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INTEGRATED CLASS JOURNAL Volume 3(1) Spring 2013 Contributors: Yukihiro Arima Kaede Hasegawa Miyu Iida Rei Ishii Jun Kinase Rui Kurosaki Yuki Kurosu Shinichi Matsudo Rika Mori Ryoichi Nagashima Megumi Naito Natsumi Nakano Mami Nakao Yusuke Natsume Risako Ono Shusei Oshika Satoshi Sagawa Fumika Sato Takeshi Shintani Ayaka Takada Asuka Takagi Shun Takamatsu Ayaka Yaguchi Asahi Yokota

Sophia University Integrated Skills Class Spring Term 2013

Edited by Richard Pinner

Editorial

Cover design by Rei Ishi

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Integrated – Class Journal

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Editorial................................................................................................................ 7

Essays ............................................................................................................... 8 In Focus Article: To A Better Understanding and Interpretation of Literature: Archetypal or Myth Criticism ................................................................................................ 9 Yuki Kurosu In Depth Article: Importance of the Two Trees in Valinor ....................................... 12 Kaede Hasegawa The Friendship between Tolkien and C.S. Lewis ..................................................... 14 Rika Mori Two Personalities of Gollum .................................................................................. 17 Ayaka Takada Tolkien’s works as seen through the friendship with Lewis ..................................... 19 Asuka Takagi The Light and the Shadow in J.R.R Tolkien’s The Lord of The Rings ...................... 21 Rei Ishii Lord of the Rings and Wars..................................................................................... 23 Yukihiro Arima Creation of the Beat literature by jazz music ........................................................... 25 Megumi Naito The Hippies Accomplished the Beat Generation’s Idea in the real world ................. 27 Rui Kurosaki The Relationship Between Beatniks and The Beatles .............................................. 30 Shun Takamatsu The Beatles and an Age of Beat Culture .................................................................. 32 Jun Kinase Why were The Beat Generation so crazy? ............................................................... 35 Ryoichi Nagashima The Reason Sylvia Plath Stated “Self” In Her Works .............................................. 37 Mami Nakao The Holocaust in “Daddy” ...................................................................................... 39 Natsumi Nakano

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The analysis of A Clock Work Orange .................................................................... 41 Risako Ono 1984 and Totalitarianism ........................................................................................ 43 Satoshi Sagawa Post Structuralism................................................................................................... 45 Yusuke Natsume

Reaction Pieces .............................................................................................. 47 Reaction piece of A Clockwork Orange................................................................... 48 Yokota Asahi A Clockwork Orange Reaction ................................................................................ 49 Miyu Iida Reaction Piece of Beats .......................................................................................... 50 Takeshi Shintani Reaction to Beat Generation ................................................................................... 51 Jun Kinase The Beat Generation ............................................................................................... 52 Megumi Naito Reaction to the One of the Women Beats, Carolyn Cassady .................................... 53 Kaede Hasegawa The Beat Generation and the Hippie Movement ...................................................... 54 Rika Mori My Reaction to the Beat Generation ....................................................................... 55 Rui Kurosaki Reaction to William S. Burroughs ........................................................................... 56 Asuka Takagi Beat Generation ...................................................................................................... 57 Natsumi Nakano Reaction Peace to Beat Generation ......................................................................... 58 Ayaka Yaguchi Reaction Piece of Sylvia Plath ................................................................................ 59

Reaction Piece about Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes ................................................. 60 Mami Nakao

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Editorial

Yukihiro Arima


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Spring 2013

Sylvia Plath and Her Poem ..................................................................................... 61 Ayaka Yaguchi Reaction Piece: Sylvia ............................................................................................ 62 Risako Ono Reaction piece about Sylvia Plath ........................................................................... 63 Ryoichi Nagashima The Brilliant World of J.R.R. Tolkien ..................................................................... 64 Yuki Kurosu Reaction piece to the Lord of the Rings................................................................... 65 Fumika Sato Reaction Piece: Tolkien .......................................................................................... 66 Shinichi Matsudo

Reviews .......................................................................................................... 67 Review of Clockwork Orange ................................................................................. 68 Takeshi Shintani And Then There Were None .................................................................................... 68 Ayaka Yaguchi The review of Life Is Beautiful ................................................................................ 69 Risako Ono Atonement Review .................................................................................................. 69 Shun Takamatsu Sylvia: Emotional conflict between writing and married life .................................... 70 Megumi Naito Review of movie: Much ado about Nothing ............................................................ 71 Yukihiro Arima Midsummer Night's Dream ..................................................................................... 72 Mami Nakao Romeo and Juliet .................................................................................................... 72 Mami Nakao Richard III.............................................................................................................. 72 Mami Nakao The Last Samurai.................................................................................................... 73 Ayaka Yaguchi

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The review of Les Miserables ................................................................................. 73 Risako Ono Wuthering Heights .................................................................................................. 74 Fumika Sato Review of The Shawshank Redemption ................................................................... 74 Shusei Oshika

Creative Writing............................................................................................ 75 The wonderful birth day ......................................................................................... 76 Asahi Yokota Be frozen ................................................................................................................ 79 Fumika Sato The Silent World .................................................................................................... 82 Miyu Iida I am a Tree ............................................................................................................. 84 Ayaka Takada Parody .................................................................................................................... 87 Satoshi Sagawa Tale about The Little People and Their Fellows ...................................................... 88

Editorial

Rei Ishii

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Integrated – Class Journal

O “

Spring 2013

ne day I will find the right words, and they will be simple.

Jack Kerouac, The Dharma Bums.

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EDITORIAL Time flies when you are having fun. Time has flown for me this semester, but I must admit that this has in fact been a hard semester for me. I have just started a new full-time position at Sophia, whereas for the last two years I was only part-time. Foolishly I had hoped that being full-time might mean I actually have more time, but alas it turns out I have less time than ever before. Being full-time has brought lots of new responsibilities, and I am still juggling my new responsibilities with my teaching and research. It has been a semester where I learned a lot, and my feet hardly touched the ground. Another thing I have noticed about the change is that I seem to have become stricter, or at least my expectations on my students are the same, but I feel even more of a sense of duty to make sure the students get it right and understand what they have to do. Now, as a full-time assistant professor at Sophia, I need to make sure that all my classes are up to the high standards of Sophia University. Which brings me to the current volume of the Integrated Journal. This year has been a hard year for my students as well, with so many extra-curricular activities as Sophia celebrates its centenary year. Students have more work than ever, and I have been very pleased with the commitment and high standards produced by the contributors to this volume. Amazingly, this volume is the longest ever, with a whopping eighty-seven pages! Also, I actually had to turn down some of the written work submitted, not because of lack of quality, but because of lack of space! The students this year really got into writing reviews, and sadly not all of these found a place in the journal, only ones with a connection to literature were selected. As ever, each section offered me fascinating rewards as I read through and edited them. The essays this year are of a good standard, with two of them dealing with literary criticism, and a large representation of The Beat Generation, which previously has not been the case. Especially strong is the link between the Beat Generation and music, and I would like to make a special mention to Megumi Naito’s article Creation of the Beat literature by jazz music. Of course, special mentions must also go out to Yuki Kurosu for his excellent piece on archetypal myth criticism, which was selected as the In Focus article, and also Kaede Hasegawa for her excellent piece on the Two Trees which was chosen as the In Depth article. Of course, I must also make a special mention to Rei Ishii for her great cover design and wonderful story contribution. Also as usual, the reaction pieces were very interesting for me to read, as they offer insights into the student’s perceptions of the work we study together. Finally, I would like to mention the high quality short stories that make this edition very special – some are creepy, others fantastic, but all of them are excellent. I am very proud of each contribution and I hope this will be useful reference for students in the future, and a proud reminder for the students of the Spring 2013 special Centenary edition! Editorial

Sincerely, Richard Pinner richardpinner@live.com

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ESSAYS

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IN FOCUS ARTICLE: TO A BETTER UNDERSTANDING AND INTERPRETATION OF LITERATURE: ARCHETYPAL OR MYTH CRITICISM Y UKI K UROSU

Essays

What is literary theory? Even without prior knowledge, one can read and enjoy literature in one’s own way, having one’s own experience of life and some knowledge acquired from school education. To be sure, in reading and enjoying literature one does not necessarily know it, yet it is beneficial to analysis of literature. By employing it one can recognize what one has thought meaningless as what has meaning or significance in a work. When one reads literary works with knowledge of it, it leads one to deeper understanding of them, and enables one to make good interpretation of them. Archetypal or myth criticism is one of many literary theories. This criticism pays attention to “the generic, recurring and conventional elements in literature” (Makaryk 3). The critics of this theory examine the elements only in literature itself, or the tradition of literature. Unlike many other theories, they do not view as important text, the biography or autobiography of a writer, the historical background, and social context in which he or she lived. They read other literary works as well as the text which they attempt to criticize, and draw a parallel between other works and the text. Generally speaking, the similarity can be ultimately traced back to its origin in mythology and legend. Besides elucidating the source of similitude, they utilize this result of research for the interpretation of the text in question. Archetypal or myth criticism explores something called archetypes. The word archetype which combines the Greek arché, a beginning, first cause, origin, with typos, pattern, model, type, etymologically means “an origin of type.” It is “a typical or recurring image, character, narrative design, theme, or other literary phenomenon that has been in literature from beginning and regularly reappears” (Makaryk 508). All such encourage the imagination of readers, and evoke other concrete images, phenomenon, or meaning (see Table 1 below). C. G. Jung, the psychiatrist who influenced the development of archetypal or myth criticism, explains that the archetype stimulates our deep mind, and that our mind responds to the stimulus in patterned way, not because it has been passed down from generation to generation, but because it has been inherited (Guerin 177-79). In other words, it is unconscious and pre-established, not conscious and post-established.

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Table 1: Some examples of archetypes Archetypes The Sea Rivers Red Black White Three Four Serpent (snake, worm) Garden Desert

The Symbolic Meanings The mother of all life; death and rebirth; timelessness and eternity; the unconscious. Death and rebirth (baptism); transitional phase of the life cycle; incarnations of deities. Blood, sacrifice, violent passion; disorder. Chaos, mystery, the unknown; death; evil; melancholy. Light, purity, innocence, timelessness; death, terror. Light; spiritual awareness and unity (cf. the Holy Trinity). Associated with the circle, life cycle, four seasons; four elements (earth, air, fire, water). Evil, corruption; sensuality; destruction; mystery; wisdom. Paradise; innocence; unspoiled beauty; fertility. Spiritual aridity; death; nihilism; hopelessness.

Adapted from Guerin, et al. 161-65. In this criticism another key word is myth. The word as a technical term means more than a story about Gods. Myths are “the symbolic projections of a people’s hopes, values, fears, and aspirations” (Guerin 159). In primitive ages people did not draw a sharp line between natural phenomena and their inner life. They thought that the movement of the sun symbolized the fate of their God, and that the changes of the four seasons represented the image of feelings such as joy or sadness. Their inner things and outer phenomena were integrated into myth through the agency of imagination (Yamoto 42). Myths are explained as “the means by which archetypes, essentially unconscious forms, become manifest and articulate to the conscious mind” (Guerin 179). Thus a myth itself is also an archetype. Northrop Frye, the Canadian literary critic, published the thesis “the Archetypes of Literature” in 1951 and his great work Anatomy of Criticism in 1957. In latter work he developed his view of literature based upon the former thesis. He discovered a cycle in the world of myth. It is the cycle of birth and death and rebirth. From thence he contrived some “forms of rotary or cyclical movement” (Frye, Anatomy 158). They are divided into four phases (Frye, Anatomy 158-60) (see Figure 1 below). Dawn Spring Birth The archetype of romance

Zenith

Darkness

Summer

Winter

Marriage or triumph

Dissolution

The archetype of comedy

The archetype of satire

Sunset Autumn Death The archetype of tragedy

Fig. 1. The four phases of cyclic forms, adapted from Frye 104-105.

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In Anatomy of Criticism, Frye says that “In literary criticism myth means ultimately mythos, a structural organizing principle of literary form” (341). The word myth is derived from the Greek mythos, which means a plot, a story, or narrative (Makaryk 597). To put it another way, mythos is a pattern of plots; to take some examples, romance, comedy, tragedy, and satire (Frye, Anatomy 162). Importantly enough, as remarked above, Frye connected the four patterns of plots with four seasons. This association makes it easier to trace archetypes to their source. Terry Eagleton in his book Literary Theory: An Introduction wrote the interesting and informing introduction: “What is literature?” If one reads this, one will know that it is difficult to define literature. For archetypal or myth criticism, what is literature? What do the critics of this criticism think about the definition? What does make a text or a work literature? Their approach to the problem is to seek the answer mainly in literature itself or through the tradition of literature. For them, “The greatness in a literary work arises more often from the themes and images it shares with other texts than from the author’s own originality” (Makaryk 4). They think that “The literary work takes its form or shape or design from other literature” (Makaryk 5), and that any literary work is indebted to prior literature. The answer which they find though literature is archetypes: Archetypes make literature literature.

WORKS CITED

Essays

Frye, Northrop. “The Archetypes of Literature.” The Kenyon Review 13.1 (1951): 92-110. Print. ---, Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. 1st Princeton Paperback Edition. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1971. Print. Guerin, Wilfred L., et al. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature. 4th ed. Oxford, New York: OUP, 1999. Print. Makaryk, Irena R., ed. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Literary Theory: Approaches, Scholars, Terms. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993. Print. Yamoto, Tadayoshi. “Shinwa to genkei” [Myth and Archetypes] Eigo Seinen [The Rising Generation] 117.7 (1971): 42-44. Print.

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IN DEPTH ARTICLE: IMPORTANCE

OF THE

TWO

TREES IN VALINOR K AEDE H ASEGAWA The Silmarillion is the mythology about the world of J.R.R.Tolkiens’ works, or mythology of England, if we use Tolkien’s own word. He says like these in his letter to his friend. “I was from early days grieved by the poverty of my own beloved country: it had no stories of its own.” (Chance 1) It is clear that he made this story as the stories of his country. All of the stage of Tolkien’s works (series of Lord of the Ring, Children of Húrin and so on) is the same, called “Ea”, or “Arda”. We can know the basic historical events, God, creatures, language or other important things spread to these works through the Silmarillion. The Two Trees in Valinor, which is the lights in the world for a long time, play most important role in The Silmarillion or other works by Tolkien. The aim of this essay is examining these Two Trees in Valinor, Telperion and Laurelin. The importance of the Two Trees can be seen, firstly from the situation of the world after the withered and died of the Two Trees. Secondly, we will analyze the fate of the elves concerning Silmallili, which retain the brightness of the Telperion after the death of the trees. Finally, we examine the role of the Sun and the Moon. These are made from the leavings of the Trees long after the death of the Two Trees. I will start by analyzing the situation of the world after the death of the Two Trees. The Two Trees are most important things Yavanna, is one of Goddess. All of the God pay attention to the birth of the tree. The Trees make the age of supreme bliss to Arda. Melkor and his servant, Ungoliant also take notice of the birth of the Trees. They are in hatred for these Trees and happiness age of Valinor. They also eager to rid the light from the world, and they do. Ungoliant let it die by poisoning it. The Trees easily die, and darkening comes to Arda. All of the creatures in the world feel distraught, "no song or tale could contain all the grief and terror that than befell." (Tolkien 89) We can know how great sorrow or horror comes to the Arda when the Lights are gone. We also know the loss of the Lights make creatures mind change from the bellow quotes. The Darkness that followed was more than loss of light. In that hour was made a Darkness that seemed not lack but a thing with being of its own; for it was indeed made by malice out of light, and it had power to pierce the eye, and to enter heart and mind, and strangle the very will. (Tolkien 89) The loss of the Trees is not just a loss. The darkness is not just darkness, elves or other creatures are afraid of it, and being rid of their strong will sometimes. That is why some battles break out between elves. When the Lights are alive, such stupid and horrible kind things are never happened, because the light of the Two Trees bring the "the Bliss of Valinor" (Tolkien 44). All the creatures are satisfied with their own situation when the Trees are still alive. In short, the Trees protect Arda from the battle, murder or war by shining. The Trees bring to Arda. This is the first key for examining the importance of the Two Trees.

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Now we move on to analyzing the fate of elves concerning the Silmarilli. Silmarilli are the jewels which were made by Feanor, one of the most powerful elves. Silmarilli contain the mixed light of the Trees, even though the Light itself is gone. That is why many creatures including Yavanna, Melkor and Ungoliant on Arda are eager to get it after the death of the Trees. Robert Foster explains Feanor’s feeling as “he gave his heart to them” (Foster 452) in his detailed book about Middle Earth. That is why he refuses to show Silmarilli even for Ainur, but Melkor steals Silmarilli and runs away. Melkor kills father of Feanor when he steals Silmarilli. This is the first murder for elves. Feanor kills his companions during his adventure. This is first bloody battle between elves. Ainur thinks Feanor is most powerful, clever, skilful elves on Arda, but attachment for Silmarilli change his personality. Silmarilli bring the new feeling to the elves, it generally called "Greed" (Abrahamson). We state on the bloody events of elves concerning Silmarilli. Silmarilli are not important itself. Silmarilli are precious because this jewels contains the light of the Two Trees. Everyone seek the Light, not the jewels. In short, The Two Trees bring the bloody, sorrow and tragic history for elves which are white and innocence creatures, through Silmarilli. This is the second key for the examining the importance of the Two Trees. Let me turn now on to the role of the Sun and the Moon. The Moon is made of the last flower of Terpelion, the silver one of the Two Trees, and the Sun is made of the last fruit of Laurelin, the gold one of the two Trees. These two trees inherit the light of the Trees. Using Tolkien's words, Moon is the symbol of elves, and “cherishes elves memory.” (Tolkien 117) On the other side, the Sun is “a sign for the awakening of Men” (ibid) Men are perfectly different from elves because they have life span. The age after the Sun made called the Years of the Sun. In that time the air of Middle Earth became heavy with the breath of growth and mortality, and the changing and ageing of all things was hastened exceedingly (Tolkien 123) That is the Sun is the symbol of the finite things like Men, and the Moon is the eternal things like elves. Both of them are made by the leavings of the Two Trees, so the Trees symbolize the all kinds of things in Arda. This is the third key for examining the importance of the Two Trees in Valinor.

WORKS CITED Abrahamson, Megan. "Forging Greed, Hope, and the One Great Work in Middle-earth.", The Grey Book: Online Journals of Middle-earth, 2007, Chance, Jane. Tolkien's Art: A Mythology for England, University Press of Kentucky, 2001, Print. Foster, Robert, The Complete Guide to Middle-Earth: Tolkien's World from A to Z, Ballantine Books, 2003, Print. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Silmarillion, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012, Print.

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Essays

In conclusion, the Two Trees is the hope for the creatures in Arda, and the loss of it causes the bloody history to the world. The Trees also symbolize all living things in Arda. So in the Silmarillion, the Two Trees in Valinor takes charge for the fate of Arda. That is why the Two Trees are essential for the world of J.R.R.Tolkien.


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THE FRIENDSHIP BETWEEN TOLKIEN AND C.S. LEWIS RIKA M ORI It is famous that C.S. Lewis, the author of The Chronicles of Narnia is a friend of J.R.R. Tolkien. They came to know each other at the University of Oxford and became friends. Now they are respected by many modern writers as great writers of fantasy. It is rare that two great famous writers are close friends, influencing and supporting each other. The purpose of this paper is to show that how Tolkien and Lewis become friends, what made their friendship deep and sound, and how influenced each other. First, how did they meet and become so close friends? We can see the origin of their friendship in Oxford. Though Tolkien and Lewis entered the Oxford University, they met first when they were in Oxford as a staff after their graduation. ‘‘Lewis and Tolkien became friends as men who enjoyed medieval Norse literature and met in the late 1920s to discuss it in the Coalbiters group at Oxford. The Coalbiters did not survive, but […] was to become the Inklings’’ (Nelson 235). The Inklings is the most important word to see how friendship between Tolkien and C.S. Lewis developed. At that time, Tolkien and Lewis were in a discussion group called ‘‘Inklings’’ which Tolkien himself organized. The members of Inklings were mostly academics at the Oxford University, included Owen Barfield, Charles Williams and other famous novelists, and also included Christopher Tolkien, Tolkien’s son, and W.H. Lewis, Lewis’s elder brother. They met each week to discuss the member’s unfinished or unpublished works in college or a pub. Then Tolkien and Lewis shared works, including The Load of the Rings, Tolkien’s master piece, and discuss them. As they exchanged opinions, they found that they had many ideas in common. That is the beginning of their deep friendship. It is said that ‘‘the group undoubtedly expanded from the deep friendship between Tolkien and Lewis’’ (Duriez 80). Tolkien and Lewis had same ideas in many fields and got along well. This is because they have many things in common each other. First of all, Both Tolkien and Lewis’s childhood experiences were similar in many ways. They were born in 1890s and grew up in strict Christian family. From childhood they loved reading books. When Tolkien was three he lost his father, and he lost his mother too eight years later. In the same way, C.S. Lewis’ mother died after the battle with cancer when Lewis was only ten. Then Tolkien and Lewis faced growing up without mother. Losing mother must be shock for them, and could be fact that made them feel close to each other. Secondly, they were interested in same things, especially in mythology. Jonson says that ‘‘Mythopoetic is word and concept that Tolkien and Lewis thought and spoke much of’’ (Johnson 26). Both Tolkien and Lewis were fascinated by the world of mythology and wished to create their own mythical world and shared the desire to embody the world in their works. Thus Lewis created Narnia world, and Tolkien created a huge world such as Middle-earth and developed stories from it. Moreover, they were interested in language and medieval literature as well. Finally, the most important thing is that they were Christian. Strictly speaking, though Tolkien was a Roman Catholic with a deep attachment to his faith, Lewis was an atheist when they met at first time. Lewis had forsaken his faith before he entered Oxford. However, as their friendship developed, they shared deeper belief and ideas. Lewis was influenced by Tolkien’s

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Essays

theology and converted to Christianity. Birzer states ‘‘It was shortly after a late-night conversation between Lewis, Tolkien, and another Inkling, Hugo Dyson, that Lewis converted to Christianity’’ (Birzer 102). Thus we can say that the influence of Tolkien was very profound because it was not only on his works but also his faith. To that extent, their friendship got deeper, and for the two who often reflect their Christianity in the works, Christianity must have strengthened the bond between them. As I mentioned, Tolkien and Lewis both offered advice and criticism and exchanged their idea through a personal conversation. Then what is the concrete influence the one had on the other? First, about Tolkien has influenced Lewis’ work. Duriez says that ‘‘all of Lewis' fiction, after the two met at Oxford University in 1926, bears the mark of Tolkien's influence…Tolkien himself is recognizable in the central character of Lewis’s science-fiction stories’’ (Duriez x). Tolkien has his own unique theory, preeminent imagination and technique of writing fantasy. It can be said that Lewis could take account of Tolkien’s idea and reconsider his own principle through the discussion. On the other hand, Lewis did not have a great influence on Tolkien’s work directly. Still, he was the emotional support of Tolkien. Tolkien wrote some long story, including complicated history and relation. It must cost him much of time and energy. Sammons mentions ‘‘Lewis was Tolkien’s ‘only audience’ for a long time. He heard The Load of the Rings read aloud and was often moved to tears’’ and ‘‘He [Tolkien] acknowledged the debt he owed Lewis for ‘sheer encouragement’ and the idea that his works could be more than just a hobby’’ (Sammons 7). Duriez also states ‘‘Lewis meant a great deal to Tolkien as their friendship developed’’ (Duriez 80). In fact, Lewis was very wise man, so he could give his impression to it and criticize it on that occasion when he heard Tolkien’s stories. That seems to be why Tolkien likes him. From the above, they valued each other’s opinions, talents and existence. Therefore it is not too much to say that without each other’s existence their great books have never been written. Since they met at the University of Oxford in 1926, they found many things in common, shared opinion and influenced each other. However, after WWII the end of their friendship came. ‘‘What brought Lewis and Tolkien together – myth languages, and later, Christian belief – were, ironically, the very things that began to push them apart later in life’’ (Calhoum 265). Just a little difference of their common points made them breakup. Tolkien got uncomfortable with Lewis’s being Protestant and his way of expressing Christianity mystique in stories. Moreover, while Tolkien worked on The Load of the Rings, Lewis finished writing first of Narnia and succeeded. That could be reason for Tolkien’s feeling envious of Lewis’s success. Although their friendship broke up finally, nobody could replace Lewis for Tolkien. Thanks to Lewis, Tolkien could keep the faith and write the long book. It also can be said that they could find their clearer faith or idea by accumulating conversations with who has many points in common. Therefore, I believe that making friend with Lewis was very valuable for Tolkien.

