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CONTENT

FOREWORd

3

A. CASE FOR INNOVATION

2

ARChITECTuRAL dISCOuRSE:

7-9

dIgITAL dESIgN

11-13

BIOmImICRY

15-17

B. EOI : CuT RESEARCh pROjECT

19-47

EOI: REVISITEd

48-71


FOREWORd

TO BE INSERTEd ..

3


A CASE FOR INNOVATION


Week 1: architecture as a discourse


NATuRAL ARChITECTuRE

ORgANIC hIghWAY, dENmARk mIkAEL hANSON

‘NATuRAL ARChITECTuRE IS A ’ mOVEmENT ThAT AImS TO CApTuRE ThE hARmONIOuS CONNECTION WE SEEk WITh NATuRE BY mERgINg humANITY ANd NATuRE ThROugh ARChITECTuRE (ROCCA, 2007).

ThE mOVEmENT EmphASIZES ON FORmS ARE STRIppEd dOWN TO ThEIR ESSENCE, EXpRESSINg ThE NATuRAL BEAuTY pRESENT IN mATERIALS ANd LOCATION. TO mE, ThE pROjECT RESEmBLES A dESIRE TO LOOk BACk INTO ThE TRuE FORm OF ARChITECTuRE ThROugh LOOkINg BACk AT A FRAmEWORk TO AppROACh BuILdINgS ANd STRuCTuRES. ThIS IS RAThER INTERESTINg FOR mE AS ThIS CONCEpT TAkES A LITERAL INTENTION ANd TRANSLATES IT ThROugh A BuILT pROjECT. hOWEVER ALL OF ThE WORkS IN ThE mOVEmENT ShARE A CENTRAL EThOS ThAT dEmONSTRATES A RESpECT ANd AppRECIATION FOR NATuRE. hERE, I Am mORE INTERESTEd IN ThE CONCEpT ANd IdEA BEhINd ThIS mOVEmENT AS IT hAS A pOTENTIAL TO LAYOuT ThE FOuNdATION OF mY ARgumENT FOR ThE pROpOSEd EOI. ThIS IdEA SOmEWhAT SImILAR TO WILLIAm’S (2005) IdEAL OF ARChITECTuRE AS A SIgN, A SIgN TO SYmBOLIZE ANd guIdE ANY pERSON LOOkINg AT ARChITECTuRE ITSELF.

7


dIgITAL ARChITECTuRE AS A dISCOuRSE

pERFORmINg ARTS CENTER, ABu dABhI ZAhA hAdId IS A FIRm WELL kNOW FOR ThEIR AppROACh TO BuILdINg dESIgN WhICh mAkES CONSISTENT uSE OF pOWERFuL COmpuTATIONAL dESIgN TEChNOLOgIES AVAILABLE TOdAY. ThE dESIgN LANguAgE OF SOhO WANgjINg OR EVEN ThE FIRm CAN BE SEEN AS CONSTANTLY puShINg ThE BOuNdARIES OF gEOmETRIC EXpRESSION WhILE dEVELOpINg TEChNICAL CApABILITY TO CApTuRE ANd EXECuTE A dESIgN. ThIS INTEgRATION OF ThE dESIgN INTENTION ANd ACCuRATE, EFFICIENT pROjECT dELIVERY IS AChIEVEd ThROugh A dIgITAL COdIFICATION OF dESIgN AS A SERIES OF pARAmETRIC gEOmETRIC OpERATIONS, ThIS ENABLES dESIgN SOLuTIONS TO BE RApIdLY gENERATEd BY CONTROLLINg ASSOCIATIVE gEOmETRIES ANd dRIVINg pARAmETERS. I BELIEVE ThESE EXpRESSIONS ARE ThE dRIVINg FORCE BEhINd ThIS up ANd COmINg dISCOuRSE. FOR mE, ThROugh OBSERVINg ZhA’S LANguAgE OF ARChITECTuRE I WOuLd LIkE TO INCOpORATE pARAmETRIC mEThOd INTO mY upCOmINg pROjECT, I BELIEVE pARAmETRICISm WILL BE ThE FuTuRE OF dESIgN, IT ALLOWS uS TO dESIgN NOT juST A pIECE OF ART BuT RAThER A BuILdINg WITh CONTEXT ThAT FITS INTO OuR CuLTuRE ANd SOCIAL REALm.

8


SuSTAINABILITY AS A dISCOuRSE hEARST TOWER, uNITEd STATES FOSTER + pARTNERS LOCATION hEARST TOWER IS ThE FIRST ‘gREE’N’ hIgh RISE OFFICE BuILdINg COmpLETEd IN NEW YORk CITY, WITh A NumBER OF ENVIRONmENTAL CONSIdERATIONS BuILT INTO pLAN. OVERALL, ThE BuILdINg hAS EARNEd A gOLd dESIgNATION FROm ThE uNITEd STATES gREEN BuILdINg COuNCIL’S LEEd CERTIFICATION pROgRAm, BECOmINg NEW YORk CITY’S FIRST LEEd gOLd SkYSCRApER. WITh gLOBAL WARmINg BECOmINg A mAjOR ISSuE ANd ThREATh TO OuR ENVIRONmENT, pEOpLE hAVE BEEN TRYINg TO ChANgE ThE BuILdINgS ThAT WE INhABITATE ESpECIALLY IN AREA WITh A hIgh uRBAN hEAT RATE. SuSTAINABLE ARChITECTuRE ARE CuRRENTLY SLOWLY EmERgINg, IT WILL gRAduALLY ShApE OuR uRBAN ENVIRONmENT, FuSINg IT WITh OuR pOpuLATION’S WILL TO SAVE ThE EARTh. IN TERmS OF ThINkINg ABOuT WYNdhAm I ThINk ThAT SuSTAINABILITY mAYBE OF A gOOd dESIgN LANguAgE TO BRINg OuT ThEIR uNIQuENESS IN ORdER TO BRANd ThEmSELVES AS AN ICON. hOWEVER, ALThOugh SuSTAINABLE ARChITECTuRE hAVE BEEN SLOWLY EmERgINg, I pERSONALLY FINd ThE ImpORTANCE TO dIFFERENTIATE ThE BuILT OuRCOmES ThAT ARE TRuLY gREEN IN NATuRE TO ThOSE ThAT CLAIm TO BE gREEN. A BuILdINg TO mE hAS TO BE WhAT IT CLAImS TO BE.

