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RESEARCH

REES CLANCY

FINAL MAJOR PROJECT 2021

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RESEARCH

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IDEAS

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VISUAL RESEARCH

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TYPOGRAPHY & LAYOUT

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DEVELOPMENT

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MATERIALS & PRINT

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EVALUATION

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PHOTOS

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RESEARCH

The Major Project enables you to consolidate both your knowledge and practice. This unit gives you the opportunity to relate your work to a practical solution and to demonstrate your skills in defining, analysing and developing a substantial solution(s) to a defined area of Visual Communication. You are required to demonstrate both in content and form your understanding of Visual Communication practice appropriate to the level of Honours degree study. You will research and document your project, as this will be an integral part of your submission. You will reflect on the process, as well as the critical analysis and methodology of your research, which will be integrated within the practical work. Your chosen area of study must allow you the opportunity to position your ideas and practice and apply the appropriate technologies as a means of delivery and communication. Defining your project is very much part of how you place your ideas and practice and it is your responsibility to ensure that your proposed area of practice has the potential necessary to demonstrate the achievements appropriate to the learning outcomes. You will apply your specialist and creative abilities to produce work to a high professional standard.

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EARLY IDEAS

When starting the Final Major Project it was important to consider how this piece will fit into my portfolio and influence the future of my career as I leave university. This project is also a substantial body of work so I was also thinking about the topics I was covering and whether they could offer enough exploration and research to develop my skills as a designer. My main interests lie in editorial/branding/UI which I considered when thinking about potential project routes. Aside from developing technical skills through the process of designing, I also planned to better my knowledge of business and markets, particularly how new technologies can have influence. Through incorporating this into the research and theme of the FMP, I hoped that the project could position me at the forefront of emerging tech markets. At this time, NFTs and Crpyto Art were just starting to enter the mainstream and seemed to offer a lot of potential opportunity for projects. This seemed like a good sphere to get involved with and formed the basis of the project for the first couple of months. I did a lot of research into the potential uses for Crypto in various industries,

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which can be found on my blog, although in the end I decided to create a different kind of project. Still, the earlier work involving NFTs and Crypto Art informed the final idea and provided some interesting research and experiments. I collected my ideas in the form of a mind-map, informed by the research I was reading into about the potential uses for NFTs and Crypto. These ideas covered a wide range but mainly revolved around bringing NFTs into an industry I have an interest in, such as music or typography. For example, block-chain technology could shake up ticket selling, rights management or offer new ways for artists to earn revenue through NFT collectibles in the music scene.


SKETCHBOOK AND DRAWINGS OF NFT FRAME CONCEPT

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CRYPTO ART AND DIGITAL FASHION

After some exploration into block-chain for the music industry, I went back to the art sphere. I had a few concepts, like hosting and branding a crypto art exhibition. One of the ideas that seemed strongest at first was about bringing Crypto Art from digital into the real world. I sketched out ideas for a digital photo frame linked to the user's NFT wallet, giving the collectibles a way of being shown off in the real world. Some research also led to a Reddit forum discussing how this could be achieved with some reasonably basic materials and a Raspberry Pi. With this idea I had also thought about branding and promoting the frame. From here my focus moved away from art towards digital fashion, another industry that was experimenting with NFTs and new digital technologies. A couple of digital-only fashion houses have cropped up in the past few years, designing clothes that are purely digital without using real materials.

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Some have began selling pieces as wearable NFTs, where clothing is manually added to a photo, although improved AR technology will allow for real-time in the next few years. Additionally, highend brands such as Balenciaga have begun showing off their new collections in a purely digital space. Ideas relating to digital fashion included a scheme for people to trade in their old clothes for an NFT piece, or creating a marketplace for the trading of digital clothing. The strongest concept was for a digital fashion magazine. Similar to a traditional fashion magazine, it would cover new releases and interviews etc but for digital-only fashion. I designed some basic spreads but after some further research I got the impression that there just wasn't enough content yet (retrospectively the digital fashion space grew quickly over the course of the FMP).


Satoshi Nakamoto Intro

https://nakamoto.com/a-brief-history-of-money/ https://www.coinbase.com/learn/crypto-basics/who-is-satoshi-nakamoto https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YWh6Yzr12iQ&ab_channel=ReasonTV Never spoke on the phone – only email and PMs, never answered any personal questions, only about code.

Cypherpunks and Crypto Wars https://medium.com/swlh/the-untold-history-of-bitcoin-enter-the-cypherpunks-f764dee962a1 https://www.activism.net/cypherpunk/manifesto.html https://nakamoto.com/the-cypherpunks/ https://www.nytimes.com/1994/06/12/magazine/battle-of-the-clipper-chip.html - An article from 1994 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HDKQulqVCQg&list=PLBuns9Evn1w-T2RwqMhUnTZbTTe-Mg42&index=4&ab_channel=ReasonTV – 4 mins – talks about ‘Cypherpunks write code’ and how the adoption of technology makes change, not political lobbying. Cryptography mainly used by militaries before 1970. Made illegal and classed as a munition by the US. Enter Cypherpunks Cypherpunk manifesto Protests against censorship and surveillance. Adam Back RSA Email Signature. Tattoos and T shirts Laws on cryptography changed. Success of Phil Zimmerman, SLL HTTPS. First crypto wars won. Cypherpunks believed this was not enough – you need a sovereign economy. 2 forms of governments getting money – taxes and printing. Cypherpunks believed printing was form of theft. For an economy to be free it should not have a central party overseeing it, governments intervening. Double spend problem for digital economy PayPal etc use centralised systems David Chaum eCash (algorithm) and DigiCash (company) First published in 1982, later improved. Quick explanation of how it works Went bankrupt in 1998 Main weakness – relied on single company. Needs to be decentralised. E-Gold (mention Hashcash) 1996, two years before PayPal Backed by gold Transferred $2bn/year Overrun by scammers, hackers etc Found guilty of money laundering etc. Proved that regulators did not want digital currency to exist Cypherpunks needed non-collateral form of money – without centralization chokepoint (backed by gold/bank) Need to enforce scarcity b-money (Wei Dai) and BitGold (Nick Szabo) Similarities/differences with each other and Bitcoin Vulnerable to sybil attacks Both theoretical, no actual code etc, but laid groundwork for Bitcoin

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IDEA REFINEMENT

At this point I was struggling to pinpoint a topic or project to commit to within the area of NFTs. I was also aware that the NFT trend could be short lived and I was possibly already behind the curve. This led me to look into other areas loosely similar to my previous research, such as Bitcoin mining and the environmental impact of cryptocurrencies, theft and money laundering in art, as well as dystopian futures. Researching these topics made me realise that a more journalistic style of project would be a better option and could push the FMP past a wall I had hit. When I first discovered the story of Satoshi Nakamoto, Bitcoin's disappeared inventor, it hadn't immediately stuck out as the basis for a project. The information I looked at wasn't very comprehensive and it didn't seem like there would be enough content for a sustained project of this size. It wasn't until further research later on that I found intruiging theories about Satoshi's identity and clues such as the message hidden in the genesis block, which suggested there was a bigger picture than immediately obvious through basic research. Though scattered around the internet and quite difficult to piece together, I found enough content to form an interesting look into Bitcoin's foundations and the identity of Satoshi Nakamoto. The difficulty of finding a comprehensive documentation of this topic, although a challenge, also made me more confident about the value of the project. Bitcoin is now a well known phenomenon and the crypto space has a huge number of hardcore followers, so bringing the complete story of Satoshi Nakamoto into one thorough editorial piece, I felt, was worthwhile.

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Once I had made the decision to commit to this route for the FMP the next step was to gather a detailed body of content for the editorial. I collected information in a document to build up my own knowledge about the subject and begin piecing together a narrative. I also collected archived emails, forum posts and other pieces of evidence that would offer a deep look into how the story unfolded and inspire some thinking about images and the visual style of the piece. A reoccurring theme of government resistance and ground up computer projects formed the way I approached the aesthetic of the book, especially with the undesigned feel of the archived evidence featured. Now that I had gathered the content and formed a better narrative/theme for the editorial, I could consider the intended audience better. Fans of crypto and technology in general are an obvious audience, however I also wanted to avoid alienating a wider crowd. While some basic technological aspects are explained and notable figures mentioned, the main focus of the piece is uncovering the identity of Satoshi Nakamoto. I aimed to provide a detailed insight without overwhelming the reader by carefully filtering the content. I also tried to form an interesting narrative that flows well and pieces together an otherwise scattered story into something comprehensive. Based off the themes of the content, I had three main styles I was looking to incorporate into the project: Computers and coding, IDs and case files, and anarchist/punk.


RESEARCH

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JACK LATHAM

SUGAR PAPER THEORIES

This book was originally published in 2016 by herepress, printed onto bible paper and uncoated coloured paper. It covers the mystery of a double murder in Iceland during 1974 and the false convictions that followed. The real murderer has never been found. Latham photographed places and people involved with the case, challenging the idea of memory with archival material also.

The combination of imagery and text creates an almost case-file feel to Sugar Paper Theories, which also inspired the look of my project. It achieves this subtly through its design choices, rather than using in-your-face obvious references. This research helped guide the overall aesthetic and feel of the book, and after this I looked into ways of manipulating images.

The aesthetic uses subtle ways to tell the story without being too literal which helps to draw the reader in. This is something I aimed to capture in my piece through the way I selected photos. I also found the coloured paper to be used successfully in this example, the roughness helps to separate modern and archived content, and is complemented by the minimal text.

"I feel there is an interesting power dynamic when combining photographs that were used with evidence, It creates a tension and authority that perhaps shouldn’t be there."

310 x 230mm, 180pp Printed offset litho on uncoated FSC, bible paper and recycled coloured paper Perfect bound card cover with cloth spine Co-published with The Photographers’ Gallery Edition of 1000 https://www.itsnicethat.com/articles/jack-latham-sugar-paper-theories-publication-photography-071019

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RESEARCH

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ALBA ZARI

THE Y

Zari is a designer with a background in cinema and Additionally, the film negatives add a darker tone documentary photography. In her project 'The Y', to the piece with more mystery. The hooded figure she documented her experience of looking for the creates the sense of an almost ethereal person identity of her birth father. The piece has combines which I felt could be applied to Satoshi Nakamoto. Alba's own photographs with copies of family portraits, DNA reports and 3D models into a book "I have always thought of this project as a that forms an archive of her research. photobook. I have collected every little trace and piece of evidence in a folder that holds the The ID photo aesthetic stuck out to me as s0mething chronological journey of the research." to experiment with for my project. Removing parts of the face also helps assist the idea of an unknown identity and creates a nice dynamic for the imagery.

160 Pages 16.5 x 24 cm Soft cover perfect binding 500 copies 48 pages on GSK paper https://www.itsnicethat.com/articles/alba-zari-the-y-photography-publication-300719

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RESEARCH

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STEFAN SAGMEISTER

THINGS I HAVE LEARNED IN MY LIFE SO FAR

'Things I have learned in my life so far' originated from Stefan Sagmeister's personal diary, in which he had written a list of self-observations of his life. With the amount of freedom he was given on client briefs, Sagmeister explored these maxims typographically, much of it quite experimental and using physical space and objects. This project collects these projects and the writings related to them in separate editorials, while going into more detail about the link between the two and discussing Sagmeister's life at that time.

structure while also preserving details such as the eyes and mouth. The covers of each book are also quite abstract using patterns, optical illusions and textures like acne covered skin to add a surreal element that changes the tone of the cover. This research followed 'The Y' by Alba Zari as I was looking at different ways of obscuring or cutting out parts of peoples faces. Sagmeister's project inspired me to think about executing this physically rather than just digitally. I made a few experiments layering images of faces and cutting out parts, but they weren't very successful and the project was going in a different direction.

The main stand out from this piece of work is the cut out effect used on the sleeve which allows the cover of the story on top to show through the gaps. This adds a nice tactile aspect to the project and makes it dynamic; the books inside aren't in a particular order, but the one on top will form the look of the cover. The cut outs on Sagmeister's face are quite deliberately placed to form the shape of his face

https://www.brainpickings.org/2014/02/06/things-i-have-learned-in-my-life-so-far-stefan-sagmeister-updated/

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RESEARCH

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KYLE LAMOND

THE RURAL TO URBAN TRANSECT

I looked into some ISTD entries to research ways of handling and organising content, especially as my project was heading towards a more typographically based outcome. The Rural to Urban Transect is an urban planning concept that ranks the elements of the man-made environment from rural to urban, taking you through the different zones between.

