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Magazine

MERCOSUL AUDIOVISUAL Theme:

Reuniรฃo Especializada de Autoridades Cinematogrรกficas e Audiovisuais do MERCOSUL

Audiovisual Heritage 2018


MINISTER OF CULTURE Lic. Pablo Avelluto PRESIDENT OF INCAA Lic. Ralph Haiek

The articles and reviews made in this printed edition are published in their original languages. Additionally, the Spanish, Portuguese and English versions will be available in the digital edition, which can be found at www.revista.recam.org. Information foto cover: Inauguration of the Centenario Stadium, Uruguay. YEAR: 1930 The Centenario Stadium of Montevideo was built in 1930 with the aim of celebrating the first Football World Cup. It was turned into a Monument of world football and an emblematic place of the city of Montevideo. This document portrays its inauguration. Copy digitalized by the Audiovisual Mercosur Program, made from the only nitrate copy kept by the Uruguayan Cinematheque.


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Magazine

MERCOSUR AUDIOVISUAL Theme:

Audiovisual Heritage 2018


Index

4

Presentation

5

Institutional

6-7

n Section

9

I

Presentation

10-11

APEX in Latin America

12-25

Francisco Sérgio Moreira: Restoration of films, between passion and the knowledge

26-37

Home cinema: heritage, education and audiovisual technology

38-49

Research and preservation of old Brazilian cinema periodicals

50-61

After the Ghosts of War

62-71

n Section

II

72

Experiences

73

Film Preservation & Restoration School Latin America, Argentina 2017

74

An eclipse as a starting point

75-77

Sound restoration of the movie The official story

78-80

MERCOSUR Audiovisual Project

81-82

Areas

83

Soma of all tempos. Cineop-Mostra de cinema by Ouro Preto

84-85

Dipra

86-87

Revista Cultura Film: the Brazilian cinema through the Times

88-89

Dissemination of files through networks in “Asunción Audiovisual”

90

Viewpoints

91

Accessibility of the audiovisual heritage. Looking to the future without neglect the past

92-94

Memories

95

Celebrating our August Augustus

96-98

Memory of María Rita Galvão

99

Juan José (Bubi) Stagnaro (1938-2018)

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Presentation

Reflecting all views By Ralph Haiek *

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his first edition of the Audiovisual Mercosur Magazine makes me feel proud for many reasons, it is the result of work reflecting the union of the team of the Specialized Meeting of Mercosur Cinematographic and Audiovisual Authorities (RECAM), whose presidency was in the hands of the Argentine Institute of Cinema and Audiovisual Arts (INCAA) for a period of time in 2017, when the decision of editing the magazine was made. This publication arises as a space to show what we do and what we are, as a window to talk about current affairs and the topics which represent the region’s cinema. It is an opportunity to contribute to the reflection and debate of ideas regarding audiovisual integration in Mercosur. Moreover, it furthers research at the regional level and helps to create exchange and diffusion spaces. With the emphasis put in the cores that constitute RECAM’s work, this issue focuses on Audiovisual Heritage. Thus, among other reports, there are articles awarded in the contest with academic coordination in charge of the Argentine Cinematheque and Image Archive (CINAIN), whose launch is also our pride. Mercosur Audiovisual Magazine is not only a way what we do, but also a way of coming closer, getting to know and enriching each other in the everyday exchange of perspectives and viewpoints; another step in the process of integration of the cinematographic and audiovisual industries of the region. Because getting integrated, far from sharing an only standpoint, means being able to reflect all the voices, all the standpoints. That is the path we are betting on today.v * President of INCAA.

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Institutional

B

y the end of this 2018, RECAM will be celebrating 15 years of its institutional recognition by Mercosur, as a consulting body and a space of articulation with regional public policies concerning the audiovisual issue. Under the resolution that creates it, RECAM is given the aim of advancing towards the integration process of the cinematographic and audiovisual industries taking into account their two aspects –cultural and economic,– so as to reinforce the integration and regional identity process. In order to achieve their goals, the Authorities of each country put forward, design and agree on their Work Programs, which are aimed at facilitating the circulation of their own contents, implementing policies for the defense of diversity and cultural identity, and creating the conditions to improve the value chain and their access to the market.

Estate by previous Since its beginning, the Audiovisual has been prioritized, and the current ones have kept the firm conviction that the protection of the Heritage, its preservation and diffusion constitute an invaluable tool when it comes to strengthening the identity, recovering common stories and recognizing ourselves in the differences to value ourselves as a region. In 2009, RECAM started the implementation of the Audiovisual Mercosur Program, which entails cooperation between Mercosur and the European Union, and it had the historic opportunity of including the Audiovisual Heritage in one of its cores. The activities consisted in developing a Regional Strategic Plan, designing a Database and creating a Diffusion Pack with restored materials in the framework of the Program. We are referring to the First Selection of Audiovisual Pieces of Mercosur Integrating Looks with over 600 minutes of digitalized materials, some of which are restored, where the selection of pieces was made by every country and pieces of great value for the regional identity can be found.

Invite There was also a proposal to establish the “Mercosur Audiovisual Heritage Day” to the community to reflect, contribute to the implementation of the topic and promote awareness, apart from using it as a tool to form audiences aiming at a reflective viewpoint on audiovisual matters. It also constitutes a way of recognizing people as well as governmental and private entities which devote efforts towards the protection, preservation and diffusion of the heritage. The date was chosen taking into account that in 2005 UNESCO declared October 27 as the World Day for Audiovisual Heritage and, this way, Mercosur adheres to the activities carried out throughout the world. This date acquired special 6


importance. Indeed, in the Joint Communication of the Presidents of Mercosur’s Member States, which took place in Montevideo that year, they “expressed their satisfactionwiththeRecommendationwhosegoalistoboostthecommemoration and performance of activities to promote the importance of the preservation of Mercosur’s audiovisual heritage.” Since 2013, every 27 October is celebrated with showings, seminars and activities which keep it in effect. A spreading Spot with images of the restored and digitalized materials was presented as a reminder of this day. The activities have also received support from different Mercosur entities, thereby giving institutional and comprehensive reinforcement to the celebration. As regards the technical training, RECAM has facilitated the development of Workshops and exchanges. In 2014, the Brazilian Cinematheque in São Paulo invited experts from Mercosur to Conferences on Training in Documentation, Cataloguing and Restoration with theoretical “The challenge studies and lab practice. In the early 2017, RECAM supported INCAA’s School of Film is to work Restoration by awarding grants, so as to guarantee the participation thinking and of experts from Mercosur in an internationally prestigious workshop looking to the in a specialized environment, which took place for the first time in future without neglecting Latin America.

the past. “

So, in this sequence of events we can observe that the Heritage is reaffirmed every year as a core of RECAM’s work. This first edition of the Audiovisual Mercosur Magazine focusing on Estate like the Audiovisual a clear sign of the understanding between countries regarding the appreciation of national and collective memory, the strengthening of capacities, the promotion of studies in the field and the generation of work opportunities of joint and common growth. As is proposed in the article of the Viewpoints section, the challenge is to work considering and looking at the future without disregarding the past. We hope you will enjoy this publication, which was produced thanks to the invaluable contribution of entities and professionals. Part I encompasses the five winningacademicarticlesoftheRECAMContestheldin2017.PartII,whichconsists of several sections, contains a ride to actions, spaces, looks and memories with assessments on current affairs. In both parts, the edition entailed the selection of some articles, so we could not include all the contributions received, but we hope that this will be a diffusion and debate tool that brings about the necessary constructive reflections. You are invited to send us your feedback to revista@recam.org and, naturally, you are already invited to the next edition, which will deal with Education and Childhood.v 7


Section I Award-winning Articles


Presentation By Fernando Madedo *

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he institutions connected with the audiovisual culture of our countries are proud to present the RECAM Magazine. We celebrate the choice of a topic of vital importance for the regional development of the management of pictures in motion, as is the Audiovisual Heritage. This publication implies a space for common reflection for our countries, where issues related to audiovisual preservation from different perspectives can be addressed, with a collaborative spirit and with the intention of sharing and knowing research experiences, as well as shared projects to cherish our audiovisual heritage. In this respect, and in accordance with the strategic line regarding public policies implemented by audiovisual authorities of Mercosur member countries, in my capacity as Academic Coordinator of the RECAM Magazine, on behalf of the Argentine Cinematheque and Archive of the National Image (CINAIN), we have proposed not to limit the call for articles to papers or academic works on research advances. Interest has been focused on the reception of two different –but supplementary– types of projects: research and management. Both types of projects are indivisible parts of the tasks of the agents and institutions that preserve the Audiovisual Heritage and we believe their promotion will benefit the development of the field at the regional level. This is so as the works selected have valued the work hypotheses and/or research subjects that reveal transnational issues and prospective actions aimed at strengthening the regional integration of Mercosur’s audiovisual archives. With the intention of going beyond traditional lines of thinking that place cinema on a superior position within the wide field of Audiovisual Heritage, we have given special consideration to prospective research and actions whose goal investigates the diversity of audiovisual forms (including cinema, TV, video, video installations and video online). On the other hand, in order to create equal opportunities and guarantee the possibility of carrying out the projects, we have taken into account research on less developed videocinematography topics and management projects whose reasonableness criteria are

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expressed in the project’s planning and result in the feasibility of their performance. A special mention must be made of the excellent work done by the juries Gloria Diez for Argentina, Sylvia Regina Bahiense Naves for Brazil, Ray Armele for Paraguay and Juan José Mugni for Uruguay, which is definitely an example of the work articulated in our countries. Furthermore, I would like to give a heartfelt thank you to RECAM authorities for entrusting CINAIN with the Academic Coordination and RECAM’s Technical Secretary, Nancy Caggiano, and the Alternative Coordinator for Argentina, Guillermo Saura, for their patient and enthusiastic work.v

* CINAIN Organizing Delegate - Argentine Cinematheque and Image Archive. RECAM Magazine Academic Coordinator.

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APEX (Audiovisual Preservation Exchange Program) In Latin America: towards the creation of a cooperation network for audiovisual files

APEX en Latinoamérica Hacia la creación de una red de colaboración de archivos audiovisuales

APEX na América Latina

Foco na criação de uma rede de colaboração de arquivos audiovisuais Categoría / Categoria / Category: Management project/ Proyecto de gestión / Projeto de gerenciamento Autores / Autores / Authors: Juana Suárez, Colombia Pamela Vízner, Chile

Juana Suárez This researcher is also a film critic, a cultural affairs manager and a film and media archivist. Her studies include a Master’s degree from the University of Oregon and a PhD from Arizona State University (2000). In 2013 she also obtained a Master’s degree in Moving Image Archiving and Preservation from New York University. Suárez has authored several publications that include “Cinembargo Colombia”, and critical essays relating to cinema and culture in Colombia - Cali, del Valle University, 2009 which was also published in English. She works on the research project entitled Film Archives, Cultural History and the Digital Turn in Latin America. Her activity includes work at different archives and universities in the US and Latin America, and consultancy work for different projects concerning audiovisual collections.

Pesquisadora, crítica de cinema, arquivista de cinema e mídias, gestora cultural. Mestrado e Doutorado em Literatura Latino-Americana (University of Oregon & Arizona State University, 2000), Mestrado em Arquivo e Apresentação de Imagem em Movimento (New York University, 2013). Autora de vários artigos publicados, entre eles Cinembargo Colombia. Ensaios críticos sobre cinema e cultura colombiana (Cali, Universidad del Valle, 2009), publicados também em inglês. Está em andamento o seu projeto de pesquisa Film Archives, Cultural History and the Digital Turn in Latin America. Já trabalhou em arquivos, em universidades dos EUA e da América Latina, sendo consultora para diversos projetos relacionados com coleções audiovisuais. Directora del Programa de Preservación y Archivo de la Imagen en Movimiento MIAP, Universidad de Nueva York. Investigadora, crítica de cine, archivista de cine y medios y gestora cultural. Magíster y Doctora en Literatura Latinoamericana (University of Oregon & Arizona State University, 2000) y Magíster en Archivo y Preservación de Imagen en Movimiento (New York University, 2013). Autora de varias publicaciones, entre ellas Cinembargo Colombia. Ensayos críticos sobre cine y cultura colombiana (Cali, Universidad del Valle, 2009), traducido al inglés por Palgrave Macmillan (2012) y Sitios de contienda. Producción cultural y el discurso de la violencia (Madrid: Iberoamericana, 2009). Ha trabajado en archivos, universidades en Estados Unidos y Latinoamérica, y ha sido consultora para diversos proyectos relacionados con colecciones audiovisuales. Pamela Vizner An expert in the care, management and handling of media-related collections, including film and digital material. She holds a Master’s degree in Moving Image Archiving and Preservation from New York University. She has worked for numerous cultural institutions and is currently teaching Digital Preservation at the University of Chile. Pamela is an associate director at Second Run Media Preservation, an archive consulting company, and also an associate researcher at Media Matters for the project entitled Filmic. She holds a B.A. degree in Arts – Sound from the University of Chile. Experta en el cuidado, administración y manejo de colecciones mediales, desde película hasta materiales originados en digital y tiene un Magíster en Archivos y Preservación de Imágenes en Movimiento de la Universidad de Nueva York. Se desempeña actualmente como consultora para la compañía AVP, la que se especializa en la administración de sistemas y datos digitales y desarrollo de software para tales fines. Pamela ha trabajado con una variedad de organizaciones culturales a nivel internacional. Recibió el título de Licenciada en Artes con mención en Sonido de la Universidad de Chile, lugar donde se desempeña como académica en el área de preservación audiovisual.

Especialista no cuidado, administração e manuseio de coleções midiáticas, desde filmes até materiais originados em formato digital. Possui Mestrado em Arquivos e Apresentação de Imagens em Movimento da Universidade de Nova Iorque (NYU). Trabalhou com um vasto número de organizações culturais. Atualmente, ensina Preservação Digital na Universidade do Chile, sendo Diretora Associada da empresa de consultoria de Arquivos Second Run Media Preservation. Também é Pesquisadora Associada do Projeto Filmic da empresa Media Matters. É formada em Artes com especialização em Som pela Universidade do Chile. 13


Abstract The APEX (Audiovisual Preservation Exchange) program of the Moving Image Archiving and Preservation course of New York University (NYU) will celebrate its tenth anniversary in 2018. APEX is a sustainable education model that promotes international cooperation and communication in relation to aspects concerning the preservation of audiovisual media such as films, videos and digital material. This instance –which will imply working directly with audiovisual collections as well as the participation of professionals, students, researchers and the general public– will be an opportunity for a cross-disciplinary exchange of practices, knowledge, and solutions to problems in common. From its beginnings in 2008, different editions of APEX have taken place in different Latin American countries - Colombia (2013), Uruguay (2014), Argentina (2009 and 2015), and Chile (2016). This tenth anniversary brings along the chance to assess the results reached and to plan for future cooperation aimed at strengthening the professional bonds created so far. Our project is oriented at organizing a two-day symposium as part of the program’s tenth edition, which is expected to take place in Havana (Cuba), with the cooperation of the Cuban Institute of Film Arts and Industries (ICAIC according to its Spanish acronym). A final document is expected to be the outcome of the symposium –which will include panels, round tables and audiovisual exhibits– with the possibility of applying it as a framework to guide audiovisual heritage management activities within the region in the future. Members from organizations that have taken part in APEX will be participating at the symposium, including visitors from MERCOSUR’s member countries and associate countries. The results of all dialogs and work done at the event will be compiled in a virtual publication that will include the presentations made by participants, as well as summaries of the activities carried out by work-groups, and an assessment of challenges and projects for the future. The publication will serve both as a report and as a referential and working tool for the archives that have been and will be part of APEX. Keywords: Exchange, education, collaboration, audiovisual

Resumen El proyecto APEX (Audiovisual Preservation Exchange) asociado con la Maestría en Archivos y Preservación de Imágenes en Movimiento de la Universidad de New York (NYU) celebra sus diez años de existencia en 2018. APEX es un modelo de educación sostenible que fomenta la comunicación y colaboración internacional en temáticas relacionadas a la preservación de medios audiovisuales tales como materiales fílmicos, videos y materiales digitales. Es una oportunidad de intercambiar de forma transversal prácticas, conocimientos y soluciones a problemas comunes a través del trabajo directo con colecciones audiovisuales, con la participación de profesionales, estudiantes, investigadores y público general. Tras su inicio en Ghana en Accra (Ghana) en 2008, APEX se ha realizado en varios países de América Latina: Colombia (2013), Uruguay (2014), Argentina (2009 y 2015) y Chile (2016). En 2017 se celebró en Cartagena (España) y la versión 2018 tendrá lugar en Río de Janeiro (Brasil). El décimo aniversario se presenta como una oportunidad para evaluar los resultados obtenidos y planificar colaboraciones futuras con el fin de fortalecer los lazos profesionales que se han formado hasta ahora. Nuestro proyecto propone la organización de un simposio de dos días de duración, preliminar a APEX Río. En esta ocasión, APEX estará trabajando con las siguientes instituciones: Arquivo Geral da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Subgerência de Documentação Especial; la Cinemateca do Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro, el Centro Técnico do Audiovisual del Ministerio de Cultura y el proyecto Laboratório Universitário de Preservação Audiovisual (LUPA) de la Universidad Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Arte e Comunicação (IACS). Rafael de Luna, profesor y archivista de la Fluminense colabora este año con la coordinación en Brasil. El simposio incluirá paneles, mesas redondas y muestras audiovisuales, y espera generar un documento que sirva como marco a seguir para actividades futuras en la región con relación a colaboraciones que sean de beneficio en el cuidado del patrimonio audiovisual latinoamericano. Para este simposio contaremos con la presencia de miembros de organizaciones que han participado en APEX, especialmente de países miembros y asociados al MERCOSUR. Los resultados de los diferentes diálogos y mesas de trabajo serán compilados en una publicación virtual que reunirá tanto las ponencias de los participantes, resúmenes de las mesas de trabajo, balance de retos y proyectos a futuro. Esta publicación se constituirá tanto como memoria y como herramienta de referencia y trabajo para los archivos que han participado y participarán en APEX. Palabras Clave: Archivos, audiovisuales, colaboración, educación, intercambio, patrimonio. 14


Resumo O programa de intercâmbio APEX (Audiovisual Preservation Exchange) do programa de Arquivos e Preservação de Imagens em Movimento da Universidade de Nova Iorque (NYU) comemora seus dez anos de existência em 2018. O APEX é um modelo de educação sustentável, promotor da comunicação e da colaboração internacional em assuntos relacionados com a preservação de meios audiovisuais como filmes, vídeos e materiais digitais. É uma oportunidade de gerar transversalmente intercâmbios de práticas, conhecimentos e soluções para problemas comuns, através do trabalho direto com coleções audiovisuais, contando com a participação de profissionais, estudantes, pesquisadores e do público em geral. Desde o início, em 2008, o APEX foi implementado em vários países da América Latina: Colômbia (2013), Uruguai (2014), Argentina (2009 e 2015), e Chile (2016). Este seu décimo aniversário surge como uma oportunidade para avaliar os resultados obtidos e para planejar colaborações futuras com a finalidade de fortalecer os laços profissionais gerados até agora. O nosso projeto propõe a organização de um simpósio de dois dias de duração, durante a implementação da décima versão do programa, que esperamos seja realizar em Havana, Cuba, com a colaboração do arquivo do Instituto Cubano de Arte e Indústria Cinematográficos (ICAIC). O simpósio incluirá palestras, mesas redondas e exposições audiovisuais, visando a gerar um documento que sirva como marco-regulatório para as próximas atividades na região, com relação ao cuidado de nosso patrimônio audiovisual. Para este simpósio, contaremos com a presença de membros de organizações que já participaram do APEX, especialmente dos países membros e associados ao MERCOSUL. Os resultados dos diferentes diálogos e mesas de trabalho serão compilados em uma publicação virtual, reunindo tanto os artigos dos participantes, como resumos das mesas de trabalho, gerando um balanço dos desafios e traçando projetos para o futuro. Esta Essa publicação servirá não só como memória, mas também como ferramenta de referência e de trabalho para os arquivos que participaram e participarão do APEX. Palavras Chave: Troca, educação, colaboração, audiovisual

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Summary The APEX program (Audiovisual Preservation Exchange) associated to the Moving Image Archiving and Preservation Masters Program of New York University (NYU) celebrates its tenth anniversary. APEX is a sustainable educational model that promotes international collaboration and academic dialogue in order to safeguard audiovisual media such as film, videos and digital materials. It is an opportunity for cross-exchange of practices, knowledge and solutions to common problems by working directly with audiovisual collections, with the involvement of professionals, students, researchers and the general public. Following its first version in Accra (Ghana) in 2008, APEX has been carried out in many Latin American countries: Colombia (2013), Uruguay (2014), Argentina (2009 and 2015) and Chile (2016). In 2017, it was organized in Cartagena (Spain) and the 2018 version will be held in Río de Janeiro (Brazil). The tenth anniversary is an opportunity to assess obtained results and plan future collaborations that aim at strengthening the professional networks that have been formed to this date. Our project proposes the organization of a twoday symposium, prior to APEX Río. APEX will be working on this opportunity with the following local institutions: Arquivo Geral da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Subgerência de Documentação Especial; the Cinemateca do Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro, the Centro Técnico do Audiovisual from the Ministry of Culture and the project Laboratório Universitário de Preservação Audiovisual (LUPA) of the Universidad Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Arte e Comunicação (IACS). Rafael de Luna, professor and archivist of Fluminense is this year’s coordinator in Brazil. The symposium will include panels, round tables and screenings, and expects to issue a document that will be useful as a guideline 16

for future activities in the region in relation to collaborations that safeguard of the Latin American audiovisual heritage. At this symposium, we will have the presence of members of organizations that have participated in APEX , mainly from countries that are MERCOSUR members and other associated countries. Results from the different dialogues and roundtables will be gathered in a virtual publication that will include lectures from attendants, summaries of the roundtables, reports on challenges and future projects. This publication will constitute archival memory as well as a reference tool for the archives that were and will be part of APEX. v

Keywords: Archives, audiovisuals, collaboration, education, exchange, heritage.