9


Week 2: computing in architecture


COmpuTATION AS A mEdIum

BWm WELT, muNICh, gERmANY COOp hImmELB(L)Au

11


SkY RAIL, SAN FRANCISCO mATYSYS

12


http://matsysdesign.com/tag/digital-fabrication/

13


WEEK 3: PARAMETRIC MODELLING


A LANguAgE WIThIN ARChITECTuRE

WATER CuBE, BEIjINg pTW ARChITECTS ThE WATERCuBE hAS AN OuTERSTRuCTuRE OF A BASIC BOX WITh AN ORgANIC BuBBLE STRuCTuRE ThAT mAkES up ThE BuILdINg CLAddINg. ThE BuBBLES ARE ORgANIC IN FORm ANd hIghLY SCIENTIFIC, CONSTRuCTEd BASEd ON ACTuAL ARRANgEmENT OF ORgANIC CELLS ANT ThE NATuRAL FORmATION OF SOAp BuBBLES. hENCE, BIOmImICRY. ALThOugh ThE STRuCTuRE AppEARS RANdOm, ThE dESIgN pROCESS ANd mAThEmATICAL ANALYSIS (ALgORIThmIC SpACES) uSEd TO pROduCEd TO CONSIdER ThE OVERALL EXpERIENCES WITh WATER ARE INFACT STATE OF ThE ART, ThESE ARE ALL mAdE pOSSIBLE ThROugh TEChNOLOgICAL AdVANCEmENT IN ENgINEERINg ANd OFFCOuRSE, dIgITAL dESIgN ANd COmpuTATIONAL TEChNOLOgY. ALSO, ONE OF ITS hIghLIghTS IS ThE uSE OF A LIghTWEIghT ANd TRANSpARENT TEFLON (ETFE) WhICh IS ALSO uSEd IN ThE OuTER FACAdE OF ThE ALLIANZ ARENA. WhAT INTRIguES mE IS ThE ABILITY TO TRANSLATE A INTENTION ONTO ThE BuILT FORm ThROugh STRuCTuRAL TRANSLATION AS WELL AS dESIgN INTENTIONS. ThE SYmBOLISm OF ChANNELINg ChINESE CuLTuRE INTO ThE CuBE’S dESIgN IN ThIS CASE IS SImILAR IN WhAT WYNdhAm IS TRYINg TO AChIEVE, ThIS TRANSLATION OF LANguAgE IF puT INTO gOOd uSE WILL hELp WYNdhAm IN gAININg INSTANT STATuS AS SEEN IN ThE CASE OF ThE BEIjINg WATER CuBE. OFFCOuRSE, INNOVATION ANd ITS CONTEXT TO ThE SITE WILL BE AS ImpORTANT INTO FORmINg ThE FINAL EOI ARgumENT .

15


ANALYSINg ThE FORm pRImARY STRuCTuRE: ThE pRImARY STRuCTuRE OF ThE BuILdINg IS A 3d SpACE FRAmE BASEd ON A gEOmETRIC CELL mAdE up OF 12 pENTAgONS ANd TWO hEAXAgONS ThAT IS 3 dImENSIONALLY REpEATABLE WIThOuT LEAVINg ANY EmpTY SpACES. ThE FINAL STRuCTuRE IS COmpRISEd OF 22,000 TuBuLAR STEEL mEmBERS CONNECTEd BY 12,000 NOdES. BuBBLE dESIgN: ThE BuBBLE gEOmETRIES ARE ANALYZEd ThROugh FABRICATION mOdEL INCREASINg ThE ACCuRACY ANd ThE SuBSEQuENT FABRICATION OF ThE CLAddINg. ThERE ARE 3 LAYERS TO ThE BuILdINg WITh ThE mIddLE LAYER FILLEd WITh ThERmAL ANd ACOuSTIC INSuLATION. FORm FINdINg: ThE FORm FINdINg pROCESS WAS IN ThIS CASE STRAIghTFORWARd, AS ThE mAIN CONCERN WAS TO mAINTAIN ThE BuBBLE LIkE ShApE IN ThE CuShION. AIR pRESSuRISEd TO 2OOpA WAS pumpEd INTO ThE ETFE CAuSINg TO YIELd ANd dEFORm, ThuS FINIdNg ThE ShApE ORgANIC. FOR ThE LARgER CuShIONS, FORm FINdINg WAS TO FINd ThE gEOmETRY OF ThE FOIL TO pREVENT OVERSTRESSINg. ThE mEThOdS uSEd pOSSIBLE hERE ARE dERIVEd FROm dYNAmIC RELAXATION ALgORIThmS. FROm hERE, ThE NEXT STEp IS TO ENSuRE ThAT ThE ETFE WERE NOT OVERSTRESSEd.

