Regional Cooperation Magazine
Credits: Reclaim Our Civil Space!
Regional Cooperation Magazine
Scaffolding the Civil Society of the Future: Equality, Trust, Ownership and Accountability
Engaging young people with science
From best practices to “green best practices”: Promoting the environmental value among young people
The 1st conference event of SUPMed project has been successfully implemented in Malta
“A youth club would be an important part of the village” – the story of Zsombor
Teaching green best practices to younger generations to contribute to the energy emergency
How EU-WATERRES project contributes to drought mitigation in the South Poland
Study abroad can advance career and life
Judicial system of the future: starting today!
Rural, sustainable, green, digital – Key premises of education at the new University studies of tourism in Požega
The moment I realised being a drone is not that simple
Újbuda was a great venue for the opening events in the Competence Project
During the second study visit, the international project teams visited Norway
Civil society and youth work as a tool for holistic P/CVE efforts in the Western Balkans
Contributors & Credits
Regional Cooperation Magazine
Director’s Editorial Dear Friends, Summer is closing its doors and we are getting ready to a new season starting soon. Usually, like the end of the year, the end of summer means as well thinking what to change in our daily life – and how to change it. Our routine will soon get back to ‘normal’ activities, we will have to forget until next year the longer and sunny days … and this wave of bad weather we faced in the North of Italy seemed to preannounce this moment. Last time we ‘talked’, I was writing about climate change. Now, while looking at the selected themes of this month, I see not only that climate change is just one part of the puzzle. But especially that all the selected topics – each one related to one specific area of interest – are strictly linked one to each other. On the one hand, this is a confirmation of the Fund for Regional Cooperation’s soul and spirit, we are all used to work together while considering the different specific priority areas. On the other hand, this means that all challenges matter. Or, maybe, they start to matter more, they begin to become more important and more linked to each other. We are, basically, in the second mid of 2022 and I can notice a better alignment in terms of topics as well. We can read about green best practices related to younger generations, inclusion in environmental sectors – something which has a lot to do with our previous focus – future civil societies and judicial systems, youth criminalisation prevention, education and young women’s economic empowerment, social inclusion, not excluding (while it seems a play on words) people with intellectual disabilities. They seem, at least to me, inter-related problems and challenges and… guess what! Youth is there! Not surprisingly, we selected together with our Projects those themes in occasion of the European Year of Youth, because who – if not them – can support our goals concretising them in future but real actions? Who – if not them – can drive all our goals forward? For sure we are not talking about the Fund for Youth Employment, but recently we had an ever-stronger proof of the tangible bond existing between the two Funds and of the networks which can continue to be created within the Regional Funds. It is not by chance that I have to thank, again, the Regional Cooperation Projects that contributed to our Special Edition of the Fund for Youth Employment in occasion of the International Youth Day. And it is gratifying to see the contributions for this edition, in which some Projects tried to involve young people even though they are not their primary target. But, let’s go forward, since we have a lot of work to do. We may have reached a lot of goals related to cooperation, but this won’t be enough to ameliorate the future of our planet, including the individuals living it. !2
Regional Cooperation Magazine I do not want to be pessimistic. While we all have to recognise we are all facing an energy problem, which is not only related to the most recent war and the global geo-political situation. On the contrary, knowing that we are currently implementing several Projects working on different aspects related to the field of energy, I do believe that the Fund for Regional Cooperation is an excellent testing ground for new solutions. I am sure that in the coming months we will be able, together, to observe the fruits of new actions. I think that the title of Tom’s piece, Scaffolding the Civil Society of the Future: Equality, Trust, Ownership and Accountability, resume perfectly some goals included in my words. Our societies need and deserve solutions. Don’t you agree? As usual, maybe with some of Tom’s words we can go to the point: “Building deep connections is civil society’s historic role, and it has never been more needed. Today’s society is divided between urban and rural, between north and south, between young and old. It is still deeply divided on racial and class lines. Civil society has an essential role to connect powerfully across these damaging divides and fault lines and drive lasting social change”. About that, a short news: we invite you to read the next Regional Cooperation issue, where we will introduce the new predefined Projects selected by our Donors, implemented by FRA – the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. Going back to youth, since young people were somehow included into this issue, we all know that they can be the first ones to start with. Not only we must do that since they represent our future, but, especially, they need guidance to live into those ‘civil society of the future’. And this is, in my opinion, a good place for new experiments, regardless of the specific area considered. It was important, to me, reading the title of some Projects linking youth, green best practices and environmental values. That is exactly what we meant while thinking about the topics to propose. What else? We just have to read what our Projects have to tell us. A good end of summer to all of you, but… stay tuned for the news and future activities we will start to announce soon :) and a little spoiler is about our awaited Annual Seminar, that will most probably take place in December.