I think is effective with the look of the rest of the design. The stroke lines and crop of images, as well as the rigid feeling layout creates a grid like style made stronger by the justified type. I also found the monotone effect successful as it ties the images in with the rest of the page, as well as with each chapter of the book by getting darker as you move from rural to urban. Combined with the green coloured backgrounds, one colour can stand on its own.

The way this editorial piece handles different types of text works well. The use of scale and white space creates a clear hierarchy and separates the headings/ body/source pieces of information, which the thin lines also help with by guiding your eye. Most of the type is justified with indents in the body, which

https://www.behance.net/gallery/117945803/The-Rural-to-Urban-Transect-(ISTD-2021)

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RESEARCH

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VERGRANDE

AVOCADO BLOCKCHAIN SERVICES BRANDING

Vergrande, a brand design studio based in Mexico, I also found the ASCII-style to be a good way of was hired to brand block-chain technology company bringing imagery in. It ties in with the typographic Avocado in 2019. The designs caught my attention focus of the rest of the brand sits well with it. straight away with their boldness that also has clear This prompted me to look more into converting references to coding and crypto. The strong blue images into text and inspired the treatment I used contrasts heavy with the white which is a nice effect in my project. when combined with the heavy type and punctuation used to create lines. "The brand's identity is built on top of a visual reference to coding language, with a digital Using a mono-spaced typeface in the identity works palette to reinforce it. This is presented in a well. It immediately ties the brand in with a crypto simple way to enable the user to understand like aesthetic, in addition to creating a consistent better that a cutting-edge technology, while and distinct look throughout that is recognisable. complex at first sight, can help their business in The typeface used has a much cleaner and more solving real problems in a efficient way." modern look than traditional mono-spaced fonts like Courier, which improves legibility and gives a robotic feel.

http://vegrande.mx/en/avocado

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RESEARCH

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R.U SIRIUS + ST. JUDE

MONDO 2000 MAGAZINE

Mondo 200 was founded by Ken Goffman (R.U Sirius) in 1984. It was edited by St.Jude, who was also a founding member of the 'cypherpunks' featured in my editorial piece, and released 18 issues. Published in California, the magazine covered digital culture and cyberpunk topics such as virtual reality and smart drugs.

The publicaton ran until 1998, although Goffman left the project in 1993 to work on Wired. Mondo 2000 is often seen as an early precursor to wired, and expanded the cyberpunk genre. I wouldn't say the aesthetic of Mondo 2000 inspired my work heavily, but it was still useful research. The roots of Bitcoin and the people involved have strong ties with the culture this magazine was part of, so it was good to tap into this and see some publications from that time.

The surrealist aesthetic was created by Bart Nagel, a Photoshop collage artist. Some of the editorial work and typography is not great, although this does lend into the hacker feel of the magazine. In the example shown, the leading is very loose and hard to follow and the italicised type is difficult to read. I think the 'virtual nintendo' text pushed to the top of the box, as well as the image layering on top of it, is works better at creating an undesigned and raw feel.

https://magazine.sangbleu.com/2014/05/20/mondo-2000-and-the-cyberpunk/ https://www.documentjournal.com/2021/01/inside-mondo-2000-the-cyberpunk-magazine-that-gave-us-a-glimpse-of-the-utopian-future-that-never-was/

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RESEARCH

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MICHAEL CLASEN

K1M3R4

K1M3R4 is a modern cyberpunk culture magazine by Imagery wise, the dark backgrounds contrast well German designer Michael Clasen. It was started in against the white page and add some variation to the 2018 as part of a university project and explores the flow of the book. The x-rays and coding references rapid evolution in technology in an experimental also tie in to the anarchic and technology aesthetic way. Clasen worked with 20 other people includ- of the cyberpunk genre. ing R.U Sirius, founder of Mondo 2000 that ran in the 90s. "K1M3R4 was intended to be bold, loud, sharp and brave. I wanted it to have a contemporary The magazine combines a digital and analogue cyberpunk-aesthetic without it being too trashy. It aesthetic with references to cyberpunk culture. was important for me that it works as a magazine The designer also added 'hyperlinks' into the printed that transports information instead of just being a publication to challenge the linear structure of a visual overload." traditional book. I particularly like the bold use of type and combinati0n of an elegant serif with a heavy expanded font. It creates a nice dynamic which adds contrast to the page. The tight leading on the serif type also works well, it's still legible but adds some edge that steers it from traditional to a dystopian future feel.

https://www.itsnicethat.com/articles/michael-clasen-k1m3r4-graphic-design-010318 https://fontsinuse.com/uses/20080/k1m3r4-issue-01-empathy-dystopias

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MONOSPACED TYPEFACES

Images from Wikipedia.com

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MONOSPACED TYPEFACES

After visual research I had established that using a mono-spaced typeface for my project would tie in well with the theme and create a strong aesthetic. They're synonymous with both coding and ID cards/ case files. Much of the 'evidence' I was bringing into the book (emails, forum posts etc) was also displayed in an undesigned look. The majority of it used mono-spaced type and I hoped that I could capture the rawness of the evidence this way.

There are some variations too; fonts like Cachet, created in 1997, are proportional but have been designed to appear like a monospaced typeface with improved legibility. Similarly, ITC American Typewriter, designed by Joel Kaden and Tony Stan, uses the same principle. Kaden and Stan were given the brief by the International Typeface Corporation in 1974, a hundred years after the typewriter was invented, which asked them to design a classic typewriter typeface without its legibility faults.

Monospace typefaces use equal horizontal spacing between letters, originating from the technical limitations of typewriters and later becoming synonymous with coding. Courier, possibly the most well known, was released in the 1950s for IBM's typewriters and quickly became popular across many different design purposes. These fonts may look unnatural and more difficult to read for other types of text, but the improved vertical alignment and more distinguishable numbers and punctuation make them more comfortable to look at when coding all day.

https://www.commarts.com/columns/monospaced-fonts https://coding-fonts.css-tricks.com/fonts/source-code-pro/ https://www.typewolf.com/top-10-monospaced-fonts

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When finding and studying typefaces I put a big focus on legibility. Knowing that these monospaced typefaces would be used for small pieces of body text put legibility as a priority, although I still wanted to find something distinct.


FONT TESTING AND PAIRING

Akkurat Mono AKKURAT Lenit vendelique con explaut ulliquiandis nobis ipsanti nonet volorpor magnist dolupid qui as volorepe doleseque si quasit, sus, sunt volores.

Hack PROXIMA NOVA Temos duciligenda sime sant apidelese quat que nonsed modi commolu ptaecatem volores tionsequatur accusda ndignime landion porum.

MonoLisa DIN 2014 Aliquias picidelist evel explibus dolupta tempor alis exceatquam auta voluptatquae el int fugitatur aut que consequam seque modit, offictem volup.

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Aa Gg Mm Ss Yy

Bb Hh Nn Tt Zz

Cc Ii Oo Uu

Dd Jj Pp Vv

Ee Kk Qq Ww

Ff Ll Rr Xx

Aa Gg Mm Ss Yy

Bb Hh Nn Tt Zz

Cc Ii Oo Uu

Dd Jj Pp Vv

Ee Kk Qq Ww

Ff Ll Rr Xx

Aa Gg Mm Ss Yy

Bb Hh Nn Tt Zz

Cc Ii Oo Uu

Dd Jj Pp Vv

Ee Kk Qq Ww

Ff Ll Rr Xx


FONT TESTING AND PAIRING

Apercu Mono APERCU PRO Itatiusciande poritatem quia aut officiissim eos ipietur? Leniandit aut volorrum quia que pel enimusda sum vid quae restrum sedi ut vent

Roboto Mono ROBOTO Verferum serecea inusciet maion natisciet fugia nobitat quatet a conseque perfero voloria temquo tem harumque alit ipsandi doluptur ma.

Source Code Pro SOURCE SANS PRO Bis dolorum hillupt aerspit quas etur? Quis re erum aceaquunt quam que nobis con ex eos debit hici cuptiassint quam sequiae simolupicia et ut

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Aa Gg Mm Ss Yy

Bb Hh Nn Tt Zz

Cc Ii Oo Uu

Dd Jj Pp Vv

Ee Kk Qq Ww

Ff Ll Rr Xx

Aa Gg Mm Ss Yy

Bb Hh Nn Tt Zz

Cc Ii Oo Uu

Dd Jj Pp Vv

Ee Kk Qq Ww

Ff Ll Rr Xx

Aa Gg Mm Ss Yy

Bb Hh Nn Tt Zz

Cc Ii Oo Uu

Dd Jj Pp Vv

Ee Kk Qq Ww

Ff Ll Rr Xx


FONT TESTING AND PAIRING

Anonymous Pro NEUZEIT GROTESK Busae diasi dolore nonsequi rehentem doluptu reseque pore volo imenis aut velitaspis aligenihilis quis il ipsandes a nihillorem volo magnatecea ipit latquunt evelis aut latemquam, ipietur sit as sum.

Courier ACUMIN PRO Liae vellisqui bla quis esedipsam, omnita coriber umquae. Nempore consecaernam repelignis evel maio. Quae et eium quias secatib usaepra voluptasit eatur magnim iumque simpero.

Space Mono MONTSERATT Ugiassi omnihil iquissimus, qui odis senditae si unt ut ium exceria quame cumquam iuscill aborro inverov idelesti omni dit ad qui dolorrum reratque pro eos alis ex erchit.

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Aa Gg Mm Ss Yy

Bb Hh Nn Tt Zz

Cc Ii Oo Uu

Dd Jj Pp Vv

Ee Kk Qq Ww

Ff Ll Rr Xx

Aa Gg Mm Ss Yy

Bb Hh Nn Tt Zz

Cc Ii Oo Uu

Dd Jj Pp Vv

Ee Kk Qq Ww

Ff Ll Rr Xx

Aa Gg Mm Ss Yy

Bb Hh Nn Tt Zz

Cc Ii Oo Uu

Dd Jj Pp Vv

Ee Kk Qq Ww

Ff Ll Rr Xx


FONT TESTING AND PAIRING

After collecting typefaces and comparing them, as well as testing combinations, I settled on MonoLisa. It's a font aimed to be used by programmers and designed to be easily legible and easy on the eyes when coding all day. Despite its primary purpose being screen-based, it prints very nicely too. By selecting this typeface I aimed to add to the feeling of modern coding while also having a legible font that doesn't become a struggle to read when used in paragraphs. MonoLisa achieves this well, at a smaller size it distinguishes sections of type and adds to the rawness of the emails and forum posts brought in. At a larger size you can appreciate the

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quirkiness and distinctness of each letter form, and the font makes statements feel bold. I combined it with DIN, a sans-serif font created for engineering and technical applications in 1995. These two faces both have a engineer/coder style to them which lends into the theme of the editorial. I aimed to achieve this in a subtle way without making the book feel too rigid.


RESEARCH

MonoLisa

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MONOLISA TYPEFACE

https://www.monolisa.dev/

Black

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz

Book

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz

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LAYOUT RESEARCH

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LAYOUT RESEARCH

When looking at visual research and examples of editorial work I was thinking about and trying to identify systems and techniques by the designers. For a couple of examples, I overlaid guides over the spreads to work out their grids and to see how they had been used. This editorial uses a 12 column grid, mainly using divisions of 2. Some pieces of content are also indented or use a different division, which helps to highlight certain areas and create layouts that feel dynamic rather than just occupying even amounts of the grid.

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LAYOUT RESEARCH

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LAYOUT RESEARCH

// THE-DIGITAL-AGE’S-BIGGEST-MYSTERY

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18mm

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12mm

24mm

// DECODING-SATOSHI-NAKAMOTO

24mm

For my project I used a 6 column grid as it allows for divisions of both twos or threes. I wanted to use a relatively simple layout as I had a lot of variable content to handle and a focus of the book was making the topic easy to follow. The big top and centre margins break up the evenness of many of the layouts, as well as add a lot of white space which works well with my layouts.