16


BIOmImICRY AS A WhOLE ALThOugh BIOmImICRY ALLOWS FORmS ANd STRuCTuRES TO BE ENhANCEd AS OBSERVEd FROm ThE BEIjINg WATER CuBE, IT muST ALSO BE NOTEd ThAT ThE ImpACT OF NEW ‘mASS CuSTOmIZABLE’ CONSTRuCTION mEThOdS WhICh ENABLE A muCh mORE ALgORIThmIC, gENERATIVE WAY OF BuILdINg STRuCTuRES. hENCE ThE EmphASIS ON ThE TYpES OF STRuCTuRE LIkE ThE BEIjINg WATER CuBE ANd ThE ThE BmW WELT IN muNICh TO NAmE A FEW; STRuCTuRES WhICh ARE SOmETImES INdEEd OFTEN INSpIREd BY NATuRE, BuT WhICh CAN ALSO BE SImILAR IN TERmS OF OuTCOmES. ThIS IS BECAuSE ThEY ARE CONVERgENT SOLuTIONS TO SImILAR pROBLEmS. dESpITE SOmE OF ITS mINOR pROBLEmS, IT IS hARd TO dENY ThAT uSINg ‘NATuRE’ TOgEThER WITh TEChNOLOgY hAS BROughT BENEFITS TO OuR BuILT ENVIRONmENT ANd ThIS dISCOuRSE WILL CONTINuE TO gROW ANd mAYBE ShApE OuR FuTuRE. TO AVOId ThIS pROCESS OF SImILAR OuTCOmE ThROugh ONE TEChNIQuE, IT IS STILL ImpORTANT IN A WhOLE TO RELATE ThE LANguAgE IN WhICh WE WANT TO TRANSLATE ThROugh ARChITECTuRE. TO mE, ThIS IS ThE mOST ImpORTANT ASpECT IN dESIgN, ThE ABILITY OF ThE BuILdINg TO CONVEY ANd SpEAk FOR ITSELF.

17


EOI: RESEARCH GROUP


CONTENT

A. CASE FOR INNOVATION: gROup pRECEdENTS ARChITECTuRAL dISCOuRSE:

22-23

dIgITAL dESIgN

24-25

BIOmImICRY

26-27

OBjECTIVES/ARgumENT

28

B. RESEARCh pROjECT CRITERIA

30

pRECEdENTS

31-33

CuT mATRICES

34-37

CASE STudIES VORONOI EXpLORATION 1

38-40

VORONOI EXpLORATION 2

41-42

VORONOI EXpLORATION 3

43-44

REFLECTION (1)

45

B. RESEARCh pROjECT REVISITEd: A REFLECTION

20

ARgumENT

49

pRECEdENTS

50-51

CRITERIA

52

EXpLORATIONS: VORONOI

55-57

EXpLORATION: CuRVE

59-61

EXpLORATION: mERgE

63-65

EXpLORATION: FABRICATION

67-69

REFERENCES

70


A. Case for Innovation


dIgITAL dESIgN AS A dISCOuRSE

guggENhEIm muSEum, BILBAO FRANk gEhRY

“NEW dIgITAL ARChITECTuRES ARE EmERgINg FROm ThE dIgITAL REVOLuTION. ARChITECTS hAVE FOuNd ThEIR EXpRESSION IN hIghLY COmpLEX, CuRVCuRVILINEAR FORmS ThAT WILL gRAduALLY ENTER ThE mAINSTREAm OF ARChITECTuRAL pRACTICE.”

22

guggENhEIm muSEum IN BILBAO IS ONE OF ThE gREATEST CREATIONS OF FRANk gEhRY. AN ARChITECTuRAL COmpETITION LEd TO ThE SELECTION OF CALIFORNIA-BASEd ARChITECT gEhRY, kNOWN FOR hIS uSE OF uNORThOdOX mATERIALS ANd INVENTIVE FORmS, ANd hIS SENSITIVITY TO ThE uRBAN ENVIRONmENT. ThEREFORE, dIgITAL dESIgN CAN BE AN ARChITECTuRAL dISCOuRSE duE TO dEmANd FROm ThE ARChITECTuRE TO EXpLORE mORE IN IdEAS ANd CREATIVITIES. FOR ARChITECTuRES, TO AChIEVE SuCh BIg ANd COmpLICATEd IdEAS IN CREATINg BuILdINg INdEEd dIgITAL dESIgN TO EXpRESS ThEIR IdEA TO REALITY.


SuSTAINABILITY AS A dISCOuRSE

SChOOL OF ART, dESIgN ANd mEdIA AT NANYANg uNIVERSITY, SINgApORE Cpg CONSuLTANTS pTY LTd ThE hIghLIghT OF ThE BuILdINg IS ThE VERdANT TuRFEd ROOF WhICh BLENdS WITh ThE gROuNd CONTOuR. ApART FROm ITS VISuAL ImpACT, ThE TuRFEd ROOF SCApE IS A FuNCTIONAL SpACE WhICh IS EASILY ACCESSIBLE VIA SIdESTEpS ALONg ThE ROOF EdgE, ThEREBY ALLOWINg ThE ROOFTOp TO BE A SCENIC OuTdOOR COmmuNAL SpACE. ENVIRONmENTALLY, IT hELpS TO LOWER ThE ROOF TEmpERATuRE ANd SuRROuNdINg AREAS. FuRThERmORE, ThE BuILdINg hOLdS ThREE FACuLTIES SuCh AS ART, dESIgN, ANd mEdIA. ThIS BuILdINg hAS ShOWN SuSTAINABILITY AS ARChITECTuRAL dISCOuRSE CAN BE CONTRIBuTEd IN mOdERN STRuCTuRE TO BE mORE SuSTAIN IN SpACES ANd FuNCTIONALITY AS WELL AS COmmuNICATINg ThE LANguAgE OF dESIgN.

