The Castle Magazine - Edition Two

Page 1

T H E C A S T L E SPRING 2022


WELCOME BACK Welcome to the Spring edition of 'The Castle': RGS' student publication. Dear Reigatians, Welcome to another edition of RGS’ ‘The Castle,’ with many more to come. This term, our talented young writers have covered a wide variety of stories and topics ranging from vegetarianism to film reviews.

The past few months have been difficult and worrying, as we cope with the pandemic, mental health and upcoming exams. We also continue to look at external issues. As conflicts and wars move closer to home, we’re again reminded of the incredible hardships those in Ukraine, Syria, Yemen and elsewhere in the world are currently enduring.

Hopefully the magazine offers a chance to learn more about these issues, how we can help, and remind us all we have a voice. If you’d like to submit an article for our next edition, contact us or come along to lunchtime meetings on Mondays in Room 4. Everyone is welcome! Enjoy the holidays, From Sofia, Iris, Georgia, Cristiana, Kanika and Demetra :)

Amelia,


SPRING 2022 | VOL. 2

Thank you to the following

SOME OF THE FEATURED STORIES THIS ISSUE: HOW WE CAN HELP UKRAINE ENCANTO FILM REVIEW EASTER TRADITIONS RESCUE OUR RAINFORESTS THE BENEFITS OF BEING VEGGIE RETHINKING INTERIOR DESIGN BEHIND THE SCENES OF COVID THE BRILLIANT BENEFITS OF BAKING

students for their work on this edition: Beth S - illustrator Amelia S - editor Iris M - editor Sofia L - editor Kanika K - editor Demetra M - editor Georgia R - editor Cristiana H - editor & contributor Jemima H - photographer James M - contributor Riya M - contributor Chloe W - contributor Smayan P - contributor Dillon C – contributor Hugo J – contributor Ruth C – contributor Arun L – contributor Anya P - contributor Emmie S – contributor Luka U - contributor Esther F - contributor Sam C - contributor Elliot DG - contributor Isobel AW - contributor Amelie B - contributor Tabitha B - contributor Sofia M - contributor Photo credit - Canva.com


News report by Ruth C

ARTIFICAL INTELLIGENCE: A BLESSING OR A THREAT? March 2022

There has been much debate into whether AI is a blessing or a threat.

Find out more... Despite the misconceptions about it, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is thriving in sectors such as education and healthcare, but it will only be able to reach its potential when humans discover the full extent of its capabilities. AI should not be seen as something that will simply coexist with humans, but instead as

something that should be used to our advantage, increasing both efficiency and accuracy in many aspects of our lives. In 2021, the AI industry was valued at 93.03 billion USD; this figure, however, is predicted to increase to 997.77 billion USD by 2028. This significant increase highlights how much people are investing in AI; but why are people investing specifically in AI, and what impact could it have on society in the future?

One of the common fears of AI is that it will replace jobs, leaving millions of people unemployed worldwide. This fear is justifiable; however, it does not state the full context. AI is predicted to replace 85 million jobs, but also create 97 million, meaning not only will more people be employed, but they will be employed in jobs that require innovation and creativity, promoting further and faster growth in society.


Featured articles In many developing countries, AI will help to solve pressing challenges in critical sectors such as health, energy, agriculture, and financial services. These are improvements that could potentially help its citizens find higher-paying jobs with better working conditions. Also, AI will be able to stop the disparity between developed and developing nations over maths and computer science programs, allowing society to evolve as one, rather than as different nations at separate times. Furthermore, another purpose of AI is to simply increase human productivity, negating any belief that its purpose is to fully replace humans. AI is being programmed to complete mundane tasks, prohibiting humans from spending precious time and energy on meaningless things. A MIT research paper suggests that we are currently a long way off from reaching a point where AI is comparable to human intelligence.

This is due to scientists programming machines to be able to learn how to complete certain tasks, rather than attempting to replicate human thought processes, which would then allow “robots” as such, to decide what they would like to do for themselves. This not only exemplifies the previous statement that AI will be beneficial to complete tedious tasks, but it also disproves the unlikely but common belief of the possibility, as many sci-fi films put it, of robots revolting against human control and attempting to destroy humanity.

This presents a pressing issue: how will humans be able to continuously control AI and ensure that it does not exceed a certain level of intelligence? How can we ensure AI continues to function in the way it is programmed to? How do we guard ourselves against mistakes, both in programming, and day-to-day operations? Machines are certainly not flawless, but can sometimes appear to be, potentially misleading people into putting their full trust in them; this could cause them to completely rely on AI, which could cause catastrophic consequences if there is a fault in the programming or execution of a task. However, it also presents some more issues such as how we ensure that AI, when it reaches a level where it can think for itself, isn’t subject to manipulation by companies for purposes such as privacy breaching. Finally, how do we prevent this further evolution in technology from causing people to unjustifiably spend even more time in front of screens?

Conclusions Artificial Intelligence undoubtedly has its place in the future of society. From education to businesses, it is probable that AI will influence a significant percentage of the population, increasing efficiency and potentially completing simple tasks to a high standard in place of humans. Whilst people may have some initial concerns, as AI evolves so will society’s understanding of it, meaning we will have a higher ability to address any issues that arise.


NEWS REPORT BY CHLOE W

Behind the scenes of COVID-19 A LOOK INTO WHETHER ANY POSITIVES HAVE COME OUT OF THE PANDEMIC

COVID-19 causing

A positive take on the pandemic...

has

had

thousands

a of

devastating deaths,

impact

national

on

our

lives,

lockdowns,

and

political arguments; at the height of the pandemic, some of the case numbers even reached above 100 thousand a day. 157,000 people in the UK have died and hospitals have, at

Let's admit it: we all hate COVID-19. Based on what we see, it has destroyed our society and made our

times,

been

extremely

overrun,

but

we

must

not

forget

about the positive impacts the pandemic has had.

lives extremely unpleasant. But has this flu-like illness had

positive

impacts

that

we

do

not

see

in

our

everyday lives?

Us We may not have noticed it, but society is, in some ways, a better place than it was at the beginning of the global pandemic. During the 2020 and 2021 lockdowns, rates of crime,

including

theft

and

robbery,

had

fallen

hugely,

making the streets much safer, especially at night.

In addition, the spare time we gained from the lockdowns has created more time for us to spend with our families and to reflect. At times, we wished to see our friends that live a long

drive

away,

but

we

were

unable

to

due

to

the

pandemic; this allowed us to take time for ourselves and relax, helping preserve our mental health. Often, we were bored and lazy, hence why we also spent more time with our families that live with us, developing our bonds and relationships.


COVID-19 & Our Planet We

are

all

aware

of

climate

change,

or

as

it

more

Beach

life,

such

as

turtles,

has

also

been

positively

recently become known, the Current Climate Crisis. As

affected by the pandemic. Quieter beaches have meant

climate activists such as Gretta Thunberg have stated,

that

action

needs

to

be

taken.

However,

the

question

there

are

fewer

threats

to

baby

turtles,

so

their

journey to the ocean has become a lot less dangerous.

brewing in the minds of scientists all over the world is: ‘Has the COVID-19 pandemic been good or bad for the environment?’

There

are

ways

Lastly, due to restrictions, many people have been forced to work at home, therefore people are learning how online services such as Zoom, and Microsoft Teams can be useful

in

which

Covid

has

affected

our

environment negatively, but how it has reduced CO2

in everyday life. In the future, this will mean there will be less travelling, as we can communicate from our homes using online platforms.

emissions and helped animals and ecosystems survive needs to be acknowledged. You may already be aware

Overall,

that during the lockdowns the number of cars on the

environment

roads severely declined; cars have not been producing

agree that it has been very annoying and frustrating, it is

the same volume of harmful gases that they used to. To

important that we are educated on the good it has done

add to this, the number of larger vehicles that have

and will continue to do.

been

friends about the pandemic, try to put a positive spin on it.

travelling,

like

aeroplanes,

has

decreased

almost a half, meaning less CO2 is being produced.

by

As

COVID-19

someone

in

has

several

once

positively ways,

said,

and

impacted although

world is: ‘Has the Covid-19 pandemic been good or bad for the environment?’

and

we

can

our all

So next time you chat to your

your

perspective

become your prison or your passport.

The question brewing in the minds of scientists all over the

us

will

either


News report by Luka U

Rethinking Interior Design March 2022

You've heard about climate change, but have you heard about sustainable interiors?

Find out more... Most people would think that sustainable interior design is all about creating a positive environmental impact, however it can also have a positive effect on people themselves, bringing them closer to the earth and consequently increasing happiness and a sense of doing good.

Millions of people buy new and exciting things for their home every single day; the saying ‘out with the old, in with the new’ is still relevant and reflects our consumer society. People often opt to buy new things when they have just moved into a new house, are having a spring clean or just want something new in their lives. The desire to keep on buying is so ingrained in our culture that it has started to have a negative effect on the planet.


Featured articles Too many people throw out all their furniture and replace it just to keep up with current trends. This behaviour is threatening to the environment, with over 10 million tons of furniture being dumped into landfill every year. That is around £20,000,000,000 worth of furniture just going to waste. Furthermore, 17 billion dollars of wood (used in furniture) is traded through illegal forestation every year; this affects the Amazon rainforest among others, increasing global deforestation and climate change. Lighting, running appliances and electricity are also key factors contributing to climate change. Some solutions to this problem include buying carpets, which retain as much as 10% of a room’s heat, and installing double-glazed windows as most of a room’s heat escapes out of windows. There should also be lots of these to create more natural light, reducing the need for energy-burning artificial light.

