THE MAGAZINE FOR THE BRITISH INSTITUTE OF FACILITIES MANAGEMENT | JUNE 2011
FM MWorld MW www.fm-world.co.uk
ENERGY & SUSTAINABILITY
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MARTIN READ EDITORCOMMENT
CONTENTS o this is where it begins to really hurt. Expectations are that energy bills will rise by anything up to 20 per cent over the next year, and that’s on top of what we’ve already seen since the turn of the decade. To be fair, it’s not like we weren’t warned. Nevertheless, a sharp upswing in energy costs can only lead to an even keener focus on managing energy consumption. All of which means it’s a good time for FM World to produce this energy supplement. Mike Petitdemange explains how Dorset’s schools have risen to the top of an energy efficiency league table (page 6), while the Environment Agency’s Richard Jones looks at the reporting that organisations need to undertake – by the end of July – if they’re to comply with the requirements of the Carbon Reduction Commitment scheme (page 4). Harry Morrison explains how Thames Water has been accredited to the Carbon Trust Standard (page 10) and Martin Ferguson looks at advances in uninterruptible power supply technology.
4 6 8 10
Carbon Reduction Commitment Submitting your Footprint Report Sustainable schools How Dorset schools keep it green
firstname.lastname@example.org UPS protection Non-stop power supply Thames Water Carbon reduction at Thames Water
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“AN UPSWING IN ENERGY COSTS CAN ONLY LEAD TO A KEENER FOCUS ON MANAGING ENERGY CONSUMPTION”
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FM SUPPLEMENT ENERGY AND SUSTAINABILITY RICHARD JONES
Forward footprints Carbon Reduction Commitment participants have already registered for 2010. To meet compliance, participants must submit a Footprint Report and Annual Report by 29 July 2011
ach participant will need to decide who will be responsible for the data collection required for CRC reporting. In most organisations the daily management of the CRC is done by an energy or facilities manager.
Overview of CRC reporting
EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) ● A Climate Change Agreement (CCA) ● The CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme Summary checklist: Footprint Report ● Report on all supplies (excluding domestic and transport) ● Estimates can be used for supplies (but not 10 per cent uplift) ● Report on regulated emissions less any covered by EU ETS or CCA ● Regulated emissions must be at least 90 per cent of total footprint emissions (see diagram) ● Do not remove core or residual supplies from CRC emissions during a phase unless there is a designated change ● CCA exemptions can be claimed if information was not available at registration.
● The Footprint Report covers all
90% Rule in CRC 100% RESIDUAL SUPPLY 3 90%
90% RULE RESIDUAL SUPPLY 2
80% RESIDUAL SUPPLY 1 70% 60% CORE SUPPLIES
50% 40% 30%
emissions (‘total footprint’) and is used as a baseline for subsequent Annual Reports ● The Annual Report relates specifically to CRC emissions for that year ● The Footprint Report is submitted once in every phase and the Annual Report is submitted every year by the last working day in July ● Both reports are submitted online using the CRC registry ● The CRC registry will convert the supply data into CO2 emissions ● For CRC reporting, the supply data is to be reported in kWh.
Footprint Report EU EMISSIONS TRADING SYSTEM
CLIMATE CHANGE AGREEMENT
0% FOOTPRINT EMMISSIONS
The aim of the Footprint Report is to demonstrate that at least 90 per cent of an organisation’s regulated energy supply is covered by the following three measures to mitigate the effects of climate change:
Annual Report Participants calculate the scope of their whole emissions as part of their Footprint Report. They then report on the actual CRC emissions in the Annual Report. All participants have to submit an Annual Report except those with a general or a group CCA exemption for the duration of the period for which they are claimed. If participants have claimed one of these exemptions, they need to reassess their CCA status for each annual compliance year and before the start of each new phase of CRC. Summary checklist: Annual Report ● Report on CRC emissions for the previous year ● Add any additional core supplies since the Footprint Report (eg new sites) ● Report on core and residual energy ● Include changes in CCAs
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Table 1: CRC Performance League Table Overall ranking
Total weighted score
CRC Emissions t/ Co2
Early action metric combined EAM score %
Absolute metric absolute change %
Growth metric relative change%
Tick box questions
Include ROCs/FITs, EGCs, CTS equivalent, AMR per cent ● Voluntary data from the Early Action Metric and Growth Metric ● Report renewables as kWh generated not as fuels input ● Additional Disclosure of Information is voluntary.
