A Rebel with Conflicting Images Bob Marleyâ€™s Portrayal by the Press From 1973-1980
By Jack Low
Table of Contents Introduction: Bob Marley A History of a Rastaman
Chapter 1: Rebel Without a Cause: Bob Marley and his Portrayal in North Americaâ€™s Press Chapter 2: Jamaicaâ€™s Press and Their View of the Tuff Gong
Chapter 3: Get Up Stand Up: Bob Marley and His Message through Songs
Chapter 4: Will You Help Me Sing These Songs of Freedom: Conclusion of Research By Jack Low
This Thesis is dedicated to my daughter Lillian May Low. For the many nights daddy was stuck on the computer doing research and typing away instead of painting pictures with his favorite person. This thesis is dedicated to you with all my love, Daddy First, I want to thank Chrissy, for spending days and days listening to Marley music and interviews with out a single complaint. I love you more then you will ever know. Next, I want to thank my family and my local friends, who are my backbone through thick and thin. Without their help there is no way I would have finished this thesis. Here is everyone else who has helped find and blessed me with knowledge and love for Robert Nesta Marley. Cory Nyberg, Mitch Ross, Julian Schmidt, James Wilson, Kenneth Atkins, Dr. Lowell Taubman, Hideki Nakagawa, Dr. Sam Dion, Andy Clayton, Gael Doyen, Roger Steffens, Paul Johnson, Raul, Danny Holloway, Genny Pitts, Ibis Pitts, Valarie Tinni, Mother B, Stephen Marley, David Marley, Jeremy Collingwood, Glen Lockley, Peter Simon, Barry Cole, Suzette Newman, Thor Olsen, Theo Forbath, Dr. Matthew Smith, Christopher Blackwell, The Wailers, Vince Ellis, Marco, Dr. Tomaz Jardim, Tim Jones, Frank Jones, Lex Poindexter, Ras Wilson, Doug Wendt, NZ Allen, Bill Levenson, Denise Mills, Mark Miller, Timothy White, David Wells, Jonah Dan, Dan Savage, Ed Traversari, Leon Mobley, and Toby Gohn. Also, a big thanks to everyone else in which I did not get a chance to mention.
Introduction Bob Marley A History of a Rastaman
“We can’t take your slogans no more; I see boarders and barriers, false profits, dictators, and traders, demonstrating against the people, becoming public enemy number one.”1 These are the last lyrics written and sung by a man who was trying to get the world to join together and unite against war and poverty. This man is Robert Nesta Marley and this song Slogans is the last he recorded before passing away in May, 1981. This song sums up his message to the people of the world: that the people who are in power can be - and usually are - very dangerous. Marley only wanted to help the world unite around the simple understanding that we are all part of one human race. During his life, his personal beliefs are covered by media outlets in North America and his homeland of Jamaica. The press’s coverage of Marley ends up giving two very different views of Marley the man. The Jamaican press tends to cover Marley as a social activist, songwriter, and community leader - someone who is trying to better the world and in particular, all third world countries. One example of this type of Jamaican coverage is summarized in the following headline: “The Black Lion Bakery of the Ethiopian
Bob Marley, Slogans, Reel to reel, 1980
4 Orthodox Community Development Project has received a van as a donation from the Bob Marley and the Wailers Movement of Jah People Organization.”2 While touring and promoting his music in North America, on the other hand, Marley is covered by the North America press in an extremely different way. The North American press treats Marley as an outsider and as a rebel without a cause. They also portray Marley as a troublemaker and his people, the “Rastafarians”, as detrimental to the communities they live in. Take the following line from an article in the North American press, following a show: “After what appeared to be enough time to smoke a joint, the Wailers came back to perform.”3 The connotation here is clearly negative. The article, which reports on the break between sets during one of Marley’s concert performances, shows how stereotypical the mass media portrayal of Marley during this time period was. Marijuana overshadows Marley’s importance as a performer. Other North American press coverage was more favorable, especially from the liberal college media who tended to portray Marley in a more positive light. There is a tremendous wealth of primary material when it comes to Marley in both the North American press and the Jamaican press during this time period. Marley first becomes a “celebrity” in both North America and Jamaica beginning around 1973 when he signed his contract with Island Records. The sources used in this thesis include audio interviews, press conferences, television interviews, and newspaper articles. When it comes to secondary sources there are fewer of good quality. This stems from the fact that there is no database for scholars to find information on Marley during this time period. Secondary sources and materials used here include mostly biographies because 2 3
The Daily Gleaner, Friday, June 1 1979, p.11 Matthew Kletter, The Michigan Daily, Saturday May 20, 1978, p. 7
5 of the lack of peer reviewed journals that are relevant to the topic. Although there are journals that write about the media, they lack the familiarity with Jamaican media due to the lack of information scholars have been able to obtain to this point. Even though Bob Marley was a well known personality in Jamaica before 1973, he was not internationally known until then. The significance of 1973 - the year that Bob Marley signs with Island Records in London, England â€“ is therefore major.4 This is when North America media outlets start taking an interest in covering Marley. Central Problems There are a few central problems that come with writing this thesis. One issue concerns the negative coverage of Marley. Is this only in the North American Media? Does Jamaica have anything negative to say when it comes to Marley? Answering this question is at times challenging. Another problem that comes up while researching this thesis is the following: Was the North American media trying to focus on one type of story just to sell newspapers â€“ and was portraying Marley in a negative light one way of doing this? After all, the media is a money-making venture. Importance Why is Bob Marley important enough to write a thesis about? First, it has social importance. This research shows that the North American media still have signs of a racist undertone when it comes to certain types of people and cultures. It also gives an insight into how North Americans feel toward race and different religious views that are not the same as theirs. This research provides insight into how the media covers other cultures around the world. Marleyâ€™s religion is Rastafarianism, which originates out of 4
Timothy White, Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley( New York: Henry Holt and Company 1999), 232
6 the slums of Jamaica. Even though Rastafarianism is based on a Christian foundation, my research shows that North American media outlets belittle this religion. Is there really respect for different religions in the North American press? What degree of religious toleration exists in North America? These are the more social questions that prove the need for this research. This thesis, therefore, is not just about Bob Marley and how the press from two different regions of the world views him. Even though Marley is the main topic to the thesis, the hope is that this thesis will help to show how race and physical appearance play an important roll in how the press covers certain individuals. And further, this coverage affects the people who it is covering. Here I will show how the media of two different places can cover the same stories with two different agendas. It is a deeper view at culture and shows the effect media has on culture in different ways. Thesis The thesis presented here is that the North American press portrayed Bob Marley in a negative light by labeling him a rebel without a cause, and by mocking his Rastafarian religion beliefs. During the period of this press coverage, however, Bob Marley was trying to bring peace to Africa and Jamaica by bringing political rivals together and working to stop the gang violence that plague Third Word nations. This more noble work is rarely covered by the North America press. For example, when Marley won the U.N. Peace Medal in 1978 on behalf of 500 million Africans for promoting peace, the North American media coverage was little to none. Yet when Marley had a ticket to pay in London, England for possession of marijuana, the story appeared in almost every newspaper in North America. In stark contrast, the media in
7 Jamaica wrote about the U.N. Peace Medal presentation extensively, even thought it was held at the Waldorf Astoria in New York City. My Background The reason I myself decided to write my thesis on Bob Marley stems from the historical collection I have of Marley. I myself was the personal archivist for the Marley family for three years. One might ask how that came to be: I was only 29 years old at the time I started to write this thesis and therefore wasnâ€™t even alive when Marley was touring Jamaica and North America. I had the chance, however, to meet many Marley biographers and noted collectors, including Timothy White, Sam Dion, Roger Steffens, and Stephen Davis. They were getting older and wanted to pass down the knowledge of Marley and his life to a new generation of people. Luckily, they all took me under their wing from time to time and shared many things, from private tapes to photographs. I also became friends with the Marley family through the people of Wilmington, Delaware. I became close with Genny and Ibis Pitts who were Bob Marleyâ€™s neighbors and his first American friends. Most people do not know that Marley himself lived and worked in the city of Wilmington from 1967 to 1977. Ibis and Genny were nice enough to introduce me to Bob Marleyâ€™s mother Cedela Booker. We became very close friends until her passing three years ago. With the information that all these different people bestowed upon me, I started to uncover lost stories about Bob Marley. I also started to uncover lost music, interviews, and photographs no one knew existed. I started to show these things to the people that I mention above. This series of events led me to the position of helping the Marley family try to find all the press coverage of Marley during the time he was alive. They decided to hire
8 me as the archivist for their family and help create media content for the website. I was then based out of the Marleysâ€™ office in New York City. They allowed me to scan their archives and compare it to my own to see what type of items they needed to track down to have a more complete history of Bob Marley. While doing the research in the Marley archives I found that they had a large collection of photographs, but little more. When it came to videos, press articles, interviews, and concert performances they did not have a good idea of what was out there. Even though they might have had some unique items in their personal collection it was not a well preserved archive. In turn it took me three years to get the Marleysâ€™ archive up to date by filling their archive with all the information I had gathered which they needed. In part as a result of this position, I can clearly state that I now have one of, if not the biggest archives of Marley material in the world at this date in time, with over 700 audio tapes, 100 different videos, and over 1,000 newspaper articles from all over the world. This made choosing my thesis topic easy, though the project of course was challenging. I am also driven by a personal sense of duty to write a thesis on Bob Marley. No other person or institution has access to my collection. I am one of the leading experts on Bob Marley in the world. This is why I chose this thesis topic. Historiography The first place the research was conducted was in the Low Marley Archive. There are three main parts to the archive itself. Part one is the press articles. Part two is the audio and video interviews. Part three is the concert audio and video tapes. All of these items helped with the research of the pressâ€™s view of Marley during this time. This represents one of the biggest primary source collections of Marley material in the world.