History and purpose of APEX The APEX (Audiovisual Preservation Exchange)1 program proposes an alternative and sustainable model for collaboration and education in subjects related to the safeguard of audiovisual memory and the strengthening of networks between audiovisual archives, memory institutions and private and/or collective initiatives. It was conceived by Professor Mona JimĂŠnez as a cooperation initiative between the Moving Image Archiving and Preservation (MIAP) Masters program from the New York University (NYU)2 and the Archive of the Institute of African Studies of the University of Ghana. The project resonated for Latin American countries where it has since taken root. The second edition of the program was carried out in 2009 at the Museum of Cinema of Buenos Aires, in order to coincide with the visit of international archivists that attended the conference of the International Federation of Film Archives (FIAF), held in this city. Between 2013 and 2016, the program was also imparted in Colombia, Uruguay, Argentina and Chile. APEX has proven to be a successful model for management and selfgovernance for Latin American countries. Yet in 2017, it also took place in Cartagena, Spain . The program was established with the aim of enabling productive communication at an international level between audiovisual archivists, administrators, educators and students through shared, hands-on work. The purpose, from the beginning, has been to work in favor of conservation and preservation of audiovisual collections by establishing a horizontal dialogue, which allows learning based on mutual experiences, searching for administrative and technical solutions, as well as producing North/South dialogues. Its crosscollaboration spirit and non-hierarchical dialogue has been maintained throughout the different editions, which has enabled working with very diverse collections and team members with different backgrounds. This has strengthened the diversity of the program and has expanded its scope beyond the purely institutional collections, broadening the definitions

of what constitutes audiovisual heritage by including family and personal collections, amateur collections, community archives, as well as more traditional collections of well-known institutions. APEX has not only encouraged international dialogue, but also local dialogues, since public organizations play a guiding and governing role. Broadening the range of dialogue and inclusion has allowed diversifying the representation of memory, generating conversations on sustainability and resources, and promoting new stages for the use of the audiovisual heritage. In its work with different institutions and archives, APEX and its collaborators have had the chance to include and work on handling and safeguarding of analogue film materials on nitrate, acetate and polyester, small formats (8mm, Super 8, 9.5mm and 16mm), large formats such as 35mm; analogue magnetic assets in different formats, digitized files and born-digital materials, as well as topics of digital preservation. The collections APEX has worked with are versatile and include newsreels and television footage, creative and artistic productions, as well as new languages and forms of expression. To summarize, APEX provides an opportunity for the exchange of knowledge, skills and solutions to common problems related to the preservation of audiovisual files through the dialogue and practical work involving film, video and/or digital media collections. Some of the areas of work include identification and inspection, inventories/catalogues, metadata management, digitization and digital preservation. This still includes the creative fields, introducing the value of archival materials and the great support it provides to film production and artistic creation. v

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Organization and Structure of APEX Since 2013, APEX has been carried out annually, mainly funded by Tisch School of the Arts of the New York University, with the aid of organizations such as the Film Foundation and its World Cinema Fund project, as well as with support from individual donors. Also, local partners have contributed, usually by providing goods, services or supplies for the development of activities during the program. The costs of the program are covered with funds received from individual contributions and the support provided by host institutions. It is expected that participating archives somehow contribute, either with direct funding of supplies and resources or in-kind support. In previous versions, our associated parties have managed to offer working spaces, promote special events and some have even obtained partial support to cover costs such as accommodation, food and snacks, or archival supplies. Financial aid provided by MIAP and donations cover the costs of attendants that travel to the host country, mainly MIAP students. The organization of the activities is led by students of the MIAP program who are advised by a teacher (or several teachers) of the program. In addition, former MIAP students also participate as mentors. These former students have participated and/ or organized APEX in the past and are already active in professional environments and/or have experience in the area of archival management. This constitutes a unique model where the objective is not only working towards safeguarding audiovisual heritage, but also encouraging leadership.

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As we already mentioned, when organizing the event, MIAP seeks to promote professional development for students. As such, planning with the archive or institutions that will be visited is carried out by a small committee that gathers students, faculty advisors, mentors and local organizers. APEX’s goals and planned projects for the exchange are determined in collaboration with the host organizations such that the plans are coupled with the interests and needs of the host institutions. The flexibility of the program allows the suggestions of the host organizations to include other activities related to preservation. In the execution of each edition, APEX has included visits to archives, museums and restoration facilities, workshops, academic conferences and audiovisual exhibitions. In general, every edition concludes with an event that allows working groups to share results and engage in conversations related to topics such as preventive conservation, the creation of digitization stations, preservation of digital files, as well as discussing future plans for cooperation. Each of the APEX editions has included, along with the main hands-on work, additional activities of a creative or exhibiting type –either organized by the visiting group or by other local organizations- around the subject of audiovisual memory. The APEX editions are developed with four main focus areas : to create international, inter-regional and local dialogue and collaboration; to foster collaboration in order to solve common problems in the administration of audiovisual collections; to provide education around the importance of the audiovisual heritage; and to educate and encourage leadership in the professional area. The exchange as such lasts two full weeks; activities may be developed in more than one geographical site


within the host country. The work is performed with two or more local organizations, which is a fundamental requirement of the program, since it ensures inter-institutional dialogue at the local level. The group of attendants from countries outside the host country has included 12 to 20 people divided into working groups. Each group works with one institution or local organization, or in two or more specific projects within a same organization. Local participants are generally employees, archivists, members of the participating institutions and volunteers. Sometimes, professionals and enthusiasts have also joined from neighboring countries. APEX is usually carried out between the last two weeks of May and/or the first weeks of June, following NYU’s academic schedule.

address topics that come up during the activities. The APEX team makes a preliminary work and acquires supplies donated by local manufacturing companies to provide materials such as containers or canisters, film cement or splicing tape, perforated tape and others, according to wish lists prepared by the hosts. It also accepts the collaboration of donors to provide equipment that may be difficult to get or is expensive for hosts to provide. v

It is worth noting that language has never been an obstacle to develop the project since we have always have bilingual participants (Latin American students, mentors and hosts) that offer their skills to enable communication; these people are also experts in the areas addressed and thus can

Mid-term impact One of APEX ’s mid-term goals is to establish collaboration networks in the region, which usually continue to develop after the end of the program each year. It is crucial to establish professional bonds that allow participants –from the host countries and members of the visiting team- to develop projects related to audiovisual collections outside of the scope of the program itself. APEX encourages and enables these bonds, but does not always play the leading role in their execution.

at different conferences about audiovisual preservation, internships and screenings, among others. Within those collaborations, it is important to mention the increased presence of members of the community of APEX Latin America in professional associations, such as

Those connections between different archiving communities have resulted in subsequent activities, such as collaboration projects on preservation and digitization, collaborative presentations 19


Association of Moving Images Archivist (AMIA)3 with an outstanding involvement in the education, diversity and international outreach committees. Furthermore, APEX has enabled the presence of former APEX paticipants in meetings, such as in the Orphan Films Symposium4, in order to promote the restoration work carried out in Latin American countries. The communication network has been successful at suggesting positive changes to institutions, such as the International Federation of Film

Archives (FIAF)5 and its Coordination Committee for Latin American Moving Image Archives (CLAIM), in order to encourage a more dynamic and productive conversation, also updating the scope of archives and memory institutions that need to be included in workshops and other actions sponsored by FIAF. v

Accomplished Projects APEX has been organized in four countries in Latin America, and its most recent version was carried out in Cartagena, Spain. Every edition of APEX has had specific purposes that adjust to the needs and interests of archives and host institutions. The organization and delimitation of the purpose of the APEX visit starts nine months prior to the exchange and the terms and structures are broadly determined since the beginning as a result of the experience gained during the years of planning and the University’s agenda. This allows us to be efficient and speedy when executing ambitious objectives. The first edition of APEX developed under the model of MIAP students leadership was held in Bogotá, Colombia in 2013, thanks to the collaboration of Fundación Patrimonio Fílmico Colombiano and Proimágenes Colombia, organized by Juana Suárez. The work was based on the inspection, repair, documentation and categorization of heritage film material in 16mm, 35mm and ¼” open reel audiotape, from the television series Yuruparí. In addition, a conference about digital preservation was organized at the Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, and a round table

about productions in small formats was also held at the District Cinematheque of Bogotá. We were also able to repatriate almost 43 film cans that contained strips of negative of 16 and 35mm, which belonged to the archive of the no longer existing Cinematographic Development Company (Compañía de Fomento Cinematográfico FOCINE). These materials were located in facilities of Katina Productions in SoHo since the 80s.The main achievement from the APEXColombia collaboration has been the restoration program of the television series Yuruparí. Filmed between 1983 and 1986, the series has 64 episodes that deal with ethnographic topics, gathering knowledge, wisdoms and traditions from the Afro-descendant and indigenous heritage and culture. APEX has enabled the creation of networks that allowed rescuing 765 audiotapes and the award of a scholarship from the program Save Your Archive of the International Federation of Television Archives(FIAT/IFTA) to Proimágenes, a company that together with RTVC Señal Memoria own the rights to this archive6. Those first six documentaries recovered are now available at the website Señal Memoria7. Currently, Señal Memoria and Proimágenes Colombia are organizing tours to the communities that were the reason these documentaries were filmed so they areable to see them. In 2014, APEX was carried out in Montevideo, Uruguay, organized by Pamela Vízner. The Catholic University of Uruguay participated in the program with Julieta

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Keldjian as the main collaborator, the Archivo de la Imagen y la Palabra of SODRE, the Foundation for Contemporary Art (FAC), the Uruguayan Cinematheque and the General Archive of the University of the Republic (AGU, UdelaR). At that time, work with the audiovisual collections was focused on film collections (16mm and small formats) and analog videos stored on magnetic carriers (3/4”, VHS and others), with an emphasis on the advice on how to handle collections and prepare recommendations to improve storage conditions, categorization, digitization and digital preservation. Thanks to FAC’s involvement, it was possible to include activities that use film support as a creative basis, by means of the manipulation of images using found footage, work that was presented in a performance/ exhibition. This new side of the program suggested an interesting interaction between the archive, its users and the communities. This recognizes heritage as a living entity, which undergoes constant transformation and reinterpretation. This opportunity strengthens APEX’s intention to create participating and interdisciplinary communities in connection to these media, where archives professionals, researchers, users and the public in general engage in direct dialogue. During this edition of APEX, the training on professional leadership was implemented through the organization of open workshops for the public on preservation of films, video and digital media taught by the students of the program. The activities were concluded with a round table where participants shared the work performed during the visit. For participants, this activity was really positive since it enabled them to know and discuss the work performed by each team, something that could not be done during the two weeks as work was carried

out at different physical locations. In addition, given that it is a small city and many cultural organizations were participating, the round table paved the way for an internal collaboration network called Mesa Interinstitucional de Archivos (Interinstitutional Table of Archives) that currently allows its members accessing the digitization of film and magnetic material thanks to the creation of a laboratory for common use. Since then, every APEX is concluded with a seminar and/ or round table to assess the results and plan future collaborations and activities. The following year, the Cinema Museum Pablo Ducrós Hicken of Buenos Aires, Argentina, greeted once again the APEX participants. Canal 7 (TVP), the public TV station, also joinedthe program. This time, the work with collections focused onmovie formats of 35mm, in both acetate and nitrate, the latter considered of great interest due to its age and fragility, and for its special conservation issues. The opportunity offered by the Museum when providing its nitrate collections was invaluable for participants, becoming a unique educational experience. On the other hand, Canal 7 enabled the access to its collection of 2” Quad open reel analog magnetic tapes.This video format is the oldest one and the work performed with this collection was also unique. Thanks to the participation of expert Jim Lindner, who joined the team as a volunteer, we performed an assessment on the collection, in addition to designing a cleaning machine for this format, work that was carried out together with the team of engineers of the station (Canal 7). The machine has been in operation since mid-2017. APEX 2015 concluded with a closing seminar organized in collaboration with the Campus of Global Sites of NYU in Buenos Aires and the assistance of the United States Embassy. Uruguayan colleagues that had participated in the program during the previous year also attended this seminar. In this sense, every APEX has incorporated participants and prior networks, building and growing on its own. It is 21


important to state that, starting from this APEX edition (2015), the program has accepted student requests from other archive programs in the United States, with the purpose of strengthening the institutional bonds between institutions that share similar interests. The last APEX edition in Latin America was hosted in Santiago, Chile in 2016, with the collaboration of the National Library of Chile and the community television station Señal 3 from La Victoria. The work focused on film collections in small formats (8mm, S8mm and 9.5mm) and with magnetic video collections. The work at the Library was centered on the inspection and repair of films, as well as on the design and test of a telecine prototype whose purpose was to provide a digitization alternative purely focused on access, given that the institution does not have a film scanner. The inventory of the video collection was performed at Señal 3, as well as the design and implementation of a digitization station for magnetic materials, thanks to the donation of supplies provided by the program. The closing seminar did not only allow demonstrating the results of the work performed, but also suggested topics and interesting discussions in connection to the responsibility of taking care of heritage, the impact of digitization, the safeguard of digital systems and the importance of the diversity of voices for the creation and protection of memory. Colleagues from Argentina, Uruguay and Bolivia, with whom we share a professional

relationship and continuous communication, also attended APEX 2016. On this opportunity, a community archiving workshop was held for the first time; it was an event that coincided with the celebration of the Chilean Cultural Heritage Day. During this workshop, work was carried out on the collection of the well-known Chilean documentarist, Pablo Salas. The event was geared toward the general public, with the aim of engaging local communities with audiovisual collections, through the inspection and collaborative cataloging of audiovisual materials8. In order to continue with the work started at Señal 3, two internships were created for students of the undergraduate program in audio and sound sciences taught at the University of Chile. In 2017, APEX was carried out in Cartagena, Spain, thanks to a connection made by the Uruguayan colleagues. There, we worked in collaboration with Memorias Celuloides, Red de Cine Doméstico and the Archivo Municipal de Cartagena, working with film, analog video and digital materials.. The final activities were organized in Madrid, together with colleagues from the Department of Communication and Journalism of the University Carlos III. To conclude, Leandro Listorti (Cinema Museum, Buenos Aires) and Juana Suárez offered a curatorship on film works that have been recovered thanks to APEX, in a program concluded at the Spanish Film Archive. v

Future Activities In 2018, the program will celebrate its 10th anniversary since its first edition. This year’s edition is in the process of being planned and will be hosted in Río de Janeiro from June 1-14. In addition to the usual activities of the program, we plan to begin the APEX exchange with a summit to celebrate the ten years of collaborations. This event is aimed at members of the countries (two member and two associated members of Mercosur) that have participated in APEX. The purpose of this summit is presenting projects that each archive has been able to consolidate thanks to APEX, assessing the achievements of the purposes suggested in every visit and designing a 22

plan to project activities in the short and long term. At the same time, it will be an opportunity to encourage debate on the state of art of the profession in each of our countries and on our standing and visibility as archivists of moving images in the region. Likewise, we will address subjects like the current state of facilities and equipment of the different participating archives and institutions, as well as issues related to the maintenance of analog material, digitization and digital preservation. The symposium will allow the archival community to shape working guidelines that are cohesive with the spirit of collaboration and exchange of APEX to


strengthen bonds between archives, institutions and countries, according to the specific needs of each place. As such, this will be a call aimed at archives and institutions located in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Uruguay, Spain, United States and Ghana. The biggest management project we will work on seeks to ensure the presence of our colleagues so that they can present, participate and plan with us. This particular project is oriented towards the financing of expenses related with the event and ensuring the presence of our colleagues from countries affiliated to Mercosur and other associated countries. During the symposium, a project on digital humanities will be introduced under the provisional name of Kamani, which is being carried out by Juana Suárez. Kamani seeks to maximize the possibilities provided by the Internet and to contribute with virtual resources such as publications, apps, virtual tools, guidelines and similar issues. It also

intends to enable communication between archivists by including social media, such as Twitter , whose feeder allows precision and speedy communication. The project operates as a website with different panels introducing the project, organizing resources, publishing calls for conferences, workshops, seminars and other type of symposiums, and regularly publishing calls for awards and funds, therefore encouraging collaboration between archivists, artists, programmers, film curators, specialists in audiovisual heritage. The project will be jointly managed, with a general moderation, and it will be accessed through a subscription to an e-mail account. The different areas will be managed by two participants who will take turns and accept to comply with a series of operating guidelines established by mutual agreement. The management will be divided into turns of four months each, allowing flexibility in the involvement. v

Objectives of APEX 2018 General n Provide resources that allow strengthening and

disclosing activities performed in Latin America thanks to collaborations between different institutions and APEX. Specific n Support the programming of an assessment

and action summit in connection to APEX’s work in Latin America. n S e a r c h f o r f u n d s t o c ov e r e x p e n s e s o n

infrastructure, logistics and to carry out the symposium in Río de Janeiro, Brazil. n Seek sponsors to ensure the presence of archivists and attendants of member and associated countries of Mercosur in the different APEX editions in Latin America, for the Symposium of Río de Janeiro 2018. n Encourage the publication of a document that summarizes APEX Latin America’s work, the challenges and future projections.v

Development of the Management Project As we have already explained, the project will be carried out at the same time as the APEX 2018 edition. The event will be held in two days and shall include panels for the introduction of projects carried out within the APEX framework, round tables to assess results and plan future work, round tables to discuss the needs of input and new

working guidelines and renewal of collaborators. It will be concluded with the curated screeningof films and moving images that show works rescued thanks to the collaborations with APEX. During the project, the Kamani project will be introduced and the relevant auditors will be named for the first stage of its operation.v 23


Conclusions After ten years since the implementation of the APEX program, the presence in Latin America has become more important and the effects of its collaboration are now tangible. APEX has created a solid working network of cooperation and has allowed sharing knowledge between Latin American countries, as well as between Europe, United States, Asia, Africa and Latin America. The celebration

of a summit that allows assessing achievements, results and preparing new working and collaboration guidelines is more relevant to this point to strengthen our mission of safeguarding the Latin American audiovisual heritage and accessing it. v

Methodology Efforts between APEX NYU and the Latin American institutions and archives that have participated in APEX will be combined for every activity, creating ad hoc committees for coordination. n For the summit: Given that the summit is organized within the framework of the tenth edition of the APEX program, it will add the usually included activities in the program. This will include the scheduling of panels, round tables and other activities related to the symposium. The ad hoc committee will contribute to the organization of panels, round tables and similar activities, as well as the coordination of the moving images and film curatorship. The organization of this part of the program started in September 2017 with a survey. The archives and institutions that have already participated in APEX must confirm their attendance until April 2018. The institutions must seek funds to pay expenses that the program cannot cover. The distribution of available funds will be made aiming at ensuring the participation of at least one member of each invited country to allow a proper representation. Special cases of organizations with few resources or receiving temporary funds shall be considered. The logistic organization related to hotels, transportation within the city of the summit and 24

food will be coordinated between NYU MIAP, SuĂĄrez, VĂ­zner and the hosts. Although Kamani will be officially launched during the summit, its virtual structure will be used to show previews about the organization and information about the summit, also posting it in the APEX website and social media. n For the publication:

The ad hoc committee will be selected based on the experience the participating members in APEX Latin America have inpublications. A schedule will be established to deliver articles, for editing processes, diagramming and publication, aiming at publication in November 2018. Collaborations will be based in the subjects of the summit and must include the feedback provided in that opportunity. The ad hoc committee will determine the editorial guidelines, such as the extent, presentation methodology, quotes and images. A designer will be hired to organize the publication, but the final presentation will be virtual and posted both in the APEX NYU site, Kamani, as well as in websites of archives and participating institutions that desire to post it.v


Notes and webography 1 Website of the APEX program: https://tisch.nyu.edu/cinema-studies/miap/research-outreach/apex 2 Website of the MIAP program, NYU Tisch School of the Arts: http://tisch.nyu.edu-cinema/studies-miap.html 3 Website of the Association of Moving Image Archivists: http://www.amianet.org 4 Website of the Symposium of Orphan Films: http://www.nyu.edu/orphanfilm/ 5 Website of the International Federation of Film Archives FIAF: http:// www.fiafnet.org 6 See note about the anticipated works with the support of the scholarship FIAT/IFTA Save Your Archive in: http://fiatifta.org/index.php/save-your-archive/cases/yurupari-documentary-series/ 7 The documentaries of the series Yuruparí restored with the scholarship FIAT Save Your Archive are available on this site: https://www.rtvcplay.co/buscar-ahora/yurupari 8 The workshop of community archives followed the CAW Community Archiving Workshop available at http://communityarchiving.org/ The specific results obtained at the workshop in Señal 3 La Victoria are included in a video, filmed and edited by Michael Pazmiño, from the UCLA Moving Image Archiving Studies. See: https://tisch.nyu.edu/cinemastudies/events/fall-2016/apex-santiago

Sharing basic issues for the maintenance of magnetic media. APEX 2014, Montevideo (Uruguay).

Preparing the team for the Community Archives Workshop. APEX 2016, Santiago (Chile).

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Chico Moreira. Paris, 2007. Foto de Elianne Ivo Barroso.

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Francisco Sérgio Moreira. Film restoration, between passion and knowledge Francisco Sérgio Moreira: Restauración de películas, entre la pasión y el conocimiento Francisco Sérgio Moreira: Restauração de filmes, entre a paixão e o conhecimento Category / Categoria Categoría: Research not field of audiovisual heditage Pesquisa no campo do patrimonio audiovisual / Investigación en el campo del patrimonio audiovisual Authors / Autores / Autores: Elianne Ivo Barroso, Brasil

Elianne Ivo Barroso Professor at the Film and Video Department of UFF. He is head of the Editing and Montage course and currently coordinates High School (undergraduate) courses on Film and Audiovisual Work. He holds a Master’s degree in Filmmaking and Performing Arts from University of Paris III - Sorbonne Nouvelle (France), and a Ph.D. in Communication and Culture from ECO/ UFRJ. He attended postdoctoral courses at UQAT in Canada. Elianne Ivo Barroso Profesora del Departamento de Cine y Video de la UFF. Responsable de la disciplina de Edición y Montaje. Actualmente Coordinadora del Curso de Cine y Audiovisual - Bachillerato. Maestría en Cine y Artes del Espectáculo en París III - Sorbonne Nouvelle (Francia), Doctorado en Comunicación y Cultura por la ECO / UFRJ. Post doctorado en la l’Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue (UQAT), Canadá. Elianne Ivo Barroso Professora do Departamento de Cinema e Vídeo da UFF. Responsável pela disciplina de Edição e Montagem. Atualmente Coordenadora do Curso de Cinema e Audiovisual Bacharelado. Mestrado em Cinema e Artes do Espetáculo em Paris III - Sorbonne Nouvelle (França), Doutorado em Comunicação e Cultura pela ECO/UFRJ. Pós-doutorado pela l’Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue (UQAT), Canadá.

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Abstract A biography of Chico Moreira (1950-2016), which focuses on his professional activity with special mention of his skill that turned him into the Brazilian who restored the larges number of films in that country, mainly between the years 2000 and 2015. Key Words: film, education, restoration

Resumen Se trata de la biografía de Chico Moreira (1950-2016) enfatizando la trayectoria profesional y destacando sus habilidades a lo largo de la vida para convertirse en el brasileño que más restauró películas, principalmente entre 2000 y 2015. Palabras Clave: cine, formación, restauración

Resumo Trata-se da biografia de Chico Moreira (1950-2016) enfatizando a trajetória profissional e destacando suas habilidades ao longo da vida para se tornar o brasileiro que mais restaurou filmes principalmente entre 2000 e 2015. Palavras Chave: cinema, formação, restauração

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Film restoration, between passion and knowledge Subject of research: Francisco Sérgio de Magalhães Moreira (1950 - 2016), better known as Chico Moreira or Francisco Sérgio Moreira, is considered one of the pioneers in film restoration in Brazil. He was certainly not the first Brazilian to work in that area, but he has in his curriculum the greatest amount of recovered films in the history of Brazilian cinema. Deceased in January 2016, Chico Moreira became interested at a young age in film recovery, both as a viewer and as a performer of the seventh art. He combined the interest and study in photography with cinephilia, research on image and film preservation. All these were greatly useful for his work in restoration. This article intends, then, to make a first outline of Chico Moreira’s biography, aiming at evidencing how his film repertoire, coupled with the interest on technical audiovisual history and practice, made him the professional that restored more films in Brazil, mainly between 1999 and 2016, when que was in charge of the Department of Original Film Restoration of the laboratory Labo Cine/Cinecolor. Purposes: The main purpose if this research is to recover Francisco Sérgio de Magalhães Moreira’s biography and search relations between his training background, his knowledge as self-educated and as a professional in connection to film restoration. We intend to know how he built a career as a restorer

and was able, in around 15 years, to restore around 30 full-length films, apart from countless film material, such as family archives, TV images, cinema newsreels, etc. Another, not less important, purpose is to try encouraging young students to work in the area of audiovisual preservation and restoration, strengthening the idea of always combing the technical, practical and film repertoire. Finally, remember that the history of films is not only constituted by the works and its authors, but also by the technical crew that creatively provides assistance to build this heritage. Research development: Francisco Sérgio Moreira was very methodical with his work, as a restorer as well as a researcher on the area. However, he had almost no affection for the professional life’s vanities and, unluckily, he never categorized his works -mainly as regards film restoration. The fulllength films he restored are mainly known thanks to the collaboration with the CPCB (Center of Brazilian Cinema Researchers) and other performers -such as Nelson Pereira dos Santos, whose work was totally recovered by Chico Moreira. However, there is a great number of cinema newsreels that are part of different public and private institutions, as well as family films and private archives, that will require a study by means of interviews and document consultation with the relevant hiring and hired parties, mainly the companies Labo Cine do Brasil (Río de Janeiro) and Cinecolor, with which Chico Moreira worked. Apart from those two companies, Moreira was also a consultant in Alcatéia Películas Películas and Evento X in restoration and preservation projects. Another aspect of the research that needs to be studied is specifically Chico Moreira’s training. In connection to the production of restored films, it is 29


convenient to find out and interview collaborators to know how the machines were adapted for reduced material. Finally, it is interesting to extend the research to educating and film preservation institutions where Chico Moreira attended (mainly: Staatlischesarchiv in Berlin; UCLA Film and TV Archive; and Cinémathèque Française), to determine the scope of his work within this entities and know the activities he developed and the contacts he made.

