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Rebecca Seidu Negotiated Project N0583914 Words: 8783

The Beauty Bill

A report investigating the positive and negative effects of technological advancement on the perception of beauty and how this affects women from ethnic backgrounds.

Contents 6. P reface 8. Introduction 11. Beauty Through The Ages 12. Light Is Right 17. Washed Out 21. #CyberActivism 27. Industry Exclusion

32. The Good, The Bad, The Offensive 32. Case Study: Paul Smith 36: Case Study: The Black Mirror Series 37. Breaking Limits

40. Case Study: Cocoa Swatches 43. The Big Idea 47. Why Now? 48. Why “Empress”? 50. The Consumer 52. The Three A rchetypes 54. Consumer P rofile: The Down-Chick

56. Consumer P rofile: The Soul-Searcher

58. Consumer P rofile: The Shocking Savage

60. The Diffusion of Innovation Theory 63. Route to Consumer

64. What is “Empress Magazine” Really About? 66. Brand Essence Model 70. Our Hell Yeahs and Hell Nahs 72. The Publication 74. Issue One

76. Brand Touchpoints 80. The Journey: Before, During and After 82. The Future of Empress Magazine

83. Conclusion

84. References Illustrations .Bibliography


P reface As a young Black woman, this project has become very dear to my heart as it awakened memories of my own personal experiences and the experiences of other ethnic women who have had to cope with the ambiguous notions of beauty. For me, growing up in North London; an extremely diverse city with peers coming from all parts of the world, there is sense of inclusion, however with age came experiences that provided me with enduring knowledge. This led me to gain an understanding that our differences and individuality is in fact what makes us beautiful. The backlash of being titled with terms such as ‘blick’ in view of the colour of my skin made me feel alienated. It hit a nerve internally that laid dormant until I got older. With age comes wisdom and as a result I have moved on and found my inner peace. Sadly, some females have internalised these standards of beauty and chase illusions with an attempt to adjust to the unrealistic ideals demanded by society. Using the lack of racial diversity in the fashion industry as a starting point; there is a growing realisation that ethnic women are marginalised across numerous industries, from beauty to technology.

With the constant battle of trying to prove oneself purely because of skin colour and the recent uproar of race and religion around the world, it has proved to be the one of the most testing times for individuals from ethnic minorities in the 21st century. Events including the presidency of the misogynistic Donald Trump along with his attempt to ban the entry of refugees and travellers from 7 Muslim countries; the absence of recognition to ethnic musicians and actors/actresses and the unlawful killings of civilians by law enforcement officers. The underrepresentation of ethnic groups in the media constantly reinforces the notion that they aren’t as important as those from none ethnic groups, as their features do not fit the Eurocentric expectations of beauty (Singh, 2016). As an ethnic woman, I have observed and come to realise that this is the perfect period to research and analyse the additional struggles of the ethnic woman. By doing so, I aim for every woman who interacts with this report to feel loved and have a deeper understanding that, we are the future. The growth of social media has certainly helped younger generations create a platform, from which their voices and opinions can be heard nationally and globally; collectively with several social media influencers, beauty ideals are regularly challenged and debunked when they appear to be demeaning and degrading. With the evolving ability of citizens to connect online and through social media despite vast physical distances and differences, a slew of new social movements are progressively pushing for action on a range of social, political, and cultural issues (Lewontin, 2016). Individuals are indeed more vocal about their experiences and shed some needed light on these issues whilst encouraging the masses. On the other hand, it is unfortunate that unrealistic beauty ideals are also continuously being reinforced through social media, which leads me to the question; How has the advancement of technology in the 21st century made an impact on ethnic women’s self-esteem?


Figure 1. Things people say but shouldn’t (2017)


Introduction “Beauty and surface appearance are constructs, created for women to use as a mechanism to determine self-worth� (Gilman 1999)

This report will focus on the positives and negatives of technology that have affected the ethnic woman and will investigate how beauty is perceived within Millennials and Generation Z in 2017. It will further investigate the extreme methods in which some ethnic women are willing to undergo, to feel more attractive and included. I aim to explore how race and skin colour are incorporated in the discourse of women in terms of beauty therefore leading to the development of the beauty industry to be built upon boundaries of race.


Figure 2. Isaac West Photo series: Different Melanin (2017)


Figure 3. Visual Timeline Own image(2017)


Beauty Through The Ages

Beginning as early as Ancient Egypt, unattainable beauty ideals have cast a shadow over women in society. Beauty ideals have changed dramatically overtime with specific features they deemed as beautiful see figure (3). From voluptuous bosoms to heroin chic, the scrutiny placed on a woman’s appearance is indeed disheartening considering how much it has continuously transformed over 3,000 years. Cheryl Brown Travis and Kayce Meginnis-Payne (2003) define the ideals of beauty as socially constructed especially because they have evolved over time in response to social, economic and political factors. These perceptions of beauty have varied not only across historical periods but across cultures. Today’s young women would appear trapped in a prettiness bind: if you are not pretty, you don’t count; if you are, people cannot see past it. (Betts, 2014)

11 Figure 4. Society telling Females how to and how not to look(2017)

Light is Right



Figure 5. Christian Louboutin: The Nude Collection(2016)

Colourism has left a negative imprint on Blacks, Asians and Hispanics reportedly being instigated by colonisation. Colonisation is recognised for creating a hierarchy that favoured lighter skin over dark skin and further inspired the frameworks of the society we now know today (Hunter, 2005). According to Buzzfeed (2015), the preference for lighter skin began prior to European colonisation, stretching as far back as Ancient Greece and Han Dynasty where having pale or fair skin was deemed attractive. The ancient roots of colourism are identified in Egyptian art where pale skin was used a signifier of wealth and status (Shecter, 2016). HrabovskĂ˝ (2013) expresses that Black skin was believed to be an external sign which referred to the internal inferior characteristics such as character or mental ability therefore suggesting that skin colour determined how intelligent the individual was. This ideology has been adopted and internalised by some African and Asian communities spreading it across many generations, consequently creating a dramatic divide in specific cultures. It is evident that the divide is still very current in countries such as Pakistan and India, where darkskinned people are affiliated with the lowest cast and can only attain jobs with lowest ranks of manual labour (Zadeh, 2014) thus providing those with fair-skin a greater opportunity in education and marriage. Zadeh continues to speak on the caste system that is currently still used in India, placing those with fair skin as higher casts associating them with beauty and intelligence as seen in most Bollywood movies. Author, Meeta Jha, highlights the influence of Bollywood culture on young Asian females across the UK & US. The Bollywood film and cultural industry is the biggest culture influencer in India as it shapes feminine ideals of beauty and popular youth culture, and is responsible for reinforcing the sexist and racist norms connected to skin colour (2015, p54).