9 Out of my archive alone there is close to 1,000 articles during this time period on Marley. These articles constitute the main primary source base for this thesis. They help show how the press in both North America and Jamaica represent Marley. The audio concert tapes help show what songs Marley chose to play in different counties and help give an impression of what Marley himself wanted to say in each of those countries. This gives insight to what he wanted to say in both regions without the press interfering in the transmission of his message. The audio interviews really reflect a view of Marley that is more positive in North America. The first books and articles that were written about Bob Marley after his death in 1981 ended up being general narratives about his life. They share the general perspective of the North American media sources. Historians try to portray Bob Marley as just a musician and pop star that came from a different background with a message of rebellion. Biographers do a good job chronologically putting together Marley’s life, but often fail to write about the aspects of different media coverage and the views the press applied in covering Bob Marley. More recent books focus on small time periods of Marley’s life. These authors tend to write about Marley’s personal life. One recent book, for instance, chronicles Marley’s life before he was a pop star in North America - Before the Legend: The Rise of Bob Marley by Christopher Farley head editor of the Wall Street Journal. This is difference when it comes to the different books and the time in which they were written about Marley.
10 The first biography that gives insight to the life of Bob Marley is Timothy White’s book Catch a Fire.5 The book was first published in 1983 and since its first print run it has been reprinted five more times. The book gives the account of how Marley came up with some of his personal beliefs and the type of social culture he grew up in during his life in Kingston, Jamaica. Timothy White the biographer writes on Jamaican culture and religious ideologies in the first part of the book. This gives the reader an idea of what Jamaican culture was all about during the late 1950s and early 1960s. It also goes into depth about the ghettos in Jamaica that played a huge roll in Marley’s life early on. Timothy White also focuses on the history of Haile Selassie. Haile Selassie was the Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 until 1975. In 1975 Selassie was killed by communist rebels who overthrew his government. Rastafarians believe Haile Selassie to be the reincarnation of Jesus Christ and the center of Rastafarian culture in Jamaica. Timothy White was able give an in depth history of Marley’s early life because of his extensive interviews including with Bob Marley’s mother even before Marley passes away in 1981. For the final few years Timothy White does not write in detail about Marley’s life at all. White’s book is over 400 pages long. When White finally starts to write about Marley’s last three years of life, he can only write about twenty pages. The final three years of Marley’s life therefore represents a huge void in White’s research. Timothy White even states “This book gives itself over in an atmospheric fashion to the confluence or belief systems that informed Bob Marley.”6
Timothy White, Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley( New York: Henry Holt and Company 1999), 204 6 Ibid. p.xi
11 Rasta Love: Journey Intro One Love by Robert Roskind is about the Rastafarian culture and Jamaica society and, how it played a role shaping Bob Marley’s life. The chapters go deeper then any other book that is written about Marley’s personal beliefs of Rastafarianism. The book focuses on the religious side of Marley’s life and how it affected the way he acted in society and towards the press. Robert Roskind did not present historical information but wrote instead about Rastafarian culture in a very spiritual sense. This is a post modernist view when it comes to writing history. He writes using cultural research to influence the way the he writes the book. “Questions are: What is Rastafari? And who is Bob Marley?”7 These are the questions he asks and this is the central theme of the work. This is a different way of looking at Marley’s life – one that helps to explain where he gets the ideas to sing songs such as “One Love”. This song has Rastafarianism undertones and great cultural importance for Jamaica and the Rasta community. Robert Roskind comes to one basic conclusion in his research. Rastafarianism is an extremely complex religion and Bob Marley is accepted as the main messenger of the religion. Even after his passing he is more popular than he was when he was alive. In the journal article “Street-Corner Justice in the Name of Jah: Imperatives for Peace among Dar es Salaam Street Youth” Eileen Moyer writes about the youth in Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, Africa. She writes that the youths really connect with Bob Marley and his views of religion and the values in the songs he sings about poverty and the injustice against the youth. Most of the youth that do follow Bob Marley in the country
Robert Rosking, Rasta Love: Journey Intro One Love, One Love Press, Blowing Rock, North Carolina. 2001, p. 1
12 end up being very poor and are mostly males that have little or no education. They feel Bob Marley speaks to them with his songs. Eileen Moyer writes about Bob Marley’s song “Zimbabwe” and how the lyrics of this song are used by these men as a life lesson. She states that “In this article, I provide examples of how Wamaskani use Marley’s image and lyrics to comment upon and control social situations and social space in the context of an overarching discourse of peace.”8 It is very interesting that she is the only scholar to take a real in-depth look on a certain society and how Bob Marley’s lyrics really affected the society, as well as what it means to history and its influence in the present day culture inside society. Another bibliography that was recently published is Christopher Farley’s Before the Legend: The Rise of Bob Marley. This book gives a great deal of information about Bob Marley’s early life before he was a recording star outside of Jamaica. Christopher Farley writes with the intent of giving the reader a view of Jamaican culture and why and how Bob Marley ended up where he did when he started to become an international icon. Christopher Farley believes that it is more interesting finding out how the person finds his or her personal values and what influenced these values. This book also leads to the question of race when it comes to Marley’s background. Bob Marley is of half European and half African decent. Farley argues that Bob’s father is a not white but he is black too. This raises questions of record keeping during this time in Jamaica which was not of the highest standards. How accurate are the records that he is looking at? He uses oral history when writing about Bob Marley’s past because that is the only way most of his
Eileen Moyer, Street Corner Justice in the Name of Jah: Imperatives for Peace among Dar es Salaam Street Youths, Africa Today vol. 51. No. 3, Youth and Citizenship in East Africa (Spring 2005) p. 34
13 past was kept. This is due to the lack of education amongst the peoples of Jamaica. Not many people read and write in the countryside where Marley grew up. Then there is Chris Salewicz’s book on Bob Marley called Bob Marley The Untold Story. This book, published in 2009, really looks at the oral history stories that have not been published before about Marley. He wanted stories to come to light which other wise would have been lost to time if not written down in this book. Chris Salewicz writes in a chronological fashion from the time Bob Marley was born until he passes away. He tries to explain Jamaican culture but does not go in to great depths about Rastafarianism and the beliefs of voodoo in Jamaica. Instead, he focuses on Bob Marley’s life story and the untold history of Bob Marley during his lifetime. Chris writes that these spoken word stories have to be written down to tell another part of the history of Bob Marley. “In the middle of the 1990’s I found myself living in Jamaica for a couple of years. Almost every day I would hear fresh stories, of lesser or greater significance, about Bob Marley. One day, I sensed that, whilst there, I would write a full biography of the Tuff Gong (Bob Marley’s Nickname).”9 When it comes to the history of Bob Marley and the journals and books written about him or his influences in current culture there is one similarity in style that comes out of these writings. It is that each historian has a post-modern view of Bob Marley’s history. There is also a very strong oral history when it comes to Bob Marley’s history. The physical records are not always there when doing the research, so one relies on oral history comparable to the oral history in slave songs. They were not written down so they only way these accounts survived are orally. 9
Chris Salewicz, Bob Marley The Untold Story Faber and Farber, New York, New York, 2010. p. xi
14 Methodology The research that is needed to prove the thesis argument is comprised of three main primary sources. They are newspapers, audio and video interviews of Bob Marley, and songs that Bob Marley wrote. There is a full picture of what Bob Marley himself wanted to get across and how the media represent him. The most productive way to prove the thesis statement is using quantitative analysis. A quantitative method is going to focus on what words the media used to represent Marley. It can also be used to look at songs Marley wrote and performed themselves. Did Marley write songs just about smoking marijuana? Or did he use the songs to talk about peace and unity? What was the message and vocabulary used in each song? How often was each song played in concert? The numbers that come up do show a convincing pattern. Oral history is also highly important to this thesis. What are the questions the interviewer is asking? Who are the interviews themselves? Are they freelance interviewers or do they work for a certain mass media outlet? There could not be this type of thesis question without these methods of researching history. A Brief History of Robert Nesta Marley Robert Nesta Marley was born on February 6, 1945 in a small town named Nine Miles in the parish of Saint Ann, Jamaica.10 Marley lived in the countryside until he was around 10 years old. This is when his mother Cedella decided to move to Kingston, Jamaica to find a different job then farming the land. There, Marley met some of the people who are called Rastafarians. Marley also met his future band mates Peter
Timothy White, Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley( New York: Henry Holt and Company 1999), 49
15 MacIntosh and Bunny Livingston. 11 Kingston, Jamaica was made up of many ghettos at the time. Marley grew up in a part of Kingston called Trench town. This is where Marley first saw and then met Rastafarians elders. They would be a guiding light for Marley and his new friends for the rest of their lives. The reason for this was that Marleyâ€™s mother decided to leave Kingston for Delaware where she could find more consistent work. She left Marley homeless where he only lived in friendâ€™s houses until he became a popular musician in the late 1960s. In the early 1960s Marley formed a band with MacIntosh and Livingston called the Wailers. They were a hit in Jamaica and had many number one hits. This brought international attention to the band. They eventually signed with Island records. The owner of Island Records was a guy by the name of Christopher Blackwell. Blackwell was originally from Jamaica and he knew Jamaican music. That is why he signed the Wailers to a recording contract in 1973. This lead to Marley and the Wailers touring the world and recording hit records. He became such an important cultural and political figure through his music that in 1976 Marley was shot in an assassination attempt. Many people have theorized that it was a hit by the C.I.A. to silence Marley and his views about one love and unity.12 In 1978 Marley was awarded the United Nations Peace Medal on behalf of 500 million.13 Marley also was said to give most of his money away to less fortunate people all around the world. It is thought by Christopher Blackwell and Rita Marley that Marley helped financially over 5,000 Jamaicans daily at the time of his death.14 By the time Marley passed away from melanoma skin cancer in 1981 he was the number one 11