Francisco Sérgio de Magalhães Moreira: Film restoration, between passion and knowledge

Conclusions: Chico Moreira left a great gap in connection to film restoration in Brazil. He was maybe the only Brazilian (apart from João Sócrates, who worked in restoration in England) who was able to work in this area. The training of new restorers may be postponed and they must never lose sight of the essence of this training based on multiple skills.

The restorer, producer film editor, researcher and photographer Francisco Sérgio de Magalhães Moreira (1950-2016) considered there was great co n t ra s t a f te r s e e i n g t h e f i l m co n s e r v a t i o n conditions in Brazil and comparing them with those from countries such as Germany, France, Portugal, Mexico and the United States. Chico Moreira -as he was known- complaint a lot about the lack of a preservation policies in Brazil aiming at protecting our audiovisual heritage. The actions for film restoration, mainly those carried out between 2000 and 2016, when Chico Moreira was responsible for the Area of Original Film Recovery in the old Labo Cine and executed most of those works, was due to the determination and merit of the people who prepared projects for this area and claimed support through incentive laws. According to the restorer, there was never an orienting policy for the safeguard of the Brazilian cinematographic memory.

Methodology: This article is based on interviews of Francisco Sérgio Moreira, especially on two interviews. The first one was given to the author of this article, Cezar Migliorin and Consuelo Lins in 1999, and was focused on his training in production. The second is a more recent interview made by João Paulo Diniz and Luiza Campos, within the framework of a work on oral memory for Fundación Fundação Getulio Vargas in 2013, and is available in video and text in Internet. In addition, the article also includes information gathered from different books and websites.  

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(...) when you are there [abroad, getting to know the European and North American cinematheques], you feel excited, and come back and get depressed [by the lack of preservation policies in Brazil]. You want to kill yourself. Francisco Sérgio de Magalhães Moreira [DIAZ, J. e CAMPOS, L. Interview 2013]

This research suggests a new trace of Francisco Sérgio Moreira’s training and to understand what enabled him, within the context he criticized, to become a film restorer with an admirable curriculum, with more than 30 recovered full-length films, without taking into account a great number of short films, cinema newsreels, family films and repertoires of the most diverse backgrounds. Apart from this working capacity throughout his last 16 years of life, Chico Moreira combined knowledge and creativity, and was able to develop an innovative technical process in the recovery of those films.


On the 16mm mounting table. Silvio Tendler Collection.

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Our hypothesis is that Chico Moreira joined multiple skills, from his passion in cinema to his practical knowledge to build machines adapted to copy reduced films. However, his skills were not just those characteristics: Moreira had a solid training on film photography and production, did internships in different cinematheques, the best ones being Staatliches Filmarchiv in East Germany, UCLA Film and Television Archives, and the French Cinematheque. Also, he worked for 20 years in the Museum of Modern Art (MAM) Cinematheque in Río de Janeiro. If the preservation scenario in Brazil was always adverse, how could Chico Moreira take off in this area? What were the paths he had to open? How was he trained? Was he self-educated? These questions are important to understand the journey of the most prolific film restorer we have until this day. It is extremely necessary to correct this mistake in the cinema historiography, which should also consider its technical staff biographies and stories: many of them have an active creative involvement in the construction of pieces. Chico Moreira did not leave any document with the title of the films he worked in as a producer or restorer, this means that the study is very valuable, both to clarify the interested young people how he was professionally trained, which includes so many aspects, and to eliminate some mistakes in the area of preservation and restoration. Cinephilia and photography during his youth Born in Río de Janeiro in 1950, Chico Moreira was a neighbor of Copacabana during almost 60 years, living always in the same address at República do Peru street . He was raised by his two great-

grandaunts from his mother’s side: Octavia and Virgínia Pereira de Andrade, both teachers at public schools. He studied in many schools of the South area of the city and his greatest hobby was attending the neighborhood cinemas during the afternoon. He made a comment as regards this in the website of Atlântida Cinematográfica - Historical Heritage, about O homem do Sputnik (1959) by Carlos Manga: The oldest memory I have from Atlântida is from the late 50s, when I was still a boy, my [grand-] aunt Octavia [Pereira de Andrade] took me to Cine Copacabana to watch O homem do Sputnik. Without fully understanding the subject due to my young age, the gags of the character Oscarito, the incredible acting skills of Jô Soares or the parody of Norma Bengell as a French Brigitte Bardot made me and my grandaunt laugh several times. (ATLÂNTIDA CINEMATOGRÁFICA, 2006) From a very young age, Chico Moreira became a cinephile. His favorite filmmaker was Orson Welles, who he considered a unique genius. Chico maintained this characteristic until he grew old, he always enjoyed going back to the great classics -mainly North American musicals, as it was said in the tribute after his death organized by the MAM Cinematheque , where they mentioned his excitement when watching Cantando na chuva Singin` n the Rain (1952) once again at the cinema Mac Mahon in Paris, in 2007, while he told the dialogues and sung with tears in his eyes. He was also interested on photography at a young age: in an interview in 2013, Chico says that since he was 8 or 9, he already knew how to process pictures. However, within his personal goods, we just found his first certificate of a photography workshop he took by mail, issued by the Escuela de Enseñanza Técnica Escuela de Ensino Técnico Paulista, from 1965, when he was 15 years old. His first job was in Estudio Mafra, known for the photographies taken for album covers during

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Chico Moreira, in the foreground on the left, on the edge of Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas, Rio de Janeiro, during the photography course. Nancy Castro Nunes Collection.

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the decades of 1960-1970. However, the young p h o to g ra p h e r j u s t re co rd e d , p ro ce s s e d a n d expanded graduation pictures. When he was 18 years old, he did the military service in the Fort of Copacabana and, later, in the headquarters of the Ministry of the Army, downtown Río de Janeiro. He worked in both places in the department of photography and films, being in charge of the laboratory’s routine. Studies in the UFF and his taste for film production editing At the beginning of the 70s, Chico Moreira begun his university studies in Law. Shortly after, he started studying Chemistry, possibly due to his interest in acquiring more knowledge in the photographic process. During the second semester of 1973, he begun studying Social Communication, major in Cinema; and graduated also in Advertising and Journalism, concluding his studies in 1983. At UFF, he was the student of Nelson Pereira dos Santos, José Marinho, J. A. Nobre Porto and Sérgio Santeiro, among others. With the latter, he made his first work as camera assistant in the movie Universidade Fluminense (1976). He also had his first experience as a producer in Memória Goitacá (1976). Together with this university mate, Albertino da Paz Ferreira, he was the founder of Adhemar Gonzaga cineclub, which operated in the Guarani School, in the neighborhood of Abolição, a suburban area of Río. During the time he was a university student, Chico

worked for the television networks Globo and Educativa. In the latter, he had the opportunity to be part of the team of the programs Coisas Nossas and Cinemateca, produced by the SRTV (Radio and Television Sector) of Embrafilme, broadcasted by the State television. These were regular programs about Brazilian cinema where Chico Moreira produced the “heads” of presentation. Moreira produced advertising films and some short films from his mates at the UFF, but his first fulllength film was Anos JK: uma trajetória política (1980). It took almost three years to make the movie given that most of the images were archive material. Chico Moreira was responsible for the production editing and direction assistance of Silvio Tendler, as well as for the image exploration and processing. The research paved the way for his work in film preservation. “It was my first contact with the [MAM] Cinematheque” (MOREIRA, 1999), he said in an interview, although he was a regular observant of the film programming. After this experience, Chico produced other of Tendler’s titles, such as Jango (1984), and became a partner at the production company Caliban. At the offices of the company they still keep the editing table Prevost 16/35mm with two screens that Francisco Sérgio Moreira kept until his death and which was then in perfect using conditions. He contributed with many filmmakers, such as Sylvio Back, Ivan Cardoso and other short filmmakers, such as Manfredo Caldas, Marcos Souza Mendes, Antonio Moreno, Márcio Câmara, Marcus Vilar and Werner Schünemann. Not all the aforementioned filmmakers were from Río de Janeiro, which evidences that the name Chico Moreira as a producer had widely spread since he draw the attention of directors from the North East, South and Center West that wanted to work with him in Río. MAM Cinematheque and internships abroad In 1979, Chico Moreira replaced Paulo Pestana in

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the position of preservation technician at the MAM Cinematheque and his calling for film conservation was sealed. His previous experience in photography, cinephilia, production and image research were combined towards a great career in this area. For 20 years, he remained in charge of the management and organization of the titles, records, permanent review of the heritage, assignment of material and customer service (heritage owners, researchers, students, etc.) at the MAM Cinematheque. Moreira was usually in charge of the copies in the laboratory and never stopped working in production, image research (he became a consultant for many heritages) and film conclusions. Among the latter, we highlight Cabra marcado para morrer (1984), which was enlarged from 16 to 35mm in the United States, under Chico Moreira’s supervision. D u r i n g h i s s t ay i n t h e M A M C i n e m a t h e q u e , Chico Moreira had the opportunity to visit many preservation institutions located outside Brazil -he was even benefitted with a C APES grant (Coordination for improvement of Upper Level Personnel), between 1981 and 1982, to take the major in Preservation and Restoration at the Western Germany Cinematheque (Staatliches Filmarchiv). He got in contact with a very different environment: “There were production goals, everything was clean, there were amazing warehouses, an underground warehouse (...) it was fantastic. You could work really seriously there. It was then when I really started gaining more knowledge on the issue” (MOREIRA, 2013). This experience in Europe confirmed Moreira’s awareness on preservation and the need for an efficient continued safekeeping policy and one for the recovery of heritage.

Janice Allen (previously John Allen), now specialized in film restoration at the company Cinema Arts Inc. Chico shared knowledge on the photographic techniques with Janice and, mainly, understood the need to adapt equipment to duplicate the shrunken material. Department of Original Film Restoration of Labo Cine of Brazil In 1999, Chico Moreira left the MAM after some years of misunderstandings with the director of the Museum, Maria Regina Nascimento Brito, on the possible dismantling of the Cinematheque aimed at increasing the technical reser ve of plastic arts of the institution. Many of the heritage material were transferred to other warehouses and, dissatisfied with this situation, he left the MAM. The following year, he accepted the invitation of the businessman Wilson Borges to create a restoration area in Labo Cine do Brasil, former Líder Cine, in the neighborhood of Vila Isabel. Since then, he started a professional career that combined all of Chico Moreira’s past. In the selection of restored films, there were many times Chico did not only knew their authors and understood the physical condition of the work, but was also aware of the production context and the historical importance of the film. Thanks to his research and preservation work, Chico could assist in the search of other materials that could help for the restoration process, mentioning archives were they could find copies in good conditions to be

Years later, he took a short internship at the French Cinematheque, located in Bois d’Arcy, close to Paris; between 1989 and 1990, he went to the United States with the grant CAPES/Fulbright to study to California, where he took another internship at the UCLA Film and Television Archives. He then met 35


used in the composition of a new matrix. His passion for photography enabled him working in the laboratory in every step of the processing and copying of the restored components. He controlled the sensitometry of films, pH of the processing liquids and everything related to the chemical part of the restoration -mainly, since not all frames showed the same definition; many times the film had to be printed again and processed with a different density to sharpen colors and contrast. Chico Moreira’s greatest success, called by his colleagues in the Labo Cine as the Disney character “Gyro Gearloose”, was to adapt machines that worked with shrunken films.

(...) I had been a witness of something ver y interesting, a machine that copied paper, paperprint from the Library of the Congress, a very simple item: two scissors that moved the film frame by frame and above there was an éclair that photographed from the top to the bottom. Then I said: look, I didn’t invent anything, but as I had seen a full-immersion copy machine that enabled a uniform distribution of the solvent on the material, I realized I wanted to make one of those machines here [Labo Cine]. (BRAGANÇA, HEFFNER and MELIANDE). After 15 years, when Labo Cine closed, the room at the Department of Original Film Restoration in Vila Isabel was filled with machines. In his curriculum, many of the named restored full-length films were consequence of an association with the CPCB (Brazilian Cinema Research Center): Aviso aos navegantes (1950), Tudo azul (1951), Alô, alô

carnaval (1936), Menino de engenho (1966), A hora da estrela (1985) and many more. We need to specially point out the work of Nelson Pereira dos Santos, which was fully restored. There were also a series of films of the archive of public and private institutions, such as the CTAV (Audiovisual Technical Center), National Archive, TV Globo, TV Cultura, etc. Some of Chico Moreira’s clients included another archives, such as those from the Villa Lobos Museum, Hikoma Udihara, Canal 100 and Lygia Pape. Chico supervised all the stages of the estoration, from the project to the exhibition. He was never a purist in film recovery. In the case of Aviso aos navegantes (1950), for instance, he rebuilt a fragment of a dialogue with professional dubbing actors (such as, w narrative; however, he had the habit of talking and calling photographers when they were alive and together they gave light to the film, in a great celebration and recollection of the Brazilian cinema. Conclusion Francisco Sérgio Moreira committed suicide in January 2016. He lived between Niterói and San Pablo São Paulo, where he worked in the company Cinecolor. He left a great collection of cameras and accessories from different brands and times. Among his belongings, he left a library of strange books about cinema, photography, preservation and restoration, apart from different collections of specialized magazines. Maybe one of his last joys was to become a lifelong member of the SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture & Television Engineers). In his answer delivered on 6 April 2015, he wrote:

“I´m deeply honored to be accepted as Life Member in the Society and wish to thank the Board of Governors and you [Roberta Gorman] to allow me to be a member of the top group of the SMPTE. Here I go for the next 40 years with the society. Thanks and regards. Francisco.” 36


Chico was always up to date on everything related to equipment, preservation and film restoration. He was a stubborn reader of many publications. After he passed away, many tributes were made to him in festivals, and in the neighborhood of Campo Grande, Río de Janeiro, a street was named after him acknowledging the services he rendered for film restoration in Brazil. Apart from his work, his greatest legacy was leaving the young people passionate for cinema, who are also interested in preservation and film restoration, with the certainty that passion and love for cinema are not enough: it is about a combination of skills that combine both the observant viewer and the researcher and technician who know the different stages of filmmaking.v

Bibliography AMANCIO, Tunico (coord.) Film catalogues. Films produced by the cinema students of the UFF. 25 years IACS. Niterói: UFF, 1994. BARROSO, Elianne Ivo. “Trajetória Chico Moreira” In.: Catálogo Cineop. 11th Exposition of Cinema in Ouro Preto. Cinema Patrimônio. Belo Horizonte: June 2016. 114-116 pp.

Webography ATLÂNTIDA CINEMATOGRÁFICA. Comentam a Atlântida. 2006. Available at: http://www.atlantidacinematografica.com.br/ sistema2006/comentam.asp. Access: 06/21/2017. BRAGANÇA, Felipe; HEFFNER, Hernani; MELIANDE, Marina. Restauração física de filmes no Brasil: entrevista com Chico Moreira. In.: Revista Contracampo, No. 34. Available at: http://www. contracampo.com.br/34/chicomoreira.htm.Access: 06/20/2017. LUNA, Rafael. Subsídios para uma história recente da Cinemateca do MAM - part 1. Blog Preservação audiovisual. Available at: http:// preservacaoaudiovisual.blogspot.com.br/2012/06/subsidiospara-uma-historia-recente-da.html. Access: 06/23/2017. MIRANDA, André. Labo Cine sai de circuito en março. Jornal O Globo, 02/01/2016. Available at: https://oglobo.globo.com/ cultura/películas/labo-cine-sai-de-circuito-em-marco-15209540. Access: 06/20/2017. MOREIRA, Francisco Sérgio de Magalhães. Interview given to Cezar Migliorin, Consuelo Lins and Elianne Ivo Barroso. 62 min. MAM Cinematheque, 1999. Available at: https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=OHDnMtFsvg4. MOREIRA, Francisco Sérgio de Magalhães. Interview given to João Pedro Diaz and Luiza Campos. 2013. Available at: https:// drive.google.com/file/d/0B-Z9ka9jjVNMcExkLVJ0ZjgyRnc/view. Access: 06/25/2017.

Video Filmography A hora da estrela. Direction: Suzana Amaral. 1985. 96 min. Alô, alô carnaval. Direction: Adhemar Gonzaga. 1936. 75 min. Anos JK: uma trajetória política. Direction: Silvio Tendler. 1980. 110 min., color, 35mm. Aviso aos navegantes. Direction: Watson Macedo. 1950. B&W, 113 min. Cantando na chuva (Singin’ in the rain). Direction, Stanley Donen, Gene Kelly. 1952. 103 min. Cabra marcado para morrer. Direction: Eduardo Coutinho. 1984. 119 min. Jango. Direction: Silvio Tendler. 1984. 110 min., color, 35mm. Menino de engenho. Direction: Walter Lima Junior. 1966. B&W, 110 min. Memória Goitacá. Direction, Eloísa Mattos, Paulo Sérgio Pestana. 1976. 20 min., color, 35mm. O homem do Sputnik. Direction: Carlos Manga. 1959. 110 min. Tudo azul. Direction: Moacyr Fenelon. 1951. 80 min. Universidade Fluminense. Direction: Sérgio Santeiro. 1976. 10 min., color, 35mm. Anos JK: uma trajetória política (1980, 110 min., 35mm, Silvio Tendler) Menino de engenho (1966, 110 min., Walter Lima Junior) Memória Goitacá (1976, 20 min, 35mm, cor) O homem do Sputnik (1959, 110 min, de Carlos Manga) Jango (1984, 35mm, 110 min, Silvio Tendler) Tudo azul (1951, 80 min., Moacyr Fenelon) Universidade Fluminense (1976, 10 min. 35mm, Sergio Santeiro)

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Homemade movies: audiovisual technology, education and heritage Cine casero: patrimonio, educación y tecnología audiovisual Cinema Caseiro (Cinema Doméstico): patrimônio, educação e tecnologia audiovisual Category / Categoría / Categoria: Research category / Artículo de investigación / Categoria de pesquisa / Authors / Autores / Autores: Julieta Keldjian Etchessarry, Uruguay

Julieta Keldjian Is full-time professor at the Communications Department and she is also responsible for the Dina Pintos Audiovisual Archive of the Catholic University of Uruguay (UCU). She holds B.A. and Master’s degrees in Social Communication from UCU, and attended specialization courses at Spain’s Film Archive and at the Camera Ottica Lab of the University of Udine (Università degli Studi di Udine) in Italy. She has been coordinator for national and international heritage digitalization projects. Her field of research is amateur and family filmmaking. Julieta is a member of the Audiovisual Studies Group (GEstA), as well as of the Inter-institutional Heritage Group of Uruguay’s Film and Audiovisual Institute. She is also a member of the Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA). Julieta Keldjian, Es docente de alta dedicación del Departamento de Comunicación y responsable del Archivo Audiovisual Dina Pintos de la Universidad Católica del Uruguay (UCU). Su formación es en Comunicación Social (Licenciatura y Maestría) en UCU, especializada en preservación audiovisual en la Filmoteca Española y el Laboratorio la Camera Ottica (Università degli Studi di Udine, Italia). Ha coordinado proyectos de digitalización patrimonial nacionales e internacionales. Su campo de investigación es el cine amateur y familiar. Es integrante del Grupo de Estudios Audiovisuales/GEstA, la Mesa Interinstitucional de Patrimonio del Instituto del Cine y el Audiovisual (Uruguay) y de la Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA).

Julieta Keldjian É professora full time do Departamento de Comunicação e responsável pelo Arquivo Audiovisual Dina Pintos da Universidade Católica do Uruguai (UCU). É formada e possui mestrado em Comunicação Social pela UCU, especializada em preservação audiovisual pela Filmoteca Espanhola e pelo Laboratório Camera Ottica (Università degli Studi di Unide, Itália). Coordenou projetos de digitalização patrimonial nacionais e internacionais. Seu campo de pesquisa é o cinema amador e familiar. É integrante do Grupo de Estudos Audiovisuais/GEstA, a Mesa Interinstitucional de Patrimônio do Instituto de Cine e Audiovisual (Uruguai) e da Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA).

