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OF THE

INSTITUT PAUL BOCUSE WORLDWIDE ALLIANCE


Institut Paul Bocuse Worldwide Alliance Cookbook First Edition 2014 Quito-Ecuador Copyright © 2014 Published and edited by Universidad San Francisco de Quito Protected by copyright laws. All rights reserved. Printed in Ecuador by: ISBN ........ Design by: G&R Comunicación Gráfica. Quito - Ecuador


Chile

Ecuador

Finland

France

MĂŠxico

PerĂş

Singapore

South Africa

Taiwan

USA

iii - The Institut Paul Bocuse Worldwide Alliance Cookbook

Thank you to all the directors, chefs and students that made their best effort to produce and edit recipes, pictures and texts for this wonderful book.


Preface

C

ountries and institutions which are lucky enough to possess a lifestyle, an enriched culture of cooking and table, of hosting and ‘being together’, must be at the ‘avant-garde’ of the reflection on ways to protect this capital and to value it. This book participates to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the “Worldwide Alliance” network of Institut Paul Bocuse. It illustrates the diversity and the universality of cooking. The recognition for differences, based on the exchange of cultures of all its’ members and in all those who want to share with them. For young people or for professionals, this first book values the heritage of your network with its values and its know-how. It is a way to promote products and culinary know-how which characterizes good cooking throughout borders and generations.

Préface L

es pays et les institutions qui ont la chance de posséder un art de vivre, une culture riche de la cuisine et de la table, de l’accueil et de l’être ensemble doivent être à l’avant-garde de la réflexion sur les manières de préserver ce capital et de le valoriser. Ce livre participe à célébrer les 10 ans du réseau « Alliance » de l’Institut Paul Bocuse. Il illustre la diversité et l’universalité de la cuisine. La reconnaissance des différences, fondées sur l’échange entre les cultures propres à chacun de ses membres et à tous ceux qui veulent entrer en amitié avec eux. Pour des jeunes, pour des professionnels, ce premier livre valorise le patrimoine de votre réseau, ses valeurs, son savoir-faire. C’est un moyen de promouvoir les produits et les savoir-faire culinaires qui caractérisent la bonne cuisine à travers les frontières et les générations.


v - The Institut Paul Bocuse Worldwide Alliance Cookbook


Table of Contents Preface...................................................................................................................................................................... Iii Table of contens....................................................................................................................................................... vii

1 Chile

Inacap.................................................................................................................................................................... 1 Gastronomical Chile.................................................................................................................................................. 3 Rolled pork, bean stew and chilean salad.................................................................................................................. 5 Golden conger filet cooked “al pilpil�.......................................................................................................................... 7 Pink scallops mousse.............................................................................................................................................. 11 Coliumbo crab......................................................................................................................................................... 13 King crab streussel with mote salad........................................................................................................................ 15 Hojarasca cake with quince sweet........................................................................................................................... 17 Chocolate and ruibarb mousse onto pinions biscuit................................................................................................. 19 Quince and murta bavaroise.................................................................................................................................... 21

23 Ecuador

Universidad San Francisco de Quito.................................................................................................................... 23 Ecuadorian cuisine and traditions............................................................................................................................ 25 Srimp ceviche.......................................................................................................................................................... 27 Green plantain balls soup ....................................................................................................................................... 29 Thick beef soup....................................................................................................................................................... 31 Crab soup............................................................................................................................................................... 33 Humitas ................................................................................................................................................................ 35 Fried pork .............................................................................................................................................................. 37 Lamb/goat stew ..................................................................................................................................................... 39 Sherbet made in a copper pot ................................................................................................................................ 41 Fruit merengue ....................................................................................................................................................... 43

45 Finland

Haaga-Helia ..................................................................................................................................................... Finland on a plate .................................................................................................................................................. Crayfish soup with garlic cream ............................................................................................................................. Marinated Baltic herring, vendace roe and dill sauce ............................................................................................. Cold smoked reindeer steak, over cheese and beetroot........................................................................................ Fried whitefish with smoked parnsnip.....................................................................................................................

45 47 49 51 53 55


Willow grouse breast with blueberry sauce............................................................................................................. Lamb sausage and mustard butter........................................................................................................................ Apple pie with meadowsweet ice cream................................................................................................................. Yogurt, cloudberries and licorice syrup...................................................................................................................

57 59 61 63

65 France

Institut Paul Bocuse ............................................................................................................................................ 65 Cultural History of the French Gastronomy ............................................................................................................. 67 Blue lobster, cooked and raw vegetables roots, lobster smoothie ......................................................................... 71 Snails with garlic, parsley, spinach and ricotta ........................................................................................................ 75 Sea scallops and langoustines, seasweet foam, semolina of Brittany cauliflower ................................................... 79 Revised sole Grenobloise ....................................................................................................................................... 81 Roasted quail with foie gras, figs, celery and black truffle compression ................................................................. 85 Veal fillet with cardamom, hazelnut biscuit, butternut and sweetbread-mushroom toast.......................................... 89 Vanilla crunchy cookie, caramelized banana with honey ......................................................................................... 93 Eclair pastry, Gianduja chocolate mousse and combava-lemon dome .................................................................. 97

101 México

ESDAI - Universidad Panamericana ................................................................................................................. Outlook of Mexican Cuisine, ingredients and culinary traditions ............................................................................ Green pozole ....................................................................................................................................................... Mexican snacks (Cuitlacoche quesadillas, ant eggs tacos and sopes with maguey worms) ................................. Chipilin seed and hoja santa tamales ................................................................................................................... Mole poblano and Mexican rice ........................................................................................................................... Stuffed poblano chiles in a walnut sauce ............................................................................................................ Campechana octopus ......................................................................................................................................... Mexican dessert trilogy (Caramel flan, black zapote with orange and mamey sorbet) ........................................... Churros and hot chocolate .................................................................................................................................. Horchata and Jamaica water ..............................................................................................................................

101 103 105 107 111 113 115 117 119 121 123

Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola .................................................................................................................. 125 Peruvian Gastronomy .......................................................................................................................................... 127 Fish Ceviche ......................................................................................................................................................... 129 Potatoes to Huancaina ........................................................................................................................................ 131 Chili Chicken ........................................................................................................................................................ 133 Beef Heart Kabobs .............................................................................................................................................. 135 Carapulcra............................................................................................................................................................ 137 Rice Juane .......................................................................................................................................................... 139 Purple corn pudding ............................................................................................................................................ 141 Suspiro de limeña ................................................................................................................................................ 143

145 Singapore

Institute of Technical Education (ITE) ............................................................................................................... A Primer en Singapore Cuisine ............................................................................................................................ Baby pongtay ...................................................................................................................................................... Bubur chacha......................................................................................................................................................

145 147 149 151

vii - The Institut Paul Bocuse Worldwide Alliance Cookbook

125 Perú


Chilli crab ............................................................................................................................................................ 153 Curry fish head ................................................................................................................................................... 155 Ice kacang ........................................................................................................................................................... 157 Kueh pie tee ......................................................................................................................................................... 159 Nasi Lemak ......................................................................................................................................................... 161 Yu sheng ............................................................................................................................................................. 163

165 South Africa

The Hurst Campus ............................................................................................................................................. 165 Rainbow cuisine ................................................................................................................................................... 167 Braised Oxtail potjie pot prunes........................................................................................................................... 169 Lamb sosatie served with roosterkoek and chutney ............................................................................................ 171 Malay curry .......................................................................................................................................................... 173 Loin of kudu ........................................................................................................................................................ 175 Grilled crayfish with lemon garlic butter ................................................................................................................ 177 Braaied ................................................................................................................................................................ 179 Grandma `s milktart ............................................................................................................................................. 181 Cape brandy pudding.......................................................................................................................................... 183

185 Taiwan

National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism (NKUHT) .............................................................. 185 Taiwanese Cuisine................................................................................................................................................ 187 Steamed red bean rice cake................................................................................................................................. 189 Taiwanese pineapple tart ..................................................................................................................................... 191 Fried mangrove crabs with sesame oil.................................................................................................................. 193 Chicken with sesame oil, soy sauce and rice wine................................................................................................ 195 Preserved radish omelette................................................................................................................................... 197 Deep-fried pork with red yeast rice paste ............................................................................................................. 199 Deep-fried fish with five shredded ingredients ....................................................................................................... 201 Chinese steamed bun........................................................................................................................................... 203 Chinese leaf stew ............................................................................................................................................... 205 Mullet roe fried rice .............................................................................................................................................. 207

209 USA

Chef John Folse Culinary Institute - NSU ........................................................................................................ 209 History of the institute .......................................................................................................................................... 211 Shrimp remoulade ................................................................................................................................................ 213 Baked oysters fennel and oysters Bienville ........................................................................................................... 215 New Orleans turtle soup....................................................................................................................................... 217 Chicken and Andouille gumbo ............................................................................................................................. 219 Crawfish etouffee .................................................................................................................................................. 221 Pork and sausage jambalaya ............................................................................................................................... 223 Classic New Orleans bread pudding with whiskey sauce ...................................................................................... 225 Les oreilles de cochon .......................................................................................................................................... 227 Acknowledgements .............................................................................................................................................. 228


CHILE


The school of Hospitality, Tourism and Gastronomy in INACAP is leader and pioneer in the training of technicians and professionals in the Hospitality Industry in Chile. Since 1976 it has contributed with the development and growth of companies in the industry, maintaining a close relationship with them. Today present in 22 campuses of all 15 regions of the country, with nearly 8,700 students distributed in 6 programs of study related to gastronomy, hospitality and tourism. INACAP has helped strengthen and expand the national restaurant industry through diversification, supply and culinary appreciation of the Chilean cuisine at national and international level. We also have important strategic alliances that enhance the development of the area , including the Worldwide Alliance Paul Bocuse where INACAP actively participates with 14 other schools of the world and locally with the Federation of Tourism Chile ( Fedetur) Service Nacional de Turismo ( SERNATUR ) Trade Associations and key industry nationwide.

1 - Chile

In addition to national accreditations, where our profesional and techinical culinary arts and Hotel & Restaurant programs achieved 6 and 5 years respectively, the Themis Foundation of the World Tourism Organization, through its UNWTO program. TedQual, Certified International Culinary Management and Hotel and Restaurant Management, by successfully meeting the international standards of quality in tourism education. TedQual certification system ensures the establishment of highly competitive education and training standards and continuous improvement in learning processes. This Certification also allows INACAP to be part of the Network of Institutions THEMIS - TEDQUAL worldwide for the development of joint academic activities with students and teachers of this great community committed to sustainable tourism perspective.


Gastronomical Chile T

he origin of the word Chile is still unknown. But definitively not related to the capsicum species; on the contrary, Chilean cuisine is sweet, mild and friendly, lacking any burning surprises. Still under discussion, maybe its name comes from Mapuche chilli, “where the land ends” or perhaps from the melodious cheele-cheele song of the trile bird.

During centuries while Chile was still a colony, Spanish creoles cooking with Indian women, produced local versions of their homeland recipes. Adopting and adapting the unknown the newly arrived learned the virtues of potato, corn, pumpkin, and beans; their families even savored sea-urchin, abalone, razor clams and algae.

Due to its location at the end of South America, Chile has privileged natural boundaries: to the east runs a steep chain of the Andes mountains; to the west, 4,500 km of coastal line along the Pacific Ocean; to the north, the driest spot on earth – Atacama Desert; and to the south, a chopped insular region with freezing icebergs.

Less meat and more vegetables gave rise to characteristic dishes that actually form the nucleus of creole and rural Chilean cuisine: humitas – corn paste wrapped in corn husks; pastel de choclo – corn and meat baked pie; charquicán – dried beef and vegetable stew; porotos granados con mazamorra – fresh bean and corn stew. In convents and Chilean homes, displaying convent skills, the excellent confections inherited from Arabs and Jews from Spain, was improved: manjar blanco – sweet milk caramel paste; chilenitos – pastries filled with manjar and covered with meringue; cocadas – coconut candies, and leche asada – baked milk in caramel sauce.

This long and narrow strip of land possesses natural conditions for an immense array of maritime flora and fauna, and extremely favorable soil for the growth of a large variety of horticultural species. A diverse and fair climate allows stepped crops of the same species to be planted throughout the country, early harvested in the North and later harvested in the South, ensuring a yearlong crop. The quality, flavor and taste of Chilean fruits have been renowned since colonial days. According to Spanish chroniclers, during the conquering era of Chilean territory the variety of fresh fruit was abundant and for dessert the utmost refinement was to serve “chirimoyas, lúcumas y frutillas”. This abundance of fresh fruits has always been important sources of income, ever since they were send to Peru in exchange to Chile’s much coveted sugar. The variety of Chilean cuisines is due mainly to contributions from two continents: Europe and America. These cuisines combine splendidly staples and techniques from native people, together with Spanish conquerors and, French, German, English and Italian immigrants. Due to globalization, Asian cuisine has slowly made its appearance in the Chilean menu.

Chilean hospitality retains the ancient Mediterranean custom of entertaining at home to savor delicacies prepared by the hostess from old family recipes handed down from generations. And if not at home, there are typical restaurants called “picadas”, to enjoy the taste of traditional Chilean cuisine: spiced pork roulade, juicy meat empanadas, baked pork spare-ribs, sheturkey cazuela soup with chuchoca, seafood chowder and tasty fish or meat sandwiches. Their enjoyment is enhanced with insuperable Chilean wines. Due to its geography and history, Chile has been depicted as a prime location for the growth of vitis vinifera. Framed by water, rock and sand, it fathers the most propitious and diverse temperatures, humidities and soils. Once the quality of Chilean wine was recognized abroad, prestigious businessmen and oenologists from Europe and the United States joined Chilean technicians and executives to revolutionize the wine industry, providing new technologies and thus producing a variety of interesting wines. A success story for Chilean wines.


Chile gastronómico l origen de la palabra Chile es aún desconocido. Pero de ninguna forma relacionado con la especie Capsicum; por el contrario, la cocina chilena es dulce, suave y amable, carente de sorpresas picosas. Aún en discusión, quizás su nombre proviene del mapuche chilli, “donde termina la tierra”, o tal vez del melodioso canto cheele cheele del ave trile. Debido a su ubicación al extremo de América del Sur, Chile posee límites naturales privilegiados: al este se extiende una cadena de escarpadas montañas de los Andes, al oeste 4.500 km de línea costera a lo largo del Océano Pacífico, al norte, el lugar más seco en la tierra – el Desierto de Atacama, y al sur, una región insular salpicada de abundantes témpanos de hielo. Esta larga y estrecha franja de tierra posee condiciones naturales para una inmensa variedad de flora y fauna marítima, y un suelo muy favorable para el crecimiento de una gran variedad de especies hortícolas. La diversidad y bondad del clima permiten producir cultivos escalonados de las mismas especies a plantarse en forma escalonada en todo el país, obteniendo primores en el Norte y frutos tardíos en el sur, lo que garantiza una cosecha anual. La calidad, aroma y sabor de la fruta chilena ha sido de renombre desde la época colonial. Según los cronistas españoles, durante la conquista del territorio chileno la variedad de fruta fresca era abundante y de postre el máximo refinamiento era servir “chirimoyas, lúcumas y frutillas”. Esta abundancia siempre fue fuente importante de ingresos, desde que las frutas partían al Perú a cambio de la codiciada azúcar, ausente en tierras chilenas. La variedad de cocinas chilenas se debe principalmente a las contribuciones de dos continentes: Europa y América. Estas cocinas combinan magníficamente alimentos y técnicas de los pueblos originarios, junto con aportes de conquistadores españoles e inmigrantes de Francia, Alemania, Inglaterra e Italia. Debido a la globalización, lentamente la cocina oriental ha ingresado al menú de Chile. Durante siglos, cuando Chile era todavía colonia, las criollas españolas cocinaban con mujeres indígenas produciendo versiones locales de recetas de la madre patria. Adoptando y adaptando lo desconocido, los recién llegados aprendieron las virtudes de la papa, el maíz, la calabaza y los frijoles; sus familias incluso llegaron a disfrutar del erizo de mar, el abalón, las machas y las algas. Con menos carne y más verduras, surgieron guisos que hoy forman el núcleo de la cocina chilena criolla y rural: las humitas - pasta de maíz envuelta en hojas de choclo; pastel de choclo - maíz y pino de carne horneados; charquicán – estofado de carne seca y vegetales; porotos granados con mazamorra – frijol fresco en sal-

sa de maíz. En conventos y hogares chilenos, con ingenio monjil se fue esmerando y mejorando la riquísima repostería heredada de árabes y judíos de España: manjar blanco - dulce pasta de leche y azúcar; chilenitos - pasteles rellenos con manjar y cubiertos con merengue; cocadas - dulces de coco y leche asada – leche al horno en salsa de caramelo. La hospitalidad chilena conserva la antigua costumbre mediterránea de recibir en casa para saborear especialidades de la dueña de casa provenientes de viejas recetas familiares transmitidas de generación en generación. Y si la casa no puede ofrecerse, existen restaurantes populares llamados “picadas”, donde se disfruta lo enjundioso de la cocina chilena: arrollado de cerdo, empanadas jugosas de carne, costillar de cerdo asado, cazuela de pava con chuchoca, caldillos y sabrosos sándwiches de pescado o carne. Todo esto “regado” con el insuperable vino chileno. Por su geograf ía e historia, Chile es un país privilegiado para el crecimiento de la vitis vinífera. Enmarcado y protegido por agua, roca y arena, esta conjunción geográfica le apadrina temperaturas, humedades y suelos muy propicios. Reconocida mundialmente la calidad del vino chileno, comienzan a llegar a Chile empresarios y enólogos de Europa y Estados Unidos, quienes unidos a técnicos y ejecutivos locales revolucionan la industria vitivinícola, proporcionando nuevas tecnologías y cepajes. Una historia que avala un espléndido futuro para el vino chileno.

3 - Chile

E


Rolled pork 1½ kg boneless pork loin roast Salt and pepper 3 g teaspoon ground cumin 5 g hot chili paste 10 g dried oregano 10 g sweet paprika 5 g garlic cloves, finely minced 60 ml vinegar 600 g scraped pork skin Bean Stew 240 ml vegetable oil 5 g garlic, peeled 10 g sweet paprika 1 kg shelled fresh cranberry beans 250 g pumpkin, in cubes 100 g onion, finely chopped 2 basil leaves, shredded 1 fresh corn, only kernels 1 fresh corn, grated Chilean Salad 60 ml red wine vinegar 120 ml olive oil 200 g tomatoes, peeled and sliced 150 g onions, very thinly sliced 40 g minced fresh cilantro leaves PREPARATION Rolled Pork Cut pork loin into long thick strips without removing the fat. In a bowl mix salt, pepper, cumin, chili paste, oregano, sweet paprika and garlic cloves; add the strips of meat and pork skin and marinate for 24 hours in the refrigerator. Remove the meat and skin from the marinade, set aside and save the marinade. Extend the skin over a flat surface and along one end align orderly the pork strips. Roll the skin very tight over the meat, tie firmly with a piece of twine and place the roll in a large pot.

Pour the reserved marinade over the meat and cover the rolled pork with water; cook over medium - low heat for 2 hours. Remove the roll from the cooking liquid, eliminate the twine, slice and serve warm. This roll can also be served cold, and in that case, let it cool to room temperature in the cooking liquid before slicing. Bean Stew For the color chilena, in small saucepan heat the oil and garlic over medium heat until the garlic turns golden. Remove pan from heat, eliminate garlic and add carefully the sweet paprika to the oil, stirring constantly. Strain the oil in a fine colander and set aside. Place the beans in a large pan and cook in boiling salted water, 1 hour or until tender. Drain and save together with 1 cup of cooking liquid. Meanwhile, in a small skillet heat ¼ cup of color chilena over medium heat; add the pumpkin and onion and sauté for 5 minutes; set aside. Chilean Salad In a salad bowl mix the vinegar with oil, salt and pepper; add the onion and tomatoes and toss to combine. Sprinkle with cilantro and serve In a large pot place the cooked beans and liquid together with the onion mixture and basil. Cook over low heat until all the ingredients are tender, adding chicken broth if needed. Add the corns and cook, stirring until the vegetables are cooked and the mixture is moist without being soupy. Adjust the seasoning and before serving drizzle with some color chilena. Serve hot.

INGREDIENTES para 4-6 porciones Arrollado 1½ kg lomo vetado o cogote de cerdo Sal y pimienta 3 g comino molido 5 g salsa de ají 10 g orégano seco 10 g ají color o paprika dulce 5 g ajo, molido 60 ml de vinagre 600 g de cuero de cerdo Porotos en mazamorra 240 ml de aceite vegetal 5 g ajo, pelado 10 g ají color o paprika dulce 1 kg de porotos granados desgranados 250 g de zapallo, en cubos 100 g cebolla perla, picada fina 2 hojas de albahaca fresca, picada 1 choclo, en granos 1 choclo, rallado Ensalada chilena 60 ml de vinagre de vino tinto 120 ml aceite de oliva 200 g tomates, pelados y en rodajas 150 g cebollas, en pluma 40 g cilantro fresco picado fino PREPARACIÓN Arrollado Cortar la carne de cerdo en tiras gruesas sin sacar la grasa. En un bol mezclar sal, pimienta, comino, salsa de ají, orégano, ají color y ajos; agregar la carne y el cuero de cerdo y dejar marinar 24 horas refrigeradas. Estilar la carne y cuero de la marinada y reservar con la marinada. Sobre una superficie lisa extender el cuero de cerdo y en un extremo colocar las tiras de carne ordenada-

mente. Enrollar apretando bien con las manos; amarrar con una pitilla firme y colocar en una olla. Agregar la marinada reservada y agua hasta cubrir; cocinar a fuego medio-bajo durante 2 horas. Retirar el arrollado del líquido, eliminar la pitilla, trozar y servir caliente. También se puede dejar enfriar en el líquido de cocción y servir frío. Porotos Para la color chilena, en un sartén calentar el aceite con el ajo a fuego medio hasta doraro. Retirar el sartén del fuego, eliminar el ajo y agregar de a poco el ají color, revolviendo constantemente. Colar el aceite en colador muy fino y reservar. En una olla cocinar los porotos en bastante agua hirviendo salada, 1 hora o hasta que estén blandos. Estilar, reservando los porotos y 1 taza del líquido de cocción. Mientras, en un sartén calentar ¼ taza de la color chilena reservada a fuego medio; agregar el zapallo y cebolla y saltear 5 minutos; reservar. Ensalada En una fuente mezclar el vinagre con el aceite, sal y pimienta; agregar la cebolla y tomate e incorporar suavemente. Servir espolvoreado con cilantro picado. En una olla colocar los porotos y líquido de cocción reservados, mezcla de zapallo reservada y albahaca. Cocinar a fuego bajo hasta que los ingredientes estén blandos, agregando un poco de caldo de ave si fuera necesario. Incorporar los choclos y cocinar, revolviendo hasta que estén cocidos y la mezcla espesa. Corregir la sazón y al servir rociar con un poco de color chilena reservada. Servir caliente.

5 - Chile

INGREDIENTS for 4-6 servings

Arrollado de cerdo, porotos en mazamorra y ensalada chilena

ROLLED PORK, BEAN STEW AND CHILEAN SALAD


Conger al pilpil 160 g golden conger filets 50 g butter 10 g mashed baked garlic 20 ml olive oil 2 g black pepper 1 g salt 2 g parsley 10 ml white wine Mashed Green peas, smoked bacon and coriander quenelle. 300 g mashed green peas 100 g smoked bacon 20 g coriander chiffonade 1 g salt 1 g white pepper 15 g pork butter or lard 100 g butter 100 g shallot or scalion 50 ml white whine 2 g smoked “merkén” Saute Slices of avalons with wild mushrooms 100 g avalons 50 g wild mushrooms 250 g butter 5 g ginger 1 g salt 1 g white pepper 30 ml white wine

Country bread crouton with lobster butter 200 g country bread in parmentier 100 g lobster butter Salt Whitte pepper Lemon Pastry of corn with basil lemon over scallops pine 100 g onions 2 g mashed garlic 5 leaves of lemon basil 300 g mashed corn 200 g white scallops choped in brunoise 20 g butter 10 g pork butter 50 ml white wine 5 g merkén

Conger al pilpil For the pilpil butter you have to melt the butter with the mashed garlic, “cacho de cabra” chili, olive oil, salt and mashed pepper, for the aroma add some drops of white wine. Once the butter has cooled down, save it. Vacuum the conger filet with the butter and save it. Mashed Green peas, smoked bacon and coriander quenelle. Sauté the shallots finely chopped with butter and pork butter Dry the smoked bacon choped in brunoisse until it gets crispy and add to the shallots. Add merquén with the white wine and evaporate the liquids. Add the shallots to the mashed green peas, add coriander and mix. Emulsify with butter. Form a quenelle. Saute Slices of avalons with wild mushrooms Sauté the avalons and the mushrooms with butter and ginger. Add salt and pepper. Country bread crouton with lobster butter Melt the butter and add some lemon drops. Put some butter onto the bread and bake at 190 °C for 1 minute. Pastry of corn with basil lemon over scallops pine Sauté onions, mashed garlic with the butter and pork butter Add the scallops. Season it with paprika, white pepper, salt and merkén. Add white wine and evaporate the liquid. Add a pinch of flour to mix. Put in the bottom of the mini cacerole. Sauté chopped onions with mashed garlic. Add the mashed corn. Add basil chopped in chiffonade. Cook for 40 minutes stirring constantly. Once cooked put it into the cacerole with the scallops, cover it with sugar and gratin it.

7 - Chile

INGREDIENTS for 4 servings

PREPARATION

GOLDEN CONGER FILET COOKED “al pilpil”


Filete 160 g filete de congrio 50 g mantequilla 10 g pasta de ajo 20 ml aceite oliva 2 g pimenta negra 1 g sal 2 g perejil 10 ml vino blanco Quenelle de arvejas y tocino ahumado con cilantro 300 g arvejas 100 g tocino ahumado 20 g cilantro picado fino 1 g sal 1 g pimenta blanca 15 g manteca cerdo 100 g mantequilla 100 g chalota 50 ml vino blanco 2 g merquen ahumado Láminas de locos salteados con zetas silvestres 100 g locos 50 g zetas silvestre 250 g mantequilla 5 g ralladura de jengibre 1 g sal 1 g pimienta blanca 30 ml vino blanco

Crutón de pan de campo con mantequilla de crustáceos 200 g pan de campo cortados parmentier 100 g mantequilla de crustáceos. Sal Pimenta blanca Limón. Pastelera de choclo con albahaca limón sobre pino de ostiones 100 g cebolla 2 g puré de ajo 5 hojas albahaca limón 300 g pastelera de choclo 200 g ostiones blancos 20 g mantequilla 10 g manteca. 50 ml vino blanco 5 g merquén

Filete Para la mantequilla pilpil derretir mantequilla con puré de ajo, cacho de cabra y aceite de oliva sal pimenta negra machacada, aromatizar con gotas de vino blanco y salpimentar. Enfriar para estructurar materias grasas. Sellar filete de congrio adobado con mantequilla pilpil al vacío. Quenelle de arvejas y tocino ahumado con cilantro Sudar chalota picada fina con mantequilla y manteca de cerdo. Agregar tocino crujiente ahumado picado en brunoise. Aromatizar con merquen y vino blanco dar reducción. Incorporar al puré de arvejas cilantro, mezclar y emulsionar con abundantes cubos de mantequilla. Luego formar quenelle. Láminas de locos salteados con zetas silvestres Saltear en mantequilla locos cortados en láminas delgadas con zetas silvestres. Sal pimentar y perfumar con jengibre rallado. Crutón de pan de campo con mantequilla de crustáceos Derretir mantequilla de crustáceos, agregar gotas de limón Pincelar pan de campo y hornear a 190 °C por 1 min. Pastelera de choclo con albahaca limón sobre pino de ostiones Sudar cebolla y ajo picado fino con manteca y mantequilla. Agregar ostiones picados en brunoise y dar cocción. Condimentar con paprika, pimenta blanca, merquén y sal. Apagar con vino blanco y dar reducción. Por ultimo ligar con velo de harina.

9 - Chile

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones

PREPARACIÓN

FILETE CONGRIO DORADO


PINK SCALLOPS MOUSSE

Octopus 80 g of fine sliced boiled octopus Salmon and avocado noissetes Salmon filet Peanut oil Lemon juice mustard olive oil Avocado Mini salad 40 g hydroponic lettuce leaves 20 g romana lettuce leaves 10 g organic rucula 10 g chives sprout 10 g sweet potato Lemon and mango salsa 200 g mayonaise 15 g mustard 50 g smashed mango 50 ml lemon juice 2 g salt 1 g white pepper 200 ml whipped cream

Sauté chopped shallots with the scallops. Season it and add white wine. Place on the stove and heat the pan until the liquids evaporate. Mash the ingredients until you get a fine purée, if necessary you can sieve it. Place in a water bath using a double boiler and add the gelatine. Remove from the stove and wait until the mix cools down to 20 °C and add the cream. Put into a cylinder pan and refrigerate. Salmon and avocado noissetes Cut the salmon in 2 cm x 5 cm stick and season it Sear the salmon in peanut oil and cooked until 55 °C Make a noissete with the avocado and season it with lemonette. Mini salad Mix the leaves and add dressing. Decorate with fried chips of sweet potato. Lemon and mango salsa Mix in a bowl the mayonaise, mango, lemon juice, salt and pepper. Then gently incorporate whipped cream.

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones 300 g de ostiones rosados 5 hojas de colapez 150 ml crema semi batida 50 g chalota 20 ml aceite de oliva 50 ml vino blanco 2 g sal 1 g pimienta Pulpo 80 g pulpo 10 g tomate 30 g mirepoix 1 bouquet garni 4 l agua Mini ensalada 40 g hojas de lollo rosso 20 g hojas de lechuga marina 10 g rúcula orgánica 10 g brotes de ciboulette 10 g papa camote Salmón a la inglesa con noissette de palta Salmón filete Aceite de maní Jugo de limón Mostaza Aceite de oliva Palta Salsa mousseline de limón y mango 200 g mayonesa 15 g mostaza 50 g puré de mango 50 ml jugo de limón 2 g sal 1 g pimenta blanca 200 ml crema pto. chantilly

PREPARACIÓN Sudar chalota picada fina, agregar ostiones, saltear. Sal pimentar y apagar con vino blanco. Triturar hasta formar un puré liso, si es necesario tamizar. Llevar a baño maría, incorporar colapez hidratado. Retirar del fuego y Agregar crema semi batida 20 °C. Disponer en molde cilíndrico. Refrigerar. Pulpo Cocer pulpo en 4 l de agua con tomate y mirepoix. Una vez cocido formar rollo con alusa plast y congelar. Laminar delgado. Mini ensalada Realizar mini ensalada y decorar con láminas de papa camote frita. Salmón a la inglesa con noissette de palta Cortar filete de salmón en bastón 2 centímetros de ancho por 5 de largo, sal pimentar. Sellar en aceite de maní y dar cocción a la inglesa de 55 °C. Cortar palta en noissette y aderezar con limoneta. Salsa mousseline de limón y mango Juntar en un bowl mayonesa, puré de mango, jugo de limón, sal y pimienta, mezclar bien. Incorporan en forma envolvente la crema a punto Chantilly.

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300 g pink scallops 5 gelatine leaf 150 ml semi whipped cream 50 g de shallots 20 ml olive oil 50 ml white wine 2 g salt 1 g pepper

PREPARATION

Mousse de ostiones rosados

INGREDIENTS for 4 servings


Carapacho 500 g coliumo crab 10 crab claws 200 g mayonaise 10 g coriander 2 lemon Salt and peper “Navajuelas” razor clams 600 g navajuelas ( razor clams) 1 lemon 10 g chives 100 ml olive oil Merquén Salad 1 hidroponic letuce 200 g rucula 200 g chicory 1 yelow capsicum 100 ml oil 40 ml pink snap hook vinegar Salt PREPARATION Clean the crab meat. Chop the coriander. Fort he dressing emulsify the vinegar, oil, salt and pepper. Roast the yelow capsicum and chop in brunoisse. Fort he carpaccio, mix the crab mear qith mayonaise, lemon juice, choped coriander and salt. Marinate the razor clams and reserve. Mix the salad ingrdientes and dress it.

INGREDIENTES para 10 porciones Carapacho 500 g carne de jaiba 10 pinzas de jaiba 200 g mayonesa 30 g cilantro 2 limones Sal y pimienta Navajuelas 600 g navajuelas 1 limón 40 g ciboulete 100 ml aceite oliva Merquén Ensalada de hojas 1 lechuga hidropónica 50 g rúcula 50 g achicoria 1 pimiento amarillo 100 ml aceite 40 ml vinagre de rosa mosqueta Sal PREPARACIÓN Limpiar carne de jaiba, picar cilantro reservar. Lavar hojas verdes secar y porcionar. Para las navajuelas limpiar, sacar jugo de limón reservar. Vinagreta de rosa mosqueta mesclar aceite, vinagre, sal, pimienta emulsionar. Asar pimiento amarillo cortar en brunoise reservar. Para el carapacho de jaiba mezclar la jaiba con mayonesa, jugo de limón, cilantro, mayonesa, sal, rectificar sabor y hacer un timbal reservar. Las navajuelas aliñar rectificar sabor y refrigerar. Montaje del plato disponer el carapacho de jaiba, pinzas después poner la mini ensalada de hojas aliñando con la vinagreta de rosa mosqueta y aun lado las navajuelas con merquén y servir frío.

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INGREDIENTS for 10 servings

Carapacho de jaiba de coliumo

COLIUMBO CRAB


KING CRAB STREUSEEL WITH MOTE SALAD

King crab 250 g king crab 100 g chopped onions 5 g mashed “chilote” garlic 2 g salt 1 g pepper 2 g merkén 2 g paprika 20 g pork lard 20 g butter 50 ml white wine 100 ml bisquet 3 egg yolks 100 g sliced bread 80 ml milk Salad 100 g mote 50 g bolied “Cochayuyo” 50 g tomatoes 50 g boiled octopus 20 ml olive oil 50 g green chili 20 ml lemon juice 2 g salt 1 g white pepper 50 g fine chopped shallops 20 g fine chopped chives Papa fondant 200 g potato 50 g butter 150 ml chicken stock 2 g salt 1 g white pepper 1 g thyme

Mix all the ingredients and prepare crumbles with your fingers. Bake it at 190 °C. King crab Sauté the onions and the garlic with the butter and the pork lard. Add the King crab meat and the wine. Season it. Add some bísquet and let it simmer. Refine with cream. Add the bread soaked in milk Emulsify with egg yolks at 83 °C, season it. Fill the recipient with the crab mix and cover with the crumbles. Gratin it at 190 °C for 5 mn. Salad Sauté the onions with olive oil and season it. Add the cochayuyo, tomatoes and boiled octopus. Add the chives. Papa fondant Cut the potatoes into 1 x 3 cms sticks. Put in a casserole with the stock, butter and cover the ¾ parts (sticks must be upright) Simmer for 5 minutes finish them in the oven at 175 °C for 10 mn.

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones Streusell de nueces con merquén 100 g harina 50 g mantequilla 1 g merquen 2 g sal 1 g pimienta 5 g ajo puré Pastel de centolla 250 g carne de centolla 100 g cebolla 5 g puré de ajo chilote 2 g sal 1 g pimenta 2 g merquen 2 g paprika 20 g manteca de cerdo 20 g mantequilla 50 ml vino blanco 100 ml bisque 3 yemas 100 g pan de molde 80 ml leche Ensalada de mote cochayuyo y tomate con pulpo 100 g mote 50 g cochayuyo 50 g tomate 50 g pulpo 20 ml aceite de oliva 50 g ají verde 20 ml jugo de limón 2 g sal 1 g pimenta blanca 50 g chalota picada fina 20 g ciboullete picado fino Papa fondant 200 g papa 50 g mantequilla 150 ml fondo de ave 2 g sal 1 g pimenta blanca 1 g tomillo

PREPARACIÓN Streusell de nueces Cernizcar los ingredientes hasta formar masa. Luego desmigar y hornear a 190 °C. Pastel de centolla Sudar con manteca y mantequilla y puré ajo chilote la cebolla finamente picada. Agregar carne de centolla y apagar con vino blanco. Aromatizar con bisque de crustáceos y dar reducción. Refinar con crema. Ligar con pan remojado en leche. Emulsionar el pastel con yemas a 83 °C. Llenar recipiente cubrir con miga (strousell nueces). Gratinar en el horno a 190 °C por 5 mn. Ensalada de mote cochayuyo Sudar cebolla en aceite de oliva sal pimentar. Agregare cochayuyo, tomate y pulpo saltear. Incorporar ciboulette picado fino. Papa fondant Cortar las papa en bastones de 1 centímetro de ancho por tres de largo. Disponer en olla con fondo de ave, mantequilla y hasta cubrir la tres cuartas parte. Cocinar a fue lento por 5 mn y terminar al horno 175 °C por 10 mn.

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Streusell 100 g flour 50 g butter 1 g merkén 2 g salt 1 g pepper 5 g mashed garlic

PREPARATION

Streusell de centolla

INGREDIENTS for 4 servings


PREPARATION

Dougth 250 g flour 4 egg yolks 1 eggs Butter

Cake Form a volcano with the flour, in the middle putt the butter, eggyolk, egg, salt and wine. MIx everything. Knead until achieve and elastic dougth. Leave the dougth rest covered with plastic for 20 minutes. Make discs 20 cms. Radio and 2 mm thikness. Cook them for 5 minutos in the oven at 170 °C.

Filler 200 g quince jam 200 g dulce de leche Meringue 100 ml egg white 200 g sugar 50 g murtillas Sauce 400 g raspberry 200 g sugar 40 ml pisco Ice cream 150 ml whipped cream Custard 250 ml milk 3 egg yolk 50 g sugar 200 g strawberry Vanilla escense

Meringue Make the meringue with murtillas. Fort he cake. Put a dougth disc, then meringue, then a disc, then quince jam and then a disc and dulce de leche. Repeat until you reach 8 to 10 cm high. Decoration Use meringue to cover the top of the cake. Ice cream Prepare an englis creme, once its cold, add semi whipped cream and then the chopped strawberrys. Mix and freeze.

INGREDIENES para 4 porciones Masa 250 g harina 4 yemas de huevo 65 ml vino blanco 1 huevo Mantequilla Relleno 200 g dulce de membrillo 200 g dulce de leche Meringue 100 ml claras de huevo 200 g azúcar 50 g murtillas Salsa 400 g frambuesas 200 g azúcar 40 ml pisco Ice cream 150 ml crema semi batida Crema inglesa 250 ml leche 3 yema de huevo 50 g azúcar 200 g frutillas Esencia de vainilla

PREPARACIÓN Cake Formar un volcán con la harina, en el medio poner la mantequilla, la yema de huevo, la sal y el vino. Mezclar todo. Mezclar hasta formar una masa elástica. Dejar reposar la masa en un lugar cubierto con plástico durante 20 min. Hacer discos de 20 cm de radio y 2 mm de grosor. Hornearlos durante 5 minutos en un horno a 170 °C. Merengue Hacer el merengue con las murtillas. Colocar en los discos de masa el merengue, cubrir con otro disco, luego el dulce de membrillo, un nuevo disco y terminar con el dulce de leche. Repetir la operación hasta conseguir 8 o 10 cm de altura. Decoración Usar el resto del merengue para cubrir la parte superior del cake. Helado Preparar una crema inglesa, una vez fría, agregar la crema semi batida y las frutillas en forma de puré. Mezclar y congelar.

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INGREDIENTS for 4 servings

Milhoja con dulce de membrillo

HOJARASCA CAKE WITH QUINCE JAM


Mousse 150 g chocolate 100 g rhubarb purée 50 ml water 50 ml glucose 50 g sugar 7 sheets of gelatin Pinions biscuit 5 eggs 90 g sugar 100 g flour 50 g pinion flour Ice cream 5 egg yolks 100 g sugar 50 ml water 300 ml semi whipped cream 150 g apple pureé Calafate and sweet milk cream 500 ml milk 6 egg yolks 100 g dulce de leche 150 g calafate pureé 1 gelatine leaf 150 ml semi whipped cream Wild blackberries with carmenere sauce. 200 g wild blackberries 100 ml carmenere wine 50 g sugar 1 g star anise PREPARATION Melt the chocolate and mix it with the rhubarb pureé. Prepare some syrup with the water, sugar and glucose. Mix the chocolate and the

syrup. Add gelatine sheets (the mix must not be over the 28 °C). Lower the temperature and add the whipped cream. Place in a pan and refrigerate. Pinions biscuit Whip the eggs and the until the sugar disappears. Add both flours. Bake at 180 °C for 35 mn. Cut the biscuit, soak with syrup and cover the mousse. Ice cream Prepare a 117 °C syrup with water and sugar whip the egg yolks, add the syrup add the wihpped cream gently. Add Apple liquor for flavor. Freeze and repeat the whip each two hours. Calafate and dulce de leche cream Prepare a creme anglaise (custard), add the sweet milk and calafate purée. Add the gelatine leaf. Add the whipped cream. Put in a siphon and refrigerate for 40 minutes. Fill the cups and put an ice cream ball on the top. Wild blackberries with carmenere sauce. Mix all ingredients and prepare a sauce reduction. Sieve and refrigerate it.

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones Marquise de chocolate con ruibarbo 150 g chocolate 100 g puré de ruibarbo 50 ml agua 50 ml glucosa 50 g azúcar 7 hoja colapez Base de biscocho de piñones 5 huevos 90 g azúcar granulada 100 g harina 50 g harina piñones Helado de manzana 5 yemas de huevos 100 g de azúcar granulada 50 ml agua 300 ml crema semibatida 150 g puré de manzana Crema de calafate con dulce de leche 500 ml de leche 6 yemas 100 g dulce de leche 150 g puré calafate 1 hoja de colapez 150 ml de crema semi batida Salsa de moras silvestres 200 g de moras silvestre 100 ml vino carmener 50 g azúcar granulada 1 g anís estrellado PREPARACIÓN Marquise de chocolate Derretir chocolate y puré de ruibarbo a baño maría. Realizar un almíbar con el azúcar, agua y glucosa incorporar a la mezcla de chocolate y ruibarbo.

Incorporar colapez hidratado a 28 °C. Bajar temperatura agregar en forma envolvente crema semi batida. Disponer en molde silicona y refrigerar. Base de biscocho de piñones Batir huevos a espumoso con azúcar granulada a baño maría 83°c para disolver cristales. Agregar harina de piñones y harina bizcochera. Hornear a 180 °C por 35 min aproximadamente. Cortar el biscocho, remojar con licor de murtillas y cubrir el marquéis. Helado de manzana Batir yemas, incorporar almíbar a 117 °C. Incorporar en forma envolvente la crema semibatida. Aromatizar con licor dulce de manzana. Congelar, batir cada dos horas. Crema de calafate con dulce de leche Realizar una crema inglesa. Agregar dulce de leche y puré de calafate. Incorporar colapez hidratado. Agregar en forma envolvente la crema. Cargar sifón refrigera por 40 min. Llenar copas acompañada de una bolita de helado de manzana. Salsa de moras silvestres Realizar salsa por reducción. Filtrar y refrigerar.