Gian Luca Bombarda The Fund Director
Regional Cooperation Magazine
Scaffolding the Civil Society of the Future: Equality, Trust, Ownership and Accountability Let us start with a few junior school questions and answers concerning civil society. What is civil society? Civil society is seen as the space between the household and the State. This space is where citizens can provide or advocate for services where the State does not fulfil its primary responsibility to provide necessary services. Who are civil society? The wide array of nongovernmental and not-for-profit organisations that have a presence in public life, expressing the interests and values of their members or others, based on ethical, cultural, political, scientific, religious or philanthropic considerations. What is the main role of civil society? Civil society works hand-in-hand with the government, striving to develop policy and implement new strategies. Beyond that, civil society builds so-called social capital by providing a way for participants to build relationships and make connections based on their values, behaviours and beliefs. ***** The above simplistic responses often camouflage the real, diverse and multi-facetted world of civil society and their relations with
governments, institutions, donors and, indeed, within their own community. The relationship between Government/ International institutions and civil society organisations can best be described as symbiotic; their respective and mutual needs and interests – but different philosophies and processes often make for uncomfortable public sparring. The internecine struggles for public funding between civil society actors on an overcrowded stage can provoke unseemly spectacles; csos are often accused of working in silos, doing similar and repetitive work, rather than combining their resources and actions to work towards common ends. The above is the realpolitik behind the private clamour for public funding. According to Tanya Cox, (Director of Concord, a European confederation of relief and development NGOs) “Civil society organisations are mission-driven, not profit- or economic growth-driven. We are value-based and rights-based, not interest-based. We focus on reaching the hardest-to-reach, the most marginalised – which does not necessarily offer ‘value-for-money’, nor is it very ‘geopolitical’. So, we tend to get labelled as unrealistic utopian dreamers - or as a thorn-in-the-side that needs to be, at best, ignored, or at worst silenced. If this
weren’t the case, why would civil society space be shrinking?” “Civil society organisations are critical for contributing to the checks and balances that underpin the rule of law," says Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) Director Michael O’Flaherty. "That is why I firmly believe the EU and its Member States need to do more to ringfence the enabling space that allows civil society to safeguard human rights across the EU." FRA’s report ‘Europe's civil society: still under pressure – Update 2022’ focuses on the key role civil society plays in fostering a rule of law culture. It cites good practice examples from across the EU. These include efforts by civil society organisations to shape laws and policies, support human rights authorities, improve access to justice, accountability and legality. It also reveals examples of how they engage in tackling disinformation and corruption, and in enhancing media literacy as well as in raising awareness of rule of law issues and the role civil society plays. ***** Many civil society organisations are constantly in existential mode. The Covid crisis provoked !4
Regional Cooperation Magazine much introspection about the different tenets that underpin civil society’s motives, means and actions. There are multiple analyses, debates and inquiries by, and about, civil society in current circulation, and this piece is based on an aggregate of some of those findings. Civil society organisations fear being blamed for failure, and accountability can too often mean ticking boxes or being timid: form-filling, fear and insecurity that stifles innovation and doesn’t address what really matters. Paperwork might be completed but poor practice, abuse and inequality continue. “For too long many of us have focused on accountability to funders and to government. It’s time we all focus on accountability to the communities and people we exist to serve.” Many of the discussions around civil society of the future centre on aspects of accountability, power, trust and ownership. A common refrain from the interviews in communities: “Across our country – and in civil society – too many people feel unheard, ignored, frustrated. Imbalances in power are often at the heart of the issue: who gets listened to, who makes decisions, who is in control.” There is a call for diverse civil society leadership at every level, opened up to people of different genders, ages, ethnicities, attitudes, world views, politics, social class, faiths and more; “funding should be decided by the people it is there to support, along with locally designed and delivered public services.”
***** Building deep connections is civil society’s historic role, and it has never been more needed. Today’s society is divided between urban and rural, between north and south, between young and old. It is still deeply divided on racial and class lines. Civil society has an essential role to connect powerfully across these damaging divides and fault lines and drive lasting social change. “Too often we have lost our ability to build connections, because the world is changing fast or we have become too remote from the people and communities we are here for. Our infrastructure for connecting groups and organisations is outdated, under-resourced and falling apart and there are too few connective networks to join up civil society locally or national.” ***** Trust is the most important asset for civil society. But trust is too often seen narrowly or undervalued. It’s considered important to win over a donor rather than something much more profound –the trust of the people they want to help. That is the core currency of civil society. Even more vital than funding/money, trust is an essential foundation for everything they do. Relationships built on trust are very different to those that are not: embodying shared responsibility, shared ownership, collaboration and cooperation. “Not just public trust, but also mistrust between different parts of civil
society that is so damaging. Many people have told us they feel large civil society organisations are slaves to their brand, bureaucratic, disconnected from their supporters and too close to government or corporations, who they fail to challenge as a consequence.” ***** The last word is from the Director of Concord: “We need to go beyond our natural role as providers of support to communities in times of need. Now is the time to call for a transformation of our political, economic and financial systems. We can no longer accept that governments put economic growth and the accumulation of great wealth for a minority before the well-being of all people and the planet. Little by little, people’s awareness is also growing of the fact that risk is not a simple "side effect", but the result of specific policy choices made by people in power. Societies themselves may be more aware now of the dangers of the current system and therefore more receptive to ideas for change. Civil society should build on their awareness, stimulate critical thinking, offer solutions and foster active citizenship. Now is the moment for civil society to come together, to build common ambitions.” Thomas Mc Grath
Environment, Energy, Climate Change and Low Carbon Economy Culture, Civil Society, Good Governance and Fundamental Rights and Freedoms Justice and Home Affairs Innovation, Research, Education and Competitiveness Social Inclusion, Youth Employment and Povery Reduction !6
Regional Cooperation Magazine
Engaging young people with science Environmental Restoration does not happen in a vacuum! Relationships with local communities, particularly organizations and locations where children and families live, work, and play, are vital to the advancement of science. This includes schools, museums, childcare centres, churches, playgrounds, local businesses, and numerous non-profit organizations serving children and families' interests. When recruiting youth for research subjects, it is typical practice in our field to collaborate with local groups. It is also common practice to incorporate them in our strategies to distribute research beyond academic journals. Our influence and effectiveness depend on developing research collaborations with local communities.
We feel that research laboratories might benefit from recognizing the value of youth contribution!
Within the Laboratory of Environmental Engineering for the BLUEGREENWAY Project, students are encouraged to share their remarks, results, and comments with the rest of the team. The BLUE-GREENWAY Project aims to engage youth in scientific research projects, from the initial planning and grant writing phases through project completion and dissemination of results. A harmonic and productive environment is developed. We ensure that the targets and the objectives of the BLUE-GREENWAY Project are transparent and known to everyone engaged with the project. Our target is to transfer knowledge and experience in the Water Quality Restoration Approaches and broaden the vision of young researchers in an ecologically friendly footprint. In this way, students will remain motivated to pursue science and adopt an environmentally friendly lifestyle after such an experience.
Involving young students in scientific research is an issue of growing importance for science. Young scientists can offer valuable information in the development of scientific research. Developing a youth-friendly space defined by a safe, welcoming atmosphere in which the perspectives and contributions of all parties are acknowledged and valued is essential to engaging effectively for young researchers. This implies that youth and adults feel at ease and welcome to themselves.
Regional Cooperation Magazine Below is the testimony of Mr. Leonidas Fintzos, undergraduate student of the Civil Engineering Department "I am happy I gained the expertise to work in a Laboratory Environment. Despite the long hours we spent in the laboratory, I made friends under a very warm environment. In parallel, I was under my professor's constant direction, and I was able to share my ideas with the team”.
There are no regulations or expectations regarding the performance of research students! By reading and debating a book or scientific paper with their mentor, some students gain only limited experience. However, most students are attracted to their first research team and describe the lab as a stimulating workplace. Within the Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, they begin by studying fundamental procedures, such as adsorbance of ammonium and orthophosphate from natural and modified clay-based materials and biochar formations, and the most diligent students end up with their own project.