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Abstract This article provides thoughts on the importance of the familiar and amateur films to preserve the audiovisual heritage. We intend to evidence the relevance of research, conservation and dissemination of private images of the everyday life, based on the experience of the project Cine Casero, to safeguard intangible cultural practices and the recovery of the collective memory. The project Cine Casero is a research and development proposal aimed at disseminating the audiovisual heritage and is based on education as a tool for preservation. The hypothesis of this article considers that the audiovisual heritage, as a constituent component of the cultural identity of a community, may turn into a privileged vehicle for education. Also, given that audiovisuals is a type of cultural asset produced by the action of a specific technology, the modification this heritage has undergone is analyzed based on the arrival of the digital image and how it affected its conservation and access. This thought may help us consider strategies to preserve future heritage; images we produce every day and that we will leave as a testimony for future generations. Key Words: Amateur films– Education – Heritage – Audiovisual technology

Resumen Este artículo reflexiona sobre la relevancia del cine familiar y amateur en la preservación del patrimonio audiovisual. A partir de la experiencia del proyecto Cine Casero se intenta probar la pertinencia de investigar, conservar y difundir las imágenes privadas de la vida cotidiana para la salvaguardia de prácticas culturales inmateriales y la recuperación de la memoria colectiva. El proyecto Cine Casero es una propuesta de investigación y desarrollo que tiene por objetivo la difusión del patrimonio audiovisual y se apoya en la educación como herramienta para la preservación. Se parte de la hipótesis de que el patrimonio audiovisual, en tanto componente constitutivo de la identidad cultural de una comunidad, puede convertirse en un vehículo privilegiado para la educación. Además, por tratarse el audiovisual de un tipo de bien cultural producto de la acción de una tecnología específica, se analiza el cambio que este patrimonio ha sufrido a partir de la llegada de la imagen digital y cómo se ha afectado su conservación y acceso. Esta reflexión puede ayudarnos a pensar estrategias de preservación del patrimonio del futuro; las imágenes que producimos cada día y que dejaremos como testimonio a las generaciones que siguen. Palabras clave: Cine amateur – Educación – Patrimonio – Tecnología audiovisual

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Resumo Este artigo reflete sobre a relevância do cinema familiar e amador na preservação do patrimônio audiovisual. A partir da experiência do projeto Cinema Doméstico tenta-se provar a pertinência de investigar, conservar e difundir as imagens privadas da vida cotidiana para a salvaguarda de práticas culturais imateriais e a recuperação da memória coletiva. O projeto Cinema Doméstico é uma proposta de pesquisa e desenvolvimento que tem por objetivo a difusão do patrimônio audiovisual e se apoia na educação como ferramenta para a preservação. Parte-se da hipótese de que o patrimônio audiovisual, como componente constitutivo da identidade cultural de uma comunidade, pode se converter em um veículo privilegiado para a educação. Além disso, por ser o audiovisual considerado umbem cultural produto da ação de uma tecnologia específica, analisa-se a mudança que este patrimônio sofreu a partir da chegada da imagem digital e como foi afetada sua conservação e acesso. Esta reflexão pode ajudar-nos a pensar estratégias de preservação do patrimônio do futuro; as imagens que produzimos cada dia e que deixaremos como testemunho para as gerações vindouras. Palabras clave: Cinema amador – Educação – Patrimônio – Tecnologia audiovisual

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Cine Casero (Uruguayan project): heritage, education, audiovisual technology This article provides thoughts on the importance of the familiar and amateur films to preserve the audiovisual heritage. We intend to evidence the relevance of research, conservation and dissemination of private images of the everyday life, based on the experience of the project Cine Casero[1], to safeguard intangible cultural practices and the recovery of the collective memory. The project Cine Casero is a research and development proposal aimed at disseminating the audiovisual heritage and is based on education as a tool for preservation. This aims at discovering the specific type of intangible heritage included in domestic audiovisual records from the past and thinking about the advantages of the actions related to the didactics of heritage, specifically with the concept of an educating city (Prats and Santacana, 2009). The theoretical justification of this project is grounded on concepts of cultural, educational and technological heritage. The hypothesis of this article considers that the audiovisual heritage, as a constituent component of the cultural identity of a community,

may turn into a privileged vehicle for education. Also, given that audiovisuals is a type of cultural asset produced by the action of a specific technology, the modification this heritage has undergone is analyzed based on the arrival of the digital image and how it affected its conservation and access. Analogical and photochemical audiovisual technologies did not only produce specific audiovisual products, but also ways of being and staying in the world, which differ from the ones we see today in the digital context. This point of view is based on the idea that the research of a technology enables the understanding of society in a given moment; this is the logics of thinking and the ways of relating with that specific technology’s reality (Colina, 2000). This thought may help us consider strategies to preserve future heritage; images we produce every day and that we will leave as a testimony for future generations.v

Audiovisual preservation and education 1. Description of the project Cine Casero The project suggests researching and identifying, on the one hand, amateur records and family films, and on the other, training their owners or holders on the basic handling and preservation of these

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movies with the purpose of promoting the custody of the intangible cultural heritage. Domestic audiovisual records are part of a category that is difficult to delineate given that it is formed by a heterogeneous group of audiovisual materials that includes family films per se, as well as educational and experimental films, homemade documentary films, travel journals, informative fragments, among others. For the purposes of this audiovisual preservation project, films from the amateur environment –nonprofessional- are understood as those that include records of the


cities or places that are part of the project, as well as events of the past everyday life (birthdays, christenings, marriages, holidays), recorded on film (formats: 8mm, S8mm, 16mm, 9.5mm) and analogic video in their most usual formats. This is based on education as a key tool for preservation, understanding that the members of the community may become guardians and developers of their own heritage. The purposes of this project are: i) identifying valuable materials from the documentary point of view, aiming at generating a regional catalogue of family films; b) implementing and documenting a working methodology based on the movies inspection workshops and the community ’s exhibition, which may be replicated at a regional level; c) training local actors on healthy practices to manage and preserve audiovisual materials; and d) develop attitudes related to care and appreciation of the heritage within the community. The project is developed with workshops that invite participants to submit their family films or old records about their cities and towns. The activity is divided into two stages: first, movies are inspected considering their physical status and content; then, there is a public projection, organized by the workshop participants, who show the films they recovered to the community. The main objective of the inspection and conservation tasks is to promote healthy practices for materials, but that easy to implement at a domestic level. Then, during the workshop, participants learn to manufacture containers to keep materials made out of input available in local businesses, packets of silica gel used to absorb moisture, preparation of call sheets to avoid the continuous handling of the originals, and they also share useful tips. A broader public is invited to the projection, where the schedule selected by the participants is shown. During the projection, people are invited to make

comments and these are recorded to collect the stories told spontaneously based on the movies.

2. Reference conceptual framework The project is offered as a development and research activity of the audiovisual heritage t h ro u g h t h e re cov e r y o f f a m i ly f i l m s . T h e heritage’s recovery should not be limited to the audiovisual professional production (commercial or independent movies, fiction, documentaries, informatives). Family films, given that they capture moments of the private life, are constituted through their study in historic-cultural documents that provide an original point of view for social research. Their importance lays in their great anthropological, historical, social value, as well as in the film quality in some cases. Therefore, they are part of the intangible heritage of a community. The images included in family films are part of a heritage that is scattered and needs gathering and preservation, following specific strategies and criteria.

2.1 Audiovisual heritage: a specific type of intangible heritage Cultural heritage is dynamic and subject to continuous redefinitions. On one side, since it is an object of study of different disciplines such as aesthetics, archeology, history, architecture, and on the other side, because it is a concept that strongly depends on social, political, ideological changes and sensibility of a given moment in time. Appreciation and selection processes are applied to define what heritage means, and they greatly depend on what a community appreciates

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as heritage (Coma Quintana, 2011). (...) It is not just the isolated monument that needs protection, but also the urban and scenic environment around it; (...) it is not only the big works that must be supervised, but also the modest ones that have acquired, in time, cultural meaning (Querol, 2010:20). This is a more comprehensive idea on heritage that offers a standpoint that diminishes the importance of objects and paves the way for the construction of the concept of intangible cultural heritage established in the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (UNESCO, 2003). The traditional classification understands that heritage may be cultural, natural, movable, immovable, tangible or intangible. This classification enabled the development of specific disciplines to approach each of the types of specific goods or practices, artificially breaking the pattern that connects objects to their representations and the assigned meanings, around which the identity of a community is forged. In this sense, audiovisual records are the thread of said pattern: they keep objects and meanings united through representation. Intangible is that included in images, the objects represented in them. Let us consider the city, one of the most commonly represented objects in family films and amateur records. Images of the city in the past reconstitute the union of the territory with the meaning currently provided to that space: filming the construction of a signature building, a piece of land where there used to be a park and now holds a mall, a touristic beach that used to be occupied by bullock carts, trucks and artisanal fishermen. The international community acknowledged this specific type of heritage in the “Recommendation for the Safeguarding and Preservation of Moving Images” (UNESCO, 1980) stating they “contribute 44

extensively to the education and to the enrichment of each human being”. (UNESCO, 1980: 167) These images are materially embodied and need to be preserved and safeguarded from the passing of time and the fragility of the support, but mainly from forgetfulness. Therefore, Cine Casero is available as a project that aims at promoting access to those materials.

2.1.1 A change in model: from conservation to preservation Cinematheques – quintessential institutions in audiovisual conservation- appeared in the world long before the declaration of UNESCO in 1980. During the thirties, the first European cinematheques were established and, back then, it was already noted that an important chapter of the humanity’s collective memory would disappear forever with the lost and destruction of the cinema. This principle, clearly arguable by the cinema as an artwork, losses its argument strength when the object of heritage is formed by amateur records of everyday life. It was not until the seventies that these records gained value. Therefore, although some cinematographic experiences or others from the field of art worked based on reusing family and amateur images, it is with the appearance of television series that they acquire visibility [2]. The amateur audiovisual records are a product of the action of ordinary people whom, driven by


“Home cinema starts from education as a fundamental tool for preservation, understanding that the members of the community can become in custodians and promoters of their own assets “.

equally ordinary interests –recreational, affective and sometimes having great intuition and historical sense-, record their context and the significant events of their lives. This distance between audiovisual-work and audiovisual-record caused that for many decades the community of archivists underestimated the latter and considered it a minor object –in connection to heritage-. Logically, this is a false opposition between cultural products of a diverse nature that need also different conservation strategies and studying methods. Today, different organizations are focused on the promotion of the audiovisual heritage to provide answers to the need to conserve the audiovisual memory of the population (and not just of the Cinema). The project Cine Casero is grounded on the paradigm shift from conservation to preservation. Apart from the encouragement of conservation practices for prevention, preservation implies researching about the materials, intellectual control on content and bringing them into circulation. This is, making them available to be appreciated. Without their use, availability or spreading of these images, the activity of custody of the audiovisual heritage is limited to conservation. The preservation scope takes the film (work) out of the center as an object of custody and encourages the share of images and their circulation. Access is the key concept. It is about tearing down the walls of the institution to improve the bond with the citizens. Family and amateur films are shown

as a case of significant study to understand transformations that are taking place in the practice of audiovisual records.

2.2. Education Relationship between heritage and education is mutually beneficial. Conservation and promotion of cultural heritage may be benefitted, as already explained, from research and study. This suggestion may be summarized as follows: educate to know, know to value, value to care. However, education needs strategies to help it overcome the deep crisis it is immersed in. School is no longer a key place to socialize. According to anthropology, socializing is talking between generations, this is, the way knowledge is transmitted from one generation to another, the memory of the old to the new generations. Traditional socializing areas have stopped being the place where generations talk to each other, the key place for the condensation of memory (Martín Barbero, 2009).

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The city has become this new space. Consequently, Martín Barbero (2009) states that the school will regain its central space when it goes back to being the area where different languages, cultures and writing circulating in the society interact. This implies accepting that in the knowledge society there are others way to know, other kinds of knowledge and rationality, and that education must be understood as the place where knowledge intersects. Currently, the city is the privileged stage where this intersection of knowledge takes place. Symbolic and communication elements that constitute it and us as inhabitants of this community become visible. Paulo Freire understands that literacy is not aimed at people learning to read, but learning to write their own story. This is the basis of its libertarian Education (Freire quoted by Martín Barbero, 2009). Martín Barbero completes this point of view stating that the exercise of citizenship will materialize when education enables people to tell their own story. In family films and amateur records, the city is the most used location. This turns it into a source of possibilities for this narrative dimension pointed out by Martín Barbero to emerge and reinvent itself, every time they are projected in their own environments –not in a movie theater, but in spaces that encourage dialogue and comments during the projection-. The project Cine Casero is justified by means of this

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“making visible” the city through its symbolic and communication forms. Revealing those records that are part of a city, which has been modified, transformed both physically and symbolically, to enable conversation between generations. The urban framework then becomes an extraordinary opportunity for education. (...) the “educating city” should be one of the supporting pillars of a whole system of broadly shared values. Heritage is an instrument the city has to educate its citizens in some values considered important. But it is the whole city who educates. (Prats and Santacana, 2009) The concept of “educating city” appeared with the need to give place to the concurrence of policies and actions of regional governments, educational institutions and the organized civil society[3]. It is part of the stimulus that urban researches have gained, understanding that in the contemporary society, life takes place in the cities. The cities hold the heritage, as it was stated, subject to be used as a teaching tool. The pedagogy of heritage encourages actions that aim at making them visible, boosting them and, mainly, giving value to heritage. Their activities go beyond the traditional restoration of cultural assets and exhibitions at museums, given that they develop pedagogical strategies to spread the cultural heritage by living and experiencing it (Prats, 2001). The model based on the disclosure of information of the school has been evidenced as inefficient. A new model based on living and experiencing knowledge will boost a space for communication, which fits better with the ways the society communicated these days. Therefore, project Cine Casero offers some stages such as workshops and community exhibition that strongly aim at living and experiencing the heritage represented in films, and that encourage the emotional bond


that the members of the community establish with the images of the city.

2.3. Audiovisual technology The origin of the family and amateur films is close to 1923 with the introduction of Kodak’s 16mm in the market. The main innovation of the format was the size reduction and, therefore, its cost. This was the support used for the first reversible emulsions in color, which through a special process simplified “the magic” of image printing, eliminating the traditional system of negative/positive. These changes aimed at seducing non-professional users, making the technical processes easier. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the industry of the audiovisual technology started walking towards the mass society. Its message –soothing and simple- set the course that later would assume the technological development: “You press the button, we do the rest” [4]. The user is not concerned about the processes and knowledge, but also, losses control: the race towards automatism starts. Kodak established something similar to a light camera, easy to handle and at a low cost; it established the basis for a new relationship between audiovisual technology and subjects. Society cannot be separated from technology as “clear and different ideas”. Only determinist views separate them from the standpoint of their definitions. This relationship must overcome any dual view from the beginning. In a process of mutual “causes”, the society configures the technology, and also, the technology configures the society. This interaction may be asymmetric over time. (Colina, 2000:97).

determined linear operations and edition, selection and repetition processes that involved slower rhythms. Instead, with the outbreak of the digital technology, the audiovisual record brought about consequences that carry deep changes in the way of producing and consuming images. I will point out some of the technological changes that may shed light on the research about family films. With the disappearance of supports, the experience of the viewers also disappeared. The projection conditions of the cinema in photochemical support –in family or at a room exclusively used for this purpose- find us in the twenty first century involved in a situation where watching movies does no longer imply watching them in technical conditions and in specific situations. Gain and loss at the same time, states La Ferla (2009). We gained freedom and ubiquity with computers, but the experience of a collective view of the celluloid projection disappeared. Another consequence of the technological change, unavoidable when we analyze the problems of audiovisual preservation, is the loss of autonomy of subjects who produce images. As digital images appear as a monopoly, the use of a software to recognize and decide the data that constitute the image becomes essential. Therefore, we lose as users and producers the freedom offered to us by the popularization of the media accessible to all. After a few years of experience with digital images, we have already evidenced that stability times are short and availability does not mean permanence.

What can the movies in project Cine Casero s ay ab out society ? Th e sho r t a g e o f m e a n s and the recording high costs that implied the image technologies during the twentieth century 47


n Preliminary

assessment

This first approach to the audiovisual heritage d i s t r i b u te d i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n h a s e n a b l e d evidencing working strategies and verifying intuitions about the level of diffusion and the value of these audiovisual documents. During the pilot phase, Cine Casero offered three workshops in the cities of Montevideo, Fray Bentos and Maldonado, in Uruguay. They enabled creating and implementing a working methodology that can be carried out in different towns and communities of the region. Workshop attendants have been trained in preventive conser vation practices for audiovisual materials. During community projections, some valuable collections were identified from the point of view of heritage. A n i m p o r t a n t m e d i a co m m u n i c a t i o n m a d e in connection to the announcement of the workshops and projections allowed placing the problem of heritage preservation in the public eye and establishing the discussion in colloquial terms, to which ordinary people may contribute, regardless of their education level, material or social capacities. Social conservation in connection to the project was encouraged through social media, mainly in Cine Casero’s Facebook site (Facebook/CineCaseroUY). The involvement of young people evidenced the importance of uniting efforts for that target audience. Initially, Cine Casero focused on the general public, but with the idea that adults would

48

be more interested on the project, given that they are usually more inclined towards subjects on memory and history. However, the young population becomes naturally part of the culture of images; they are closer to the audiovisual language as a way of expression and so they easily understand their heritage value. A group of students from an artistic school attended the workshop carried out in the city of Fray Bentos. They had never watched a movie on film support and, therefore, did not know about the traditional cinema mechanism, this is, the moving image shown by a sequence of 24 frames per second. The workshop gave them the possibility to handle films and see domestic projectors in action, which made them passionate and inspired. Also, many make audiovisual works they share in social media. The discussions in the workshop were focused on making them aware about the future of those productions and how, due to technological obsolescence, those videos will be lost if necessary measures are not taken. As regards projections, the most relevant impact was the acknowledgment –and amazementof the changes in the territor y. This way of acknowledgement reinforces the bonds with public spaces that have been transformed, but still allows connecting the public with a past, while reviving the feeling of belonging and, therefore, identity. Community projection is suggested as a stage to recover the lost orality in communities. Unlike the viewers of professional movies, family and amateur films invite the audience to be involved and make comments. Experiencing the projection, getting excited, experiencing the heritage and becoming impressed by the images, are strategies that operate on the emotional axis and that, apart from increasing the number of images, may become training phases when connecting them to formal educational themes (history, demographics,


urbanism, geography, anthropology). We have tried to justify the relevance of audiovisual preservation of family films and records of the everyday life to preserve the collective and urban memory. Therefore, we conclude that the education is benefitted from the recovery of this heritage, since the audiovisual heritage finds in didactics and the creation of audiences a strategy to encourage its preservation.v

Notes: [1] The project Cine Casero was created by a group of students, teachers and professionals form the communications, production and audiovisual production areas, gathered in the Communications Department at the Catholic University of Uruguay. A pilot plan was executed during 2014 and 2015, in Montevideo, Fray Bentos and Maldonado (Uruguay). In 2016, the working plan was reformulated, starting from the localization of a documentary about the city of Paysandú (c.1940, nitrate, sound). This second stage, currently in place, aims at researching crowdsourcing practices to collectively classify the film. [2] The first edition of a television series based on family and amateur images was Inédits (1981), broadcasted by Radio Télévision Belge Francophone (RTBF), and directed by André Huet. (Roger Odin, “Reflections on the Family Home Movie as Document: A Semio-Pragmatic Approach”, Files from Film Archive, No. 58, (2008), p: 197). This experience was duplicated in many other countries. In Uruguay the program Inéditos (1989-1992), produced by the Catholic University of Uruguay, was broadcasted in open national television. [3] In 1990, the first Congress of Educating Cities took place in Barcelona. Some cities in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay are members of this network. http://www.bcn.cat/edcities/aice/estatiques/espanyol/sec_iaec.html [4] Slogan from the advertising campaign for photographic cameras of George Eastman (Kodak), shown for the first time in The Photographic Herald and Amateur Sportsman magazine (November 1889).

Bibliography:

COLINA, C. (2000). Comunicación: sistemas tecnológicos en la flecha del tiempo. (FELAFACS, Ed.) Diálogos de la Comunicación. (57), p. 96‐109. COMA QUINTANA, L. (2011). Actividades educativas y didáctica del patrimonio en las ciudades españolas [Doctoral thesis]. Barcelona: University of Barcelona. CUEVAS, E. (2010). The Open House: Home Movies and Their Contemporary Recycling. Madrid: Ocho y medio and Ayuntamiento de Madrid (Madrid City Government). LA FERLA, J. (2009). Cine (y) digital: aproximaciones a posibles convergencias entre el cinematógrafo y la computadora. Buenos Aires: Manantial. MARTÍN BARBERO, J. (2009). Educative city: from a society with education system to a knowledge society and learning. In DIAZ, R. and Freire, J., Expanded Education. Sevilla: ZEMOS98. ODIN, R. (2008). Reflections on the Family Home Movie as Document: A Semio-Pragmatic Approach, Files from Film Archive, No. 58, 197-217. Valencia: Generalitat de Valencia. PRATS, J. (2001). Valorar el patrimonio histórico desde la educación. Factores para una mejor utilización de los bienes patrimoniales. In Morales, Mª C.; Bayod, R. López (et Alt). Aspectos didácticos de las Ciencias Sociales.15. Zaragoza: ICE from the University of Zaragoza. PRATS, J., & SANTACANA, J. (2009). Ciudad, educación y valores patrimoniales. La ciudad educadora, un espacio para aprender a ser ciudadanos. ÍBER Magazine. Didáctica de las Ciencias Sociales, Geografía e Historia, p. 1‐9. QUEROL, M. Á. (2010). Manual de gestión del patrimonio cultural. Madrid: AKAL.
 UNESCO. (1981). Recommendation for the Safeguarding and Preservation of Moving Images. Minutes from the 21st General Conference of Belgrado, 1980 (pp. 167-171). Paris: UNESCO. ZIMMERMANN, P. (1995). Reel families. A Social History of Amateur Film. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.

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Investigation and preservation of old Brazilian cinema newspapers Investigación y preservación de periódicos de cine brasileños antiguos Pesquisa e preservação de periódicos de cinema brasileiros antigos Category 2 / Categoría 2 / Categoría 2: Management projects in the field of audiovisual heritage. Projetos de gestão no campo do patrimônio audiovisual. / Proyecto de gestión en el campo del patrimonio audiovisual / Management projet in the field of audiovisual patrimony Authors / Autores / Autores: Rafael de Luna Freire, Brasil.

Rafael de Luna Freire He is the author of numerous articles and books regarding the history of Brazilian cinema. Rafael is professor at the Cinema and Video Department and for the Post-graduate courses on Film and Audiovisual pieces of the Fluminense Federal University (UFF) of Niterói in Brazil. He has been working in the field of audiovisual preservation for over fifteen years and was documentation coordinator for the MAM film archive of Río de Janeiro. He is a founding member and former director of the Brazilian Audiovisual Preservation Association (ABPA), and the individual responsible for devising and coordinating a project relative to the work of filmmaker Gerson Tavares, and the restoration of the feature film “Antes, o verão” (Gerson Tavares, 1968). Rafael de Luna Freire Autor de numerosos artículos y libros sobre la historia del cine brasileño. Rafael de Luna Freire, es profesor en el Departamento de Cine y Video y en el Programa de Postgrado en Cine y Audiovisual de la Universidad Federal Fluminense - UFF, Niterói, Brasil. Actúa en el área de preservación audiovisual desde hace más de quince años. Fue coordinador de documentación de la Cinemateca del MAM, en Río de Janeiro. Es miembro fundador y exdirector de la Asociación Brasileña de Preservación Audiovisual - ABPA. Idealizó y coordinó el proyecto de rescate de la obra cinematográfica de Gerson Tavares, que incluía la restauración del largometraje “Antes, o verão” (Gerson Tavares, 1968). Rafael de Luna Freire Autor de inúmeros artigos e livros sobre a história do cinema brasileiro. Rafael de Luna Freire é professor no Departamento de Cinema e Vídeo e no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Cinema e Audiovisual da Universidade Federal Fluminense – UFF, Niterói, Brasil. Atua na área de preservação audiovisual há mais de quinze anos. Foi coordenador de documentação da Cinemateca do MAM, no Rio de Janeiro. É membro fundador e ex-diretor da Associação Brasileira de Preservação Audiovisual - ABPA. Idealizou e coordenou o projeto Resgate da obra cinematográfica de Gerson Tavares, que restaurou o longa-metragem “Antes, o verão” (Gerson Tavares, 1968).

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Abstract This article highlights the importance of “cinema newspapers” as a source to get to know the history of audiovisual arts and defines them as mass magazines or newspapers, published at regular intervals, whose main topic is cinema, although their focus may be split up into other public media or entertainments. As a result of an investigation on several archives, the text analyzes the scenario of the preservation of “old Brazilian cinema newspapers,” understood as the cinema newspapers published in Brazil until the 1960s. Reflecting on recent projects of digitalization of this type of documents, their limitations and issues, the author describes the management experience of the Brazilian Cinema Online project, which is financed by the Dutch publishing company Brill and is in its final stage, and will result in a digital database of rare Brazilian cinema newspapers. The reflection on the author’s consultancy on this project is systematized in a list of principles analyzed as potential methodological contributions to other initiatives aimed at the preservation of audiovisual heritage. Key Words: Brazilian cinema; newspapers; digitalization; preservation.

Resumen El artículo destaca la importancia de los “periódicos de cine” como fuente para el conocimiento sobre la historia del audiovisual, definiendo como revistas o periódicos seriados, publicados en intervalos regulares, cuyo tema principal es cine, aunque su foco sea dividido con otros medios de comunicación o diversiones públicas. Resultado de una investigación en diversos archivos, el texto analiza el escenario de la preservación de los “periódicos de cine brasileños antiguos”, entendiendo como tales a los periódicos de cine publicados en Brasil hasta los años 1960. Reflexionando sobre los recientes proyectos de digitalización de ese tipo de documento , sus limitaciones y problemáticas, el autor describe la experiencia de gestión del proyecto Brazilian Cinema Online, financiado por la editorial holandesa Brill y en fase de conclusión, que resultará en una base de datos digital de periódicos de cine brasileños raros. La reflexión sobre la consultoría del autor en ese proyecto es sistematizada en una lista de principios que son analizados como posibles contribuciones metodológicas para otras iniciativas dirigidas a la preservación del patrimonio audiovisual. Palabras clave: cine brasileño; periódicos; digitalización; preservación.