23


dIgITAL SuSTAINABLE dESIgN: BIOmImICRY

mANAmA uRBAN OASIS, BAhRAIN INFLuX STudIO ThE dESIgN SEEkS TO dEFINE A STRONg LANdmARk ImAgE FOR ThE STRATEgIC gAThERINg pLACE OF mANAmA. uSINg BIOmImICRY, ThE FLAT SuRFACE OF ThE CANOpY STRuCTuRE IS SuppORTEd BY A COLLECTION OF TREE-LIkE pILLARS ThAT puLL AWAY FROm ThE ROOF AT VARIOuS pOINTS. ThIS CONVEYS TO OuR gROup AS A SYSTEm OF LINkINg VORONOIS. SLEEk YET ORgANIC, ThE TRANSLuCENT ShELTER pROVIdES ShAdE WhILE ALLOWINg INdIRECT dAYLIghT FROm ThE NORTh pENETRATES ON TO ThE dECk LEVEL. STREET-LEVEL TRAFFIC ANd CONgESTION IS RELIEVEd BY AN uNdERgROuNd BY-pASS ANd pARkINg WhICh ENhANCES pEdESTRIAN CIRCuLATION ANd EAST-WEST CONNECTIVITY. COmpuTATIONAL dESIgN TAkES A BIg pART IN mERgINg SuCh pATTERN ANd FuNCTION IN dESIgNINg A SuSTAINABLE STRuCTuRE ThIS IS RELEVANT AS kALAY QuOTEd ThE CREATIVE phASE OF ThE dESIgN pROCESS, WhERE ThE ARChITECT FORmS IdEAS ANd pOSSIBLE SOLuTIONS IN ThIS CASE IN ThE FORm OF COmpuTERS TO AddRESS ThE gOALS, CONSTRAINTS, ANd OppORTuNITIES WhERE ONE SuppORTS ONE ANOThER.

24


ShINkANSEN BuLLET TRAIN, jApAN TRAVELLINg TOkYO-OSAkA BY ShINkANSEN pROduCES ONLY AROuNd 16% OF ThE CARBON dIOXIdE OF ThE EQuIVALENT jOuRNEY BY CAR, A SAVINgS OF 15,000 TONS OF CO2 pER YEAR. COmpuTINg OF ThIS dESIgN REQuIRE SO mANY ASpECTS SuCh AS SAFETY mEASuRE, SIgNALLINg SYSTEmS, OR ROuTINg. ThEREFORE, pROBLEm ANALYSIS ANd pROBLEm SOLVINg CAN BE QuITE dISTuRBINg IN pROCESSINg ThE dESIgN. hOWEVER, ThROugh ThE COmpuTATION ThOSE pROBLEmS CAN BE SOLVEd. COmmuNICATION ALLOWS ALL pARTICIpANTS IN ThE dESIgN pROCESS TO BECOmE INFORmEd OF ThE EVOLVINg gOALS ANd SOLuTIONS, TO hELp gENERATE SOLuTIONS (OR pARTIAL SOLuTIONS), ANd TO EVALuATE ThEm WhICh IN ThIS pROjECT INCLudES ThE uSINg OF BIOmImICRY CONCEpTS ANd AppLYINg IT INTO NuRBS BASEd SOFTWARES TO OpTImIZE ThE STRuCTuRE TO FIT ThE NEEdS OF ThE uSERS. ThIS AppROACh SIgNIFIES OuR dESIgN IdEALS.

25


TEChNICAL STudY: BEIjINg WATER CuBE

WATER CuBE, BEIjINg pTW ARChITECTS

“A SIgNIFICANTLY dEEpER ENgAgEmENT BETWEEN ThE COmpuTER ANd uSER BY AuTOmATINg ROuTINE ASpECTS ANd REpETITIVE ACTIVITIES, ThuS FACILITATINg A FAR gREATER RANgE OF pOTENTIAL OuTCOmES FOR ThE SAmE INVESTmENT IN TImE”

26

ThE WATER CuBE’S dESIgN WAS INITIATEd BY A TEAm EFFORT: ThE ChINESE pARTNERS FELT A SQuARE WAS mORE SYmBOLIC TO ChINESE CuLTuRE ANd ITS RELATIONShIp TO ThE BIRd’S NEST STAdIum, WhILE ThE SYdNEY BASEd pARTNERS CAmE up WITh ThE IdEA OF COVERINg ThE ‘CuBE’ WITh BuBBLES, SYmBOLISINg WATER. CONTEXTuALLY ThE CuBE SYmBOLISES EARTh WhILST ThE CIRCLE (REpRESENTEd BY ThE STAdIum) REpRESENTS hEAVEN. hENCE SYmBOLICALLY ThE WATER CuBE REFERENCES ChINESE SYmBOLIC ARChITECTuRE. ThIS FORm OF SYmBOLIZINg IdEAS ThROugh ARChITECTuRE IS INTERESTINg FOR mE IN A SENSE IT TIES TOgEThER ThE pROjECT ANd ITS SuRROuNdINg CONTEXT, ThIS WILL BE A gOOd CONCEpT TO ThINk ABOuT IN ORdER TO pROduCE A gOOd dESIgN FOR WYNdhAm.


pARAmETRIC dESIgN hAS ALREAdY BEEN CREATEd BY mANY dESIgNERS. hOWEVER, EVERY dESIgNER NEEdS AId FROm ThE COmpuTATION SYSTEm. IT IS BEEN SET FOR SO mANY YEARS ThAT SCRIpTINg IS ThE mEdIA TO AId ThE dESIgNER TO AChIEVE CERTAIN pARAmETRIC dESIgN. SCRIpTINg TEChNIQuE hAS BEEN AppLIEd TO mANY ‘mEgA STRuCTuRE’ FOR ThE pAST dECAdE. IN OThER hANd, SOmE dESIgNERS ARE AVOIdINg ThIS TEChNIQuE FOR CREATINg ThEIR IdEAS INTO REALITY. ThEY BELIEVEd ThROugh SCRIpTINg IN CREATINg pARAmETRIC dESIgN IS TAkINg ThE FREEdOm OR gIVE A LImITATION TO dESIgNERS TO CREATE mORE IdEAS. NEVERThELESS, SCRIpTINg IS ALLEgEd TO INSIdE OF EVERY NEW dESIgNERS mINd SET IN ThIS 21ST CENTuRY.

