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an der Hochschule f체r Gestaltung Offenbach

pr채sentieren Ihnen

presenting you


Holzverbindungen

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Digital

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Woodjoints

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deutsch

english

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Ăœber diese CD

About this CD

Tutorial

Tutorial

Infothek

Infothek

Digitale Verbindungen

The digital joints

Anwendungs Beispiele

Examples for application

Hilfe

Help


l C...Stool

l Meander-Shelf

l Side-Table

l Clip-Shelf

l Simplizissimus-Table

l C...Frame and Panel

l Zoom-Table

l Chest of drawers

l Frame-Shelf

l Upright furniture

l Wood Joints

l About this CD

l Help

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l Infothek

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l Tutorial

Examples for application

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รถ Start

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Side-Table The side-table consists of an endless frame as well as of two shelves that are let in the frame. The individual solid wood parts of the framing timbers are joined at the corners with a Mitre Joint with Dovetail Key. The shelves are let in the framing timbers by means of modified Dovetail Tenons. Not only a ridgid construction is thus created, but also, depending on the choice of material, a very attractive small piece of furniture.


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The use of the Mitre Joint with Dovetail Key makes a simple and problemless assembly of the endless frame possible.

Used wood joints l T_011 Mitre Joint with Dovetail Key l T_013 Lapped Dovetail in a modified version


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Clip-Shelf For the Clip-Shelf, the crossbars are simply clipped in the sides and the shelf is already assembled. This is made possible by the use of the Clip Tenon Joint. Because of the heavy demands on the material of this joint, the Clip-Shelf should be made out of multiplex plywood. The shelves are mortises in the sides by means of Finger Tenons, but they could also be put on drilled in shelf bearers.


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Used wood joints l C_001 Clip Tenons l F_010 Finger Tenons


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C...Stool The C...Stool by Jochen Gros is one of the first pieces of furniture developed at the C…Lab at the Hochschule für Gestaltung. The C...Stool is based on the “Ulm Stool”, which was designed in the early 50s by the Swiss architect and sculptor Max Bill for the Hochschule für Gestaltung Ulm. Jochen Gros redesigned this design classic with the intention of clearly showing the effects of the CNC-production technology on the “Ulm Stool”. The influence of the production technology on furniture design is illustrated by the CNC-compatible wood joints as well as by the possibility of engraving various motives in the stool surfaces.


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The C...Stool is manufactured under license and distributed in various variants by l NEWCRAFT.

Used wood joints l F_001 Fingertip Tenons l F_009 Fingertip Tenons with Central Positioning Tenon, executed as open and blind version


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Meander-Shelf The Meander-Shelf was created in the course of the project l 100% C‌NC. The design aimed at developing a simple shelf that can be slotted together and thus assembled without problems nor tools, and at the same time be manufactured with as little trim waste as possible. The two vertical shelf bearers merge in such a way, that they can be cut out of one board in one go.


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The shelves have slots that correspond to the designated vertical shelf bearers. The shelves are put in place and lock when pushed back. The better the fit of the joints, the better the stability of the shelf. The Meander-Shelf can be made out of various board materials.

Used wood joint l St_002 Slotting Girder Joint


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C‌Frame and Panel The construction principle of frame and panel has a long tradition in furniture construction. While the framing timbers are cut out of solid wood, the panels can be made out of various materials, like board materials, synthetic materials or glass. The use of digital wood joints as joining elements for the framing timbers gives rise to interesting design solutions and, at the same time, greatly facilitates the assembly of the frames.


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In the case of the C‌Frame with Dovetail Key Corner Joint, the framing timbers are not directly interlinked, but joined with the use of a connector, which can be made out of various materials. This makes it possible to push the mitred framing timbers on the panel and to then fix them in place with the connectors.


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For the second type of frame, the framing timbers are joined by means of a Halving with Elliptical Tenon. For the vertical timber frames to go through, they need to be rabbetted rather than grooved in order to take on the panel. Afterwards the panel needs to be cleated from behind.

Used wood joints l T_007 Dovetail Key Corner Joint l X_003 Halving with Elliptical Tenon


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Frame-Shelf The loose sides and shelves of the Frame-Shelf are held together and stabilised by a closed frame out of solid wood. At the corners the framing timbers are joined by means of decorative wood joints. The joints are executed in such a way, that they can be put together and taken apart at any time without the use of tools. The sides and shelves can be made out of board material, like MDF, or out of solid wood.


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The Frame-Shelf that was designed by Jochen Gros is manufactured under license and distributed by lNEWCRAFT.

Used wood joint l P_001 Jigsaw Mitre Joint


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Simplizissimus-Table The Simplizissimus-Table is based on a fairly simple and ingenious construction principle. All joining elements are machined together with the individual table parts. As soon as all parts are machined, the table can be put together without tools. As the assembly of the Simplizissimus-Table is self-explanatory, there is no need for written instructions. The Simplizissimus-Table was first presented by the C…Lab at the special show l “Digital Furniture Construction … 100% CNC” on the occasion of the Interzum’97 in Cologne.


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At the special show the Simplizissimus-Table was manufactured in only 7 minutes on a CNC-machining center, of the kind one can already find today in many cabinet-maker’s and joiner’s workshops, and with standard tools. For traditional constructions, materials and production methods, this would be unthinkable, even more so when we bear in mind that the construction principle of the SimplizissimusTable can be materialised in a multitude of variants, thus making every table a one-off piece.

Used wood joints l St_001 Simple Sotting Joint l F_010 Finger Tenons


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Chest of drawers The chest of drawers is based on a simple board construction. Top shelf and sides are joined by means of a Lapped Finger Tenon Joint. The board shelves or bottom shelf are mortised in or through the sides by means of Finger Tenons. The Secret Finger Tenon Joint is put to use as the joining element for the drawer sides with front, back and bottom shelf.


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The chest of drawers can be maded with various numbers of drawers. The height of the drawers can be adapted to the given requirements.

Used wood joints l F_003 Lapped Finger Tenons l F_007 Secret Finger Tenons l F_010 Finger Tenons


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Upright furniture For upright construction, the sides of the furniture piece are fitted with two vertical and one horizontal upright. Uprights and sides are connected with tongues, so that the sides can be pushed up into the thus created U. The vertical and horizontal uprights are connected with a decorative corner joint, the Halved Dovetail Corner. As the sides are flush with the inner edge of the upright, the corners of the shelves do not need to be notched.


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The principles of upright construction can be put to use for a number of furniture, like cabinet furniture and low tables.

Used wood joint l T_009 Halved Dovetail Corner


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Zoom-Table The Zoom-Table is designed in such a way, that its height, width and length can be proportionally enlarged or reduced. Not only the outer dimensions of the table are zoomed in the process, but all joining elements are also proportionally adapted according to the zoom factor. This means that the number of Lapped Finger Tenons, which join tabletop and legs, always stays the same. In order to manufacture the legs with as little trim waste as possible, they are abutted in the middle by means of a table joint. In addition, this table joint prevents a deflection of the tabletop when loaded.


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The Zoom-Table can be made out of various board materials. Depending on the cutting tolerances for the joints of the Zoom-Table, the table is either simply put together or it needs to be glued.

Used wood joints l F_002 Finger Tenons l F_003 Lapped Finger Tenons


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รถ Start

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J wood joints the digital

l Frame Joints l Tutorial

l Infothek

l Examples

l About this CD

l Help

l Board Joints l Carcass Joints


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name of file:

T_013

Lapped Dovetail The Simple Lapped Dovetail can be used to lengthen framing timbers, as well as boards or panels. Due to the dovetailed tenons, the joint is secured against longitudinal tension, while the scarf prevents a perpendicular shift. For decorative purposes, the tenons can take different shapes, e.g. like Ginkgo leaves, which can be arranged regularly or freely.

Example of application l Side-Table

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name of file:

T_015

Double Lapped Dovetail As opposed to the simple version, the manufacturing of the Double Lapped Dovetail is much more costly. In exchange one gets a joint that is more durable and very decorative from both sides. The second row of dovetails is offset and this prevents an opening of the lower rabbet caused by loading, which can occur with the simple version. Depending on the precision requested of the router, the joint can be executed as detachable or glued versions.

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name of file:

T_012

Board Lengthening with Asymmetrical Dovetail Keys The Board Lengthening with Asymmetrical Dovetail Keys is a very decorative joint. Even though joints with dovetail keys are very old, they are hardly used in furniture construction. The dovetailed keys, which here are presented in an asymmetrical and alternating version, secure the joint against tension. The dovetail keys can be used for lengthenings as well as for width joints, or for securing cracks in solid wood boards and planks. The decorative value of the joint can be increased by the use of fine woods or other materials.

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name of file:

P_002

Board Lengthening with Jigsaw Keys The Board Lengthening with Jigsaw Keys clearly shows that let in loose connectors, a Jigsaw Key in our example, can take on a multitude of shapes. They can also be arranged in various ways in order to make a durable as well as decorative joint. When the Jigsaw Keys are used in width joints, due to the opposing main directions of shrinkage, it is recommended to keep the length of the keys to a minimum and to slightly undercut them at the ends.

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name of file:

S_002

Lengthening with Meander Key Unlike other loose connectors, e.g. the dovetail key, there is no traditional model for the Meander Key. The reason for this is that a key of this shape can only be made out of material that can stand longitudinal as well as cross tension. Suitable materials are, inter alia, multiplex plywood, acrylic glass or aluminium. When joining boards with a Meander Key, it is important to make sure that the wood is well dried and that there is enough material left at the inner radii of the key to withstand the tensile force.

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name of file:

V_001

Detachable Lengthening with Key The Lengthening with Key was designed from the start to be a detachable joint. It can be detached and relocked at any time without tools. The region around the joint is flattened on both boards and is provided with a slot. When both parts are assembled, the key is introduced into the interconnected slot and then turned. The geometry of the slot stops the key after a quarter turn. As the strain on all parts of this joint is particularly high, it is recommended to execute it in multiplex plywood.

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digital wood joints

Lengthenings To open a file of the kind you need, just press the name of the appropriate folder (e. g. lDXF.10).

Name of the joint:

Name of file: in folder:

ö Lapped Dovetail

T_013

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Double Lapped Dovetail

T_015

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1

ö Board Lengthening with Asymmetrical Dovetail Keys

T_012

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 3 l MBA_SIM Part 3

ö Board Lengthening with Jigsaw Keys

P_002

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

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Survey BoardJ Joints

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digital wood joints

Lengthenings

ö Board Lengthening with Meander Key

S_002

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Detachable Lengthening with Key

V_001

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 3 l MBA_SIM Part 3

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name of file:

F_002

Finger Tenons Due to the superior stability of finger tenons, it is hard to imagine traditional furniture construction without them. Finger Tenons are the simplest of the CNC-compatible tenons. They differ from their traditional models - the European finger tenon or the Japanese “Go-mai-hozo-gata“ - through the deeper drawn cuts at the inner corners of the tenon base. The thus created jutted out tenons are characteristic for CNC-compatible manufacturing and give the joint its individual character. The width of the tenons should be at least three times the diameter of the router bit.

Example of application l Zoom-Table

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name of file:

F_003

Lapped Finger Tenons The Finger Tenon Joint can also be executed as a lapped variant. The Lapped Finger Tenons are used wherever one of the two surfaces must not be interrupted by the joint for aesthetical or functional reasons, for example, drawer fronts or cupboard sides. Like all other tenons, the lapped finger tenons can be made using solid wood or various board materials like multiplex plywood or MDF.

Examples of application l Zoom-Table l Chest of drawers

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name of file:

F_007

Secret Finger Tenons The Secret Finger Tenon Joint hides the tenons in its interior from curious glances. As opposed to the traditional secret tenon mitre joint, the CNC-compatible version leads to a rabbet at the front edge. Secret joints are traditionally looked upon as the height of a cabinet-maker’s craftsmanship. Sweat and skill of the craftsman are hidden from the eyes of the world in the interior of the joint. It is said: Out of awe for his material, the cabinet-maker humbly conceals his own efforts in making a piece of furniture.

Example of application l Chest of drawers

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name of file:

F_001

Fingertip Tenons The Fingertip Tenons are slenderer than the Finger Tenons. Ideally the width of the tenons equals the diameter of the router bit. In order to avoid that the tenons slip through, a special positioning tenon is placed at either end of each row of tenons. In the case of broader rows of tenons, additional positioning tenons can be inserted. Due to the greater number of tenons for an equal width, the Fingertip Tenons, as opposed to the Finger Tenons, have a higher friction tight which leads to a higher durability of the joint.

Example of application l C...Stool

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name of file:

F_004

Lapped Fingertip Tenons The lapped version of the Fingertip Tenons is used wherever one of the two surfaces must not be interrupted by the joint for aesthetical or functional reasons. Depending on the degree of precision according to which the joint has been machined, we get a perfect fit joint that is durable simply by friction tight and can be detached at any time, or a joint that easily comes undone and needs to be glued. The exactness of the fit depends also on the correct tool, as well as feed and the depth of the Z-step.

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name of file:

F_006

Secret Fingertip Tenons The secret version of the Fingertip Tenons Joint leads to a rabbet at the front edge of the assembled joint. From a design-oriented viewpoint, this rabbet is an interesting design detail on furniture. For traditional wood and furniture construction the rule was not to let a joint show, however complicated its execution might have been. But today, in the age of industrial furniture construction with its invisible connectors in the form of dowels and lamellos, times have changed. The demonstratively shown joints are a sign for the quality of furniture made by a craftsman.

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name of file:

F_005

Fingertip Tenons with Key A special form of the Fingertip Tenon is the variant with key. Its characteristic are the prolongated tenons that have a groove on the outside which perpendicular runs across the tenons. After assembling the joint, a key with a square end-grain cutting is inserted into the groove and thus secures it against tension. There is no direct model for the Fingertip Tenons with Key. Ideas came from decorative forms of various corner locks, where surpassing tenons are employed as decorative elements.

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name of file:

H_001

Hammer Tenons Similar to the dovetail tenon joint, a characteristic of the Hammer Tenons is the fact that it withstands tension in one direction even without glue. This is not achieved through trapeze-shaped dovetails, but through tenons that are shouldered in their width, so-called Hammer Tenons. The best tensile strength of the joint is given when the thickness of the inner Hammer Tenon equals half the thickness of the board. A stop in the centre of the tenon base prevents the tenons from slipping through. The Hammer Tenons can be made using solid wood as well as various board materials or three-layer boards.

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name of file:

H_002

Lapped Hammer Tenons Like most tenon joints, the Hammer Tenons can also be made as a lapped version. As the Lapped Hammer Tenons are durable against tension in one direction even without glue, as opposed to the Finger or Fingertip Tenons, there are particularly suitable for drawers when the front should not be interrupted for design reasons. The strength of the rabbet that covers the hammer tenons should be between 1/4 and 1/3 of the thickness of the material. If the sides are joined with the use of hammer tenons, they prevent a warping of the surface.

