HOUSING AS HYBRID LANDSCAPES REQUALIFYING THE PERI-URBAN
M.ARCH THESIS HOUSING AND URBANISM 2012 - 2014
HOUSING AS HYBRID LANDSCAPES / Noida, Delhi Context THE ARCHITECTURAL ASSSOCIATION SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE M.Arch in HOUSING & URBANISM With the supervision of: Elad Eisenstein + Hugo Hinsley Published in London, 14th February 2014. RESHMA SRINIVAS + In collaboration with: Helen Tran + Shikha Bharadwaj
HOUSING AS HYBRID LANDSCAPES REQUALIFYING THE PERI-URBAN
AKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to particularly thank Hugo Hinsley and Elad Eisenstein for their commitment and dedication to this work. Jorge Fiori and Lawrence Barth, dear director and tutor of this program; Elena Pascolo, Alex Warnock-Smith and Nicholos Bullock for all the support with the rest of the process. Especially, I am grateful for the oppurtunity to have worked and learned with my wonderful thesis groupmates: Helen Tran and Shikha Bharadwaj. To my parents, who even in the far distance supported me unconditionally; without whom my dreams would not come true. And at last, to my classtmates at the AA, and friends who have always been with me.
Challenging Current Paradigms PERI-URBAN FUTURE
URBAN AGGLOMERATIONS Delhi, India
DELHI NOW, DELHI THEN
BUILDING AN INTERFACE Noida, Delhi, India
URBAN FORM AND HOUSING MODELS Noida, Delhi, India
HOUSING IN NOIDA: MAIN PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED
PROBLEMATIZING SITE CONDITIONS
REQUALIFICATION OF THE NEW MODEL
Integrated Township- A New Model
Territory of Intervention
Re-interpretting Existing Productive Fabrics ZONES OF EXCHANGE
Catalyts of Productive Systems
An Alternative approch to Housing Developments THE INTERVENTION
rocesses of migration and urban growth have been changing the urban
The following project narrates a proactive approach leading
landscapes. Cities like Delhi are expanding rapidly to their peri-urban
to design research and a proposal in response to the current
areas as a response to problems of densification. One such peripheral
method of housing delivery in Noida. It tackles the issues
region of Delhi- Noida, is currently unable to link the sub-elements of the
and problems raised during the research by proposing
disjointed urban fabric. As a consequence, itâ€™s peri urban fabric and inherent
an alternative to the development of housing, taking the
synergies are being eroded to make way for a serialization - standardized
integrated township as a context for a test site. The proposal
building typologies, unable to react upon these transitional periods. Hence,
offers multi-scalar solution to the problem of housing, from the
Noida discloses as an ideal location for testing the spatial effectiveness of
territory of the region, to the finer social relationships at the
the hypothesis: how do we assess a pattern of quality spaces that rely on
building block level.
characteristics of classical housing-models while managing current high densities and working in terms of future growth ?
A radical reconceptualization of the current housing model is developed, calling for a new way of thinking based on key
This thesis challenges the current state of housing in the peri-urban region
principles derived. Therefore, elements of the proposal can
of Noida, Delhi. The close relationship between policy making, housing
be utilized and implemented elsewhere in the city taking into
standards, and urban form, have limited housing to a reduced type-solution
account necessary adjustments which is needed due to the
based on a reinterpretation of the old models. This allowed for mega-scale
change in the context. The scenario presented is based on
housing developments to take over and resolve the historical need. However,
the given conditions in and around the Integrated Township,
the success of these housing models is questioned when the sub-standard of
in order to conduct a more thorough representation of an
housing is exposed, failing at several scales and spheres of domestic life. This
has also resulted in a lifestyle of exclusion, as these sites have no access to basic infrastructures and opportunities.
/ 1 / PERI - URBAN CHALLENGING CURRENT PARADIGMS ‘ A third of the world’s population is on the move this century, from village to city, a move that began in earnest shortly after the Second World-war and villages left their homes to build new enclaves on the urban outskirts, and is entering its most intense phase now, with 150 to 200 million Indian people “ floating “ between cities, and huge numbers of Africans and southeast Asians joining the exodus. In 1950, 309 million people in the developing world lived in cities; by 2030, 3.09 billion will.’ (Doug Sanders, Arrival City, 2012)
LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM
PERI - URBAN A GROWING URBAN CONDITION
In the last half century, cities have undergone remarkable land-use changes
According to Plurel (2011), 56 % of cities are expanding,
to accommodate population growth and urban expansion; but the
making peri-urban living and alternative trade models a
transformation has normally been contained within quantifiable geographic,
widespread dominant urban condition that challenges the
conceptual, and administrative boundaries.
subject of urbanism, especially in rapidly developing regions.
However, most city centres are now reaching their land development
The inclusion of peri-urban region in the urban area in the last
capacity and are facing depleting resources which consequently is pushing
decade is related to the process of globalization. The Policy
urban development to spread to city peripheries. Peri-urban developments
makers acting under market pressures since the 1980’s, were
are the physical manifestation of urban growth and increasing population.
no longer able to absorb the growing population arriving from
As a consequence of such outgrowth, the ‘outside’ space of the rural
rural areas and other cities and to produce the necessary
landscape is merging with the ‘inside’ urban space of the city (Manchester
urban infrastructure to service new arrivals; under such a
2011, u.d.); the boundaries between the rural and the urban is blurring. This
dilemma, the peri-urban regions emerged as an alternative
creates a unique peri-urban condition, an in-between city, that presents
area that filled the gap between a growing demand and
significant opportunities and challenges for land-use development and the
supply capacity in urban areas.
future transformation of the natural and the built environments. As a result of the failure of urban policies concerning the accommodation and integration of the peri-urban region into the planning policies, the urbanization of the city peripheries, is taking a new scale at the beginning of the 21st century in rapidly growing economies, and is reshaping existing urban dynamics.
AN IN-BETWEEN SPACE
Amsterdam, Netherlands Copenhagen, Denmark New Delhi, India Shenzhen, China
Manchester, England Bern, Switzerland Gyeonggi, Korea Samut Prakang, Thailand
Beemster, Netherlands Hillerod, Denmark Faridabad, India Thanh Pho HCM, Vietnam
( Drawing by Helen Tran) 9
TRANSFORMATION OF PERI - URBAN AREAS - TARAMANI CORRIDOR, CHENNAI, INDIA 10
( Drawing by Reshma Srinivas )
Rapid urbanisation of the peri-urban poses many challenges (spatial, social,
POLICY AND GOVERNANCE
political, environmental, and economic). The issues are complex, multisectoral, and often a subject of conflict among different social and political
In terms of policy and governance, the peri-urban is a
contested political ground. Since developments often span several administrative boundaries, peri-urban areas fall
into responsibility gaps between rural and urban planning authorities (MOHAPI); without the proper tools for integration
Urbanisation, in general, arguably improves the social and economic
of strategies for development across local and regional areas,
outlook and quality of life for many people. However, the pressures for cities
and among different social and economic groups. As such,
to offer sufficient and quality housing, adequate hard and soft infrastructure,
the transformation of peri-urban areas in both developing
economic stability, social equity, and associated amenities for a high
and developed countries are mostly unplanned and manifest
standard of living to the growing population are overwhelming (Arbury, J.,
as short-term visioning. They are legislated, if at all, under
u.d.). Specifically with respect to the urbanisation and changing land use of
unclear regulations, poor policy design and implementation,
the peri-urban, policymakers are also confronted with severe environmental
and inaccurate policy evaluation.
and developmental challenges, especially the need for sustainable land transformation to mitigate environmental deterioration, depletion of
resources, dynamic changes in the demand for infrastructure, loss of open space, and degradation of productive agricultural land.
There are also major concerns about private investments, land rights issues, and land (mis)appropriation. Currently, planning authorities lack the tools to think holistically about the territory. Long term local and regional governance is challenged to develop robust development processes and regulatory frameworks that are informed by active and coordinated spatial planning and policies, shaped by inclusive multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder participation and decision-making (Piorr, A., Ravetz, J., Tosics I. (ed.), 2011).
DEPENDENCE ON THE CITY FOR LIVE/WORK
( Drawing by Reshma Srinivas ) 11
/ 1 .1 / PERI-URBAN FUTURE In order to determine the future of the peri-urban regions, some models which aimed to do that were studied and analyzed. The investigation lead to the selection of the region, for testing the principles determined and to draw new relationships to the city.
COMPACT CITY CONCEPT
Compact cities play a significant role in responding to the needs of urban
Compact city policies can help achieve urban sustainability
areas as they have dense and proximate development patterns, are linked
in many, mutually reinforcing ways but the current urban
by public transport systems, and maintain accessibility to local services and
trends underscore their need. Although a potential model
jobs. They also lessen the impact on the environment, with shorter intra-urban
for development, the adverse effects (housing affordability,
distances and play a part in the economy by increasing the efficiency of
quality of life, low-density and loss of open and recreational
infrastructure investment; thereby giving residents easier access to services,
spaces); require careful consideration. Therefore, policy
jobs, and social networking (OECD, 2011).
makers need to see the compact city model in an economic as well as an environmental perspective as well.
In recent years, compact city policies have increasingly been part of urban strategies, highlighting the significance of this approach to urban planning (TCPA, 2011). While the compact city concept is not new and still generates debate, it is expected to OLD play a role in achieving sustainable growth NEW AND CONCEPTS objectives.
GARDEN Â CITY MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPACT CITIES
COMPACT Â CITY
CITIES AROUND THE WORLD JOHN KASARDA
CONCEPT As an antidote to overcrowded megalopolises, an aerotropolis is a master-planned city built around an airport. The new area often contains a central city core connected to its surrounding suburban areas, with developments that include primarily warehouses, logistics, parks, offices, restaurants, hotels and retail that take advantage of aviation and road transport links.
CRITIC The aerotropolis is distinguished from other car-centric business park developments by proximity to an airport (Archiscene.net, 2012). With few exceptions, aerotropolis have seldom lived up to the ambition of creating a city around an airport, through the promotion of â€œlow density developments, wide lanes and fast movementsâ€? (Kasarda). This is essentially sprawl at an airport, that has little regard and success for high spatial quality and regional development, highly isolated and fragmented from the surrounding periphery.
INDIA HUDCO ( Housing and Urban
Development Corporation ), India
CONCEPT With urban areas are getting more crowded and
increasingly short on future development potential, the market is opening up for foreign investments for housing in India (NoidaProject, 2013). The Integrated Township in India is one such example and has recently been identified as a potential solution. Contrary to low-rise sprawling peri-urban fabric of India, the integrated townships are clusters of housing, that can be grouped with Special economic zones, Commercial Businesses or Software parks (Construction World, 2011). They are rather complexes with higher density, more open areas and an emphasis on creating residential spaces supported by an infrastructure backbone of power, roads, water, drainage and sewage systems. CRITIC The aspirations of this model is to import celebrated development models from other cities, target the higher classes of society, house them in introverted gated and secured settings. Thus, this development model lacks integration into the urban context, and in providing response to specific social needs.
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
CONCEPT Today, with economies shifting towards knowledge, many cities are testing different spatial models in their peri-urban regions as they require large areas of affordable land as well as flexible policies. Knowledge Parks in India, are a combination of University campuses, Information technology buildings, Training centres and other educational institutions, all developed within one allocated area (Engineering, 2010). CRITIC These developments result as isolated inward looking projects, that lack the interdisciplinary relations and spatial decisions that are essential for the knowledge to nurture. And also, occupy large areas, thus fragmenting the peri-urban fabric.
MASDAR CITY, UAE
FOSTER & PARTNERS
CONCEPT A highly planned tech-city to act as a hub for cleantech companies, with emphasis on specialized research and technology, that incorporates a living environment. Existing light rail and metro will connect Masdar’s city centre with its surrounding area (Environmental Graffita, u.d.).
CRITIC This is the creation of a utopian knowledge island/ expensive gated community that sets physical barriers between itself and Abu Dhabi’s periphery via a fortress wall. And despite the distraction of “high-tech, low carbon, ultra sustainable development” claims, Masdar City is a compound built for the elite, focusing on exclusion and status. Principal architect, Foster himself admits to designing a green Disneyland. Thus, this project is a clear embodiment of the reflexive spatial responses to urbanising the periphery.