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INGREDIENTS for 4 servings

Mousse de chocolate con ruibarbo

CHOCOLATE AND RUIBARB MOUSSE ONTO PINIONS BISCUIT


Bavaroise 400 ml custard 250 g quince 8 gelatine leaf 300 ml whipped cream 150 g murtillas Raspberry sauce 400 g raspberries 200 g sugar 40 ml pisco Strawberry ice cream 500 ml custard 200 g strawberries 200 g whipped cream 100 g sugar PREPARATION Bavaroise Grind the murta and a percentage of quince jam. The other percentage cut in brunoise. Reserve. Melt the gelatine and incorporate into the custard mixture, murta and quince jam, cool, and add whipped cream. Put into molds and refrigerate for 25 minutes. Raspberry sauce Mix the ingredients and cook for 12 minutes. Blend, strain and reserve. Add sugar and the pisco. Remove from the mould the bavaroise, serve with ice cream, garnish with quince paste, mint leaves and raspberry and pisco sauce. Strawberry ice cream For the ice cream, clean the strawberries and cook with the sugar. Mix it with the custard and put into the ice cream machine. When the ice cream is ready, add the whipped cream and keep in the freezer.

INGREDIENTES para 10 porciones Bavaroise 400 ml crema inglesa 250 g membrillo 8 hojas colapez 300 ml crema semi batida 150 g murtillas Salsa de frambuesa 400 g frambuesa 200 g azúcar 40 ml pisco Helado de fresones 500 ml crema inglesa 200 g fresones 200 g crema vegetal 100 g azúcar PREPARACIÓN Bavaroise Moler murta y un porcentaje del dulce membrillo y el otro cortar en brunoise, reservar. Derretir colapez incorporar a la mezcla de crema inglesa, murta y dulce de membrillo, enfriar y agregar crema semi batida. Pasar a moldes y refrigerar por 25 minutos. Salsa de frambuesa Para la salsa juntar los ingredientes, llevar a ebullición por 12 minutos. Moler y pasar por un cedazo. Para la salsa rectificar el sabor que esté sin semillas y agregar el pisco al final para que tome sabor. Desmoldar el bavaroise, acompañar con helado de fresones, decorar con dulce de membrillo, hojas de mentas y salsa de frambuesa al pisco todo bien frío. Helado de fresones Para el helado limpiar fresones cocinar junto con azúcar moler y mesclar con crema inglesa y llevar a la máquina de helado. Batir crema vegetal. Al helado agregar crema vegetal batida. Porcionar y reservar en el congelador.

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INGREDIENTS for 10 servings

Bavaroise de membrillo y murta

QUINCE AND MURTA BAVAROISE


ECUADOR


Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ) and the School of Hospitality Management and Culinary Arts USFQ is a private Ecuadorian university. It was founded in 1988 as the first totally private and self-financed university in Ecuador. Its Liberal Arts philosophy promotes the quest for knowledge, individual liberties, and the entrepreneurial spirit in every member of its community. USFQ beliefs that the the development of Ecuadorian society can be reached through excellence in teaching, supported by qualified and committed faculty, comprehensive and rigorous curricula, and sufficient resources. Goodness, beauty, and truth are the guiding principles under which the university was created and is currently run. The university now enrolls 5,800 students, 3,900 of whom are undergraduates. Although USFQ receives no funding from the government of Ecuador, its 300 full-time and 280 part-time faculty comprises one-half of all the people in the nation who hold a Ph.D. degree. The main campus is located in Cumbayå outside of Quito, and it is recognized as the most beautiful campus in the country. In addition, USFQ is the only university in the world that owns a campus in the Galapagos Islands, GAIAS (Galapagos Institute for the Arts and Sciences), one of the earth’s most amazing natural laboratories. The School of Hospitality Management, Culinary Arts and Tourism started its operations in September 1995 after a study of industry trends and opportunities. It currently offers: B.A. in Hospitality Management, B.A. in Culinary Arts , B.A. in Culinary Arts and Food and Beverage Management. The purpose of the Culinary Arts Program is to educate entrepreneurial people under strict norms of academic excellence. Culinary Arts is a discipline that requires passion, competitiveness, and excellence. Our program develops these three personal competencies required to survive in today’s professional markets.

The school currently holds a very strong relationship with Institut Paul Bocuse by being part of the Worldwide Alliance, as well as extensive exchange programs with hundreds of universities worldwide. At the present time, the School continually generates more and more recognition for the quality of its programs and especially for three supporting pillars: An active and professional faculty, updated infrastructure and high technology equipment, and a committed and dedicated student body.

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The School believes that education in this field has to combine assertive theory with a guided personal practical training. Therefore the university itself has developed eight food and beverage outlets to offer a complete culinary educational platform. These outlets serve as the main training laboratories for our students as well as the food supply for professors, students, and administrative staff.


Ecuadorian Cuisine and Traditions I

n Ecuador we can find a rich and extensive gastronomic culture, with a history of fusions along the years between native, hybrid or mixed and modern cuisines, which have integrated themselves by adopting the best of the introductions, but maintaining the best of the traditions. When we talk about Ecuadorian cuisine, the first and most important aspect is to understand where it comes from and what products are used. Although Ecuador is such a small country, there is a very clear definition and difference between the food from the coast, the highlands, and the Amazon regions. And today we can also say that Galapagos has developed its own local cuisine as well. Each region has divisions with respect to each province where its own products and preparations are characteristic. This makes Ecuadorian gastronomy very huge, diverse, and rich. With the arrival of the Spaniards back in the fifteenth century, new foreign products were incorporated to the local cuisine: wheat, barley, aromatic herbs, species, pork, hen, chicken, lamb, goat, cow, among others. Domestic animals definitely changed the diet; it went from a diet scarce in animal protein to a diet rich in this type of protein due to the great impact that pork and chicken made. These two proteins became part of everyday life for Ecuadorian people and of course, they became part of our festive cuisine too. In relation to cooking utensils, Ecuadorians have developed their own tools to be able to cook their cuisine. For example we find earthenware that has been used for thousands of years in order to cook, roast, bake, etc. Stones are also used in different sizes and shapes, mainly to grind grains as mortars for species and sauces. Sieves made mainly out of horse’s mane. The finest and most delicate has been used to sift fruit, flour, etc. Copper is also used primarily for slow cooking and utensils like pots (wide-based wok-like pots), irons and pitchers. Nowadays Ecuadorian gastronomy has incorporated tradition with modernity, keeping original utensils as the appropriate tools to maintain tradition in

cooking as well as for serving the food. However international techniques are being introduced every day. Ecuadorian cuisine is characterized by a great variety of soups, which go from the traditional “locro” (potato soup) to the most complex ones such as “fanesca” (a soup made of, among other ingredients, 12 types of grains) which takes a very long time to cook. As entrees or first courses, we can find the “ceviches” which have taken their own identity in each region/city. We can find ceviches made of seafood, fish, lupines, heart of palm, tuna fish, etc., mixed with tomatoes or with the water in which the product was cooked; or simply cooked in lemon. Some have onions, cilantro, and almost all have hot pepper sauce, but all of them are very juicy. “Wraps” are also a great tradition in Ecuador. They are very different depending on the region where they come from. In the coast “wraps” have a green plantain dough and the filling has fish or seafood and are wrapped in a plantain leaf. In the highlands, the dough is made of flour or potato or, in some cases, with native vegetables such as a type of pumpkin called “zambo”. These are filled with meat, chicken, pork, or cheese and wrapped in the leaf of an ornamental plant called “atzera” which also helps to enhance the flavor of the dish. There are also dishes wrapped in corn leaves or maize leaves, which could be sweet or salty. The Amazon region cuisine is a little bit known and not too common to find in other regions. In Galapagos there is a change in the diet because nowadays they do not eat animals from endangered species and fish is not greatly appreciated by the population. So different sources of protein like pork and chicken from other regions have been incorporated. Ecuador, due to its geographic situation, is a privileged country for agricultural production and due to marine currents crossing the coasts it has an incalculable variety of fish and seafood. All these privileges, as well as the culinary traditions from many centuries have made it possible to have a unique gastronomy with many flavors and textures for each region of the country. This, along with different cooking techniques and the diversity of utensils, has given us the possibility of tasting traditional cuisine all year round.


LA COCINA ECUATORIANA Y SUS TRADICIONES n Ecuador podemos encontrar una cultura y riqueza gastronómica muy amplia, con una larga historia de fusiones entre las cocinas nativas, coloniales y modernas. La cocina ecuatoriana contemporánea ha tomado lo mejor de cada una y lo importante es que ha mantenido lo mejor de la tradición. Cuando hablamos de cocina ecuatoriana lo mas importante es entender de dónde viene y los productos que usa. A pesar que el Ecuador es un país muy pequeño, hay una clara diferencia geográfica que influye en la comida entre la Costa, Sierra, Amazonía y en los últimos años también se ha definido a Galápagos como una región con su propia Gastronomía. Cada región tiene varias provincias, pero en cada provincia la comida puede diferir de la otra por los ingredientes que produce y en muchos casos con técnicas propias. Esto hace que la gastronomía ecuatoriana sea tan rica y diversa. Con el arribo de los españoles en el siglo XV, nuevos productos fueron incorporados a la cocina local; trigo, centeno, hierbas aromáticas, especias, animales, cerdo, pollo, cordero, chivo, res, entre otras. Los animales domésticos cambiaron definitivamente la dieta y pasó de una dieta rica en granos a una dieta rica en proteína animal. Los animales que mayor impacto tuvieron en la dieta son el cerdo y el pollo, convirtiéndose en parte de la alimentación diaria y festiva de los ecuatorianos. En relación a los utensilios, los Ecuatorianos desarrollaron sus propias herramientas para poder cocinar, como por ejemplo los utensilios de barro y bronce en diferentes formas y tamaños que se usaron para cocinar, asar o freir, las piedras que se usan como morteros o molinos con los que se muele los granos para convertirles en harina y los mas pequeños que se usan para hacer salsas y moler especies. Los cedazos que son hechos con crin de caballos, sirven para cernir los diferentes tipos de harinas y las frutas. Hoy en día la gastronomía ecuatoriana ha incorporado la modernidad pero siempre manteniendo los utensilios tradicionales, a fin de mantener la calidad y la tradición de su cocina a pesar que todos los días se introducen técnicas modernas que hacen mas fácil el cocinar. La cocina ecuatoriana se caracteriza por la gran variedad de sopas que posee, que va desde el tradicional Locro (sopa de papas) hasta la más compleja que es la fanesca (sopa que lleva entre otras cosas 12 tipos de granos) y que necesita largas horas de cocción. Como entradas se puede encontrar ceviches los cuales tienen su propia identidad dentro de cada región. Los “ceviches” Ecuatorianos pueden ser hechos de pescado, mariscos, chochos (lupinos), palmito, atún, etc. Los hay hechos con tomate, con el agua en el que se cocinaron, con jugo de naranja o simplemente marinado en limón. Todos llevan cilantro, cebolla, y ají (chile), pero la característica del ceviche ecuatoriano es que es muy jugoso.

Los envueltos también son una gran tradición en el Ecuador, los hay de diferentes ingredientes dependiendo de la región que vienen. En la costa se hacen con masa de plátano verde o de harina y su relleno normalmente es de pescado o pollo y se los envuelve en hoja de plátano. En la sierra se hace la masa con papa o harina de maíz o diferentes legumbres o frutas como zambo que es un tipo de calabaza. Los rellenos tradicionales están hechos de pollo, queso, o cerdo, y se envuelven en una hoja ornamental llamada “atzera” que le ayuda a realzar el sabor a la masa. Otros envueltos se hacen con masa de maíz tierno y se envuelven en la misma hoja de la mazorca. Pueden ser de sal o de dulce. La cocina de la región amazónica es muy poco difundida y no es muy común encontrar en otras regiones. En Galápagos hay un cambio en la dieta ya que se prohibió el consumo de animales que estén en vías de extinción, por lo cual están integrando otro tipo de proteínas. Ecuador por su situación geográfica en un país privilegiado para la agricultura y por las corrientes marinas para la pesca. Todo este privilegio mas las tradiciones culinarias con cientos de años han hecho posible tener una gastronomía única con muchos sabores y texturas en cada región del país. Esto con diferentes técnicas de cocción y diversidad de utensilios, nos ha dado la posibilidad de probar la cocina tradicional muy diversa todo el año.

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E


SHRIMP CEBICHE

480 g midsize shrimp; peeled and deveined 70 g chopped onion (white or red) 70 g tomato in brunoise 70 ml tomato juice 10 g crushed garlic 20 g mustard 20 g cilantro, finely chopped 150 ml orange juice 150 ml orange soda 160 ml reserved liquid from shrimp cooking 30 ml lemon juice 40 ml lime juice 50 g ketchup 25 g worcestershire sauce 10 g tabasco sauce 30 g vegetable oil Salt and pepper

PREPARATION Season the shrimp with salt, pepper and garlic. Saute shrimp in hot oil and reserve the juices. Mix the onion with ketchup, lemon and lime juice, orange juice, mustard, Tabasco, Worcestershire sauce, tomato juice and orange soda. Add the sauteed shrimp (cold) and reserved liquid. Fine tune the taste with salt and pepper and finally add the chopped cilantro. Keep it for 35 minutes in the refrigerator for the flavors to concentrate. Serve with plantain chips (thin slices of fried green plantain), popcorn and roasted corn.

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones

480 g camarón cebra mediano; pelado y desvenado 70 g cebolla paiteña picada en brunoise 70 g tomate picado en brunoise 70 ml jugo de tomate 10 g ajo molido 20 g mostaza 20 g cilantro finamente picado 150 ml jugo de naranja 150 ml gaseosa de naranja 160 ml agua del salteado del camarón 30 g de jugo de limón meyer 40 ml jugo de limón sutil 50 g salsa de tomate 25 g salsa inglesa o worcestershire 10 g salsa tabasco 30 g aceite vegetal Sal y pimienta

PREPARACIÓN Condimentar el camarón con sal, pimienta y ajo. Saltear el camarón en aceite caliente y reservar los jugos. Mezclar la cebolla con la salsa de tomate, jugo de limón, jugo de naranja, mostaza, tabasco, salsa inglesa, jugo de tomate y gaseosa de naranja. Incorporar el camarón salteado frío y el líquido reservado. Rectificar el sabor con sal y pimienta y agregar finalmente el cilantro picado. Mantenerlo durante 35 minutos en el refrigerador para que los sabores se concentren. Servir acompañado de chifles (rebanadas delgadas de plátano verde frito), canguil y maíz tostado.

27 - Ecuador

Ceviche de camarón

Ingredients for 4 servings


For the broth 1 kg short beef ribs 100 g carrot 100 g celery 100 g onion 2 lt water 200 g potato, peeled and cubed 100 g cabbage, chopped into small cubes 30 g cilantro, finely chopped Fried condiment 100 g red onion, finely chopped 100 g scallions, finely chopped 20 g crushed garlic 10 g ground cumin 10 g ground oregano 20 g annato oil Salt and pepper For the green plantain balls 100 g green banana, cooked with salt and mashed 100 g green banana, raw and grated finely Water where the banana was cooked For the ball filling/stuffing 70 g beef, finely ground 25 g fresh peas, cooked 10 g carrots, cut in brunoise and cooked 15 g scallions, finely chopped 1 hard-boiled egg , finely chopped

15 g crushed garlic Salt, cumin and pepper 30 g vegetable oil PREPARATION Make the filling for the balls. Fry in a 3 tbsp of oil the white onion with the ground meat and seasonings until golden. Then add the carrots, peas and egg. Reserve the filling. Make the dough for the green banana balls. Mix the cooked green banana with the raw one and and mix with a little of the cooking water until it becomes smooth and a workable dough. Form balls of 40 g of dough and place the filling inside. Reserve the balls in a covered dish for them not to dry. Make a concentrated broth with the short ribs meat, celery, carrot and onions. Set it aside. In a big pot for the soup, put the annatto oil and fry the onions with the garlic, seasonings and chopped potatoes. Once it is starting to golden add the broth and cook until the potatoes are soft . Add the cabbage to the broth and the green balls. Wait until the balls rise to the surface and turn off the heat. Add cilantro to serve.

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones

PREPARACIÓN

Para el caldo 1 kg costilla de res 100 g zanahoria 100 g apio 100 g cebolla perla 2 lt agua 200 g papa chola picada en dados 100 g col blanca picada en cubos pequeños 30 g cilantro picado finamente

Hacer el relleno para las bolas. Cocer en el aceite la cebolla blanca con la carne y los aliños hasta que esté dorada. Luego agregar la zanahoria, las arvejas y el huevo duro. Reservar el relleno. Hacer la masa para las bolas de verde. Mezclar el verde cocinado, el crudo y amasar con un poco del agua de cocción del plátano verde hasta lograr una masa suave y trabajable. Formar bolas de 40 g de masa y colocar el relleno dentro. Reservar las bolas hechas en un plato cubierto para que no se sequen. Realizar un caldo concentrado de carne con la costilla, apio, cebolla y zanahoria amarilla y reservar. Hacer un refrito con el aceite de achiote, cebollas, ajo, aliños y papa cortada. Agregar el caldo al refrito y dejar cocinar la papa hasta que esté blanda. Agregar la col al caldo y las bolas de verde listas. Esperar hasta que las bolas suban a la superficie y apagar el fuego. Agregar cilantro para servir.

Para el refrito 100 g cebolla paiteña picada finamente 100 g cebolla blanca picada finamente 20 g ajo molido 10 g comino molido 10 g orégano molido 20 g aceite de achiote Sal y pimienta Para las bolas 100 g plátano verde cocinado con sal y aplastado 100 g plátano verde crudo y rallado finamente Agua de cocción del plátano Para el relleno 70 g carne de res molida finamente 25 g arvejas frescas cocinadas 10 g zanahoria picada en Brunoise y cocinada 15 g cebolla blanca picada finamente 1 huevo duro picado finamente 15 g ajo molido Sal, pimenta y comino 30 g aceite vegetal

29 - Ecuador

Ingredients for 4 servings

Sopa de bolas de verde

GREEN PLANTAIN BALLS SOUP


THICK BEEF SOUP

For the broth 2 kg beef short ribs 100 g carrot 100 g celery 100 g white onion 250 g potato 50 g maqueño banana (sweet ripe banana, special type) chopped into small cubes 50 g maqueño banana, chopped into small cubes and fried 100 ml milk 50 g peanuts 30 g cilantro, finely chopped 30 g chili pepper, fresh PREPARATION Make the broth in 2 liters of water. Cook the beef ribs for 2 to 3 hours with the carrots, celery and white onions until the meat easily goes off the bone. Remove the bones and separate the flesh. Shred it and reserve. Fry half of the meat until crunchy. Reserve the other half. In a large pot for the soup make the fried seasoning. Fry the red onion, scallions, garlic, cumin and potatoes in annato oil until golden. Add the broth to this seasoning and wait until it starts to boil. Then add the raw maqueño and cook for 10 minutes. In a mixer, blend the milk with the peanuts until they are finely chopped. Add to the broth. Add the fried shredded meat (reserve a little bit for decoration) Season with salt and pepper. Serve with chopped cilantro, fried golden maqueño and some fried shredded meat.

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones: Para el refrito 50 g cebolla paiteña cortada en brunoise 50 g cebolla blanca picada finamente 10 g ajo molido 10 g comino molido 25 g aceite de achiote Para el caldo 2 kg costilla de res 100 g zanahoria amarilla 100 g apio fresco 100 g cebolla perla 250 g papa chola 50 g plátano maqueño picado en cubos pequeños 50 g plátano maqueño picado en cubos pequeños y frito 100 ml leche 50 g maní 30 g cilantro finamente picado 30 g ají rojo entero PREPARACIÓN Realizar el caldo. Cocinar la costilla de res durante 2-3 horas con la zanahoria, apio y cebolla perla hasta que la carne se desprenda fácilmente del hueso. Retirar los huesos y apartar la carne del hueso, deshilachándola para reservarla. Freír la mitad de la carne y la otra mitad guardarla tal cual. Hacer el refrito. Refreír en aceite de achiote la cebolla paiteña, la cebolla blanca, el ajo, el comino y las papas. Agregar el caldo al refrito. Esperar que hierva, agregar el maqueño crudo, cocinar por 10 minutos. Agregar la leche licuada con el maní. Agregar la carne deshilachada cocida. Rectificar la sal y pimienta. Servir con cilantro picado, maqueño frito e hilachas de carne doradas.

31 - Ecuador

Fried condiment 50 g red onion cut in brunoise 50 g scallion, finely chopped 10 g garlic, crushed 10 g ground cumin 25 g annato oil

Ají de carne

Ingredients for 4 servings


CRAB SOUP

4 crabs, clean 50 g onion 50 g carrot 40 g basil stems 150 g cassava, peeled and cut in small cubes 100 g green plantain, peeled and cut in small cubes 50 g scallion, finely chopped 100 g peanut 15 g garlic, ground 75 g red onion, cut in brunoise 30 g basil leaves 2 bay leaves 30 g annatto oil Oregano, cumin y salt

PREPARATION Bring 1.5 liters of water to a boil and put the crab, onion, basil stems and carrot in order to make a broth. Make it boil for approximately 10 minutes. Strain the broth. Take out the meat of the crab legs. In a large pot, sauté in annatto oil the scallion, the red onion and garlic. Then add the broth. Once boiling add the cassava and green plantains. Cook until they are tender. Put the peanuts and some water in a blender to make a paste. Add this paste and half the crabmeat to the broth. Let it cook for 4 minutes. Season it with salt, and a pinch of oregano and cumin. Serve the soup garnished with crabmeat, chopped basil leaves and fried chips made from cassava and green plantains.

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones

4 cangrejos pequeños limpios (sin vena inferior) 50 g cebolla perla 50 g zanahoria amarilla 40 g hojas de tallos de albahaca 150 g yuca pelada y picada en cubos pequeños 100 g plátano verde picado en cubos pequeños 50 g cebolla blanca picada finamente 100 g maní 15 g ajo molido 30 g hojas de albahaca picadas 75 g cebolla paiteña picada en Brunoise 2 hojas de laurel 30 g aceite de achiote Orégano, comino y sal

PREPARACIÓN Hacer un caldo con el cangrejo, cebolla blanca, tallos de albahaca y zanahoria amarilla. Colar el caldo. Reservar los cangrejos cocinados y retirar la carne de las patas. Hacer el refrito. Refreir en achiote la cebolla blanca, la cebolla paiteña, el ajo y agregar al caldo. Luego incorporar la yuca y el verde. Cocinar hasta que estén blandos. Agregar el maní licuado en un poco de agua, la mitad de la carne del cangrejo y cocinar por 4 minutos. Sazonar con sal, una pizca de oregano y comino. Servir con carne de cangrejo, hojas de albahaca picada, plátano verde y yuca fritos.

33 - Ecuador

Sopa de cangrejo

Ingredients for 4 servings


HUMITAS (Corn cakes)

650 g ripe corn, taken out of the cobb and finely ground 125 g fresh cheese, grated (mozzarella type) 3 eggs 60 g salted butter 60 g lard 4 g salt 30 g scallions, finely chopped 15 g annato oil 5 g sugar 2 g baking powder 6 corn husks, clean

For Sweet Humitas 75 g sugar 15 g anise PREPARATION Whisk vigorously the ground corn, lard and butter until blended. Add the egg yolks, salt, baking powder and cheese. Also add the scallions that were previously fried in annato oil. Add the beaten and stiff egg whites in the dough and mix in a soft and delicate manner. Put a spoonful of the preparation in the center of a corn husk and wrap the tip bending inward. The sides bend to the center. Place the humitas vertically in a steamer and cook them for 45 minutes. Variation : You can make sweet humitas by replacing the fried scallion with sugar and anise.

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones

650 g choclo maduro desgranado y molido finamente 125 g queso fresco rallado 3 huevos 60 g mantequilla con sal 60 g manteca de cerdo 4 g sal 30 g cebolla blanca picada finamente 15 g achiote 5 g azúcar 2 g polvo de hornear 6 hojas de choclo limpias para envolver

Para las Humitas de Dulce 75 g azúcar 15 g anís español PREPARACIÓN Batir enérgicamente el choclo molido, la manteca y la mantequilla hasta que se mezclen completamente. Añadir las yemas de huevo, la sal, el polvo de hornear, el queso, y la cebolla blanca refrita en achiote. Agregar las claras de huevo batidas a punto de nieve y mezclar en forma envolvente. Poner una cucharada de la preparación en el centro de la hoja y envolver doblando la punta hacia adentro y las dos hacia el centro. Colocar las humitas en una vaporera y cocinar por 45 minutos. Variación: Se pueden hacer humitas de dulce sustituyendo la cebolla refrita por azúcar y anís español.

35 - Ecuador

Humitas

Ingredients for 4 servings


FRIED PORK

Ingredients for 4 servings

1 kg pork meat, cubed 200 g ripe plantain, cut in two 2 scallions, cut in chunks 6 garlic cloves, whole 100 g lard 800 g potatoes, medium 340 g hominy, cooked

For Marinade

First, marinate the meat with the beer, celery, green pepper, onion, 3 garlic cloves, cumin and salt for 24 hours in the refrigerator. In a bronze pot place the meat cut in small pieces with the marinade sauce. Cook it in low heat stirring frequently until all the liquid has been evaporated. Add the pork fat, the onion cut in pieces and the remaining garlic. Add the fat to the pot, the scallions cut in chunks and the remaining garlic cloves and cook in low heat until the meat is golden brown and thoroughly cooked. Season with salt and pepper.

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones

1 kg carne de cerdo cortada en cubos 200 g plátanos maduros, cortados por la mitad 2 cebollas largas cortadas en trozos de 5 cm 6 dientes de ajo entero 100 g manteca de cerdo 800 g papas medianas 340 g mote cocinado

Para la Marinada Cebolla paiteña, apio, pimiento, ajo, cerveza, comino, sal, agua. PREPARACIÓN Marinar la carne con la cerveza, apio, pimiento, cebolla, 3 dientes de ajo, comino y sal por 24 horas en refrigeración. En una paila poner fuego lento la carne junto con el marinado. Cocinar revolviendo frecuentemente hasta que se seque el líquido. Agregar la manteca de cerdo, los trozos de cebolla y los ajos restantes y dorar la carne a fuego. Rectificar los sabores.

37 - Ecuador

Preparation

Fritada

Red onion, celery, pepper, garlic, beer, cumin, salt, water.


LAMB/GOAT STEW

1 kg lamb or goat 500 g lamb or goat chops 50 g annato oil 150 g red onion, cut in brunoise 100 g green pepper 100 g carrot, finely grated 1 chili pepper 600 g tomato peeled and liquified in a mixer 0.5 lt chicha (Ecuadorian fermented corn drink) or beer 0.2 g naranjilla (lulo) pulp, optional if you find in your area 30 g ground oregano 80 g grown sugar Clove and old spice in a sachet Salt 30 g cilantro 25 g minced garlic Cilantro stems Black pepper, ground cumin Vegetable oil

PREPARATION In a pot, seal the meat in high heat with a little salt and cumin. Add water to cover the meat and the whole pepper. Cook for about 2 ½ hours or until the meat is tender. Reserve the liquid and meat. In a skillet sautee in annato oil the red onions, cumin, oregano and salt. Add it to the pot with the meat and liquid. Also add the blended tomatoes, sugar, beer or chicha, the chili pepper, chopped cilantro stalks and cook everything for 15 minutes. Place the sachet of sweet spices and leave inside the stew for 4 minutes only. Rectify the salt, pepper and remove the whole pepper to serve. Serve the dish with yellow rice (colored with annatto oil), a steamed potato, a slice of avocado and tomato salad with onions.

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones 1 kg carne de cordero o chivo 500 g costilla de cordero 50 g aceite de achiote 150 g cebolla paiteña picada en Brunoise 100 g pimiento verde entero 100 g zanahoria amarilla rallada finamente 1 ají entero 600 g tomate pelado y licuado 0.5 lt chicha (bebida ecuatoriana) o cerveza 0.2 g pulpa de naranjilla (opcional) 30 g orégano molido 80 g panela en bloque o azúcar morena Clavo de olor y pimienta dulce en un sachet Sal 30 g cilantro 25 g ajo molido Tallos de cilantro Pimienta negra, comino molido Aceite vegetal PRAPARACIÓN En una olla, sellar la carne con un poco de sal y comino. Agregar agua hasta cubrir la carne y el pimiento entero. Cocinar por aproximadamente 2 horas y media o hasta que esté blanda. Reservar el líquido y la carne. Refreír en un sartén la cebolla paiteña en achiote, agregar comino, orégano y sal y agregar a la olla con la carne y el líquido. Adicionar el tomate licuado, la panela, la chicha, el ají, los tallos de cilantro y cocinar por 15 minutos. Colocar el sachet de especies dulces y dejarlas por 4 minutos únicamente. Rectificar la sal, retirar el pimiento y el ají para servir. Servir el seco con arroz amarillo (coloreado con aceite de achiote), papa al vapor, aguacate y una ensalada de cebollas con tomates.

39 - Ecuador

Seco de chivo

Ingredients for 4 servings


SHERBET MADE IN A COPPER POT

Ingredients for 4 servings 1 lt fruit pulp 2 eggs whites, beaten stiff 230 g sugar

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones 1 lt pulpa de fruta 2 claras de huevo batidas a punto de nieve 230 g azúcar PREPARACIÓN Poner una paila de bronce sobre una cama de paja con hielo y sal, o con hielo seco. Licuar la pulpa con el azúcar. Agregar esta mezcla a la paila; batir con una cuchara de madera, girando la paila (durante aproximadamente 15 minutos). Cuando la mezcla comience a tomar consistencia incorporar las claras de huevo y batir sin parar por unos 5 minutos más, o hasta que tenga la consistencia de helado.

41 - Ecuador

Place a copper pot over a bed of straw, ice and salt. Blend the fruit pulp and the sugar and place this mix in the copper pot. Beat with a wooden spoon, constantly turning the copper pot (for approximately 15 minutes). Once the mixture starts to thicken add the egg whites and beat vigorously for 5 more minutes or until it has the consistency of an ice cream.

Helado de paila

PREPARATION


FRUIT MERENGUE

Ingredients for 4 servings 40 g egg whites 40 g fruit marmalade 15 g water

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones 40 g clara de huevo 40 g mermelada de fruta 15 g agua PREPARACIÓN Mezclar el agua con la mermelada y hacer hervir (hasta que llegue a 90 °C) y dejar enfriar. Batir las claras casi a punto de nieve Incorporar la mermelada fría mientras se bate y esperar que tome el color y la consistencia deseada. Servir con grageas dulces de colores. También se puede servir en conos de helado como opción.

43 - Ecuador

Mix the water with the marmalade and bring it to a boil (until it reaches 90 °C) and then let it cool down. Beat the egg whites. Before stiff peaks start to form, incorporate the cold marmalade and keep beating until it gets the desired color and consistency. Serve with colorful sprinkles. It can also be served in ice cream cones.

Espumilla de frutas

PREPARATION


FINLAND


Through education, research and development, HAAGA-HELIA University of Applied Sciences prepares professionals for business and services. We offer our students a versatile choice of studies, great opportunities for specialization, high-quality education in Finnish and English, and wide business networks even during the studies. Our approximately 10 800 students and 650 employees at HAAGA-HELIA base their activities on highly advanced national and international expertise. HAAGA-HELIA is part of the Finnish public educational system. It is privately run but steered and co-funded by the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture. Our fields of education are business, hotel, restaurant and tourism management, information technology, journalism, management assistant training, sports management and vocational teacher education. Our Expertise Our expertise at HAAGA-HELIA focuses on business and services, communication and information management, information and communication technologies and wellness combining health and sports. Teacher education is also an important part of our activity. Our Education

Internationalization in Practice HAAGA-HELIA is an international university of applied sciences. We have more than 180 partner universities throughout the world and a variety of opportunities to internationalise. Our international degree programmes have foreign students from more than 80 countries. Twelve different degree programmes are completely taught in English. Cultural sensitivity and diversity are part of our everyday life. International work placement and projects also contribute to our growing internationalization. HAAGA-HELIA has a strong international network worldwide, and it is an active member in several international organisations.

45 - Finland

The starting point for our activity lies in the needs of businesses, whose demands we meet with our work-related higher education. We provide our students with the knowledge and skills for lifelong learning and development in the workplace. HAAGA-HELIA is the place to earn Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees, to obtain teacher education, to complete MBA program and specialization studies and to participate in research and development. We also provide personnel training for various organisations.


Finland on a Plate T

raditional Karelian meat stew, Karelian pies, sweet green pea soup and baked in fish pie are well known dishes to all Finns. Our food culture is based on hearty meals which provide plenty of energy. The purpose of a meal most often was just to satisfy the feeling of hunger. In our history there have been several periods when there has been a shortage of food or even a wide spread hunger. Crop failure years, wars, and naturally our long and cold winters have had huge impact on the availability of food and on what we eat. Finnish cuisine has been influenced by its neighbors. Our kitchen has several similarities with the Swedish cuisine as well as with Russian dishes. Furthermore, today it is very difficult to distinguish which dish is truly Finnish. We Finns have been very cautious in trying new dishes and ingredients in the past. The most popular dishes continue their success year after year, for example meatballs. Rapid internationalization, international trade, travel and inbound immigration have molded our food culture during the past couple of decades. Finns have accepted pizza, pasta and burgers into their daily diet. In addition to the increased influence of international food options Finns have started paying attention to the origin of the ingredients. Domestic, local and organic ingredients are gaining increasing popularity in Finland. Finns are putting importance to clean and fresh ingredients. More and more education is given and additional information is provided in the media about healthy food. Finns are very proud that all the school kids are provided with a free meal every day and that school offer education about nutrition and healthy food. Finnish cuisine changes with the seasons. Four distinct seasons shape the Finnish food culture: winter, spring, summer and autumn all bring seasonal thinking to the Finnish way of cooking. During four seasons, variety of local ingredients are at their best. The Finnish “food year” begins in the spring – that is when we celebrate Easter. Traditionally, all the holidays in Finland have had a huge impact on the dishes we eat and cook. In addition to Easter, the most important holidays are Midsummer and Christmas. During Easter Holiday, we eat lamb, dishes made out of eggs, and curd based desserts along with pastries. One of the most Finnish dishes is the Easter Pudding. Morels, nettles, rhubarb and fresh herbs are in the season in late spring and early summer. Pike is the fish of this season. During summer, Finnish ingredients are at their best. Season first domestic potatoes, carrots, various onions, salads, peas and strawberries truly treat the gourmet traveler in Finland. Domestic ingredients are readily available on the open markets and grocery stores all over the country. As the summer continues additional berries ripen and add to the array of domestic ingredients. Blueberries,

currants, raspberries and buckthorn are also available. The wild mushroom season also starts during the summer. During summer, we celebrate midsummer and the beginning of the gray fish season. Finnish grayfish is famous for its taste. Autumn is the harvest season - grains, root vegetables, berries, wild mushrooms, various fruits, are harvested. There are enough of these wonderful products also for exports, for example cep mushrooms are very popular on the Italian gourmet market. During autumn, hunting season is at its height in Finland. The moose, deer, willow grouse and bear are traditional Finnish game. Winter months bring a lot of root vegetables, pickled mushrooms and berries to the Finnish table. Christmas is the main event of the Finnish food culture. During Christmas Holidays Finns gather in groups to the dinner table. Traditional Christmas dishes include various dishes with roe, lightly salted fish, herring, marinated Baltic herring, lutefish, holiday root vegetable salad (rosolli), root vegetable casserole, ham, turkey, fruit and holiday pastries. With Christmas dishes, we usually drink seasonal beers, and mulled wine (glög). Traditional Finnish Christmas dishes are also served in restaurants all over the country. Even though four seasons clearly give the direction to the Finnish cuisine, various dishes can also be divided by geographic regions. In the southern and western Finland ingredients include fish, lamb, beef, cheeses, and milk products. In central and eastern Finland freshwater fish, game, root vegetables, mushrooms and rye products are popular. Lapland in the north has its own distinctive tastes. Reindeer, salmon, cloudberries and bread cheese are favorites there. The quality of domestic potato is world class. “Puikula”– potato (almond potato) is one of the names approved by European Union for a high quality domestic potato. Finns are used to preserving food ingredients. Traditionally various preservation methods have been used. Hydrating, salting, fermenting, and jellying with sugar are most common methods. Additionally smoke-cured, smoking and simmering (stewing) are popular preparation methods. Sausage and beer have been a typical combination for the Finns. Beer rivals wines as far as drinks go to the Finnish table. Small domestic breweries are known for their quality and creative take on beer. Fearless gourmet travelers also try wines made of local berries and fruits. Instead of grapes Finns use local berries and fruits in wine production. The most important ingredient is water. Fresh and clean water is one of the best Finnish resources. Natural food from Finland has risen in its popularity. One of the goals of Finnish food wholesalers is to market naturally grown ingredients, these include wild herbs, berries, mushrooms, fish and game. Their goal is to connect wild, naturally grown food to Finnish cuisine. Finns eat more and more out, thanks to the restaurant business which has grown and developed rapidly. In 1987, the Michelin Star was awarded the first time to the Finnish Chef Eero Mäkelä. At that time, the Finnish restaurant business started to develop. After Eero Mäkelä, Hans Välimäki has been one of the most forcing chefs in the Finnish gourmet business. His restaurant has been nominated with two Michelin stars. Hans Välimäki and his apprentices dominate the Finnish restaurant business today. Nowadays, there are several great restaurants in Turku, Tampere and Oulu for the gourmet traveler who wants to explore Finland outside Helsinki region.


Suomi lautasella

Suomalainen ruoka on saanut vaikutteita naapurimaista. Ruoassamme on paljon yhteistä ruotsalaisen keittiön kanssa ja myös venäläisiä ruokalajeja on sekoittunut joukkoon. Tänä päivänä on vaikea sanoa, mikä ruokalaji olisi puhtaasti kotimainen. Me suomalaiset olemme olleet varovaisia kokeilemaan ja tutustumaan uusiin ruokalajeihin ja raaka-aineisiin. Suosituimmat ruokalajit, kuten esim. lihapullat ovat pinnalla vuodesta toiseen. Nopea kansainvälistyminen, kaupankäynti, matkailu ja maahanmuutto ovat muokanneet lähihistoriassa ruokakulttuuriamme. Suomalaiset ovat hyväksyneet ruokakoriinsa pizzat, pastat, hampurilaiset. Vastineeksi kansainvälisen ruokakulttuurin rantautumiselle Suomeen, on alettu kiinnittää huomiota ruoan alkuperään. Kotimaiset ja paikallisesti tuotetut raaka-aineet sekä luomuruoka on nostettu uudestaan jalustalle. Yhä useammalle suomalaiselle puhtaat ja tuoreet raaka-aineet ovat tärkeitä ruoanvalmistuksessa. Ruokatietoa ja -koulutusta annetaan yhä enemmän ja lisäksi kouluissa ylläpidetään kotitalousopetusta. Suomalaiset ovat myös ylpeitä maksuttomasta kouluruokailusta. Suomalainen ruokavuosi koostuu neljästä eri vuodenajasta. Talvi, kevät, kesä ja syksy tuovat aterioihin sesonkiajattelua. Sesonkien aikana kotimaiset raaka-aineet ovat parhaimmillaan. Suomalaisessa ruokakulttuurissa on juhlapyhillä ollut suuri merkitys ruokapöydässä. Ruokavuosi alkaa keväästä, jolloin Suomessa vietetään pääsiäistä. Pääsiäisen lisäksi tärkeitä juhlan hetkiä on juhannus ja joulu. Pääsiäisenä syödään lammasta, munaruokia ja rahkapohjaisia jälkiruokia sekä leivonnaisia. Myös mämmi, yksi suomalaisimmista ruokalajeista, on osa pääsiäisen ruokatarjontaa. Kun lumet ja jäät keväällä sulavat, herää luonto taas eloon. Korvasienet, nokkonen, raparperit ja tänä päivänä suositut villiyrtit ovat parhaimmillaan loppukeväästä. Hauki on kevään kala. Kesällä suomalaiset raaka-aineet ovat parhaimmillaan. Varhaisperunat, porkkanat, erilaiset sipulit, salaatit, herneet ja mansikat hellivät ruokamatkailijoita. Kotimaisia raaka-aineita on taas saatavissa toreilta ja ruokakaupoista. Kesän aikana kypsyvät myös suomalaiset marjat. Mustikat, herukat, vadelmat, lakat ja tyrnimarjat kerätään talteen. Kesällä alkaa myös Suomalaisille tärkeä sienisesonki. Kesällä juhlitaan juhannusta ja rapusesongin alkamista. Suomalainen jokirapu on erinomainen maultaan. Syksy on sadonkorjuun aikaa. Viljat, juurekset, sienet ja hedelmät korjataan talteen. Syksyllä Suomessa ei ole pulaa raaka-aineista. Raaka-aineita riittää myös vientiin, esim. herkkutatit ovat erittäin kysyttyjä Italian ruokamarkkinoilla. Syksyllä käynnistyy myös metsästyskausi. Hirvi, peura, riekko ja karhu ovat perinteistä suomalaista riistaa. Talvella suomalaisissa ruokapöydissä käytetään paljon juureksia ja syksyllä säilöttyjä sieniä ja marjoja. Joulun on suomalaisen ruokaperinteen pääjuhla. Silloin suomalaiset kokoontuvat joukolla ruokapöytien ääreen. Jouluaterialla on tarjolla erilaisia mätejä, graavattua kalaa, silliä, marinoituja silakoita, lipeäkalaa, rosollia, juureslaatikoita, kinkkua, kalkkunaa, hedelmiä ja mausteisia leivonnaisia. Ruokajuomina joulupöydäs-

sä on usein kausiolutta ja glögiä. Jouluruokaa tarjoavat myös ravintolat ja erilaiset laitokset. Vaikka sesongit ohjaavatkin suomalaista ruokakulttuuria, voidaan ruoka jaotella myös alueellisesti. Etelä- ja Länsi-Suomessa raaka-aineina käytetään kalaa, karitsanja naudanlihaa, juustoja ja meijerituotteita. Keski- ja Itä-Suomessa suositaan järvikaloja, riistaa, juureksia, sieniä ja ruista. Kaloista erityisesti pitää mainita muikku. Pohjoinen Lappi on taas aivan oma ruoka-alueensa. Lapin keittiön raaka-aineita ovat poronliha, lohi, lakat ja leipäjuusto. Suomalainen peruna pärjää laadultaan ympäri maailmaa. Puikula-perunan nimi on saanut Euroopan Unionin myöntämän suojatun alkuperäisnimityksen. Suomalaiset ovat tottuneet säilömään raaka-aineita ja ruoanvalmistuksessa on hyödynnetty perinteisesti erilaisia säilöntätapoja. Kuivaaminen, suolaus, hapattaminen ja hilloaminen antavat raaka-aineille käyttöaikaa. Lisäksi suosittuihin valmistustapoihin kuuluu palvaaminen, savustaminen ja hauduttaminen. Makkara ja olut ovat perinteinen yhdistelmä suomalaisessa ruokapöydässä. Olut on noussut viinien rinnalle valittaessa aterialle ruokajuomaa. Kotimaiset pienpanimot tarjoavat laadukkaita ja persoonallisia oluita. Ennakkoluulottomat kulinaristit kokeilevat myös ruokalajien kanssa kotimaisia marja- ja hedelmäviinejä. Rypäleviinien sijaan Suomessa raaka-aineena käytetään laadukkaita marjoja ja hedelmiä. Tärkeä ruokajuoma on puhdas vesi, joka on Suomen voimavara. Villiruoka herättää kiinnostusta. Suomalaisten ruokatoimijoiden tavoitteena on levittää viestiä luonnosta saatavasta ja luonnollisesti kasvaneesta ruoasta. Suomalaista villiruokaa ovat villiyrtit, marjat, sienet, kala ja riista. Tavoitteena on, että villiruoan mielikuva yhdistetään Suomeen. Suomalaiset käyvät yhä useammin ravintolassa syömässä ja ravintola-ala on kehittynyt huimaa vauhtia Suomessa. Suomalaiselle ravintolaruoalle antoi alkusysäyksen edesmennyt keittiömestari Eero Mäkelä. Vuonna 1987 hän ansaitsi ravintolalleen ensimmäisenä halutun Michelin -tähden Suomessa. Hänen jälkeensä suomalaisen ruoan eturivin keittiömestarina on ollut Hans Välimäki. Kahdella tähdellä palkitun keittiömestarin oppipojat hallitsevat tänä päivänä Suomen huippuravintoloita. Laadukasta ruokaa on tarjolla pääkaupunkiseudun ulkopuolellakin. Turku, Tampere ja Oulu ovat ruokamatkailijan kohteita.