Figure 6. Darkness is blackness is badness (2016)

Figure 7. The Truth about skin bleaching (2016)

When conducting a focus group constructed around this subject matter, one participant highlights the contrast in actresses with fair skin and dark skin. The participant goes on to express darker skinned actresses tend to be associated with evil and poverty. (Participant N, Appendix 1e). Primary research further confirms this as an ongoing issue for individuals abroad. Netnographic research highlights a conversational thread on the social media website, Twitter, in which the user “@ Melaninporn” states how Asian culture perpetuates not only anti-blackness but colourism towards each other. As the user is not of Asian descent, she offers those who are, an opportunity to continue the conversation with their personal experiences. In one experience, the Chinese user speaks on her pale skin and how she is still very much considered dark skinned to her family in China. Identified as “westernised” and ugly as she believes this is due to her not fitting the beauty standards of thin lips, mono lids and super pale skin. The opportunity to share her experience, gives fellow women awareness on the ridiculous standards that aren’t attainable. In countries where lighter skin is predominant, Skin Whiteners have been created and promoted through Advertising perpetuating the notion that the only way to be valued, wanted and successful is with lighter skin. In 2016, Seoul Secret a Thailand based skin care company posted a ‘beauty’ Ad promoting a skin whitening pill named ‘Snowz’ that unwisely claims whiter skin is the key to success (Chan, 2016) During the video, the model states that you will win just being white causing well deserved backlash for the company. Adverts like this exude how little improvement there is in terms of skin bleaching across Asia. 15 Figure 8. Buzzfeed: Unfair and Lovely (2016)

Figure 9. Mike Kendrick Illustration: Dangers of skin bleaching (2016)

Washed Out

Figure 10. Nadinola Skin Whitener Advert (1960)


Figure 11. Skin “Lightening” products: own image (2017)

The prevalent nature of beauty products marketed as “whitening” or “lightening” has created an illusion that beauty can be bought (Rossini, E., & Kilbourne, J. (2015). The motives behind the thought of bleaching is not purely based on the crave for lighter skin but can also be due to uneven skin tone as a result of hyperpigmentation and the removal of dark spots, which tends to play a part in causing a lack of self-esteem. Skin bleaching has become normalised and encouraged in many countries, with a huge market based within African, Asian and Caribbean countries. On August 1st 2016, products containing the topical ingredient ‘Hydroquinone’ was banned in Ghana, where the billion-dollar industry of products forcefully sends mixed messages. By 2018, the global skin bleaching industry will be worth $20 billion (Arthur, C. & Naftarlin, M. (2017). Journalist, Helene Cooper, expresses how the women in Ghana are now

Figure 12. Skin lightening adverts Ghana (2016)

being told it is illegal and inappropriate to bleach their skin however are still constantly faced with images telling them that white is right (Cooper, 2016) The harmful ingredient has been known to disrupt the synthesis and production of the melanin that protects skin in the intense sunshine. With a possibility of leading to cancers such as Leukaemia and Melanoma, Hydroquinone has been restricted from being sold in the EU since 2001 (BBC, 2016) however can still be found in many black beauty stores. I personally found a variety of skin lightening products that contain a commercial skin whitening agent that has been identified as less harmful and aggressive than Hydroquinone. Originating in Japan, Kojic Acid is a natural agent produced with different species of fungi. Nevertheless, even with an alternative that appears safer, does this make skin whitening acceptable?


Figure 13. Marlon James: Blackout Jamaica (2013)

Figure 14. Mister Phil Illustration: London Social Media Week (2016)


Figure 15. Instagram Hashtags Own image (2017)

The significance of the internet, and online interconnectivity has emboldened a collective consciousness often termed ‘clicktivism’ or ‘slacktivism’ (WGSN, 2016). #Unfairandlovely is a global social campaign that challenges colourism and the widely acknowledged belief across the world that lighter skin is the most attractive. Women across the world identified with the initial photo series created by 21-year-old student, Pax Jones, which further initiated a global conversation giving women from a host of countries the opportunity to share their experiences of colourism and encouraging women to embrace their skin colour (Sims, 2016). Social campaigns have become more prominent over the years joining forces with other social campaigns that have challenged this ideology including #Darkisbeautiful, #Blackout and #MelaninMondays. Hashtags have been created and used as a celebration of different body shapes, ethnicities and ages (Katz, 2015). A global study undertaken by Dove conveys that women are more than twice as likely to say that their conception of beauty is shaped by “women in the public domain” and social media more now than when they entered high school (2014). It has been suggested through research that the influence is not always positive. In 2014, women wrote 5 million disparaging tweets about beauty, generally about themselves. Although 75% of participants thought the portrayal of women on these sites were unrealistic, 82% strongly believed social media can change the dominant standards of beauty. Bloggers are now becoming their own media creators and influencing beauty conversations. 21

Figure 16. Viral meets street Art (2015)

The intensification of social media has caused issues like colourism, racism and sexism to become mainstream conversation, making an impact on the millions of users across the different platforms. Questioning whether social media has damaging effects on ethnic women’s perception of beauty, Journalist Leah Sinclair from The Voice expresses her opinion on the effects of social media stating that “if a constant image is pushed to the forefront it can definitely take effect”. She goes on to suggest the level of effect is based on the individual’s confidence and the perception of themselves, although we are all subjected to falling for what social media deems as “acceptable” or “trendy” (See Appendix, 2B).

22 Figure 17. Viral meets street Art (2015)

Nevertheless, when conducting a focus group based around the lessened appearance from other ethnic groups, participants originating from parts of Africa, the Middle East and Asia expressed they were never oblivious to the underrepresentation of ethnic people that resemble them, however highlight the positive impact of awareness from the climax of social media. In addition, they identified negatives like the over sexualisation of the black woman that contradicts and demonstrates very little change in the perception of beauty. One participant (Participant D, Appendix 1D) argues that this relates to the ‘diversity trend’ and not inclusion, because it’s the right thing to do. Participant D elaborates further stating “half the time I do see dark skinned women on twitter they’re half naked, covered in oil. It’s not only an underrepresentation but it’s a misrepresentation as well”. Gordan (2008) cited in Bryant (2015) examined the associations between the amount of media that black girls aged 13-17 consume, particularly media containing sexual images—and their focus on beauty and appearance. Gordan’s findings found that girls strongly identified with black music and television. The hair texture and skin tone were fundamental in several of the girls’ descriptions of the images they were shown.

Figure 18. Khoudia Diop (2017)

Figure 19. Beyonce Superbowl Halftime show (2016)

Figure 20. Lemonade (2016)

Author, Gloria Jean Watkins better known as pen name bell hooks, criticised Beyoncé labelling her as a “cultural terrorist” who uses oversexualised images of herself to culturally assault younger girls who celebrate her as a sign of black feminine success (Jha, 2015). Some feminists may disagree with hooks suggesting Beyoncé epitomises a strong black woman that owns her sexuality and this pleasures her fans. Together participants argued that although appearances of ethnic women aren’t always genuine and often appear fabricated to prevent criticism – tokenism. Social media has created a trend of diversity, slightly eliminating the negative stigma behind having darker skin that has been internalised and reinforced through 4 main agents of socialisation; family, peers, education and mass media.

Figure 21. Inspirational collage own image (2017)


Figure 22. Allure Magazine April Cover (2017)

Industry Exclusion “Catwalks were diverse in the ‘70s and ‘80s up until the mid ‘90s – early 2000’s, roughly around the end of the era of supermodels” (Wilson, 2013).


Figure 23. New York Times Illustration (2013)

Figure 24. Graph representing the % of ethnic models at Fashion Week own image (2017)

Hoskins (2014) identifies that within the fashion industry, there is such strong importance on presenting white models in particular and this was highlighted by the title of Vogue’s July 2008 issue, “Is fashion racist?” (Vogue, 2008). The global fashion industry is also recognised for its racial inequities that spread far beyond the catwalk. From ad campaigns, to magazine covers, to staffers at major fashion brands and glossies (Tai, 2016). The Fall 2017 fashion weeks was the most diverse to date. It reveals that from all four cities and across 241 shows and 7,035 models, for the first time 27.9% of models that walked the runway were women of colour rising from 25.4% in Spring 2017.