The same as previously, this example uses a 12 column grid, although it gravitates towards using divisions of thirds instead of halves. Again, the grid is used in multiple ways to create layouts that feel different from one another and give hierarchy to certain elements.

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SPREAD DEVELOPMENT

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SPREAD DEVELOPMENT

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SPREAD DEVELOPMENT

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SPREAD DEVELOPMENT

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SPREAD DEVELOPMENT

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SPREAD DEVELOPMENT

When beginning to design the editorial my approach was to tackle different types of content: imagery, body text and the raw 'evidence' I was incorporating into the book. This helped to start forming a consistent style, although at this stage I was still experimenting with different looks and approaches, for example a collage/overprint style.

type settings and colours, alternative characters, as well as a concept where the ink would easily rub off, making Satoshi's name disappear as the reader progressed through the book.

Additionally, I also tested a typeface designed as part of Hannah's FMP. Her typeface is based on cryptography and becomes less decipherable through The spreads here are basic shells of the finished different weights, which fit well with both Bitcoin piece, but were a useful step in understanding how (cryptography) and the idea of a disappearing to break down and lay out content into different person. When used every time 'Satoshi Nakamoto' elements. Setting up paragraph styles and tweaking appears in the body text, the font has a nice effect the document layout early on formed a good start- that makes Satoshi seem more mythical, however ing point when bringing in more substantial content. I found it to be a little distracting, especially in regards to the flow of the type. In the end I featured When mapping out ideas to feature in the project, I the typeface on its own page in bigger letters. thought the idea of manipulating the name 'Satoshi Nakamoto' throughout the text could be an interesting way of exploring the psuedononymous, mythical like figure. I experimented with using different 37


CYPHERPUNK MASK

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CYPHERPUNK MASK

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CYPHERPUNK MASK

The cypherpunks are often visualised with masks like this.

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CYPHERPUNK MASK

The cypherpunks are a significant topic in the story of Satoshi Nakamoto and I wanted to feature them in the editorial. In the early 90s, mainly in the Bay Area, a group of hackers and computer privacy enthusiasts came together to fight for freedom on the internet and called themselves the cypherpunks. Their libertarian and often anarchic views gave them a recognisable visual aesthetic using plain masks over their faces.

I tried to follow a similar positioning of text that Sagmeister used in his famous Lou Reed poster as I felt it wrapped round the shape of the face well, although surprisingly hard to write accurately on a curved surface. The roughness of the text adds to the aesthetic though, the photos definitely have a rebellious tone to them.

I had the idea of using these masks as part of the imagery for the project and got hold of a few. The 'cypherpunk manifesto' has some strong statements that I felt would be engaging when pulled out, so the concept was to write parts of the manifesto onto the mask. This was heavily inspired by Stefan Sagmeister, and while the reference is quite obvious, I think my piece has its own identity and stands on its own.

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With the design of the spread I particularly liked the large mono-spaced type, which pushed me to experiment with this look further and influenced the approach I took.


CYPHERPUNK MASK PHOTOS

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CYPHERPUNK MASK PHOTOS

// THE-MYSTERY-OF-SATOSHI-NAKAMOTO

// WHO-IS-SATOSHI

ERIC HUGHES 1993 A CYPHERPUNK’S MANIFESTO Cypherpunks write code...

We know that someone has to write software to defend privacy, and we're going to write it

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// THE-MYSTERY-OF-SATOSHI-NAKAMOTO

// WHO-IS-SATOSHI

ERIC HUGHES 1993 A CYPHERPUNK’S MANIFESTO Cypherpunks write code...

We know that someone has to write software to defend privacy, and we're going to write it

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CYPHERPUNK MASK PHOTOS

// THE-MYSTERY-OF-SATOSHI-NAKAMOTO

// WHO-IS-SATOSHI

ERIC HUGHES 1993 A CYPHERPUNK’S MANIFESTO Cypherpunks write code...

We know that someone has to write software to defend privacy, and we're going to write it

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21

// THE-MYSTERY-OF-SATOSHI-NAKAMOTO

// WHO-IS-SATOSHI

ERIC HUGHES 1993 A CYPHERPUNK’S MANIFESTO Cypherpunks write code...

We know that someone has to write software to defend privacy, and we're going to write it

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44


CYPHERPUNK MASK PHOTOS

// THE-MYSTERY-OF-SATOSHI-NAKAMOTO

// WHO-IS-SATOSHI

ERIC HUGHES 1993 A CYPHERPUNK’S MANIFESTO Cypherpunks write code...

We know that someone has to write software to defend privacy, and we're going to write it

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After writing on the mask with a marker pen I shot some photos in the studio. The studio lighting helped bring out the text and give it more contrast, and the plain background almost gives the effect that the mask is floating. I made some adjustments in Photoshop too, aimed at further creating more contrast for the text to pop on the mask. Originally I hadn't planned to invert the images, but I found the effect to work well. It gives the photos a more sinister tone and I also liked the way the darker background worked with the large black text on the facing page.

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The question of the real identity of Bitcoin’s creator is one of the greatest modern mysteries. Who was Satoshi Nakamoto? Why that name? And where did Satoshi go? Beyond having invented an entirely new kind of money that has gone on to achieve a market cap of more than $1 trillion, Satoshi Nakamoto is widely believed to hold more than a million bitcoin, which would be worth over $49 billion at the time of writing. If Satoshi left clues, they can be found in the code and messages the crypto inventor wrote between 2008 to 2011. The entire output, numbering just a few hundred total messages that mostly consist of posts to a forum he created called BitcoinTalk in 2009, has been meticulously catalogued like a sacred text. At this point, millions of people have pored over Satoshi’s words, but when they were first written they were mostly read by a few dozen hermetic members of the Cryptography Mailing List, made up of programmers who specialize in inventing techniques for secure communication. Many on the mailing list identified as cypherpunks who advocated for the use of cryptography to bring about social and political change. Bitcoin was initially greeted with a collective yawn, as recalled legendary cryptographer Hal Finney, the first person to ever receive bitcoin from Satoshi.

“When Satoshi announced Bitcoin on the cryptography mailing list, he got a skeptical reception at best. Cryptographers have seen too many grand schemes by clueless noobs. They tend to have a knee-jerk reaction.” Satoshi’s October 2008 announcement, a whitepaper outlining the mechanics of Bitcoin, didn’t have the bombastic tone you’d expect from someone who understood he was about to change the world. ‘I’ve been working on a new electronic cash system that’s fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party,’ Satoshi wrote matter of factly. But the nine-page, equation-filled treatise did introduce a solution to a knotty problem that had bedevilled the cypherpunk community for years. No prior digital money concept had cracked what Satoshi referred to as the ‘double-spending problem.’ How can you prevent a currency with no physical form from being duplicated like any other computer file and spent over and over, the way kids shared endless copies of Eminem mp3s via Napster earlier in the 2000s? A peer-to-peer system would eliminate the need for any kind of central authority (like a credit card company or a bank) to validate transactions. The need for central authorities, Satoshi reasoned, was the failure point for earlier attempts at digital currencies.

“A lot of people automatically dismiss e-currency as a lost cause because of all the companies that failed since the 1990's. I hope it's obvious it was only the centrally controlled nature of those systems that doomed them. I think this is the first time we're a decentralized, non-trust-based system.” To accomplish this ‘trustless’ system, Satoshi proposed a publicly available shared ledger that would document every transaction. He called it the blockchain. Bitcoin’s independence from the existing financial system was an idea that must have been particularly appealing at the time, given that Satoshi had just witnessed the global financial system melt down over vastly irresponsible bets made by big investment banks. In the ‘trust-based mode’ of internet commerce, third parties like payment processors reap rewards for acting as an intermediary. Bitcoin could make the intermediaries obsolete. And by 2010, the idea had attracted conside able attention outside the insular cryptography scene. Journalists, hackers, and intelligence agencies have all scrutinized the breadcrumbs Satoshi left behind in the hopes of divining the Bitcoin inventor’s identity. Though Satoshi pointedly never shared any personal details in his communications, he did once describe himself (in a profile on a peer-to-peer forum) as a 37-year-old man living in Japan, a fact that pretty much nobody believes. So where was he actually from? The identity of Bitcoin’s inventor is one of the greatest mysteries of the digital age. We don’t know where Satoshi Nakamoto came from or where they are now. We don’t know if Satoshi Nakamoto was male or female, they’re referred to as male because that’s what his P2P Foundation profile claimed. We don’t know if Satoshi Nakamoto was a single person or a group of people. There are those who are convinced that Satoshi isn’t in fact one person at all, but rather a team of programmers, perhaps even including someone working inside the NSA. ‘He’s a world-class programmer, with a deep understanding of the C++ programming language,’ Dan Kaminsky, one of the world’s top Internet security researchers, told The New Yorker in 2011. ‘He understands economics, cryptography, and peer-to-peer networking.’ Kaminsky’s conclusion? ‘Either there’s a team of people who worked on this or this guy is a genius.”’

6

The question of the real identity of Bitcoin’s creator is one of the greatest modern mysteries. Who was Satoshi Nakamoto? Why that name? And where did Satoshi go? Beyond having invented an entirely new kind of money that has gone on to achieve a market cap of more than $1 trillion, Satoshi Nakamoto is widely believed to hold more than a million bitcoin, which would be worth over $49 billion at the time of writing. If Satoshi left clues, they can be found in the code and messages the crypto inventor wrote between 2008 to 2011. The entire output, numbering just a few hundred total messages that mostly consist of posts to a forum he created called BitcoinTalk in 2009, has been meticulously catalogued like a sacred text. At this point, millions of people have pored over Satoshi’s words, but when they were first written they were mostly read by a few dozen hermetic members of the Cryptography Mailing List, made up of programmers who specialize in inventing techniques for secure communication. Many on the mailing list identified as cypherpunks who advocated for the use of cryptography to bring about social and political change. Bitcoin was initially greeted with a collective yawn, as recalled legendary cryptographer Hal Finney, the first person to ever receive bitcoin from Satoshi.

INTRODUCTION

7

COINBASE.COM

9

AD MA QUAM, OMMOS DOLORIT OCCAE VOLORIA

“A lot of people automatically dismiss e-currency as a lost cause because of all the companies that failed since the 1990's. I hope it's obvious it was only the centrally controlled nature of those systems that doomed them. I think this is the first time we're a decentralized, non-trust-based system.” To accomplish this ‘trustless’ system, Satoshi proposed a publicly available shared ledger that would document every transaction. He called it the blockchain. Bitcoin’s independence from the existing financial system was an idea that must have been particularly appealing at the time, given that Satoshi had just witnessed the global financial system melt down over vastly irresponsible bets made by big investment banks. In the ‘trust-based mode’ of internet commerce, third parties like payment processors reap rewards for acting as an intermediary. Bitcoin could make the intermediaries obsolete. And by 2010, the idea had attracted conside able attention outside the insular cryptography scene. Journalists, hackers, and intelligence agencies have all scrutinized the breadcrumbs Satoshi left behind in the hopes of divining the Bitcoin inventor’s identity. Though Satoshi pointedly never shared any personal details in his communications, he did once describe himself (in a profile on a peer-to-peer forum) as a 37-year-old man living in Japan, a fact that pretty much nobody believes. So where was he actually from?

“When Satoshi announced Bitcoin on the cryptography mailing list, he got a skeptical reception at best. Cryptographers have seen too many grand schemes by clueless noobs. They tend to have a knee-jerk reaction.” Satoshi’s October 2008 announcement, a whitepaper outlining the mechanics of Bitcoin, didn’t have the bombastic tone you’d expect from someone who understood he was about to change the world. ‘I’ve been working on a new electronic cash system that’s fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party,’ Satoshi wrote matter of factly. But the nine-page, equation-filled treatise did introduce a solution to a knotty problem that had bedevilled the cypherpunk community for years. No prior digital money concept had cracked what Satoshi referred to as the ‘double-spending problem.’ How can you prevent a currency with no physical form from being duplicated like any other computer file and spent over and over, the way kids shared endless copies of Eminem mp3s via Napster earlier in the 2000s? A peer-to-peer system would eliminate the need for any kind of central authority (like a credit card company or a bank) to validate transactions. The need for central authorities, Satoshi reasoned, was the failure point for earlier attempts at digital currencies.