27


ARgumENT: mERgINg NATuRE

Wyndham City is seeking design for an eye catching and exciting installation to create a gateway onto the princes highway. Over the years, Wyndham has been striving towards creating and establishing a new image through aesthetics and technology. The city tries to focus on the idea of marrying nature with the built environment while pushing their town planning ideas towards the future. The local area is known for its natural significance as it boasts an array of public parks as well as natural features. Interestingly, additional information about Wyndham has shown that the natural area has a variety of wetlands and through recent drought conditions; mud cracking has been a recent scene, this in an abstract way form a strong connection point between the past and present. Thus, the installation will serve to inform people about the significance of change within Wyndham. It will also serve to inform the community and people about its natural significance. The project will focus on the possibilites of digital design and incorporating techniques and concepts examined from the selected cases for innovation to our group’s ideal. We are interested in developing the idea of fusing nature with the built environment (BIOmImICRY) to create an installation that is abstract in form. Furthermore, with the advancement of technology in the field of biomimicry, we believe that the use of digital computation will further enhance the outcome of what the group is trying to achieve. Within nature more specifically, with relations to the mud crack formation of the wetlands, our group is interested in developing it’s possibilities and incorporating its system to our design. As so, the group has chosen to look into working with voronois in a broader context. moreover, the similarities of the formation of mud cracking patterns as well as cell formation systems in nature are researched to be identical to the formation of voronoi patterning. Through merging digital software together with nature, breakthrough in architecture has been observed; one of the more famous examples is the Beijing Water Cube. The project has shown most importantly the use of nature within a built system and expanding it into an idea with the use of digital design. With relation to our project, our technique is to use grasshopper to merge the abstract form of natural and built systems and digital software. grasshopper, in this case can help us in producing and looking at voronois in terms of concepts as a system of formation rather than individual rings within a plane. To certain extents digital software, Rhino and grasshopper also helped our group understand and produce an array of patterns and forms in a more efficient manner especially during exploration process as well as fabrication management. Furthermore, digital software can substantially aid in pushing our design to the next level achieving form explorations that couldn’t be achieved through traditional drafting by linking definitions of different generated outcomes in grasshopper during the exploration process. Our outcome is formed through experimental and developmental stages.

28


B. Research Project


CRITERIA After forming the argument, we have adopted a rule-based approach in design (kalay, 2004) and identified three crucial parts of to our concept developments, they are: -The Natural System, -The Built Environment and -The Combination of Natural and Built Systems. These 3 main concepts will act as a guide within our matrices exploration process, this is to ensure the production of a appropriate and definite final outcome for the Wynd -ham City project.

30


pRECEdENTS: NATuRE

The giant’s Causeway (Ireland)

mudcracks

Leaf Veins

dragonfly’s wing Looking at natural processes and systems enabled us to form a framework in developing an understanding of the natural systems that we are looking closely at, this is more relevant in terms of voronoi formation and patterning. From this, we identified that voronoi occur in various triangulated, hexagonal shapes and work on an attractor point system. In terms of aesthetics, we are interested in untilizing this system as well as the pattern.

This is to form a final outcome that is simple in a poetic and visual sense but could be able to blend with our ideals and as an outcome convey the characteristics of Wyndham.

31


pRECEdENTS: BuILT

Federation Square (melbourne), Lab Architecture Studio

Beltline Installation (Atlanta), Tristan-Al-haddad

From looking at the built examples, we delved upon the possibilities of manipulating the patterns within the natural systems into various forms and volumes. The examples listed are a few of the known examples within sustainable architecture but common themes are also the use of applying biomimicry into their design development process. The common characteristics of these built examples lies in the use of one occurring technique and exploring it with motives such as depth and gradient in which we are particularly interested in exploring. These elements as said provides us in terms of understanding the limitations and possibilities of our design and with relations to the project we would apply these concepts of exploration and motives as they are relevant to the advancement of design aesthetics and technology which Wyndham is aspiring to be.

32

melbourne Recital hall and mTC Theatre (melbourne), Ashton Raggat mcdougall

grocon pixel Building (melbourne), studio505


pRECEdENTS: NATuRE + BuILT

kartal pendik masterplan (Istanbul), Zaha hadid Architects

porifera Skyscraper in paris - 2011 Skyscraper Competition, Nicolas jomain, Boriana Tchonkova

Cactus project (doha), Aesthetics Architects gO group Flat Tower - 2011 Skyscraper Competition, Yoann mescam, paul-Eric Schirr-Bonnans, Xavier Schirr-Bonnans

These examples mainly serve as a basis for our exploration outcomes, these examples of applying very direct connotations from the natural environment in terms of patterning and shapes into built outcomes. Our case study exploration is heavily influenced by these designs as they convey to us the concept of forms that highlights the use of biomimicry to draw attention of the viewers to the built form. Their form though simple has a consistent and direct theme in which the viewers can relate, this we think is relevant to what we want to achieve for our project outcome.