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WORKS CITED Birzer, Bradley J. J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment. New York: Routledge. 2007.Print. Calhoum, Scott. C.S. Lewis: An examined life. Ed. Bruce L. Edwards. Westport: Praeger Publisher. 2007. Print. Duriez, Colin. Tolkien and C.S. Lewis: The Gift of Friendship. New Jersey: Hidden Spring. 2003. Print. Johnson, Kirstin. Tree of Tales: Tolkien, Literature, and Theology. Ed. Trevor Hart. Texas: Baylor University Press.2007. Print. Nelson, Dale. "The Company They Keep: CS Lewis and JR R. Tolkien as Writers in Community (review)."Tolkien Studies 4.1 (2007): 235-238. Sammons, Martha C. War of the Fantasy Worlds: C.S. Lewis and J.R.R. Tolkien on Art and Imagination. California: 2010. Print.

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TWO PERSONALITIES OF GOLLUM In The Lord of the Rings, one of the greatest high fantasy works, Gollum is one of the key persons. He is originally a normal person and his real name is Sméagol. One day he gets a ring, and then he is possessed by the ring. Finally he becomes something dark and like a monster in appearance. Through watching the movies and reading the novels, he seems to have two personalities, one is Sméagol and the other is Gollum. Sméagol is good one and Gollum is bad one. The bad side is formed after he gets the ring and is tortured. His mental problem also influences on his two characters. I will show the reasons Sméagol becomes to have two personalities. This can be seen, firstly from his life, secondly from the connection between Gollum and the ring, and, lastly from his mental disease. Firstly, I will explain about Gollum’s life. He is originally a Hobbit. His real name is Sméagol and looks like a normal, good person. One day, when he is fishing with his only friend Deagol, Deagol finds a ring in a river. When Sméagol sees the ring, he seems to be possessed by it. He wants the ring violently. Finally he kills Deagol and gets the ring. Ever since, he has minded his murder (In the movies Gollum sometimes blame Sméagol for his murder in his mind). Because he may have been changed into Gollum in his heart at the moment he killed Deagol, Sméagol himself regrets and reflects his crime later. Then he goes into a cave and possessing becomes deeper. He is tortured by the ring so much and then his outward appearance changes completely. He becomes like a monster in appearance. At that time, his personality is already divided into two ones. One is Gollum which is bad side and the other is Sméagol which is good side. Secondly, I will show the connection between Gollum and the ring. Needless to say, its power is so strong. One professor said "I am Sméagol-the young hobbit-like river dweller corrupted and transformed into the pitiable creature Gollum, who is ultimately destroyed by the ring of power (Coben 67)”. As the ring possesses him, he gradually begins to adhere to it. He has no friend, so he cannot help sticking to the ring. In the cave he is always alone. Gollum regards the ring as himself (Pinner). At first he regards the ring as his companion, but gradually starts to speak to his another personality, not to his precious itself (Hyon 11). At last he forms “Gollum” completely. Now, I will show the meanings of the name “Gollum”: Douglas Anderson, in a note to The Annotated Hobbit, says that as “gull” (spelt “goll” in the oldest manuscripts) is an Old Norse word for “gold,” “gollum” would be an oblique case meaning “gold, treasure, something precious”—but even more appropriately, it can also mean “ring” (Nagy 60). As cited above, the name “Gollum” itself has the meaning of “ring”, so Gollum and the ring are related at this point too. Lastly, I will explain about Gollum's mental problem. At first Sméagol has only one personality but by the effect of the ring and loneliness, another individuality “Gollum” is formed. The two personalities conflict each other inside him. In The Two Towers, Gollum says, “Where iss it, where iss it: my precious, my precious? It’s ours, it is, and we wants it (Tolkien 220)”. He calls the ring “my precious,” this implies that he sticks to the ring. Moreover, he calls himself “ours” and “we,” this means that he realizes that he has two individuals. However, in Northern England, people sometimes use “us” for singular, not only for more two persons (Pinner). Sméagol also uses “wants” which is used for the singular. He may be in emotional turmoil whether he is one person or two persons. We also can see the emotional complications in The Two Towers: ‘Leave me alone, gollum! You hurt me. O my poor hands, gollum! I, we, I don’t want to come back. I can’t find it. I am tired. I, we can’t find it, gollum, gollum, no, nowhere. They’re always awake. Dwarves, Men, and Elves, terrible Elves

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Essays

AYAKA T AKADA


Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

with bright eyes. I can’t find it. Ach! ’ He got up and clenched his long hand into a bony fleshless knot, shaking it towards the East. ‘We won’t!’ he cried. ‘Not for you.’ Then he collapsed again. ‘Gollum, gollum,’ he whimpered with his face to the ground. ‘Don’t look at us! Go away! Go to sleep!’ (Tolkien 222223) In this situation Sméagol is trying to get rid of Gollum in his mind. He wants to be released from Gollum, the power of the ring. This can happen to us in real world as the mental disease, which is called Dissociative Identity Disorder. A multiple personality is clearly one of the measures for defence selves. This is a venture to protect selves at the huge sacrifice of dividing selves into several individualities. Of course however deep trauma man has, the symptom doesn't happen unless the man has a kind of nature. The nature is suggestibility, or, we can express it as vulnerability (Machizawa). When people have terrible hardship they often try to forget it, but it remains inside of them and appears outside in shape of different character. Concerning Gollum, his terrible hardships are that he killed his only friend, loneliness in the cave and the power of the ring. He is tortured and tortured, and finally forms another personality. In conclusion, at first Sméagol is a Hobbit, just like a person. One day he encounters a ring and the ring has strong power. He is possessed, kills his only friend Deagol and goes into a cave. He spends long time alone and starts to talk with his another character through the ring. Besides possessing, Gollum and the ring have connection. His name “Gollum” itself has the meaning of “ring”. Afterward he becomes to have two personalities because he has hardships, for instance, he minds his murder, has been alone and tortured by the ring. A mental disease Dissociative Identity Disorder can happen in real world too. When people face difficulties, they try to forget them and make another or other characters, especially if they are vulnerability. Gollum (Sméagol) is one of the key persons in The Lord of the Rings. He is a shadow of human.

WORKS CITED Coben, James. “Gollum, Meet Sméagol: A Schizophrenic Rumination on Mediator Values Beyond Self Determination and Neutrality.” Cardozo Journal of Conflict Resolution Vol. 5, p. 65, 2004. Print. Hyon, Katherine. “Language as Mediation in Tolkien's Mythology” (2007). Graduate English Association New Voices Conference, 2007. Paper 14. Print. Machizawa, Shizuo. 「多重人格とボーダーライン」[“A Multiple Personality and A Border Line”] Tokyo: Surugadai Company, 2012. Nagy, Gergely. “The “Lost” Subject of Middle-earth: The Constitution of the Subject in the Figure of Gollum in The Lord of the Rings.” Tolkien Studies 3.1 (2006): 57-79. Print. Pinner, Richard. “The Lord of the Rings.” Sophia University, Tokyo. 30 May, 20 Jun. 2013. Lecture. Tolkien, J. R. R. The Lord of the Rings [1965]. Collector’s Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin company, 1966.

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TOLKIEN’S WORKS AS SEEN THROUGH THE FRIENDSHIP WITH LEWIS Once upon a time, there was the strong friendship between two great English authors. These great English author’s names are J.R.R Tolkien and C.S. Lewis. Tolkien is famous for his great work, especially Lord of the Rings and C.S. Lewis is famous for Chronicles of Narnia. Their friendship started when they began to work at Oxford University and through joining Inklings, which is the reading club of Oxford, they came to have a deep mutual relationship. They sometimes encouraged each other and sometimes criticized each other. Of course, it is certain that such a friendship had some effects on both of the two authors in some respects. This essay states characteristics of Tolkien’s works as seen through the friendship with Lewis. Common and difference points with Lewis are important to more understand Tolkien’s works. Also, at least, there were the points that Tolkien was influenced by Lewis. Then, this essay treats the common and difference points with Lewis using two paragraphs. Moreover, because it is important for Tolkien himself to be influenced by Lewis, this essay also treats that point. Tolkien had many things in common with C.S. Lewis. First, both each other experienced similar pasts. When Tolkien was three, his father died because of disease. Moreover, when he was eleven, his mother died too. Like Tolkien, Lewis lost his mother when he was young. When Lewis past every day lost in his grief, his father sent him and his brother off to boarding school. Moreover, they had good rank of English army in WWI. They saw pathetic sight there. Lewis was seriously injured, while Tolkien lost two his close friends. It may be sure that both of them had miserable pasts about parents or WWI and that matter had an effect on their works somehow. There is another important common point with each other. That is their way of thinking about literature and mythology especially Northern European one. They loved reading Old and Middle English literature. They loved Northern European literature, which introduced each other. "Like C.S. Lewis he discovered "northerners". .....In him, as Lewis, the scholar and maker are one, perfectly fused." (Lochhead 107) They were sure to find out something about attractive “northerners”. For example, the landscape is. They thought mythology and fact are cloth connect. "This conviction of reconciliation between mythology and the fact made them create the Middle Earth, Narnia, Glome, and Pelendora." (Duriez 94) When they were in Call Biters, which was a reading club at Oxford, they often used to talk about it. This conviction was important role of Tolkien's works. He created own world, and then created the story. Then, this essay turns to the differences between the two writers. There were also many difference points. Lewis became Christian because of Tolkien. And his believe in God was gradually deep. Although Tolkien was Christian too, but there was crucial difference point. That was about allegorical story based on Bible and Christianity. Lewis's story especially Chronicles of Narnia was a full of allegorical meanings. Lewis apparently suggested the connection between Christianity and his own story. For example, Aslan, who is the one of characters of Narnia suggests Christ because he is most powerful and is reborn to save human. Lewis said "We are familiar, no doubt, with the expression "Christian art", by witch people usually mean art Art that represents Bible or hagiological scenes, and there is, in the sense, a fair amount of "Christian Literature." (Lewis 3) But on the side of Tolkien, he did not like allegorical meaning story. As this essay said former, he created own world from first. "Readers of Tolkien have often noted that while he emphatically denied that Lord of the Rings was in any received sense allegory, trilogy seems to have, nonetheless, allegorical features." (Chance, Jane, ed. 61) Of course he wrote the story which was thought he connected the Bible like Leaf by Niggle, but he fundamentally denied these allegorical meanings. It is sure that while Lewis apparently

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Essays

ASUKA T AKAGI


Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

followed the Bible when he created the story, Tolkien created the world and story based on the belief of the Christianity. Also, Tolkien tried to create the fantasy for adult. He thought the fantasy should be underhanded by the very adult. But Lewis was different. "The third way, which is the only one I could ever use myself, consists in writing a children’s story because a children’s story is the best art-form for something you have to say: just as a composer might write a Dead March not because there was a public funeral in view but because certain musical ideas that had occurred to him went best into that form." (Lewis 1) Both of them want people to understand attractive of fantasy, but the way which convent it was different. Up to here, this essay stated about their common points and difference points. What kind of influence on Tolkien's works did Lewis have? This is the next topic. In short, the most important thing is Lewis's existence. He often used to read his manuscript of works (Of course Lord of the Rings too) to Lewis. He said Lewis had an ability to criticize the novel immediately. He evaluated Lewis's ability and needed it for his works because he needed an adult reader. It is one of the reasons that he thanked Lewis's existence. "If Lewis had not been, the epic creation for England which needed patience didn't complete." (Duriez 285) Actually Tolkien said "But we owed each a greater debt to the other, and that tie, with the deep affection that it begot, remained." (Carpenter 252) It is sure that Tolkien owes Lewis a lot of things on his life of creating works. Through his friendship with Lewis, there are many characteristics in Tolkien's works. Tolkien loved Old and Middle English. He had thought of Northern European mythology. He did not like allegorical story. He wrote many fairy tales for adult to let them understand it. The influence which was given by friendship with Lewis was so immense. Without Lewis, Greater works such as Lord of the Rings would have not been created. Their friendship was valuable not only for Tolkien and Lewis, but also for us. Through doing research such as way, we can gain more interesting matter about Tolkien rather than researching into him with turning the spotlight on the only one person.

WORK CITED Lochhead Marion. Renaissance of Wonder. Harper & Row, Publishers. America.1977. Duriez Colin. Tolkien and C.S.Lewis The Gift of Friendship. Trans. Syunichi Naruse.Japan:Syuuhuusya, 2011. Print. Lewis, Clive Staples. Christian reflections. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1994. Chance, Jane, ed. Tolkien and the invention of myth: a reader. University of Kentucky. 2004 Lewis, Clive Staples. On three ways of writing for children. Horn Book. 1963 Carpenter Humphrey. The Inklings. Unwin Paperbacks. 1981

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THE LIGHT AND THE SHADOW IN J.R.R TOLKIEN’S THE LORD OF THE RINGS Through this essay, I examine how the light and the shadow described in J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Lord of The Rings, focussing on Gollum, one of the most important characters in this novel. Gollum was born as a hobbit, and was quite a normal person, though he seemed a bit mentally unstable. In those days, he was called Sméagol, which was his real name. He and his friend Deagol, found The One Ring when they went fishing on Sméagol’s birthday. The ring had an evil power, and Sméagol was possessed from the first time he saw it. Finally, he killed Deagol and robbed him of the Ring. The Ring possessed Sméagol deeper, and that made him split his personality into two parts. The good personality is called Sméagol, which was his real name. He had a fear for the power of the ring, and wanted to be released from it. He loves Frodo, calls him “Master!” and followed him. He took the Hobbits to the Black Gate and helped them to get rid of the ring. Sméagol is a coward, but has a pure heart. Frodo knew it, and trusts him, so Gollum looked happy to be called Sméagol. The other personality is “Gollum”. He hates Hobbits, and especially in bad terms with Sam. He always is looking for the chance to snatch the Ring, and trapped Frodo and Sam to take it. He calls the Ring “My Precious”, but actually, this word means not only the Ring, but also Gollum himself, because he was alone in the dark cave for a long time, and no one but himself was the only one he talks to. This personality represents the Ring itself and strongly affected to Sméagol, to put him into the dark side. He especially hates pure and beautiful things, for example, Elves and Elvish works. And the reason that the personality of Gollum represents the One Ring, is one of the main points of this story. One of the theme of The Lord of the Rings is the comparison between light and the shadow, in other words, the Good and the Evil. In this story, the constitution of light and shadow works very well. Each comparison explains the important factor, such as an intention, a situation of war, words and appearance. Those elements had a great effect to point up the others multilayered in the story, and then the shadow comes up in front of the readers, also can see the light at the same time. Although, each character in the story are not so simple, and that is the reason why these stories are so interesting. (Mizui 94) Gollum is the best example of this theme, and Tolkien was really good at describing people like him, who are placed himself between good and evil, and fluctuate among them. As I mentioned above, though Gollum had turned to the dark side, his good personality was still remained, and from that emotion, he somehow loved Frodo. But he could not defeat a thirst for the ring, and this fact made him behave like his personality being separated. In this point, the other person that can be compared with Gollum is Samwise Gamgee. I think he represents pure thing, which Gollum especially hates, because of his selfless devotion for his best friend, Frodo. And he described as very reliable and trusted person, although he was not so funny as Merry or Pippin. This hate for pure things is one of the reason that why Gollum and Sam are in bad terms. The other reason of their bad terms, is that, Sam is a kind of an obstacle for Gollum, because he always besides Frodo, and protect him. That means, Sam was also protecting the ring. As for Sam, he disliked Gollum because Gollum was chasing Frodo for a long time, and they both were stressed by that. Gollum’s separated personality can connect to the mental disease that could be happened to us, in this real world. The name of the disease is Dissociative Identity Disorder. It appeared to the people especially who had a terrible hardship in the past. They often try to forget their cruel memories, but it remained in the depth of their mind, and appears outside in shape of different character. And in this story, the two personalities are trying to control each other.

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Essays

REI ISHII


Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

“One of the main arguments made by DID sceptics is that people who show these symptoms are simply prone to fantasising, and have become enamoured with the idea of the disorder through characters such as Sméagol and Gollum in The Lord of the Rings. ”(Hamzelou 8) In this quote the key point is the word “us”, which Gollum used to describe himself. Gollum knows that there are two different personalities existed inside him, and because of the love and hate for that personality, he continued to use that word, even the time he tries to get rid of it. In Japanese version this word is of course translated as plural, but it can be thought in other way. In Northern English dialect, it often means just one person.(Pinner) Perhaps nowhere is Tolkien’s use of idiom, dialect, and character-revealing language more apparent than in the portrayal of Gollum/Sméagol. As Flieger points out, his “childish whining and mutterings mark him as regressive and infantile; his habitual use of the plural to refer to himself signals his divided character; his rare use of ‘I’ heralds the infrequent return of his hobbit humanity” (7). (Hyon 11) The italicized ‘gollum,gollum!’ indicates an onomatopoeic descriptor, signalling that the name “Gollum” is assumed from the sound of his hacking cough. The switch from the “we” to the “I” and the self-naming of “Sméagol” rather than “Gollum” indicates a change in character, at least for the time being. (Hyon 12) Another important point is that, Gollum is the shadow of Frodo. In other words, Gollum represents the future of Frodo, when he continued to hold the Ring. But there is a big difference that, Frodo was loved by everyone around him, while Gollum was always alone. The fact that Frodo and Gollum are each being separated into two personality (Though, Frodo’s case is not so clear), represents that the process of making decision is always follows us human. Even once you get rid of your evil mind and chose the right way, the new decision will coming up in front of you, and things are going back to where it started. And Frodo had failed in his last decision. This ending express that how difficult it is to stop the revelation of evil possibility in ourselves, and just do the things we have to do. Frodo was of course a good “human”, but he was just a “human” and could not resist to the last temptation. (Aoki 60) In conclusion, Gollum represents human. We can easily be corrupted by evil and could not resist to our temptation. He was quite a normal person at first, but through the possession by the ring, he changed to the dark side. If he had a bit more mental strength, I think Gollum can live more happily as a normal person.

WORK CITED Ritgerð, and Egill M. Halldórsson. "The Character of the Ring." 水井雅子 『J.R.R.トールキン』(Masako Mizui, J.R.R.Tolkien ) 現代英米児童文学評伝叢書 (The modern English American Children’s Literature Critics) KTC 中央出版(KTC-Chuo Publishing)2004. 11-9 printed. 青木由紀子”『指輪物語』と根源的な悪-〈対〉となる人物群- フロドとゴクリ”(Yukiko Aoki, The Lord of The Rings and the roots of the evil- The character compared as pairsFrodo and Gollum:シリーズ もっと知りたい世界の名作 9『指輪物語』(The series of detailed explanation for world-famous written pieces No.9 “The Lord of The Rings” ) 成瀬 俊一・編著(edited by Shunichi Naruse)ミネルヴァ書房(Minerva-shobo publishing),2007.10-30 printed in Japan Pinner, Richard. Sophia University 20.June. Integrated Skills Hyon, Katherine, "Language as Mediation in Tolkien's Mythology" (2007). Graduate English Association New Voices Conference 2007. Paper 14. http://digitalarchive.gsu.edu/english_conf_newvoice_2007/14

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LORD OF THE RINGS AND WARS Although Tolkien denied it himself, Lord if the Rings is sometimes seen as an allegory of wars in our world. For example, Brian Kessler said that “there was a popular notion that the book was in some way meant as an allegory for the Second World War, the Cold War, or the state of affairs in England after the Second World War.”(Kessler), so this report will show how Tolkien’s works were related to wars, especially the Great War or Second World War. Tolkien wrote many works, Silmarillion, Lord of the Rings, Hobbit and more. In his works, particularly, “Lord of the Rings” was thought idea during the Great War and written during Second World War, therefore, this work was based on his war experience strongly. His works were genre of high fantasy, and mostly written for children, for that reason, it is sure that his works taught children something of wars subliminally. This paper will focus on “Lord of the Rings” in various point; 1, ‘of the Great War’, 2, ‘of Second World War’, 3, ‘his views of war and his works himself’. Of the Great War, Tolkien joined it as soldier. His experience of army or war was not useless for his creative activity. He created his mythological idea during it, for instance, 'Middle-Earth' or 'Mordor'. It is said that “Tolkien's time in the army was not completely wasted in terms of his creative life. As he later wrote to his son Christopher, some of the earliest development of his mythology and languages was done in canteens, at lectures, in crowded and noisy huts, by candle-light in tents, and even in dugouts under shell-fire. He admitted that it did not make him a good officer”. (Ott). Moreover, “Tolkien contracted trench fever. It was during his time recuperating that he began to write what would develop into the mythology of Arda” (Fea) in this connection, Arda is called the earth in Tolkien’s mythology. Fighting scenes and evil characters were based on his experience of war. For example, scene of battlefield was especially inspired from this. Above mentioned, Tolkien fought as British soldier in the Great War., and he went through the Battle of Somme, it was one of the largest battle in this war, in addition, making it one of humanity’s bloodiest battles. He had a trauma to wars, and delineated Dead Marsh, the place is dreary and wearisome, especially inspired from it. Someone was said like this, “Recent scholarship has probed the biographical inspiration for the Dead Marshes, that is, the rich parallels they share with the topography of northern France in World War I where Tolkien himself served for some months in 1916.”(Sinex 93) Evil things or battle scenes in this book were reflected on thread of war powerfully. Without traumatic war experience, he could not have created his works or his world. Lord of the rings was written from 1937 to 1949, so it was also said that this book was made an impact on Second World War. Franco Manni and Simone Bonechi said that "The Lord of the Rings being read as an allegory of WWII and its aftermath, Tolkien was not only profoundly influenced by the war, but “participating in WWII for him meant writing LotR [sic]".(Dawson 143) And people often think that Sauron is allegory of Adolf Hitler, or Saruman is akin to Mussolini. Sauron is leader in Mordor, and, Mordor is the most evil or dark place. Mordor resembles German in Second World War. Sauron tries to obtain ring’s power; this power is like an atomic bomb, however, he cannot succeed it finally. Furthermore, his way of conquering Hobbit’s world is too just like that Hitler persecuted Jews like the Holocaust, one book said that “A closer likeness between Hitler and the Sauron of the unfinished 1936 time traveled story ‘the Lost Road’” (Drout 455) He chiefly thought such idea during First World

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Essays

Y UKIHIRO ARIMA


Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

War, and yet he thought character’s idea deeply during Second World War. Sam Gamgee is an example. To take an illustration, “The First World War helped Tolkien realize the working-class Sam Gamgee as a character, but the Second World War explains why Sam proved the only Ring-bearer to hold to the Quest” (Edwards 6) Second World War gave this work kind of means, this experience created profoundly the world of “Lord of the Rings”. Tolkien tasted difficult experience in wars; destructing nature, he likes nature very much, and seeing dead or killed people, his friends, and so on. Tolkien was against a policy of Second World War. However, in fact, Tolkien did not say clearly that his works was allegory of real world. And were aforementioned opinions until now just presumption? This answer is not absolutely yes. Lord of the Rings had many elements of allegory to real world, with some kind of form, but he did not it intentionally. In conclusion, it is sure that Tolkien's works were contained his war experience and thread of war, his thought to war subliminally. His works show that about wars for children who cannot know its directly. For children, wars are past incidents; moreover want them not to pass through the affair. Tolkien dislikes wars, destruction of nature, he wish it remain that nature is nature. So Tolkien’s hope may be never happened such sorrow and miserable events by children. J.R.R.Tolkien may try to give them a kind of lesson with Lord of the rings or Hobbit, and so.

