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Professional Body

SECTOR Review 2013 Sector News Best Practice Trends in Key Areas Events and Training Professions Week

In association with

Welcome Welcome to the first edition of the Professional Body Sector Review. Since 1998, when I set up the Professional Associations Research Network (PARN), we have been committed to raising the profile of the sector and this publication is dedicated to that purpose. To begin, I’ve defined the professional body sector including why it is distinctive, its challenges and its importance for society as a whole.

Andy Friedman CEO – PARN

We feature important sector related news that is of wide significance, such as reactions to the Leveson enquiry on press regulation (p12), the new system of revalidation for doctors (p09), and the story of CIOBS becoming the Chartered Banker Institute (p10). Leadership in the sector is changing and we highlight how three leading CEOs have made it to the top (p14). To promote best practice, we’ve included case studies to share how various professional bodies are meeting challenges of the digital age, implementing e-learning and new engagement management systems for members (p22), plus dealing with accredition issues and seismic shifts in the nature of the professional body sector.

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You will also find information about important trends connected to functions within professional bodies such as governance (p30) and finance (p36); as well as trends relating to particular areas of work such as CPD (p29), membership (p32), and standards (p34). In addition, we have provided information on events, training, and our new qualifications in Professional Body Management. We are planning for this to be the first of many annual editions of the Professional Body Sector Review and look forward to your reactions and suggestions for future magazines. I would like to thank the team at PARN for pulling the content together and our partners who have been involved in the design and execution of the Sector Review.

Professional Body

SECTOR REviEw 2013 Sector News Best Practice Trends in Key Areas Events and Training Professions week

In association with

Contents 04 The Professional Body Sector 08 Sector News 09 Introducing Revalidation for Doctors 10 Representing Professional Bankers 12 Future Role of the Regulator following The Leveson Report 14 Leadership in the Sector 18 Best Practice 19 Staying Relevant in a Digital Age – IOP 20 Challenges of a Changing Profession - CILIP 22 The Era of CRM is Over – ASI Europe 24 Supporting Professional Development through E-learning – BDA 26 Unlocking the revenue potential in your membership – Redactive 27 Getting Ofqual Accreditation – BIFM 28 Trends in Key Areas 29 Continuing Professional Development (CPD) 30 Governance 32 Membership 34 Professional Standards and Regulation 36 Finance 38 Events and Training 40 Time for a Professions Week? 42 PARN Members and Related Organisations

The Professional Associations Research Network (PARN) is a non-profit membership organisation for professional bodies, offering expertise, experience and perspective on key issues in the sector through research, consultancy, networking, events and training. Professional Associations Research Network (PARN) 16 Great George Street Bristol BS1 5RH E: T: 0117 929 4515 F: 0117 934 9623 Managing Editor – Andy Friedman Deputy Managing Editor – Neko Griffin Sterling – Design and Production Sterling has more than 20 years’ experience of working in partnership with professional bodies and membership organisations. We deliver strategic insight, creative thinking and integrated marketing solutions as well as production and fulfillment services. Redactive Media Group – Infographics Redactive is the leading provider of magazines, digital media, jobs sites and live events for professional bodies. ASI Europe ASI is a recognised global, industry thought leader that focuses on helping associations and not-for-profits increase operational and financial performance through the use of best practices, proven solutions, and ongoing client advisement.

Defining THE SECTOR The Professional Body Sector Professional bodies are distinctive. They are dedicated to the advancement of the knowledge and practice of professions through developing, supporting, regulating and promoting professional standards for technical and ethical competence. In this they are all concerned with the public benefit as well as the reputation of professionals. They all have objects in their foundation documents which establish their aim to maintain and develop professionalism and thereby securing high quality professional services for society. While different organisations carry out different aspects of this overall mission, collectively they can be identified as the professional body sector. Three types of organisations make up the professional body sector: • Professional associations that represent professionals and aim to raise professional standards and the reputation of their members; • Regulatory bodies which enforce standards (and may also set them); • Learned societies that are associated with professions and which develop and spread knowledge which underlies professional practice.

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Some occupations combine these organisations into a single professional body, in others they are clearly differentiated organisations. Professional occupations have increased substantially in the last two decades. Growth has taken place not only in the traditional professions, but also in new professions that have emerged as changes in the nature of commerce, the values of society, and advances in technology demand new skills and new specialisms. Currently there are approximately 400 professional bodies in the UK with over 1,000 members. Together they represent over 6 million professionals.

Distinctiveness of professional bodies Many professional associations share characteristics with other membership organisations. Members are owners, customers and suppliers of volunteer effort. However, professional association members may be distinguished by their dependence on their association to represent and uphold their professional identities. For most, this is an emotional tie and a source of pride and accomplishment. As such, the member attachment, even where it is not compulsory, goes beyond calculation of value for money in narrow material terms. Clearly, providing good quality services to members is important. However compared with other membership organisations those running professional associations must emphasise balancing reputation and other intangible benefits along with tangible ones. Professional bodies also share characteristics with other third sector organisations. Profit or surplus is an enabler rather than the ultimate goal. Both professional bodies and other third sector organisations rely substantially on volunteer effort. However, professional body volunteers are almost exclusively drawn from the membership or registrants. They are often leaders in their field, rather than simply members of the general public providing their time for a cause and will be rarely be used for

The Professional Body Sector

fundraising purposes. Another difference lies in the balance of power between staff and volunteers, which is quite the reverse compared to most charities. Volunteers of professional bodies must be treated with particular care and cannot be regarded as merely free labour to be allocated casually by paid staff.

“Reputation is paramount and it is particularly important that any who speak in the name of the professional body are on message with the objects of the body and the current strategy for pursuing them.� This has consequences for managing volunteers involved in professional standards, governance and other high level committees, for the way member networks are run and for the way paid staff interact with volunteers. Certain areas of practice are peculiar to the professional body sector and the knowledge base underlying this practice is developing at a rapid pace. Traditional methods of securing entry standards through qualifications and experience are being complemented by new apprenticeship schemes. Some are continuing to move to all graduate entry. The maintenance of standards through complaints and

disciplinary processes is being supplemented by CPD policies and programmes, which are themselves changing – more are becoming compulsory and measurement by inputs is being supplemented or replaced by output measurements. New competency frameworks are being introduced and ethical codes are being revised. Just this year, revalidation for doctors has been introduced, which is likely to spread to other professions in future. Traditionally professional bodies have regarded their primary referents to be the occupational group they represent or regulate. In the past leaders of professional bodies tended to be members of the profession. There may have been some attempts to refer to and learn from the practices of other professional bodies, but these were almost always those representing closely connected occupations. Now those running professional bodies are recognising that these jobs involve competencies that are quite separate from the knowledge base of the profession itself. Increasingly those being hired are being promoted from within the professional body or come from other professional bodies, and not necessarily from connected professions. This is a key indicator that those running professional bodies are coming to see themselves as in a distinctive role, part of the professional body sector.

Importance of the professional body sector The system of professional standards regulation created by professional bodies is the basis for trustworthy professionalism,

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which is itself needed for people to have the confidence to access the fund of knowledge and expertise that is available to them in society. While the professional body sector is important in helping to generate the fund of knowledge and expertise that society relies upon, it is more importantly essential in ensuring that these social resources will be applied in a trustworthy manner. Assurance that the providers of services are trustworthy, in terms of their competence and security, that they will act ethically and in the interests of clients/patients and the general public, is of critical importance supporting the use of professional services and their contribution to social and economic life. One way of raising the profile of the sector is to encourage professional bodies themselves to reflect on what they collectively contribute to society and the economy. This may be summarised as social infrastructure. Infrastructure has become prominent in the media and with both the current Government and the Labour Party during the past few years. At the end of 2011, the first comprehensive Infrastructure Plan for the UK was set out through HM Treasury and this was updated in December 2012. According to this plan ‘Safe, reliable and efficient infrastructure networks form the backbone of every modern economy’ (2011: 13). However, the way infrastructure has been formulated by the Government is limited, confined largely to physical infrastructure: the physical and technical networks which support economic growth. Recently some attention is being paid to social infrastructure. This may either be

regarded as the physical infrastructure supporting social welfare or other public services, or it may be thought of as the social networks which support both economic growth and social well being. It is this latter way of conceiving social infrastructure which is particularly relevant for the distinguishing contribution of the professional body sector.

Challenges professional bodies face Many of the challenges that professional bodies face can be expressed in terms of dilemmas or complicated paths with many obstacles that they must steer between. Two topical examples of these are: • The issue of providing valued tangible services to current members and the need to also provide long term and often intangible benefits that raise the reputation of the profession and the benefit the public derives from it. There is a great temptation to concentrate on the former, but as Sean Tompkins suggests (p15) some professional bodies may have gone too far in this direction. • The challenge of finding a good relation among different types of professional bodies dealing with a single profession. On one hand self, regulation has suffered in the past, as the lead up to the Leveson enquiry shows (see p12). However, a strong adversarial culture as exists in the United States between representative and regulatory bodies can also lead to mutually harmful reactions; whereby each side is trying to outsmart the other, rather than working together to raise and maintain professional standards.