The statistics confirm the fashion industry continues to make a step in the right direction with a perceptible shift in the industry’s standards. High visibility, unquestionably cool brands like Dolce & Gabbana and Marc Jacobs are casting women outside of a narrow spectrum of ethnicity, age, size and gender affiliation. More models of colour and women over 40 walked the international catwalks than ever before (TheFashionSpot, 2017).

29 Figure 25. Vogue Italia “The Black Issue” (2008)

scanned image bethann harden etc

Figure 26. The Black Girl Coalition Press Conference (1992)

The absence of ethnic women on the runway places the fashion industry under huge scrutiny not only by consumers but models included. Former models turned activists; Bethann Hardison, Naomi Campbell and Iman formed the Diversity Coalition to raise awareness of the lack of diversity and encourage agencies to be more inclusive when casting models. In 2013, the Diversity Coalition sent out letters to the fashion councils based in New York, London, Milan and Paris expressing their concerns for the absence of models of colour. “No matter the intention, the result is racism. Not accepting another based on the colour of their skin is clearly beyond “aesthetic” when it is consistent with the designer’s brand.” (The Coalition, 2013). The letter appeared as a wakeup call for a selection of fashion brands that felt it was acceptable to not represent the unique difference and great diversity in looks. When different ethnicities or appearances are highlighted in fashion media, there is a tendency for them to be characterised as “exotic” or as the aesthetic of a specific “creative vision.” The rarity of racial diversity endorses the normalisation of whiteness as the accepted aesthetic as they stand out from what is seen as “universal human identity” (Pham & Lewis, 2015). 30

Case Study

Figure 27. Paul Smith SS17 Campaign (2017)

The Paul Smith Spring Summer 2017 campaign film is an energetic representation of London’s multicultural past and present. The annual celebration from the 60’s, Notting Hill Carnival is a significant event in British Culture. The colour palette using warm yellows, green and reds emulate the vibrancies of many West Indian cultures and the colour of their flags. Paul Smith highlights the diversity of the United Kingdom and proves it has been diverse for many years. Considered a heritage brand, Paul Smith incorporates models of different ages and ethnicities; by doing so, he attracts a younger generation that are experiencing these same events that celebrate the variety of culture and demonstrates to other designers that millennials are indeed the future.


The Good,

The Bad,

The Offensive.

Figure 28. Culture not Costume Illustration (2016)


Figure 29. Shannon Wright: Shared or Stolen (2016)

Technology and the need for instant gratification, has caused a contemporary twist to Fashion Weeks, bringing live content straight to consumers with live streams, behind the scenes snapchats and shoppable catwalks. But the democratizing power of technology falls flat when fashion brands fail to represent the diversity of people’s race, size, age, body and gender on the catwalks and in their marketing (Shearman, 2015). Cultural Appropriation has a tendency of going viral on social media repeatedly, while users call out the fashion brands and designers for creating collections that are inspired by continents and countries and present them with none of their people, which in the 21st century is undeniably unacceptable.

The cultural appropriation misfortune, spreads far beyond fashion igniting controversial social responses about some dated misconceptions and results are misguided and objectively offensive (Fernandez, 2015). One recent example of cultural appropriation, Marc Jacobs was criticized for his Spring 2017 collection where his white models walked down with runway with pastel coloured dreadlocks. Guido Palau, Redken’s global creative director and his team came up with a list of cultural references and inspirations for the beauty look including; Ravers, The 80s, Harajuku girls and Boy George (Saltzman, 2016). The two obvious inspirations that didn’t receive acknowledgement: Rastafarianism and black culture, where dreadlocks have their historical roots and sacred connotations. Journalist Cordelia Tai, stresses the contempt displayed by Marc Jacob alongside his creative team, that formed an implication that the raw iteration of this hairstyle needs to be toned-down and coloured to become “fashionable” and socially accepted. This can be insulting to those who wear their locs as a symbol of black pride or a means of safeguarding their natural hair (2016).

Figure 30. Marc Jacobs models SS17 Catwalk (2016)


Figure 31. Screen Printing own image (2017)

Jacobs responded to the backlash with a statement that came across as ignorant and contemptuous. Jacobs attempts to raise the conversation about criticism towards women of colour who straighten their hair when this can indeed be down to personal preference. Caring for natural hair takes more effort and is more time consuming. The concept of hair alteration offers a quicker, easier and more convenient alternative. Subsequently, many black women feel they must straighten their hair and comb out their dreadlocks to be taken seriously in a professional setting where one with natural hair can be deemed as unkempt or unemployable and/or conform to a white ideal of beauty. (Donaldson, 2012) Although cultural exchange is as important to the fashion world as it is to our daily lives, deepening our understanding of the world and encouraging innovation for everyone is equally as important. It’s important to recognise that we do not exist in a colour-blind world. The multiculturalism and individuality that many of us encounter on a daily basis should be celebrated. 35

Figure 32. Manuela Sanchez (2017)

Case Study

The “Black Mirror”Series

Figure 33. Black Mirror Series (2016)

Deddeh Howard, medical student and fashion blogger collaborated with her photographer boyfriend to create the “Black Mirror” series where she recreates celebrated fashion campaigns as a call for diversity. Howard states that with Black Mirror she wanted to send a message that models of colour, especially black models, are just as gorgeous as anyone else, and should be at the forefront of campaigns. The series appeared as an innovative idea and showed the potential of ethnic models. She emulated the poses effortlessly creating images that look as good, if not better than the originals. The series holds connotations of female empowerment by encouraging young ethnic females to believe they have potential to do what they’re told they cannot do because they aren’t “beautiful enough”. 36

Breaking Limits

Figure 34. Cosmetic Texture (2016)


Despite the slight progress among the variety of women seen on the catwalk and beauty advertising, Afro-Caribbean, mixed race, Latina, Indian and Asian women are still poorly catered to as beauty consumers, often having to turn to high-end brands like YSL, Chanel and Dior just to buy the basics. Numerous high street brands still have their darkest shade at Beige. As product innovation continues to remain stagnant for ethnic skin, creative research at Boots Nottingham (See Appendix, 2D) confirms this further as 12 out of the 22 brands that were tested on my skin happened to be high street brands. Only 5 brands including No7 and Nyx catered to my shade, with 2 brands Sleek and L’Oréal offering darker shades. The Institute of Practitioners in Advertising estimates that black women spend some £4.8 billion on products and treatments, with AfroCaribbean women spending six times more than their white counterparts on their hair. But even with such an impressive spend, ethnic groups remain drastically underserved and under-represented in the industry and at the beauty counter (Zambarakji, 2016). Out of the remaining 10 premium brands, only 8 brands including Estee Lauder RRP £31.00 and Smashbox RRP £29.00 had shades catering to darker skinned women forcing them to pay 70% more for foundation (Newsroom, 2016). All extortionately priced, I began questioning “why is there a lack of availability and commitment by mainstream beauty and cosmetic companies that cater to the needs of ethnic people?”. I wanted to understand if it was due to cost of production or simply a fear of being unprofitable. Founder of make-up brand, MDM Flow suggests there could be a possible connection to the lack of ethnic women in research development for beauty and for that the problem goes unrecognised (Adepoju, BBC; 2016). In addition, she refers to supply and demand suggesting when products are developed and the beauty campaigns are released, products aren’t reflected in stores leading to a lack of purchase. Which often leads to discontinuation of products.