WORK CITED Ott, Nancy Marie. “JRR Tolkien and World War I” Exploring the words and worlds of J.R.R. Tolkien. Green Books. The One Ring.net Web. 2013. July.2. Fea, Aear. “World war and its impact on Tolkien and Lord of the rings”. The council of Elrond Web . 2013, July, 3. Sinex, Margaret. " Tricksy Lights: Literary and Folkloric Elements in Tolkien's Passage of the Dead Marshes." Tolkien Studies 2.1 (2005): 93-112. Print. 2013, July, 12.. Dawson, Deidre A. "The Ring Goes Ever On." Tolkien Studies 8.1 (2011): 143-241. Print 2013. July, 12. Kessler, Brian. "Tolkien and the Wars". Web. 2013, July, 12. Drout, Michael. “J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment”. Print. 2013, July, 12 Edwards, Owen, Dudley. “British Children's Fiction in the Second World War”. Print 2013, July, 15

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CREATION OF THE BEAT LITERATURE BY JAZZ MUSIC Music and literature do not seem to concern with each other. However, as a matter of fact, there are some relationships between music and literature. It applies to jazz music in The Beat Generation. In 1945, after The World WarII drew to a close, jazz music spread to The Beat Generation. Until then, the former style, big band jazz had been famous in centering on the United States, but the new style called Bebop became popular among Beats by Beat alto saxophonist Charlie parker, trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie and so on. They introduced small combos jazz and many people could be seated and relaxed while listening to jazz music. So, many Beat people went to the night club on the 52nd Street in New York and enjoyed jazz music. Jazz music was an important part of their life. The Beat writers were also one of the jazz lovers. They often went to the night club and enjoyed music. Looking into their works, there are many references to jazz. So, for the Beat Writers, jazz music was very essential. Jack Kerouac, who was known to give birth to the Beat Generation, was influenced by jazz music greatly. He produced many works which he used free expression and vision. Since he loved free-flowing rhythm and beat style of the jazz music, he made the best of these feature of the jazz in his expression. He referred the influence and goodness of the jazz this, "Yes, jazz and bop, in the sense of a, say, a tenor man drawing a breath and browning a phrase on his saxophone, till he was out of breath, and when he does, his sentence, his statement's been made...that's how I therefore separate my sentence, as breath separations of the mind." (Swartz 10) He was known to as a Beat's parent who introduced the word, "beat". He made many meanings of it influenced by jazz music. First, he made a meaning, "on the beat". He often accompanied this meaning with his phrase. This represents free-flowing rhythm of experimental jazz. Second meaning is "beat down". This meaning was derived from Beat's slang and represents broken and beaten down. And last meaning is "beatitude". He made this meaning as he approached the end of his life. It represents bliss of the beatification. He defined to beat was feel beats and oneself. In his the most famous work, On The Road, he wrote about these bless. Then there was swing, and Roy Eldridge, vigorous and virile, blasting the horn for everything it had in waves of power and logic and subtlety--leaning to it with glittering eyes and a lovely smile and sending it out broadcast to rock the jazz world. Then had come Charlie Parker, a kid in his mother's woodshed in Kansas City, blowing his taped-up alto among the logs, practicing on rainy days, coming out to watch the old swinging Basie and Benny Moten band that had Hot Lips Page and the rest--Charlie Parker leaving home and coming to Harlem, and meeting mad Thelonius Monk and madder Gillespie (from On The Road) He wrote about the jazz music in this book many times. For him the jazz music was not only Beat's identity but also his memory of experienced jazz music. Allen Ginsberg shared much of Kerouac's excitement over jazz attempted to adjust its procedure to his own poetry. He developed along with jazz as America developed a distinctive

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Essays

M EGUMI N AITO


Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

cultural identity. Although he did not concern himself with jazz in his poetry as Kerouac in his fiction, he realized influence of the jazz. He wrote, By 1955 I wrote poetry...arranged by phrasing or breath groups into little short line patterns...and saxophone-like chorus lines I knew Kerouac would hear sound of..."(Skerl) He used many phrases whose sound was like musical instruments. The sound of Ginsberg's was distinct and naturally criticized by society for many times, but his work fascinated many readers. Jazz poetry is also an attempt at conveying the social message that is inherent jazz music. As many literary works were influenced by the jazz movement, many forms of the fusion of the reading literary works and listening to jazz music happened. In the 1960s and 1970s jazz poetry on record has been dominated by Black poets who speak directly and musically of the racial experience. Hearing performance with the power of well-refined multiple voices made their experience clearer and gave many listeners shock. And in the West Coast, live performance for the anti-social movement became popular. Lawrence Ferlinghetti and Kenneth Rexroth tried to make poetry free from the control of the academics who did not know any poetry. They believed that incorporating jazz would attract a wider and bring poetry down to the level of the average jazz-club patron. Many of these poems were recited with jazz accompaniment at the jazz club. The results were tape recorded and released on the Fantasy jazz level. Rexroth performed his 20-minute poem with a free-jazz accompaniment and Ferlinghetti wrote seven poems published with jazz. These jazz-poetry impressed many listeners and made them memorize a strong social messages. In the Beat Generation, jazz music and Beat literature were linked together strongly. Without jazz music, Beat literature would not have succeeded and while without Beat literature, jazz music would not spread to many people. Jazz music and Beat literature were essential for each other. The wild enthusiasm of Beat writers to jazz music lead a connection to jazz music and finally made splendid harmony which moved many people.

WORKS CITED Wallenstein, Barny "The Jazz-Poetry Connection" Performing Arts Journal Inc Vol4 No3 (1980) pp122~134 Swartz, Omar. The view from On the Road: The rhetorical vision of Jack Kerouac. SIU Press, 1999. Gibson,M.Ezra "Writing Music: Jazz in Twentieth-century American Poetry" ProQuwst (2007) Skerl, Jennie "Reconstructing the Beats" Palgrave Macmillan (2004) Dittman, J. Michael "Masterpieces of Beat literature" Green Wood Press (2007) Kerouac, Jack. "On the Road� /The Dharma Bums/The Subterraneans (1999).

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THE

HIPPIES ACCOMPLISHED THE GENERATION’S IDEA IN THE REAL WORLD

BEAT

RUI K UROSAKI In 1950’s the group of writers began to work. That is the Beat Generation. They tried to break the society where they lived with their works, such as poems or novels. They often used drugs, so their stories are too much chaotic sometimes, but their works have a great impact on readers. After the Beat Generation period ended, the hippie culture appeared in the mid 1960’s. The word “Hippie” derived from hip, hipped or happy. They dropped out of the mainstream and tried to return to nature. Beatnik and hippie were often compared because both of them managed to reject society and appealed their concepts to their culture. However, they had completely different the way to show their thoughts to the society. Beatnik’s idea is only in their literature, but hippie’s idea is in their own life style, so hippie accomplished the realization of the Beat Generation’s philosophy because of their regardless of high level academic background, their fashion which was easy for public to imitate and accept their idea as well, and constructive action which is different from the Beat’s stance which is not pacifists. This paper first describes the Beat’s high level academic background, and hippie’s regardless of it, then explains hippie’s fashion which got attention by public, and made it easy to accept their idea, and finally, considers the different way of approaching to show their idea between the Beats and the Hippies. Major beat generation writers graduated from elite university. Allen Ginsberg graduated from Colombia University, and Jack Kerouac dropped out same university as Jack. William S. Burroughs graduated from Harvard University. In this way, beatnik had great educational backgrounds. These intelligent writers wrote many novels and poems which had great messages to their society, however, readers may have difficulty to understand their thoughts because these works did not have reality, and also these were too much different from normal people’s concepts. On the other hand, the hippie culture had a variety of people, including actors or musicians. John Lennon was one of the hippie musicians. His famous song “Imagine” had an excellent message to the world peace and love. In the lyrics he says,

We can understand easily what he wants to express. However, On the other hand, “The Naked Lunch” by William S. Burroughs, “Howl” by Allen Ginsberg or “On the Road” by Jack Kerouac are too hard to get the meanings. There are two reasons why we feel so. The one reason is that they used drugs while their workings, so these stories are chaotic and crazy. The other important reason is their idea is too much complicated to the readers because their concept was created from the high level education. According to U.S. Department of state (A Divers Educational System), in 1950s there were a few people who were able to enter the university. The Beat Generation’s idea was spread out by writer who had extraordinary intelligence and

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Essays

Imagine no possessions, I wonder if you can, No need for greed or hunger, A brotherhood of man. Imagine all the people sharing all the world. (Lennon)


Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

unusual way of thinking. On the other hand, Hippies culture had variety people, such as John Lennon, who expressed his idea with very clear expressions and the way. Thus, the Beat’s idea was hardly accepted by public, yet Hippie’s thoughts became general one. Secondly, the Beat Generation writers had no characteristics on their appearances. Of course, they had very interesting life style, such as using drugs, homosexuality, obscenity trial, and so on. However, we cannot understand what they want to express from their appearances. Meanwhile the Hippie culture is famous for their unique fashion. Mortal Journey says that they wore very light color clothes with beads. The tie-dyed t-shirt, ragged clothes, sandals are popular style among them. Most men had long hair, beards and mustaches, while women had no makeup and bare foot. These clothes express their hope to be free from the mainstream. They showed how they different from the straight. (The 1960’s Hippie Counter Culture movement). These hippies had a great influence on the movie and music, too, such as “Easy Rider”. According to the All Movie, there are two men in the movie, and they visited many places. On the trip, they met variety of people, including the hippies. Two men used marijuana in the story, and enjoyed the trip freely. At the end of the film, they faced with cruel American society. These features show that this move was inspired by the hippie culture. In this way, the hippie’s fashion got attention at first, and then their life style was accepted. There are some movies about the Beat Generation. However, these feature on the Beat Generation writer’s life or their own books, not their culture. Therefore, the hippie culture got attention because of their unique fashion which had clear message to the society, and then their concept was accepted by public. Thirdly, the way of approaching to show the idea is different between the Beats and the Hippies. The Beat generation did not have a specific stance as pacifists. In “Howl” Allen Ginsberg says, I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness, starving hysterical naked, dragging themselves through the negro streets at dawn looking for an angry fix, angelheaded hipsters burning for the ancient heavenly connection to the starry dynamo in the machinery of night. (P.9)

It can be seen clearly that how Allen Ginsberg had a strong emotion and angriness to the American society. He used many sexual words and curses because he wanted to break the mainstream. In this way, the Beat Generation’s philosophy is very destructive. Moreover, according to the Understanding the Beats (Foster 151), at first stage of their action as the Beat Generation, they were known as the group which is just interested in drug and jazz. The public image of them was severe. It took time before they were recognized as great writers. Yet after the World War II, people tried to reconstruct their society, so they need the constructive concept. The Hippie’s idea which was free, peace and love fit to people’s hope. The Beatles is the one of famous hippie musicians. They gave peace and love message to the listeners. According to The Beatles Bible (All You Need Is Love), their song, “All You Need is Love” is the first song which was televised around the world. People who live in about 25 countries were able to watch their performance and received their peace and love message. In this way, people in those days needed the Hippie’s pacifistic idea, rather than too aggressive concept which was shown by the Beat Generation writers.

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In conclusion, the Beat Generation expressed their thoughts in their literature while the Hippie showed their idea in their own life style, so they achieved the Beat’s idea in the real world. Basically the philosophy of the Beat Generation and the Hippies is the same, however, because of the difference of their educational background their way of thinking is completely different, and the Beats had no noticeable characters on their appearances, on the contrary, the Hippie’s fashion had strong power to give their massage to the society, also they were pacifist which is different from the Beat’s aggressive stance. There were some groups which were similar to the Beat Generation and the Hippies culture, such as the Lost Generation. The Encyclopedia Americana says (the Lost Generation) this is a group of American writers during World War I. They also wanted to break the society which had continued war, and rejected the straight custom. They began to work in 1920s, so they are called predecessor of the Beat Generation. They have almost same philosophy to the Beat’s and the Hippie’s. However, they were pessimist, and they only managed to reject their life, like the way which can be seen in the Great Gatsby F. Scott Fitzgerald. On the other hand, the Hippie culture was optimistic, and they tried to change the society toward happy and peace place. This is the reason why they were accepted by people and their culture spread out.

WORK CITED All Need Is Love. (2008). The Beatles Bible. Retrieved July 3, 2013, from http://www.beatlesbible.com/songs/all-you-need-is-love/ Anon. (1994). The Lost Generation. Encyclopedia Americana. 30:758. A Divers Educational System. Info U.S.A U.S. Department of State. Retrieved July 1, 2013, from http://usinfo.org/enus/education/overview/ch6.html Easy Rider. (1969). Allmovie. http://www.allmovie.com/movie/v15197

Retrieved

July

2,

2013,

from

Foster, E. (1992). Understanding the Beats. Colombia; University of South Carolina Press. Ginsberg, Allen. (1956). Howl. San Francisco: City Light Books. The 1960’s Hippie Counter Culture movement. (2010). Mortal Journey. Retrieved June 29, 2013, form http://www.mortaljourney.com/2011/03/1960trends/hippie-counter-culture-movement

Essays

John Lennon,“Imagine”, Sony, September 9, 1971. LP. .

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Spring 2013

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BEATNIKS AND THE BEATLES S HUN T AKAMATSU The Beatles is the most famous and popular band. They are popular even today. They played an active role in 1960’s. In the almost same time, there were a generation which called “Beatniks” and also called “Beat Generation”. The word, “Beat Generation” is general term for youth in NY who was not law-abiding. There is a opinion that the name, “The Beatles” was taken from “The Beat Generation.” There were young people that was called “Hippie”. They were follower of “The Beat Generation” and they loved “The Beatles” so much. By “The Beatles”, “Hippie” became so famous. There is strong relationship between “Hippie” and “The Beatles”, and also there is strong relationship between “The Beatles” and “Beat Generation”. In this paper, I will explore about the strong relationship between “The Beatles” and “Beatnik” . First of all, I am going to give an explanation about “The Beatles” and “The Beat Generation”. “The Beatles” is a British band and that play an active role in 1960th. (The Beat Generation is from 1955 to 1964.) The members are Vocal and Guitar, “John Lennon”, Vocal and Bass “Paul McCartney”, Lead Guitar “George Harrison”, and Drums “Ringo Starr”. Main vocals are John and Paul, but other two members are also singing in some song. Their songs are known not only their country, England, but also all over the world even this Japan. At first, they debut as an idol, but after, they were regarded as that their music itself has good quality. Next, I am going to explain about “Beatniks”, “Beat Generation”. The word “Beat” has meaning that “Naked”, “Crushed”, “Up Beat”. The first person who made this word is the write “Jack Kerouac”. The Beat Generation Writer, he and “Allen Ginsberg” spread this word and young people who were called “Hippie” believed in “Beat Generation” eagerly. They denied the life that is restrained by established value like tradition and rule. They also propose that recurrence to wild life before civilization, and they loved sex, peace, and love. This “Hippie” was also related to “The Beatles”. Second, I am going to explain the relationship between “Hippie” and “The Beatles”. In those days, “Hippie” used drug, LSD, Marijuana and so on. They liked drugs, rock music, and psychedelic fashion as a counter culture. By using drugs, they felt refresh. Surprisingly, it has been said that “The Beatles” encouraged and promote drugs to young people all over the world. In short, “The Beatles” praise drugs. In their song, Tomorrow Never Knows, there are such lyrics, “Turn off your mind, relax and float down stream. It is not dying, It is not dying. Lay down all thoughts, surrender to the void. It is shining, It is shining. Yet you may see the meaning of within. It is being, it is being.”(Lennon-McCartney, The Beatles. Tomorrow Never Knows.England.1996.) This lyric seems to sing about spiritual world, however, in fact, this lyrics respect drugs. They sing the world when they use LSD. This lyric taken from the book which is called The Psychedelic Experience written by Timothy Francis Leary. In this book, he said that same things not to get down by using drugs. Therefore, I can say this song recommend using drugs. And in the song, Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds, people often say that the initial of the title contains “LSD”, when people use drugs, it is said they see hallucination and it seem like diamonds. But writer of this lyric, John denies the relationship. John Lennon from The Beatles often went on LSD trips in the 1960s and regarded it as ‘a visual thing and a therapy, looking at yourself

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a bit’. Although The Beatles song ‘Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds’ is often associated with LSD, Lennon stated it had no connection with this drug. Recent progress in hallucinogen research proves that Lennon was wrong and LSD is destined to be in the Sky with Diamonds. (Vanadzina 3) From these facts, I can clearly say that “The Beatles” recommended drugs, and as a result of this, Hippy used drug well. This is how related “Hippies” and “The Beatles” Third, in 1968, “The Beatles” went to India by the advice of George’s wife. They were taught by “Maharishi Mahesh Yogi”. It is said that all four members meditated from AM3:00, and they spent 5 hours, and they listened a sermon by Maharishi eagerly. One of important hippie’s policy is “Releasing Spirits”. The Beatles member also looked for “Releasing Spirits” not by drugs but also by meditation. Ringo Starr stayed at India for 11 days, and Paul stayed a month in India. One of the famous examples of the effect by India, there is the song which is called Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown). The Beatles’ Rubber Soul, released in 1965, featured George Harrison playing a sitar on the John Lennon song “Norwegian Wood.” Although Harrisonʼs use of the instrument was obviously non-traditional, his iconic status and devotion to the sitar sparked widespread interest in Indian music and world music in general. (Frey 2) In this song, they use the instrument that is called “Sitar”. This is Indian traditional instrument. I can say this is clearly the effect of India. Hippies also went to India by the effect of “The Beatles”. They regarded as “Releasing by Drugs” and “Releasing by Spiritual Awakening” are same thing. The “Hippie Movement” spread all over the world. In conclusion, The Beatles member were using LSD, and they wrote the song that recommend LSD. Hippies were also using drugs for their “Refreshing Spirit”. They have common points, and this is why the Beatles is popular among Hippie. The Beatles went to India for “Releasing by Spiritual Awakening” The Beatles member also have the aspects of “Beat Generation”, and Hippie. They were influenced by India, they wrote the song Norwegian Wood. Hippies also went to India to release their sprit not by drugs but by “Spiritual Awakening”. Hippie Movement spread all over the world by the popularity of “The Beatles”. From these facts, I can say “The Beatles” related to “The Beat Generation” strongly, and I can also say that “The Beatles” is follower of “The Beat Generation”. “The Beatles” contains two meaning in one word. “The Beatles” name itself is formed “The Beetle” and “Beat”. Now, I can clearly say that this “Beat” comes from “The Beat Generation”. This is how “The Beatles” and “Beat Generation” related.

INTEC JAPAN. "Are The Beatles a missionary of LSD ?" Alpert, Richard, Timothy Leary, and Ralph Metzner. "The psychedelic experience." (1971) Karina Vanadzina, University of Warwick , The two-faced Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds: are we missing out on LSD? Files, Trey. "The Concept of ʻWorld Musicʼ: A Brief Introduction and Personal Perspective." (2007). Lennon-McCartney, The Beatles. Tomorrow Never Knows. England.1996.

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WORK CITED


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Spring 2013

THE BEATLES AND AN AGE OF BEAT CULTURE J UN K INASE The Beatles which was organized in 1960 by four members of Liverpool in England, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr, and George Harrison, is one of the best known bands in the world, and the songs can be heard when we watch TV or walk through street, that is, we can feel their sounds everywhere and every time, though about half a century has passed since the band had broke up. It is amazing one band have been known and listened all over the world and moreover still have power to move us. Though there are many more fascinated or technical bands other than The Beatles, like Nirvana, Queen and so on, and, of course, those groups are still popular now, it is not to say too much that Beatles has no equal for the extraordinary sense of their sound, famousness in those days, also their novelty fashion and so on. All they had done is great and it is true that they created a base of nowadays music. And at that time the beat culture was at the age of prosperous. Beat people tended to oppose the traditional system which forced them to repress and, they used drug and were in colorful clothes and so on to be free from reality for some time. Then, it is important to find some connections or similarities between Beat Culture and The Beatles on this paper. First of all, it is necessary to know how members of this super band came together and to follow the story of the group in chronological order. John Lennon formed the skiffle band (that was popular in late 1950s in London), The Quarrymen before changing name to The Beatles, when he was in his teens, and then he met Paul McCartney, and George Harrison via the group, and they would go successful road later as Beatles. But at that time, a composition of member was different from Beatles, Stuart Sutcliffe who was John’s art school friend was in the group and Ringo Starr did not have contact with other members at this time. Then, they became active as semi-pro-band and Pete Best joining made them active more, and then they moved from Merseyside to Hamburg which was famous for urban decay. They spent terrific schedule there, but this experience, undoubtedly, polished and developed their sounds. However, when they went back to Liverpool for misrepresentation of George’s age, Stuart left the group and decided to stay there though this decision led his death, (for he was caught up a fighting of the funs) and other members heard that despairing news when after they had went back to Liverpool. But Ringo Starr joining to The Beatles changed that not good atmosphere. In this way, members of the super rock band gathered and the successful road opened up in front of them. Then they became a legend band with a lot of famous songs. And now, it needs brief explanation about the age of beat culture. Beats’ is a kind of counter culture where people, especially young, resist value of existing system or established custom occurred in America in around 1950s and 1960s. At this time, WWII where countries fought each other and a lot of people became a victim to that insignificance murder eventually drew to a close (even though it was in the midst of cold war that is a war not to appeal armed force but only to use economic or diplomatic way). That is, people confronted with big change to switch over to new world from old imperialism. So the movement mentioned above rose and then, Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, and William S Burroughs provide explosive power with that movement. So, in that time, hippies who reject a regime, have a long hair and heavy beard, use drugs, consider initiative in the style of dress or behaviour, and psychedelic rock music to be free from the values of those days appeared.

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Essays

“Turn on, tune in, drop out,” Timothy Leary advised young people in the 1960s. And many did, creating a counterculture built on drugs, rock music, sexual liberation, and communal living. The hippies preached free love, promoted flower power, and cautioned against trusting anyone over thirty. Eschewing money, materialism, and politics, they repudiated the mainstream values of the times. Along the way, these counterculturists created a lasting legacy and inspired long-lasting social changes. The Hippies and American Values uses an innovative approach to exploring the tenets of the counterculture movement. (Miller) Here, it is important to pay attention to similarities between The Beatles and Beat culture. Repeating many times, considering the people of Beat generation as those who thought to destroy traditional or existing system of custom or so, then we can see some interesting view; Beatles are derived from beats culture. In fact, they broke the existed style of rock music in many ways, so it seems that they held some Beat movement in culture of music. And there are some hints in their name, “Beatles”, for it seems the name, Beatles, has wrong spell for “beetle” of insects, and same spell with “Beat” though they stated nothing to do with being given some influences by authors of beat generation, Ginsberg, Burroughs, Kerouac. It seems that they had destroyed some traditional way in music and the novel and innovative music had some influence on hippies or beatnik. In other words, Beatles have some characters seen in hippies or beatnik when focusing them from that point. Then, it needs to focus destruction in rock music that Beatles did and some influences Beatles had on people and society at that time. At first, the topic is what they had done on rock. They really tried a lot of things and broke and opened up a new field in rock, it is not too much to say Beatles is a pioneer of nowadays rock or even other genre. They intended to change the traditional way in rock. Taking some examples, they used irregular code as ever, imitated black music and mixed jazz phrases or various things with their rock with their rock, and they often used chorus and developed the songs of chorus. Of course, they did not only taking many things in their music, but also they digested and used as their own way. Doing so, they made up their own sounds different from traditional one, and then they tried and tried many things to find their original one. Therefore it is certainly true that they destroyed the traditional perspective in rock or popular music and succeeded to embody new way or system in that. Next is about an influence of Beatles upon people of those days, of course including hippies or beatnik and society. The Beatles was such a well known group, so they have huge power to move people. When they cut their hair called mop-top hair, people try to imitate their hair, When John Lennon cracked a joke at live something like, Beatles is more famous than Jesus, next day the mass media made a great fuss about it, and when they carried out a live performance at a roof of a building without information, the roads around the building was in huge traffic jam, for people left their cars to watch or listen to that live performance. What it comes down to is that when they turned to right, then people turned to right. From this, it seems their fun played some roles in supporting their popularity, and they had some influence on people and culture those days. The Beatles and their repertory have grown in popularity as subjects with both general audiences and scholars, if not for the quality of the music, then for their historical and cultural significance. (Thompson)


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The Beatles: Image and the Media charts the transformation of the Beatles from teen idols to leaders of the youth movement and powerful cultural agents. (Frontani) And it is interesting to note that Beatles had a relationship with Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, who was a one of the leader of hippies (but they disappointed with him and broke away from him). From this fact, it can be stated that Beatles was a group who born and brought up with beat culture and stimulated the culture and people at that time. Finally, maybe it cannot mention simply that Beatles was a kind of hippies or beatnik itself, but the band was born and brought up through beat culture and in fact, they have various similarities to those. Beatles songs stimulated people of beat culture and the other side, beat culture certainly had some influences on their music. After all Beatles who was made in beat age aroused defiance of people of the age and helped the age to shift from old to new one. Therefore, their most important achievement was that they have been remaining bridge symbol of the age, and their sounds and spirits are living even now.