Recognition of the sector Professional bodies can benefit greatly by recognising they are part of a distinctive sector. Organisations with key shared and distinctive characteristics, facing important common problems can gain tremendous savings in time and effort by sharing solutions. Professional bodies are increasingly aware of the value of benchmarking themselves against others in the sector and attending events and training where they can learn of problems faced and solutions found by others in the sector. PARN is working hard to ensure that our expertise and knowledge can be spread to those working and volunteering

The Professional Body Sector

in the sector through our training courses, new qualifications in Professional Body Management, conferences and research based publications. Collectively, more needs to be done to raise the profile of professional bodies as a sector, especially emphasising the importance of trustworthy professionalism and its contribution to social infrastructure. This can stimulate a new approach to current widespread concerns with the UK’s long term underinvestment in infrastructure. This would make the mission of each professional body to raise the status and reputation of professionals and professionalism in their particular occupations easier by demonstrating how their work contributes to the public good. This Professional Body Sector Review is intended to both encourage professional bodies to recognise themselves as belonging to a distinctive sector and to raise the profile of the sector among stakeholders and the general public.

Sector NEWs Introducing Revalidation for Doctors Representing Professional Bankers Future Regulation of the Press following The Leveson Report Leadership in the Sector

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Introducing Revalidation for Doctors The General Medical Council (GMC) The General Medical Council (GMC) has introduced a system of revalidation, which means the UK's 250,000 licensed doctors are now legally required to show they are keeping up to date and are fit to practise. The UK is the first country in the world to introduce such a system across its whole healthcare system, covering GPs, hospital doctors, locums and those working in the independent sector. To keep their licence to practise, doctors will be required to revalidate on a regular basis, usually every five years. “We've worked with responsible officers from across all four countries of the UK to develop this guidance and make sure it supports them in their role.” Niall Dickson Chief Executive, GMC Revalidation for doctors has been a long time coming. The GMC has carried out extensive consultations over many years on this issue. Their latest consultation which involved responses from over 1,000 organisations and more than 4,000 individual doctors, concluded that revalidation needed to be straight-forward, proportional, not burdensome, flexible and must not detract from patient care. The GMC has incorporated these recommendations into its revalidation system.

Benefits of revalidation Over time, the GMC believes revalidation will improve the care patients receive from doctors and give patients extra confidence that their doctor is being regularly checked by their employer and the GMC. The appraisal systems used by employers have been improved so

Sector News

doctors will regularly be checked against the professional standards and core guidance set out by the GMC in its Good Medical Practice. Patients can help their doctors improve their practice by providing them with regular feedback about the care they have received. Employers will have better opportunities to deal with concerns about their practice sooner than may happen now. Revalidation started in December 2012 and the GMC is expecting to have revalidated the majority of licensed doctors in the UK for the first time by 2016 as follows: • Responsible officers and other medical leaders by March 2013 • A fifth of licensed doctors between April 2013 and the end of March 2014 • The majority of licensed doctors by the end of March 2016

First doctor to revalidate Professor Sir Peter Rubin, Chair of the GMC, became the first doctor to revalidate in December 2012. Speaking of his revalidation, Professor Rubin, who is a Consultant Physician and Professor of Therapeutics at Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, said: “I am delighted to be the first doctor in the UK to revalidate. This is the biggest change to medical regulation since the GMC was established in 1858 and change always brings some uncertainty to those it affects. However, to my medical colleagues I’d say that in this age of transparency our patients will expect nothing less. I’ve had a number of patient and colleague

feedbacks over the last few years and they’ve been helpful – partly in reaffirming all the things I do well and also in identifying what I can do better; none of us is perfect. For the vast majority of doctors, revalidation will be about improving still further their high standards of practice.”

Protecting patients The GMC’s job is to protect patients, by promoting and maintaining the health and safety of the public by ensuring proper standards in the practice of medicine. They do this by managing entry to the medical register and setting the educational standards for all UK doctors through medical schools and postgraduate education and training. The GMC also determines the principles and values that underpin good medical practice and it takes firm but fair action where those standards have not been met. This role and the powers to do it are given to it by Parliament through the 1983 Medical Act. The GMC does not exist to protect the medical profession, rather their interests are protected by others. Its job is to protect patients. It is independent of government and the profession and accountable to Parliament. Find out more about revalidation from the GMC website:

Representing Professional Bankers

We wanted to find out about the journey the oldest banking institute in the world has taken to become the voice of qualified bankers for the whole of the UK, so we got in touch with Margaret Soden, the Head of Public Affairs for the Chartered Banker Institute. The Chartered Banker Institute is the trading name of The Chartered Institute of Bankers in Scotland which was established in 1875. While their headquarters remain in Edinburgh, their members now come from across the UK and overseas. The Institute aims to enhance the standing of professional bankers and put in place actions and initiatives that will rebuild customer trust and confidence in the banking sector. Throughout its existence the Chartered Banker Institute has driven an agenda of ethical professionalism; promoting professional standards for bankers, providing professional and regulatory qualifications for retail, commercial and private bankers in the UK and overseas, and offering professional membership to qualified individuals. It is one of very few educational and professional bodies remaining in the UK to focus stringently on professional ethics, values and behaviours for bankers.

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In 2000, approval was received from the Privy Council to award the “Chartered Banker” professional designation to individuals meeting the Institute’s highest standards and qualification requirements for ethical, professional and technical competence. Surveys conducted for the Institute show remarkable public resonance for the term “Chartered Banker”. 41% of retail customers said they would place more trust in a Chartered Banker to give them financial advice than other well-known designations. 57% of business decision-makers said they would rather be a customer of a bank where their Relationship Manager was a professionally qualified Chartered Banker. In addition to the Chartered Banker, the Institute offers a wide range of lower-level qualifications. The Institute is committed to working with banks, policy makers, regulators and customer representatives to raise professional standards in the banking sector. The Institute is an FSA Accredited Body, working to raise professional standards for regulated retail financial advisers, but has a much wider remit working to raise professional standards in banking more broadly.

The Institute does not lobby on behalf of the industry, this is the role of the British Bankers’ Association. The Institute’s lobbying efforts are focused on representing their members on issues relating to education and qualifications as well as ethics and professionalism. In 2008, the Institute began work leading to the launch of the Chartered Banker Professional Standards Board (CB:PSB) in October 2011. The CB:PSB is a voluntary initiative supported by nine leading banks in the UK and the Institute. The CB:PSB’s overall aim is to promote a culture of professionalism amongst individual bankers, by developing and implementing industry-wide professional standards which enshrine the very best ethical, professional and behavioral qualities.

The Chartered Banker Code of Professional Conduct which sets out the values, ethical attitudes and behaviours expected of bankers was published by the CB:PSB in October 2011. This was followed in July 2012 by the publication of the Foundation Standard for Professional Bankers which sets out how individuals working in the banking industry can develop and demonstrate that they have the knowledge and skills to perform their role, that they take responsibility for acting ethically and professionally and that they build relationships, based on honesty, integrity, fairness and respect. By July 2013, 70,000 bankers in the UK will have met this new standard. We also wanted to know how the relationship between the Institute

and its members has shifted since the banking crisis began. Margaret told us that their members are deeply concerned about the sharp decline in trust and confidence in banks and bankers. They are very supportive of the steps that are being taken to re - professionalise the industry but there is a long way to go. Those at the start of their career are interested in the membership designations they can get from various qualifications and how these badges of professionalism might help their career progression.

banks and others against these standards, to provide learning and development programmes and provide professional membership to those achieving these standards. The Institute, as do others, awaits with great interest the recommendations of the current Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards on professionalism, qualifications and standards. Find out more about the Chartered Banker Institute online:

Looking to the future, the Chartered Banker Institute will continue to set the standards for banking education in the UK and increasingly overseas, to accredit the education and development programmes of

“I’m a lifetime banker. I joined the industry over 30 years ago. It was made very clear that if you wished to progress and have a successful career, you needed to pass your exams and become a qualified banker. Over the last 20 years, there has been a big change in that. Understandably, there are a lot of experts from different fields working in banks but this has led to reduced demand for well qualified, experienced, generalist bankers. There has also been a shift away from banking as a lifelong career and a focus on training rather than education. The culture has changed from stewardship to sales. And that’s not just in banks, but in society more generally. There has been a diminishing number of qualified bankers, but we are now starting to see that change.” Sector News

Future Role of the Regulator following The Leveson Report

In November 2012, Lord Justice Leveson's report was issued following the phone hacking scandal. His primary recommendation was for the Press Complaints Commission to be replaced by a new regulatory body and that it would need statutory underpinning if it were to be truly independent and effective. However Prime Minister David Cameron subsequently announced that he does not believe a bill is necessary to set up the new regime. In February 2013, the Conservatives unveiled plans for a regulator with a Royal Charter to be supervised by a "recognition panel". This panel would be mostly made up of people who are independent of the press, but would include a sufficient number of people with experience of the industry, such as former editors and senior or academic journalists. Serving editors, current MPs or government ministers would be excluded. Under the Conservative proposals the Royal Charter could only be amended by the recognition body if the leaders of the three main political parties in the House of Commons agreed and any changes were approved in Parliament.