Figure 35. Creative Research own images (2017)

As it appears that the definition of beauty remains narrow and discriminatory in the beauty industry with little acknowledgement of the vast range of undertones that exist within the UK. A survey was conducted questioning if participants had issues finding their perfect shade in make-up. Results showed 50% of respondents had struggles finding their perfect shade in foundation and concealer suggesting they were either “too pink/orange” or the right product had been discontinued. In addition, 20% of respondents had little to no knowledge on their undertone despite having provided a chart. This emphasises a lack of education for some make-up users. Research was conducted by Superdrug presented alongside the #ShadesofBeauty campaign that aimed to make it more accessible for Black and Asian women to purchase products for inexpensive prices. Findings from 559 women, revealed that 70% of Black and Asian women felt the high street didn’t cater to their needs. The initiative has intentions of providing a greater level of choice, transparency and awareness surrounding the availability of products for darker skin tones and Asian and Afro hair types on the high street (Muttucumaru, 2016). However, findings show 36% said that the guidance and advice provided in high street beauty stores was not adequate (Under the skin, 2016). Some may argue, the need for beauty advisers is no longer necessary as 29% of 16-24 year olds look for recommendations from online reviews as an impact of beauty blogs and tutorials on YouTube, where bloggers often offer advice on products and personal reviews. Although the popularity of beauty blogs encourages wider product repertoire, bloggers could deceive consumers into purchasing for endorsements sake.

Figure 37. Cocoa Swatches App Screenshots own images (2017)

Despite there being overly priced colour cosmetics, colour cosmetics is the fastest growing category with 12% growth from 2014-15. Thanks to beauty blogs and tutorials, women are now more inspired to experiment with new looks (Mintel, 2016). Apps like Cocoa Swatches aim to offer an opportunity for young ethnic females across the world to equally experiment with the looks. Initially, in the act of creating an Instagram page, Ofunne Amaka created a community of frustrated women of colour which developed into an app. Women can scroll and search for products, read reviews, and get recommendations and advice from beauty experts. This platform supports the women frustrated with the lack of representation in the beauty mainstream whilst making them feel included. A place where women of colour could vent about the problems they were having in the makeup department and find solutions (Hairston, 2016) 40

Figure 38. L’oreal Paris True Match Campaign (2017)

Case Study

Figure 40. Maria Borges New Face of L’oreal (2017)

Figure 39. L’oreal True Match Campaign UK (2016)

Maria Borges is now L’Oréal’s newest Brand Ambassador. Maria Borges made history as the first Black model to wear her natural hair texture on the Victoria Secret’s runway in 2015. She not only challenges but she uncovers the question about the diverse beauty standards on the runway whilst taking her career to a next level. She paves the way for many international models who may believe their dreams can’t come true. The timeliness of this change is necessary as there has been an uproar between the industries and consumers due to the under-representation of the ethnic woman across many beauty brands. The lack of representation is not only negative in terms of profit but also causes some ethnic women to believe they are not good enough, therefore leading to a lack of self-esteem. This allowed to understand that a selection of brands are beginning to embrace diversity and gradually cater to the needs of all. A global brand is not global if they do not represent the different types of people and skin colours. As L’Oréal Group begin to make necessary changes to their luxe subsidiaries and they also seem to be making an impact their mass market brands by releasing the recent #TrueMatch campaign showcasing 23 new shades. 41

Figure 41. Self-love Collage own image (2017)

Big Idea Combining print and digital to empower ethnic women and celebrate the individuality of those who lack in self-esteem due to under-representation. Aim: To enlighten and teach consumers aged 18-24 to master self-love and reconnect with themselves. Objectives: • Connect the stories of real ethnic women to present individual expression with honest and thought provoking content. • Create conversation between ethnic groups that identify as having cultural similarities. • Combining print and digital to create a cross platform experience. • To use candid imagery as an authentic representation of ethnic women in 2017, focusing on what they do/love doing instead of appearance.


The Insights

When reflecting on key insights, it became evidence that women of colour aged 18-24 feel they are not levelled with the same understanding of diversity as opposed to the many beauty brands that have delayed product innovation. Consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of diversity through the power of social media and more vocal about injustices whether political, social or cultural. The under-representation of a range of ethnic groups has forced some young Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) millennials to come up with their own initiatives to celebrate the culture. The perception of beauty that was once and often is shadowed by racial barriers, has slowly separated and been deposited onto social media. Where individuals including celebrities and users have created these ideals that most women know is unattainable but are forced to believe.

The Reason

In the UK, the negative stereotypes associated with BAME culture is often reflected though the media. For example, Middle Easterns and Asian are often associated with Terrorism whilst Afro-Caribbean’s are associated with crime and anger. The Islamic Human Right Commission conducted a survey to identify the experiences of Muslims in an Islamophobic environment. When first conducted in 2010, findings show 30% of respondents said they ‘never’ saw negative stereotypes of Muslims in the media, however in 2014, 94% of respondents said they saw negative stereotypes. (Ameli, S.R, & Merali, A. (2015). It is possible that with the constant development of social media platforms, the negative perception of ethnic minorities intensifies as users can say their unpopular opinion without the fear of being called racist even when it is not required, especially when negative. Even though fragments of these cultures have been heavily adopted in Britain, they’re not celebrated.

The New Normal

Instead, ethnic millennials and generation Z regardless of the lack of representation and celebration of their achievements, aim towards changing society, as well as their daily lives highlighting positive attitudes towards the diversity. Generation Z have far more liberal views that those of their parents. For example, they were born into a world with a black US president, and therefore don’t know of a time where that had not been the case. In the UK, they can’t remember a time where gay marriage wasn’t legal. Recent category activity showing the first male CoverGirl model barely makes the news. They only notice diversity when it’s not there. They look at mainstream beauty advertising of today and feel as if it is not representative of the world they are living in. They have a low threshold for fake & fabricated and can smell a marketing ploy a mile off (Clark-Martin, 2016: Appendix 2B). 44

Figure 42. Cherry Collective (2015)

Figure 43. Silk screen print

Why Now? 2017 is the year for print and digital to become BFF’s whilst standalone print magazines learn to find their brand and business (Jamieson, 2016). Although it seems print magazines are declining, 68% of readers prefer reading articles in print form rather than digital (Mintel, 2016) especially those that aren’t accessible on cross platform. There has been a rise in independent publications that celebrate the individuality of the ethnic women, now online and offline however in this case, accessibility and price point become a major issue. Price points range from anywhere between £5-£15 (See Appendix, Perceptual map). When conducting consumer research, consumers expressed they would spend £3-5.50 for an interactive publication (See Appendix, 9A). Competitors have no association to interactivity within their publication therefore highlighting a gap in the market for a cross platform interactive magazine that allows consumers to interact further using Augmented Reality for an affordable price. Participants (See Appendix, 1E) expressed they preferred reading magazines online whilst others preferred having a physical copy. Interactivity is a must-have for Empress Magazine seen as everyone is digitally connected. Lacking in online presence would be damaging for a newly created magazine considering the target market. To keep consumers engaged, print and digital must coexist. In order for consumers to connect with the digital activities available, they will have to download the Augmented reality Layar app that is available on both iOS and Android.