Join us in our Social Media Accounts and stay tuned with our updates Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube BLUE-GREENWAY Project
Regional Cooperation Magazine
From best practices to “green best practices”: Promoting the environmental value among young people The process of teaching “green best practices” and developing ecological awareness is long and it may change in the future, but younger generations need to interact with the movement and learn bit by bit how to improve; either in the field of waste management, pollution, or simple energy efficiency best practices. Projects like BLUE-GREENWAY are actively trying to address existing pollution, freshwater & wastewater management problems. Knowledgesharing on the use of geoengineering materials will result in remediation of ecosystems and achievement of “BLUE” waters. It’s important to share these initiatives in an easy-to-understand form for children, as they will have to continue to protect the environment. What practices do we put in place right now to protect ourselves in the future? In an unpredictable world, you'll want to make sure sustainability is high on the list and companies and governments need to step up. Besides them, every one of us must become more aware of the environment. Knowing the basics of being environmentally friendly and a “green” lifestyle is the best way to help care for the natural world. Is best to teach children early good “going green” practices, as they will be more likely that they will continue those habits and even pass them along to their friends and late in life, to their own kids. Also, children are the most vulnerable in case of a disaster. It’s our responsibility to invest more time in developing the youth and teach them about the environment and how our actions have a direct impact on our world.
The development of ecological awareness and an appreciation for the value of nature for humans is a long and dynamic process. The process evolves along with human development and is influenced by present-day personality traits, hobbies, and social contexts. Given that their minds are still unconstrained by social and cultural conditioning, it is crucial to teach environmental awareness and sensitivity to kids as early as feasible. Early childhood is a critical period for educating folks about the environment, by imparting to them a universally acceptable pattern of behavior toward nature. The following stage in the development of ecological awareness is founded on detailed knowledge of nature acquired via teaching. BLUE-GREENWAY Project
Regional Cooperation Magazine
The 1st conference event of SUPMed project has been successfully implemented in Malta On the 7th of July 2022, AIS Environment hosted the first Maltese “"Reducing the Consumption and Disposal of Single-use Plastics in the Tourism Industry in Cyprus, Greece, Malta" also known as SUPMed project conference. The conference took place at Salini Resort, St Paul’s Bay, Malta, with participants also being able to join online. This event was the first to be held in person since the COVID pandemic. Attending and addressing the conference on behalf of the country partners were the founder of AIS Environment (Malta) Ing. Mario Schembri, Ms. Diamanto Giannara, Consultant at Aspon Consulting (Cyprus), and Mrs. Vasiliki Kalogerakou consultant at Anelixis (Greece). Other attendees included representatives from Environment and Resource Authority (ERA), Malta Tourism Authority (MTA), Hilton Malta, 1926 Hotel, to name a few. Ing. Schembri opened the conference with an introduction to AIS Environment as one of the SUPMed project partners. He began his speech by highlighting the importance of this project in the transition to a circular economy. He also explained the function of the ‘Decision Support Tool’ (DST) which the partners developed as part of this project. The tool allows hotel operators to enter information on their current single-use plastic consumption and recommends viable sustainable alternatives). The tool also provides projections of the alternatives’ environment effects (such as littering, climate change, and the marine environment), as well as financial costs. Ing. Schembri also outlined AIS’s role in this project. Aside from providing feedback to help develop the DST, AIS selected the Maltese pilot hotels, drafted and implemented action plans, and led various training sessions with the pilot hotels. !10
Regional Cooperation Magazine Speaking on behalf of AIS Environment were also Ms. Sian Pledger (local project leader) and Mr. Sacha Dunlop (senior manager).
operators to exchange good practice ideas, motivate and train their staff, distribute educational material to guests, and others.
Ms. Sian Pledger discussed the main goals for the SUPMed project, namely reducing the consumption, disposal, and environmental impact of SUP from the tourism industry. To achieve this, the project analyses the existing SUP situation, develops a tool to improve practices and trains personnel in order to reduce the negative effects of SUP on the environment.
The conference ended with a discussion among attendees about the responsibility to implement and monitor the situation and the issue of SUP alternative product supply.
Ms. Pledger also provided a status update of the project, as well as highlighting ongoing future project activities and milestones:
Mr. Sacha Dunlop presented further insight into the work being carried out for the SUPMed project. The work includes collecting data, carrying out interviews, establishing current waste management practices, and recommending further improvements. The results were presented in the form of tailor-made strategies for each pilot hotel establishment. The project also involves raising awareness with travel agents and suppliers, as well as organising training workshops for hotel personnel. Mr. Dunlop concluded his speech by addressing the pilot hotels’ wish to cooperate with other establishments of the private sector and environmental & tourism entities. Such cooperation is crucial as it allows for the hotel
AIS looks forward to hosting the next press event, scheduled for October 2022. About the project: The SUPMed project runs until June 2023 with a total budget of €1,279,405.00. The six project partners participating in the project are Aspon Consulting Ltd as the Lead Partner (CY), Heraklion Chamber of Commerce and Industry (GR), Anelixis Development Consultants S.A. (GR), Cellock Ltd (CY), AIS Environment (MT) and the Cyprus Hotel Association (CY). The 10 tourist establishments of the pilot sample of the project per country are: • Cyprus: GrandResort Atlantica Mare Village Ayia Napa Radisson Blue Hotel The Royal Apollonia • Greece – Crete: Elounda Palm Hotel & Suites Infinity Blue Boutique Hotel & Spa Paralos Lifestyle Beach • Malta: Hilton Malta 1926 Hotel & Spa Mellieha Holiday Centre
Regional Cooperation Magazine The project “Reducing the Consumption and Disposal of Single-use Plastics in the Tourism Industry in Cyprus, Greece and Malta” is funded by Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway through the EEA and Norway Grants Fund for Regional Cooperation. To keep up to date with the project, follow us on Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn and visit our project website. SUPMed Project
Regional Cooperation Magazine
“A youth club would be an important part of the village” – the story of Zsombor Zsombor Sipos is one of the people involved in the local community orginizing work of our project "Reclaim Our Civil Space!”. The project runs in 8 countries in Central and Eastern Europe, and while the local coordinators always respond to local needs, these have one thing in common: they support the creation of a civic space, where people take control of their own life and live up to their potential. Zsombor is 15 years old and lives in a village called Kölked in Hungary, where a strong local community has been formed with the help of Ökotárs Foundation's community organizers. Zsombor has plans to make the village a better place for the young people who live there. Tell us about yourself! My name is Zsombor, I am 15 and I go to the Kisfaludy Károly Secondary School in Mohács, Hungary. I am a ninth grade student and I dance in competitions. I got involved in this programme when Kriszta (the local community organizer) organized a wall painting camp in my village called Kölked. We painted the bus stop walls. I liked the community there, so I thought I'd join in. That was in 2019, I've been doing it ever since. We've already held a video making camp, young people from Dunaszekcső came and helped us to get to know the equipment, the settings and how to be and what to do in front of the camera. What kind of issues do you deal with? Mostly how we can develop the village. Kriszta used to bring videos of people from other communities who have helped in their community. The group and I agreed that there are things in Kölked that could be improved. Now we want to start a club for the youth here. We would like more young people to see what we do. Here in Kölked there are not many places where young people can come together and have a chat or play something, so a youth club would be an important part of the village. !13