8

The identity of Bitcoin’s inventor is one of the greatest mysteries of the digital age. We don’t know where Satoshi Nakamoto came from or where they are now. We don’t know if Satoshi Nakamoto was male or female, they’re referred to as male because that’s what his P2P Foundation profile claimed. We don’t know if Satoshi Nakamoto was a single person or a group of people. There are those who are convinced that Satoshi isn’t in fact one person at all, but rather a team of programmers, perhaps even including someone working inside the NSA. ‘He’s a world-class programmer, with a deep understanding of the C++ programming language,’ Dan Kaminsky, one of the world’s top Internet security researchers, told The New Yorker in 2011. ‘He understands economics, cryptography, and peer-to-peer networking.’ Kaminsky’s conclusion? ‘Either there’s a team of people who worked on this

AD MA QUAM, OMMOS DOLORIT OCCAE VOLORIA

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SPREAD DEVELOPMENT

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SPREAD DEVELOPMENT

An early cypherpunk named Adam Back (pX) made his email signature the RSA encryption algorithm, written in five lines of Perl. Due to restrictions on the export of encryption algorithms, this was an illegal act of civil disobedience. He encouraged others on the mailing list to copy it in in solidarity.

---------------------------------8<-------------------------------#-/usr/local/bin/perl -- export-a-crypto-system sig, RSA in 5 lines of PERL: ($s, $k, $n )=@ARGV; $w-length$n; $k="0$k"if length($k) 1; $n="0$n", $w+-if$w&1; die $0 -d|-e key mod <in >out\n"if$s!-/-[de]$7||$#ARGV<2; $v=$w; $s=-/d/?$V-=2: $w-=2; $_=unpack( 'B*' pack('H*', $k]);5/10*1/g: /0/d*1n%/g;8/1/d*1n%Im*1n%/g; $c="1${_p":while(read(STDIN, $m, $w/2)) {$m=unpack("H$w", $m); chop ($a= echo 160161\U$\Esm\U$n\Esn$c dc ); print pack('#*','o'x($v length$a). $a);} ---------------------------------8<--------------------------------

Right: Adam Back’s email signature

Over time, the combination of legal victories by people like Peter Junger, Phil Zimmerman, and Daniel Bernstein, the development of SSL and HTTPS by companies like Netscape, the practical availability of encryption software outside the US, and the degree to which lack of encryption was hampering e-commerce ended up winning the argument. Internet advocates won the First Crypto Wars, as export controls on encryption were liberalised.

To test, just save it as file "rsa", then do: % chmod 700 rsa % echo "squeamish ossifrage" | rsa -e 11 cai > msg.rsa % rsa -d aci cal < msg.rsa

But the cypherpunks knew that encryption alone would not be enough to liberate cyberspace. To build a truly free digital commons, you needed a completely sovereign economy. In other words, you needed a digitally native form of money.

I wonder how good your chances of getting prosecuted under ITAR for having the above as a signature as an Amerikan citizen are :-) If challenged for exporting it you could defend yourself by saying you could have written it down on a piece of paper and snail mailed it which would presumably be legal?' or read it over the phone?

David Chaum is considered by many to be the father of the cypherpunk movement. A prolific academic researcher, Chaum single-handedly created the field of anonymous communications research and invented many cryptographic protocols, including group signatures, mix networks, and blind signatures. In 1990, David Chaum spearheaded the first serious attempt at building private digital money: DigiCash. DigiCash used novel cryptography to ensure user privacy while solving the double spend problem. The underlying algorithm was known as eCash, first published in 1982 and later improved by other cryptographers. Chaumian eCash was a major leap forward in digital currencies. But in 1998, the company founded on eCash (DigiCash) went bankrupt. It ultimately lost out in user adoption against credit cards and less private payments systems like PayPal. And of course, when the company liquidated, its entire cash ecosystem evaporated. The cypherpunks saw this failure and realized that Chaumian eCash had another weakness that had previously gone underappreciated: it relied on a single company. If digital cash were to flourish, it would have to grow beyond dependence on any central party. It would have to become decentralized.

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AD MA QUAM, OMMOS DOLORIT OCCAE VOLORIA

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AD MA QUAM, OMMOS DOLORIT OCCAE VOLORIA


SPREAD DEVELOPMENT

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SPREAD DEVELOPMENT

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SPREAD DEVELOPMENT

From here I continued to push the handling of type and the overall feel of the book. I brought in some pull out quotes which helped break up the heavy body text and experimented more with the large mono-spaced type. These potent statements work well with being given their own spread, especially the example shown here, where the reader turns the page as the statement unfolds.

At the same time I was also trying to create imagery. These started out as very similar to the research I had collected and served as a starting point, but I wasn't particularly happy with them. I experimented with cutting elements of the person's face, both digitally and psychically. I wanted to push this further and I found the pixel like treatment to be more successful and fit better with the theme of the project.

I was also considering how I handled the 'evidence' brought in, like emails and forum posts. I had started this with the 'cypherpunk manifesto' previously, but this needed refining. It took time to find the balance between referencing the undesigned rawness of the evidence without just displaying poor typography skills. Adding user names and post times, as well as the stroke lines and width of columns helped with this.

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ASCII EXPERIMENTS

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ASCII EXPERIMENTS

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ASCII EXPERIMENTS

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ASCII EXPERIMENTS

In my search for imagery styles I also experimented with ASCII art, images made from text. There's a few online generators you can upload an image to, with varying degrees of success in the results. So that I could better understand how to process these images, I tested a few different options, like adjusting contrast and curves, threshold etc before putting the image into the generator. These modifications influence the image output and can help to bring out the shape of the image better or add more depth. Adjusting the amount of characters to a line as well as the handling of type also affects the image, so it took time to find the balance that worked well with the rest of the editorial.

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ASCII IMAGERY DEVELOPMENT

FIRST NAME

SURNAME

NATIONALITY

PLACE OF RESIDENCE

Satoshi Nakamoto

Japan

USA

AGE

SEX

OCCUPATION

CURRENT STATUS

70

Male

Defence Engineer

Retired

Dorian

NOTES

CHECKLIST

Obvious name similarities and also lived in the same small city as Hal Finney. Has a background working on secret government defence projects.

Cypherpunk C++ Proficient

26

DORIAN SATOSHI NAKAMOTO

1Dorian4RoXcnBv9hnQ4Y2C1an6NJ4UrjX

FIRST NAME

SURNAME

NATIONALITY

RESIDENCE

Dorian

Satoshi Nakamoto

Japan

USA

AGE

SEX

OCCUPATION

CURRENT STATUS

70

Male

Defence Engineer

Retired

NOTES

Obvious name similarities and also lived in the same small city as Hal Finney. Has a background working on secret government defence projects.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 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NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNKKKK0kdlclooodddxkOO0KXXNNNNNNWNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNKkxxol:::ccccloolllllodxkO0KXNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNXXOollc::cloodxkkOkxxdodoolllclodxk0XNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNXXKOxol:cloooddxxxxkkkOOOOkkkxdolllc::;::ldOKXNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNXXK0Okxol:::cldddxxdddxxxxkkOOkkkxxxdoolllccc;;;;:cok0XNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNX0xolccc:::cloxOOOkxxxxxkkkkkOOOOkxxddoloolcccc::;;;,;:coxOKNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNX0dc:::cllodxk0KXXK0OkkxxxdddxxkkOOOxdooolllccc::::;,,,,,;::lx0XNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNXKkdlodddxkk0KXXNNWWNXKOkkxxxdddxkkkkxdolclllcc:::;;;,,,,,,,,;::oOXNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNX0kkxdollxOKXNNWWWWWWWNXKK00OOkxxxxxxddddlcccccc::;:,,,,,,,,,,,,,:o0XNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNXKOxollok0XNNWWWWWWWWWWWNXXXXKK00Okxdodxxdolccccccc:;:,,,,,,,,,,,,;:okKNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNX0xoclk0KXNNWWWWWWWWWWWWWWNNNNXXK00Oxdodxxdollcccccccc:;:,,,,,,,,,,,,;oOXNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNKkoc:lkKXXNNNNNWWWWWWWWWWWWNNNNNXXXK0Okxdddddddooollllllcc:;;;;;,,,,,,,;:oONNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 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NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNKOxxxxddooooooddddl::;,,';cdOkc,;:d0kl:;:dO0OOOOOOOOOkkkkkkkO0KXXXXXXXXXXKxodxddxxxxxxxxxkkkxkxxxkkdodxxxxxxxxxxkkkkkkkkkOOOOOOOOOOOOO NNNNNNNNNNNNNNX0kxxxdddooooodddxdl:;:,,,;lx0Ol:lodkd,;cllok0OOOOOOOOOkkxkOKKXXXXXNXXXXXXKOxdddddxxkkkkxxxxxxxkkkkOOkoodxxxxxxxxkkkkkkkkkkkOOOOOOOOOOOO NNNNNNNNNNNNNXOxxxxdddoooooodxxoc:;:,',:ok0Oock0OOk:,lxxdxk00OOOOOOkkxk0KXXXXXXNNXXXXXXXOxxdddodxxxkkxxkkkkxxkkkkkxdoodxxxxxxkkkkkkxkkkkkkkkkOOkOOOO00 NNNNNNNNNNNNXOxddddddollooodddoc:;:,',cdOK0dckK000Oc:dOOOkO0000OOOkkO0XXXXXXXXNNXXXXXXXOxxxdddddddxkkkkOOkkkkkkxolcclodxxkkxxkkkkkkxkkkkkkkkxkkOOOOOOk NNNNNNNNNNNX0xddoodddooooodxdl::;:,'':dOKKOlo0K00K0ock000OOO00OOkxkKXNXNXXXXNNNXXXXXXXKkxxxxxxxxxdxkkkOOkkkkkkxl::c:clodxkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkxxxxkkOOOkOkkk

CHECKLIST

Cypherpunk C++ Proficient British English

28

DORIAN SATOSHI NAKAMOTO

56


ASCII IMAGERY DEVELOPMENT

57


ASCII IMAGERY DEVELOPMENT

// THE-MYSTERY-OF-SATOSHI-NAKAMOTO

// WHO-IS-SATOSHI

FIRST NAME

SURNAME

NATIONALITY

RESIDENCE

Dorian

Satoshi Nakamoto

Japan

USA

AGE

SEX

OCCUPATION

CURRENT STATUS

70

Male

Defence Engineer

Retired

NOTES

CHECKLIST

Obvious name similarities and also lived in the same small city as Hal Finney. Has a background working on secret government defence projects.

Cypherpunk C+/ Proficient British English

56

57

// THE-MYSTERY-OF-SATOSHI-NAKAMOTO

FIRST NAME

// WHO-IS-SATOSHI

SURNAME

NATIONALITY

RESIDENCE

Satoshi Nakamoto

Japan

USA

AGE

SEX

OCCUPATION

CURRENT STATUS

70

Male

Defence Engineer

Retired

Dorian

NOTES

Obvious name similarities and also lived in the same small city as Hal Finney. Has a background working on secret government defence projects.

CHECKLIST

Cypherpunk C+/ Proficient British English

58

59

58


ASCII IMAGERY DEVELOPMENT

// THE-MYSTERY-OF-SATOSHI-NAKAMOTO

// WHO-IS-SATOSHI

FIRST NAME

SURNAME

NATIONALITY

RESIDENCE

Dorian

Satoshi Nakamoto

Japan

USA

AGE

SEX

OCCUPATION

CURRENT STATUS

70

Male

Defence Engineer

Retired

NOTES

Obvious name similarities and also lived in the same small city as Hal Finney. Has a background working on secret government defence projects.

CHECKLIST

Cypherpunk C+/ Proficient British English

60

61

I found the ASCII art to a visually engaging way of handling imagery, especially as it lends into the coding/cryptography theme as well as the idea of a mystery person through the way it makes images less clear. After finding suitable settings for my book, I decided to use this style as a cover page for each of the potential Satoshis. I also added a case-file like profile summary to the page opposite to give a quick overview of the person and bring this style into the project. The ASCII images on their own have impact, but I also wanted to push them further. My previous experiments with removing parts of people's faces was heading in a different direction, which prompted me to look into combining the two. By layering the original image on top of the ASCII version, this creates the sense of putting a real face to a digital identity and makes for an interesting visual look. 59

I achieved this effect by masking layers of the two photos in Photoshop, in the beginning using larger squares in a tile like fashion. Following this I felt like smaller pixels would complement the imagery better and make the real-face-to-digital-persona concept stronger. I created a brush with variable size and scatter to generate the effect, focusing on the silhouette and facial features of the person. This was then repeated for each of the suspects.