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Karjalanpaisti ja -piirakat, poronkäristys, hernekeitto sekä kalakukko ovat kaikille suomalaisille tuttuja ruokalajeja. Ruokakulttuurimme on perustunut ruokaisiin aterioihin, joista on saatu runsaasti energiaa. Aterian tarkoituksena on ollut usein vain nälän tyydyttäminen. Historiassamme on ollut useita ajanjaksoja, jolloin ruoasta on ollut jollakin tapaa pulaa tai niukkuutta. Katovuodet, sodat ja tietysti pitkät talvet ovat vaikuttaneet ruoan saatavuuteen ja ruokailutottumuksiin.


1 l crayfish stock 30 g unsalted butter 2 shallots 1 clove of garlic 4 sprigs of dill 30 g of wheat flour 4 cl brandy 200 ml white wine 200 ml whipping cream 50 g unsalted butter for finishing Salt and white pepper Garlic cream 1 clove of garlic 100 ml double cream 200 ml of milk Salt and white pepper Serving 12 crayfish 30 g mayonnaise 15 g chopped dill 4 toasted white bread PREPARATION Melt the butter (30 g) in a saucepan and sauté the chopped onions. Add flour and dill and stir. Add the brandy and white wine. Cook for a few minutes. Pour crab stock and cream

into a saucepan. Cook slowly for about 15 minutes. Taste and season the soup. Sieve the soup. Dice the remaining butter and whisk into the soup. Serve the soup with garlic cream and garnish it with dried tomatoes, olives and chives. Garlic cream Boil the cream in a saucepan. Add the chopped garlic clove and milk. Cook for a few minutes. Sieve the cream and milk mixture and season it with salt and white pepper. Whisk the garlic cream just before serving with hand blender. Serving Mix Crayfish tails, dill and mayonnaise. Serve with the toasts.

Jokirapukeittoa ja valkosipulikermaa ( 4:lle ) 1 l jokirapulientä 30 g suolatonta voita 2 kpl salottisipulia 1 kpl valkosipulinkynsi 4 oksaa tilliä 30 g vehnäjauhoja 4 cl jaloviinaa 2 dl valkoviiniä 2 dl kuohukermaa 50 g suolatonta voita viimeistelyyn Suola ja valkopippuri Sulata voi kattilassa ja kuullota hetki hienonnettuja sipuleita. Lisää joukkoon vehnäjauhot ja tilli. Sekoita. Lisää seuraavaksi jaloviina ja valkoviini. Keitä hetki. Kaada kattilaan rapuliemi ja kerma. Keitä n. 15 minuuttia hiljalleen. Tarkista suola ja mausta keitto tarvittaessa valkopippurilla. Siivilöi keitto. Kiehauta keitto juuri ennen tarjoilua ja sekoita joukkoon voi. Tarjoile keitto valkosipulikerman kanssa ja koristele se kuivatulla tomaatilla, oliivilla ja ruohosipulilla.

Valkosipulikerma 1 kpl valkosipulin kynsi 1 dl kuohukermaa 2 dl maitoa suola ja valkopippuri Kiehauta kerma kattilassa. Lisää joukkoon hienonnettu valkosipulin kynsi ja maito. Hauduta hetki. Siivilöi kerma-maitoseos ja mausta se suolalla ja valkopippurilla. Vaahdota valkosipulikerma juuri ennen tarjoilua sauvasekoittimella. Tarjoiluun 12 kpl jokiravunpyrstöä 2 rkl majoneesia 2 tl hienonnettua tilliä 4 kpl paahdettua vaaleaa leipää Sekoita ravunpyrstöt, tilli ja majoneesi. Annostele ravut leipäsiivuille.

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INGREDIENTS for 4 servings

Jokirapukeittoa ja valkosipulikermaa

CRAYFISH SOUP WITH GARLIC CREAM


400 g Baltic herring with skin 200 g vendace roe 100 g juiced cucumber Malt bread chips Cress and dill For marinade: 100 ml sugar 200 ml white vinegar 300 ml water 5 g salt 50 g red onion 100 g carrot 4 allspices For the sauce: 250 ml dill oil 1 egg 1 egg yolk 5 g sugar 5 g Dijon mustard 30 g white wine vinegar 5 g salt White pepper PREPARATION Marinade Peel the carrot and red onion. Slice the onion and carrot into thin slices. Bring to a boil in a saucepan the vinegar and water. Add the sugar, carrots, red onions, and spices. Cool the stock. Chill. Add the Baltic herring. Check the seasoning. Leave

to marinate in a cool place for 24 hours. Roll the fillets. Fill with vendace roe and serve it with juiced cucumber and dill sauce. Garnish with cress, malt bread chips and dill. Sauce Place the eggs, mustard, vinegar and salt in a bowl and mix together until the salt has dissolved. Add the oil in drops, whisking in so that the eggs can absorb the oil. Whisk until all the oil has been added, and the sauce is thick and creamy. Season.

Marinoitua silakkaa, muikunmätiä ja tillikastiketta ( 4:lle ) 400 g nahallisia silakkafileitä 200 g muikunmätiä 100 g mehustettua kurkkua Hapanleipälastuja Luomukrassia ja tilliä Marinadi 1 dl sokeria 2 dl väkiviinaetikkaa 3 dl vettä 1 tl suolaa 1 kpl punasipuli 1 kpl porkkana 4 kpl maustepippuri Kuori porkkana ja punasipuli. Viipaloi sipuli ja porkkana ohuiksi siivuiksi. Kiehauta kattilassa etikka ja vesi. Lisää joukkoon sokeri, porkkanat, punasipulit ja mausteet. Jäähdytä liemi. Lisää jäähtyneeseen liemeen silakkafileet. Tarkista suola. Anna silakoiden marinoitua yksi vuorokausi.

Valuta liemi pois silakoista ja rullaa ne. Täytä fileet muikun mädillä ja tarjoile ne mehustetun kurkun ja tillikastikkeen kanssa. Koristele annos krassilla, leipälastuilla ja tillillä. Tillikastike 2,5 dl tilliöljyä 1 kpl kananmuna 1 kpl keltuainen 1 tl sokeria 1 tl sinappia 2 rkl valkoviinietikkaa suola ja valkopippuri Sekoita kulhossa mausteet, munat ja etikka. Lisää joukkoon öljy ohuena nauhana koko ajan vatkaten. Tarkista maku ja tarjoile.

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INGREDIENTS for 4 servings

Marinoitua silakkaa, muikunmätiä ja tillikastiketta

MARINATED BALTIC HERRING, VENDACE ROE AND DILL SAUCE


Steak 200 g cold smoked reindeer 200 g oven cheese 12 mini beetroots 30 g red wine vinegar 100 ml olive oil 2 sprigs of thyme Salt and freshly ground black pepper Chard Horseradish cream 1,5 dl sour cream 10 g of mustard Grated horseradish Lemon juice Salt PREPARATION Peel the cooked beetroots. Season them with vinegar, olive oil, thyme, salt and pepper. Let beetroots marinate for a while. Cut the reindeer steak and oven cheese. Prepare the horseradish cream. Whisk the sour cream. Season the cream with mustard, horseradish and lemon juice. Finally, check the salt and pepper. Serve reindeer steak with cheese, beetroots and horseradish cream. Garnish with the chard and grated horseradish.

Kylmäsavustettua poronpaistia, uunijuustoa ja punajuurta ( 4:lle ) 200 g kylmäsavustettua poronpaistia 200 g uunijuustoa 12 kpl minipunajuuria 2 rkl punaviinietikkaa 1 dl oliiviöljyä 2 oksaa timjamia suolaa ja mustapippuria punamangoldin lehtiä Piparjuurikerma 1,5 dl ranskankermaa 2 tl Dijon -sinappia piparjuurta raastettuna sitruunanmehua suolaa Kuori keitetyt punajuuret. Mausta ne etikalla, oliiviöljyllä, timjamilla, suolalla ja pippurilla. Anna punajuurien maustua hetki. Paloittele poronpaistia ja uunijuusto. Valmista seuraavaksi piparjuurikerma. Vaahdota ranskankerma. Mausta se sinapilla, raastetulla piparjuurella ja sitruunanmehulla. Tarkista lopuksi suola ja pippuri. Tarjoile poronpaisti ja juuston kanssa punajuuret, piparjuurikerma. Koristele annos punamangoldin lehdillä ja raastetulla piparjuurella.

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INGREDIENTS for 4 servings

Kylmäsavustettua poronpaistia, uunijuustoa ja punajuurta

COLD SMOKED REINDEER STEAK, OVEN CHEESE AND BEETROOT


FRIED WHITEFISH WITH SMOKED PARNSNIP

Smoked parsnip 300 g parsnips 200 ml double cream Lemon juice Salt and white pepper Fish Cream Sauce 100 ml white wine 200 ml fish stock 300 ml double cream 50 g unsalted butter Salt and white pepper PREPARATION Whitefish Season the whitefish fillets, and pan-fry them in the olive oil for approximately 3 minutes on the skin side with a nice brown. Serve with the smoked parsnips, fish cream and spring onions. Smoked parsnip Boil the parsnips in salted water until soft. Cool them. Smoke parsnips gently in smoking box. Peel them. Puree the peeled parsnips in a blender and add the cooked cream. Strain it. Season the puree with salt and pepper. Fish cream sauce Cook white wine in the saucepan. Add the fish stock and cream. Boil to reduce to a good sauce consistency. Season with salt and white pepper. Dice the butter and whisk into the sauce. Serve.

Paistettua siikaa ja savustettua palsternakkaa ( 4:lle ) 600 g siikafilettä oliiviöljyä paistamiseen suolaa ja valkopippuria Mausta siikafileet suolalla ja valkopippurilla. Paista siikafilee rapeaksi paistinpannulla nahkapuoli alaspäin. Tarjoile siiat savustetun palsternakan, kalakerman ja kevätsipuleiden kanssa. Savustettu palsternakka 300 g palsternakkaa 2 dl kuohukermaa sitruunanmehua suolaa ja valkopippuria savustuspuruja Keitä palsternakat suolalla maustetussa vedessä kypsiksi. Jäähdytä ne. Savusta palsternakat kevyesti savustuslaatikossa. Kuori ne. Paloittele kuoritut palsternakat tehosekoittimeen ja kaada kuuma kerma joukkoon. Soseuta. Siivilöi tarvittaessa. Mausta suolalla ja pippurilla. Kalakermakastike 1 dl valkoviiniä 2 dl kalalientä 3 dl kuohukermaa 50 g suolatonta voita suolaa ja valkopippuria Kiehauta valkoviini kattilassa. Lisää joukkoon kalaliemi ja kerma. Keitä kastikemaiseksi. Mausta kastike suolalla ja valkopippurilla. Lisää joukkoon voi juuri ennen tarjoilua.

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Whitefish

Paistettua siikaa ja savustettua palsternakkaa

INGREDIENTS for 4 servings


Willow grouse 2 willow grouse Salt and black pepper Serving Lapland Puikula potatoes Jerusalem artichoke Rapeseed oil Douglas fir needles Blueberry Sauce 100 g shallots 30 g rapeseed oil 4 juniper berries 50 g of blueberries 1 sprigs of thyme 2 sprigs parsley 400 ml red wine 400 ml chicken stock 400 ml brown veal stock 50 g unsalted butter Salt Blueberries for garnish Drumsticks and wings of the willow grouse PREPARATION Willow grouse Remove the drumsticks, wings and backbone from the willow grouses. Brown the breasts of the willow grouses in the oil in a saucepan and season with salt and black pepper. Finish about 8 minutes in

the preheated oven (175 ° C). Cut off the breasts from bones just before serving. Wash the Puikula potatoes and Jerusalem artichokes carefully. Chop them into pieces and fry in rapeseed oil until soft. Season them with salt, pepper and butter. Spice with the Douglas fir needles. 4 Serve the grouse breasts with Puikula potatoes, artichokes and blueberry sauce. Blueberry Sauce Chop the peeled shallots. Heat the rapeseed oil in a saucepan. Add the drumsticks, wings, shallots, juniper berries, blueberries and herbs. Colour to a golden brown. Add red wine and reduce down to 100 ml. Pour in stocks and boil to reduce to a good sauce consistency. Sieve. Taste and season the sauce. Whisk in the butter. Add the blueberries. Serve.

Riekonrintaa ja mustikkakastiketta (4:lle) 2 kpl riekkoja suolaa ja mustapippuria tarjoiluun: Lapin puikulaa maa-artisokkaa rypsiöljyä voi Irrota riekoista koivet, siivet ja selkäranka. Ruskista rintalastan päälle jääneet rintafileet. Mausta ne suolalla ja mustapippurilla. Kypsennä riekkoja 175 asteisessa uunissa noin 8 minuuttia. Anna vetäytyä hetki. Leikkaa rinnat irti juuri ennen tarjoilua. Pese puikulat ja maa-artisokat huolella. Pilko ne haluamasi kokoisiksi paloiksi ja paista rypsiöljyssä kypsiksi. Mausta lopuksi suolalla, pippurilla ja voilla. Paistokseen sopii mausteeksi myös Douglas-kuusen havut. Tarjoile riekonrinnat perunaartisokkapaistoksen ja mustikkakastikkeen kanssa.

Mustikkakastike 100 g salottisipulia 2 rkl rypsiöljyä 4 kpl katajanmarjoja 50 g mustikoita 1 timjaminoksa 2 persiljanoksa 4 dl punaviiniä 4 dl tummaa kanalientä 4 dl tummaa lihalientä 50 g suolatonta voita riekon koivet ja siivet suolaa mustikoita koristeluun Hienonna kuorittu salottisipuli. Kuumenna kattilassa rypsiöljy. Lisää joukkoon koivet, siivet, salottisipuli, katajanmarjat, mustikat ja yrtit. Paahda hetki. Lisää kattilaan punaviini ja keitä kunnes viiniä on jäljellä 1 dl. Kaada joukkoon liemet ja jatka keittämistä kunnes jäljellä on noin 4 dl. Siivilöi kastike. Mausta suolalla. Kiehauta kastike ja vatkaa joukkoon voi. Lisää kastikkeeseen lopuksi kokonaisia mustikoita.

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INGREDIENTS for 4 servings

Riekonrintaa ja mustikkakastiketta

WILLOW GROUSE BREAST WITH BLUEBERRY SAUCE


LAMB SAUSAGE AND MUSTARD BUTTER

Mustard butter 200 g unsalted butter 30 g mustard with grains 1 lemon juice Salt and freshly ground black pepper Serving Ceps, wild mushrooms, carrots, cauliflowers, Brussels sprouts and potatoes pancakes PREPARATION Sausages Season the lamb meat with salt, pepper, chopped garlic and herbs. Rinse the sausage casing. Push the stuffing into the sausage casing. If necessary use sausage filler. Make 4 sausages. Cook them gently in a frying pan for 5-6 minutes, turning over after 2 minutes. Serve with roast mustard butter and roast vegetables. Mustard butter: Soften the butter. Add mustard and lemon juice. Season it. You can also spice up vegetables with roast mustard butter.

Karitsamakkaraa ja sinappivoita ( 4:lle ) 1 kg karitsan jauhelihaa 1 kpl karitsansuoli 12 g suolaa 3 oksaa timjamia 4 oksaa persiljaa 1 oksa rosmariinia 1 kpl valkosipulinkynsi mustapippuria rypsiöljyä paistamiseen tarjoiluun tatteja, suppilovahveroita, porkkanaa, kukka- ja ruusukaalia sekä pieniä perunaohukaisia Mausta jauheliha suolalla, pippurilla, hienonnetuilla valkosipulilla ja yrteillä. Huuhtele suoli. Täytä suoli jauhelihamassalla. Käytä tarvittaessa makkarakonetta. Tee haluamasi kokoisia makkaroita ja paista ne kuumalla pannulla lähes kypsiksi. Tarjoile makkara sieni-kaalipaistoksen ja sinappivoin kanssa. Sinappivoi 200 g suolatonta voita 2 rkl ryynisinappia 1 kpl sitruunanmehu suolaa ja mustapippuria Sekoita huoneenlämpöisen voin joukkoon sinappi ja sitruunanmehu. Mausta voi suolalla ja pippurilla. Muotoile voi leivinpaperin avulla tangoksi. Laita hetkeksi jääkaappiin. Leikkaa voitangosta paloja makkaroiden kanssa pannulle. Voit maustaa myös vihannekset maustevoilla.

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1 kg lamb minced meat 1 m lamb sausage casing 12 g salt 3 sprigs of thyme 4 sprigs of parsley 1 sprig of rosemary 1 clove of garlic Freshly ground black pepper Rapeseed oil for frying

Karitsamakkaraa ja sinappivoita

INGREDIENTS for 4 servings


APPLE PIE WITH MEADOWSWEET ICE CREAM INGREDIENTS for 4 servings

Meadowsweet ice cream: 12 yolks 400 g caster sugar 500 ml double cream 500 ml milk Meadowsweet syrup PREPARATION Apple pie Mix the butter, sugar and eggs. Add the almond and wheat flour. Brush the insides of the molds with softened butter. Put caster sugar into mold and rotate it to coat the surface completely with sugar. Fill the molds with a paste (2/3) and place the apple jam on top. Preheat the oven to 175 °C. Cook the pies in the oven for about 8 minutes. Serve with meadowsweet ice cream and syrup. Meadowsweet ice cream Mix the egg yolks and sugar in a bowl. Boil the cream and milk. Pour it over the egg yolk - sugar mixture and mix well. Cook mixture in a bain-marie to 80 °C. Whisk continuously. Cool it down. When mixture is cold, flavor it with meadowsweet syrup. Put mixture in an ice- cream machine and churn until frozen.

Omenapaistos ja mesiangervojäätelöä ( 4:lle ) 100 g uuniomenahilloa 120 g suolatonta voita 3 kananmunaa 125 g tomusokeria 125 g mantelijauhoja 25 g vehnäjauhoja voita ja sokeria vuokien voiteluun Sekoita kulhossa voi, sokeri ja kananmunat. Lisää joukkoon mantelija vehnäjauhot. Voitele ja sokeri annosvuoat. Annostele taikinaa vuokiin (2/3). Laita uuniomena hilloa taikinalla täytettyihin vuokiin. Paista paistoksia 175 asteisessa uunissa, noin 15 minuuttia. Kumoa valmiit paistokset lautaselle ja tarjoile niiden kanssa mesiangervojäätelöä ja – siirappia. Mesiangervojäätelö: 12 keltuaisia 400 g sokeria 5 dl kuohukermaa 5 dl maitoa mesiangervosiirappia maun mukaan Sekoita kulhossa keltuaiset ja sokeri. Kiehauta kerma-maitoseos ja kaada se keltuais-sokeriseoksen joukkoon. Kypsennä jäätelöpohja vesihauteessa. Sekoita massaa kypsennyksen aika. Jäätelöpohja on valmista kun vaahto on hävinnyt massan pinnalta. Mausta jäätelöpohja mesiangervosiirapilla ja jäähdytä se jäätelökoneessa. Pakasta.

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100 g oven roast apple jam 120 g unsalted butter 3 eggs 125 g icing sugar 125 g almonds flour 25 g wheat flour Butter and caster sugar

Omenapaistos ja mesiangervojäätelöä

Apple pie:


YOGURT, CLOUDBERRIES AND LICORICE SYRUP INGREDIENTS for 4 servings

Serving Cloudberry coulis and cloudberries Licorice Syrup 100 g of Finnish licorice 400 ml water 200 g caster sugar PREPARATION Yogurt Drain the water from the yogurt. Whip the cream. Mix the drained yogurt and icing sugar. Dissolve the soaked gelatin leave and add it to the yoghurt mixture. Add whipped cream. Serve it with the licorice syrup, cloudberries and cloudberry coulis. Licorice syrup Chop finely licorice. Boil water in a saucepan and add the licorice and sugar. Cook it gently. When licorice is dissolved, sieve the syrup. Cool down. Serve.

Jugurttia, lakkoja ja lakritsia 4 dl ruoanvalmistusjugurttia 100 g tomusokeria 2,5 dl kuohukermaa 1 liivatelehti tarjoiluun: lakkapyreetä ja lakkoja Valuta jugurtista vesi pois. Harso tai kahvinsuodatinpaperi on hyvä apuväline. Vaahdota kerma. Sekoita valutetun jugurtin joukkoon tomusokeri. Sulata liotettu liivate pieneen määrään vettä ja lisää se jugurtin joukkoon. Sekoita. Nostele lopuksi joukkoon kermavaahto. Tarjoile jugurttivaahto lakkapyreen, lakkojen ja lakritsisiirapin kanssa. Lakritsisiirappi 100 g suomalaista lakritsaa 4 dl vettä 2 dl sokeria Hienonna lakritsipalat. Kiehauta kattilassa vesi ja lisää joukkoon lakritsi ja sokeri. Hauduta miedolla lämmöllä seosta. Kun lakritsi on liuennut, siivilöi siirappi. Jäähdytä.

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400 ml natural yogurt 100 g icing sugar 250 ml double cream 1 gelatin leave

Jugurttia, lakkoja ja lakritsia

Yogurt


FRANCE


Institut Paul Bocuse provides training for management in the hospitality industry and culinary arts leading to the Bachelor and Master levels, in partnership with IAE Lyon, EMLYON Business School and Haaga Helia University in Finland. Combining tradition, modernity, innovation and research, it aims for excellence. A showcase for French know-how and etiquette, Institut Paul Bocuse is presided by two exceptional men: Paul Bocuse (3 Michelin stars - Chief of the Century award), founder of the school in 1990, and Gérard Pélisson (Co-Founder of the Accor Group), President of the Board since 1998. Guided by their inspiration, Institut Paul Bocuse welcomes 540 students from 37 nationalities each year. Implementing the highest standards, it transmits the technical and managerial know-how necessary to prepare them to take on international key positions and to meet the current and future challenges in the industry. Talent knows no borders : in 2004, the Institut Paul Bocuse formed the Institut Paul Bocuse Worldwide Alliance. Today, this unique alliance covers 14 partners in 14 countries, all among the world’s top Hospitality Management & Culinary Arts schools. Every year, this innovative educational program gives 30 students a unique opportunity to perfect their technical skills, discover French culture, while at the same time sharing and showcasing their own culinary culture thanks to an intensive 4-month sessions at the Institut. The Worldwide Alliance also promotes sharing of skills and through exchanges of teaching staff from the Institut Paul Bocuse and its partners.

Since 2008, Institut Paul Bocuse expanded its expertise to include research and innovation, establishing its own Food & Hospitality Research Center to study attitudes towards food in a real-life setting. “Innovation & Development” at Institut Paul Bocuse is also able of satisfying the managerial process for projects, from their initiation phase up to product launches and their assessment. At least, Institut Paul Bocuse offers cooking courses for passionate non-professionals and provides bespoke training and consultation services to professionals and higher education establishments in the hospitality & foodservice industries, in France and internationally.

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Choosing the Institut Paul Bocuse means choosing a career inspired by passion. Studying there puts the students on the path to Excellence and means sharing the values that inspire the teaching staff, as well as the 2000 graduates who now work in the hospitality and restaurant industry around the world.


Cultural history of the French gastronomy F

rench gastronomy holds a special place in the eyes of the French and in the image that the entire world has of France and its culture.

The power of its identity is linked to the variety of its ‘terroirs’ as well as to its history. In fact, the great diversity of climates enables to make provisions that are particularly varied, rich, and for which the only thing that consistently remains the same is quality. Its historic origins are less well known, and most of the time, are only known based on legend, to the detriment of real historic research. However, this research can be enthralling and reveals history that is perfectly in phase with the cultural history of the country while illustrating it. Ancient Greece, then ancient Rome, established a common base for the various Mediterranean gastronomies, but did not mark French gastronomy in its origins in a lasting way. It is therefore in the Middle Ages that began to be formed what later would become French gastronomy. The vitality of this gastronomy depended on the power of the monastic orders that encouraged great progress in the area of agriculture and the elaboration of cheeses and wines. After the year One Thousand, much more refined preparations were developed for the most privileged social groups; this contrasted strongly with the scarcities striking the vast majority of the population, and even the richest during periods of war or epidemics. The dishes consumed in the Middle Ages are characterized by their heavy seasoning (aromatic herbs, multiple spices, vinegars and mustards, sweet and sour sauces without any fatty matter) and numerous and varied types of cooking. These two customs had the benefit of favoring the digestibility of foods sometimes poorly conserved, and, especially, of giving them a maximum transformation as compared to their natural state. This gave people as early as the Middle Ages the ability to give a strong cultural force to the natural act of eating. Fire was considered as an element supporting and ensuring civilization, which is why products were cooked so long. Numerous recipes have been recopied in manuals that are transmitted from one professional cook to another. The most famous of these treasures is ‘Le Viandier’, by Guillaume Tyrel, called Taillevent, whose bases were used up until the XVII century.

These were also eating habits that gave a fundamental place to meats, and even more to game, neglecting vegetables and other “leaves” and only gave a little importance to cereals, except on a symbolic level, when they were transformed into bread. Finally, the Middle Ages defined ways to behave and service that today surprise us (for example, people ate with their fingers or from the tip of a knife and there were no individual recipients for liquids or solids…) but which already announce our own practices: the importance of textiles, the enhancement of dishes by spectacular scenarios, exhibition and consolidation of social links during meals… By the Renaissance, a large part of Europe, including France, adopted Catherine de Médicis and Florentine customs, and discovered another conception of the world: Humanism, which placed the individual at the heart of philosophical reflection. The implications of this great cultural mutation on the cuisine of the elite were huge. Firstly, the medieval table (benches where people were seated side by side, only on one side) disappeared to be replaced by the first square tables, on which different dishes were positioned, that were served in order according to well defined services, and which were meant to enchant and surprise the guests at least as much as feeding them. For example, the marriage of the future king Henri IV with Catherine de Médicis marked a turning point in the eating habits of the most privileged. It was at that moment that pastry making developed tremendously, with the mastery of almond paste and marzipan, jellies, sweets, candies, spiced breads, pies and tarts, fruits jellies and candied fruits… Shells and flowers were also candied. Table manners also evolved through the desire of being different from medieval practices. We observe a continuous movement by man, who appreciates food but only tolerates the act of eating under the condition that there is a form of refinement to make it legitimate. Thus, the fork, a “small pitchfork” that was not yet used put the eater and his food at a symbolic and material distance. Cuisine didn’t change much, and the recipes were simply revisited (less use of spices and the development of certain sauces with fatty matter) before crossing the entire period until the middle of the XVII century, with the development of printing. The XVII century, commonly called the century of Louis XIV, was one of the extreme refinement of classical thinking. The arts of entertainment – dance, theatre, music – developed according to the precepts of the court to enhance the value of the Sun King, and, through him, the kingdom. The success of this undertaking was terrific and, through a form of contagion, touched every area of life, including, of course, the arts of the table. We then see a rigorous organization of services, that proposes different dishes according to a very precise order, moving from the lightest and freshest to the richest and most consistent following an ascending slope, and then, the opposite according to the same descending slope. Thereafter, sweet dishes were proposed according to the same order, thus sealing a deep cleavage between salty savors and sweet savors henceforth reserved for deserts.


However, beyond the quarrels, cuisine considered as “modern” became the rule. First of all, by the precision of recipes that required more and more rigor in the technics employed, the weights and measures, cooking and resting time. This rigor was a response to the first requirement of classicism which tended to give order to disorder, provide rules where there had been improvisation. This new precision was not considered as a deprivation of liberty, but on the contrary, as a factor of progress, and therefore of new liberties to be acquired. In the kitchen, side dishes took on unprecedented shine, by their juxtaposition and multiplication, the addition of condiments, the habit of dressing shells of edibles (for example, cucurbits serving as their own recipient for veloutés made with their flesh). Here again, the court was the origin of this evolution. Indeed, these accompaniments celebrated the variety and richness of the vegetable garden of Versailles. This evolution continued in the XVIII century that magnified the search for a certain form of “simplicity” and the valorization of natural products, coming from the countryside and regions, better known and more easily accessible, thus privileging the supply of provisions. The French revolution of 1789 transformed the whole society very deeply. Curiously, it reinforced the gastronomy of the old regime and it became accessible to the emerging middle class, guests of the first “quality restaurants”. There are two reasons for the expansion of restaurants at this period : the deep modification of society valuing this form of “individual entrepreneurship” and on the other hand, by the availability of the great chefs of the aristocrats who found themselves without employment; the families that they had been serving were severely impacted by the Revolution. At the same time, a part of the aristocracy chose exile, and thus ensured the spreading of French tastes and culinary style in the great capitals of Europe. This is an important point because it explains, after the influence of Louis XIV, the prestige that French cuisine benefitted from in the world. The XIX century, called by the first historians of cuisine, the “Golden Century of French Gastronomy”, marks a new era in the way of considering the arts of the table. During the century, impacted by major cultural and economic upheaval, going from the 1800’s to 1914 (the beginning of the First World War), the table and the art of hosting were confirmed as guarantors of a certain social order (and even moral!) that political trouble constantly made more fragile, if not broken. However, great transformations favorable to the arts of the table appeared and ensured their affirmation. The agricultural and industrial revolutions, supported by significant mechanization, allowed restaurant owners to work with higher quality

produce and even more varied than heretofore. Regional products made a noticed entry in the most prestigious kitchens. Thus, the gastronomy of the political and artistic elite was deliciously celebrated with fatted chickens from Bresse, to take one of the most famous examples, in the greatest Parisian restaurants. The improved knowledge of regional cooking, and therefore of ‘cuisine bourgeoise’, owes a lot to the development of tourism. Works such as those by Antonin Carême and Auguste Escoffier ensure great promotion of the culinary arts: rationalization of work in the kitchen, improvement in the training of teams, better transmission of the knowledge indispensable for the job… It was also the moment when true gourmet literature appeared, for example, that of Alexandre Dumas, and new respectability was given to the pleasure whose initial condemning was now only a remote memory. Brillat Savarin, with his work, ‘Physiologie du Goût’ (Physiology of Taste), in 1825, summarizes the new spotlight put on gastronomy. The twentieth century, and today, the twenty-first century, often oppose each other; however, they both demonstrate, in their own way, an incredible tendency towards the simplification of dishes. In fact, even when products receive major transformations, the desire is clearly to favor as much as possible, what constitutes the essence of the product. For example, ‘La Nouvelle Cuisine’, which appeared thanks to the research of the greatest Chefs, including Paul Bocuse, Joël Robuchon, Alain Chapel…, privileged gastronomy at the service of the product, banishing sauces that were too rich, excesses in terms of quantity and decoration. A taste for the cooking, products and technics of the world was more recently added to this major movement, as well as curiosity, too new to not be criticized at times, regarding what chemistry can offer to gastronomy.

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This major evolution didn’t happen without clashes and a very heated controversy took place, albeit non-violent, between “modernists” and “traditionalists”…


Histoire culturelle de la gastronomie française La gastronomie française tient une place importante dans le coeur des français et dans l’image que le monde entier se fait de la France et de sa culture. La puissance de son identité est liée à la variété de ses terroirs ainsi qu’à son histoire. En effet, la grande diversité des espaces permet un approvisionnement particulièrement varié, riche, dont l’unique constante est la qualité. Ses origines historiques sont, elles, moins bien connues, et ne le sont, la plupart du temps, que selon une forme légendaire, au détriment de vraies recherches historiques. Celles-ci sont pourtant passionnantes et révèlent une histoire qui s’inscrit parfaitement dans l’histoire culturelle du pays tout en l’illustrant. L’Antiquité Grecque puis L’Antiquité Romaine fondent un socle commun aux différentes gastronomies méditerranéennes, mais ne marquent pas durablement la gastronomie française dans ses origines. C’est donc au Moyen Âge que commence à se dessiner ce qui sera plus tard la gastronomie française. La vitalité de cette gastronomie dépend de la puissance des ordres monastiques qui favorisent de grands progrès dans le domaine de l’agriculture et de l’élaboration des fromages et des vins. Après l’An Mille se développent, pour les groupes sociaux les plus favorisés, des préparations beaucoup plus raffinées qui contrastent fortement avec les disettes frappant l’immense majorité de la population, et même les plus riches pendant les périodes de guerres ou d’épidémies. Les mets consommés au Moyen Âge se caractérisent par leur fort assaisonnement (herbes aromatiques, multiples épices, vinaigres et moutardes, sauces aigres douces privées de matières grasses) et des cuissons nombreuses et variées. Ces deux usages ont pour intérêt de favoriser la digestibilité d’aliments parfois mal conservés, et, surtout, de leur apporter une transformation maximum par rapport à leur état naturel. Cela permet aux hommes de donner, dès le Moyen Âge, une force culturelle puissante à l’acte naturel de manger. Le feu est lui considéré comme un élément porteur et gage de civilisation, raison pour laquelle les produits sont cuits aussi longuement. De nombreuses recettes sont recopiées dans des manuels qui se transmettent entre cuisiniers professionnels. Le plus célèbre de ces réceptaires est Le Viandier, de Guillaume Tyrel, dit Taillevent, dont les bases seront utilisées jusqu’au XVIIème siècle. C’est aussi une alimentation qui accorde une place fondamentale aux viandes, et

plus encore au gibier, négligeant les légumes et autres « feuilles » et n’accordant que peu d’importance aux céréales, sauf, au niveau symbolique, lorsqu’on les transforme en pain. Enfin, le Moyen Âge définit des manières de se comporter et de service qui aujourd’hui nous étonnent (par exemple on mange avec les doigts ou à la pointe du couteau, on ne dispose pas de récipient individuel pour les liquides ou les solides…) mais qui sont déjà annonciatrices de nos propres pratiques : importance des textiles, de la valorisation des mets par une spectaculaire mise en scène, exhibition et consolidation du lien social lors des repas… A la Renaissance, une immense partie de l’Europe, dont la France, adopte les Médicis et les usages Florentins, et découvre une autre conception du monde : l’Humanisme, qui place l’individu au cœur de la réflexion philosophique. Les implications de cette grande mutation culturelle sur la cuisine des élites sont importantes. Tout d’abord, la table médiévale (des tréteaux où l’on ne se place, côte à côte, que d’un côté) disparaît au profit des premières tables carrées, sur lesquelles sont positionnés différents plats, qui se suivent selon des services bien définis, et qui doivent séduire et surprendre les convives au moins autant que les nourrir. A ce titre, le mariage du futur roi Henri IV avec Marie de Médicis marque un tournant dans les habitudes alimentaires des plus favorisés. C’est à ce moment-là que la pâtisserie se développe formidablement, avec la maîtrise de la pâte d’amande et du massepain, des confitures, confiseries, dragées, pains d’épices, tourtes et tartes, pâtes de fruits et fruits confits… On confit également les écorces et les fleurs. Les manières de table évoluent également par la volonté de se démarquer des pratiques médiévales. On observe un éloignement continu de l’homme qui apprécie l’aliment mais ne supporte l’acte de manger qu’à la condition qu’une forme de raffinement le légitime. Ainsi, la fourchette, une « petite entre fourche » que l’on n’utilisait pas encore met à une distance symbolique et matérielle le mangeur et son aliment. La cuisine n’évolue qu’assez peu, et les recettes sont simplement réactualisées (usage moindre des épices et développement de certaines sauces liées avec de la matière grasse) avant de traverser toute la période, jusqu’au milieu du XVIIème siècle, par le développement de l’imprimerie. Le XVIIème siècle, communément appelé Siècle de Louis XIV, est celui de l’extrême raffinement de la pensée classique. Les arts du spectacle – danse, théâtre, musique se développent selon les préceptes de la cour pour valoriser le Roi Soleil, et, à travers lui, le royaume. Le succès de cette entreprise est formidable et, par une forme de contagion, touche tous les domaines de la vie, dont bien sûr les arts de la table. On assiste alors à une organisation rigoureuse des services, qui proposent selon un ordre très précis les différents plats, allant du plus léger et du plus frais au plus riche et consistant suivant une pente ascendante, puis l’inverse selon la même pente descendante. Ensuite, des mets sucrés sont proposés selon le même ordre, scellant ainsi une rupture profonde entre les saveurs salées et les saveurs sucrées désormais réservées aux desserts. Cette évolution majeure ne se fait pas sans heurt et on assiste à une très vive, si ce n’est violente, polémique entre les « modernistes » et les « traditionnalistes »…


Pourtant, au-delà des querelles, la cuisine dite alors « moderne » se transforme durablement. Tout d’abord par la précision des recettes qui exigent de plus en plus de rigueur dans les techniques employées, les poids et mesures, temps de cuisson et de repos. Cette rigueur répond à l’exigence première du classicisme qui tend à ordonner le désordre, donner des règles là où se développait l’improvisation. Cette précision nouvelle n’est pas considérée comme une privation de liberté, mais au contraire, comme un facteur de progression, et donc de libertés nouvelles à acquérir.

des cuisines régionales, et donc d’une cuisine bourgeoise, doit beaucoup au développement du tourisme.

En cuisine, les accompagnements prennent un éclat inédit, par leur juxtaposition et leur multiplication, l’ajout de condiments, l’habitude de garnir des écorces de comestibles (par exemple des cucurbitacées servant de propre récipient à des veloutés fait avec leur chaire). Là encore, la cour est à l’origine de cette évolution. En effet, ces accompagnements célèbrent la variété et la richesse du potager de Versailles.

C’est aussi le moment où une véritable littérature gourmande apparaît, comme celle d’Alexandre Dumas par exemple, et accorde une nouvelle respectabilité à ce plaisir dont la condamnation première n’est plus qu’un lointain souvenir. Brillat Savarin, avec sa Physiologie du Goût, en 1825, synthétise l’éclairage nouveau porté sur la gastronomie.

La Révolution Française de 1789 transforme très profondément l’ensemble de la société, mais curieusement renforce la gastronomie d’Ancien Régime qui devient accessible à une classe moyenne émergente et cliente des premiers restaurants de qualité. Ceux-ci se développent d’une part par une modification profonde de la société qui valorise cette forme « d’entreprise individuelle » et d’autre part par la disponibilité des grands cuisiniers des maisons aristocratiques qui se retrouvent sans emploi, les familles qu’ils servaient étant durement touchées par la Révolution. Dans le même temps, une partie de l’aristocratie choisit l’exil, et ainsi assure la diffusion du goût et des modes culinaires français dans les grandes capitales d’Europe. Ce point est important car il explique, après le rayonnement de Louis XIV, le prestige dont la grande cuisine française bénéficie dans le monde. Le XIXème siècle, appelé par les premiers historiens de la cuisine « Siècle d’Or de la Gastronomie Française » marque une nouvelle aire dans la manière de considérer les arts de la table. Dans ce siècle, traversé par des bouleversements culturels et économiques majeurs, allant des années 1800 à 1914 (début de la Première Guerre Mondiale), la table et l’art de recevoir s’affirment comme les garants d’un certain ordre social (et même moral !) que des troubles politiques ne cessent de fragiliser, si ce n’est rompre. Pourtant, des grandes transformations favorables aux arts de la table apparaissent et en assurent l’affirmation. La révolution agricole et la révolution industrielle, soutenues par une importante mécanisation, permettent aux restaurateurs de travailler avec des matières premières de meilleure qualité et encore plus variées qu’autrefois. Des produits régionaux font une entrée remarquée dans les cuisines les plus prestigieuses. Ainsi, la gastronomie des élites politiques et artistiques célèbre avec délice des poulardes de Bresse, pour prendre un des exemples les plus connus, dans les plus grands restaurants parisiens. Cette meilleure connaissance

Le XXième siècle, et aujourd’hui le XXIième siècle, sont souvent opposés l’un à l’autre. Pourtant, ils portent tous deux, chacun à leur manière, une formidable tendance vers la simplification des mets. En effet, même lorsque les produits reçoivent des transformations majeures, la volonté est clairement de favoriser le plus fortement possible ce qui fait l’essence du produit. A ce titre, la Nouvelle Cuisine qui apparaît grâce aux recherches des plus grands Chefs, dont Paul Bocuse, Joël Robuchon, Alain Chapel, privilégie une gastronomie au service du produit, bannissant les sauces trop riches, les excès en termes de quantité et de décorations. A ce mouvement majeur s’ajoute plus récemment le goût pour les cuisines, les produits et les techniques du monde, ainsi qu’une curiosité trop nouvelle pour ne pas être parfois décriée, pour ce que la chimie peut offrir à la gastronomie.

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Cette évolution se poursuit au XVIIIème siècle qui magnifie la recherche d’une certaine forme de « simplicité » et la valorisation de produits naturels, issus des campagnes et des régions, mieux connues et plus faciles d’accès, privilégiant ainsi les approvisionnements.

Des travaux, comme ceux d’Antonin Carême puis d’Auguste Escoffier, assurent une très forte promotion des arts culinaires : rationalisation du travail en cuisine, amélioration de la formation des équipes, meilleure diffusion des connaissances indispensables au travail…


2 blue lobster female of 600 g each Nage 60 g carrot 60 g onion 40 g green celery 2 garlic cloves 1 bouquet garni 120 ml white vinegar Vegetables 40 g carrot 30 g celery root 25 g white turnip 25 g green celery 20 g black truffle Tuber Melanosporum 30 g Granny Smith apple 20 g cured Bayonne ham 30 g olive oil Lobster smoothie bodies and coral of the lobsters 200 ml heavy cream 15 g fresh butter 30 g olive oil from Nyons drops of lemon juice 1 g espelette pepper 20 g lemon caviar Seasoning grey rock salt, salt, fleur de sel, peppermill, black peppercorns

Preparing the lobsters Peel, wash and slice all vegetables for the nage. Prepare the bouquet garni. Place 12 black peppercorns in a muslin cloth and secure a little purse with a string. Place all ingredients in a cooking pot, pour 5 liters water, the white vinegar and 30 g of grey rock salt. Simmer during 20 mn and remove the vegetable garnish. With a string, secure the lobsters in a straight position and place in the boiling liquid. Cook 6 mn, remove the lobsters and place in an ice water bath. Separate the claws and the elbows and remove the shell. Remove the heads and collect the creamy parts and the coral. Remove the shell of the tail and cut into half-length wise. In the refrigerator until use. Lobster smoothie Roughly chop the lobster bodies and place in a sauce pan. Add the cream and simmer during 40 mn. Pour the liquid through a strainer and then through a fine sieve. Blend hot on high speed with the creamy part and the coral. Add the butter, few drops of lemon juice, the Espelette pepper and the olive oil. Rectify the seasoning and pour again through a fine sieve. Place in the refrigerated place to set. Vegetables Peel the carrot, celery root, green celery, white turnip and the apple. Cut into small cubes of 3 mm a side. Do likewise with the Bayonne ham and the black truffle. Cook rapidly half of the vegetables in a cocotte with a tablespoon of olive oil and a pinch of salt. Remove from the heat and chill. Mix all vegetables together with the ham and the apple. Rectify the seasoning and place evenly on the lobster tail slices. Cut the lemon caviar into half and remove the little grains. Plating Place the lobster pieces on the serving dishes. Add 2 spoons of lobster smoothie on each plate. Place the lemon caviar on the lobster smoothies. Season the claws and elbows with the fleur de sel and serve immediately.