Regional Cooperation Magazine Why did you decide to get involved? Because of the people here. I like to be in company and I feel I have a connection with others. At first I thought I was just going to paint a wall, but I've grown to like it even more. How has this program helped you? I got to know other people, learned about them, and now I can connect with other people better. I learned how I can help the village to make it a better place. When we painted the bus stop, it was in a very bad state. Then a lot of young people and adults came there and left their handprints on the wall. It turned out very nice and hasn't been graffitied since. As a 15-year-old boy, what are you most afraid of? That this community will ever fall apart. What do you think it's like to be young in Hungary today? And in Europe? I think it must be harder than it used to be. The Covid has really hurt young people. We couldn't meet. I asked my parents what their childhood was like. They told me that they lived without electronic devices, they could meet and play whenever they wanted. It could be like that now, but unfortunately it is not. And I don't think it's different anywhere else. What would you say to young people who are in the same situation as you were before you joined this community? If there is such an opportunity, if you can meet others, do it. Try it, don't wait for the next time. It won't hurt if one is not obsessed with their smartphone screen, but meets people, gets to know others, talks to others. Reclaim Our Civil Space! Project
Regional Cooperation Magazine
Teaching green best practices to younger generations to contribute to the energy emergency "For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them." — Aristotle (Nicomachean Ethics) As the concept of circular economy is gaining popularity, initiatives and awareness campaigns on the topic of waste and energy conservation are taking place in one form or another all around the world. It is universally accepted that for behavioural changes among a population to take hold, the younger generations must be taught especially from a young age. Two methods of learning which people do naturally, include imitating and learning by doing. In a broad sense, imitating involves copying behaviours one observes in their environment and learning by doing means just that: learning by actively engaging in an activity. These two methods are paramount when it comes to teaching about a concept such as circular economy. Observing existing best practices, gives an overview and demonstrates the big picture towards a goal, from its inception to its implementation, through to its achieved results. Having such examples available to imitate, helps justify the work toward a given goal as it is a proven and tested process. It also makes it easier for people to relate to the issue from problem to solution and to begin with the added advantage of removing a lot of the planning and guess work, making it easier to begin implementation. In addition, collaborations can be established with the originators by consulting on their experiences. In terms of learning by doing, this offers an extension to imitation as a handson approach, meaning people involved are participating actively or experientially in the learning process. This active approach in learning involves more than just listening: by having the overview of the best practice
example, people engaged are at the same time thinking about the work carried out and its purpose, thus enhancing their capability to improve it or adapt it to their situation locally. When it comes to teaching younger generations about circular economy, a wholistic and hands on approach is required. All stakeholders need to be involved, from governments on the national to local levels to raise awareness within the communities, combined with education in schools as well as having the appropriate infrastructure in place and creating opportunities to practically implement the lessons learned.
Regional Cooperation Magazine A survey carried out across 10 countries led by Bath University in collaboration with 5 universities, asked 10,000 people aged 16-25 how they felt about climate change and government responses to it. The results showed that most young people are concerned about climate change with nearly 60% stating they are ‘very worried’ or ‘extremely worried’. Three quarters stated they thought the future was frightening and more than 45% report their feelings about the climate affected their daily lives. These statistics indicate eagerness from the younger population to adopt green best practices in their daily lives that would also contribute to saving energy or adopting renewable energy sources. It is therefore in the hands of governments, schools and communities to promote information on how to practically do so in their local areas and offer possibilities to engage in activities that help understand the problem better and how to be part of the solution. Involving youth in hands on activities related to waste management and the circular economy is a key element within the Circular Based Waste Management project. The project partners represent local municipalities and work directly with the local schools to engage youth to participate in creative competitions, initiatives and even intercountry collaborations and courses in universities, all with the purpose to make the circular economy a way of life in their local communities. Maritsa Kissamitaki Circular Based Waste Management Project
Regional Cooperation Magazine
How EU-WATERRES project contributes to drought mitigation in the South Poland to identify zones where groundwater can move freely between countries. One may ask why is groundwater of interest to the project team since the problem concerns surface water and the disappearance of the San River? The answer is that most rivers are hydraulically connected with aquifers. And continuous groundwater discharge into the rivers ensures that there is water in the dry periods between rainy and snowmelt periods. One of the EU-WATERRES project’s aim is to mitigate the risk for similar phenomena occurrence in the future. By creating hydrodynamic models reflecting the actual hydrogeological conditions experts will be able to precisely determine the causes of water loss in the upper part of the San River and predict the areas prone to severe drought events. Do you want to know more? Full article is available on EU-WATERRES project’s homepage https://eu-waterres.eu/2022/08/09/drought-in-the-southof-poland/
View on The San River affected by drought in 2022 (photo by Mirosław Piela)
Recent news with the lack of water in riverbeds have caused major concerns among citizens and experts in whole Europe, including Poland (Global Drought Observatory report August 2022). Droughts have become more recent due to the climate change and in this summer strongly affected the largest rivers in Poland, including the San which is the border river between Poland and Ukraine. The area is a part of the larger pilot area of the EUWATERRES project “EU-integrated management system of cross-border groundwater resources and anthropogenic hazards”. Since 2020 Polish-Ukrainian team of experts in the field of hydrogeology, hydrology and water management have worked on development of hydrodynamic model for the pilot area. Further, the model has been the basis
References: Drought in Europe (2022) JRC Global Drought Observatory https:// edo.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/news/GDOEDODroughtNews202208_Europe.pdf EU-WATERRES Project
Regional Cooperation Magazine