Estimation: the following techniques are to be used: ● Energy bills or pro-rata calculation ● Direct comparison ● Price settlement The Annual Report will form the basis for the purchase and surrender of allowances in the CRC. Further information on allowances will be issued later in 2011.
PLT: each metric is weighted differently in different years: Metric
Early Action Metric
Evidence pack Participants must keep data in an Evidence Pack to support their Footprint and Annual Reports, and in readiness for audits. The pack has to contain records on the organisational structure, supply and change/ special events. Examples of records: ● The scope of the CRC organisation, parts of which are responsible for supply and CRC compliance, data handling procedures, management and quality assurance ● Special events/changes – ‘unusual’ events (eg actions taken following a meter failure, a change of energy supplier) or changes to the organisational structure and copies of correspondence with regulators ● Carbon Trust Standard or equivalents, CCA/EUETS (overlaps), ISO 14000/9000, GHG standards, carbon accounting and carbon footprints ● Organisational cross match, records of internal audits, where ‘primary data’ is held, supporting evidence and records provided by suppliers.
Auditing of reporting Participants must conduct regular internal audits that are signed off by a person with management responsibility – such as a senior officer. Internal audits must be made available if requested by the Environment Agency when they begin compliance audits from August 2011 onwards. Compliance audits will range from a simple desktop audit through to a full site visit.
Performance League Table (PLT) The PLT is compiled by data from the Annual Report (see Table 1). The first PLT will be published in Autumn 2011. The PLT will name and rank the performance of all participants against three weighted metrics: absolute metric, early action metric and growth metric. The PLT is to be published annually and the better an organisation performs against the metrics the higher its position will be. The ‘early action metric’ (EAM) is designed to reward
organisations that have taken early initiatives to reduce emissions eg Carbon Trust Standard and installation of automatic meter reading (AMR) meters. The ‘absolute metric’ is the percentage emissions change and it compares current annual emissions to average emissions over the preceding five years. In the first five years of the scheme, current emissions are compared against the average over the years available. The ‘growth metric’ (which is voluntary) gives recognition and context for an organisation undergoing growth or decline that changes the level of emissions. This is the percentage change in emissions per unit turnover (or revenue expenditure in the public sector). It compares current perunit level of emissions relative to the average over the preceding five years. By now, participants should have requested bills from their energy suppliers. In the run up to July 2011, there may be billing
queries that need to be resolved with suppliers. For example, some quarterly bills are issued at the end of May so participants need to ensure they build in time to chase and resolve any issues due to insufficient data. To conclude, participants need to collect a lot of information from a large number of sources. For effective reporting, the sooner they collect data that is accurate and timely the better. Resources: ● Environment Agency website ● Case Study on CRC Reporting 2011: customer solutions in action ● Short film guides on: Annual and Footprint Report, Evidence Pack, Auditing, Performance League Table. ● Full guidance on reporting, evidence packs and source list Richard Jones is technical specialist in the CRC team at the Environment Agency. Watch video advice on CRC and other issues at the Environment Agency’s YouTube channel www.youtube.com/user/ EnvironmentAgencyTV?ob=5
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FM SUPPLEMENT ENERGY AND SUSTAINABILITY MIKE PETITDEMANGE
Energy lessons Dorset schools are the most energy efficient in the UK, according to a recent league table published by LessEn, due to a long-term funding commitment by the local council nergy and the environment are key topics on the educational curriculum for children as young as seven. But the school buildings in which they are learning are typically energy inefficient, according to a league table recently published by LessEn, the free global energy efficiency exchange. The LessEn League Table analysed data provided by 11,993 primary and secondary schools in England and Wales that have been granted a DEC (Display Energy Certificate) rating. It ranks 152 local authorities with more than 10 school buildings per local authority. Of the schools included in the table, only twenty-nine (less than 0.24 per cent) achieved an A rating. In contrast, 1,703 (14 per cent) were given the lowest rating of G. At the top of the LessEn League Table, Dorset County Council was shown to have the most energy efficient schools in the UK. So why did Dorset come top of the table? The council’s sustainable property team believes that longterm funding for energy and carbon reduction is the answer,
along with the employment of dedicated and experienced staff. The development of a broad approach and the establishment of effective relationships with a variety of other groups, including schools, is also key.
Long work programme There has been an energy team at Dorset County Council since the mid 1970s. This has recently become a sustainable property team based in the property management division. Before carbon reduction and climate change were in the headlines, the main focus was on saving money. So, like many others, standard energy conservation measures were undertaken with quick payback in mind. These included insulating lofts and cavities, draught-proofing, removing tungsten lighting and later changing T12 fluorescents for more efficient T8s and T5s. Hot water production was made more efficient and boiler controls were improved.