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Ingredients for 4 servings

PREPARATION

Blue lobster, cooked and raw vegetable roots, lobster smoothie


2 pièces de homard bleu femelle de 600gr Nage 60 g carotte 60 g oignon paille 40 g céleri branche 2 gousses d’ail 1 bouquet garni 0.12 l vinaigre blanc Brunoise 40 g carotte 30 g céleri rave 25 g navet long 25 g céleri branche 20 g truffe noire Tuber Melanosporum 30 g pomme Granny Smith 20 g jambon de Bayonne 1 C.à.S. huile d’olive Crémeux coraillé têtes et corail des homards 0.2 l crème fleurette 15 g beurre 1 C.à.S. huile d’olive de Nyon quelques gouttes jus de citron 1 g piment d’Espelette 20 g citron caviar Assaisonnement gros sel gris, sel fin, fleur de sel, poivre du moulin, poivre noir en grains

Préparation des homards Eplucher, et émincer les légumes de la nage. Confectionner le bouquet garni. Sécuriser 12 grains de poivre noir dans une charlotte. Placer les ingrédients dans une russe, ajouter 5 litres d’eau, le vinaigre blanc et 30gr de gros sel gris. Cuire à frémissement durant 20 minutes. Retirer la garniture. Avec l’aide d’une ficelle, sécuriser les queues de homards dans une position droite. Les plonger dans la nage et cuire 6 minutes à frémissement. Retirer et plonger dans l’eau glacée. Détacher les pinces et les mandibules et les décortiquer en enlevant le cartilage. Retirer les têtes, ôter la poche de sable et récupérer soigneusement les parties crémeuses et le corail. Décortiquer les queux, retirer le boyau et couper chaque queue en 2 dans la longueur. Réserver au frais. Crémeux coraillé Concasser les têtes de homard, couvrir de crème et cuire sur feu doux durant 40 minutes. Passer la totalité de la sauce à la passoire, puis au chinois étamine. Mixer la crème très chaude tout en ajoutant, le corail, les parties crémeuses et une noix de beurre. Finir avec le jus de citron, piment d’Espelette et l’huile d’olive. Passer de nouveau au chinois étamine, débarrasser et réserver au frais. Brunoise Eplucher la carotte, le céleri rave, le navet long, le céleri branche et la pomme. Tailler les légumes en fine brunoise régulière. Fairßße de même avec la truffe et le jambon. Cuire rapidement en cocotte la moitié des carottes, céleri rave, céleri branche et navet long avec une cuillère à soupe d’huile d’olive et une pincée de sel. Refroidir et mélanger avec les autres ingrédients. Rectifier l’assaisonnement et recouvrir délicatement les queues de homard avec la brunoise. Couper les citrons caviar en deux et retirer les petites graines. Réserver. Présentation Disposer les morceaux de homard sur les assiettes. Ajouter les quenelles de crémeux. Disposer une petite cuillère de citron caviar sur chaque quenelle. Assaisonner les pinces et mandibules avec la fleur de sel.

73 - France

Ingrédients pour 4 personnes

Méthode

Homard bleu, racines du moment crues et cuites, crémeux coraillé


Pasta dough yellow 250 g flour type 55 6 egg yolk water to taste Pasta dough green 250 g flour type 55 1 bundle flat parsley 30 ml olive oil 30 ml milk 6 egg yolk Main ingredients 30 pieces Burgundy snails 1 bundle flat parsley 30 g garlic 30 g butter 100 g toast bread 20 g clarified butter 100 ml chicken jus Parsley coulis 0.5 bundle flat parsley 40 g onion 10 g garlic 100 ml chicken bouillon 30 g butter Garlic emulsion 30 g garlic 400 ml full fat milk Stuffing 300 g spinach leaves 200 g snails 100 g ricotta cheese 100 g hazelnuts 30 g garlic 30 g butter Seasoning rock salt, salt, peppermill to taste

Pasta dough yellow Mix the flour with the egg yolks. Wrap the dough with plastic film and place in the refrigerator for 2 hours. Pasta dough green Boil the parsley leaves in salted water. Remove and place the leaves in an ice water bath. Drain. Blend in a mixer the milk, egg yolks, olive oil, salt with the parsley leaves. Mix with the flour. Wrap the dough with plastic film and store in the refrigerator for 2 hours. Roll both doughs with a dough sheeter to a 3 mm thickness. Cut strips of 1cm wide. Place the strips together alternating the doughs. Roll the dough with a dough sheeter to a 2 mm thickness to stick the strips together. Cook few minutes in boiling salted water, remove and place on a baking paper brushed with olive oil. Stuffing Remove the stems of the spinach. Wash and sauté quickly with chopped garlic and butter. Press to remove the liquid. Sauté the snails with butter and flame with Cognac. Add chopped garlic and few spoons of parsley coulis. Transfer to a mixing bowl, add the ricotta and the chopped hazelnuts. Season with salt and pepper and shape into a roll of 2 cm diameter. Place in the refrigerator to set. Cut the cylinders into 4cm pieces and wrap with the pasta sheet. Store in the refrigerator on a perforated tray. Toast Cut the toast bread with a meat slicer into slices of 2 mm thickness. Cut the slices into disks of 2 cm diameter. Place on a baking tray with clarified butter and brown 6 mn in the oven at 160 °C. Parsley coulis Remove the stems of the parsley and wash the leaves. Chop roughly. Peel and chop ½ onion and 2 cloves of garlic. Sweat with the butter, add the parsley and the chicken bouillon. Boil 5 mn, blend and rectify the seasoning. Pour through a fine sieve and reserve aside. Snails stew; sauté the snails with butter and flame with the Cognac. Add the chicken jus, chopped parsley and chopped hazelnuts. Rectify the seasoning. Garlic emulsion Peel and remove the germs of the garlic cloves. Place in cold water and bring to boil. Discard the water and repeat the process 2 more times. Place the garlic cloves in the milk and simmer for an hour. Blend and rectify the seasoning. Foam with a hand blender prior to serving. Plating Place the pasta rolls in the steam oven set at 80 °C during 5 mn. Proceed with the plating by adding harmoniously all the ingredients to the serving dishes.

75 - France

Ingredients for 4 servings

PREPARATION

Snails with garlic, parsley, spinach and ricotta


6 jaunes d’œuf 250 g de farine type 55 1 botte de persil plat 3 cl d’huile d’olive 3 cl de lait 30 escargots 60 g d’ail nouveau 60 g de beurre 100 g de pain de mie 20 g de beurre clarifié 30 g d’oignon 10 cl bouillon de volaille 0,25 cl de lait entier 300 g d’epinards frais 80 g de ricotta 80 g de noisettes 3 cl de cognac

Les pâtes Pâte jaune : Dans le bol du mixer mettre la farine et les jaunes. Travailler la pâte obtenue à la main pendant 5 minutes. Laisser reposer 2 heures minimum. Pâte verte : Mixer au vitamix, le lait, les jaunes d’œuf; l’huile d’olive, le sel, le persil équeuté et blanchi. Verser sur la farine et pétrir. Réaliser une boule et laisser reposer deux heures. Etaler les pâtes à 3 mm d’épaisseur au laminoir. Superposer et intercaler 4 couches de pâte jaune avec 3 couches de pâte verte. Tailler des tranches de 2 mm d’épaisseur et passer au laminoir afin d’obtenir une pâte fine. Cuire dans une eau bouillante salée et réserver sur une feuille de papier sulfurisé huilé. Farce d`épinards Equeuter et laver les épinards. Les faire tomber avec l’ail haché, égoutter et presser. Sauter les escargots au beurre, flamber au cognac, ail haché et ajouter un peu de coulis de persil. Débarrasser en cul de poule et lier avec la ricotta, les noisettes concassées et assaisonner. Rouler en papier film d’un diamètre de 2 cm et réserver au froid. Toasts de pain de mie Tailler le pain de mie à la machine à jambon à 2 mm d’épaisseur. Faire des cercles de 2 cm de diamètre et cuire au four au beurre clarifié à 160°C pendant 6 minutes. Montage : Couper les rouleaux de 4 cm de longueur et les envelopper dans la pâte bicolore. Compter trois pièces par personne. Réserver sur une plaque à trous et filmer. Préparation du coulis de persil Equeuter et hacher grossièrement le persil plat. Faire revenir 1/2 oignon haché et les 2 gousses d’ail hachées dans le beurre, ajouter le persil. Mouiller avec le bouillon de volaille et laisser bouillir 5 mn. Assaisonner et mixer la préparation. Réserver le coulis. Ragout d’escargot Sauter les escargots au beurre, flamber au cognac, jus de volaille, persil hache et noisettes fraiches concassées. Emulsion d’ail Blanchir les gousses d’ail trois fois et laisser infuser dans le lait chaud durant 1h. Mixer. Faire bouillir, assaisonner puis émulsionner. Dressage Mettre au four vapeur à 80°C les cannellonis pendant 5 minutes. Faire sauter les escargots dans une persillade et dresser harmonieusement.

77 - France

Ingrédients pour 4 personnes

Méthode

Cannellonis d’escargots en persillade, épinards, ricotta


8 pieces sea scallop 8 pieces langoustine 8/1 50 g salted butter Nage 50 g shallots 80 g carrot 100 ml white wine 200 ml water 30 g butter Thyme, bay leaf, rock salt Sorrel cream 100 ml nage 100 ml heavy cream 1 bundle sorrel salt, pepper 12 g seaweed Cauliflower puree 100 g cauliflower 50 ml heavy cream salt, pepper Presentation Grilled leek, fresh herbs, semolina of assorted color cauliflower PREPARATION Nage Peel and slice the shallots and the carrots. Place all ingredients of the nage in a cooking pot and simmer during 30 minutes. Pour the liquid through a fine sieve and reserve aside. Garnish Clean the cauliflower and boil 5 minutes in salted water.

Complete the cooking process in the cream. Blend until a smooth texture is obtained. Rectify the seasoning and save aside. Wash and grate the color cauliflower in order to obtain small particles similar to semolina. Wash a green leaf of leek and grill with little olive oil and seasoning. Sauces Reduce 0.10 l of nage with the cream until the desired consistency is reached. Add the sorrel leaves and blend until smooth. Rectify the seasoning. Reduce another 0.10 l of nage with the seaweed. Strain the liquid and blend with fresh butter. Rectify the seasoning. Sea scallops and langoustines Remove the shells of both the langoustines and the sea scallops. Pan fry 1 minute on each side in foamy salted butter. Place on a grid and keep warm until serving. Plating Spoon the cauliflower puree on the serving dishes and add dots of sorrel cream. Place harmoniously the langoustines and sea scallops onto the plates. Decorate with the grilled leek, cauliflower semolina, fresh herbs. Add the seaweed foam and serve immediately.

Ingrédients pour 4 personnes 8 pièces de coquilles St Jacques 8 pièces de langoustines (8/10) 50 g de beurre salé Nage de carcasse 50 g d’échalotes 80 g de carotte 10 cl de vin blanc 20 cl d’eau, thym, laurier, gros sel 30 g de beurre Crème à l’oseille 10 cl de nage 10 cl de crème 1 botte d’oseille sel poivre 12 g d’algues marines Purée de chou-fleur 100 g de chou-fleur 5 cl de crème Éléments de décoration semoule de chou multicolore, feuille de poireau grillé, herbes fraîches Methode

et obtenir une semoule. Laver une feuille verte de poireau, huiler et griller. Les sauces Réduire une partie de la nage avec la crème et passer au blender avec les feuilles d’oseille crue, assaisonner. Réduire l’autre partie de la nage avec une algue et émulsionner avec du beurre, assaisonner. Les cuissons Poéler au beurre salé « mousseux » les noix de st jacques et les langoustines, 1 mn de chaque côté, puis tenir au chaud sur une grille. Présentation et Finition Disposer sur l’assiette chaude, un trait de purée de chou-fleur, des pointes de crème d’oseille. Puis les noix et langoustines harmonieusement, décorer de poireau grillé, semoule de chou et herbes, finir avec l’écume iodée.

Préparation de la nage Décortiquer les langoustines et les coquilles, réunir tous les ingrédients dans une casserole et cuire à petit feu pendant 30 mn, filtrer et réserver. Préparation de la garniture Blanchir le chou-fleur dans de l’eau salée, finir la cuisson dans la crème jusque réduction. Râper les extrémités des choux crus multicolores à la mandoline

79 - France

Ingredients for 4 servings

Noix de st jacques et langoustines de st Brieux, écume iodée, semoule de chou breton

Sea scallops and langoustines, seaweed foam, semolina of Brittany cauliflower


2 line caught soles 600/800 gr each 12 olive tomatoes 150 g butter 50 g parmesan ¼ loaf toast bread 2 bundles of flat parsley 50 g sugar 10 ml white wine vinegar 1 star anise 1 lemon 6 purple olives 1 bundle of basil 1 garlic clove 12 capers pine seeds, fleur de sel, olive oil

Basic preparation In a cooking pot, brown the butter and season with salt. Save half aside and pour the remaining into a tray with low edges. Place in the chiller. Cut rectangles of 15 cm long x 2 cm width. Grate the scales on the white skin of the soles and remove the dark skin. Cut the fins, wash carefully, pat dry and remove the fillets. Season with salt and pepper the fillets flesh side only. Place a rectangle of brown butter on the 4 large fillets with the grated lemon. Combine each fillet with a smaller fillet with white skin and wrap with plastic film. Vacuum pack and reserve aside. Bread crust Remove the crust of the toast bread and cut into cubes. Dry half of the bread in the oven set at 100 °C and the other half at 160 °C. Blend and pour separately through a fine sieve. Wash the parsley and pour through a juice extractor. In a bowl, mix well 50 gr of soft butter with 20 gr of parsley juice. Incorporate 50gr of white bread crumbs. Season with salt and flatten with a dough sheeter to 3 mm thickness between 2 sheets of paper. Place in the freezer to harden. In another bowl mix 50 gr of soft butter and 25 gr of grated parmesan with 40 gr of blond bread crumbs. Season with salt and flatten with a dough sheeter to 3 mm thickness between 2 sheets of paper. Place in the freezer to harden. Cut regular bands of 5 mm wide in both butter mixtures. Alternate the bands and place them together. Roll down to 2 mm thickness and place in the freezer. Condiments Place together in a sauce pan, the sugar, water, white wine vinegar with the star anise and bring to boil. Add the lemon zests in the syrup and simmer until done. Remove the skin of the tomatoes, season with salt, pepper and olive oil. Place in the oven set on medium heat for approximately 50 mn. Cut the capers, lemon segments and the black olives. Basil paste Remove the stems of the basil. Peel the garlic clove and remove the germ. Blanch 3 times in cold water. In a blender, add the garlic cloves, parmesan, pine seeds and olive oil. Mix well and add the basil leaves. Blend until a smooth paste is obtained. Verify the seasoning and store in a refrigerated place. Plating Cook the soles in a hot bath with a circulator set at 70 °C during 7 mn. Remove the bags and trim the edge of the soles. Top each sole with the butter mixture. Place under the salamander until a crispy texture is reached. Arrange harmoniously the condiments on the serving dishes. Add a line of balsamic vinegar and one line of basil paste. Place the soles to the plates and serve with basil paste on the side.

81 - France

Ingredients for 4 servings

PREPARATION

REVISED SOLE GRENOBLOISE


2 soles de ligne 600/800 gr 12 tomates olivette 150 g de beurre 50 g de parmesan ¼ de pain de mie 2 bottes de persil plat 50 g de sucre 10 ml de vinaigre de vin blanc une badiane un citron jaune 6 olives violettes 1 botte de basilic une gousse d’ail 12 caprons quelques pignons de pin fleur de sel, huile d’olive.

Préparation de base Dans une sauteuse, réaliser un beurre noisette. Assaisonner, retirer l’excédent de beurre et couler dans une petite plaque à rebord. Mettre au froid. Ensuite, tailler des rectangles de 15 cm * 2 cm. Habiller et gratter les soles côté peau blanche. Retirer la peau noire et lever les filets. Assaisonner les filets côté chair, déposer une plaquette de beurre noisette et une râpée de citron jaune sur les 4 grands filets. Enroulez dans un film alimentaire le grand filet peau blanche avec le petit filet peau noire et inversement. Mettre en sac sous vide et réserver. Viennoise Parer le pain de mie de sa croûte, tailler des cubes et diviser en deux. Faire sécher la moitié dans un four ventilé à 100 °C et l’autre moitié toasté à 160 °C. Mixer et passer au tamis séparément. Laver et passer le persil plat à la centrifugeuse. Dans un cul de poule mélanger 50 gr de beurre pommade avec 20 gr de jus de persil puis ajouter 50 gr de chapelure blanche. Mélanger, assaisonner et étaler au laminoir à 3 mm d’épaisseur entre deux feuilles de papier guitare. Réserver au congélateur. Dans la cuve du Blender, réunir 50 gr de beurre pommade, 25 gr de parmesan râpé, 40 gr de chapelure blonde. Mélanger, assaisonner et étaler au laminoir à 3 mm d’épaisseur entre deux feuilles de papier guitare. Réserver au congélateur. Ensuite coupez en lanières (5mm) les deux viennoises puis les coller en alternance. Etalez à 2 mm d’épaisseur. Faire prendre au congélateur. Les condiments Réaliser un sirop léger avec le sucre, l’eau, le vinaigre de vin blanc et l’anis étoilé. Faire confire les zestes de citron dans cette marinade à feu doux. Monder les tomates, assaisonner d’huile d’olive, sel, poivre et faites les confire dans un four doux. Tailler les caprons, les segments de citron jaune et les olives noires. Le pistou génois Effeuiller le basilic. Éplucher les gousses d’ail, retirer le germe et les blanchir 3 fois. Dans la cuve du blender, déposer les gousses d’ail, le parmesan, les pignons de pins, l’huile d’olive et mixer. Ajouter les feuilles de basilic et mixez finement. Vérifier l’assaisonnement. Débarrasser et réserver au frais. Présentation et Finition Cuire les soles 7 minutes au thermoplongeur à 70 °C. Réserver au chaud. Ouvrir le sac puis retirez le papier film et taillez les entames. Disposer sur chacun des filets la viennoise et passer sous la salamandre. Dresser les condiments en ligne sur les assiettes, un cordon de sauce balsamique et de pistou génois. Envoyer un pot de pistou génois à part.

83 - France

Ingrédients pour 4 personnes

Méthode

Sole inspirée d’une Grenobloise


4 pieces quail red label Meat stuffing 50 g pork neck 50 g fillets of quail 50 g veal shoulder 30 ml Madeira wine Garnish 40 g dried figs 80 g cooked foie gras 100 g celery root 50 g black truffle 3 pieces fresh fig 8 pieces chestnut 15 g honey 20 g butter 200 ml white chicken stock Sauce 200 ml quail jus 15 g honey 30 ml cider vinegar 50 ml Beaume de Venise

Quail Mince all meats and season with salt, pepper and the Madeira wine. Cut the cooked foie gras into 20 g pieces and save aside. Remove the breasts and the legs from the quails and remove the bones. Assembling the quails Place a sheet of plastic film on the working counter. Add a spoon of meat stuffing and flatten into a rectangle of 8 x 10 cm with a spatula. Place on top 2 quail legs, 2 segments of figs, 1 cube of foie gras and the fillets of quail. Roll into the plastic film and vacuum pack into retractable plastic bag. Cook in the steam oven at 83 째C during approximately 14 mn until 54 째C degrees is reached in the center of the quails. Chill and coat with bread crumbs. Fry in vegetable oil set at 165 째C and complete the heating process in the oven at 180 째C during 4 mn. Celery and black truffle compression Peel the celery root and cut into slices of 2 mm thickness. Cook until done in boiling chicken stock. Cut into disks of 2 cm diameter. Slice and cut the truffle in a similar fashion. Cut the celery and truffle trimmings into small dices and season with salt and pepper. Assemble the compression by alternating the disks and the small dices. Cut the figs cut into halves and roast in the oven with honey and butter. Baked the chestnuts in white chicken stock and butter. Sauce Cook the honey on medium heat to a light brown coloration. Add the wine vinegar, then the Beaume de Venise. Reduce the liquid and add the quail jus. Add a spoon of butter and rectify the seasoning.

85 - France

Ingredients for 4 servings

PREPARATION

Roasted quail with foie gras, figs, celery and black truffle compression


4 cailles label rouge 50 g de gorge de porc 50 g de suprême de caille 50 g de maigre de veau 3 cl de madère 40 g de figues séchées 80 g de terrine de foie gras 100 g de céleri rave 50 g de truffe 3 piéces de figues fraíches 8 pièces de marron 15 g de miel 20 g de beurre 0,20 l de fond blanc 0,20 l de jus de caille 3 cl de vinaigre de cidre 5 cl de Beaume de Venise

Cailles Confectionner la farce: hacher toute les viandes à la grille fine, assaisonner.å Couper le foie gras en morceaux de 20 g. Lever les filets et les cuisses, désosser les cuisses. Réaliser le montage Etaler la farce finement en rectangle de 10 cm sur 8 cm sur le papier film, poser les cuisses tête bêche, 2 quartiers de figue séchées, le foie gras, le filet de caille. Rouler dans le film. Mettre sous vide en sac rétractable. Cuire en vapeur 83 °C, sonde à 54 °C à cœur (environ 14 mn), Refroidir. Paner à l’anglaise. Frire dans l’huile à 165 °C, puis au four 4 mn. Pressé de céleri et truffe Eplucher le céleri rave et couper en tranches de 2 mm. Cuire au fond blanc de volaille. Une fois cuites, découper avec un emporte-pièce rond de 2 cm de diamètre, couper la truffe de la même façon. Couper les parures de truffe et céleri en brunoise, mélanger et assaisonner. Monter les pressés en intercalant les 3 éléments. Rôtir les demi-figues au four avec du beurre et du miel. Cuire les marrons dans le fond blanc et beurre. Réaliser la sauce Faire blondir une cuillère de miel, déglacer avec le vinaigre de vin, ajouter le Beaume de Venise. Réduire, ajouter le jus de caille. Procéder avec le dressage Disposer harmonieusement les ingrédients sur les assiettes de service.

87 - France

Ingrédients pour 4 personnes

Méthode

Dodine croustillante de caille au foie gras, figue, Pressé de céleri et truffe


Main ingredients 500 g veal fillet 50 g butter sel, poivre 100 ml veal jus 4 g cardamom Hazelnut biscuit 100 g soft butter 120 g flour 50 g grated parmesan 20 g hazelnut powder Puree 300 g butternut 50 ml olive oil 50 ml white chicken stock, salt, pepper to taste Toast 4 slices of bread 80 g cooked veal sweetbread 30 g cep mushrooms 50 g chicken velouté 20 g butter Presentation edible flowers, fresh herbs, confit tomatoes, grilled cep mushrooms

Veal fillet Trim the meat. Season with salt and pepper and shape into a cylinder with plastic film. Vacuum pack and cook in the steam oven set at 70 °C until a temperature of 58 °C is reached in the center of the meat. Garnish Peel the butternut and cut into cubes. Place in a cooking pan with the olive oil and white chicken stock. Season and cook until done. Blend until smooth and rectify the seasoning. Hazelnut biscuit Mix all ingredients together and place in the refrigerator to rest. Roll the dough to a thickness of 2 mm. Cut into rectangles of 8 cm x 3 cm. Place on a silpat sheet and bake in the oven at 180 °C until golden brown. Toast Toast the slices of bread in the oven. Clean the mushrooms and cut into dices. Sauté in a frying pan with a spoon of butter, add the sweetbread and the chicken velouté. Rectify the seasoning and save aside. Veal jus Toast the cardamom in a pan set on medium heat. Pour the veal jus and simmer 15 mn. Pour the jus through a fine sieve and rectify the seasoning. Plating Remove the veal from the bag and brown in a frying pan with 2 tablespoons of butter. Arrange the slices of cep mushroom on the top. Spoon the butternut puree on the hazelnut biscuit and decorate with a sprig of thyme. Set the sweetbread-cep mixture on the toasted bread. Add the sauce and decorate with the herbs and flowers.

89 - France

Ingredients for 4 servings

PREPARATION

Veal fillet with cardamom, hazelnut biscuit, butternut and sweetbread-mushroom toast


Ingrédients principaux 500 g de filet de veau 50 g de beurre sel, poivre 10 cl de jus de veau 4 g de cardamome Sablé noisette 100 g de beurre pommade 120 g de farine 50 g de parmesan râpé 20 g de poudre de noisette Courge butternut 5 cl d’huile d’olive 5 cl de fond blanc Sel, poivre Tartine gourmande 4 tranches de pain grillé 80 g de ris de veau cuit 30 g de parures de cèpe 50 g de velouté de volaille 20 g de beurre Décoration fleurs, herbes fraîches, tomates confites, cèpes grillés

Préparation du veau Parer la viande, l’assaisonner puis la rouler dans un film en boudin, cuire sous vide à 70 °C (t° 58 °C à cœur). Préparation de la garniture Eplucher les courges et tailler en cube, mettre dans une casserole avec de l’huile d’olive. Mouiller au fond blanc et cuire à couvert, mixer et assaisonner. Les sablés noisette Mélanger les ingrédients ensemble sans travailler, réserver au frais, puis tailler en rectangle de 8 cm sur 3 cm (2 mm épaisseur), congeler et cuire sur un tapis de cuisson à 160 °C. Jusqu’à ce qu’ils soient dorés. La tartine Tailler de fines tranches de pains fusettes et les sécher au four, sauter les champignons et les ris de veau puis mouiller d’un velouté de volaille, vérifier l’assaisonnement. Le jus Torréfier 5 mn les graines de cardamome dans une casserole puis ajouter le jus de veau. Infuser à feu doux pendant 15 mn. Présentation et Finition Récupérer le filet de veau et le colorer dans une poêle avec du beurre. Disposer des tranches de cèpes grillés dessus. Monter la purée de butternut sur les sablés et décorer d’une tige de thym. Disposer le ragoût sur la tartine avec une décoration. Ajouter le jus de veau.

91 - France

Ingrédients pour 4 personnes

Méthode

Filet de veau jus à la cardamome, sablé noisette et butternut, tartine gourmande


Vanilla-lemon crunchy cookie 160 g butter 140 g sugar 100 g almond powder 70 g egg yolks 210 g flour 15 g dry yeast ½ vanilla bean Exotic fruit coulis 250 g mango puree 70 g Sugar 30 g water 15 g passion fruit juice Lime ice soufflé 80 g water 250 g de sugar 3 g de lime zest 120 g egg white 100 g lemon juice 250 g whipped cream Coating 200 g de cocoa butter edible green food color Caramelized banana 2 bananas 150 g honey 200 g grated coconut Decor 100 g white chocolate 4 star fruit chips springs made of Isomalt sugar

Vanilla-lemon crunchy cookie Soften the butter and incorporate the sugar. Add the almond powder and the vanilla seeds. Add the egg yolks then the flour mixed with the dry yeast. Place in the chiller to harden. Roll the dough with a dough sheeter to a 3 mm thickness and cut into rectangles. Place back into the chiller prior to baking in the oven set at 180 °C until golden. Exotic fruit coulis Boil the sugar and the water. Add the mango puree and then the passion fruit juice. Lime ice soufflé Prepare an Italian meringue with the water, sugar, egg whites and lemon zest. Whip until complete cool down and fold-in the whipped cream mixed with the lemon juice. Spoon the mixture into the molds and store in the freezer. Green coating with cocoa butter Melt the cocoa butter in a bowl placed in hot water. Add in the green food color and spread over the lime soufflé. Caramelized banana Cut the bananas into slices of 1 cm thickness. Caramelize the honey in a frying pan set on medium heat and sauté the banana slices. Allow cooling and coat with the grated coconut. Assembling Place the banana slices onto the cookies. Top with a rectangle of white chocolate. Place on top the lime ice soufflé and the spring made of Isomalt sugar. Decorate with the star fruit chips and spoon the exotic fruit coulis.

93 - France

Ingredients for 4 servings

PREPARATION

Vanilla crunchy cookie, caramelized banana with honey


Sablé citron vanille 160 g de beurre 140 g de sucre semoule 100 g de poudre d’amande 70 g de jaunes d’œufs 210 g de farine 15 g de levure chimique ½ vanille gousse Coulis exotique 250 g de pulpe de mangue 70 g de sucre semoule 30 g d’eau 15 g de jus de fruit de la passion Soufflé glacé citron vert 80 g d’eau 250 g de sucre semoule 3 g de zestes de citron vert 120 g de blancs d’œufs 100 g de jus de citron 250 g de crème montée Flocage 200 g de beurre de cacao colorant liposoluble vert Poêlée de banane 2 bananes 150 g de miel 200 g de poudre de noix de coco Décoration 100 g de couverture blanche 4 chips de carambole Isomalt

Pâte sablée Mettre le beurre en pommade, incorporer ensuite le sucre, la poudre d’amandes et les grains de vanille. Continuer avec les jaunes d’œufs et finir par le mélange farine levure chimique. Réserver au froid. Etaler la pâte à 3 mm d’épaisseur et détailler des rectangles de la taille choisie, laisser durcir et cuire à 180 °C. Coulis exotique Faire un sirop avec l’eau et le sucre semoule, puis ajouter la pulpe de mangue et finir par le jus de fruit de la passion. Soufflé glacé citron vert Réaliser une meringue italienne avec l’eau, le sucre, les zestes et les blancs d’œufs. Lorsque ce mélange est froid ajouter la crème qui aura été au préalable montée avec le jus de citron. Mouler aussitôt de la forme choisie et stocker au congélateur. Flocage vert au beurre de cacao Faire fondre au bain-marie le beurre de cacao puis ajouter le colorant en dosant en fonction de l’intensité voulue. Poêlé de banane Couper les bananes à 1 cm d’épaisseur, puis les passer dans un miel caramélisé, laisser refroidir puis enrober de poudre de noix de coco. Montage Sur la pâte sablée, disposer les rondelles de banane, puis continuer avec un rectangle de chocolat blanc. Ensuite, déposer le serpentin en Isomalt puis insérer dans celui-ci le cylindre de soufflé glacé qui aura été au préalable floqué. Déposer la chips de carambole et finir le montage par le coulis exotique.

95 - France

Ingrédients pour 4 personnes

Méthode

Sablé vanille, poêlé de banane au miel


Eclair pastry, Gianduja chocolate mousse and combava-lemon dome

Croquant 120 g butter 150 g vergeoise sugar 150 g flour Gianduja chocolate mousse 125 g heavy cream 35% fat 125 g Gianduja hazelnut chocolate 37 g hazelnut-almond paste 250 g soft whipped cream 2 g de gelatin leaves Combava-lemon cream 250 g lemon juice 250 g sugar 310 g eggs 25 g custard cream powder 5 g gelatin leaves 25 g water 250 g butter cut into cubes zest from ¼ combava

Neutral glazing 186 g water 20 g glucose 200 g de sugar 8 g pectin NH Pear sorbet 250 g Williams pear puree 45 g water 40 g sugar 23 g glucose atomisé 1 g stabilizer 12 g pear Williams alcohol 12 g lemon juice Hazelnut nougatine 75 g butter 75 g sugar 75 g glucose 50 g chopped hazelnuts Decor dark chocolate

Croquant Mix all the ingredients together in a mixing bowl. Place the mixture between 2 sheets of paper and roll down to a 3 mm thickness. Place in the refrigerator to harden. Cut into discs of approximately 3 cm diameter and place onto the choux pastries. Gianduja chocolate mousse Bring the cream to a boil, add in the gelatin leaves soften in cold water. Pour the hot cream over the chopped Gianduja chocolate. Mix well until a smooth and shiny mixture is obtained. Add-in the almond-hazelnut paste and bring to 35 °C temperature. Chill on an ice water bath. Fold-in carefully the whipped cream. Neutral glazing Heat up the water with the glucose. Mix the sugar and the pectin together and add progressively to the liquid. Boil 2 mn and pour through a fine sieve. Combava-lemon cream Heat up the lemon juice with the

combava zest. Mix the sugar with the eggs and then the custard cream powder. Mix both preparations together and bring to a boil while continuously mixing with a whisk. Remove from the heat and add the gelatin leaves soften in cold water. Incorporate the fresh butter. Fill up small dome shaped silicone molds with the mixture. Place in the freezer to harden. Remove from the molds and brush with the neutral glazing. Pear sorbet Mix together the stabilizer with the sugar. Pour into the warm water mixed with the glucose and pasteurize. Pour the syrup over the pear puree. Chill and add the pear alcohol. Churn in an ice cream machine. Remove and store in the freezer. Hazelnut nougatine Melt the butter over medium heat together with the glucose and sugar. Add the chopped hazelnuts and mix well. Pour the mixture between 2 sheets of paper and roll down with a pastry pin to 2-3 mm thickness. Bake in a pre-heated oven at 170 °C during 10 mn. Allow resting 10 mn prior to cutting into the desired shape. Assembling Fill the choux pastries with the Gianduja chocolate mousse. Place on the plates and add the rectangles of nougatine. Top each rectangle with 3 small domes of combava-lemon cream. Decorate with the chocolate pieces and add a spoon of pear sherbet prior to serving.

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Choux pastry dough 250 g water 100 g milk 5 g salt 14 g sugar 112 g de butter 190 g flour 250 g eggs

Choux pastry dough Bring to a boil the water, milk, salt, sugar and the butter together in a cooking pan. Remove from the heat and add-in the flour while mixing with a spatula. Place back the dough onto the heat while mixing continuously. Remove and add the eggs progressively into the dough. Place the dough in a piping bag and shape onto a baking tray. Bake in a pre-heating oven at 180 °C during 30 mn.

PREPARATION

IngrEdients


Eclair craquant, crémeux Gianduja et dôme acidulé

Croquant 120 g de beurre 150 g de sucre vergeoise 150 g de farine Crémeux Gianduja 125 g de crème fleurette 35% MG 125 g de Gianduja noisette 37 g de praliné amandes noisettes 250 g de crème montée (bec d’oiseau) 2 g de gélatine feuille Crème citron combava 250 g de jus de citron 250 g de sucre 310 g d’oeufs entiers 25 g de poudre à crème 5 g de feuilles de gélatine 25 g d’eau

250 g de beurre froid coupé en cubes ¼ de zeste de combava Nappage neutre 186 g d’eau 20 g de glucose 200 g de sucre 8 g de pectine NH Sorbet poire 250 g de pulpe de poire Williams 45 g de eau 40 g de sucre semoule 23 g de glucose atomisé 1 g de stabilisateur 12 g de eau de vie de poire Williams 12 g de jus de citron Nougatine noisette 75 g de beurre 75 g de sucre 75 g de glucose 50 g de noisettes hachées Décoration couverture chocolat noir

Croquant Passer tous les ingrédients dans la cuve du batteur, étaler le tout entre 2 feuilles, laisser prendre et détailler de la forme choisie. Prendre 3 disques et les déposer sur les 3 demi-sphères de pâte à choux. Crémeux Gianduja Faire bouillir la crème fleurette, ajouter la gélatine puis verser sur le Gianduja. Mélanger par le centre pour obtenir une masse lisse et brillante. Incorporer le praliné amandes noisette et tempérer à 35 °C en refroidissant dans la glace pilée. Ajouter la crème montée en trois fois. Crème citron combava Chauffer le jus de citron puis ajouter les zestes. Mélanger le sucre aux œufs puis la poudre à crème, cuire comme une crème pâtissière. Ajouter la gélatine bien essorée, mixer avec le beurre. Verser dans un moule demisphère en silicone puis congeler. Démouler puis glacer avec un nappage neutre.

Nappage neutre Faire chauffer l’eau avec le glucose, ajouter le mélange sucre pectine en pluie. Faire bouillir 2 mn. Passer au chinois puis réserver. Sorbet poire Mélanger les poudres ensemble, verser en pluie sur l’eau tiède puis pasteuriser. Verser le sirop sur la purée de poire. A froid, ajouter l’eau de vie puis turbiner. Nougatine noisette Faire fondre à feu doux le beurre, le glucose et le sucre. Ajouter les noisettes hachées. Mélanger la masse. Etaler la masse entre deux feuilles de papier à l’aide d’un rouleau (2 à 3 mm). Cuire dans un four ventilé à 170 °C pendant 10 mn. Laisser poser 2 mn et détailler à la forme voulue. Montage Après avoir découpé la pâte à choux, garnir de crémeux Gianduja puis déposer un rectangle de nougatine. Disposer ensuite 3 dômes nappés. Terminer en agrémentant le dessert de quelques touches de décor en chocolat et la quenelle de sorbet poire.

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Pâte à choux 250 g d’eau 100 g de lait 5 g de sel 14 g de sucre 112 g de beurre 190 g de farine 250 g d’œuf

Pate à choux Faire chauffer l’eau, le lait, le sel, le sucre et le beurre. Ajouter la farine et dessécher la pâte. Débarrasser et ajouter petit à petit les œufs. Dresser de la forme choisie. Cuisson à 180 °C pendant 30 mn.

Méthode

Ingrédients


MÉXICO


The Bachelor’s Degree in Administration and Hospitality is part of the Higher School of Hospitality Management (ESDAI) of the Universidad Panamericana, whose mission is to train women with managerial mentality and skills, able to achieve that hospitality be revealed as a style of life in service institutions and companies, preparing them for professional and ethical performance, as well as with social responsibility. The Bachelor’s Degree in Administration and Hospitality has a unique curriculum in the world, made up of five areas: Administration, Services, Sciences, Humanities and Research. The ninth — and last — semester offers three professional majors: health sector, tourism and hospitality sector, and event management sector, which provide an updated approach to continue a professional career. To complete the professional training, a program of internships for specialization is available, where the knowledge acquired in the classroom, supervised by experts, is applied, in which an improvement project is created with an added value for the company. There are international agreements to obtain dual degrees and to study an exclusive diploma course specialized in culinary arts and restaurant management with Cesar Ritz Colleges Switzerland, besides offering half-yearly exchanges and internships abroad, at prestigious universities and institutions. ESDAI is the only institution in Mexico that is part of the “Worldwide Alliance” belonging to the Paul Bocuse Institute, which allows students and professors exchanges and annual training. Thus, the acquisition of knowledge, values and skill development is guaranteed, as tools that require employers, opening an attractive job board.

It has published the “Hospitalidad ESDAI” journal (ESDAI Hospitality), academic half-yearly diffusion media for more than 10 years in a row as well as the “Revista de Investigación ESDAI” (ESDAI Research magazine), with the best research papers issued by the students. The Bachelor’s Degree in Administration and Hospitality, pioneer in the field in Mexico, shows their 1,928 graduates from the first generation, forty-four years ago, with stories of success and professional achievements, humanizing and enriching society and enterprises.

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Outlook of Mexican cuisine, ingredients and culinary traditions. M

exico is a country with immense wealth both in natural resources, as well as in traditions and customs. Each of the States of the Mexican Republic possesses unique characteristics due to their own resources, like its weather, geographical location and even the ethnic groups that inhabit that region. Current Mexican society is the product of thousands of years of human actions on this continent and in other parts of the world, which combined in this territory to create a unique and extraordinary nation. The development of gastronomy in Mexico comprises various stages with their own characteristics: between 5000 and 7000 BC, humans who inhabited America intensified the activities related to harvesting; later they could domesticate chili, avocado and pumpkin, and began to use tools made of stone whose function was to grind food. Later appeared domesticated corn, gourd, bean, white sapote, and black sapote and it is the time when it can be said that people became farmers. Corn becomes the basis of nourishment, and people consider it coming from a divine source, being served along with a variety of chilis and insects: grasshoppers, jumiles (a sort of bedbug), maguey worms and escamoles (eggs of ants), and chicatana ants.

At that time using ingredients such as beef cattle, milk, egg, chicken and wheat was unknown; however, after the arrival of the conquerors from different countries to American lands, a change occurred in the gastronomy: they introduced fruits, spices, cereals, cattle and sheep, among other things, and it can be said that the combination of the Spanish culinary tradition with the pre-Hispanic one laid the foundations of Mexican cuisine.

Regarding drinks, pulque had a great consumption among indigenous groups, while wine had no local development since it was accepted only by the Spaniards and it was imported from Europe. The years kept passing and corn remained to be the basis of Mexican cuisine. Thanks to the indigenous roots and culinary crossbreeding which took place during the history emerged the “Mexican antojitos� (Mexican snacks), in addition to soups, meat and fish dishes which are extremely varied in each region of the country: moles and pipianes, convent desserts, breads of thousands of shapes and different names, drinks like pulque, tequila and mezcal, as well as aguas frescas and atole or hot chocolate... Nowadays, and because of the variety of ingredients and utensils used in Mexican cuisine, this has been shaped as a worldwide unique cuisine and it is also highly differentiated within the same country; is a complete cultural model ranging from agricultural activities, rituals, ancient knowledge, culinary techniques, customs and ancestral community behavior modes. This has become possible thanks to the participation of the population in all the traditional food chain: from the seeding and collection of the crops to the culinary preparation and tasting of the dishes. The basic elements of the system are corn, beans and chili, as well as unique farming methods such as the milpa, which is a type of cultivation by rotation of corn and other plants, slashing and burning of the land; and the chinampa, which consists of an artificial island of culture in lake areas. In addition, there are procedures of culinary preparation as nixtamalization, which consists of the peeling of corn with limewater to increase its nutritional value. There are many other indigenous ingredients that are part of the pre-Hispanic cuisine that were blended with the Spanish cuisine, creating the great Mexican cuisine. With regard to kitchen utensils, traditional indigenous items are still used to prepare many dishes since these tools influence the taste and texture of the food; those made with clay, stone and wood take precedence. In a very general way, we can mention the following: casseroles, pots and jugs, molcajete, metate, comal, blower, tenates or chichihuites.

With the passage of time the religious orders began to grow in the New World, which resulted in the birth of the conventual cuisine, in which they produced exquisite sweets following adapted European recipes with regional ingredients. To date, they form a very important part of Mexican cuisine.

Currently, Mexico has a group of chefs who have dedicated themselves to researching and publicizing the Mexican cuisine, seeking to rescue and preserve the ancestors’ ingredients and techniques to avoid losing them with the passage of time.

Generally, the fruits brought by the Europeans, some of which were of Asian or African origin could be grown very well in the territory; typical spices of the zone of Mexico such as vanilla, achiote and cocoa continued to be used, and those were complemented with spices brought from other regions like anise, clove, saffron, coriander, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, oregano and pepper among others, and the cattle began to develop, and consequently the production of milk, cream and various cheeses.

After learning all the nuances of Mexican cuisine is how we can understand why, in November 2010, the Conservatory of Mexican Gastronomic Culture obtained for this cuisine to be part of the representative list of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of UNESCO, something extremely complicated and which required a thorough investigation and documentation since, before they reached the UNESCO, the possibility of naming a gastronomy as world heritage had never been raised.


