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Challenges for the HE Sector

Entrepreneurial University of the Year 2011 The Times Higher Education Awards

George Martin Professor of Low Impact and Sustainable Buildings 9th October 02012


Planet Earth


Agenda • • • • • • • • •

It’s The Law The Challenge Mind the Gap Evidence / Measurement Tools Behavioural Change Drivers The Intelligent Client Conclusions


It’s The Law


Climate Change Act

26th November 2008

Climate Change Act •

• •

Targets: 34% cut by 2020; 80% by 2050 Extensive enabling powers 5 year budgets; annual reports to Parliament from the independent Committee on Climate Change

Climate Change Act November 2008


Sectoral Plans. Low carbon buildings • By 2050, all buildings will need to have an emissions footprint close to zero


The Challenge


The Challenge Leisure

Retail

Warehouse

Industrial

Hotel

Health

Commercial 1990

2020

Education Government

2050

Domestic


Barriers to progress • Plethora of policies, reports and initiatives

• Lack of collaborative integration of the supply chain • Need for general up skilling of all parts of the supply chain • Preoccupation with initial capital cost instead of appraising projects on a whole life basis • Evidential gap between design and performance in use


Mind The Gap


kgCO2/m2 per annum

Credibility gaps between virtual performance and actual performance 125

Fabric and systems efficiency improvements

100

Regulatory requirements Renewables contribution

75 Actual performance 50

Benchmarks

25 0 Ty p i c a l

Goo d

2002

25%

2 0 0 6 Ta r ge t

P ER C o v e r a l l

B u i l di ng

I ni t i a l

pr a c t i c e

R e g ul a t i o ns

r e d uc t i on

Em i ssi on s

e mi ssi o ns

Em i ssi on s

c on su m p t i o n

i nc l u di ng u p

R a t e ( T ER )

r e d uc t i on

R a t e ( B ER )

( f i r st y e a r )

t o 10 % f or r e ne wa b l e s B e nc h ma r k s

The built environment experts

B u i l d i n g R e g ul a t i o n s

11


CarbonBuzz - energy profiling from design to operation

Courtesy Aedas - Stockley Academy Built in 2005


Evidence / Measurement


CO2 Emissions 80 kg CO2 CO2 elec kg CO2 CO2 gas

kgCO2/m2

70 60 50 40

2002 Notional Building Regs

30

2006 TER Building Regs

20 10 0 School A

School B

School C

School D

School E

Good Practice

Buro Happold study of 5 new ‘well designed’ academies

Typical


Breakdown of Electrical Consumption by End Usage 140 120

Server and specialist computing Catering elecricity

kWh/m2/annum

100

Office equipment 80 Lighting 60

Fans, pumps, controls Cooling

40 20 0 School A

School B

School C

School D

School E


Breakdown of Electrical Consumption by End Usage 140 120

Server and specialist computing Catering elecricity

kWh/m2/annum

100

Office equipment 80 Lighting 60

Fans, pumps, controls Cooling

40 20 0 School A

School B

School C

School D

School E


Automatic Control versus Manual


Elizabeth Fry Building Constructed 1993/4 and occupied in January 1995


DEC rating B (26 to 50)

44


Performance of Higher Education Buildings


The Elizabeth Fry building Energy E.FRY CUMSUM OF INPUT ENERGY kwh/sq.metre/annum for prior 52 week period 90.0

K w h /s q .m /an num

80.0 70.0 60.0

heating electricity

50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 5 12 19 26 33 40 47 2 9 16 23 30 37 44 51 6 13 20 27 34 41 48 3 10 17 24 31 38 45 52 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 4 11 18 25 0 7 14 1 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 5 12 19 26 33 40 47 2 9 16 23 30 37 44 51 6 13 20 27 34 41 48 1 8 15 22 29 36 43 50

week numbers (FEB 96 - JAN 07)

23


The Elizabeth Fry building Energy

24


Tools


EPCs and DECs


Energy use - the full picture Actual – Real energy use

Design forecast

Forecast Regulated CO2 Part L

Unregulated CO2

Special functions Inefficiencies From BMS Extra occupancy & operating hours

Regulated Energy Use includes: fixed building services, heating, hot water, cooling, ventilation, lighting Unregulated Energy Use includes: plugload, server rooms, security, external lighting, lifts etc. Special Functions include: trading floors, server rooms, cafeteria etc. Reference: Aedas Architects 2010