Resumo O artigo destaca a importância dos “periódicos de cinema” como fonte para o conhecimento sobre a história do audiovisual, sendo definidos como revistas ou jornais seriados, publicados em intervalos regulares, cujo tema principal é cinema, mesmo que o seu foco seja dividido com outros meios de comunicação ou divertimentos públicos. Resultado de uma pesquisa em diversos arquivos, o texto analisa o cenário da preservação dos “periódicos de cinema brasileiros antigos”, sendo entendidos como os periódicos de cinema publicados no Brasil até os anos 1960. Refletindo sobre os recentes projetos de digitalização desse tipo de documento, suas limitações e problemáticas, o autor descreve a experiência de gestão do projeto Brazilian Cinema Online, financiado pela editora holandesa Brill e em fase de conclusão, resultando numa base de dados digital de periódicos de cinema brasileiros raros. A reflexão sobre a consultoria do autor nesse projeto é sistematizada numa lista de princípios que são analisados como possíveis contribuições metodológicas para outras iniciativas voltadas para a preservação do patrimônio audiovisual. Palavras-chave: cinema brasileiro; periódicos; digitalização; preservação.

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Investigation and preservation of old Brazilian cinema newspapers n

Objectives

Nowadays, with the increase of digitalized collections and heritages and their easy access on the Internet, there are no further doubts of the importance of the so-called “correlative documentation,” i.e. documents on cinematographic activity other than films themselves, in the study and investigation of the history of cinema and audiovisual arts. A particularly relevant document for the purposes of getting to know about cinema history are cinema newspapers, which I define here as mass magazines or newspapers, published at regular intervals, whose main topic is cinema, although their main focus may be split into other public media or entertainments, such as theater, radio or television. Taking the investigation and creation of the Brazilian Cinema Online database as a starting point, this article investigates the current state of preservation of old Brazilian cinema newspapers, understood as the cinema newspapers published in Brazil until the 1960s. The final framework of this cut is the beginning of the Filme Cultura magazine, published as from 1966 by the National Institute of Educational Cinema - INCE, which would become the contemporary most important newspapers of the so-called modern Brazilian cinema, marked by the birth of the Cinema Novo and the Cinema Marginal movements. In the conclusion of this article, after having discussed the specific features of the Brazilian Cinema Online project, I will point out its guiding

principles and the methodological contributions it may provide to other similar initiatives aimed at the spreading and preservation of audiovisual heritage in Mercosur countries. n

Prospective actions

Despite the importance of the newspapers specifically dedicated to cinema, the biggest newspapers and popular illustrated magazines are the sources mostly used by researchers of Brazilian cinema, even due to their availability, wideness and tradition. A fundamental work for the consolidation of Brazilian cinema historiography, the book entitled “A bela época do cinema brasileiro,” [1] compensated the absence of copies of any Brazilian film made until 1912 (almost all of which are gone) with the compilation of information in newspapers of that time, like Gazeta de Notícias, and in seminars like Careta and Fon-Fon. The appearance and development of Brazilian cinema newspapers have a singular history, already addressed by Hernani Heffner [2]. In his work, Heffner emphasized some pioneering titles from the early 20th century, but only in the 1920s did he mark the consolidation of that part of the editorial market, as a consequence of two publications that combined editorial quality with top print runs: A Scena Muda, subsequently rebranded as A Cena Muda, and mainly, Cinearte. The fact that the Cinearte magazine is currently well-known by any Brazilian cinema scholar is partly due to its recurrent use as a source for multiple investigations among the most influential ones of the Brazilian cinema historiography. We can refer to it as one of the subjects of the first PhD thesis in the country on the history of Brazilian cinema, “Cataguases [municipio de Minas Gerais] e Cinearte 53


na formação de Humberto Mauro,” written by Paulo Emílio Sales Gomes, defended in 1972 at the School of Philosophy, Languages and Literature, and Human Sciences of the University of São Paulo (USP). As a professor of the USP, Paulo Emílio would encourage his students to use, like he did, old cinema newspapers as a source for historical investigations, and we can appreciate his influence in three significant investigations which Paulo Emílio himself guided in the subsequent years.[3] If in the 1970s these investigations depended on (generally fragile and incomplete) collections frequently available only in a few libraries and private collections, the appearance of new technologies and the expansion of the Internet, as well as the increasing digitalization and availability of documental heritages have altered that outlook. Initiatives like the Brazilian Digital Periodical Library of the National Library [4] or the Lantern / Media History Digital Library [5] brought thousands of cinema newspapers pages to researchers’ screens at a one-click distance. Nonetheless, as Eric Hoyt –the person responsible for the Lantern project– puts it, although this platform offers dozens of several newspapers, historians usually keep using the same and familiar cinema magazines for their investigations. Hoyt is of the opinion that there are three main reasons why cinema studies are not wisely used with a number of sources: access, reference aids and tradition [6]. In fact, some of the titles researchers use even today were also more accessible in the past, since a larger number of institutions had physical collections to consult and they were made available in microfilm prior to the advent of the digital phenomenon. Examples of this are the A Cena Muda and Cinearte magazines, whose major availability in comparison with other Brazilian cinema newspapers oddly enough happened in the digital field too. On the whole, these two 54

titles can nowadays be accessed digitally in two platforms –a unique case in Brazil and perhaps in the world. During the last decade, the Jenny Klabin Library of the Lasar Segall Museum in São Paulo designed, with Petrobras’ sponsorship, the “Digital Library of Entertainment-Related Arts” project, which digitalized and provided access to complete collections of A Cena Muda and Cinearte by means of its own page. [7] Magazines can be read and downloaded (as colorful files in PDF format), but it is also possible to conduct a search through controlled vocabulary created by the institution itself. However, some years later, the same A Cena Muda and Cinearte were also available digitally thanks to the Brazilian Digital Periodical Library’s project, which digitalized the microfilms collection of those titles of the National Library and brought it into researchers’ reach only in black and white, but incorporating the new feature of investigation directly through words by means of Optical Character Recognition technology (OCR). In other words, if these two titles were more used prior to their digitalization because they were more readily available, this emphasis remained nowadays. Hoyt is of the view that the second reason to privilege certain newspapers to the disadvantage of others would be the existence of reference aids for some but not all of the titles. In Brazil, as far as my understanding is concerned, the only reference aid for cinema newspapers was precisely that of Cinearte.[8] But apart from formal reference aids, “as scholars read one another’s articles, the footnotes themselves become reference aids – pointing researchers back to the same sources and


articles.”[9] This way, once more we corroborate the influence of studies like the one by Paulo Emílio Sales Gomes to establish Cinearte as a privileged source. This leads us to the third and most important aspect, since “film scholars draw upon a sense of tradition and the canon in deciding what sources to read and cite.” [10] Hence, it goes without saying that new investigations keep using the most cited newspapers in canonic texts as sources. On the other hand, as Hoyt stated, it also makes sense that magazines with longer duration –such as A Cena Muda (1921-1955), Cinearte (1926-1942) or Filme Cultura (1966-1988)– are used more than those more ephemeral. Truth be told, according to Heffner, these titles constitute exceptions in a field of many other Brazilian cinema newspapers that lasted few editions, and various newspapers that did not even make it to the second issue. Even though this makes sense in the Brazilian case, the privilege given to the same and few sources pointed out by Hoyt is sharper in the North American context, where a huge number of cinema newspapers are available through, for instance, Lantern. Nevertheless, I insist on the fact that, even in Brazil, there is already a significant group of cinema newspapers available digitally which still await the deeper interest of researchers. It is worth mentioning three projects alien to the Brazilian Digital Periodical Library, an initiative that has deservedly captured researchers’ attention. The first one is the digitalization and re-edition in facsimile of all the issues of the above-mentioned Filme Cultura, a project resulting from an association between an NGO and the Technical Center of Audiovisual Arts - CTAv, a federal entity, with Petrobras’ sponsorship.[11] The second project focused on the Cinema em Close Up magazine (1975-1979), digitalized by the private production company Heco Produções from two private collectors.[12] Finally, the O Fan magazine (1928-1930) was digitalized on occasion

of the II Brazilian Conference on Silent Cinema in 2008. This event was promoted by the Brazilian Cinematheque, which provided the collection for its digitalization. [13] I would light to stress that all these projects were made autonomously and were alien to each other. Despite the existence of projects like these, through research on different archives and institutions, I performed a study on preserved, but not yet digitalized, Brazilian cinema newspapers that brought to light a considerable number of titles almost totally unknown by historians. This investigation began during my PhD [14], in which I devoted special attention to the 1930s and 1940s, but looking for sources that would furnish me with approaches alternative to fan magazines, like A Cena Muda and Cinearte. This way, my interest was caught by the views contained in the less examined trade magazines, such as O informador da cinematografia (1937-1940) or Cine Magazine (1932-1938). The latter referred to itself as a publication “at the service of exhibitors and distributors.” What was verified in this investigation is that those rare Brazilian cinema newspapers still unknown were absolutely scattered in different collections, dispersed in public and private institutions and individual collectors, whereas, as a general rule, the handful of continuous digitalization actions were limited to the National Library’s collection. As for the titles cited above, which belong to other collections, the digitalization was made through individual projects, with individual sponsorships,

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usually from state-owned companies, almost invariably from Petrobras, and the projects did not make contact with each other at all, to the point that two different institutions digitalized the same magazines twice. Furthermore, the risks involved in isolated digitalization projects are manifest in the case of the Filme Cultura magazine. Following its digitalization and publication on the Internet, after the end of the project (and the sponsorship), the page remained inaccessible for years, which precluded the newspaper from being used. Fortunately, the same project published facsimiles of all the editions of the magazine in five bound volumes, whose physical copies can be easily found in libraries and archives from all over Brazil. [15] n Development

of the management project

In 2015, my research on old Brazilian cinema newspapers continued with an invitation to provide consultancy services for a project of the Dutch publishing company Brill. As one of its products were databases of primary sources whose access is mostly sold to the libraries of big universities of the United States and Europe, Brill had just launched Classic Mexican Cinema Online, a database made up of the digitalized collections of Mexican magazines like Cinema Reporter (19431965), part of the collection of the Film Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM).[16] While in the United States it is more common to have pay databases (paid by individuals or the institution) –as happens in Brazil with the pages of historical collections of newspapers like O Estado de S. Paulo or O Globo, restricted to subscribers[17],– the tradition in Latin America has been that of projects to digitalize documents related to the history of cinema funded by the State and of free access.[18] This is why the project entitled Brazilian Cinema Online seemed to be a novelty in Latin America. Moreover, Brill’s proposal dealt with my impression that there was a vast collection of old Brazilian 56

cinema newspapers in the hands of collectors and private institutions which would unlikely be digitalized in a sphere that prioritized specific projects, grouped under a single title, sponsored by state-owned companies, linked to the collections of public institutions and with the aim of making them available for free on the Internet. Unlike such model, the main collection of the Brazilian Cinema Online database is that of the Film Archive of the Museum of Modern Art of Rio de Janeiro (MAM), a private non-profit institution. My participation in the Brazilian Cinema Online project consisted in selecting Brazilian cinema newspapers from the beginning of the 20th century up to the 1960s, in the public domain, from the collection of the MAM Film Archive private collectors in order for them to be digitalized. These newspapers will constitute a database that will enable users to search by words in the content of the different documents through OCR. A selection criterion was not to include titles existing in the collection of public institutions like the Brazilian National Film Archive or the National Library, which may be digitalized in the future, so as to avoid double actions. Maybe the greatest novelty of the project was the cooperation of private collectors, who are kept anonymous, that mainly enriched the collection that forms the database of titles unavailable in the main archives, libraries and cinematheques, which are therefore almost inaccessible for researchers in general until now. The collectors’ compensation for their contribution to the project is free access to the resulting database; their cooperation, however, was


principally due to previously established personal relationships that built up trust in the project. Whereas the Brazilian Cinema Online database will be commercialized by Brill, aiming especially at the big foreign institutions, any researcher may have access through local search, which will be available at an access terminal in the MAM Film Archive, in Rio de Janeiro. This will, albeit in a more restricted form, guarantee free access to information. The institution will also keep the digital files for their preservation. Currently, in the final stage, the collection included in the Brazilian Cinema Online project will definitely expand the horizon of researchers of cinema history, thereby fostering new studies and allowing original perspectives by providing various copies of types of cinema newspapers which are barely investigated, regardless of the popular fans magazines or the prestigious critics journals. Among the least known types of magazines I could identify during the investigation, it is worth mentioning at least five: 1 – Local magazines: publications with regional circulation, basically limited to cities or regions outside the Rio -São Paulo axis, such as the completely unknown Fan, published in Porto Alegre since 1932. 2 – Production and distribution companies’ magazines: Here are both the Brazilian versions of magazines published by the American majors, like Mensageiro Paramount (1925-1931) –written in Portuguese, but in New York– and the magazines produced by Brazilian film studios, like Flama

Repórter (1952-1953) from Rio de Janeiro. 3 – Exhibitors magazines: There are slight differences between this type of magazines and the simple brochures that used to show the schedule of theaters or film circuits. Further to the basic information of the so-called “programs,” these magazines also had chronicles, news and puzzle sections which constituted excellent souvenirs, and were usually distributed for free to the regular theater-goers. That was the case of Programa Serrador (1926-1928), a publication by the powerful exhibitor Francisco Serrador. 4 – M a g a z i n e s fo r e x h i b i to r s : T h i s t y p e o f magazines normally referred to their audience in the title, e.g. Jornal do Exibidor (1937-1941) or Revista do Exibidor (1952-1954), and they were frequently maintained with advertisements of film distribution companies or suppliers of equipment for the exhibition theaters. Perhaps this is the most popular sub-genre of trade magazines in Brazil which remains until our days. 5 – Films photonovels – A genuine editorial fever in Brazil between the 1950s y 1970s, with best sellers like Grande Hotel, Capricho and Sétimo céu. The magazines with films photonovels represent a slightly studied sub-genre of photonovels magazines. Although there were many newspapers of this kind in Brazil –including Cine Romance, Cine Revelação, Fotonovelas e filmes– there are virtually no complete collections in the main archives. In fact, it is even difficult to enumerate all the published titles. Evidently, apart from the titles of the Brazilian Cinema Online database, there are still several non-digitalized magazines which require this type of action so as to facilitate and expand their access, in addition to the preservation of the originals. Like old Brazilian films –many of which have been irretrievably lost and can 57


unfortunately not be seen anymore,– various magazines seem to have disappeared. During Brazilian cinema’s protohistoriography, the majority of old cinema newspapers collections were in the hands of journalists, critics and veteran collectors. Regrettably, many of these collections have been lost or dispersed upon the passing of those pioneer historians. For instance, we can mention the unknown destiny of researcher Michel do Espírito Santo’s famous collection. In order to enlarge the collection of the Brazilian Cinema Online project, I had a small sum of money that helped me purchase copies at second-hand bookstores and online auctions, whose absence I checked in the investigated institutions. It was not an easy task. By way of example, in Brazilian sites like eBay as Mercado Livre [19] it is simple to find copies of Cinearte on sale; however, finding less ordinary magazines requires patience, attention and, most of all, knowledge. Actually, many magazines are still in the hands of individuals, since, even when collections arrived at the archives, they were not exempt from losses. In the online catalog of the collection owned by Funarte, a federal entity that inherited part of the documentation of the INC - National Institute of Cinema and Embrafilme, there are still titles like De Theatro: circo, cinema, rádio, cassinos (1910), CineTheatro (1918) or Radio-Cine-Theatro: illustrado (1937), which are supposed to be preserved in the Rare Works section, but nowadays the institution’s employees deem them to be lost. [20] Lastly, like films, many magazines have survived only in parts, such as covers and individual pages or isolated copies, precious traces that can be found mainly in personal collections. I found a very rare cover of A Fita, from 1921, at Pedro Lima Collection, a collection preserved in the General Archive of the City of Rio de Janeiro, and a cover from the unknown Cineasta from 1929. The same institution maintains Sylvia Perrone Guimarães 58

Collection, which keeps the cover of the Recifean Correio Cinematográfico, a copy from 1934. It is worth making a last mention of the only known edition of the Metrogramma magazine, from 1928, which was published by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, and is nowadays part of the collection owned by film collector Ivo Raposo, kept in his cottage in Conservatória, interior of the State of Rio de Janeiro. n Conclusions

The aim of my participation in the Brazilian Cinema Online database was to increase the number and variety of documents currently available to researchers. The aim of this article was not just to describe how the project was made. Rather, it was to reflect on the preservation actions of the Brazilian film heritage (focusing on film magazines) and to put forward certain principles that must guide good practice to safeguard such heritages. In short, below are some management principles that my consultancy in the Brazilian Cinema Online project intended to apply, with results I believe are relevant. Those principles may help manage future projects and can be summarized in the following five items: 1. Association with private companies in the digitalization actions for access and preservation purposes. 2. Integration of different collections, including those owned by institutions and individuals. 3. Dialogue between collectors, scholars and archives. 4. Budget item to acquire new documents.


5. Guarantee of continuity and maintenance of actions. n Methodology

By way of contribution to the new initiatives, I will briefly describe how the Brazilian Cinema Online sought or developed each of the above-mentioned principles. 1 – The project’s financing by the Dutch publishing company was what made it possible in the current serious economic crisis in Brazil, when almost no other projects to preserve the audiovisual heritage are being created. On the basis of the commercial exploitation of the foreign market, the Brazilian Cinema Online project is even going to contribute to the activities held by the MAM Film Archive, given that the Brazilian institution will receive royalties for the commercialization of the database. 2 – The fact that it was not a project linked to only one institution enabled greater access to documents to be digitized, such as collections owned by private collectors. Furthermore, the fact that Brazilian Cinema Online’s focus is broader made it possible to include incomplete collections (sometimes a single copy of a title) and avoid the completeness requirement usually involved in autonomous digitalization projects (complete collections of a single title). That is to say, its extension was similar to that of the Brazilian Digital Periodical Library, but with even more flexibility for not being restricted to the collection of a single institution as in the project of the National Library. 3 - The Brazilian Cinema Online project can only encompass a considerable number of documents due to the contact network (including personal contacts) provided by the consultants of the project. As was mentioned, previous academic research was vital to study and locate the documents to be digitalized, which reinforces the sometimes underestimated importance of a curatorship in

projects of this genre. Having more time to conduct the project –unlike the occasionally unreal terms found in cultural sponsorship edicts– allowed us to carry out deeper research that bore good fruits, e.g. the discovery of an almost complete improbable collection of Jornal do Cinema (1951-1957) in the Library of the New York University - NYU, the only foreign institution with documents included in the database. 4 – The use of a small part of the budget to purchase new documents suitable for being added to the project –which were donated to the collection of MAM Film Archive their digitalization– is a simple action, but one with very positive results. Until the final stage of the project we continued to acquire new copies that supplemented collections like the longevous, but never studied, Cine Revista (1934-1951). 5 – The final product of the Brazilian Cinema Online project is a database maintained by Brill whose clients pay for free access through IP – Internet Protocol. By the very nature of the product, which can only be commercialized if it is totally available online, it is guaranteed that the page will not be discontinued, as was the case of Filme Cultura magazine. At the same time, Brill and the MAM Film Archive agreed that the Brazilian institution will keep a back up of all the digital files produced by the project for their preservation, with the sole duty not to make them available on the Internet. Finally, the aim of this article is not to defend the Brazilian Cinema Online project as an ideal model. Rather, it is to introduce its characteristics and reflect on the contributions that could arise from curatorship and other initiatives intended to preserve and spread the Latin American audiovisual heritage.v

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Notes

1 – Araújo, Vicente de Paula. A bela época do cinema brasileiro. San Pablo: Perspectiva, 1976. 2 – Heffner, Hernani, “Pequena história dos periódicos de cinema no Brasil”, Filme Cultura, no. 53, 2012. 3 – It is possible to cite Ismail Xavier’s master’s thesis, “A procura da essência do cinema: o caminho da Avant-Garde e as iniciações brasileiras,” from 1975, which uses not only Cinearte, but also A Tela e O Fan; Maria Rita Galvão’s PhD thesis, “Companhia Cinematográfica Vera Cruz: a fábrica de sonhos. Um estudo sobre a produção cinematográfica industrial paulista,” from 1976, grounded on the systematic reading of A Cena Muda during the existence of the film studio from São Paulo; or Flora Chistina Bender’s PhD thesis, “A Scena Muda,” from 1979, intended to tell the story of that magazine that went through four decades. Only the first two titles were published in books (Xavier, 1978, Galvão, 1981). 4 – Available at: http://bndigital.bn.gov.br/hemeroteca-digital 5 – Available at: http://lantern.mediahist.org 6 – Hoyt, Eric, “Lenses for Lantern: Data Mining, Visualization, and Excavating Film History’s Neglected Sources”, Film History: An International Journal, v. 26, no. 2, 2014, p.153. 7 – Available at: http://www.bjksdigital.museusegall.org.br/ 8 – Silva, Osmar José Guimarães da; Ramos, Lécio Augusto Ramos; Bravo, Lúcia Maria Pereira Bravo. Índice Revista Cinearte. Rio de Janeiro: Embrafilme, 1986. 9 - Hoyt, op. cit., p.154 10 – Ibid. 11 – Available at: http://hmg.revista.cultura.gov.br/colecao/filme-cultura/ 12 – Available at: http://portalbrasileirodecinema.com.br/cinemaemcloseup 13 – Available at: http://www.cinemateca.gov.br/jornada/2008/colecoes_fan.html 14 – Freire, Rafael de Luna, Carnaval, mistério e gangsters: o filme policial no Brasil (19151951) – PhD thesis. Niterói, Universidad Federal Fluminense, 2011. 15 – After having been fixed a few times, when this article was originally written, in June 2017, the original page (http://www.filmecultura.gov.br) remained inaccessible. Coincidently, some weeks later, the collection was available again in a new link (http://revista.cultura. gov.br). 16 – Available at: http://www.brill.com/products/online-resources/classic-mexican-cinema-online 17 – Available at: http://acervo.estadao.com.br/ e http://acervo.oglobo.globo.com/ 18 – Navitski, Rielle, “Reconsidering the Archive: Digitization and Latin American Film Historiography,” Cinema Journal, v. 54, no. 1, 2014. 19 – Available at: http://www.mercadolivre.com.br/ 20 – Available at: Http://cedoc.funarte.gov.br/sophia_web/.. According to an in-person investigation performed by author at Funarte in Rio de Janeiro, on February 16, 2017.

Bibliography Araújo, Vicente de Paula, A bela época do cinema brasileiro. São Paulo: Perspectiva, 1976. – Freire, Rafael de Luna, Carnaval, mistério e gangsters: o filme policial no Brasil (1915-1951) – PhD thesis. Niterói, Universidad Federal Fluminense, 2011. Galvão, Maria Rita, Burguesia e cinema: o caso Vera Cruz. Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 1981 Gomes, Paulo Emílio Salles. Humberto Mauro, Cataguases, Cinearte. São Paulo: Perspectiva, 1976. Heffner, Hernani, “Pequena história dos periódicos de cinema no Brasil,” Filme Cultura, no. 53, 2012. Hoyt, Eric, “Lenses for Lantern: Data Mining, Visualization, and Excavating Film History’s Neglected Sources”, Film History: An International Journal, v. 26, no. 2, 2014: p.153. Navitski, Rielle, “Reconsidering the Archive: Digitization and Latin American Film Historiography”, Cinema Journal, v.54, n.1, 2014. Silva, Osmar José Guimarães da; Ramos, Lécio Augusto Ramos; Bravo, Lúcia Maria Pereira Bravo. Índice Revista Cinearte. Rio de Janeiro: Embrafilme, 1986. Xavier, Ismail. A sétima arte: um culto moderno. São Paulo: Perspectiva, 1978.