WORKS CITED Phillips, Lisa. Beat culture and the New America, 1950-1965. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art in association with Flammarion, Paris. 1995. Print. Kondo, Chakku 『ビートルズサウンズ大研究上』『ビートルズサウンズ大研究下』 Tokyo: Shinko Music. 1998. Print. Partridge, William L. The hippie ghetto: The natural history of a subculture. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1973. Print. Hideki, Osaka. “Things I Said Today - with The Beatles.” Hideki-Osaka. com. 2010. Web. 6th July. 2013. Gordon Thompson. "Sgt. Pepper and the Beatles: It Was Forty Years Ago Today (review)." Music and Letters 92.1 (2011): 114-115. Project MUSE. Web. 10 Jul. 2013. <http://muse.jhu.edu/>. Frontani, Michael R. The Beatles: Image and the Media. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2007. Project MUSE. Web. 10 Jul. 2013. <http://muse.jhu.edu/>. Miller, Timothy S. The Hippies and American Values. Knoxville, TN: The University of Tennessee Press, 2011. Project MUSE. Web. 10 Jul. 2013. <http://muse.jhu.edu/>.

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WHY WERE THE BEAT GENERATION SO CRAZY? I choose this topic because, through the class, it is important for me to consider their writing style, their thoughts and ideas, their lives, and so on. I understood that they were so crazy well. For example, they used drugs such as heroin, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), cannabis, marijuana, and so on. In these writers, there was a person who shot one's wife such as William S. Burroughs and there were some people who did unusual things such as Allen Ginsberg who traveled exotic areas, used drugs, and had outspoken political views. However, I did not understand why they acted so crazy and what they did so crazy for. Then, in this essay, I would like to research why Beat Generation's writers were so crazy by considering the three points of view that are the religious visions of Beat Generation's writers, women of Beat Generation's writers, and the different craziness between Beat Generation's writers or Beatniks and Hippies. First of all, I would like to consider the religious visions of Beat Generation's writers. In Beat Generation's writers, there were many homosexual people such as Allen Ginsberg, William S. Burroughs, and so on. The homosexuality was considered to commit a sin in the area where Christianity was believed. So in the United States, when the general public saw homosexual writers, they thought that these writers were so crazy. But I think that they were not real homosexual people. "It is ironic yet telling that the Beats neatly reflected the mainstream religious demographics of postwar America. Burroughs was a Protestant from the suburbs of St.Louis, Missouri" and "Ginsberg, a Jew brought up in a left wing political atmosphere in Paterson, New Jersey." (Lardas 14) They did not believe the special religion. Then I think that they were homosexual people not to love the same sexual person but to oppose the society in the United States at that time. To oppose the society, they were so crazy as homosexual people in the religious field. Second, I would like to consider women of Beat Generation's writers. In the Beat Generation's writers, there were many women. For example, Carolyn Cassady, Ruth Weiss, Diane di Prima, Joyce Johnson, Hettie Jones, Ann Charters, Anne Waldman, Janine Pommy Vega, Brenda Frazer, and Joanne Kyger. In the Beat Generation's writers, I know many men of Beat Generation's writers, but I know a little about women of Beat Generation's writers. Then in this paragraph, I will try to consider these women to understand why Beat Generation's writers were so crazy. In the life of Carolyn Cassady, we can see some craziness. She wrote some works. Heart Beat was based on the autobiography by herself. The content was the love triangle of real life characters. The three characters were Neal Cassady who was her husband, Jack Kerouac, and Carolyn Cassady. I think that the general people do not tell own shame to other people. The love triangle is unusual and shameful thing. So she was also so crazy for me. Moreover her memoirs were published in London as Off the Road. The title was very similar to On the Road which was the masterpiece of Jack Kerouac. That is the imitation. If Cassady and Kerouac had been very close, I think that this action was not allowed. She was so crazy. "Living in Beat bohemia, then, was not an uncomplicated experience for the female inhabitants. Their narrative makes it painfully clear that the search for self and art through dissent and excess put them at physical risk ďź? and in opposition to the U.S. legal system.â&#x20AC;? (Grace and Johnson 49) We can know that Beat Generation's writers had the feelings of dissatisfaction with The United

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Essays

RYOICHI N AGASHIMA


Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

States legal system. To get women's rights in the society of the United States, they would opposite the society by being so crazy. Third, I would like to consider the different craziness between Beat Generation's writers or Beatniks and Hippies. Beat Generation's writers were so crazy. Hippies were also so crazy. Both of them were so crazy. But their craziness was different at some points. Hippies wore psychedelic clothing and had long hair. The Beat Generation's writers or Beatniks were known for playing cool or keeping a low profile, but the Hippies became known for being cool or displaying their individuality. "'The point of beat is that you get beat down to a certain nakedness', said Ginsberg, for the ninety-ninth time." (Campbell 268) Moreover The Beat Generation's writers tended to be essentially apolitical, but the Hippies became actively engaged with the civil rights movement and the anti-war movement. I think that Beat Generation's writers were so crazy mainly by acting. For example, using drugs, killing their wives, and writing works. I think that Hippies were so crazy mainly by oneself being showy. For example, wearing colorful clothing and having long hair. I think that Beat Generation's writers were so crazy not for displaying oneself good but for opposing the society. In conclusion, from every point of view, Beat Generation's writers were so crazy. But I think that these actions were not for oneself but for the society of the United States. The Beat Generation's writers were non conformists. Non conformists were considered to be crazy at that time in the United States. Then The Beat Generation's writers were also considered to be crazy. However they were important roles to change the society of the United States. The Beat Generation's writers were so crazy but people who we should pay attention to. They were important people.

WORK CITED Lardas, John. "The Bop Apocalypse The Religious Visions of Kerouac, Ginsberg, and Burroughs" the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois, 2001. Print Grace, Nancy M. and Johnson, Ronna C. "Breaking the Rule of Cool Interviewing and Reading Women Beat Writers" University Press of Mississippi, 2004. Print Campbell, James. “This is the Beat Generation New York San Francisco Paris” University of California Press, 1999. Print

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THE REASON SYLVIA PLATH STATED “SELF” IN HER WORKS Sylvia Plath was an American poet, novelist and short story writer. She was born on October 27, 1932 in Boston, Massachusetts. Sylvia had a talent for writing since she was little. She wrote so many poems but only one novel The Bell Jar. In all of her works, she tried to describe how important self is. Self is essentially all for her, and too much. She had felt fear throughout her life that she was unable to reveal her deep self, or it is possible that she did not in fact possess such a self at all. Therefore she wrote her works with her fears. It means that her problem about “Self” always bothered her. There are three reasons that Sylvia often describe about self in her works. First reason is her growth history. Second reason is that she felt different between her own feeling and image of society. Third reason is her advocating feminism. First, the reason Sylvia described “Self” in her works is from her growth history. Sylvia was born on of German father and Jewish mother. Her father died when she was little. The German Nazis killed so many Jews in a cruel way. After the war, The Nazis tried to justify their killing and other things to conquer the people and a nation. However Sylvia never accept their action and furthermore, she tried to talk like a Jew. In “Daddy”, her famous poem remarkably described doing of The Nazis and German. Sylvia had bad feeling about her father’s doing and could not accept him. Also because of her father’s early death, Sylvia could not feel her father’s love so much. It means Sylvia had felt inferior to her own father. In 1956, she married English poet, Ted Hughes and then gave birth two children. They met during Sylvia’s stay in England as a student and four month later they married. They lived happyily for a short time. However their married life gradually collapsed because of Sylvia's restraint and her hysteric character. As Ted became popular, Sylvia felt jealous of him. Also Sylvia was often irritating because she could not write satisfied works. Such conditions must make Ted tired and had an affair with other woman. These factors made Sylvia instability and she got mental health problem. Such loveless for her by two men made her emotionally unstable and try to confirm her existence. Sylvia's trying to state "self" is from lacking of love by her father and husband. Second, the reason Sylvia described “Self” in her works is that she felt difference between her own character and her image by society. The Bell Jar, her autobiographical novel is closely to the events of Sylvia’s life. (Sparknotes) The heroine, Esther Woodman is the author herself (Perloff 508). Also other character and environment is served by her life. According to author Perloff, the central action of The Bell Jar may be described as the attempt to heal the fracture between inner self and false-self system so that a real and viable identity can come into existence. Esther is different from other normal American girls. Generally, young American girls tend to forge their own identity, to be themselves rather than what others expect her to be. Esther hates the image of her as brilliant, beautiful, enormously talented, successful. But in the novel’s flashbacks, it is clear that Esther has always played such roles that others have wanted her to play. For her professor, she is the ideal student even though her real character was different from his image. Even Esther’s mother, her real family sees her as a very good girl. Esther actually hated Buddy Willard, her one serious boyfriend. She always answers

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Essays

MAMI N AKAO


Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

not seriously to him like “Well I guess I do” (68) against her will. The more the false self responds in this contrived and artificial way, the more Esther’s inner self nurtures a hatred for Buddy. (Perloff 510) However, one time, her false self system finally crumbles because she cannot stand. There is symbolic part of her false self by throwing her clothes to the winds from the hotel rooftop in The Bell Jar. (510) According to feeling and action of Esther who is Sylvia herself, in The Bell Jar, Sylvia had felt her inner self and false self. Also she had wanted to kill false self and stake her real inner self. Because Sylvia had such a strong idea, she described “Self” in her many works. Third, the reason Sylvia described “Self” in her works is her advocating feminism. Sylvia Plath knows that the novelist’s job is not to solve problem but to diagnose them correctly. So she wrote her experience and feeling as it was and she tried to claim her feminism opinion, basing on such things. The reason she had idea of feminism is her married life. She felt dissatisfaction with Ted Hughes. Through her married life, she felt the difference of power between male and female. According to Marjorie, Sylvia thought that every woman who reads this passage has felt, at one time or another, that “choosing one meant losing all the rest,” that because female roles are no longer clearly defined, woman are confronted by such a bewildering variety of seeming possibilities that choice itself becomes all but impossible. (515) It means that she felt women’s possibilities are always limited for men, while men have a lot of chances to progress. In fact, she helped Ted’s writing activity and his publication instead of her writing. Moreover Ted became more and more popular, while Sylvia was troubled in a sluggish state. Author Miller said, it does not establish a specifically feminist context. As Erica Jong puts it, “the reason a woman has greater problems becoming an artist is because she has greater problems becoming a self” (qtd in Readon 136), which means not just integrating the masked self and the genuine self. (872) She thought that men prevent women from succeeding because men infringe women’s self and identity. According to Nancy, Sylvia continued to write about the attitude toward men, rather than writing a spinsterish anger or a feminist demand for justice. It means that she claims men make the world where no living women can satisfy it. (16-17) Sylvia had written her works along her own problem “self”. The reason why she had kept saying is her own experience. Her father’s way to kill Jewish and his early death made her had complex with men. After the marriage, her complex with men was stronger than ever because of Ted Hughes, her husband. Also, throughout her married life, she wondered women’s identity’s problem. She felt the difference of her image between herself and people. Such uncomfortable thing also made her wrote about “self” problem. Then she claimed feminism to get women’s self, including her own self.

WORK CITED Perloff, Marjorie G. “A Ritual for Being Born Twice”: Sylvia Plath’s ‘The Bell Jar’. Contemporary Literature, University of Wisconsin Press, 2013. Web. Budick, E. Miller. The Feminist Discourse of Sylvia Plath’s Bell Jar. College English, National Council of Teachers of English, 2013. Web. SparkNotes Editors. “SparkNote on Work and Power.” SparkNotes.com. SparkNotes LLC. n.d.. Web. 28 Jun. 2013. Plath, Sylvia. The Bell Jar. London: Faber, 1963. Print. Hunter Steiner, Nancy. A Closer Look at Ariel: A Memory of Sylvia Plath. New York: Harper’s magazine press, 1973. Print.

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THE HOLOCAUST IN “DADDY” Sylvia Plath wrote “Daddy” on October 12, 1962. Four months after she wrote this poem, she killed herself. “Daddy” is the poem about ‘revenge’. She uses the expression with historical event such as the Holocaust to represent her suffering because its suffering is similar to hers, and she really wants to show us not love for her lost father but the mixed feeling of love and hatred toward Ted Hughes. This paper analyzes the expression with historical event in “Daddy”, then examines the reason she used it, and finally describes Sylvia’s message. Firstly, in this poem, she does not write her own pain directly. Instead, she uses the expression associated with the Holocaust. From the line “I think I may well be a Jew” (Plath 223), it seems that she represents herself as “Jew”. Also, from the following lines, it seems that it means the Holocaust and she represents it as her suffering. She suffers from something: Chuffing me off like a Jew. A Jew to Dauchau, Auschwitz, Belsen. The boot in the face, the brute Brute heart of a brute like you. (Plath 223) Then, what she suffers from is represented as German, the principal offender of the Holocaust in this poem. He seems to be her lost father Otto Plath because this poem’s title is “Daddy” and she writes the ambivalent feeling between the love for her lost father and hatred toward him. She seems to love her father and the root of her suffering is her father's death. It is clear that her father's death makes her try to kill herself when she was twenty years old. However, it seems that there is another German in this poem. He is Ted Hughes. I made a model of you, A man in black with a Meinkampf look And a love of the rack and the screw. And I said I do, I do. (Plath 224) “A black man” has two meanings. One is the man who is black hearted. The other is the man who likes a black sweater. It implies Ted. Also, the line “And a love of the rack and the screw” is associated with illicit love with Assia. Therefore, she replaces herself and her sufferings with historical event, and what she suffers from seems to be connected with existence of Otto and Ted. Secondly, the reasons she uses such an expression are that she studied the Holocaust in high school and college and that the suffering of the victim from the Holocaust is similar to hers. Al Strangeways reports that her high school teacher shows them photos of inmates of Dachau and Auschwitz and these made them shudder. Also, her college professors suggest associating Nazism with political concerns. The above-mentioned items influence her using the expression such the Holocaust in this poem. Moreover, there is the other reason. According to Newman, suffering of the Holocaust is not so much physical torture but destroying human identity. When people mass produce suffering, they lose their identity like objects. In other words, they are no value and no humanity. "This anonymity of pain" is the suffering of Sylvia. Therefore she associates "this anonymity of pain" (Newman 65) with the historical event such the Holocaust which is closest to her suffering the way her high school and college teacher do.

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Essays

N ATSUMI N AKANO


Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

Then, what she really wants to show us in this poem is that this poem is about her ambivalent feeling not to Otto but to Ted. She mentions this poem before reading: The poem is spoken by a girl with an Electra complex. Her father died while she thought he was God. Her case is complicated by the fact that her father was also a Nazi and her mother very possibly part Jewish. In the daughter the two strains marry and paralyze each othershe has to act out the awful little allegory once over before she is free of it. (Newman 65) As she says, she focuses on Electra complex to her late father, and “the awful little allegory” is not so important. However, the inner meaning of this poem is the role reversal between Otto and Ted. At first sight, this poem's title is "Daddy" and this poem starts from the words of her love and hatred toward her father, so it is no doubt that this poem is about her last father. However, at the end of this poem, she writes the following passage: If I've killed one man, I've killed two-The vampire who said he was you And drank my blood for a year, Seven years, if you want to know. (Plath 224) From this passage, it is clear that the target of criticism is not Otto but Ted. With all she makes preface that pretends this poem is about her last father, she writes feeling toward Ted. Moreover it is clear that she write this poem to calm herself down. In her letter which is sent to her brother two days after she wrote this poem, she says that she loves and respects Ted's work and she knows that he is genius. Therefore her state of mind becomes better by writing her ambivalent feeling toward Ted. In conclusion, Sylvia Plath represents her suffering with historical event such as the Holocaust because of the similarity of suffering, and what she really wants to tell us in “Daddy” is the ambivalent feeling to Ted Hughes, though this poem seems to be about her father at first sight. It is clear that she suffers from her father’s death or the married life with Ted. She writes this suffering in the poem named “Daddy”. She represents herself as a Jew and Ted and Otto as German. She learned to associate historical event with her concerns in high school and college. Moreover she thinks that her suffering is similar to suffering of the Holocaust in the point that both are mental suffering. Therefore she uses that way to write her feeling toward Ted and Otto. However what she really want to shoe in this poem is her ambivalent feeling toward Ted in spite of this poem’s title “Daddy”. To write this poem makes her calm herself down. There is a word “catharsis”. It means calming oneself down by doing something. It is clear that this poem is a good example for this. In a word, she writes this poem for “catharsis”.

WORKS CITED Charles, Newman. The Art of Sylvia Plath. Canada: Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited, 1970. 5668. Hughes, Ted. The Collected Poems. Sylvia Plath. New York: Harper & Row, 1981. 222-224. Minami, Akira. Shijin no sugao: Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes [The real face of poet: Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes]. Tokyo: Kenkyusha, 1987.131-137. Plath, Sylvia. The Collected Poems. Ed. Ted Hughes. New York: Harper & Row, 1981. 222-224. Strangeways, Al. "The boot in face": The problem of the Holocaust in the Poetry of Sylvia Plath. Contemporary Literature.37, 1996, 370-390.

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THE ANALYSIS OF A CLOCK WORK ORANGE Anthony Burgess wrote A Clock Work Orange in 1962, and movie version was made in 1972. However, the movie was canceled to be screened for a while, because of the radical content. The main idea of A Clock Work Orange is the importance of right as human. To support examining the messages of this book, in first paragraph, I am going to examine the role of the protagonist, Alex. In second paragraph, I am going to write about the meaning of this title, and finally, I am going to write about the message of A Clock Work Orange. Firstly, I am going to examine the role of Alex. The protagonist and narrator, Alex often describes his fashion and other’s fashion, and loves music especially classical music. In fact, while he attacks a writer and his wife, Alex is singing a song in A Clock Work Orange movie and in the book too. From these points, Alex is an artistic man, and he regards violent acts as something artistic (SparkNotes). In addition, he identifies the pleasure of listening to music with that of violence (SparkNotes). Another impressive point of Alex is that he uses strange language called Nadsat which came from a mixture of Russian and Cockney English (SparkNotes). By using such language throughout the book, Alex seems to be a foreigner who does not use th same language as ordinary people and person who is in different world. Therefore, the effect of this language makes Alex seem erratic. In addition, the language put readers into the world of Alex more than usual language (SparkNotes). Then, he was used to test new cure by scholars and politicians, furthermore, he was used for defeating politicians by a writer, and finally he was used by politicians for the second time to regain their honors. Thus, he is the symbol of victim of human desire. Alex can do violent acts to only people who are weaker than him such as women and old people, but he is just a child, so he was controlled by adults and they are more powerful than him. Secondly, I am going to examine the meaning of this title. A Clockwork Orange is a slang of Cockney English before the Second World War (The New Yorker). It means queerness and strange, so this title represents Alex’s abnormal character. For example, he is willing to do violence acts and to rape women. These acts are extraordinary, so the word clockwork orange shows Alex himself. On the other hand, the word clockwork symbolizes things which do not have emotion, and which are handled mechanically. In this case, Alex took the Ludovico Technique to go out from prison earlier, but this technique is inhumane. As a result, he feels nauseated by thinking about violent acts. In fact, Alex is not cured, but only be forced by this cure. Alex was manipulated like marionettes. He is deprived not only an impulse which he wants to do violence and rape women, but also his will. In this story, there is no right of Alex as a human any more. Like this, it is an absurdity to make a fresh and living thing into something without emotion. Orange symbolizes fresh and living things, and clockwork means being treated as a mechanical thing. Therefore, this title is an irony to inhuman acts, and also expresses critically the deformations of humans. In addition, the author tried to emphasize Alex’s insistent character by setting impressive title. Thirdly, I am going to examine the messages of A Clockwork Orange. One of the messages is that every human has their own choice. Alex is deprived of his choice as a human by the State. It means he is no longer treated as a human. For the last time, he is returned to what he used to be. Thus, from forcing something to humans, humans cannot get anything. In fact, the last chapter of this book, he became a grown man. His growing up make himself be a

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Essays

RISAKO O NO


Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

human, so human cannot change by being forced. If someone can change, it is a temporal thing. Second, the author moans about trifling youthful incidents, but he does not criticize youth. He regarded the youth as the victims of human desire and society. Therefore, he criticizes that society makes youth be violence. Thirdly, this story includes elements of Christ. Alex attempts to suicide, because he cannot stand the suffering of exaction. His attempting to suicide is regarded as a fault of the State, and it also associates with the situation of Christ (Sparknotes). Christ was also victim of the government as the time (SparkNotes). In A Clockwork Orange book, “That’s a fair gloopy title. Who ever heard of clockwork orange?” (Burgess 21). From this line, he looked down on this title and book. However, in chapter7, “Am I just to be like a clockwork orange?”(Burgess 127). He accepted the fact which he is controlled by others. This line shows a temporary reclamation of him (SparkNotes). In addition, he uses some Christian phrases in the book (SparkNotes). From these points, the author emphasizes the weight of guilt of adult and society. In conclusion, Alex was treated as stuff by the State, and he was used for human desire. He is a very artistic man, because he does violent acts with singing a song and he regarded them as arts. In addition, he uses Nadsat language in many parts of this book and the movie. It makes Alex be erratic. Strange language like Nadsat is effective to make readers imagine the world of the book easier. Next, there are two meanings of this title. One is that this title shows Alex, and it means strange and mad. Second is that the title emphasizes a sense of incongruity to connect a fresh thing with mechanical thing. Next, the message of this story is no matter how evil men, nobody cannot deprive of human’s choice. In addition, the author criticizes mean authorities, and he describes that youth like Alex are victims of societies.