Panorama de la cocina mexicana, ingredientes y tradiciones culinarias. éxico es un país con una inmensa riqueza tanto en recursos naturales, como en tradiciones y costumbres. Cada uno de los estados de la República Mexicana posee características únicas debido a los recursos con los que cuenta, su clima, ubicación geográfica e, incluso, los grupos étnicos que habitan la región. La sociedad mexicana actual es producto de miles de años de acciones humanas en este continente y en otras partes del mundo, las cuales se amalgamaron en este territorio para crear una nación única y extraordinaria. El desarrollo de la gastronomía en México está integrado por el transcurso de diversas etapas con características propias: entre el año 7000 y 5000 a.C., los grupos humanos que habitaban América intensificaron las actividades relacionadas con la recolección; posteriormente lograron domesticar el chile, aguacate y calabaza y comenzaron a utilizar utensilios elaborados de piedra cuya función era triturar alimentos. Tiempo después surge el maíz domesticado, el guaje, frijol, zapote blanco y zapote negro, es entonces cuando se puede decir que se vuelve un pueblo agricultor. El maíz se convierte en la base de la alimentación, otorgándole un origen divino, acompañado de una gran variedad de chiles e insectos: chapulines, jumiles, gusanos de maguey, escamoles y hormigas chicatanas. En esa época se desconocía el uso de ingredientes como eran la carne de ganado, leche, huevo de gallina y trigo; sin embargo, tras la llegada de los conquistadores de diversos países a tierras americanas se dio un cambio en la gastronomía: introdujeron frutas, cereales, especias, ganado vacuno y ovino, entre otras, pudiendo afirmar que la combinación de la tradición gastronómica española con la prehispánica sentó las bases de la cocina mexicana. Con el paso del tiempo comenzaron a crecer las órdenes religiosas en el Nuevo Mundo, lo cual tuvo como consecuencia el surgimiento de la cocina conventual, en la cual elaboraban dulces exquisitos siguiendo recetas europeas adaptadas con ingredientes regionales. Hasta la fecha forman una parte muy importante de la gastronomía mexicana. En general, los frutos traídos por los europeos, algunos de origen asiático o africano, pudieron cultivarse muy bien en el territorio; se continuaron usando especias típicas de la zona de México como son la vainilla, achiote y cacao, complementándolas con las traídas de otras regiones: anís, clavo, azafrán, cilantro, canela, clavo, jengibre, orégano y pimentas entre otras. Comenzó a desarrollarse el ganado vacuno, así como leche, crema y quesos diversos. Con respecto a las bebidas, el pulque tuvo un gran consumo entre los indígenas, mientras que el vino no tuvo desarrollo local debido a que únicamente era aceptado por los españoles y lo importaban de Europa. Los años siguieron pasando y el maíz continuó siendo la base de la cocina mexicana. Gracias a las raíces indígenas y el mestizaje gastronómico que se dio a lo largo de la historia surgieron los “antojitos mexicanos”, además de sopas, carnes y pescados sumamente variados en cada región del país, moles y pipianes, postres conventuales,

panes de miles de formas y diversos nombres, bebidas como el pulque, tequila y mezcal, además de aguas frescas, atole y chocolate caliente… En la actualidad, y debido a la gran variedad de ingredientes y utensilios utilizados en la gastronomía mexicana, esta se ha conformado como única a nivel mundial y sumamente diferenciada dentro del mismo país; es un modelo cultural completo que comprende actividades agrarias, rituales, conocimientos antiguos, técnicas culinarias, costumbres y modos de comportamiento comunitarios ancestrales. Esto ha llegado a ser posible gracias a la participación de la población en toda la cadena alimentaria tradicional: desde la siembra y recogida de las cosechas hasta la preparación culinaria y degustación de los platillos. Los elementos básicos del sistema son el maíz, los frijoles y el chile, y se emplean métodos de cultivo únicos como son: la milpa, que es un tipo de cultivo por rotación del maíz y otras plantas, con roza y quema del terreno; y la chinampa, que consiste en un islote artificial de cultivo en zonas lacustres. Además, se cuentan con procedimientos de preparación culinaria como la nixtamalización, que consiste en un descascarillado del maíz con agua de cal para aumentar su valor nutritivo. En la actualidad, México cuenta con un grupo de chefs dedicados a investigar y dar difusión a la cocina mexicana, buscando rescatar y conservar los ingredientes y técnicas de los antepasados para evitar que éstos se pierdan con el paso del tiempo. Después de conocer todos los matices de la gastronomía mexicana es que podemos comprender como es que, en noviembre de 2010, el Conservatorio de la Cultura Gastronómica Mexicana consiguió que ésta formara parte de la Lista Representativa del Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial de la UNESCO, algo sumamente complicado y que requirió de una exhaustiva investigación y documentación debido a que, antes de que ellos llegaran a la UNESCO, nunca se había planteado la posibilidad de nombrar a una gastronomía como patrimonio.

103 - México

M


400 g piece chicken breast 500 g pigs trotters 2 l water Salt 1 kg pre-cook corn (Cacahuazintle) 50 g marjoram, diced 50 g onion, irregular chopped 5 g garlic, irregular chopped 1.5 kg neat´s tongue 150 g lettuce leaves 100 g epazote/wormseed 50 g coriander 10 g radish leaf 100 g vegetable oil 20 g serrano chilli 250 g green tomato 50 g peanuts, peeled 100 g oregano 250 g onion 100 g ground chili powder finely chopped 50 g lime 180 g corn tostada 200 ml mexican sour cream PREPARATION In a major pot over medium heat, warm some water and boil the chicken breast and pig trotters until tender. Salt to taste. Let the ingredients cool and shred the chicken. Set aside.

Warm the chicken broth and boil the pre-cooked corn, add the marjoram, chopped onion and garlic (1). Cook the corn until the grain is open and tender. Blend the neat´s tongue, lettuce, epazote, coriander and radish leaf. In a saucepan, heat the oil and fry the mixture you have prepared. If the mixture is too dry, add chicken broth (60 ml). In a mixer, mix the serrano chili with the green tomato. Strain and set aside. In a mixer, mix the peanuts. Add them to the previous mixture. Set aside. Once the corn is open and tender, remove the pigs trotters and add the mixture. Mix well. Put the shreded chicken in the plate in which it will be served. In separated plates put the oregano, the onion finely chopped, the ground chili powder, lime, corn tostadas and Mexican sour cream.

INGREDIENTES para 6 porciones 400 g pechuga de pollo 500 g manita de cerdo 2 l agua Sal 1 kg maíz pozolero precocido (Cacahuazintle) 50 g mejorana, picada 50 g cebolla (1), picada finamente 5 g cabeza de ajo (1), picada finamente 250 g pipián 1.5 kg lengua de vaca 150 g hoja de lechuga 100 g epazote 50 g cilantro 10 g hoja de rábano 100 ml aceite 20 g chile verde 250 g tomate verde 50 g cacahuate limpio 100 g orégano seco 250 g cebolla (2), picada finamente 100 g chile piquín molido 50 g limón 180 g tostadas de maíz (6 piezas) 200 ml crema espesa PREPARACIÓN Cocer el pollo y manita de cerdo en el agua (1). Sazonar con sal al gusto. Una vez que el pollo esté suave, retirarlo

y desmenuzarlo. Reservar el pollo. Hervir el maíz en el líquido de cocción del pollo y cerdo con la mejorana, cebolla (1) y ajo hasta que empiece a florear (reventarse). Colar el pipián en seco en un colador hasta quitarle la cáscara. Reservar la cáscara. Licuar las hojas de mole, lechuga, epazote, cilantro, hoja de rábano y la cáscara que se sacó del pipián. Calentar el aceite y freír toda la mezcla en un sartén. Se puede agregar un poco de caldo (60 ml), para hacer una pasta espesa. Moler el chile verde y el tomate. Colar y agregar al sartén de la mezcla de las hojas y el pipián. Licuar los cacahuates limpios, y agregar a la mezcla de hojas, chile verde, tomate y pipián. Reservar. Ya que el maíz esté suave, retirar las manitas de cerdo y agregar toda la pasta, mezclando bien. Poner el pollo desmenuzado en el plato en el que se va a servir. Presentar por separado el orégano seco, cebolla (2), chile piquín molido, limones, tostadas y crema.

105 - México

INGREDIENTS for 6 servings

Pozole verde

green pozole


MEXICAN SNACKS

Quesadillas 335 g corn flour 24 g wheat flour 275 ml water 2 l oil 1 piece lettuce 250 ml mexican sour cream 150 g oaxaca cheese 100 ml green tomato sauce 100 ml tomato sauce Cuitlacoche 30 g oil 50 g onion, finely chopped 1 clove garlic, finely chopped 250 g fresh cuitlacoche mushroom 1 bunch epazote/wormseed To taste salt Tacos 100 g onion, finely chopped 2 pieces green chili, finely chopped 30 ml corn oil 60 g butter 100 g escamoles 20 g epazote/wormseed 5 g salt 16 piece taco tortillas Guacamole with avocado leaves (See attached recipe) Raw green tomato sauce (See attached recipe)

Sopes with maguey worms 25 g butter 30 ml corn oil (1) 100 g maguey Worms 100 ml corn oil (2) 16 piece sopes Guacamole with avocado leaves Raw green tomato sauce 500 g green tomato 85 g serrano chili 20 g onion 10 g garlic 30 g coriander 5 g salt Roasted red sauce 500 g red tomato 30 g onion 50 g serrano chili 20 g coriander 5 g salt Guacamole 50 g onion (1) 2 pieces serrano chili 20 g coriander (1) 2 pieces avocado leaves, toasted 5 g salt 125 g red tomato 2 pieces (250 g each) ripe avocado Âź piece onion (2), finely chopped 5 g coriander (2), finely chopped

Dough For the dough: mix the two flours with water. Knead it until the dough is smooth. Make small tortillas (30 g) with it. Filling In a saucepan, heat the oil and fry the onion, the garlic and cuitlacoche mushroom. Add epazote. Salt to taste. Cook until the cuitlacoche mushroom is tender. Let the ingredients cool. Set aside. Fill the tortillas with the cuitlacoche mixture, fold them in half. Fry them in hot oil. Drain them in paper towels and serve. Serve with lettuce, Mexican sour cream, fresh cheese and hot sauces. Tacos Wash the ant eggs under running water and chain. In a saucepan, heat the oil and butter; fry the onion with the green chili. Add the ant eggs and cook until they turn white. Add the epazote. Salt to taste. Set aside. Heat the tortillas on a griddle. Spread the tortillas with guacamole; add the ant eggs previously cooked. Serve with raw green tomato sauce. Sopes with maguey worms Clean the maguey worms. In a saucepan, heat the butter and the corn oil (1). Add the maguey worms and cover the saucepan with the lid. Move

constantly until golden brown. Set aside. In a saucepan, heat the corn oil (2), fry the sopes until golden brown. Spread with guacamole and pour the maguey worms, previously cooked. Serve with tomato sauce. Raw green tomato sauce In a mortar mix the green tomatoes with the Serrano chili until smooth. Add the onion, garlic, coriander and salt. Continue mixing until smooth. Salt to taste. In case of not having a mortar, follow the same procedure in a mixer. Roasted red sauce In a griddle pan, grill the tomato, onion and serrano chili until they begin to burn. In a mortar, mix all the ingredients. Add the coriander. Mix until smooth. Salt to taste. Guacamole In a chopping board, chop the onion (1), serrano chili, coriander (1), avocado leaves and salt. Add the tomato. Add the avocado and mash it, mix well and add salt to taste. Decorate with onion (2) and coriander (2).

107 - MĂŠxico

INGREDIENTS for 6 servings

Preparation

(Cuitlacoche quesadillas, ant eggs tacos and sopes with maguey worms)


ANTOJITOS MEXICANOS

Quesadillas 335 g harina de maíz 24 g harina de trigo 1 l agua 2 l aceite 1 lechuga 250 ml crema espesa 150 g queso de canasto 100 ml salsa verde 100 ml salsa roja Cuitlacoche 30 g aceite 50 g cebolla finamente picada 1 diente de ajo finamente picado 500 g cuitlacoche fresco 1 rama de epazote Sal al gusto Taquitos de escamoles 100 g cebolla picada finamente 2 chile verde picado finamente 30 ml aceite de maíz 100 g mantequilla 400 g escamoles 20 g epazote picado finamente 5 g sal 16 tortillas taqueras Guacamole con hoja de aguacate Salsa verde cruda Sopecitos con gusanos de maguey 45 g mantequilla 30 ml aceite de maíz (1)

400 g gusanos de maguey 100 ml aceite de maíz (2) 16 sopecitos Guacamole con hoja de aguacate Salsa roja Salsa verde cruda 500 g tomate verde 85 g chile serrano 20 g cebolla 10 g ajo 30 g cilantro 5 g sal Salsa roja asada 500 g jitomate 30 g cebolla 50 g chile serrano 20 g cilantro 5 g sal Guacamole 500 g aguacate maduro 125 g tomate verde 2 Chile serrano 20 g cilantro 50 g cebolla morada 1 limón 5 g sal

Quesadillas Para la masa: mezclar las harinas con agua. Trabajar hasta formar una masa suave. Formar tortillas pequeñas. Relleno de cuitlacoche Calentar el aceite y acitronar la cebolla, el ajo y el cuitlacoche. Agregar el epazote y sazonar. Cocinar hasta que espese, enfriar y reservar. Rellenar las tortillas con la mezcla de cuitlacoche. Freír las quesadillas en aceite caliente, escurrir sobre papel absorbente y servir. Acompañar con la lechuga, crema, queso y salsas. Taquitos de escamoles Saltear la cebolla y el chile verde finamente picados en el aceite con mantequilla hasta que esté bien cocida. Agregar los escamoles y cocinar hasta que tomen un color blanco. Agregar epazote y sal. Reservar. Untar las tortillas con el guacamole y colocar encima los escamoles. Acompañar con la salsa verde cruda. Sopecitos con gusanos de maguey Calentar la mantequilla y el aceite. Agregar los gusanos y tapar, dorar moviendo constantemente. Retirar del fuego. Freír en el aceite los sopecitos hasta dorar; untar cada uno con el guacamole y acomodar los gusanos encima. Acompañar con la salsa roja

Salsa verde cruda Moler en el molcajete los tomates con los chiles hasta obtener una salsa tersa. Agregar la cebolla, ajo, cilantro y sal, continuar triturando. Sazonar. Salsa roja asada Asar en el comal o a la plancha el jitomate, cebolla y chile hasta que comiencen a quemarse. Sin quitar la piel a los jitomates, moler todo en el molcajete. Agregar las hojas de cilantro, mezclar y sazonar. Nota: en caso de no tener un molcajete se puede hacer de manera similar en la licuadora. Guacamole Cortar los aguacates en cubos y machacar con un tenedor. Agregar los tomates cortados en cubos, los chiles finamente picados, el cilantro deshojado, la cebolla finamente picada y el jugo de limón. Sazonar con sal y mezclar bien.

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INGREDIENTES para 6 porciones

PREPARACIÓN

(Quesadillas de cuitlacoche, taquitos de escamoles y sopecitos con gusanos de maguey)


CHIPILIN SEED AND HOJA SANTA TAMALES

PREPARATION Hydrate the dry chipilin seeds with water. Chop the hoja santa irregularly. Set aside. In a bowl, mix the corn dough with the pork lard and the chicken broth. Salt to taste. In a pan, pre cook the corn mixture. Add the hydrated chipilin, add the chopped hoja santa. Make small dough balls (50 g each). In a griddle pan, grill the banana leaves and cut them in squares. Set aside. Pour the corn dough in the center of the squared banana leave. Bring to center the shores of the banana leave to close the tamal. In a steamer cook the tamales during 1 hour. You could use corn leaves instead of banana leaves.

INGREDIENTES para 25 unidades 200 g chipilín seco 2 hojas Santa sin centro 1 kg masa de maíz 250 g manteca de cerdo 1 l caldo de pollo Sal al gusto 1 rollo de hoja de plátano PREPARACIÓN Hidratar el chipilín con agua. Cincelar las Hojas Santa. Reservar. Diluir la masa de maíz con manteca y caldo. Sazonar. Llevar la mezcla de masa al fuego, sin terminar la cocción retirar del fuego. Añadir el chipilín y la Hoja Santa. Formar bolitas de masa de 50g. Asar la hoja de plátano y cortar. Formar los tamales extendiendo la hoja de plátano y colocando al centro la mezcla, cerrar. Cocer al vapor durante 1 hora.

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200 g dry chipilin seeds 2 pieces hoja santa, without center 1 kg corn dough 250 g pork lard 1 l chicken broth Dash salt 1 roll banana leaves

Tamales de chipilín y hoja santa

INGREDIENTS for 25 servings


Mole poblano 1 chicken 10 g garlic (1) 50 g onion (1) Dash salt (1) 50 g ancho chili 75 g mulato chili 25 g pasilla chili 50 g pork lard (1) 30 g sesame seeds (1) 50 g pork lard (2) 30 g almonds 5 g garlic (2) 50 g onion (2) 12 piece tortilla 1 hard bolillo bread 30 g raisins 200 g red tomato 3 cloves 1 branch Cinnamon dash chicken broth 40 g pork lard (3) 1 shingle chocolate Dash sugar Dash sesame seeds (2), previously toasted Mexican rice 200 g rice Sufficient corn oil 60 g onion 10 g garlic 100 g red tomato 50 g carrot, finely chopped 50 g peas, clean and precook 400 ml chicken stock 20 g coriander Dash salt and pepper PREPARATION Mole poblano In a chopping board, cut the chicken. Warm, some water and cook the chicken with garlic (1), onion (1) and salt (1). Clean and devein the chilies. Fry them in pork lard (1) and

put them in hot water to soak. Toast the sesame seeds (1). In a saucepan, heat the pork lard (2), fry the almonds, garlic (2), onion (2), tortilla, hard bolillo bread, raisins and tomato. In a mixer, mix all the fried ingredients with cloves, cinnamon, and chicken broth. Strain the mixture and fry it in pork lard (3). Add more chicken broth if necessary. Add the chocolate and sugar. Salt to taste. Move constantly until the pork grease goes up the surface. Add chicken pieces, previously cooked. Use the sesame seeds (2) for decoration. Serve with Mexican rice. Mexican rice Immerse the rice in hot water for 5 minutes. Drain the rice and add cool it with cold water. Drain again and let it dry. In a pan, add the oil, and fry the rice until it turns light golden color. Drain the rice from the oil. In a mixer, mix the onion, garlic and tomato, drain it and add it to the rice. Move the rice until the tomato mixture has evaporated. Add the carrots and peas. Add the chicken stock and a branch of coriander. Salt to taste. Once the chicken stock started to boil, put the pan´s lid and reduce the temperature to low heat. When the chicken stock has been consumed, turn off the heat and let it couch. If the rice is not cooked when the chicken stock has been consumed, add more.

INGREDIENTES para 4-6 pax 1 pollo grande 10 g ajo (1) 50 g cebolla chica (1) Sal (1) 50 g chile ancho 75 g chile mulato 25 g chile pasilla 50 g manteca de cerdo (1) 30 g ajonjolí blanco (1) 50 g manteca de cerdo (2) 30 g almendra con cáscara 5 g ajo (2) 50 g cebolla (2) 12 tortilla de maíz 1 bolillo duro 30 g pasas 200 g tomates rojos 3 Clavos 1 rama canela Caldo de pollo 40 g manteca de cerdo (3) 1 tablilla chocolate Azúcar Ajonjolí blanco (2) Arroz a la mexicana 200 g arroz Aceite de maíz 60 g cebolla 10 g ajo 100 g tomate guaje 50 g zanahoria 50 g chícharo limpio 400 ml caldo de pollo 20 g cilantro Sal y pimienta PREPARACIÓN Cortar el pollo en piezas y cocer con ajo (1), cebolla (1) y sal.

Limpiar y desvenar los chiles. Freír en manteca (1) y poner a remojar en agua caliente. Tostar el ajonjolí. Freír en la manteca (2), las almendras con cáscara, ajo (2), cebolla (2), tortilla, pan, pasas y tomate. Moler todo esto con clavo, canela y caldo. Colar y freír de nuevo en manteca (3) añadir caldo si es necesario. Agregar el chocolate y azúcar. Rectificar el sabor y mover continuamente hasta que suba la grasa a la superficie. Agregar las piezas de pollo ya cocido y adornar con ajonjolí tostado (2). Se acompaña con arroz a la mexicana. Arroz a la mexicana Remojar el arroz en agua caliente durante 5 minutos. Refrescar. Escurrir bien. Freír en abundante aceite hasta que esté transparente y empiece a tomar color ligeramente dorado. Escurrir. Moler la cebolla, ajo y tomate guaje. Colar. Vaciar al arroz y mover hasta que esté completamente seco, teniendo cuidado de no romper los granos de arroz. Añadir las zanahorias picadas y los chícharos previamente blanqueados. Agregar el caldo, la rama de cilantro y sazonar. Al empezar la ebullición tapar el recipiente y bajar el fuego. Destapar y adicionar más caldo si hace falta, sin mover. Retirar cuando el arroz esté cocido y seco.

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INGREDIENTS for 4-6 servings

Mole Poblano

MOLE POBLANO AND MEXICAN RICE


STUFFED POBLANO CHILES IN A WALNUT SAUCE INGREDIENTS for 6 servings

In a grilled pan, grill the poblano chilis and put them in a plastic bag until they sweat. Peel them, take the seed and the veins off. Immerse them in water with salt. In a pan over medium heat, put the pork loin, add the garlic, and onion. Add the pork loin, and tomatoes. Add salt, pepper and cinnamon. Let it reduce. Add the raisins, almonds (1), acitron, peach, pear and walnuts. Put the pan´s lid and let it cook in low heat. Once cooked. Let it cool. Set aside. Fill the poblano chilis with the pork loin mixture. Peel the walnuts and emerge them in milk (1) at least for 2 hours. In a mixer, mix them with almonds (2), soft cheese, Mexican sour cream, milk (2), sweet sherry and sugar. Set aside. Serve the poblano chili with the walnut sauce on top. Decorate with pomegranate grains and parsley.

6 chiles poblanos 20 g manteca de cerdo 5 g ajo 50 g cebolla 250 g lomo de cerdo 200 g tomate 5 g sal y pimienta Canela en trozos (2 cm) 30 g pasas 30 g almendras (1) 150 g acitrón 250 ml duraznos grandes 1 pera 150 g nueces de castilla limpias 250 ml leche (1) 50 almendras (2) 80 g queso fresco 60 ml crema espesa 125 ml leche (2) 30 ml jerez dulce Azúcar 3 huevos Harina Aceite 1 granada Perejil PREPARACIÓN Asar los chiles en una parrilla y envolver para que suden. Quitar la piel, semillas y venas. Poner en agua con sal. Calentar la manteca, saltear el ajo y cebollas picados. Añadir la carne cocida y picada, el tomate pelado y picado. Sazonar con sal, pimienta y canela, dejar que seque un poco. Agregar las pasas, almendras (1), acitrón y fruta fresca picada. Tapar y dejar a fuego bajo unos minutos. Retirar y enfriar. Rellenar los chiles. Pelar las nueces y dejar en la leche (1). Colocar en la licuadora las almendras (2) con el queso fresco, crema espesa, leche (2), jerez dulce, azúcar y las almendras (1). Reservar. Batir las claras a punto de nieve, añadir las yemas y un poco de sal. Pasar los chiles por harina sacudiendo el exceso y rebosar con el huevo. Freír y escurrir. Poner los chiles en platón y cubrir con la nogada. Decorar con granada y perejil. También pueden prepararse sin rebosar, sirviéndolos un poco calientes.

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PREPARATION

Chiles en nogada

6 pieces poblano chili 20 g pork lard 5 g garlic, finely chopped 50 g piece onion, finely chopped 250 g pork loin, cooked and finely chopped 200 g red tomato, peeled and chopped Sufficient salt and pepper 1 branch (2 cm) Cinnamon 30 g raisins finely, chopped 30 g almonds (1), finely chopped 150 g acitron , finely chopped 250 g peach (big), finely chopped 1 piece pear, finely chopped 150 g walnuts, peeled and finely chopped 250 ml milk (1) 50 g almonds (2) 80 g soft cheese 60 ml mexican sour cream 125 ml Milk (2) 30 ml sweet sherry Sufficient sugar 1 piece pomegranate, peeled Sufficient parsley finely, chopped

INGREDIENTES para 6 porciones:


CAMPECHANA OCTOPUS

White rice with fried plantain 200 g rice Corn oil (1) 50 g onion, finely chopped 5 g garlic, finely chopped 1 branch parsley 0.5 l chicken stock 2 plantain 1 l corn oil (2) PREPARATION Take out the octopus ink; mix it with the dry red wine. Set aside. Cook the octopus in water with salt until tender. Set aside. In a saucepan, heat the oil; add the onion, tomatoes, bay leaf, cumin, ground whole pepper and salt. Let it cook for 5 minutes. Chop the octopus in cubes; add it to the tomato sauce. Add the mixture of octopus ink. Let it cook for 5 more minutes. Salt to taste. White rice with fried plantain Immerse the rice in hot water for 5 minutes. Drain the rice and add cool it with cold water. Drain again and let it dry. In a pan, add the oil (1), and fry the rice until it turns transparent. Drain the rice from the oil. Add the garlic and onion until they`re cooked. Add the chicken stock, a parsley branch. Salt to taste. Once the chicken stock has started to boil, put the pan`s lid and reduce the temperature to low heat. When the chicken stock has been consumed, turn off the heat and let it couch. Peel the plantains and cut in 0.5 cm slices. Fry them in hot oil (2). Serve the rice with the fry plantains on top.

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones: 1.5 kg pulpo con tinta 200 ml vino tinto seco 200 g cebolla 60 ml aceite de oliva 200 g cebolla, picada finamente 1 kg tomate rojo 2 g laurel 3 g comino 2 g sal 2 g pimienta entera molida 1 receta arroz blanco Arroz blanco con plátanos fritos 200 g arroz Aceite de maíz 50 g cebolla 5 g ajo 1 rama perejil 0,5 l caldo de pollo 2 plátanos machos 1 l aceite de maíz

PREPARACIÓN Sacar la tinta a los pulpos, mezclar esta tinta con el vino y reservar. Cocer los pulpos en agua con sal hasta que queden tiernos. En el aceite, añadir el tomate pelado y picado, sazonar con el laurel, comino, sal y pimienta. Tapar y estofar la salsa 5 minutos. Añadir los pulpos cortados en trozos chicos. Añadir la tinta con el vino. Dejar unos minutos más al fuego. Rectificar sazón. Arroz blanco con plátanos fritos Remojar el arroz en agua caliente durante 5 minutos. Refrescar. Escurrir muy bien. Freír en abundante aceite hasta que esté transparente. Escurrir. Agregar la cebolla y el ajo picado finamente. Dejar a fuego hasta que estén transparentes. Añadir el caldo, sazonar. Poner la rama de perejil. Al empezar la ebullición, tapar y bajar el fuego. Si es necesario, adicionar más caldo sin mover. Retirar cuando esté cocido y seco. Quitar la cáscara de los plátanos y cortar en rebanadas de 0.5 cm aproximadamente. Freírlos en el aceite bien caliente a que estén ligeramente dorados. Servir encima del arroz.

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1.5 kg octopus with ink 200 ml dry red wine 60 ml olive oil 200 g onion, finely chopped 1 kg red tomato, peeled and finely chopped 1 g bay leaf 1 g cumin 2 g salt 2 g ground whole pepper 1 recipe white rice with fried plantain

Pulpos a la campechana

INGREDIENTS for 4 servings


MEXICAN DESSERT TRIOLOGY

Caramel flan 150 g sugar (1) 80 ml water 480 ml milk 250 g sugar (2) 1 piece vanilla bean 4 eggs Black zapote with orange 1 kg ripe black zapote 240 ml orange juice 30 ml lime juice 50 g sugar 240 ml rum Mamey sorbet 500 g mamey 250 g sugar 250 ml water PREPARATION Caramel flan Make a clear caramel with 150 g of sugar and water. In a pan over medium heat, mix the milk, sugar, vanilla and 250 g of sugar (use a spoon the scrape the inside of the vanilla vine). Reserve. Mix the eggs and pour the hot milk little by little without stop mixing.

Put the caramel in the molds and then add the egg mixture. Put in the oven at 180°C for 45 minutes and bake at water bath (It will be ready when you introduce a knife and it comes out clean.) Fridge the molds covered until the flans are cold. Once they are cold, take off the mold letting the caramel spill by the sides. Black zapote with orange Peal the zapote and put it into the mixer. Strain. Mix the zapote with the orange and lime juices, add the sugar and the rum. Whip the cream and alternate it with de zapote mix in the glass. Fridge and serve cold. Mamey sorbet Peel the mamey, clean it and put into the mixer. Prepare a syrup with water and sugar at 105°C. Mix with the mamey puree. Put the mix in a moistened mold and freeze it.

INGREDIENTES para 8 porciones Flan de caramelo 150 g azúcar (1) 80 ml agua 480 ml leche entera 250 g azúcar (2) 1 vaina de vainilla 4 huevos Dulce de zapote negro con naranja 1 kg zapote negro maduro 240 ml jugo de naranja 30 ml jugo de limón 50 g azúcar 25 ml ron Nieve de mamey 500 g mamey 250 g azúcar 250 ml agua PREPARACION Flan de caramelo Hacer un caramelo claro con el azúcar (1) y el agua. Mezclar sobre el fuego la leche, azúcar (2) y vainilla (raspar el interior de la vaina sobre la preparación) moviendo contantemente hasta que se disuelva el azúcar. Reservar. Batir los huevos e ir agregando poco a poco la leche caliente sin dejar de batir.

Vaciar el caramelo en los moldes para flan y a continuación la mezcla de huevo. Hornear en baño María a 180°C por aproximadamente 45 minutos (estarán listos cuando al introducir un cuchillo, éste salga limpio). Refrigerar tapados. Una vez que estén bien fríos, desmoldar dejando que el caramelo escurra por los lados. Dulce de zapote negro con naranja Pelar el zapote y licuarlo. Pasar por un tamiz o coladera. Mezclar la pulpa de zapote con los jugos de naranja y limón, azúcar y ron. Mezclar bien. Refrigerar. Nieve de mamey Limpiar el mamey y licuar. Preparar un almíbar con el azúcar y el agua a punto hebra fina (105 °C). Mezclar con el puré de fruta. En un molde humedecido vaciar la preparación de mamey y congelar.

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INGREDIENTS for 8 servings

Trilogía de postres mexicanos

(Caramel flan, black zapote with orange and mamey sorbet)


CHURROS WITH HOT CHOCOLATE

Hot chocolate 100 g dark chocolate (oaxacan) 300 ml milk 100 ml water 5 g cinnamon powder 5 ml vanilla extract Sugar PREPARATION Churros Heat the water in a pot and add the butter. While the preparation is boiling, add the flour and mix until the preparation does not stick to the borders. Mix an egg with salt and add to the mixture and mix until the egg is incorporated. Put the mix into a pastry bag with a curly nozzle. Let the mix fall into boiling oil; let the churros into the oil until they get a brown color. Spread with sugar. The churros may be spread with cinnamon and sugar. Hot chocolate Chop the chocolate and put it into a pot. Reserve. Heat the milk and the water; add the cinnamon and the vanilla. Mix until the lumps are dissolved. After boiling, let it rest for 5 minutes. Put the mixture of milk in the pot that contains the chocolate. Heat to low fire for 10 minutes and keep mixing until the mix turns creamy. You may add sugar if you want.

INGREDIENTES para 8 porciones Churros 100 ml agua 45 g mantequilla 112 g harina 1 huevo Sal 2 l aceite Azúcar Chocolate caliente 100 g chocolate obscuro (de preferencia Oaxaqueño) 300 ml leche 100 ml agua 5 g canela en polvo 5 ml vainilla líquida Azúcar PREPARACIÓN Churros Calentar agua en una olla y agregar la mantequilla. Al hervir, incorporar harina de golpe y mezclar hasta que la preparación se despegue de las paredes. Retirar del fuego. Trabar un huevo con sal y agregar a la masa y mover hasta incorporar. Colocar la mezcla en una manga con duya rizada. Dejar caer la mezcla en una freidora con aceite caliente; dejar dorar los churros y escurrir. Espolvorear los churros con azúcar. Los churros se pueden espolvorear con azúcar y canela molida. Chocolate caliente Trocear el chocolate y colocar en una olla. Reservar. Calentar leche y agua, agregar canela y vainilla y mezclar hasta disolver los grumos. Al hervir dejar reposar durante 5 minutos. Verter la mezcla de leche en el recipiente con chocolate. Llevar a fuego lento durante 10 minutos sin dejar de mover hasta que la preparación quede cremosa, se puede agregar azúcar al gusto.

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Churros 100 ml water 45 g butter 112 g flour 1 egg Salt 2 l oil Sugar

Churros con chocolate caliente

INGREDIENTS for 8 servings


HORCHATA AND JAMAICA WATER

Jamaica water 100 g jamaica flower 1.5 l water 165 g sugar Ice PREPARATION Horchata water Immerse the rice in water over night (at least for two hours). Drain the rice and put it into the mixer until you get a smooth mix. Mix the rice with milk, vanilla and sugar. Serve cold and spread cinnamon powder once served. Jamaica water Boil the jamaica flower in 500 ml of water during 10 minutes. Take away from the fire, let it cold and percolate. Mix the infusion with 1.5 l of water, the sugar and ice. Serve cold.

INGREDIENTES para 6 porciones Agua de horchata 400 g arroz 600 g agua 1 l leche 10 g extracto de vainilla 100 g azúcar 15 g canela molida Agua de Jamaica 100 g flor de Jamaica 1.5 l agua 165 g azúcar Hielo PREPARACIÓN Agua de horchata Remojar el arroz en el agua durante 1 noche, o mínimo durante 2 horas. Escurrir el arroz y licuar hasta obtener una mezcla tersa. Colar. Mezclar el arroz con la leche, vainilla y azúcar. Servir fría y con canela espolvoreada. Agua de Jamaica Hervir la flor de Jamaica en 500 ml de agua durante 10 minutos. Retirar del fuego, enfriar y colar. Mezclar la infusión con 1 l de agua, azúcar y hielos. Servir fría.

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Horchata water 400 g rice 600 ml water 1 l milk 10 g vanilla extract 100 g sugar 15 g cinnamon powder

Agua de horchata y agua de jamaica

INGREDIENTS for 6 servings


PERÚ


Vision To be a leader in educating high-quality, ethical professionals, according to national and international Standards. Mission To shape competent entrepreneurial professionals who are socially responsible and capable of performing successfully, both domestically and internationally. USIL professional education model Competence-based education The USIL Competence-Based Education Model entails five fundamental principles in order to guarantee educational quality: learning geared toward acquiring competences centered on the students as the nucleus of an integrated curricular design that comprises new teaching methodologies, new forms of assessment and a new role for educators that places priority on excellence and the development of a culture of assessment, innovation and continuous improvement. This model focuses on bilingual entrepreneurial education with a business orientation that provides a solid foundation of social responsibility, as well as ethical and moral principles, for the purpose of generating and executing creative, productive, technical and social proposals that contribute to the country’s sustainable development. Bilingual education

Education in business management Over the ten academic semesters, our study methods and programs employ the latest professional education techniques with a business approach, in order to direct our majors toward the creation and management of companies. For this reason, our curricular structure includes management courses with key tools for generating added value in and outside a company. Our majors are directed toward the creation and management of companies.

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USIL has developed a curriculum that includes courses required for different majors taught in English, as well as an intensive English language program, for the purpose of producing bilingual entrepreneurial professionals who are able to read and write, conduct research work, prepare cases and master the vocabulary associated with their majors in English. USIL graduates are prepared to compete professionally and to conduct business not only in Peru, but in other parts of the world as well.


Peruvian gastronomy P

eruvian gastronomy comes from the fusion of many different Pre-Hispanic cultures and ingredients. Its diversity includes influences from European, African and Asian cultures who arrived in Peru at the time of the Spanish conquest and subsequent period of Independence as all other aspects that continue to transform our history to this day. Peruvian gastronomy is dynamic and it combines flavors, seasonings, techniques, habits and customs. Ancient Pre-Hispanic civilizations and their knowledge of food, the beliefs, rituals and food preservation techniques have great deal to do with the dawn of our cuisine. These ancient civilizations domesticated a wide variety of plants and animals for human consumption and they are now part of our wealth of ingredients. Pre-Hispanic cuisine, primarily Andean cuisine, was based on food preservation techniques such as salting, dehydrating and drying. The Spanish conquest brought about fusion and new culinary techniques, instruments and ingredients with which Peruvian gastronomy began its transformation. Products such as sugar cane, onions, garlic, olives, wheat, rice, poultry, pigs and cattle were introduced. All of these have been essential to creating Peruvian cuisine as we know it today. During the late 18th century and as a result of the country’s Independence, a fusion of all these influences brought the development of the authentic Peruvian gastronomy. During this period, convents played an important role in recreating and adapting foreign recipes with the use of local ingredients. Spanish and Africans adapted their traditional dishes using American ingredients. Meanwhile, Creoles incorporated foreign ingredients to their Pre-Hispanic recipes and added local ingredients to European dishes.

Toward the 19th century, Peru had already developed a creole cuisine, understood to mean its own “national” cuisine, as a result of this dynamic fusion we have been discussing. But this Creole cuisine refers to cuisine pertaining to Lima, located on the central coast of Peru, and not representative of the whole country. Peru has three large geographic regions, which distinctly mark differences in its cuisine: the coast, the tropic forest and Andean mountain region. At the same time, these regions are again divided according to their northern, central and southern locations. The coast is differentiated from other regions by its valleys and its proximity to the Pacific Ocean. It is characterized by dishes prepared with seafood and fish, such as the famous CEVICHE. The best limes for preparing cebiche are grown in the northern coastal valleys, especially in Piura. Rice, an Asian ingredient, is

also widely grown here. Rice is essential for preparing the traditional arroz con pato (duck and rice). Shrimp is caught in the southern coastal rivers, mainly in Arequipa, and used to prepare chupe de camarones (a freshwater shrimp cioppino or chowder). The mountain region, geographically and culturally defined by the Andes, is the center of our Pre-Hispanic civilizations. In its numerous and varied ecological zones, ancient Peruvians grew crops that changed world gastronomy and laid the foundations for Peruvian cuisine. A wide variety of tubers, grains and cereals are grown there. One of the most important dishes in the Andes is the pachamanca. The name comes from the Quechua language words “pacha” or earth and “manca” or pot. This dish is prepared using a Pre-Hispanic technique that consists of digging a hole in the ground, inserting a bed of hot stones and placing different types of meats seasoned with aji pepper and various native herbs such as chincho and huacatay, among others. Potatoes, sweet potatoes, ocas, broad beans and corn are also added and may include cheese and plantains, depending on the region. All of these ingredients are covered with banana leaves, cloth and earth and then cooked this way for several hours. The cuisine from the Peruvian Amazon tropical forest region is perhaps the least known despite the fact it comprises the largest land area of the Peruvian territory. The Peruvian Amazon jungle is one of the areas with the largest degree of biodiversity in the world and this is reflected in its cuisine. It has a wealth of tropical fruit, river fish and wild animals. Bananas are one of the most important foods in the region. They are used in place of bread or rice and eaten in a wide number of dishes and at different stages of ripening. Cassava or yuca is another essential food staple from the tropical forest. There are white and yellow versions and they are consumed boiled or fried. Yuca starch is used in preparing sweets, such as rosquetes and ñutos. Masato, a traditional fermented drink (chicha) is also prepared with yuca. One of the most popular dishes from the Amazon tropical forest is the juane. There are countless varieties of this dish, depending on the place. The juane is a mixture of rice, eggs, regional coriander, turmeric and chicken wrapped in bijao leaves and then boiled. But there are ingredients employed in every cuisine throughout the entire country; ingredients such as aji peppers that give our cuisine its distinctive flavor. The yellow aji pepper, also called green aji pepper, is an aromatic, fruity and not overly heat bearing aji pepper which is used raw or cooked, in seasonings, sauces and stews. When dried, the yellow aji pepper is called the mirasol aji pepper. The panca aji pepper is reddish is color and is almost always used in its dry, rehydrated and cooked form. Currently, Peruvian cuisine is quite popular around the world and is increasingly becoming more available to food lovers on an international scale. Creole cooking has taken on new forms, such as the Novo Andean cuisine and Amazon tropical forest cuisine. In summary, Peruvian gastronomy is constantly developing with new influences while continuing to reassert its tradition.


La Gastronomía Peruana a gastronomía peruana es el resultado de un gran mestizaje entre las culturas e insumos prehispánicos; las influencias de los europeos, africanos y asiáticos que llegaron al Perú con la Conquista y la Independencia, y los demás aspectos que siguen transformando nuestra historia hasta hoy. La gastronomía peruana es dinámica y fusiona sabores, sazones, técnicas, hábitos y costumbres. Las ancestrales culturas prehispánicas y sus conocimientos sobre los alimentos, las creencias, los ritos y las técnicas de conservación tienen mucho que ver con el inicio de nuestra culinaria. Dichas culturas domesticaron una gran diversidad de plantas y animales que conforman parte de nuestra riqueza actual de insumos. Por ejemplo, la papa fue uno de los cultivos más importantes en aquel entonces (el Perú cuenta con aproximadamente 3000 variedades de papa, de toda clase de formas y colores). También cultivaron productos que actualmente se utilizan en todas las cocinas del mundo como el maíz, la quinua, la kiwicha, el maní y el ají. La cocina prehispánica, primordialmente andina, se basó en las técnicas de conservación de alimentos como el salado, el deshidratado y el secado. Con la Conquista llegó el mestizaje y las nuevas técnicas culinarias, los instrumentos y los ingredientes con los que la gastronomía peruana empezó su transformación. Se introdujeron productos como la caña de azúcar, la cebolla, el ajo, el olivo, el trigo y el arroz, y animales como gallinas, cerdos y reses. Todos ellos imprescindibles para concebir la cocina peruana tal y como la conocemos hoy. A finales del siglo XVIII y con la independencia es que se lleva a cabo la fusión mestiza de todas estas influencias y comienza el desarrollo de la verdadera gastronomía peruana. Una cocina que sintetiza, que se enriquece de diversas fuentes y que cuenta con a un comensal que ya no come para vivir sino que vive para comer. Durante este periodo, los conventos cumplieron un papel importante recreando y adaptando preparaciones extranjeras con los insumos locales. Los españoles y los africanos adaptaron sus platos tradicionales con los ingredientes americanos. Los criollos, por su parte, incorporaron ingredientes foráneos a las recetas prehispánicas e ingredientes locales a las comidas europeas. Hacia el siglo XIX el Perú ya cuenta con una cocina criolla entendida como “nacional”, resultado de este mestizaje dinámico del que venimos tratando. Pero esta cocina criolla se refiere a una cocina limeña de la costa central del Perú no de todo el Perú. El Perú tiene tres grandes regiones geográficas que marcan diferencias en su cocina: la costa, la selva y la sierra. A su vez, estas regiones están divididas en norte, centro y sur. La costa está marcada por sus valles y su cercanía al océano Pacifico. Se caracteriza por sus platos a base de mariscos y pescados, como el famoso cebiche (que no podría prepararse sin el limón sutil que llegó desde oriente a Europa). En los valles de la costa norte, sobre todo en Piura, se produce el mejor limón para hacer cebiche y también abundante arroz, ingrediente de origen asiático, imprescindible para la preparación del tradicional arroz con pato. Este plato combina el arroz con el pato oriundo de la zona, el nativo zapallo loche y la chicha de jora. De los ríos de los valles costeños del sur, principalmente de Arequipa, provienen los camarones con los que se prepara el chupe de camarones, una sopa contundente de origen prehispánico, hecha con huacatay, ají, verduras, leche y queso. La sierra, definida geográfica y culturalmente por los andes, es el centro de nuestras culturas prehispánicas. En sus diversos pisos ecológicos los antiguos peruanos domesticaron alimentos que cambiaron las cocinas del mundo y que sentaron las bases de la cocina peruana. Allí se producen una gran variedad de tubérculos, granos y cereales. Variedades de papa, camote, oca, mashua, maca, maíz, quinua, kiwicha, tarwi, cebada, trigo, etc. que se consumen a diario en sus preparaciones locales.