Why “Empress�? [em-pris] noun 1. a female ruler of an empire. This title carries significance as the name of the publication and hold connotations of the reader taking control of their own lives and becoming their own ruler. It is used in the context, that one should do what makes them happy and focus on themselves for once. They are worthy, they are royalty and they are as important as everybody else regardless what they see or read. The rise of social media and the recurring lack of representation has allowed ethnic females to feel as if their lives are being dictated by mainstream/pop culture. But with Empress this comes to end.


Figure 44. Knowlegdge Is Power Visual own image (2017)

The Consumer The primary consumer group of “Empress Magazine� are females of colour aged 18-24 who may have a lack of self-confidence as a result of the lack of representation. Self-image is important to consumers and being able to look in the mirror and see something beautiful and worthy. We want to communicate to consumers in a personal and informal manner. To target these women; we must ensure they are all represented, identify with content and they understand the importance of self-love. Mintel shows women display preferences for magazines with broad content (Mintel, 2016). With a broad consumer group in terms of Ethnicity, and the sensitive nature of the cultural context, we will aim to segment consumers by creating broad content suitable for all, rather than targeting individual cultures. Furthermore, creating a community and a sense of empathy with the opportunity to see the cultural similarities. Without alienating the younger consumer, Gen Z (16-17) become the secondary consumer. We believe appealing to them is necessary. Consumer research shows, participants stated they would pay, if it was available online as they are not regular consumers of physical publications (see appendix, 1E). The content would be used as a reminder of the issues of identity they may encounter as they age when one is often too critical of themselves. This publication will support them into finding themselves, providing them with content that doesn’t condemn them nor their culture if need be. Can be used as a reminder, that they are not alone and other females have encountered issues very similar to their own and can relate in ways unimaginable.


Figure 45. Stay Beautiful Visual own image (2017)

The Three A rchetypes Using psychologist, Carl Gustav Jung’s theory on archetypes, these categories were born. Focusing on The Soul and Ego Types in particular, my consumers where identified as The Nurturer, The Explorer and The Rebel. Noticing the similarities in participants, three categories were created: The Down-Chick, The Soul-Searcher and The Shocking-Savage.


Figure 46. Who are they? Own image (2017)

The Down-Chick The one who’s nurturing and wants to help somebody else speak out about the negative effects the media has on one’s psyche. To others, the down-chick is the one you can always call whenever you’re feeling down and she will take time out of her day to advice you and make you feel better, however deep down she is still searching for herself. She appreciates being British born and being raised westernised. In her spare time, she likes to explore more in relation to her heritage and issues that affect her as an ethnic woman. She appreciates the idea of activism and supports movements such as ‘Black Lives Matter’ and ‘#NotInMyName’. However, she prefers showing her gratitude from the background, taking a step back only being vocal on social media. The Down-Chick does not strive for perfection understanding everybody has time where they will ultimately be happy and content. - Empathetic - Compassionate - Gentle - Trusting


Figure 47. Consumer profile Visual own image (2017)

Figure 48. Consumer profile Visual own image (2017)

The Soul-Searcher The one who’s independent and feels they can pretty much do anything/everything on their lonesome. However, they strive for authenticity and want to be able to identify anything fabricated and harmful towards them. The contemporary societal norms and perspectives on how people that look like her should act, look or behave have forced her to begin soul searching by exploring the world and her surroundings. She enjoys reading self-help and motivating books and by doing so, the soul-searcher attempts to become true themselves, more open to sharing their experiences and becoming a part of a collective. - Authentic - Creative - Independent - Self-Sufficient


The Shocking Savage

The Shocking Savage is persistently vocal about injustices towards women in general. Being a female and being a part of an ethnicity that is not particularly seen as the norm, has forced her to become radical towards issues she’s passionate about especially when related to her culture. An intersectional feminist. This passion is exuded through attending protests and using her voice as a form to instigate a revolution. Inspired by movements like “Riot Grrrl”, the Shocking Savage doesn’t like to conform often being identified as the “Rebel”. She is the one that attempts to get her all her peers regardless of their skin tone, to see the light and the subliminal torment that comes from mainstream media and pop culture. - Rebellious - Free-Spirited - Outrageous - Radical


Figure 49. Consumer profile Visual own image (2017)

Diffusion of Innovation Theory

Figure 50. Roger Everett: Diffusion of Theory Visual own image (2017)


Since all three consumers adopt trends before the late majority, hence why they’re placed before the tipping point on the Diffusion of Innovation curve. The Shocking Savage was placed at the forefront of the curve due to the fact they aren’t afraid to take risks and try new things, occasionally doing things out of the norm and relying on their own values rather than societies. The Down-Chick is categorised as the Early Adopter; they are highly respected by peers suggesting their opinions matter to the people around them. They would have a better chance encouraging friends and family to purchase the product. The Soul-Searcher was positioned at the Early Majority, as they like to sought information on the product before purchase ensuring they will benefit from the purchase. Although they are independent, the opinions of those around them are still very important to them.


Figure 51. Chinutay & Co campaign (2017)

Route to Consumer Aim: to celebrate ethnic women and embrace all the differences that help construct one’s individuality whilst raising awareness of the importance of self-love.

Objectives: •

To promote a new product for ethnic females that highlights the importance of self-love and self-understanding • To remind the consumer of the USP of the publication. Contributor generated content so that the publication is not only interesting but unique, helping creative ethnic females showcase their work and talents • To remind consumers that we don’t condone the ways of the mainstream publications, hence the removal of demeaning advertisements • Create honest and thought-provoking content that creates conversations • To inform consumer that this publication is created by people and not a corporation, keeping brand authentic • To Integrate interactivity to enhance consumer experience


What Is

Really About?


Empress magazine celebrates the uniqueness of ethnic women and uses personal narratives and poems to empower the reader and enlightens them into reconnecting with themselves. Empress acts as a platform that focuses on giving ethnic Millennials and Generation Z an opportunity to feel that they are royalty and worthy no matter what they see or have been told. With this publication, we hope that readers will begin practicing self-love and self-determination will begin to come into existence. Thoughts become things. We aim to create conversations online and offline by publishing thought provoking content including music reviews, recommended reads and visual arts. We are a part contributor generated platform, considering the way women of colour are celebrated across multiple platforms, giving creative individuals an opportunity to collaborate with Empress and showcase their talent. Empress will continue to inspire these women to understand the importance of encouragement and how this influences the individual to find their inner self and peace, defining our identity together as a collective.