If the Privy Council wanted to make changes to the Charter it would not have to get the approval of the leaders of the three main political parties. Professional bodies are well acquainted with Royal Charters they have a long history in Britain and were the way organisations were legally recognised before Parliament became sovereign in the 17th century. Among the earliest was the Royal College of Physicians of London in 1518. Royal Charters continue to be a means by which organisations are recognised and controlled in the UK, though this form of control has generally been ‘light touch’. There are currently over 900 organisations with a Royal Charter including organisations such as the BBC and the Bank of England as well as many colleges and universities. Gaining a Royal Charter is still a prize professional bodies consider to be worth pursuing.

(2010) the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives (2011) and the British Occupational Hygiene Society (2012). Royal Charters are formally issued by the Privy Council and while the terms can be altered, it is not an easy process. Jane Wilson, CEO of the Chartered Institute of Public Relations (CIPR) said The Royal Charter proposed for the press “is the first mechanism in a new structure of independent press regulation to meet the requirements envisaged in the Leveson Report”, but she highlights its limited remit. “Unlike our Royal Charter, this does not propose a new professional body for journalists, as in various forms, these already exist. I believe the aim of this Royal Charter is to introduce a new regime of regulation that gains public trust, sitting at the top of a structure and intended to give the balance of judgement from persons independent of the press.”

PARN estimates that 32% of professional bodies in the UK have a Royal Charter. Recent professional bodies to achieve a Royal Charter include the Chartered Institute of Internal Auditors and the Chartered Institute of Payroll Professionals

“Accountability to clear, publicly agreed and available standards is the only way to rebuild public trust in journalism.”

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Reacting to the recommendations in the Leveson Report, Wilson said that “CIPR encourages the press to commit as an industry to protect and promote the highest standards of journalism.

press, it is the CIPR’s belief that press regulation should be run by a new, independent, nonstatutory body.

Lord Leveson’s report shows that active steps must be taken to rebuild public trust and confidence in the professional standards of the press. The freedom and plurality of the press is fundamental to a thriving democracy, with this independence also being vital to the professional practice of public relations. In order to preserve the fundamental freedom of the

Without a free and open press, the public relations profession would be hindered in upholding its commitment to transparency, accountability and professional standards, as outlined in the CIPR’s code of conduct.

There are a number of tensions within journalism that have contributed to the poor state of professional practice among some journalists. One is the tension among journalists themselves, some of whom regard it as a profession, but many think of it as a craft and reject the responsibilities and duties that would be placed on them by a professional body. Second is the tension between organisational demands of media companies in terms of their standards and ambitions and the occupational professionalism among many journalists who may not be able to express their professionalism in the face of pressure from their employers.

Whether it is by statutory or self regulation we support greater professionalism among journalists and in the media in general. As noted in our section on regulation (p34) many professional bodies regulate both individuals and organisations. Professional values need to be inculcated in order to raise the reputation of the media and to protect the public.

Sector News

social media play as outlets for individual freedom of speech and expression. “The press have nothing to fear from a strong, innovative and robust regime of regulation, independent of both the press, and importantly independent of government.”

Any new body tasked with regulating media activity must understand and support the role that ‘blogs’ and other

PARN agrees that the new body should be mostly made up of people who are independent of the press, in addition to requiring a sufficient number with experience of the industry. However, there also needs to be sufficient representation from individuals with an understanding

of professional standards and ethics as well as experience with maintaining structures that encourage ethical standards to be upheld among practitioners. Here is a case for professional body expertise to be called upon.

Leadership in the Sector

Traditionally professional bodies have regarded their primary referents to be the occupational group they represent or regulate. So in the past, leaders of professional bodies tended to be members of the profession. Now the professional body sector is recognising that these jobs involve competencies that are quite separate from the knowledge base of the profession itself. Increasingly those in management

are being promoted from within the professional body, are coming from other professional bodies or from the private sector, and are not necessarily from connected professions. For example, during the past year Grainia Long was appointed Chief Executive of the Chartered Institute of Housing after working in that organisation since 2007; and Lee Davis, with experience working at the Institute for Learning, was taken on as

CEO of the Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys. This may be regarded as a key indicator that those running professional bodies are coming to see themselves to be in a distinctive role, as part of the professional body sector. Here we feature three key leaders in the sector, each with a different background leading up to their appointment as CEO of a major professional body.

Was the most senior salaried member of staff previously employed... Was the most senior salaried member of staff previously employed... As a practicing professional in your sector

In a different paid role at your organisation



2003 330 2006 2009 +290 2012 240+ +310 170+90+130+150 33%



In a similar role at another professional body

90+180+190+240 9% 18%



In a similar role at another type of organisation




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9% 13% 15%





10% 11%

Don’t know/No reply


3% 2% 4% 10%

24% of senior staff come from another professional body, up 15% over ten years

Sean Tompkins CEO of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS)

Sean Tompkins, moved up the ranks within the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) to become CEO. He was appointed to lead Marketing, Business Development and Customer Service in 2003, was promoted to Chief Operating Officer in 2008 and then appointed as CEO in 2010. Before that, he worked in the financial services sector in sales and marketing roles. The RICS was founded in London in 1868. It has over 100,000 members globally and over 500 staff in 30 locations. The majority of its net membership growth has for some time been outside the UK. The RICS functions as a professional association, regulatory body and learned society for professionals involved in the whole lifecycle of property.

Sector News

Sean sees his mission as capitalising on the RICS image that he inherited, on making the promise real and embedding it to cement the opportunities available to the RICS. In order to do this, he believes the key is to return to the original remit of professional bodies, to benefit the public by setting and enforcing standards. To ensure the professions are contributing to public debates and the long term interests of professionals in the occupations they are concerned with. They need to be concerned with standards and thought leadership and in this they are different from trade associations and other membership organisations. In some ways the term ‘member’ may be unhelpful.

“Rather than providing short term value for money services, it is professionals who RICS serve and it is their professionalism which we support, and which is in their long term interests. This can be seen particularly in emerging economies which present great opportunities to develop professions in the occupations the RICS is concerned with. We are moving towards a world of professions without professional boundaries.”

Antony Townsend CEO of the Solicitors Regulation Authority (SRA)

Antony had the experience of working for several regulatory bodies in the UK before he became the CEO of the Solicitors Regulation Authority (SRA). In 1990 he became head of the Health Section of the General Medical Council. From there he became Chief Executive of the General Dental Council in 2001 and then CEO of the SRA in the run up to its inception in 2007. He is not a trained lawyer, but was interested in legal matters and civil liberties from his university days and immediately after university worked on criminal justice issues at the Home Office. The SRA regulates more than 120,000 solicitors, and 10,000 law firms. It was established by the Legal Services Act of 2007 and is the independent regulatory body of the Law Society of England and Wales.

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Antony wants to continue to champion the merits of public interest regulation and harnessing professional standards internal and external to the SRA: he asserts the importance of professionals being driven by high ethical standards, while guarding against inward looking professional self protection. In addition, he wants to articulate how a more proactive model of regulation is best for the client and customer and also is an intelligent way to regulate, being beneficial to those we regulate. Antony notes that support for this view is rising among lawyers. The challenge is to overcome narrow reactive views of compliance and move towards risk reduction especially in a profession that is taught to see things in terms of compliance…

“There are two challenges in the next year for us. First, to continue to mature ourselves as an organisation, to ‘operationalise’ the framework we have set out, to be comfortable with new ways of doing things, and to do things more intelligently. This means continuing to transform the SRA from a reactive, rules-based and complaints driven regulator to one which is using a proactive risk-based approach involving regulation of legal entities as well as individual solicitors. Secondly, next month the Legal Education and Training Review Report will be published and this challenges the role of education driving professional standards. We need to address a number of issues such as the role of apprenticeships and divisions between branches of the profession. It is notable that 50% of legal services are delivered by non-lawyers and we need to support their ethical practice.”

Peter Cheese CEO of the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD)

Peter worked at Accenture for 30 years experiencing many different functions and industries and became Global Managing Director of the consulting practice for HR, change management, learning and organisation. After leaving in 2009 he managed a portfolio of roles including being Chairman of the Institute of Leadership and Management. He is still a member of their Board, but stepped down as Chairman when he joined CIPD. He also sits on the Council of City & Guilds. Peter became Chief Executive of the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) in July 2012. CIPD is the premier professional body for Human Resources professionals in the world with 135,000 members and

a global reach. Like the RICS it functions as a professional association, regulatory body and learned society. For Peter the key challenge is to develop a clear strategy, to sharpen the membership offer and also to become more flexible on the qualifications offered by CIPD. There are plenty of good initiatives and plans, but they have not been well orchestrated. The number one job is to make it happen. “We need to represent the entire profession, not just the members. We are the ‘tip of the spear’ for HR. We need to build its image in order to raise the position of HR in organisations, as being integral to business and business strategy. These are interesting times for HR. The common phrase ‘people are our most important asset’

A new breed of leaders Each of these CEOs are leaders with a background which is not confined to being a practitioner in the profession they represent. Instead, they all have specialised knowledge and experience of management in the pb sector. Interestingly, all three of them are focusing on leadership in the long term interests of the profession as a whole, rather than concentrating merely on the interests of the current members or registrants per se.