Energy use - the full picture Display Energy Certificate Actual – Real energy use

Design forecast

Forecast Regulated CO 2 Part L

Unregulated CO2

Energy Performance Certificate

Special functions Inefficiencies From BMS Extra occupancy & operating hours

Regulated Energy Use includes: fixed building services, heating, hot water, cooling, ventilation, lighting Unregulated Energy Use includes: plugload, server rooms, security, external lighting, lifts etc. Special Functions include: trading floors, server rooms, cafeteria etc. Reference: Aedas Architects 2010


Drivers


Energy Act 2011 • Enacted 18th October 2011 • Three principle objectives: – Tackling barriers to investment in energy efficiency – Enhancing energy security – Enabling investment in low carbon energy supplies. • Designed to make a step change in the provision of energy efficiency measures. • The Act sets out for the first time how the Green Deal will work.


49 Non-domestic energy efficiency

regulations (1) The Secretary of State must make regulations for the purpose of securing that a landlord of a non-domestic Property(c) Which falls below such level of energy efficiency (as demonstrated by the energy performance certificate) as is provided for by the regulations May not let the property until the landlord has compiled with the obligation mentioned in subsection (2) (2) The obligation is to make to the property such relevant energy efficiency improvements as are provided for by the regulations


49 Non-domestic energy efficiency

regulations (1) The Secretary of State must make regulations for the purpose of securing that a landlord of a non-domestic Property(c) Which falls below such level of energy efficiency (as demonstrated by the energy performance certificate) as is provided for by the regulations May not let the property until the landlord has compiled with the obligation mentioned in subsection (2) (2) The obligation is to make to the property such relevant energy efficiency improvements as are provided for by the regulations


Number of buildings

Chart 3 - Distribution of DEC bands across the BBP London portfolio 2009 73

1

4

7

A

B

C

14

14

D

E

10

F

G

Better Buildings Partnership survey using 2009 energy data covering 123 London Offices.


Direction from Government •

The UK’s Low Carbon Transition plan is the construction industry’s business plan for the next 40 years.

We need to ensure that we equip the current generation with the skills required to design, construct, operate and maintain a low carbon built environment

We need to be aware of unintended consequences

• We need new procurement methods


Behavioural Change


It’s Everyone • • • • • • •

Clients / Owners Investors Planners Design Supply Chain Delivery Supply Chain Operation / Maintenance Supply chain Occupiers / Users


Occupiers - Student Game

Game available at: PC Version http://sgiwiki.cueltd.co.uk/Customer/Application/CU@Green.exe Mac Version: http://sgiwiki.cueltd.co.uk/Customer/Application/Green@CU_forMAC.zip


Student Game


The Intelligent Client


The Intelligent Client Recipe • Procurement – Whole Life Costing


“Without Whole Life Costing being embedded at the heart of all capital programmes, applied universally not episodically, Ministers should give up on their carbon targets, however worthy, and forget any notion of a sustainable government estate.� (Jonathon Porritt, October 2004)


The Intelligent Client Recipe • Procurement – Whole Life Costing – DEC – Guaranteed Energy Performance • Soft Landings


Soft Landings in a sentence “A process for a graduated handover of a new or refurbished building, where a period of professional aftercare by the project team is a client requirement – planned for and carried out from project inception onwards – and lasting for up to three years post-completion”

The built environment experts

44


Energy analysis

The built environment experts

45


The Intelligent Client Recipe • Procurement – Whole Life Costing – DEC – Guaranteed Energy Performance • Soft Landings • Knowledge Capture Hub


Conclusions


The Elephant in the Boardroom !

“There is something that the Board needs to talk about”

CARBON


Conclusions………………….

"We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them."

Albert Einstein


The Message • Radical Change to the Procurement Process – Whole Life Costing – DEC – Guaranteed Energy Performance • Soft Landings • Knowledge Capture Hub


Thank you george.martin@coventry.ac.uk

Coventry University - Winner Carbon Reduction Category 2011

George Martin  

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