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Survey BoardJ Joints

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digital wood joints

Corner Joints To open a file of the kind you need, just press the name of the appropriate folder (e. g. lDXF.10).

Name of the joint:

Name of file: in folder:

ö Finger Tenons

F_002

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1

ö Lapped Finger Tenons

F_003

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Secret Finger Tenons

F_007

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1

ö Fingertip Tenons

F_001

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1

ö Lapped Fingertip Tenons

F_004

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

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Survey BoardJ Joints

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digital wood joints

Corner Joints

ö Secret Fingertip Tenons

F_006

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1

ö Fingertip Tenons with Key

F_005

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1

ö Hammer Tenons

H_001

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Lapped Hammer Tenons

H_002

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

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name of file:

St_001

Simple Slotting Joint The here presented slotting joints were created when it became necessary to develop detachable joints for demountable furniture manufactured from modern wood-derived materials, like multiplex plywood for example. For the Simple Slotting Joint, a slot is cut up to the middle of the board, at the end of the two construction elements that are to be joined. In order to achieve a high durability of the joint despite frequent variations of the thickness of the board, the slot is executed 2 mm less than the thickness of the board and a 2 mm groove is cut as a prolongation of the slot. An exact slotting together of the joint is thus made possible.

Example of application l Simplizissimus-Table

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name of file:

St_002

Slotting Girder Joint For the Slotting Girder Joint, the horizontal construction element, e.g. a shelf, is placed onto the tenon of the girder and pushed back in the slot that has been provided. Thus the board can not tip over and a durable joint is created that can be detached again at any time. Should the shelf be flush with the back of the girder, the self will be provided with an additional slot at its back edge. The Slotting Girder Joint is used for example for shelves. An advantage of the joint is a quick assembly and dismantling of the shelf without tools and small connectors.

Example of application l Meander-Shelf

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name of file:

St_003

Double Lapped Slotting Joint As opposed to the Simple Slotting Joint, the Double Lapped Slotting Joint is particularly suited for wider construction elements. A slot is cut in the wide construction element from above and from below and the narrow parts are inserted into it. Depending on the lay-out of the two slots, aligned or offset, the narrow parts either butt-joint in the middle or overlap each other. When they overlap each other, like in the case presented here, the thus created shoulder can be used as a rest base for further parts.

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name of file:

St_004

Hooked Slotting Joint For the Hooked Slotting Joint, the cross bar is pushed through a slot in the girding side or headboard and thus hooked. It is secured through its own weight, and can be detached at any time. The groove cut in prolongation of the slot not only permits to even out variations in the thickness of the material, but also guides the cross bar along its width and thus secures it against torsion. The Hooked Slotting Joint is suitable for bed construction or for cross bars of tables.

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name of file:

St_005

Double Lapped Slotting Joint with Key The Double Lapped Slotting Joint with Key is useful wherever the joint needs to be secured against unintentional loosening. The two lapped construction elements are locked with a turnable key and the enclosed part is thus fixed. Around the key, the construction elements that are to be secured are flattened in a circular area and a slot is cut in it. The key, that should be made of multiplex plywood as it has to withstand great strain, is inserted in the slot created when assembling both parts and then turned. The geometry of the slot is such that the key stops after a quarter of a turn.

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Survey BoardJ Joints

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digital wood joints

Slotting Joints To open a file of the kind you need, just press the name of the appropriate folder (e. g. lDXF.10).

Name of the joint:

Name of file: in folder:

ö Simple Slotting Joint

St_001

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroSt 95 l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Slotting Girder Joint

St_002

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroSt 95 l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Double Lapped Slotting Joint

St_003

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroSt 95 l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Hooked Slotting Joint

St_004

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroSt 95 l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Double Lapped Slotting Joint with Key

St_005

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroSt 95 l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD l MBA_CAD l MBA_CAD l MBA_CAD

Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4

l MBA_SIM l MBA_SIM l MBA_SIM l MBA_SIM

Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4

B


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Dateiname: F_010

Finger Tenons In furniture construction, the Finger Tenons are suitable for the fitting of shelves, cross bars and footrails. These items are mortised into the side parts being either executed as an open or as a blind version. The Finger Tenons, like the jutted out finger tenon corner joint, differ from their traditional models in the more deeply cut rebate on the inner corner of the tenon base. The width of the Finger Tenons should be at least three times the diameter of the router bit. The H-shaped mortises are, as well as the shape of the tenons, a typical characteristic of CNC-compatible manufacturing. Examples of application l Simplizissimus-Table l Chest of Drawers l Clip-Shelf

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name of file:

F_008

Fingertip Tenons with Lateral Positioning Tenons The Fingertip Tenons for T-shaped joints were developed parallel to the Fingertip Tenon Corner Joint. It is characterised by its slender tenons and can be executed either open or blind. Ideally the width of the tenons equals the width of the router bit. It is recommended, however, to chose a one to two tenths of a millimetre larger width of the tenons, so that the router can work the tenons without problem in one go. The outer tenons have been designed as positioning tenons in order to avoid a lateral shift of the tenons. Furthermore they prevent a distortion of the mortised parts.

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name of file:

F_009

Fingertip Tenons with Central Positioning Tenon The Fingertip Tenons can not only be executed with lateral positioning tenons, but also with one central positioning tenon. The latter version is mainly used when there is no great need to secure the mortised parts, e.g. cross bars and foot-rails, against torsion. If the mortised parts are broad, it is recommended to place more positioning tenons in the row of tenons. The Fingertip Tenons can be executed in solid wood as well as board materials. When solid wood is used, one needs to pay attention to the main direction of shrinkage in the mortised parts.

Example of application l C...Stool

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name of file:

C_001

Clip Tenons The use of modern derived wood products and the transfer of jointing techniques from other fields necessarily leeds to new and innovative solutions. Clip Tenons make a detachable joint which consistently uses the springiness of multiplex plywood. The model for this joint is found in the field of synthetic materials. The Clip Tenons are made in such a way that both clip hooks flip back to their original position after being pushed through the mortises in the side part und thus secure the joint. The joint can be detached manually again and again by pressing together both clip hooks.

Example of application l Clip-Shelf

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name of file:

C_002

Catch Tenon The Catch Tenon Joint is a detachable corner joint. However, unlike traditional solutions in the form of connectors made out of metal or synthetic materials, the joining elements are part of the individual pieces of furniture. The Catch Tenon Joint can therefore be put together and detached without tools, which makes it particularly suitable for packaged furniture. When assembling, the catch is pushed through the matching latch and as soon as it is in the right position it flips back. The joint is secured against tension by the catch, while the tenons take on the arising forces.

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Survey BoardJ Joints

1

digital wood joints

T-shaped Joints To open a file of the kind you need, just press the name of the appropriate folder (e. g. lDXF.10).

Name of the joint:

Name of file: in folder:

ö Finger Tenons

F_010

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Fingertip Tenons with Lateral Positioning Tenons

F_008

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Fingertip Tenons with Central Positioning Tenon

F_009

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Clip Tenons

C_001

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Catch Tenon

C_002

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

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7 j

j

รถ Wood Joints

Board Joints T-shaped joints

The digital J

wood joints

J

Corner Joints l Finger Tenons

l Finger Tenons

l Lapped Finger Tenons

l Fingertip Tenons with Lateral

l Secret Finger Tenons

Positioning Tenons

l Fingertip Tenons

l Fingertip Tenons with Central Positioning Tenon

l Lapped Fingertip Tenons

l Clip Tenons

l Secret Fingertip Tenons

l Catch Tenon

l Fingertip Tenons with Key l Hammer Tenons

Lengthenings

l Lapped Hammer Tenons

l Lapped Dovetail l Double Lapped Dovetail l Board Lengthening with Asymmetrical

Dovetail Keys

l Help

Slotting Joints l Simple Slotting Joint l Slotting Girder Joint

l Board Lengthening with Jigsaw Keys

l Double Lapped Slotting Joint

l Board Lengthening with Meander Key

l Hooked Slotting Joint

l Detachable Lengthening with Key

l Double Lapped Slotting Joint with Key


7 j

j

รถ Wood Joints

Carcass Joints l Tenon Joint with Star-Shaped Mortise l Shouldered Tenon l Locked Leg Framing l 3-Dimensional Finger Tenon Joint

l Help

The digital J

wood joints

J


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name of file:

Z_003

Tenon Joint with Star-Shaped Mortise Tenon joints count among the oldest wood joints. It is impossible to imagine furniture and carcass construction without them. They have been replaced more and more by dowel joints due to industrial furniture production. They are, nevertheless, still superior in terms of durability. For the Tenon Joint with Star-Shaped Mortise, the tenon of the cross bar, that has beeen shouldered up to half the thickness of the wood, is placed into the vertical framing in such a way, that it is flush at the front. The Star-Shaped Mortise is a result of machining the joint on a CNC-router. The extended corners of the mortise ensure an accurate support of the rectangular tenon.

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name of file:

Z_002

Shouldered Tenon The Shouldered Tenon combines the idea of the housed butt joint with the idea of the tenon joint. The flattened part of the vertical frame prevents the horizontal shift of the cross bar, while its side forces are transmitted by the tenon. The Shouldered Tenon Joint can be executed as a blind or open version. For the blind version, the tenon should be shorter than the depth of the mortise in order to avoid the tenon forcing on the mortise ground in case the wood shrinks. The Tenon Joint can also be secured against tension with the help of wood pins.

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name of file:

KN_001

Locked Leg Framing The Locked Leg Framing is a removable carcass joint, which is used wherever legs are joint with framing rails, as for example for tables and beds. The front and back rails have tenons, the side rails have mortises. Both rails are flattened on the outside around the tenons as well as around the mortises. When assembling the joint, the rails will be slotted together and the leg will be introduced from below in the flattened area. The rails thus resist tensile forces and, at the same time, ensure a high stability of the angle joint.

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name of file:

KN_002

3-Dimensional Finger Tenon Joint The 3-Dimensional Finger Tenon is a joint used for three-dimensional space structures in furniture construction as well as trade fair construction. The joint, illustrated here as a corner solution, consists of two basic elements: the outer and the inner framing timber which run parallel to each other. These two almost identical elements enable the problem-free assembly of complex structures. Because of their geometry and the stress under which element is put, the 3-Dimensional Finger Tenon Joint should be made, if at all possible, of multiplex plywood.

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Survey JJoints Carcass

1

digital wood joints

To open a file of the kind you need, just press the name of the appropriate folder (e. g. lDXF.10).

Name of the joint:

Name of file: in folder:

ö Tenon Joint with Star-Shaped Mortise

Z_003

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroSt 95 l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Shouldered Tenon

Z_002

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroSt 95 l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Locked Leg Framing

KN_001 l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroSt 95 l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 3 l MBA_SIM Part 3

ö 3-Dimensional Finger Tenon Joint

KN_002 l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroSt 95 l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

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7 j

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รถ Wood Joints

The digital J

wood joints

J

Frame Joints Frame Corner Joints

Lengthenings

l Halved Dovetail Corner

l Shouldered Dovetail

l Dovetail Key Corner

l Shouldered Triple Dovetail

l Mitre Joint with Dovetail Key

l Double Dovetail

l Jigsaw Mitre Joint

l Triple Dovetail

l Halving with Elliptical Tenon

l Symmetrical Double Dovetail

l Double Jigsaw-Hook Corner

l Double Jigsaw l Plain Scarf with Dovetail Keys

Cross Joints l Oval Shouldered Halving l Dovetailed Cross Halving

l Gooseneck Mortise and Tenon Joint with Stub

Tenons l Ginkgo Scarf with Stub Tenons

l Jigsaw Cross Halving l Cross Mitre Joint with Jigsaw Key

Stop Laps l Shouldered Dovetail Halving l Stop Lap with Jigsaw Key l Hooked Jigsaw Halving

l Help


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name of file:

T_004

Shouldered Dovetail Traditionally, lengthenings with dovetail tenons were used wherever frame woods need to be secured against longitudinal extension. In contrast to the through dovetail tenon, which is a joint solely designed to resist tension, the Shouldered Dovetail Joint also keeps the frame wood onto which the dovetail tenons are worked on from slipping through. The shoulder is generated by a parallel shift of the contour of the tenon. The maximum distance between the two contours is defined by the ratio of the tenon to the width of the frame.

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name of file:

T_002

Shouldered Triple Dovetail While the Shouldered Dovetail is particularly suited for the lengthening of narrow framing timbers, the here presented Shouldered Triple Dovetail with the lateral dovetail tenons has been primarily developed for broarder frames. The two lateral tenons and the opposing tenon prevent the framing timbers from twisting and improve at the same time the absorption of the lateral forces. The interplay between single and double tenons and top and undersides also adds interest to the joint from a design viewpoint.

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name of file:

T_001

Double Dovetail The Double Dovetail Joint combines the advantages of the dovetail tenon with those of scarf joints. They resist longitudinal tensile forces, resist shearing stress due to the size of the fitting lateral surfaces, and are secured against perpendicular shift by the scarf. There are various versions of the Double Dovetail Joint possible. Unlike the Symmetrical Double Dovetail, the Double Dovetail with both dovetails pointing in the same direction is very little used in traditional furniture and wood construction. The reasons for this lie in the costly manual making and are thus no longer valid for the production on a CNC-router.

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name of file:

T_003

Triple Dovetail The Triple Dovetail is a variant of the Double Dovetail Joint and is particularly suited for the lengthening of wide framing timbers. On the top side of the closed joint only one big dovetail tenon is visible, on the underside there are two smaller ones. They prevent the framing timbers from twisting and strengthen the joint as they shorten the length of the flattened surface. Dovetail scarfs fit in with the group of the scarf joints as well as with the group of the table joints, which can occasionally lead to misunderstandings.

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name of file:

T_005

Symmetrical Double Dovetail Model for the Symmetrical Double Dovetail is the Japanese “Ryo-men-ari-tsugi“. Its widespread use in Japanese wood construction is due to its simple and efficient making. For symmetrical joints, both parts are scribed and worked upon together. In the age of the CNC-router this advantage, which meant that a lot of time could be saved when joints were traditionally scribed, is not decisive any more. Joints that were formerly a lot more costly to make can now be manufactured just as efficiently as symmetrical joints.

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name of file:

P_003

Double Jigsaw The Double Jigsaw is a further development of the Symmetrical Double Dovetail Joint, taking into account the possibilities that come along with CNCproduction. For example, the ability of the CNCrouter to cut so-called free shape contours. The contours can be designed on a graphics tablet and revised in a CAD-system. The condition being, that the contour can be processed with the chosen tool. The Double Jigsaw is a very decorative joint, which being employed as a constructive detail becomes a design characteristic of the furniture piece.