Sector News

needs to be given more substance. One way of doing this is for HR to work more closely with Finance. Both HR and Finance are being asked the same questions these days. What do we measure? There is a growth in recognition of intangible value in organisations and in the value of human capital. To support this CIPD are partnering with the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants to help build better frameworks for measuring intangibles. So we need to make HR more business oriented, more strategic, delivering better value and this will lead to raising the status of HR and in this turn will allow us to recruit higher calibre people into the profession.”

Best Practice Staying Relevant in a Digital Age (IOP) The Challenges of a Changing Profession (CILIP) The Era of CRM is Over (ASI Europe) Supporting Professional Development through E-Learning (BDA) Unlocking the revenue potential in your membership (Redactive) Getting Ofqual Accreditation (BIFM)

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Staying Relevant in a Digital Age

The Institute of Physics (IOP) is a leading scientific society with a worldwide membership of more than 45,000 members, all working together to advance physics education, research and application. We interviewed Stephanie Richardson, Head of Membership Development at IOP, to find out how the Institute’s broad engagement strategies for digital membership have contributed to sustained growth in recent years.

Gradual shift to digital membership Digital membership at IOP has always been seen as complementary to traditional membership and was introduced as a way of reaching a more diverse audience. Over the years, the IOP had been trying to find a way to keep members engaged who had studied physics, but then moved into a different career. Feedback from this type of member showed they still felt an affinity with the subject, even if they weren’t necessarily in a position to apply for one of the traditional grades of IOP membership. Perhaps they didn’t meet the requirements, or felt membership should only be for working physicists. Sometimes these professionals had to become a member of another professional body (for instance, physics graduates commonly move into the financial sector) and it would be a stretch to a pay for a second set of fees. The solution the IOP came up with was to retain these members by offering them a low cost digital option. This was viable for the Institute to resource as they had already begun to offer a wide range of digital benefits to existing traditional members, as a way of staying relevant and meeting their expectations. The digital resources that the IOP had in place included a fully digital version of their magazine Physics World, a wide range of online learning courses, a member networking site, and digital journals.

Expanding digital membership to students and internationally After establishing that the resources to support digital membership were in place, the next step was for the team to create new digital grades which would only have access to these online benefits. For a start, IOP moved student members over to a wholly digital membership grade. The IOP saw that the value and

Best Practice

logic behind their digital membership offer could also be applied to international members. This was especially important for those who were already members of their national physical society, who again might not wish to pay a second set of fee or for those who just wanted to read Physics World, the members’ magazine. They defined a strategy for marketing this new membership grade, focusing initially on India and sub-Saharan Africa.

Successes and future ideas Overall, digital membership has been a very successful venture for the organisation. The IOP has more members today than ever before, having increased from 40,000 to nearly 50,000 members in only two and a half years. These new members fall primarily within the new digital grades and are not members who have moved from other grades. They are completely new to IOP, which is exactly what they were hoping for. They have developed Android and iPhone apps for their Physics World magazine and are currently digitising its predecessor, the Physics Bulletin, to give members access to the archive. They are also considering digitising files and documents and making them available for members also. They are currently engaged in pilot schemes for international expansion and the digital memberships are a focus for that. Since 2012, PARN has been running a research project on internationalisation for IOP and the Institute for Learning (IfL) to explore how professional bodies grow internationally. The findings along with best practice case studies will be shared at the Autumn 2013 conference ‘Going Global: Expanding Your Membership Internationally’ on 21 November at Woburn House in London.

Challenges of a Changing Profession The Chartered Institute of Library & Information Professionals (CILIP) Interview with Annie Mauger

We caught up with Annie Mauger, Chief Executive of the Chartered Institute of Library & Information Professionals (CILIP), the leading professional body for librarians, information specialists and knowledge managers, to find out how they are dealing with the challenges of a changing profession.

What factors made CILIP realise a major change was needed? In 2010 CILIP decided to take stock. It was approaching two major milestones – in 2012 the organisation in its present form would be ten years old and in 2018 the library and information profession will have had chartered status for 120 years. It was obvious the environment in which CILIP operated was changing rapidly. New technology, pressures on budgets and employers looking for more diverse skills sets were all having an effect. We wanted to understand how this was impacting on the profession, how CILIP sat in this changing context and what people wanted from their professional body.

What actions has CILIP taken since then? In April 2010 CILIP began a programme of major, fundamental change. This programme addressed practically every aspect of the organisation including its strategic goals, staff structure and review of all activities. The change programme began with the Defining Our Professional Future project which included a consultation with over 3,500 members and non-members about the future of the profession and CILIP. The report provided clear and consistent messages, setting a new direction for the organisation based on priorities that were identified:

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• Advocacy and thought leadership • Networking and creating a community • Continuing Professional Development To set strategic direction, CILIP’s Council agreed a new vision and mission for the organisation. They focused on the positive impact the library and information profession makes on society and CILIP’s role in promoting and supporting the profession, advocating, providing shared values and developing skills. Council then agreed a new staff structure – to better deliver on the priorities identified in the consultation and to deliver the new vision and mission. A structural divide between commercial and non-commercial activities was removed; all activities had to clearly contribute to the organisation’s aims and charitable objectives. Apart from the Chief Executive, every job title and description changed. Once the staff were in place, a series of projects were initiated to drive through change to the rest of the organisation and form strategic objectives. The projects look at CILIP’s skills offer, the role and structure of regional Branches and Specialist Interest Groups, the membership offer, at refreshing the website based on a more flexible content management system and at the governance structure. The project looking at CILIP’s skills offer included revising our qualifications, accreditation of courses and the Professional Knowledge and Skills Base – a map of the skills required in the profession and an interactive self-assessment tool for members.

How well have these actions worked? It is early days, but feedback so far has been good. We have seen an uplift in new members joining. The finances are sound and revenue is strong. We are addressing major structural issues to create a more streamlined, effective, relevant and successful organisation. The impact will take time to tell, but we are extremely optimistic that the outcomes will be positive.

What are the key differences in your organisation’s strategies now? • Team work: Focusing on teams collaborating with each other, working together on projects, sharing information and staff talking to each other more regularly • Culture: Emphasising the need to clearly communicate with stakeholders whenever possible and presenting a more open, friendly and enabling face to the organisation • Project management: Embedding project management techniques across the organisation • Ambition: Willingness to change structures and propose new solutions

What are CILIP’s future plans? In 2013 we plan to launch a refreshed CILIP website with cleaner design and improved functionality, e-voting in elections for Council members, a new model of governance, online joining for the first time, a streamlined way of delivering our major

Best Practice

conference, a revised qualifications offer and a Virtual Learning Environment. Every year we want to review what we offer – drop what is not relevant or valued, and develop and launch new services that our members will value. It is a constant cycle of feedback, planning, development, launch and review. Our communications are key – we will keep working hard to explain who we are and what we do to potential members, employers, the media, politicians and other organisations in our world. We are ambitious in our goals but realistic in our approach. We want to be the best professional body and membership organisation possible. We want to deliver great value for money, we want employers to prize our members’ skills and expertise and most importantly we want our members to be proud to belong.

Further links Find out more about how CILIP’s activities on their website from the links below: • Defining Our Professional Future reports: • New organisational structure: www.cilip. • Professional Knowledge and Skills Base:

The Era of CRM is Over ASI Europe

Niroo Rad

“Anything less than a system that manages your member data and relevant web content together in one solution could put your organisation’s future success at risk” For professional associations these days, it’s all about engaging members. Given that new member acquisition is so challenging, nothing is more important than ensuring that the members you worked so hard to attract in the first place will renew their memberships next year and well into the future. But, how you engage members is changing. You’re probably feeling pressure from three different fronts. First is Economic- with tight budgets, members are looking for demonstrated value from their memberships. Second is Demographic- your younger members come with greater expectations for a website that’s personalised to their needs, includes sophisticated self-service options, e-commerce, e-learning, and at the same time offering a social experience. Third is Technological- smart phones and tablets are also changing the landscape—anything that your members can do online, they want to be able to do via their mobile devices from anywhere at any time. You need to be ready. If not, your members will lose interest in you. Engagement will not only gain you new members, but retain those you have, for years to come.