Trend setting The team eventually settled on the Trend building management
system (BMS) which opened up opportunities to make significant savings, such as identifying that the council should turn off heating systems over weekends and holiday periods; this offered more control across the schools. The installation of the system has enabled FMs to calculate that council buildings consume, on average, eight per cent less energy as a result of managing building energy in more detail.
A broad approach There is a limit, however, to what a small team can achieve with a modest budget. Being in a multi-disciplinary practice allows the development of strong relationships with other groups, such as the maintenance and design teams, which allows the impact to be maximised. This would apply, for example, in
funding the marginal cost of upgrading insulation when a flat roof is being replaced or paying for a Trend controller in a boiler replacement project. Buildings can also be designed that exceed building regulations and are as energy efficient as possible by, among other means, increasing levels of insulation and carrying out comprehensive computer modelling to maximise the use of natural daylight and minimise the use of airconditioning. This ‘hidden sustainability’ is crucial.
Data and analysis The recent Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) legislation is now forcing local authorities to focus on reducing carbon emissions but it is still essential to highlight cost savings as well as the environmental benefits.
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A poster showing Year 3 pupils’ work for ‘Switch-Off Fortnight’ at St Mary’s RC First School, Swanage (left); pupils from West Moors Middle School, reading their electricity meter; (below); energy measures at Sixpenny Handley First School (bottom)
Pupils can see the effect of turning lights and IT equipment off, and see that they can make a real difference designed schools will consume large amounts of energy if they are not used properly. Therefore, various methods are employed to raise awareness and change occupant behaviour. Theatre companies regularly tour in secondary and primary schools to raise awareness of energy saving and to encourage emotional involvement of pupils. A light monitors pack – a free self help guide for schools – provides groups of pupils with badges, stickers and log books. These pupils then patrol their schools during break and lunch times, turning off unnecessary lights and recording their efforts. Dorset County Council receives and pays fuel bills centrally on behalf of schools, therefore there is an opportunity to capture data. At first this was carried out using the mainframe, but later investments were made in Team energy accounting software, so that now the system receives electronic billing, which is checked, paid and the data captured for reporting purposes. This data is used regularly to publicise success and justify continued investment. It has been estimated that if Dorset County Council were consuming energy at the same rate as in 1978, £4.3m more would be spent than today and carbon emissions would be double.
Awareness raising The sustainable property team has found, however, that even well-
FM QUICK FACTS
Schools given a DEC certificate rating in England and Wales
only given the top A rating
were given the lowest G rating
Policies and grants Dorset County Council also has an in-house sustainability team to develop policies and coordinate activity which has proved very successful. This put the authority in a strong position to take part in various initiatives and bid for additional funds including a government stretch target on renewable energy, the achievement of Sustainable Demonstration Scheme status for the QE School in Wimborne and the establishment of a Salix Finance recycling fund.
School’s CRC Since September 2010, the newly established Carbon Reduction Scheme in Dorset has focused on energy saving in 20 pilot schools and has seen the addition of a dedicated schools energy officer to the Sustainable Property Team. Schools have been monitoring
their weekend and day-time consumption and are developing their own approach to managing their consumption, organising events such as ‘switch-off Wednesdays’. Working closely with colleagues in children’s services has ensured the integration of the scheme with the Eco-Schools Awards Programme. There is now a range of resources available to schools to enhance teaching and learning. Along with the installation of Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) some schools have been provided with energy monitoring equipment that displays real-time electricity consumption. By closely monitoring their usage, pupils can see the immediate effect of turning lights and IT equipment off and are encouraged to see that each one of them can make a real difference. The experience of the scheme is already being shared with other Dorset schools and it is hoped that the pilot can be developed into a full programme of work next year. Even in these difficult times, Dorset County Council remains committed to reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions across the estate, and it is always looking for new ways to be even more effective. The LessEn league table, and top ten tips for schools are available on the LessEn website www.less-en.org. Mike Petitdemange is principal engineer on the sustainable property team, property management division, Dorset County Council.