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name of file:

T_006

Plain Scarf with Dovetail Keys Loose connectors, like dovetail keys, are used wherever joints need to be opened occasionally, or where it is not possible to loose length due to just dimensions. The loose connectors can take a multitude of shapes and be made out of different materials. Depending on the choice of material for framing timbers and connectors, the joint will show more or less. If the connectors are made out of wood, they should be made out of well dired hardwood. As the loose connentor is only inlaid, the scarf needs to be supported in order to prevent it from slipping through.

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name of file:

G_001

Gooseneck Mortise and Tenon Joint with Stub Tenons The gooseneck or hammer-head tenon is widely used in Japan for the executionof lengthenings with tensile resistance. The joint is characterised by the long tenon with a head at the end that is shaped like a reversed dovetail. The Japanese “Mechigai-koshikake-kama-tsugi“ is the model for the Gooseneck Mortise and Tenon Joint with Stub Tenons. From a production point of view, it is a very costly and difficult joint. While the simple hammer-head tenon is very susceptible to torsion, the here presented gooseneck is very stable in this respect due to the two rabbets and the stub tenon.

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name of file:

G_003

Ginkgo Scarf with Stub Tenons The Ginkgo Scarf with Stub Tenons is a consistent further development of the Gooseneck Mortis and Tenon Joint with Stub Tenons, taking into account the possibilities opened up through CNC-production. Without changing the technical qualities, a new and very decorative lengthening joint was created. The tenon in the shape of a Gingko leaf can not be produced with traditional tools. The here presented joint exemplarily shows, that through the use of CNC-routers, it is possible to give wood joints a new, individual and so far unimagined shape while keeping their function.

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Survey FrameJ Joints

p1

digital wood joints

Lengthenings To open a file of the kind you need, just press the name of the appropriate folder (e. g. lDXF.10).

Name of the joint:

Name of file: in folder:

ö Shouldered Dovetail

T_004

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Shouldered Triple Dovetail

T_002

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Double Dovetail

T_001

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Triple Dovetail

T_003

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Symmetrical Double Dovetail

T_005

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1

ä


7 #

Survey FrameJ Joints

p2

digital wood joints

Lengthenings

ö Double Jigsaw

P_003

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1

ö Plain Scarf with Dovetail Keys

T_006

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Gooseneck Mortise and Tenon Joint with Stub Tenons

G_001

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Ginkgo Scarf with Stub Tenons

G_003

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

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name of file:

T_009

Halved Dovetail Corner Scarf joints are next to tenon joints among the most frequently used joints in wood and furniture construction. While traditional scarf joints are considered to be not very durable, the technical qualities of CNC-compatible joinnts have been decidedly improved. The halved dovetail corner is a corner joint that resists tensile forces. The geometry of the asymmetrical dovetail is decisive for the tensile strength. However, it is exactly this asymmetry of the dovetail that frequently seems to render the use of this joint problematic from a design viewpoint.

Example of application l Upright furniture

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name of file:

T_007

Dovetail Key Corner For the Dovetail Key Corner, the framing timbers are joint with a shaped part, the dovetail key. The dovetails of the dovetail key take on the tensile stress and the mortised tenon on the underside of the key guarantees the exactness of the angle. The joint does not have to be right-angled, this type of corner joint can be used for any angle. The thickness of the key should be at most half the thickness of the framing timbers. Suitable materials for the corner key are multiplex plywood, acrylic glass or aluminium. Depending on the choice of material, the corner key will show more or less.

Example of application l C...Frame and Panel

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name of file:

T_011

Mitre Joint with Dovetail Key Today, frame corners are mostly joined with tongues, tenons or dowels that are suitable for machine processing. The dovetail keys have been completely forgotten, even though they have been used extensively in Europe as well in Japan as the “Chi-giri-iri-o-dome-tsugi“. Like the traditional models, the Mitre Joint with Dovetail Key is held together by the dovetail key. The framing timbers are tightly wedged together. The dovetail key can be specially emphasised by the use of different woods or materials.

Example of application l Side-Table

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name of file:

P_001

Jigsaw Mitre Joint Corner joints with mitred framing timbers are considered to be particularly harmonious from a design viewpoint. From a technical viewpoint, however, the traditional mitred frame joints count among the “weak“ wood joints. Like the dovetail corner scarf, the Jigsaw Mitre Joint distinguishes itself through its good technical qualities. The geometry of the two opposing shaped tenons, whose lines run parallel either to the frame or to the mitre, guarantees tensile strength and at the same time the harmony of the joint.

Example of application l Frame-Shelf

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name of file:

X_003

Halving with Elliptical Tenon. A shaped tenon, here in the shape of an ellipse, can be added to a common halving to improve its tensile strength. To avoid shearing of the tenon, its geometry needs to be chosen so that it uses the maximum fibre length possible. An open or a blind version can be chosen for the tenon. Like with all frame joints, the correct choice of the framing timber is of vital importance for the quality of the joint. To avoid an opening of the joint, the main direction of shrinkage of the wood must not correspond with the width of the framing timber.

Example of application l C...Frame and Panel

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name of file:

P_005

Double Jigsaw-Hook Corner The Double Jigsaw-Hook Corner is a decorative corner joint with tensile strength. The hook that is fitted to the cross bar needs to be equipped with sufficient projecting wood to enable it to withstand the tensile stress. The hook at the cross bar also secures the joint against shifting sideways. The jigsaw tenon can take on a multitude of shapes, geometric, organic, or floral depending on to where it is applied. Like for all frame joints, it is important that the width of the framing timbers does not surpass 10 cm.

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p1

digital wood joints

Frame Corner Joints To open a file of the kind you need, just press the name of the appropriate folder (e. g. lDXF.10).

Name of the joint:

Name of file: in folder:

ö Halved Dovetail Corner

T_009

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Dovetail Key Corner

T_007

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 3 l MBA_SIM Part 3

ö Mitre Joint with Dovetail Key

T_011

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 3 l MBA_SIM Part 3

ö Jigsaw Mitre Joint

P_001

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ä


7 #

Survey FrameJ Joints

p2

digital wood joints

Frame Corner Joints

ö Halving with Elliptical Tenon

X_003

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Double Jigsaw-Hook Corner

P_005

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

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name of file:

K_003

Oval Shouldered Halving Common halvings are used wherever two timbers are supposed to cross in one plane. They are let into each other so that the top and undersides are on one level. The Oval Shouldered Halving is not only a decorative joint, but also one that is very stable and with an exact fit when compared with the common halving. The increased fitting surface prevents a torsion of the two timbers. The oval shouldered surfaces, that can not be produced with traditional tools, are also a sign for a CNC-compatible joint.

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name of file:

K_001

Dovetailed Cross Halving Cross halvings are traditionally produced in a multitude of variants. For example the mitred cross halving, the tabled cross halving, or the cross halving with shouldered dovetails, the Japanese “Shiho-ari-kumi-te“. It was the model for the Dovetailed Cross Halving. The shouldered dovetails give the joint a decorative effect, as well as adding to its stability. As opposed to the traditional execution of the joint, which is very costly, the dovetailed cross halving can be produced on the CNC-router without any problems.

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name of file:

K_002

Jigsaw Cross Halving The Jigsaw Cross Halving has been developed from the Dovetailed Cross Halving. It exemplarily shows that, while keeping the construction principle, a multitude of variants can be developed which have each in its own right an individual design expression. The jigsaw tenon of the cross halving points without any doubt to a manufacturing of the joint with a CNC-router, as it can not be made with traditional tools. Depending on the shape, size and arrangement of the jigsaw tenon, a joint with good or not so good technical qualities is created.

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name of file:

K_004

Cross Mitre Joint with Jigsaw Key While connectors like tongues and dowels are normally hidden in the joint, the jigsaw key of the here presented joint becomes a decorative element. It joins the individual framing timbers and gives the joint a good resistance to tensile forces. As there is a lot of strain on the key, it should be made out of an appropriate material, like, for example, multiplex plywood. Jigsaw keys can not only be used for cross halvings, but also for lengthenings, T-shaped joints, and wherever a certain numbre of framing woods need to be joined in one point.

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Survey FrameJ Joints

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digital wood joints

Cross Joints To open a file of the kind you need, just press the name of the appropriate folder (e. g. lDXF.10).

Name of the joint:

Name of file: in folder:

ö Oval Shouldered Halving

K_003

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Dovetailed Cross Halving

K_001

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Jigsaw Cross Halving

K_002

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Cross Mitre Joint with Jigsaw Key

K_004

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

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name of file:

T_008

Shouldered Dovetail Halving Halved joints are used wherever cross bars are joined to framing timbers forming a T-shape, and where a whole scarf would weaken them too much. The length of the scarf should not surpass half the width of the framing timber. The Japanese “Ari-kake“ is the model for the Shouldered Dovetail Halving. It is a joint that resists strain in all directions. This is above all achieved by the shoulder which prevents the cross bar from twisting and relieves the load from the dovetail.

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name of file:

P_004

Stop Lap with Jigsaw Key Keys are generally used where special demands are placed upon the connector, demands which the framing woods themselves cannot fulfil, or where there is not enough wood to execute a joint. For the Stop Lap with Jigsaw Key, the two framing woods are joined with a jigsaw-shaped key. The key can be made out of multiplex plywood, acrylic glass or various hardwoods. An appropriate choice of material and colour enhances the decorative quality of the joint. To prevent the cross bar from slipping through, the joint can also be made with a shoulder.

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p3

name of file:

P_006

Hooked Jigsaw Halving Table cross joints make it possible to secure connected scarf joints against tension. A precondition is, however, a sufficient length of the surpassing wood of the table. The Hooked Jigsaw Halving is a very decorative stop lap. The circular table secures the joint not only against tension, but also against torsion and shearing of the cross bar. The jigsaw table that juts out beyond the outer contour of the framing timber is responsible for the aesthetic quality of the joint, but, at the same time, it restricts its use.

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1

digital wood joints

Stop Labs To open a file of the kind you need, just press the name of the appropriate folder (e. g. lDXF.10).

Name of the joint:

Name of file: in folder:

ö Shouldered Dovetail Halving

T_008

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

ö Stop Lap with Jigsaw Key

P_004

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 3 l MBA_SIM Part 3

ö Hooked Jigsaw Halving

P_006

l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D

l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0

l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0

l Iges 5

l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2

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I

8 Help I

I

the

รถ Start

l Tutorial

l Infothek

l Examples

l About this CD

l Wood Joints

I

I

The chapter HELP provides you with access to the Acrobat Reader Manual, as well as an assistance with selected topics. Should it not be possible to solve your problem with the assistance provided, then please describe the problem you encountered in the forum DIGITAL WOOD JOINTS on the dds Website l www.dds-online.de. We will do our best to find an answer to your problem as soon as possible.

l Acrobat Reader Manual l Opening files directly l out of Acrobat Reader l Screen visualization l Importing the data files l Printing l CAD-demo versions l Webjump


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Help The graphical adaptation of the overview and text pages of the CD-ROM “Digital Wood Joints“ was optimized for the visualization on a 17 inch monitor

17“

with a resolution of 1024 x 768 pixels and 32,000 colors. For the visualization of Acrobat documents on your screen, you can define the default magnification,

768 pixels

Screen visualization

the page layout and other options, like the mode for displaying large images in the General Preferences menue in Preferences. These set ups will from then on be applied to all PDF-documents,

1024 pixels

which you open in the standard view.

32.000 colors

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Help The demo versions of the CAD-programs MicroStaCAD-demo versions

tion, MiniCad and Vellum were provided by the distributors named below. Installation instructions or system requirements and possible limitations of functions can be found in the corresponding READ ME-files. In case problems occur when installing and testing the demo versions, please contact the distributors directly.


8 #

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Help Micro Station

Doerr CAE Systeme GmbH Hauptstraße 41 D-64380 Roßdorf Tel.: +49 6071 979220 Fax: +49 6071 979229 Internet: l www.doerr-systeme.de

MiniCad

theta group Gesellschaft für EDV-Systeme bR Waldstraße 49 D-76133 Karlsruhe Tel.: +49 721 91324-0 Fax: +49 721 91324-44 Internet: l www.thetagroup.de

Vellum

VSA Software GmbH Alter Spitalweg 1 D-77723 Gengenbach Tel.: +49 7803 980952 Fax: +49 7803 980953 Internet: l www.vsa-cad.de

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Help

Printing

The graphical adaptation of the overview and text

When printing, you also need to take into account

pages of the CD-ROM “Digital Wood Joints“ was

that the page format does not correspond to the

optimized for screen visualization. Unfortunately,

paper sizes normally loaded in your printer, as it

this lessens in some cases the printing quality.

was also optimized for the visualization on the

Line graphics sometimes appear “muddy“. Texts

screen. In order to adapt the page format to the

placed on colored backgrounds do not appear

paper size, you need to activate the function

when printing on a simple laser printer. These pro-

Shrink to fit in the Printer Set Up.

blems are known and were accepted in view of an optimal screen visualization.

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Help The data files of the digital wood joints provided

Please consult the manual of the manufacturer

on this CD-ROM in the various data formats have

when importing data files into your CAD-program.

Importing the data

been carefully tested. Especially the dxf and IGES-

The digital wood joints provided on this CD-ROM

files of the digital

data files were tested in different CAD and CAM-

are represented in a 1:1 scale in all the data files.

wood joints

programs. The 3D-data files in the dxf-format ver-

The data files only contain the geometric models

sion 12 pose problems when being imported in

of the digital wood joints, which are placed com-

some CAD/CAM-programs. They are either not ope-

pletely on level 1. They do not contain dimensions,

ned at all, only party opened or displayed in a di-

texts, hatching or special types of lines.

storted way. This is not surprising, as the documentation of the dxf-format is still full of gaps, even though nearly all CAD/CAM-programs are provided with a dxf-converter. Losses when exchanging data between various CAD/CAM-programs are generally caused by the use of different entities and differently defined dxf-converters. The dxf-files of the digital wood joints were opened faultlessly, among others, in AutoCad version 14.

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Help Every digital wood joint can be opened directly out

All files of digital wood joints, which are provided

Opening files

of the Acrobat Reader from the overview pages, on

on this CD-ROM, have been carefully tested in the

directly out of the

which they are listed in all data formats provided

corresponding applications.

Acrobat Reader

on this CD-ROM. Condition is, that you have installed the application needed to open the chosen

In order to open a file, please make sure the soft-

file on your computer. While the native CAD-data for-

ware version of the corresponding application in-

mats can only be opened in the corresponding

stalled on your computer is the same to or newer

CAD-programs, the dxf-files and IGES-files can be

than the one of the file. It is normally not possible

opened in several different CAD/CAM-programs. As

to open a file if the software version of the pro-

the data exchange formats dxf and IGES can not

gram is older than the one of the file.

be allocated to a specific application, you need to select one of the applications installed on your computer in the upcoming dialog box in order to open the file.