PERI-URBAN SPATIAL CHALLENGES – BIGGER STRATEGIES
THE NEED FOR BIGGER STRATEGIES 18
( Drawing by Reshma Srinivas )
PERI-URBAN SPATIAL CHALLENGES SPRAWL BY DESIGN
The continuing growth of urban population calls for a policy responses and
regulatory tools that optimises land resources. The organic and healthy growth that accommodated urban PRESSURE ON INFRASTRUCTURE
expansion whilst rural migration, built the random housing clusters, in peripheries themselves. The continuation of this
New developments continue to be constructed in the peripheries actively
system, leads to fragmenting horizontal growth, beginning of
along the highways leading to a linear system of growth.
the unconditional urban sprawl and depletion of agricultural
A finer grain network does not exist creating dormitory areas with few
land. Also, a mismatch in residents, local services and jobs
opportunities to sustain any form of local economy, which in turn, reinforces
(less diverse urban centres) result in inefficient use of urban
the dependence on the car and highway connection to the city centre to
land and infrastructure.
go to work and access necessary services and amenities (Hans, P. P., 2013). This calls for the development of compact nodes, encouraging In order to reduce the pressure on infrastructure, formation of internal networks
dense, contiguous development ; synchronising urban and
and provision for civic and communal facilities (holistic development) within
rural land use policies at these urban fringes. Lively centres
the peri-urban region becomes important.
help to sustain the centrifugal power of a metropolitan region and their diversity can boost the region’s economic growth
RELATION BETWEEN EXISTING AND NEW DEVELOPMENT
potential; fostering a “sense of place” in these peri-urban centres.
The new gated developments in the peripheries tend to be isolated projects plugged into the existing fabric of agricultural land and villages, leading to fragmentation of the fabric. Furthermore, the existing villages gain no socioeconomic or spatial advantages of the new development as they tend to be excluded in the masterplanning, or in the development policies. This imbalance in growth calls for a more integrated system of development, encouraging “intensification” of existing assets as effective strategies for future sustainability.
INDEPENDENT MULTIPLE CENTRALITIES
AUTONOMOUS EXPANDING GROWTH PATTERN
CURRENT DEVELOPMENT PATTERN
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROPOSED NETWORK FORMATION 20
INTEGRATED EXPANSION PATTERN ( Drawing by Reshma Srinivas and Shikha Bharadwaj )
OUR POSITION POLYCENTRALITY
CURRENT DEVELOPMENT PATTERN
THE PERI- URBAN CASE
A polycentric phenomenon occurs in an urban territory which tends to cluster
The peri-urban takes on a different dimension in industrialising,
in several centres of activity. It shows the interaction between the main centre and other centres bidirectionally achieved through urban transit lines (figureexisting development pattern). These centres grow independently and carry out specific activities like Housing, Industries, administration, commercial, etc; thereby resulting in un-ordered urban sprawl. A balance needs to be found between new peri-urban centres and the hyper city centre.
developing nations in Asia and post-industrialised, developed nations in Europe. This thesis focuses on the peri-urban context of Noida, in Delhi. Through a critical review and design analysis of the Integrated Township housing model in India, the thesis asks broader questions about the spatial potential of the periurban. PROPOSED SITE 2 FOR SPATIAL RESEARCH
NEED FOR AN INTEGRATED POLYCENTRIC FRAMEWORK In order to move towards an integrated growth, there is a need for development policies (figure- proposed network formation), in order to link the independent Peri-urban centres into a regional framework of development. Instead of relying on the city for needs (other than what the new centre provides), this method of development aims at achieving joint growth, whereby the different peri-urban centres could share facilities controlling the decentralisation into rational development.
MANCHESTER, NOIDA, NOIDA (NEW DELHI), INDIA MANCHESTER, UK NEW DELHI, INDIA
( Drawing by Reshma Srinivas ) 21
/ 2 / URBAN AGGLOMERATIONS DELHI, INDIA This Chapter explored peri-urban environments as the physical manifestation of the cityâ€™s growth by taking Delhi, India as the area for exploration. The research was then followed by an analysis of the peri-urban regions of Delhi. The aim of the work was to contemplate the way these landscapes are developed today and to understand their role in shaping Delhiâ€™s constant metamorphosis.
/ 2 .1 / DELHI THEN, DELHI NOW The initial segment of the Thesis Studio carried out a preliminary research about Delhi. An in-depth survey of the areaâ€™s urban evolution based on a chronological analysis and phasing to extract fundamental spatial points that shaped its current urban - periurban formation.
DENCE URBAN FABRIC OF OLD DELHI, 2012 25
1911 - 1947
NEW CAPTITAL population
NEW METROPOLITAN LIMIT
Delhi was a small town in 1901
The Delhi Municipal corporation
with a population 0.4 million.
increasing after it became the
formed the New Metropolitan
Old Delhi was founded by
capital of British India in 1911.
Region. As the countryâ€™s capital,
Mughal rulers who ruled the city
with vibrant trade and commerce
in succession, under a different
number of people migrated from
name given to the city.
Pakistan and settled in Delhi.
employment migration from
neighbouring villages and cities into Delhi continued.
TRACING THE EVOLUTION OF THE CAPITAL CITY - DELHI, INDIA 26
( Drawing by Reshma Srinivas )
DELHI, INDIA URBAN AGGLOMERATIONS
The urban agglomerations of Delhi and its extended suburbs, which barely matched up to global cities in size in 1950; with its population of 22.7 million as of 2011, is the second most populous urban sprawl in the world. (Census India, 2011) URBAN INDEX - National Capital Territory (2012)
Population Density Area
22,000,000 29,259.12/sq mi 42.7 Km2 (16.5 Sq.mi)
2007 PRESENT EXPLOSION With
urbanization, the rural area of Delhi started shrinking as the urban growth started moving towards
started developing outside the Metropolitan Region but feeding to
OLD DELHI Delhi with an encircling wall seen from
The British government expanded the city
the surrounding countryside. The Red
into New Delhi. It was built by a British
Fort on the banks of the Yamuna, was
Architect Edward Lutyens in 1911 as the
built by the Mughal Emperor Shahjahan
new capital of the British Raj and then of
between 1638 and 1648.
India (Economic Survey of Delhi, 2006).
View of Chandni Chowk, the major
Aerial view of Connaught Place - as part
street in the walled city of Old Delhi
of the Completed Master-plan, New Delhi,
established in 1650 AD - designed by
India. It is now the main economic hub of
Princess Jahanara (Margherita, S, 2011).
the National Capital Region.
It was the first market to be planned in India and is still the largest whole-sale market. 28
THE STORY OF DELHIâ€™S PLAN
The first Master-plan of delhi was drafted in
2012 Masterplan of Delhi, with the
1962 by the Delhi Development Authority.
Metropolitan Region. The newly formed An aerial view of the city scape with
Towns of Noida, Gurgaon, Faridabad and
the Rashtrapati Bhavan (the presidential
Gaziabad are not included within the
palace) and the Lok Sabha, the lower
Masterplan (Byron, R, 1997).
house of the Parliament of India. An aerial view of the landscape at the fast growing periphery of the Metropolitan Region.
rban interventions through ’master-plans’ have always been and continue to be one of the governing bodies’ means for city development and expansion.
The argument for an “ integrated”
approach to urban
planning may be misconstrued as an argument for traditional master-planning. However, master-planning has a dismal history in India. Even the national capital has been unable to implement a master-plan despite repeated efforts. According to the Delhi District Gazetteer 1883-84, Delhi had a population of 173,303 in the late Nineteenth century (WWF, 2009). The grandeur of the Mughal court was long forgotten and, after 1858, it was no more than a large provincial town. That changed when the British colonial government decided to shift the capital to Delhi in 1911 and hired Edwin Lutyens to design a city to reflect imperial grandeur. Lutyens’ created what is effectively the first “ Master plan” for New Delhi. It was meant for a population of 60.000. The old city was still expected to remain the commercial hub. Lutyens’ Delhi was completed in Mid-thirties but the urban plan collapsed barely a decade later as the city found itself with hundreds of thousands of refugees fleeing from Pakistan. The authorities dealt with the crises with ad-hoc arrangements but in 1962, a new master-plan was devised. Given the thinking of the times, it was a framework for low-rise suburbia where the government would decree land-use and zoning.
MASTER PLANNING VS STRATEGIC INTERVENTIONS
The 1962 master plan was a dismal failure. The city developed in unpredictable
THE NEED FOR AN INTEGRATED BUT EVOLVING FRAMEWORK
ways while the government failed to deliver on many promises. Even by 1981. Liberalisation created economic opportunities that pushed the gap
The alternative to this type of development is that the
between plan and reality to breaking point. Eventually the pressure exploded
governments who run the National Capital Region should
into brand new areas like Noida and Gurgaon. The official response was yet
concentrate on two things - basic governance and a few
another master-plan announced in 2007 called Delhi 2021. Two years later it
was already outdated. “
The most obvious problem with master-planning in Indian cities is the lack of
combining the different elements of Urban Governance,
governance. The civic authorities simply do not have the ability to enforce
the master-plan even in the national capital. Secondly, all master-plans
and environmental footprint. ” (WWF, 2009) Thus, strategic
require proper implementation and sequencing of public investment. As
sustainable planning is not a “mechanical” approach like it
discussed earlier, a combination of corruption and incompetence meant
exists today, but one that explicitly thinks of the city as an
that important aspects of 1962 master-plan remain unimplemented even
today. The criticism of master-planning does not mean that we are There is, however, a more fundamental flaw with the whole master-planning
advocating a free-for-all. The strategic interventions that the
approach. It cannot deal with organic evolution of a living and vibrant city.
government make from time to time should be interventions
There was no way in which the 1962 master-plan could have anticipated
that will open out new urban vistas and have large multiplier
Noida’s industrial boom and Faridabad’s BPO boom.
effects. To conclude, it may be easier to identify simple design paradigms that encapsulate the overall strategy and then implement them through strategic interventions that have multiplier effects. In this Thesis, density, public realm, and civic facilities are identified as the paradigms for the future development.
URBAN GROWTH OF DELHI 33
NEW TRANSPORTATION FROM CITY PERIPHERIES - REGIONAL AND NATIONAL NETWORKS 34
( Drawing by Reshma Srinivas )
INDIA NEW INFRASTRUCTURE AND CENTRES
DELHI KOLKATA INDUSTRIAL CORRIDOR India’s robust economic growth has dragged its attention towards the need for new urban centres, adding to the nation’s growth. One of the key drivers that are fortifying the growth is India’s huge investment in Infrastructural corridors. This anticipates the new city formation and expansion of existing cities. DELHI - AN INBETWEEN ZONE
( Drawing by Shikha Bharadwaj )
One such corridor is the Delhi-Kolkata Industrial corridor that passes through the Peri-urban Region of Noida and uses the Eastern dedicated Freight Corridor as its backbone to develop good connectivity with the cities along this stretch. (Economic Survey of Delhi, 2006)This has lead to a major exchange of labour forces and global talent between these cities by shifting real estate investments and large economic investments towards the peri-urban regions along these physical linkages. AN IN-BETWEEN SPACE Delhi being a City-State is situated in-between the 2 boundaries of Haryana and Punjab, its Peri-urban regions like Noida are beyond the Municipal boundaries and fall under these states. As a consequence of the growth in Delhi ( 8.4 % growth rate), rural areas of these states are shrinking. (Economic Survey of Delhi, 2006) But this unique periurban condition in Delhi; formation of an in-between area, presents significant opportunities and challenges for landuse development. The future transformation of the natural and the built environments should benefit both these areas instead of leading to constant degradation of land.
REGIONAL NETWORK FORMATION
( Drawing by Reshma Srinivas ) 35
/ 2 . 2 / ARRIVAL FORMATION OF NEW PERIPHERIES Selection of the peri-urban area to intervene in, required an in-depth study of Delhiâ€™s 3 main peri-urban regions of Delhi- Gurgaon, Faridabad and Noida; This was carried out through analysing the patterns and socio-economic-political conditions that shaped each of it.