WORK CITED Burgess, Anthony. A Clockwork Orange. W.W.Norton and Company. The United State. 1962. Print. A Clockwork Orange. Dir. Stanley Kubrick. Perf. Malcolm McDowell and Patrick Magee 1972. Film. SparkNotes Editors. “SparkNote on A Clock Work Orange: Themes, Motifs and Symbols.” SparkNotes.com. SparkNotes LLC. n.d.. Web. 28 Jun. 2013. <http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/clockworkorange/themes.html> SparkNotes Editors. “SparkNote on A Clock Work Orange: Analysis of Main Characters.” SparkNotes.com. SparkNotes LLC. n.d.. Web. 28 Jun. 2013. <http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/clockworkorange/canalysis.html> SparkNotes Editors. “SparkNote on A Clock Work Orange: Part Two, Chapter7.” SparkNotes.com. SparkNotes LLC. n.d.. Web. 28 Jun. 2013. <http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/clockworkorange/section11.rhtml> The New Yorker 4 June 2012:69-74. Print

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1984 AND TOTALITARIANISM 1984 is the novel written by George Orwell (1903- 1950). It was bible for anticommunist. This essay speaks on the reason why this novel was read as propaganda literature. And then, the two points will be introduced. Firstly, we show the summary of this novel. It is categorized also science fiction because 1984 was written in 1948 and this setting is in 1984 as it is titled. So its settings are based on real world, and it is very complicated settings. However, it is necessary that we grasp this virtual world for understanding this topic. Second, on that days when WW2 ended, in capitalism side, many people thought that they could coexist with communism side. In such a mood, Orwell published this work creating a sensation. Then, 1984 was spread around capitalism world. We show this follow from generous mood to totalitarianism. Through these points, I approach 1984 as anti- totalitarianism novel. In this paragraph, I read about factor of being used as anti-totalitarian bible in this novel. This story is that the protagonist, Winston Smith, who worked as a bureaucrat under a ministry, fought against government by secretively writing diary which was crime in this novel. However, he was arrested for thought crime, and tortured by his enemy. Afterwards, he was brain-washed so awakened as a devotee of government. In this novel, the world was covered with socialism. The place where Winston lived was also ruled by Ingsoc which means English socialism. People watched each other, so they have no freedom in totalitarian society. There are very famous phrases, “WAR IS PEACE”, “FREEDOM IS SLAVERY” and “IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH”(1984, Chapter1). These contradictive slogans are representative in 1984. Such strange phrases are often seen, for example, “controls the future: who controls the present controls the past.” (Chapter3), and so on. Moreover, in this fictional world, there are so characteristic institutions. These are ministry of love, ministry of truth, ministry of peace, and ministry of plenty. Those naming is very ironical, because ministry of love torture people who was arrested to protect laws, ministry of truth alter any records about event and history to keep truth, ministry of peace do the war to defense the peace, and ministry of plenty limit supplies to keep plenty. They do works against their naming. However, people did never mind it, for their thoughts were limited by their education and language. They had to think that information was right if their party said it was right, while they could judge that it was not. In other words, people were requested for ability to have two thinking ways. This thinking way is called double thinking. The language is called Newspeak. This was invented to rub people of the thinking which had possibility of rebellion against government. Big Brother is the very famous character in this novel. He is the top of the party which ruled one-third of the world. His portraits were around Oceania which was the one of three super nations. “BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU” (Chapter1) was the phrase under the pictures which made people feel that the eyes of portrait trace them. Big Brother did not appear

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Essays

S ATOSHI S AGAWA


Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

himself in 1984 and it is not clear whether Big Brother really was or not. However, he had great influence on people, so we can see that he was the dictator. Those factors gave this novel dystopian mood. Next, around 1948, in real world, public opinion of Britain had favor to Soviet because Soviet fought hard against Nazi Germany. We can see that because on those days, around 1945, in British public opinion, favor, rather respect, to Soviet reached the maximum. Soviet force undertook assault German force mostly alone. They seemed that whether western European civilization could survive depend on resistance of ‘brave Soviet’. At once Stalin lost trust of western European states by deceiving of Hitler, he was loved and respected as ‘uncle Joe’ on popular newspapers. (Kawai, 334 ) So, Orwell’s works, 1984 and Animal Farm were not accepted immediately. In fact, these works were even banned at once and now these are prohibited in some countries. “Orwell’s Nineteen eighty-four and Animal Farm have frequently been blacklisted US school boards; and both are, by a sad twist history, today banned by a totalitarian regime in, of all countries, Burma”(Rollason 3). However, British government turned this attitude. “In January 1948, Britain launched a new propaganda policy designed to ‘oppose the inroads of communism by taking the offensive against it’” (Defty 26). Defty also said the reason that British cabinet stated that “since the end of the War, Soviet propaganda, had carried on ‘a vicious attack against the British Commonwealth and against Western democracy’.”.(Defty 3) Britain was suffered from Soviet with which Britain fought Germany, because that nation grew up gradually and steadily, while they loss previous power despite victory. Therefore Britain needed propaganda to control their public opinion not to lean to Soviet. And then, Orwell’s works started to be used as propaganda novel so that most of anti-communist quoted from his works. In fact, in Japan which was defeated and occupied by the Allied Forces, translated books including such propaganda had been allowed to be published at first. In conclusion, As Soviet grew up as super nation, capitalism side needed the propaganda against that nation. In that point, 1984 was qualified as tool of promoting anti-communism because of timeliness and contents. Therefore, this novel gained the status of modern satirizing novel. It has attractive settings for antitotalitarians. Surveillance society, a bad effect of nation’s having too great power, overcontrol of information, and so on; these factors are the things that they are apprehensive about.

WORKS CITED Defty, Andrew. Britain, America and Anti-communist Propaganda 1945-53: The Information Research Department. Routledge, 2004. Orwell, George. 1984: ebooks@Adelaide, 2013 Kawai, Hidekazu. 『ジョージ・オーウェル』[George Orwell] Gakushuin Uni, 2005. Rollason, Christopher. "How totalitarianism begins at home: Saramago and Orwell." Dialogue with Saramago: Essays in Comparative Literature: 105-20.

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POST STRUCTURALISM In the world, there are many literary theories and it is very important to understand to write essays or papers, or big mistakes may take place. However, most literary theories are hard to make out. Especially, post structuralism is much more difficult than any others in my opinion. The purpose of this paper is to define and explain that complicated theory: the way of post structuralism happening, an introduction of the most famous post structuralism scholars, an explanation of post structuralism and the relationship between post structuralism and post modernism. First of all, the way that post structuralism occurred is introduced. Before the theory, structuralism existed in the early 20th century. To say briefly, this theory is to clarify a structure in a matter to analys it. In other words, it is possible to see societies or cultures objectively by using structuralism. Post structuralism succeeded structuralism critically and exceeded it in the latter half of the 20th century. Post structuralism is often incorrectly thought of as being opposite to structuralism. However, it is a misunderstanding. “Post-structuralism is a reaction to structuralism and works against seeing language as a stable, closed system” (Introduction to Modern Literary Theory). In fact, post means after. Therefore, post structuralism is not against structuralism. Structuralism is like metaphysics, that is, to see invisible things. Although we can make them seen, we cannot do more than it. Post structuralism scholars attacked this point and tried to free themselves from the metaphysical thinking. Post structuralism started from such thought and is a product of it. Second, many post structuralism scholars tried to get over structuralism. Jacques Derrida is one of them and the most famous scholars. His thinking way, deconstruction, is one of the most famous post structuralism thought. This is to think that a matter casts off its old construction and have a new construction. To say briefly, language, philosophy, or society are reborn and contain new meanings always. Because he thinks in such way, he came to be classified as a post-construction scholar. Deconstruction inherited a philosopher, Martin Heidegger’s attempt. Heidegger commented about the metaphysical side of the West philosophy in his work. While commenting, he destructed some matters. Derrida inherited that attempt. Derrida wanted “to invent bits of philosophical terminology … designed to mock and displace Heidegger's own terminology” (Rorty). Derrida made the coined word, deconstruction, to escape a negative image that the destruction have. Michel Foucault is one of the most famous post structuralism scholars also. He criticized structuralism critically. Therefore he was recognized as a post structuralism scholar. He reviewed about political power theory by using a post-structural thinking way. He disliked and denied an absolute truth. He thought that the absolute truth interpreted by effects of the political power in societies and people and the intelligence that bring birth to the political power and forms. He imaged that the absolute truth and worth cannot exist without a historical process and grow autonomously. Judging from this thought, Michel Foucault is post structuralism scholar. Jacques Derrida’s thought and Michel Foucault’s thought are completely different thinking. However, there is a post-structural element in the roots of these thought. The element

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Essays

Y USUKE N ATSUME


Integrated â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Class Journal

Spring 2013

is that matter, language, society and so on are not stable and changing always. It is this element that is important to understand post structuralism. Third, like that, post structuralism is an important theory in the literary or philosophical world. Post structuralism is a literary theory that happened after structuralism. In fact, this theory was a movement not to oppose structuralism but to criticize and develop the theory. Therefore, as mentioned above, post structuralism authors had difficult criticisms and thoughts to structuralism. However, in the criticisms and thoughts, common idea is included. It is the denial of the stable structures in linguistics, psychology, anthropology, and other fields that structuralism presents and the question of the binary opposition that compose the structures. In detail, we cannot have single meaning or purpose in a text or a word but some meaning in them in the thoughts of post structuralism. Also, every individual can have his or her own meaning, purpose, or substance for the text or word respectively. Therefore, texts and words have no stable meaning and change case by case or by readers. Post structuralism claimed that theory. Finally, post structuralism has something to do with post modernism. Post structuralism is regarded in the same light as post modernism. This is not misunderstanding. However, to say strictly, both words are used in different fields. Post structuralism is mentioned in the literary world. Post structuralism is in art or culture world mainly. However, the meaning is almost same. Both words deny the metaphysical thinking way. As aforesaid, post structuralism is so difficult that we cannot understand quickly. For that reason, it is hard to use that literary theory. In addition, there are some wrong points or mistaken ideas. However, as the base thought of post structuralism is that in texts, words, or languages, there is no single or fixed meaning. Instead, the meaning is metamorphosed continually and every reader have each own meaning or purpose to the given text or word. Therefore, like structuralism, we cannot jump to a conclusion of meanings that a word or text contain. This thought is very important to understand post structuralism.

WORK CITED Mizrach, Steve. "Talking Pomo: An Analysis of the Postmodern Movement." What Is Postmodernity? N.p., n.d. Web. 13 July 2013. "Post-structuralism." Post-structuralism. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 July 2013. "Post Structuralism." By Roger Jones. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 July 2013. "Introduction to Modern Literary Theory." Introduction to Modern Literary Theory. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 July 2013. "Enemyindustry." Enemyindustry. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 July 2013. "Derrida-Deconstruction-Notes." Derrida-Deconstruction-Notes. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 July 2013. Lawlor, Leonard, Lawlor,. "Jacques Derrida." Stanford University. Stanford University, 22 Nov. 2006. Web. 10 July 2013. "Still Eating Oranges." Still Eating Oranges. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 July 2013. "Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy." Foucault, Michel []. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 July 2013. "Links to Foucault Sites." Michel Foucault. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 July 2013. "Presidential Lectures: Jacques Derrida: Richard Rorty Essay." Presidential Lectures: Jacques Derrida: Richard Rorty Essay. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 July 2013. May, Todd. The Moral Theory of Poststructuralism. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State UP, 1995. Print.

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Reaction Pieces

REACTION PIECES

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Integrated â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Class Journal

Spring 2013

REACTION PIECE OF A CLOCKWORK ORANGE Y OKOTA ASAHI A Clockwork Orange is SF movie that described the near future. However, the contents are getting closer to actual world. Recently, there are various problems for example, domestic violence, bullying in school, classroom disintegration. However, the most lamentable fact is that younger and younger are committing crimes of violence. Alex is a problem child. He and three friends committed burglaries, murdered and raped every night. They seemed they were enjoying crimes at the same time they seemed they did not feel a pain of somebody. For me, this movie is too agitating. The picture in this movie is vivid, dark, and grotesque. Because my age is near the main characters, I felt their grotesqueness, insanity more. Moreover, I felt terrible when I imaged that the period of this movie is getting closer now. Alex was betrayed by his friends and arrested. In a prison, he became a human guinea pig of Ludovico treatment. This Ludovico treatment causes the loathsomeness about the crime to a patient by letting a patient watch a picture of quarrel and violence and murder. On this occasion, doctors made a state not to let a patient close his eyes and made him listen Beethoven's Ninth. The treatment succeeded, and Alex became a body of freedom. After that he was implanted a feeling of repulsion to violence and Beethoven's Ninth in. However, reborn Alex is driven into the suicide by the purpose of people of the anti-government. The life of him was saved, but his brainwashing has been removed. During hospitalization, the government that enforced Ludovico treatment presented Beethoven's Ninth because of criticism of mass communication. Finally, he became a more evil man in the sound. In this movie, what I read is that people must not take choice away from anybody, even if it is criminal. Alex became a person who was deprived his freedom of moral choices by science. The reason that he came to hate violence was not because his personality changed, but because of his reaction of body that was not related with his moral choice. Alex was suffered from difference between his mind and his behaviors. Implanting pain into body must not do for human who have felling and ability of thinking. Criminals should rebirth by his mind changing. Alex suffered by disagreement between his mind and his body. It is not anything else except pain that people cannot move according to their intension. Because human is not a machine, they should have a right of thinking, and should choose their moral choice by themselves. Even if the objection is an evil man, The title of this movie includes a black humor. "A Clockwork Orange" means " a mechanical organism". This means â&#x20AC;&#x153;human who is moved by machine that is called "society". Alex was deprived his ability that recognize good and evil that are most important thing by the government. I think human's feeling must not be controlled by society.

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A CLOCKWORK ORANGE REACTION MIYU IIDA

Reaction Pieces

I believe that “A Clockwork Orange” is a film that has a lot of craziness. The main character of this film is Alex DeLarge who is 15 years old. He is a reader of violent boys’ group and commits many crimes in some places. One day, he is betrayed by his associates and is arrested by police. In prison, he decides to take Ludovico technique to make his period of science shorter. After taking the technique, he becomes a man who is vulnerable to violence and do not try to counter it. Because of his change, he is easy to be got revenge by people who Alex strikes almost at random. In this film, there are three points that makes us feel that this film is crazy. The first point is using fictional language which is called “Nadsat”. It is an original language of the author of this story, Anthony Burgess. For example, Nadsat word, “bog” means god in English and “lewdies” means people. Nadsat is made of Russian, German, English slung and so on. This extra ordinary type of language makes us complicated and feel that the world of the story is crazy and completely different to our living world. The second point is using the popular song, “Singin’ in the Rain”. This song is famous for the main song of the musical film in 1952. This film has comedy contents and it makes many people feel fun. In the other hand, this song, “Singin’ in the Rain” in this film is used in a few violent scenes. So people who know the musical film using this song feel that this choice of this song is crazy and unmatched for the violent film. The last point is political cruel way of a rehabilitation of criminals, “Ludovico technique”. At first, Alex takes medicine which causes a sick feeling and experimenters put him in a chair. Moreover they hitch the lids of his eyes and makes him watch a brutal movie. After this technique, Alex becomes to feel queasy whenever he think about violent and sexual things. This crazy way of a rehabilitation of a criminals is implemented by government. Generally, government seems not to treat someone cruelly. So it is unusual for us that government of the country misuses criminal and tries to rehabilitate them not to commit crimes again in crazy way. As above, it can be said that “A Clockwork Orange” has crazy point like an original language, “Nadsat”, the unmatched citation of a popular song, “Singin’ in the Rain”, and brutal way of rehabilitation of criminals, “Ludovico technique”. These each points are so discriminative and give us shocking images of this film. The author’s way of convey the contents of the film is irregular but it has strong power of giving impression of the world of the story. Therefore, these points are necessary for us to understand the what the film’s world is and what the author want to convey by making use of this story.

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Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

REACTION PIECE OF BEATS T AKESHI S HINTANI At first, I did not know anything about the Beat Generation. Though, through the class about it, I came to be interested in this topic, because this connects with American culture: especially, the change of culture and its difficulty. In another class, I am studying about the appearance of new woman in America who opposed to the conventional system of society and stereotype culture. It is related with the Beat Generation. The movement of beating their conventional society and the background are so important to understand the culture, and interesting for me. The members of the Beats looks so crazy because of using drugs, homosexual, their eccentric works: “Naked Lunch” that written by William S. Burroughs. Their movements were much influenced the hippie movement that arose a few years later or the same time. The hippie movement was also to oppose to the existing sense of value. Hippies used drugs and wore colorful clothes, so it is not too much to say that the hippie culture was made by the Beat Generation. Although they were called weird people, their movements were very innovative and worth researching to know American culture. Actually, they are so crazy and weird, but from the point of their innovative activity, I think that they were great. Through studying about the Beat Generation, I mainly approached the connection of the Beat Generation and The Beatles. This band was organized in 1960 th and much influenced by the Beats and the hippie culture. For example, some song of The Beatles is related with drugs. Psychedelic rock which is the song made on the state of using drugs, LSD. Their using drugs is actually related with the hippie culture. As I researched the connection, I felt how did the member of The Beatles respect the Beats. Especially, John Lennon put meanings in his song about his will to attack conventional culture when he made songs, even though The Beatles broken up. Their attitude toward music looks not just the wish for being popular but for conveying their assertions. Trying such challenge need awful courage need strong will. In this point, the Beat Generation also had terrible readiness, I think. Though the activities or personality of the members of the Beats is weird, these are so important to improve their society and culture, so this movement has been studied and researched by a lot of people still now. In the times of the turbulence, the age of some people tried to change their culture or new woman who struggled to get the right to vote and to advance into public, the Beat Generation, hippies and The Beatles and so on confronted conventional society and stereotype, and advocated the thought of the general public; they insist to stop the Vietnam War. Due to their courageous movement, American culture carved out a better future for themselves in some respects. I am interested in American culture, so I am glad to study the Beats and meet their idea. At the same time, I can study The Beatles. My interest spread new thing through the class.

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REACTION TO BEAT GENERATION J UN K INASE

Reaction Pieces

Before I heard the word, Beat Generation, I had no knowledge about it. And even when I heard the word for first time, I had no great interest in it. But there are a lot of facts beyond my imagination in it, so I was surprised many times. Beat generation has a chaos aspects; drug and alcohol abuse, homosexual relationships, murders, and more, so then, I think the age of Beats’ was the most craziest term I know and it is filled with weird atmosphere, but I felt some strong spirits against culture and social system of those days from beats' works, people, music or so. That is, I noticed that beat generation is not a dark age of America, but it was a howl (Allen Ginsberg made famous work same name to this word) or an appeal of people who held bottomless fear and was obsessed with deep doubt against the world of those days, 1950s. Now if you want to know what Beat generation is, I recommend you to start with these three great writer, Allen Ginsberg, William S. Burroughs, and Jack Kerouac, who built a basement of Beat culture. Only following incidents about them, we can get much interesting, strange, and amazing information, and feel what Beat generation was. Taking some examples, William S. Burroughs shot and killed his wife for mistake, William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg were homosexuals, Jack Kerouac wrote up his work in two weeks, Allen Ginsberg poem Howl was caught by obscene laws, they often did their writing under the influence of drugs, the they had influence on the Hippie movement, and there are still a lot of interesting incidents about them. It is also true that their works are respected within academic literature though their works take on an air of odd. So then, I reckon that their works somehow fascinate people’s mind for we also have some aspects same to them. Then above all, when I see the movie of William S. Burroughs’ work, “Ah Pook”, at our class, I felt something like my head being beaten by something. At first, I could not make some meanings from this movie at all, maybe not because my English ability is not so good enough to understand the phrases, so in other words, I was not able to share his images what are scattered in the work, at all. But I understood what he wanted to say gradually, and then I noticed how solemn the work was. I repeated many times that Beat generation was crazy and weird, but rather than speaking ill of it, I am surprised all about it because Beat generation has really many unbelievable things and knowing and knowing, we can find new thing in it, so I know new world that I had not seen ever by Beats’. After all, I am interested in this world, now. For this chaos world goes far from my imagination, it was good experience for me to know and to digest even a part of it, and I think this is same to everyone.

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Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

THE BEAT GENERATION M EGUMI N AITO Before researching the Beat Generation, I have never known what the Beats are and what important role they played. So, I am very glad to get an occasion to learn about the Beats in the class. The Beat Generation is a group of young people in the 1950’s and early 1960s who rejected the way most people lived in society, wanted themselves freely especially in literature. Seeing this explanation, the Beat Generation may seem to be regarded as just a group which was against society, but it had an important and essential influence upon the history. First, I paid attention to the Beat literature whose feature is free expression and vision. There were many famous Beat writers existed and among them there were some common points. I was interested in these points. For example, there were many writers who were a homosexual. I was very shocked to know that Allen Ginsberg, who was famous for his novel, HOWL, had a relationship with Neal Cassady, who was a modal of the novel, On the Road though Neal had a wife, Carolyn Cassady, who was also one of the Beat writers. And there were many writers who used illegal drugs. Allen Ginsberg and Ken Kesey, who had been arrested for many times for using drugs, LSD during the activity in the literary movement, Merry Pranksters, had experienced arrest. In the Beat literature, there are many works whose content is crazy and strange. So, I think that these unique common points among writers effected that greatly. Second, I researched jazz music deeply, too. I had more interest in it than the Beat literature because I realized that jazz music had strong connection with the Beat literature. I had thought that music cannot concern with literature each other until then, so I was very surprised to know it. The free style of the Beat literature was created by accepting the free rhythms and beat styles of the jazz music. After the World WarⅡ jazz music started to be loved among the Beats, who went to the night club and enjoyed it. The new jazz style, Bebop, was introduced by the Beats such as Charlie Parker, who was an alto saxophonist. The Beat writers, of course, were fascinated by jazz music and went to the night club, too. Jack Kerouac, who was called “Father of the Beat Generation”, was a representative exemplar. He created the word, “The Beat Generation”. The word had many meanings and some of them he adopted the jazz music. And he introduced free-flowing rhythm and beat style of the jazz music into his work. So, there are many works whose form is free. In his the most important novel, On the Road, there are many descriptions about jazz music. Not only him but also almost all the Beat writers imitated the style of the jazz music and loved it. When I researched it, I found the jazz song whose lyrics word was quoted from the literature. I listened to it and I was so charmed because I noticed that there were many rhymes in the beat rhythm. I was very comfortable to feel such a rhythm. I think that without jazz music, we could not talk about the Beat Generation. There are two categorized group in the world, majority and minority. The Beat Generation may be categorized into the latter. Many people tend to look upon the group having more people as important, so the minority is usually thought inferior to majority. However, I do not think that superiority or inferiority should be decided according to the scale of groups. We human enjoy much benefit from the minority. Indeed, the Beat Generation brought a lot of things to us such as a free style of writing, jazz music and so on. Regardless of the scale of groups, we must coexist with knowing and accepting both features and values each other in the future.

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REACTION TO THE ONE OF THE WOMEN BEATS, CAROLYN CASSADY K AEDE H ASEGAWA

WORK CITED Grace, Karmic. “Carolyn Cassady” Women of the Beat Generation: The Writers, Artists and Muses at the Heart of a Revolution, Conari Press, 1998, Print.

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Reaction Pieces

I did not know deeply about Beat Generation writers before Integrated Skills class. The lifestyle and the works of them shocked me, because it was different from the “general” people. Beats normally took drugs, some of them were homosexual and they did not hide it even though the society basically considered them to be abnormal. The women Beats also shocked me, because I thought Beat movement were only for men writers. There were many women writers of Beats like Dian di Prima, Anne Waldman and Carolyn Cassady and so on. Personally, I was most interested in Carolyn Cassady because she has deeply connection to some of the typical figures of Beat Generation, Jack Kerouac and Neal Cassady. I want to state my reaction to Carolyn Cassady in this paper. First, I tell about her personality and life. Many writers of Beats went to the famous university. Carolyn was also one of these well-educated writers. First, she went to Bennington College, it was most superior university in those days. She went other universities after that, and she mainly learned arts. She worked as a designer, but she quitted it because of pregnant. She had a child between her husband, Neal Cassady. Finally they had three children. Neal had a reliable job and he was also a good father and husband, even though he wanted to trip with his friends. Carolyn also had a job, but she needed his help for raising her family. After some sorrow event, the betrayal of Neal and his accommodation to the prison, Carolyn decided to divorce. She did not become miserable devoted wife and mother. She chose to be apart from Neal, because she wanted to free Neal from bound of family. Carolyn kept her family by herself, so I think Carolyn had resolute feeling. The divorce was not accepted in the society easily, but she chose it by herself, so I think she was also high-minded woman. Next, I refer to Carolyn’s works. Off the Road and Heart Beat are her most famous works. These novels are like a biography of her. She mentions to the connection between Neal Cassady, Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac in her works. She had a connection to these guys at the same time. She never hided it and confessed it frankly. She was frank and open person for sexuality, even though the society was severe to these kinds of events in those days. I think these writings, which are against society, make her Beats exactly. She was different from other writers in some point. For example, she basically opposed to the drugs, even though almost all of the Beats were addicted to the drugs. Her lifestyle was not necessarily like Beats, but she was exactly Beats writer. Carolyn is said “wife, mother, writer, painter, breadwinner, and the muse” (Karmic57), I think it was not easy to be as these woman. I think she always had firm personality in her mind, even though her action and works looks so frank. She had deeply connection men Beats writes and she was exactly Beats writer, but she is a just a woman who lived high-minded.


Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

THE BEAT GENERATION AND THE HIPPIE MOVEMENT RIKA M ORI As I studied about the writers of The Beat Generation and their works, I got interesting in it and its influence on the society. Also I became to want to know about the Hippie Movement more deeply. Hippies took a sceptical view of the age they were living. In this point, the Beat Generation and the Hippie has same principle and connection between them. I am going to write my reaction to the Beat Generation and the Hippie Movement while touching on the way they expressed their principle. To be honest, I did not know anything about the Hippie until I heard it in class. But I found that it was the great movement that people persuaded peace and freedom independently. They opposed the system of society and traditional value, and they express it by wearing unusual clothes and having long hair and peculiar lifestyles. The Movement starts in 1960s. At that time, American society is unstable and has many historic incidents, for example, the Cuban missile crisis in 1962, the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963, and starting Vietnam Way in 1964. These incidents must have given people uneasiness, and especially the young people were anxious about their future. So I think that is why the movement started to change the society. Though I am not agreeable their taking drugs and doing things as they pleased, I am very interested in the movement because it seems rarely happens in Japan. Generally Japanese dos not express themselves so unreservedly. Some demonstration was held in Japan, but they do not change their lifestyles for it even if they wear same clothes. Then I think Hippies had a great movement they tried to change the society and want peace and freedom on their own initiative by express their ideas clearly. As Hippies reject the way that most people live and live on their own ways, the Beat Generation writers express themselves in their unique works. When I first read a peace of their books, for example Naked Lunch by William S. Burroughs, I could not understand what it says and thought they are unusual. They take their own way in writing books. Compared with such normal novel as classic ones, their writings are not constrained by rules. I was also surprised some of the members loved alcohol and used drugs. I think they got tired of conservative way and wanted to be as they like, and this attitude influenced The Hippie Movement later. As I studied about the Beat Generation, I realized how closely the literature and the situation of society were related with each other, and how influential books are on people. Rabaka states in his book that ‘‘Hippie Movement that directly grew out of the Beat Movement’’ and ‘‘the Beat Movement is credit for inspiring several significant social, political, cultural, and even musical movements in the 1960s and 1970s’’ (Rabaka). The Hippie grew out of The Beat and spread over other countries. Now we overthrew the old system and realize the society in which our personal liberty is ensured though there are exceptions in the world. So I think the Beat Generation played a great important in the literary and social history.