SPREAD DEVELOPMENT

60


SPREAD DEVELOPMENT

61


SPREAD DEVELOPMENT

// THE-MYSTERY-OF-SATOSHI-NAKAMOTO

// THE-CYPHERPUNK-MANIFESTO

Privacy is necessary for an open society in the electronic age. Privacy is not secrecy. A private matter is something one doesn’t want the whole world to know, but a secret matter is something one doesn’t want anybody to know. Privacy is the power to selectively reveal oneself to the world.

Therefore, privacy in an open society requires anonymous transaction systems. Until now, cash has been the primary such system. An anonymous transaction system is not a secret transaction system. An anonymous system empowers individuals to reveal their identity when desired and only when desired; this is the essence of privacy.

If two parties have some sort of dealings, then each has a memory of their interaction. Each party can speak about their own memory of this; how could anyone prevent it? One could pass laws against it, but the freedom of speech, even more than privacy, is fundamental to an open society; we seek not to restrict any speech at all. If many parties speak together in the same forum, each can speak to all the others and aggregate together knowledge about individuals and other parties. The power of electronic communications has enabled such group speech, and it will not go away merely because we might want it to.

Privacy in an open society also requires cryptography. If I say something, I want it heard only by those for whom I intend it. If the content of my speech is available to the world, I have no privacy. To encrypt is to indicate the desire for privacy, and to encrypt with weak cryptography is to indicate not too much desire for privacy. Furthermore, to reveal one’s identity with assurance when the default is anonymity requires the cryptographic signature. We cannot expect governments, corporations, or other large, faceless organizations to grant us privacy out of their beneficence. It is to their advantage to speak of us, and we should expect that they will speak. To try to prevent their speech is to fight against the realities of information. Information does not just want to be free, it longs to be free. Information expands to fill the available storage space. Information is Rumor’s younger, stronger cousin; Information is fleeter of foot, has more eyes, knows more, and understands less than Rumor.

Since we desire privacy, we must ensure that each party to a transaction have knowledge only of that which is directly necessary for that transaction. Since any information can be spoken of, we must ensure that we reveal as little as possible. In most cases personal identity is not salient. When I purchase a magazine at a store and hand cash to the clerk, there is no need to know who I am. When I ask my electronic mail provider to send and receive messages, my provider need not know to whom I am speaking or what I am saying or what others are saying to me; my provider only need know how to get the message there and how much I owe them in fees. When my identity is revealed by the underlying mechanism of the transaction, I have no privacy. I cannot here selectively reveal myself; I must always reveal myself.

A CYPHERPUNK’S MANIFESO 1993

62


SPREAD DEVELOPMENT

// THE-MYSTERY-OF-SATOSHI-NAKAMOTO

// THE-CYPHERPUNK-MANIFESTO

We must defend our own privacy if we expect to have any. We must come together and create systems which allow anonymous transactions to take place. People have been defending their own privacy for centuries with whispers, darkness, envelopes, closed doors, secret handshakes, and couriers. The technologies of the past did not allow for strong privacy, but electronic technologies do.

For privacy to be widespread it must be part of a social contract. People must come and together deploy these systems for the common good. Privacy only extends so far as the cooperation of one’s fellows in society. We the Cypherpunks seek your questions and your concerns and hope we may engage you so that we do not deceive ourselves. We will not, however, be moved out of our course because some may disagree with our goals.

We the Cypherpunks are dedicated to building anonymous systems. We are defending our privacy with cryptography, with anonymous mail forwarding systems, with digital signatures, and with electronic money.

The Cypherpunks are actively engaged in making the networks safer for privacy. Let us proceed together apace.

Cypherpunks write code. We know that someone has to write software to defend privacy, and since we can’t get privacy unless we all do, we’re going to write it. We publish our code so that our fellow Cypherpunks may practice and play with it. Our code is free for all to use, worldwide. We don’t much care if you don’t approve of the software we write. We know that software can’t be destroyed and that a widely dispersed system can’t be shut down.

Onward. Eric Hughes <hughes@soda.berkeley.edu> 9 March 1993

Cypherpunks deplore regulations on cryptography, for encryption is fundamentally a private act. The act of encryption, in fact, removes information from the public realm. Even laws against cryptography reach only so far as a nation’s border and the arm of its violence. Cryptography will ineluctably spread over the whole globe, and with it the anonymous transactions systems that it makes possible.

The project made a lot of progress during this period, coming together and establishing systems of handling the content. Pulling out statements on each page helped to tie everything together and create a consistent structure, while small additions such as sources made the spreads more comprehensive and complete. Adding a coloured background to certain pages also evolved the look of the editorial and added a much needed pop of colour. The monotone treatment on the photos also helps to tie them in with the rest of the spread and adds to the retro style the book was taking. Progressing after this point became much easier as I was far more confident in the way I was handling elements of the book and had a much clearer system. Although each page is different, when placing content I had defined rules that made the process more straight forward.

63


SPREAD DEVELOPMENT

// THE-MYSTERY-OF-SATOSHI-NAKAMOTO

// WHO-IS-SATOSHI

THE DIGITAL AGE’S BIGGEST MYSTERY The question of the real identity of Bitcoin’s creator is one of the greatest modern mysteries. Who was Satoshi Nakamoto? Why that name? And where did Satoshi go? Beyond having invented an entirely new kind of money that has gone on to achieve a market cap of more than $1 trillion, Satoshi Nakamoto is widely believed to hold more than a million bitcoin, which would be worth over $49 billion at the time of writing. If Satoshi left clues, they can be found in the code and messages the crypto inventor wrote between 2008 to 2011. The entire output, numbering just a few hundred total messages that mostly consist of posts to a forum he created called BitcoinTalk in 2009, has been meticulously catalogued like a sacred text. At this point, millions of people have pored over Satoshi’s words, but when they were first written they were mostly read by a few dozen members of the Cryptography Mailing List, made up of programmers who specialize in inventing techniques for secure communication. Many on the mailing list identified as cypherpunks who advocated for the use of cryptography to bring about social and political change.Bitcoin was initially greeted with a collective yawn, as recalled by legendary cryptographer Hal Finney, the first person to ever receive bitcoin from Satoshi.

Satoshi Nakamoto Feb 15th 2009, 04:42:00 PM P2P Foundation

04

Satoshi’s October 2008 announcement, a whitepaper outlining the mechanics of Bitcoin, didn’t have the bombastic tone you’d expect from someone who understood he was about to change the world. ‘I’ve been working on a new electronic cash system that’s fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party,’ Satoshi wrote matter of factly. But the nine-page, equation-filled treatise did introduce a solution to a knotty problem that had bedevilled the cypherpunk community for years. No prior digital money concept had cracked what Satoshi referred to as the ‘double-spending problem.’ How can you prevent a currency with no physical form from being duplicated like any other computer file and spent over and over, the way kids shared endless copies of Eminem mp3s via Napster earlier in the 2000s? A peer-to-peer system would eliminate the need for any kind of central authority (like a credit card company or a bank) to validate transactions. The need for central authorities, Satoshi reasoned, was the failure point for earlier attempts at digital currencies.

A lot of people automatically dismiss e-currency as a lost cause because of all the companies that failed since the 1990’s. I hope it’s obvious it was only the centrally controlled nature of those systems that doomed them. I think this is the first time we’re trying a decentralized, nontrust-based system.

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00000000

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Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks

The genesis block’s coinbase parameter message implies that Satoshi put it there as more than a simple time stamp.

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BANKS MUST BE TRUSTED TO HOLD OUR MONEY AND TRANSFER IT ELECTRONICALLY 08

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BUT THEY LEND IT OUT IN WAVES OF CREDIT BUBBLES WITH BARELY A FRACTION IN RESERVE - Satoshi Nakamoto February 11th 2009 10:27:00 PM 10

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Bitcoin’s founder was alarmed by the news that Wikileaks was seeking to raise funds using the decentralized payment system.

The Silk Road, like many startups, had begun simply enough as a college curiosity.

July 17th 2010 - The MtGox Bitcoin currency exchange market was established by Jed McCaleb, letting people buy and sell bitcoin using bank transfers. MtGox filed for bankruptcy in 2014 after clients complained that they couldn’t withdraw their bitcoin. Its failure could have been catastrophic. MtGox was responsible, by some estimates, for 70 percent of all bitcoin ever traded at the time.

PC World ran an article on the WikiLeaks move, leading Satoshi Nakamoto to compose a now famous post on the BitcoinTalk forum. ‘WikiLeaks has kicked the hornet’s nest, and the swarm is headed towards us’. Nakamoto made it clear that they had fears of Bitcoin gaining popularity too early on. They’d make their final public forum post the following day.

December 5th 2010 - Since Bitcoin’s launch the year before, it was largely unknown outside of the Cypherpunk community. The first hint of a mainstream moment came when the whistleblowing organisation WikiLeaks began to accept donations in Bitcoin after being removed from other payment platforms. In late 2010 WikiLeaks was a prime target for the US government, and anyone providing services became directly associated with them.

December 12th 2010 - The Financial Action Task Force, an inter-governmental group that develops and promotes policies preventing money laundering and funding of terrorists, published a paper to warn about the use of digital currencies to finance terrorist groups.

Late 2010 - Ross William Ulbricht, who went by the name of ‘Dread Pirate Roberts,’ founded the site Silk Road. Ulbricht, a former Penn State graduate student and amateur programmer with strong libertarian and anarchist views, dreamt of an online marketplace where people would be able to buy and sell narcotics and other illicit items, without governmental interference. While the users of a Darknet site can use Tor and Virtual Private Networks to obscure and hide their identities, they had no way of exchanging anonymous payments among themselves, short of sending envelopes full of cash via the postal service, an obviously impractical solution. Ulbricht got around this conundrum by using Bitcoin as a payment method.

Satoshi

The real influx of users however, took place after Gawker, an online gossip column, ran an in-depth story on Silk Road. Within a few months, Ulbricht had recouped his initial investment, and was able to create a virtually anonymous and thriving marketplace for the sale of narcotics, complete with a review function of vendors, similar to Amazon or eBay. In that time, the price of a single bitcoin had skyrocketed from around $1 to over $30, a rise attributable in no small part to the increased attention Bitcoin received because of the Silk Road. This attention was unwanted by Satoshi, who was witnessing the extent to which Bitcoin was becoming a target for the US government following its association with crime.

Silk Road opened to modest beginnings, with psychedelic mushrooms grown by Ross himself listed as the first items for sale. However, Ross promoted his site on the Bitcoin forum, an act which attracted a few buyers for his mushrooms, but ultimately led to his downfall. By the end of February, 28 transactions for narcotics ranging from LSD to mescaline were conducted on the site. In two months, over a thousand people had registered.

No, don’t “bring it on”.

December 5th 2010, 09:08:08 AM bitcointalk.org

The project needs to grow gradually so the software can be strengthened along the way. I make this appeal to WikiLeaks not to try to use Bitcoin. Bitcoin is a small beta community in its infancy. You would not stand to get more than pocket change, and the heat you would bring would likely destroy us at this stage. Ross Ulbricht (bottom left) was found guilty of charges including money laundering, conspiracy to traffic narcotics and computer hacking, and is

Satoshi December 11

th

2010, 23:39:16 PM

It would have been nice to get this attention in any other context. WikiLeaks has kicked the hornet’s nest, and the swarm is headed towards us.

currently serving a double life sentence plus 40 years, without the possibility of parole.

alk.org

coindesk.com

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The idea that one of Bitcoin’s leading technical figures would in any way engage with U.S. agencies is tantamount to heresy.