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If you’re like most professional bodies, you probably use multiple, disparate systems - contact relationship software (CRM) to manage data, a content management system (CMS) to manage web content, yet another solution for your mobile website with different apps for different systems, and yet more solutions for your private or public social network integrations. Even if you do get them integrated, they’ll be cobbled together at best between suppliers; and it’s a constant battle to access the information you need to make vital business decisions. This complex environment increases your total cost of ownership and makes it difficult—if not impossible—to keep all the systems up-to-date. So in an ideal world, can there really be a single solution? So called ‘Integration’ among CRM and CMS systems has proved to be an outdated, inefficient model. The latest and most forward-thinking concept is an ‘engagement management system (EMS) that manages all your member data and relevant web content in one seamless system. An EMS solution could provide your members with a highly personalised web experience and make it easy for them to connect, communicate, and collaborate with your association and other members both online and via smart phones and tablets. This would make your website ‘habitforming’, a go-to place where members can find exactly what they need when they need

it. This in turn would make your professional association indispensable, thereby ensuring strong retention rates. Plus, with a single EMS solution, you’d have fewer software suppliers or integration experts to manage, which will result in lower costs and significantly less risks. But there is also another major consideration. Particularly in the current climate, professional bodies need to be increasingly efficient— increasing income whilst minimising costs and risks. Goals need to be set, and you need to be able to measure your progress against them. Information and trends gained from your systems should be used to provide continuous improvement in your business performance. Real time intelligence should be provided to all department heads in meaningful dashboards, to inform daily decision making, to grow the organisation. So how would you make the transition? If you are replacing your CRM and website at the same time, you can look for an EMS that provides both in one solution. Ensure that it’s not yet another set of cobbled togetherup software offered as an ‘integrated’ solution. But there is an alternative. You can always implement an EMS solution for just member self-service and social networking to function as a subset of your main website - and either keep your existing CMS, or replace it at a later date. Whichever option

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you choose will still put your professional association on the path towards deeper member engagement, higher retention rates, and improved business performance. Making your organisation indispensable and continually providing unexpected and additional value to ‘each member’ will inevitably affect the success of your organisation. The era of CRM is over, so what plans do you have in place to meet the ‘engagement challenge’? For more information and educational white papers relating to the challenges facing professional associations, please see

Would you like to carry out an ‘assessment’ against high performance organisations similar to yours? Or identify how you can better ‘align’ your operational capabilities to support your strategic plans? ASI’s specialist advisory programmes are designed exclusively for CEOs and Senior Executives. To find out more please contact Niroo Rad, Managing Director of ASI Europe, at

Supporting Professional Development through E-learning

The British Dental Association (BDA) is the professional association for dentists in the UK, representing more than 23,000 dentists and dental care professionals. The regulator for the sector is the General Dental Council (GDC) which sets standards for education, CPD and practising requirements. Since 2006, the BDA has been helping its members to maintain compliance with the GDC’s requirements through e-learning.

Choosing to develop e-learning For the BDA, the move towards e-learning came as a natural part of developing modern courses and qualifications for dental care professionals. Initially, they trialled e-learning as a stand-alone service, found it successful and then began to integrate it into the organisation’s work. Their e-learning content is primarily based on expertise from within the organisation and occasionally from external experts. The majority of the content is presented as slides with a voiceover. The BDA’s monthly journals are supported by online tests that establish if members have read the papers. We interviewed Stephen MacDonald, Head of Education Services at BDA, to find out more about their experiences in implementing e-learning.

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“We use online learning as a way to help people with the advice that we provide, to make sure they’ve understood it and they are putting it into action.” The BDA also uses e-learning to complement their advisory services. Text-based scenarios have proven very useful in helping members learn how to put BDA advice into practice: “We developed a series of employment law videos and one explained how to follow a disciplinary process. We used text scenarios to add a bit of interactivity to the videos and to help our members see how their decisions affect the outcome.”

Measuring success An evaluation form is built in at the end of each course and the system also provides detailed reporting on the activity of individual ‘pages’ of each course. “We have a continuous feedback cycle where we are constantly improving the e-learning we have.” The BDA carries out regular member surveys that have sometimes included questions about e-learning. In 2011, research was done to see how dentists used the e-learning technology and how they use computers and other devices. “All the feedback we’ve received shows that our members value e-learning primarily because it is accessible. They have very busy working lives and it’s really difficult to fit other things in, so by putting education opportunities online we’re helping them to learn where and when it suits them.”

Future developments

Advice for others

Mobile learning is an important future trend especially with a focus on ‘just in time learning’. Modern professionals expect to be able to access information when they need it and mobile technology seems likely to play a bigger role in learning in the workplace in coming years.

We asked our interviewee what advice they would give to another professional body that was looking at starting or expanding an e-learning system. One important point that came up was that e-learning shouldn’t just be seen as something separate from the rest of the organisation:

The BDA has some issues around compatibility with some mobile devices, specifically the Apple iPad and iPhone. This is because their Flash-based e-learning system is not compatible with these Apple products. However, when the system was purchased (in 2006) no one could have predicted the popularity these products would enjoy. “We couldn’t know what was going to happen in six years time… because technology moves so fast you can’t predict what’s going to happen next week really! We’ve got ourselves into a proprietary system which doesn’t work with one of the biggest selling pieces of hardware out there. It’s not a disaster but it’s not ideal.” The BDA are now moving towards a more flexible CPD ‘ecosystem’ which should prove able to adapt to technological developments and the growing demand for mobile learning.

Best Practice

“Integrate e-learning into other services your association provides. We use e-learning to support our advice, our publications, and our face to face events as well. I would have brought that into the mix much much sooner.” To find out more about our research into e-learning, read the book E-learning for Professions (From £40).

Unlocking the revenue potential in your membership

Professional body finances are in rude health, a position endorsed by PARN’s financial benchmarking study. The sector has grown membership numbers and converted a cumulative deficit to a healthy surplus (at 16% margin, no less) in just three economically troubled years. You’re obviously doing plenty right. But how much more untapped revenue is your professional body sitting on? How much is tied up in your crown jewels, your membership, just waiting to be freed? Professional bodies work in niche sectors. Niche is targeted. Advertisers like ‘targeted’. Professional bodies have captive, loyal audiences and membership data that are hugely valuable to commercial third parties. For years, suppliers have reached your members in the form of advertising or sponsorship, principally on the pages of your membership magazine. And whilst some sectors are holding up relatively well here – it’s imperative that your offering evolves to maintain and grow your income. How confident are you that you are adapting your offer enough into growing digital revenues to replace the decline in print? Sophisticated marketers demand measurable results, proven ROI and they want it now. The former series display advertiser is becoming adept at communicating its messages through digital media and they have a thirst for leads or ‘big data’.

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So, how can you meet this demand? 1. Your members almost certainly compete with one another for business and are prepared to spend money in doing so. Are you monetising competition amongst your members or are you allowing somebody else to cash in on your members’ marketing budgets? RICS and ICAEW are seeking to ‘own’ this space with their consumer-facing online directories (Find a Surveyor & Find a Chartered Accountant respectively) and are allowing those members who are prepared to pay for an enhanced presence to rank highest in search results. 2. Are you providing digital media channels for big spending marketers to share their content with your members in return for members’ contact details? The Chartered Institute of Marketing’s The Marketer magazine has grown its advertising revenues by 150% in three years. Print now represents only 15% of total revenues. This exponential growth has been achieved by providing channels for third parties to engage members with content (webinars, white paper/ report downloads, joint research studies and more) which enables the ‘advertiser’ to be positioned as a thought leader and at the same time capture data or ‘generate leads’.

3. Do you have a sophisticated searchable jobs site which is connected to your organisation’s careers/ education/training offering? Many professional bodies are doing this well and are reaping the rewards; they have profitable careers guides which promote their professions and membership of their organisations; they have profitable jobs sites taking advantage of available technologies and they hire experts who are well connected in the recruitment world. So, ask yourself this. Are you truly maximising the revenue potential from your membership? Are your digital revenues growing rapidly? Are you providing plenty of ‘lead generation’ activities, alongside your traditional print, digital advertising and events opportunities? If the answer to any of these questions is no, it’s time to unlock the crown jewels, or talk to a partner that can. Aaron Nicholls Director Redactive Media Group T: 020 7880 8547

Getting Ofqual Accreditation

Facilities management is one of the fastest growing professions in the UK. The British Institute of Facilities Management (BIFM) has over 13,000 individual and corporate members who are responsible for buildings and services which support businesses and other types of organisation. The Institute has been very active in developing and awarding qualifications that are vocationally orientated, which work well due to the practical nature of the facilities management sector.

Creating qualifications As an Ofqual regulated Awarding Organisation, the Institute awards qualifications in facilities management at level 2 (equivalent to GCSE level A* C grade) which are appropriate for new entrants to the industry right up to level 7 (equivalent to Masters level) which are appropriate for Strategic Heads of Estates. All BIFM Qualifications are approved by the Sector Skills Council for facilities management (Asset Skills) and are accredited on the national Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF). This framework is internationally recognised throughout Europe. BIFM actively engaged with employers in order to learn how they want their facilities management staff to be developed and assessed. They did a survey with their individual and corporate members to understand what they wanted in terms of developing qualifications. Linda Hausmanis, Head of Awarding Organisation at BIFM told us: “Based on feedback from members and other stakeholders in the industry, we listened and developed a complete suite of qualifications which are becoming the benchmark standard of excellence throughout the industry” At each level of qualification, there is a route through to one of the BIFM membership grades, which is further evidence of the work BIFM has carried out over the recent years to create and shape a progressional and professional pathway for all individuals in the industry.

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The assessment process for membership without formal qualification involves the applicant providing their CV, a job description and a signed personal declaration confirming their Facilities Management knowledge which must be countersigned by a sponsor. “What we have done with Membership grades is to try to avoid making it a case of either having a qualification or not having a qualification. If you do have a qualification, the requirement is fewer years of practical experience. If you haven’t got a formal qualification, then you’d need more practical experience.”