Go to antique or second-hand stores which sell things that are still in good shape for a low price. You can upcycle things like baskets to make bedside tables, or repaint furniture. Doing this could reduce waste and allow you to express yourself without having to follow the latest trends all the time.

Final thoughts Finally, if you do decide to buy new when kitting out your living space, make sure you are buying items made from sustainable materials such as bamboo (which can be quickly grown back), sustainably sourced wood, natural locally sourced stone, and wool. As long as the materials haven’t travelled too far to get to you, they are less harmful to the environment and can be produced in an eco-friendly way. It doesn’t take a lot of time or effort to create a sustainable home using interior design. You can make your home feel more unique and give it some personality, rather than creating the same version of someone else’s house just because it is trendy. In the process, you will be doing your bit to save the planet too.

Three ways to be sustainable: Buy fewer new things and stick with what you have. For example, try repurposing, or rearranging furniture to give your home a fresh new look.

Seek out sustainable interior design; furniture brands such as Kalinko, Swyft and Arkitaip are great.


The Brilliant Benefits of Baking News article

March 2022

In 2012, baker John Whaite won The Great British Bake Off. Seven years earlier, he was diagnosed with manic depression. John said that baking was a way to feel in control, something that he had trouble with before. This is just one example of how baking can help people improve their lives and make the most of all the opportunities that life throws at you. During lockdown, many people started baking cakes, banana bread and many other recipes for entertainment, to learn a new skill or to distract themselves from their worries. Baking is an excellent way of improving your mental health and wellbeing. It allows you to relax and is a therapeutic way of expressing yourself. As well as this, baking also stimulates your five senses in a creative way. Another helpful benefit is that it a great way to release your stress: quite simply you can take it out on a ball of dough! It can also improve your concentration by studying recipes as well as boost your self-confidence when you achieve a desirable end result.

By Anya P

When people bake, they often enjoy sharing their efforts with others and this can boost social interaction as well as their confidence. Baking can also be sentimental. Often, recipes can remind us of special people or places. Recipes are passed down through generations and whilst some ingredients may be changed, the essence and the heart of the recipe remains the same. It has also been known for recipes to be classified secrets with even companies refusing to disclose their original recipes for fear of them being copied. If you bake something you’re proud of, you could even write it down and make your own recipe - generations after you will then be able to experience your masterpiece and enjoy it as much as you did. You never know, you could be the creator of the next famous family recipe!


SUBSTITUTES AND FUN TWISTS TO ADD TO YOUR BAKING.

How to make your baking inventive and unique: Mix up flavours- vanilla to chocolate and vice versa. Add different chocolate chips; if it says milk, add dark or white.

A feature by Esther F

Mix up the fillings – e.g., by adding Biscoff spread, nuts,

Cooking is amazing! But it’s annoying when you don’t

chocolate spread, Nutella or

have the right ingredients, or you just want to be a little

anything else! Make it your

healthier. So here are some tasty (and healthier!)

own recipe!

ingredient substitutes!

Create your own flavour -and I mean any flavour! It’s ok if it doesn’t work the first time –

Popular Ingredient

Substitute

Greek yoghurt

Sour cream

Milk

Almond milk

Oil Butter Plain flour Sugar Chocolate chips Cream Eggs

Banana

have another go! I personally love making things marbled (a mix between chocolate and vanilla.) Don’t be afraid to try new things – many

Avocado

great inventions happen by

Almond flour

accident. You could end up

Applesauce Nuts Greek yoghurt Flax seeds

creating your favourite dessert! Most importantly, remember experience is the best teacher! Find out more about baking substitutes and why they’re great ideas at:

Small changes can make a big difference!

https://www.eatthis.com/hea lthy-baking-ingredients/


MARCH 2022

APPLE VS. ANDROID Article by Smayan P

APPLE OR ANDROID: THAT IS THE QUESTION. PERSONALLY, I AM AN ANDROID LOVER, BUT THIS DEBATE IS A CONSTANT TOPIC OF DISCUSSION. WHICH DO YOU PREFER? PROS OF APPLE: Apple was founded by Steve Jobs in California, USA. It is the most popular type of phone in the US out of all the nations in the world, but Apple is fast becoming more popular than Android across the globe. This is understandable as Apple’s iMessage is arguably much better than Android’s original default messaging apps. You can also connect it to all your other Apple devices (who doesn't love a bit of seamless syncing?). Apple also has a cool feature called Memoji, allowing you to send cooler and better emojis across all platforms, as well as apps like Microsoft Word. It also has seamless backup and restore, making it easier to set up than an Android. Apple’s shortcuts app and drag and drop feature are both pretty good too. Android may have Nearby Share, but in my opinion, Apple’s AirDrop is a lot better. Another of Apple’s main advantages over Android is that is it more secure. Apple’s source code is more closely watched and is closed, unlike Android's open source. Having better security means that the device will have less chance of getting hacked, even by some of the best hackers in the world.


If you get an Apple watch then your phone will know it’s in safe hands because assuming that your phone is with you, your watch will realise and let your phone unlock freely. Maybe not a positive for Apple, but did you know, that Apple literally admitted to purposely slowing down older iPhones in 2017 and agreed to a $500 million settlement for doing so?

PROS OF ANDROID: Many people are now looking for better phone camera quality. Android triumphs here; Android phones have slightly better camera quality than Apple. For example, the iPhone 13 has 12 megapixels, whilst the latest Android phones have 48. The Google Pixel 6 has especially cool features in the camera such as magic eraser. My phone (a Motorola Android) can also do many cool things with taking photos and videos, such as cutout and cinemograph. It also has night mode a great way of taking photos in the dark. In terms of gestures, once again Android comes out on top. Android now has an awesome gesture where you must swipe from the side to go back – this in not available on Apple. Also, Android has a really quick way to get to the camera from the lock screen - you simply double click the on button. Not only this, but Android has a much better selection of widgets available for downloaded apps and has the feature of closing all apps. Its customisation is arguably much better. It is worth noting that many of the newer Android phones come with face unlock and fingerprint, such as the Google Pixel 6 and the Galaxy 21, as well as pin, password and pattern. On the other hand, newer Apple phones have face ID only and the 8 and below have fingerprint only. On Android, you have the option to have multiple accounts, so if you are sharing an Android device, maybe make a few different accounts. On top of that, there is a guest account. From my experience with Apple, I know that it is slower, and it glitches and lags more than Android. Perhaps Android’s main advantage over Apple though is that its operating system is much better, and it has more memory. It’s also much cheaper: iPhones are sold at 1k and the Galaxy 21 is about £700. Android is also larger and has a much longer battery life – something we all want and need.

SIRI OR ASSISTANT? We all know that Apple has Siri and Android has Google Assistant, so which is better? I asked both a series of questions - here are my findings: I asked Siri: What is more final, football or rugby? It started providing information about the 2019 Rugby World Cup. When I asked Google Assistant, it came up with the followers of both sports and a brief explanation of each sport – in my opinion, this was much better. I then asked Siri: What is the longest place name in the world? It started spelling out the 85 lettered hill name from New Zealand. When asking Google the same question, it read the name aloud and gave a brief explanation on it. I could have continued to ask questions, but it was becoming very clear that Google Assistant is far superior compared to Siri.

FEATURES OF BOTH: Apple has made a Home Pod which will respond when saying ‘hey Siri’ and Android has a Google Nest which will respond after a ‘hey Google.’ Apple has Air Pods and Android has Samsung’s Galaxy Buds. Apple has Apple Watches and Android has many different smart watches, from a number of companies. Apple has Safari and Android has Google Chrome. Personally, if I was getting a new phone, then I would go for Android: it has better customisation and camera quality, as well as a better operating system and battery life. Only its popularity and security system let it down!


REVIEWS - TABITHA B

A FILM INTERVIEW: DISNEY'S ENCANTO ENCANTO tells the tale of an extraordinary family, the Madrigals, who live hidden in the mountains of Colombia, in a magical house.

Is this Disney's best film yet? Tabitha interviewed a fellow student to get their thoughts on Disney's latest musical... Q. How many stars would you rate the movie? I would rate it 4.5 stars, mainly because it’s really fun, energetic and colourful, and it doesn’t have the typical skinny, white, blonde girl/boy as the main character. It’s good that Disney is exploring a wider range of cultures and backgrounds. Also, the animation is AMAZING!

Q. What was your favourite song and why? "Surface Pressure", sung by Luisa, because it’s really catchy and it shows that even though someone can seem really strong and like they have it all together on the outside, under the surface they may be struggling and feeling the pressure.

Q. How would you describe the film in one word, and why? Magical because the whole story is based around the idea of magical gifts and a magical candle that gave them a miracle.

“… it shows that even though someone can seem really strong and like they have it all together on the outside, under the surface they may be struggling and feeling the pressure…”


Q. What were the pros and cons of the movie? Pros: Different culture/background compared with typical Disney movies Female lead and likeable characters Catchy songs Fun and entertaining Good family movie If you’re a fan of Lin Manuel Miranda, then you will probably enjoy this film as he wrote some of the songs Beautiful animation

Cons: You need Disney Plus to watch it If you don’t like musicals, then you may find the songs slightly annoying Doesn’t talk much about Colombian culture You probably wouldn’t know that it was set in Colombia unless you looked it up In some parts, it may make you cringe

If you’re a fan of Lin Manuel Miranda then you will probably enjoy this film as he wrote some of the songs.

