merithew, A. & Johnson, L. (2005). Toward competent practice: Conversations with stakeholders. Silver Spring, MD: Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf.

About CATIE Center: The CATIE Center at St. Catherine University is committed to promoting excellence in interpreting education. Our work involves Deaf and hearing faculty, staff, students, stakeholders, and innovative partners both loPatrie, C. J. (1994). The “readiness-to-work gap.” In E. A. cally and nationally. We have been awarded grant funds Winston (Ed.), Proceedings of the Tenth National Conven- from the U.S. Department of Education, Rehabilitation tion, Conference of Interpreter Trainers, Mapping our course: Services Administration to advance interpreter education A collaborative venture. Oct. 26-29, 1994, Charlotte, North since 1999. Carolina.

In 2016, two grants were awarded for 2017-2021:

Ruiz, M. J. (2013). Professional project curriculum development: Experiential learning in interpreter education programs (master’s thesis). Western Oregon University, Monmouth, Oregon.

• Graduation to Certification: Under award H160C160001, the CATIE Center will investigate, pilot, evaluate, and disseminate evidence-based practices to decrease the time between graduation and certification. Shaw, S. (2014). Preparing interpreting students to be allies in the Deaf community. The Interpreters’ Newsletter, 19, 1-11. • Mental and Behavioral Health Interpreting: Under award H160D160003, the CATIE Center will focus on increasing the number and diversity of certified inSmith, A. & Maroney, E. (2018). Revisiting: Defining the terpreters available to work in mental and behavioral nature of the “gap” between interpreter education, certificahealth settings. tion and readiness-to-work. RID Views, 35(1). Retrieved from Stauffer, L. (1994). A response to the “readiness-to-work gap.” In E. A. Winston (Ed.), Proceedings of the Tenth National Convention, Conference of Interpreter Trainers, Mapping our course: A collaborative venture. Oct. 26-29, 1994, Charlotte, North Carolina.

(Self Care- Continued from page 55)...

Interpreter confidentiality may appear to limit our ability to receive internal support when struggling after an assignment. Finding a solution means becoming adept at releasing the who/what/when/where of an interpreting Volk, C. (2014). Sign language interpreter education: Time situation, and instead looking at how we are affected by it. for a national call to action. Retrieved from http://www.street- We can focus on what emotions were triggered and what fears, beliefs, and values were stimulated. These pieces are ours to be intimately aware of, and to provide with extion-time-for-a-national-call-to-action/ tra love and care when hurting. Witter-Merithew, A. & Johnson, L. (2004). Market disorder within the field of sign language interpreting: Professionalization implications. Journal of Interpretation. Silver Spring, MD: RID Publishing. 66

When we develop a habit of checking in with our internal state, and taking the time necessary for our own processing and healing, we are filling our own cup and in turn, are naturally available to find more compassion for others VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

(i.e. feeling less stressed when our colleagues and consumers are displaying their humanity).

To celebrate you do a little happy dance - something that helps you FEEL proud and happy in your body.

According to Pareto’s Principle, 20% of our invested input yields 80% of our gain. In my work with clients, I have found that by simply naming our emotions as they arise, we can feel disproportionately less triggered and more calm. This simple tip may help to resolve a large amount of your frustration. As you catch yourself in a state of discomfort, take a deep breath and just begin naming what you feel. For example, “Ooooh, I’m really worked up right now. My stomach is in knots, my face feels hot. I’m feeling angry.” This dialogue can take place in your head, on paper, or out loud - whatever makes the most sense to you in the moment.

This chemical reward for your brain helps to teach it that practicing this habit equals good feelings, and it will want to do it more often.