Apprenticeships in Facilities Management In 2012 we saw the launch of Higher Level Apprenticeships in Facilities Management and BIFM were delighted to participate in the Consortium, led by Asset Skills, to develop apprenticeship pathways at levels 4 and 5. This now provides apprenticeship pathways from level 2 right up to level 5. BIFM are hoping that in 2013 they will see an opportunity arise to expand the apprenticeships through to levels 6 and 7. Want to know how five other leading professional bodies and one Sector Skills Council introduced new entry routes to their professions? Read the book Becoming A Professional: New Ways of Entering the Professions (From £40).

TRENDS In Key Areas Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Governance Membership Professional Standards and Regulation Finance

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Continuing Professional Development (CPD) The move towards compulsory policies in Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is continuing The move towards compulsory policies in CPD is gradually, with a 3% rise Voluntary continuing gradually, withsince a 3%2009. rise since 2009. policies are down are by 5% andby mixed policies are up by Voluntary policies down 5% and mixed policies 5% up showing introducing compulsory CPD for at are by 5%that showing that introducing compulsory leastfor some members still on the rise.on the rise. CPD at least some is members is still Measuring CPD cPD purely purely by by outputs outputs remains remains steady steady Measuring since 2009, 2009, but but those those using using aa mixture mixture of of input input and and since output measurement measurement has has nearly nearly doubled doubled from from 22% 22% in in output 2009 to to 40% 40% in in 2012. 2012. This This confirms confirms the the trend trend towards towards 2009 using output output measurement, measurement, albeit albeit in in conjunction conjunction with with using some kind kind of of input input requirement. requirement. some Requiring evidence evidence of of changes changes in in working working practice practice Requiring and of of client client outcomes outcomes shows shows aa trend trend towards towards the the and perception of of aa distinction distinction between between measuring measuring perception knowledge outcomes, outcomes, practice practice outcomes outcomes and and knowledge client outcomes. outcomes. Practice Practice and and client client outcomes outcomes are are client more difficult to measure, but it is important that

The proportion of professional bodies that have a CPD policy of some kind:


Measurement 70% measure CPD by outputs in some way (30% only by outputs)

more difficult to measure, but it is important that professional bodies bodies encourage encourage their their members members professional to reflect reflect on on their their practice practice and and find find new new ways ways of of to measuring the the impact impact of of CPD CPD on on clients. clients. Ultimately Ultimately the measuring reputation of CPD among members, clients andand the the reputation of CPD among members, clients general public will will depend on finding ways to identify the general public depend on finding ways to positivepositive outcomes. identify outcomes. The trend trend of of providing providing recording recording templates templates continues, continues, The and this this isis always always the the most most common common provision provision of of and CPD support support after after guidelines. guidelines. However, However, nearly nearly half half of CPD professional bodies areare also offering reflection and of professional bodies also offering reflection and planning templates templates –– supporting supporting the the whole whole CPD CPD cycle. cycle. planning interesting that that only only aa low low proportion proportion of of ItIt isis interesting professional bodies bodies with with CPD cPD policies policies require require their their professional members to to take take CPD cPD on on the the topics topics of of professional professional members ethics or or equality equality and and diversity. diversity. We We might might expect expect this this ethics to be be higher higher in in the the future. future. to

The proportion of professional bodies with a compulsory CPD policy:

Trends in Key Areas

in 2009

Evidence was 66% in 2009

89+11 39+61 26+74

89% require evidence of planning and reflection

39% require evidence of changes in working practice

26% require evidence of client outcomes

Accreditation 35% accredit CPD courses

Spotlights on Departments

in 2012


Recording 47% 46% provide provide reflection planning templates templates

30% 27%

80% provide recording templates

22% accredit CPD suppliers


Spotlight on... Sean Kelly Membership and Public Relations Manager The Society and College of Radiographers (SoR)

Why is the work of the CPD department at SoR important?

How do your organisation’s CPD activities impact on the profession of radiography?

We manage and deliver our CPD programme and associated accreditations/endorsements with relatively limited resources, so the term ‘department’ might be a little grandiose! We consider that the provision of a structured portfolio, with accreditation for the individual practitioner, ensures that our members are equipped to meet their professional and regulatory requirements in this regard. Additionally we broker suitable learning packages and provide endorsement for CPD programmes delivered by a range of public sector, independent and commercial providers, giving our members the reassurance they need when investing time and other resources in CPD courses and products.

We support our members’ staying in practice, as a range of CPD standards are required by the regulator and our CPD programme is designed to support this. Our CPD system has a wider application in the accreditation of individual members’ practice, which support the development of the profession into areas new to our members, some of which were previously undertaken by other practitioners such as doctors.

Governance Advantages & Disadvantages Four governance structures are commonly found among professional bodies. Based on research, we have identified the following insights into the experiences of professional bodies with different governance structures: • Single large representative Council Many professional bodies have expanded their Councils as membership has grown and new special interest and specialist groups have emerged. The advantage of this is the strong democratic input to governance from a large number of members, especially those emerging from the member networks. The disadvantages, however, can be severe: slow decision-making, and difficulties in reaching agreement which can lead to difficult decisions being postponed. Also, this can be a very costly structure. In addition the Council may lack the key skills needed if it is entirely populated by elected representatives from the membership. This

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structure may be best suited to professional bodies facing a stable environment, where issues are well understood and challenges are few. • Dual structure with large representative Council as the governing body The key advantage is that the Council benefits from a small group that can more easily and cheaply meet to help design the Council agenda, to deal with matters that arise between Council meetings and to make proposals to save Council time. The disadvantage is that the two groups can duplicate efforts. With the Council still acting as the governing body, it often reopens issues that the Board considers it has dealt with. • Single small strategic Board The main advantage is that a small Board can make decisions quickly. Being freed from the need to be seen to be representative the Board can be appointed based on competencies and specialist skills such as financial, legal, or marketing

expertise. In addition, members of a smaller group can more easily monitor each other in order to fulfil legal responsibilities as directors or trustees. However, there are dangers if the Board loses touch with members and other stakeholders, or appears to do so.

PARN’s Cupped Hands Model of Governance

• Dual structure with smaller strategic Board as the governing body This structure can provide advantages of both speed and efficiency of strategic decision-making and the democratic input from a wide selection of the membership. Council meeting less frequently can accommodate an expansion of numbers without undue cost. However there is a danger of Council members who do not sit on the Board feeling disenfranchised. Also the role of the Council may be difficult to pin down, though this was reported as more a problem for those organisations who have recently moved to this structure and can be solved or at least alleviated in time.

“A much more streamlined, efficient and rapid decision making process. Accountability has been retained since the Board is elected by and from Council, which is itself elected by the membership at large.” For detailed guidance on professional body governance, see our book: Governance of Professional Associations: Theory & Practice (From £20 from


31 2 + 67

67% of professional bodies have a governing body made up of a single board or council.

The Cupped Hands Model specifies a dual structure with a small strategic Board as the governing body and a large Council of representatives. This approach has been particularly praised by those who have instituted it:

Women made up 30.7% of the people serving on governing bodies in the sector, men made up 69.3%


31% have a dual governance structure, usually one smaller board and one larger council 2% did not reply

1.5% of people serving on governing bodies were under 30 35.4% were 30-50


55.4% were between 50 and retirement 7.7% were past retirement

Single, GB is larger representative group (mean size of 32) Single, GB is smaller representative group (mean size of 14) Dual, GB is larger representative group (mean size of 31) Dual, GB is smaller representative group (mean size of 14) No reply Base

Trends in Key Areas

The average governing body meets on average

2003 24% 5% 49% 14% 8% 129

2006 34% 14% 37% 15% 110

2009 36% 28% 13% 24% 76

times per year 2012 27% 40% 6% 25% 2% 111

Membership It is encouraging that more professional bodies are reporting an increase in membership than a decrease, and perhaps surprising given the current economic climate. However, in some sectors the recession has promoted a rise in members who join to gain a competitive edge in the job market.

Sectors which report a decrease or no change in membership numbers include: • Agriculture and environment • Culture and leisure • Government and public services • Marketing and PR • Construction and property • …and the most marked decline – teaching and academia!

If we break membership trends down by sector, we find increases for those professional bodies in: • Accountancy • Finance, business and management • Engineering • Medical, health and social • Law • Science • Transport

Social media use has really taken off in the professional body sector. A huge majority (91%) are now using Twitter to interact with their members and this is the most commonly used social media site. However, there is still some caution in embracing social networking for many. Despite this increase in electronic networks, branches and Special Interest Groups are still very common, with little change being reported over the last three years regarding their incidence, or meeting attendance, participation and supply of volunteers. In fact, PARN has been commissioned by a group of its members to conduct a research project on the management of these member networks in 2013.

The majority of professional bodies (57%) reported that their individual membership had increased over the last three years ...