Ibid. p. 148 Ibid. p. 431 13 Bob Marley, Press Confrence United Nation, 1978 14 Danny Holloway. Interview by Jack Low, 1999 12
16 performer in the world. Marley had the number one grossing tour in Europe in 1980 and set attendance records that still stand to this date. Marley played for over a million people on that tour alone.15 Marley also had several number one music hits all over the world except for North America. Marley sold millions and millions of records.16 Marley was considered the first third world superstar at the time he died. Chapter Overview
Chapter One: Rebel Without a Cause: Bob Marley and his portrayal of North America’s Press This Chapter is the historical study of the perceptions of North America’s press and how they depict Bob Marley when he was a live. Oral history plays a significant part in these chapters, especially in chapter one. There are multiple interviews that Marley gave to the media in North America between the years of 1973 and 1980. The interviews are in audio, video, and print. There is also a quantitative analysis in which there is a comparison of the articles and how the media describe Marley to the North American audience. This chapter also focuses on the social impact the media has when it comes to Bob Marley and how North Americans view Marley the person. Chapter Two: Jamaica’s press and their view of the Tuff Gong This chapter is on the press of Jamaica and their views of Bob Marley. The main source of information for the study is the Jamaica Gleaner which is a newspaper that is printed in Kingston, Jamaica. The objective of this chapter is to research the portrayal of Bob Marley through their media. This chapter also includes oral history with the use of 15 16
Bob Marley, Uprising Tour Book for the United States, 1980 Bob Marley, Uprising Tour Book for the United States, 1980
17 interviews that the press of Jamaica conducted with Marley. The interviewer who conducted the most interviews with Marley in Jamaica is Dermott Hussey. Hussey was employed by JBC, the main television station in Jamaica. Hussey’s interviews are very informative. Hussey is a key figure when it comes to interviewing from 1973 until 1980. The research proves the social impact the media has when it comes to Marley and how the Jamaicans view Marley. Chapter Three: Get Up Stand Up: Bob Marley’s and His Message through Songs When it comes to what type of message Marley is trying to get across to both North America and Jamaica his songs are his message to the people. This chapter is mostly quantitative analysis. What type of songs did Bob Marley play in his concerts? Is there a difference if he plays in North America or Jamaica? What type of words is he using in his songs? What type of songs is he writing and publishing in his records? All of these questions will be answered in this chapter. Chapter Four: Will You Help Me Sing These Songs of Freedom: Conclusion of Research The reason this thesis is so important and historians should be aware of this research is it shows that the press has a larger power over the population then most people might believe. The influence is so powerful that it can take Bob Marley, a true global humanitarian, and turn him in to an exotic wild man who believes in a crazy religion. This is not just the power of one or two individuals. The media has so much power it can change a whole nation’s view in an instant. When the media is racist or biased, it is important for us as individuals to look at our culture and figure out why that
18 is the case. This thesis brings to light how far we still have to go to eliminate these types of ideas from our culture.
19 Chapter 1 Rebel Without a Cause: Bob Marley and his portrayal in North America’s Press
There is always a bias when it comes to press coverage by media outlets. Chapter one is a historical study on the negative and racial biases in the North America press towards Bob Marley. This negative and racial bias only seems to be found in large amounts in the North America press. The way press is run is the reason for the negative and racial biases towards Marley. In Theorizing the Form of Media Coverage over Time Elizabeth Heger Boyle and Andrea Hoeschen write “(media) tends to support the status quo and existing hierarchies.”17 If that is the case, there are many North American primary sources about Marley that help represent this idea. When focusing on North American there are two countries in which their press outlets can be examined for these reasons. The two press outlets that are in question are the United States of America and Canada. This falls right in to what Elizabeth Heger Boyle and Andrea Hoeschen write about. The United States at this time just got through with the racially charged 1960s. There were race riots all over the country; at this time it was the end of segregation in the southern states. Canada itself has a small population of African descent. That both press outlets still push the status quo during this time is a real refection of society they represent. Another reason why the thesis research focuses on these two countries is because both of them use English as their primary language. This makes it easier for researching since the researcher has a rich command of the English language. Researching these press outlets is a way to find out what and how the first world 17
Elizabeth Heger Boyle and Andrea Hoeschen, “Theorizing the form of Media Coverage over Time,” The Sociological Quarterly 42, no.4 (2001): 512.
20 countries depict Bob Marley and his cultural ideas of the time. The time period covered is 1973 to 1980 when he was performing in both countries regularly. Cultural History by John Tosh states “It is an understood not as ‘high’ or ‘low’ culture, but as the web of meanings that characterize a society and hold its members together.”18 Another section of research in this chapter is the audio and video interviews that take place in both countries on the radio and on television stations. This is oral history and is very important when discussing the bias of the media. This can be a very difficult task for any historian. Tosh states “Oral sources are in the fact extremely demanding of the historian’s skills. If the full significance of an oral testimony is to come across, it must be evaluated in conjunction with all the sources pertaining to the locality and people spoken of or else much of the detail will count for nothing.”19 These primary sources paint a view of Bob Marley in the eyes of its North America citizens; the view is a very negative one during his time alive.
The first primary source that is important to this thesis is a source that comes from Canada. The source reflects a negative and racist view of Bob Marley on a televised interview which took place backstage at the Maple Leaf Garden in Toronto on July 8th 1978. When this interview took place, Bob Marley and his band the Wailers were in the middle of the tour across North American in support of their latest album release named Kaya. The word Kaya is used by Jamaicans most commonly when speaking in patois, to mean marijuana.20 Marley himself did not grant many interviews due to his own personal
John Tosh, The Pursuit of History, (Harlow: Pearson Publication, 1996), 247. Ibid, 322. 20 “Jamaican,” http://www.jamaicans.com/dictionary/. 19
21 views of the media. In a 1979 television interview with Dylan Tate in New Zealand Bob Marley shows his own insecurities when it comes to the press when he states “Media… You see, if I ran a newspaper, I would not do a lot of interviews because I know what I want to say, I would get it across. But when I talk to someone who have to go to someone, and then them edit it fe fit up their business… and if it too militant, them try to spread a type of propaganda. I mean, you know the media is a different game. The Media is a media. Control!”21 Bob Marley was more open to give interviews during the 1978 Kaya tour due to his cancelation of the previous year tour in 1977. The 1977 North America tour to support his album Exodus was canceled due to melanoma diagnoses in his toe injury he sustained in Paris, France during the Europe dates that year.22 For this reason only, Marley was more open to the press in 1978 by granting the interviews with the main stream press. Marley was trying to use the North American press solely for promotion of his album. Bob Marley is interviewed by an up and coming reporter named Sandie Rinaldo. Mrs. Rinaldo is still today a reporter for the television company called CTV which broadcasts across Canada.23 Sandie Rinaldo is not just an average television reporter. Her biography states “She was promoted to news anchor of Canada AM and became the first woman in Canadian history to anchor a daily network newscast.”24
Bob Marley, interview by Dylan Tate, Come Along Way, New Zealand TV, April 1979. Timothy White, Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley( New York: Henry Holt and Company 1999), 296 23 “Broad Casting History” http://www.broadcastinghistory.ca/index3.html?url=http%3A//www.broadcastinghistory.ca/networks/networks_CTV_Television.html. 24 “The Hear Truth,” http://www.thehearttruth.ca/sandie_rinaldo/. 22
22 Sandie Rinaldo starts off the interview by making a positive statement about Marley and his efforts during a concert he performed earlier that year in Kingston Jamaica. Marley united on stage the two head rival political party leaders during the One Love Peace Concert.25 Michal Manley and Edward Seaga who at the time were bitter political rivals, representing socialist vs. capitalistic ideology. Soon after the interview starts, Rinaldo gets very negative towards Marley. One of Rinaldo’s first questions towards Bob Marley begins with the comment “But, the things that are very obvious are things like the way you look. The people who are quite conservative in dress think you look quite strange. Plus the fact you advocate the smoking of marijuana.”26 This statement by Rinaldo clearly shows Marley in an extremely negative light and brings up racial connotations. Marley wears his hair in dreadlocks due to his religious beliefs because it is the code of the Nazareth in the bible. Dreadlocks are distinctly African during this time period in 1978. There were very few white dreadlocked people during this time of the interview. Another statement Rinaldo makes to Marley is, “Rastafarianism is popular in Jamaica yet in Canada and the United States it has a bad reputation. These people are associated with drugs and trafficking of marijuana. Let’s get to the facts: people have been arrested and Rastafarians in Toronto have a bad reputation.”27 This second statement by Rinaldo again only points out some negative views about Marley. Marley really does not know how to answers Rinaldo. Marley brings up Jesus Christ and how the government during that time had him arrested and killed. Marley is making a claim that if 25
Adrian Boot and Vivien Goldman, Bob Marley: Soul Rebel-Natural Mystic (London: Hutchinson Publishing, 1981), 54. 26 Bob Marley, interview by Sandie Rinaldo, CTV Television, June 8, 1978. 27 Bob Marley, interview by Sandie Rinaldo, CTV Television, June 8, 1978.