Q. What age would you recommend the movie for and why? I would recommend it for ages 6+ because it’s a family-friendly, fun movie and it doesn’t have any scary scenes in it. I think that it is a film for slightly younger audiences, but adults and teenagers can enjoy it too - there's something in it for almost everyone to enjoy.

Q. What was your favourite part in the movie? Probably the scene where Isabella discovers that she can create things other than just roses because it’s really colourful and the animation is brilliant; it also shows that even when people seem perfect, they might not be happy at all.

Q. What would you say was the genre of this movie? I think it is a fantasy musical, as well as a coming of age story.

Q. Who was your favourite character? Mirabel, because she proves that you don’t need a magical gift to be special and amazing. I think she is a funny, kind and inspiring main character who wants the best for her family.

Q. Would you recommend this film to a peer? Yes, definitely! In general, the reviews for Encanto have been positive, earning an average 4.4 star review. The song, “We Don’t Talk About Bruno” now has over 101 million streams on Spotify so far, and the song has become the “highest-charting Disney single” since 1995, outstripping the smash hit "Let it Go" from Frozen.


THE AIRLINE INDUSTRY: NEED TO KNOW BY HUGO J AND SMAYAN P

MARCH. 2022

WHAT HAS COVID-19 DONE TO THE AIRLINE INDUSTRY?

COVID-19 left many airline workers without a job in 2020. It’s difficult to stress just how much the pandemic has devastated airlines. Within a year, industry revenues totalled $328 billion, around 40 percent of the previous year. In nominal terms, that’s the same as in 2000. The sector is expected to be smaller for years to come; we predict that air traffic won’t return to 2019 levels before 2024. Despite this, more and more people are beginning to travel again, and in light of this it may be helpful to remind ourselves of the different options that are available when we book those all important tickets!

Airline Cabins: What to expect The other day when reading ‘Jetliner Cabins’ by Jennifer Coutts Clay, written in 2003, I thought about what we may expect of airlines today. I will give a brief overview of every class of travel, what to expect and whether it is good value or not.

As the world reopens its borders, and many of us will, once again, travel the world...


ECONOMY – SIMPLE AND EASY Most economy class seats recline, as well as having a fold down tray, making it more comfortable for passengers. However, as technology improves, I expect these seats will be of much better quality, with a wider range of features, such as entertainment screens in short haul flights. Lots of airline economy classes will also have features such as headrests, and on longhaul flights, cushions, screens, and basic footrests. I recommend British Airways, Emirates, and Singapore Airlines.

BUSINESS – RELAX IN SEMI-LUXURY Business, just one luxury below First Class, is brilliant. Most airlines have a 180 degree recliner, which is perfect for a good night’s sleep. Also, you get your own semi-compartment. I recommend Singapore Airlines, Qatar Airways and ANA (All Nippon Airways).

FIRST – THE ULTIMATE LUXURY

PREMIUM ECONOMY – MORE COMFORT Premium Economy is brilliant for travellers with a low budget but also for those who are willing to spend more on travel - a comfortable and simple choice giving passengers a quality experience for good value. Some of the best premium economies include Emirates, Virgin Atlantic, Singapore Airlines and Lufthansa.

First is for people who want the ultimate luxury during their travel time and are prepared for the experience of a lifetime, with champagne and other beverages delivered straight to your seat and, on some airlines, a free item! Seats recline to 180 degrees and there are several options as to what angle your seat can be positioned. The experience also comes with top-quality food. I recommend Etihad, Emirates and Singapore Airlines.


News Report by Arun L

Myanmar – How a nation went from Democracy to Dictatorship in a year. March 2022

Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, also called Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. In November 2020, voters in Myanmar (also known as Burma) went to the polls to determine the government they wished to represent them for the next five years. The National League for Democracy (NLD) - the main civilian party led by Aung San Suu Kyi - fought for the election against the military-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) - led by Than Htay. The result was an unequivocal victory for the NLD, retaining its majority

in the lower house - the House of Representatives - and in the upper house - the House of Nationalities and expanding upon this in certain seats. 77% of Burmese people believed their country was heading in the right direction, according to the Centre of Insights in Survey Research, and 53% of the country (according to the same institution) believed the economy was in a relatively good place.

Yet, despite their ambitious goals and public support, the NLD, and Aung San Suu Kyi, could never achieve the reforms they wished, and were ultimately ousted in a military coup led by the Tatmadaw (the Burmese Army) that placed General Min Aung Hliang in control of the country. Following intense civilian protests against the decision, the military cracked down with force - killing over 1,000 people. The economy was in freefall as countries withdrew


Featured articles investment, companies closed and remittances from abroad decreased. Accompanying this, the protest movement, aligned with the remainders of the former NLD government known as the National Unity Government (NUL), has taken up arms and allied itself with the ethnic militias on Myanmar’s fringe, plunging the country into civil war. This, separate to the protests, has taken 1,300 to 2,400 lives as reported by the OHCHR, with the Tatmadaw being accused of burning villages and conducting summary executions (as reported by the BBC) on those believed to be related to the uprising. To understand why, it is important to understand Myanmar’s history. Myanmar gained independence from the UK, having previously been a colony, on the 4th of January 1948, with Aung San, Mrs Suu Kyi’s father, playing a pivotal role in the independence movement. Following a period of democratic rule, the General Ne Win, having been Prime Minister in 1959, overthrew the government in 1962. This led to the institution of a one-party Socialist state, under Win’s vision of, “the Burmese Way to Socialism". Yet the population was not content, and in the ‘888 Uprising’ on August the 8th 1988, a broad coalition from students to monks and doctors to common people protested against the government. This led to Ne Win’s resignation and the elevation of Suu Kyi’s public profile as a result of being a leader in the uprising. The succeeding military junta held elections in 1990, yet when Mrs Suu Kyi’s NLD won by a large margin they were declared invalid, and only in 2015 did fair elections (as recognised by international observers) finally allow the NLD to form a government. Yet the Constitution of Myanmar, edited in 2008 and again in 2009, forbade anyone with close foreign family from holding office – with constitutional reforms requiring 75% of both Houses’ support. Coincidentally, Mrs Suu Kyi was married to a British historian with a child, and the army was guaranteed 25% of the seats in the parliament by law.

To understand why, it is important to understand Myanmar’s history. Despite this, however, Myanmar was making progress towards democracy and economically experienced a revival, though the persecution of the Rohingya Muslim population in Kachin State did invite international condemnation towards the former freedom fighter. Yet, the army was not content to see

its position as a dominant force in Burmese society or economics retract: many state industries are owned in part, in full, or are collaborations with the Tatmadaw. Despite Mrs Suu Kyi defending the Tatmadaw’s actions towards the Rohingya and relative peace with the various ethnic militias around Myanmar’s periphery, like the Karen, Shan, Mon, Chin and Rakhine, the military believed they had to act. As Aung San Suu Kyi, her ministers in Cabinet, and her staff were arrested, the military announced they had acted after reports of electoral fraud – accusations widely denounced by nations like the US, UK, and Australia - yet the Tatmadaw did not dither. They quickly cut Wi-Fi and Facebook connections (they are synonymous with one another in Myanmar). As mentioned before, the BBC has reported an increase in military conflict between the NUG and the Tatmadaw - mainly involving assassinations, guerrilla warfare and the targeting of infrastructure - whilst protestors and demonstrators are repressed. The future for Myanmar looks dire, as ethnic militias take up arms against the government with the support of sections of the Bamar ethnic minority, and the next few years will determine the survival of the Tatmadaw government and Myanmar. If the army cannot stabilise the country, with aid from its allies, then the nation may collapse. What comes next, nobody knows for sure - but regardless of the outcome, the outlook is bleak for the people of Myanmar. Here are three ways you can help support those on the ground in Myanmar right now. Donate directly to a local organization on the ground in Myanmar. Donate to a humanitarian aid organization providing assistance in Myanmar. Educate yourself and others on social media.


MARCH

2022

AN ARTICLE BY RIYA M

ISSUE

2

The Wonderful World of Vegetarianism

WHY YOU SHOULD CONSIDER GOING GREEN... The definition of a vegetarian: ‘a person who does not eat meat or fish, and sometimes other animal products, especially for moral, religious, or health reasons.’ Studies have shown that vegetarians are less likely to suffer from several diseases compared to meat eaters. According to a study by the University of Navarra in Spain, vegetarians tend to have a lower Type 2 diabetes risk because they’re less likely to be obese, and often have a lower average body mass index (BMI) than meat eaters.