Brand Essence

Figure 52. Brand Essence model own image (2017)

Magazines have become outlets for creative practices and sharing these with like-minded readers. (Eye on Design, 2016)


Figure 53. We hold power over what we see, say and hear own image (2017)

Figure 54. Brand moodboard own image (2017)

By creating Empress, it tolerates the celebration of British ethnic women and highlights the issues of identity many ethnic women face from a contemporary perspective; therefore, creating a sense of acceptance. Empress comes as a substitute of typical fashion magazines that tend to bombard females with content that isn’t relatable by any means. Focusing on real people and real stories, Empress will be used to present opinion related articles on political, cultural and social topics that often provoke conversations between groups of ethnic women. Further challenging the existing antagonistic connotations tied to ethnic models and their vast cultures, this publication will provide the BAME community with a voice to find their social identity. Thereby, consumers will benefit by becoming more open-minded and empathetic when hearing narratives and the journey of self-love for other ethnic women. By focusing on personal experiences, appearance will not be a main factor in this publication as it’s important for consumers to connect with the model directly on a personal level. Using authentic candid imagery, filters will be stripped backed highlighting the effects of raw emotion. Considering what topics are successfully appealing and resonate with the different consumer personalities and behaviours, it’s important to appreciate the content created by ethnic individuals and use this as a reminder that we are not a reflection of the negative views associated with our ethnicities. By creating celebratory multicultural content, we would see “social influence theory” (Milbank, 2005) being used. Social influence is the process in which individuals make real changes to their feelings and behaviours as a result of interaction with others who are perceived to be similar, desirable, or expert (Rashotte, 2007). As a result, the publication should most importantly change how individuals view themselves and beauty as a whole as well. The small, arts, fashion and culture magazine “Polyester” is now on its fifth issue covering things from “intersectionality” to feminism and fashion. Occasionally focusing on things relevant to the lives of ethnic women, they fail to create meaningful content that most ethnic women feel they can relate to in terms of their struggle and this comes possibly because the editors are categorised as not being a part of the BAME community. Zines like Polyester and Mushpit have been used as a stepping stone for magazines like Empress highlighting what content would be important for my consumer and what might not be as important for example, sex positions.


The Publication

Each issue will centre around different themes depending on the hottest topics throughout the 3-month planning period, meaning the front cover would often have a slightly different look. However, the overall feel of the magazine will remain the same. Empress Magazine will contain a mixture of film and digital photography, meaningful visual arts and contributor photo stories. Empress strives to deliver content based on cultural, political and social subjects in printed form allowing the consumer to engage better without skimming past information that could be beneficial. The diversity in imagery will further allow the consumers to visualise information through the eyes of the creators, forcing them to create their own interpretations whilst exploring their imaginations. A4 magazines seem to be publishers go-to style unless creating a zine. Although Empress is not a zine, it will be printed as an A5 magazine that is under curated and printed on cheap paper, going against traditional print whilst revamping the look of the “typical” magazine that is always highly glossy and filled with adverts that often sell luxury items. Issue one will be highly empowering and low-cost. The cover model has her back turned to the reader, done intentionally to force consumers to read on, curious about who it is and why she’s so important. This is where the reader will understand, she is an ordinary woman of colour, just like them that has had to learn about herself in order to become whole. We want the consumer to feel like they belong to a community that understands them and wants to see them prosper. To keep it feeling innovative, unique and to appeal to some consumer’s love for self-help books and music each issue will be contain a spread for books and music taken from old or current albums that relate to the reality and perspective of the ethnic woman.

Figure 57. Magazine Mock Up Feature Spread (2017)

72 Figure 58. Magazine Mock Up Feature Spread (2017)

Issue One

Figure 59. Magazine Mock Up Front Cover Page (2017)

Issue Inspiration

Figure 60. Issue Visual Inspiration (2017)

Life Before The Madness will be a small introductory issue that focuses on the level of uncertainty caused by political events like recent presidential elect who was once a reality star, Brexit and the UK’s general election. Topics include how to endure times like these and developing your passion. We touch on the basics of self-love in our “Feed Your Mind” column, familiarising the consumer with the process of self-understanding. As the general election, would’ve passed by, it becomes crucial for the youth of the UK to understand the importance of their vote and the ways it in which it can affect them and their futures. Empress will feature articles written by women of colour, with their take on the elections and the campaigns that often include alternative facts. It will contain sixteen pages, to push the brand name and appeal to a wider audience, giving consumers a sample of what they are to expect in the future. We believe it’s the power and quality of content and not the quantity. This issue’s visuals are inspired by Political Art and nostalgia. The use of film photography brings a vintage feel but the overall aesthetic feels urban contemporary. Primarily focusing on politics throughout this issue, the “Plugged In” column will contain songs that will be used to highlight musician’s translation of current/past political affairs. Fitting in with WGSN’s SS18 Trend ‘Youth Tonic’, youth culture begins influencing markets, reinforcing rebellion and individualism with unfinished and imperfect impacting brand messages (WGSN, 2016). Another trend is SS18 ‘Kinship’ where diversity has been predicted to challenge traditional ideas of national representation driven by globalisation and multi-cultural unions (WGSN, 2016). Predicted SS18/19 trend ‘Worldhood’ will use cultural nostalgia as a way to spark energised new mixes of old and new, and real and fake (WGSN, 2016). This keeps the brand in the early adopter’s section of Rogers’ Curve of Innovation, staying here means the magazine will feel innovative and advanced. 74

The P rice

Initially, the magazine will be available to buy through Big Cartel for ÂŁ3.50 as a seller can sell up to five items free of charge. This is only until the magazine starts causing traffic and becomes more recognisable. Our website will have some selected content that is published in the magazine however not all as chosen content would have the extra interactive element that can only be accessed using print form and the Layar app.

The Place

Sold at smaller independent magazine stores like Magculture for ÂŁ4.50. This enhances credibility because the shop has chosen to stock it. Competitors like Mushpit are also stocked at this store, automatically driving competition and comparison between the two brands however with the interactive addition, Empress has potiential to stand out amongst such brands.

The P roduct The initial issue will have between sixteen and twenty pages; future issues may grow however for the time being will remain limited, until enough contributors are willing to collaborate.

The P romotion

Due to insights received on the impact of digital and technology on Millennials and Generation z (see appendix) we will be connecting with the consumer using online strategies. Utilising Twitter and Instagram means the brand is connecting with them not only visually but we will continue to engage with consumers with the use of live Q&A’s and polls, creating conversations about topics related to them for example race and beauty. The first issue of the magazine will be sent to cultural influencers like Sophia Tassew and The Slumflower to ensure the publication reaches the right audience.


Figure 61. Magculture (2017)

Brand Touchpoints This is the point of communication between brand and consumer. Categorising those that occur pre-purchase, during purchase and post purchase (Posner, p. 146). The table below describes how Empress uses different Touch Points to maintain the desired target audience.


Figure 62. Brand Touchpoints (2017)

P rint

Figure 63. Paste up Poster Mock Up (2017)

To gain attention, guerrilla marketing posters need to be eye-catching but simple and unforgettable. Using the bright brand colours in the posters, we hope they will become familiar with the colours and the logomark sparking an interest in the brand. The use of lyrics and the shady tone of voice should communicate our brands identity and show the brands personality. The posters cheeky content has potential to also start conversation among different age groups and ethnicities. These posters will begin to be circulate 2 months prior to the launch, allowing enough time to begin forming an online following. They will be placed around London and Nottingham surrounding locations where consumers usually hang around the most. By the time of the launch, consumers should have considered the brand and decided whether they would continue to support.

Figure 64. Paste up Poster Mock Up (2017)


Social Media After conducting both focus groups (see appendix) and understanding the consumers preferred social media platforms, we took into consideration the platforms and decided, we would use both Twitter and Instagram predominately to engage with consumer. An online presence is essential for Empress as we’re targeting the most digital savvy demographics in the market today.