Study abroad can advance career and life Maria Juul Deikmann has always had a huge passion for human health. She was always interested in infectious diseases and especially how to prevent them or treat patients that become infected. This is what motivated her to study medical and molecular biology at the University of Roskilde in Denmark and to choose research projects on cancer and bacterial human pathogens as training activities during her Master’s degree. “Many of my colleagues wanted to do these experiences in big Pharma companies but I wanted to see how research works,” she says. This same passion moved her toward the Tick-Borne Flaviviruses network project. “I knew what ticks were and that they can carry some diseases, but I had no idea how harmful tickborne flaviviruses can be”. Mainland Denmark is not endemic for Tick-Borne Flaviviruses however Bornholm is considered endemic since early 1960s. According to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, almost zero TBE cases are reported in the mainland annually. A notable exception is Bronholm island where an incidence between 4 and 8 cases per 100,000 inhabitants are reported. This is probably why there are very few research groups that study these diseases in the country. When Maria had to decide the topic for her Master’s thesis she came into contact with the research field of tick-borne encephalitis virus. “I went to speak with my former professor, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, at the University of Roskilde and discussed options for a research internship. She has a big network of scientist among her contacts, and I thought she could suggest someone that was doing research that could be interesting for me. Among all the colleagues she mentioned suddenly it was there: a research group in Norway was studying tick-borne encephalitis virus. Tick-Borne Encephalitis virus is endemic in Norway along the coastline with 20-70 cases annually. That was a breakthrough moment for me, I thought: what is this? A virus that through a tick’s bite can enter the brain? That was impressive, and I thought that was what I wanted to study!” But there was a problem: Maria needed to
move abroad to Oslo, to the Norway Institute of Health to study what she was interested in. “When I was at University, I saw my friends coming back from their Erasmus experiences in Scotland, Spain or elsewhere, and they were so enthusiastic. I saw them so changed and grown, and with so many experiences lived through in just six months. I think I was envious in a kind of way, but I was also scared to do the same. What if I went abroad and then could not find a way to come back to my home country in the future? Or worse, if I went away and discovered that science is not what I want to do in life? These thoughts blocked me in away from taking an Erasmus during my whole study period. But then at some point the time came to decide my Master thesis internship. My professor told me about this excellent team working on tick-borne encephalitis in Oslo. Well, I thought that it was the right moment to take courage and at least try going abroad.” Erasmus+ is the most known exchange program for students in the European Union. It is the only one funded directly by the European Commission and under this umbrella students at all stages and from all disciplines can have an educational experience abroad. The year 2022 marks the 35th anniversary of this successful program that over the years has had more than 10 million participants. This is a massive number of people that though the years have experienced studying or volunteering abroad. In 2021 alone there were 640,000 people who took this opportunity. In the framework of the TBFVnet project many student exchanges between the partners had been planned. This is pivotal to exchange expertise between the different research groups. Who is better trained than graduate and undergraduate students to learn quickly? Maria was in fact meant to take part in an exchange program between the Norway Institute of Health and the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB). “I was supposed to go to Trieste, Italy (where ICGEB headquarters is located) !18
Regional Cooperation Magazine to learn more about the diagnostic tools for tick-borne flaviviruses. But then COVID-19 came and everything stopped”. Maria was just one of the students that was meant to do an exchange period between the different project partners. In line with the vision of the Erasmus program and with the idea that exchanging knowledge is at the basis of scientific research, many students had planned to move to different project partners. With COVID-19 all such travel was limited but with the easing of the pandemic this exchange program is back. Some students will go from Trieste to Oslo and Prague, in the Czech Republic, others will go from Chisinau, in the Republic of Moldova, to Trieste. These exchange periods will last only a few months but will constitute a breakthrough for each of the students and for their research projects on tick-borne flaviviruses.
a student. In the end, I believe that with this experience I have grown, not only as a scientist but also as a person compared to who I was before.” Fabio De Pascale – Tick-Borne Flaviviruses network TBFVnet Project
In spring 2023 there will also be a regional seminar to gather all project partners, group leaders and students. This will be a great occasion to meet collectively and share knowledge and updates. Moreover, top scientists in the field of flaviviruses will be invited to present a broad and up to date view of this evolving research filed. Maria graduated in January this year with a thesis on tick-borne encephalitis virus spread in Larvik, Norway. This is a suspected endemic area for TBEV in Norway. The research group found out that there are some relations between the climatic changes in the area and the distribution of TBEV. In particular, it seems that a high temperature and low humidity in the environment resulted in a lack of detectable TBEV among the collected ticks. Moreover, she established a method to improve the diagnostic tools in order to distinguish between samples from vaccinated and infected patient. Maria will present the results of her Master’s thesis at the annual TBE conference in Vienna November 2022 (ISW-TBE 2022). Now she is applying for a PhD to continue her studies next year on TBE and the improvement of Tick-Borne Encephalitis diagnostic tools. Somehow, she has changed her mind about studying abroad. “I definitely recommend doing a period abroad for graduate or undergraduate students. I learned a lot in Oslo, also because I think there are many ways to perform science, many more than the only one you can experience by staying within your University where you grew up as !19
Regional Cooperation Magazine
Judicial system of the future: starting today! When one thinks of anything judicial the mind probably swirls to grand old courthouses, thick paper binders and oh-not-so-young ladies and gentlemen wearing wigs. No-one is smiling. While these stereotypes are true to some point in every legal system even today and seem to be a signature label for the judicial profession, judicial systems are changing and are looking for new ways and tools that would allow them to retain the image of a judge as an authority, but to portray him as a member of the society as well. Some of these changes are made consciously, others come out of pure necessity and technological progress. A good example of a conscious transformation, taken by the judiciary to bring it closer to society, including the youth – is to include assessment of soft competences as one of the requirements in selecting a future judge. The research, carried out by the experts in the project “Portrait of a Judge”, shows that a number of countries have either changed their selection procedures to this end, or are debating on doing so. Such competences may, for example, include, awareness of the environment, active listening skills, self-confidence and authenticity, collaboration and other. In fact, the research shows that in 2014, when reforming the judicial system, the Netherlands have gone a step further and adopted a clear description of what kind of a judge is needed by a modern society, reflecting that in a National (job) profile of a judge.1 This document reveals that in order to successfully complete the selection procedure proper understanding of the society and the ongoing processes therein is necessary. For example, external orientation is listed as one of the circumstances in which a judge is working. It is described as ensuring the settlement of disputes in a manner that contributes to the solution of the underlying problems of the parties and society and that, in general, takes into account the sense of justice of the citizens. The skill required by a judge to address it is awareness of the environment. A prospective judge is expected to
actively observe social developments and form one’s own understanding relevant in the context of judicial activities; to seek familiar, new and contradictory information and diverse perspectives that may influence decision and process of deciding; and to be aware of the influence of differences and the background of the parties. Although only one example is put forward here, several counties across Europe 2 have chosen to introduce soft competences, as a part of the judicial selection procedure. It is clear that the assessment of such competences, together with an aim to have a judiciary that mirrors a composition of the society is a very important step that allows to bring closer the youth and other groups of the society as well.