Vegetarianism also improves the health of the planet. Ecologists and environmentalists are concerned about protecting the living creatures on earth. Environmentalists have pointed out that one solution to the problem of food shortages is better utilization of our resources. For example, the amount of grain needed to feed one cow to provide meat for one person could feed many times that number of people… Ecologists have also shown that raising cattle and processing meat requires much more fuel, water, and energy


than is used to produce grains and vegetables. Vegetarianism is one effective means of conserving our vital finite resources. Typically, a vegetarian diet excludes meat, poultry, fish and shellfish, as well as animal by-products such as gelatine. It may include some other animal products – what you eat will determine the type of vegetarian diet you follow. These can be summarised as: Lacto-ovo-vegetarian – includes both dairy and eggs Lacto-vegetarian – includes dairy foods Ovo-vegetarian – includes eggs Studies show predominantly plantbased diets may be a healthier way to eat, with fewer reported cases of obesity, heart disease and type 2 diabetes in non-meat eaters. Specifically, those with high blood pressure may benefit – this is because studies show a lower incidence of elevated blood pressure in those following a vegetarian diet. There may also be a lower overall risk of cancer, even more so for vegans…

Adopting a vegetarian diet can be the perfect way to stay healthy and happy. A vegetarian diet is a complete diet, which is associated with high consumption of fibre, vitamins C and E, folic acid, magnesium, unsaturated fat, and numerous phytochemicals. The other benefits are: increased lifespan; lower bad cholesterol levels; less risk of stroke and obesity; reduced risk of diabetes; healthy skin (not oily); higher fibre content; reduced depression; improved metabolism; reduced risk of cataract development; and last but not least, it is very economical (saves you money!).

However, the highly advantageous vegetarian diet also (like most things) has its cons (problems or possible issues): it can be hard to find a balance without meat in your diet; you may have nutrient deficiencies; and, in rare cases, hair loss and difficulty finding protein. Despite the fact the vegetarian diet has some problems, the benefits radically outweigh them. The vegetarian diet improves your health, wellbeing, and helps restore the environment and make it a better place… So, next time you take a bite of a sausage roll or have a roast dinner – just think, do I really need to eat meat to benefit my diet? And think about the lives of the innocent animals lost just to add to your meal. Just think, how would you feel if you were an animal doomed to death for the mere enjoyment gained from a meal? Just take a moment to think...think about the bigger picture and how we need to save lives rather than end them. Reconsider, or have a go at being a 'flexitarian' - this involves reducing your meat consumption for your health and for the environment.

Just take a moment to think – think about the bigger picture – and how we need to save lives rather than end them.


ISSUE 2. MARCH 2022

HAS FARMING FORCED AN INSECT CULL? AN OPINION PIECE

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FARMING AND INSECTS... By James M The relationship between farming and insects is a topic that hasn’t been discussed and written about as much as it should; I believe that this topic needs to be taken seriously in the changing world in which we live. Has farming forced an insect cull, and what can be done to save these little creatures? Insects are the most important animals in the world; not only do they stand at the basis of all life, but they also play a key role in our seasons. As you most probably will know, right now we are in the pollinating season for flowers and trees. This is the time when the world's insects will be the busiest and the buzziest. The insects will buzz from tree to tree looking for unpollinated flowers. However, our little friends are having a difficult time. Insects really are one of the most important animals in our eco-system; people need to realise that if all insects go, we are in danger of going with them. Over one month, 133 billion insects die and a further 800 billion die every year. This then means the annual loss of insects is 2.2 to 2.7 percent; if this continues to happen for two decades, the average loss would be forty-nine percent!

INSECTS ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT ANIMALS IN THE WORLD


A third of all insects are in danger and more than 40% of bees are on the decline. Insects play a key role in the cycle of the eco-system; bees and many other insects pollinate flowers and trees which gives way to the next generation of these plants. They also pollinate crops for farms which gives us food. The sad thing is that we are destroying their habitat. Agriculture seems to be the main problem for this sharp decline. On a farm, there is a code which insects, man and crops must follow. First, the insect pollinates the plant, then the plant grows seeds for the harvest, and then man cuts away the crop for harvest, and the cycle restarts. The problem is now that man is chopping away trees – the places where bees or insects would be pollinating. Not only this, but many farmers are using chemicals on the crops which are harmful to insects. This can be significantly seen in the state of Oklahoma. Half of the world’s population of bees are in this American state. In 1947 there were on average, six million bees in the state. Now there are 3.5 million colonies left in Oklahoma. This is a staggering drop, that is 2.5 million colonies lost in seventy-five years. The problem is that the decline began in the early 20th Century then became more apparent in the 1950s onwards; in the last two decades, it has reached alarming rates. If we keep

Think about what Sir David Attenborough and Prince

going, we could lose double what we lost in the last two

William have done. They have made an organisation

decades.

that can filter in ideas for a new way to save the planet and the animals that live in it. Ultimately, there is hope

Another important insect that is facing deforestation

for the insects. However, there is no denying that

and decline in population is the jewel beetle (Anthaxia

farming has forced a cull in insects and I think that it is a

nitidula). The beetle is only native to the New Forest in

possibility with all the evidence that I have given that

South Hampshire. The jewel beetle was last seen in

insects are in a bit of a quagmire.

1954 - this is incredibly worrying. Scientists now believe that this species is officially extinct. Arguably,

In conclusion, I think that the world needs to adapt and

the problem for this situation is once again agriculture.

react faster to the problem and think of ways to

Chris Packham. TV wildlife expert, said that the “New

overcome it; perhaps letting parts of farms become wild

Forest national park is being destroyed by overgrazing

and letting nature try to heal itself is a solution to the

by its ponies, driven in part by the taxpayer. Also, land

problem. Also, local communities can help by planting

is needed to accommodate more people therefore

flowers and plants to encourage insects back. The

having to take down acres of land for humankind then

question I want you to leave you with is this: what can

impacts the animals and insects which help us grow.”

you do to help insects in your garden?


NEWS ARTICLE

UKRAINE’S UNREACHABLE DESIRE FOR NATO An article by Cristiana H

This year, I initially intended on writing an article about economics or business. However, in the light of the invasion of Ukraine, mendaciously declared by Russia, I have decided to write concerning the matter; more specifically, I want to write about why Ukraine is not in NATO. Arguably, had Ukraine been a member of NATO, this war would not have occurred. To conclude this article, I will be interviewing a friend of mine that is currently living in Ukraine. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Ukraine handed over atomic weapons in exchange for security guarantees from Russia and the United States, which should have protected the country from the current aggression from Russia. The problem for Moscow's military leaders was that the USSR's nuclear arsenal was not in one, but in three now-sovereign countries outside of Russia: Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. At the end of the Cold War, the third biggest nuclear power on earth, after Russia and the United States, was not Britain, nor France or China, but Ukraine. However, the United States and its allies had expressed expectations that only one nuclear-capable state would remain after the collapse of the USSR - that state was Russia. More than 5,000 nuclear weapons were stationed in Ukraine. Kiev's military bases had long-range missiles carrying up to 10 thermonuclear warheads, each much stronger than the bomb that destroyed Hiroshima. Only Russia and the United States had more weapons.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernme ntal military alliance among 28 European countries and 2 North American countries.


AN ARTICLE BY CRISTIANA H

By the end of 1994, the commitments required to become a non-nuclear state were fulfilled. The Budapest Memorandum agreement, signed by Russia, Ukraine, the United Kingdom and the United States, promised that none of the nations would use force against Ukraine and all would respect it, given that Ukraine had to forfeit their nuclear weapons. This meant that their once existing sovereignty was diminished. Following this, in May 1996, the last nuclear warheads in Ukraine were transported to Russia.

All attempts by Ukraine to join NATO have so far failed "What undermined diplomatic commitments was the "collective failure" of Washington and Kiev to consider the rise of a person like Vladimir Putin", said Steven Pifer - a history professor at Stanford University and negotiator of the Budapest Memorandum. After Russian troops invaded Crimea in early 2014, Putin defied the Budapest agreement, enabling him to obtain more confidence for further misconducts.

Agreeing to give up all nuclear weapons and transfer them to Russia would not have been such an issue if Ukraine was a member of NATO. All attempts by Ukraine to join NATO have so far failed, specifically due to the resistance from Germany’s former chancellor Gerard Schroder and France’s Sarkozy because of their dependence on Russian gas. Therefore, many people believe that these countries comply with Putin to fulfil his desires in return for their needs and their leaders' avariciousness. If Ukraine were a member of NATO, as stated in Article 5 of the NATO Treaty, in the event of an attack, all allied countries would be forced to come to its aid. Therefore, there would have been a completely different strategic situation than the one unfolding right now. During the military operation of annexation of Crimea in 2014, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko insisted on joining NATO if this was approved by the population in a referendum. The then German Foreign Minister, now Federal President Frank-Walter Steinmeier, replied: "We must be careful not to put more wood on fire by certain decisions."


AN ARTICLE BY CRISTIANA H

In June 2017, the Ukrainian Parliament established that NATO membership is a major foreign policy objective of the country - it was even enshrined in the Constitution of Ukraine. In 2018, NATO granted Ukraine the official status of a candidate country, stating that "The door to NATO is open to any European state that is able to fulfil its commitment and obligations under the alliance and that can help ensure the security of the Euro-Atlantic area." However, Ukraine is not an inch closer to being accepted into the Alliance. This is arguably because of the threat of a Russian invasion and ongoing tension. There is a basic consensus in NATO not to accept any new member who is in a situation of conflict. So, for as long as Putin will maintain conflict with Ukraine, they will not be part of NATO.

“The people of Ukraine will not give up. We will not allow Russia to take away our land.”