NEW INFRASTRUCTURES PERI-URBAN REGIONS - CONNECTING DELHI DELHI WITH SURROUNDING MAJOR CITIES - FORMATION OF REGIONAL NETWORK ( Drawing by Reshma Srinivas ) 37
NEW INFRASTRUCTURES PERI-URBAN REGION - GURGAON CONNECTING DELHI WITH SURROUNDING MAJOR CITIES - FORMATION OF REGIONAL NETWORK 38
( Drawing by Group )
Gurgaon is one of Delhi’s first satellite city and is located 30 miles south of
Gurgaon is outside the limits of the Metropolitan Area of Delhi
New Delhi, and 8 kms from Indira Gandhi International Airport. Witnessing
and has not been assigned a specific Development Authority
rapid urbanization, the region has undergone rapid development and
for the Area. It is still run as if it was a small town, as different
construction over the past 25 years. (Narayana, K, 2012)
promoters create a random mix of management systems for their individual developments. There is no consistent set of
The region of Gurgaon is developed with housing catering to almost a third
municipal rules or a transparent system of enforcement.
of Delhi’s population. The region’s growth story started with a leading Indian Real estate developer - DLF, buying vast areas of land in Gurgaon and developing it into housing estates in the middle of no-where. As of 2013, about 250 different housing developers have projects sprouting up in Gurgaon. Gurgaon boasts of swanky apartments, golf courses, and malls. Yet, being within commuting distance of Delhi via an express-way and Delhi Metro and single investor dominated housing region, it’s residents have been completely dependent on the Delhi for Work. (Forbes India, 2012)
NEW INFRASTRUCTURES PERI-URBAN REGION - FARIDABAD CONNECTING DELHI WITH SURROUNDING MAJOR CITIES - FORMATION OF REGIONAL NETWORK 40
( Drawing by Group)
Faridabad, an old industrial hub of Haryana, situated 15 miles to the South of
Due to the over-concentration of industries, Faridabad is not
Delhi, is part of the National Capital Region. In contrast to the development
able to see real estate boom today, both in commercial and
in Gurgaon, Faridabad is now emerging as the preferred destination for
residential sector. The property values have seen a steady
investors as there are huge prospects of economic boom.
decrease due to the lack of strong policies (TNN, 2012). This is mainly because infrastructure is developed after the real
Laying of the Faridabad express-way in 1980 lead to the sprouting of
estate potential of an area has been nearly fully exploited.
industries along the stretch. Today, the area has been saturated by linear horizontal growth and is not able to spread outwards or vertically because of the presence of vast areas of working industries. The Haryana Development Authority formed a joined Administrative body with the Delhi Development Authority and Faridabad Municipal Corporation in order to develop this area. But due to multiple development authorities wanting to influence the areaâ€™s growth, Faridabad has failed to come up with a cohesive development plan for its future.(Narayana, K, 2012)
UN- OCCUPIED HOUSING
HUGE INFRASTRUCTURES 41
NEW INFRASTRUCTURES PERI-URBAN REGION - NOIDA CONNECTING DELHI WITH SURROUNDING MAJOR CITIES - FORMATION OF REGIONAL NETWORK 42
( Drawing by Group )
Noida, another industrial base of Haryana, is 12 miles from Delhi. It is the
FUTURE CITY, as its called: The chrome buildings and neon
only peri-urban city to be planned (1976) and is under the management of
lights lend nicely to that label. But the problem Noida is facing
the New Okhla Industrial Development Authority (NOIDA). With improving
today is that, even though the economic and housing sector
infrastructure, Noida has transformed into a booming economic warehouse
is booming in Noida, it grapples with the problem of lack of
and has the highest per capita income in the whole India.(Census, 2011) The
proper infrastructure and utilities, frequent power outages
industrial city falls under the Delhi-Kolkata Industrial corridor and therefore,
and rising crime due to large underutilized or vacant spaces
there has always been a wider scope for development here.
between buildings. In terms of planned urban growth, the booming real estate development is not being backed
The infrastructural development is now attracting realty majors to plan big
by the creation of associated physical infrastructure. The
and bring in projects like Knowledge Parks , Industrial zones and Special
concentrated focus on economic development has lead the
economic zones. A reality players says that the infrastructure of Noida is
housing developments to develop sprawling conditions.
being overhauled with the state government pumping in crores of rupees for â€˜industrial cluster planning. (NOIDA, 2012)
It is not being planned in a cohesive manner and not taking the future growth into consideration. If this continues, Noida will develop into another urban sprawl that the city of Delhi will struggle to deal with in the future.
FRAGMENTED FABRIC 43
/ 3 / BUILDING AN INTERFACE NOIDA, DELHI, INDIA Rethinking Peri-urban development: Noida, Delhi was chosen as the test site for our pedagogic experiment. The intention was to develop an integrated regional strategy for delhi by focusing on one of its peri-urban model. In this chapter, Noidaâ€™s social, spatial and political conditions are explored in
order to understand the complexity
and problems of its built and proposed fabric. The attempt was to provide better living and working conditions in Noida through complementary additions to the existing fabric. The culmination of the material gathered, analyzed, and illustrated lead to the decision to focus the further research on the Housing developments in Noida.
FORMATION OF VILLAGES
OHKLA INDUSTRIAL AREA
The area was bound by the Yamuna
The broadening of the main road (National
Noida was identified as the new peri-
River and Hindon River on either sides
urban district of Delhi in 1976 (Rohan,
of it; and was a very fertile agricultural
Second Tier City of Agra (210 miles away
S, 2012 )and the first Masterplan for
from Delhi) lead to the development of the
Noida was drafted in 2001. The area
proximity to the city of delhi - about
OKHLA Industrial Area in the region in 1970.
was divided into various sectors for
12 Miles southeast of New Delhi, lead
About 65 industrial companies, established
to migration of people from nearby
itself in the region (Sanjiv, B , 2012)
areas to Noida in order to find work in the City of Delhi and the development of
Territory between Delhi and Uttar Pradesh
Noida was created under the Uttar Pradesh (neighbouring state to Delhi) Industrial Area Development Act
joint venture between OKHLA Corporation and the Delhi Development
existence in 1976. Since then, it has been the only peri-urban region to be planned from its existence. The region has the merit of proximity to Delhi and also good connectivity to other Second and Third Tier cities along the Delhi-Kolkata highway. These factors are driving end users, investors and corporates to choose Noida as a potential booming real estate destination. (Noida, 2012) Over the years, due to increasing migration to Noida, the region has extended to about 10 times its planned size along the Yamuna River.
2013 PRESENT EXPLOSION Today, the small Industrial District has transformed into a booming economic hub for Delhi. Over the years
region has extended to about 10 times its planned size along the Yamuna River (Sanjiv, B , 2012). Lack of cohesive planning
horizontal growth and has resulted in fast conversion of the fertile agricultural land into urban developments in this region.
OUTLINE OF NOIDA (WHITE) AND NOIDA EXTENSION (BLACK) 48
PLANNED TO UNPLANNED DEVELOPMENT
Even though Noida aims to be a meticulously and futuristically planned for well-preceded transformation of the region, in reality, various factors have lead to the failure of this vision. Noida boosts about its ever-growing real-estate and industrial townships, but it fundamentally fails to address the need for basic Infrastructures like good internal roads, un-destructed electricity supply and mainly Civic infrastructures like Schools, Commercial and community facilities. This has lead Noidaâ€™s Residents to be dependent on the city for these facilities. Also, the lack of cohesive planning has lead to a sprawling horizontal spread resulting in fast conversion of the fertile agricultural land into fragmented developments in this region. A World Bank official says Noida was nothing but a land grab operation by builders and politicians (Sanjiv, B , 2012).
STATISTICS OF GROWTH IN NOIDA
( Drawing by Shikha Bharadwaj ) 49
ABSENCE OF STRUCTURED URBAN DEVELOPMENT - NOIDA 50
“Noida is a disaster, a horror story of how urbanisation should not happen.
“Not all construction is bad for the environment, we just need
It is not merely Noida—little Noidas are emerging all over Delhi. (...)Now they
to be smart about how we build our cities.” (Lawrence, K,
exist and answers have to be found. I have nothing to say except to say that
2012). There is a huge opportunity to shape this peri-urban
this isn’t development, but mal-development.” (Ramaswamy, R, 2013)
area before the boom in construction transforms more land cover into sprawls. This can be possible only if the current
Noida has turned out as an unsuccessful spatial planning model of the largest
urbanization policies consider the future impacts of these
Industrial Townships of Asia. The absence of structured urban development
developments on the area.
policies due to successive governments that abdicated responsibility has resulted in under-developed civic infrastructure, badly utilized land, un-safe
Therefore, Noida was chosen as the region to test the idea of
drinking water and monofunctional residential complexes in the serene and
Infrastructure for transformation. And the focus of this thesis
peaceful green environment around it.
would be on using Housing in Noida as the delivery tool in order to provide for the above infrastructures in terms of civic
“The fundamental problem here is that urbanisation has been driven by
and institutional amenities for the region.
bad planning and a thought process which doesn’t believe in devising viable urban spaces. (...) The philosophy, seems to be to let people build residences and offices arbitrarily and as they get occupied, infrastructure and other economic activity will follow. This is a prime example of ad -hoc and unsustainable urbanisation” WWF(2009)
/ 3 . 1 / PERI - URBAN STRUCTURE This section problematizes the peri-urban structure of Noida through the understanding of the spatial planning methodologies that the Authorities have derived for the region.
PERI-URBAN REGION OF NOIDA 53
The recent Master Plan for Noida was devised in 2012. According to the
zoning, the major share of the land is allocated to Housing and Industrial development. The planning for the region follows Le Corbusier’s principles
The present proposal provides only 10 % of the whole land area
developed for the nearby city of Chandigarh.
for Recreational purposes. (Rohan, S, 2012) The agricultural land is completely wiped out and no area has been provided
for agricultural land uses.
Land development involves numerous government departments and public
Fundamentally, the masterplan conceptualizes the needs of
sector undertakings at both federal and state level, but coordination among
the fast developing city in a superficial manner without taking
these agencies is weak, and as a result, their programs are not synchronised
the future consequences into consideration.
for faster delivery. “These developers, over time, appropriated most designated CONCENTRATION OF USES
green spaces and public spaces and extracted as much revenue as they could out of the land. So a city was created,
The area is divided into Sectors based on the existing road systems. The
but the opportunity of setting new benchmarks in civic life
area of these sectors vary from 35 to 150 hectares of land and each of the
sectors are allotted different land uses. Due to this, large parcels of land
gets allocated to a single use of Housing, Institutions or Industries, leading to the development of isolated and non-integrated fabric (Vandhana, K, 2013).
UN-EQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF USES 56
( Drawing by Group )
LIMITED CIVIC FACILITIES
( Drawing by Reshma Srinivas ) 57
HOUSING DEVELOPMENT UNEVEN GROWTH OF NCR
HOUSING VILLAGES About 45.66 % area of NOIDA is being developed as residential areas for HIG,MIG,LIG categories. (Sanjiv, B , 2012) Even though Noida has a planned
Noida originally consisted of around 100 villages but this
urban growth, infrastructure projects in these areas are largely taken up only
has shrunk (due to development) to around 45 villages in
after an area is already primed for real estate growth. Thus, it remains to be
the whole region(Pagnamenta, R, 2012). Even though these
seen whether the upcoming urban sprawl will be sufficiently supported by
residents once formed the owners of the farm land acquired
for it’s developmental activities, no steps have been taken for the development of these villages nor provide small shops or economic opportunities for the population in the New Housing Developments. “ The residential township of PMP, has completely cleared an actual village to graduate into a sophisticated township with several high-rise buildings. But, till date there has not been a proper road connecting the property to the National Highway.” (Sanjiv, B , 2012)
FRAGMENTED HOUSING LEADING TO URBAN SPRAWL 58
LACK OF CIVIC INFRASTRUCTURE DEPENDENCE ON TRANSPORTATION
The exponential growth of residential suburbs in combination with poor
strategies for selling residential developments and only cater
development of urban centres during the 20th century, combined with the
to the higher-income residents. This leaves the rest of the
lack of an overarching concept results in the uneven distribution of urban
population to depend on the minimally provided recreational
centres and residential areas.
INDUSTRIES + INSTITUTIONS
Large number of Institutions and Multinational Companies are preferring
It is shocking that Noida, with its booming industries and
Noida as their centres of operation has lead to the development of 2
housing sector has only 3% of the whole area allotted for Civic
new models- Knowledge Park and Special Economic Zone which are a
facilities (Correspondent, 2013). Another issue is the lack of
consolidation of institutions, industries respectively in one single area of
Primary, Secondary and Higher education centres in Noida.
about 200 Ha (Correspondent, 2013). Even though this is seen as a better
This makes the residents to completely depend on the city for
model for Institutional Development, the use of large parcels of land just for
one use has resulted in the present day fragmented fabric. Along with the creation of Knowledge parks and huge golf RECREATION
courses; small-scale commercial, civic and recreational centres needs to be developed in each sector as a part of
10 % of the land has been allotted for Landscaping, Recreation and Parks
the planned and synchronous development that Noida aims
out of which significant chunk of the area is allotted for Golf courses and F1
Racing Tracks. These large scale recreational projects are used as marketing
DELHI - PERI-URBAN DEPENDENCY
( Drawing by Reshma Srinivas ) 59
SPATIAL CHALLENGES FRAGMENTATION
The projects that were planned under the principles of decentralization, such as housing or educational buildings, often were built as isolated islands in front of a highway, with no relation to the urban fabric or any pedestrian friendly environment. This is something that again promotes the same fragmented idea in the region.