Recognizing our needs and being willing to meet those needs in a kind and loving way is not always easy, but it is worth it. Whether by Naming Your Feelings as they come, getting on the Sleep Train as it pulls through the station, or any other way you can kindly meet your needs as they arise, know that each and every attempt creates a tiny shift that makes the next one easier. You are building a scaffold of self-care to support you during times of stress and to stand beside you in times of joy. It is my passion to supOnce you’re able to name these emotions and sensations, port interpreters on this journey, so please don’t hesitate you may notice you’ve created just a tiny bit of space - to reach out. You can find me at breana@brighterfocus. enough to get the thinking part of your brain back online com. - and that you’re able to respond from a more intentional state of mind rather than a reactive one. The practice of References Naming Your Feelings also helps to eliminate any back- Bower, Kathryn (2015). “Stress and Burnout in Video Relay log of stored emotion which can muck up your internal Service (VRS) Interpreting,” Journal of Interpretation: Vol. 24 : Iss. 1 , Article 2. Available at: http://digitalcommons.unf. landscape while waiting to be processed. Acknowledging edu/joi/vol24/iss1/2 and allowing emotions to move through as they come (or as soon after as possible) helps us to be clear and open Fogg, B.J. channels as interpreters, enabling others’ emotions to pass through with relatively low-impact on our systems. Jones, Jeffrey M. (2013, December 19). “In U.S., 40% Get

Conclusion: Building New Habits

Less Than Recommended Amount of Sleep,” Gallup News website,

These tips are not earth-shattering. They are simple and relatively easy to carry out. As you consider incorporating these and others into your everyday life, the struggle you encounter may have less to do with execution and more to do with the inertia of existing habits. Change can present a challenge! B.J. Fogg of is my favorite resource for building new habits. He teaches that we can set ourselves up for success by doing three key things: breaking our new habit down into its tiniest part and practicing that at first, anchoring it to an existing habit (something that is already automatic, like brushing your teeth), and then celebrating each time we complete the new habit.

Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., & Leiter, M. P. (1997). Maslach Burnout Inventory: Third edition. In C. P. Zalaquett & R. J. Wood (Eds.), Evaluating stress: A book of resources (pp. 191218). Lanham, MD, US: Scarecrow Education. Available at:

To use Name That Emotion as an example: your anchor may be returning to your car/bus/bike after a job. To break it down, you name one emotion present in your body.

Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency - Why Is Sleep Important?. (n.d.). National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute website,

National Sleep Foundation Recommends New Sleep Times. (2015, February 2). National Sleep Foundation website, Pareto Principle. (2018, April 1). Wikipedia website,


National Interpreter Certification Certification awarded between 02/06/2018- 05/08/2018

Region I - Northeast

Rachel Bossard, PA Michael Conrad , NY Nicholas Germain Dionne, CN Hunter Erick Ekberg, NY Michael Fisher, NY Stephanie Susan Merchant, DE Elizabeth Anne Milana, NY Tyler Clifford Nellissen, NY Ashley Gail Woods, NH Alicia Youngmann, NY

Region II - Southeast

Angela Renee Baughan, VA Alecia Katherine Bost, FL Mallory Glynis Cross, DC Tristan James Galloway, GA Dori Griffiths, MD Jerrelynn Meichele Harris, FL Anna Elizabeth Hayes , AL Kathryn Elizabeth Holter, MD

Jason Jeffrey Klein, MD Jodi Diann Morton, FL Ava Rogers, FL Ambrose Elijah Tabb, GA Steven S Westbrook, FL

Region III - Midwest

Alyssa Kristine Beaulieu, MN Jessica L. Beldon, OH Ashley Knab, OH Samara Boswell Lewis, KY Kelsey Lauren Neuwirth Bales, KY Kayla Jade Newsome, KY Lisa Rowinski, MI Megan Marie Seipke-Dame, MI

Brian Herdt, CO Travis Gene McKinstry, CO Jaclyn Terrio Terrio, OK

Region V - Pacific

Karri Aiken, CA Jordana Avital, OR Nicole Clark Gray, UT Heather Evans, AZ Jennifer D. Figueroa, WA Timothy Heaslip, OR Sarah Lynn Johnson, UT Peter Norland, OR