33


overlapping patterns + data driven rotation

overlapping patterns + surface grids + data driven shading

surface grids + data driven rotation

curve attractor + data driven rotation

curve attractor + using sets

surface grids + using sets + data driven rotation

overlapping patterns + surface grids + using sets + data driven shading

overlapping patterns + surface grid + data driven rotation + data driven shading

34


arbitrary points + attractor points + data driven components

arbitrary points + maths functions + data driven components

arbitrary points + streaming text files + data driven components

boolean patterning + attractor points + data driven components

boolean patterning + maths functions + data driven components

arbitrary points + boolean patterning + attractor points + maths functions + data driven components

arbitrary points + boolean patterning + attractor points + maths functions + data driven components

arbitrary points + boolean patterning + attractor points + maths functions + data driven components

35


overlapping patterns + multiple maths functions

using surface normals + data driven extrusion

curve intersections + using surface normals + image sampler

image sampler + multiple maths functions

multiple maths functions + data driven extrusion

curve intersections + multile maths functions

using surface normals + multiple maths functions

curve attractor + image sampler + multiple maths functions

36


juSTIFICATION OF mATRICES

As stated before, our matrices explorations are influenced by 3 main themes, further expanding the themes, our group have set out a framework in which the definitions are divided amongst the members to allow a in depth understanding of working with a and/or a few definition and expanding them in a coherent 3 part manner to achieve the desired outcome. The outcomes are mostly focused on achieving an obvious set of outcomes that relates back to our criteria. Among our exploration processes we found out that we are particularly interested in the possibilities of merging Attractor points, curve attractors and extrusions with voronois and manipulating it with the methods that were provided in the ex-lab tutorials. This formed our basis of our initial technique in forming the definitions for our case study. For our final outcome, we have decided to employ the technical concept obtained from the matrices exploration and redevelop the possible outcomes of the Tokyo Airspace faรงade. Our development tries to incorporate gradient and depth to voronois and manipulating it to change into a form that would be perceived as a whole system. using the final outcome as a guide, we would then further manipulate the model during fabrication with pinki-sil and resin to relate it back to the context of Wyndham City.

37


CASE STudY

AIRSpACE, TOkYO STudIO m/ThOm FAuLdERS ARChITECTuRE

Airspace Tokyo designed by Faulders Studio strike us in the sense of its simple form but complicated pattern solid yet vivid façade. The digitally-generated overlapping voronoi pattern that represents the biomorphic cells of vegetation, suits our preferred digital technique exploration – biomimicry. Lightings are the essential effect for both external and internal space. Through the pattern, views are fragmented and create a unique experiment through different angles. At night, the interior lightings passing through the perforations of overlapping voronoi make a mysterious feeling as it seems to move as we move.

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CASE STudY: REVERSE ENgINEERINg

OVERLAppINg VORONOI

Taking the concepts from our matrices exploration, we came up with a technique to produce an overlapping voronoi by generating random points of various centers within the voronoi mainly through multiple maths functions. The outcome is similar to that of our case study, Airspace Tokyo.

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FuRThER EXpLORATION 1

CuBE VORONOI

After the reverse engineering of the faรงade of Airspace Tokyo, we tried experimenting and viewing the voronoi as a volume rather than a 2-dimesional form making this concept cohesive to our argument. joining the 2-dimesional facades into a cube would be the easiest approach to achieve the stereoscopic sense of voronoi as a whole. playing with light, the faรงades of the cube create shadows that overlapped each other and further fragmenting the voronoi.

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FuRThER EXpLORATION 2

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To take the design into a further development, the holes and the frame would be inverted as in the holes are filled and extruded while the frame is lowered. Each extruded volume is broken into 6 pieces of triangles. And the triangular forms are in dierent heights that will make a wavy form 3-dimesionally. The form made before is similar to that of mud cracks, and we are interested by this particular natural geomorphic signs. For the final exploration, the mud cracks particularly The giant Causeway in Ireland inspires us to build voronoi extrusion into dierent levels

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FINAL EXpLORATION

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REFLECTION

duRINg ThE pRESENTATION, IT WAS pOINTEd OuT TO uS ThAT OuR gROup pROgRESS WAS uNCLEAR IN TERmS OF dESIgN dIRECTION ANd juSTIFICATION. AFTER RECEIVINg FEEdBACk, WE REALISEd ThAT WE ShOuLd LOOk INTO OuR ARgumENTS ANd RELATINg OuR gROup INTENTS TO WYNdhAm AT A mORE SOphISTICATEd LEVEL.. WhAT WE hAVE dONE IS AT mOST AN EXERCISE TO pROduCE VARIANTS OF VORONOI dEFINITIONS. LOOkINg BACk ANd EXAmININg OuR ARgumENTS, I REALISEd ThAT WE hAVE NOT juSTIFIEd A CLEAR REASON WhY WE WOuLd CARRY OuT OuR pROjECT IN ThIS mANNER. AT ThE NEXT SECTION, WE WILL BE LOOkINg CLOSELY AT OuR FLAWS ANd REThINkINg IN WhAT WAYS WE COuLd puSh OuR uNdERSTANdINg OF ThE BRIEF AS WELL AS ThE TEChNIQuES IN WhICh ThE COuRSE WANTS uS TO EXpLORE. hOWEVER, ThE pOSITIVE SIdE ABOuT mAkINg mISTAkES IS ThAT WE CAN ImpROVE FOR ThE BETTER. WE hAVE TAkEN ThE pOSITION TO RE-ThINk ANd REpOSITION OuR ARgumENT ANd CRITERIA IN ORdER TO ImpROVE. OuR NEW juSTIFICATION ANd EXpLORATION OVER ThE WEEk hAS BEEN REdOCumENTEd IN ThE NEXT SECTION.