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FM SUPPLEMENT ENERGY AND SUSTAINABILITY MARTIN FERGUSON
Power protection An uninterruptible power supply is a vital element of an organisation’s continuity planning, which has become even more important in lieu of increasing power demands oday, office and industrial equipment invariably needs electrical power to operate. However, the consequences of a power failure are increasingly likely to be serious or even catastrophic, depending on the nature of the equipment and its application. Computer systems, for example, typically cannot tolerate a power break of even a few milliseconds without failing. The potential threat of such events to business security and possibly human safety stretches far beyond the immediate risk to the computer hardware. Accordingly, facilities managers must appreciate mains power issues, what power protection is and how to apply it, as organisations become inexorably more dependent on sensitive electronic equipment.
Power problems Although power failure events, or blackouts, are obvious threats to on-site equipment, other conditions can also cause problems. Brownouts occur when the mains supply cannot cope with its overall load and the
voltage levels reduce, in extreme cases, for periods measured in hours. Mains power can also sag, or drop in voltage level for a few cycles, usually after a large load such as air conditioning or rotating machinery is switched on. Conversely, switch-off of such loads can cause voltage surges, where a voltage increase above normal is sustained for more than one cycle. Spikes are short duration rapid voltage transitions superimposed on the mains waveform by external events such as lightning strikes or switching of high electrical currents. Non-linear loads such as computers, photocopiers, laser printers and variable speed drives impose harmonics on the mains supply. These can cause a disproportionate rise in current and temperatures, leading to equipment overheating and component failure. Not all on-site equipment is susceptible to such conditions, but a significant proportion is likely to be. Such equipment is often known as the critical load, partly to reflect its requirement for power that is
free of availability or control problems, and partly because its continuous operation is essential to its organisation’s viability. Critical loads include computer and communications systems, industrial process control and medical equipment, point of sale terminals, and online transaction processing hardware. Within these loads, brownouts or sags can cause equipment malfunction or rebooting where computers believe they are being re-started. Spikes can damage load equipment, while surges can degrade switched-mode power supplies and cause premature equipment failures. Equally serious for an organisation is the potential for data loss and corruption.
Power protection Critical loads, however, can be protected from these power problems, with uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) offering the most comprehensive protection currently available. UPSs are solid state assemblies that connect to the incoming mains supply, which in turn feed power to the site’s critical load.
UPS systems contain batteries which store electrical energy when the mains supply is available, then feed it to the critical load whenever the mains is compromised. Therefore, a UPS must also have a rectifier, battery charger and an inverter to convert the DC battery power into an AC mains supply level to suit the critical load. All modern UPSs also include a bypass system and a switch allowing direct connection of the critical load to the incoming mains supply when required. These components are typically arranged in dual conversion configuration in which, during normal operation, the incoming mains supply is rectified and used for floatcharging the battery, then inverted back to the critical load AC level.
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During mains failure, the charger shuts down and the battery takes over the mains supply by discharging through the inverter. This topology offers the best possible protection for the critical load for two reasons. Firstly, whenever the mains fails or falls outside acceptable limits, supply transfer to the battery is invisible to the load, which suffers no power interruption or disturbance. Secondly, the inverter and rectifier act as a barrier to mains-borne noise and transient voltage excursions as well as providing a well-regulated
output voltage. The load enjoys protected power at all times, irrespective of whether it is supplied from the mains or the UPS battery.
Which product? When the case for UPS protection becomes clear, suppliers can advise on suitable products matching them to site requirements. However, site managers can start by considering the key factors relating to UPS deployment and maintenance as an efficient and effective power protection facility. These include
The threat to business security and human safety stretches far beyond the risk to computer hardware
taking advantage of the latest technology, maximising UPS availability, choosing suitable battery autonomy, and making adequate provision for repairs and maintenance. Trends in UPS development over recent years have had a significant impact on their size, and consequently on their resilience to failure, availability and maintainability. Originally, UPS designs typically included a transformer to boost the inverter output to a level compatible with the critical load requirement. Since the Nineties however, advances in semiconductor technology have eliminated the output transformer, yielding a significant reduction in UPS size and weight, and improving energy efficiency. This in turn has allowed the more recent concept of modular design, where the smaller, lighter implementation means that a UPS can comprise a number of independent modules in a rack rather than one large standalone installation. These modules can be connected in a parallel redundant configuration to achieve very high resilience to failure. For example, a 120 kVA load could be shared by four 40 kVA modules. This includes redundant capacity, so if one module fails the others can continue to fully support the entire load.