Webliography Estadão Newspaper Colletion: http://acervo.estadao.com.br/ O Globo Newspaper Colletion: http://acervo.oglobo.globo.com/ Mnemocine Thesis Database on Brazilian Cinema - http://teses.l2o.com.br/cgi-bin/wxis.

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exe/iah/scripts/?IsisScript=iah.xis&lang=pt&base=PRODC Digital Library of Entertainment-Related Arts http://www.bjksdigital.museusegall.org.br/ Documentation and Information Center of Funarte: http://cedoc.funarte.gov.br/sophia_ web/ Cinema em Close Up: http://portalbrasileirodecinema.com.br/cinemaemcloseup Classic Mexican Cinema Online: http://www.brill.com/products/online-resources/classic-mexican-cinema-online16 – Disponible en: http://www.brill.com/products/online-resources/classic-mexican-cinema-online Special collections - O Fan: http://www.cinemateca.gov.br/jornada/2008/colecoes_fan. html Filme Cultura: http://www.filmecultura.gov.br /http://hmg.revista.cultura.gov.br/colecao/ filme-cultura/ Brazilian Digital Periodical Library http://bndigital.bn.gov.br/hemeroteca-digital Lantern – Media History Digital Library: http://lantern.mediahist.org Mercado Livre: http://www.mercadolivre.com.br/

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FOTO Art. 5

OVERAVA movie. Director: Mauricio Rial Banti. Producer: Gabriela Cueto. Country: Paraguay. DocTV Latin America

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After the Ghosts of War Tras los Fantasmas de la guerra Atrás dos Fantasmas da guerra Category 2 / Categoria 2 / Categoria 2: Management projet in the field of audiovisual patrimony / Proyecto de gestión en el campo del patrimonio audiovisual / Projetos de gestão no campo do patrimônio audiovisual. Main theme: b) Historical approaches / Eje temático: b) Abordajes históricos / Eixo temático: Abordagens: históricas /

Author / Autor / Autor: Alejo Magariños, Argentina

Alejo Margariños He is a professor, a producer and an interpreter at conferences. He attended courses relative to filmmaking at the Film University of Argentina, and later studied conference interpreting. Based on his final thesis for his BA degree, in combination with a lengthy research work, his book entitled “La Cámara sin Ley” was finally published in 2014, where he analyzes the story of the Paraguayan audiovisual piece with the study case of the film “Hamaca Paraguaya” (Paz Encina, 2006). Alejo Margariños Alejo Magariños (Buenos Aires, 1981). Profesor, productor e intérprete de conferencias. Se formó en realización cinematográfica en la Universidad del Cine (Argentina) y posteriormente como intérprete de conferencias. Resultado de su tesis de licenciatura y una extensa investigación, publica en 2014 su libro La Cámara sin Ley, que analiza la historia del audiovisual paraguayo a través del caso de estudio del film Hamaca Paraguaya (Paz Encina, 2006). Alejo Margariños Alejo Magariños (Buenos Aires, 1981). Professor, produtor e intérprete de conferências. Formou-se em realização cinematográfica pela Universidade del Cine (Argentina) e posteriormente como intérprete de conferências. Como resultado de sua tese de formatura e de uma extensa pesquisa, publicou em 2014 o seu livro La Cámara sin Ley, que analisa a história do audiovisual paraguaio, através do estudo de caso do filme Hamaca Paraguaya (Paz Encina, 2006).

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Abstract This research recovers the different cinematic representations that dealt with the War of the Triple Alliance in the four countries that were involved in the armed conflict: Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay, founding countries of Mercosur (Southern Common Market). It gathers evidence from the first productions –some lost, others seriously damaged–, apart from analyzing documentary and fiction films made up to date, organizing them in a corpus. As a result of this research, some suggestions are made in terms of cultural policies that could give value to the audiovisual heritage related to the 150 year-old conflict, which continues to be neglected in the cultural memory of our countries. Key Words: war, films, triple, alliance

Resumen La presente investigación recupera las diferentes representaciones cinematográficas que trataron la Guerra de la Triple Alianza en los cuatro países que participaron del conflicto bélico, Argentina, Brasil, Uruguay y Paraguay, posteriores fundadores del Mercosur. La misma recopila evidencia de las primeras producciones –algunas perdidas y otras en grave estado de deterioro– además de analizar los largometrajes documentales y de ficción realizados hasta la actualidad, organizándolos en un corpus. A partir de la investigación, se realizan propuestas de gestión para poner en valor el patrimonio audiovisual relacionado con el conflicto armado del cual se están cumpliendo 150 años, y que sigue estando relegado en la memoria cultural de nuestros países. Palabras clave: cine, guerra, triple, alianza.

Resumo

A presente pesquisa recupera as diferentes representações cinematográficas que abordaram a Guerra da Tríplice Aliança nos quatro países integrantes do conflito bélico, Argentina, Brasil, Uruguai e Paraguai, posteriormente fundadores do Mercosul. Esta pesquisa também recopila evidências sobre as primeiras produções – algumas perdidas e outras em grave estado de deterioração – além de analisar os longas-metragens documentários e de ficção realizados até a atualidade, organizando-os em um corpus. A partir da pesquisa, foram feitas propostas de gestão para estimar o valor do patrimônio audiovisual relacionado com o conflito armado, que embora esteja comemorando seus 150 anos, continua relegado pela memória cultural de nossos países. Palabras clave: cinema, guerra, tríplice, alianza.

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Chasing the Ghosts of War Myths, legends and historical uncertainties in the cinematographic representation of the War of the Triple Alliance n The

memory of the war in films

Cinema as such appeared at the end of the nineteenth century, at the same time as the modern Nation-States were born. Following Michel Frodon in his essay The National Projection[1], State and cinema were also born through the same mechanism: projection. This means that States, their borders and even their identities are the result of a collective imagination, the idea we project of ourselves as a society. At the same time, from its origin, cinema has given great importance to stories related to wars. The subject of war is far from strange to film, whether shown in documentaries that recorded armed conflicts since the beginning of cinema or the great stories of the Second World War, the conquest of the American West and the Cold War –favorite topics of cinema. The War of the Triple Alliance was part of the process of construction of the current Nation-States –since, for instance, not all countries had an army before it–, whose original projection was determined by the media existing before cinema. This conflict set the borders of the involved States, except for the Bolivian-Paraguayan border that was established 50 years later with another war. However, the War of the Triple Alliance –that has been given more than seven different names- has not been one of the favorite topics for cinematographic productions of the parties involved in the conflict, neither for other countries. These few productions

are not even listed, systematized or analyzed all together, but rather scattered in the different national cinemas. Therefore, we intend to reveal all productions that are related to the war, either in a direct or indirect way. Since there are no direct audiovisual records on this war given that the first film cameras were invented years after the end of the conflict, this war has always been represented “indirectly” in film. Despite the absence of recorded moving images from the war, daguerreotypes, photographies, drawings and sketches existed and were useful to picture the war directly, the most important ones being Cándido López’s paintings. At the same time, back then, there were some devices that had created the illusion of moving images, or rather, the projection of images, currently known as “precinema devices”. These were then usually shown in road shows as the “last wonder of science”, at a time where there were inventions and inventors multiplied. During the war’s decade (1870), there were already zoetropes, stroboscopes, magic lanterns, panoramas and dioramas, among others. We know that, at least, some of these devices had arrived to Buenos Aires, Rio and other cities in the region [2]. However, we could not find data that indicated they represented the war. Consequently, let us go over the corpus of related cinematographic productions. n Error 404: Not Found. First representations

It was after the war that some cinematic representations of it started to appear as documentaries. Brazil led this first stage, according to the catalogue of the National Brazilian Cinematheque : Comemoração de uma data Nacional: A batalha de Riachuelo, (1908) documentary 65


short film about the official commemoration of the battle that carries that name: Homenagem aos heróis de Tuyuty, (1914), lost short documentary. The first fiction on the war is from 1917, named Os heróis brasileiros na guerra do Paraguai, film that was also lost. n Alma do Brasil: The re-enactment of the retreat from Laguna

The first great film about one of the episodes of the War of the Triple Alliance was Alma do Brasil (Brazil, 1932, 54’), by Libero Luxardo, which has been preserved up to date. Shot in the most involved Brazilian state, Mato Grosso do Sul, it combines documentary material of a sports commemoration, with a recreated commemoration of that year’s army and a re-enactment of the Retreat from Laguna. Alma do Brasil is the first important film about the war that is available today and the last one in a considerable period. The work implied in the dramatic performance of an episode of the war is remarkable. In the Saxon world, battles from different wars are re-enacted, a tradition that goes back to the Roman empire and which was popular in the XVII century in England, where it is still a common practice. Events with an educational or recreational nature, these are re-enactments of historical events with different levels of historical accuracy. In this sense, Alma do Brasil includes a very interesting work related to certain tradition of re-enactments or popular commemorations of the War of the Triple Alliance existing in the region, although poorly known. n Revisiting oblivion: some documentary notes

In 1932, the Chaco War sets out and cameras turn to it. Cinematographic productions about the Chaco

War and their comparison with the representation of the War of the Triple Alliance deserve a specific separate analysis. During a long time, it looked like cinema forgot about the War of the Triple Alliance. We found some rare exceptions in said period in Brazil, some that appear to have a military origin: a newsreel that shot some war monuments in 1939; a short documentary film about the Duke of Caxias ; an episode of the newsreel Cine Jornal Brasilero from 1941 that filmed a conference about the Tuyuty battle in Rio de Janeiro; another newsreel from 1945 that records a commemoration of the Riachuelo battle. In 1963, in the state of Mato Grosso, the film Aniversario da Cidade is shot (Saddi, Filme Corumbá). This interesting film is the second historical re-enactment of the war. Aniversario da Cidade records the official re-enactment of an event known as Retaking of Corumbá, becoming the second audiovisual case of historical re-enactment. n Two sides of

industrial cinema

In 1944, Artistas Argentinos Asociados produced Su mejor alumno (DeMare, Argentina, 1944). Filmed in black and white 35mm, this historical film is based on the autobiographical stories of Sarmiento. Having all the infrastructure and production scale of the golden period of the industrial Argentine cinema, the film had the special support of the Ministry of War for the reconstruction of the battle. This film also made use of the paintings of Cándido López as reference. The war appears briefly towards the end of the film, when Sarmiento’s son goes to fight to Tuyutí. This is the largest scale reconstruction of a battle in the war that has been produced. In 1959, the film La Sangre y la Semilla (35mm, B&W) is released, the second Argentine-Paraguayan co-production in the era of industrial cinema, a fiction feature based on the novel Raíces de la Aurora by Mario Halley Mora, adapted for cinema

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by Roa Bastos. It is the story of Panchita, a pregnant Paraguayan woman who loses her husband, a General of the Paraguayan Army, in battle. Told from the point of view of an occupied Paraguay, Panchita survives in an isolated town, abandoned in the middle of the escape from Cerro Corá. This film is the first one of this corpus whose main character is a woman, a Paraguayan one, who carries the hope of reconstruction the country and who has been close to the war. The film also shows hidden treasures or pláta yvyguy, those mythical treasures guarded by tormented souls that will be one of the main subjects in recent cinematographic stories related to the war. Also, this is the first time there are dialogues in Guaraní –one of the great survivors of the war– in the films of the present corpus. La Sangre y la Semilla has been recently restored, which is great news. Raíces de la Aurora, the novel on which the film is based, continues unpublished. Maybe this is a good historical chance to edit the novel. n The mirror maze of nationalism

T h e Wa r o f t h e Tr i p l e A l l i a n ce re a c h e s i t s first centennial between 1964 and 1970. At a cinematographic level, this period is a ghost in the memory, an audiovisual gap. It is a private undertaking which, in 1971, commemorates the centennial of the war: Argentino hasta la muerte (Argentine until death). Its title –of a nationalist nature– opposes to its antinationalist criticism, which seems to anticipate the next decade in Argentina. The historical film talks about the lives of three friends who enroll in the army in Buenos Aires, and ranges between drama

and comedy. Its main actor, Roberto Rimoldi Fraga, was a figure of the Buenos Aires star-system, an actor and singer. During the opening titles, we can appreciate Cándido López’s paintings. The events take place in the context of Buenos Aires’ high society, and during the debates held before the war. Later in the film, at the battlefront in Corrientes, the allied army takes the house of a Paraguayan woman as a field hospital. The main character falls in love with this woman. Once again, the Paraguayan woman is a central figure, placed in the intersection between collaboration and counterintelligence, this being the only film that talks about another topic typical of cinema, such as espionage wars. Additionally, the film pictures battle scenes, mainly from the battle of Tuyutí. In one shot, it shows the flags of all countries involved in the conflict, as a reminder for the audience, showing the general lack of knowledge of such a bloody war. In 1978, the first fully Paraguayan film in 35mm, Cerro Corá, (G. Vera, Paraguay, 1978) is shot. This film was watched by the vast majority of the urban Paraguayan population. This is the first example in the present corpus of a film requested by a central government that directly talks about the War of the Triple Alliance, made to create a State image as a factor of identity. The film shows the search of Alfredo Stroessner to worship the re-created figure of Mariscal López as an indirect way of supporting the idea of a strongly personalistic government. The film tells the story of Mariscal López and the war, from the beginning of hostilities to his death in Cerro Corá. Although its poor performances and dull reciting of dialogues, this is a film every Paraguayan remembers, an undeniable icon in the cinematography and politics of the country, a benchmark of the Paraguayan identity projection, beyond its political ideas. It is, at the same time, a historical recreation that includes many of the most important topics of the war: Mariscal López, Elisa Lynch, the children soldiers, the Paraguayan woman and the meeting at Yatayty Corá. In connection to 67


this meeting, this film as well as others work around the lack of historical certainty pertaining the terms of the peace agreement offered by López, given that both López and Mitre died without revealing the secret. In 1982, during the dictatorship in Uruguay, the only Uruguayan production related to the War of the Triple Alliance was show up to present was made: Mataron a Venancio Flores (J. Rodríguez Castro, Uruguay, 1982). This is a fiction film that talks about State violence during the XIX century to, at the same time, talk about the Uruguayan dictatorship in the XX century. The war as a post-modern pastiche and the change of era In 1987, Sylvio Back, a Brazilian documentarist, made A guerra do Brasil. In the Brazil of the recently recovered democracy, this film emerges in a very different audiovisual context, after the appearance of video technology and the possibilities it offers. This film is a “post-modern pastiche” –as considered by Jameson [3]- that collects footage from Cerro Corá, Alma do Brasil, Argentino hasta la muerte and Aniversario da Cidade, and combines them with paintings of Cándido López, drawings and paintings from Brazilian artists and talking heads shots which are typical of TV language. An amusing criticism of the role Brazil plays during the War, framed in the prolific and diverse work of Back, the film makes a review of the events of the war and unveils a new level of density in its representation, at the same time it operates as an intertext not only with documents, drawings and paintings of the war, but also making the first filmic intertexts, which include direct quotes. n Biopics,

novels and ghosts

The literature of the last decades has observed an outbreak of historical novels, both in Argentina and Brazil. Some of these novels talk, directly or indirectly, about the War of the Triple Alliance, and 68

some have even been adapted to cinema. Some examples of these adaptations are: Mauá: O Imperador e o Rei (Sergio Rezende, Brazil, 1999), Netto perde sua alma (Souza/Ruas, Brazil, 2001), A paixão de Jacobina (Brazil, 2002), Ana Neri, chapter from the series Brava Gente (Globo, Brazil, 2002), Felicitas (Costantini, Argentina, 2009), Eliza Lynch: Queen of Paraguay (Gilsenan, Irlanda, 2013), O Tempo e o Vento (Monjardim, Brazil, 2013) –a great box office hit, with more than 700,000 tickets sold–, El cielo del centauro (Santiago, Argentina/ Francia, 2015). Many of these films show strong and transgressive women that fight to change the course of things; transgressive, modern and fighting heroes. n Collage documentaries

Two Argentine digital documentaries share the idea of history as a narration and, therefore, both are interested in the historical uncertainties, episodes that show an invented history of the facts, rather than truthful information we may have on them. Both are choral documentaries. Cándido López: Los campos de batalla (J. L. García, Argentina, 2005) recreates the life of the painter/ soldier Cándido López. According to the accounts of the documentarist –who is at the same time is the main character of his own film– his interest on the work of López coincided with him knowing the painter’s elderly grandson who wanted to visit the battlefields painted by Cándido. Through Lopez’s works, the documentarist starts that journey together with a friend of López’s grandson, visiting the different


battlefields painted by Cándido López, interviewing historians, people who decided to live there, members of the army and locals. Resuming the postmodern intertextuality started by A guerra do Brasil, García shows the official oblivion of many historical sites, and reconstructs a kind of oral transmission of the conflict through the knowledge of the locals. Inevitable in those stories, the ghosts of the War of the Triple Alliance appear, in this case as a whole army that emerges in some trenches. Contra Paraguay (F. Sosa, Argentina, 2016) centers its narrative in a barbecue where young historians in Buenos Aires discuss different topics of the war and their own versions. At the same time, the film shows some similarities with the one made by José Luis García. On the one hand, it is a documentary that follows the collage line and the idea of history as a narrative of Cándido: los campos de batalla (the battlefields). On the other hand, there is a figure of a “main character” in a documentary, a researcher, this time an actor and not the filmmaker himself. n Mythical Land

At least three digital feature films about the myths and legends of the war were shot in Paraguay, a land full of myths and legends. The first one, Felipe Canasto (D. Cardona Herreros, Paraguay, 2010), is based on a popular legend strongly rooted in Paraguay. The legend says that a group of women living in their own community and sharing their men received or found body parts they could sometimes identify and, then, partially bury. This film tells the story of three of those women, and the birth of a legendary character that carries death to all those who can see him.

Overáva (Rial, Paraguay, 2012) is a documentary about the treasures hidden during the war or the myth of the pláta yvyguy, following the steps of Mariscal López through the country. Filled with mystery and suspense, multiple off voices tell the myth of those treasures, protected by ghosts that can only be found by someone of a noble soul and with a pure purpose. The myth of pláta yvyguy disembarks in fiction genre with Latas Vacías (H. Godoy, Paraguay, 2014). This thriller film told in a tone of comedy tells the story of a treasure hunter and his journey until he finds the treasure. This is an independent film that was awarded the audience awards at the Asunción International Film Festival. It is worth noting that Godoy has other previous works about the War of the Triple Alliance, such as the short film El Chasqui (Godoy, Paraguay, 2009), the animated short film Jaguá (Godoy, Paraguay, 2010) and Pescada Pe (Godoy, Paraguay, 2009). The last examples in this section are Relatos de Curupayty and Acosta Ñu (Ramoa, Paraguay, 2010). Films with a mainly educational approach, made by Professor Ramón Ramoa (University of Pilar), with a clear historical research. Even in this academic context, the relevance of treasures, spirits and ghosts from the war are highlighted. n Coda

To conclude with the historical audiovisual corpus, we must highlight that the War of the Triple Alliance continues being part of different audiovisual works and projects. During the past years, Miguel Horta developed and partially financed in Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay a project for a feature film, Los niños de la guerra, which has not been concluded. In 2016, A guerra do Paraguai (L. Rosemberg Filho, Brasil, 2016) was released in Brazil, a B&W fiction film that tells the encounter of a soldier from the war (another ghost?) with a theatre company from present times, and opens a debate on violence, formed by philosophical references to Brecht, Niestzche and 69


Molière. Also in Brazil, the director Vicente Ferraz is working in a project called Bastardos (Ferraz, Brazil, under development), a fiction about the revenge of the Brazilian slaves during the Paraguayan War. In Paraguay, Ramiro Gómez and Eva Karene Romero filmed in 2017 their documentary Kuñá (Gómez and Romero, Paraguay, under development). This will be focused on the role women currently have in the Paraguayan society and will show interviews to different female historians. We know that it is very likely for the topic of the feminization of the Paraguayan post-war population to be part of the documentary. Additionally, there are foreign projects that talk, directly or indirectly, about the War of the Triple Alliance: The Paraguayan War (Denis Wright, Brazil, 2009); a broadcast of Roving Report (15’) named Paraguay Power and Politics (AP Television, USA, 1980); Whicker’s World: Stroessner’s Paraguay (BBC, United Kingdom, 1970). n Conclusions

This preliminary research has enabled us to build a considerable corpus of works that address the topic of the War of the Triple Alliance from the different perspectives and countries. Most of these [films] have been shot after the year 2000 and many of the oldest materials have been lost. Memory needs of a hardware or support forits software. In the case of films, the hardware is volatile, fragile. In this sense, it is important to strengthen the idea that the State must safeguard the preservation of the cinematographic heritage, legacy typical of the XX century, through State cinematheques. Brazil and Uruguay have cinematheques for preserving and disseminating the historical archives. Argentina has recently created the CINAIN (Cinematheque and National Image Archive), although it is still early to know how it will act. At the same time, the Film Museum of the City of Buenos Aires has been partially assuming the role of cinematheque. In 70

Paraguay, private collections exist, but there is no State cinematheque. On the other hand, it appears that today the role of a cinematheque cannot be separated from the digitalization of the national archives. The Argentine initiative Prisma and Odeón/CINE.AR or the bank of cultural content in Brazil, are worth noticing, measures taken for the preservation and dissemination of the audiovisual heritage. From this initial path, we may draw some general lines or topics worked by the films in this corpus. In fiction films there is a prevalence of biopics of historical figures, in which the war is somehow represented. We notice the relevance of women’s role in the war and society of the XIX century as an agent of social change [in the cinematic representation of the war] . The presence of ghosts, enigmas and tragedies is also constant , in the the nineteenth century contrast between popular beliefs and science, and ghosts as the central topic of the literary romanticism of that century. Myths and legends are central in the audiovisual narrations of the War of the Triple Alliance –a war that is somehow invisible. As regards documentaries, most analyze the war through multiple voices that create a general view that understands history as a narration. In several occasions, some episodes with historical “uncertainty” have been appealing, which caused controversy and different interpretations. The State has been involved in different levels with the construction of these perspectives. We can underline the involvement of the armies in many of the examples, as advisors in historical subjects or contributing some voices in documentaries. At the


same time, some of these audiovisual pieces were directly commissioned by the State, as educational or informative documentaries for the general public, providing a view of the war influenced by different political views. In this sense, it is worth mentioning Cerro Corá as the quinressential example of the use the State gave to film to create a vision of a country’s power. Beyond politics, the positive aspect about Cerro Corá is its contribution to unite the Paraguayan society as a whole. Sadly, the film is poorly acted and provides an idealized view of Mariscal López that tried to obtain more support for the dictatorship of Alfredo Stroessner. n Potential actions

Based on this research, we planned some possible actions in connection to the management of the audiovisual heritage and the War of the Triple Alliance. Considering the difficulty to access these films and the poor condition of some, there is a need for a thorough search for other filmic materials, their restauration and the subsequent incorporation of the corpus to an online platform for public access of these productions in the 150th anniversary of the War. At the same time, an exhibition in the network of RECAM’s digital cinemas could be organized, with expert panels and open discussions. Furthermore, another possible and interesting bond with the general public would be a sort of a backward transmedia: the design and construction of pre-cinema devices that include visual products of the war, animating existing visual elements and at the same time educating about the creation of the first moving images and the ruling mentality in the XIX centur y, the era of romanticism, industrial revolutions and the rise of the mechanical reproduction of images. Overall, the zoetrope is the great-grandfather of the gif, and the telegraph of the Internet. At the same time, we started another research on

film and the Chaco War, which needs to be expanded and studied comparatively with the representation of the War of the Triple Alliance. There is, in contrast with the few films made about the war, an important number of theatre plays on the War of the Triple Alliance, written even during the war. This is another line of cultural research that could be followed and even be connected with film projects by means of a specific contest. In connection to the reasearch made about the memor y of the war, popular manifestations and commemorations of important dates or reenactments that currently exist in Brazil and in Paraguay are especially interesting, and could be object of films distributed in different platforms, as a collective exercise of memory.v

REFERENCES [1] Jean-Michel Frodon, «La projection nationale: Cinéma et nation», Les cahiers de médiologie, 1/1997 (no 3). [2] Andrea Cuarterolo, De la foto al fotograma. Relaciones entre cine y fotografía en la Argentina (1840-1933). Montevideo: Ediciones CdF, 2013, 260 pp., ISBN 978-9974-600-90-4. [3] Jameson, Fredric. 1984. El posmodernismo o la lógica cultural del capitalismo avanzado. 2005, 2nd ed. Buenos Aires: Paidos.