Figure 65. Instagram Mock Up (2017)

Empress Magazine

@EmpressMag Figure 66. Twitter Mock Up (2017)


The Launch

Figure 67. Kamio at Red for Vice(2016)

Empress will host a launch party 2 days prior to the release of the magazine, celebrating the publication bringing all contributors, creatives and consumers together. The event will include a live panel that’ll be streamed live on Facebook, live poetry and an opportunity to network giving attendees the chance to meet like-minded individuals. Those in attendance will have exclusive access to the publication which will be released on the 31st July 2017 and will receive a goodie bag containing stickers and small product samples from various ethnic owned brands. The launch party will take place at Red Gallery located in Shoreditch, London. We will utilise this creative space in order to celebrate the strength and courage of ethnic women whilst forming a community of loyal readers. Tickets for the launch party can be accessed using Eventbrite, and will cost £68, which will go towards funding the event and future publication printing.

Figure 68. Promotional Stickers Mock Up (2017)


The Journey Before Create online buzz and post flyer on twitter to begin accepting contributor content. Get people talking – put posters up and start building rapport with potential consumers Send first issue to influencers

During The launch event will be full of positivity and filled with insights on how to make brand more appealing. Create memorable experience and find out topics dear to consumer’s hearts. Find innovative ways to turn into valuable content

After Continue engaging with customers, especially after the launch of the publication. Regularly update customers, providing them with exclusive information after the launch. Content will consistently be created; before, during (online) and after the launch to ensure effective brand positioning and engagement.

Measuring Success To measure the success of the brand online, we would look at the amount of consumer engagements and impressions received on Twitter and will do the same for the website. With the publication, we are relying on sales to be the form of measuring. Although profit is not important to us, the feedback received from customers is how we would measure this. Analysing consumer engagement is essential for the success of any business, whether it old or new to the market.


The Future of

Future strategies include being distributed across different magazine shops, possibly joining a subscription service. A lot more live events that will often take place in London, Nottingham and Manchester, bringing ethnic females together more often for in depth conversations and more insights. Eventually, Empress would like to host a pop up event at Box Park, Shoreditch where the publication will be sold alongside merchandise. Our online presence will continue to engage consumers and make others aware of the brand. Empress will remain advanced in terms of trends to maintain a refreshing current aesthetic.



As blatant racism remains a global topic, younger generations continue to fight for diversity. The success of cyber-activism proves how much of an impact these socials have one’s life even though they may not physically feel it. Insights highlighted consumers have been affected by cultural ideals that have stemmed down from before their parents. Not only their parents, however society as a whole. They love being cultured, but disliked the behaviour often used towards people that look like them like cultural appropriation. Using social media for reasons other than consuming negative perceptions, they expressed their love for the socials and the banter that comes alongside it. Therefore, establishing the idea of a platform that takes these topics and creates honest but cheeky content that is relatable to them. Further insights highlighted the way in which some ethnic females have developed a low self-esteem based on the ideals that they are most likely unable to attain unless done through skin bleaching/enhancement. All of this led to the idea of filling this gap in the market with an interactive, amusing but thoughtful publication. The trend of youthful nostalgia means consumers are regularly inspired by things that used to be, wanting to be a part of a time they never had the chance to experience. Using this insight, a printed publication was the right execution for my consumer. However due to the digital savvy consumer, an online presence is crucial. Empress Magazine was created as an inspirational and motivating platform that shines a light on the importance of self-love. Interacting with consumers that know all about the oppression of ethnic women however never consider the mental impact it has once internalised. The platform will continue to grow and represent ethnic creatives and act as a tool to drive more consumers to take back control of their lives. Themed issues will be created and live events will continue, whilst ethnic females begin to utilise the power of speech and begin to rule their empires.


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Khoabane, R. (2017). Why the beauty industry has finally caught up to darker skin tones. [online] Sunday Times. Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. Kleih, H., Odunlami, A. and Timi-Biu, Y. (2016). 9 zines by women that are as good as iD’s ‘The Female Gaze’ issue | gal-dem. [online] gal-dem. Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. Larson, S. (2017). The Female Gaze of Petra Collins. [online] The New Yorker. Available at: http://www. [Accessed 17 May 2017]. Matador Network. (n.d.). White Skin: Why Racism In Asia Isn’t Quite What You Think. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. Medium. (n.d.). Normalizing Cultural Ideals to a White Society: Racial and Ethnic Minorities in the Media. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. Melariche. (n.d.). About Melariche - The Online Beauty Destination for Women of Colour. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. MelClinton, L. (2017). This New Shoe Brand Has 10 Different Shades of Nude Heels. [online] ELLE. Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. Microaggressions in everyday life. (2010). [online] Available at: blog/microaggressions-in-everyday-life/201010/racial-microaggressions-in-everyday-life [Accessed 17 May 2017]. Monaghan, A. (2017). Britons spend more on food and leisure, less on booze, smoking and drugs. [online] the Guardian. Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. Moore-Karim, A. and Moore-Karim, A. (2016). How ‘Black Models Matter’ Became More Than A Viral Street Style Message. [online] Fashionista. Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. (2013). Colourism: Why even black people have a problem with dark skin. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. (n.d.). Be Realistic! How Technology Affects Your Perception of Beauty. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. Perry, M. (2016). 16 Beauty Services Designed Specifically for Women of Color. [online] Allure. Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. Racked. (2015). Is the Makeup Industry Finally Embracing Diversity?. [online] Available at: http://www. [Accessed 17 May 2017]. (2015). The Beauty-Industry Problem No One Talks About. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017] (2016). Spring ‘16 Fashion Ads: (Slightly) More Racial Diversity, Less Inclusive Otherwise. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. (2017). Best Beauty Black Asian Skin – Makeup Different Skin. [online] Available at: http:// [Accessed 17 May 2017]. (2017). British Vogue Real Women Issue - Emily Blunt. [online] Available at: http://www. [Accessed 17 May 2017]. Saint Heron. (2017). Solange Interviews Amandla Stenberg For Teen Vogue’s February Issue - Saint Heron. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. Shadows of the Sun. (2014). The Symbolic Use of Color in Ancient Egyptian Art. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. Sinclair, L. (2015). The ‘angry black girl’ stereotype shows just how little we are respected | Leah Sinclair. [online] the Guardian. Available at: stereotype-angry-black-girls-racial [Accessed 17 May 2017]. Sinclair, L. (2016). Why we need movements like #BlackGirlMagic. [online] Dazed. Available at: http:// [Accessed 17 May 2017]. (n.d.). Social Media Affects Self-Esteem | Applied Social Psychology (ASP). [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. Skene, K. (2014). A PR Case Study: Dove Real Beauty Campaign. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. STACK magazines. (n.d.). 10 independent women’s magazines everyone should read - STACK magazines. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. THE ILLUSIONISTS - a documentary about body image and globalization. (2016). THE ILLUSIONISTS – Watch – Best Films About Body Image. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. The Tiger’s Roar. (2014). Colorism: The Light Skinned vs. Dark Skinned Debate. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. VIVID. (2016). Diversity in the beauty industry - VIVID. [online] Available at: http://www.vivid-research. com/diversity-beauty-industry/ [Accessed 17 May 2017]. (2017). i-D Meets Zines. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. (n.d.). Pigments through the Ages - Intro to the oranges. [online] Available at: http:// [Accessed 17 May 2017]. Wonderland. (2016). Kim Kardashian West | Wonderland Magazine. [online] Available at: http://www. [Accessed 17 May 2017]. Yi, D. (2016). Dove’s new campaign says all types of hair are ‘beautiful’. [online] Mashable. Available at: [Accessed 17 May 2017]. Youth Radio. (n.d.). Misrepresentation of People of Color in the Media. [online] Available at: https:// [Accessed 17 May 2017]. YouTube. (2012). Body Evolution - Model Before and After. [online] Available at: com/watch?v=17j5QzF3kqE&list=LLzC-GkIT3SveDnHVsGS-XNg&index=69 [Accessed 17 May 2017]. YouTube. (2015). #HatchKids Discuss Girls’ Body Image. [online] Available at: watch?v=ctMM9WUdVr8&t=1s&list=LLzC-GkIT3SveDnHVsGS-XNg&index=71 [Accessed 17 May 2017]. YouTube. (n.d.). White Doll, Black Doll. Which one is the nice doll?. [online] Available at: https://www. [Accessed 17 May 2017].