I will now share a short interview I conducted with my friend Vitalik, aged 21, living in Lviv. He began saying: “We are worried for our people.” With millions of Ukrainians fleeing to neighbouring countries such as Poland, Hungary and Romania, I asked if his family considered leaving as well – to which Vitalik stated that he has no intentions of leaving: “We will defend our country.” He revealed that his family and himself are staying in Ukraine: “The people of Ukraine will not give up. We will not allow Russia to take away our land.” Whilst it is obligatory for all men over the age of 18 to fight (unless medically exempt), many have chosen to stay and help. Great courage and admirable determination are both clearly displayed among the Ukrainians through their fight for their country.

Great courage and admirable determination are both clearly displayed among the Ukrainians through their fight for their country.


NEWS ARTICLE

THE UKRAINE APPEAL AND WHAT CAN BE DONE TO HELP An article by Sofia M and Tabitha B

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has been making news headlines every day for the past fortnight, ever since the attack began. Large central cities such as Kyiv, (Ukraine’s capital), and Kharkiv, have been targeted and many people have fled their homes to shelter in train stations and basements. More than one million Ukrainian refugees have crossed over the border into Poland, where supplies such as food, water, blankets and clothes have been distributed to families. What can we do to help? The UK Government are accepting financial donations (Donate to the Disasters Emergency Committee Ukraine Appeal) and they will match public donations to this appeal pound-to-pound, for up to £25 million. Other ways to help are donating to collection bases, which take in things like clothes, toiletries, sanitary products, first-aid kits, sleeping-bags and duvets, and, specifically for children: nappies, paper, pens, toys and teddies. There are also ways to donate tinned foods and bottled water. Where are the collection bases, and how much has been raised so far? They tend to vary, but you can place a financial donation at British Red Cross, the UN Refugee Agency and With Ukraine Global Support Fund. You may also find

More than one million Ukrainian refugees have crossed over the border into Poland, where supplies such as food, water, blankets and clothes have been distributed to families.


AN ARTICLE BY SOFIA M AND TABITHA B

donation drop-offs at schools and local shops, which later hand the donations to larger companies who ship or fly them off to the refugees. Wales has raised £6.5 million by a charitable appeal, DEC (Disaster Emergency Committee); Scotland has raised £ 6 million in under 24 hours; the Queen has made a private donation and, overall, the UK has raised over £100 million through public donations, which is the equivalent to £1 million an hour! The UK government alone has given £20 million, and the UK DEC raised £55 million in one day alone!

Want to support the people in Ukraine? Here's how you can help...

Which countries are refugees going to? They are mainly crossing over to neighbouring countries such as Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Moldova, Hungary, and Slovakia. Some have even gone to Russia and Belarus, although the numbers are much smaller. Have any come here, to the UK? Recently, Priti Patel - the current home secretary - has said that Ukrainian refugees with immediate families in the UK can stay here for up to three years, which includes time to settle down, recover and find work. Earlier in the year, Prime Minister Boris Johnson stated that up to 200,000 refugees could be eligible to come to the UK.

At a time like this, it is helpful to remember the words of Martin Luther King Jr:

"Somewhere along the way, we must learn that there is nothing greater than to do something for others."


NONSENSE OR NOT BROUGHT TO YOU BY HUGO J AND DILLON C

Fake news is everywhere, and it can be hard to tell the difference between what is real and what is not. Sometimes articles can sound completely bizarre but be true, so even if it does sound ridiculous, it may be worth rethinking your way of spotting fake news.

Follow these top tips:

Article 1: www.olympicremoval.co.uk/the_future_of_sport/100_years

OLYMPICS MODERNISATION 12/02/15

Does it come from a trustworthy source?​ Does the headline/information seem too good to be true?​ If it's online, is the URL unusual?​ Is it recent? Could the information be ‘out of date’?​ Is it formatted correctly with correct punctuation and spelling?​ Does it seem like it could be a joke? Does the picture look photoshopped? Now for a test! You can use these tips to spot which of these two articles is fake and which one is real!

A very controversial thing has been done by the IOC for the Olympic Games this year. They have decided to remove all sports that are 100 years or older as part of their ‘Modernisation Programme’. This means that they will be removing spots such as football and rugby but retaining sorts such as skateboarding. Many Olympic fans have protested and are not happy with the IOC’s decision, however the IOC have replied to fans with ‘you can watch old sports outside of the Olympics.’ The crowd numbers are expected to plummet at the games this year as people will not be able to watch some of their favourite sports.

REAL

? E K A OR F


Article 2: Real or fake? News or nonsense?

Flying

Car

Completes

Test

Flight Between Airports 30th June 2021 A prototype flying car has completed a 35-minute flight between international airports in Nitra and Bratislava, Slovakia. The hybrid car-aircraft, AirCar, is equipped with a BMW engine and runs on regular petrol-pump fuel. Its creator, Prof Stefan Klein, said it could fly about 1,000km (600 miles), at a height of 8,200ft (2,500m), and had clocked up 40 hours in the air so far. It takes two minutes and 15 seconds to transform from car into aircraft. The narrow wings fold down along the sides of the car. Prof Klein drove it straight off the runway and into town upon arrival, watched by invited reporters. He described the experience, early on Monday morning, as "normal" and "very pleasant". In the air, the vehicle reached a cruising speed of 170km/h. It can carry two people, with a combined weight limit of 200kg (31 stone). But unlike drone-taxi prototypes, it cannot take off and land vertically and requires a runway. Source: BBC

Did you guess correctly? So, which one was fake? You guessed it; it was article 1. You can tell because the news is old and in recent Olympic years, rugby and football have been included. Also, if you look closely, it says that the sports were not going to be in the Olympics that year, however, there were no Olympics in 2015! There are also two spelling mistakes of the same word. Does this sound like a reliable source? It is worth noting there are two kinds of fake news:​ 1. False stories that are deliberately published or sent around in order to make people believe something untrue or to get lots of people to visit a website. These are deliberate lies that are put online, even though the person writing them knows that they are made up.​ 2. Stories that may have some truth to them, but they're not completely accurate. This is because the people writing them - for example, journalists or bloggers - don't check all of the facts before publishing the story, or they might exaggerate some of it.

Keep an eye out and remember to check your facts. Don't believe everything you read!


EWS B M N Y DO

BITHA B TA

DID YOU KNOW...

RAN

Odd Laws from around the World

In Kentucky, it is illegal to carry ice cream cones in your pocket! In Singapore, it is illegal to chew gum unless it is for medicinal purposes, such as nicotine gum that helps you stop smoking. Taking a lion to the cinema is illegal in Baltimore, Maryland. In Iowa, it is illegal for horses to eat fire hydrants. It is illegal to feed the pigeons in Venice, Italy. There has been a Winnie-the-Pooh T Shirt ban in Poland. In Victoria, Australia, it is illegal to fly a kite if it bothers another person. In Rome, you MUST walk your dog daily. It is illegal to die in the houses of Parliament. And in California, it is illegal to stop a child from playing in puddles!

It is illegal to build a sandcastle in parts of Spain, for example the island of Majorca offers a 100 euro fine for building a sandcastle, whilst in Galicia, it can be up to 1500 euros! It is illegal to kill a Bigfoot or Sasquatch if you find one in British Columbia. It is illegal to climb a tree in Torontoone tree climber received a $365 ticket for climbing one in Bellevue Square Park. You can get fined in Quitman, Georgia,, if you let your chicken loose and it crosses the road. In Nevada, you can get fined if you do not close a gate; this is for livestock safety. It is illegal to handle a salmon suspiciously or under suspicious circumstances in the UK. In certain parts of Sweden, it is illegal to flush the toilet after 10pm.

by Tabitha B


REVIEWS - SAM C

OLD DUNE VS NEW DUNE: JUST HOW MANY THINGS DID THE 2021 VERSION IMPROVE UPON? A film review of "Dune" - a 2021 American epic science fiction film directed by Denis Villeneuve.

“…The beginning of the original Dune is not quite as bad as one might predict…”

2021’s big cinematic releases were mainly led by No Time to Die, an enjoyable yet run-of-the-mill sequel to the 2015 hit Spectre. Due to the popularity of James Bond, it is distressingly easy to forget Denis Villeneuve’s remake of the 1984 film Dune (or half of it, since the new Dune covers only half of the book, with the other half set to be released in October 2023). The new Dune certainly belongs at a mainstream cinema, whereas the old Dune belongs in the bin behind a mainstream cinema, due to its laughable ideas of how characters should look and behave on the big screen. Scores are not the only way of judging a film's quality, but old Dune is sitting around a 5/10 and new Dune is miles better at about 9/10 (if I were to review them without bias or exaggeration). The beginning of the original Dune is not quite as bad as one might predict; despite a questionably cheesy and disappointing introduction, the first part of Dune is somewhat watchable, yet extremely hard to follow if you have no

background knowledge of the franchise due to the extreme pace of events. In contrast, the newer Dune takes a lot more time to explain the events so that an audience understands the concept of Dune, giving it more universal appeal. It also focuses a lot more on Paul Atreides’ dreams of Chani (a member of the desert dwelling Fremen) and the commanding voice that people can use to force victims to do their bidding… …and then there’s the fight scene. To sum it up, new Dune does it better, and old Dune loses all hope of being an acceptable film. Seeing Patrick Stewart dive to the ground with a box of jelly for a forcefield around him is simply excruciating. The jelly in question is later utilised for a forcefield around a settlement, which once again makes you wince. Newer Dune has a much better trick up its sleeve: to use proper effects and make the shield visible only when knives or harmful blows make contact and a much less box-like shape.