... 21% reported a decrease

Professional bodies have captured 48% of their membership market leaving a target market

of professional bodies have a branch network compared to 78% in 2009

opportunity of 52%

Social media networks used by professional bodies to interact with members The average professional body membership number is 23,293 (largest 665,000; smallest 150) 91% Twitter

+9 +25 +32 +51 +60

68% 49% Facebook own social/ professional *2% don’t use any social media network

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75% LinkedIn

40% YouTube


Spotlight on... Cristian Holmes Director of Marketing, Communications & Membership British Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy

What are some of BACP's key challenges? At BACP, we’ve been heavily involved in re-articulating the value proposition of membership to better enable the association to meet members’ and stakeholders’ needs. Our next challenges are three-fold. The first challenge, in response to an evolving market influenced primarily by changing demographics, multiple delivery channels and the technological revolution, is to deconstruct and reconstruct the membership offering to ensure that BACP is able to effectively meet tomorrow’s membership needs. The second challenge is to more readily meet members’ individual needs, exploring membership service delivery and communications from a heterogeneous rather than homogeneous perspective. The third challenge is to build the public profile of the profession and our members as a public facing profession; our brand and confidence in our brand is going to be vital.

Trends in Key Areas

What do you think staff in similar roles at other professional bodies might find interesting? I think the relating back of what we practically do to the academic study of the sociology of professions is both interesting and vital. The study of professions, their role in society, markets and relationship with members is burgeoning, and we’ve been keen to use the sociology of professions as a framework to better understand the wider context of professional bodies.

Professional Standards and Regulation Over the past decade, PARN has found that more professional bodies have begun to identify themselves as having regulatory functions or being purely as regulatory bodies. This reflects a growing trend to increase the regulation of the professions, as opposed to the more traditional membership-only approach.

To join a professional body, individuals must meet the standards set for entry and most professional bodies require a qualification at or above degree level. In addition to this, more than half of professional bodies require some form of work experience. Sometimes this is simply a matter of declaring the number of years spent working in the sector in order to meet experience requirements. Other approaches include setting out competencies that should be achieved and assessing these in the workplace.

3+29 21+110 3268+

For the professional bodies that have regulatory powers, most hold them at a national (whole of UK) or international level while a smaller portion have powers in one or more UK countries. Most professional bodies regulate all their members or registrants, although some regulate only a subset of their members. 32% of bodies have some regulatory powers and it is estimated that 6.1 million

professionals in the UK are members of professional bodies. Since bodies with regulatory powers tend to be larger on average, it is estimated that at least two million professionals are subject to some regulatory requirements. The true figure may be even higher.

... of those with some regulatory powers 10% have regulatory jurisdiction at an international level


of professional bodies have some regulatory powers ...

... of those with some regulatory powers: 63% regulate only individuals

3% regulate only professional services firms 28% regulate both

Out of 6.1 million people in the UK who are members of professional bodies, two million are subject to some regulatory requirements

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Spotlight on... Tania Hayes Head of Conduct and Compliance Association of Accounting Technicians (AAT)

Why is the work of the conduct and compliance department at AAT important? Here in the Conduct & Compliance team at AAT we ensure that our membership continues to meet the high standards expected by the public and employers when they engage an AAT member to work with them. The AAT brand is built on our expectation that members will perform to a high standard of competence and act ethically at all times. We ensure that members who fall short of meeting these standards are held to account for this. We gather information to inform our members’ compliance with our expectations in a number of ways. From the offset, we have entry standards which applicants are required to meet before we will allow them entry to the profession. We then monitor compliance of those who deliver accountancy services on a self employed basis with practice assurance monitoring either by telephone monitoring or a visit to their practice. We monitor members’ compliance with our continuing professional development requirements on a sample basis. We also accept complaints from third parties and will investigate them to determine whether the member has breached ethical or technical standards. These measures provide us with the assurances we need as to members’ compliance with our standards.

How do your department’s activities impact on the profession of accounting technicians? We take the view here at AAT that the work of the Conduct & Compliance function is integral to all areas of work delivered within the organisation. Through the work we do, we are able to pick up on trends suggesting where further guidance and support might be needed by our members to build on their knowledge and competence in areas of professional practice and we can feed this through to our services team for the design of effective support

Trends in Key Areas

and guidance which members benefit from through their membership with us. This means that we are able to continuously develop our members to meet the evolving needs of the markets within which they are operating.

What’s one experience you’ve had recently that you think staff in similar roles at other professional bodies would find helpful? With the significant adverse press over the way some professions, for example journalists and bankers, but also our own with the ongoing tensions in respect of the ethics of tax avoidance, we have invested significantly in raising the profile of professional ethics as being the cornerstone of public confidence in the way any profession delivers its services. The public interest has never been so important, and the high profile examples of ethical failings have changed public expectation about how the professions go about their business. AAT’s Conduct & Compliance team has developed an ethics microsite www.aat-ethics. which seeks to raise the profile of professional ethics as a concrete standard within which professions are expected to work. Internally, we have developed interactive professional ethics e-learning to support members in understanding ethical issues as they might identify them in real life. We firmly believe that prevention is better than cure and investing in profile raising and clearly setting out our expectations of members to this regard we are providing them with the tools they need to maintain public confidence in their professionalism going forward.

Finance Since 2009, PARN has published Financial Benchmarking reports each year based on data from over 270 professional bodies in the UK. They are compiled from professional bodies’ annual reports/reviews and financial statements. From these, we have found that here has been a dramatic turnaround in the fortunes of the professional body sector over the past three years. In 2009, the sector as a whole was losing money with deficits of £143 million, on average representing 6.5% of total income. In 2010, that turned around to a small surplus of £52 million, on average representing 2% of income and the recovery continued in 2011 to £340 million. In 2009, 55% of professional bodies were making a deficit, but this steadily improved to 41% in 2010 and then 28% in 2011. While this is not a great situation, it is vastly better than three years ago. Reserves have been rebuilt, particularly in the past year. The sector is sitting on a fairly large base of reserves equal to 98% of total annual income or roughly 11.8 months of income on average.

In November 2012, we published the third edition of our report Financial Benchmarking for Professional Bodies. It was based on the full range of data from 2009 to 2011, shown and analysed in comparison against findings from the last two reports. Last year, PARN partnered with haysmacintyre to improve the quality of the report and for the first time were able to provide the full report as a PDF to all PARN Members for FREE, instead of the usual cost of £100. This in-depth report is available for purchase by non-members from £150. We also offer customised reports which compare your organisation with a relevant selection of professional bodies.

In 2011, the professional body sector achieved a total income of over £2 billion. By this measure it is quite a large sector. The sector employed roughly 17,000 people, which is somewhat less than one would expect based on total income because a certain amount of work carried out by professional bodies is done by volunteers (mostly members or registrants of the professional body). The average number of full time employees was 95, though there was a highly skewed distribution and the median figure was 29. The range was from 1 to 1,250 employees. In terms of membership and registrants, the professional body sector represented around 6.1 million professionals or 21% of the labour force in employment.1 This is an indication of the wider significance of the professional body sector. The average number of members was roughly 32,500 with the median at 9,455. The smallest professional body had just 150 members while the largest had over 665,000 members.

1 The 6.1 million members reported represents only 187 of the roughly 500 professional bodies in the sector. On this basis it is likely to severely underestimate the membership. However 6.1 could be an overestimate for several reasons: some belong to more than one professional body and there will be an overlap between registrants of regulatory bodies and professional association members. In addition, some members are student and some retirees. The breakdown of membership into these categories is not often provided in the accounts.

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Spotlight on... Sarah Beacock FEI International and Professional Affairs Director and Acting Chief Executive Energy Institute

“The Financial Benchmarking customised report was useful in seeing how we compared to other bodies in our sector. In some ways it was reassuring to see what we were doing ‘right’ but it’s also helped to isolate areas that we could improve upon. There is so much data in the report that we are still analysing how best to use it but it’s already been useful as a measure of how well we are serving our members. We will certainly make use of it in our next round of planning for the future.”

PARN2011 Financial Benchmarking Report highlights PARN2011 Financial Benchmarking Report highlights

In three years the sector has turned a £143m deficit into a £340m surplus The sector posted a 16% cumulative profit/surplus margin in 2011 Cumulative operating surplus/deficit

Total incoming resources/revenue in 2011: £2.19bn

2009 -£143m 2010 £51.5m

2009 £2.05bn

2011 £340m

2010 £2.10bn Professional bodies with a deficit

Total number of members in professional bodies:

Total number of professional body FTE employees:

2009 2010 2011 5.51m 5.63m 5.69m

2009 2010 16.2k 16.6k

2011 16.7k

2009 54.9%

2010 40.5%

2011 27.8%

2010 £1.36bn

2011 £1.71bn

Industry reserves

2009 £1.31bn

Trends in Key Areas

Events and training Over the past fifteen years, our work with professional bodies has enabled us to develop a unique combination of research expertise, strategic thinking & specialist knowledge of the sector. Each year we hold two conferences in London based on our recent research. In addition, we also offer our expertise, experience and perspective to professional bodies through our unique Training Courses, which have been designed specifically for people working for professional bodies.