List of Illustrations Fig.1: Things people say but shouldn’t, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.2: Isaac West Photo series: Different Shades of Melanin (@Isaacwest) Instagram [no date] (2017) Available at: [Accessed: 2 May 2017] Fig.3: Visual Timeline, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.4: Society telling Females how to and how not to look (2017) Available at: https://www. [Accessed: 18 January 2017] Fig.5: Christian Louboutin: The Nude Collection (2016) Available at: news/why-christian-louboutins-nude-shoe-line-is-revolutionary-for-bla/ [Accessed: 13 May 2016] Fig.6: Darkness is blackness is badness (2016) Available at: [Accessed: 30 March 2017] Fig.7: The Truth about skin bleaching (2016) Available at: read/2016/11/15/the-truth-about-skin-bleaching [Accessed: 13 November 2016] Fig.8: Buzzfeed: Unfair and Lovely (2016) Available at: [Accessed: 30 March 2017] Fig.9: Mike Kendrick Illustration: Dangers of skin bleaching (2016) Available at: portfolio/dangers-of-skin-bleaching/ [Accessed: 11 May 2017] Fig.10: Nadinola Skin Whitener Advert (1960) Available at: [Accessed: 30 March 2017] Fig.11: Afro Hair and Beauty store Skin “Lightening” products, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.12: Skin lightening adverts Ghana (2016) Available at: skin-bleaching-south-africa-women.html [Accessed: 27 March 2017] Fig.13: Marlon James: Blackout Jamaica (2013) Available at: BLACKOUT-Kingston-12-Jamaica [Accessed: 2 May 2017] Fig.14: Mister Phil Illustration: London Social Media Week (2016) Available at: [Accessed: 12 May 2017] Fig.15: Instagram Hashtags, Own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.16: Viral meets street Art (2015) Available at: [Accessed: 24 April 2017] Fig.17: Viral meets street Art (2015) Available at: [Accessed: 24 April 2017] Fig.18: Khoudia Diop: Melanin Goddess (2017) Available at: [Accessed: 24 April 2017]

Fig.19: Beyonce Superbowl Halftime show (2016) Available at: nccu/6-lessons-beyonc-s-lemonade-inspire-your-success-semester [Accessed: 11 May 2017] Fig.20: Lemonade Short Film Still Visual (2016) Available at: [Accessed: 11 May 2017] Fig.21: Inspirational collage, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.22: Allure Magazine April Cover (2017) Available at: srgb%2Cq_80%2Cw_856/MTQ1ODcyMjg5Nzk4MzAxMzg5/slack-imgs.jpg [Accessed: 31 March 2017] Fig.23: New York Times Illustration (2013) Available at: fashions-blind-spot.html [Accessed: 24 March 2017] Fig.24: Graph representing the % of ethnic models at Fashion Week, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.25: Vogue Italia “The Black Issue� (2008) Available at: http://cadenceandclementine.blogspot. [Accessed: 14 February 2017] Fig.26: The Black Girl Coalition Press Conference (1992) Available in book: Black and Beautiful by Barbara Summers [Accessed: 2 May 2017] Fig.27: Paul Smith SS17 Campaign (2017) Available at: [Accessed: 17 March 2017] Fig.28: Culture not Costume Illustration (2016) Available at: [Accessed: 2 May 2017] Fig.29: Shannon Wright: Shared or Stolen (2016) Available at: [Accessed: 2 May 2017] Fig.30: Marc Jacobs models SS17 Catwalk (2016) Available at: marc-jacobs-white-models-walk-runway-faux-dreadlocks-photos-cultural-appropriation/ [Accessed: 2 May 2017] Fig.31: Screen Printing, own image (2017) Seidu Fig.32: Manuela Sanchez (2017) Available at: [Accessed: 2 May 2017] Fig.33: Black Mirror Series (2016) Available at: [Accessed: 27 March 2017] Fig.34: Cosmetic Texture (2016) Available at:[galle ry-1217]/72/ [Accessed: 12 May 2017] Fig.35: Creative Research, own images (2017) Seidu. Fig.36: Key insights visual, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.37: Cocoa Swatches App Screenshots, own images (2017) Seidu.

Fig.38: L’oreal Paris True Match Campaign (2017) Available at: [Accessed: 5 January 2017] Fig.39: L’oreal True Match Campaign UK (2016) Available at: loreal-paris-true-match-foundation-ad/ [Accessed: 4 December 2016] Fig.40: Maria Borges New Face of L’oreal (2017) Available at: [Accessed: 31 March 2017] Fig.41: Self-love Collage, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.42: Cherry Collective: A Blessed 2015 (2015) Available at: post/136351738689/a-blessed-2015-by-cherry-collaborative [Accessed: 2 May 2017] Fig.43: Silk screen print [no date] Available at: [Accessed: 2 May 2017] Fig.44: Knowlegdge Is Power Visual, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.45: Stay Beautiful Visual, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.46: Who are they? Own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.47: Consumer profile Visual, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.48: Consumer profile Visual, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.49: Consumer profile Visual, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.50: Roger Everett: Diffusion of Theory Visual, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.51: Chinutay & Co campaign (2017) Available at: [Accessed: 20 February 2017] Fig.52: Brand Essence model, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.53: We hold power over what we see, say and hear, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.54: Brand moodboard, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.55: Brands Yes please, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.56: Brands No thank you, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.57: Magazine Mock Up Feature Spread, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.58: Magazine Mock Up Feature Spread, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.59: Magazine Mock Up Front Cover Page, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.60: Issue Visual Inspiration Moodboard, own image (2017) Seidu.

Fig.61: Magculture (2017) Available at: [Accessed: 11 May 2017] Fig.62: Brand Touchpoints, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.63: Paste up Poster Mock Up, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.64: Paste up Poster Mock Up, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.65: Instagram Mock Up, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.66: Twitter Mock Up, own image (2017) Seidu. Fig.67: Kamio at Red for Vice(2016) Available at: [Accessed: 11 May 2017] Fig.68: Promotional Stickers Mock Up, own image (2017) Seidu.

The Beauty Bill: The Price of Beauty  

A report that analyses the standards of beauty and the effects on ethnic women in a world of technology.

The Beauty Bill: The Price of Beauty  

A report that analyses the standards of beauty and the effects on ethnic women in a world of technology.