1 Available at (in Dutch): https://www.werkenbijderechtspraak.nl/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Referentiefunctie-rechter-4-april-2012.pdf. 2 The research by “The Portrait of a Judge” team shows that soft competences are already measured in: Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovak Republic, the Netherlands. !20
Regional Cooperation Magazine Another change that is also ongoing in a number of judiciaries and affects youth more than any other part of the society, was brought on by the technological progress and digitalization and further reinforced by the Covid-19 pandemics. While inconceivable of 15 years ago, an “electronic case” is paving its way even in the most tradition oriented European judiciaries. The extent to which it is implemented varies from country to country – while in certain countries one may only lodge a claim and other court documents online, in the others it goes as far as a possibility to attend online court hearings. This tool has been such a hot topic lately that even international organizations have adopted guidelines on videoconferencing in judicial proceedings. Needless to say this progress depends very much on the technological literacy of the population. Thus on the one hand is primarily used by the youth, on the other, it also turns court into something very accessible, somewhat like the rest of the services and therefore more appealing for the younger portion of the society. It may be therefore be concluded that either consciously or spurred by an absolute necessity the judicial systems and judiciary are, in fact, bringing themselves closer to the society in general and youth in particular. Portrait of a Judge Project
Regional Cooperation Magazine
Rural, sustainable, green, digital – Key premises of education at the new University studies of tourism in Požega Given that employment in the tourism sector is in close correlation with the growth of tourism activity in the Republic of Croatia, further pressure on new employment in the tourism and catering sector is to be expected. The trend shows the increase in attraction of rural areas, which can be seen in examples from highly developed countries. In addition to insufficiently developed domestic demand, but also due to the lack of a generally accepted development vision, the Croatian tourist offer in rural areas, especially selective tourism, is not developing fast enough. Although tourism in the rural area of Croatia, especially in the context of availability, natural beauty, and ecological preservation, should occupy a more important place in Croatia's tourist offer, it is mostly still a poorly valued economic potential. In accordance with the aforementioned expansion in the tourism sector, there is also a qualitative challenge, namely the development of sustainable, innovative, rural and resilient tourism. The labour market shows the need for highly educated personnel in the field of tourism, catering, and rural development, to successfully respond to all contemporary trends and challenges that are imposed on Croatian tourism. In the structure of employees in hotels and restaurants, the largest share, 50%, is held by employees with secondary education. Since they are in contact with clients and how tourists will perceive our tourist product and the entire offer depends significantly on them, their adequate education is extremely important. This is precisely what is cited as one of the biggest problems of Croatian tourism, along with the predominantly elderly workforce. These problems can be considered as a consequence of seasonal employment, when there is a greater need for labour, and therefore all those who are currently
unemployed, regardless of their level of education, are occasionally employed. In order to stop the outflow of quality workforce from tourism, the aim is to achieve the sustainability of the contingent of competent workforce and eradicate amateurism by giving preference to professionalism and formal knowledge at all levels and in all segments of business in tourism. Following current trends, we can state that the field of tourism is promising for the introduction of new university studies and is listed as one of the main strategic determinants of the European Union Multiannual Financial Framework 2021-2027. The EU's economic recovery strategy emphasizes tourism and rural development through a financial allocation of 15 billion euros to strengthen the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development and strengthen rural areas in the implementation of structural changes.
Regional Cooperation Magazine Based on the premises, the Faculty of Tourism and Rural Development in Požega was established as part of the University of Josip Juraj Strossmayer in Osijek, which is being developed on the foundations of the Polytechnic in Požega and will offer mentioned study programme from the academic year 2022/2023. The study programme will last 6 semesters (180 ECTS) with the title after completion - university bachelor's degree in economics (university bacc. oec.). General objective of the study programme: The objective of the study programme is to train students for planning, implementation, control, and evaluation of economic activities in entities operating in tourism and related activities. The main objective of the study programme is aimed at training experts to perform operational and management tasks in special types of tourism (rural, urban, congress, health, cultural, sports-recreational tourism, etc.), for-profit and non-profit sectors and public organizations related to the field of tourism. Specific objectives of the study programme: • The objective of the programme is to train students to use business models and manage business processes in the field of marketing, management, accounting, finance, human resources, as well as other supporting economic activities in tourism-hospitality entities and entities with activities related to tourism. It includes teamwork in the creation, marketing, and sale of high-quality tourist services through continuous adaptation to changes in the tourist market, respecting the principles of sustainable development of the tourist destination. • The objective of the programme is to train students to perform operational work in interdisciplinary fields related to tourism (mathematics, statistics, informatics, law, gastronomy, communication) with the aim of improving user satisfaction. The objective is aimed at developing intellectual abilities related to noneconomic areas, such as negotiation skills, leading meetings, analytical data processing, creating websites and digital documents, protecting personal data, managing business processes in the field of gastronomy, etc.
Novi studijski program usko je vezan s projektom Otkrivanje ruralne baštine te će rezultati projekta direktno utjecati na stečena znanja budućih studenata koja će primjenjivati u profesionalnom razvoju. The new study program is closely related to the project Uncorking rural heritage: indigenous production of fermented beverages for local cultural and environmental sustainability, and its results will directly affect the acquired knowledge and competences of future students, which they will apply in their professional development.
Foto credit: Polytechnic of Požega Berislav Andrlić, Dalibor Vranić winecider.net - email@example.com Facebook Instagram Linkedin Uncorking rural heritage Project !23
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The moment I realised being a drone is not that simple Slovenia. Since I was not the driver, I could say It was a relaxing ten-hour drive, with the main topic of conversation being, you guessed it right, bees. We were accommodated at the hotel in Krakow from the 6th to the 10th of July. The training course was arranged in the mating station Pasieka Szeligow at Wielkie Drogi, near Krakow. It covered 32 hours of classes, including 15 hours of theory and 17 hours of practice. Every day during the workshop we were picked up in the morning and driven to the Wielkie. It was always a fun ride where we got to see the town and locals in the rush hour. I was also able to get to know, other participants a little better. It really felt like I was a part of a big international beekeeping family from Macedonia, Norway, Slovenia, and Croatia. Even though I am not a morning person I could say I was enjoying every bit of conversation about bees in the morning. The driver who was also employed in the apiary was getting to know us about Polish culture, the natural features of Poland and the problems which are facing beekeepers. This summer I got a chance to learn more about raising queen bees by instrumental insemination. It is my seventh year of owning an apiary and raising queens in Slovenia and as a target group member of the Agricultural Institute of Slovenia in the BeeConSel project, I was able to be a participant in the workshop on Instrumental Insemination of honey bee queens which took a place in Poland. From Ljubljana to Krakow is almost 820 km and I went there by car with Jernej and Manca, amazing colleagues from the Agricultural Institute of
It was only the first day and my notebook was already 4 pages full. Each day of the course we started in the classroom with different discussions about bee breeding in Poland and Europe, we were getting to know the standard equipment necessary for artificial insemination, available options, and selection rules. When I look back at it there was a lot of information. Still, we had an amazing teacher Małgorzata Bieńkowska, a lady who knew how to wrap all those facts into simple instructions, so it was easier for us to use them later in practical work.