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EOI REVISITED: A REFLECTION


ARgumENT: FIELd OF REALISATION

Wyndham City is seeking design for an eye catching and exciting installation to create a gateway onto the princes highway. Over the years, Wyndham has been striving towards creating and establishing a new image through aesthetics. The city tries to focus on the idea of marrying nature with the built environment while pushing their town planning ideas towards the future. This project allows Wyndham who is strategically situated directly between the city and the rural outskirts a chance to provide a fresh new image to the community as well as the commuters travelling on the princes highway each day. From looking at the vast possibility within this area, our primary goal is to brand Wyndham itself as a gateway through creating a field of realisation. This field of realisation will serve as a medium to abstractly inform the commuters of the movement from the city towards the rural outskirts and vice versa. Every day, there is a considerable amount of population movement along the highway. This alone signifies the shift of people from one destination to another. Furthermore, there is a stark difference between the population density within the city and rural areas. Our group sees this population representation as vital information towards expressing Wyndham’s status through linking both the city and rural outskirts. Lastly to merge our intentions back to nature, we will look into the structural systems within nature to develop the scope of depth in our project. Frei Otto argued that “naturalistic forms are no less a triumph of human design and productive capacity than mechanistic ones.” We believe that these explorations of abstract movement and linking it to the nature in any form s will serve to symbolize Wyndham’s progress towards the future. “Buildings can be considered as a flow of bodies and information through space, over time. The programmatic elements were modelled as attractors on the site. Visitors, information and exchanges were modelled as particles. Once the particles attracted, they started forming varying degrees of concentration. A halo of particles was floating over the site, suggesting an eventual architectural space.”

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pRECEdENTS Roudavski (2009) argued that precedents do exist in nature where structurally complex living organisms have been adapting to their environments for millions of years. These researched projects in a whole demonstrate a successful implementation of a large-scale cellular structure in a project that is acclaimed for its visual impact and the translation of abstract intents. After identifying our arguments, we are particularly interested in using collective cellular structures and translating them into representational meanings. This meanings will then translate emotional connection with the commuters through sensory impact. Thus, within architecture; we looked at a number of precedents within this context and came up with our criteria that are specific to our site: Airspace Tokyo is designed to establish a screened buffer zone, the design intention for the screen is to invent an architectural system that performs with similar attributes to the demolished green strip and creates an atmospheric zone of protection.

AIRSpACE, TOkYO STudIO m/ThOm FAuLdERS ARChITECTuRE The master plan principles for the headquarters are based on the concepts of connectivity, clarity and community – concepts that are also vital to Alibaba’s e-commerce business these are all represented with voronoi patterning. These principles guided all design decisions from the single workstation to the greater workplace community.

ALIBABA hEAdQuARTERS, hANgZhOu hASSELL ARChITECTuRE Similar to how the uN is formed by individual nations, the memorial entails a cube comprised of smaller “cells.” These cells, which are meant to represent the “collective nature of the uN’s identity” fuse together to create the final shape.

uN mEmORIAL, SOuTh kOREA ACmE 50


Although unbuilt, this proposed project identified out group’s intention of developing and translating our voronoi into an architectural language. The designers quoted “programmatic mapping of existing surroundings were conducted as a source of exploration in the observation of possible voronoi patterns. Four main activities nodes (residential, recreational, commercial and transportation) were identified and fed into a voronoi script to generate overlays of patterns based on each activity nodes. The four different nodal abstract grids were then superimposed to form a denser grid in an attempt to explore the possibilities of how an urban informed voronoi map could inform architecture and urban spaces.”

pOREuX, EVOLO COmpETITION SuBmISSION dOmENIC CERANTONIO, mIChAEL Wu, WILSON TANg This complex is described by its architects as ‘nonidentical Siamese twins’ because they are co-located but each expresses a different architectural identity. The use of voronois here clearly articulates the visual representation a building, using 2 different ways of generating voronois, one using its structural ribs and one using plane patterning.

RECITAL hALL, mELBOuRNE AShTON RAggATT mCdOugALL (ARm) using a honeycomb structure with a voronoi pattern as the initial layout. The honeycomb form allows the chair to support large loads even though the material is quite thin. This project displays the merging of design and structure to produce a design intent, using these language to produce something aesthetically interesting.

VORONOI hONEYCOmB SERIES, TAIWAN NOIZ ARChITECTS 51


CRITERIA

“The Voronoi model of space is becoming more and more important as a tool in the mathematical modelling of space for many application domains. In the Voronoi model, space is neither an empty void within which can be found occasional objects (the vector model), nor a lattice of arbitrary cells (the raster model). Rather, space is a continuous medium filled with proximity fields generated by objects. This representation of space has important implications for domains where geographic space is endowed with cultural characteristics or values.”

After looking at a number of precedents, we are interested with the possibilities of Voronoi patterning and their abilities to convey design intents and abstract representations through exploring depth, gradient and movement. We are interested in using these languages of voronoi algorithm and placing them in the context of creating a buffered space (a field to realisation) and thus, we have set out a number of criteria to explore ways to develop these voronois to merge with our argument:

phase 1: In order to clearly show the realisation of movement, our group looked at ways to achieve a system in which the voronoi points are placed, these systems are then expanded to achieve an outcome that is most related to the group’s ideal. phase 2: To represent movement and gradient, we will look into ways in which a curved surface can be manipulated to fit with the site context. phase 3: merging these two intentions to produce a justified outcome. phase 4: Expanding this justified outcome with transformation definitions to give the voronois a more complex outcome, this phase will be experimenting with layering, depth and to allow the eyes to be attracted and slowly guided to a intended voronoi frame.

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EXPLORATIONs of derived form


VORONOI


FORm FINdINg: ThINkINg pROCESS

Fig 1.

Firstly, our group started of by rethinking of a technique of how to justify the driver of these voronoi points. Thinking of using Wyndham as a starting point and looking it as a system in which we could set our explorations. The images on the left points out the basic technique of how our voronoi form is derived conceptually. Starting from a visual representation of Wyndham (Fig1), plotting in input definitions such as (i) image samplers, (ii) multiple maths, (iii) attractor point to test out the points driven in terms of sophistication and position of our voronoi (Fig 2). From our test voronois (Fig 3), we extruded up the form to give it depth (Fig 4), this is to allow futher exploration of the potential of each voronoi opening to convey a more complex language of sophistication. This will be discussed at a later part. From this exploration stage, we decided to omit image samplers and multiple maths as a possible technique, we did not find a direct or good correlation of what we were trying to convey of the site to the techniques said.