23 people in power can arrest and target people who are different, why would it be any different if police arrested Jamaicans especially Rastafarians due to their dreadlocks? This is a form of racial profiling, through the type of questions that are being presented to Bob Marley during this interview. This also gives credit to the view that Africans are perceived by media outlets in North America as some type of criminal element. Jessica L. Davis and Oscar H. Gandy, Jr. in their article Racial Identity and Media Orientation: Exploring the Nature of Constraint they write “The mass media images of Black males as violent and threatening are examples of reified stereotypes.”28 At the end of the interview Rinaldo tries to give Marley a compliant by saying he sold out the Maple Leaf Gardens which holds 12,000 people. In the middle of making this statement she adds “more half of them white.”29 What is this statement of Rinaldo’s all about? That white people would not like Marley’s music because he is of African decent? Or that Rinaldo is surprised that white people even know about Bob Marley and the Wailers? How could this be possible? How did this band of Jamaicans draw any type of audience that was white? All of these ideas cross the mind when Rinaldo makes such statements. The next primary sources that help give creditability to the thesis statement are the newspaper articles during the time Bob Marley and the Wailers were on tour in North America. There are some great examples of negative and racist biases in these primary sources. Some of the articles evening praise Bob Marley and the Wailers and the writer
Jessica L. Davis and Oscar H. Gandy, Jr, “Racial Identity and Media Orientation: Exploring the Nature of Constraint,” Journal of Black Studies 29, No.3, (1999):368. 29 Bob Marley, interview by Sandie Rinaldo, CTV Television, June 8, 1978.
24 does not even realize that he or she is making a racist or negative statement towards them. The first newspaper article comes from the Toronto Star in June of 1977. The article is a review of Bob Marley and the Wailers new album Exodus.30 This is the article written by Peter Goddard. Goddard is the famous head rock critic for the Toronto Star from the mid 1970s until the late 1980s.31 Goddard puts in comments that have negative connotations to them. The first comment is when he is referring to Bob Marley as “Lion Man.”32 This plays on how most critics felt about Bob Marley’s reggae music during this period. That Marley’s Music is jungle music. This made Marley himself a jungle man that the press presented to their readers. Goddard also states in his article what type of fans Marley fans are. He writes that Marley “has people turning up at his concerts with natty, newly bought guerrilla gear talking about the herb”33 This statement itself portrays Marley and his fans negatively in three different ways. First, it says that Marley’s fans have to be militant bunch of people. Second they have to be dirty with bad hygiene to be fans. The dirty hygiene is a direct correlation between Marley and his dreadlocks and his fan base. The last issue that comes out to be on the negative side is view that all of Marley’s fans need to be talking about and smoking marijuana to understand and even enjoy Marley’s music. Another article that mentions marijuana and Marley is Matthew Kletter’s article in The Michigan Daily, Saturday May 20th, 1978. Kletter writes what seems to be a positive review of the concert, which took place the night before in Ann Harbor, 30
Peter Goddard, “Bob Marley: High Voltage Vinyl,” The Toronto Star, June 19 1977. “Rock Critics Archives” http://rockcriticsarchives.com/features/nerve/nervespeak.html. 32 Peter Goddard, “Bob Marley: High Voltage Vinyl,” The Toronto Star, June 19 1977. 33 Peter Goddard, “Bob Marley: High Voltage Vinyl,” The Toronto Star, June 19 1977. 31
25 Michigan. At the same time he writes comments with negative and stereotypical points of view to them. Kletter writes “After what appeared to be enough time to smoke a joint, the Wailers came back to perform.”34 When doing other research there are very few articles about Led Zeppelin or even Bob Dylan about drugs they used during the concerts. When articles feature Marley, who is from a culturally different background than the critic’s own culture, they tend to be focus negatively on Marley’s ways. Most of the critics have a tendency to add a negative comment even if the comment itself does not have any validity. Kletter was not backstage at the show and he does not comment that the break is extra long between sets. But, Kletter feels it necessary to make a reference towards marijuana. Even more herald rock critics fall in to the same trap when writing about Bob Marley. An interview Marr Damsker conducted with Bob Marley in 1979 in Philadelphia Pennsylvania. “His truth was in reggae music”35 by Matt Damsker the article is a reprint in 1981 from a 1979 press. This happens due to the passing away of Marley from melanoma cancer. Damsker is an author and critic; he has had the privileged to write about the arts and photography for the Los Angeles Times, Hartford Courant, Philadelphia Bulletin, Rolling Stone magazine and other publications. He has a book, "Rock Voices” that was published in 1981 by St. Martin's Press.36 In his 1981 article that was republished, Damsket writes about the interview he conducted before Bob Marley’s performance in Philadelphia in 1979. Damsket writes, “The room smelled of
Matthew Kletter, “Bob Marley on Tour,” The Michigan Daily, May 20, 1978, p.7. Matt Damsker, “Bob Marley,” The Bulletin of Philadelphia, May 17 1981, sec. C3. 36 http://www.beinginpictures.com/pressroom.html 35
26 the sweet and heavy marijuana smoke”37. This is telling the reader that marijuana smoke and Marley go hand and hand. There is no mention of anything else going on in the room. This again is negative when it comes to how people perceive Marley. There is no need to bring up the smell of marijuana smoke unless you want to bring in some type of negative view of Marley and his religious beliefs. It is not about the smoking of marijuana. Yet Marley’s own message was very different, as an interview he gave to NBC in 1978 reveals. Marley states, “My life is only important if me can help plenty people. If me, my life is only for my own securities, I don’t want it. My life is for people.”38 The best example of the negative view North America’s press gave Marley is the 60 Minutes episode which aired in 1979. 60 minutes is a television show that tries to base its show on non biased views and reporting in the media. Its standards are usually very high when it comes to television reporting. In the summer of 1979 they sent a news reporter down to Jamaica to interview Marley and find out more about Rastafarianism. While filming the report 60 Minutes had the chance to interview Marley at his home in Kingston, Jamaica. One of the first questions the reporter asks Marley is, “Do you think any of the Rastas are involved in the killings in Jamaica over the years? Or is that someone else?”39 The response by Bob Marley is “Rasta is involved in progress preaching traditional culture. Rasta no killers they have to do good to be a Rastaman.”40 This question is really negative by connecting Rastafarians with killings. It is also portraying the poor people and Marley badly because most of them are Rastafarian and the Rastafarians most of the time come from the poorer communities. The interviewer is 37
Matt Damsker, “Bob Marley,” The Bulletin of Philadelphia, May 17 1981, sec. C3. Bob Marley, interview by Bruce Marrows, NBC, 1978. 39 Bob Marley, interview by unknown reporter, 60 Minutes, CBS, 1979. 40 Bob Marley, interview by unknown reporter, 60 Minutes, CBS, 1979. 38
27 trying to make a link between Marley, poor people, black people, and killers. The next statement was overdubbed in to the end of the interview, again showing the reporter to have a very negative view on Bob Marley. He states “The ganja smoking Marley, ripped out of his head for most of the day, is hard to take seriously”41 The interviewer really is negative when it comes to his views on Marley and Rastafarianism. The reporter loses his credibility when it comes to his reporting style by adding such flamboyant statements with such negative undertones. These are just a few of the examples of what Marley had to endure while being interviewed during this time. Instead of showing each example of Marley and the negative views most of the press gives Marley during this time, here is a breakdown of the research of the sources and what the numbers show. They tend to show that the mass media does not portray Marley in a positive light. When referring back to the Jack Low Marley archive there is 221 articles that are published in North America during the time period in question. This might be a little deceiving due to the fact that most of the articles did not go in to any great detail about Marley’s life. Most of the articles are advertisements for either concerts or for new albums that are going to be released. But, the articles that are written about Marley’s life, most of them reference marijuana and how Marley’s music is some type of jungle music he is performing. Out of 30 articles with reviews and interviews in North America, 22 of them have a negative aspect about Bob Marley in the article. The next part of the press that the research provided information about is the television portion. Out of the 14 television interviews and reports, 9 of these programs
Bob Marley, interview by unknown reporter, 60 Minutes, CBS, 1979.