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She was able to make you feel confident about the instrumental insemination like you know exactly what you are doing. After the theoretical part, of the course, we went to the apiary. There we got to know Monika; she reminded me of the queen bee of the apiary we were training at. Besides the great beekeeper she is, Monika also organised the workshop. During the queen rearing season (which lasts only 12 weeks), she takes care of 7 locations (queen breeding stations) and gives instructions/work to up to 16 employees. I got the chance to talk to a few of them and I must say they were one of the happiest hard-working people I ever met. I guess you could say they are happy with Monikas’ work and the pheromones she emits.
so similar yet so different beekeeping lifestyles. It was a one-in-a-million experience that I will never forget.
In the following days, we got to know the anatomy and physiology of queen bees and drones, factors influencing the quality of artificially inseminated queen bees and different techniques of insemination. For an easier understanding of how difficult it is to successfully inseminate one queen bee; Małgorzata and Monika can take the semen from 7 to 10 drones, inject it into the queen and repeat the process with up to 100 queens in one day. Compared to my second day of instrumental work where I needed 132 drones to take the semen for one queen bee, on which I later inseminated only half of her ovaries. Long story short, it takes lots of time, patience, and practice to become a good inseminator. As if the process is not challenging enough, you also need to prepare the family to receive the queen bee. It is just fascinating how many factors affect the performance and later subsequent satisfaction of the beekeeper. I do not know when the next time will be I will be able to hear so many different international phrases for the word “screwed up”. But I must say towards the end of the workshop we were getting better and better.
Tadeja Vidmar BeeConSel Project
I am really thankful that I was able to be a part of the Instrumental insemination workshop in Krakow. Not only that I learned so many new things which I will later use in my apiary, but I also got to meet people with !25
Regional Cooperation Magazine
Újbuda was a great venue for the opening events in the Competence Project
6-7th December 2021 and 28th March 2022 in Budapest, Hungary The first stakeholder conference of the Competence project took place in December 2021 in Budapest accompanied by a press conference. The online event was attended by the six partner organizations and the representatives of local public service providers as well as the Hungarian National Association of Local Authorities. On day one, the participants listened to professional presentations about the district social service providers. Subsequently, the Norwegian Expertise Partner (Åpenhet) shared important information about the upcoming Internal Research within the partner organisations and the Action Plan.
On day two, the event continued with the kick-off meeting, where the project partners listened to presentations by the Lead Partner on the compilation of project materials while also asking technical questions about the eligibility and reporting rules related to the implementation of the project. The project continued with the 1st Study Visit in March 2022, during which project partners were finally able to visit the main social service providers in the district in person as well. The participants, most of whom themselves came from the field of human and social self-government services, gathered experience at the Újbuda Social Service Provider. At the headquarters of one of the most important municipal service providers in the district, they were able to learn about the performance of the institution, which employs about 120 people.
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Then, the participants were able to get familiar with the service organization of the Újbuda Human Service Centre. The Centre is providing support and assistance to those affected by the protection of children at risk, fundraising for families in crisis, the provision of free legal advice, spiritual support and family therapy. The partners have agreed to meet in May on the occasion of the 2nd study visit in Norway. Competence Project
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During the second study visit, the international project teams visited Norway 5-6th May 2022, Norway
The second study visit of the Competence project took place in Norway on 5-6 May 2022. The host partner this time was the Norwegian expertise partner Åpenhet, who invited the representatives of the Croatian, Romanian, Czech and Hungarian partner organizations to Oslo and to Bø in Telemark County. On day one, the participants met the representatives of the Norwegian Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development and got acquainted with the structure of the Ministry, its responsibilities, and the regulations under which the roles of ministry, county level municipalities and local municipalities are linked or separated.
In Norway, digitalisation and the introduction of various innovations into the governmental and municipal work is of paramount importance. Local experts were happy to share experiences of recent and ongoing regional innovation projects. Participants also got familiar with the tasks of the Norwegian Association of Local and Regional Authorities (KS). KS is a key interlocutor in workplace matters and ensures that members do not have to negotiate with more than 40 employee organizations individually. KS is lobbying for good structures, conditions and more freedom of local actions for their members. The goal is for local governments to become better social developers and service providers.
Regional Cooperation Magazine On day two, the participants got acquainted with the daily work of Nome Municipality (Bo, Telemark) and the online education system KS-læring (municipal skills e-learning portal) which started a few years ago at Nome Municipality, but is now available throughout Norway. Good practices were heard first-hand by those present. By the second study visit, the international project teams had already forged together and actively analysed the experience gained in joint discussions and the next steps in compiling the Action Plan in a workshop led by the expertise partner organization. The next stop of the study visits will be Trogir, Croatia. Competence Project
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Civil society and youth work as a tool for holistic P/CVE efforts in the Western Balkans Radicalisation is recognised as a dynamic, non-linear process, growing more complex as higher numbers of youth are being drawn into extremism via fast radicalisation processes, which undeniably benefits from the impact of the online space. Such has been apparent throughout Europe. However, it has been a greater concern for some South-eastern European countries, particularly the Western Balkans. In fact, such has been recognised in several studies and has been emphasised during HOPE’s – ‘Holistic Radicalisation Prevention Initiative’ – events, where concerning data on youth radicalisation has been presented, highlighting the cases of Slovenia and Serbia.