Una de las preparaciones más importante de los andes es la pachamanca cuyo nombre proviene de los vocablos quechua “pacha” o tierra y “manca” u olla. Este plato se hace con una técnica prehispánica que consiste en cavar un hoyo en la tierra en el cual se ponen piedras calientes y diferentes carnes aderezadas con ají, chincho, huacatay y otras hierbas; tubérculos como papas, camotes y ocas; habas y choclos, y quesos y plátanos dependiendo de la región. Todos estos ingredientes se cubren con tierra, hojas de plátano y telas, y se dejan cocinar por algunas horas. La cocina de la selva o de la Amazonia peruana es la menos conocida a pesar de que la mayor parte del territorio peruano es selva amazónica. La Amazonia peruana es una de las zonas con mayor biodiversidad del mundo y eso se refleja en su cocina. Es rica en frutas tropicales, peces de río y animales silvestres, muchos de ellos desconocidos para los que no pertenecen a estas regiones. El plátano, fruta de origen asiático y africano, es uno de los alimentos más importantes en la región. Reemplaza al pan o al arroz y se come en infinidad de preparaciones y en distintos estados de madurez. La yuca es otro alimento importante de la selva. Las hay blancas o amarillas y se comen sancochadas o fritas. El almidón de yuca se utiliza para preparar dulces como rosquetes y ñutos. El masato, una bebida tradicional fermentada (chicha) también se prepara con yuca. Uno de los platos más conocidos de la Amazonía es el juane. De acuerdo a la localidad, existen infinitas variedades de esta preparación. El juane de arroz es una mezcla de arroz, huevos, culantro regional, palillo y gallina envuelta en hojas de bijao y sancochado. También hay juanes de yuca con paiche, de chonta, el avispa juane (con arroz y carne molida) y el nina juane (sin arroz). Sin embargo, hay ingredientes que se usan en todo el territorio peruano como el ají. Nuestros ajíes le dan a nuestra cocina su sabor característico. El ají amarillo, también llamado verde, es un ají aromático, frutal y poco picante que se usa cocido o crudo, en aderezos, salsas y guisos. Es el ingrediente principal de la popular salsa a la huancaína y del ají de gallina. Cuando el ají amarillo se seca se le llama ají mirasol. El ají panca es un ají colorado que casi siempre se usa seco, rehidratado y cocido. Es la base para la mayor parte de aderezos de la cocina criolla y da el característico color rojizo a los guisos y sopas. Actualmente la cocina peruana goza de mucha popularidad en el mundo y está internacionalizándose. La cocina criolla ha tomado nuevas formas, por ejemplo existe una cocina llamada Novo andina y se está descubriendo la cocina amazónica. En suma, la gastronomía peruana se transforma constantemente con nuevas influencias y a su vez reafirma su tradición.

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Garnish 4 leaves of american iceberg lettuce 180 g corn kernels 30 g sugar 10 g anise seeds 60 g parboiled sweet potatoes PREPARATION Soften, wash and sanitize the limes, cut them in half and cover with cold water, leave alone for 10 minutes, drain and then squeeze out the lime juice. Chop the deveined limo chili pepper into a very fine Brunoise. Cut the onion in feather slices and wash in plenty of cold water Cut the fish fillet into cubes. Parboil the corn in acidulated water with sugar and anise. Parboil the sweet potatoes. Wash, disinfect lettuce and drain water from the lettuce leaves. Place the fish in a bowl. Add salt, pepper, minced garlic, aji limo, and monosodium glutamate. Combine, add the lime juice and the feather cut onions, mix well and serve. Presentation Serve on a cold plate. Decorate with a lettuce leaf accompanied with some boiled sweet potatoes and corn kernels. Serve your ceviche immediately after it is prepared. Odds and ends and Andean fried corn nuts.

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones 600 g filete de corvina o lenguado 300 ml zumo de limón 10 g ajos pelados molidos 20 g sal 10 g pimienta negra 4 g ajinomoto (glutamato mono sódico) 1 unid ají limo 100 g cebolla roja Acompañamiento 4 hojas lechuga americana 180 g choclo desgranado 30 g azúcar 10 g anís en grano 60 g camote sancochado PREPARACIÓN Ablandar, lavar y sanitizar bien los limones, cortar por la mitad y cubrir con agua fría; dejar 10 minutos, escurrir y exprimir el jugo. Picar en brunoise muy fino, el ají limo desvenado. Picar la cebolla en pluma y lavar con abundante agua fría. Picar el filete de pescado en cubos. Sancochar el choclo en agua acidulada, con azúcar y anís. Sancochar el camote. Lavar desinfectar y escurrir las hojas de lechuga. Colocar en un tazón el pescado. Añadir sal, pimienta, ají limo, ajos y ajinomoto. Combinar y agregar luego el jugo de limón y la cebolla en pluma; mezclar bien y servir. Presentación Servir en plato frio. Decorar con hoja de lechuga, y acompañar con camote sancochado y choclo desgranado. Servir el ceviche al momento de su preparación. Se puede acompañar también con papa o yuca sancochada, zarandaja o cancha serrana frita.

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INGREDIENTS for 4 servings 600 g fillets of corvina, or lenguado (Sea bass or sole) 300 ml of squeezed lime juice 10 g ground peeled garlic 20 g salt 10 g black pepper 4 g ajinomoto (monosodium glutamate) tenderizer 1 unit aji limo (limo chili pepper) 100 g red onions

Ceviche de pescado

FISH CEVICHE


Potatoes to huancaina INGREDIENTS for 4 servings

PREPARATION The Cream Sauce Wash and disinfect the yellow chili peppers and onions. Clean the chili peppers and devein. Chop the onions and chili peppers into a mirepoix. Mash the soft Andean fresh cheese with a fork. Garnish Separate lettuce leaves, wash and disinfect. Parboil potatoes in cold water with salt. Cook hardboiled eggs and cut into quarters. Cut the cheese into 4 thick rectangles. Heat up a frying pan with oil and sauté the chili peppers with the onion in mirepoix. Blend both together with a bit of soda crackers and evaporated milk until it turns into a slightly thick cream. Transfer to a bowl and add the Andean fresh cheese that was previously mashed with a fork. Check and adjust the seasoning, cover the surface with a thin coat of vegetable oil. Presentation Arrange a leaf of lettuce on a cold plate, on top of the leaf place a whole potato or two halves of one potato and cover with the cream. Then decorate with a slice of the hardboiled egg, an olive and a piece of cheese. Use gloves to prevent allergies or poisoning and also to avoid irritation to your hands. If you wish to serve this sauce warm, you will need to add a milk based cream and use to serve over pastas and risottos. Keep in a cool place because this sauce can turn sour.

150 g ají amarillo 80 g cebolla roja 125 ml aceite vegetal 20 g galleta de soda 250 ml leche evaporada 220 g queso fresco salado 8 g sal 3 g pimienta Acompañamiento 30 g (4 unds) aceituna negra 130 g huevo sancochado en cuartos 100 g queso fresco 4 hojas lechuga criolla 4 unds papa amarilla grande 30 g sal

PREPARACIÓN Crema Lavar y desinfectar los ajíes y cebollas. Limpiar el ají de pepas y venas. Picar la cebolla y ají en mirepoix. Machacar el queso fresco con un tenedor. Acompañamiento Deshojar la lechuga, lavar y desinfectar. Sancochar las papas a partir de agua fría con sal. Cocer los huevos a duro y cortar en cuartos. Cortar el queso en cuatro rectángulos gruesos. Calentar una sartén con aceite y saltear el ají con la cebolla en mirepoix. Licuar ambos con un poco de galleta de soda y leche evaporada hasta que se vuelva una crema ligeramente espesa. Pasar a un tazón y agregarle el queso fresco previamente desmenuzado con un tenedor. Rectificar la sazón y reservar al frío, cubrir la superficie con una capa delgada de aceite vegetal. Presentación En un plato frío disponer una hoja de lechuga, colocar encima la papa entera o partida en dos y cubrir con la crema. Colocar una tajada de huevo, una aceituna y un trozo de queso. Usar guantes para evitar alergias e intoxicaciones, y que no piquen las manos. Si se desea utilizar como salsa caliente debe agregársele crema de leche y sirve para pastas y rissotos. Mantener en un lugar fresco ya que se puede avinagrar.

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Garnish: 30 g (4 units) black olives 130 g hardboiled egg, cut into quarters 100 g andean unaged salted cheese 4 creole lettuce leaves 4 large yellow potatoes 30 g salt

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones

Papa a la huancaina

150 g yellow chili peppers 80 g red onions 125 ml vegetable oil 20 g soda crackers 250 ml evaporated milk 220 g andean unaged salted cheese 8 g salt 3 g pepper


600 g of a whole chicken breast together with the bone and skin 4 stalks of celery 220 g leek 220 g red onion 300 g carrots 150 ml vegetable oil 200 g red onion 40 g peeled garlic 120 g yellow pepper paste 100 g mirasol chili pepper paste 0.5 g black pepper 0.5 g cumin 30 g salt 4 slices from a loaf of bread 140 ml evaporated milk 140 g peeled nuts 4 units (800 g) large yellow potatoes 130 g (2 units) hard boiled eggs 40 g parmesan cheese 4 units seedless black olives

PREPARATION Chop and prepare the aromatic garnish into a mirepoix. Parboil the chicken breast in plenty of water with an aromatic garnish made with celery, leek, red onions and carrots. Soak the bread slices in milk and blend. Chop the onion and garlic into a mini brunoise. Finely grate the parmesan cheese. Cook garnish on slow heat until golden and add the liquid base and when it comes to a boil season with salt and pepper. Add the chicken and

leave to cook. Toast the nuts and grind them in with a pestle and mortar. Parboil the yellow potatoes skins on, putting them first in a pot filled with cold water and a good tablespoon of salt. Prepare eggs as hardboiled eggs, and then cut into quarters. Prepare a base seasoning in a hot pan with a bit of oil and then add yellow chili pepper paste, mirasol chili pepper paste, ground pepper and nutmeg. Cook the base seasoning well and incorporate the thickly shredded cooked chicken. Mix well with the garnish and gradually add the blended bread (as needed) and a bit of chicken broth. Let cook and add the previously toasted finely chopped pecans. Adjust salt seasoning to taste and serve. Presentation On a hot flat plate, serve the cooked yellow potatoes cut into halves; cover with the yellow chili pepper chicken stew, decorate with grated parmesan cheese, hardboiled egg, olive and chopped toasted nuts. Aji de gallina is served with potatoes or rice but it is also commonly served with both garnishes The chicken should be shredded thickly to provide better texture to this stewed sauce.

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones 600 g pechuga de pollo entera con hueso y piel 4 tallos apio 220 g poro 220 g cebolla roja 300 g zanahoria 150 ml aceite vegetal 200 g cebolla roja 40 g ajos pelados 120 g pasta de ají amarillo 100 g pasta de ají mirasol 0.5 g pimienta negra 0.5 g comino 30 g sal 4 rebanadas de pan de molde 140 ml leche evaporada 140 g nueces peladas 4 unds (800 g) papa amarilla grande 130 g (2 unid) huevo duro 40 g queso parmesano 4 unds aceituna negra s/pepa PREPARACION Picar en mirepoix la guarnición aromática Sancochar la pechuga de pollo en abundante agua con una guarnición aromática de apio, poro, cebolla roja y zanahoria. Remojar el pan de molde con la leche y licuar. Picar la cebolla y ajos en mini brunoise. Rallar fino el queso parmesano Sudar la guarnición y darle color dorado agregar el fondo y cuando hierva condimentar con sal y pimienta. Agregar el pollo y dejar cocinar.

Tostar las nueces y moler en mortero. Sancochar las papas amarillas con su cascara a partir de agua fría con una buena cucharada de sal. Cocer los huevos a duro y partir luego en cuartos. En una olla caliente con un poco de aceite elaborar un aderezo básico y luego agregar pasta de ají amarillo, pasta de ají mirasol, pimienta y nuez moscada. Cocinar bien el aderezo e incorporar el pollo cocido desmechado grueso. Combinar bien con el aderezo y agregar el pan licuado poco a poco (solo lo necesario) y un poco de caldo. Dejar cocinar y añadir las pecanas picadas finas previamente tostadas. Rectificar la sal y servir. Presentación En plato tendido caliente servir las papas amarillas cocidas y cortadas en mitades; cubrir con el guiso, decorar con parmesano rallado, huevo duro, aceituna y nueces tostadas picadas. El ají de gallina se sirve con papas o arroz, pero es común también servirlo con ambas guarniciones. El pollo se debe desmechar grueso para darle una mejor textura al guiso.

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INGREDIENTS for 4 servings

Ají de gallina

chili chicken


BEEF HEART KABOBS

PREPARATION Blend the panca chili pepper paste together with the toasted ground oregano, garlic, red wine vinegar, salt, pepper, cumin and oil. Clear any fat and nerves from the beef heart, cut into 1 oz pieces. Marinate the meat overnight. Boil the corn in water containing sugar and anise. Parboil the potatoes and cut into thick slices. Soak the anticucho sticks in plenty of water, pierce the beef heart pieces with the sticks to form kabobs and fry in a very hot frying pan or grill with a bit of oil. Brown the potato slices on the grill. Presentation Serve on a hot flat plate and accompany with browned potatoes, hot corn and a cob and aji chili sauce. Allow the meat to marinate all night long to tenderize it for best results. If you are cooking these on the grill, be sure to soak the kabob sticks for a while so that they don’t burn when lying above the burning coals. This marinade recipe is applicable to other types of meat, only the marinade time period varies; remember that seafood and fish must be treated and cooked immediately.

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones 500 g corazón de res 80 g pasta de ají panca 15 g ajos 20 g orégano 80 ml aceite vegetal 80 ml vinagre tinto 25 g sal 5 g pimienta 5 g comino 4 palitos anticuchos 250 g papa blanca grande ½ choclo serrano 15 g azúcar 1 anís en sobre PREPARACIÓN Licuar el ají panca con el orégano tostado molido, los ajos, vinagre tinto, sal, pimienta, comino y aceite. Limpiar el corazón de grasas y nervios, picar en trozos de 30 gr. Macerar la carne en el marinado durante toda la noche. Sancochar los choclos en agua acidulada con azúcar y anís. Sancochar las papas y cortar en rodajas. Remojar los palos de anticucho en abundante agua, ensartar el corazón en los palitos y freír en sautoir o parrilla muy caliente con un poco de aceite. Dorar las papas en la parrilla. Presentación Servir en plato tendido caliente y acompañar con papas doradas, choclo caliente y salsa de ají. Dejar macerando la carne toda la noche para suavizar la carne. Si se hacen en parrilla remojar bien los palitos para que no se quemen con las brasas. Esta fórmula del adobo se aplica a otras carnes sólo varían el tiempo de maceración, tener en cuenta que mariscos y pescados será sólo en el momento de asar.

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500 g beef heart 80 g panca chili pepper paste 15 g garlic 20 g oregano 80 ml vegetable oil 80 ml red wine vinegar 25 g salt 5 g ground pepper 5 g cumin 4 sticks for beef heart kabobs 250 g large white potatoes ½ andean corn and a cob 15 g sugar 1 anise tea bag

Anticuchos de corazón

INGREDIENTS for 4 servings


200 g pork lard 300 g red onions 100 g peeled garlic 100 g mirasol chili paste 220 g panca chili paste 10 g pepper 10 g cumin 80 g salt 200 g ground peanuts 250 g pork meat 200 g beef 200 g chicken legs 400 g dry yellow potatoes 6 units cloves 1.5 l chicken or beef broth 200 g donuts 400 ml burgundy wine 200 g bitter chocolate Garnish 120 g chopped toasted peanuts 60 g bitter chocolate shavings PREPARATION Select and sort the dried potatoes and toast them in a hot frying pan. Soak them in water overnight starting the previous day or in lukewarm water for 30 to 50 minutes. Chop pork meat, chicken and beef into 100 gr. Pieces, season with salt and pepper. Wash and chop the onion into a fine brunoise. Chop or grind the garlic. Grind the toasted peanuts and donuts. Grate the chocolate.

Heat a pan with lard and fry the pieces of meat until sealed on all sides. Set aside. Prepare a base seasoning adding panca chili paste, mirasol chili paste, cumin and cloves. Cook the base seasoning mixture over low heat, then add the meat and allow them to soak up the flavors, then add dried potatoes and afterward incorporate enough liquid stock to fully cover the dried potatoes. Let cook over low heat and stir frequently to prevent it from sticking to the bottom of the pan. When the meat is cooked and tender, incorporate the ground donuts, ground peanuts, shaved chocolate and burgundy wine. Adjust seasoning to taste. Presentation Serve in a hot deep dish together with the chunks of meat. Sprinkle with thick shaved chocolate and chopped toasted peanuts. Serve with white rice. The cooking time for carapulcra is at least three hours on a slow burner and stirring frequently. The meat used in this recipe may be either pork, hen or chicken.

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones 200 g manteca de cerdo 300 g cebolla roja 100 g ajos pelados 100 g pasta de ají mirasol 220 g pasta de ají panca 10 g pimienta 10 g comino 80 g sal 200 g maní molido 250 g carne de cerdo 200 g carne de res 200 g piernas de pollo 400 g papa seca amarilla 6 clavos de olor 1.5 l caldo de pollo o res 200 g rosquitas de manteca 400 ml vino Borgoña 200 g chocolate bitter Acompañamiento 120 g maní tostado picado 60 g chocolate bitter rallado PREPARACION Escoger la papa seca y tostarla en sartén seca caliente. Dejar remojar en agua desde el día anterior o en agua tibia por 30 a 50 minutos. Picar la carne de cerdo, pollo y res en trozos de 100 g sazonar con sal y pimienta. Lavar y picar la cebolla en brunoise muy fino. Picar o moler los ajos. Moler el maní tostado y las rosquitas. Rallar el chocolate.

Calentar una olla con la manteca y sellar los trozos de carnes, reservar. Preparar un aderezo básico más ají panca y ají mirasol, la pimienta, el comino, el clavo de olor. Cocinar el aderezo a fuego lento, incorporar luego las carnes y dejar que se rehoguen, luego agregar la papa seca y después incorporar el fondo cantidad necesaria para cubrir generosamente la papa seca. Dejar cocinar a fuego lento y removiendo constantemente para evitar que se pegue en el fondo. Cuando la carne esté cocida y suave incorporar las rosquitas de manteca molidas, el maní molido, el chocolate rallado y el vino borgoña. Rectificar la sazón. Presentación Servir en plato hondo caliente junto con las presas. Espolvorear con chocolate rallado grueso y maní tostado picado. Acompañar con arroz blanco. La cocción de la carapulcra es de por lo menos de tres horas a fuego suave y moviendo constantemente. Las carnes empleadas pueden ser de cerdo, gallina o pollo.

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INGREDIENTS for 4 servings

Carapulcra

CARAPULCRA


1 tender Hen 10 g red onion 200 g carrots 150 g celery 4 l de stock liquid 6 Eggs 1 kg rice 200 g lard 8 black olives 10 g garlic 200 g red onions 30 g “Mishquina” 40 Bijao, banana or achira leaves 15 g salt 8 g ground pepper 2 coconas 8 aji charapita (Charapita chili peppers) 10 g cilantro 200 g lime PREPARATION Cut the chicken into 8 pieces. Wash, disinfect and cut the vegetables for the stock into a mirepoix. Chop the cocona and cover it in acidulated water to slow oxidation, cut the charapita chili peppers and the cilantro. Separate the eggs for the filling and the other part for beating. Prepare a base seasoning with yellow peppers adding in the cilantro and mishquina. Melt lard in a heavy bottom pot or pan and Brown the chicken pieces, adding a bit of seasoning. Add in the vegetables to until

they exude moisture, add water and let boil until the hen is tender. Withdraw the chicken pieces and in that same broth, adjust salt to taste and add the rice. Wash the bijao leaves and pass them over the hot stove burner at a certain height. (Perform this operation to soften the leaves). Cut the leaves into large pieces. Spread the rice onto a tray to cool it and add the beaten eggs and cilantro. Lightly combine. Using a small bowl or a cup, arrange two crossed leaves and place half of the rice , then the chicken piece with the hardboiled egg and a bit of seasoning, and cover again with rice. Adjust the entire leaf squeezing it a few times so that it becomes compact and tie with cooking string in a way that it turns out looking like a head. Cook the juanes in a small amount of water and covered to create humidity and steam, for 40 minutes, or until the color of the leave turns half brown. Withdraw them from the heat and place them on a rack to drain. To tie in the rice we can also use grated yucca. Cecina (local cured meat) can be added to the filling This dish can also be cooked in the oven with steam .

INGREDIENTES para 6 porciones 1 gallina tierna 10 g de cebolla roja 200 g zanahoria 150 g de apio 4 l fondo de pollo 6 huevos 1 kg arroz 200 g manteca 8 aceituna negra 10 g ajo 200 g cebolla roja 30 g mishquina 40 hojas de bijao, plátano o achira 15 g sal 8 g pimienta 2 coconas 8 ají charapita 10 g sacha culantro 200 g limón PREPARACIÓN Trocear la gallina o el pollo en 8 presas. Lavar desinfectar y cortar las verduras para el fondo en mirepoix. Picar la cocona y dejarla en agua acidulada para evitar que se oxide, cortar el aji charapita y el sacha culantro. Separar los huevos para el relleno y la otra parte batirlos. Elaborar un aderezo amarillo añadirle el sacha culantro y la mishquina. En una olla gruesa caliente derretir la manteca y dorar las presas agregarle un poco del

aderezo. Añadir las verduras sudar y agregarle el agua y dejar hervir hasta que la gallina este tierna. Retirar las presas y en ese caldo rectificar la sal y agregarle el arroz. Lavar las hojas de bijao y pasar a cierta altura sobre la hornilla caliente. (Hacer esta operación para suavizar las hojas). Cortar las hojas en trozos grandes. Extender el arroz en una bandeja para que se enfríe y añadir los huevos batidos y el sacha culantro. Combinar suavemente. Utilizando un bowl pequeño o una taza montar dos hojas cruzadas y colocar la mitad de arroz luego la presa con el huevo duro y un poco del aderezo y cubrir nuevamente con el arroz. Ajustar toda la hoja haciendo algunas presiones para que este compacto y atar con el pabilo de manera que quede como una cabeza. Cocinar los juanes en poca agua y tapado para generar humedad, por espacio de 40 minutos, o hasta que el color de la hoja cambie de color como medio marrón. Retirarlos y colocarlos en una rejilla de cabeza para que se escurran. Para ligar el arroz podemos usar también yuca rallada. Se le puede agregar al relleno cecina. También se pueden cocinar en el horno con vapor.

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INGREDIENTS for 6 servings

Juane de arroz

RICE JUANE


PURPLE CORN PUDDING

PREPARATION Boil the purple corn kernels, together with the cobs, chunks of pineapple and its skin, membrillo cut into sections, cinnamon, apple pieces and peelings. When the corn kernel bursts, strain the mixture and add sugar, sweet potato flour (dissolved in cold water) gradually until you obtain the desired consistency. Add the dried fruit, pineapple and apples cut into a brunoise and at the end, add lime (juice). Serve in cups or small dishes and top with a sprinkle of cinnamon powder.

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones 250 g maíz morado 1.5 l agua 500 g piña 125 g membrillo 100 g manzana 50 g guindones 50 g huesillo 40 g guindas 75 g harina de camote 300 g azúcar 15 ml de jugo de limón 2 canela en rama 3 clavo de olor entero 3 g canela en polvo PREPARACIÓN Hervir el maíz morado desgranado, con las corontas, cáscara y trozos de piña, membrillo cortado en trozos, canela, cáscara y trozos de manzana. Cuando el grano reviente lo colamos y se le agrega el azúcar, harina de camote (disuelta en agua fría) en hilo de a pocos hasta obtener la consistencia adecuada. Agregar los frutos secos, piña y manzanas cortadas en brunoise y al final se le hecha el limón (jugo). Servir en copas o pocillos y espolvorear canela en polvo.

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250 g purple corn 1.5 l water 500 g pineapple 125 g membrillo (Quince fruit) 100 g apple 50 g prunes 50 g dried peach 40 g cherries 75 g sweet potato flour 300 g sugar 15 ml lime juice 2 sticks of cinnamon 3 whole cloves 3 g cinnamon powder

Mazamorra morada

INGREDIENTS for 4 servings


SUSPIRO DE LIMEÑA

INGREDIENTS for 4 servings

PREPARATION Egg yolk delicacy Place the milks with a stick of cinnamon into a pan until it reaches the right consistency. Remove from the burner and add the yolks slowly in a stream, and then strain. Pisco can be added (optional). Meringue Boil the port wine with the sugar to 115 °C, then turn on the mixer and beat the egg whites. When the syrup reaches 121 °C it is added to the egg whites in a thin stream and beaten until cooled. Serve in the manjar blanco (blanc mange, milk caramel) in a cup or a bowl up to about ¾ of the way up, then decorate with the meringue in forming white peaks. This can be done with a spoon or a pastry bag. Sprinkle cinnamon. The egg yolk manjar can be combined with custard apple or chirimoya fruit pulp.

INGREDIENTES para 4 porciones Manjar de yemas: 410 g leche evaporada 400 g leche condensada 5 yemas 30 ml pisco (opcional) Merengue: 3 claras 180 g azúcar 125 ml oporto 5 g canela en polvo PREPARACIÓN Manjar de yemas Poner las leches con una rama de canela en una olla hasta que tome punto. Fuera del fuego se le agrega las yemas al hilo, y lo colamos. Se le puede agregar pisco (opcional). Merengue Hervir el oporto con el azúcar hasta llegar a 115 °C, ahí se prende la batidora con las claras. Cuando el almíbar llegue a 121 °C se echan en las claras en forma de hilo y se bate hasta enfriar. Servir en un copa o fuente el majarblanco a ¾ de altura y luego decorar con el merengue formando picos. Se puede hacer con una cuchara o con manga. Espolvorear canela. Se puede combinar el manajar de yemas con pulpa de chirimoya .

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Meringue 3 egg whites 180 g sugar 125 ml port wine 5 g cinnamon powder

Suspiro de limeña

Egg yolk delicacy 410 g evaporated milk 400 g condensed milk 5 egg yolks 30 ml pisco (optional)


Singapore


A principal provider of technical education in Singapore, Institute of Technical Education (ITE) is a national authority in developing occupational skills certification and standards. Restructured as a post-secondary education institution under the Ministry of Education in 1992 , ITE develops national-level Certification and Standards to enhance Singapore’s workforce competitiveness. Under ITE’s ‘One ITE System, Three Colleges’ Governance and Education Model, ITE Headquarters oversees system and policy issues and ensures standards, while the three Colleges, ITE College Central, ITE College East and ITE College West, are empowered to develop niches of excellence to enhance the attractiveness of an ITE education. The ITE Colleges ITE College Central, the College of Creativity and Innovation, offers niche courses in Aerospace & Marine Technology, Business, Community & Event Services, Creative Design & Interactive Media, and Engineering Design & Manufacturing Technology. At ITE College East, the College of Enterprise and Innovation, its niches lie in Beauty & Wellness, Business & Entrepreneurship, Chemical & Life Sciences, and Healthcare Services. Over at ITE College West, the College of Service and Innovation, its niche strengths are in Culinary and Hospitality Services, Land Transport, Security Technology and Service Innovation. In all three Colleges, students benefit from specialised learning centres and enjoy an authentic learning environment that simulates the industry environment. Together, the ITE Colleges offer a total of 101 courses and has trained nearly 400,000 members of Singapore’s workforce, enabling them to make significant contributions to Singapore’s economic growth and social progress. Of particular interest to the IPB Worldwide Alliance is ITE College West. Its facilities include a 22-room Training Hotel@College West, a barista training centre, and four training kitchens and restaurants, where students immerse themselves in real-life experience from their first day. These, together with a broadcasting studio, an automotive service centre, a travel agency and retail outlets, complete the College’s integrated business town concept to provide its students with a comprehensive learning experience.

ITE first added hospitality courses to its menu of courses to serve the growing demands of the service industry in 2006. Since then, its hospitality courses have grown from strength to strength. ITE currently offers courses such as Hospitality Operations, Western and Asian Culinary Arts, Pastry & Baking, Food & Beverage Operations, and a Technical Diploma in Culinary Arts. As with its other courses, ITE provides students with real-work opportunities. For this to happen, ITE forged partnerships with local industry leaders and reputable institutions overseas. One of our most notable and strategic partnerships is with Institut Paul Bocuse. ITE is the only institution outside of France to offer the Institut Paul Bocuse Diploma in Culinary Arts. Through such partnerships, ITE is able to offer young Singaporeans the opportunity to learn from the best and excel in their careers. Today, ITE continues to refine its pedagogic methods and tap upon the knowledge of its global partners to ensure rich learning experiences and education outcomes for students to help them become work ready, world ready and industry relevant.

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A ‘Hands-on, Minds-on, Hearts-on’ Pedagogic Approach


A Primer on Singapore Cuisine Melting Pot of Flavours The Singapore cuisine is very much influenced by its ethnic diversity which could be traced back to the early groups of immigrants settling on the island. These were the Chinese, Indians and Malays from the surrounding regions. Singapore’s current ethnic distribution is about 74% Chinese, 13% Malay, 9% Indian, and 3% other ethnic groups. The British colonization and rule from the nineteenth century till Singapore’s independence in 1965 resulted in the birth of other unique ethnic groups such as the Peranakans and Eurasians. Besides regional influences from Indonesia, India, China and Malaysia, western traditions (particularly English and Portuguese) are featured significantly in Singapore’s food culture, given its history. But interestingly, long before the term “fusion” became hip in the culinary world, Singaporeans were already mixing and matching in the kitchen - recipes and cooking techniques were created and recreated on account of this diversity. Chinese Chefs, influenced by Indian culture, might experiment with condiments and ingredients such as tamarind, turmeric, and ghee, while Indian chefs would serve up a noodle dish stir-fried Chinese style. With this rich multicultural heritage, Singapore has been serving up a melting pot of flavours! Street-licious Food Haven In Singapore, food is viewed as crucial to the national identity and a unifying cultural thread. Many Singaporeans unabashedly declare “eating” as their national pastime and obsession. Moreover, food is a frequent topic of conversation among Singaporeans. It is not uncommon for someone to ask “Have you eaten?” instead of “How are you?” as the de facto greeting or opening line. Nevertheless, religious dietary strictures apply, in view of Singapore’s crosscultural heritage. Muslims do not eat pork while Hindus refrain from beef, and a substantial group of vegetarians exists. As a reflection of the prevalent racial harmony, when Singaporeans eat together, they would accommodate dishes that are acceptable to all as a gesture of respect for each other’s dietary requirements.

The Singapore cuisine is essentially a street food culture. In yesteryears, most people would buy their food from vendors who had set up shop along the streets. With the development of satellite housing estates, these street vendors relocated to hawker centres or coffee shops to ensure better hygiene and management. Today, food courts operate alongside hawker centres and coffee shops. Together, they offer an immense range of cuisine, often starting as early as six in the morning and closing past midnight. But the food courts have since replaced their predecessors to become the venue of choice for daily meals among Singaporeans. The Singaporean diet consists primarily of rice or noodles as the staple diet, which may be accompanied by side dishes. Bread and other carbohydrates like potatoes are seldom incorporated into the menu for lunch and dinner, although bread is rising in popularity amongst Singaporeans. Chicken remains the most popular protein source for many as it is “neutral” in the eyes of the different ethnic groups. Being a land-scarce country, most or almost all food products are imported from all over the world. Chinese The Chinese cuisine represents one of the main players in Singapore’s gastronomic arena. The Chinese believe in combining ingredients to enhance the harmony between the yin (cold elements) and yang (hot elements) qualities of the food. Food is also appreciated for its symbolic properties, such as noodles for longevity, oysters for good fortune and fish for prosperity. Many of the dishes brought into Singapore by the early southern Chinese immigrants were adapted to suit local circumstances. The Singapore Chinese cuisine is largely derived from the food culture of the Hokkien, Teochew, Hainanese, Cantonese, and Hakka dialect groups, which form the majority Chinese groups in Singapore. The Chinese cuisine covers a wide spectrum, from these provincial versions to the more unique localised dishes such as fried carrot (radish) cake, prawn noodles or rojak (fruit salad served in prawn paste). Dim sum, roasted meats and double-boiled soups were brought over by the Cantonese, while the famous yong tau fu was contributed by the Hakkas. Teochew dishes that have withstood the test of time include steamed seafood and porridge with an array of steamed side dishes. The well-known Chilli crab is a must-try for most tourists. It is a hybrid dish, the recipe of which comprises Chinese method of cooking, Malay-styled chilli paste and Western tomato ketchup. Then there is the all-time favourite Hainanese Chicken Rice, poached chicken with flavoured rice, served with a chilli and ginger dip. Strangely, one is hard pressed to find such a dish in China’s Hainan Island.


Malay Spices and herbs – including lemon grass, curry leaves, ginger, kaffir leaves, galangal, chillies and the pungent belachan (shrimp paste) – are key ingredients in Malay cuisine. Singapore’s Malay cooking has borrowed heavily from its neigbouring countries of Malaysia and Indonesia. Satay, grilled meat on a skewer, served with peanut sauce is instantly recognisable (in most types of cuisine, skewered meats are popular – think yakitori and kebabs). The lineup will not be complete without nasi lemak (coconut flavoured rice with sambal and various condiments) and soto ayam (noodles in spiced chicken broth). Indian Like others, the Singapore Indian Cuisine is influenced by multiple ethnic groups. Dishes from both the South Indian and North Indian regions can be found in Singapore. The former includes vegetarian thosai and fiery curries enriched with coconut milk. The latter consists of milder curries, yogurtbased dishes, tandoori offerings and fluffy naan breads. Most Indian dishes are infused with flavoured spices such as cardamom, cloves, cumin, star anise, coriander and chillies.

Malaysia to be traders and colonizers, have also left an imprint on the local culinary tradition. Devil’s curry (chicken curry), feng (pig’s organs curry) and shepherd’s pie (minced beef pie) are well known dishes, especially the last which the younger generation could identify with in view of its similarity to the good old British pie. In a Nutshell As the local saying goes – “one may have a different dish each day and yet over 365 days, one would not have tried all the dishes available in Singapore” –the huge diversity in the Singapore cuisine is not only mind-boggling but simply tantalizing, making Singapore a food mecca on the global stage.

The Indian fish head curry is a fundamentally Singaporean creation, not a dish to be found in its supposed country of origin, South India. It is attributed to a Keralan chef who balked at the thought of discarding the fish head and created this dish to salvage it in the 1950s. Given the current status of fish head curry in Singapore’s gastronomic selections, he had more than redeemed it. The curry is a melange of flavourful vegetables and the prized piece is, of course, the fish cheek. The dish can be prepared by both the Chinese and Indians. Other popular local Indian-Muslim dishes are roti prata (pan-fried flat bread), murtabak (prata stuffed with minced meat, eggs and onions) and nasi briyani, a saffron rice dish with spicy chicken or mutton. These dishes go well with teh tarik (or “pulled tea”), a satisfying creamy and frothy milk tea.

Peranakan or Straits Chinese are descendants of interracial marriages between Chinese men and Malay women. Most Peranakans speak Malay, look Chinese and cook a distinct blend of Chinese and Malay cuisine. Pork, which is taboo for the Malays due to religious reasons, is featured in Peranakan cuisine. Ayam buah keluak (chicken candlenut), nonya laksa (noodles in spicy coconut gravy) and otah-otah (grilled spiced fish paste) have remained firm favourites. Eurasians, a term to describe offsprings of the mixed marriage between locals and British, Portuguese and Dutch who came to Singapore and

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Cross Cultural / Hybrid


BABI PONGTAY

INGREDIENTS for 4 portions

Vegetables 80 g bamboo shoot, sliced 60 g whole shiitake mushroom Garnish 4 green chilli, sliced

Pork Belly Cut the pork belly into 2 inches thick and marinate with sugar, salt and dark soy sauce for at least 10 minutes. Paste Heat oil in a shallow pan, combine all ingredients and stir fry till fragrant over medium heat for about 5 minutes. The dish Add the pork belly and vegetables into the paste, stir fry for 3 minutes. Add 200 ml water, bring to a boil, then simmer for 15 minutes or until pork is tender, stirring occasionally. Add in more water if it is too dry and cook for another 1 minute. Check seasoning. To present Serve in a bowl or soup plate, garnish with sliced green chilli.

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Paste 90 ml vegetable oil for cooking 260 g whole shallots, peeled and blended 10 cloves whole garlic, peeled and blended 60 g preserved bean paste 1 cinnamon stick

PREPARATION

Pork belly 800 g pork belly 15 g sugar 5 g salt 7.25 ml dark soy sauce


BUBUR CHACHA

INGREDIENTS for 4 portions Sweet potato and yam 100 g sweet potato, cut into cubes 100 g yam, cut into cubes

Sweet potato and yam Steam the sweet potato and yam for 20 minutes or until cooked. The coloured tapioca cubes Using a spatula, add boiling water to the tapioca starch in a mixing bowl, bit by bit until it becomes doughy. Mix well with a drop of red food colouring. When it can be handled with bare hands, roll into 1 cm thickness and cut into cubes. Cook in boiling water for 30 minutes or until they become translucent. Remove and soak in iced water until needed. Pandan sugar water Boil water with rock/palm sugar and pandan leaves till fragrance is released. Discard the pandan leaves. The dish Add in the sweet potato and yam together with the coloured tapioca flour cubes into the pandan sugar water and cook for 5 minutes. Lastly add in the coconut milk, stir till it combines well with the water and let it boil for another 3 minutes. To present Serve warm in a bowl or cup.

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Pandan sugar water 2 leaves pandan (screw pine) leaf 150 g rock sugar or palm sugar 400 ml water 250 ml coconut milk

PREPARATION

Coloured tapioca cubes 100 g tapioca starch 300 ml boiling water 1 drop red food colouring


CHILLI CRAB

Garnish 50 g chinese parsley (coriander)

Chilli crab sauce paste In a deep frying pan, heat cooking oil (50 ml) over medium heat until hot. Add the garlic, ginger and shallots together into the pan, stir fry till fragrant, for 15 minutes in medium heat. Once the mixture is lightly golden brown, add in the red chilli paste, stir fry for 2 minutes. Add the chilli sauce, tomato ketchup and the pineapple puree. Continuously stir fry the chilli crab Sauce for 20 minutes in low heat. Add the sugar and salt to taste. Cleaning of the mud crab Firstly cut the two claws from the whole crab, using the back of the knife gently knock the shell on a chopping broad. Insert a heavy knife between the body and shell; twist the knife firmly to separate them, so as to separate the shell from the body. Remove and discard the feathery grey gills which are attached to the side of the crab’s body, rinse the crab with water and cut the body into 4 parts equally. Wash the meat and roe inside the flaps (the brown greenish creamy roe) do not remove it as it makes a delicious sauce. The dish After the crab is clean, steam it for 8 minutes; discard the liquid from the crab after steaming. Heat up 50 ml oil in wok (or in a large frying pan), add the chilli crab sauce and stir fry for 5 minutes, add chicken stock, bring to boil. Put in the crab and simmer for 5 minutes. Add corn starch (dissolve with some water) to thicken the sauce. Once it is thicken, turn off the heat to add in the beaten egg, stir in gently. To present Serve in a plate, shape the crab back to its original way and pour the sauce over. Garnish with chinese parsley.

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Chilli crab sauce 100 ml cooking oil 100 g shallot, peeled and blended 100 g garlic, peeled and blended 100 g ginger, peeled and blended 500 g canned pineapple, blended 20 ml chilli sauce 20 ml tomato ketchup 200 g red chilli paste 20 g sugar 10 g salt 50 ml chicken stock 1 egg 50 g corn flour 50 ml water

PREPARATION

INGREDIENTS for 2 portions 1 mud crab (1.2kg & up)


CURRY FISH HEAD

Fish head and vegetables 1 fish head from red snapper or garoupa 35 g garlic, peeled, blended 30 g green chilli, blended 40 g red onion, blended 80 g tomato, blended 40 g tamarind paste* 20 g lady’s finger (okra), cut into half diagonally 40 g eggplant, sliced 800 ml water 5 g sugar (to taste) 5 g salt (to taste) * Mix the tamarind paste with 30ml water. Extract the liquid from the mixture. Garnish 20 g fresh pineapple cubes 10 g chinese parsley (coriander), leaves only

To prepare the fish head Wash fish head and pat dry. Rub salt all over and set aside for 30 minutes. Then rinse the salt off with water (to get rid of the fishy smell). To prepare curry paste In a deep frying pan, heat cooking oil over medium heat until hot. Add black mustard seed, curry leaf, dried fennel seed, chilli powder, turmeric powder, coriander powder, cumin powder, fish curry powder, stir and cook till the seeds start to pop and become fragrant. It takes about 3 minutes. To prepare the dish Over medium heat, add the blended onion, tomato, green chilli and garlic into the curry paste and fry until it starts to darken. Add tamarind water, water, coconut milk, lady’s finger and eggplant. Season with sugar and salt (to taste). Bring to a gentle boil and place the fish head into the pan. Add in more water if the gravy does not cover at least half of the fish head. Cover the pan and simmer for 10 to 15 minutes, until the flesh is opaque and flakes off easily. Spoon (bask) the gravy over the fish head a couple of times throughout the cooking process. To present Serve in a large soup plate or soup bowl, garnish with pineapple cubes and chinese parsley.

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Curry paste 100 ml cooking oil 5 g black mustard seed 20 g curry leaf 10 g dried fennel seed 5 g tumeric powder 15 g chilli powder 10 g coriander powder 10 g cumin powder 20 g fish curry powder 50 ml coconut milk

PREPARATION

INGREDIENTS for 1 portion


ICE KACANG

INGREDIENTS for 1 portions 300 g shaved ice

Coloured jelly 10 g gelatine powder 5 ml green colouring 20 ml condensed milk 20 g sugar 100 ml water Condiments 20 g nata de coco, canned 20 g corn kernel, canned 20 g kidney bean, canned 20 g palm seed fruit (sweetened, in whole) 100 ml condensed milk

Red , green and yellow sugar syrup Bring water to a boil in 3 separate pans (50 ml each), add sugar and dissolve. Add each colouring in the 3 pans, stir and set aside to cool. Palm syrup Bring water to a boil, add palm sugar and dissolve. Set aside to cool. Coloured jelly Bring water to a boil, turn off fire and add in the gelatine powder, sugar and colouring. Stir gently while adding in condensed milk. Pour the mixture into a tray, place in the refrigerator to set. Cut or shape the jelly into your preferred shape. To present Place the nata de coco, corn kernel, kidney bean and the coloured jelly, palm seed fruit on the bottom of a bowl or soup plate. Place the shaved ice on top of the ingredients. Drizzle the 3 coloured syrups over the ice, followed by palm syrup and condensed milk.