28 end up reporting on Marley negatively, by reporting about drugs, violence, and religion. Now the ones that do not report on Marley negatively are the ones that are done by either Rastamen or by people who are from a liberal college community. A few examples of that are the 1979 and 1980 Essex House interviews with Rootsman Chin. Chin himself is a Rastaman and treats Marley respectably during both of the interviews. Lastly, the research that is complied with the audio interviews show some fascinating results. There are 56 audio interviews that have been found when Marley is in North America. Every one of these interviews tends to be very positive when asking questions to Marley. They do their research and are very polite to him. This is a huge difference than the mass mediaâ€™s portrayal of him during the same time. The only conclusion that makes any sense and what the research proves is that most of these interviews are done by people who are from the Caribbean, reggae music fans, and college town students. Out of all of the 56 audio interviews everyone who interviews him with an audio tape fall in to these categories. There are some questions raised with these findings. How can you categorize a person as a reggae fan? This was not as hard as some might think. They were reggae fans by talking to Marley about reggae and all the albums they had of his. They would ask questions about other reggae bands of the time such as Peter Tosh or Burning Spear.
All of these primary and secondary sources are extremely important to the thesis statement. The sources give a clear view of how Bob Marley was portrayed negatively in the North America press during the years he was on tour in both counties. The media portrayed Marley as a person who was only concerned about smoking marijuana in most
29 articles. The press also tries to portray Marleyâ€™s culture as one with negative values. This is clearly the case in both the CTV interview with Sandie Rinaldo and the 60 minutes interview. Both reporters claim there is a criminal element to Marley and his way of life. This in turn ends up hurting Marleyâ€™s public image in North America.
Jamaica’s Press and its view of the Tuff Gong
The way that Bob Marley was portrayed in the Jamaica press during his lifetime is very significant, given the contrast it strikes when compared to the coverage of Marley in both Canada and the United States at the same time. Generally, Marley is interviewed by two different media conglomerates in Jamaica during this time. The first source of press coverage in Jamaica is the Jamaican Gleaner newspaper. The Gleaner is printed out of Kingston, Jamaica’s capital. The Gleaner is intended to be a newspaper that is representative of the whole island of Jamaica not just one city. The second major media source used here is the J.B.C., the Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation. This television and radio station is equivalent to the B.B.C in the United Kingdom. These are the two main Jamaican press outlets which operated between 1973 until 1980 and which this thesis draw upon.
In researching the Jamaican media in order to come to some sort of definitive argument that can be supported, it was necessary that the Gleaner to have had a vast number of articles covering Marley, which it did. This resource alone gives an in depth view of Marley’s life for a better part of a decade. The Gleaner provides information advertising his concerts, and presenting interviews and stories about what is going on in Marley’s life. The Gleaner also helps give the validity to this argument made above,
31 concerning North America’s media and its biases against Marley. The Gleaner itself published 456 articles that mention Marley between 1970 and 1980. Now, some of these articles are just advertisements for concerts while others focus more substantially on Marley, and in particular, on his music and humanitarian work. This is a side of Marley most of the North America press chooses to ignore when it comes to covering Marley. The questions asked in Jamaica usually tend to be very different then the questions asked outside Jamaica in the other media markets. The Jamaican press focuses more on the musical part of Marley’s life, and how important his songs are to his community.
Conducting an interview can be very one sided when the interview is taking place. The chosen questions can bring out the own interview’s biases which in turn play a pivotal part in each individual interview. This is clearly stated by many historians in the 21st century. One example of this is oral history and how interviewer’s biases can change the interview is Sharon Musher The Way the Almighty Wants It: Crafting Memories of Ex: Slaves in the Slave Narrative Collection.42 As written about in the last chapter “Bob Marley and the North America media,” the North American Media seems to focus on issues that have negative and slightly racist views of Bob Marley and his religion of Rastafarianism. These North America media are consistently commenting on his appearance and his views of legalizing marijuana. These types of questions might not catch the normal individual’s attention unless it was brought to their attention. When dealing with the Jamaican media you can really notice a difference in attitudes towards Bob Marley. 42
Sharon Ann Musher, The Way the Almighty Wants It: Crafting Memories of Ex: Slaves in the Slave Narrative Collection, American Quarterly, Columbia Press.
32 Is the difference between Jamaica and North America coverage simply a result of the lack of Jamaican culture in North America society? This question must be explored to give the thesis statement validity. The research proves otherwise - that there is not a lack of knowledge in the North America media market. There was plenty of attention given to Rastafarianism and reggae by North America media before Bob Marley was considered a star and was granting interviews and performing concerts to a larger audience.
Here are just a few examples of media in North America promoting and showcasing Rastafarianism and reggae before 1976 when Bob Marley became an international star with his hit record Rastaman Vibration. This record was the first Bob Marley and the Wailers record to chart in the top ten in the billboard top 100.43 A documentary about reggae and Rastafarians aired on CBS in September of 1975. This documentary is called “Camera Three: Reggae Jamaican Soul.”44 There were also some movies that were hits during the time in question. One such example is Perry Hazels “The Harder They Come” which also reflected the Jamaica and the Rastafarian scene in 1973. This was not the only movie to deal with Jamaican Music and culture at this time. There were movies before that gave an insight to Jamaica ska, the precursor to reggae music. Articles also started to appear in newspapers in the United States and Canada as early as 1970. And article in the Star News from August 27, 1970 is one of the first articles published in the United States the deals with the Rastafarian cult in Jamaica.45 This is a
Timothy White, Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley( New York: Henry Holt and Company 1999), 214 44 Ibid, p.165 45 Ibid, p.303
33 full three years before Bob Marley went on tour with Sly and the Family Stone. The Sly and Family Stone tour was Bob Marley and the Wailersâ€™ first nationwide tour of the United States in support of the first international release, Catch A Fire.46
It appears that some questions frequently asked in the North American media are not asked in the Jamaican media. The Jamaican press, for instance, never asks Marley about what and how much he smokes a day. Not one time is this asked in the 456 articles and 5 radio and television interviews. Another question that is not asked is why Marley believes in Rastafarianism. There is also no statement by the media that asks Bob Marley why he looks strange with his hair matted in dreadlocks. In one interview in the JBC, Bob is asked how his hair turns into dreadlocks? The interviewer does not comment in a negative way that his appearance is at all strange to her.47 This is just the opposite in pretty much the same question that is asked by Sandie Ranaldo of CTV.48 There is also no mention of violence and crime, or any suggestion that Marley and the Rastafarian movement are behind it. The Jamaican media does not ask these questions due to the ignorance of these questions themselves. The media does not pursue these stories, but instead pursue the positive aspects of Bob Marley and his life.
There seems to be a theme when looking at the Jamaican media. The theme of presenting Bob Marley as a hero figure by the end of 1979 and 1980 seems to be coming from one main source of Jamaican media. This theme tends to be more observed by the 46
Timothy White, Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley( New York: Henry Holt and Company 1999), 195 47 Bob Marley, interview by JBC, Television Summer 1975 48 Bob Marley, interview by Sandie Rinaldo, CTV Television, June 8, 1978.
34 JBC radio than anywhere else in the media.49 They started to produce Bob Marley radio specials on a daily base. This was even before anybody in Jamaica knew Bob Marley was sick with melanoma sick cancer. There is a reason for this type of fanatical praise when it comes to Bob Marley is because he is helping so many of his countrymen at this time. However, those reading the North American media would never be exposed to these positive aspects of Marleyâ€™s life and mission.
Here are a few examples of some of the events and actions that Bob Marley involved himself with between 1970 and 1980 and how they were covered by the Daily Gleaner in a positive way. As stated before, these are just a few of the best representations of the Daily Gleaner and its overall reporting of Bob Marley during this time period. This allows us to get an idea of how he was covered in certain events. And what type of articles the Gleaner ran during this time period.