The old and new Dune have noticeable nods to each other which is satisfying to see, such as the flying lamps which follow you around, and the small helicopter-like ornithopters which are used to carry people around the desert-world of Arrakis (although old Dune’s ornithopter is devastatingly bad). Modern Dune and old Dune tell the same story with a few noticeable differences. Some of these differences might not be drastic for the Dune sequel, but the extensively disturbing visions that the new Paul Atreides witnesses (and the lack of a mutant space traveller or a diseased Baron) hint at a different take on the story. I would advise you do not read this paragraph unless you have read the book or seen the old version of Dune, as these events aren’t covered in the new Dune. One of the biggest differences is the portrayal of Baron Vladimir Harkonnen, the contemptible enemy of the original Dune novel. Denis Villeneuve’s modern remake imagines a much more sensible vision of the enemy: a hideously overweight yet bearable bald man with that classic deep enemy voice that we all know and love. The older Dune’s villain, however, takes on a form which is difficult not to avert your eyes from; bearing warts, lumps and goodness knows what, this Baron dispatches his enemies, and is later dispatched by our beloved hero’s little sister, to the backing of Transylvania style music, which is not quite fitting of a movie set in 10191 in faraway space, where Dracula is unlikely to be in fashion. On the topic of music, old Dune’s

...The old and new Dune have noticeable nods to each other which is satisfying to see... score is passable if we exclude the eyebrowraising mainstream guitar music and the aforementioned hilariously out-of-place organ music. Hans Zimmer, for the sake of our sanity, corrects the music (in Dune of 2021) with a thoughtful Middle Eastern style singing voice and recognisable main themes distributed throughout the film. A final comparison I would like to make is of the supposed prophet and main character, Paul Atreides, portrayed by Kyle MacLachlan in the old version and Timothée Chalamet in the new version. In short, a realistic and relatable performance is given by Chalamet, whereas MacLachlan’s Paul Atreides displays little emotion, and the film gives basically no explanation or build-up to he and Chani becoming lovers. It will be interesting to see how the new Dune series portrays this relationship, but in my opinion, as long as they don’t put Chalamet in a box of jelly and remove necessary explanation of plot, Part II of Dune will also be an improvement.


MARCH 2022, ISSUE 2

A SENTIMENTAL REWIND OR A TERRIBLE IDEA? Spider-Man: No Way Home: A Film Review by Sam C

*SPOILERS ALERT* WITH FUNNY After the dramatic post-credit ending to Spider-Man: Far From Home, a third instalment of Tom Holland’s character was very much in demand, and this

AND SENTIMENTAL

instalment just proved to be the strangest we’ve seen yet. With funny and

WRITING, AS

sentimental writing, as well as a genuinely sad ending, this film definitely has

WELL AS A

some positives, yet, in a daring and unexpected move, the Marvel Cinematic Universe mashes other Marvel universes into the same universe (my, my, what a

GENUINELY

tongue-twister!), including the two previous Spider-Men and classic Spider-Man

SAD ENDING,

villains, producing one of the best casts a Marvel film has ever seen, including

THIS FILM

Willem Dafoe (once again as Green Goblin), Alfred Molina (once again as Doctor Octopus), as well as Andrew Garfield and Tobey Maguire, both playing other

DEFINITELY

Spider-Men. Along with Benedict Cumberbatch, this is one killer cast. The

HAS SOME

premise reminds me of Into the Spider-Verse, with multiple Spider-Men coming

POSITIVES

together to fight bad guys, yet this film is so extreme in its crossovers that it’s really rather bizarre to think of as an idea, let alone watch it come to life as a gargantuan, giga-budget, governor of mish-mash movie.


MARCH 2022, ISSUE 2

The film begins straight where Far From Home left off, with Spider-Man's true identity being revealed to the public. Following this, his school life falls into chaos and, due to his controversy in the news (probably both being Spider-Man and being the supposed murderer of Mysterio), he, MJ (his girlfriend) and Ned (his best friend) are all rejected from college. Hoping to get rid of the mess caused in his life, he asks Doctor Strange to make everyone forget Peter Parker is Spider-Man. However, he tampers with the spell and Doctor Strange is forced to shut it off. So far, so normal: even with an inevitable Marvel Cinematic Universe crossover, this time with Doctor Strange, nothing unorthodox has happened thus far. However, not long after the spell was shut off, he encounters a villain familiar to us but completely unrecognisable to this Peter Parker: Doctor Octopus. Despite this battle being stylish, engaging and jampacked with carnage, there's no getting away from it: this is where the film begins to get weird. We meet more of Spider-Man's enemies from other universes. including a visually stunning encounter with Electro and the arrival of Green Goblin from the original Spider-Man. All of the villains in No Way Home are great past villains of Spider-Man's character, yet the nature of the crossovers makes me wonder if Marvel are struggling for ideas, since so many Spider-Man films have been made now. In the MCU, Marvel films feel like continuous spinoffs of previous ones, as all of the events occur within the same incarnation of the Marvel world. However, this one brings in even more universes to make the whole franchise even more messy.

Nevertheless, it is great to see the film move away from Iron Man and hold off quite a bit from the cinematic universe (except Doctor Strange, of course, but I will give him credit due to a mindbending fight scene in the Multiverse he has with Spider-Man after they fall out). The rest of the film concerns Peter beginning to cure all of the villains in an effort to give them a second chance, but soon enough, they grow angry and leave his side. We meet the other Spider-Men shortly afterwards before seeing a slightly underwhelming final battle as all the enemies are cured, including a second attempt at recovering Tom Holland's Spider-Man's MJ (we don't see any other MJs or Gwen Staceys thank goodness) by Andrew Garfield's Spider-Man, leaving him crying in an emotional reference to his final film.


MARCH 2022, ISSUE 2

There is also a rather shocking sequence where Peter gets very angry and starts punching Norman Osborn in an extreme fit of rage. Tom Holland's Peter Parker, having suffered at the hands of his own desire to make everyone forget he is Spider-Man, saves the world and the uncontrollable merging of universes by wiping everyone's memory not of what Spider-Man's identity is, but of who Peter Parker is. In a genuinely moving and heart-wrenching ending, Peter says goodbye to his dearest friends for the last time, and when he sees them again, he is a complete stranger to them, as well as "Happy", who used to work for Spider-Man's previous mentor, Iron Man, and has looked after Parker throughout the second and third films. To add to the sadness, he decides against returning to MJ and Ned, presumably to prevent any more damage to their lives. Overall, Spider-Man: No Way Home may sound like a messy (and a could-be-terrible idea) on paper, yet due to its fabulous cast and beloved Marvel visuals, it still remains entertaining. Featuring references to the older Spider-Man films, funny confusions amongst the Parkers and a steady stream of jaw-dropping visuals, the film has many positives to offer despite one of the craziestsounding premises of all time. Parker's character suffers loads during the film, including the death of Aunt May and a genuinely shocking ending that refuses to follow the regular Hollywood formula. The future of Tom Holland's Spider-Man is up for debate, but the

Will Spider-Man ever return to his friends? Will

permanent changes Peter has inflicted on his life to save

Eddie Brock's Venom symbiote be the antagonist

humanity, as well as the post-credit scene with the

of the next film? The first question is hard to

arrival of Eddie Brock's familiar symbiote, are clues as to

answer, as due to the fact that Spider-Man has

what we can expect next.

abandoned them, future sequels might lose two fundamental characters as well as two young stars, but it is very likely that Venom will be entering the MCU in the next film.


SPRING 2022 • ISSUE 2

RESCUE OUR RAINFORESTS AN ARTICLE BY TABITHA B

RAINFORESTS ARE THE LUNGS OF THE EARTH

DID YOU KNOW THAT RAINFORESTS NOW ONLY COVER 4% OF OUR EARTH?

Why are rainforests so fundamental to our ecosystem? Rainforests cover less than 4% of our Earth - yet they are vital for a healthy world. There are plants and herbs found in rainforests that can be used for medicinal purposes and save lives! Trees are renowned for producing

oxygen

and

absorbing

carbon

dioxide;

a

mature

tree

can

absorb carbon dioxide at a rate of 48 pounds a year! In just one year, an

acre

of

forest

absorbs

twice

the

amount

of

carbon

dioxide

produced by an average car’s yearly mileage. However, people are damaging the rainforests around the world, and, as well as being a large source of oxygen production, rainforests are also

home

to

a

large

array

of

wildlife,

including

pollinators

such

as

bees, birds (hummingbirds especially) and butterflies. The hard work of these

species

make

room

is

for

vital

meat

for

growing

and

dairy

food.

farms

By

and

chopping crop

down

growing,

forests

humans

to

are

destroying one of the planet’s main sources of oxygen, as well as the habitats

of

many

useful

creatures,

not

to

mention

the

beautiful

wildlife! How can we help save the forests? There is a wonderful search engine, “Ecosia,” question. search,

which

plants

“Ecosia”

“Ecosia”

a

uses

can

tree its

every

profits

remove

time to

about

1

you

plant kg

of

make

trees,

a

search

and,

carbon

with

dioxide

or

ask

a

just

one

from

the

planet! If Ecosia were as big and famous as Google, it could absorb about

15%

of

all

global

carbon

bring an end to climate change.

dioxide

emissions,

which

could

help


Other ways you can help save the forests are by eating healthier, and using more sustainable products. Another way to help is by becoming vegetarian/vegan, exporter people

of

beef

or

in

just

the

(210,000,000)!

stripping

bare

eating

world, After

more

cutting

cattle

down

the

biggest

(232,000,000)

the

trees

Brazil

are

used

About for

80%

cattle

clearings

logs

of

are

or

fast. If you are interested in saving

sustainably and supporting

frequently.)

the

for

than

We need to act

growing,

in

resources,

is

ways to help are eating more

less

and

Brazil

purchased by the local Brazilian farmers for cattle grazing (and crop

spaces

paper

meat.

the rainforests, then possible

though

for

with

less

then

cleared

them

by

deforested

grazing

and

and

ranches

-

they are the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions in the whole of

Brazil!