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Palm syrup 20 g palm sugar 50 ml water

PREPARATION

Sugar syrup 10 ml green colouring 10 ml red sugar colouring 10 ml yellow sugar colouring 150 ml water, divided into 3 equal parts 60 ml sugar, divided into 3 equal parts


KUEH PIE TEE

Granish 6 fresh prawn (31/40 size), peeled, cooked and halves 4 hard boiled egg, chopped or quartered 5 g chinese parsley (coriander leaves) 1 red chilli, chopped

Kueh pie tee cup batter Mix all the ingredients for making the cup batter in a bowl, stir well till smooth and put in refrigerator for 20 minutes. Kueh pie tee cup Heat a pot of oil for deep frying the cups. Use a small metal mould of any kind (the shape that you like), dip it into the hot oil for 30 seconds and then dip into the cup batter. Make sure that the batter coated all around the mould then bring it back to the oil for deep frying. Use a tooth pick to help remove the cup gently from the mould while cooking in oil, cook till golden brown and set aside. To prepare fillings Steam sausages for 5 minutes. Remove skin and dice. Set aside. Heat 30 ml of oil in frying pan. Fry dried shrimp and diced sausage and set aside. Heat remaining oil and stir fry garlic over medium heat. Add jimaca and carrots before begins to brown. Add dried shrimp and diced sausages and stir fry for a further 1 minute. Add water and allow to cook over medium-low heat for 5 minutes. Add oyster sauce, light soy sauce and white pepper powder to the mixture and mix till even. The dish Assemble the cup using chopsticks or a teaspoon to place fillings in the cups. Fillings may be served warm or room temperature. To present Top with hardboiled egg and prawns, garnish with Chinese parsley and red chilli.

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Kueh pie tee cup batter 125 g all-purpose flour 60 g rice flour 1 egg 180 ml water 250 ml vegetable oil for deep frying (use a deep pot) Fillings 300 g jicama, shredded (red crunchy apples or pears can be substitutes) 100 g carrot, shredded 1 clove garlic, chopped 60 ml vegetable oil 20 g dried shrimp, minced (soak in water for 20 minutes) 50 g chinese sausages 100 ml water 45 ml oyster sauce 15 ml light soy sauce pinch white pepper powder

PREPARATION

INGREDIENTS for 4 portions ( 1 portion = 2 cups)


Coconut rice 300 g jasmine rice 300 ml coconut milk 200 ml water 2 leaves pandan (screwpine) leaf 8 g salt Omelette 2 fresh egg, beaten 50 g onion, sliced 10 g oil Peanut & anchovies 40 g raw peanut 40 g dried anchovy 100 g oil Chicken wings 4 chicken wing 10 g turmeric powder 10 g coriander powder 5 g cumin powder 5 g five spice powder 5 g paprika powder 5 g garlic chopped 10 g oyster sauce 5 g sesame oil 5 g light soya sauce 5 g white pepper 5 g salt Sweet sambal tumis 200 g dried chilli 50 g belacan 1 fresh chilli 1 bird eye’s chilli 10 whole shallot, peeled

2 onion, peeled 50 g ginger, peeled 50 g galangal, peeled 10 whole garlic, peeled 50 ml oil 20 g tamarind 30 ml tamarind Water* 50 g sugar 100 ml water 10 g salt *Mix the tamarind paste with 30 ml water. Extract the liquid from the mixture. Rempah kuning paste 10 g candlenut, roasted 60 g galangal, peeled 1 stalk Lemon grass, mashed 5 g chilli paste 5 g whole shallots, peeled 5 g belacan Otah otah 200 g fish meat (Mackerel), minced 10 g salt 10 g sugar 100 ml coconut milk 1 fresh egg 5 g white pepper powder 20 ml oil 10 g coriander powder 30 g turmeric powder 4 leaves banana leaf GARNISH 2 leaves banana leaf, cleaned and blanched (refer to otah otah preparation method)

Coconut rice Wash the rice thoroughly and drain well. Add in coconut milk, pandan leaf and salt; steam for 25 minutes. After the rice is cooked, let it rest for 10 minutes before removing from steamer. Omelette Heat up frying pan with oil. Stir fry the onion till golden brown, then add in egg, cook till golden brown on both sides. Cut the omelette into desired shape. Peanut and dried anchovies Heat up the oil and deep-fry peanut and dried anchovies till crispy and golden brown. Drain and let it cool. Chicken wing Marinate the chicken with all the ingredients for at least 2 hours. Heat up the oil and deep – fry chicken wings till golden brown, drain and set aside. (use the same oil for the peanut & anchovies) Sweet sambal tumis Cut the dried chilli into 2-3 pieces. Boil in hot water for 5 minutes. Drain and discard the seed for a less spicy version. Toast belacan in a frying pan, chopping and breaking it till powdery and aromatic. Blend the toasted belacan, dried chilli, fresh chilli, shallot, onion, ginger, galangal and garlic with 80 ml water till smooth to form a paste. Stir fry the paste over medium

heat in a wok without oil for 5-10 minutes until slightly dried. Add in cooking oil; continue stirring over low heat for 30-40 minutes. The chilli paste will turn darker. Once the oil is separated from the paste, add in tamarind water, salt and sugar, and continue to stir for another 5-10 minutes, and set aside. Rempah kuning paste Mix and blend all ingredients till smooth. Otah otah Clean and blanch banana leaf in boiling water to soften for 3 minutes, drain and wipe dry. Trim to 20 cm wide x 23 cm long. Mix all ingredients and rempah kuning paste into the fish paste till smooth. Divide the mixture into 4 equal portions. Wrap each of the otah otah portion with banana leaves and secure with tooth picks at both ends. Steam the packets for 15 minutes and leave it to cool. When cool, grill the packet for 5 minutes to release the banana leaf fragrance. To present Lay the banana leaf (same size as the plate) on a plate; place the coconut rice in the centre of the plate. Assemble the omelette, peanuts, anchovies, chicken wing, otah otah and sambal tumis around the rice.

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INGREDIENTS for 4 PORTIONS

PREPARATION

NASI LEMAK


YU SHENG INGREDIENTS for 4 portions

*To make the preserved vegetable, just sprinkle 20g of sugar and colorings to cover the vegetables and leave overnight. Squeeze out the water and set aside. Yu sheng sauce 30 g plum sauce, concentrated 15 g lemon sauce, concentrated 7.5 g white vinegar Fragrance oil 120 ml vegetable oil 120 g shallot, sliced Garnish 120 ml fragrance oil 52.5 g yu sheng sauce 150 g wolf-herring fish, raw and thinly sliced 1 lime 200 g spring roll cracker 4 g white pepper powder 4 g cinnamon powder 20 g red chilli, strips 10 g chinese parsley (coriander) 20 g lime leaf, strips 20 g spring onion, strips 40 g pomelo, pulp 40 g peanut, toasted and crushed 40 g sesame seed, toasted

Carrots Use the vegetable turner to slice into long strips. Wash carrots separately under running water for 5 minutes. Let the carrots soak in water until crisp and drain the water. Place in a perforated tray and cover with a clean damp cloth. Fragrance oil Place vegetable oil an shallot in a pot and cook over medium heat. Cook for 10 minutes or until fragrance is released. Set aside to cool. Yu sheng sauce Mix plum sauce, lemon sauce and white vinegar in a bowl. Set aside. To present Serve on a large round plate. The order of arrangement - place white carrot in the centre of the plate, green carrot on top and orange carrot on top of green carrot. Place the preserved vegetables, pomelo pulp, peanuts and sesame seeds around the white carrots. Garnish with red chilli, chinese parsley, lime leaf and spring onion strips on top of orange carrrot. Serve with fragrance oil, yu sheng sauce, wolf –herring fish, (squeeze lime juice on fish when serving), spring roll cracker, white pepper powder and cinnamon powder. Guests to toss and mix everything well before consuming. Note: This is a communal dish meant to be consumed with others. The belief is that the height of the toss reflects the height of the diner’s growth in fortune/prosperity.

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*Preserved vegetables 40 g preserved mixed melon strip 40 g preserved black melon strip 40 g preserved ginger strip 40 g preserved leek strip 40 g preserved lime strip 40 g preserved gourd wax strip

PREPARATION

Carrots 100 g carrot, peeled and cut into long strips 400 g white carrot (White radish), peeled and cut into long strips 200 g green carrot (Green radish), peeled and cut into long strips


South Africa


A deep-seated passion for the industry underscores everything The Hurst Campus stands for. Students are taught and mentored by a dedicated group of superbly qualified and experienced lecturers who embrace teaching as a way of life, and employ the most modern teaching techniques. They, and the rest of their team of professional industry specialists, actively encourage and cultivate individual talent among students, along with excellent communication skills, a sound work ethic and a strong social conscience - ensuring that students here grow and evolve tremendously as people during their time on campus. This shines through in the calibre of alumni who have made it to the top of their game, among them South Africa’s celebrity chef Chris Erasmus of famed Pierneef à La Motte Restaurant in Franschhoek, renowned chef, entrepreneur and television personality Jono Proudfoot, Executive Chef Tiaan van Greunen at Reubens at the Robertson Small Hotel and entrepreneur Xoliswa Tyeya, the owner of Xsitefoods. This ‘hip and happening’ tertiary training centre offers students an unrivalled education in a unique winelands setting, where they are nurtured and guided to become industry-ready graduates, who are soughtafter by local and international employers because of their academic and practical excellence. Students may opt to complete The Hurst Campus’ multi-faceted 3-Year Diploma in Hospitality Management Course, or a City and Guilds 2-Year Diploma in Food Preparation and Patisserie Course for aspiring Chefs.

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The Hurst Campus (previously known as The Culinary Academy) is the first and only African member of the Worldwide Alliance of the Institut Paul Bocuse. This internationally accredited hospitality training institution has a solid reputation spanning 15 years as one of the best on the African continent. Based in the Cape winelands - South Africa’s ‘gourmet triangle’ of Stellenbosch, Paarl, and Franschhoek, The Hurst Campus is seated in the heart of its deeply rooted French Huguenot heritage. As a proud ambassador for warm, South African hospitality, The Hurst Campus encourages its students to explore the robust flavours and styles of South Africa’s ‘rainbow cuisine’ - a unique fusion of culinary influences ranging from French, Cape Malay and Cape Dutch, to traditional African and Boerekos (farm) fare.


Rainbow cuisine South Africa is known as the ‘Rainbow Nation’ because of its multicultural diversity, with various groups venturing down the continent to South Africa during previous centuries. As it is a fusion of African, Dutch, English, French, German, Indian and Malay, it is no wonder that the cuisine in South Africa has fondly become known as ‘rainbow’ cuisine. No matter what part of the world you are from, there is a culinary influence that will appeal to everyone.

delicacies such as soetkoekies (salt biscuits), Melktert (Milktart) koeksister (fried cruller) and Malva Pudding. Van Riebeeck planted vegetable gardens and fruit trees as well as grapes. To this day there are still segments of his wild almond hedge in the Botanical gardens in Kirstenbosch, a lush suburb of Cape Town and former farm at the base of Table Mountain. His culinary and botanical influence changed the region forever.

It is believed that around 10 000 BC, indigenous tribes originating from central Africa began introducing domestic cattle and grain crops in the southern regions of South Africa to the Khoisan people – believed to be our earliest inhabitants. The spread of cattle amongst Khoisan groups offered the availability of fresh meat on demand. The precolonial diet consisted primarily of cooked grains, especially sorghum, fermented milk (similar to yogurt) and roasted or stewed meat. Tribes kept sheep and goats, and the men would often go hunting for game. Beef however was always held in the highest regard and the ribs, being a prized part of the cattle, were often offered to the chief of the tribe. The Khoisan also used ‘foods from the field’ and one of their favourites was “waterblommetjies” (a small flower found growing in dams) which they used to cook Bredie (stew). It’s since become a traditional food in South Africa.

One cannot read a South African menu without noticing the obvious Dutch culinary presence, that became intrinsic to Afrikaner fare as time passed. This is especially evident among baked goods such as desserts that are an integral part of a South African meal. With names like ‘Soetkoekies’ (sweet cakes) and ‘Krakelinge’ (cracklings) and ‘Klappertert’ (coconut tart), it’s easy to see the influence from Holland, even though this sister-country is thousands of miles away. Cakes, pies, and custards are among the most desserts, with melons such as honeydew, watermelon, and cantaloupe, also popular, as are fruit-based ice creams.

In the 1600s, the Dutch grew tired of the Portuguese’s monopoly of the spice route in Asia. The Dutch East India Company was founded and shortly thereafter they too were trading with East Asia. In 1649 a recommendation by the Directors of the Dutch East India Company was made, to establish a refreshment station at the Cape of Good Hope (now Cape Town). This station would allow passing ships to stop en route to Asia. The Directors praised the fertility of the land in Table Bay which they viewed as ideal for growing fresh fruit and vegetables as well as the ‘friendliness’ of the indigenous farmers, who would supply fresh meat. In 1652 Dutch colonial administrator Jan van Riebeeck, who is widely regarded as the founder of Cape Town, landed with his crew at the Cape of Good Hope and began setting up their refreshment station. They brought along with them a strong Dutch culinary influence and introduced locals to

The relationship between the local inhabitants, mostly the Khoi, the San and the Dutch began to sour, partly because of the Dutch entrapping and driving the locals away from their fertile land. The Dutch East India Company decided to cut their losses with the locals and began shipping in thousands of slaves from Java to work on the farms. Bringing these slaves to South Africa introduced malay style cuisine which is now most commonly known as ‘Cape Malay’. The Cape Malay influence is defined by spicy curries, sambals, pickled fish, and a variety of fish stews. The most famous of the Cape Malay dishes is Bobotie. It consists of spiced minced meat baked with an egg-based topping. It is often served with chutney. Of the numerous dishes in South Africa, bobotie is perhaps closest to being our national dish, as it isn’t made in any other country. The recipe originates from Batavia, one of the Dutch East India Company colonies, and the name is derived from the Indonesian ‘bobotok’. The first French Huguenots arrived at the Cape of Good Hope in 1671. Simon van der Stel the Governor of the Cape, offered them settlements in Drakenstein (now Paarl) and Franschhoek (directly translated French corner). He ordered them to integrate with the ‘burghers’ (citizens) so that they would learn the language, morals and values of the Dutch. They began adapting the landscapes into beautiful lush vineyards which they had imported. They brought with them the delicate use of spices and herbs to lighten the heavy character of the Dutch cooking. They also introduced the use of tripe in South African cuisine. In the nineteenth century sugar farmers in the Natal region brought indentured labourers from India to work in the cane farms. These labourers introduced a different line of culinary practices, including a variety of sweets, chutneys


The British entered South Africa looking for riches, and also brought their customs and cuisine, as did German immigrants. Meat pies introduced by the British had a profound influence on South African cuisine. Hoender Pastei, or Farmer’s Chicken Pie, is similar to a chicken-pot pie topped with a crust, has more seasoning, and is layered with hard-boiled eggs and Danish ham slices. Today many South African families still eat indigenous foods that our descendants ate. A traditional meal in South African households is “pap” and “vleis” a fluffy porridge of maize meal with tasty stewed meat with gravy. Traditional rural families (and many metropolitan ones) often ferment their pap for a few days which gives it a tangy flavour. Meat is a major component of South Africans meals and although beef is the favourite, lamb, goat, chicken and other meats are also enjoyed by South Africans. In many South African cultures eating meat has a ritual meaning. Families will buy a live animal and slaughter it at home, the meat is prepared into a large feast and shared among the community. These rituals can take place for weddings, initiations and the arrival of family members after a long trip. It is believed in African culture that spilling the blood of the animal on the ground pleases deceased ancestors who invisibly gather around the carcass. The Khoisan were pioneers in two of South Africa’s favourite past times namely braaing and eating biltong although not known by these names originally. The Khoisan used to roast their meat over open flames, which more recently has become known as braaing (similar to a barbecue). South Africans never need an excuse to have a braai, the sun is out “lets braai”, sport is on “let’s braai,” somebodies birthday “lets braai”, it is no wonder that the 24th of September has become known as National Braai Day. The other Khoisan inspired dish is biltong (dried preserved meat), the Khoisan used to dry out surplus meat that could be used at a later date, nowadays South Africans eat biltong as a treat. Potjiekos is an Afrikaans tradition of cooking al fresco in a heavy potjie pot (which is a three-legged cast-iron pot with a tight-fitting lid). Layers of meat or chicken, vegetables and rice/potatoes moistened by stock and/or wine, and plenty of herbs and spices are stewed above coals for a long period of time. Boerewors (sausage) is the staple meat for braaing, deliciously spiced, and biltong is the famous dried beef, spiced with coriander seed. There are other influences. South Africa has a sizeable and influential Jewish community, especially in Johannesburg and Cape Town; there are many Greek South Africans, as there are Germans, particularly in the Mother City

(Cape Town’s nickname). More recently – as recently as the new century – there has been an influx of immigrants from other African countries, including Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zimbabwe, Malawi and further afield, whose cultures and cuisines are beginning to influence the already cosmopolitan and exotic brew. Because the South African coastline borders both the Atlantic and Indian oceans, seafood is abundant and, of course, an important part of the South African diet. Sailors often used to tell stories of the strandlopers (a tribe that used to roam the beaches catching seafood). Treasures from the sea include varieties of fish and shell fish that are served in many different ways. The local specialty, rock lobster, might be prepared simply with lemon butter, in a French soufflé, or even as a salad stuffed in avocado. Crayfish is served braised with onions and chilies, or in curry—a popular and elegant Indianderived dish. Salt cod is typically prepared in a manner reminiscent of Scandinavian cuisine, with the addition of hot chilli peppers. Pickled fish, usually snoek, is a local delicacy, although it was originally prepared for Dutch sailors for their long ocean voyages. Snoek is also often braaied and used in patés.

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and fried nibbles such as samoosas. To this day Durban has a large Indian community and is home to another South African favourite, known as bunny chow, which is hollowed out bread with a curry inside. This Indian cuisine has been adapted into South African cuisine and has become quite popular.


1 oxtail, weighing, about 1.2 kg 200 g conserved tomatoes 200 g carrots 4 stalks of celery a strip of orange zest Vegetable oil 30 g unsalted butter 15 ml Worcestershire Sauce 60 ml balsamic vinegar 150 g prunes 300 ml beef stock 1 l red wine 90 g button mushrooms 500 ml Port 300 g leeks 3 cloves of garlic 1 bouquet garni salt and ground black pepper

Mamma Ruth`s samp and beans 500 ml samp ( crushed white corn ) 250 ml beans 3 l stock (chicken or vegetable) 1 l water Seasoning – salt and pepper

Chop the oxtail into chunks or have the butcher do this for you. Peel and quarter the onions. Peel and thinly slice the carrots. Cut the celery into 3cm chunks. Trim the leeks and cut into 3 cm pieces. Heat a thin film of oil in a large saucepan or potjie. Add the oxtail chunks, a few at a time, and seal and brown on all sides. Transfer to a bowl. In the some pan, melt butter over a low heat and cook all the prepared vegetables and the mushrooms for 15 minutes or until they are golden, stirring occasionally. Deglaze the pan with the vinegar, stirring well, then add the beef stock, tinned tomato, orange zest, crushed garlic, bouquet garni, Worcestershire sauce and 500 ml of water. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Bring to the boil. Return the oxtail to the pan, and leave to simmer gently for 2½ hours. During the cooking, skim the surface of the liquid from time to time to remove all the fat. Remove the oxtail and put to one side. Strain the cooking liquid through a fine sieve into a clean pan, pressing down on the vegetables and flavourings to extract all their liquid. Add the prunes to the cooking liquid. Bring to the boil and reduce to a shiny , sauce like consistency. To serve, divide the oxtail amongst hot soup plates and spoon the sauce over. Alternatively, you can serve the oxtail with all the cooking vegetables in the sauce. Mamma Ruth`s samp and beans Pour boiling water over the samp and beans and soak overnight. Strain the samp and beans. Bring 1 litre water to the boil (no salt), add the strained samp and beans. Bring to a boil, then turn to a simmer and cook for about an hour. Top up with stock as needed. Allow to simmer until the samp is soft, creamy and the beans are tender. Adjust seasoning and serve.

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INGREDIENTS for 4 / 6 servings

PREPARATION

BRAISED OXTAIL POTJIE POT WITH PRUNES


LAMB SOSATIE SERVED WITH ROOSTERKOEK AND CHUTNEY

The marinade 75 ml smooth apricot jam 30 ml soft brown sugar 10 ml crushed garlic 4 cloves 3 bay leaves 45 ml curry powder 30 ml malt vinegar 10 ml salt 5 ml ground black pepper 5 ml crushed root ginger 10 ml turmeric 10 ml ground cumin 10 ml ground coriander Fruit chutney 5 cumin seeds 40 g pepper diced 1 pear peeled and cored, cut into 5mm pieces 1 granny Smith apple, peeled, cored and diced into 5mm pieces 1 pineapple (peeled and cut into 5mm pieces) 15 g peeled root ginger, finely chopped 30 g rice vinegar 60 g soft brown sugar 15 g currants 2-3 chillies, finely chopped 250 ml water BRAAI (Barbeque) BREADS 3 ml sugar 100 ml lukewarm water 10 ml dried yeast 400 g flour 3 ml salt 60 g butter at room temperature 2 eggs Sunflower oil

Sosaties Debone the leg of lamb or rump steak and cut the meat into 21/22cm squares. Peel and slice the onions very thickly. Heat the oil in a saucepan and sautĂŠ the onion rings and peppers until translucent. Make sure that the onion rings do not disintegrate. Remove the onions and drain on kitchen paper towel. Place all the ingredients except the lamb, dried apricots and onions in a glass bowl and mix well. Add the lamb, and onions to the sosatie marinade. Cover and leave in a cool place to marinate. Turn the lamb 3 or 4 times during the marinating process. Soak the apricots in warm water until they plump up. Remove the lamb or rump steak, (if using) and onions from the marinade. Thread on the skewers alternating pieces of lamb, apricot and onion. If you are using the sosaties at a braai (BBQ) grill them over hot coals turning several times until done. Alternatively they can be grilled in an oven. Meanwhile pour the marinade into a saucepan and heat until almost boiling. Fruit chutney Put the rice vinegar and sugar in a saucepan and bring to the boil. Add the diced pepper, fruits, ginger, chillies, currants and cumin seeds. Add 250 ml of water. Bring to the boil and cook over a medium heat for 15 minutes. BRAAI (Barbeque) BREADS Mix sugar, water and yeast together and leave to froth for +/- 10 minutes. Sieve the flour into a bowl, add salt and rub the butter into the flour with your fingertips. Beat the eggs lightly with a fork and add them to the yeast mixture. Make a well in the centre of the flour, add the yeast mixture and knead until the dough is soft and pliable. Brush the dough with sunflower oil, cover with clingfilm and leave to rest in a warm place until the mixture doubles in bulk. The dough is now ready to use. Break egg-sized bits off and shape into round shapes. Leave to rise for 15 minutes. Place these shapes on a mesh grid over the coals and bake until they are golden brown and hallow when patted. This is ideal to be served as a braai accompaniment.

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Sosaties 1 kg leg of lamb or rump steak 4 large onions Little oil for frying 250 g dried apricots 8 metal or wooden skewers 2 green, red and yellow peppers

PREPARATION

INGREDIENTS for 4 / 6 servings


MALAY CURRY Served with steamed turmeric rice

Steamed turmeric rice 250 g rice Pinch of salt +/- 500 ml water 50 g raisins 1 stick cinnamon 2 g turmeric

Heat the spices gently in a heavy saucepan. Add butter and onion and fry until soft. Add garlic and fry for a minute or so. Add mince, chutney, chillies, vinegar, Worcester sauce and tomato paste. Add cubed potato. Simmer in a covered pan for at least ½ hour. Steamed turmeric rice Put the rice in a sieve and rinse well under cold running water. Drain, put the rice in a pan and pour in the water. Add salt, turmeric, raisins and stick cinnamon and cover the pan. Simmer for 10 - 15 minutes or until all the water is absorbed. Remove from the heat and leave covered for 10 - 12 minutes. The rice should be dry and fluffy . This dish is served with small side dishes of : Chutney, Chopped Tomato and onion, sliced bananas, grated coconut and fresh coriander

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1 large onion or 2 small onions (chopped) 5ml minced garlic 350 - 400 g lean beef minced meat 7 ml ginger 10 ml brown sugar 10 ml mild curry powder 7 ml turmeric 4 ml salt 1 fresh chilli or 5ml of chilli powder dash of pepper 15 ml butter 25 ml chutney 10 ml vinegar 10 ml Worcester sauce 10 ml tomato paste 1 peeled potato (cubed)

PREPARATION

INGREDIENTS for 4 servings


LOIN OF KUDU (crusted in biltong) with pinotage reduction served with mini pumpkin fritters and soetpatat (sweet potato)

INGREDIENTS for 4 / 6 servings

Pumpkin Fritters 450 g peeled pumpkin Salt and sugar 60 g flour 1 teaspoon baking powder 2 eggs milk optional 45 ml sunflower oil 45 ml butter lemon wedges 100 g sugar 1 teaspoon cinnamon Sweet potato 1 kg small sweet potato 100 g butter 200 g sugar 1 whole stick cinnamon pinch of turmeric pinch of salt

Add a splash of oil to a fire-proof pan, add the shallots and garlic. Fry until soft, then add the pinotage and flambĂŠ the onion and cook until the alcohol burns off. Add the onion (keeping about 10 ml to the side to use later). Add 300 mls of beef stock, and let the sauce slowly and reduce by about half (this should take about 30 minutes). Take the sauce off the heat and let it cool down, blitz until smooth, then pour it back in the pan and onto the heat. Rub the Kudu loin with olive oil, loads of black pepper, coarse sea salt and coriander. Braai (barbeque) for about 10 minutes, or until the meat is cooked to your liking. Roll the Kudu loin in ground biltong and set aside. Slice into medallions and drizzle with the sauce. Pumpkin Fritters Steam the pumpkin over boiling water in a vegetable steamer with a little salt and sugar until it is just done. Mix the pumpkin, baking powder and eggs to form a batter of dropping consistency. Add a little milk if it is too stiff. Fry spoonfuls in the mixed, heated oil and butter in a big heavy-based frying pan. Drain the fritters on brown paper. Sprinkle them with cinnamon sugar and serve hot with wedges of lemon. Sweet potato Peel the sweet potatoes. Melt the butter in a large pot and add sugar stirring continuously until the sugar dissolves. Add sweet potato, turmeric, stick cinnamon and salt. Simmer on a low heat until tender.

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Sauce 1 bunch shallots, very finely chopped 10 ml oil 5 garlic cloves, crushed 300 ml beef stock 125 ml pinotage (red wine)

PREPARATION

1.5 kg kudu loin 20 g ground biltong (salted, dried meat) Ground coriander Olive oil


GRILLED CRAYFISH WITH LEMON GARLIC BUTTER

INGREDIENTS for 4 / 6 servings

Halve crayfish lengthways and remove vein. Rinse and pat dry with kitchen paper. Garlic and parsley butter Place garlic, butter, lemon peel and juice and parsley into a blender, season and blitz until smooth. Spread generously over each crayfish. Cook crayfish, open side up, over medium-hot coals for 5 minutes. Turn and cook for 3-5 minutes more, or until just cooked. Add remaining butter and serve with lemon wedges.

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Garlic and parsley butter 5 g freshly ground garlic 125 g butter Juice and grated rind of one lemon 80 ml chopped parsley 1 pinch salt and ground pepper 4 lemon wedges, for serving

PREPARATION

2 crayfish


BRAAIED (barbequed) west coast seafood platter served with rooster koek and apricot jam INGREDIENTS for 6 / 8 servings

Grilled crayfish with lemon garlic butter 2 crayfish Garlic and parsley butter 5 g freshly ground garlic 125 g butter Juice and grated rind of one lemon 80 ml chopped parsley 1 pinch salt and ground pepper 4 lemon wedges, for serving BRAAIED (Barbequed) snoek. (Local line fish) 60 ml chutney 15 ml apricot jam 30 ml lemon juice 1 tbsp (15 ml) sunflower oil 2,5 ml salt black pepper to taste 1,2 kg whole fresh snoek or line fish, head removed and butterflied

West coast mussels Scrub the mussels with a stiff brush and pull out the hairy beards. Discard any broken mussels, or open ones that don’t close when tapped on the bench. Rinse well. Grill the mussels over the coals until they open. Discard any unopened shells. Serve with lemon butter. Grilled crayfish with lemon garlic butter Halve crayfish lengthways and remove vein. Rinse and pat dry with kitchen paper. Garlic and parsley butter Place garlic, butter, lemon peel and juice and parsley into a blender, season and blitz until smooth. Spread generously over each crayfish. Cook crayfish, open side up, over medium-hot coals for 5 minutes. Turn and cook for 3-5 minutes more, or until just cooked. Add remaining butter and serve with lemon wedges. BRAAIED (Barbequed) snoek. (Local line fish) Mix chutney, jam lemon juice, half the oil and salt. Season with pepper. Brush a braai grid with the rest of the oil and place fish, with the skin side on the grid. Brush fish with jam mixture. Braai (Barbeque) for 15-20 minutes over medium coals with the skin side down. Turnover and brown for a few minutes or until the fish flakes easily. Take care not to burn or overcook the fish. Red Snapper (Or any small firm line fish) Cut along the belly and remove the inners and wash thoroughly. Under a running tap scrap the scales from tail to head to remove them. Make three small incisons on either side of the fish. Brush with olive oil and season with salt and pepper. Grill on the braai (barbeque) for two to three minutes on either side or until the fish is cooked. Serve whole. Serve this dish with rooster koek and apricot jam.

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Red Snapper (Or any small firm line fish) 1 small line fish

PREPARATION

West coast mussels 1 Line fish (Snoek/barracuda) 1 West Coast Crayfish (rock lobster) 1 West coast Mussels 1 Red Snapper


GRANDMA’S MILKTART served with gooseberry and van der Hum Compote

Filling 400 ml milk 50 g sugar 125 g butter 30 g maizena (round, full) 25 g flour (full, round) 100 g sugar 2 eggs separated 2 ml vanilla essence pinch salt Gooseberry and van der hum compote 500 g gooseberries 110 g sugar 50 ml Van Der Hum (orange liqueur) 25 ml rooibos tea 25 ml orange juice 1 small cinnamon stick 1 star anise 2 cloves Fresh mint leaves to garnish (if desired)

Crust Cream butter and sugar. Add egg and beat well. Add flour and baking powder. Place mixture in greased dish. Bake at 180 ºC, (Gas 180 – 200) until puffed up. This mixture makes 2 tarts. Filling Boil milk and ½ cup sugar and butter together. Sieve flour and maizena. Add some boiled milk mixture to dry ingredients to make a paste. Add paste to rest of boiling milk. Return to the heat and thicken, do not burn (must be thick custard). Let cool slightly and add egg yolks and vanilla essence. Put greaseproof paper over and cool completely. Whisk egg whites with ¾ cup sugar. Fold in egg whites when mixture is cool. Pour milk tart mixture into pastry case. Bake at 130 ºC for 30 minutes or until softly set. Do not allow filling to brown ingredients. Gooseberry and van der hum compote Caramelise the sugar in a small pot and stir in the juice, dried fruit, cinnamon stick, star anise, cloves and tea. Add van der Hum simmer for 10 minutes, remove from the heat, allow to cool and refrigerate until ready to serve.

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Crust 100 g butter 300 g flour 65 g sugar 1 egg beaten 5 g baking powder

PREPARATION

INGREDIENTS for 8 servings


CAPE BRANDY PUDDING | TIPSY TART served with AMARULA CUSTARD

Syrup 125 ml sugar 60 ml water 60 ml brandy 5 ml vanilla essence 15 ml butter Amarula Custard 3 egg yolks 15 ml castor sugar 5 ml cornflour 32 ml hot milk 50 ml Amarula (cream based liqueur)

Set the oven at 180 째C. Butter a baking dish. Combine the dates and water in a small saucepan and bring to the boil, mixing lightly. Remove from heat, stir in bicarbonate of soda and cool. Cream together the butter, sugar and egg. Sift in the flour, baking powder and salt and mix lightly. Stir in the date mixture and fold in the nuts. Pour into the baking dish and bake, uncovered, for about 45 minutes. Syrup Combine the sugar and water in a saucepan, and bring to the boil, stirring to dissolve the sugar. Remove from the heat and mix in the brandy, vanilla essence and butter. Pour over the warm pudding as it comes out of the oven and offer whipped cream separately if you wish. This pudding reheats perfectly. Cover and chill for up to a day. Serves 8. Amarula Custard Beat the egg yolks, castor sugar and cornflour together in a bowl until well blended. Gradually stir in some of the hot milk into the eggs and sugar. Add the mixture to the rest of the hot milk. Pour the sauce into the top of the double boiler and set over the bottom pan of simmering water. Using a wooden spoon, stir the mixture constantly over a gentle heat until it thickens. Add Amarula and allow to simmer for another minute or two.

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250 g pitted dates, roughly chopped 250 ml water 5 ml bicarbonate of soda 100 g soft butter 200 ml caster sugar 1 egg 250 ml flour 5 ml baking powder 1 ml salt 100 g pecan nuts or walnuts, roughly crumbled

PREPARATION

INGREDIENTS for 12 servings


TAIWAN


National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism (NKUHT) was founded in 1995 by the Executive Yuan and Ministry of Education to equip Taiwan’s hospitality industry with a skilled workforce. With its stateof-the–art facilities, innovative programming, expert faculty and extensive industry partnership, NKUHT has contributed in the education of hospitality, tourism and culinary professionals. The curriculum and instruction are led by expert faculty, who work closely with industry, and each program offers internship placement to ensure the graduates are sought-after employees. Since then, NKUHT has made it mark as a leading hospitality institution with many of its outstanding alumni helming key positions in the hospitality and tourism industry in Taiwan and many other countries. In addition, developing with its mottos as humanity, professionalism, entrepreneurship and internationalization, NKUHT not only aims at becoming as a platform in cultivating hospitality talents, a key partner of hospitality businesses and a new model of hospitality education, but also at constructing the vision of NKUHT: “To be the best hospitality university in the Asia Pacific region”.

a. The whole logo is round like the earth, symbolizing the internationalization of the school and the perfection of Chinese culture. Three inner circles cover the colleges of hospitality, tourism and cooking and combine the concepts of “Humanity, Professionalism, Entrepreneurship and Internationalization”. Three extending bars below the circles indicate the vigorous growth and development of the school. The middle part of the pattern is like the head of an elephant, an animal with the practical and optimistic spirit of being perfect, honest, diligent and modest. b. Laurel leaves symbolizing wisdom, refinement and honor and a ribbon that refers to infinity are added to present the school as a high-level hospitality education school that is rooted in Taiwan but takes a global view to educate excellent hospitality talents who would be dedicated to service and creation. c. The pattern takes laurel green as the standard color and adopts another lush green that is full of vitality and glory to exhibit the prospective, outstanding and creational image of NKUHT.

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School Logo and Description


Taiwanese cuisine T

aiwan was historically called Formosa by the Portuguese in the 16th century; a beautiful island with rice as its staple and an abundance of fruits, vegetables and seafood. When discussing Taiwanese cuisine, one must begin with the history of Taiwan. The food culture of Taiwan can be divided into 3 periods: 1. Pre-20th Century - During the 17th century, Taiwan was occupied by the Dutch. They brought some major ingredients from Indonesia such as; tomatoes, rice, sugar cane, and mangoes. During this period, Taiwanese cuisine was mainly influenced by the immigrants from China; Southern Fujian in particular and the Hakka people from Canton. 2. Japanese colonization period (1895- 1945) – While the Japanese occupied Taiwan, they brought their ingredients and eating habits into Taiwan as well. They brought Japanese rice, tempura and sashimi. However, a certain degree of Taiwanese local flavors have been blended into the Japanese cuisine as well. 3. The immigration wave in 1949 – This was the most important period of Taiwanese cuisine during the Guomindang era (KMT). When the central government of China moved to Taiwan, the flavors from every province in China were also introduced to the food and beverage industry in Taiwan. Combined with original local foods, a new landscape of cuisine had been created and the map of Chinese cuisine was resurrected. For more than sixty years, Taiwan has been going its own way. With the booming of the economy, Taiwanese people began to demand for refined and artistic life quality and cuisines. As far as the current mainstream food in Taiwan is concerned, its development has been closely related to the external impact from factors including colonization and massive migration from China. The original Taiwanese cuisine in the narrow sense refers to Southern Fujian cuisine which features light tastes and fresh ingredients. Yet in a broad sense, Taiwanese cuisine has been comprehensively influenced by all regional Chinese foods and is under the impact of diverse cultures. Restaurants that offered cuisines from Beijing, Jiangzhe (Jiangsu & Zhejiang), Szechuan, Hunan, Canton and northern China opened in Taiwan one by one. This evidence shows the connection between Taiwanese food and Chinese food. As a result, the varied ethical characters with tremendous complexity of Chinese flavor can be tasted everywhere in Taiwan. Moreover, Hakka and aboriginal food are also important parts of the Taiwanese cuisine. “Hakka” refers to the people who are regarded as visitors wherever

they go and make home wherever they stay. Hakka people originally migrated from the Central Plains in Mainland China to the southern part of China. With the life experience derived from living in the mountains and constant migration, Hakka people developed techniques that can easily carry and preserve harvested vegetables, and create a variety of pickled dishes. Saltiness, aroma, and fat have always been the characteristics of the traditional Hakka cuisine. Aboriginal cuisine is another delicacy of Taiwanese cuisine. The aboriginal people in Taiwan belong to Austronesia, and currently still maintain their own set of languages, manners, customs and tribal structures. They have developed their own unique food culture in Taiwan. Their cooking method is simple with the aim of preserving the original flavors of the food. In order to cope with the environment, aboriginal people made good use of natural resources and created the food style of wild and coarse ingredients from the natural environment, including wild edible plants, mountain boar, freshwater fish and shrimp. Taiwan is also rich in geologic features and variety of local folk snacks (xiaochi) such as bubble milk tea, oyster omelet, stinky tofu, oyster Vermicelli, crushed Ice dessert, and many more. Hundreds of different local folk snacks can be found in night markets. Visiting night markets in Taiwan is a good way to experience the local flavors available in Taiwan. Rice and flour are the two main staples in Taiwan. Since the influence of the Dutch and Japanese, rice grows all over Taiwan. Additionally, Taiwan received aid from the US after World War II, and flour began to be distributed to the Taiwanese. These two ingredients form the main types of Taiwan local foods. The global brand- Din Tai Fung Dumpling House offers small and delicate xiaolongbao(steamed soup dumplings) dumplings. Which have been named the world’s second best restaurant chain for travelers by CNN. You can also find hundreds of rice products in the shape of rice cakes and rice noodles in Taiwan. Taiwan is an island so seafood is plentiful and very fresh. Advances in agricultural and breeding technology helps grow a wide range of tropical and temperate fruits, maintain a variety and quality of seafood, and produce a huge variety of vegetables; particularly the leafy green varieties. The freshness of ingredients in Taiwanese cuisine puts an emphasis on natural flavors rather than complex seasonings. In Conclusion, Taiwan is a gourmet island with multi-culture cuisines, and you can find all kinds of restaurants and street vendors that provide varied international foods and all regional Chinese food. You can also find restaurants in Taiwan that serve the cuisines of other countries throughout the world, including the United States, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, and India. Taiwan can be described as a melting pot of all the great culinary traditions in the world and Taiwanese cuisine is highly adaptive. To define Taiwanese cuisine, we can conclude that Taiwanese food is a fusion of Chinese, Japanese and all other Asian and Western countries. From past to present, Taiwan has continued to absorb the essence of Chinese and international cuisines while developing its own unique cuisine.


臺灣美食 一、20世紀前:17世紀時臺灣由荷蘭人治理,荷蘭人帶來了部分來 自印尼的食材,如:番茄、水稻、甘蔗、芒果。在此時期,臺灣飲 食文化主要受到中國移民的影響,特別是福建南部的閩南人和廣東 的客家人。 二、日本殖民統治時期(1895年至1945年):日本人治理臺灣時 期,也帶來了日本的食材和飲食習慣。比如日本粳稻、天婦羅和生 魚片。 三、1949年以後:是國民黨執政期間,對臺灣美食影響最重要的時 期。當中央政府遷台,來自中國各個省份的飲食口味也被引入到臺 灣的食品飲料業。與原有的本地食物結合後,一道道嶄新的菜肴誕 生了,創造出臺灣美食新的風貌,也使中式美食再度復興。六十多 年來,臺灣走出屬於自己的路。隨著經濟的發展與繁榮,臺灣人開 始講究精緻的、藝術的生活品質和美食。 就目前臺灣主流食物而言,它的發展一直與外在影響因素密切相 關,包括殖民文化以及大規模的中國移民。狹義的說,原來臺灣美 食是指閩南菜肴,特色為清淡的口味和新鮮的食材。然而,廣義上 來看,臺灣美食已完全受到區域性中國料理和多元文化的影響。在 臺灣,提供北京、江浙(江蘇和浙江)、四川、湖南、廣東和中國 北方料理的餐廳一家接著一家開,足以做為臺灣美食和中國美食關 連的證據。在臺灣各地,也都可以品嘗到各式各樣具有複雜性民族 特色的中國風味美食。 此外,客家和原住民料理也在臺灣美食中佔有一席之地。「客家」 意指無論身在何處都被視為過客,但卻能將所處之地變為家的人。 客家人最初從中國中原內地遷移至中國南部。有了住在山上和不斷 遷移的生活經驗,客家人發展出便於攜帶和保存收成蔬菜的技術, 並創造了各種醃漬菜餚。鹹味、香氣和油脂一直是傳統客家美食的 特色。原住民美食是臺灣美食中的另一佳餚。臺灣原住民屬於南島 民族,目前仍保存屬於他們自己的一套語言、風俗、習慣和部落結 構。他們已經在臺灣形成了自己獨特的飲食文化,其簡單的烹調方 法,利於保存食物原有的風味。而為了與環境共存,原住民善於利 用自然資源,創造出野生原始的飲食文化,包括食用來自自然環境 中的植物、山豬和淡水魚蝦。 臺灣還有豐富的地理特徵和各種當地民間小吃,比如珍珠奶茶、 蚵仔煎、臭豆腐、蚵仔麵線、剉冰甜點等等。數百種不同的當地

民俗小吃都可在夜市裡找到,走一遭夜市,是體驗臺灣在地���味 的好方法。 米和麵粉是臺灣兩大主食。由於過去荷蘭和日本所帶來的影響,全 臺皆可種植水稻。此外,臺灣在第二次世界大戰後接受美國援助, 曾分配麵粉給臺灣人。這兩種食材構成臺灣當地食物的主要類型。 全球品牌鼎泰豐提供小而精緻的小籠包,已被CNN評為世界上第二 名的餐飲連鎖企業。您還可以在臺灣找到數百種米製產品以年糕和 米粉的形式出現。 臺灣是一個海島,所以海 鮮非常豐富且新鮮。農業 和養殖技術的進步,有助 於種植多種熱帶和溫帶水 果,以及維持海鮮的多樣 性和品質,並出產多種的 蔬菜,特別是綠色葉菜 類。臺灣美食的新鮮食材 強調天然風味,而非複雜 的調味料。 整體來說,臺灣是一個充 滿多元料理文化的美食之 島,您可以在此找到各種 餐館和街頭小販,提供各 種外國料理和中國全區的 各式菜餚。您還可以找到 提供世界各地美食的餐 廳,包括美國、法國、德 國、義大利、日本、韓國、泰國、越南和印度的美食。臺灣可謂是 世界上各種傑出料理傳統的大熔爐,且臺灣美食具有高度適應力。 若要定義臺灣美食,我們可以提出這樣的結論:臺灣美食融合了中 國、日本及其他亞洲和西方國家的料理。從過去到現在,臺灣一方 面持續吸收中國和國際美食的精髓,一方面也同時發展著具有特色 的美食料理。

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16世紀時,臺灣被葡萄牙人稱為福爾摩莎──一個以米為主食、並 有豐富的水果、蔬菜和海鮮的美麗島嶼。而若要討論臺灣美食,不 能忽略臺灣歷史的影響因素。臺灣的飲食文化可分為三個時期:


STEAMED RED BEAN RICE CAKE

INGREDIENTS for 2 servings Red bean water 400 g red bean 600 g water

Boil red beans with water. Drain the red beans. Slowly add cool red bean water in muffin mix. Rub well. Sift (do not use a thin filter). Blend genteelly with red bean and powdered sugar. Cut down steaming paper. Sprinkle the flour on the steaming paper. Roll the red bean paste into a long strip. Circle and lay it onto flour. Spray with sweet fruit cocktail. Steam for 3 minutes. Notes: Do no press. To release the vapor while steaming, roll the red bean paste into a long strip but not a flatten piece.