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Help Webjumps to Internet addresses have been careWebjump

fully investigated and tested. However, it happens time and again that URL’s change or get taken out of the Net. If a Webjump does not launch the desired Website, then please check whether you can get there directly by means of your Web Browser. Should this be possible, we must have made a programming mistake, for which we beg your pardon. We would be grateful if you pointed the mistake out to us. Please set up the Weblink Preferences, ie. the choice of the Web Browser application, in the Preferences menue.

B


f

e

9

e รถ Start

l Wood Joints

l Examples

l About this CD

l Help

Infothek l Further Reading

l The Vision of Virtual Furniture Construction l List of CAD/CAMProducers l Publications of the C...Lab l List of CNC- Machine Manufacturers

e

l Tutorial

l The Model of Virtual Production

the


9

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#

CNC Manufacturers

a

Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Accu-Router Incorporated 634 Mountain View Industrial Drive Morrison, Tennessee 37357, USA Tel.: +1 615 668 7127 Tollfree US only: 800 239 5778 Fax: +1 615 668 9187

Alberti Vittorio SpA.

Deutschland / Germany:

Via Cavour, 75

Alberti Vittorio SpA.

I - 20063 Cernusco sul Naviglio (Mi)

Weidengrund 8a

Tel.: +39 92 9244445

D - 32584 LĂśhne

Fax: +39 92 9232105

Tel.: +49 5732 3064 Fax: +49 5731 16310


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Anderson Industrial Corp.

Europa / Europe:

7th Floor, No. 72,

Anderson Industrial Vertriebsgesell. für Europa mbH

Sung Chiang Road

Harteckstraße 35

Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.

D - 72250 Freudenstadt-Dietersweiler

Tel.: +886 2 5237866

Tel.: +49 7441 9121-0

Fax: +886 2 5236686

Fax: +49 7441 9121-55 Amerika / America Anderson America 9800 A Southern Pine Boulevard Charlotte, North Carolina 28273, USA Tel.: +1 704 5221823 Fax: +1 704 5220871 Singapur / Singapore Anderson Singapore 30 East Coast #02-30 Paramount Shopping Centre Singapore 1542, SINGAPORE Tel.: +65 3468660 Fax: +65 3468439 ä


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und H채ndler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Anderson

# China Anderson China Room 304, No. 5, Lane 927 Hu Qing Ping Road, Shanghai, CHINA Tel.: +86 21 64592219 Fax: +86 21 64592179

b

Balestrini Renzo SpA

Deutschland Nord / Germany North:

Via Don Struzo, 3

Niemann GmbH

I - 20030 Seveso

D - 32549 Bad Oeynhausen

Tel.: +39 362 524740

Tel.: +49 5731 40091

Fax: +39 362 551190

Fax: +49 5731 40093 Deutschland S체d / Germany South: EKM Spezialmaschinen Manfred Engel D - 96279 Weidhausen Tel.: +49 9562 8603 Fax: +49 9562 7323


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p4

Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Bermaq S.A. Ctra. Molí del Castell, s/n E - 08610 Avia (Barcelona) Tel.: +34 3 8231060 Fax: +34 3 8231067 E-Mail: bermaq@cambrabcn.es

Biesse SpA

Deutschland / Germany:

Via Toscana, 75

Gerhard Koch Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG

I - 61100 Pesaro

Industriestraße 18-22

Tel.: +39 721 4391

D - 33818 Leopoldshöhe

Fax: +39 721 453248

Tel.: +49 5202 990-0

E-Mail: marketing@biesse.it

Fax: +49 5052 990-101

Internet: l http://www.biesse.it


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und H채ndler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

B.RE.MA. Spa.

Schweiz und Deutschland /

Via Manzoni

Switzerland and Germany:

I - 22040 Mirovano di Alzate Brianza (Co)

Hans Heid AG

Tel.: +39 31 630773

Heid Tech

Fax: +39 31 632298

Hauptstrasse 26 CH - 4456 Tenniken / Basel Tel.: +44 61 97713485 Fax: +44 61 99713480

Bulleri Brevetti Srl. Viale Etruria, 16 I - 56021 Cascina (Pi) Tel.: +39 50 700150 Fax: +39 50 700618


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und H채ndler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Busellato SpA Via Thiene 118 I - 36013 Piovene Rocchette Tel: +39 445 650700 Fax: +39 445 652400 E-Mail: bussellato@gpnet.it Internet: l http://busellato.it

c

CMS SpA

Deutschland / Germany:

Via Antonio Locatelli, 49

CMS Deutschland GmbH

I - 24019 Zogno (Bergamo)

Pufferholzweg 16

Tel.: +39 345 64 111

D - 94051 Hauzenberg

Fax: +39 345 64 280

Tel.: +49 8586 2033 oder 2053

E-Mail: cms@cyberg.it

Fax: +49 8586 5802 채

Internet: l http://www.cyberg.it/cms


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

CMS

# Österreich / Austria: CMS GmbH Industriezentrum NÖ - Süd / Strasse 14 - M 24 A - 2351 Wiener Neudorf Tel.: +43 2236 61642 Fax: +43 2236 61642305 Nordamerika / North America: CMS North America, Inc. 4515 Broardmoor Avenue S.E. Grand Rapids, Michigan 49508, USA Tel.: +1 616 698 0171 Fax: +1 616 698 9263

e

EiMa Maschinenbau GmbH Gutenbergstraße 11 D - 72636 Frickenhausen Tel.: +49 7022 9462-0 Fax: +49 7022 9462-20 E-Mail: infoholz@vdma.org


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Emco Maier GmbH & Co Sudetenstraße 10 D - 83313 Siegsdorf Tel.: +49 8662 6660 Fax: +49 8662 12168

Ekstrom, Carlson & Company P.O. Box 1611 Rockford, Illinois 61110, USA Tel.: +1 815 968 0961 Fax: +1 815 968 5559

Esseteam Srl.

Deutschland / Germany:

Delle Meccanica, 3

K+K Holzbearbeitungsmaschinen GmbH

I - 36016 Thiene (VI)

Daimlerstraße 4

Tel.: +39 445 381299

D - 71546 Aspach

Fax: +39 445 369636

Tel.: +49 7191 200-93/94 Fax: +49 7191 200-95


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Essetre SpA. Via del Lavoro I - 36016 Thiene (VI) Tel.: +39 445 365999 Fax: +39 445 679018

Eumacop e.G. Johann-Friedrich-Böttger-Straße 21 D - 63322 Rödermark Tel.: +49 6074 89170 Fax: +49 6074 891717

f

Festo Tooltechnik KG Ulmer Straße 48 D - 73728 Esslingen Tel.: +49 711 3107-1 Fax: +49 711 3107-608 Internet: l http://www.festo.de


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Heian International Co.Ltd.

Zentraleuropa / Central Europe:

1418, Mishima-Cho

Stenberg Maschinen AG

430 Hamamatsu, JAPAN

Alte Steinhausgasse 5

Tel.: +81 53 441-3311

CH - 6330 Cham

Fax: +81 53 442-1856

Tel.: +41 741 6622

h

Fax: +41 741 5076

Holz-Her

USA

Reich Spezialmaschinen GmbH

Holz-Her US, Inc.

Plochinger Straße 65

5120 Westinghouse

D - 72622 Nürtingen

Charlotte, North Carolina 28273, USA

Tel.: +49 7022 702-0

Tel.: +1 704 587 3400

Fax: +49 7022 702-101

Fax: +1 704 587 3412

E-mail: marketing@holzher.de

E-mail: information@holzher.com

Internet: l http://www.holzher.de

Internet: l http://www.holzher.com


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Homag Maschinenbau AG

USA

Homagstraße 3-5

Holzma US Inc./ Division of Stiles Maschinery Inc.

D - 72296 Schopfloch

Tullp Drive 1200

Tel.: +49 7443 13-0

Gastonia, N.C. 28052, USA

Fax: +49 7443 13-300

Tel.: +1 704 861 8239

E-mail: homms@dehomag.e-mail.com

Fax: +1 704 867 4140

Internet: l http://www.wood.vdma.org/homag Asien / Asia Homag Asia Pte. Ltd. 2 Pandan Valley #01-205, Acacia Court Singapore 597626, SINGAPORE Tel.: +65 4697681 Fax: +65 4672130 Österreich / Austria Homag Austria Vertriebs- und Service GmbH Mayrwiesenstraße 25 A - 5300 Hallwang bei Salzburg Tel.: +43 662 663284 Fax: +43 662 66328422 ä


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Homag

# Kanada / Canada Homag Canada Inc. 5580, Mac Adam Road CDN - Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Tel.: +1 905 8905055 Fax: +1 905 895266 Homag France S.A. 11, Allée des Foulons - BP 135 Strasbourg Lingolsheim F - 67833 Tanneries Cedex Tel.: +33 388 771973 Fax: +33 388 771356 Italien / Italy Homag Italia S.p.A. Viale Elvezia, 35 I - 20052 Monza Tel.: +39 39 23621 Fax: +39 39 5049 ä


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Homag

# Rußland / Russia Hornberger Industrieanlagen GmbH Malye Kamenschikl 16 109172 Moskau, RUSSLAND Tel.: +7 95 9113402 oder/or +7 95 9113413 Fax: +7 95 9127462

Homatec Maschinenbau GmbH Beim Brückentor 1 D - 70839 Gerlingen Tel.: +49 7156 22073 Fax: +49 7156 26216

Hüllhorst GmbH & Co. Oberbecksener Straße 36 D - 32547 Bad Oeynhausen Tel.: +49 5731 1790-0 Fax: +49 5731 1790-19


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

IMA Maschinenfabriken Kleesmann GmbH

USA

Industriestraße 3

IMA European Woodworking Machinery Co.

D - 32292 Lübbecke

Highway 56 East

Tel.: +49 5741 3310

Franklinton NC 27525-0550 - USA

Fax: +49 5741 4210

Tel.: +1 919 494-5197

Internet: l http://www.wood.ima.de

Fax: +1 919 494-7788

i

E-Mail: ima@worldnet.att.net Frankreich / France: IMA France / Zone Artisanale des Nations 10, Rue de Suede F - 67230 Benfeld / Alsace Tel.: +33 338 587380 Fax: +33 338 587381 Schweiz / Switzerland: IMA Wehrmann AG Eichwied 5 CH - 6203 Sempach Station Tel.: +41 41 983044 Fax: +41 41 983048 ä


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und H채ndler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

IMA

# Italien / Italy: IMA Italia srl Via Caduti di R. Emilia, 2 I - 40033 Casalecchio di Reno (BO) Tel.: +39 51 754854 Fax: +39 51 755776

k

Komo Machine, Inc. 11 Industrial Boulevard Sauk Rapids, Minnesota 56379, USA Tel.: +1 612 252 9887, Tollfree US only: 800 643 5089 Fax: +1 612 656 2471 Internet: l http:// www.komo.com


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Kval Inc. 825 Petaluma Blvd. Petaluma, California 94952, USA Tel.: +1 707 762 7367 Tollfree US only: 800 553 5825 Fax: +1 707 762 0621

m

Machine Automation Technologies, Inc.

Deutschland / Germany:

1201 Minters Chapel, Bldg. # 301

Vogel Systemtechnik GmbH

Grapevine, Texas 76051, USA

Hertzstraße 6

Tel.: +1 817 481 8289

D - 97076 Würzburg

Fax: +1 817 481 5934

Tel.: +49 931 2877816 Fax: +49 931 21074


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

MaKa Max Mayer Maschinenbau GmbH FlurstraĂ&#x;e 34 D - 89233 Neu-Ulm Tel.: +49 7308 813-275 Fax: +49 7308 813-170 E-Mail: makamayer@aol.com Internet: l http://www.maka.de

Masterwood SpA. Via Romania 18/20 I - 47037 Rimini (Forli) Tel.: +39 541 740348 Fax: +39 541 742192


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

MBA Gesellschaft für Informationssysteme mbH Brotackerweg 1 D - 72169 Horb-Betra Tel.: +49 7482 91138 Fax: +49 7482 7049 E-Mail: asschäfer@aol.com

MMB Müller Maschinenbau GmbH Schelde-Lahn-Straße 208 D - 35719 Angelburg Tel.: +49 6464 370 Fax: +49 6464 5499


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Morbidelli

Internationale Vertretungen siehe SCM-Group

SCM Group Autec Division SpA. - Morbidelli

For international distribution see SCM-Group

Via Fermo, 33 I - 61100 Pesaro Tel.: +39 721 4451 Fax: +39 721 22868 E-Mail: morbidelli@woodwork.it Internet: l http://www.woodwork.it

o

Okoma Hemag Okoma GmbH Deutschland ViersenerstraĂ&#x;e 3 D - 47929 Grefrath Tel.: +49 2151 912633 Fax: +49 2151 912634


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und H채ndler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Hemag NV Belgie Hogeschuurstraat 2 B - 8850 Ardooie Tel.: +32 51 746251 Fax: +32 51 744571

C. R. Onsrud Inc. Highway 21 South P.O.Box 419 Troutman, North Carolina 28166-0419, USA Tel.: +1 704 528 0419 Fax: +1 704 528 6170 E-Mail: cronsrud@aol.com Internet: l http://www.cronsrud.com


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Pade sas di de Moliner Vinicio & C.

Niederlande + Deutschland Nord /

Via Bologna 1/3

The Netherlands + Northern Germany:

I - 22060 Cabiate (Como)

Gerd Janssen

Tel.: +39 31 766080

Linksfortweg 54

Fax: +39 31 768268

NL - 5944 Be Arcen

p

Tel.: +31 7747 31728 Fax: +31 7747 31993 Deutschland Süd + Österreich / Southern Germany + Austria: SÜMA GmbH Haupstraße 1E D - 77815 Bühl Tel.: +49 7223 9395-0 Fax: +49 7223 9395-15


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Protec Srl. V. della Meccanica S.N. I - 61100 Pesaro Tel.: +39 721 486651 Fax: +39 721 486650

r

Reichenbacher GmbH Maschinenfabrik Rosenauer Straße 32 D - 96487 Dörfles-Esbach Tel.: +49 9561 599-0 Fax: +49 9561 599-99 E-Mail: info@reichenbacher.de Internet: l http://www.reichenbacher.de


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Routec

Internationale Vertretungen siehe SCM-Group

SCM Group SpA

For international distribution see SCM-Group

Via Emilia, 77 I - 47037 Rimini Tel.: +39 541 700111 Fax: +39 541 700283 E-Mail: routec@wookwork.it Internet: l http://www.woodwork.it

Rye Machinery Ltd.