December 12th 2010 - Software version 0.3.19, Satoshi’s last, was released. Read now like the final public message from Bitcoin’s creator, it seems tactical that he chose to wind down measures taken in the wake of community friction and media controversies. Still, it’s difficult to say if Satoshi’s decision to walk away was his alone. After all, over the year, there had been a dramatic change in tone toward his leadership. As to whether he intended to leave, however, Satoshi was definite, his sign-off observable when he removed his name from Bitcoin’s copyright statements. Thereafter, he would also update bitcoin.org, adding the names and emails of other developers, including Gavin Andresen and Laszlo, to its contact page and removing his own. What little we know about the transition was represented by Andresen publicly when he claimed a week later to have received Satoshi’s blessing to ’start more active project management. ’In the interim, Andresen assumed the trappings of authority, putting out a ‘help wanted’ post and making clear to new volunteers they would now need to move the project forward.

Complicating matters, however, is that as Andresen vaulted into the limelight, it’s unclear if he continued to remain aligned with Bitcoin’s creator on project goals and vision. He would prove inconsistent in remarks, describing development as a ‘controlled anarchy’ in a March interview, yet noting he felt that he and Satoshi reserved the right to enact unilateral change if it was ever needed.

Though many events loom in the Bitcoin lore, few compete with Gavin Andresen’s infamous visit with U.S. intelligence in June 2011. In the decade since, the event has been linked to everything from the alleged murder of Satoshi Nakamoto to the start of a years long effort to subvert the network and bring it under government control.

The last traces of Satoshi Nakamoto’s online communication date back to spring 2011, when Satoshi Nakamoto exchanged a few emails with key users of the initial development of Bitcoin. What is considered the last verified email sent by Satoshi Nakamoto, and made public, is the one received by Gavin Andresen, which noted ‘I wish you wouldn’t keep talking about me as a mysterious shadowy figure’.

The idea that one of Bitcoin’s leading technical figures would in any way engage with U.S. agencies is tantamount to heresy, a perversion of its most enduring value proposition, preserving the first digital money free from government influence. Not only did Andresen attend such an event, but it appears that Satoshi continued to work on Bitcoin, if only behind the scenes, up until the day Andresen accepted the invitation.

Satoshi April 26th 2011, 19:04:06 PM

Satoshi simply told him that the Bitcoin revolution was in good hands and that he had decided to take care of other things: Satoshi Nakamoto exchanged a few more emails with Martti Malmi at the very beginning of May 2011 asking him to take full ownership of the bitcoin.org website. At the time of this transfer, and just before he disappeared completely, Satoshi Nakamoto sent an email confirming what he had previously told Mike Hearn.

This was followed by a separate message that contained only a copy of the cryptographic key to Bitcoin’s alert system, one that effectively gave Andresen sole control over security notifications.

Satoshi April 23rd 2011, 15:40:00 PM Private Emails

It was the kind of thing he knew would create conspiracy theories, and it did.

Private Emails

During the same days, Satoshi Nakamoto had exchanged emails with two of Bitcoin’s early developers, Martti Malmi and Mike Hearn. In a first email, Hearn asked Satoshi Nakamoto what his intentions were in terms of his involvement in the development of Bitcoin for the coming months.

From: Satoshi Nakamoto <satoshin@gmx.com> Date: Sat, Apr 23, 2011 at 3:40 PM To: Mike Hearn <mike@plan99.net> I’ve moved on to other things. with Gavin and everyone.

It’s in good hands

I do hope your BitcoinJ continues to be developed into an alternative client. It gives Java devs something to work on, and it’s easier with a simpler foundation that doesn’t have to do everything. It’ll get critical mass when impatient new users can get started using it while the other one is still downloading the block chain.

I wish you wouldn’t keep talking about me as a mysterious shadowy figure, the press just turns that into a pirate currency angle. Maybe instead make it about the open source project and give more credit to your dev contributors; it helps motivate them.

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THE SUSPECTS

Andresen replied to the email from Nakamoto, but the Bitcoin creator never responded.

Over the years there has been intense speculation over who created Bitcoin and who Satoshi Nakamoto might be. A man, a woman, an intelligence agency or a small group of dedicated cypherpunks? Many people have faced claims that they are Nakamoto, and many denials have been issued. Many more people have claimed to be Nakamoto, but they are rarely believed.

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Hal March 19th 2013, 20:40:02 PM BitcoinTalk Forum

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“That's my story. I'm pretty lucky overall. Even with the ALS, my life is very satisfying. But my life expectancy is limited. My bitcoins are stored in our safe deposit box, and my son and daughter are tech savvy. I think they're safe enough. I'm comfortable with my legacy.”

I thought I’d write about the last four years, an eventful time for Bitcoin and me. For those who don’t know me, I’m Hal Finney. I got my start in crypto working on an early version of PGP, working closely with Phil Zimmermann. When Phil decided to start PGP Corporation, I was one of the first hires. I would work on PGP until my retirement. At the same time, I got involved with the Cypherpunks. I ran the first cryptographically based anonymous remailer, among other activities. When Satoshi announced Bitcoin on the cryptography mailing list, he got a skeptical reception at best. Cryptographers have seen too many grand schemes by clueless noobs. They tend to have a knee jerk reaction. I was more positive. I had long been interested in cryptographic payment schemes. Plus I was lucky enough to meet and extensively correspond with both Wei Dai and Nick Szabo, generally acknowledged to have created ideas that would be realized with Bitcoin. I had made an attempt to create my own proof of work based currency, called RPOW. So I found Bitcoin facinating. When Satoshi announced the first release of the software, I grabbed it right away. I think I was the first person besides Satoshi to run bitcoin. I mined block 70-something, and I was the recipient of the first bitcoin transaction, when Satoshi sent ten coins to me as a test. I carried on an email conversation with Satoshi over the next few days, mostly me reporting bugs and him fixing them. Today, Satoshi’s true identity has become a mystery. But at the time, I thought I was dealing with a young man of Japanese ancestry who was very smart and sincere. I’ve had the good fortune to know many brilliant people over the course of my life, so I recognize the signs.

Hal and his wife Fran, photographed in 2013. Wired

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Adam Back took himself completely out of the public eye during the development of the Bitcoin project from 2009-2010.

adam3us April 18th 2013, 11:27:49 AM BitcoinTalk Forum

It all started well before the Bitcoin white paper was published on Halloween 2008, as Adam Back described the technology on various occasions and as early as 1998. However, prior to the release of the cryptocurrency and white paper, Back seemingly removed himself from the public eye during the Satoshi’s development period between 2009 and 2010. A stark contrast from his previous activity, Back published zero academic papers or patents, and went silent on the mailing lists he was a frequent member of. Coincidently after Satoshi left, Back appeared on the bitcointalk.org forum acting as though he’s been around for quite some time. There is also a number of other forms of circumstantial evidence that point to Back possibly being the creator of cryptocurrency. For years, during the early days, many people assumed that Back ignored Bitcoin for a while, and then joined the community with great fervor toward the technology. Back’s first posts and replies to other bitcoiners on the bitcointalk.org forum shows his technical understanding of the blockchain was more advanced than most. It’s also been highlighted that when Back joined the community after Satoshi left, he was bossing people around like he had always been around.

The earliest form of publicly available communication from Satoshi was his email to Wei Dai in 2008, where he asked for a date to reference. In this email Satoshi mentions he was pointed to Dai’s b-money paper by Adam Back, however these emails have never been proven to exist. Another strange coincidence is that Satoshi supposedly sent the first release of Bitcoin to Back, but he claims that he shrugged it off without mining a single coin. This raises suspicions: a proficient cryptographer and cypherpunk, who had invented an underlying concept behind Bitcoin and pursued electronic cash for much of his career, simply didn’t bother opening a project that solved issues he had planned to address for the past decade?

I consulted for Nokia on ecash crypto back in 2002. I worked at Zero-Knowledge Systems from 2000-2003. So anyway I know a few things about ecash, privacy tech, crypto, distributed systems (my comp sci PhD is in distributed systems) and I guess I was one of the moderately early people to read about and try to comprehend the p2p crypto cleverness that is bitcoin. In fact I believe it was me who got Wei Dai’s b-money reference added to Satoshi’s bitcoin paper when he emailed me about hashcash back in 2008. If like Hal Finney I’d actually tried to run the miner back then, I may too be sitting on some genesis/bootstrap era coins. Alas I own not a single bitcoin which is kind of ironic as the actual bitcoin mining is basically my hashcash invention.

In 2012, Back began updating the Bitcoin Wikipedia articles, providing in-depth insight to the history of the project. What’s worth noting is that Adam only became involved with the Bitcoin project and forums during April 2013, entering with the presence of a well-established character. Two days after joining the forum, Back references an obscure mining bug fix in one of his posts, although it was never mentioned in the notes of the 2010 change log it was part of. Speculators could point to this as evidence that Back was involved with the Bitcoin project far earlier than he claims, if he is not Satoshi himself.

Back met with Dorian Nakamoto at the 2019 Bitcoin conference. Twitter

Back in 1997, Adam proposed a ‘partial hash collision based postage scheme’ which aimed to use cryptography to limit email spam. What Adam described later went on to be labelled as Proof of Work, the key consensus algorithm behind Bitcoin dictating how blocks are mined on the network. Adam was one of the world’s first Cypherpunks talking about the possibility of a cryptocurrency over the course of 10 years before the development of Bitcoin. He openly criticised his own and others’ work and discussed the changes needed to resolve any anonymity, scalability, and transparency issues in developing a decentralised digital currency on the Cypherpunk forums.

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Back is a strong proponent of Bitcoin, believing that excessive money printing and volatile property investments will lead the cryptocurrency to an eventual price of $300,000.

I DON’T SELL THEM

Back became CEO of Blockstream in 2016, a blockchain technology company he co-founded two years before. Blockstream aims to further the development of Bitcoin and has recieved over $100 million in investments, although Adam Back has never committed a single line of code. This raises questions about how investors could rely on him as a qualified individual with suggestions that non disclosure agreements were involved.

Back has denied allegations that he is Bitcoin’s creator, although he mines Bitcoin, only Bitcoins, personally, and he keeps what he mines. ‘I don’t sell them’ he said. One reason is, Back believes Bitcoin will go to $300,000 within five years, without any additional adoption by institutional investors. Retail investors, who’ve carried the torch for the last 10-plus years, since Bitcoin’s debut, will continue to show support as institutions remain cautious, he said.

Both Satoshi and Back used British-English rather than American English. Their writing style was also extremely similar, using double spaces throughout their messages and using British spellings. As previously mentioned, the message hidden in Bitcoin’s genesis block featured a headline from The Times newspaper, based in the UK. Almost everyone who has been linked to Satoshi has American origins apart from Adam.

Adam took to twitter to celebrate Bitcoin Pizza Day in 2021. Twitter

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Satoshi January 12th 2009, 08:41:00 AM Private Emails

From: Satoshi Nakamoto <satoshi@vistomail.com> Date: Mon, Jan 12, 2009 at 8:41 AM Subject: Re: select failed 10038 fix To: hal.finney@gmail.com You can send to my Bitcoin address if you want to, but you won’t get to see the full transfer sequence: 1NSwywA5Dvuyw89sfs3oLPvLiDNGf48cPD. I just thought of something. Eventually there’ll be some interest in brute force scanning bitcoin addresses to find one with the first few characters customized to your name, kind of like getting a phone number that spells out something. Just by chance I have my initials.

I DESIGNED BITCOI… GOLD WITH TWO LAYERS

Szabo’s achievements in the fields of computer science and cryptography, as well as his formidable understanding of the nature of money, all make him remarkable enough. Immediately after the Jan 3 2009 mining of Bitcoin’s genesis block one might have expected Szabo to take to his normally bustling blogging activity to talk about the project. Interestingly, Bitcoin is not mentioned until a May 7 post entitled ‘Liar-resistant government’ that year. After 2009, Szabo’s blogging activity takes a significant dip, going from over 25 posts a year, to just a few sparse updates annually.

Additionally there’s an oft-cited email Satoshi sent to Hal Finney in which the Bitcoin creator remarks that he’s haphazardly generated an address with his initials, ‘NS’. Some view these initials to simply stand for Nakamoto Satoshi, with the surname coming first in the Japanese style. Some have said the initials stand for Nick Szabo. What is less-often discussed is that Hungarian names are also given in the Eastern name order.