ISOLATED AND MONOFUNCTIONAL ENCLAVES DUE TO LARGE SCALE SINGLE OWNER DEVELOPMENTS 60
( Drawing by Shikha Bharadwaj )
SPATIAL CHALLENGES INFRASTRUCTURE
Unlike the old city regions, however, there is little consideration for the ground plane. All time and budget is spent to create shelter for as many people as cheaply and quickly as possible. The apartment towers can be reached only by car via the fully stretched highways network. A finer grain network does not exist creating often dormitory areas with few opportunities to sustain any form of local economy, which in turn again, reinforces the dependence on the car and highway connection to the city centre to go to work and access necessary services and amenities.
DEVELOPMENT OF NEW INFRASTRUCTURES LEADING LARGE AREAS OF UNDER-UTILIZED LAND
( Drawing by Reshma Srinivas ) 61
EXISTING AND PROPOSED NORTH-SOUTH INFRASTRUCTURE 62
( Drawing by Shikha Bharadwaj )
INFRASTRUCTURE THE DRIVING TOOL FOR DEVELOPMENT
Noida features two main expressways each catering to a different set of
capacity and sewage treatment facilities are capital-
population,(Vandhana, K, 2013) but all these Road infrastructures run North-
intensive and part of larger infrastructure projects. Thus, there
South leading to linear development of the fabric. Noida doesn’t to take
are invariable delays in their execution and subsequent
advantage of the adjacent Peri-urban regions as there is no major peripheral Road linkages connecting Noida in East-West direction.
operationalisation. THE EXPANSION
The on-going project of Delhi Metro would connect Noida directly to Delhi city centre and would mainly serve the middle income and high income
The ‘future readiness’ of a city can be gauged from its
population of Noida. On the other hand, there are migrant labourers,
past pace of development, and from what it has already
domestic help and industrial workers who constitute Noida’s poor and
achieved in terms of infrastructure. The satellite city of Noida
cannot afford the Metro.
is poised for a development explosion and is expected to
Most of the infrastructural undertakings of improved road network, power
expand by 6-8 times its current size, with higher valuations for property following naturally on the back of developing infrastructure. With more families moving in, Noida
seriously challenged in terms of creating sustainable and liveable ecosystems. (Yardley, J, 2012) Given the long life and near irreversibility of infrastructure investments, it will be critical for current urbanization-related policies to consider their lasting impacts.
PROPOSED NOIDA EXPANSION
( Drawing by Shikha Bharadwaj ) 63
PROPOSED KEY DEVELOPMENTS 64
( Drawing by Reshma Srinivas )
NEW PERI-URBAN MODELS KEY SPECULATIVE TOOLS
Housing, Industries and Institutions, the 3 main uses that have been shaping
In the new Master Plan of Noida, 41% of the total built area
Noida, have been developed into different Models of Integrated Townships,
is allotted for the development of these models(Yardley, J,
Special Economic Zones and
Knowledge Parks respectively, which are
2012). With the proposed extension of Noida into Greater
basically the accumulation of the the same uses in one large parcel of land,
Noida (Phase 2) and Noida Extension (Phase 3), these New
and developed by one single Investor or developer. Also, they provide tax
Models are seen as the speculative tools for future peri-
benefits, economic incentives and higher density ratios compared to the
urban development, acting as Nodes that would trigger
development in the extended areas. Even though these policies and master-planning principles are an important step towards more integrated planning, the spatial interpretation of these models create a disrupted periurban fabric. Therefore, In order to approach the territory that is largely influenced by the action planners, it becomes important to first re-qualify these models to
productive and spatial environments in Noida. Through this research, the integrated township model of housing was chosen for the detailed study and intervention.
KEY DEVELOPMENTS TRIGERRING DEVELOPMENT IN NOIDA EXTENSION
( Drawing by Shikha Bharadwaj ) 65
POTENTIALS OF THE PERI-URBAN 66
( Drawing by Shikha Bharadwaj )
TOWARDS NEW URBAN STRATEGIES INFRASTRUCTURE FOR TRANSFORMATION
Noida, with its great influence on the region, cannot be looked at as an
Peri-urban as a growing urban condition cannot be denied or
isolated Development Model. In order to tap the huge opportunity to shape
scraped, but alternatives to the present development models
how peri-urban fringes like Noida develop, broader rethinking strategy that
can create better living and working environments for the
links the Peri-urban regions of Delhi into a productive dialogue is required.
future in these peri-urban regions.
In order to do so, should we revitalize existing cities or create new centers?
It is not just about revitalizing existing peri-urban areas but
Should Peripheries support the existing cities or could act as mixed us Self-
about learning from the existing, and sharing of facilities and
sufficient territories? How does the New infrastructure enhance the potential
opportunities that are existing in each of these peri-urban
growth of the Peri-urban? Is compact nodes the way forward to counter the
models. This could be possible through the proposal of new
horizontal spread? What is the position of housing in this development?
East-West infrastructures (Roads and Rail) that link the three peri-urban regions, thereby making the facilities accessible to
While gurgaon is being the housing supplier, Faridabadâ€™s housing scenario is
the whole region.
As a result of this method of urban development, the peri-
the questions lie in the fundamental rethinking of the regional territory as a
urban regions can develop into compact self-sufficient
whole instead of focusing on individual peri-urban developments.
nodes that form a peri-urban network, thereby reducing their dependence on the city.
/ 4 / URBAN FORM AND HOUSING MODELS For the individual design intervention, a multidisciplinary in-depth research was carried out to grasp the position of housing within the broader context of Noida. The research was then followed by a multi-scalar analysis of the housing forms to illustrate the continuing trends and the shifting attitudes towards housing in Noida. Through this, the problematic effects of Housing on the region was evaluated both socially and spatially. The aspiration was to address the incompetent housing development model through a design intervention within it.
THE GROWING CONSTRUCTION AND HOUSING DEVELOPMENT IN THE NOIDA - PERIPHERY OF THE METROPOLIS OF DELHI 70
HOUSING AS URBANISM
In a context where rural and urban dynamics clash with each other in order to accommodate physical and economic growth, housing as urbanism can emerge as a means to provide design insights and efficiently propose a model that responds to rapid changes and reduces urban fragmentation: a method that tests the role of the government, private sector and society in delivering spatial strategies, urban planning and design. In order to test the idea of Infrastructure for transformation, this thesis focuses on using housing as a method to challenge the existing policies, through the provision of civic and institutional infrastructures within it.
NO.OF RESIDENTS IN PERIPHERIES VS DELHI
CONVERSION OF PERI-URBAN LAND INTO HOUSING ESTATES 72
HOUSING SHIFT FROM CITY TO THE PERIURBAN
Delhi is experiencing the highest population growth rate among mega cities in India. By 2021 its population is projected to be around 27 million (PTI, 2013).The consequence of rapid increase in population and the changing socio-economic pattern in Delhi has resulted in an acute shortage of housing and related infrastructure. As a consequence, the housing sector has been moving to the peripheries, resulting in a continuous increase of urban sprawl. Today, the peri-urban regions of Delhi hold double the area of city land for housing (fe BUREAU, 2012). The graph shows the increase in the number of residents in the peri-urban in comparison to the city. This condition is a reflection of the poor and inappropriate urban planning system, with a lack of public investment and minimum restriction in land and housing market.
HOUSING BURSTS IN THE PERI-URBAN REGIONS, DELHI
NEW HOUSING MODELS, NOIDA 74
NOIDA AS VALUABLE REAL ESTATE
Noida has become the most prefered location for housing because of its well connected infrastructure, large parcels of land, large land acquisition processes, presence of Industrial zones and Technology Parks. About 45.66 % area of NOIDA is being developed as a residential areas involving construction of 31035 residential units. And these are large scale housing projects covering 300 Ha of the land each (NOIDA, 2012). While availability of affordable housing was one of the INCREASE IN LAND PRICES
main reasons why Noida was preferred; lately, the property prices has gone sky-high and Noida has become the preferred address only for the elite. The graph shows the 4050 percentage increase in pricing of apartments in Noida (ANON, 2013). This has directly disturbed the apple cart of middle-and low classes who now have to shell out more money to purchase flats made by big builders and group housing societies. The selling point for these properties were the development of sports arenas within the large scale housing complexes,
INCREASE IN HOUSING DEMAND
pollution free-environment and beautiful views.
reality is that these developments are built in isolation and lack the quality of their internal built environments. And also these properties are under major land grabbing disputes. The paradox is amplified by Bhasin’s (2013) sentiments. “An average Delhi resident sneezes in Noida. I look at them and say you live in a mess and pretend you’re better off because you are far away from the overcrowded Delhi. But the quality of life is not good and your future is at stake. ”
UN-EQUAL ECONOMIC DISTRIBUTION 75
/ 4 .1 / TYPOLOGICAL RESEARCH The research of the urban evolution and development of housing in Noida was followed by Housing form study to understand the type and scale of public space, communal organization, infrastructure and the housing units, sprawling Noida today.
FRAGMENTED HOUSING DEVELOPMENTS 77
HOUSING FORMS - CITY TO PERI-URBAN 78
The housing development in Noida evolved through various transitions in their spatial formations and methods of delivery. With each economic situation and time came a tailored method to address the housing shortage
of the demanding population. The different themes of the typological research of the housing forms are summarized in this timeline. Three main housing forms that are driving the real-estate market today are chosen for further understanding the type and scale of public space, communal organization, infrastructure and the housing unit within these projects: Plot Development, Group Housing and Apartment Towers (CREDAI, 2013).
LOW-RISE PLOT DEVELOPMENT
Back in 1976, the Delhi Development Authority, along with HUDCO (Housing Urban Development Corporation) introduced the Plot development as the first Housing Scheme of 3000 residences for Noida (NOIDA, 2013). Since then this form of housing has been popular way of housing construction in Noida.
SITE AREA: 17,008 m2
The Low-rise Plot development is a form of housing where, the
SITE COVERAGE: 67%
large piece of real-estate land (Public or Private) is divided
HEIGHT: 7 m
one side. The built form is a 2 storeyed independent house
PLOT SIZE: 1216 m2
PROJECT: SIGRAM, SECTOR 58, NOIDA
into small plots of 2400 to 4200 Sq.ft each abuding a road on typology having 30% of outdoor space (GREATER NOIDA,
CRITIC The ownership of the complete plot and provision of front and rear open space, gives the owners the freedom to modify the building, add-on or reconstruct according to their needs. But the layout is very restrictive, monotonous linear block development with no public space (park or civic amenity) within it.
LOW-RISE PLOT DEVELOPMENT SCHEME 81
MEDIUM RISE GATED GROUP HOUSING
This model of housing is the basis of current housing developments in Noida. The first Medium rise Group Housing
SITE COVERAGE: 40 % HEIGHT: 15 m UNIT SIZE: 64 m2 PROJECT: DREAMVILLE, SECTOR 146, NOIDA
complex was built by the government in 1984 as an instrument for urban growth away from the congested centre. The model consisted of compounds of standard 4 to 5 storey residential blocks with apartment units that varied in size consisting of 1 to 4 bedrooms each. These residential blocks are generally built around a common open space (GREATER NOIDA, 2012). CRITIC Each complex formed an independent gated community, with little spatial or social integration with neighbouring communities. The segregation was enhanced by the lack of community infrastructure in the scale of the block unit also. There is an attempt to recreate the concurrence of private and public spaces of the indigenous city fabric by the creation of networks of centralized open spaces. But these common open spaces often remain empty and neglected and usually work as parking lots. Therefore, this tool of developing housing projects only addresses the crisis of housing shortage by adding housing units into the market.
PROPOSED APARTMENT SCHEME 83
HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL TOWNSHIPS
In an attempt to open the market to foreign investments as well as to import celebrated development models from other countries to Noida, the Private investors initiated the High-Rise
m2 within 143,782 m2
Residential Township Model first around 1997.
SITE COVERAGE: 30 %
These complexes generally occupy large areas of 45 to 70
HEIGHT: 15 m
residential apartment towers of 10 to 20 stories each, formed
UNIT SIZE: 64 m2
private open terraces on-looking the public open spaces.