PARN Training Courses in 2013* • Developing & Managing CPD 3 October 2013

• Professional Standards & Regulation 2 October 2013

• Developing Strategy & Business Planning 11 April 2013 & 8 October 2013

• Strategic Finance for Professional Bodies 12 April 2013 & 6 November 2013

• Engaging & Retaining Members 17 May 2013 & 5 November 2013

• Strategic Implementation & Leadership 16 May 2013 & 26 November 2013

• Governance of Professional Bodies 16 October 2013

• Understanding Member Value 1 October 2013

• Managing Accreditation 4 December 2013

• Understanding the Professional Body Sector 15 October 2013

• Managing Volunteers 3 December 2013 • Professional Ethics 27 November 2013

• Updating Entry Policies 23 May 2013 & 28 November 2013

PARN Conferences for professional bodies* • (Re)defining Your Professional Brand 24 April 2013 • Going Global: Expanding Your Membership Internationally 21 November 2013

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All dates shown are subject to change, see the website for details

PARN Qualifications Our Qualifications in Professional Body Management are ideal for all professional body employees wanting to develop their understanding of the professional body sector and looking to gain a more strategic perspective. We provide a thorough grounding in the general principles of professional body management as well focus on specific knowledge about particular aspects of professional body activities. Candidates can work at their own pace, completing a variety of PARN Training Courses and a work based project to suit their working schedule, spreading the efforts and costs out. PARN Qualifications are accredited by the professional bodies sector as a whole – represented by our ‘Board of Assessors’. The Board of Assessors is made up of experienced senior Directors and CEOs of professional bodies based in the UK. The Board holds a yearly meeting to ensure the consistency, transparency, and validity of the grading process.

Board of Assessors • Peter Cheese, Chief Executive, CIPD • Toni Fazaeli, Chief Executive, IfL • Simon Thompson, Chief Executive, Chartered Banker Institute • Sean Tompkins, CEO, RICS • Antony Townsend, Chief Executive, SRA

Events and Training

Hear from two of our PARN Qualification Candidates about their experiences so far: Alice Flanagan Reception and Administration Society of Trust and Estate Practioners (STEP) How do you think completing the qualification will help you in your career? “I think it will help me broaden my knowledge and that will help me to help present different options and ideas for improvements for STEP as an organisation. Now I’ve been here for a few years I want to further my career in the professional body sector.” Sandra Godman Programme Manager Global Agenda and Talent Management Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) What attracted you to doing a PARN Qualification? “One of the things that resonated particularly was that it is focused purely on professional bodies. There really aren’t qualifications for the professional body sector – we normally get lumped in with the charities sector, but we aren’t run of the mill charities. Working for professional bodies requires that you understand a great range of stakeholders: members, employers, trade associations, higher and further education institutions, and government. Understanding how that mix comes together, and to be able to lead a professional body with clarity, requires specialist training and qualifications. I think this qualification is an important thing for the sector and I want to support that.”

Time for a Professions Week? Access to the professions is high on the agenda for most professional bodies. But is there a need for these organisations to better collaborate so their message is delivered in a way which transforms the awareness and understanding of the role of the professional bodies, delivers a step change in Government lobbying and leads a new approach to professional career choices for young people? Martin Reid, Head of Professions and Membership at Sterling recaps on recent discussions. New dialogue on this topic with professional bodies started in Autumn 2012 following the publication of a Sterling White Paper authored by Lee Davies, CEO of the Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys. As a qualified teacher and former Deputy Chief Executive of the Institute for Learning (IfL), Lee is passionate about adult learning, particularly working with communities who suffer from educational disadvantage. In the paper Lee highlighted his growing concerns about the changing educational landscape and the impact this will have on professional bodies. His view was that a series of separate but interlinked government policies are combining to hinder access to the professions and now present a significant threat to the future viability of professional membership bodies.

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Professional bodies are well aware of the entry routes into their respective professions, but there has been insufficient thought leadership on an inter-professional level resulting in a lack of challenge to government in this key policy area. Government listens to the needs of business, industry and commerce but does not have a track record of engaging with professional bodies nationally on education and training policy. The paper examined three areas of current government education and training policy in terms of their impact on professional bodies and access to the professions: • The place and value of vocational learning in schools • Changing funding models for further and higher education • The status of teachers and trainers in further education When Lee first presented his paper at a Breakfast Briefing in front of a group of other professional bodies in September 2012, the ensuing discussion was lively, stimulating and full of enthusiasm. It was at this first meeting that Toni Fazaeli, Chief Executive of the Institute for Learning suggested the idea of a Professions Week to galvanise this spirit and enthusiasm.

Martin Reid Head of Professions Sterling

Somewhat surprisingly a Professions Week doesn’t already exist given there are so many weeks already well established in the UK. Some embryonic ideas also began to emerge. Jane Scott-Paul, Chief Executive of the Association of Accounting Technicians articulated her support for organisations providing work experience as a valuable first step on the jobs ladder. And Charles Elvin, Chief Executive of the Institute for Leadership and Management highlighted there would be significant value in professional bodies working together to provide additional resources to young people and their teachers, connecting the school curriculum to professional and vocational learning. A second meeting was arranged in December which was attended by about 15 professional bodies, along with PARN and Professions for Good. It was clear from this meeting that there was a lack of awareness generally about what already exists by way of promoting access to the professions. Sarah Hathaway, Head of Marketing and Promotions for the ACCA suggest producing a road map showing existing activity and how this could help inform a future campaign.

Professions Week

There was a further idea to produce a simple toolkit showing how organisations could support the programme through a range of initiatives including work placements, Apprenticeships and member engagement. Overall a consensus remained that enhanced collaboration among the professional bodies could deliver a powerful unifying force for the sector. Could this combined ‘buying power’, delivered under the umbrella of a Professions Week, help to deliver a significant change in the awareness of the professions among schools, parents, government and ultimately young people? To keep up to date with the latest events, why not joined the dedicated Access to the Professions LinkedIn group or contact Martin Reid from Sterling


and RELATED ORGaniSations

Accounting Technicians Ireland

British Institute of Innkeeping

Association For Nutrition

British Medical Association

Association for Professional Executive Coaching and Supervision

British Occupational Hygiene Society

Association for Project Management Association of Accounting Technicians Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland Association of Chartered Certified Accountants Association of Corporate Treasurers Association of International Accountants Association of University Administrators Association of Volunteer Managers Australian Institute of Radiography BCS - The Chartered Institute for IT British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy British Association of Art Therapists British Association of Occupational Therapists and College of Occupational Therapists British Institute of Dental and Surgical Technologists British Institute of Facilities Management

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British Osteopathic Association British Parking Association British Pest Control Association British Psychological Society British Sociological Association Business Continuity Institute Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technologists Chartered Banker Institute Chartered Institute for Securities and Investment Chartered Institute of Building Chartered Institute of Housing Chartered Institute of Internal Auditors Chartered Institute of Legal Executives Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals Chartered Institute of Linguists Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport UK

Chartered Institute of Management Accountants Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development Chartered Institute of Public Relations Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply Chartered Institute of Taxation Chartered Institution of Highways and Transportation Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management Chartered Insurance Institute Chartered Quality Institute College of Optometrists Dental Council (Ireland) Devon and Somerset Law Society Dyslexia Action Energy Institute Engineers Australia General Dental Council Institute and Faculty of Actuaries Institute for Archaeologists

Institute for Learning

Institution of Occupational Safety and Health

Society and College of Radiographers

Institute for the Management of Information Systems

Insurance Institute of Ireland

Society for Editors and Proofreaders

International Association of Bookkeepers

Society of Chartered Surveyors Ireland

International Compliance Association

Society of Chiropodists and Podiatrists

International Federation of Purchasing and Supply Management

Society of Indexers

Institute of Administrative Management Institute of Biomedical Science Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland Institute of Chartered Foresters Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators Institute of Conservation Institute of Consulting Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment Institute of Financial Planning Institute of Fundraising Institute of Hospitality Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Exchange Institute of Physics Institute of Risk Management Institute of Scientific and Technical Communicators Institute of the Motor Industry Institute of Translation and Interpreting Institution of Chemical Engineers Institution of Civil Engineers Institution of Engineering and Technology Institution of Mechanical Engineers

International Institute of Risk and Safety Management Irish Dental Association Irish Institute of Training and Development Landscape Institute Law Society Law Society of Northern Ireland Law Society of Scotland Market Research Society National Register of Public Service Interpreters Nautical Institute Nuclear Institute Nursing and Midwifery Council Office of Professional Standards Councils Ontario Professional Foresters Association Pensions Management Institute Professional Engineers Ontario Royal Institute of British Architects Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors Royal Pharmaceutical Society Royal Society of Chemistry Royal Statistical Society

PARN Members and Related Organisations

Society of Information Technology Management Society of Operations Engineers Society of Trust and Estate Practitioners Solicitors Regulation Authority The Institute of Certified Public Accountants in Ireland The Organisation for Professionals in Regulatory Affairs UK Council for Psychotherapy

Other Related Third Sector and Membership Organisations ACEVO European Society of Association Executives Global Network of Association Management Institute of Association Management Institute of Continuing Educational Development MemberWise Membership Matters MemCom MemNet PM Forum The Center for Association Leadership UK Inter-Professional Development Forum UK Inter-Professional Group

The Professional Associations Research Network is a non-profit membership organisation for professional bodies, offering expertise, experience and perspective on key issues in the sector, through research, consultancy, networking, events and training.

For more information about PARN, contact us on: T: 0117 929 4515 E: W:

Martin Reid T: 0207 785 7285 E: W: Published March 2013

Aaron Nicholls T: 0207 880 8547 E: W:

Clive Funnell T: 0203 267 0067 E: W:

PARN Review  

PARN Review