Region IV - Central

Amber Lehua DeLong, CO Barbie Parker Greenwater, TX Kendra Marie Hatle, SD

Membership Renewals It is that time of year again: membership renewal! This year, membership dues and fees remain the same as last year- there are no changes, increases, or decreases. However, what has changed is the grace period for payment of your membership dues and fees, along with the reinstatement process. The RID Board of Directors approved a recommendation from National Headquarters to improve our systems of efficiency and fiduciary responsibility. As a result, your payment of membership dues and fees are due by June 30, 2018. We provide a grace period until July 31, 2018. Previously, RID did not revoke certification from individuals who were not timely with their payment of dues. This year, if your payment is not received by July 31, you will need to be reinstated through our new process which can be found here: YouTube Link:

FY 2018 Certification Reinstatements and Revocations Below, please find a link to a page on our website that lists individuals whose certifications have been revoked due to non-compliance with the Certification

Maintenance Program. The Certification Maintenance Program requirements are as follows: • Maintain current RID membership by paying annual RID Certified Member dues • Meet the CEU requirements: m CMP CEU Requirements: w 8.0 Total CEUs with at least 6.0 in PS CEUs w (up to 2.0 GS CEUs may be applied toward the requirement) w SC:L’s only–2.0 of the 6.0 PS CEUs must be in legal interpreting topics w SC:PA’s only–2.0 of the 6.0 PS CEUs must be in performing arts topics • Follow the RID Code of Professional Conduct If an individual appears on the list, it means that their consumers may no longer be protected by the Ethical Practices System, should an issue arise. This list is available on the RID website and can be accessed by the community at large. The published list is a “live” list, meaning that it will be updated as needed if a certification is reinstated or revoked. To view the revocation list, please visit the link HERE. Should you lose certification due to failure to comply with CEU requirements or failure to pay membership dues, you may submit a reinstatement request. The reinstatement form and policies are outlined HERE. 68

VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

MISSION The Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf strives to advocate for best practices in interpreting, professional development for practitioners and for the highest standards in the provision of interpreting services for diverse users of languages that are signed or spoken. VISION By honoring its past and innovating for the future, RID envisions a world where: • Its members recognize and support the linguistic rights of all Deaf people as human rights, equal to those of users of spoken languages; • Deaf people and their values are vital to and visible in every aspect of RID; • Interpreted interaction between individuals who use signed and spoken languages are as viable as direct communication; • The interpreting profession is formally recognized and is advanced by rigorous professional development, standards of conduct, and credentials. DIVERSITY STATEMENT The Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) understands the necessity of multicultural awareness and sensitivity. Therefore, as an organization, we are committed to diversity both within the organization and within the profession of sign language interpreting. Our commitment to diversity reflects and stems from our understanding of present and future needs of both our organization and the profession. We recognize that in order to provide the best service as the national certifying body among signed and spoken language interpreters, we must draw from the widest variety of society with regards to diversity in order to provide support, equality of treatment, and respect among interpreters within the RID organization. Therefore, RID defines diversity as differences which are appreciated, sought, and shaped in the form of the following categories: gender identity or expression, racial identity, religious affiliation, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, deaf or hard of hearing status, disability status, age, geographic locale (rural vs. urban), sign language interpreting experience, certification status and level, and language bases (e.g. those who are native to or have acquired ASL and English, those who utilize a signed system, among those using spoken or signed languages) within both the profession of sign language interpreting and the RID organization. To that end, we strive for diversity in every area of RID and its Headquarters. We know that the differences that exist among people represent a 21st century population and provide for innumerable resources within the sign language interpreting field.

Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Inc. 333 Commerce Street, Alexandria, VA 22314 (703) 838-0030 V • (571)-257-3957 VP • (703) 838-0454 Fax •


ASL Communication is a full-service interpreting and consulting firm.