A growing issue among European youths In Slovenia, youth radicalisation has been on the rise for the last years, with a more significant increase ever since the COVID-19 pandemic stroke Europe. Concerningly, 80%1 of a random sample of young Slovenians have confirmed that radicalisation among them is commonplace, especially following the growing time spent on social media. Moreover, 50% have demonstrated that radicalisation manifestations have permeated their school environments2. A similar situation can be traced down in Serbia, where youth have deepened their inter-ethnic tensions and multi-cultural intolerance in the last years, especially following the impacts of the refugee crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic. 3
The impact of youth radicalisation in Europe materialised when, in the last decade, several hundreds of youngsters, some in their late teens, others in their early twenties, and, in some instances, children, left their countries to join foreign conflicts, either motivated by religious, political, or ideological radical viewpoints4. Again, this phenomenon had a higher prevalence in the Western Balkan region Now, as these foreign fighters make their way back home to their origin countries, many challenges arise, especially as the children who left with their parents return now teens with potential traumas. In this sense, it is now certain that youth radicalisation and the associated use of violence have become a growing issue for European societies. The issue has a complex and dual nature since there has been a notable increase in hate speech and violent xenophobia, especially due to the current refugee crises, signalling a rise of far-right extremism. !30
Regional Cooperation Magazine On the other hand, religious radicalisation has also been rising, mostly benefiting from online propaganda and recruitment. Uncovering the dynamics and factors that explain the greater risk of youth radicalisation is complex. Nonetheless, it is agreed that some of it can be explained by societal and communitarian gaps, thus making clear how the investment in the community, namely in civil society organisations, can yield greater benefits.
Following the understanding of the European Union, youth work encompasses a series of social, cultural, educational, political, and sportsrelated activities which are carried out with, by, and for young people via non-formal learning. In this sense, youth work is particularly important as an instrument to prevent radicalisation and mitigate its impacts on violence, focusing on improving youngsters’ lives, including their general long-term development and well-being.
The crucial role of civil society and youth work
Youth work empowers young people, providing them with the selfdetermination and control to better face the challenges posed by the current polarised landscape, enhancing their life skills, critical thinking, intercultural competencies, and active citizenship, as well as promoting diversity, respect, and tolerance. Therefore, civil society efforts in youth work create the space for open discussions and provide alternative and positive messages to hate, intolerance and violence, breaking disinformation and radical ideologies.
It is now established that working with young people is paramount in P/CVE, emphasising how its comprehensive work doesn’t only require a continuum of intervention, focused on the criminal justice system institutions. There is also the need for preventive and early-on interventive efforts focused on the communities to achieve safer, more cohesive, and integrated societies. Thus, working to build youngsters’ resilience, civic and social participation, as well as democratic, inclusive values is paramount. For such, youth work and organisations are key.
Considering the ultimate goal of empowering youth, offering them support, learning spaces, and opportunities for positive development and futures, youth organisations target radicalisation at its roots. This goes beyond simply mitigating its manifestations, allowing the identification of radicalisation at very early stages, countering it from the outset. When working with youth with P/CVE aims, it has become clear that: • • • • •
A holistic approach should be taken; Peer-horizontal and trust-based relationships must be built with youth; Partnerships with other relevant agencies and stakeholders, mainly at the communitarian and local level, must be developed; Youth must be provided with alternative and positive models of behaviours and attitudes; Investment needs to be made to empower young people and build their competencies.
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Promoting cooperation through the HOPE project However, involving civil society actors, namely youth organisations in P/ CVE is often challenging, not only because P/CVE is often seen as a strictly securitised area but also because civil society stakeholders might not always have the skills to address radicalisation. Therefore, for maximising the role of civil society and, in specific, youth work on P/CVE, a holistic and comprehensive training approach is required. That’s what the HOPE – Holistic Radicalisation Prevention Initiative – is doing by tailoring B-learning training programmes to the needs and challenges faced by different relevant sectors, including civil society organisations working with vulnerable and radicalised individuals and those working on socio-structural issues.
synergies between different levels and sectors. For such, an online network is open and free to anyone involved in P/CVE, including prison and probation staff, community organisations’ professionals working closely with the criminal justice system, law enforcement agents, judicial practitioners, trainers and educators, and researchers/academics, aiming to build relevant knowledge and partnerships. The HOPE – Holistic Radicalisation Prevention Initiative is led by IPS_Innovative Prison Systems (Portugal) in partnership with the University College of Norwegian Correctional Service (Norway), Agenfor International Foundation (Italy), the Euro-Arab Foundation for Advanced Studies (Spain), the Bulgarian Association for Policy Evaluation, the Bulgarian General Directorate “Execution of Sentences”, the Bucharest-Jilava Penitentiary (Romania), the Helsinki Committee for Human Rights (Serbia) and the Slovenian Probation Administration (Ministry of Justice). For more information about the HOPE project, please visit www.hoperadproject.eu
Moreover, the HOPE project is also committed to ensuring that long-lasting connections are made in an interdisciplinary and multi-agency way. For this, HOPE is building a European learning hub on radicalisation, working to create and cement partnerships, combining non-governmental and governmental actors to create powerful, comprehensive and holistic
References 1 Beršnak, J. & Prezelj, I. (2021). Recognizing youth radicalization in schools: Slovenian ‘frontline’ school workers in search of a compass. International Sociology, 36(1), 49-70 https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0268580920953333 2 Lobnikar, B. (2022, 6 July). Extremist trends in Slovenia: A brief historical and sociological review until today. [Conference presentation]. HOPE 8th Transnational Thematic Workshop (Ljubjana). https://hope-radproject.org/2022/07/19/extremist-trendsin-slovenia-a-brief-historical-and-sociological-review-until-today/ 3 Research Centre for Defence and Security (2020, June 19). Interethnic distance, violence and violent extremism leading to terrorism. https://istrazivackicentarob.com/en/ 2020/06/19/interethnic-distance-violence-and-violent-extremism-leading-to-terrorism-2/ 4 Beslin, J. & Ignjatijevic, M. (2017). Balkan foreign fighters: From Syria to Ukraine. European Union Institute for Security Studies. https://www.iss.europa.eu/sites/default/ files/EUISSFiles/Brief%2020%20Balkan%20foreign%20fighters.pdf
HOPE Project !32
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Contributors & Credits From the Fund Operators Mateusz Wiśniewski Francesca Bombarda Sara Barbi External Contributors Thomas Mc Grath From the Projects Inga Retike Ierotheos Zacharias Bálint Farkas Špela Kodre Diamanto Giannara Fabio De Pascale Vaidotas Norkus Tanja Dimitrijević Maritsa Kissamitaki Anita Horvath Berislav Andrlić Dalibor Vranić Tadeja Vidmar Silvia Bernardo
Director Gian Luca Bombarda
The contents of the Magazine are the sole responsibility of the authors and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the Donors. !33
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