PROJECT: UNITECH GRANDE, SECTOR 89, NOIDA
Ha (GREATER NOIDA, 2012) consisting of 5 to 30 identical around large green spaces. The housing units within it provide
This model of development creates introverted fortresses within the already fragmented peri-urban fabric. This housing development model mainly imported through the Chinese development companies consists of the typical repetitive bundle of housing towers lacking any variation in form or design, leading to mere design import and not design sensitivity (SUPERTECH LIMITED, 2013). This type of development also brings with it , the consequences of socio-economic divisions within the society as an effort of targeting a specific sector of the society, mainly the upper class population. The main problems of such projects, are that, they are marketed as projects with swimming pools, green open spaces and ponds, used as settings for the housing industry to justify and legitimate the projectâ€™s sensitivity and responsibility towards addressing the societyâ€™s needs. Over the time, such projects have proven short-term economic gains accompanied with long-term fragmentation of the peri-urban region of Noida as a whole.
PROPOSED APARTMENT SCHEME 85
/ 4 . 2 / HOUSING IN NOIDA: MAIN PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED Following the research on the three main housing models that shaped the peri-urban fabric of Noida; current housing delivery methods and the social and spatial issues that these models create were further studied and investigated.
1. CURRENT HOUSING DELIVERY SYSTEM Most
The present housing models
develop smaller building plans
private led in Noida, leading
while increasing in height. This
to un-precidented growth of
limits any structural and spatial
housing in the region.
2 . LACK OF STRUCTURAL FLEXIBILITY AND SPATIAL ADAPTABILITY
allow the resident to achieve adaptability within the structure of their housing unit and to the immediate surroundings.
3 . MONOTONOUS HOUSING
4 . UNDER - DEVELOPED EDGE INTERFACE current
5 . EXCERBATING SPRAWL
The lack of time and expertise for
design sensibility, quality control,
and legacy planning have been
communal space management
a driving reason behind the use
resulting in formation of unclear
area. Residents become reliable
of monotonous imported housing
developments are moving towards sites
on vehicular transportaion to the
city centre and distant amenities, again
HOUSING SECTOR DEVELOPMENT SCENARIO 90
CURRENT HOUSING DELIVERY SYSTEM
Thirty-seven years ago, legislation was passed that allowed the private sector
architecture, development floor plans, and housing units
to play a major role in real estate development. The Noida Development and
remain monotonous and lack individuality. Also, the housing
Regulation of Urban Areas Act, 1975 (Sivam, A, 2003, pp 69-88), encouraged
agencies are neither building fast enough to meet demand
the private sector to develop huge land parcels and build residential
nor of good quality.
complexes. Sensing potential, real estate firms like DLF, Unitech and Ansals moved in early. The builders allege development charges collected from
them towards providing for infrastructure were diverted. “More than Rs.
Integrated Townships are favoured for land development
120000 Million was collected and made available to the state government.
to reduce the financial burden on the public sector. But
But all this money has been used up by politicians in their constituencies.
such projects are usually aimed at high-end housing
Nothing has flowed back into the city,��� (Sivam, A, 2003, pp 69-88)
types addressing the housing needs of the upper classes.
Noida Development Authority Housing delivery models:
Though one can get houses at lower price points just outside the big cities,
Noida’s large-scale land acquisition and development
such areas lack quality infrastructure such as roads, schools and health-care
policy aims for orderly growth of planned development,
centres. These locations are developed by private real estate companies
and universal access to housing land (Sivam, A, 2003). But
in expectation that the local ecosystem will evolve with time. Homebuyers,
the new Master Plans for Noida are looking at expanding the
too, hope so (Jain, A,K, 1989). But what happens if the area fails to develop
boundaries of their urban sprawl. Thus, this policy has been
as expected? Secondly, the typical models of the supplied housing are
widely criticised for failing to promote planned development
mostly developed with an aim to limit costs and increase returns, and
and consequently creating large-scale random housing
usually with very little to no quality supervision or planning control. What
developments scattered in the peripheries of the city.
such developments offer is not much more than the public housing projects, merely large units, additional facade treatments and lush landscapes. The
It is highly unlikely that, without a major change in the mechanisms of the public sector housing delivery processes, additional housing in the formal market will be available to provide good housing for the projected increase in population. There is a need to improve quality and the essential civic infrastructure. In order to do so, multiple sectoral approaches are required. There needs to be a change in the usual approach to the provision of housing – from the delivery of a packaged product to a progressive development model.
LACK OF STRUCTURAL FLEXIBILITY AND SPATIAL ADAPTABILITY
The limit of sizes- smaller constrained unit plans disable expansion for family extensions or live/work; and depletes the local traditional living standards. These compact housing typologies lack flexibility because of their non porous internal corridors, un-utilised shared spaces and small private terraces. “ Crucially, unprecedented scale of development in which the tower will by definition lose its exceptional status. We now have the opportunity to establish a typological understanding of high-rise as a planning tool (...)” as expressed in Firley, and Gimbel (2011) If we acknowledge that these processes of verticalization are not going to be reversed, our new living spaces should address the questions of how we keep or reinterpret qualities of former horizontal “successful” models in a contemporary fabric. Therefore, we need to look critically into the role of a set of buildings that are able to manage density while creating productive environments – a key concern within the formation of contemporary new neighbourhoods.
The development of repetitive housing blocks started in the 1970â€™s with the introduction of the Group housing model in Delhi (Jain, A,K, 1989). Due to the chronic shortage in housing units within the capital, the government would put out plans of housing estates with aims of delivering thousands of units in short periods of time and at the lowest costs. Therefore, a standardization of architectural prototypes was unitized in order to cut down costs, time, and increase quantity of units delivered (NOIDA, 2013). The lack of time and expertise for design sensibility, quality control, and legacy planning have been a driving reason behind the use of monotonous imported housing models. The result is the creation of housing districts where legibility, sense of identity and community character are bland and unclear.
UN-DEVELOPED EDGE INTERFACE
Common exterior spaces performance is dependent on the engagement with its surrounding activities. The open spaces outside these housing developments remain poorly maintained and seldom used, increasing isolation and disintegration with the existing fabric. In housing blocks, in order to maximize profit, the blocks tend to be monofunctional at ground level, gated and the margin between building and public space is left as single function â€œbreathing spaceâ€? between buildings (CONNOR, 2004). This leads to fast degradation of these precious pocket spaces. The lack of sense of ownership, management structures, and surveillance have contributed to the impracticality of these in-between spaces. The disregard of the open spaces is a lost opportunity to create communal bonds, income generation activities, and improved quality living amongst the housing estates. Care and design of such elements becomes crucial in benefiting the residents as well as the urban structures of the city. If these spaces have clear purposes and interactions with the surrounding buildings or complexes, they are more likely to continue serving their purpose as engagers.
The dispersed character of housing complexes in Noida creates a fragmented social and spatial structure. The former cultural tradition of living close by to extended families, to amenities and work becomes a challenging. The vast sprawl has also leads to many areas being unconnected to major public transportation and infrastructural services. Thus, these districts become lower in living quality or create a burden on the government to extend infrastructural lines. The peri-urban area becomes vehicle oriented with fragmenting mega road infrastructures. Thus the residents become reliable on Delhi for their needs. The fabric of Noida at present is of low density, and increasing its density would require more efficient use of its existing infrastructure and amenities minimizing the need for further demand.
/ 5 / TESTING GROUND INTEGRATED TOWNSHIP - A NEW MODEL Re Qualifying Housing: The vision for the housing development project was to react to a proposed housing model within the areas of Noida. So, instead of following the common practice of building a new housing development, different models were identified, evaluated, and analysed; and a new model of Integrated Township was chosen to be tested and intervened in within the existing fabric of Noida. The attempt was to overlap with the vision of the Integrated township, in order for the project to be not a burden but a complementary addition to the proposed plans and investments. In this case, its complex social and spatial conditions was taken into account in the design process to further contextualize the design intervention. One of the main aspirations of the alternative housing development intervention is to incorporate spatial reforms to the regional context. Therefore, the integrated township is not merely a site of intervention, but also a principal component of the responsive design proposition. The spatial gaps identified through the analysis process become the sites of the housing interventions. The alteration of a housing district within the township is overlapped by a set of proposed central nodes and communal facilities to further activate the territory. The following section will further define the different intervention strategies responding to the scale of the integrated township.
PROPOSED HOUSING PROJECTS
JAYPEE GREENS ESCAPE
WAVE CITY CENTRE
DREAM HOMES INTEGRATED HOUSING 98
MEGA HOUSING DEVELOPMENTS
As the market opens for foreign investments in Noida, large areas of acquired land is being given to Private Developers to propose mega-housing developments (NOIDAPROJECT, 2013). The Integrated Township in Noida is one such example. The aspirations of this model is to import celebrated development models from other cities, target the higher classes of society, house them in introverted gated and secured settings. Thus, this development model lacks integration into the urban context, SECTOR 148, NOIDA
and in providing response to specific social needs. The aim of the Housing Project is to react to this proposal with an alternative adaptive model, fulfilling the gap between the market, demand and quality.
SECTOR 35, NOIDA
SECTOR 94, GREATER NOIDA 99
EASING DEVELOPMENT NORMS
1. FINANCIAL INCENTIVES
2 . HIGHER DENSITY
In Noida, developers such as Jaypee
density sprawling area over the years.
Group and DLF are developing golf-centric
benifits if the Integrated Township is
In order to increase itâ€™s current density,
townships. But this type of value addition
clubbed with economic activities like
the Integrated Townships offer much
option to customers only targets the higher
Special Economic Zones, Commercial
higher density than the existing models. (Sharma, R, 2013)
3 . SUPERFICIAL INTEGRATION
economic benifits to the region.
INTEGRATED TOWNSHIPS A NEW MODEL
With urban areas getting more crowded and falling increasingly short on future
There is a marked lack of residential density in Noida, and state
development potential, integrated townships have recently been identified as
governments are promoting Integrated township projects by
a potential solution.
proposing the easing of development norms for such projects. This has caused many developers to enter this segment of
The Integrated Townships are clusters of housing, that can be grouped with
development. In Noida, developers such as Jaypee Group and
Special economic zones, commercial business or Software parks with the
DLF are developing golf-centric townships, in effect offering a
norm for land requirement of minimum 50 Ha. They are rather complex with
value addition option to customers (Sharma, R, 2013).
lower floor-area ratio (FAR), more open areas and an emphasis on creating residential spaces supported by an infrastructure backbone of power, roads, water, drainage and sewage systems.
LOCATION OF INTEGRATED TOWNSHIP ALONG THE MAIN EXPRESSWAY IN NOIDA 102
TESTING GROUND JAYPEE INTEGRATED TOWNSHIP, NOIDA
The Integrated Township model requires a more holistic spatial strategy in order to become one the main driving models for housing development in Noida. The aim is to develop a sustainable living ecosystem - “a virtual living and breathing environment for the future” as quoted in JP INDIA (2013). The Jaypee Integrated Township, situated in Noida, 25 miles from Delhi City Centre is chosen as the test site as it is the most awaiting project of Noida at present (NOIDA PROJECT, 2013).
THE MULTIPLE HOUSING DISTRICTS AND GOLF COURSES FORMING THE INTEGRATED TOWNSHIP AMIDST THE EXISTING CONDITION 104
TESTING GROUND JAYPEE INTEGRATED TOWNSHIP, NOIDA
The Jaypee Integrated Township is a crucial property as it lies along Noidaâ€™s main Expressway (Delhi-Kolkata Industrial Corridor) (NOIDA PROJECT, 2013). It provides a mix of housing and golf courses to create high end residential living. Even though it physically wraps itself well around the existing set-up, In reality, it is being developed in isolation as a stand alonemodel.
/ 5 . 1 / PROBELMATIZNG SITE CONDITIONS Setting up the territory of intervention required an in-depth study of the Integrated Townshipâ€™s complex context and proposed Master-plan. The research on the building typologies, urban limits, current program distribution and land uses, the road structure and plot division, as well as a survey of open and vacant plots revealed its development potentials.
FRAGMENTED HOUSING DEVELOPMENTS INSIDE THE JAYPEE INTEGRATED TOWNSHIP 107
1. TYPOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS
2 . OPEN AND VACANT SPACES
Although the housing typologies in each housing
The Open spaces are one of the major urban
voids and sites of under-development within the
accomodating a large variety of activities that can change uses over time according to market needs.
fabric of the township.