紅 豆 鬆 糕

材 料(紅豆水) 紅豆400g 水 600g 材 料(鬆糕) 鬆糕粉1公斤 糖粉 300g 紅豆水 300g 紅豆 300g 什錦蜜果 豆沙 紅豆加水蒸熟,將紅豆瀝乾。 粉中慢慢加入放涼之紅豆水,搓勻。 過篩(不能用太細的網子)。 加入紅豆、糖粉輕輕拌勻。 蒸籠紙再剪過。 放上粉,紅豆沙搓條圍一圈在放上粉,灑上什錦蜜果。 由底部蒸3分鐘。 注意事項: 不可以壓。 紅豆沙不可以用一片的,蒸氣會過不去。

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Muffin 1 kg muffin flour 300 g powdered sugar 300 g red bean water Sweet fruit cocktail 100 g red bean paste PREPARATION


TAIWANESE PINEAPPLE TART

INGREDIENTS for 60 pieces 2 egg 270 g powdered sugar 454 g butter 650 g cake flour 1200 g native pineapple filling

PREPARATION

土 鳳 梨 酥

材 料(外皮) 蛋 2顆 糖粉 270g 奶油 454g 低筋麵粉 650g 材 料(餡料) 土鳳梨餡 1200g 烹調程序: 奶油切小丁,軟化備用。 蛋打散備用。 奶油與砂糖以糖油拌合法攪拌均勻,慢慢加入蛋液。 粉中倒入步驟3,以拌壓法壓成團,醒半小時。 醒完分割麵團(每個30g)包入內餡(每個20g),放入烤模九分 滿,以溫度220/200烤八分鐘,翻面並且調頭再烤六分鐘即可。

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Dice the butter and leave it soft for later use. Beat up the eggs for later use. Mix butter and granulated sugar well by cream method. Slightly add in the egg mixture. Pour the paste in Step 3 into cake flour. Stir and knead to form dough. Let the dough sit for 30 minutes. Divide the dough into balls (30g/each). Wrap a pineapple filling (20g/each) inside. Put them on the mold but leave space (with 90% full). Bake at a preheated 220/200°C oven for 8 minutes. Transfer the other side and bake for six minutes.


FRIED MANGROVE CRABS WITH SESAME OIL

INGREDIENTS for 2 servings

PREPARATION Cut old gingers into slices and cut cabbage into chunks. Clean the mangrove crab and cut it into pieces for later use. Cook the thin noodles in a wok of the boiling water until ready. When they are cooked right through, drain and put on a plate for later use. First, heat the black sesame oil in a wok and then Sauté ginger slices until aromatic. Second, cook the rice wine in the wok until boiling and then put in the water, gouqi, danggui and cabbage chunks in the same wok and cook for six minutes. Next, put mangrove crab pieces into the wok and cook over a medium heat for three minutes. Last, put the thin noodles and enjoy it!

麻 油 紅 蟳

材料 老薑 300g 高麗菜 300g 麵線 200g 枸杞 20g 當歸 10g 調味料 黑麻油 30c.c 米酒 100c.c 鹽 10g 糖 5g 調味料 味精 2g 水 500c.c 烹調程序 老薑切片、高麗菜剝小塊備用。紅蟳清洗乾淨,切割備用。 麵線以滾水燙熟備用。 鍋中加入黑麻油,爆香薑片至乾煸狀,加入米酒燒開後加入水、 枸杞、當歸、高麗菜,煮約6分鐘後,加入紅蟳,以中火慢滾約3 分鐘,放入麵線即可盛盤。

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300 g old ginger 300 g cabbage 200 g thin noodle 20 g wolfberry shrub (gouqi) 10 g angelica sinensis (danggui) 1 mangrove crabs 30 ml black sesame oil 100 ml rice wine 10 g salt 5 g sugar 2 g MSG (monosodium glutamate) 500 ml water


CHICKEN WITH SESAME OIL, SOY SAUCE AND RICE WINE

INGREDIENTS for 5 servings

Seasoning 30 ml soy sauce 30 g sugar 30 ml sesame oil 10 ml rice wine 30 ml water PREPARATION Cut chicken legs into chunks for later use. Slice the old ginger and pepper. Take off the stalk of Asian basil for later use. Sauté old ginger and sesame oil slowly over low heat until crispy with fragrance. Add garlic into the wok, stir-fry; then, add chicken legs, pepper and seasonings. Fry the chicken legs until almost well-done. Heat the wok. Add in three drops of sesame oil, Asian basil and the fried chicken legs of Step 2. Cover the wok and simmer for minutes before serve.

三 杯 雞

材料 去骨雞腿肉 400g 老薑 100g 蒜頭 50g 辣椒 20g 九層塔 20g 調味料 醬油 30c.c 糖 30g 麻油 30c.c 米酒 10c.c 調味料 水 30c.c 烹調程序 雞腿切塊狀備用,老薑與辣椒切片,九層塔去除老梗備用。 老薑與麻油,小火慢煸至酥香,鍋中加入蒜頭,爆香後加入加雞 腿肉以及辣椒,倒入調味料,將雞肉炒至9分熟。 燒熱之三杯鍋中滴入3滴麻油,放入九層塔,接著將炒好的雞肉倒 入三杯鍋中,蓋上鍋蓋即可。

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400 g boneless chicken legs 100 g old thick ginger 50 g garlic 20 g chili 20 g asian basil


PRESERVED RADISH OMELETTE

INGREDIENTS for 1 serving 6 egg 50 g preserved white radish 30 g green onion

Seasoning 10 g salt 5 g sugar 3 g ground white pepper

Chop spring onion for later use. Add some cooking oil into the preserved white radish. Fry over low heat till aromatic. Add chopped green onion, preserved white radish and seasonings into the egg mixtures. Mix well. Add cooking oil in a hot wok. Pour the egg mixtures. Sauté over medium low heat until golden brown on both sides.

菜 脯 蛋

材料 雞蛋 6粒 菜脯 50g 青蔥 30g 調味料 鹽 10g 糖 5g 胡椒粉 3g 烹調程序 青蔥切蔥花備用。 菜譜加入少許沙拉油,小火炒香。 蛋液中加入蔥花、菜脯以及調味料拌勻。 熱鍋肉加入沙拉油,倒入蛋液,中小火慢煎,兩面煎上色即可盛 盤。

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PREPARATION


DEEP–FRIED PORK WITH RED YEAST RICE PASTE

INGREDIENTS for 6 servings 600 g streaky pork 5 g grinded ginger 5 g grinded garlic 100 g red yeast rice paste 300 g potato starch

PREPARATION Clean the streaky pork and then marinate it with seasonings and five spices powder for 24 hours. Clean the spices on the surface of the marinated streaky pork and then put the potato starch on top of it. At first, deep fry the pork in a wok of oil with the temperature of 150 °C. Then turn the temperature of oil to 180 °C and keep deep frying the pork until crispy. Put the crispy pork on a plate and wait until cold. Cut the pork into pieces and enjoy it.

紅 糟 肉

材料 豬五花肉 600g 薑末5g 蒜末 5g 紅糟醬 100g 材料 地瓜粉 300g 調味料 醬油 15g 鹽 10g 米酒 30g 糖 30g 調味料 胡椒粉 5g 五香粉 2g 烹調程序 五花肉洗淨後加入所有調味料以及醃料,靜置24小時。 取出醃製好之五花肉,去除表面之醃料,撒上地瓜粉。 起油鍋,以溫油150°C炸熟,起鍋前將溫度上升至180°C炸酥 即可。 待涼後,切片即可盛盤。

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Seasoning 15 g soy sauce 10 g salt 30 g rice wine 30 g sugar 5 g ground white pepper 2 g five spices powder


DEEP-FRIED FISH WITH FIVE SHREDDED INGREDIENTS

INGREDIENTS for 5 servings

Seasoning (marinade) 15 g soy sauce 15 g rice wine 5 g grinded ginger 3 g ground white pepper 120 ml water 30 ml soy sauce 15 g sugar 30 ml black vinegar 20 g potato flour 5 g sesame oil PREPARATION Remove scales, gills and clean the sea bass thoroughly. Cut the green onion into pieces, the garlic into slices and other materials into strips. Put the sea bass in the marinade for 15 minutes. Put the potato starch on the sea bass thoroughly. Deep fry the fish in a wok of oil with the temperature of 160 °C until golden. First, add a little oil in a wok and stir-fry the green onion pieces and garlic slices. Next, put the carrots in the wok and stir-fry them until soft. After that, put the other materials and seasonings in the wok. Cook the sauce until boiling and then pour in the potato flour water to thicken the sauce. Last, add some sesame oil on top of the sauce. Put the sauce on the sea bass and enjoy it!

五 柳 魚

材料 七星鱸魚 600g/尾 竹筍 20g 黑木耳 20g 胡蘿蔔 20g 金針菇 80g 材料 辣椒 10g 蔥 10g 蒜頭 10g 材料 地瓜粉 200g 調味料(醃料) 醬油 15g 米酒 15g 薑泥 5g 胡椒粉 3g 調味料 水 120c.c 醬油 30c.c 糖 15g 烏醋 30c.c 調味料 太白粉 20g 香油 5g 烹調程序 鱸魚去除鱗片與內臟,清洗乾淨,改刀備用。 蔥切段,蒜頭切片,其餘材料全部切絲備用。 鱸魚加入醃料,靜待15分鐘。 將地瓜粉均勻地撒在魚身上,起油鍋以160°C將魚炸熟並且外表 呈現金黃色澤。 鍋中加入少許沙拉油,爆香蔥段以及蒜片,加入紅蘿蔔炒軟後加 入其他材料以及調味料,燒開後加入太白粉水勾芡,最後淋上香 油。 將煮好之醬汁淋在鱸魚身上即可。

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600 g sea bas 20 g bamboo shoot 20 g black fungus 20 g carrot 80 g golden mushroom 10 g chili 10 g green onion 10 g garlic 200 g potato starch


CHINESE STEAMED BUN

INGREDIENTS

Pastry 200 g plain flour 100 g bread flour 30 g sugar 5 g salt 145 g water Pork jelly 3 kg pig skin 200 g green onion 200 g ginger Seasoning 8 g sugar 10 g salt 20 g soy sugar 5 g MSG ( monosodium glucose) 8 g ground white pepper PREPARATION Pork skin jelly: Parboil pig skin. Wash it and dice it. Add water, spring onion, and ginger with the quality of three times of the pig skin. Cook the materials in Step 1 over low-medium heat for three hours. Filter them and keep the broth only. Cool the broth and chill it in refrigerator till it coagulates. This is the pork jelly for the steamed bun.

Steamed bun Stir chopped onion, water, seasonings with minced meat. Add pork-skin jelly and stir well as the fillings. Gradually stir in water (150 g) with plain flour, bread flour, sugar and knead for the pastry. Put 20 g filling into the 8 g to 10 g pastry, and then wrap it up to form the bun. . Steam the buns over high heat for five minutes. It is ready to serve. NOTE: 1. 10 pieces of steam buns per serving; 20 pieces of soup buns per serving. 2. Soup buns are served with a bowl of soup wherein egg slices and some other ingredients will be added.

小 籠 包

材 料(內餡) 絞肉 400g 洋蔥 50g 皮凍 90g 材 料(外皮) 中筋麵粉 200g 高筋麵粉 100g 糖 30g 鹽 5g 水 145g 材 料(皮凍) 豬皮 3kg 蔥 200g 薑 200g 調味料 糖 8g 鹽 10g 醬油 20g 味精 5g 調味料 胡椒粉 8g 烹調程序 皮凍 豬皮先煮半熟,再洗淨後切小塊,加入3倍的水及蔥、薑。 將1用中小火煮3小時後過濾,只留汁下來。 待汁冷卻後放入冰箱冷藏,即成小籠包的皮凍。 小籠包 絞肉加入洋蔥末、水及適量調味料拌勻後加入皮凍。拌入皮凍, 拌勻後即成小籠包餡。 將中筋麵粉、高筋麵粉、糖及150g的水拌揉成小包皮,以8g~10g 的皮包入20g的肉餡。 將包好的小籠包用大火蒸5分鐘後即可。 注意事項 小籠包一籠10顆,湯包一籠20顆。 湯包會附碗湯,湯中有蛋皮絲等等…

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400 g minced pork 50 g onion 90 g pork jelly


CHINESE LEAF STEW

INGREDIENTS for 6 servings

Seasoning 5 g ground white pepper 12 g salt 10 g sugar 5 g sesame oil 600 g chicken stock PREPARATION Add the egg liquid into a pre-heated wok and stir-fry it until crispy. Cut the Chinese leaf into thick strips, squid meatballs into half and Chinese mushrooms into strips. Cut the garlic finely and deep fry it over a low heat until crispy for later use. Stir-fry the Chinese leaf, peeled dried shrimps and spring onion pieces in a wok. Add the chicken stock, other materials and seasonings in the same wok. Cook until boiling and put it in an earthenware pot. Last, put the crispy egg, crispy garlic and coriander in the earthenware pot and enjoy it.

西 魯 肉

材料 雞蛋 1 大白菜 300g 魚皮 100g 花枝丸 5 香菇 50g 材料 蝦米 10g 金針菇 80g 蒜頭 30g 蔥 30g 香菜葉 20g 調味料 胡椒粉 5g 鹽巴 12g 糖 10g 香油 5g 調味料 豬高湯 600g 烹調程序 起油鍋,高溫倒入蛋液,使其成金黃蛋酥。 大白菜切粗絲,花枝丸對半,香菇切絲。 蒜頭切莫,以小火慢炸,成蒜酥備用。 鍋中放入蝦米以及蔥段爆香,放入白菜略炒,加入雞高湯以及調 味料,放入其他食材,滾後將其倒入砂鍋中。 最後放上炸好的蛋酥、蒜酥以及香菜葉即可。

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1 egg 300 g chinese leaf 100 g fish skin 5 squit meatball 50 g chinese mushroom 10 g peeled dried shrimp 80 g golden mushroom 30 g garlic 30 g spring onion 20 g coriander leaf


MULLET ROE FRIED RICE

Seasoning 8 g salt 5 g sugar 5 g ground white pepper 10 g soy sauce PREPARATION Clean japonica rice. Add water and cooking oil in japonica rice and steam for later use. Remove the skin of mullet roe and cut into cubes for later use. Add grinded garlic in the egg liquid. Cut green onions and onions finely for later use. Put cooking oil in a hot wok, stir-fry the egg liquid until aromatic. Add the rice and onion and then stir-fry them. Last, add the mullet roe cubes, seasonings and green onion pieces. Stir-fry these ingredients thoroughly and it is ready to serve.

烏 魚 子 炒 飯

材 料(飯) 蓬萊米 180g 水 180g 沙拉油 5c.c 材料 飯 350g 烏魚子 150g 雞蛋 1粒 蔥 30g 洋蔥 30g 材料 蒜頭 15g 調味料 鹽 8g 糖 5g 胡椒粉 5g 醬油 10g 烹調程序 蓬萊米洗淨後加入水以及沙拉油,蒸熟備用。 烏魚子去除外膜,切小丁備用。 雞蛋打成蛋液,加入蒜末。 蔥、洋蔥切末備用。 熱鍋中加入沙拉油,油熱後倒入蛋液炒香,放入煮好的白飯以及 洋蔥,快速翻炒。 將飯炒至粒粒分明時,加入烏魚子丁,最後加入調味料以及蔥 花,炒至均勻即可起鍋。

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INGREDIENTS for 3 servings 180 g japonica rice 180 g water 5 ml cooking rice 350 g rice 150 g mullet roe 1 egg 30 g green onion 30 g onion 15 g garlic


USA


Nicholls State University, located in Thibodaux, La., is a comprehensive regional university serving a di-verse population of traditional and nontraditional students. The institution first opened its doors on Sept. 23, 1948, as Francis T. Nicholls Junior College of Louisiana State University. The university is named in honor of Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls, who was born on Aug. 20, 1834, in Donaldsonville, La. After graduating from West Point, he practiced law in South Louisiana. He rose to the rank of brigadier general in the Civil War, during which he was a prisoner of war and lost his left arm and leg. Located in “Cajun Country,” Nicholls lies in the heart of the Mississippi River delta, allowing for easy access to the river, its tributaries, Louisiana’s wetlands and the Gulf of Mexico. The 287-acre Thibodaux campus is approximately 50 miles west of New Orleans and 60 miles southeast of Baton Rouge.

By maintaining partnerships with businesses, local school systems, community agencies and other educational institutions, Nicholls actively participates in the south-central Louisiana’s development. The university maintains a strong commitment to the well-being of local residents. Through the expansion of health science programs, Nicholls collaborates with a nationally recognized health care industry in the Houma-Thibodaux area.

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For more than half a century, the university’s strong general education program has prepared students to be leaders in a global society and has enhanced their ability to create a vision for the future. Nicholls capitalizes on the region’s geography and culture by offering distinctive academic programs in the culinary arts and geomatics. With its prime location along the banks of Bayou Lafourche, Nicholls also provides unique opportunities for instruction and research in the fields of marine and environmental science. The university has assumed a leadership role in an area known for its agricultural, fishing, petrochemical and oilfield-related industries. Nicholls continues to contribute significantly to the region’s growth in new technology, manufacturing and international trade.


History of the institute O

ver bowls of gumbo at Lafitte’s Landing in Donaldsonville, La., the idea for the Chef John Folse Culinary Institute was born in a discussion between former Nicholls President Donald Ayo and Chef John Folse. Both envisioned a way to preserve Louisiana culture and cuisine by teaching chefs, students and community members to master the art of Cajun and Creole cooking. Emphasis would be placed on the influences of Cajun-Creole cuisine: Native American, Spanish, French, African, German, English and Italian. The Institute began offering courses for college credit in 1995, and accepted its inaugural academic class in Janu-ary 1996, offering an associate of science degree. The La. Board of Regents authorized Nicholls to offer a bachelor’s degree in culinary arts in 1997, making it the first four-year culinary degree program at a U.S. public university. Mission The Chef John Folse Culinary Institute (CJFCI) at Nicholls State University is dedicated to the preservation and advancement of the rich culinary heritage of Louisiana. It provides a focal point for the study of classical culinary arts, Louisiana’s culinary heritage and the discovery of regional and global perspectives. The Institute will establish and maintain worldclass culinary instructional and research faculty and facilities. The Institute will encourage scholarly and proprietary culinarym research and preserve our unique culture through the establishment of an archives and research center. The Institute will encourage and promote the understanding of history and diversity through culinary education to the academic community and the general public, both nationally and internationally. Objectives The objectives of the Chef John Folse Culinary Institute academic program are: To provide an in-depth background and advanced instruction in: - traditional art and science of culinary preparation; - preparation of food in a safe, sanitary and nutritious manner; - principles of culinary operations, product preparation and service. Opportunities for study, application and research in the areas of: - culinary heritage, indigenous foods and traditional culinary preparations of Louisiana;

- regional cuisines of the United States and the world; - culinary operations, culinary education and training; - product development; and, - familiarization with the food service industry. Concentrations Students in the culinary arts bachelor degree program may choose one or more of the following concentrations: - Culinary Operations - Pâtisserie - Professional - Research and Development - Service Concentration - Business Administration The new home of the Chef John Folse Culinary Institute, scheduled to open in 2015. Louisiana’s Culinary Ambassador to the World Born and raised in St. James Parish, Louisiana, Chef John Folse, CEC, is respected around the world as a leading authority on Cajun and Creole culture and cuisine. Folse grew up in a family of sugarcane farmers and great cooks, learning at a young age to utilize ingredients from the swamp floor pantry of south Louisiana’s Bayou Country. Following the success of his Lafitte’s Landing Restaurant in Donaldsonville, Folse expanded into catering and manufacturing. Chef John Folse & Company is one of only a few chef-owned food manufacturing companies in the United States producing custom-manufactured foods. Folse’s catering and events management division is housed at White Oak Plantation in Baton Rouge. Chef John Folse has produced eight cookbooks in his Cajun and Creole series. He hosts his own television cooking show, broadcast on public television stations, and his syndicated radio show STIRRIN’ IT UP can be heard nationwide! Folse also completed the filming of Louisiana’s Food Heritage: The Encyclopedia Series, based on his best-selling cookbook, The Encyclopedia of Cajun & Creole Cuisine. A Certified Executive Chef, member of the American Academy of Chefs and past president of the Research Chefs Association,, Folse represents the finest in culinary professionalism and has received numerous awards. In August 2010, Folse announced his partnership with Chef Rick Tramonto and the formation of Home on the Range: Folse Tramonto Restaurant Development, LLC. Their first joint venture, Restaurant R’evolution, opened in June of 2012 atmthe Royal Sonesta Hotel in New Orleans. Restaurant R’evolution offers modern, imaginative reinterpretations of classic Cajun and Creole cuisine.


OVERVIEW OF THE CUISINE From Chef John Folse: rior to beginning our adventure into the cuisines of South Louisiana, it is imperative that I begin by outlining the basic principles, procedures and terminologies that are unique to Cajun and Creole cookery. It is important to realize that cultures and cuisines must constantly evolve. This evolution process is brought about when new ingredients and ideas are introduced into a region. Here in South Louisiana, the evolution process may be witnessed at every turn. The Cajuns today have more access to the outside world because of increased mobility and as interstates began to cross the bayous, cities arose from our swamplands. An example of this process of change is the merging of cultures in New Orleans. The Cajun and Creole cultures are quite distinct and so are their cuisines. The Creoles were the offspring born in New Orleans of the European aristocrats, wooed by the Spanish to establish New Orleans in the early 1690s. Secondborn sons, who could not own land or titles in their native countries, were offered the opportunity to live and prosper in their family traditions here in the New World. It is believed the word Creole can be traced to one of two origins. First, the old Spanish word “Criallo” meaning a mixture of cultures or color such as in the word Crayola. Secondly, from the Latin word “Creare” meaning to create as in creating a new race. Although the first Creoles were documented in Mobile, Alabama in 1702, Natchitoches and New Orleans followed in 1714 and 1718 respectively. Today, the term Creole in New Orleans represents the native born children of the intermarriage of the early cultures settling the city. These include the Native American, French, Spanish, English, African, German and Italian and further define the cuisine that came from this intermarriage. The influences of classical and regional French, Spanish, German and Italian cooking are readily apparent in Creole cuisine. The terminologies, precepts, sauces and major dishes were carried over, some with more evolution than others, and provided a solid foundation for Creole cooking. Bouillabaisse is a soup that came from the Provence region of France in and around Marseilles. This dish is integral to the history of Creole food because of the part it played in the creation of gumbo. The Spanish, who actually played host to this new adventure, gave Creole food its spice, many great cooks and paella, which was the forefather of Louisiana’s jambalaya. Paella is the internationally famous Spanish rice dish made with vegetables, meats and sausages. On the coastline, seafoods were often substituted for meats. Jambalaya has variations as well, according to the local ingredients available at different times of the year. The Germans who arrived in Louisiana in 1725 were knowledgeable in all forms of charcuterie and helped establish the boucherie and fine sausage making in South Louisiana. They brought with them not only pigs, but chicken and cattle as well. A good steady supply of milk and butter was seldom available in South Louisiana prior to the arrival of the Germans.

The Italians were famous for their culinary talents. They were summoned to France by Catherine de Medi-cis to teach their pastry and ice cream making skills to Europe-ans. Many Creole dishes reflect the Italian influence and their love of good cooking. From the West Indies and the smoke pots of Haiti came exotic vegetables and cooking meth-ods. Braising, a slow-cooking technique, contributed to the development of our gumbos. Mirlitons, sauce piquantes and the use of tomato rounded out the emerging Creole cuisine. Native Indians, the Choctaws, Chetimaches and Houmas, be-friended the new settlers and in-troduced them to local produce, wildlife and cooking methods. New ingredients, such as corn, ground sassafras leaves or filé powder and bay leaves from the laurel tree all contributed to the culinary melting pot. I would be remiss if I failed to mention the tremendous influence of “the black hand in the pot” in Creole cooking. The Africans brought with them the “kin gum-bo” or okra plant from their native soil which not only gave name to our premier soup, but introduced a new vegetable to South Louisiana. Even more important-ly, African Americans have maintained a significant role in development of Creole cuisine in the home as well as the professional kitchen. Creole cuisine is indebted to many unique people and diverse cultures who were willing to contribute and share their cooking styles, ingredients and talent. Obvi-ously, Creole cuisine represents the history of sharing in South Louisiana. Early on in the history of New Orleans, the Creole wives became frustrated, not being able to duplicate their old world dishes with new world products. Governor Bienville helped to solve this problem by commissioning his housekeeper, Madame Lan-glois, to introduce them to local vegetables, meats and seafoods in what became the first cooking school in America.

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P


SHRIMP REMOULADE

INGREDIENTS for 10 appetizer servings (5 shrimp per serving) Remoulade Sauce: Makes about 4 cups ¼ cup Creole or Dijon mustard 2 tablespoons paprika 1 teaspoon salt ½ cup cider vinegar Dash of Tabasco sauce ½ cup finely chopped celery ½ cup finely chopped parsley ¼ cup ketchup ¼ cup prepared yellow mustard 2 cloves of garlic, minced 3 eggs, at room temperature 1 1/3 cups salad oil PREPARATION

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Put all the ingredients except the oil in container of blender. Cover and blend at low speed. While blending, remove the cover and gradually pour in the oil in a steady stream. Sauce will thicken. *Refrigerate in an airtight container until ready to use. Salad greens, such as spring mix, iceberg lettuce or Bibb lettuce. 3 ½ pounds large shrimp, peeled and deveined, boiled in salted water with a squeeze of lemon juice, drained and chilled. Mound the greens on individual chilled appetizer plates, arrange the shrimp (about 5 each per serving). Spoon remoulade sauce over the shrimp, or the shrimp can be tossed in the remoulade before arranging on the salad greens.


INGREDIENTS for 4 appetizer servings (8 oysters each) For the baked oysters with fennel: Rock salt for baking 12 oysters in their shells, shucked, drained (reserve liquor), deeper bottom shells rinsed and reserved for baking 2 tablespoons unsalted butter 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour 1 tablespoon olive oil 2 2/3 cups chopped fennel bulbs 1 2/3 cups chopped yellow onions 1 teaspoon minced garlic ¼ cup oyster reserved liquor 2 tablespoons Pernod ½ teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon white pepper Pinch or two cayenne pepper 1 1/4 cups heavy cream 3 tablespoons fine dried breadcrumbs ¼ cup freshly grated Parmesan cheese 1 tablespoon minced fennel fronds Paprika for garnish PREPARATION Spread a ½-inch-thick layer of rock salt on a large baking sheet and in the bottoms of 4 to 6 nine-inch pie pans. Arrange the pans on two large baking sheets and put them in the oven to heat while you prepare the oysters. Combine the flour and butter

in a heavy skillet over medium heat. Stirring constantly and slowly, make a blond roux. Remove from the heat and set aside. Heat the olive oil in a medium, heavy saucepan over medium heat. Add the fennel, onions and garlic, and cook, stirring occasionally, until soft, about 15 minutes. Add the oyster liquor, Pernod, orange juice, salt, white pepper and cayenne. Cook, stirring often, until the vegetables are tender and all the liquid has evaporated, about 5 minutes. Add the cream and bring to a gentle simmer. Whisk in the roux and cook, stirring constantly, for 15 minutes. Remove from the heat and fold in the breadcrumbs, cheese and fennel fronds. Store in the refrigerator in an airtight container for at least one hour. Preheat the oven to 400 degrees. Arrange 6 oyster shells over the rock salt in each of the pie pans and place an oyster in each shell. Spoon equal amounts of the sauce over the oysters, sprinkle with paprika, and bake until the sauce is bubbly and the oysters begin to curl at the edges, about 10 minutes. Remove from the oven and serve hot. For the oysters Bienville: Rock salt for baking 12 oysters in their

shells,

shucked, drained (reserve liquor), deeper bottom shells rinsed and reserved for baking 1 ½ tablespoons unsalted butter 1 ½ tablespoons all-purpose flour ¼ cup chopped bacon 1 ½ cups finely chopped yellow onions 1 cup finely chopped celery ½ cup finely chopped green bell peppers 1 bay leaf ½ teaspoon salt Pinch each black pepper, white pepper and cayenne pepper Pinch each of whole-leaf dried thyme and dried whole-leaf oregano ½ teaspoon minced garlic ¾ cup thinly sliced white button mushrooms ¾ cup thinly sliced green onions ½ cup chopped fresh shrimp 1 tablespoon dry sherry 1/4 cup oyster liquor ½ cup half-and-half ¼ cup fine dried breadcrumbs Paprika for garnish PREPARATION Preheat the oven to 400 degrees. Spread a ½-inch-thick layer of rock salt on a large baking sheet and in the bottoms of 6 nine-inch pie pans. Arrange the pans on two large baking sheets and put them in the oven to heat while you prepare the oysters. Combine the flour and butter in a heavy skillet over medium heat. Stirring constantly and slowly,

make a blond roux. Remove from the heat and set aside. Fry the bacon in a heavy pot over medium heat until crispy. Drain off all but 1 tablespoon of the bacon fat. Add the onions, celery, bell peppers, and bay leaves. Cook over high heat, stirring occasionally, until the onions become soft and clear, about 10 minutes. Add the salt, black pepper, white pepper, cayenne, thyme, oregano, and garlic. Cook, stirring occasionally, for 1 minute. Add the mushrooms and green onions. Cook, stirring occasionally, until the mushrooms become soft, about 2 minutes. Add the shrimp and cook, stirring occasionally, until the shrimp turn pink, about 1 minute. Add the sherry and cook for 1 minute. Add the oyster liquor and halfand-half, and bring the mixture to a boil. Whisk in the roux. Reduce heat to very low and simmer until thickened, about 5 minutes. Remove and discard the bay leaf. Stir in the bread crumbs to slightly bind the mixture. Transfer the mixture to a shallow pan and refrigerate for at least 2 hours. Arrange 6 oyster shells over the rock salt in each of the pie pans and place an oyster in each shell. Spoon equal amounts of the sauce over the oysters, sprinkle with paprika, and bake until the sauce is bubbly and the oysters begin to curl at the edges, about 10 minutes. Remove from the oven and serve hot.

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BAKED OYSTERS FENNEL AND OYSTERS BIENVILLE


NEW ORLEANS TURTLE SOUP

INGREDIENTS for 8 to 10 servings (about 3 quarts) ¼ cup vegetable oil 2 pounds turtle meat, cleaned and finely chopped 1 tablespoon salt ½ teaspoon black pepper 4 cups chopped yellow onions 2 cups chopped celery 1 cup chopped green bell peppers 2 bay leaves 1 tablespoon minced garlic 2 large tomatoes, peeled, seeded and chopped (about 1 cup) 6 ounces fresh spinach, blanched, drained and chopped 3 quarts light chicken stock ½ cup dark brown (the color of chocolate) roux 2 teaspoons lemon zest 3 hard-boiled eggs, shelled and finely chopped ¼ cup chopped flat-leaf parsley 1/4 teaspoon cayenne 2 tablespoons dry sherry *or more according to personal taste

Heat the oil in a large, heavy pot or Dutch oven over medium-high heat. Season the turtle with 1 teaspoon of the salt and the black pepper. Add the meat and brown evenly, stirring constantly for about 10 minutes. Remove from the heat and transfer the meat to a platter. Cover lightly and set aside. Add the onions, celery, and bell peppers to the same pan and cook, stirring, until the vegetables are caramelized, about 15 minutes. Reduce the heat to medium and add the bay leaves and the garlic. Cook, stirring, until aromatic, about 1 minute. Add the tomatoes and spinach, and cook, stirring, for 1 minute. Add the stock and bring to a boil, stirring occasionally. Carefully whisk in the roux and return to a boil over medium-high heat. Add the lemon zest and reserved turtle meat. Reduce the heat to medium-low and simmer for 1 hour, stirring occasionally. Add the eggs and the parsley and simmer for 45 minutes longer or until the turtle meat is tender. Add the remaining 3 teaspoons salt, ¼ teaspoon cayenne and dry sherry. Stir to blend. Serve hot.

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PREPARATION


CHICKEN AND ANDOUILLE GUMBO

INGREDIENTS for 12 to 14 servings Makes about 1 gallon

PREPARATION Preheat the oven to 400 degrees. Season the chicken pieces with salt and black pepper. Arrange the chickens on a baking pan. Pour the wine into the bottom of the pan and bake for 20 minutes. (DO NOT FULLY COOK.) Remove the pan from the oven and set aside to cool. Arrange the andouille on a sheet pan and bake (in the same oven as the chicken) for 8 minutes, stirring once or twice to prevent it from sticking to the pan. Remove the pan from the oven and set aside to cool. When cool enough to handle, remove the meat from the chicken bones (discard bones and skin.) Cut the chicken into bite-size pieces. In a large cast-iron Dutch oven, heat the oil over medium-high heat. When the oil begins to smoke, add the flour and whisk until smooth. Continue stirring until the roux reaches a dark brown color. Add the onions, bell peppers and celery. Cook, stirring, until the vegetables are soft, about 5 minutes. Add the bay leaves and garlic. Cook, stirring, until aromatic, about 1 minute. Add the stock, 1 quart at a time, stirring until the mixture is smooth. Bring to a boil over medium-high heat, and simmer until the mixture thickens slightly, about 15 minutes. Reduce the heat to low. Put 1 tablespoon of the filé in a small bowl. Add ½ cup of the gumbo liquid to the filé and stir to blend. Add the mixture to the gumbo and whisk vigorously for 1 minute to blend well. Add the chicken and the andouille and simmer for 30 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add the green onions, parsley, the remaining 1 teaspoon salt and ¼ teaspoon cayenne. Stir for 1 minute. Let stand off the heat for 10 minutes. Skim off any oil that has risen to the surface. Serve in warm bowls over hot, long-grain white rice and accompany with crusty French bread.

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One 3 to 4 pound fryer chicken, cut into serving pieces 1 pound andouille sausage (or other smoked sausage), cut crosswise into ½-inch pieces 2 teaspoons salt ½ teaspoon black pepper 1 cup dry white wine 1 cup vegetable oil 1 ¼ cups all-purpose flour 2 cups finely chopped yellow onions 1 cup finely chopped green bell peppers 1 cup finely chopped red bell peppers 1 cup fine chopped celery 2 bay leaves 2 tablespoons minced garlic 2 ½ quarts chicken stock 1 tablespoon filé powder (ground sassafras leaves) ½ cup chopped green onions (scallions), both green and white parts 2 tablespoons flat-leaf parsley ½ teaspoon chopped fresh thyme ¼ teaspoon cayenne


CRAWFISH ETOUFFEE

INGREDIENTS for 6 servings 1/4 pound (1 stick) unsalted butter 2 cups chopped yellow onions 1 cup chopped green bell peppers 1/2 cup chopped celery 2 pounds peeled crawfish tails 1 tablespoon all-purpose flour dissolved in 1/2 cup water 1 Âź teaspoons salt Âź teaspoon cayenne 2 tablespoons chopped green onions 1 tablespoon chopped fresh parsley leaves Cooked long-grain rice PREPARATION

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Heat the butter over medium heat in a large, heavy pot. Add the onions, bell peppers, and celery, and cook, stirring, until soft and lightly golden, about 15 minutes. Add the crawfish and cook, stirring occasionally, until they begin to throw off a little liquid, about 5 minutes. Add the flour/water mixture, reduce the heat to medium-low and cook, stirring occasionally, until the mixture thickens, about 3 minutes. Season with salt and cayenne. Remove from the heat. Add the green onions and parsley. Serve in warm bowls over steamed white rice.


PORK AND SAUSAGE JAMBALAYA

INGREDIENTS for 4 to 6 servings 2 tablespoons vegetable oil 1 pound pork shoulder, cut into 1-inch cubes 2 teaspoons salt 1/2 teaspoon cayenne ½ pound smoked sausage, cut crosswise into ¼-inch slices 1 ½ cups chopped onions 1 cup chopped green bell peppers 3 cups beef stock 1 tablespoon tomato paste 2 tablespoons chopped fresh parsley leaves 2 tablespoon chopped green onions 1 ½ cups long-grain rice Tabasco pepper sauce (pass at the table for guests to add more heat if they wish) PREPARATION

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Heat the oil in a large, heavy pot of Dutch oven over medium-high heat. Season the pork pieces with salt and cayenne. Add the pork to the pot and cook, stirring, until evenly browned, about 5 minutes. Add the sausage and cook, stirring, for 2 minutes. Add the onions and peppers, and cook, stirring, until soft and golden, 5 to 6 minutes. Add the stock, tomato paste, parsley and green onions. Stir and bring to a boil. Add the rice, cover and reduce heat to medium-low and cook until the rice is tender and has absorbed most of the liquid, 20 to 25 minutes. DO NOT STIR. Adjust seasoning if necessary with salt and cayenne. Fluff the mixture with a fork before serving.


CLASSIC NEW ORLEANS BREAD PUDDING WITH WHISKEY SAUCE INGREDIENTS for 12 to 14 servings 8 eggs 4 egg yolks 1 teaspoon ground cinnamon ¼ teaspoon freshly grated nutmeg 1 tablespoon vanilla extract 1/3 cup light brown sugar 1 ½ cups granulated sugar 4 cups milk 1 (14-ounce) can sweetened condensed milk 3 baguettes (each about 22 inches long), cut into 1-inch pieces (about 16 cups) 2 cups raisins 3 tablespoons butter PREPARATION WHISKEY SAUCE 2 cups heavy whipping cream 1 ¼ cups sugar 2 teaspoons pure vanilla extract 2 tablespoons cornstarch 3 tablespoons water 3 ounces bourbon, rum or brandy PREPARATION Combine the cream, sugar and vanilla in a medium saucepan. Bring to a gentle boil, stirring to dissolve the sugar, about 1 ½ minutes. In a small bowl, combine the cornstarch and water and whisk to blend. Add the mixture to the cream mixture, and stir constantly until the mixture thickens, about 1 minute. Remove from the heat and cool for about 15 minutes. Add the bourbon (rum or brandy) and whisk to blend.

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In a large mixing bowl, combine the eggs, egg yolks, cinnamon, nutmeg, vanilla, sugars and milk. Whisk to blend well. Add the bread and raisins. Press the bread down into the milk mixture. Stir gently to mix. Allow the mixture to soak for 1 hour. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. Butter a 9x13-inch baking dish. Pour in the bread mixture. Place the pan in another pan (larger than the first) and fill the bottom pan half-way full with water. Bake until the pudding sets, about 45 minutes. To serve, put a scoop of the bread pudding in the center of each dessert plate and spoon the warm sauce over the pudding.


LES OREILLES DE COCHON

INGREDIENTS for about 3 dozen 1 egg ½ cup milk 2 cups all-purpose flour 2 teaspoons baking powder ½ teaspoon salt Vegetable oil for deep frying 1 cup sugar cane syrup 1 cup chopped and lightly toasted pecans PREPARATION

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Beat the eggs until foamy. Add the milk and blend. Sift the flour baking powder and salt together twice. Add this to the egg mixture and blend. Cut off a small portion about the size of a walnut and roll out on a lightly floured board until very thin. Drop each piece into hot oil and give each piece a twist from the top with a fork and fry until light brown and drain on paper towels. Combine the syrup and pecans in a heavy saucepan over low heat and cook, stirring until it reaches a soft ball stage (234 to 240 degrees on a candy thermometer).


Acknowledgements Special thanks to Dr. Santiago Gangotena (founder and president of USFQ/Ecuador) for his support in the overall production of this book.

ESDAI - Universidad Panamericana Director ESDAI: Dra. Nancy Rosado Gómez

Text and recipes: Esp. Marcela González Garza Ducoing Chef María Engracia Celis Juárez Mtra. María del Carmen Hinojosa Quirós Mtra. Andrea González Dávalos Photography: Lic. María José Oviedo Bisogno

HAAGA-HELIA Text and recipes: Markus Aremo Photography: Jukka-Pekka Laakio

HURST CAMPUS Text, recipes and research: Juanita Bapoo Graham Scholtz Photography: Liesel van der Merwe Andrew Swarts Food Styling: Ronan Boucher Andrew Alexander

INACAP Text and recipes: Our acknowledgements to directors, teachers and instructors that participated from the different INACAP campuses around the country. Patricio Qüense Alberto Sepulveda Luis Endía Loreto Cofré Felipe Macera Susana Martínez María Soledad Cuevas Rosario Valdés Nicolás Carrasco


Text and recipes: Chef David FILLAT Chef Alain LECOSSEC Chef Jean Paul NAQUIN Chef Antoine FREMONT Chef Florent BOIVIN Mlle Yvelise DENTZER Mlle Geraldine DERYCK and her team Photography copyrights/credits: © Thuriès © Pascal Muradian © François Fleury © Frédéric Marquet

ITE COLLEGE WEST Anandarajoo, Ivan Ignatius Chee Choy Foong, Joanne Goh Kian Heng, Alvin Goh Yitian, Lydia Heng Boon Keng, Derrick Ng Seow Eng, Veron Tay Wee Chung, Steven Wong Wai Seng Yiu Wing Ho, Dynax

National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism (NKUHT) Dr. Yi Chun, LEE Dr. Fred, Ming Hsu, CHANG

Universidad San Francisco de Quito Research and recipes: Chef Homero Miño Mauricio Cepeda Chef Patricia Villafuerte Photography: Mauricio Cepeda Food Styling: Chef Homero Miño

229 - Acknowledgements

INSTITUT PAUL BOCUSE



The cookbook 2015