The single most important event Bob Marley help put on in Jamaica was the One Love Peace Concert. The Concert was a homecoming to for Bob Marley who was in a self imposed exiled in London England and in Delaware in the United States for over a year. This was due to the attack on Bob and his entourage in December of 1976 that some say was CIA driven.50 This is where Bob Marley and his wife Rita Marley got shot in an assassination attempt a day before he was to perform a free concert. Bob Marley only agreed to come back to Jamaica to play a concert if he could help settle gang/civil warfare in Jamaica. The Gleaner covers the One Love Peace concert with previews and
The Daily Gleaner, Kingston Jamaica 1980 Timothy White, Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley( New York: Henry Holt and Company 1999), 428 50
35 reviews after the show. In a preview the Gleaner states “His appearance on a concert of this nature would certainly calm a lot of nerves and express to ensure the nation the genuine desire of the youth of the Corporate Area for peace.”51 The Gleaner also states in the same article that this concert is “Bob Marley’s peace Concert.”52 Bob Marley during the concert brought on stage both of the political leaders of Jamaica: the JLP’s Edward Seaga and PNP’s Michael Manley. Both leaders were locked in dispute with one another, a dispute grounded in Manley’s socialist ideology and Seaga’s capitalism ideology. It was the first time both of them had seen in public together in years. This was a very important point in Jamaica history. It was so important that the next day in the Gleaner it was headline news. Seaga himself was so impressed about the ideas of Bob Marley he decided to have a letter sent to Bob Marley and the Gleaner to thank Bob Marley personally and publicly. Seaga writes “Whatever may be the financial outcome of the “One Love” concert on Saturday night, you may be assured of its great success in further promoting the efforts of the campaign for peace intonated in January of the year.”53
Another group of articles in the Gleaner focus strictly on the humanitarian side of Bob Marley and how he gives away money and other items to many different charities throughout Jamaica during this time. These are not press release statements to show that he is giving back to the community. Instead, these are articles the Gleaner decided to pursue, due to the significance of Marley’s actions. One article states “The Black Lion Bakery of the Ethiopian Orthodox Community Development Project has received a van as a donation from the Bob Marley and the Wailers Movement of Jah People 51
The Daily Gleaner, Kingston Jamaica, Saturday April 22 1978 p.2 Ibid, p.2 53 The Daily Gleaner, Kingston Thursday April 27 1978 p.2 52
36 Organization.”54 This is not just any normal bakery, running its operation to serve customers and try to make a profit. This bakery focus is on feeding the hungry and the homeless in Jamaica during this time.55 The second article is about flood relief after a hurricane hit Jamaica in the summer of 1979. “The flood relief fund has received another boost. Bob Marley and the Wailers, one of the island’s foremost reggae bands, donated $9000 to the fund.”56 This again shows how generous Bob Marley was and how he wanted to do humanitarian work. The last article that appears in the Gleaner that gives an overview of the Gleaners coverage of Bob Marley’s humanitarian work states “Bob Marley and the Wailers will be on the show at the National Arena in a concert to celebrate what has been dubbed the International Year of the Rasta Child.”57 These are just a few of the examples of the coverage of Bob Marley’s humanitarian work by the Gleaner. That is just the information of one summer of charity work Bob Marley was a part of during this ten year span.
When it comes to actual interviews in the Jamaican media, there are two sources that continued to interview Marley at this time, the first being the JBC. The JBC did interviews on television and on the radio from 1973 until 1980. The two main people who had the chance to interview Bob Marley for the JBC were Neville Willoughby and Dermot Hussey. Both men had more then a few opportunities to interview Bob Marley from an early on until the day he passed away. Here are some samples of questions that are asked when they interview Bob Marley during these times.
The Daily Gleaner, Kingston Jamaica, June 1 1979 p.11 Ibid, p.11 56 The Daily Gleaner, Kingston Jamaica, July 22 1979 p.2 57 The Daily Gleaner Kingston Jamaica, August 10 1979 p.4 55
37 The first set of questions that are asked is from Neville Willoughby during a set of interviews done at JBC radio station in Kingston in 1973 and in 1978. Neville Willoughby asks Bob Marley in 1973 “Am I right in assuming that Rasta don’t believe in violence, at all?”58 Another question Neville asks Bob Marley during the same interview is “Alright, but what about song writing? You write such a lot of music. Different people write music in different ways. Some sit down write the words then put the music it to it. Some write the music, and then drops the words after? Do you have a process, and exactly what is it, if you have one?”59 This is a clear example of how the Jamaican media treats Bob Marley. He is a musician. In turn, their questions they asked of him really tend to be on the musical side. Another example of this is Dermot Hussey who was the main interviewer for the JBC television station during this time. Here are just a few examples of the type of questions he asked Bob Marley when he was granted interviews with him in 1979 and in 1980. He asks Bob about his time in Wilmington, Delaware. He asks “How was your time in Wilmington when you use to rehearsal in the basement when you lived there?”60 Another example “Bob have you every performed in Trenchtown the Wailers since you lived there. Has the Wailers ever given a concert there?”61 Again, Dermot and the Jamaican Media as a whole focus on the music itself as the main topic when interviewing Marley. That is not the case in the United States and in Canada. There is not one question that this research has produced from those media outlets that asked Bob Marley about how he produced songs. They seem not to care about things beyond the negative and obvious differences about him as a person. 58
Bob Marley, Neville Willoughby, Interview JBC Kingston Jamaica 1973 Bob Marley, Neville Willoughby, Interview JBC Kingston Jamaica 1973 60 Bob Marley, Dermot Hussey, Interview JBC Kingston Jamaica 1979 61 Bob Marley, Dermot Hussey, Interview JBC Kingston Jamaica 1979 59
38 This is just a sampling of the interviews and media coverage in Jamaica during 1970 through 1980. These interviews and media coverage all tend to be the same when it comes to covering Bob Marley: positive and non-racial. There are no questions about how he looks funny or how he might be part of some negative group such as the bad gang of out law people. The biases in the Jamaican media seem to be more positive. The reporting just doesnâ€™t have the same negative connotations that the North America media has towards Bob Marley.
In the next chapter the research focuses on the message Bob Marley was trying to get across with his songs. What did Marley himself want people to know about him? Is he the threatening person that he is made out to be by the North America media? Or is he truly a humanitarian that only wants to help underprivileged people around the world unite and promote peace? By researching his lyrics and what songs he sang in concert there is a concrete answer to the question. What is Bob Marleyâ€™s message to the people of the world?
39 Chapter 3: Get Up Stand Up: Bob Marley’s and His Message through Songs
In the last two chapters there was a focus on how the press represents Bob Marley in both North America and in his own Jamaica. There is a clear distinction in how each of the presses chose to report on Marley and their views of his message. In this chapter the research focuses on how Marley represented himself during this same time. The way this is accomplished is to evaluate what songs Marley recorded during this time period and what type of songs Marley would play to the different crowds attending his shows. These songs represent Marley’s message – a message that he wanted to get across to the people in these different regions. To show Marley’s own message the use of quantitative analyst is necessary. Tosh states in his book The Pursuit of History the reason for quantitative analysis: “Given the special authority that figures carry in our numerate society, the obligation to subject quantitative data to tests of reliability is at least as great as in the case of literary sources.”62 In this chapter there is a quantitative analyst of what songs he played during the tours in North America and Jamaica. Since there is a high volume of audio recordings in my person archive of each tour, this makes this analysis possible. There is also research and a quantitative analysis of the songs Marley recorded for his studios albums during the same time period that can also be drawn on. The quantitative analysis is important in determining if there is a reason for the North America press to have these negative biases towards Marley and his message. Did the North America press has a true reason to be negative towards Marley and his message? If not, is this proof of
John Tosh, The Pursuit of History, Pearson Publishing, London, 1996 p.138
40 underlining biases towards Rastafarian culture, or the African ethnicity by the North America press? There is a conscious decision to eliminate the first two tours in this quantitative analysis. They are the tours for the albums Catch a Fire (1973) and the Burninâ€™ tour (1974). This is not due to choice but to the lack of knowledge about the tour. This is due to the lack of the official and non official recordings of these two tours that are known to exist. The ratio of dates and tapes makes it impossible to study and come up with a strong argument about the songs Marley sung and the message he was trying to get across to different audiences during this time. The first question that needed to be addressed is how to divide the songs into categories? In the concerts and in the studio albums the decision was to breakup the research by the type of songs Bob Marley chose to record for each of the albums and perform at each concert. In researching this material I decided to go by year and to link the album to the tour it supports. The focus of the research is what songs Marley performed and what the meaning of each song is. Songs can mean different things to different people. This made the decision even harder. The songs are broken in to groups by words alone. The four categories that the songs are broken up into are Religious Songs, in which Marley reflects of his spiritual beliefs, marijuana songs in which Marley incorporates his use of marijuana, rebellious songs in which Marley focuses on people in poverty who are falling between the cracks of society, and finally love songs.
Letâ€™s first focus on the Natty Dread Album and the 1975 tour of North America and the concerts held in Jamaica. Marley went out tour to support his new album Natty
41 Dread following its release in late 1974. The tour started in North America on June 5th, 1975 and ran until July 13th. Out of the 13 different concert venues visited on the North American tour there are 9 audio tapes of the concerts in the Jack Low Marley Archive. Out of the 9 audio tapes 8 of them are complete and do not cut in anyway. The one concert that is not in full comes from Agora Ballroom in Cleveland, Ohio on June 13, 1975. Now aside from US dates, Marley also played two shows in Jamaica that year. There is only one recording from these shows, recorded on October 4 1975. Chart 1 shows the quantitative analyst of Marleyâ€™s 1975 tour of North America, the show in Jamaica, and his Natty Dread studio album. To give the data a visual look that can show what songs Marley focused on in each concert, an average was used for the charts. As the data shows on chart 1, Marley chose to focus on rebel songs for his North America audiences. This changes when he sings in Jamaica and records his studio album. Marley chose to focus on his more religious songs for his home country of Jamaica while playing to live audiences. In the studio, he produced an equal range of song choices spanning rebel songs, religious songs and love songs.