Deutschland / Germany:

Lincoln Road

Firma Willy Kammer

GB - High Wycombe Bucks, HP12 3TR

Stöppacherstraße 15

Tel.: +44 1494 441211

D - 96253 Untersiemau-Scherneck

Fax: +44 1494 440345

Tel.: +49 9565 6390 Fax: +49 9565 7721


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

s

SAOM Srl. Via V. Emanuele II, 137 I - 35020 Legnaro (Padova) Tel.: +39 49 640458 Fax: +39 49 644750

C.F. Scheer & Cie. GmbH + Co. Ludwigsburger Straße 13 D - 70435 Stuttgart Tel.: +49 711 8781-0 Fax: +49 711 8781-282

SCM Group SpA.

Deutschland Süd / Southern Germany:

Via Emilia, 71

SCM Deutschland

I - 47037 Rimini

In der Au 14

Tel.: +39 541 700111

D - 72622 Nürtingen

Fax: +39 541 700283

Tel.: +49 7022 34027

E-Mail: scm group@woodwork.it

Fax: +49 7022 33657 ä

Internet: l http://woodwork.it


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

SCM

# Novorex GmbH Sattlerstraße 7 D - 72622 Nürtingen Tel.: +49 7022 921515 Fax: +49 7022 921525 Deutschland Nord / Northern Germany: SCM Deutschland Lange Straße 44 D - 31848 Bad Münder Tel.: +49 5042 60600 Fax: +49 5042 60680 Novorex GmbH Büro Nord Alter Rehmer Weg 21 D - 32547 Bad Oeynhausen Tel.: +49 5731 213611 Fax: +49 5731 213619 ä


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

SCM

# Frankreich / France: SCM France 2/4/6 Rue Marius Chardon B.P. 61 F - 69310 Pierre Benite - Lyon Tel.: +33 472 662323 Fax: +33 472 502590 Großbritannien / Great Britain SCM Great Britain Dabell Avenue Blenheim Industrial Estate Bulwell GB - NG6 8WA Nottingham Tel.: +44 1159 770044 Fax: +44 1159 770946 ä


3 #

p 27

Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und H채ndler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

SCM

# Benelux SCM Benelux Antillenstraat 1 NL - 1521 AT Wormerveer Tel.: +31 75 6282854 Fax: +31 75 6289001 Hong Kong SCM Hong Kong A 10001 Seaview Estate 2 Watson Road North Point - Hong Kong Tel.: +852 25102328 Fax: +852 25667439 Japan: SCM Marunaka Japan Inc. 5171-1 Marikoshinden J - 412-01 Shizuoka City Tel.: +81 54 2544561 Fax: +81 54 2513078 채


3 #

p 28

Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und H채ndler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

SCM

# Singapur /Singapore Autec Asia PTE Ltd. 9 Int. Business Park - ERMS Building Singapore 2260 Tel.: +65 5666455 Fax: +65 5621356 Spanien /Spain SCM Iberica Avenida Raguell 78-80 E - 08190 Sant Cugat Del Valles, Barcelona Tel.: +34 3 6755612 Fax: +34 3 6755660 채


3 #

p 29

Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und H채ndler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

SCM

# USA SCMI 2475 Satellite Blvd. Suite B Duluth GA 30136 - USA Tel.: +1 770-813 8818 Toll-Free (US only): 800 2921850 Fax: +1 770-813 8819 E-Mail: Autec@nav.com Internet: l http://www.scmi-usa.com

Sei SpA. Via R. Ruffilli, 1 I - 24035 Curno (Bergamo) Tel.: +39 35 4376016 Fax: +39 35 463943 E-Mail: sei-spa@sei-spa.it Internet: l http://www.sei-spa.it


3 #

p 30

Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und H채ndler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Shoda Iron Works Co. Ltd. 116-6 Ohkaba-Cho Hamamatsu 435, Japan Tel.: +81 53 464-1211 Fax: +81 53 464-1210

Sicar S.p.A. Via Lama, 30 I - 41012 Carpi (Modena) Tel.: +39 59 643355 Fax: +39 59 690520

Standard Router, Inc. 4012 West Illinois Avenue Dallas, Texas 75211, USA Tel.: +1 214 337 8600 Fax: +1 214 330 5932


3 #

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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und H채ndler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Tekteam s.r.l.

Deutschland / Germany:

Via Campazzi, 24

K+K Holzbearbeitungsmaschinen GmbH

I - 36016 Thiene (VI)

Daimlerstrasse 4

Tel.: +39 445 380972

D - 71546 Aspach

Fax: +39 445 381942

Tel.: +49 7191 20093

t

Fax: +49 7191 20095

Thermwood Corporation

Europa / Europe:

P.O.Box 436

Thermwood Europe Ltd.

Dale, Indiana 47523-0436, USA

Unit 10a Belmont Industrial Estate, Post Box 8

Tel.: +1 812 937 4476

Durham DH1 1TN, Graet Britain

Tollfree US only: 800 533 6901

Tel.: +44 191 383-2883

Fax: +1 812 937 2956

Fax: +44 191 383-2884

E-Mail: dhildenb@psci.net

E-Mail: lock@hhf.oclacon.co.uk 채

Internet: l http://www.thermwood.com


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p 32

Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Thermwood

# Deutschland, Österreich, Schweiz / Germany, Austria, Schwitzerland Thermwood Niederlassung Wien Mariahilferstrasse 123/3 A - 1060 Wien Tel.: +43 1 59999-250 Fax: +43 1 59999-249

TriMa - Triebeser Maschinenbau GmbH Zeulenrodaer Straße 48 D - 07950 Triebes / Thüringen Tel.: +49 36622 292-5 Fax: +49 36622 485


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und Händler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

v

Vinyl Technologies Inc. 2 Omega Way Littelton, Massachusetts 01460, USA Tel.: +1 508 952 6430 Toolfree US only: 800 836 8983 Fax: +1 508 952 6036

w

Gustav Weeke Maschinenbau GmbH

Internationale Vertretungen siehe Homag-AG

Brocker StraĂ&#x;e 30-32

For international distribution see Homag-AG

D - 33442 Herzebrock- Clarholz Tel.: +49 5245 445 - 0 Fax: +49 5245 445 - 39 E-Mail: homms@dehomag.e-mail.com Internet: l http://www.wood.vdma.org/homag


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Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren

Werksvertretungen und H채ndler

CNC Manufacturers

Producers of CNC-Routers

Subsidiaries, dealers and agents

Wisconsin Automated Machinery Corp. 123 Jackson Street P.O.Box 3008 (54903 3008) Oshkosh, Wisconsin 54903, USA Tel.: +1 414 231 4100 Fax: +1 414 231 8166

B


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The Model of Virtual Production

The rapid development of data processing at the

The key element of virtual production is a new

end of this century has changed our society at a

kind of product: the virtual product. In their book

breathtaking speed. Just like the steam engine be-

“The virtual corporation - the customer as co-pro-

came the symbol for the first industrial revolution,

ducer“ which was published in 1993, the American

the microprocessor is the driving force behind the

economists William H. Davidow and Michael S. Ma-

dynamic changes of our days. Computers with ever

lone describe the virtual product as a product that

increasing power put their stamp on today’s life.

can be made available anywhere, at any time and

These radical changes also have consequences on

in any shape or size. To be consistent with this de-

corporations and the way they function. The mo-

finition, the product is developed according to the

del of virtual production, as various economists

wishes and ideas of the customer and only once it

propagate it, is a vision of how corporations will

is sold, it will be produced.

develop in the 21st century.

B


3

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#

The Model of Virtual Production

Further examples are, among others, the customized jeans for women “Personal Pair“ offered by Levis Co. in the USA, customized shoes by Custom Foot

A certain numbre of products, which are already

Inc., as well as music CDs, books or magazines

marketed, show that this is no utopia. The Japa-

which are put together according to the customer’s

nese optician Paris Miki offers to customers in their

wishes.

worldwide branches the possibility of making glasses according to their wishes and ideas. The opti-

All these products have in common that their de-

cian is supported by a computer system when ad-

signs already exist as digital data files, which can

vising the customer. Based on a portrait of the

be transferred via computer networks or the Inter-

customer that is taken with a digital camera, the

net, adapted anywhere and at any time according

glasses are created on the screen, following a dialog

to the wishes of the customer and then immediate-

between optician and customer. This expert system

ly produced on CNC-machines. The virtual produc-

aims at making suggestions about the shape of

tion is more in line with the work pattern of the

the glasses, which are solely based on the details

craft trade than with industrial production, even

given by the customer. As this unique pair of glas-

though it uses elements of computer-controlled

ses does not yet exist, the customer can get an

manufacturing that originate in the industry. It

idea on the screen as to whether this virtual pair

could therefore be defined as “neo-craft“ as well

of glasses suits him or not.

as “post-industrial“.

B


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The Model of Virtual Production

At the l C... Lab at the Hochschule für Gestaltung, Offenbach, to begin with, an attempt was made at

Even though the above mentioned examples are

transferring the general model of virtual production

mainly employed by large corporations in order to

to the special conditions of furniture construction

broaden their product range, the virtual production

- first as a vision, and then also as a guideline for

opens up opportunities to the craft trade by making

basic studies, design experiments and pilot projects like l NEWCRAFT.

their production of consumer goods competitive again, by promoting independent firms and the ecological idea of decentralised production. The

l Recommended literature on topics around the

virtual production can thus also be understood as

virtual corporation.

“electronic craft trade“. One problem of this new form of production, however, is the fact that the various economic fields do not progress at the same speed. Some fields, according to the expert Horst Gräber, have not even begun to make use of the potentials of the new technology. This is certainly the case where furniture construction is concerned.

B


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The Vision of Virtual Furniture Construction

The vision of virtual furniture construction was de-

veloped at the C...Lab at the Hochschule f端r Gestaltung in Offenbach on the basis of the l model

of virtual production. The economic model of vir-

Virtual Design

Product Publisher

Techno-factory

Product Gallery

tual production has been transferred to the field of furniture construction and adapted to its particularities in seminars and projects by professors and students. The vision of virtual furniture construction rests upon four pillars: l Virtual Design

l Product Publisher

l Techno-Factory

l Product Gallery

B


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The Vision of Virtual Furniture Construction

• Virtual Design Industrial design impedes the post-industrial production. This is logical: Products

that are designed for industrial manufacturing (or for manufacturing in workshops of the traditional craft trade) can either not be produced with the use of CNC-technology, or they do not make full use of its potential. Even if a design can be partly produced with the help of the new technology, it is still not suitable for the model of virtual production, as manufacturing data can not be transferred via

The virtual design results in virtual products, in

the Internet in their entirety, nor can variants be

form of data files. These data files contain the pro-

created by the simple use of parameter-controlled

duct idea with its technical and aesthetic defini-

software, etc.

tion, as well as the program for the manufacturing process. While blueprints and models are the em-

We therefore need a design that is adapted to the

bodiment of the industrial design process, the mo-

new production technology from the very start. The

del making of a virtual design is already identical

virtual design needs not only to optimize the CNC-

with its production.

compatible manufacturing of the products, but also reflect a CNC-friendly aesthetic.

B


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The Vision of Virtual Furniture Construction

• Product Publisher Theoretically, every designer could market his designs via his personal homepage. However, this entails considerable problems: How to find the product in the cyber space, and what happens when a design does not work, which means that the manufacturer simply wastes his material. There are many advantages to a collective body with quality control: the product publisher. While industrial design needs a manufacturer, the virtual design turns to a product publisher. Virtual products will thus be published, like printed or other media. This has not been customary for design - unless we care to remember the role of the sample books for the production of the craft trade of the 18th century.

B


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The Vision of Virtual Furniture Construction

• Techno-Factory It is easy to imagine firms that materialise the “virtual product“, that transform, for example, virtual furniture into real pieces of furniture with the help of computer-controlled technology. Techno-factories are medium-sized companies that use the latest technology, but have a work pattern that is similar to the traditional craft trade.

B


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The Vision of Virtual Furniture Construction

These techno-factories can develop from existing

The prospects for techno-factories are even much

business structures. As those firms mostly work

broader. In the future, mastery of CAD/CAM-tech-

one type of material, the virtual design needs to

nology will be in the foreground, rather then wor-

approach by concentrating on, e.g. furniture made

king a certain material. The processing of various

out of wood, to start with. The circumstances in

materials will again multiply the possibilities open

this field are particularly favorable as many cabi-

to virtual design - in the end, the electronic craft

net-maker’s and joiner’s workshops are already

trade could thus store more products on their hard

equipped with CNC-machining centres, and thus al-

disk than IKEA in their shelves.

ready form part of the “electronic craft trade“. In principle, these cabinet-maker’s and joiner’s workshops could download virtual designs from the Internet and manufacture a customized product to order - at the price of comparable industrial products.

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The Vision of Virtual Furniture Construction

The product gallery will meet these requirements. It looks more like a showroom than a furniture store. It could be situated in the city center and recom-

• Product Gallery Strictly speaking, there is no

mend suitable techno-factories to the customers.

need for the intermediate trade in the model for

The product gallery could also be part of a tech-

virtual production. This is also the case for virtual

no-factory, and thus offer all the benefits that

furniture construction, but only partly so, as the

make buying directly from the manufacturer at-

customer wants to touch and try out chairs, tables

tractive. It is not impossible, that various forms of

and cupboards before purchasing them. However,

the electronic trade will get together in the end,

as the system of virtual production stipulates that

just like craftsmen did in the past, settling in one

products are only made to order, the exhibittion

street or in one part of town.

consist of product samples, material samples, color charts, etc. Purchasing decisions are not based on the exhibited products, but on information about the designs that still need to be produced.

B


3

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#

Companiesvirtual?!

from: dds 9/95

Product design in the digital age

The project group “online.produkt“ at the Hochschule für Gestaltung in Offenbach (Offenbach Design School) proved that again and again universities give vital impulses for future developments, also in the craft trade.

Flexible computer data as the basis for furniture design according to the customers’ wishes - the future of the cabinet maker’s craft?


3

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#

Companiesvirtual?!

They presented completely new types of technical

from: dds 9/95

and logistical possibilities, which will be available in the future to companies and customers via CNCtechnology and data networks. The designers asked themselves how the outlook on the new computer-integrated or so-called virtual production might look in detail. How will it change the design process? Who will produce the design projects? And what influence will all of it have on the form? In the course of the seminar various possibilities of future developments were sketched using theoretical models and scenarios.

In the course of a seminar during the summer term

Their central point was a simulated founding of a

‘95, 15 designer and design students initiated the

virtual company, a company that only existed in

project “Virtual Company“ at the Offenbach Design

the data network, without geographical reference.

School. The group which calls itself “online.produkt

The virtual company publishes and sells digital fur-

- Product-Publisher for digital Furniture“, introdu-

niture and communicates exclusively on-line, that

ced itself to the public in the halls of the universi-

means via data networks. The transfer of produc-

ty during the conference C..-Lab on 13 and 14 July

ts and services takes place in the form of data.