PROBELMATIZNG SITE CONDITIONS
3 . SOCIOECONOMIC BORDERS
4 . LAND USES
Demographic distribution varies between upper
The site is amidst an area of existing villages,
class, and middle class residential clusters, each
agricultural land, and few existing industries but
with a make up of varying housing typologies. Social
fails to integrate with them. And also, the huge
fragmentation also occurs due to the introverted
area of residential use within the township is not
and autonomous nature of each cluster.
clubbed with any communal or civic facility that the area can benifit from.
BROADWAY BOULEVARD, DISTRICT 2 110
SPACES OF ENGAGEMENT
KENSINGTON GARDENS, DISTRICT 13
HOUSING DISTRICTS The Integrated Township being a large area of 470 Ha, falls under 5 different Sectors (NOIDA PROJECT, 2013). Each of these sectors have their own administrative bodies, therefore creating smaller parcels of conflicting land within the Integrated Township. These 5 zones are further broken down into Housing districts due to the fragmenting infrastructures formed by the sector divisions. But for the first time in Noida, different housing models namely - plot developments, group housing or high-rise apartments are combined together as housing districts to form the Integrated Township.
TYPOLOGIES The Row housing and Block typologies are designed compactly. But, while the Row housing typology provides for adequate private open space, it creates a non-porous edge interface with the streets and lacks areas for shared activities. The Block typology in Kensington Gardens (JAYPEE GREENS, 2013), is a restrictive design model with narrow corridors, small private terraces, under-utilized shared spaces. Although the housing typologies are repetitive in the respective housing districts, they are capable of accommodating a large variety of activities that can change uses over time according to market needs.
SPATIAL FRAGMENTATION 111
OPEN AND VACANT SPACES
The housing districts are designed based on architectural and landscaping concepts borrowed from other countries along with the provision of large scale golf courses (JAYPEE GREENS, 2013). These landscaped spaces do not fit well in the Indian context and result as un-managed, vacant spaces. These large un-defined and neglected spaces in between buildings are often used as parking lots or create areas of insecurity within the complex. The uniformity and lack of spatial hierarchy in the residual space results in the loss of a sense of ownership, accelerating the degradation of these spaces. The figure highlights the un-defined, adaptable, green and open plots that can be combined with ground floor economic activities in order revitalize the area, provide civic and communal facilities and be a source of income generation for the region.
NEGRLECTED IN- BETWEEN SPACES 112
LARGE AREAS OCCUPIED BY PARKING
In the peri-urban fabric surrounding the Township, the demographic distribution varies between middle class and low class residential districts, each with a make up of varying housing typologies. However, the Integrated Township is a really large area which caters to just the High Class population, leading to social fragmentation due to the introverted and autonomous nature of these districts. Also, social fragmentation occurs due to the introverted and autonomous nature of housing districts within the Integrated Township. Therefore, it is crucial not just to provide services, mixing people and activities, but its about enabling people of different interests to gather and engage.
FRAGMENTED EDGE - PARKING
EDGE CONDITION BETWEEN THE
HIGH-INCOME RESIDENTIAL DISTRICT IN
MIDDLE INCOME HOUSING
TOWNSHIP AND VILLAGE
EXISTING LAND USES AROUND THE INTEGRATED TOWNSHIP 114
LAND USES AND TESTING GROUND
Though the Integrated Township is sandwiched between the expressway, flyover, the river , heavy and light industrial programs, agricultural land and existing village settlements (NOIDA PROJECT, 2013); the walled Integrated township creates programmatic and spatial voids within itâ€™s built fabric. The concentration of residential uses are the result of monotonous zoning, creating dysfunctional areas and leading to lack of public circulation across the long span of the township. This existing complex makeup of the urban and socio-economic structure allows for a multi-faceted design approach to be developed, complying with the different conditions. In order to re-qualify this territory, the area highlighted - the entry point to the Integrated Township, running across, from the Noida Expressway to the River Edge; will be used as the Testing ground.
SECTIONS THROUGH THE TERRITORY 115
/ 5 . 2 / REQUALIFICATION OF THE NEW MODEL TERRITORY OF INTERVENTION The numerous conclusions extracted from the above analysis helped shape the intentions of the design proposal informing a more comprehensive program distribution; providing for the new proposal along with allowing for changes in the existing context. The scenario represents and deals with specific conditions of the Integrated township, in order to conduct a more thorough representation of an implemented prototype.
URBAN LIMITS FRAGMENTING THE HOUSING AREA INTO DISTRICTS 117
EXISTING LOCAL AND REGIONAL CIVIC FACILITIES 118
EXISTING CIVIC FACILITIES
In order to locate where the interventions should take place within the territory of the integrated townships, an analysis and re-interpretation of the neighbourhood formation and land uses offer the guidance. EXISTING CIVIC FACILITIES An analysis of existing civic facilities was carried to evaluate the catchment areas covered by each: Schools, health care centres, temples, and sports facilities (NOIDA, 2013). The project aims to connect and integrate existing facilities with the new development in order to make maximum use of them and promote cross-neighbourhood interaction.
EXISTING CIVIC FACILITIES AROUND IN NOIDA 119
PROPOSED CIVIC FACILITIES IN THE INTEGRATED TOWNSHIP 120
PROPOSED CIVIC FACILITIES The project then inserts new facilities that are not covered by the existing catchment areas. It was identified that a larger number of local institutions â€“ primary and secondary schools were required within the territory of intervention. Health centres and sports facility were also added across the site. The civic programs make up the central nodes proposed as part of the intervention, and allow for a variety of urban formations within the residential district they are located in.
BORDERS AND BOUNDARIES
MEDIATING MASSING AND VOIDS
REQUALIFICATION OF THE NEW MODEL ACTIVATING THE TERRITORY
The proposed strategies tackle the problems the fragmented neighbourhoods
for the intention to hybridize the proposal between housing
of Noida. The housing developments in the fast growing periphery of Noida
and supporting programs. The location of the interventions are
resemble ghost towns- large areas of monofunctional housing, undefined land
defined by their potential to engage different communities
and neglected open spaces. Its growth has been mainly organized by private
together and they will take shape through squares, parks,
investments and political and economic speculation. Each cluster requires a
schools, clinics, etc (Public realm and institutional interventions).
distinctive model of spatial and programmatic intervention. Therefore, a key mission of the proposal is to intervene along the different conditions along the
The presence of commercial or communal programs and outlets
edges in an integrated manner, creating a sustainable development model.
can show how if we start to look at the border as an active zone of exchange instead of a boundary, they have the potential
These neighbourhoods are hardly accessible to anyone not living in them both
to engage different communities blurring socio-economic and
from a mobility and a social point of view. This creates a sense of isolation and
further emphasises the division between different housing clusters, uses and classes. The economic investment might be feasible, but it comes at the price
Mediating Massing and Voids:
of quality of life. This strategy aims to re-qualify the internal environments within I argue that the role of the housing should not be limited only to the provision
the Integrated Townships through the interplay between
of shelter but they should serve a long-term investment for the future of the
Massing and Voids. In order to improve the living environment
residents and the region. This is possible by exploring the role â€œ collective spacesâ€?
and change the quality of the vast, neglected open spaces,
and the relationships between massing and voids, enabling a productive
new communal programs are inserted at the ground plane of
relationship between different housing clusters and communities. Designing a
the housing buildings, extending their thresholds to the open
sequence of mutually reinforcing interventions, establishing new connections
spaces; thereby giving a use to these open spaces.
with surrounding by inserting new uses within the territory of intervention. Through this insertion strategy, the aim is form a network of Borders and Boundaries:
built and open spaces through the different housing districts in the Township; thereby stressing on walkability and active
This strategic scale explores the potential of borders as active zones of exchange
engagement of users and the public spaces within.
for the process re-qualification. A strategy for a large scale service provision and takes place in between communities with the aim to enhance its border condition as an active zone of exchange where different communities can engage. (Sennet, 2012) A challenge of the site is the existence of residential neighbourhoods that are socio-economically, spatially, and programmatically fragmented. These gaps create grounds for our proposed housing intervention that aim to create a catalyst for cohesion in these areas of fragmentation; construct a foundation 123
FARIDABAD DELHI- AGRA (NORTH - SOUTH)
ABSENCE OF EAST - WEST PERI-URBAN CONNECTIONS
EXTENSION OF THE 40FT ROAD TO FORM A BY-PASS ROAD 124
LINKING NOIDA AND FARIDABAD
NEW INFRASTRUCTURES PROPOSAL
The present 40feet By-pass Road that runs perpendicular to the Yamuna Expressway (refer chapter 3), stops exactly at the junction of the Expressway and the Integrated Township; breaking the East-west connection the Faridabad. NEW CONNECTIONS The expansion of this by-pass road towards the dense and more privately owned territory of faridabad, would link the integrated township to campuses, shopping centres, nature park, etc present in the neighbouring peri-urban regions. This expansion aims to be complemented with a series of architectural and infrastructural interventions along the the new infrastructure, offering institutional and financial support to the Township construction of a sustainable collaboration model between the different actors. Secondly, a new bus connection through the proposed Bypass road would facilitate the mobility of daily workers, students and residents to reach schools and other facilities within the township and the surrounding areas and would break the social segregation- genuinely integrating the township with the surrounding neighbourhood.
EXISTING STRONG NORTH SOUTH CONNECTIONS 125
EXTENTION OF BYPASS ROAD - FORMATION OF A NEW CIVIC DISTRICT 126
PROPOSAL - A NEW CIVIC DISTRICT TOWARDS A NEW SPATIALITY
Integrating Existing Programs
community engagement through public services, schools, markets, theatres, etc. Together with other interventions, the
As described in the land use analysis, the regional territory consists of various
spine is capable of acting as an effective zone of exchange
dotted civic facilities and communal programs around the integrated township.
between the Township and the surrounding territories.
Such programs are isolated from the residential clusters due to infrastructure limits. The impermeable boundaries in turn creates another layer of division between various clusters. Hence, a network of accessibility is to be ensured between programs intended to serve a larger catchment area. Towards a New Spatiality The New Civic Spine intervention is composed by the conversion of the Proposed extension of the Bypass Road into a sequence of interventions that expand the infrastructural threshold producing a positive effect on the territory adjacent to it. A series of blocks (in red) accommodate the existing housing buildings and empty spaces and insertion of new actors ; significantly take a step towards resulting in a shift in quality, addressing the Townshipâ€™s relevance for Noidaâ€™s economy. These would be surgical interventions that aim to enhance
/ 6 / MANIPULATIVE PRINICIPLES RE - INTERPRETING EXISTING PRODUCTIVE FABRICS In order to intervene
in the Integrated
Township, a series manipulative principles
were derived from an indigenous village settlement in Noida and city fabric of Delhi. These principles have the ability to set new tools for urbanism and architecture, to address housing and to develop a new urbanistic approach that can support socioeconomic networks and increase the productivity of the area through housing.
AREA LAYOUT 130
450 X 320
INDEGINEOUS SETTLEMENT KARNAR VILLAGE, SECTOR 158, NOIDA
The housing shortage in Delhi and the rise in rural migration from the countryside, precipitated by increased employment opportunities in the capital city, contributed to the increasing emergence of Indigenous settlements in Noida. The image is an aerial view of Karnar Village (refer Chapter 3). The biggest existing settlement in Noida, is bordered by the New Monotonous and isolated Housing developments. Itâ€™s internal structure is defined by self organised amenities and facilities (mosques, schools and shops) around housing that form smaller sub-communities.
VILLAGE AREA AMIDST NEW HOUSING DEVELOPMENT
LOCATION - PERI URBAN NOIDA 131
AREA LAYOUT 132
450 X 320
CITY SCAPES CHANDNI CHOWK, DELHI, NOIDA
Symbolizing the remnants of a medieval world, the Mori Gate area of Old Delhi today stand at crossroads in time, looking forward to an age where modernity and tradition promise to walk hand in hand. The image is an aerial view of Mori Gate (Chandni Chowk), the major street in the walled city of Old Delhi established in 1650 AD - designed by Princess Jahanara (DAFTUAR, S, 2011). It was the first market area to be planned in India (refer Chapter 2). Its internal layout is marked by narrow streets, compact built forms and complex productive realms.