As

well

quantities

of

methane.

which

is

as

unfortunately

this,

cows

especially

Methane

about

26

is

a

times

are

producers

dangerous more

of

greenhouse

damaging

than

charities such as Rainforest Concern.

vast gas-

carbon

Since 1970, over 700,000

dioxide.

square kilometres of the

Trees like mahogany are also chopped down for logs because they are

Amazon rainforest has been

valuable and make a great profit. When a 35-metre tree is cut, it can

destroyed by deforestation.

fall

In 2001, the Amazon

and

crush

vegetation

up

and

to

17

shorter

wrecking

trees

habitats

as

for

it

does

wildlife.

so,

wasting

Once

a

valuable

clearing

of

rainforest had shrunk to

trees has been cut bare, it is rare for it to recover and replenish itself.

only 86% of its original size.

Pulp

Robert Walker at the

from

tree

bark

is

used

to

make

paper,

and

until

recently,

only

Florida’s Centre for Latin

came from the softwood trees like pine and Canadian conifers.

American studies has

So, what will happen in the future? If

the

rate

of

deforestation

climate stays

change

the

affecting

same,

it

is

the

likely

predicted that the Amazon

Amazon to

lead

rainforest to

and

increased

temperatures and strange weather patterns - especially in rain. These consequences

could

result

in

droughts,

shortages

of

clean

water,

damaged forests, and negative effects on the air quality. Rainforests used to cover about 15% of land on earth - now they cover less than 4%.

It is never too late to take action.

will have disappeared by 2064.


ISSUE 2. MARCH 2022

"I'M NOT SENSITIVE," CRIES THE SNOWFLAKE AN OPINION PIECE

MY THOUGHTS ON THE TERM 'SNOWFLAKE GENERATION' By Emmie S Many of us have heard of, or even been accused of, being a ‘snowflake’. In order to distinguish the insult from the reality, we first need to understand what the word means. Commonly used as an insult, the term ‘snowflake’ means: ‘An overly sensitive person. Someone who is easily hurt or offended by the statements or actions of others.’ In addition, this definition states that ‘this has nothing to do with politics. Snowflakes can be liberal or conservative. Whether it is a compliment or an insult is a matter of opinion and depends on the context.’- Urban Dictionary. With reference to the former definition, in a world of free speech, surely it is impossible for people to not be offended by certain comments? We are correct to point out injustices such as racism or homophobia when we spot them. However, the social construct of a ‘snowflake’ could certainly be applicable to a generation focused on ‘identity politics’. It is fair to say that millennials and Generation Z have a more heightened awareness of issues with the status quo and are quick to question it. The question that the ‘snowflake’ insult poses is: at what point do we take things too far? Can ‘activism’ be counterproductive? Arguably, yes.

SOCIAL MEDIA, AS WITH MOST IDENTITY POLITICS DEBATES, PLAYS A HUGE ROLE IN THE LABELLING OF A ‘SNOWFLAKE'.


A study cited in the Daily Mail states that millennials and so-called ‘Gen Z-ers' are the most likely to be labelled as ‘snowflakes’, and also the most likely to be opposed to this label as well as other similar insults such as ‘over-sensitive’. Social media, as with most identity politics debates, plays a huge role in the labelling of a ‘snowflake.’ With social media, users may think that changing the world is at their fingertips. One re-post, or retweet, or like, or comment can promote and create social justice. Or can it? This is a phenomenon that I like to label as ‘trending activism.’ The notion was born out of goodwill and genuine passion for social justice, with movements such as #metoo or #imwithher. However, this idea has been capitalised and escalated on a huge scale. People can often, intentionally or otherwise, mistake an opinion for fact or a statement made on Twitter for a reputable source. Are we too quick to assume that all the ‘social justice’ we see on social media is reflected in reality? Furthermore, the way in which our political systems operate create a breeding ground for activists; people who are unafraid to use their voice. My issue with this is: who is entitled to the label ‘activist?’ Is it reserved for a professional title, such as for a doctor where training is required, or can it be used by anyone who likes a

Over the last few years, we’ve seen our political climate

UNICEF post? In a world of free speech, how can we

adapt to a new generation of ‘leaders.’ We are no longer

ensure that a ‘snowflake’ phenomenon doesn’t occur?

consumed by the scares of the dot-com bubble, but

Or does pathologizing a snowflake defeat the point of

rather, we worry about climate change, LGBTQIA+

free speech? If a snowflake is a highly sensitive person,

rights, the Bill of Rights etc. Our political climate has

and we are supposedly all on the spectrum of

morphed from representing a select few Eton alumni, to

‘snowflakeness’, should we reconstruct our systems for

representing the UK as a collective of diverse identities.

change to adhere to our fear of identity attack?

So, if we are beginning to understand the importance of representation, and are moving towards identity politics as a government, why are we afraid to elect unconventional politicians? We have the right to free

Are we too quick to assume that all the ‘social justice’ we see on social media is reflected in reality?

speech, we have the resources we need to create change, we have the leaders and the passion to create change, but we are held back by our belief that we are too ‘radical’ or ‘change- making.’ What if we don’t want to be changemakers? Is there another way, a more subtle way, to create change and have our voices heard? Or will this approach inevitably lead to cementing our identities as the snowflake generation further?


In Quiet (a book about the power of introverts in a world that can't stop talking), Susan Cain highlights the key changemakers of history and why they weren’t necessarily the extemporaneous leaders portrayed by the history books. Sensitivity can mean many things. In behavioural psychology, it is associated with introversion. Our view of leaders is that they are outgoing, well-spoken and not shy, or dull. I’d like to point out that in the Bible (and Torah), God chooses Moses to lead the Jewish people out of the land of Egypt. Arguably the earliest role model of a leader, a founding father of religion, Moses doesn’t fit the common association of a leader. He has a speech impediment, and gets Aaron, his older brother, to deliver most of his speeches alongside him. However, he is still an accredited leader. What does Moses have to do with snowflakes and free speech? Honestly, not much, but bear with me. It does make you realise that some of the most famous leaders are introverts, due to their reflective nature. As introverts

are

more

sensitive,

they

are

more

empathetic to people around them, particularly those who struggle. What’s perhaps most psychologically interesting is the pairing of introverts and extroverts. Dr Martin Luther King Jr. befriended Rosa Parks and did the majority of the speaking. Rosa Parks was an

Conclusively, in a world where identity politics is at the

activist at heart, and a true changemaker, but her

core of activism, having a voice and deciding how to use

passion was in her local area; before the 1955

your voice is overwhelming, especially as we fear being

Montgomery Bus Boycott, she worked for the National

deemed as ‘radical’ in the way we act, think and create

Association for the Advancement of Coloured People as

change, or in the opposite sense, deemed to be a

an investigator.

snowflake if we do nothing and stay quiet. Perhaps we should be looking at all of this differently though. Being sensitive is crucial to enacting change. Sensitivity plays a role in how we respond to each other, how we empathise with each other, and if we are offended by each other.

Some of the most famous leaders are introverts, due to their reflective nature.

An important distinction to be made here is that sensitivity has many different meanings clinically, behaviourally

and

psychologically,

sensitivity

to

rejection being the most dangerous in a culture of identity warriors.


NEWS REPORT BY ELLIOT DG AND ISOBEL AW

Fight The War Within to Survive Outside A LOOK INTO HOW WE CAN ALL DO MORE TO IMPROVE OUR MENTAL HEALTH

When you get a bad school report or test result, students are proven to blame themselves, and this may take a toll on

An overview...

self-esteem, academic decreasing

Mental health is an important yet invisible part of your life. Without strong, stable mental health, you may not thrive; you may not be able to concentrate; and, most importantly, you may lose confidence and

cause

stress,

performance. well-being

and This

and

an

can is

even

take

proven

increased

to

a

toll

lead

possibility

on to of

developing long term anxiety or depression. Additionally, children who experience academic stress are more likely to do poorly in school and this can even effect personal and home living as well.

motivation. That is why it is important to maintain a well-balanced state of mind, especially as a young student. Primarily, from the ages of 12-18 (secondary school

age)

personal

mental

health

issues

have

a

63% chance of impacting aspects of life, such as depletion of self-esteem. But without reflecting and realising the situation, keeping problems to yourself will increase the likelihood of negative side effects.

School is a place where you can face intimidating challenges. This includes GCSEs, A Levels, but most commonly, crucial moments of changes to the body and mind. But, since school life can tend to prioritise performance potentially

and

feeling

grades, burdened

this with

leaves

students

homework

and

academic pressure, which many do not know how to deal with sufficiently.