Chart 1 1974 / 1975 Album and Tour 12 10 Average 8 Number of 6 Songs 4 2 0
Love Song Religious Rebel Song Marij. Song JA.
In 1976, Bob Marley recorded a new album called Rastaman Vibration and again went on a tour of North America and played a show in his home country of Jamaica.63 Rastaman Vibration had more of a religious feel than any album to date. One example of this is the song War. This is a song based on a speech made by Haile Selassie to the United Nations in San Francisco in 1963.64 The tour itself started off very differently than any other tour before or after this year. Most of the early dates in North America started with a Rastafarian chant at the start of the show. This is change to the starting numbers from previous tours where Marley would start the show with the upbeat Trench Town Rock. Out of the 20 concerts that Bob Marley performed in North America, 16 were preserved on audio tape. Marley performed only one concert in Jamaica in 1976, which fortunately was filmed. Below, chart 2 provides the break down of songs from the 63 64
Ibid. p.269 Ibid. p.284
43 concerts in 1976 and the Rastaman Vibration album. This chart illustrates the change of focus of songs Marley was performing and recording during this period. Marley focuses on his Rastafarian religious songs more during 1976. In North America there are still no songs that focus on marijuana.
Chart 2 Songs in 1976 10 8 Average Number of Songs
Love Song Religious Rebel Song Marij. Song
4 2 0
The following year, 1977, found Marley in self-imposed exile following an attack on him in Jamaica and did not perform any shows in Jamaica that year. Marley did record a new album named Exodus, however, which was another hit record. Marley then planned to tour North America but was forced to cancel following an injury to his toe sustained in a soccer match.65 As for the album Exodus there are 5 love songs, 3 rebel songs, and 2 Rastafarian songs.66 When Marley finally healed from his soccer injury, he went back on tour and released another album. This album was the first album where Marley starts to reference
Ibid p.296 Bob Marley, Exodus, Island Records 1977
44 marijuana in his songs. Marley called this 1978 album Kaya. Kaya is a slang term in Jamaica for marijuana. 67 Marley sings about marijuana in two of the songs on the album. That year, on the 1978 Kaya tour, Marley turned more to love songs and less to rebel and religious songs. Marley only played one show in Jamaica that year in which the concert was taped on video and audio. The North American tour was the largest to date, due to his increasing popularity and due to his missed tour in 1977. Out of the 28 different places Marley played in 1978 in North America, there are 20 complete tapes of the shows. It is clearly visible on chart 3 that Marley starts to sing about marijuana during this year. There are also no songs about his religion on the Kaya album. This would be the first and only time that Marley would not have religious songs on an album during his lifetime.
Chart 3 Songs in 1978 9 8 7 6 Average of 5 4 Songs 3 2 1 0
Love Song Religious Rebel Song Marij. Song J.A.
Places of Songs
Timothy White, Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley( New York: Henry Holt and Company 1999), 229
45 In 1979, Marley’s next album, Survival, was released. That year, Marley would also perform more than one show in Jamaica - a first since 1975. Marley also extensively toured North America – the largest tour of North America during his lifetime. The Survival album he was promoting was also his most militant. It is an album in which he reflects on Africa and the hope for its unity. Out of the 32 different places Bob Marley performed in 1979 there are 18 full concert tapes. An interesting contrast to the previous years is that in 1979, there is a lack of songs about marijuana. There is also a lack of love songs on Marley’s album Survival.
Chart 4 Songs 1979 12 10 Average of Songs
Love Song Religious Rebel Song Marij. Song
6 4 2 0
In 1980, Bob Marley recorded and preformed for the last time. He recorded his last album named Uprising, released in the summer of 1980, followed by a tour of Europe. From chart 5 you can see that he plays no dates in Jamaica, due to the political violence that had grown out of control in 1980. Marley in fact never went back to Jamaica, and was told by high ranking government officials not to return during his break
46 from touring in the summer in 1980.68 During this tour, Marley seems to shift from rebel songs to songs more about his Rastafarian beliefs. Some of his biographers claim the reason for this shift was the result of his knowledge that cancer was growing in him by that time. As a result of his progressing cancer, Marley could only play five shows in North America, before canceling the tour. Fortunately, every show of the tour in North America was recorded – a historic first. This makes the 1980 tour of North America the most historically accurate source of information concerning Marley’s current views and his idea of what type of songs he wants to sing to his audience.
Chart 5 1980 12 10 Average of Songs
8 Love Song Religious Rebel Song Marij. Song
6 4 2 0
In light of the research presented above, there are some conclusions which can be convincingly drawn regarding Bob Marley’s message. Marley’s main message can be labeled rebel music and concerns the people who suffered in the ghetto. This was something very important to him – something made clear by the frequency with which he performed such rebel songs. As for songs about his religion, Marley sang them as well as love songs on the same scale to North American audiences. Marley does not do this in 68
47 Jamaica because he wants to talk more about what will get the home crowd excited. He tends to sing more about his Rastafarian roots while singing in Jamaica. When it comes to singing about marijuana, Marley seems not to care too much about the subject. Even though he partakes in the practice of smoking marijuana, the evidence presented here shows that he did not feel like he had to push this idea in anyway in Jamaica or to his North American audiences. This gets us back to the question of why the North American press reported so heavily on marijuana, when it seemed to be such a small concern to Marley. Does the evidence suggest that the press had negative ideas about Marley that they wanted to communicate to their audiences? Is this due to racial or cultural prejudices?
Chapter 4: Will You Help Me Sing These Songs of Freedom: Conclusion of Research The last song officially released during Bob Marley’s lifetime is Redemption Song. Marley wanted the world to sing his songs of freedom with him. Marley’s hope was for world peace, where people could stop looking at skin color and start looking at people’s morals. That’s the way to judge a person - Not by the color of his or her skin, haircut, or where he or she grew up. My research provides some understanding as to why North America’s press portrayed Marley as a rebel without a cause. To audiences in North America, he was singing songs of rebellion, but most of the television and newspaper press that interviewed Marley during this time did not understand him, or the reason for his rebellion. Why would the press think Marley was only about rebellion? Marley gave them a reason by playing very rebellious songs during his concerts in North America. Marley would end most of his shows with Get Up Stand Up. Marley rarely played his songs that where more about peace. The song One Love comes to mind. In all of my research, Marley appears to only perform that song only one time in America, in his 1978 show in Lennox, Massachusetts. The press did not try to research Marley and his message and try to figure out why and what he was fighting for. Instead, North America’s major press outlets decided to use negative words to describe Marley and his music. This raises the question, is North America afraid of change? Do we as people look at people differently due to what they wear and look like? Clearly this was the case when it came to Bob Marley in the 1970s. Have we not made strides in racial and social movements in the
49 past thirty years? The answer is not as clear as one might think. This is the reason for this research. It is not just about Bob Marley and how some members of the press might view him during this time period. It is really about our society as a whole. People often ask me why I chose history as a major in college. I have been told there is no money in it. How can you support a family? Every time I tell them it is not just about the research and telling an interesting story. The real point in studying historical methods is to use history and the research to make this world a better place right now. Can you critically think about the information that you are given and make better decisions that can help the world? Can you find the patterns hidden in lost accounts? Can you see the biases and understand why people write what they write? This Bob Marley thesis answers this, with the information that is presented concerning the songs he wrote and how people portrayed him in the press. This research is put together to help people understand how we as a society treat outsiders if they are different. This thesis also has a major impact on the person or persons who are treated that way. Yes, Marley was famous but he was not as famous as he could have been if the press were more positive towards him. When he was breaking attendance records in Europe, Marley could barely sell out a 3 thousand seat concert hall in North America. Why was that? You might think, well some groups do better in other countries than in the United States. This is not true when it comes to Marley. Only three years after Marley passed away, his album Legend was released and became one of the best selling albums of all time in North America. The Jamaican press really treated Marley differently. They knew his background, which affected the treatment Marley received. The Jamaican press does not
50 treat Marley as a hero figure until late in his life. They ask questions about his songs and want to know when the next album is coming out. They do not care about his religious views. The Jamaica press cares about his actions and asks about his kids in a very welcoming way. This shows that even though some Jamaicans at the time were not sure about the Rastafarians, they knew Marley was a good person and knew that Rastafarians were not bad people in society. In conclusion Marley was a man on a mission. Marley wanted freedom and equal rights for all people. The press in North America did not see it that way. They wanted to make Marley out to be a bad influence due to stereotypical views held in North America. This is proven to be true from the research presented in this thesis. I hope people can take this research that I have conducted and help change the world.