MORI GATE LOCATED IN OLD DELHI CENTER
LOCATION - OLD DELHI 133
/ 6. 1 / ZONES OF EXCHANGE CATALYTS OF PRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS This section focuses in the exploration of the border zone condition of the two cases that is later used as a design tool to unlock new planning methods to spatially integrate the different territories of the Integrated Township. This was carried forward by looking at zones of maximum exchange – where public and private activities blurs with individual and shared spaces- to understand how their physical and behavioral configurations interact at the many scales to produce collective and productive realms. “ (...) a question of how the public environment is placed in relation to the private, and how the border zone between the two areas is designed. “ (Gehl, J. 1971)
ZONES OF EXCHANGE - ACTIVE STREET FRONTAGE MAIN STREEET OF MORI GATE
KARNER VILLAGE, NOIDA, NATIONAL CAPITAL TERRITORY OF DELHI
PUBLIC SPACE IN THE FORM
OPEN SEMI - PUBLIC
COVERED SEMI - PUBLIC
OPEN COURTYARD USED AS A PRODUCTIVE REALM
MORI GATE, OLD DELHI
INFRASTRUCTURE AND PUBLIC REALM AS ORGANIZING STRUCTURES
PUBLIC SPACE IN THE FORM
NARROW STREETS FORMING MARKET AREA 137
KARNER VILLAGE, NOIDA, NEW DELHI
PUBLIC SQUARES AVG. SIZE : 250 Sq.m
SHARED YARD PUBLIC
SEMI - PUBLIC
AVG. SIZE : 70 Sq.m
PUBLIC SQUARES COVERED SEMI - PUBLIC
MORI GATE, OLD DELHI
CLUSTER AND BLOCK CONFIGURATIONS
PUBLIC STREETS AVG. SIZE : 310 Sq.m
AVG. SIZE : 35 Sq.m
NARROW PUBLIC STREETS 139
NEW MONOFUNCTIONAL DEVELOMENTS
STREET COMMON AREA 140
INDEGINOUS KARNER VILLAGE FABRIC
INFRASTRUCTURE AND PUBLIC REALM AS ORGANIZING STRUCTURES
Infrastructure and public realm have the potential to become organizing
These in-between spaces gather people with common interests
structures. The organizing structures of the street common areas, shared
and support productive activities by allowing
alleyways and streets in cluster level and the inner courtyards, building frontages
negotiation between domestic and collective realms.
and vertical terraces in the block level, relate to infrastructure lines and its surrounding which is composed of multifunctional buildings that allow for constant interaction and supervision of the space (MUTTREJA, B, 2008). The street network has a functional hierarchy that creates a system of filtered accessibility. The main commercial street is the widest and the most active. The secondary and tertiary narrow, irregular neighbourhood streets usually lead to the block level public spaces.
ROOF TOP SPACE 141
A. COMPLEXITY OF BUILT FORM:
B. SHARED SPACES BETWEEN DOMESTIC AND PUBLIC REALMS:
Civic and communal activities like schools, temples, shops, etc
All building layouts are organized around a courtyard or a public
are scattered throughout the neighbourhoods. The interstitial
space of any kind, regardless of the residentâ€™s level of income
spaces formed due the dense fabric, provide a blur between
(MUTTREJA, B, 2008) and these spaces are actively shared open
the private and public areas.
spaces, encouraging engagement between the actors.
BLURRING BOUDARIES FORMATION OF COLLECTIVE SPACES
C. ADAPTABLE BLOCK CONFIGURATION
D. NOTION OF THRESHOLD-
MULTI-FUNCTIONAL GROUND FLOOR
AS SERIES OF PRODUCTIVE VOIDS:
Higher ground floor ceiling allows for these spaces to be
Communal activities in the ground planes and smaller vertical
adapted and changed over time based on the needs. The
terraces in the housing above it, directly engage with the
spaces outside these activities becomes the areas of maximum
common exterior spaces (CHANDI CHOWK, 2005). Because of
exchange and activate areas of residential living.
its vertical variation, a series of thresholds allows internal activities to be expanded to exterior spaces and enable a differentiation in the street rhythm.
A. FLOW OF SPACES
Series of small terraces, courtyards, semi covered and open spaces with mix of activities around it, create collective spaces that engage with the surroundings. The hierarchy of privacy, shaped by the high density housing clusters result in an intricate community character and threedimentional surfaces establish a hierarchy of spaces and activities according to the proximity to the street.
PROGRAMMATIC MIXTURE AND LAYERED CIRCULATION
B. MIX OF USES
C. HIERARCHY OF ACTIVITIES
Mixed use housing, and ultra-dense configuration strengthens
Irregular facades encourage the staying of activities becoming
social, economic and cultural networks by the interweaving and
key elements for the emergence of a productive realm. The in-
overlapping of territories (CHANDI CHOWK, 2005).
between spaces formed by the compact cluster of buildings control the flow between interior and exterior activities, acting
Although built as a series of individual units, there is possibility
as efficient filters in housing developments.
of physical expansion, adaptable block configuration allows multiple scales of activities to take place within its boundaries.
A. MODULE 0:
The building is a mono-functional housing structure but has a
The cantilever above the commercial space is extended to
higher ceiling height in the ground floor, in order to allow for
provide shading for the activities taking place along the street.
mixed use in the future.
The ground floor is rented, leased or bought and is used for the basic activities present in the neighbourhood like the grocery shop, shoe maker, bakery, pharmacy, etc (MUTTREJA, B, 2008). By facing two rows of this module, a covered street is formed with commercial activity under the arches.
SPACES: The desirability of adaptability and expansion is found in the method of building housing in these areas. The method allows for structural capacity where additonal spaces of expansion can be added and altered (MUTTREJA, B, 2008). These structures are capable of accomodating a large variation of activities that can change uses over time according to market needs.
C. MODULE 2: The second variation is the vertical increase of space for public purposes. Uses include activities like restaurants, cafes, galleries, gym, etc. The functions in these buildings determine the nature of the public space in front of them weather it is an administrative square, cultural or others.
COLLECTIVE SPACES Acting as a catalyzer of community engagement through the dispersal of knowledge, public services and other cultural â€˜enablersâ€™, some of the housing structures can have a larger scale of impact than the surrounding single-functional housing buildings to strongly relate to its immediate surroundings.
/ 6 . 2 / DESIGN DEVELOPMENT This section intends to illustrate the design development component of the thesis project by deriving design principles, derivables and the typological principles from the earlier research.
â€œIn order to revitalize, re-develop or develop the under-developed, these housing developments need a relatively rich language of character, movement and sequences of spaces with great diversity and simplicityâ€?
DESIGN PRINCIPLES THE NOTION OF THRESHOLD
The analysis of the current housing development models revealed the problematic nature of outdoor spaces within the housing districts.
“Future development is often translated in to heavy development while the lightness of the barber on the street is a more sustainable long term solution” Rianne Makkink, Makkink Bey Studio, at Delhi 2050 workshop “Studio Chishti” A trait found in the current housing models, is the lack of communal and social interaction at the left over spaces between housing blocks and within each. This is due to the lack of the proper maintenance of the integrated landscaping and the absence of communal facilities. By studying the city and existing settlement spaces, it was found that this notion of the threshold layer did exist and still continues to be an important factor in achieving the vitality of street life present today. One of the project’s intentions is to reintroduce the element of the threshold layer within the built fabric of the selected housing district. Different levels of threshold occupation dimensions are studied for the various width of streets found in the intervention area. The notion of the threshold is also incorporated at the housing typology scale, making it an integral design component.
DESIGN PRINCIPLES CREATION OF THE COMMON GROUND
Creating a common ground across the territory of intervention has been a driving factor behind many design decisions. Starting at the housing unit, the element of the threshold extends to connect to adjacent outdoor spaces, which in turn extend towards the more public spaces within the hierarchy of open spaces. At the micro scale, each unit includes an economic generating space on the ground floor, housing some sort of communal program. This space, referred to as the generator, activates the ground floor spaces of the housing district while allowing the public to pass through them. The generator programs spill out to the threshold spaces, extending the area of activity and the area of the shopkeeper or residents and ownership. Also, the monotony of the housing blocks is broken by the dispersal of hybrid buildings of knowledge, public services and other cultural â€˜enablersâ€™, larger scale of impact than the surrounding fabric. The hierarchy of open spaces accessible by the common public extends to integrate and link existing public spaces currently isolated.
DESIGN PRINCIPLES DISTINCTIVE URBAN CHARACTERS
The overall design intervention consists mainly of residential development. The research revealed that typically the housing is developed in a fragmented way with minimal access to other amenities. In response to this the project works with 2 distinctive urban characters of residential clusters. The intention is to improve the productivity levels and generate income by promoting areas of light industrial activities, markets and schools. This allows for the overlapping of such programs and facilities within residential clusters. The second urban character proposed mainly consists of housing units with communal spaces and facilities on the ground level in specific multifunctional buildings. Such spaces can be rented or operated by the residents. These clusters are more civic in character, focusing less on productive activities and more on communal facilities and commerce. Each programmatic overlap works with a different building typologies and surrounding fabrics. The open spaces follow a gradient of privacy, being more private towards the civic areas and more public towards the infrastructure edge. The civic clusters are composed of uniformly dense, interlocking housing units.
/ 7 / DESIGN INTERVENTION AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO HOUSING DEVELOPMENT The site analysis and initial development strategies have allowed for a comprehensive understanding of the site of intervention. With the multiscalar understanding of the social and spatial conditions, a set of responsive strategies is proposed at 3 different scales: the scale of the integrated township territory, the residential cluster, and the domestic unit. The strategies respond to the identified problems in the existing models of housing development. The main design strategies constructing the design intervention are: Activating the Riverbanks, achieving a gradient of program, privacy and ownership through the notion of the threshold, a typological approach to flexible housing, the creation of a common ground, and the introduction of distinctive urban characters.
TERRITORY OF INTERVENTION
Developing a site of intervention within the proposed Integrated Township would support the vision of developing an integrated but evolving framework.The amalgamated vacant, adaptable, green and non-yet constructed plots are identified to allows for a surgical intervention within the complex residential setting. A portion of the overall territory of intervention is chosen as the testing ground for the design composition at a strategy level. TEST SITE
The illustrated design principles become the building blocks that can be inserted into the existing master plan. These principles can be applied to various sites, depending on the given conditions. This portion of the township was selected because it is the entry point to the township and lies adjacent to the highway, abudding an existing village on one side and new institutions on the other. The area selected falls in the region of the Proposed Civic District along the proposed road that connects noida to peri-urban region of Faridabad (refer chapter 5).
ZONE OF INTERVENTION
AREA OF THE PROPOSED CIVIC SPINE / EXTENDED BYPASS ROAD
The existing condition includes
the housing intervention assures
site surrounded by the existing
connectivity betweeen different
edges, districts, as well as along
new institutional area. Further
and across the Main Road. The
challenging components of the
attempt is to bridge the fragments
existing condition is the heavy
between main civic programs and
the housing cluster.
AND COMMON GROUND
The built fabric is mostly residential
expands the territory of intervention
to the existing adjacent programs
multifunctional areas. The other
such as sports facilities and civic
is the introduction of activity
generators of civic nature that would have a larger impact on itâ€™s surroundings.
/ 7 . 1 / THE INTERVENTION The following section of the thesis will delve into one area of the master plan in more detail. The overlays expose different levels of information or design components of the masterplan. Each layer reveals a response to one of the specific problematic spatial or social issues highlighted previously. The principles drawn up from the previous chapter will be explored in a multiscalar manner. As a strategy for the re-qualification of the territory, introduction of new connections with the aim of linking the fragmented fabric, three main interventions are proposed. With the introduction of new programs within the territory, the area can start to engage in a productive manner, collaborating with each other to fuel a sustainable growth.
INTERNAL STREET LAYOUT 160
HYBRID LANDSCAPES CIVIC HOUSING CLUSTER
The civic housing clusters are a re-interpretation of the the group housing model of development (Refer Chapter 4).
LOCATION OF THE PROPOSED CLUSTER
FLEXIBLE GROUD PLANE, ADAPTABLE VERTICAL OPEN SPACES 161
CLUSTER CONFIGURATION - PUBLIC VS PRIVATE 162
Contrary to the existing model, the proposed civic clusters allow for commercial or communal activities within their ground floor, along with workshops and extended outdoor spaces for production in clusters facing towards the main infrastructures. Therefore, the mono-functionality of current housing models is avoided. Zones of exchange (refer Chapter 6) can play a role not only in the relationship between interior and exterior spaces, but it also can be used as a tool to shape interior spaces and the distribution of communal facilities.