1995.


3

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#

Companiesvirtual?!

from: dds 9/95

The project group which called itself “online.pro-

dukt“ elaborated the way everything flows and functions in a virtual company, the so-called Product-Publisher. The Product-Publisher, which could be a design studio, offers basic furniture types to its customers. A software, the Product-Finder, not only helps select from the products of the publisher, but also gives access to sample libraries and provides tools which allow to customize the basic

Buying furniture via data highway and screen - the project by the Of fenbach students might perhaps be compared to the first flight to the moon.


3

p4

#

Companiesvirtual?!

from: dds 9/95

furniture types to one’s needs and vary them according to one’s taste. This customer input can be used to optimize products and can even be deve-

loped into a participation in the design process the customer becomes co-designer. The product range can be called upon by any household connected to the network - this group chose the Internet for its project. Consequently sales can be worldwide. The Product-Publisher offers technical advice on various levels: advice on the user interface, via online dialogue and personal sales consulting in a Product-Gallery.


3

p5

#

Companiesvirtual?!

from: dds 9/95

Prof. Jochen Gros, Offenbach Design School and initiator

e

of the project group. Foto: Erika Sulzer-Kleinemeier, Gleisweiler

Virtual company, what does it mean for the designer?

Is this already reality today?

There will be design studios which will develop

The infrastructure has not been expanded suffi-

into virtual companies, that means they will offer

ciently for this development. That is to say there

products which are virtual, i.e. they could become

are not enough producers with the corresponding

real. The production program for the products is al-

machines. The second problem is that there are

ready developed in the design studios, and there

not enough furniture designs which can be produ-

will be studios which will only deal with and sell

ced according to the developed flow chart. The

information and programs.

idea of the project was therefore mainly to develop furniture types suitable for this kind of production.


3

p6

#

Companiesvirtual?!

A Techno-Factory could also be a specialized de-

from: dds 9/95

partment of an industrial enterprise or a crafts-

According to the members of “online.produkt“ a

man’s workshop that added CNC-machines to its

Product-Gallery is a place, a furniture store for ex-

machinery. Over a longer period of time a “techno-

ample, where selected furniture variants are exhi-

factory“-standard will develop. This standard in-

bited and where staff is available for personal sa-

cludes norms for quality, software as well as hard-

les consultation on the computer. Only after the

ware. Techno-Factories which fulfill this standard

design is sold, which could be on-line or via a

will be added to a database which will help the cu-

disc, the production process starts: The customer

stomer to find the right partner for the materia-

chooses a local Techno-Factory, a company which

lization of the design which he has bought.

is able to produce one-off furniture with CNC-technology. There his individually customized design is materialized. The Techno-Factory is the link between the virtual the real world. The data transfer to the Techno-Factory also happens on-line or via disc. Therefore long and expensive travel of stock can be avoided.


3

p7

#

Companiesvirtual?!

from: dds 9/95

Virtual company - a horror vision for the cabinet maker?

No. Motivation, as it will be rather advantageous for the joiner in the future when he receives ready-made data by architects and designers and will Klaus Rebholz,

thus be able to concentrate on what he has learnt,

master cabinet maker,

which is construction and realization of ideas. The

mĂśbel + design, Rust,

cabinet maker needs to be open to new ideas, to

Germany

new developments and techniques, to be prepared for the future as there is no need to fear the death of the joiner’s craft despite new technologies.


3

p8

#

Companiesvirtual?!

from: dds 9/95

FROM VISION TO REALITY In order to avoid talking theoretically about all these visions and ideas, the project group presented an introductory action in which all visitors could participate on the occasion of the exhibition C...Lab. The Offenbach Design School and the furniture store Magazin in Stuttgart featured as Product-Galleries. At both venues interested people could get an insight into the variation of designs on a monitor, demonstrated by students who took part in the project. The participants of the seminar had chosen the Ulm Stool, which had been modified, as a basic design. The Ulm Stool is a design classic which was produced with traditional jointing techniques.


3

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#

Companiesvirtual?!

from: dds 9/95

Those customers who wanted their customized Ulm Stool materialized, could adapt the basic de-

sign on screen to their wishes and then send the data on-line to the Techno-Factories Wissner in Of-

Where the development will go from here, the stu-

fenbach or from Stuttgart to Harich company in

dents in Offenbach can not tell either. Maybe in the

Albstadt. The stool can be manufactured in one

future we will buy furniture designs on-line from

operation from board material with a CNC-router;

product publishers or go to product galleries to in-

the individual pieces are put together and the

spect the newest design variations, and the cabinet

stool is ready.

maker’s workshop with the well-equipped machinery will only be called Techno-Factory. It is imaginable.

B


3

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C... Lab

Conference in Offenbach from: dds 9/95

“From the good to the virtual form - product design in the digital age“ was the theme of an

event at the Hochschule für Gestaltung in OffenThe announcement of the conference displayed on the

bach (Offenbach Design School), which set new directions.

shop-windows of the venue, a former furniture store in

The virtual form was at the center of the debate

Of fenbach.

for two days. In order to avoid that the conference might lose itself in theoretical debates on a hypothetical digital future, the initiator, the C-Lab at the

On the next floor the impact of the exhibited tech-

Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach, had the “C-

nologies on design was shown in an impressive

Forum“ taking place in a former furniture store in

exhibition, the “MöbelDigitale“ (Digital Furniture),

the center of Offenbach. About 15 companies pre-

of CNC-compatibly designed furniture and several

sented different kinds of computer-technologies in

presentations of student projects at the Offenbach

the “C-Workshop“. Here the visitor could get de-

Design School.

tailed and problem-related information on laser cutting, CNC-routers, CAD and visualization systems, data exchange in computer networks and various scanning methods.


3

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C... Labor

from: dds 9/95

A prerequisite for the virtual form is the computer technology, respectively the information or communication technology. At the beginning it was mainly used to rationalize existing processes. Today the linking-up of computer systems of different

About 15 companies presen-

fields of work in a company or company computer

ted dif ferent kinds of compu-

networks with the outside via data highway, opens

ter-technologies in the

up new potentials for future products. Certain as-

“C-Workshop“.

pects of these so-called virtual products and their corresponding design in a virtual form are of great All participants agreed that the use of new tech-

importance: i.e. participation of the future product

nologies with the computer in a key role would

user in the design process and immediate and de-

bring along radical changes in future product ge-

centralized production. Even though these products

nerations. Numerous lectures by speakers from the

are manufactured to suit a specific client, as op-

most varied disciplines gave an insight or outlook

posed to those in industrial production, this does

on possible product strategies, their technological

not mean that every product has its individual de-

context in the areas of development, production

sign. On the contrary, the variety produced is based

and distribution as well as their design.

on the generation of innumerable variations.


3

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C... Labor

from: dds 9/95

Friedrich Sulzer, visiting professor for computer technologies at the Of fenbach Design School, gave the introductory lecture.

However, this idea seems to be problematical at the moment, as various contributions to the discussion have shown. Prof. Jochen Gros from the Offenbach Design School presented his ideas on how The “MöbelDigitale“, an

virtual products might look in the future. With the

exhibition of CNC-compatible

help of his own furniture designs, which were also

furniture, showed the influen-

exhibited as prototypes in the “Möbel Digitale“, he

ce of exhibited technologies

showed possible design characteristics of the vir-

on design.

tual form.


3

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C... Labor

from: dds 9/95

With the redesign of the legendary Ulm Stool de-

Animated discussions on

signed by Max Bill he demonstrated how CNC-com-

what had been seen and

patible wood joints entail their own independent

heard took place in the “C-Café“.

aesthetics. The varied program of the conference was well balanced by a successful mixture of lectures on individual aspects of computer technology, like Virtual Reality, virtual modeling, possibilities of CNC wood working, and reports from the practice of design,

Photos: Erika Sulzer-Kleinemeier,

dds was also represented

craft trade and industry. It was a program that of-

Gleisweiler

with a stand in Of fenbach.

fered exciting and interesting information for all participants.

B


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“It´s not a trick“

Traditional wood joints radiate magical fascination.

from: dds 9/96

Especially when they come from the Far East, from Japan. They are not only an expression of skillful

It`s not a trick

craftsmanship that has been perfected over the

digital wood joints

course of centuries, but also inherent form-giving elements of traditional furniture and wooden buil-

Gooseneck Mortise and Tenon Loint with Stub Tenons.

dings. However, efficient methods of production as well as increasing use of wood materials and semi-finished products during the last centuries have diminished the importance of traditional wood joints in the craft. Not nostalgia, but a look to the future should give its stamp to the student project “Japanese wood joints ... digital“. Prof. Jochen Gros, who was in charge of the project together with Friedrich Sulzer, has described this future as “electronic craft“. A

Its model is the Japanese Mechigi-Koshikake-Kama-Tsugi.

craft that is characterised by the use of new technologies in the shape of CAD and CNC-routers.


3

p2

#

“It´s not a trick“

was to revive the technical and esthetic qualities

from: dds 9/96

of traditional wood joints in computer-aided manufacturing. And, quite incidentally, the use of CAD and the college’s own CNC-router should be learnt

The instructed target of this experimental study

by way of a concrete project.

project, which was carried out as part of the ac-

But first came the analysis of traditional Japanese

tivities of the C...Lab at the Offenbach Design School,

wood joints: the material used, the technical spe-

Model for the CNC-compatible

cifications, the manufacturing process - Harald Wel-

Dovetailed Cross Halving is the

zel, a master joiner “on the Japanese path“, was

Shi-Ho-Ari-Kuni-Te, the Japanese

invited to give a demonstration - as well as their

common halving with offset

uses in furniture and wood construction. Japanese

dovetails. The transfer from tra-

wood joints were also contrasted to comparative

ditional craft to CNC-compatible

European counterparts.

Dovetailed Cross Halving

Special attention was given to the way traditional

expresses itself in the change

tools were used and the esthetic qualities thus

from dovetail to CNC dovetail

achieved. Over centuries perfected abilities and tra-

with its rounded corners.

dition in the craft find their expression in esthetic harmony and perfection. According to Volker Klag of the project team, “the arising ornamental character of the wood joint is no end in itself, but fun-

CNC-compatible Dovetailed Cross Halving.

ctionally justified creation of adornment“.


3

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“It´s not a trick“ from: dds 9/96

Symetrical Double Dovetail

Plain scarf with dovetail keys.

Joint. Its model is the Ni-MaiAri-Tsugi, the double dovetail plain scarf

Double dovetails, also called the butterfly joint is used to join boards.

Double Jigsaw Joint. Further development of the Symetrical Dovetail Joint. The contour of the jigsaw tenon is a line drawn on the graphics tablet which is directly and accurately cut into the wood.


3

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#

“It´s not a trick“ from: dds 9/96

Open and Hidden Cross

Tenon. The cross tenon follo-

ws up the idea of creating an interlocking joint that can be used for lengthenings as well

Harald Welzel, “master joiner

as for corner joints. The

on the Japanese path“ during

hidden variant follows the

his demonstration at the

Japanese tradition with its

Of fenbach Design School

obvious understatement. Only the expert can guess the skill and dexterity of the craftsman hidden in the interior of the joint.


3

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#

“It´s not a trick“ from: dds 9/96

One-sided CNC Dovetail

As a second step, the team needed to become fa-

Tenon. Due to its form and

miliar with the digital tools: Marking-gauge, saw

power transmission the wed-

and chisel were replaced by CAD as well as the

ged dovetail tenon is charac-

CNC-router; the scribing of the wooden pieces mo-

terized by a very high stabili-

ved to the computer screen and the joiner’s bench

ty. The joint is easily taken apart by removing the wedge.

was swapped for the router table. Once acquainted with CAD and the CNC-router, the project team consisting of five students could start programming the wood joints. According to Ren Müller, it was not about “inventing the wood joints

Model for the One-sided CNC Dovetail Tenon was the Japanese “Shitage-kama“.

anew, but giving the existing a different form of expression“.


3

p6

#

“It´s not a trick“ from: dds 9/96

For the first digital trial runs on screen and at the CNC-router we followed closely our traditional models. Still, the results were not simply a direct transformation of the wood joints into the new production technology: Esthetic changes were apparent. These changes were acknowledged by adapting the original names of the wood joints.

Fingertip Tenon Joint. The sleek tenons demand for broader corner tenons at the ends which stop the joint from slipping through and thus guarantee a perfect fit. Thus the Fingertip Tenon Joint is born.


3

p7

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“It´s not a trick“

The Double Dovetail Scarf, the Japanese “Ryo-men-

from: dds 9/96

ari-tsugi“ for example, developed into the Double CNC-Dovetail Scarf with its rounded corners which

Fingertip Tenon Joint with

are so typical for the CNC-router and in a further

Key. Once the tenons are

step into the Double Jigsaw Joint, a double plain

intertwined, they are secured

scarf which rather reminds of a jigsaw piece and

by a keyso that they will not

which can not be produced with traditional tools.

come apart. The inspiration for the Fingertip Tenon Joint

The Double Jigsaw Joint as well as the other digi-

with Key was a Japanese

tal wood joints created in the course of the project

decorative joint.

do not simply represent the new production technology and the esthetic changes coming along with it. New wood joints which are an expression of their time were created. A time which is able to combine the high tech future visions with qualities and traditions in the craft which have developed over the course of centuries. Friedrich Sulzer All illustrations: C....Lab at the HfG Offenbach


3

p 8

#

“It´s not a trick“ from: dds 9/96

Illustrations of the Japanese

The German importer of

models of the digital wood

Japanese tools, Rudolf Dick

joints are shown in Wolfram

has published a video on

Graubners “Holzverbindungen

“Japanese Wood Joints“ with

- Gegenüberstellung japani-

4 interesting work situations.

scher und europäischer Lösungen“(“wood joints

The video can be ordered at:

- a comparison of Japanese

Dick GmbH, PO Box 1127,

and European solutions“)

D - 94523 Metten

published by DVA.

B


3

p1

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Digital furniture construction

from: form 149

New technologies: Forerunners of a new Aesthetics Bernard E. Bürdek on the use of computer-aided production in design and the craft trades The digital future has started and the new technologies have already been tested in a research project at the “Stuttgart Institut für Innenarchitektur und Möbeldesign“ (Institute for Interior Design and Furniture Design). Results show that the dictate of the circular saw - always straight - is broken.

Robot insects? Digital design! “Spider shelf“ (above) and “Cactus table“ (right) from the series “Nature sampling“ by Mike Meire Operator: Joe Kinze


3

p2

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Digital furniture construction

from: form 149

The sometimes all too simple strategies of the self-

At the moment we are experiencing a rapid change

appointed “design managers“ slowly obstruct the

which manifests itself not only in re-engineering,

view of the area of design dedicated to develop-

lean production or Kaizen-strategies, but also in

ment: research. Experiments that point the way

design, which shall be discussed throughout this

ahead - as opposed to many management recipes

article.