WORKS CITED Rabaka, Reiland. Hip Hop's Amnesia: From Blues and the Black Women's Club Movement to Rap and the Hip Hop Movement. Plymouth: Lexington. 2012..

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MY REACTION TO THE BEAT GENERATION RUI K UROSAKI I’ve never heard of the Beat Generation before I learned them in the class. I know the Hippie culture, but they are completely different group from the Hippies. I have three interesting points about the Beat Generation. First, relation to the Hippies culture, second, the difference between the Beats and the Hippies, and third, women writers in the Beat Generation. I gave the presentation about the Beat Generation. While I searched their culture, I found there are many connections between the Beats and the Hippies. Then, I’m interested in the Hippies culture. As I said above, I learned the Hippie culture before the Beat Generation because their culture is also famous in Japan. In my parent’s age the Hippie culture was spread among young people. Even men had long hair, beards and mustaches, and also they wore tie dyed t-shirts, raged clothes, beads, and very bright color clothes. I like their fashion because they had their own original style. Nowadays, in Japan there are many trends, and people just choose clothes witch are trends. Thus, I guess the Hippies who were in Japan in my parent’s age just adapted hippie’s fashion because it was popular, but not because their philosophy fit to the Hippie’s. However, the Hippies in America had concrete idea which was desire to be free from the society, break the mainstream, and reject the straight. The most interesting point is the way of showing their philosophy. They tried to show them with their very unique fashion. As a result, they got attention and their idea was accepted by many people.

Reaction Pieces

On the other hand, the Beat Generation had no particular characteristics on their fashion. They lived only in their literature. Their novels and poems have strong features that are their angriness to the American society. The clearest difference between these two groups is the stance. The Hippies had a philosophy as a pacifist. They pursued free, peace and love. On the other hand, the Beats had a very distractive stance. In their works there are many curses and sensitive words. These two group’s basic philosophy was the same, breaking the mainstream, however, their way of showing was completely different. That is the most interesting point for me. In the class I had chance to learn about the women writers in the Beat Generation. In my research for the essay and presentation, I found the website about these writers, but I didn’t know the details. When I heard of Neal Cassady, Carolyn Cassady and Jack Kerouac, I’m very interested their life and searched a little. Carolyn had a very unusual life because she married Neal, but he loved Jack as well. She wrote the “Off the Road”, and this is about their relationship. Now I feel wonder why she permitted her husband to love another man, and also why she fell in love with Neal who had completely different background from her. Probably, I can find the answer in the “Off the Road”. Now I feel like learning about the Beat Generation writers more, so I’ll try to read another writer’s novel, too.

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Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

REACTION TO WILLIAM S. BURROUGHS ASUKA T AKAGI In this Integrated Skills class, we learned a lot of authors or poets, which attracted the interest of me. Among of all the interesting them, William S. Burroughs is the best for me. Fortunately, when we studied “the Beats biographies”, I was able to choose the very person, who is Burroughs. That is the time when I knew his detailed information. As I know him, I saw that he spent the crazy wired life. He loved drags in spite of his intelligent, married woman instead of his being homosexual. Nevertheless, now that his works won the praise of many people. There is the most wired author I have ever known. That is why I was interesting in him and am going to write my reaction to and thinking about him. He lived a wired life. I think one of this reasons is the culture of hippie. In those days, among the young people, the idea of dropping out the existing social structure came into fashion. He was influenced his tendency. And also, until he graduated university, his life was commonplace. His family was actually well to do. I think he wanted to slip out of this ordinary life. Involving this feeling, his anti-existing social structure thinking might have been gradually huge one. Because of this, he took many drags as tool to try to seek for the new him, I think. But actually Burroughs denied the relationships between drugs and his works. As long as I see, his works have a lot of relationships with drags in some respects. One is that there are some novels whose contents are as to drugs. For instance, Junkie (1953) is the record of various kinds of drags which he took in a lot of countries. The other is that his novels are something like a drug. The Naked Lunch (1959), most famous his work, is the novel that people is given up to in spite of the weird uncanny creepy content. Really, this novel was banned by the government. So we can say that in a sense, without drugs, his great works may have not been created. This is interesting fact about him. As I stated former, he did not like the then American social structure. He loved the freedom. I can see his anti-Americanization in his prose poem, “Ah Pook”. In this poem, he mentioned “Hiroshima, 1945, August 6, sixteen minutes past 8 AM” or “The Ugly American” and so on. I thought he disliked the then America and opposite an atomic bomb, which has strong power. We can say he is the very Beat Generation in this respect. When I watch this animation in the class, I was a slight shocked because the strange creature appears. But as I meditated on, this is not just a wired story, but a meaningful story. His ability to attract people is a sort of genius. In this way, I think he let some fresh air into the American literature world using novelty means and thinking. It is important to understand him and his novel understanding those days society. Maybe people can learn many things from his works. I would like to know his works and Beat Generation more. I am sure William S. Burroughs is marvellous author.

WORKS CITED Burroughs, William S. Ah Pook is here, and other texts. J. Calder, 1979.

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BEAT GENERATION N ATSUMI N AKANO

Reaction Pieces

I am interested in The Beat Generation because they seem to be crazy in many points in spite of their talent. They wrote many great books such as “Howl” by Allen Ginsberg, “The Naked Lunch” by William S Burroughs, and “On the Road” by Jack Kerouac. There are many common points among the member of The Beat Generation. Firstly, most of the members went to famous university. For example, Burroughs went to Harvard University. This fact can be accepted by many people because they are gifted and wrote many great books. Moreover the fact I was shocked by is that Kerouac wrote “On the Road” just for three weeks. I think that he is very talent because I have never heard the person doing such a thing. Then, there is other common point. It is the fact that there are many people in The Beat Generation who are addicted to drugs. For example, Burroughs was a heroin addict and he moved to Tangiers because it was easier to get drugs there. Also Ginsberg was marijuana addict and he worked to promote drugs common use. It is said that The Beat Generation often wrote while under the influence of illegal drugs. I wonder why they wrote a great book which people all over the world are fascinated in spite of using drugs. Moreover it is the fact that there are many people in The Beat Generation who are homosexuals. It is said that some member met each other through gay connection. I was shocked by this fact. I think that they are homosexuals, in other words their sense is not as same as other people, so their works are very creative. Burroughs and Ginsberg are famous homosexuals because they show us openly that they are homosexuals. At the time, homosexual is crime in the US, but they insist the freedom of gay people. In fact, Burroughs’ book “The Naked Lunch” and Ginsberg’s book “Howl” are about homosexual. However Burroughs has married woman two times. I wonder the reason he has married woman in spite of being homosexual and whether he really loves his wife or not. The fact he shot his wife in the head accidently is famous. I think that it is not accident but intentional because he is homosexual and addicted to drugs. Finally I think that the craziest member in The Beat Generation is William S Burroughs because he has many strange facts. For example, he lived to be 81 years old though he was a heroin addict. Also he has married woman two times though he was homosexual and he shot his second wife in the head accidently. I think that he is a real genius. Therefore I am interested in him very much. Above all, it is the fact that they are very great poets or writers, but it is also the fact that they are pretty strange persons. Through this class I became interested in The Beat Generation, so I want to research them more and more.

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Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

REACTION PEACE TO BEAT GENERATION AYAKA YAGUCHI I didn’t know the Beat Generation before I study in class. I was very surprised at this group because almost all of them were very strange people and I think that why such unusual people could gather at the almost same time and same place. There are many points that I was surprised, but the most surprised point is about William S, Burroughs. He was born in 1914 and he graduated from Harvard University. So, I was impressed him as an intelligent man. From graduating from this University, we intend to think that he might spend his great life and we image that he might have no troubles in his life. However, he was a very strange person and he spent his life that was opposite to these images. For example, he took drugs such as heroin and morphine. “Junkie” that is one of the Burroughs works was written his own life as a drug user and dealer. I was surprised that he wrote his life and using drug as a work, because these things were crime so I think that these should be hidden. However, he revealed his life and experiences by himself by the way to publish a book, so I see that he might be proud of his life. Publishing a book means that many people around the world could read this book. Probably he had a confidence in his life and he wanted many people to know how to spend his life and experience many things. That is very interesting point. Next, I was surprised their sexuality. In this group, some people were bisexual and others were homosexual. In Japan, the people who have these complex would intend to hide these facts, but the people in the Beat Generation would reveal these facts. It is difficult for me to understand that William S, Burroughs was homosexual so he loved men, but he married woman. And Neal Cassady had sexual relationship with Allen Ginsberg but on the other hand, he had two wives. One of his two wives was Carolyn Cassady who was also the member of Beat Generation. We don’t understand who they loved actually. The things we think it is usual is not usual for them. There are no common senses between them. They became famous as great writers because their works were wonderful, but probably this is not all reason for it. Their unusual life such as using drugs and loving both of men and women made them more famous as writers. They spend depravity lives bit they could write such great works. This is very interesting point and the reason many people in the world came to have interests in Beat Generation. I think that these strange writers could write their wonderful works and they lived almost same time is really a miracle. They influenced to the US especially young generation strongly. Some of their works became movies, so I want to watch them and I would like to know Beat Generation more profoundly.

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REACTION PIECE OF SYLVIA PLATH Y UKIHIRO ARIMA

Reaction Pieces

I had a first experience to deal with poetry. First I had a bias to poetry; I did not like dealing with or reading poetry before I took your class. However I was interested at reading and interpreting poetry. Plath's poetry seems to be groom and violent. These are not normal human's idea. I She suffered from bipolar disorder. so often go and turn between merry character and outrageous character in her mind. I watched movie of Sylvia Plath, she is described as abnormal person. For example, when she is in house, she continues to make many pancakes, not making poetry, moreover almost day by day. If I were her husband, I would be mad and crazy. A symptom of bipolar disorder is too awkward, so difficult to treat with it. It occurs to manic depression like schizophrenia. When it comes to life of Sylvia's marriage, her husband, Ted Hughes was blamed for her death. But was it really only his fault about their marriage? In my opinion, it is no. Surely she was so pity and miserable than Ted. Because he had genius of poetry, and he became famous person soon. In addition to, child rearing was imposed on her, may be only her. Perhaps feminists who protect Sylvia disparaged such Ted's attitude. However, above mentioned, like that marriage life was not sane, did he maintain his work? I do not think it. Certainly Ted was not good person as a characteristic of father or husband; he made lovers and got away from his house for about three days again and again. Then was Sylvia good mother or wife? I do not say simply yes. When I watched movie of Sylvia Plath, I saw that she was out of her house at night, sleeping children, and talking with elder neighbor over and over, moreover this is a little weird, so I thought that she is mad. This movie was based on her real life, may be it was made with exaggeration for movie, but not fiction. She did baby care only one, so it broke her life. And this is one of cause to her death. I read her poetry "Daddy" in your class. This poetry represents her idea to man. When she was young, her father was dead. She accepted his death, and she thought her father betrayed her. May be, she had a kind of doubt to men; on the other hand, she had a craving for men's love. I thought she duplicated Ted Hughes or elder neighbor, all man with her dead father. She wanted to be dependent on men, at the same time; she wanted to obtain the aid of her father. I have a curiosity of Sylvia Plath. She had ambivalence between mania and depression, and her life was not easy. She tasted variety of difficult things. Her works reflected on such her life, besides, her life made it brilliant and dark vividly. I want to read her double characteristic works.

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Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

REACTION PIECE ABOUT SYLVIA PLATH AND TED HUGHES MAMI N AKAO I think Sylvia Plath's works are really influenced by her own life. She wrote poems and one novel along her theme "death". She had felt alone since she was little. I think she wrote her inner voice, which is her loneliness and sorrow. The reason she had such thinking is from her growth history. Her father was a soldier of The Nazis and killed many Jewish. She couldn't accept his way to kill them because it was too cruel. Also her father died so early. It seemed that she could not be loved much by her father. So I think she had complex with love of her family and that is the very fundamental reason that she wrote works gloomy. Her form of poems gradually got better and established original and powerful one. At first, she used humor but finally she was prior to intellectual poems. One thing many critics say, also I think, is that she never changed her theme. Her works always imply her inner voice that is from her loneliness. However she found another theme in addition to theme “death”. That was “feminism”. As I wrote above, one of her themes “death” is influenced by her family. The theme “feminism” is influenced by her married life with Ted Hughes. Ted Hughes also wrote poems. They met during Sylvia’s stay in England. After they married, they spent happy life for a while. I think Sylvia cared too much about Ted. But I also think it could not be helped. It is because her growth environment. She had a character that she tends to think too seriously and deeply. Of course such character influenced her works, too. And her complex with her father made her want Ted stay in her. While she had such weakness, she had a pride on her writing activities. The more Ted got popular and sell well his works, the more she felt jealous with him. She often got irritated and became more hysterical, especially his back home was late. Ted gradually had felt uncomfortable. Finally he saw another woman. This problem made Sylvia crazy. Before then, she had complained about him a lot. She helped his writing activity including publication. I think she was unbearable. Because Sylvia had complex with lacking of love by man, she had had fear of the possible Ted desert her. So she maybe had stood for a long time at many situations. However due to such unfaithfulness, Sylvia could not stand anymore. So they divorced. Also this event made Sylvia have the thinking of “feminism”. She criticized men’s power and oppression. She never joined feminism movement but she wrote. She tried to pass to posterity with writing. In fact her messages were succeeded to many feminist. As a result, Ted was criticized and attacked so much by feminist. Then he wrote the poem to prove his innocence. I can understand Sylvia’s hysterical attitude was uncomfortable for Ted, but his attitude was not kind to her. I think he could have more consideration to her. When I think which is evil and good, I always tend to take Sylvia’s side. After all I am a woman and maybe I cannot think with taking men’s side.

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SYLVIA PLATH AND HER POEM AYAKA YAGUCHI

Reaction Pieces

When I watched the movie “Sylvia Plath”, I thought that Sylvia is like a heroine of tragedy. She had had a lot of mental affliction since she was young. Her father was German and professor of biology at Boston University and her mother was Austrian. When Sylvia was 8 years old, her father died and this is seemed the reason of her ambivalent. I heard this word for the first time by researching Sylvia Plath. Ambivalent was a reason of her first suicide, so her father’s influence to Sylvia was very strong. In her movie, there are many scenes that she sometimes becomes emotional or sometimes becomes violent because of ambivalent. Sylvia met Ted Hughes at Cambridge University. Of course, Sylvia became famous as a poet by her poems, but I think that she became famous in the world by marriage with Ted Hughes and marriage life with him. In their marriage life, there were many troubles between them, but probably, the biggest trouble was Ted’s immorality. We can also see from her movie, Sylvia is more violent when she knew her husband’s immorality. They had two children, so apparently, their marriage life was happy. However, actually Sylvia Plath committed suicide when she was 31 years old. She was very young and I think that she didn’t married to Ted Hughes, she could live longer. Sylvia’s poems game me very dark impression because he express her sadly feeling on her poem. When I read her poem “Daddy”, I felt that she used many sadly or violent words. Daddy means her father, Otto Plath who was died when his daughter was 8 years old. His death was very suddenly, so Sylvia would not accept this fact and probably she had depended on her father and his death. If he was died after that his daughter would be adult, this poem might not be created. In this poem. There are a lot of symbols of her father is hidden. For example, there are “shoe”, “god”, “panzer-man” “gobbledygook”, “vampire” and “Marble”. These symbol her father. Moreover, in this poem, the phrase of “you stand at the blackboard, daddy” represents Sylvia’s father because he was a university professor. However, Ted Hughes was also a university professor, so I was confused because I couldn’t understand that which man was written by Sylvia with this expression. From the phrase of “if I’ve killed one man, I ‘ve killed two-”, we can see that this poem contains Sylvia’s thought to two men around her. Not only her father, but also her husband was written in this poem. “Seven years” represents the years of their marriage life. She expressed their marriage life as “drank my blood” by “the vampire who said he was you”. Usually, marriage life is happy thing, but from this expression, we can know how hard thing their marriage life was. Sylvia Plath experienced many hard things throughout her life. We can know this from her works because these things were expressed and written in her poems.

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Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

REACTION PIECE: SYLVIA RISAKO O NO I am interested in the class about Sylvia Plath. My first impression of Sylvia Plath is that she is really feminine. She fall in love with Ted Hughes, and she married him. She is often worried about Ted Hughes and his love affairs, and she was really suffered from his cheating her on. In this point, I think that these actions of Ted represent her feminine well. For Sylvia, the existence of Ted is really important. Her emotions to Ted make her poetries more passionate. In her poetry “Daddy”, I think that the feminine of Sylvia Plath and a strong feeling of attachment to Ted are shown. She hated him because of his love affair, envy to other women and irritation which Ted succeeded and got better and better, by contrast, she could not write poetries well. However, there is a lot of poetry which treat descriptions of Ted Hughes. For example, at a glance, she writes about her father who died when she was a child in “Daddy”, but I think a lot of description which represent him. As I learned in this class, Sylvia Plath often compares her father with Ted Hughes. I think the existence of her father and that of Ted Hughes are really similar for Sylvia. Because, her father died too young, so she could not accept the fact of his death. She loved her father from the heart, all the more reason, she could not forgive him. In addition, she loved Ted from the heart to as she loved father. Therefore, I think “Daddy” represents her emotion to both her father and Ted Hughes, but she does not want readers to notice about descriptions of Ted, so she stated the title “Daddy”, and emphasized the descriptions of father to hide those of Ted Hughes. Next, I am interested that this poetry is related to the problem of Jew-bating. Her father is a Jewish, so she is a daughter of Jewish. In fact, she often worried about it, and she was also suffered from complicated emotions. She criticizes the persecution, and I think that she also objects to men, and forcing as a representation of women. Finally, she is a really passionate woman as I stated earlier, so she looks sometimes a hysterical woman for me. However, I think that a lot of reader especially women empathize with the emotions and feminine of Sylvia Plath. In addition, Sylvia’s strong, passionate and strong descriptions influenced to women who have same sufferings about men with her. She also experienced female-specific things such as marriage and childbearing. These experiences make her more feminine. Her strong aspects may come from the strength as a mother. Then, I learned how important and big the existences of Ted Hughes and her father are for Sylvia Plath. At a glance, most of her poetries have dark and sad images, There are a complicated emotions and her memory of past in lines of her poetries. I think she always fought with something or herself.

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REACTION PIECE ABOUT SYLVIA PLATH RYOICHI N AGASHIMA In this reaction piece, I would like to consider things that I felt when we studied about Sylvia Plath. She is one of the most famous writers in the world. She had a talent for writing from her childhood. When she was 8 years old, she wrote a poem for the first time. Later she wrote a lot of poems and short stories. “Daddy,” “Ariel,” and The Bell Jar are her masterpieces. She won Pulitzer Prize after her death. Moreover she married Ted Hughes. He is also one of the most famous writers in the world. Then I would consider two things. One is about the connection between Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes. Another is about “Daddy.” First I would consider the connection between Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes. They met at University of Cambridge for the first time. After 4 months later, they married in 1956. Sylvia was blessed with two children. They were Fried Hughes and Nicholas Hughes. I think that they were so happy at first because they had two children and recognized their talents for writing each other. However, Sylvia committed a suicide because she fell out with Ted. "Plath was obviously a well-educated, disciplined writer who usually avoided the sentimentalities of some female writers."(Wagner-Martin 1) Sylvia was born in a wealthy family. Then I think that she was a person with common sense, a sensible person. So I think that she had never committed a suicide if she was in a normal state. She was cornered in a mental state. As the reason for the suicide, there was not only family trouble but also the miscarriage, the deadlock of writing poems, and the economic state of her family. Therefore I think that she had a common sense but she was not strong in her mental state. Second I would consider her famous work, "Daddy." This work was written on 12, 1962, just four months before her death. Her father, Otto Plath died because of diabetes when Sylvia was 8 years old. I think the death of her father was the thing that was difficult to understand for a young girl, Sylvia. However I think that she gradually had understood what her father was. Then she wrote the poem, "Daddy." She may have understood her father by living with Ted Hughes who was also a father of Fried Hughes and Nicholas Hughes. I think that she pictured the scene which she and her father were happy in her mind. To describe the scene, she wrote the poem. In conclusion, I understood that Sylvia had a lot of troubles in her life. She especially did not have good connections with men. For example, the men were her father and Ted Hughes. But I think that if she had broken these troubles, she would have been stronger and she would have lived with Ted Hughes in a better situation.

WORKS CITED Reaction Pieces

Wagner-Martin, Linda, "Sylvia Plath" Routledge, 2013. Print

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Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

THE BRILLIANT WORLD OF J.R.R. TOLKIEN Y UKI K UROSU I had known the name of Tolkien as a philologist and as the writer of The Lord of the Rings for a long time. Strangely enough, there was not an opportunity for me to read this or to see the movies. It was not until this April that I watched the trilogy, yet it did not take much time for the movies to fascinate me. What have especially attracted my interest in The Lord of the Rings are two things: the things which hint the ancient German society and his view of language. First, horses and trees in this work suggest to me the ancient German society. Presumably the audience of the movies have seen the flag of Rohan, which plays crucial role in the War of the Ring. The flag has a picture of the Mearas. “The Mearas were the greatest horses of Rohan, and thus of the world, being extremely strong, swift, and intelligent” (Foster 319). In ancient times the horse was of great significance for Germanic people. In the history of English, for example, the Jutes landed on Britain in about 450. Their two chief names were Hengist and Horsa, both of which have the meaning of the horse. Their flag also had a picture of a horse. Moreover, for Germanic people the morning star and the evening star were the Gods of brothers which were symbolized as horses (Watanabe 36-39). Trees are symbolically described as the White Tree of Gondor. This leads me to ancient times. Ancient Germanic people had a religion quite different from Christianity. Karl Schneider (1912-1998), the German philologist who studied Comparative Indo-European Linguistics and German and English languages and literatures, explains that before conversion to Christianity they worshipped massive oak trees like Druidism. Even though I do not know what kind of tree the White Tree of Gondor is, the common fact that trees are cherished makes me connected with the religion of ancient German people. Second, Tolkien’s view of language makes a deep impression on me. Usually ordinary writers would first make up a story and then invent an artificial language if necessary; but he didn’t. He invented several languages, from which he made up the story The Lord of the Rings and further Tolkien’s Mythology. He wrote that “The invention of languages is the foundation. The ‘stories’ were made rather to provide a world for the languages than the reverse” (Shippey xiii). To put it another way, for him language was the origin of a culture. When I knew his view of language, I associated it with Leo Weisgerber, the German linguist who specialized in Celtic and German linguistics. Weisgerber in his book Muttersprache und Geistesbildung (1929) states that language forms the human spirit, and then creates human cultures, and furthermore forms human history (Fukumoto 181). As has mentioned above, they have the very similar view of language. Weisgerber’s statement of language influencing my view of language, I sympathize with Tolkien’s view of language.

WORKS CITED Foster, Robert. The Complete Guide to Middle-Earth: Tolkien's World from A to Z. Rev. and Enlarged ed. New York: Ballantine Books, 2001. Print. Fukumoto, Kinosuke., trans. Muttersprache und Geistesbildung. By Leo Weisgerber. Tokyo: Kodansha, 1969. Print. Shippey, Tom A. J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century. London: HarperCollins, 2001. Print. Watanabe, Shoichi. Eigo no Rekishi [A History of the English Language]. Tokyo: Taishukan, 1983. Print.