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Section II

Reviews


Experiences


Film

Preservation & Restoration School Latin America, Argentina 2017

I

n March 2017, the Film Preservation & Restoration School Latin America was launched for the first time. It is a prestigious cinematic restoration school whose launch coincided with the beginning of the Argentine Cinematheque and Image Archive (CINAIN). It was carried out by the Argentine Institute of Cinema and Audiovisual Arts (INCA A), the Argentine Ministry of Culture, with the cooperation of the Fédération Internationale des Archives du Film (FIAF), Cineteca di Bologna and L’Immagine Ritrovata. In order to facilitate the participation of the region’s specialists, RECAM has awarded g rants to th e Mem ber States of Mercosur. Some of their testimonies were recorded by INCAA’s Center of Audiovisual Production and it is particularly worth mentioning the one given by Lorena Perez from the Uruguayan Cinematheque, who celebrates the implementation of CINAIN as an achievement for Argentina and Latin

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America, and as an opportunity for States to start understanding the importance of preserving and opening the archives to society. Also noteworthy is that of Mariela Cantu, an Argentine woman working in São Paulo, whose testimony highlights

the value of the experience at the Latin American level, the coexistence with professionals with shared knowledge, methodologies and problems, and integration as a vital object of work facilitated by this type of regional initiatives.v


An eclipse

as a starting point Por Lorena Pérez Castro *

Experience of the collective management of the preservation of the Audiovisual Heritage in Uruguay.

U

ruguay has a long story connected with film archives. In 1943, it created SODRE Art Cinema [Cine Arte del SODRE], currently known as the Uruguayan Image and Word Archive (ANIP), which meant the formation of the first film archive in our country and the beginning of a very important culture of cinematographic spreading. By 1952, in the private sphere, the Uruguayan Cinematheque was founded, and it remains as a nonprofit organization up to now. More recently, in 2006, the Catholic University of Uruguay created the Audiovisual Archive Prof. Dina Pintos, and in 2010 the General Archive of the University of the Republic created the Audiovisual Preservation Lab (LAPA). Despite this long history, the national cinematic heritage issue has not had policies that allow the development works concerning the recovery, restoration, digitalization and diffusion of Uruguayan materials. For this reason, the individual work of every institution depends entirely on their economic capacity. The fire which occurred in SODRE Art Cinema in 1971 caused a great loss of part of its collection, and the compilation made by the Uruguayan Cinematheque has turned it into the archive with the highest number of Uruguayan titles ever since. Hence, most of our country’s heritage became the responsibility of a private institution, whose economic resources depended almost solely

on membership fees and tickets sale. The different economic crises as well as the toings and froings of the institution’s social core led to a serious crisis, as a result of which the Uruguayan Cinematheque warned the government about the need to obtain support to continue working. As a consequence of this warning, in 2010 the Uruguayan Institute of Cinema and Audiovisual Arts (ICAU) conducted an investigation on the state of Uruguayan film archives. It was carried out by Isabel Wschebor (a member of LAPA), Julieta Keldjian (a member of the Uruguayan Catholic University’s archive) and Ana Laura Cirio. This investigation also implied the first actual contact with the above-mentioned archives work, since ANIP was also a part of it. The results corroborated the need for support for the care of the heritage of pictures in motion, and they formally put forward budget and human resources difficulties. Against this background, representatives of the four institutions started to hold meetings to discuss the issue and find a project that would link all the archives with the aim of working on the conservation, restoration and digitalization of national collections. In 2014, the government created a space for debate, which was called Audiovisual Commitment, in which professionals of the different areas related to Uruguayan 75


cinema took part. One of the discussion tables focused on film heritage and allowed archives to define the work guidelines to be pursued and the fund-raising. In 2016, the Interinstitutional Table of Audiovisual Heritage (MIPA) was formalized. It was presided by ICAU and their members were ANIP, AGU, the Audiovisual Archive Prof. Dina Pintos and the Uruguayan Cinematheque. Part of the equipment was obtained from a film lab that had closed in our country, whose equipment was a gratuitous loan given by the Uruguayan Republic Bank (BROU) to ICAU for use by MIPA. In addition, ICAU allocated a first budget for audiovisual heritage that allowed the payment of wages and the fitting-out of technological equipment to perform the first tests. Beginning of the work The plan formulated by MIPA for the first stage has for work guidelines: A. Nitrate Plan: its goal is to develop a preventive conservation plan for Uruguayan cellulose nitrate-based films, preserved in the Uruguayan Cinematheque’s nitrate store and owned by the Cinematheque and ANIP - SODRE. B. Magnetic Plan: it is aimed at keeping in force the existing initiatives related to the conservation and digitalization of Uruguayan materials created and preserved in magnetic support, and continuing the preservation of collections of particular interest for the history of national cinema. C. Contemporary Cinema: This plan will carry on with the initiatives introduced during the former administration, whose objective is to locate and gather film copies totally or partially financed by ICAU through the Fund for the Promotion of Cinema. D. Digitalization and restoration: four national films meaningful for the Uruguayan cinema’s history will be selected to be digitalized and restored. The actual work began once the equipment was installed in LAPA facilities, and it was possible to initiate the conversion of the telecine equipment, obtained through 76

The first digitized work was a short film in which a team of Uruguayan astronomers worked from the IAVA Observatory. the BROU, and a 2k scanner that would let us digitalize the first film. For this purpose, the technicians decided to use only the film dragging system of the telecine and add a Nikon D7200 photo camera to it to take pictures. The frame lighting system was replaced by an LCD lamp and uniform light was obtained. Both the lamp and the photo camera were connected to a computer which gave the coordinated order to activate the light and the camera and received the RAW files generated by the camera. After several tests and trial-and-error advances, it was possible to obtain 25 megapixel quality per frame. A seven-minute documentary short film was chosen for the first digitalization work. It was produced by the Ministry of Public Instruction (currently known as Ministry of Education and Culture), which recorded a solar eclipse on May 29, 1938 and a team of Uruguayan astronomers worked on it from the observatory of the Alfredo Vázquez Acevedo Institute (IAVA). The system designed by technicians Ignacio Seimanas and Jaime Vázquez enabled us to get the first 2k scanning of a national film in Uruguay. Members of the technical team of LAPA, AGU and the Uruguayan Cinematheque also worked with them. The project awoke great interest, and the fact that it was conducted at the University got members of the School of


Frame of the short film “Eclipse Solar de 1938” digitized in the Laboratory of Audiovisual Heritage (LAPA) of the UdelaR by the Audiovisual Heritage Board (MIPA).

Engineering to cooperate in it. We also received help from important figures of the film-making world. Public presentation and work continuity With the aim of divulging the work in progress, there was an open display of “1938 Solar Eclipse,” with an audience of more than 200 attendees. The enthusiasm aroused by the event confirms the importance of preserving and spreading a country’s audiovisual heritage. Although the course of events changes the action plans set forth from the beginning, and the budget and human resources still need to be improved, we understand the importance in countries like Uruguay, where archives lack sufficient budget and qualified staff, and joint action makes it possible to do what it would be impossible to do separately. The final objective of the project is to build an only store. Even though this might be the most difficult goal to reach and the most sensitive one regarding the agreement on how things will be done, we are

taking steps apart from the continuity of the Nitrate and Digitalization Plans, and it is the importance of the standardization of database and work lists, among other issues. This will let us share information more efficiently and improve work methods. Last, but not least, a decision on the diffusion and access to the materials digitalized by MIPA is still pending. We believe this is an essential point and it is the reason of the work. Bringing the heritage closer to citizens is the only way in which our work will get real value and be understood and supported by the different public and private agents that must take part in the preservation of collective memory. This is why we, MIPA members, continue with this search for collective management, which we deem to be the most adequate one for our reality.v

* Archivóloga FIC-UDELAR and since 2002 he works in the Cinemateca Uruguaya, which he represents in the Interinstitutional Table of Audiovisual Heritage. 77


Sound restoration of the film entitled

“La historia oficial” By Carlos Abatte *

F

or several reasons, the universe of audiovisual heritage restoration and preservation –and, particularly, film heritage– is currently acquiring crucial significance. I refer to these areas as a universe since there are multiple factors involved. And to increase complexity, we have little time to work on it. One of the many technical questions is the one connected with changes in physical supports. The delivery has changed, and cinema has gone from the traditional film copies for use to being produced and spread in digital supports. This has resulted in optical materials, negatives and copies going adrift, as there are almost no further chemical labs where films can be processed. We must be conscious of the fact that these optical supports are cinema itself, and that these originals treasure more than 100 years of works of this art. We must also bear in mind that these materials worsen with their use and the passage of time. Hence, to sum up, we have few film copies left, which are mostly in poor condition and it is virtually (ones) impossible to make new (copies). Another critical aspect is that these flaws appearing as a consequence of time become part of the cinematographic work, it gets really ticklish to truly appreciate a film covered by multiple stripes,

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stains, distortions, fries and other problems that have nothing to do with the work itself. With this background, we must be aware of the fact that the setting in value of a film, restoring and giving it back so that it can be properly appreciated is to work for the cultural heritage of nations. Rescuing a film entails making it part of its country’s identity again, and a foundational piece in the development of its audiovisual memory. Nowadays, all of this is in serious danger and can be lost forever. And we have to understand that another major implication of restoration is making films the subject of study and investigation. This derives from making them accessible to anthropologists, sociologists and researchers and turning them into educational materials available to educators and teachers. Moreover, for me, a cinema man, it means giving them back to (because they were created for this) the audience, (as this is what they were made for). Therefore, another relevant aspect we have to take into consideration is that after the restoration, that recovered film must be seen in public. Restoration is in itself a very intricate task. As in a maze, various problems get connected and here, stages the world opens in vast and unknown. What I mean is, that in my experience, that there are no formulas. Instead, there are decisions to


be made in every step and I am convinced that such decision-making must be assumed by people who have an intimate relationship with cinema; i.e. this is not a task for technicians only, it is team work where we are invariably talking about cinema. Being made this introduction. I will now address the sound restoration of “The Official Story” by Luis Puenzo. After more than half a century of awarding of prizes, this film was the first Spanishspeaking film awarded as with an Oscar by the Hollywood Academy. It is also emblematic and very meaningful film for Argentine cinema, so tackling its restoration filled us with great expectations and pride. Besides, and as you will see in this narration, Luis Puenzo is a very special person, and one of the things that make him special is that he takes on challenges. When we started we thought in re-mixing the film from its original tracks rather than in a sound restoration. The reason for this is that Luis wanted, regardless of the film’s original achievements, to get a more modern result in aesthetic and dramatic terms by using today’s technologies. This was how we started a useless search opening endless boxes and checking on the labels of each of the many cans that Luis’ career had gathered. The result wrecked the idea of remixing the film since the material we needed was lost, it did not exist anymore. However, during the search we came across 1/4” magnetic tapes, which were a copy of the original mix, what nowadays (nowadays) we call a back up copy nowadays. This was an incentive as starting from an optical copy for the restoration of sound could have been worse

as to the quality final results. From that point we would start working on the restoration, but the conditions were not the best. All these magnetic tapes were completely attacked by fungi because they had not been kept with sufficient precautions. We turn Resort was had to an old collaborator with these issues: engineer Dante Brizzi. He patiently removed the fungi layer and left the tapes fit for use again. All these procedures are delicate since manipulating 30-year-old materials is not easy, but we were successful and started to work on the restoration. Then we had to continue solving typical problems related to these magnetic tapes, such as eliminating buzzings puffs inherent in analogue supports and distortions. On the other hand, the sound had also the timbre spot of the technology of that time, and these somewhat aggressive features had to be corrected too. We started the cleaning processes with an equipment owned by the Argentine Academy of Cinema. This is the CEDAR Cambridge, a very sophisticated item of hardware that works as a multi-processor exclusively designed to solve several issues regarding cinematographic sound restoration. While working on these topics, I realized that the original idea of re-mixing the film had not gone away. It was still there. That was how one day, during a conversation with Luis Puenzo, I proposed that we should convert this original and monaural analogue sound into the digital format 5.1. Such procedure was also a challenge as it was unprecedented for us; that is to say, we were talking about doing it for the first time and with an important work. This is why I 79


mentioned Luis Puenzo’s personality, because he had to make this risky choice and so he did. This implied re-making sound tracks consistently with the mixed ones, which, as I said, were lost, in order to produce the 5.1 captivating sensation.

photography of the film, were working on the film’s picture. This task covered everything related to the original negative and its stripes and deteriorations issues, as well as light and color correction. This was huge.

At this stage, the most complex issue to be solved was music, since we did not have original recordings either. Consequently, there was no sense in opening the sound environments and effects without music, so we had to sort out this matter to move forward with the project. The problem was how to do it. As a response to this difficulty, the idea of “supplementing” the original music popped up. To put it simply, this implied making a soft orchestration, with just some of the original instruments, so as to be able to open this new orchestration to the whole cinematographic theater and achieve the immersion sound effect. In order to do this, we resorted to other Luis’ assiduous collaborators: musicians Daniel Tarrab and Andrés Goldstein. The first thing that came to their minds was that it was impossible to do what we wanted. Besides, we did not even have the sheet music. After a long meeting, we agreed on performing a test within a certain and specific plan. One week later we were together again and they were now excited. All in all, all of this seemed possible. That was how all our work to convert the film into the digital sound format 5.1 firmly began.

Originally, and from the production point of view, this film was what we would call a small film. And in that time, 30 years ago, there was not money to make a back-up copy of the negative, so all the use copies of the films were made from that single camera negative. It is certainly a miracle that this material has made it to our days in one piece. Finally, from the sound area we were reaching the final stage of the mix. This stage brought deep pleasure given that we gradually and subtly achieved Luis’ original desire: having new sound for his film.

On the one hand, we were working on the cleaning and removal of the above-mentioned issues; and on the other hand, we were taking care of the consistent creation of the 5.1 sound. In other words, we did two very different things which are not ordinary at all in film restoration procedures. As regards the new setting and just by way of example, we did a lot of work in the sequences filmed in Plaza de Mayo during the marches, trying to give them more sound energy and spatial depth. At the same time, Cinecolor Laboratory of Buenos Aires, Luis and “el Chango” Monti, the director of 80

Seeing “The Official Story” again 30 years later and with the superb quality it has today left no doubt that now the film could be appreciated in all its magnitude and beauty. Moreover, this great work has acquired a new meaning and its subject matter and treatment have reached an extraordinary dimension. I strongly recommend that everybody see it. You will enjoy it. To conclude, I would like to talk about what happens when we participate in restoration projects: at the end we find more than a film, we also find a part of our history, with our idioms and habits; well, we find ourselves.v Thank you.

* Sound engineer.


Audiovisual

MERCOSUR

Project

Por Lucas Guidalevich *

The aim of this project carried out in 2014 was to recover, preserve and spread 615 minutes of audiovisual material from different countries of the region.

T

he first thing we had to do was analyze the list of films selected for each country and, according to that, assess the work to be done. This was complicated because we had to comply with a lot of administrative and formal requirements for the competitive bidding. Even though this was an arduous task, it meant time gained when the project was granted, since we already had advanced research. We had several meetings and technical exchanges on the steps to be followed. The first link in the chain was get the film stocks of every film from every country, from the shipping to the arrival at Cinecolor, going from the different formal customs procedures, etc. Once we had the film stocks in the Laboratory, we started the physical analysis of the material, both image and sound (in the case of sound materials), and we prepared a physical report with the necessary details: corroborating that the information on the original label coincided with what was actually inside and knowing the condition of the material in detail: broken perforations, 81


splices, whether it was positive or negative, color or black and white, sound or silent, etc. Where necessary, our preparation area physically restored potential physical issues the material might have and it was washed, in some cases by an ultrasonic washing machines and in other cases, by hand, depending on the state of the material. From the technical report we could decide on the best process for its digitalization. We could do it in a Spirit DataCine telecine in HD resolution, as this tool lets you digitalize all types of material regardless of their physical condition: contracted materials, with splice jumps, among others. In other cases, when the film stock was in better conditions, we could digitalize it in the Northlight scanner. Once the material was digitalized, we made a technical correction of the color, whose aim was to get a material as similar as the one premiered for the first time, trying not to alter the original aesthetics of that time. After the digitalization and the color correction, the material was sent to the digital restoration area. Some projects underwent a simpler restoration process, where attempts were made to stabilize the image, clean some fungi and remove the most marked stripes. In other cases, we did a more exhaustive restoration by further correcting dots, stripes, hairs, splices and others. At the end of these processes, we did a projection in our projections theater where we could see the finished material on the big screen and, in case some correction was necessary, we could make it before the final export. When everything was right, seen by our technical team and a person responsible for RECAM, we

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started the exports in accordance with the protocol we had designed: HD AppleProres quicktimes exports and frames sequences with their relevant backup to LTO. This project was very interesting for several reasons. Firstly, due to the interaction with all the areas, including technicians, historians and preservers. In addition, because of the great variety of processed materials, the material volume and the possibility of manipulating film stocks from 1925 to 1973 (approximately) from different Mercosur countries which we would not have been able to get otherwise. Besides, thanks to those processes, anyone who wishes to see these materials will be able to do it TODAY and in the future no matter where he or she is.v

* Operations Manager of Cinecolor Argentina. Cinecolor Argentina was the successful bidder company of the international competitive bidding of the Audiovisual Mercosur Program made with the aim of restoring and digitalizing the audiovisual heritage of Mercosur.


Areas

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The combination of all the times. cineop – the film festival

Ouro Preto

By Raquel Hallak d’Angelo *

The event that treats cinema as a heritage. The event of preservation, history and education.

C

ineOP (Ouro Preto Film Festival), the only Brazilian audiovisual event about preservation, history and education reaches its 13th edition. It will take place between June 13 and June 18, 2018. CineOP renews its supporting and avant-garde commitment in favor of the audiovisual heritage. It constitutes a privileged and innovating space to debate, reflect and design guidelines and goals for the preservation sector, in line with education and the exchange with the world.

than not forgets or neglects its own history. In 2011, CineOP was given the Preservation Award of the Brazilian Academy of Cinema. In 2015, it turned 10 years old and edited a publication of several collaborations that recorded the advances and historic events in the preservation sector between 2006 and 2015. In 2017, it launched the National Preservation Plan, a collective achievement intended to cooperate with the construction and improvement of public policies for this sector.

The CineOP festival, held in Ouro Preto, a city declared a world heritage site, was created in 2006 by the company called “Universo Produção” and amounts to a pioneering initiative in the circuit of film festivals which adds value to the heritage of the seventh art and contributes to a look into history from a contemporary perspective. For being at the service of the preservation of the Brazilian cinematographic heritage, this event was immediately embraced by institutions, technicians, researchers, historians, collectors, journalists and collaborators, who chose it as a forum to reflect and direct actions for the preservation sector. It became a point for meetings, discussions and decisions of the preservation sector, which demands attention and public policies in this very accelerated and technological world, which more often

Its program is grounded on three action bases: Preservation, History and Education. In each edition, these three nuclei converge in the joint concern aimed at the deepening of historical events, audiovisual knowledge and preservation together with the Brazilian society. The concern entails devising strategies, instruments, agents and policies that facilitate the necessary transformations towards a fairer and more active society concerned for its human, historic, cultural and artistic heritage.

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It is an important source irradiating culture with the offer of an extensive and free program which includes tributes to figures of audiovisual media, more than 60 Brazilian films shows in pre-premieres and retrospectives, workshops, debates, seminars, exhibits, book launches and artistic


attractions held in three parts of the city of Ouro Preto: Vila Rica Cinema, the Arts and Conventions Center and Tiradentes Square, the city’s main public space. On occasion of its annual editions, it promotes the National Conference of Brazilian Audiovisual Archives and Heritages. Furthermore, it is the host of the Education Conference: the Forum of Red Kino. This forum gathers over 200 professionals from various states. Together, they are part of a wide collective debate with archives, heritages, the education sector, the cinematographic class, public powers and individuals. A meeting and convergence point for professionals and institutions from different areas that work with pictures in motion, films and education; always with a view to cooperating, sharing information and experiences in different action fields in a productive, decentralized, democratic and quality manner for the audiovisual preservation of the country. If we are in a constant process of conquering space for Brazilian cinema, we need to keep the audience’s minds boiling. It is necessary to guarantee a gradually more prominent presence of Brazilian films in the current memory of the audience, and a more and more representative one in the eyes of the new generations of filmmakers. Taking into consideration the significance and the risk of disappearance of the Brazilian cinematographic heritage, which is also an economic asset and is in inequality of conditions as to preservation in the different units of the Federation, as well as the urgent need for

their recognition by the public powers, society and the audiovisual professionals, “Universo Produção” and other companies committed to the development of our country have joined to facilitate the forming of CineOP and transform art into a vehicle for ideas, a channel for the expression of the utopia of a fairer reality. The size of a country or its population does not matter; pictures in motion have been part of nations’ everyday life for over a century. Images constitute values, culture, the ethos of peoples, civilizations and nations. Thus, preservation actions portray the lifestyle of a given society. The cultural heritage of images is one of the most important cores in the memory and sociocultural identity of a country. It is a strategic and vital action for the development of the nation. For this reason, it must integrate Brazil’s social and political life. This country owns an expressive audiovisual heritage, which represents its culture, history art and the expressions of society. CineOP – an avant-garde space to know, attend, debate and talk about cinema. A space to run paths, renew perspectives and opinions. A place for exchange that treats cinema as a heritage.v CineOP Films are alive here!

* Director of “Universo Produção” Coordinator of CineOP - Film Festival of Ouro Preto 85


Dipra By Gloria Ana Diez and Fernando Madedo *

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or the first time, a formal program completely aimed at the formation of professionals of the preservation and restoration of pictures in motion opens its doors to students from Argentina and the region. This is great news for the audiovisual preservation in Mercosur. The Diploma Course on Audiovisual Preservation and Restoration (DiPRA) is a program organized with the Argentine Cinematheque and Image Archive (CINAIN) and the School of Philosophy and Letters of the University of Buenos Aires (UBA), which will receive an inaugural cohort of 25 students this year.

to enhance the professionalism of those who work in institutions and a space for those who have the interest, talent and motivation to become new professionals

The DiPRA is a response to a need that has been concrete and established for some time: the need to train people who already work in the field and to train people interested in accessing to this working field. The result of the DiPRA does nothing but confirming the existence of this need: there have been 400 enrollments.

The DiPRA then proposes a change in the paradigm of the audiovisual preservation field in our region, the passage from a learning model based solely on experience acquired in the job position supplemented with seminars and workshops, to one where experience is supported with a solid academic anchorage.