An RGS Investigation... To understand this better at RGS, we conducted a survey (thirty students in total) to find out how many students felt their mental health and wellbeing could be improved. 79% of students we asked agreed that they felt their mental health could improve. Therefore, we clearly need to find an effective way to help deal with the challenges of life today. We have put together some top tips on the next page to help deal with the pressures of every day life:


MENTAL HEALTH TOP TIPS The Wellbeing Hub

Feeling overwhelmed?

Visit the Wellbeing Hub – as an RGS student you have free membership! Ms Arthur would have emailed you login details. On the Hub there is a student Q& A Library; a section called Spark to help you find positivity, inspiration, good news and more; top tips; podcasts; careers advice and inspiring stories.

Take five to ten minutes away from everyone to just have a bit of time to yourself.

Get in those Zzzzz! A good night’s sleep is important when it comes to looking after your mental health. It’s said that teenagers need an average of nine-and-a-half hours' sleep each night.

Routine is everything! Try not to get into habits of staying up too late and sleeping in too long. Try going to bed at normal times, this’ll make getting up for school a lot easier and, in turn, will help your mental health a lot.


MENTAL HEALTH TOP TIPS Give yourself time off...

Exercise! Physical activity releases a chemical called endorphins, which makes you

•Especially if you are revising over the holiday, make sure that you plan periods of time where you are not working •Allow yourself time to rest and relax – this is really important! •Focusing on something else can be relaxing e.g. cooking, playing music, making something, learning a new thing

feel good, so if you’re feeling a bit overwhelmed or low, why not go out for a walk? A bike ride? Or a run?

Screen use

Our phones are brilliant – they keep us connected amongst many things. Sometimes, however, they can make it hard to switch off and have that important time out. Consider times of the day when you don’t have your phone close by, or switch off notifications. Leave your devices out of reach when you go to bed.

Relaxation & Breathing Try doing things like yoga, breathing exercises or meditation to help you calm down if you’re feeling a bit stressed over the Easter period.


Easter Traditions by Sofia M and Amelie B

Western Christianity In western countries that celebrate this holiday, Easter is preceded by Lent. Lent begins on Ash Wednesday and lasts 40 days (not including Sundays). The day before Ash Wednesday is Shrove Tuesday or Pancake day, which was started to try to get Christians to use up all the sugary, rich ingredients such as butter, eggs, syrup and sugar before the fasting period of Lent begins. During Lent, many Christians choose to fast by adopting an almost vegetarian/vegan diet, or avoid foods which bring short-term pleasure, in an imitation of Christ’s temptations in the desert. This year (2022) Shrove Tuesday is 1st March, followed by Ash Wednesday on 2nd March, and Easter ends on Easter Sunday which is the 17th of April.

Eastern Christianity In eastern countries that practice Christianity, Easter is celebrated on a different date. This year it is on Sunday 24th April. As eastern countries follow the Julian calendar, as opposed to western countries which follow the Gregorian calendar, there are discrepancies in dates.. In Orthodox Christianity they also practice Lent, beginning on Clean Monday and ending on Lazarus Saturday. They celebrate Easter using some of the same traditions as us, such as going to church and praying. However, they also have fireworks and crackers to mark Christ`s resurrection. Different countries also slightly adapt each tradition, with Greece having special sweet bread called Tsoureki and a soup called Magiritsa to be eaten at midnight, as well as the ceremonial painting of red eggs, and Russia having a traditional Paskha Easter cake.

Chocolate

By tradition, chocolate eggs are delivered to children by the Easter Bunny on Easter Sunday. This story grew in popularity in the 19th century and has since been adapted into multiple motion pictures. During Easter many rabbits give birth, hence the animal became a symbol of new life. Decorating and hiding eggs (which are also symbols of new life) are a way to encourage children to participate and learn about Easter’s importance, resulting in the creation of Easter egg hunts. In other countries, such as Switzerland, the eggs are delivered by a cuckoo and in some parts of Germany they are delivered by a fox. The first chocolate eggs were made in central Europe in the 19th century, but they were quite bitter and hard. As chocolate-making techniques were developed, the hollow eggs that we have today were created with a softer texture and sweeter taste. As you can imagine, this tradition became very popular with chocolate-lovers across the globe.


Other Easter Traditions Hot cross buns: Spiced, sweet buns marked with a cross on top. Popular in Commonwealth countries such as the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Painted eggs: Made in Eastern European countries, with elaborate patterns carved into the shell. Easter lilies: White flowers with a very distinctive smell. Bermuda Kites: Brightly coloured kites that are flown in Bermuda to symbolize Christ’s ascent. Easter Fires: Fires lit on Easter Sunday in places like Germany and Cyprus. Les cloches de Pâques: An ancient French tradition, in which Bells travel to the Vatican to be blessed by the Pope, and bring gifts when they return. Murder Mysteries: Lots of people in Norway enjoy crime shows, a tradition that started in 1923. Osterbrunnen: Wells in Germany are decorated with flowers and Easter eggs. This tradition began in the early 20th century.


Easter Quiz

1. Which dried fruit is in hot cross buns? 2. What do the clocks do in spring? 3. What meat is traditionally eaten at Easter? 4. What country does Easter island belong to? 5. What is the nation’s favourite chocolate bar? 6. What is the nation’s favourite way to eat eggs? 7. What is the day before Good Friday called? 8. Who wrote 'The Tale of Peter Rabbit'? 9. What colour jacket does Benjamin Bunny wear? 10. Which chocolate bar has a coconut filling? By Anya P E-mail your answers to Ms Harvey. 10/10 = 2 Merits!


EASTER CHOCOLATE CHICK CAKE

THE BROOKIES A BBC RECIPE, IN THIS ISSUE TRIED AND WILL TESTED BY SWEETEN HUGO J YOUR HOLIDAYS AND IMPRESS FRIENDS.

CAKE: 150ml sunflower oil, plus extra for the tin 175g self-raising flour 2 tbsp cocoa powder 1 tsp bicarbonate of soda 150g caster sugar 2 tbsp golden syrup 2 large eggs, lightly beaten 150ml semi-skimmed milk

BUTTERCREAM: 200g unsalted butter 500g icing sugar 80g cocoa powder 5 tbsp milk (a little more if needed)

FUDGE SAUCE: 25g unsalted butter 25g soft brown sugar 25g double cream


EASTER CHOCOLATE CHICK CAKE

A BBC RECIPE, TRIED AND TESTED BY HUGO J

HOW TO BAKE: STEP 1 Heat the oven to 180C/160C fan/gas 4. Oil and line the base of two 18cm sandwich tins. Sieve the flour, cocoa powder and bicarbonate of soda into a bowl. Add the caster sugar and mix well. STEP 2 Make a well in the centre and add the golden syrup, eggs, sunflower oil and milk. Beat well with an electric whisk until smooth. STEP 3 Pour the mixture into the two tins and bake for 25-30 mins until risen and firm to the touch. Remove from oven, leave to cool for 10 mins before turning out onto a cooling rack. STEP 4 To make the buttercream, beat the unsalted butter in a bowl until soft. Gradually sieve and beat in the icing sugar and cocoa powder, then add enough of the milk to make the icing fluffy and spreadable. Save some of the icing for later use. STEP 5 Sandwich the two cakes together with the buttercream and cover the sides with more buttercream. STEP 6 Cut a medium-sized hole using a cookie cutter from the centre of the top down to halfway in the cake. Be careful that you don’t go all the way through! Save the piece of cake cut for later use. Step 7 Make Fudge sauce. You will need 25 g unsalted butter, 25 g soft brown sugar. 25g double cream


EASTER CHOCOLATE CHICK CAKE THE BROOKIES IN THIS ISSUE WILL SWEETEN YOUR HOLIDAYS AND IMPRESS FRIENDS.

FUDGE SAUCE: Measure out equal weights of the ingredients unsalted butter, brown sugar and double cream. Put all three ingredients in a small saucepan. Heat on the stove top on a low heat, stirring constantly as the butter melts and sugar dissolves. Simmer for a few minutes, stirring all the time until the sauce is thick and fudgy. Now you should pour the sauce into the hole. Then put the piece of cake you cut away back on top where it was before. If you need to cut a bit off the bottom of that piece, you should do so.

TO DECORATE: 2 Flake bars 1 Bag of Mini Eggs Leftover chocolate from your Easter egg (If there is any!) Green fondant Yellow fondant Cocktail Sticks/toothpicks Black/blue food colouring


STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE...

Step 1: Roll out your green fondant and lay it on top of the cake, covering as much surface area as possible. Step 2: Make your cute yellow chicks out of the yellow fondant! Step 3: Dip your cocktail sticks in the black or blue food colouring and dot eyes onto the chicks. Then, put them to one side. Step 4: Break your Flakes up into medium sized pieces and stick them onto the cake and to each other with your leftover buttercream to make a nest around the cake. Step 5: Get your chicks and cover the underside with buttercream, before sticking them onto the flake pieces. Step 6: Cover the underside of the Mini Eggs with buttercream and place them in the middle of the nest. Step 7: You’re done! Remember to send your photos to 21JenkHug@reigategrammar.org as we will run a competition for the best cake! You could even add some of your own ideas to yours! Stay tuned for summer brigadeiros and ice cream rolls next term!


THANKS TO THE CASTLE TEAM!


WE NEED YOU! Are you interested in telling the stories that matter to you? Are you interested in representing student voice? We are looking for more editors and contributors. E-mail Ms Harvey for more details: chh@reigategrammar.org

THE CASTLE


! r e t s a E Happy