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REACTION PIECE TO THE LORD OF THE RINGS FUMIKA S ATO I am writing reaction piece to the Lord of the Rings. I knew only the name before I learn this work in Integrated Skills class. Of course, I knew this movie was a big hit. I also knew J.R.R Tolkien, only name. However, I did not know that the Lord of the Rings has an original story and J.R.R Tolkien wrote it. Moreover, Tolkien created his original world, the Beginning of Time and the Music of the Ainur, the Age of the Lamps, the Age of Trees, the First Age, the Second Age and the Third Age. They have each story about the beginning and end of period properly. In addition, he created so many places that Ford and his fellowship visit on a long way to Mordor. And its map also exists. It can say that his work is a history and very close. “One of the most vivid expressions of Tolkien's ability and interest in languages was the creation of his own. Over the course of his life he invented several languages, such as Elvish (including Quenya and Sindarin), Dwarvish (Khuzdul), Entish, and Black Speech.” (Shippey, xiii) As this sentence mention, Tolkien created words not only Elvish but also other languages. I felt that Tolkien really loved language through Integrated Skills class. In fact the episode that we can know that he was addicted in language and familiar with it reminds. “Tolkien was a scholar with deep knowledge of languages both modern and ancient. His mother introduced him to the study of languages and cultures by teaching him Latin, French, and German at home; he expanded into others when he entered grammar school. He continued to learn many other languages throughout his schooling and career, including Welsh, Finnish, and Old Norse.” (Chance, 63) He wrote the Lord of the Rings to take advantage of his vast knowledge of languages. Creating languages took hundreds of years in history but Tolkien created it in a very short time. I consider the fact that he created his own world made this work famous and popular. I did not know that the Lord of the Rings has such great background. After I learned about his creating words and language, the fun of watching this movie was increased to twice. Tolkien rejected making into this movie though he can get a large amount of money by movie. I consider that he thought great deal of his holy world. He would not like anybody to destroy it by making into movie. Because his work is grand. At first sight, movie cannot recreate his original book loyalty. However, I felt this movie is magnificent and great works enough. Through Integrated Skills, I would like to compare the difference between original books and movie. And I want to confirm whether movie could recreate Tolkien's own world or not.

Chance, Jane. Lord of the Rings: The Mythology of Power. Kentucky UP 2010. Print. Shippey, Tom A. JRR Tolkien: Author of the Century. HarperCollins UK, 2001. Print.

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Reaction Pieces

WORK CITED


Integrated â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Class Journal

Spring 2013

REACTION PIECE: TOLKIEN S HINICHI MATSUDO In this semester, we studied about JRR Tolkien, and his work Lord Of The Ring in the class. I was very excited at this movie, especially its plot, setting of the world, unique characters and their name. Among these points, what I was strongly interested in is the relationship between Lord Of The Ring and WW1. JRR Tolkien served as British army during WW1 and his experience during this time was reflected in Lord Of The Ring. People usually think that the war will solve the problems of the world. Of course Tolkien thought so too. But I think he use this experience deliberately because he wanted to tell readers the both good and bad aspects of the war. He was probably affected greatly by the war, mentally and physically. He lost his best friends from school student time, and after the war, he contracted trench fever. But, he applied his experience to the story because he wanted to tell us the horror of the war and courage and hope in the war, I think. I think the depiction of Lord Of The Ring is mostly affected by the war. For example, there are a lot of mountains, deep valley and other complicated geography. The dark, deep phenomenon in the story will express the terrible situation of the war. The Mordor, it is the final location for Frodo and Sam in Lord Of The Ring, is thought the battle field of WW1. In many landscapes, WW1 and the story are connected. In the story, there are not only terrible things, but also courage and hope aspects, I think. There is great pride and hope living in the soldiers who choose to take big risk of their lives. They had pride in their countries, will to protect their precious friends and family, and hope in their future. There is a familiarity this doing and Frodo and Sam in the story. JRR Tolkien wanted to tell not only the horrible aspects but also hopeful things. Both good and bad aspects come across in his writing, I think.

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Reviews

REVIEWS

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Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

REVIEW OF CLOCKWORK ORANGE T AKESHI S HINTANI When I watched this movie I felt all about this story is crazy, queer, and also strange. At first I thought that Alex is very bad boy and his action made me irritated. Therefore when he was betrayed by his friends, I was not sympathy to him. I rather thought that it is good for him to spend long time in prison. He spends time as a good man in prison. I wonder whether he is really a good man or not in prison. However the scene that Alex is under treatment of mental problem is very terrible because Alex is forced to open his eyes and watch a violent movie for a long time. After that he lives his life as if he is not he. I disagree this way of treatment because it makes a person lose identity. Moreover, this movie seems to look down on women in many points. For example at first scene Alex and his friends uses the table whose shape is women. Moreover Alex rapes some women without hesitation in this movie. Therefore I think that this movie is rare in these days.

AND THEN THERE WERE NONE A YAKA YAGUCHI The title of this story is “Ten Little Niggers” at first, but “nigger” is discrimination word, so the title of this story became “And Then There Were None”. This title was taken from the last sentence of this story. When I read this story, I think that this is really wrapped in mystery. I have already known that Agatha Christie is a writer who wrote mystery story, but I haven’t read her story. So, this novel is her work that I read for the first time. After I read this, I noticed that she is very wonderful writer because I can’t imagine the next situation. And first, I think this is an impossible situation because we don’t know who is a criminal but invented guests are killed one after another. I expected who the criminal is, but the person I think he/she is a criminal died in the middle of this story. However, in the end of this story, we can know who the criminal is and how the incident occurred. After I finished reading this story, I could get the feeling of achievement.

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THE REVIEW OF LIFE IS BEAUTIFUL R ISAKO O NO I watched Life is Beautiful. The main theme of this movie is the problem of Jew-baiting. In Nazi-occupied Germany, one father and his son were taken to the concentration camps by Nazi. I was impressed by the strength of father. Despite the father knows what happens hereafter, but he never tell his son about it. The father tells his son that they do something like a game. He knows that they are killed by State, but his emotion which he tries not to let his son find. In this point, I felt the power of a person who has someone to protect. In addition, the father promised with his son that the winner of this game can get a tank as the prize. Finally, the father is killed by a man of army. In last scene of this movie, other troop come the concentration camps to save Jewish people by tanks. I thought that the father is great man, and he needs not cheat his son forever. This movie has a deep message of persecution, and makes appeal past fault to people until now.

ATONEMENT REVIEW S HUN T AKAMATSU

Reviews

The reason why I choose this novel is, this novel is said that “Unreliable Narrator Novel”. The main character is Briony, she is 13 years old. She is the narrator of this novel, and her age makes her unreliable. 13years old girl is adolescent and she is a little bit megalomania. One day, she saw the scene that when her old sister, Cecilia, be with an employee, Robbie, her sister worn only underwear in a garden. Briony’s under the impression that he made her sister wear only underwear. But in fact, she just tried to take thing in a fountain. But she doesn’t see it, she thought like that. This is one of example of her unreliableness. She was asked to hand over his love letter to Cecilia. She had a peep the letter, but that content is so indecent one, so Briony got angry and hand over that to Cecilia. But in fact, the letter is just joking and there is another sincerity love letter, but he hand over the wrong one. There is a big event that she completely get untrusted to him. She saw their love affair in library. She think that Robbie force to do that with Cecilia. But in fact, they loved each other, and they agreed to do that. From these two events, she begin not to be able to trust him. One day, her cousin attacked by someone. She saw the man’s back, but she think that man is Robbie. She testify that Robbie is the rapist. Finally, Robbie was arrested. But actually, Robbie don’t rape her. For 13 year’s old Briony, there are too many indecent things and she hatred with that. Surprisingly, in the last scene, we understand that this is the autobiography written by 77 year’s old Briony. This makes this novel so “Unreliable”. Because, she may not have clear memory about it and she dramatize her works to make it interesting one.

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Integrated – Class Journal

SYLVIA:

Spring 2013

EMOTIONAL

CONFLICT

BETWEEN

WRITING AND MARRIED LIFE M EGUMI N AITO I watched a film, “Sylvia” and was so impressed by emotional conflict of Sylvia Plath, so I review this film. The first scene in this film was enviable for me. This was because the life of Sylvia seemed to be successful at first. She entered Cambridge University and was actively involved in a work of poem. At that time, she came to become a slave to poems of one person, Ted Hughes, who also took a lively part in a poet as a graduate student of Cambridge and had some relationship to Beatnik poets, and went to a party to see him with having a lot of expectations. Sylvia met Ted there; they came to be involved in their values of poem each other and then they got married after four months they met. After watching the first scene, I envied her because she succeeded in a poem and met a nice partner. However, her happy life did not last so long. As soon as they got married, Ted’s poem was praised in New York and they moved to the United States. While his poem was applauded and came to be known to a lot of people gradually, she was obliged to concentrate on working as an English teacher and had no time to write a poem. Since she had no time to spend writing a poem she loved, she hit a slump and began to disturb her peace of mind. And what was worse, the relationship between them got worse. Since she found Ted talking with a girl student, she started to be possessed by a delusion having no basis and to fall suspicion of unfaithfulness on him. I think that her jealousy and inferiority to Ted, who succeeded in writing poems, caused her emotional disturbance. Their married life once calmed down when Sylvia gave birth to a first baby, but she could not still have time to spend writing poems because of taking care of the baby. And when she gave birth to a second baby, Ted indeed played around with other woman, Assia Wevill , who was one of funs of Sylvia’s poem. Then, she decided to part from him and to concentrate on writing poems with taking care of her children, but her love of him never faded and continued distressing her until she committed suicide at the age of thirty. In a dilemma between job to write poems as a poet and married life with Ted, Sylvia had been distressed by the mental anguish for a long time. However, without it, she would have never become popular all over the world. With her hard experience, she could give birth to many wonderful poems such as “Daddy” and novels such as The Bell Jar. She wrote many works by representing her emotional disturbance and ambivalence distinctively. I think that Sylvia could live an honest life as a poet, but I do not think she could really lead a happy life. She must have been distressed as she was in mortal terror by a delusion because of her too much love of Ted and of a desire to write poems. And she must have been lonely after losing her partner. If she had not distressed, she might have continued writing poems for a longer time. After finished watching the film, I was greatly painted to think of her.

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REVIEW OF MOVIE: MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING Y UKIHIRO ARIMA

Reviews

I watched "Much ado about Nothing" edited by Kenneth Branagh, in 1993. Because I was going to act as Benedick on stage in July 7. This movie was help for creating my image of Benedick. Kenneth Branagh edited Shakes pea's play for movie and acted as main protagonist, for example, Iago in "Othello", Henley V, and more. His acting is very fascinating, and his made movie is innovative for my view of Shakespeare's plays or works. Before then, I thought Shakespeare's works are hard and dull, just academic. But actually not, Shakespeare's works are all human-like., he depicted play as real human drama, but it is hyper reality. "Much ado about Nothing" became most favorite comedy play in Shakespeare's works for me, thanks to Kenneth Branagh. First, all actor and actress's acting was splendid. All character was unique, for example, Dogberry's acting was very humorous, and made me laugh. I first scene, Beatrice reads 'Sigh no more' which is something of theme in this story. I was drawn the story from first, and next scene of a triumphant of Don Pedro's group made me excited. I heard this scene may be parody of "the Magnificent Seven" edited by Akira Kurosawa. It was cool. There were many remarkable points or scenes in this movie. The scene of deceived Benedick and Beatrice was impressed deeply for me. They love each other actually, but they are not frank, so they cannot represent their real intention. However, in this scene, they can understand each feeling. It was a smile-provoking scene, and made me relieved. Next, in the wedding scene Claudio and Hero, it makes the story dark and evil. Claudio's mistake which is due to Don John and Borachio brings the worst incident. When I watched this scene, I felt not good, for too unlawful, Hero was so miserable and pity. I liked much next scene, after a disturbance in wadding, only Beatrice and Benedick left the spot. Then, they tell each other of a heart filled with love. This scene made me moved. Finally, all is happy ending except Don John. I do not like happy ending sometimes, but this movie's end granted my desire. In addition to movie plot, I liked music in the movie too. Music in the movie is composed by Patrick Doyle. I liked very much his music. Especially, main theme song "Sigh no more" was very moving and impressive for me. This song made me sometimes sentimental, sometimes happy. I listened many times. When I played my performance, I and my members sung this song powerfully in final scene. This movie was really wonderful in my life. Without this movie, I was not interested at Shakespeare's works and movie. So this movie becomes precious thing. Thanks to this movie, I wanted to study or act Shakespeare's play or character and I felt never giving up acting. Then I wanted to watch and read, touch Shakespeare's works.

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Integrated â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Class Journal

Spring 2013

MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM M AMI N AKAO This movie is really cute and fantastic one. The boy makes a venture between real world and dream which no one know whose dream is. These settings make people very confusing. The key point of this story is a flower which makes people fall in love. Fairy king and queen were on bad terms with each other because they both wanted the adopted child. The disturbances were happened by using this flower by fairies. At first sight, the disturbances between court noble seems really tragic because magic flower makes their relationship confusing. However at the end of this story, all four main characters, Hermia, Rysander, Demetrius and Helena become so happy because fairies restored their relationship to the original and correct one. So finally we can see that this film is a comedy. Also I paid attention to a play by craftsmen. It is very interesting to play in a real play. They called their play "a tragic comedy". I think this "tragic comedy" indicate this movie itself. At the very end of this story, we wonder that all event is diminishing and feel that is just a dream. It is so fantastic.

ROMEO AND JULIET M AMI N AKAO This is the first time for me to watch the work of William Shakespeare. I have known his work is famous for a "tragedy." However I was very surprised because it was so tragic conclusion beyond my expectations. Although the film omits some of tragic part because, actually more people died in this story. I think the point that makes this story more tragic is "passing each other." A servant tried to convey a message to Romeo from his father but he and Romeo passed each other. Even more, Romeo misunderstood that Juliet was dead and he killed himself. After a while Juliet woke up and found such a situation. It couldn't be more tragic. I thought why Shakespeare made a film. I think he cannot descript real and true love without such a tragic story. I was very impressed to watch this movie because I thought Romeo and Juliet loved each other than their lives. People ordinary think that giving his/herself completely to love is really moving and such a film want to convey a message to watcher the real and true love. I think Shakespeare tried to descript real and true love by a tragic conclusion.

RICHARD III M AMI N AKAO I like calm and happy movie and hate cruel one. Especially, including war or discord relationship. But I could enjoy this movie though it is so violent. As professor said, it seems so many preparation and planning. If I have known such things before, I could enjoy this film more. By the way Richard â&#x2026;˘ is really cruel person. He ordered his subordinates to kill his family. He never kills by himself. The cruellest murder I think is that killing the little two prince. Of course, other killing is also very cruel but I cannot understand why such a little boys were killed. Richard is so cruel person. So does he feel nothing? No, he feels guilt unconscious. I can see such a point from his having scary nightmare. He really felt scary. Also he cannot believe another person. He believe only himself. I think such character makes him become more frightened. Richard conquest U.S. by cruel and clever way. He seems to be strong and feel nothing. However he always fears treachery and feels guilt. I paid attention his real character and can catch a glimpse of that.

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THE LAST SAMURAI AYAKA YAGUCHI Before I saw this movie, I thought that “The Last Samurai” is just the story of Japanese samurai. However, there are many points of foreigner seeing. I thought that these views are very interesting. When Captain Nathan Algren comes to Japan, he thinks that Japanese custom is very strange. Simon said in this movie that Japanese people doesn’t say what they think in mind. In this point, I think so too. The number of talking about what they think in mind of Japanese people is less than American. I knew that we spend our lives on our customs with no doubt, but the point of some foreigners, the custom that we spend is a little strange. In the middle of this movie, Katsumoto and Captain Nathan Algren are in harmony in point of “Bushido”. Katsumura said that “Like these blossom, we are all dying. To know life is in every breath. Life is in every breath. This is ‘Bushido’”. People are all dying. I was reminded of this by this movie. I was moved by this movie very much. I come to want to learn my country of culture in detail again.

THE REVIEW OF LES MISERABLES RISAKO O NO

Reviews

I watched Les Miserables. Firstly, I thought that movie too short to describe all of the story. This movie is separated to two themes. One of them is the problem of poverty, and another is the revolution of students. I am impressed by mainly two things. Firstly, I am moved by the change of Jean Valjean. When he was released from the prison, he lost his natural sense of trust in other people, and he had hatred to the society at that time. However, since he decided to grow Cosette up as his daughter, the face changed to kind face. For example, a responsibility like growing children, and to love someone make people be strong I think. Secondly, I am moved by the strength of wills. The images of French are bright, artistic and relaxed, but these images were built up by a lot of victim and conflict. The students in this movie never change their mind to the last. I thought that how many people who have strong will like them in our time. I felt shame of my weakness of will. I should live my life with strong will like them, and we never forget that our time was built up by these people.

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Integrated â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Class Journal

Spring 2013

WUTHERING HEIGHTS FUMIKA S ATO Through Integrated skills class, I learned about Wuthering Heights. I did not know that this is famous story until I learned it in class. I watched movie which is produced in 1939. It was first time for me to watch black-and-white film. Honestly, I do not like this movie in some respect. First of all, I do not like platonic love story especially, classic one. Next, the stream of this story is very slow. Moreover, plot of this film is boring compared to original story. In this film, Cathy Linton, Linton Heathcliff and Hareton Earnshaw did not appear in this movie. I prefer the latter half of the scene that Heathcliff revenge himself against Edgar's son and Hindley's sun ion original story. However, there is no scene that he retaliate against them except he treat Hindley as an underling. Instead of it, the climax is the scene that Heathcliff and Catherine make sure of affection towards each other. As I mentioned above, I do not like platonic love story. Moreover, the story of this movie is little bit ordinary and boring. However, there is so many other Wuthering Heights movie. The latest one was shown in 2009. I would like to watch this one.

REVIEW OF THE SHAWSHANK REDEMPTION S HUSEI O SHIKA The Shawshank Redemption is the best movie which I have ever seen. Actually, the reason why I became moviegoer is that I came across this movie. This is never an overstatement. I was 13 years old when I watched this movie for the first time. At that time I watched this movie only as a simple one. However when I was 16, there was an opportunity to watch this movie once again. This time, I could watch this movie more deeply and understand more clearly. I watched this movie and I was impressed for the first time. So since this time, I became moviegoer. Andy, the chief character, is charged with the crime that killed his wife and the lover of his wife, and he is sentenced to imprisonment for life. He is confined in Shawshank prison. There, Andy meets Red who is procurement person. Red was also sentenced to the imprisonment for life as well as Andy. Andy gets to know Red and begins being used to the atmosphere of the prison. Andy obtained various things from Red and pushed forward the preparation for jailbreak steadily. Thanks to get to know Andy, Red comes to have hopes of being released on parole. Andy promises with Red which is to see again outside of prison and he succeeds jailbreak. I like the relationships of the two people. The relationship is that each other act for each other.

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Creative Writing

CREATIVE WRITING

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Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

THE WONDERFUL BIRTH DAY ASAHI Y OKOTA She became 10 years old today. She lived with grandfather and her grandmother. She felt so happy because this long-awaited day came over at last. She waited this birthday since she was 5 years old when she heard the story from her grandmother. When she was 5 years old, her grandmother said to her, “Lisa, the girl born in this house can be given an especial brooch when she becomes 10 years old which comes from generation to generation. So, you will be able to get the brooch if your 10th birth day comes. Surely it must be a special day for you on that day.” However there was a problem. Her mother died 4 years ago because of traffic accident. Lisa has been looking forward to seeing the brooch, however, she would often wonder how her mother will give her the brooch because her mother was dead. “Happy Birthday, Lisa” Her grandfather gave her a compass. “This compass is my treasure. When I was a child, I would often go for small adventure with this compass. It must lead you some wonderful places.” “Thank you. ” Lisa said. “ Whenever I go out, I’ll carry it.” “I'll give you this, Lisa” Her grandmother gave her a red rain boots. “If I have this boots, I will be looking forward to seeing rain. I really want to go out, putting on this boots. " However, Lisa had one question yet. This question was very big question for Lisa. "...... Where is the brooch what you said to me that I can get if I become 10 years old? " Her grandmother looked very surprised. “I gave your mother the brooch when she was 10 years old. However, your mother died 4 years ago. So, I don't know where the brooch is. Sorry. " Lisa became sad, but she smiled for her grandparents. On the afternoon of Lisa's birthday, it started raining. Lisa prepared to go out. She put on the rain boots that given by her grandmother, and she put grandfather's compass in her pockets. At 1:00.p.m, she went out. She said her grandmother that she would return home by dinner. It stopped raining, and she found a beautiful rainbow faraway. She decided to go to the foot of the rainbow. After she walked 1 hour, she finally reached the foot of the rainbows. In that place, there is a puddle that reflects the rainbow. She set foot on the puddle slowly. Then she felt her body fall through the ground. She couldn't help closing her eyes. When she opened her eyes, there is a world of the rainbow. She stood on the ground. “Where is here....!? I have never seen such beautiful scenery!! " In there, she found the ground that was carpeted with flowers, shining blue sky and a big rainbow that she had never seen before. She decided to walk around this rainbow world.

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After a few hours later, she remembered that she said to grandmother. “I must go home. My grandmother must worry about me." She didn't know the way to home. However, she had started walking to the bottom of rainbow intuitively. When they arrived at the bottom of the rainbow, Mika said to Lisa, “I’m very happy that I met you today. I enjoyed so much." “Me, too! I was glad to see you. I want to play with you again.’’ Lisa said. Then, Mika took out something from her pocket. "I'll give you this. I want you to receive it." It was a beautiful rainbow brooch. It shined by setting sun. “Thank you very much! I have never seen such a beautiful brooch. " She put on the brooch round the breast. “I have to go now. It is the first time that I opened my heart to other people deeply." However, They felt each other by intuition that they cannot meet again easily. “Someday we'll definitely be able to meet.” “I think so. Goodbye, Mika." They shook hands, and Lisa turned toward the puddle. The puddle also reflected the beautiful rainbow. Lisa set foot on the puddle slowly like when she entered this world. She felt her body fall through the ground. When she saw Mika last time, Mika smiled.

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Creative Writing

She took out her compass from her pocket. The compass needle revolved rapidly. Then, the needle stopped suddenly. This compass didn't seem to point north. "Where is this compass pointing?" She thought. Then, she remembered her grandfather's words. (It must lead you some wonderful places.) She decided to go in the direction the compass pointed. 30 minutes later, she stopped suddenly because the compass needle didn't point any directions. The needle kept revolving. Then, she found a girl picking flowers. Lisa approached her. “Hello. My named is Lisa. What are you doing here?" The girl looked very surprised. “My name is Mika. I was seeing these beautiful flowers. What are you doing?" “I got lost on the way to walking." They talked for a while. Mika was said that she is also 10 years old. Lisa made friends with her soon. Then they played on a slide of rainbow for a long time. “It’s very interesting! I want to bring my grandfather and grandmother…..” “What did your parents do?” Mika asked. “My parents were dead.” “Oh, I’m sorry.” “Don’t worry!” Lisa said. “By the way, what kind of person are your grandparents?” “My grandfather likes adventure and he often talks episode of his trip to me. My grandmother always worries about me.” Lisa smiled. “My mother also worries about me every time.” Mika also smiled.


Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

When Lisa came to herself, she stood at her back garden. She thought that the matter she experienced was dream. However there was the brooch at her breast firmly. When she was having dinner, her grandmother realized the brooch and said, “Oh, Lisa! Where did you find that brooch? I had that brooch 55years ago. I feel long for young girl hood. Mika, your mother must be glad you to find this brooch." Lisa talked all things that happened today. “The compass I gave you might make you meet your mother.” Her grandfather said calmly. Since then, she came to enter the puddle after it was rain. However nothing happened. But she was never depressed because the brooch encouraged her. Lisa came to like her mother more. “See you!" She rushed out from her house as always. “Be careful !” Her grandmother said. She had a feeling that the puddle at the back garden shined in rainbow color.

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BE FROZEN FUMIKA S ATO 2nd Dec. Doctor told me to write diary. Though there is no possibility of recurrence, he said to me "It is more efficient to store a lot of things even a little good." It is troublesome for me. But I decided to keep diary from today because there is nothing to do... 3rd Dec. I seem to be amnesia. Even if I say, not all memory cannot be remembered. I can remember that I could not study well when I was a child. I can also remember that I don't like tomato. All memory that I can remember is to the middle of the period of growth. Furthermore, all of them are not sure. However, I seem to be 37 years old now. I am sad somehow. 4th Dec. A woman claiming to be my wife and a brat claiming to be my son came to the hospital. I forgot to write that I'm in the hospital now. But there is no abnormality in my body. A brat and a woman who came to the hospital, was the face I do not recognize. I said obediently it. Just then the woman bursted into tears. On the other hand the brat was laughing. He said, "Treatment of mother is the same even though memory loss." A way of speaking which he has realized was very provoking. 5th Dec. They came again. Although I wanted to be alone, it was unavoidable because it is called a family. Today, the woman brought an album. Though many photographs in which the woman, I and brat were reflected were stuck, there was no one piece of photograph which I am laughing. Unconsciously I asked, "it is true or not that we are family?" And then she began to cry again. I wish they will not come tomorrow.