Perhaps most intriguing, however, is his strange embedded video post the same month Bitcoin went live, depicting cars attempting to beat a traffic control mechanism at a red light. The post reads: ‘Trying to beat the protocol can get you in trouble.’ Many take this post to be a reference to Bitcoin’s solution to the double-spend problem cryptographers and digital cash advocates had been struggling to solve for years, and which was now successfully addressed via Satoshi’s protocol.

However, the community still remains divided as to whether Szabo truly did create Bitcoin. Even Szabo himself has outright denied this claim, calling out a journalist in an email that stated: ‘Thanks for letting me know. I’m afraid you got it wrong doxing me as Satoshi, but I’m used to it.’

During a 2017 interview on The Tim Ferriss Show, Szabo stumbled on his words almost labeling himself as the creator of Bitcoin. Satoshi sleuths didn’t miss the slip, and theorized it could be a subconscious revelation of the truth. When host Tim Ferriss asks Szabo about larger blocks and second layer solutions, Szabo replied ‘I’d definitely go for a second layer, I mean, I designed Bitcoi… gold with two layers.’ The linguistic mishap could be nothing more than a meaningless accident, or it could point to something deeper. The crypto space may never know.

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-..BEGIN TRIBUTE-.. #.BitLen ::::::::::::::::::: :::::::.:..:..:.:.. :.: :.' ' ' ' ' : : :.:'' ,,xiW,"4x, '' : ,dWWWXXXXi,4WX, ' dWWWXXX7" `X, lWWWXX7 __ _ X :WWWXX7 ,xXX7' "^^X lWWWX7, _.+,, _.+., :WWW7,. `^"-" ,^-' WW",X: X, "7^^Xl. _(_x7' l ( :X: __ _ `. " XX ,xxWWWWX7 )X- "" 4X" .___. ,W X :Xi _,,_ WW X 4XiyXWWXd "" ,, 4XWWWWXX , R7X, "^447^ R, "4RXk, _, , TWk "4RXXi, X',x lTWk, "4RRR7' 4 XH :lWWWk, ^" `4 :.TTXWWi,_ Xll :.. =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= LEN "rabbi" SASSAMA 1980-2011 Len was our friend. A brilliant mind, a kind soul, and a devious schemer; husband to Meredith brother to Calvin, son to Jim and Dana Hartshorn, coauthor and cofounder and Shmoo and so much more. We dedicate this silly hack to Len, who would have found it absolutely hilarious. --Dan Kaminsky, Travis Goodspeed

We’ve lost far too many hackers to suicide. What if Satoshi was one of them?

Embedded on every single node of the Bitcoin network is an obituary. Hacked into the transaction data, it’s a memorial to Len Sassaman, a man essentially immortalized in the blockchain itself. A fitting tribute in more ways than one. Len was a true Cypherpunk, equal parts brilliant, irreverent, and idealistic. He devoted his life to defending personal freedoms through cryptography, working as a developer on PGP encryption and open source privacy technology, as well as an academic cryptographer researching P2P networks under blockchain inventor David Chaum. He was also a pillar of the hacker community, a friend and influence to so many of the important figures in the history of infosec and cryptocurrency. Even in his youth, Len was a self-taught technologist who gravitated towards cryptography and protocol development. Despite living in small town Pennsylvania, by 18 Len was on the Internet Engineering Task Force responsible for the TCP/IP protocol underlying the internet and later the Bitcoin network. Always kind of the odd kid because he was smart, Len was diagnosed with depression as a teenager. Unfortunately, he suffered traumatic experiences at the hands of ‘borderline sadistic’ psychiatric practitioners, experiences which would presumably leave one distrustful of purported authority figures. In 1999, Len moved to the Bay Area and quickly became a regular in the Cypherpunk community. He moved in with Bram Cohen, creator of Mojo and Bittorrent, and was a contributor to the legendary Cypherpunk mailing list where Satoshi first announced Bitcoin. Other hackers remember him as intelligent and lighthearted, chasing down a squirrel at a Cypherpunk meeting and speeding around in a sports car with a ‘Get Out of Jail Free’ card in case he was pulled over. At 21, he made headlines for organizing protests against government surveillance, as well as the imprisonment of hacker Dmitri Skylarov.

Early in his career, Len distinguished himself as an authority in public key cryptography, the foundation of Bitcoin. By 22, he was presenting at conferences and had founded a public key crypto startup with famous open source activist Bruce Perens. After the startup collapsed in the wake of the Dot-com Bubble, Len joined Network Associates to help develop PGP encryption central to Bitcoin. Working on the release of PGP7 in 2001, Len set up interop testing for OpenPGP implementations, putting him in touch with many important crypto pioneers. Len also contributed to the GNU Privacy Guard implementation of OpenPGP and worked with PGP inventor Phil Zimmerman to invent a new cryptographic protocol. When introducing Bitcoin, Satoshi said he hoped Bitcoin could be ‘the same thing for money’ that strong cryptography (i.e. PGP) was for securing files. At Network Associates, Len worked on PGP alongside Hal Finney. Len and Finney shared one very rare and relevant skillset: they both were developers of the remailer technology that was a precursor to Bitcoin. Proposed by David Chaum alongside cryptocurrency, remailers are specialized servers for sending information anonymously or pseudonymously. It was very common to use them when contributing to the Cypherpunk Mailing list, which itself was built on distributed remailers. After high school, Len worked to support his family and never had the chance to attend college. In spite of this, in 2004 he secured his ‘dream job’ as a researcher and Ph.D. candidate at COSIC, the Computer Security and Industrial Cryptography Research Group of K.U. Leuven in Belgium. Len’s Ph.D. advisor at COSIC was none other than ‘father of digital currency’ David Chaum. While Chaum laid the groundwork for the entire Cypherpunk movement and all cryptocurrencies, few could claim to have worked with him directly.

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P.S. My apologies, BitCoin people. He also would have LOL'd at BitCoin's new dependency upon ASCII BERNANKE :':..:::::.:...:..: : :.: ' ' ' ' : :': :.: _.__ '.: : _,^" "^x, : ' x7' `4, XX7 4XX XX XX Xl ,xxx, ,xxx,XX ( ' _,+o, | ,o+," 4 "-^' X "^-'" 7 l, ( )) ,X :Xx,_ ,xXXXxx,_,XX 4XXiX'-___-`XXXX' 4XXi,_ _iXX7' , `4XXXXXXXXX^ _, Xx, ""^^^XX7,xX W,"4WWx,_ _,XxWWX7' Xwi, "4WW7""4WW7',W TXXWw, ^7 Xk 47 ,WH :TXXXWw,_ "), ,wWT: :.TTXXWWW lXl WWT: ----END TRIBUTE----

A memorial to Sassaman has been permanently embedded into the Bitcoin blockchain.

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He was very wary of the government, taxes, and people in charge.

Perhaps the most compelling parallel between the two Nakamotos are their professional skill sets and career timeframes.

. All this made Goodman believe all the more Dorian was He is also smart enough to complete the project as cowdenying his role, and she thought she had found the orkers noted that Dorian worked on ‘defensive electronics mysterious creator. So the reporter and her publication and communications for the military.’ Dorian’s daughter Newsweek decided to run the expose on Dorian’s life spoke to Goodman and told the reporter that her father story and claimed several similarities between Dorian and wholeheartedly believed in individualism. Bitcoin’s anonymous inventor. Following the published story, the entire Bitcoin community debated the subject However, Dorian told the public shortly after the publication that he felt victimized and he misunderstood Instead of being a member of the cypherpunk movement, and a great majority of crypto proponents didn’t believe at the time Dorian was a 64-year-old Japanese-American, Goodman’s article. Goodman’s questions. Dorian claims he thought the retired physicist and well-educated engineer. Dorian’s life reporter was talking about a classified project that he skills and occupation made Goodman and others believe The biggest evidence that the article leveraged was that worked on with the financial giant Citibank. After Dorian that he had what it takes to invent the cryptocurrency told his side of the story, the crypto community was Dorian was a Japanese-American, worked on classified and release it to the world anonymously. Because Dorian outraged with Newsweek and Goodman’s report. They projects, graduated in physics from California Polytechworked for a few corporations and the U.S. military, some complained that Dorian was doxxed, as the article connic, and when he was questioned directly he said he had of the projects he worked on were deemed classified infor- ‘turned it over’ to other people. Dorian also lived very close tained a photograph of his home in California. mation. The shroud of secrecy made Goodman once again to Hal Finney’s house and the Japanese-American showed believe that Dorian was part of Bitcoin’s initial creation. he leaned toward a libertarian like ideology. Finney’s All this invoked bitcoiners to start a fundraiser for Dorian address was only a few blocks away from the Nakamoto’s in order to pay for his troubles and the invasion of privacy McGrath drove to California after studying Dorian’s life for family home. that the Newsweek article started. Dorian also did a video two months and visited his house located in Los Angeles’s with the Bitcoin evangelist Andreas Antonopoulos telling San Gabriel foothills. She got two police officers from This was an uncanny link. Finney is known to be the his side of the story and he thanked the Bitcoin commuTemple City to escort her. When Goodman caught Dorian second ever user of Bitcoin after Satoshi Nakamoto himnity for all the donations he received. The BTC address: leaving his home she faced him with two police officers as 1Dorian4RoXcnBv9hnQ4Y2C1an6NJ4UrjX has received self. He had been one of the first supporters of the idea witnesses and questioned him about his involvement with when Nakamoto floated it on a cryptography mail list, and over 102 BTC ($1 million USD at today’s exchange rate) creating Bitcoin. Goodman said that Dorian’s response even received the first Bitcoin test transaction from Nakaand the wallet is now empty. This is a stark contrast to was ‘careful but revealing.’ The Newsweek columnist moto in early 2009, as Finney himself wrote in a post to stressed that Dorian “tacitly acknowledged’ his role in the Bitcointalk forum. Had Finney invented Bitcoin himself the Bitcoin project but refused to answer direct questions. and simply used his neighbor’s name as a pseudonym? In 2014, Newsweek’s Leah McGrath Goodman published an exposé on Bitcoin’s inventor and her report claimed it was the California resident Dorian Nakamoto. Goodman spent two months investigating her story and one of her biggest selling points was the fact that Dorian’s birth name is Satoshi Nakamoto.

“I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it,” Dorian told Goodman and the officers that day. “It’s been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any connection.”

photographed in 2013. Wired

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// THE-MYSTERY-OF-SATOSHI-NAKAMOTO

// WHO-IS-SATOSHI

However, Dorian told the public shortly after the publication that he felt victimized and he misunderstood Goodman’s questions. Dorian claims he thought the reporter was talking about a classified project that he worked on with the financial giant Citibank. After Dorian told his side of the story, the crypto community was outraged with Newsweek and Goodman’s report. They complained that Dorian was doxxed, as the article contained a photograph of his home in California.

Perhaps the most compelling parallel between the two Nakamotos are their professional skill sets and career timeframes.

Instead of being a member of the cypherpunk movement, at the time Dorian was a 64-year-old Japanese-American, retired physicist and well-educated engineer. Dorian’s life skills and occupation made Goodman and others believe that he had what it takes to invent the cryptocurrency and release it to the world anonymously. Because Dorian worked for a few corporations and the U.S. military, some of the projects he worked on were deemed classified information. The shroud of secrecy made Goodman once again believe that Dorian was part of Bitcoin’s initial creation. McGrath drove to California after studying Dorian’s life for two months and visited his house located in Los Angeles’s San Gabriel foothills. She got two police officers from Temple City to escort her. When Goodman caught Dorian leaving his home she faced him with two police officers as witnesses and questioned him about his involvement with creating Bitcoin. Goodman said that Dorian’s response was ‘careful but revealing.’ The Newsweek columnist stressed that Dorian “tacitly acknowledged’ his role in the Bitcoin project but refused to answer direct questions. ‘I am no longer involved in that and I cannot discuss it’ Dorian told Goodman and the officers that day. ‘It’s been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any connection.’

Following Dorian’s Newsweek expose, the Japanese-American became a hero amongst the crypto community appearing on posters, t-shirts, and stickers. Dorian has appeared at crypto conferences and discussed his experience after Newsweek’s hit piece turned his normal, toy train-collecting life upside down. Moreover, with the slew of unattractive self-proclaimed Satoshis who have come out of the woodwork, many crypto proponents actually wish Dorian was Satoshi, as he’s far more friendly. People have even crowned Dorian as the best Satoshi Nakamoto suspect in years.