ZONES OF EXCHANGE - LIGHT INDUSTRIAL YARD
MULTIFUNCTIONAL GROUND LEVEL 163
EXISTING LAYOUT 164
Some of the problems identified in the existing housing delivery models are responded to at the scale of the dwelling unit. As mentioned before, rigid monotonous Housing Developments offer a lack of flexibility and spatial adaptability. Therefore, the proposed alternative typologies allow for the expansion of the dwelling unit as the family expands. In addition, the model allows for the possibility of renting different parts of the dwelling unit. The block allows for a greater variety of unit sizes - Live/Work studio units, single family units, and multiple family units. The variation caters to the demand on the different housing models currently present in the integrated township. Looking at a generic example of apartment building typology in India, one can grasp how the sharing of facilities (traditional), can be translated into a vertical context in order to accommodate an increasing population. The vertical and horizontal circulation is less private, allowing for a sense of communal interaction and integration within the blockâ€™s shared outdoor space.
PROPOSED MULTI-USE CIVIC BUILIDNG 165
INTRICATE URBAN SPACES: VIEW OF THE CIVIC HOUSING COURTYARD 166
ELEVATION OF THE CIVIC HOUSING CLUSTER 167
DEVELOPMENT OF LIFE STREET 168
HYBRID LANDSCAPES DEVELOPMENT OF A LIFE STREET
The street emerges as an effective urban connector, where new
collective and public spaces, and new economies evolve to support the local and regional dynamics. LIFE STREET
Life street is used as a spatial tool that aims to link this housing district with its surroundings in a mutually beneficial manner by blurring the boundaries between these territories. This scenario questions the present ‘pro-car’ planning policies promoted by the new developments. “Contrary to the present situation where these residential districts are demarcated by high walls, for “security” purpose” (Anon, 2013), the strategy of the Life Street model is to use infrastructure and public realm as organizing structures, to provide services and create new connections within the area. This creates a dynamic (fluid) public space that runs across the area. This buffer space between the movement corridors provides space for specific civic, cultural, social and commercial functions that will shape the character of the new node. Key parts of the Street are designed for interventions. The first proposed intervention is a multi-function building: primary school, retail, community centre, gym and live/ work, which would be explored for the detail intervention. The other interventions are a Secondary School + training centre+housing and the conversion of a high-rise residential complex into a regional scale Shopping centre + Offices + Hotel + Retail with Housing.
PROPOSED MULTIFUCTIONAL BLOCK AS AN ACTIVITY GENERATION IN THE LIFE STREET NETWORK 170
LIFE STREET TYPE 1
The construction of a primary school, retail, community centre, gym and live/ work has the potential to maximise the usage of open spaces and engage different actors in itâ€™s shared spaces. The intervention activates the engagement of multiple uses within one built form by using civic and Institutional voids as catalysts for community engagement, benefiting the residents and the neighbouring communities. Learning from the intricate city and village spaces, where the communal spaces are the areas of maximum exchange, the construction of a primary school, retail, community centre, gym and live/ work has the potential to maximise the usage of open spaces and engage different actors in its shared spaces. More public activities like commercial and community facilities are placed on the ground level, in order to enhance the vitality of the ground plane, promote natural exchanges and genuinely merge with the surroundings.
MIX OF ACTIVITIES AND CREATION OF COMMON GROUND 171
FLOW OF SPACES NOTION OF THRESHOLD 172
Housing is provided above the community facilities, with integrated parking and a separate access through the rear. It is no more seen as an isolated entity but as part of a complex network of activities. The intervention enables uninterrupted flow of spaces from one program to another, and also provides individual circulation cores, for each of these programs to function independently. The flexible floor spaces allow for wide range of programs to operate and change functions over time. The ground plane is broken into smaller shared courtyard spaces that link vertically to series of semi public and private spaces. The multi-functional civic spaces allow for productive relationships to develop between the built and unbuilt spaces. Also, they can be converted into public playgrounds during evenings or spaces for community programs or celebrations during special occasions, thereby integrating the different housing clusters in the area.
LOCATION OF THE PROPOSED REGIONAL CLUSTER
EXISTING RESIDENTIAL TOWER
SECTION THROUGH THE PROPOSED MULTI-FUNCTIONAL APARTMENT TOWER 174
LIFE STREET REGIONAL DYNAMICS
As a mean to recognize the integrated township as an essential tool to redevelop
units at the top of the these. Through the opening of the building
the peri-urban area of Noida, and to promote an exchange space for people, a
to other activities and allowing the free transit of people through
regional intervention is proposed within the area of intervention of the integrated
the removal of physical boundaries, stimulates a more efficient
and hybrid use of the existing High-rise housing typology.
The existing High-rise is at the junction of the Expressway and the proposed
In this intervention spaces of engagement are manipulated
Bypass road connecting to Faridabad. Therefore the site expands itâ€™s threshold
externally and internally to enhance the integration with the
in both directions: towards the inner housing developments to the west and
surrounding communities. While at the Bypass road, the building
towards the existing institutions and larger grain fabric in the east. Therefore,
facade gives a continuation to the surrounding high-rise existing
there is a potential for this high-rise building to reconfigure itself and adopt
fabric, in its frontality to the housing cluster, open patios allow
multiple purposes to contribute to the regional dynamics.
interactive spaces to be shaped between the contrasting typologies. The two typologies engage at ground level with the
The building intervention is a reinterpretation of the high rise and insertion of a
presence of stores and open areas that allow interaction and
multi-purpose building cluster comprising of shopping center, multiplexes and
permeability from the Bypass road towards the community. At
restaurants attending to the local needs; along with Office spaces, Conventional
upper levels, new office spaces and hotel enable the territory to
centre and a Hotel in order to stimulate the growth of a more global-scale
interact with the global market.
transaction which would boost the economic dynamics of the area; and living
HOUSING AS HYBRID LANDSCAPES CONCLUSION
he research of Housing in the peri-urban region- Noida, Delhi, stands as
The territory of the integrated township is looked at as a series
a paradigm and a case study within the wider framework of the Indian
of relationships and potentials that can benifit Noida
large scale while addressing local and regional issues with the support of its possible productive system. The shift of focus from
This thesis draws on the question of a generic, current, yet cyclic phenomenon:
the housing towards zones of exchange has the potential to
the change of the urban landscape due to demographic explosion; by having
provide more efficient design answers towards the intervention
housing as a first approach.
in housing developments.
The research and design project is the response to the current issue of the peri-
Bridging the interventions together, we can see how using civic
urban region- Noida, Delhi, the problematic housing models; that was initialized
and institutional voids can make a difference as a redevelopment
due to the extensive rural-urban migration and rapid urbanization in the city.
strategy for the Integrated township, creating and supporting a
The reasoning behind the uncontrolled growth is the monopolistic attitude of
network in all its different scales. Also, the spatial relationships
housing development carried out by the developers, Noida Authority and Delhi
between the built and unbuilt is used as a strategic component
Government, comprised of incompetent housing models. The problem not only
of the design. Housing as hybrid landscapes, provides many
remains, furthermore multiplies and erratic ‘solutions’ are implemented across the
insights in how to productively integrate mix of uses in order to
peri-urban region. The so called ‘ integrated Townships’ and repetitive housing
allow new synergies to be developed to increase productivity,
developments are examples of the current reality. The discourse of the housing
enhance the quality of life and fully unlock the capacities of
shortage in Delhi, is framed incorrectly, focused in a numerical concern rather
urbanism in such contexts.
than delivering a certain quality of spatial, social and economic standards. By having a clear set of morphological rules, an urban area The study of the consequences derived from the implemented models in Delhi
could be developed with more chances of success through
and Noida, led to a set of criteria guiding the design response. With the possibility
time. The Noida test, has proved that if we are able to rethink
for the housing model to be implement elsewhere, the integrated township
the different typological starting points of the housing schemes,
model was chosen as a testing ground. The design intervention is proposed as a
it will be a useful and complementary tool as a space definer,
possible model to be developed by the investors and not a perfect alternative
allowing a general implementation across the city - adjusting to
replacing the existing model.
the needs of each site.
The resulting proposal, I believe, achieves a sensibility in responding to the given
The knowledge gained does not stop at the scale of the
problematic conditions of the developer driven housing model by intervening to
integrated township and Noida, but rather allows for a broader
improve the socio-economic condition, the spatial fragmentation, the quality of
understanding of the geopolitical region of Delhi, as well as
design, and the efficiency. A continuous aim during the design process was to
global cities facing similar notions of dilemmas in housing
achieve an urban design response that intricately works with the existing rather
development. Furthermore, the typical current urban approach
than attempting to gentrify the territory of intervention as a solution.
is being reconsidered, thus conducting the project also as a starting point of further investigation of space and design.
PROMOTERS: VILLAGERS + PUNE MUNICIPAL CORPORATION
CONCEPT The Magarpatta Township Project in Pune is a case study today in ‘inclusive’ development. 120 farmers came together to be masters of their own economic destiny. They pooled around 400 acres of their ancestral land on the fringes of Pune city and proposed the rather revolutionary idea that they would together develop ‘Magarpatta City’, an innovative mixed-use township. The Pune Municipal Corporation, first shocked out of its wits, ultimately bowed to the power of the idea and the passion of its proponents. In an epochal meeting in 1993, all the landowners contributed their land into a development company and accepted the principle of proportionate shareholding. CRITIC “A unique development in Pune has lots of lessons to be learnt” but not all of them are easily replicable. This system is unsuccessful in areas where land holdings are so fragmented that collecting 500 acres could well involve thousands of family members and where the issue gets highly politicised.In most cases where land is required for large format infrastructure projects, there will still be no substitute for pro-active external interventions in resettlement and rehabilitation efforts. This is because it does seem unlikely that most parts of rural India can throw up the enriching and heady cocktail of circumstances that can make a Magarpatta happen.
INCLUSIVE DEVELOPMENT 180
CONCEPT â€œWealth is generated from creating intellectual property. So why not create an environment where our talented scientists and engineers, rather than going overseas, can work right here on next-generation technologies? Innovation is the motivation for Nano Cityâ€™s four districts. These concentrated areas will be urban agglomerations of residential, commercial, business, institutional and industrial infrastructure. The urban structures has been developed as mixed-use buildings, with the street level devoted to business and trade and the upper floors allocated for residential use.The mixeduse derives from the notion of creating a market of mutually complementary and supportive services and activities CRITIC Being developed by a foreign developer group who has years of experience in development of Townships in the rest of the world, NanoCity has turned out to be one of the first genuine attempts to encourage sustainable and integrated Growth. But this attempt stops short as the Project was proposed in 2007 but, due to land acquisition cases, it has been put on hold since then. Also the project fails to address the shortcomings of the Village that is part of this township.
INNOVATIVE POLICIES 181
This project is developed as a well connected regional resource that spatially reorganizes its context. A system of void spaces are used as public platforms that enhance the physical quality of the cube. Layered circulation system develops a spatial configuration that generates flexible floor surfaces to facilitates for a wide range of programs.
PROGRAMMATIC MIXTURE AND LAYERED CIRCULATION 182
MIXED USE COMPLEX
PERI-URBAN MILAN, ITALY
The mixed use complex spatially reorganizes its context of peri urban conditions in Milan. Vertical hierarchy of open spaces, layered circulation system and flexible floor surfaces facilitate for a wide range of programs. Housing and public spaces are grouped flexibility in order to correspond to the low-rise surrounding areas. A system of void spaces are used as public platforms to enhance the physical quality of the spaces.
EFFICIENT DISTRIBUTION OF PUBLIC/ PRIVATE SPACES 183
PERI-URBAN AUGUSTINERHOF, GERMANY
This was a redevelopment project of the industrial housing buildings that was existing in the Peri-urban region of Augustinerhof. The concept was to re-interpret the intricate city spaces into this project by developing a courtyard system surrounding mixed use buildings. Each of the courtyards was assigned a different role based on the surrounding buildings and the parking was integrated in the basement, thereby leaving the ground plane completely for development.
MIXED USE COURTYARD SYSTEM 184
FAMILY HOUSING CONCEPT
DALLAS, TEXAS, U.S.A
This project aims at delivering Mixed use housing in the industrial area of Dallas. This innovative approach lifts the housing and open space to the upper level, thereby allowing for light industry, yard and parking at the ground level.
APPROACH TO FLEXIBLE HOUSING 185
MANIPULATIVE PRINCIPLES CASE STUDY SUMMARY
mixture, layered circulation, efficient distribution spaces, and flexible housing are series of manipulative principles and strategies that were derived from the case studies and were explored in the design test.
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M.ARCH THESIS HOUSING AND URBANISM 2012 - 2014