Fig 2

Fig 3

Fig 4

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gENERATEd VORONOI

Our group final voronoi technique is derived from looking into a single attractor point and driving it by inputing a definition in which a point is move along a referenced curve, this curve is derived by looking at the statistics of Wyndham in a abstract map context, this will help us identify the major dierences between the areas that we would want to explore. We are relatively satisfied with this technique as we believe it conveys more depth and sophistication in which we generate our voronoi, this solves our earlier problem of not being able to justify the points and our group’s weakness in tying Wyndham, our argument and the said technique.

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FuTuRE EXpLORATIONS

Our further explorations will include developing a sophisticated language interms of developing our abstract map concept. This might be explored in a number of dierent methods: (i) Obtaining statistics and plotting it onto the xyz-plane, making the driver a 3d form rather than a 2d plane. (ii) Overlaying maps of various population statistics in all context to clearly map out the dierence between the city, Wyndham and the rural outskirts. (iii) Taking a direct approach and extracting contour lines between the intersection of the population distribution, population density and/or population movement within the larger area of our said target area.

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CURVES


ThINkINg pROCESS Our next criteria was to look into a concept in which the overall form of our design will be derived. After looking at voronoi drivers at a larger scale, we thought of drawing our form finding technique back to a more specific scale. In this case, by looking at the site conditions (Fig 1) itself is most suitable to merge our concept with Wyndham and the site. This tunneling structure and its definition was rather achievable, however, we might further this exploration in order to push this form further by manipulating the depth and structure of the form to find a possible outcome.

Fig 1.

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pOSSIBLE EXpLORATIONS

We furthered our explorations through looking at a number of ways to make our curved surface into a more interesting outcome. however, after critically observing the various formed outcomes. We decided to stick to the original curve beacause as a whole form, it tended to provide us with a range of possibilities to further our theme of emotional impact and language translation in a more thorough way.

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Voronoi on a surface


ANALYSINg: OuTCOmE

After merging both explorations and coming up with a set direction in which we are heading, I have decided to analyse the form. Surprisingly, after looking at the merged form as a whole, it has already achieved the concept of drawing visual attention which is what we wanted as a group, furthemore it translates this language of representation and to our group as this stage this form has the potential to push itself into a structure that provides a very experiencial performancel This is because the arched outcome itself and the contouring of the site has already achieved a gradient in which the eyesight can already be channeled. By adding the voronoi in will dramiticaly alter the field of depth. We will be working on this closelty to come up with a final formThis form is ideal for what we are achieving but we are still lacking interms of the language translation and fabrication process.

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EXpLOREd OuTCOmES

Fig 1

Before coming with a set out come, we had explored with a range of techniques in order to merge the voronoi onto a curved surface smoothly. This part is by far the most diďŹƒcult process for the group. In Figure 1, we have adopted a technique and definition that projects the voronoi onto the surface, it works to an extent but the voronoi itself will deform in order to fit with the form. Also, it will project broken edges that are not ideal for our design. For Figure 2, we tried to use surface panelling as a medium to merge the voronoi and surface together, although the voronoi did get translated onto the surface, the result was rigid and unstatisfying. We were not happy with these outcomes.

Fig 2

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pOSSIBLE EXpLORATIONS

Although at this stage we have already dealt with the initial stages of the design technicalities. At the next stage we will be looking into how to bring about in executing a good design. here, we will focus on providing an experiencial quality within the tunnel structure that we have propose. This will then abstractly inform of Wyndham to the commuters through the site. This will be all about using the voronoi as a guide and using them to frame experience and emotional qualities through abstract representation of bridging the city to the rural through Wyndham. however, detaily the group is still working on to giving the voronoi ita smoother edge so that the design ourcome would be more integrated to the experiencial aspect of the design. This would be explored through grasshopper definitions of extruded polysurfaces and lofting them together to form smoother edges, one of the built examples is shown in my xase study , the SkYRAIL BY mATYSYS.

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Fabrication concepts


CuRRENT CONCEpT

The group is currently trying to think of a fabrication method in which 3d printing will be the last option. At this point, due to our complex curved form, we have been looking into a casting method. At this stage we have contoured the curve surface onto a base box as shown above and will be looking into fabricating the voronoi surface and casting it onto it. This at the moment might be possible through the use of silicone, however pinki-sil might be too liquid because of our curved form, looking into a more dense material might be an option. however, at this point, we are still considering the accuracy of the curved parameters to the size of the voronoi printed. For the next few weeks, we will be looking at this matter in order to produce a model that works.

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FAILEd ATTEmpT

Fig 1

Before looking into our current method, we experimented with contouring our model, we initially thought it would be possible, but due to the inconsistent sizes of the voronois and the doublecurved surface, the result is seen in figure 1 above. The cuts produced a lot of small individual pieces that will make fabricating the model a hectic process, not to mention it’s stability and constructional qualities of the model.

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pOSSIBLE CONCEpTS

Though still in an experimental stage, we have come up with a number of possible solutions. This will be tested throughout the next 4 weeks . (I) using silicone as a medium, fabricating them with wire meshing bonded onto the structure. then placing it onto a contoured mould to form the curve. This in a constructional terms acts like a reincorcement to hold up its shape.

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(II) disecting the structure in Rhino to produce a more squared paneled outcome and fabricate it as individual pieces then reassembling them. materials considered for this method will be using polyethene sheets due to their bendable qualities.


REFERENCES

Burry, mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural design and programming (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 8 - 71. patrik Schumacher, ‘Introduction : Architecture as Autopoietic System’, in The Autopoiesis of Architecture (Chichester: j. Wiley, 2011), pp. 1 - 28. Richard Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh university press, 2005), pp. 102 - 16. Yehuda E. kalay, Architecture’s New media : principles, Theories, and methods of Computer-Aided design (Cambridge, mass.: mIT press, 2004), pp. 5 – 25.

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