Hal and his wife Fran,

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In 2014, Newsweek’s Leah McGrath Goodman published an exposé on Bitcoin’s inventor and her report claimed it was the California resident Dorian Nakamoto. Goodman spent two months investigating her story and one of her biggest selling points was the fact that Dorian’s birth name is Satoshi Nakamoto.

the over 1 million BTC sitting in the Satoshi Nakamoto wallets that have been left unspent for over a decade.

All this invoked bitcoiners to start a fundraiser for Dorian in order to pay for his troubles and the invasion of privacy that the Newsweek article started. Dorian also did a video with the Bitcoin evangelist Andreas Antonopoulos telling his side of the story and he thanked the Bitcoin community for all the donations he received. The BTC address: 1Dorian4RoXcnBv9hnQ4Y2C1an6NJ4UrjX has received over 102 BTC and the wallet is now empty. This is a stark contrast to the over 1 million BTC sitting in the Satoshi Nakamoto wallets that have been left unspent for over a decade.

All this made Goodman believe all the more Dorian was denying his role, and she thought she had found the mysterious creator. So the reporter and her publication Newsweek decided to run the expose on Dorian’s life story and claimed several similarities between Dorian and Bitcoin’s anonymous inventor. Following the published story, the entire Bitcoin community debated the subject but a great majority of crypto proponents didn’t believe. The biggest evidence that the article leveraged was that Dorian was a Japanese-American, worked on classified projects, graduated in physics from California Polytechnic, and when he was questioned directly he said he had ‘turned it over’ to other people. Dorian also lived very close to Hal Finney’s house and the Japanese-American showed he leaned toward a libertarian like ideology. Finney’s address was only a few blocks away from the Nakamoto’s family home.

Following Dorian’s Newsweek expose, the Japanese-American became a hero amongst the crypto community appearing on posters, t-shirts, and stickers. Dorian has appeared at crypto conferences and discussed his experience after Newsweek’s hit piece turned his normal, toy train-collecting life upside down. Moreover, with the slew of unattractive self-proclaimed Satoshis who have come out of the woodwork, many crypto proponents actually wish Dorian was Satoshi, as he’s far more friendly. People have even crowned Dorian as the best Satoshi Nakamoto suspect in years. Following the media storm that the Newsweek article started, Satoshi Nakamoto’s long dormant P2P Foundation account resurfaced, posting a simple message. ‘I am not Dorian Nakamoto.’ In September, the account posted another message saying it had been hacked, raising questions over the earlier message’s authenticity.

Dorian Nakamoto after the Newsweek article broke and reporters swarmed his house bitcoin.com

This was an uncanny link. Finney is known to be the second ever user of Bitcoin after Satoshi Nakamoto himself. He had been one of the first supporters of the idea when Nakamoto floated it on a cryptography mail list, and even received the first Bitcoin test transaction from Nakamoto in early 2009, as Finney himself wrote in a post to the Bitcointalk forum. Had Finney invented Bitcoin himself and simply used his neighbor’s name as a pseudonym? He is also smart enough to complete the project as coworkers noted that Dorian worked on ‘defensive electronics and communications for the military.’ Dorian’s daughter spoke to Goodman and told the reporter that her father wholeheartedly believed in individualism.

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SPREAD DEVELOPMENT

From here it was a process of getting the rest of the content in the book. My style and approach to designing each spread was well established by now and adding new pages was happening far quicker than before. It had taken me weeks to build up to about 10 spreads before, now I was able to complete a few a day. The book makes use of 3 or so core layout designs, which served a starting point when bringing text and images in. Pull out titles are full width or two thirds, depending on the amount of text and hierarchy of the page. Giving a big top margin to these titles, as well as the large amount of white space around them, gives them hierarchy despite the relatively small size and weight. Photos can bleed off the right page and large pieces of the mono-spaced type are given their own page.

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REFINEMENTS AND COVER

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REFINEMENTS AND COVER

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MATERIALS AND PRINT

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MATERIALS AND PRINT

Once the majority of the content was in the book and the spreads designed, it was time for final refinements and to think about printing. Comparing some of the earlier designs with the newer ones showed how the style had evolved, but a few examples felt out of touch witch the direction the project had headed in. I went back, bringing in ASCII art to tie the beginning and later sections of the editorial together. When considering the contents page earlier on in the project I envisioned a different look, perhaps referencing a detective board, 'pinning' different parts of the investigation together. However, I felt a more simple, grid like system fit the end result of the book better and would be easier to follow.

When adding the coloured pages into the design of the editorial, I was always considering using a different paper stock for those pages. This meant I had to be careful where they were placed, thinking about double-sided printing etc. I had originally also planned to use a different colour for each suspect so each section was distinguishable. Towards the end of the project I was a little behind schedule in order to order paper in time; I hadn't completed the book yet and didn't know what I needed.

In terms of the cover, I had a few different ideas using different materials and inks (explained later), but due to time constraints I ended up with a more simple design. I decided to print black on black as it fits with the theme of the book and adds a nice physicality to the cover when the ink shines in the light.

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Luckily there was some left over uncoated paper which I could print on, but using a different colour for each person wasn't really possible any more as I basically ran out of enough distinct, light colours. Despite this, I think the paper stock I used actually works well. The roughness and off-white colour which pales the green is effective with a lo-fi coding/ case file look, and when contrasted against the glossy pages, creates a nice dynamic that makes certain elements pop.


CASE FILE SHELL CONCEPT

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CASE FILE SHELL CONCEPT

When thinking about the final execution of the piece I had wanted to create a file for the book to be held in. The idea of a sealed file creates a sense of importance and secrecy, and a perforated tab for the reader to open adds to the experience of the book. Sadly towards the end of the project I was struggling for time and printing took longer than I had expected. I went for a basic cover design, although I think a file outer casing would have elevated the book and made the outside far more engaging. I also thought about how I was going to bind the book, mainly deciding between perfect and ring binding. I used perfect binding for the final piece

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because it works well with the large inner margins and is less of a risk than ring binding. I've seen ring binding used successfully, and I think it could definitely work for my book, but it's quite hit and miss. If I had more time I would have liked to have tried both options to compare them.


THERMOCHROMIC INK CONCEPT

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CASE FILE SHELL CONCEPT

Another physical process I considered for the project was using thermochromic inks. These inks react to heat, either hiding or showing in response. I think this would have added another element to the book and made it more engaging to hold in your hand. These inks could be used on certain pages to hide things, but they would also work well being used simply on the cover. Coating the cover in the ink that glows with heat would leave multicoloured fingerprints all over the book, while an ink that hides could reveal the title and blurb underneath like the example shown.

These could work with the existing design of the cover, so it's something to consider adding later on. Time pressure and the cost of the materials meant that I was unable to experiment with this, which is a shame as I think it would have produced good results.

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FINAL MAJOR PROJECT

EVALUATION

The end result of my FMP took a different path that I had anticipated it to in the early stages. I started off looking at crypto, NFTs/digital art in particular, mainly focussing my ideas and concepts towards a web based or branding style project. I continued researching and generating ideas surrounding the NFT sphere for the first few weeks of the FMP, but I struggled to find a particular idea strong enough to commit to and found myself hitting a wall. In the back of my mind, I was also wondering whether this craze would be short lived and if I had already missed the opportunity. Expanding my research led me to the story of Satoshi Nakamoto, the mysterious inventor of Bitcoin. Initially the topic didn't stick, however through further reading I discovered more and more intriguing elements of the Satoshi story to bring into the project. The information available about this topic is scattered around the internet and difficult to piece together, which gave me confidence that my work serves a purpose and has some real world relevance. I aimed to collate the story of Satoshi into one publication, creating a narrative to follow and attempting to uncover the identity of Bitcoin's inventor. My research was based on three main themes: block-chain/coding, ID cards/case files and dystopian futures. I hoped to combine elements from these into my work to create a strong aesthetic that ties in with the topic of the editorial, which

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I think I did well. Some of the most successful aspects of the editorial, such as the rough coloured paper and mono-spaced type, were inspired by my visual research. You can recognise that these and other design choices I made were influenced by the research projects I studied, but I believe the final outcome combines these to create its own aesthetic. When researching I was also considering the way other projects had handled content. I think this is one of the most successful features of the book, and completed what I had set out to achieve: compiling the story of Satoshi into a comprehensive but engaging narrative. From the beginning I knew that organising and collecting content would be difficult, as this was part of the justification for making the book in the first place. I decided to tackle the content early on to ensure there was a good amount to even create a project from, and to begin forming a narrative that would also sway the visual aesthetic. This took more time than I had expected, and was quite overwhelming at times. There's a huge amount of irrelevant and conflicting information that needed to be read through, understood, and processed before I even had any text to place in. Once I had a good idea of what I was working with, I could start designing. However, further down the line I found myself spending a large amount of time compiling the


EVALUATION

content again, filling in gaps and having to look deeper. This took time away from designing, but without substance and an engaging narrative, the editorial wouldn't serve much use. When starting to design it took time to come to a consistent look and progress was slow. However once I had established systems and become confident in the way I was handling each type of content, things started falling into place. These systems also helped tie elements of the editorial together and build a consistent reading experience for the content, which allowed for more ambiguous designs on the hero pages. I believe the overall visual style of the piece is successful, drawing from themes like coding and case files. The lo-fi aesthetic used with the emails and forum posts expresses the rawness of the Bitcoin project, and large typography, as well as treatment to images, help to bring the story to life and draw the reader into the deeper story of Bitcoin. In contrast, the main body of content is more understated with a big focus on legibility and flow. I hoped that the combination of both would make the experience of reading an otherwise convoluted story easy to follow, while also providing engaging visuals where relevant. The use of different paper stocks also leans into this. Contrast between the rough coloured paper for the lo-fi type and the glossy pages makes for an interesting dynamic throughout the piece and reinforces the visual aesthetic. If not for time constraints I would have liked to explore the craft of the book more, perhaps this would have elevated the final piece just a little further. In the later stages of designing, a struggle to collect content quickly meant that I fell behind where I was aiming to be. This meant that the final printing and binding of the publication was a little rushed, which didn't leave much time for experimentation. I was planning to bring in some thermochromic ink aspects, for example hiding pieces of text or leaving fingerprints over the book cover. I feel like this would have been good additions to the print, and would make the physicality of the book more engaging. Additionally, I also looked into creating a case-file type outer shell for

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the editorial, for the user to tear open and fin the book inside. To ensure I finished in time, my final cover is much more basic, although it still works decently well. Printing black on dark blue lends into the aesthetic of the book, although the smaller text on the back is quite hard to read. Also, the type on the spine is blurred, I'm guessing this is because it was printed against the heavy grain of the stock. Overall I'm very happy with the outcome of the FMP. The story of Satoshi Nakamoto is presented in an engaging way which shows off my editorial design and typography skills. Going through the process of designing this project has improved my skills in these areas too, particularly in regards to creating systems and handling a lot of content. For improvements, another week or two of time would have allowed me to experiment a little more and really refine the outcome. I would have liked to push the craft of the piece further and try alternatives to my design choices, like testing the print quality of more colours for the rough pages, or making a case-file like outer shell for the book. I believe I handled my time reasonably well for the final major project, although there was probably room for improvement. I spent a long time looking into NFTs and crypto art, and although this did lead me to Satoshi Nakamoto, it didn't directly apply to the new direction of the project. Collecting content proved to be an even bigger task than I had anticipated, taking up a lot of time I had planned to use for designing. In retrospect I could have employed a slightly different approach to this, but the content of the book was a very important aspect and without it, the project would lack purpose. Lockdown and being unable to come into campus definitely didn't help too; it was only after coming into university that I found myself in the right mindset to make solid progress.


RESEARCH

FINAL MAJOR PROJECT

'DECODING SATOSHI NAKAMOTO'

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Profile for Rees Clancy

Final Major Project Process Book - Satoshi Nakamoto  

Process book covering how I went about researching and designing my Final Major Project about Satoshi Nakamoto, the creator of Bitcoin.

Final Major Project Process Book - Satoshi Nakamoto  

Process book covering how I went about researching and designing my Final Major Project about Satoshi Nakamoto, the creator of Bitcoin.

Profile for reesc
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