UPS maintenance Repair of a failed module can be achieved simply by a ‘hot-swap’ replacement – an operation that can be completed in about half an hour, compared with the six hours usually needed for in-situ repair of a standalone system. The UPS’s availability, which is a comparison between the equipment’s mean time between
failures (MTBF) and mean time to repair (MTTR) is also significantly improved, with up to 99.9999 per cent being achievable. Battery autonomy refers to the time for which a fully charged UPS battery could support the critical load during a mains failure. It depends on the battery capacity compared with the critical load size. Statistically, 95 per cent of all mains disturbances last for either less than five minutes or for several hours. A battery autonomy time of 10–30 minutes, depending on site requirements, is therefore standard. Some loads must remain online even if a mains failure or problem lasts for several hours – a requirement not realistically supported by battery autonomy times. A typical solution to this is to use a generator, in which case the UPS’s role is to provide sufficient battery autonomy for generator to start-up and supply power. Maintenance of modular systems becomes easier as repairs require less skill as well as less time, and stockholding is simplified. However, a preventive maintenance program is always recommended, especially for batteries which have a finite life span. Regular inspection of batteries and other key components can ensure that problems are resolved before they cause failure. Reputable UPS suppliers can advise on and offer service plans for planned maintenance together with call-out support appropriate to the needs of each specific site load. Martin Ferguson is programme manager at Pedimenta. Ferguson has over 10 years experience in delivering applications and services in the telecommunications, web based services industry and the healthcare sector.
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FM SUPPLEMENT ENERGY AND SUSTAINABILITY HARRY MORRISON
he Carbon Trust Standard recognises organisations which have achieved a carbon reduction. It certifies that organisations have measured, managed and reduced their carbon emissions, and are committed to reducing them year-on-year. It shows which organisations are helping the UK move towards a low carbon economy. Thames Water supplies water to 8.7m people, and treats 13.8m people’s sewage across London and the Thames Valley each year. Water use and sewage output is heavy, requiring a lot of power to treat and move around, which in turn results in carbon emissions of around 750,000 tonnes a year. The reduction of Thames Water’s carbon emissions has been a huge success story. By changing the way it moves water and waste and increasing energy efficiency, Thames Water became the first UK utility to receive the standard in 2008. Two years on, the company has reduced carbon emissions by a further 4.9 per cent – the equivalent of taking 15,000 cars off the road – and as a result, became the first utility and second company in the UK to be re-certified by the standard. To achieve the Carbon Trust Standard, Thames Water had to first measure its direct carbon footprint (for example, on-site fuel and electricity use), prove it had a good carbon management practice in place and demonstrate genuine reductions in its emissions over a three-year period. In 2010, Thames Water became the first British utility company to be re-certified with the Carbon Trust Standard.
Case study At the end of 2009, Thames Water started a process sub-metering project which aims to measure specific energy consumption of on-site processes. The aim
Working on water Thames Water has achieved the Carbon Trust Standard by implementing a company-wide initiative to reduce carbon emissions of the project was to provide site operators with real-time information of where and when energy was being used and manage process level energy efficiency performance. This project is currently being tested at two of Thames Waters’ water treatment plants, Hampton and Kempton in London, and a sewage treatment plant in Swindon. In the first 12 months of this trial, electricity efficiency savings of 2,329 MWh were achieved, which equates to an average 8 per cent reduction. Energy consumption at these sites is now measured for each process stream and then tracked down to individual power-hungry pieces of equipment. This has allowed management teams to compare energy efficiency across different shift teams, setting performance targets based on best operating practice and external
industry benchmarking. The project has also ignited the interest of plant operatives, with an energy ‘champion’ being identified for each site responsible for identifying and actioning further efficiencies. Energy saved by this approach has led to potential return on investment within 24 months. Having completed the trial Thames Water plans to roll out this programme across their 20 largest sites which account for approximately 50 per cent of overall electricity consumption by 2011/2012.
Results Overall, the changes at the above two sites are estimated to have reduced Thames Water’s carbon emissions by 1,267 tonnes per year and will save approximately £160,000 per year in energy costs. This result helps reinforce and validate the company’s corporate
social responsibility message to employees and customers, which is vital at a time when green issues are high on the agenda. Also, on a business level, there are savings to be made by being diligent in energy use. We are in times of austerity, and savings on this scale are vital to a business looking to improve efficiency and maintain investor value. Achieving the Carbon Trust Standard allows Thames Water to talk with integrity about its ongoing commitment to consistently measure, manage and reduce carbon emissions across their operations. It is also an example to other utility companies which want to reduce their impact on the country’s carbon footprint while cutting business costs. Harry Morrison, general manager, The Carbon Trust Standard Company
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Energy & Sustainability supplement 2011