The audiovisual heritage preservation field is one which still has a lot to achieve and to grow. Argentina and Mercosur are witnesses and protagonists of the needs and shortages. But the way does not end with the creation and update of archives and the care for collections. One of the keys for a given field to make progress, grow up and strengthen is to have more people, a community with profound knowledge of the topic.

Argentina and Mercosur have great professionals and some of them had the chance to receive academic and formal training in specific programs abroad. Nowadays, the DiPRA offers a local and accessible program, as it is a free-of-charge diploma course with a face-to-face teaching method that enables students to have a full-time job outline.

For this reason, the DiPRA, on occasion of its education and training, seeks to be a possibility 86

Thus, apart from teaching and training, the DiPRA will be an unprecedented forum in the region, where workers, researchers, students, new professionals and professionals with distinguished careers will gather to discuss, learn, share knowledge and perspectives and establish professional links y projects for the future.

DiPRA lessons are held once a week in 4 weekly hours during its seven modules. Additionally, professional practice must be complied with


and students must complete 32 hours of work in a related institution. DiPRA teachers have vast formal education and experience in all the areas, as well as national and international education. CINAIN and UBA have associated once more with important institutions from Argentina and Latin America, such as the Argentine General Archive, the Historical Archive RTA - Radio Television Argentina, the Cinema Museum Pablo D. Hicken of the City of Buenos Aires, the Brazilian Cinematheque and the Mexican Cinetheque.v

* Ademic Coordinators

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“Filme Cultura” Magazine: Brazilian cinema through the times By Lina Távora *

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he “Filme Cultura” magazine was first released in 1966, although the issues were not continuous as there were various pauses throughout that period of over 50 years. The publication circulated between 1966 and 1988 through the National Institute of Educational Cinema (INCE), subsequently called National Institute of Cinema (INC) and the Brazilian Films Company (Embrafilme). During this first stage, 48 copies of “Filme Cultura” were published, in addition to two special editions of the magazine, which were uniquely prepared for the Cannes and Berlin Festivals. In 1988, the magazine was discontinued and this produced a gap in the field of specialized publications for almost 20 years. In 2007, a special edition was issued to commemorate INCE’s 70 years and the Audiovisual Technical Center (CTAv)’s 22 years. Then there was then a new interval. The Magazine started circulating again in 2010 with the 50th edition and continued to be published until the 61st edition by the end of 2013. In 2017 the magazine was re-edited. This time it went for a new model, which was not only more sustainable, but also more encompassing of the publication’s voices. Against this background, some changes were made: there was a call for texts, following the call for papers methods used in academic journals. This is how a new space was open to those who wished to participate. There was an increase in potential voices, and access to the sphere of Brazilian cinematographic research was democratized. Additionally, the segmentation by topics

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was deepened in each edition, which led to a broader outlook of sectors, audiences and interests related to the national audiovisual sector. There was a reduction in the number of printed copies so as to lower costs; the online portal’s value was increased so that more people could access and the complete heritage of the magazine was made available to anyone who wants to do research, download or see all the editions of the magazine. Notwithstanding these changes, there was still the concern of maintaining the editorial line of the magazine, which blends cultural journalism with a more complex reflection, closer to the academic tone. All of this demonstrates the existence of the willingness to understand the magazine as a State public policy for Brazilian Cinema, and the fact that it must achieve its sustainability, periodicity, accessibility and durability. The magazine as cultural heritage The history of cinema goes hand in hand with research and reflection. The movements, cycles and great makers are appointed and established by cinematographic critics. And it is the critics that narrate that story, generally with hindsight. Certain critics can change the destinies of the seventh art. Critics are diverse; printed magazines constitute one of their most significant vehicles, but we must not disregard newspapers columns and supplements, as well as weekly newspapers, and their adaptation to the new times in digital publications.


In the area of cinema magazines, the French “Cahiers du Cinéma” is hitherto one of the most popular publications. In Brazil, we have important instances such as “Palcos e Telas”, “Selecta”, “Cinearte”, “O Fan”, “Clima”, “Revista de Cinema”, “Cinemais”, “Caderno de Cinema” and “Filme Cultura.” Even if it has not kept regular frequency, this last publication is, until nowadays, one of the most important references for the Brazilian cinematographic thinking. The national audiovisual production has been rising, in part, due to the auspices derived from Law No. 12485/2011, under which quotas of national and independent content are set in subscription television. Furthermore, the law has an impact on the Sectorial Fund of Audiovisual Art (FSA), which now receives contributions from telecommunication companies. The number of full-length films releases in theaters has also increased. During 2005, the National Agency of Cinema (Ancine) recorded the premiere of 46 films. This number escalated to 129 in 2015.

link between the magazine and its readership and to convey the thoughts of researchers and critics from all over Brazil. With this modus operandi, the Department of Audiovisual Art considers the “Filme Cultura” magazine not only as a means to spread the national cinematographic critical thinking, but also as an element to gather and give visibility to a new generation of critics and researchers. The magazine also receives texts by invited authors in every edition, according to the subject matter defined and always with the cooperation method, which is not costly. The objective of this recovery project is that the magazine becomes a device for the promotion and appreciation of national cinema again through knowledge, the sense of belonging, the formation of audiences and multipliers of Brazilian cinema, and that it gets consolidated as such. This is about appreciating Brazilian cinema as a national cultural heritage and understanding cinematographic critics –established in a printed and digital publication– as a way to safeguard and promote that heritage.v

* Is an official and General Coordinator of New Media at the Department of Audiovisual Art in the Ministry of Culture. Journalist, Master’s Degree on Cinema and editor of the “Filme Cultura” magazine.

With both the reinforcement of national audiovisual arts, and the recovery of the “Filme Cultura” magazine in its new operating model, we seek to help Brazilian cinematographic critics become more encompassing. The “Filme Cultura” magazine brings about a multiplicity of voices and opinions through the democratization of participation as a result of a public call for articles to be published. The aim of this is to strengthen the 89


Archives broadcast through networks in

“Audiovisual Asunción” By Ray Armele *

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ince August 2014, an old office of the Municipality of Asunción, which until that time had focused its activities on the projection of classical films for students from elementary and secondary schools, acquired a new dimension as a result of an agreement with the Organization of Professionals of Paraguayan Audiovisual Arts (OPRAP), which contributed to equipment to convert analogue videos into digital format. On this way, it was possible to start an archive that has reached hundreds of titles nowadays, enriched with contributions from private collectors and some state institutions. However, a surprising twist took place in March 2016 when advantage was taken of the possibility of sharing videos on Facebook and the page “Audiovisual Asunción” [“Asunción Audiovisual”] was created. At the beginning, videos about the city (alluding to its name) were timidly uploaded and the audience, with its approval and commentaries, progressively endorsed a development that in shortly more than one year offered a great number of videos to its users, who also started to leave messages congratulating and asking for what they wanted to see. Until October 2017, 44,000 users were counted, videos have had between 100,000 and 300,000 views and there were more than one million visitors, with a 4.9 stars mark given memories by people who mostly appreciate the reunion with their relatives and lost friends, with pictures and sounds dispersed in nostalgia. It became “the time tunnel,” as was defined by a journalist in a TV program, a combination of “cinema with social network, open 24 hours during 365 days of the year” and a “museum of online access” which increased between 100 and 1000 times the prior diffusion

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figures. From an average of 500 students that attended the exhibits personally at the store located in the center of Asunción, Paraguayans and foreigners from all over the world with different ages were reached. The field’s tools also improved the response capacity and a better communication with the audience, since it is easier to spot preferences, identify visitors, get a sample to define features and a wide range of users data, always with a view to providing more and better services. The visibility obtained in such a short period of time made it possible for many audiovisual archives owners to get in touch and this is how significant contributions were received. For example, the complete coverage of the Papal visit of John Paul II, the film “Rasmudel” made in the 80s and deemed to be lost, documentaries like “Winds of Life,” “How a nation is built” and the Collection “Julio E. Motte,” consisting of 33 rolls of 35 and 16 mm., including important titles like several editions of the National News Bulletin from the 60s and 70s, which is now seeking funds for its recovery, digitalization and restoration. The preservation of history has never been a priority in Paraguay, evidence of which is the loss of buildings that used to be architectural heritage, worthy documents, archives, works of art and even films that had to be re-built with private help. The hope is that, through more contact with people, better use of the great heritage and the indispensable advice of experts, the Paraguayan and Latin American audiovisual memory is preserved and spread, at the national and international level.v

* Teacher and audiovisual producer. Director of the Asunción Audiovisual portal.


Viewpoints

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Accessibility

of the audiovisual heritage Looking into the future without neglecting the past By Soraya Ferreira Alves* and Sylvia Bahiense Naves**

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n the message delivered at the celebration of the International Day for Audiovisual Heritage, on October 27, 2016, Irina Bokova, general director for UNESCO, points out as follows: The International Day for Audiovisual Heritage is an opportunity to celebrate the importance of such heritage for every woman, every man and every society. [...] Images in motion, together with sound recordings, constitute significant records of our lives and have a lot of our personal and social memory, which happens to be essential for identity and the sense of belonging. [...] The stories told by that heritage are powerful expressions of different places and cultures, a combination of personal and collective experiences, reflecting the search for the sense we all share. That heritage gives us an anchor in a world c o n s t a n t ly c h a n g i n g , p a r t i c u l a r ly t o l o c a l communities, by providing records of cultural activities and showing the great diversity of expressions. (Available at http://www.unesco.org/ new/pt/brasilia/about-this-office/single-view/ news/unesco_message_for_the_world_day_for_ audiovisual_heritage_20/)

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From these words, which define the importance of that heritage and are an inspiration for its preservation, we can also think of a portion of the members of any society who are at the mercy of the effects produced by audiovisual expressions. More specifically, we are talking about those people with sensory impairment, the deaf and the blind, who do not have access to the films, videos and television grids produced in their own country, or in any other country. The representation of movement in the 20th century is the representation of life itself, as McLuhan already stated in the 1960’s. The heartbeats are the movement responsible for life. Without movement there is no life. Therefore, how can we conceive a blind person going through life without having access to films? Without the representation of their story, their memory? The fact is that blind people are forced to that as their


right to accessibility to films, videos and television is denied. This occurs when the audio description of images or movement is not available to them. Deaf people can see that movement but cannot contextualize it without the relevant subtitle. In many countries, national film productions are never shown in theaters with subtitles, not even with descriptive ones including the names of the speakers and the description of sounds. Cinema is sound, too! Combining image and sound for blind and deaf people is the way in which films, videos and TV will be able to play their role as identity and sense of belonging developers, as Bokova indicates. In Brazil, the 2015 Brazilian Inclusion Law (LBI), establishes the audio description, descriptive subtitles and interpretation of sign language resources for every kind of cultural expression. With a view to reinforcing the LBI and suggesting standards for quality accessibility to audiovisual productions, the Department of Audiovisual Art of the Ministry of Culture launched, in 2016, with the participation of voluntary professors and professionals, the Guide for Accessible Audiovisual Productions, which is distributed free of charge both in paper and digital format. By way of cooperation, Uruguay and Mercosur have translated this guide into Spanish in 2017, also aiming for it to be distributed for free. These measures demonstrate the concern for providing quality accessibility, so that blind and deaf people can appropriately enjoy the culture of their own country or other countries.

as that of interpreters, is urgently necessary, as it is a demand for quality and quantity on the part of the users of accessibility resources. Nevertheless, should we look only into the future and neglect the past? Once more, Bokova points out as follows: “Promoting cohesion, archives are also essential for discussions about future priorities, preserving the diversity of stories and helping future generations understand what came before them.” (ditto). Notwithstanding the fact that certain laws like the Brazilian one contemplate accessibility to future productions, how will the archives of the past remain? Will blind and deaf communities be able to create an identity and a sense of belonging to something they never had access to? History cannot be lost for anyone. Besides, in that case, it must be presented. In other words, it is necessar y to preser ve the heritage not only physically, but also in sensory terms, and to devote attention to communications and sponsorships aimed at the accessibility to the historical audiovisual heritage. Why not let blind people share the pleasure of the first movie scene of our history? It is not so hard. “Black and white film by the Lumière brothers

The adequate formation of the professionals who prepare audio descriptions and subtitles, as well 93


(“The arrival at the train station,” 1895). In the platform of a railroad station, men and women wearing clothes of that time (dresses, long jackets and hats) await the train arrival. In perspective, the train runs on the rails from right to left. The image of the machinery gets closer and closer. A guard from the police station, wearing a uniform, runs in the same direction. The train stops slowly. Some people go down and others get into the cars. One of the guards checks the doors. Some people take big suitcases and umbrellas. Others take only bags and cases. They walk through the platform looking for their destinations.”v

* Professor at UnB Brasilia. ** Coordinator of Cultural Accessibility, Ministry of Audiovisual / MinC Brazil

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Memories

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Celebrating our august Augusto

Augusto

2017 was considered a year of particular importance in the Paraguayan cultural field as our august Augusto (Roa Bastos) would be 100 years old. His memory and presence in art and educational media have been a constant feature during the year, and he is being celebrated by the use of his literature (stories, novels, poems), cinema (watching his films and studying his scripts) and also the theater adaptations of his stories and novels. I had access to his work while I was at school, despite the fact that at that time he was considered a prohibited author by the military dictatorship and rejected by part of the Catholic Church. Our first personal meeting was in Buenos Aires (1973), when, as part of the theater group “Tiempooovillo,“ we were at the Colombian International Theater Festival with the play “What snakes are ashamed of,” in which we used part of his poems on the Guarani cosmogony. It was only on December 19, 1989 that the reunion took occurred. We were both coming back from exile with a strong desire to work for the new Paraguay, after 35-year dictatorship, to contribute with strengths and ideas to the way to democratic transition. From that moment, and with many coffee meetings in between, he entrusted me with the task of premiering the theater version of “I, The Supreme” worldwide. That was how we immediately formed a team work with Ricardo Migliorisi (a plastic artist and theater man), Gloria Muñoz (the dramatist responsible for 96

re-adapting the theater text). After hard months of work, we premiered it and it became the play with the greatest audience in the history of national theater. Straight away, and having Hugo Gamarra as the forerunner and director of the project, we devoted ourselves to the crossing of making the only audiovisual material (for video and cinema) about Roa Bastos’ life and works (“The dreams gate”). As he himself defined this experience, it was “an initiation trip to his origins,” where the sceneries of his childhood and youth, which were also taken from several literary texts of his (Iturbe, Maciel, Paraguarí, Sapucai and Itapé and other people). It was a privilege life gave me to be able to go over those places where he basically located novels like “Son of a Man” and “The thunder between the leaves” with him. This trip turned into a source of inspiration for his following novels “Counterlife” and “Madama Sui.” During the shooting of “The dreams gate,” as well as in regular subsequent meetings, he gradually revealed me the beginning of his career as a scriptwriter, which began with “Son of a Man” (1958) upon the request of the Argentine director Armando Bo. The first meeting between them and the Paraguayan producer, Nicolás Bo, took place at a café in Buenos Aires. Just a few days earlier, Armando Bo had told him that the actress whom he counted on for the main role would not be able to do it. Nevertheless, he had been told of a former


and teams. “The thirst” (“Chaco drivers”) and “The blood and the seed,” two films with tight budget but still outstanding quality considering the scarcity of resources available at that time. “The thirst,” set in the Chaco war with Bolivia, directed by Lucas Demare (Argentina), shows the harsh trip of water carriers, drivers of poor trucks fitted out for that purpose, heading for a part of the Paraguayan army that is lost in Chaco and torn between the enemy and survival. Roa goes through a dramatic trip between two poles: water and thirst. As a special production value, the film comprises the participation of the Argentine actress Olga Zubarri and the Spanish actor Francisco Rabal, in addition to the high photographic quality.

Miss Argentina who would probably be interested in the role. It was Isabel Sarli, who, as Augusto himself put it, arrived that night at the café “as an apparition, a goddess with great beauty.” As from that night, Isabel and Armando began a couple life that would involve a great amount of films, adventures and would finish with his death. According to Augusto, “one of the most beautiful and deepest love stories he had ever known of, worthy of being taken to the cinema some day.” After “Son of a Man,” and once again called by Armando Bo, he participated with him in the preparation of “Shad fishers,” also with Sarli in the leading role. Made in black and white, this film portrayed a complicated love relationship in the serious plight of fishers in the Argentine coast. For Augusto there would come two further scripts of films made in Paraguay too, with different directors

“The blood and the seed” also takes place in war times, with a simpler format and script. However, it gets to reflect significant historic moments of the country. Ernesto Báez, one of the best theater actors of that time, stands out among other Paraguayan actors. In this opportunity, once more time with Olga Zubarri’s presence. The direction was in hands of Alberto Du Bois (Argentina). I have special reference to these four films because they have similar elements in common, such as the strong presence of nature and man sunk inside in it, sometimes as a victim and other times protected by it. There is also the symbol of water and its placement within the dramatic action; sometimes it is transparent, other times it is cloudy, stagnant, flowing or at its worst fury (as in the Monday waterfalls). Feet have cardinal importance, as they represent an individual’s basis, which identifies him with their social, financial, power or dependence condition. On occasion even their heels are chapped in line with drought times. Also present are the value of work and sacrifice as means to purify people. 97


Roa Bastos’ presence in Latin American filmography provides a key look at man inside his particular cosmogony. With his lights and shadows. With his achievements, frustrations and dreams. Always willing to fight for the improvement of human condition. Agustín Núñez – October 2017 SCRIPTS de Augusto Roa Bastos 4“The thunder between the leaves” - 1958 - ArgentineParaguayan co-production - Script by Augusto Roa Bastos, based on one of its stories - Director: Armando Bo 4 “The blood and the seed”- 1958 - ArgentineParaguayan co-production - Script by Augusto Roa Bastos and Mario Halley Mora - Director: Alberto Du Bois. 4“Shad fishers”- 1959 - Argentine production - Script by Augusto Roa Bastos and Armando Bo - Director: Armando Bo. 4“Shunko” - 1960 - Argentine production - Script by Augusto Roa Bastos based on Jorge W. Ávalos’ book - Director: Lautaro Murúa. 4“Son of the Man” (“The thirst”) - 1961 - ParaguayanArgentine-Spanish co-production - Script by Augusto Roa Bastos, based on one of his stories “Chaco drivers”) - Director: Lucas Demare. 4“Alias Gardelito” - 1961- Argentine production - Script by Augusto Roa Bastos and Solli, based on a story by Bernardo Kordón - Director: Lautaro Murúa. 4 “The last floor” - 1962 - Argentine production - Script by Augusto Roa Bastos and Tomás Eloy Martínez, based on Jorge Masiangoli’s novel 98

Director: Daniel Cherniavsky. 4“The terrorist” - 1952- Argentine production - Script by Augusto Roa Bastos, Tomás Eloy Martínez and Daniel Cherniavsky - Director: Daniel Cherniavsky. 4 “The wedding” - 1964 - Argentine-Spanish coproduction - Script by Augusto Roa Bastos based on a novel by Ángel María de Lera - Director: Lucas Demare. 4“The town already has a captain” - 1967 - Argentine production - Script by Augusto Roa Bastos, an adaptation of the play by Claudio Martínez Paiva Director: Enrique Carreras. 4“Soluna”- 1967 - Argentine production - Script by Augusto Roa Bastos and Marcos Madanes, based on the homonymous play by Miguel Ángel Asturias Director: Marcos Madanes. 4 “Mother Mary”- 1978 - Argentine production Script by Augusto Roa Bastos and Lucas Demare, in cooperation with Tomás Eloy Martínez, David J. Kohón and Héctor Grossi - Director: Lucas Demare. 4“The dreams gate” - 1998 - Paraguayan production - Script by Hugo Gamarra, Gloria Muñoz, with the cooperation of Augusto Roa Bastos - Director: Hugo Gamarra.v

* Es arquitecto, actor, escenógrafo, fotógrafo, docente y director de teatro y televisión. Dentro de su prolífica obra, en relación al artículo se menciona especialmente haber sido Director Artístico de “El Portón de los Sueños” (1992), documental- ficción sobre la vida y obra de Augusto Roa Bastos, quien anteriormente le otorgara los derechos para el estreno mundial de la versión teatral de “Yo El Supremo”, “Hijo de Hombre” y “El trueno entre las hojas”.


Maria Rita Galvão’s memory By Rito Torres *

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t is with great sorrow that we announce the passing of Maria Rita Galvão, occurred in São Paulo at the age of 78. She was a teacher at the School of Communications and Arts of the University of São Paulo and a Brazilian cinema researcher, a director of the Brazilian Cinematheque and a member of FIAF’s Executive Committee (1987 - 1993). In the field of preservation of Latin American films, upon the request of UNESCO (1989), Maria Rita visited all the Latin American archives and studied the conditions of the heritages and their preservation. A result of that journey was the first investigation report on “The situation of the cinematographic heritage in Latin America,” which made it possible to develop training activities for Latin American technicians on preservation both at UNAM’s Filmotheque and the Brazilian Cinematheque. In the framework of the FIAF Conference São Paulo 2006, Maria Rita presented the second investigation report on “The situation of the cinematographic heritage in Latin America.” For her Latin American colleagues, especially the ones who knew her in person, apart all her essential work as a pioneer of a new generation of researchers and preservers, she left the memory of a sweet, kind, warm and caring person who knew how to listen to everyone else carefully and even help beyond her possibilities. May a fraternal hug, and endless thanks reach the colleagues from Latin America and her family.v

* Executive Coordinator CLAIM http://www.fiafnet.org/pages/News/Maria-Rita-Galvao.html

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Juán José (Bubi) Stagnaro (1938–2018)

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ith deep sorrow, #DAC says goodbye to this colleague and mate, a great theoretician and practician of cinema, whose light will remain with us in all the screens through the countless works in which, some way or another, he took part with his talent. Director, director of photography, lab owner, a bit of a philosopher, some kind of engineer and chemist as well, courses of studies he had studied and dropped due to cinema and which, perhaps for that very reason, he always defined as a “physical-chemical” philosophy in those corridors of Laboratorios Alex, where great part of the Argentine film stock history was written. For image, “Bubi” Stagnaro’s passing implies the loss of an expert and artist who truly knew how to treat it better. It is also a loss for all of us who wish to express ourselves with images.v

Source: DAC Culture

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This magazine and the awarding of its articles is an initiative by RECAM. The publication of this first edition has been financed by INCAA - Argentina. The opinions stated in the works are the sole responsibility of their authors. 101


T

he Specialized Meeting of Cinematographic and Audiovisual Authorities of MERCOSUR (RECAM) was created in December 2003 by Resolution 49/03 of the Common Market Group, MERCOSUR executive organ, with the objective of creating an institutional instrument to advance the process of integration of MERCOSUR. the cinematographic and audiovisual industries of the region. It is integrated by the highest Authorities in audiovisual matters of each country that give the political guidelines with Rotating Presidencies by semester. It develops biennial Work Programs and in order to guarantee its execution and continuity, RECAM has coordinators and Focal Points in each country, with the support of a regional Technical Secretariat.

For more information on the regional block MERCOSUR: www.mercosur.int   To know the Digital Room Network of the MERCOSUR: www.mercosuraudiovisual.org   To know more about RECAM: and its Work Program www.recam.org Technical secretary RECAM Dr. Luis Piera 1992 - Building MERCOSUR C.P.: 11200 - Montevideo, Uruguay. Tel.: +598 2411 3019 st.recam  set@recam.org y setrecam@gmail.com recam.mercosur recam_mercosur


INCAA Instituto Nacional de Cine y Artes Audiovisuales Lima 319 (CP C1073AAG) - CABA - Argentina +54 11 4379 -0900


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