- get little attention. Certainly, not every “design experiment“ lives up

New design and new technologies stay irreconcila-

to its name. All too often the term “experiment“

ble. Even Jochen Gros’ attempt at mediation has

like the term “avant-garde“ is being misused. The

not changed much. His idea of connecting the term

quickly formed or better tinkered prototype repla-

avant-garde with high-tech production has been

ces intensive reflections on changing processes in

without consequences.

society, and especially in the fast technological de-

Therefore furniture design in particular turned into

velopment of the present.

a playground for disguised geniuses, whose concoctions receive attention only for a short while. Once the varnish was dried, the prototype already stood in a gallery or even in a museum. Design turned into fashion.


3

p3

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Digital furniture construction

from: form 149

Research out of the Public Eye

Since the beginning of the eighties, the Institute

The project was competently led by Friedrich Sul-

for Interior and Furniture Design in Stuttgart rese-

zer, a qualified cabinet maker with a master crafts-

arched, developed and designed, keeping calmly

man’s certificate and design diploma and since

apart from all trends. Under the overall control of

spring 1994, visiting professor at the Hochschule

Arno Votteler an ambitious research project was

für Gestaltung in Offenbach (Offenbach Design

started in May 1993: New Technologies in Furnitu-

School).

re Construction. Prof. Votteler, who is among the pioneers of post-war design in Germany continual-

What is it about? Again and again it is being said

ly followed his own path through decades. The re-

that the computer is not just a simple tool, but a

sults are now available in a new documentation.

tool that requires rethinking. If this is the case, then its use changes the design process. Up to

The research project in Stuttgart wanted to show

now this has become most obvious in graphic de-

the actual state of the art of this technology on

sign where the use of desktop publishing and the

one hand, and opened up new perspectives to the

related software tools make completely new forms

practice of small and medium-sized wood working

of “visualization“ possible.

firms on the other hand, bringing forth know-how

Examples are rare in industrial design. The model-

or technology transfer in the best sense.

ling workshop still seems to be the central place for the design process.


3

p4

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New Media - New Aesthetics

Digital furniture construction

However, the contributions outlined in the Stuttgart research project fortunately are not limited to

from: form 149

But this is slowly changing. Martin Burckhardt de-

a technological debate. At last the focus is again

scribes in his impressive “History of Perception“

on the content of design, for example on a “new

how computer technologies constitute a new

aesthetics“.

workshop: “We don’t deal any more with a mate-

The means of presentation of toady’s computers

rial workshop at a specific location, but with one

make the creation of new realities possible. Every

that exists only as a programming language in the

now and then designs are created which resemble

head. The dimension of possibilities (the techno-

robot insects. The dogma of the right angle (cost-

logy) therefore means: a workshop in the head.“

effective with the circular saw) is broken, and the

Can this now be applied for the design of furniture?

ornamental character is a topic again. The new tools therefore change our perception,

Whenever we talk of a transfer of “hardware“ to

they widen our aesthetic horizon. The fact that this

“software“, design “dematerializes“, which also

is being discussed again, is in my opinion the

concerns objects we live with.

“progress“ instigated by this research project. Its attempt to put the idea into practice is also exemplary.


3

p5

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Examples from the Practice

Digital furniture construction

For a few years now the product line “Architektur“ for the office by Holger Dannenberg (Werkhaus

from: form 149

During the 11th Weissenhof Seminar (at which par-

GmbH in Suhlendorf, Germany) has been using

ticipated, among others, Jochen Gros from the Of-

CNC-technology for the production of the “slot to-

fenbach Design School and Michele de Lucchi from

gether“ systems which have been awarded many

Milan) first examples of designs were sketched,

prizes since then.

transferred to the computer and then to some extent produced. Consequently they aimed to create

Thomas Geyer already dealt with similar question

interest in new technologies, with representatives

in his degree dissertation at the Offenbach Design

of craft firms as well as industry participating at

School in 1992. Today he cooperates with an inte-

the seminar. A design project at the Stuttgart aca-

rior fitting company (Marco Bosso) in Griesheim

demy resulted in “furniture in C“, which was shown

near Darmstadt. The clients are private customers

at the furniture fair in Cologne in January 1994.

who want ione-off pieces of furniture, companies in need of furnishings for their commercial projects such as shops, restaurants etc. along with light construction furniture in the corporate design of the same company, used during trade shows.


3

p6

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Digital furniture construction

from: form 149

The products of Xenoform are being designed on

the computer (for example with “Freehand“ or “Corel Draw“), followed by a three-dimensional vi-

Ulrich Thierling, a participant of the Weissenhof Se-

sualization on a CAD-system or a technical plan

minar, even plans his own edition of his company

drawn with “Auto-Sketch“. The numerical translati-

Lumcon in Filderstadt near Stuttgart. Equipped

on is done with “Auto-Cad“, and it is transferred

with a 5-axis CNC-machine center (workspace 360

as a data file “on-line“ to the CNC-router in the

x 360 cm), it already aims to leap into the new

workshop. Quotations, itemization and invoices are

technology on a big scale.

more or less automatically part of the system. Thomas Geyer states that “the on-demand production today is not more expensive any more than serial production. The table Contorno is made out of one board, the legs result out of the cutting. The individualization is done by the client through a choice from a range of surfaces, intarsia, etc.“


3

p7

#

Digital furniture construction

from: form 149

Progress in Details The table Spiralo by Friedrich

Since the summer term 1994, the product design

Sulzer unites essential aspec-

department at the Offenbach Design School has

ts of digital manufacturing:

been leading a rather intensive and design-rela-

new forms and new orna-

ted debate concerning the new CNC-technologies,

ments. The evenly increasing

especially product semantics.

spiral could not be produced

What can be made out of a board was the topic of

manually. It is the result

an introductory event by Jochen Gros and Friedrich

of the CNC-compatible

Sulzer. The designs developed subsequently

manufacturing process. Photo: Kai Loges.

should put the findings into practice. It seems important to me that a question is being asked again, which has already played a role at the beginning of this century. What does compati-

In furniture construction for example the CNC-rou-

bility along with production mean, and what influ-

ter is used mostly 2 1/2-dimensional, as opposed

ence do technical aspects have on the form?

to the vehicle design, where free form surfaces naturally need to be produced by five-axis-machines. The use of board material logically follows.


3

p8

#

Digital furniture construction

The computer-aided technology now offers a new

from: form 149

vidualized. Traditional ways of manufacturing be-

scope. Tenon joints can easily be changed or indi-

The jointing technologies, i.e. tenon joints, clearly

come economical again and can be applied effi-

show what this means. Up to now planks and bo-

ciently. This high precision in wood working could

ard were worked upon in a vertical position with

not be achieved in this way before.

the circular saw or router. Now the board is put in horizontally and worked upon by the router.

So far it is undisputed that the economic viability

New kinds of corner ljoints are a result of this. De-

can be increased by the use of CNC-machines. Craft

tailed research means using technology in a way

firms report a yearly increase of 5% and more.

that, for example, joints are created to hold even

Even though design examples are still modest, the

without glue. The technical skills required for te-

reflections already contain a new factor. Beyond

non joints allowed a cabinet maker to use them

the meta-design debates popular with new design

exclusively for the production of an one-off piece

and media theorists, new answers emerge to old

of furniture. The extensive use of serial production

questions. If computer technologies change our li-

eliminated this element.

ves and awareness, they subsequently change the daily routine of designing. To reflect upon this, and therefore to research, seems to me the primary quality of these works.


3

p9

#

Digital furniture construction

from: form 149

Interface-Design in a New Light This project also makes the currently so fashiona-

Holger Dannenberg has been

ble interface-design appear in a new light. In the

using CNC-technology for

course of the rapidly changing electronics in near-

several years for his product

ly all parts of life, we have lost the insight into the

line “architecture for the

“essence“ of things long ago. Users manuals need

of fice“ (Werkhaus GmbH in

to cover up the poor interface-quality of products;

Suhlendorf ) to produce the

they already become instructions for survival.

meanwhile many times prize-

Typical for this is the take-away furniture which,

winning slot together systems.

neatly taken to pieces, is supposed to be picked up and put together by the customer. Who has not experienced the helplessness that overcomes oneself at home after having opened IKEA’s little bag and spread out its contents. The accompanying tools are pathetic, the assembly instructions “made in...“. And if one or two screws are missing then, everything collapses.


3

p 10

#

Digital furniture construction

Presenting a wide Variety One remaining problem is how to convey to the

from: form 149

potential customer the great variety made possi-

Simple fittings without screws or hinges is how fur-

ble through new technologies. Of course, in every

niture can work as well. You get the construction

ordinary furniture store there are also only a few

plans on-line from a central place and the materi-

selected examples and thick catalogs completing

al from a local building material supplier.

the range. Bundles of paper resulting from “sam-

How the pieces are fitted together is also a que-

ple books“ of the craftsmen make choices more

stion of design. The natural “mappings“, according

difficult for the customer. Can he “imagine“, or else

to Donald A. Norman, become noticeable again.

“draw a picture“ of how things would look like in

The unpleasant side of electronics can be turned

his home?

into the opposite through its meaningful use. Things become clear again, an effect strongly re-

What would be the alternative? The market for new

commended to be used in furniture construction.

electronic storage media has been booming for two to three years now. About 600 MB of data can be stored on a CD-ROM: texts and numbers, still or moving pictures (digitized video sequences or films) and, of course, music. This media therefore suggests itself for the objectives that have been described here in order to be able to “draw oneself a picture“.


3

p 11

#

Digital furniture construction

from: form 149

The sample books become digital. Through inter-

The planned CD-ROM version will still go further.

active media, an up to now unknown multitude of

Proposed are construction plans, CNC-router pro-

possible combinations (so-called hyper-links) can

grams for production or Quick-Time video clips(di-

be presented to the interested customer. The disk

gitized video sequences) to explain the machines

version of the book “Digitaler Mˆbelbau“ (digital

that were used for a particular process. The often

furniture construction), which has now been pu-

questioned “added value“ of an electronic book as

blished in a Windows version, already has several

opposed to a printed book becomes obvious. Lea-

advantages compared to the printed book. The li-

fing through a book will give way to a journey

near nature of the book is broken, explanations,

through virtual spaces, whose destination can only

complementing picture material, names and terms

be reached through intensive personal experiences.

- all this can be activated by a mouse click.

Japanese automobile companies have already put

This certainly has advantages, even though the

up interactive terminals in their “show-rooms“

user surface of this version leaves a great deal to

where the customer can put together the car he

be desired. The enormous amount of text (directly

desires, choosing from a multitude of components.

taken from the book version) has not yet been vi-

The terminals are connected on-line with the factory

sually adapted and reading from the monitor is

and the delivery is due only a few days later.

quite exhausting.


3

p 12

#

Virtual Worlds

Digital furniture construction

Not all of it is only for the future. A good example is the university library in Frankfurt/Main. In 1994

from: form 149

Plans for interactive TV in the USA even go one

an “info-net“ was put into operation which permits

step further. You can chose products sitting on

direct access to a CD-ROM server. On the server

your sofa and order via back channel. Your credit

there are a multitude of silver discs which can be connected to from anywhere at any time. 450 reader desks are furnished with PCs which can be used for investigations even in libraries world-wide via a network and the World Wide Web (an information service of the Internet).

The table Contorno from the program of the company Xenoform is made out of one board; the form of the legs results out of the cut. Individual cutting is possible: various sur-

card will be debited and all that is left to do is to

faces, intarsia, etc. can be

fill up the peanut bowl and get beer from the ref-

produced without problems.

rigerator. However, these are exceptions. Experts agree, the new “media-variety“ will look differently.


3

p 13

#

New Alliances

Digital furniture construction

Consequently the “virtual companies“ will undoubtedly form an alliance with “virtual media“. So

from: form 149

With the increasing extension of ISDN-services, it

far only the outlines of the consequences of these

will soon be possible for the individual to click

new forms of technology become apparent. At the

into the net from anywhere, the home office for ex-

moment production and reception change at a

ample.

high speed. As far as design is concerned, the

Not only investigation, but also “lending“ will be

much talked about “data super highway“ is not

organized differently soon. The library of congress

only technological, but foremost containing infor-

in Washington, for example, is already open 7

mation. If our ways change through and with the

days a week 24 hours a day for everybody. Via mo-

new media, then things simply call for new

dem and the Internet it is possible to rummage or

“forms“. Design, whose business is visualization

search for a specific subject. And when there are

and communication, needs to face this challenge

no copyrights restrictions, the desired documents

today.

can be transferred to anybody’s PC. Keeping these visions in mind, the present CD-

The potential of new fields of activity is in the non-

ROM boom is certainly only a “transitional techno-

material, the software or the virtual and no longer

logy“. Authors, publishers and distributors practice

in designing small chairs and tables plus their

with these silver discs for the next generation of

packaging.

publications, which will be part of a global network and available any time and at any place.


3

p 14

#

Digital furniture construction

from: form 149

The media artist and theoretician Peter Weibel summed up current tendencies in art: The indivi-

dual work of art fades, the coherence of the work is in the foreground. What is most exciting about “digital furniture construction“ is the whole context: customer, designer and producer come closer together - virtually of course. Then the networks make sense, whereas the 500 planned TV channels are senseless. Paul Virilio, one of the promoters of the new media and acceleration theories, predicts: “The metadesign of customs and social behavior in the post industrial era will take over from the design of

Bernhard E. Bürdek is designer, publicist and pro-

forms and objects in the industrial age.“

fessor for design. He teaches at the Offenbach Design School and runs the office “Vision & Form“ in Oberhausen.


3

p 15

#

Digital furniture construction

from: form 149

Angular and round table by “Jahn Design“ in Stuttgart. Here as well the furniture is cut out of flat board, as is compatible with production, put together and glued.


3

p 16

#

Digital furniture construction

from: form 149

Clamping of the mold and press fit are well-known construction principles. New to woodwork is the combination of these two principles . The Ulm Stool - a homage to Max Bill by Jochen Gros - where the tenons press into each other and hold even without glue. Suddenly this design classic appears in a new light.


3

p 17

#

Digital furniture construction

from: form 149

What can be made out of a board: The side-table by Dirk Sch‰fer is being stabilized by a simple tenon and mortise joint. The design of the top shows: ornaments are possible again.


3

p 18

#

Digital furniture construction

from: form 149

A gentle click when it engages gives the user the appropriate feedback - it fits and is stable. When designed in this way the instruction becomes superfluous as things are brought back to life again, an ef fect which could be used very well particularly in furniture construction.