7th Dec. The doctor suddenly told me to get out of the hospital. 2 hours later, the woman and the brat came to take me. It seems that they did not come here because they were busy preparing for today. I was stunned to notice that leaving the hospital means going home. Our house is an old Japanese house though every room is clean. If there is one problem, it would be a big refrigerator is encamped in the corner of the living room. When I asked, "why there is it here even though there is another one in the kitchen", the woman began to go in and out of it many time with a suspicious smile. Apparently, this woman has some kind of problem in her head like me. The brat is also laughing. She cooked meal for us. However all of them were frozen foods.

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6th Dec. Today, they didn't come. I am distracted somehow.


Integrated â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Class Journal

Spring 2013

8thDec. When I woke up in the morning, the woman was sleeping next to me. I remembered that she is my wife at this late hour. And I have diarrhea. I know the cause. 9th Dec. The woman was not at home so I spent alone with the brat. In the afternoon, we went to a ski slope. According to the last night news, it seems that snow is disappearing from Japan under the influence of global warming but that skiing area had much snow. In addition, I noticed that I am unusually good at skiing. I'm likely to get muscle pain tomorrow. 10th Dec. The brat and I could not move because of the masculine pain all day long. Again, the woman tried to serve frozen foods. And then I told her that I was fed up with them. She cried and said, â&#x20AC;&#x153;I cannot cook other foods.â&#x20AC;? She is a woman who cries often. 11th Dec. It will be 10 days from the beginning to keep a diary. However a sign of returning memory is not at all. 12th Dec. The woman told that she felt ill and did not come out from the refrigerator. I think refrigerator is all the worse if she is unwell. According to the brat, it is a tranquilizer for her. She seems to feel comfortable when she is in it. I had no choice but to leave her alone. She came out finally in the evening. Although I cooked gruel, she did not try to eat it saying it is too hot for me to eat. 13th Dec. Today seems to be a wedding anniversary. The woman was so hyper today. Since she is too noisy, I pushed her into refrigerator. After that I went to the skiing ground. And there, I met a familiar face for the first time except the woman and brat. She seems to have been a high school classmate and also be a colleague. She told me that I work there as an instructor. 14th Dec. Today, the woman didn't come out from refrigerator. 15th Dec. She didn't come out from it all day long today again. I became worry about her. When I attempted to open the door of refrigerator, it was stopped be the brat. He said to me, "I would like to talk about" and he took me another room. And there I was heard amazing story. It is too shocking to put it in order. 16th Dec. The woman didn't come out from refrigerator. Fearfully, I opened the door. She sat there. I told her to come out but she ignored me. Having been flared up, I seized her right arm by force and tried to drag her out of it against her ill. Her right arm was cut off. Moreover, her

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arm was cold. She was a troubled face but I was not surprised. Instead, I was impressed by realizing that what the brat said yesterday is true. Though it is unbelievable story, it seems like that my wife is not a human. 17th Dec She was outside from morning today. Arm is also stuck firmly. I said to her, “it is convenient.” Then, she said, “Because I am a snow fairy.” In the past, I seem to have accomplished extraordinary splendid achievement marring a snow fairy. Almost nothing surprises me now. 18th Dec. When I woke up, she was sleeping next to me after a long time. To make matters worse, she made me feel much colder when she besides me. It will be better that I told her to keep away from me. 19th Dec. She seemed to have gone to part time job. That is why she was not at home from morning. I asked the brat how s snow fairy works. I am convinced because her work is to bring heavy snow to the skiing ground. It is 30000yen daily wage and twice or three times a week. 20th Dec. Next year will come soon. The woman is just eating ice cream in the refrigerator. 21th Dec. As before, she is eating ice cream. A man named my boss visited house. At first, he asked about my body condition. Next he took up the subject about my wife. He told me that the cause of my memory loss is due to her. While I was skiing, I seem to have been about to be killed by her. He suggested to me to get a divorce. Everyone seems to dislike her. He told even that the woman is a horrible. I got angry excessively. 22th Dec. From today, the brat’s winter vacation started from today. I had regular checkup after a long time. And there, I asked the doctor why I got amnesia. According him it seemed that I was involved in avalanche. When I asked it was because of my wife, he laughed. He said to me, “if she hadn’t helped you, you would be damaged seriously.” I felt relieved somehow.

24th Dec. Though today is Christmas Eve, dinner was frozen foods. We ate ice cake. I presented her ice shave machine for her. She threw herself into my arms. Although I would like to complain, I didn’t because I didn’t want her to cry. The brat was laughing.

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23th Dec. It was snowstorm today. As expected, the woman had gone to part time job. Thanks to her absence, I and the brat ate hot soup.


Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

THE SILENT WORLD MIYU IIDA What makes the country quite confused is a matter of common knowledge. Everyone obviously knows that it should be cleared away but a day when they can do it never comes. People, animals, and all other creature of this country have no vital spirit and animated feeling because by terror of the King Retio who hate all kinds of sound especially human’s voice. The government of this country regulates man-made sounds in both public and private place. If someone violates the rule of it, he have to be given severe punishment like extraction of his vocal cord. King Retio’s arbitrary government has an absolute discretion over citizens. Sounds streaming into air are only noises of trains, cars, the wind and footsteps of busy crowd in the city. At all schools of this country, “Education Assistants” not called a “teacher” are assigned to each classroom and they operate machines called a “teacher”. All students have their tablet computers and stare intently them in class without any sound. Also there is no announce and chime informing times like a break between classes and a lunch. Instead of it, there is a bulletin board system in each class and it controls students and gives all information to them. Moreover, in the case of inside houses, everyone in this country have to install the sound detector which the government oversees dweller’s action in their home. In this odd situation, people started to get confusing at first five years ago when the terrible regulation became effective but they finally accepted it under unavoidable circumstances. Many department stores, coffee shops, hotels and so on featuring considerate services like warm smile and approachable talking to customers have no choice but close because of this outrageous governmental way. In addition, who took a severe hit are people involved in songs all around the country. All singer, musician and songwriter have to cease to their works which are motivations of their lives. Before the enforcement of this strict regulation, they made their own works with authority, pride and happiness. However, they lose the meaning in their lives after enforcement of the regulation. So There are a lot of suicide victims who is involved in music every year. Also many people related to music get arrested for protest movements against the regulation. People painted a lot of mouthes, treble clefs, bass clefs and musical notes in their face which represents the meaning of their big love for music. However, their strong powers of music don’t have a place to give out. In this situation, what they can do is only pounding out the beat in their minds. What makes this country filled emptiness of sounds? In the childhood of King Retio, he was born into a humble family, had kind parents and lived in comfort. However, this their happy life didn’t hold a long time. His father died of disease and his mother and he suffered heartache. To forget the sadness of her husband’s death, his mother started to get hooked on drugs. Drugs not only gave her band-aid happiness but also took the family tie away from her life. She eventually didn’t try to do nothing but put on annoying music all around the house throughout the day. Whenever she saw his son, she shouted abuse at him. “You are the death of your father!” “Go to hell!” “I’ll invoke evil upon you….” Many his mother’s words got stuck deep in his heart. So he gradually thought that what he can do to run away from his mother’s verbal assaults is not to hear anything at all. He started

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to put in his earplugs all day and found that how delightful shutting out any sounds from his daily life is. In addition, he began to believe that no sounds society can create no victim of verbal violence. He tried to study never like before and got into an elite university...to achieve his big ambition. He graduated top of the class and joined the state institution. At that place, he fully expressed his potential and was elected the King of this country by popular vote. Then he started the cruel regulation which is his long-awaited dream. He couldn’t think about people who need many kinds of sounds for their lives. The terrible tyranny of the country started to cause citizen to suffer… One day, King Retio started to patrol the neighborhood looking for someone making noise. Everything in the city is normal as usual. No one walking across the street talks to each other and there is no announce and chime in the air. In the park of this city, there are a lot of running children and their mothers just looking them without any chat. Nothing is odder than this situation in the park. One boy putting red cap on his head and his mother hold hands with each other and walk around the small lake of cause without any words. King Retio just stare at those two and can’t help reminding his memory of childhood. It’s little chilly day and many people in the park wear brightly-colored their coat as contrasted with their blank monotone atmosphere. Suddenly at the direction of his eyes, there is a fallen woman on the road who King Retio saw short time ago. And there is a young man running way at full speed. He has a red handbag and one short knife in his hand. The woman bleeds a great deal on her side and her little son is just standing by her and crying in silence. Everyone around them no doubt about that she is destined to die away because of her major wound. In the next breath, King Retio finds himself running toward those two and SAYS to the little child, “You…You should talk to her and say how you love her. ” King Retio finally got new answer about his traditional style at that time. Saying nothing can’t deeply wound someone but it also can’t bears anything good.

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Integrated â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Class Journal

Spring 2013

I AM A TREE AYAKA T AKADA I am a tree. I'm big enough and conspicuous in grassland. I have lived alone for a long long long long long time here. I am bored with my life. Trees' lifetime is too long. One day, a boy came to the grassland. He was alone and muttering something. "I hate him...I hate him...that guy..." As he was saying that, he was approaching me. What's wrong with him? I was watching him. Then... "I HATE HIM!!" Suddenly he cried, and...Biff, bush, bam, biff, bush, bam! I had aches and pains. I HATE HIM. Later he went home on that day. This is the happening a few days ago. Who is he in the world? I have thought about him since that day. Aches and pains are gone. It's sunny and breezing today. I feel comfortable. Then... "I hate him!" Oh...someone's voice I heard before. What's wrong with him again? He is approaching me. Hm...? I remember this situation... Then, "I HATE HI..." "Stop! Stop, Stop!! Your blow is so painful!!" "What!?" He stops to punch me and opens his eyes. "A tree...speaking...?" "I saw a boy LIKE YOU a few days ago. He was violent. I had aches and pains. I'm old so all the more......hm? Are you listening to me?" He is freezing. "Are you okay?" "A tree...is...speaking.......?" After a while, he is finally calmed down. "Then, who are you? Why can you speak, a tree?" "Well, I am a tree, just a tree." He seems to be unconvinced. Honestly, I'm surprised too. I have seen so many people who came to play here in the grassland, have learned language by listening to their conversations, but this is for the first time for me to speak, talk with human. "Well, what happened to you, boy?" "I want to refresh..." "Why?" "...My father always scolds me...even though I do nothing bad..." "So did you attack me a few days ago and was about to attack again? To let off steam?" I still hold a grudge. "I'm sorry...I'm reflecting on my conduct..." For a while we are talking. He is fourteen and an only child, not having a mother. There are few people living here and he has no friend to play with after coming back home. He goes to school far away from here. He walks more than one hour to his school. After school he goes home straight and helps his father with his father's job because his father runs a small company.

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He seems to be in bad terms with his father because he helplessly helps his father's job and is always scolded. He is still a boy of playful age. "If you want to talk to someone and to play with, come here. Talk with me." "Really? It's OK?" "Of course. I am a friend." "A friend...! I like this place. It's large grassland, sky is blue, wind is blowing comfortably. It's a special place for me to refresh." He looks happy, seems like to be released. After that, he begins to come here almost every day and talk about his life at his school, a conflict with his father, and so on. In spring, he plays with flowers, talking with me. In summer, He rests in the shade of me. In autumn, He draws a picture of landscape includes me. In winter, he makes snow balls and throws them toward me, makes a big snowman next to me. If it rains, he sometimes doesn't come here, but I have spent almost every day with him. It's fun, so fun. I'm forgetting my boring life until then. Ten years have passed. He comes to see me as usual. It's sunny and winter is finishing . He is now twenty four and works at his house, his father's company. "Hi, Tree." "Hi. How about your working today?" I asked him as usual. "Hmm...So so." "Why is it so so?" I think he seems strange. He seems like thinking something. "I have always considered recently... I...I have decided to be off here." "...Off? To where?" "Another country." "For what?" "I'm going to train hard to succeed my father's company at the head office." I don't know what his job is. "So.........I'll cheer you up. Do your best." "Thanks.........thanks......" He casts his eyes down. We say nothing for a while. "Well...I'll go... See you tomorr..." He stops. "See you till we'll meet again." I say. He turns and goes home. He never looks back. Another ten years have passed. It's spring. "How many times have I experienced spring...?" I mutter. I feel something lacking. "How long is my life? I hate loneliness. Does he stay well? I'm bored. It's boring life." There is no one who reply to me. Then... "Hi. Long-time no see." He comes. I cannot believe he is he I spent time with for ten years. His appearance changes. He is now a grand man. "Why...welcome back!" I am frankly pleased. "Today, I came here to surprise you. COME ON!!"


Integrated â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Class Journal

Spring 2013

Then, a woman and a boy appear. "She is my wife and he is my son. We married five years ago and he is three years old ." "Oh..." I can say nothing. "That boy...becomes a father...oh..." I'm so impressed. His son approaches me. "Who are you?" "I am a tree, just a tree." Trees' life is long.

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PARODY S ATOSHI S AGAWA

MEN WANTED for Hazardous Study Small credits, bitter grades, long years of complete darkness, constant works, pass return doubtful. Degree and command of English in case of graduation. A student of Eibun Gakka

Creative Writing

Original MEN WANTED for Hazardous Journey. Small wages, bitter cold, long months of complete darkness, constant danger, safe return doubtful. Honor and recognition in case of success. Ernest Shackleton

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Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

TALE ABOUT THE LITTLE PEOPLE AND THEIR FELLOWS REI ISHII Once upon a time, there was a little old cabin in the woods that is no one came in. It was used be a villa of a rich human family, but after their leaving, it hadn’t been used for a long time. Then, a strange rumour spread among the people. At night, in the cabin, the strange voice was heard over the forest. So, people were frightened and never came near to the cabin. Long times have passed, and then the cabin was forgotten by people. Until the time, the three dwarves found the cabin and started living there....... “Elis, Elis! Come on, wake up! We’re going to pick berries at the North Bush! Hurry! Before they are taken by the nasty crows...” “Calm down, Sarah...it’s only 8 in the morning. Let me sleep 10 more minutes. I am tired because of carrying heavy logs yesterday...” “Carry?! You must be joking. You didn’t carry any of these logs. You just stood beside me with your mouth opened! -And I carried them all! Oh, how foolish it was! You are always thinking about what you’re going to eat! Only about eating!” “Well, Rick, You said right. ...Elis!! If you don’t get up in a moment, you may not eat fresh raspberry jam for today’s supper! Because you didn’t work at all! ” “What?!” Elis screamed, and jumped out of the bed. ...And this is how the story begins. Three dwarves are doing well with each other in the nice little cabin -Two of them are boys, and the other is a girl. The girl in red cap and cape is Sarah. She had beautiful long blond hair, and wears it in braids. Although she is very strong-willed and behaves like a boy, she is usually a gentle and kind person. The boy in green clothes and green cap is Elis. He seemed so sleepy and kind of stupid, but this is usual. He likes eating and drinking, and doesn’t like work. He had a long brown hair and tied it casually at the back. He is the oldest (and also, fattest) of all three. And finally, the third one. Rick is the one wears blue clothes and cap, and had short blond hair. It naturally curled at the end, and that’s what he likes about his hair. He is an ironist, and always teasing Elis, but usually, they are doing well with each other. The cabin they live in, is of course, our secret cabin. They reform the cabin very nice and comfortable. They made small garden with a little pond, that is tiny fishes are in it. They planted many beautiful flowers, and they are beautifully bloomed in each of four seasons. The cabin has a nice red roof. The wall is creamy yellow, and it has a cute pink door. And its windows are nice, wide, square ones, with green curtains. Now, let’s get inside of the cabin. When we go in there, the first thing we can see is a large living room, with an old mantelpiece. There is a carpet in front of the mantelpiece, and there is also an armchair, which Sarah used do knitting on it. Right next to the living room, is a nice dining room and the kitchen. The dining table and chairs are made of oak, and in the kitchen, there is a big oven, used for baking cakes and

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pies. Right next to the oven, there is a fridge and sink. Above those, there are shelves where seasonings and preserved foods are kept. Sometimes, Elis sneaks foods from these shelves and gets scolded by Sarah. And across the corridor from the kitchen, there is a bath, and toilet. Now, moving on to the second floor. Watch out! The third step is a bit decayed. Don’t worry. Rick will be repairing it by the next time we come in. On second floor, there are bedrooms of each 3 dwarves. Sarah’s room is the smallest, and filled with cute and beautiful sundries which are mostly liked by girls. Rick’s room is nice and clean, and filled with books. He is used to sleeping in a hammock. -Then, how about Elis? His room is the biggest of the three. He had a big double bed, and using it very freely. Although, he often rolls about while asleep, and falls on to the floor. He also snores, and that’s what makes the other two irritated. Now, let’s get back to the story. The three dwarves finished their breakfast, (of course, Elis ate the most of them.), get their baskets, and left home. It was really a beautiful day. The blue sky can be seen among the trees, and a ray of sunshine filtering through the branches. On their way to the North Bush, the first friend they met was John, the squirrel. “Good morning, you three! How are you doing?” “Fine. Is there any news, John? We haven’t read today’s newspaper yet.” “Hmm...well, nothing special. Oh, we received some letters for you guys. I will throw it into the post.” He works as a post officer at a Riverside-Post Office. “Okay. We’ll look at that later. Thanks, John.” They said Good-bye to John and go ahead to the green field. And then, they met Cronus, the only one wolf in the woods. Though he is a wolf, he is a vegetarian and doesn’t eat animal product, except for eggs and dairy products. Unlike the wolves that we know, Cronus was a very kind gentleman. “Hello, my dear little fellow! Where are you going?” “We’re going to pick berries at North Bush. We will later make raspberry jam. We’re planning to have a tea party. ” “That sounds great! Do you mind if I come?” “Not at all. Be our guest!” They continued to walk along. Melinda (The sheep) was sleeping on the glass field. Charles and Toby (The rabbits) was playing at the stump. Steven (The Owl) was reading a book on his home tree. Chris and Lucy (The foxes) are looking after their four children (Their names are Mary, Joe, Lisa, and Tom, but we can’t recognize them very well.) and Fred (The mouse) was eating his breakfast-cheese on the mushroom chair. And then, they met their best friend, and the most trusted human, Mr. Wilson. Mr. Sam Wilson is an old logger and the kindest person ever. He was said to be crazy by the other people in town, because he used to say that he can see the dwarves. Of course, no one trusted him. (Even his wife!) The dwarves can be seen only by people who has a pure (not equals only “Childish”) heart. He was kind to everyone in the wood- the animals, trees, and flowers. In fact, he really loves nature. “Where are you going?” Mr. Wilson asked the same question like others.


Integrated – Class Journal

Spring 2013

“We’re going to pick berries at the North Bush.” answered Rick. “And we are going to make jam and have a tea party.” “That’s sounds great! But I couldn’t join today. I have to work until evening.” “Oh, that’s a shame... OK, we will bring some berries on our way home. You can bring that home and let your wife cook it.” “Oh, that will do. Be careful, a bad hunter seemed to be wondering around here these days.” Mr.Wilson waved his hand until he couldn’t able to see the shadow of his little fellow. “Wow!! Look!! All the bushes are filled with berries!!” Sarah’s face turned bright. There were the North Bush that they were looking for, filled with several kinds of delicious looking berries. The three dwarves run up to the bush and started picking the berries. They were so happy. “Mmm... those berries are so delicious!! I don’t mind keep it eating for a whole day!!” “...Elis, will you stop eating and move your hands?” “Or I think I may kill you.” “Oops...Sorry.” “Come on, you always do like that. Give me a break.” They silently continue their work for 3hours, and early in the afternoon, they finished picking berries. They ate sandwich and drink tea for lunch. When they are about to leave the bush...

Bang!

They heard the crack of the rifle from the direction they came. “What’s that?!” Elis turned pale. “I don’t know. Someone may hit by the rifle!” “Let’s go!!” They run back the way they came. When they reached the place where they met Mr. Wilson in the morning, they felt strange because there was no sign of the old logger. “Where is Mr. Wilson?” “I don’t know. But we have to find him. Quick! I’ll go this way!” They searched around the forest, and after a while Rick noticed something. “Here! Here!! Sarah! Elis! Come! Quick! I found him!” There lied Sam Wilson, shot and bleed from his chest and left arm. Sarah ran towards him and looked at his wound. “Oh, no... This is serious. We can’t do anything right now! Rick, you go to Billy’s house and ask him for a help. Elis, you stay here and look after Mr. Wilson until we come back. I will get back home and take some bands and medicine.” “Alright!” The three nodded, and get to their direction. Billy was a bear, living in the west area of the wood, with his wife Anna, and his little son, Nick. He was a kind, generous bear, and also very intelligent. He works as a doctor of this forest. And his wife, Anna, who works as a nurse, was also very kind, and good at cooking. And their little baby Nick was just born in last spring. That morning, they got up as usual. And in the afternoon, Little Nick was taking a nap, and Anna was baking an Orange-Pound cake. As for Billy, he was sitting on the armchair at the deck, and reading the newspaper.

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Creative Writing

Then he heard the voice calling him, “Billy!” far away from his house. He stood up, the voice came near, and he saw his little friends running towards him. “Billy! Billy! I need your help!” “Calm down, Rick, my little friend.-Anna! Anna! Bring him some tea! ” “There is no time for tea! We got to go! Hurry!” “Go where? Tell me Rick! What’s happened? ” Then Billy heard the details from Rick, and he instantly changed his expression. “Anna! Take my bag! And prepare for stretcher! We will go to help Mr. Wilson!” When Rick, Billy, and his family arrived at the placed, Sarah was already come back, and first aid was already finished. Cronus, Melinda, Chris and Alex(the skunk) were also there. “Thanks Sarah, O.K. fellows, will you help me with carrying him to our house?” So, they put Mr. Wilson on the stretcher and made their way to Billy’s house. The treatment was safely ended. Mr. Wilson needs complete rest and quiet for a while, but has no problem. The others were gathered at Billy’s living room and talked for a while. “Mr. Wilson said that there is a bad hunter, wondering around this forest these days.” said Sarah. “Does anyone know about that?” “Well,” said Cronus slowly. “I was almost caught by him before.” “Although he seemed not so skilled, he is very cunning. He first make traps, and made us tired, then shoot and tried to catch us. I once noticed trap and somehow escaped from him.” “Hey, I have an idea! Why don’t we think about some funny traps and give him a punishment?” said Alex. “Of course, we won’t hurt him, because we’re not cunning. Just gave him a shock. Most human would be shocked if they were bullied by animals.” The plan spread all over the woods. All animals were move into position, and waiting for bad hunter. “He is coming!!” said someone. The hunter was looking for the prey, then Cronus ran towards him. The hunter tries to catch him, but he ran away. Then John and the other squirrel threw pinecones, so the hunters lost his sight. There Rick and Elis tied the rope, and the hunter tripped. At that moment, Sarah swung down a huge frying-pan. The hunter tried to run away, but there comes Billy. He growled in a huge voice that can be heard over the forest. The hunter, who was cunning, but also very coward, had a great shock and run away. And the dwarves and animals happily go home, where they can eat nice supper. On next Sunday, The secret cabin was in a flurry of activities. Sarah made a plenty of raspberry and other fruits jam. Next to her, Anna was baking cookies and cakes. In the Garden, Rick, Billy and Elis were laying a table. Elis was also playing with little Nick, and of course, sneaking some cookies from the table. (Of course he was later scolded by Sarah.) At three o’clock the animals were hanging around the garden. Among them, there comes Mr. Tom Wilson, who was completely recovered from his injury. At the party, He made speech to thank everybody. “Thank you, you all, for helping me. Especially, Billy, Anna and my three little friends” He said. “I’m very proud of having good friends like you!” ...No one did know that tears slowly runs down his cheeks at that time. < The End. >


Integrated â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Class Journal

Spring 2013

Page | 92


Integrated Skills Class Journal 2013A  

Integrated Skills Class Journal 2013A

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