Join Our Team! ASL Communication is seeking certified interpreters nationwide! Full-time? Part-Time? Working Vacation? Join us!

ASL Communication Email: Website: Nationwide: 800-908-3386 Nevada: 702-610-4722 Utah: 801-403-6606 70

VIEWS Volume 35 • Issue 2

VIEWS Vision: VIEWS, RID’s digital publication, is dedicated to the interpreting profession. As a part of RID’s strategic goals, we focus on providing interpreters with the educational tools they need to excel at their profession. VIEWS is about inspiring, or even instigating, thoughtful discussions among practitioners. With the establishment of the VIEWS Board of Editors, the featured content in this publication is peer-reviewed and standardized according to our bilingual review process. VIEWS is on the leading edge of bilingual publications for English and ASL. In this way, VIEWS helps to bridge the gap between interpreters and clients and facilitate equality of language. This publication represents a rich history of knowledge-sharing in an extremely diverse profession. As an organization, we value the experiences and expertise of interpreters from every cultural, linguistic, and educational background. VIEWS seeks to provide information to researchers and stakeholders about these specialty fields and groups in the interpreting profession. We aim to explore the interpreter’s role within this demanding social and political environment by promoting content with complex layers of experience and meaning. While we publish updates on our website and social media platforms, unique information from the following areas can only be found in VIEWS: • • • • • • •

Both research- and peer-based articles/columns Interpreting skill-building and continuing education opportunities Local, national, and international interpreting news Reports on the Certification Program RID committee and Member Sections news New publications available from RID Press News and highlights from RID Headquarters

Submissions: VIEWS publishes articles on matters of interest and concern to the membership. Submissions that are essentially interpersonal exchanges, editorials or statements of opinion are not appropriate as articles and may remain unpublished, run as a letter to the editor or as a position paper. Submissions that are simply the description of programs and services in the community with no discussion may also be redirected to a more archival platform on the website. Articles should be 1,800 words or fewer. Unsigned articles will not be published. Please contact the editor of VIEWS if you require more space. RID reserves the right to limit the quantity and frequency of articles published in VIEWS written by a single author(s). Receipt by RID of a submission does not guarantee its publication. RID reserves the right to edit, excerpt or refuse to publish any submission. Publication of an advertisement does not constitute RID’s endorsement or approval of the advertiser, nor does RID guarantee the accuracy of information given in an advertisement. Advertising specifications can be found at, or by contacting the editor. All editorial, advertising, submission and permission inquiries should be directed to (703) 838-0030, (703) 838-0454 fax, or Copyright: VIEWS is published quarterly by the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Inc. Statements of fact or opinion are the responsibility of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the opinion of RID. The author(s), not RID, is responsible for the content of submissions published in VIEWS. VIEWS Board of Editors Jonathan Webb (Chair), CI and CT, NIC Advanced Erica Alley, Ph.D, NIC-Advanced Michael B. Ballard, M.A. Christina Healy, Ph.D, CI and CT, Ed:K-12 Su Kyong Isakson, MA, NIC, Ed:K-12 Lianne Moccia, M.Ed., CI/CT, TC Jill Radford, M.A. © 2018 the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Inc. All rights reserved.



DEPARTMENT OF INTERPRETATION AND TRANSLATION The department offers three levels of education. •

Ph.D. in Interpretation program focuses on research and pedagogy of interpretation and translation.

MA in Interpretation program prepare interpreters and researchers who will provide exemplary services and become leaders in the field. We offer two concentrations: • •

Combined Interpreter Practice and Research concentration Interpreter Research concentration

BA in Interpretation focuses on interpretation.

Interested in the graduate study? Contact Interested in the undergraduate study? Contact

Use code GRADRID2019 to receive a $25 off your fall 2019 graduate application fee.

Department of Interpretation and Translation (202) 559-5627 (videophone) (202) 651-5493 (voice)


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