Bibliography Primary Sources Damsker, Matt, “Bob Marley,” The Bulletin of Philadelphia, May 17, 1981, sec. C3. Goddard, Peter, “Bob Marley: High Voltage Vinyl,” The Toronto Star, June 19, 1977. Kletter, Matthew, “Bob Marley on Tour,” The Michigan Daily, May 20, 1978, p.7. Marley, Bob. Interview by Bruce Marrows, NBC, 1978. Marley, Bob. Interview by unknown reporter, 60 Minutes, CBS, 1979. Marley, Bob. Interview by Sandie Rinaldo, CTV Television, June 8, 1978 Marley, Bob. Interview by Dylan Tate, Come Along Way, New Zealand TV, April 1979. Marley, Bob. Interview by JBC, Television Summer 1975 Marley Bob, Exodus, Island Records 1977 The Daily Gleaner, Kingston Jamaica, Saturday April 22 1978 p.2 The Daily Gleaner, Kingston Jamaica, June 1 1979 p.11 The Daily Gleaner, Kingston Jamaica, July 22 1979 p.2 The Daily Gleaner, Kingston Jamaica, August 10 1979 p.4
52 Secondary Sources Books Boot, Adrian and Vivien Goldman, Bob Marley: Soul Rebel-Natural Mystic London: Hutchinson Publishing, 1981. Rosking Robert, Rasta Love: Journey Intro One Love, One Love Press, North Carolina: Blowing Rock, 2001 Salewicz, Chris, Bob Marley The Untold Story, New York: Faber and Farber, , 2010. White, Timothy, Catch A Fire, New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1999.
Jack Low Archives Live Concerts Marley Bob, Live Concert, Massey Hall, Toronto, Canada, June 08 1975, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Quite Knight Club, Chicago, June 10 1975, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Agora Ballroom, Cleveland, June 16 1975, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Schaefer Music Festival, NY, June 18 1975, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Manhattan Center, New York, June 21 1975, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Paul's Mall, Boston, MA, June 2? 1975, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Paul's Mall, Boston, MA, June 25 1975, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Boarding House, San Francisco, California, July 07 1975 Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, the Roxy, Hollywood, CA, July 10 1975, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, National Stadium, Kingston, JA, October 04 1975 Cassette. Marley Bob, Live Concert, Tower Theatre, Upper Darby, April 23 1976, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Boston Music Hall, Boston, "Early Show" April 25 1976, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Boston Music Hall, Boston, "Late Show" April 25 1976, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Beacon Theater, NY, "Early Show" April 30 1976, Cassette.
54 Marley Bob, Live Concert, Beacon Theater, NY,"Late Show" April 30 1976 Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Beacon Theater, NY, "Early Show" May 01 1976, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Beacon Theater, NY, "Late Show" May 01 1976, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Convocation Hall, Toronto, Canada "Early Show" May 05 1976, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Convocation Hall, Toronto, "Canada Late Show" May 05 1976, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Orchestra Hall, Minneapolis, Minnesota, May 13 1976, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Hofheinz Pavilion, Houston, Texas, May 20 1976, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, San Diego Sports Arena, San Diego, CA, May 25 1976, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, The Roxy, Hollywood, CA, LA, May 26 1976, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, The Paramount Theatre, Oakland, CA, May 30 1976, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Smile Jamaica, Kingston, Jamaica, December 05 1976, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, One Love Peace Concert, Jamaica, April 22 1978, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Madison, WI, USA "Early Show", May 25 1978, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Madison, WI, USA "Late Show", May 25 1978, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Landmark Theater, Syracuse, New York, June 03 1978, Cassette.
56 Marley Bob, Live Concert, The Spectrum, Philadelphia, PA, June 05 1978, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Music Hall, Boston, MA, "Early Show", June 08 1978, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Forum Concert Bowl, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, June 09 1978, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Maple Leaf Gardens, Toronto, Canada, June 10 1978, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, June 14 - Pine Crest Country Club, Connecticut, June 14 1978, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Capital Center, Landover, Maryland, June 16 1978, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Madison Square Garden, New York, June 17 1978, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Music Inn, Lenox, MA, June 18 1978, Cassette.
57 Marley Bob, Live Concert, Queen Elizabeth Theatre, Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 14 1978, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Paramount Theatre, Seattle, Washington, July 15 1978, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Paramount Theatre, Portland Oregon, July 16 1978, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Civic Cerntre, Santa Cruz, CA, "Early Show", July 18 1978, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Greek Theatre, Berkeley, CA, July 20 1978, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Santa Barbara, County Bowl, July 23 1978, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Starlite Bowl, Burbank, July 24 1978, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, The Warehouse, New Orleans, July 30 1978, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, August 05 - Jai Alai Fronton, Miami, FL, August 05 1978, Cassette.
58 Marley Bob, Live Concert, Apollo Theatre, Harlem, October 25 1979, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Apollo Theatre, Harlem, October 2? 1979, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Apollo Theatre, Harlem, October 2? 1979, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Apollo Theatre, Harlem, "Early Show", October 28 1979, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Apollo Theatre, Harlem, "Late Show", October 28 1979, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Maple Leaf Garden, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, November 01 1979, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, The Forum, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, November 02 1979, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Dane County Coliseum, Madison, Wisconsin, November 11 1979, Cassette.
59 Marley Bob, Live Concert, Uptown Theatre, Chicago, IL, November 13 1979, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Northrup Auditorium, Minnesota, November 15 1979, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Paramount Theatre, Seattle, November 20 1979, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Pauley Pavilion, UCLA, CA, November 23 1979, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, San Diego Sports Arena, San Diego, CA, November 24 1979, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Santa Barbara County Bowl, CA, November 25 1979, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Sugar Ray Robinson Benefit, The Roxy LA, November 27 1979, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Oakland Coliseum, Oakland, CA, November 30 1979, Cassette.
60 Marley Bob, Live Concert, Civic Centre, Santa Cruz, "Early Show", December 02 1979, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Hoch Auditorium, Kansas, December 06 1979, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Hoch Auditorium, Kansas, December 06 1979, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN, December 08 1979, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, JB Hynes Auditorium, Boston, September 16 1980, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Meehan Auditorium, Providence, RI, September 17 1980 Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Madison Square Gardens, NYC, September 19 1980, Cassette.
61 Marley Bob, Live Concert, Madison Square Gardens, NYC, September 20 1980, Cassette.
Marley Bob, Live Concert, Stanley Theatre, Pittsburgh, September 23 1980, Cassette.
Interivews Marley, Bob. Interview, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 09, 1975.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Richard Cromelin, July 13, 1975.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Dermont Hussey, J.B.C., September 1975.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Stephen Davis, March 03, 1976.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Rob Bowman, May 04, 1976.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Jeff Cathro, May 30, 1976.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Dave Fricke, March 17, 1978
Marley, Bob. Interview by Neville Willoughby, April 1978.
62 Marley, Bob. Interview in Landmark Theater, Syracuse, New York, June 03,
Marley, Bob. Interview by reporters UN Peace Medal, Waldorf Astoria, New York, June 15, 1978.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Ruthie Luck, July 08, 1979.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Neville Willoughby, August 10, 1979.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Tom Terrell, 89.3 WFM, October 1979.
Marley, Bob. Interview by October Tom Terrell, October 1979.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Bingie Barker, November 03, 1979.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Jay Strausser, November 05, 1979.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Randall Grass, November 07, 1979.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Black Music Press, November 10, 1979.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Roger Steffens: November.
63 Marley, Bob. Interview by Radio FM97, November 29, 1979.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Gil Noble, Like It Is, September 1980.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Jan Wolf, September 04, 1980.
Marley, Bob. Interview by WMJX Radio, September 14, 1980.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Stephen Davis, September 15, 1980.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Peter Simon, WBRU FM, September 17, 1980.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Ron Sinclair, J.B.C, October.
Marley, Bob. Interview by Jay Strausser, November.
Scholarly Journals and Books Boyle, Elizabeth Heger and Andrea Hoeschen, “Theorizing the form of Media Coverage over Time,” The Sociological Quarterly 42, no.4 (2001): 512. Davis, Jessica L. and Oscar H. Gandy, Jr, “Racial Identity and Media Orientation: Exploring the Nature of Constraint,” Journal of Black Studies 29, No.3, (1999):368. Hamid, Ansley, The Ganja Complex Rastafari and Marijuana, Lexington Books, New
64 York, New York, 2002. Kitzinger, Sheila, Protest and Mysticism The Rastafari Cult of Jamaica, The Journal of Study of Religion, Vol. 8. No. 2 (autumn, 1969) Blackwell Publishing, 1969. Moyer Eileen , Street Corner Justice in the Name of Jah: Imperatives for Peace among Dar es Salaam Street Youths, Africa Today vol. 51. No. 3, Youth and Citizenship in East Africa (Spring 2005) pp.31 – 58 Musher, Ann Sharon, The Way the Almighty Wants It: Crafting Memories of Ex: Slaves in the Slave Narrative Collection, American Quarterly, and Columbia Press. Tosh, John, The Pursuit of History, (Harlow: Pearson Publication, 1996), 247.
Other http://www.beinginpictures.com/pressroom.html “Rock Critics Archives” http://rockcriticsarchives.com/features/nerve/nervespeak.html. “Broad Casting History”, http://www.broadcastinghistory.ca/index3.html?url=http%3A//www.broadcasting history.ca/networks/networks_CTV_Television.html. “Jamaican,” http://www.jamaicans.com/dictionary/. “The Hear Truth,” http://www.thehearttruth.ca/sandie_rinaldo/
Published on May 2, 2011
A Rebel with Conflicting Images: Bob Marley’s Portrayal by the Press From 1973-1980 by Jack Low