B


3

p1

#

“0nline.produkt“

user interface called Product-Finder and an illust-

from: Form 151

rated hyper-text glossary where all these new terms are being explained. Finally you can down

With “online.produkt“ in the Internet.

load a dxf-file onto your own computer: Geometri-

the possibilities of the “virtual production“

cal data of the famous Ulm stool, created with a

are being tested.

CAD-program and modified for CNC-production. The use of these data for the average net surfer seems questionable on first glance - who, after all, has a CNC-router in his basement? It logically follows that the sense of this virtual offer can rather be found in theoretical discussion. Working through the web-page it becomes clear: “online.produkt“ is the planning game of a group of students at the Hochschule für Gestaltung in Offenbach (Offenbach Design School). 14 prospective product designers worked in the summer term ‘95 under Professor Jo-

Rummaging the Internet for design, you can come

chen Gros on the task of correlating existing mo-

across a web-site of a company called “online.pro-

dels and thesis on design in the age of the data

dukt“. This company self-confidently describes itself

networks with practical experiences.

as a virtual company, as the first Product-Publisher. You will also find the model of an interactive


3

p2

#

“0nline.produkt“

Factory. Traditional factories become mainly sup-

from: Form 151

pliers of semifinished products and black box-like

The hypothesis of future virtual production, for-

functional groups; the retail trade mutates into

mulated by Jochen Gros (1), is a condensate of his

Product-Galleries which exhibit samples and mate-

own works on the effects of information technolo-

rials.

gy on design (2) and the book The Virtual Corporation by the American economists William H. Da-

A number of advantages are evident: Transportati-

vidow and Michael S. Malone (3).

on shifts from the real motorway to the data hig-

It is based upon the following idea: Interlaced in-

hway. The customer’s wish for individual products

formation systems turn product development into

could be fulfilled at low costs. The concept of the

an interactive process between customer and pro-

production-compatible form comes into play again:

ducer. The customer becomes co-producer or pro-

However, this argument from the times of the

sumer, the manufacturer or designer becomes a

Werkbund now demands products which can be

Product-Publisher. This process is supported by

produced preferably in one go by CNC-machines,

multi-media programmes, Product-Finders which of-

out of flat board for example. Its effect is a re-

fer orientation in a new multitude of possibilities.

striction on the freedom of design which needs to

At the same time an interlaced CAD/CAM system

be counterbalanced by advantages. Turning this

enables you to develop a virtual product which

complex model real, in practice, seemed difficult -

only exists as a data product on the screen and

Jochen Gros therefore suggested to his students to

which can be materialised at any place with the

found a Product-Publisher.

corresponding CAM-equipment, a so-called Techno-


3

p3

#

“0nline.produkt“

A team of 14 students worked on putting a theo-

from: Form 151

retical concept into action. The task of defining the context and filling terms with meaning established

In order to offer a platform for this experiment, the

itself of being of equal importance to the actual

C -Lab for computer technology at the Offenbach

work on the company concept. The following me-

Design College organised a conference on 17 and

thod of working proved itself. The students inven-

18 July 1995: From the good to the virtual form.

ted a story of origin for every term in order to build a bridge from the future scenario back to a familiar situation in the present. Thus several possible origins of the technofactory emerged: a craft company which added a CNC-machine to its machinery, CNC-production departments of the industry which became independent profit centres, or even subcultural neighbourhood workshops. The outcome was the presentation of “online.produkt“ with text and illustrations at an exhibition. They now aimed at being able to demonstrate as many elements as possible in a working state for the time of the conference. Therefore the first virtual product of the company program was the beforementioned Ulm Stool. In order to make individualize it, “online.produkt“ offered the conference


3

p4

#

“0nline.produkt“

Design School in the field of CNC wood working,

from: Form 151

put itself at their disposal figuring as a decentral production unit with roots in the craft trade. The Stuttgart furnishings store Magazin cleared some space for “online.produkt“ which was turned into a Product-Gallery equipped with stool, internet-terminal and notice boards. To speculate on the possibilities of the Internet is one thing - to use it another. Some illusions of speed and interactive multi-media

guests to change size and proportion of the design - it thus became a multifunctional piece of furniture, from plant pillar to garden bench. The Wissner company - a manufacturer of CNC-routers who gave live demonstrations of its machines at the conference - took on the role of the Techno-Factory. sketches by (c) Stefan Leowald

The interior fitting company Harich from Albstadt in Swabia, an experienced partner of the Offenbach


3

p5

#

“0nline.produkt“

Technically, the virtual production can already work

from: Form 151

- the experiences made with “online.produkt“ con-

possibilities have been dispersed by collapsing te-

firm this statement by Jochen Gros. However, the

Literature:

lephone lines and crashing www-servers. However,

need for explanation of the model and the lack of

1. Jochen Gros;

one thing crystallised: The electronic media crea-

evidence show: There is not only a lack of pro-

“Virtuelle Alternativen?“

ted even at the college a new basis for interdisci-

ducts which are compatible with the model, but

in: Dagmar Steffen (Hg.);

plinary co-operation as can be demonstrated with

there are also other open questions: Where, for ex-

“Welche Dinge braucht

the illustrations by Stefan Leowald, student of vi-

ample, are the markets for virtual products? What

der Mensch?“

sual communication at the Offenbach Design

exactly are the advantages for the customer and

Giessen: Anabas-Verlag 1995

School, which he created on the graphics tablet.

what price will he be prepared to pay for them? What exactly means individualisation and how will

2. Jochen Gros;

product identities be created in the future? The stu-

“High-Tech-Avantgarde“

dents of the coming terms at the Offenbach Design

(1), (2), (3)

Schoolwill not run out of seminar themes for quite

in: form 117-I-1987, 118-II-

some time.

1987, 119-III-1987

3. The Virtual Corporation William H. Davidow und Micheal S. Malone Harper Collins, New York 1992

B


3

p1

#

Towards a new, digital era!

Today one particular development can already be

from: BM 12/96

strial companies use the same computer-aided pro-

seen clearly. More and more craft as well as induduction technology, not only in the furniture indu-

The interplay of design and computertechnology

stry. Added to this new production technology are computer-aided systems in other areas of the ent-

According to economic experts, change is in the air. Going further than the question of choice of locaDigital design permits the

tion, which at the moment is under heated discus-

graphic visualization of ideas

sion in the industrial sector, and also increasingly

without necessarily including

in the crafts, there are various approaches follo-

production technology;

wing up on the idea of decentralized production

Spider Shelf from the Nature

concepts. Based on linking computer and commu-

Sampling series, computer

nication technology, these new concepts are as dif-

visualization; Design: Mike

ferent to 20th century industrial businesses as the

Meirè; Computer visualization: Bruno A.; Photo: MeirÊ & MeirÊ

latter were to medieval craft workshops.

erprise, for example construction, order handling,


3

p2

#

Towards a new, digital era! from: BM 12/96

accounting, marketing as well as internal and external communication. ILinking up the individual

The table “Spiralo“ with an

systems with each other, this new approach to pro-

evenly increasing spiral could

duction, also called “virtual“ production, reconci-

not be produced manually.

les the advantages of flexible, customized produc-

The table was made in the

tion of the craft with industry’s technological

course of the project “Furniture

advantages.

in C“; Design: Friedrich

The following examples show how “virtual“ pro-

Sulzer; Manufacturer:

duction starts to change the product range of the

Harich Individueller

furniture industry. A common feature is that in times

Innenausbau GmbH;

of stagnating markets, furniture is increasingly pro-

Photo: Kai Loges Fotodesign

duced once it has already been sold. The advantage is that furniture is not being produced on stock. Just like craft companies work, furniture can be made according to the customers’ requests. This virtual production is being made possible by the use of computer-aided systems for planning and production, as well as modern communication technology.


3

p3

#

Towards a new, digital era! from: BM 12/96

Digital Catalogue “ProDecor Programm“; Hettich Beschläge GmbH & Co.

Desk range “Invent

its big future potential. The core idea of the con-

your Of fice“; Waiko

cept are desktops, whose outlines can be freely

Büromöbel-Vertriebs GmbH;

designed by the customer. They can be produced

Photo: Waiko

with various materials and finishes, and may be combined with supports and accessories already “Invent your office“,

used in other programs. The only restriction to the

a concept by office furniture producer Waiko

outline of the desktops is two standard formats of

At the 1996 Orgatec fair in Cologne the office fur-

the basic material. The price of those customized

niture producer Waiko presented for the first time

desktops is 25% higher than for standard tops. A

their concept “Invent your office“. Opening a new

processing fee is added for each desktop. Once

dimension to the organization of the office envi-

the customized outline of the desktop is program-

ronment, it targets at the home office market with

med, it can be produced in any number at one of


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the CNC machining centers. Afterwards the data

“Op Top - Customized Furniture: at once!“

will be filed and the customer can place an addi-

Producing customized furniture and installing it at

tional order at any time. Delivery time of the cu-

the customer’s premises within 72 hours is the

stomized desks ranges from 4 to 6 weeks. Sales

program of the Italian furniture maker “Op Top“. To

advise is offered with every specific trade, which is

achieve this ambitious goal, computer-aided design

furnished with traditional sales material as well as

tools are used right from the start, - as opposed

design aids.

to Waiko - together with local showrooms connected directly to high-tech production centers. At the

Customized furniture of the

core of the computer-aided system is a data bank.

brand Op Top, e.g. kitchen;

It features the outlines of various box furniture,

Photo: Op Top

which can be specified. Apart from geometrical data of the furniture, all information relevant for construction, calculation as well as production can be stored in the data bank.Models of the digital furniture can be assembled and changed in dimension and function (i.e. an open shelf or a revolving door), on the computer screen by the customer together with the sales consultant. The production program offers five different standard


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Towards a new, digital era!

the immediate manufacture of customized furnitu-

from: BM 12/96

100 Op Top centers for the next five years. And all

re is made possible. Italy alone has planned 50 to

materials, which also can be used as a material mix.

this at a price which is 20 to 30 percent below the

With the help of the computer-aided design system

price of comparable furniture out of industrial pro-

the customized furniture can be visualized on the

duction.

computer screen at any moment and its price be calculated. If the client decides on “his“ furniture,

What effects have concepts like customized

it is sufficient to start the computer-controlled pro-

industrial production on the craft?

duction by pressing a single button on the key-

By replacing serial with individual furniture pro-

board.

duction, the furniture industry invades a terrain which has been the domain of the craft, due to the

Even though at first sight the customized furniture

industry’s inflexible production structure. The job

of the Op Top brand hardly distinguishes itself

distribution between industry and craft seemed

from those of the competition, it was developed

clear-cut for a long time. Industry delivered serial

from scratch in order to meet the marketing sche-

furniture which was only available in certain di-

me, which is to produce customized furniture with-

mensions and materials at an affordable price. The

in 72 hours. This also enables to optimize the

strength of the craft was furniture made to measure.

computer-controlled production process. According to Op Top, the estimated technology content is 80%. Due to this high technology content combined with the concept of decentralized production,


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Side Table “Stand By“ by Dirk

The days seem to be numbered, that a customer

Schäfer gets stability from

would come to the furniture maker with a catalog

simple slot together joints;

in hand, ordering the illustrated furniture in a dif-

The table “Stand By“ was

ferent size or material or finish. The industry has

developed in the course of

also seen signals of the time and the market. In-

the project “Furniture out of

troducing concepts of customized production, par-

a board“ by the C...Lab at the

ticularly in the lucrative market segment of refined

Offenbach Design Academy

furniture. This change of strategy is being supported by the progress made in computer and communication technology.


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Even if computer-aided tools for planning and pro-

from: BM 12/96

duction are being introduced to the craft, and the same tools as in the industry are being used, its

Slot together system table

chances in this new economic constellation are not

for two table variants;

the same to begin with. This is mainly due to a

Design: Holger Jahn, Stuttgart;

lack of financial resources and lack of cooperation

Photo: Jahn Design

within small and medium-sized craft firms. In the craft today computer-aided tools are mainly used to rationalize existing work processes. Only in few cases buying decisions are made with a view of setting a strategic course for the future, with a vision going past the every day routine. The Internet, the prototype of future information and communication systems, as well as online services, meaning data banks of suppliers, i.e. producers of fittings, are almost unknown. CNC wood machining centers are usually operated by workshop oriented variation programming, without making use of the potential of CAD systems.


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Since training courses were not necessary for pre-

from: BM 12/96

kers think they can also get away without training

vious generations of machines, most furniture mathe computer-aided tools. The result is, only a fraction of the new tools’ potential is being used. Most owners of small craft firms are rather busy with daily matters and therefore have no time to look into the future. Concepts like the “virtual company“, which show how the interconnection of

Small furniture out of the

computer and communication technology can ef-

Puzzle series; Design: David

fect the way companies are run, are mostly un-

Kawecki; Manufacturer: 3D-

known. However, these concepts also present op-

Interieurs, San Francisco, USA;

portunities and possibilities for the craft industry,

Photo: 3D-Interieurs

on the condition that it jumps on the technological bandwagon and consequently uses the technology for its strategy and aims. The precise slot joints are cut with a laser; Photo: Jahn Design


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Digital furniture design research The research project “New Technologies in Furnitu-

The illustrations show the visi-

re Making“, which was initiated by Prof. Arno Vot-

ons of the retail trade, sales

teler at the Stuttgart Institute for Interior Design

consultancy, and production

and Furniture Design in 1993, marks the beginning

in a virtual company. Above

of digital furniture design research. Under the gui-

the “furniture publisher“

dance of the designer Friedrich Sulzer the project pursued two main goals: to show the current state of computer-aided technology in furniture making and to analyze the design potentials of the new technology. In the course of a one year research

“Product finder“

project the team presented “Furniture in C“ at the International Furniture Fair 1994 in Cologne.

“techno-factory“, the project “online.produkt“ was lanced at the C...Lab at the Of fenbach Design Academy; Illustrations: C...Lab


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It also carried out the 11th “Weissenhof Seminar“

The team was influenced by statements on “the

which was geared towards designers as well as

company of the 21st century“ made in economic li-

participants from small and medium sized firms in

terature, for example in Davidow and Malone’s

the furniture industry. The aim of the seminar was

book “The virtual corporation“ which appeared in

to open new horizons to the participants concer-

1992. They concentrate on the virtual product as

ning the practical use of the new technologies and

the center piece of the foreseen economic revolu-

to discuss connected problems and possibilities

tion and on the benefits gained by the customer.

using practical examples.

The “virtual“ product’s most important characteristic is its availability - any time, any place, any size

In 1994 Friedrich Sulzer changed to the Hochschu-

or shape.

le für Gestaltung Offenbach (Offenbach Design School) and with the foundation of the C...Lab the

Since 1994 the C...Lab has tried to find out how

center of research activities moved to Offenbach.

these theoretical approaches can be practically ap-

Based on the experience gained in Stuttgart and

plied. Taking furniture making as an example, it

on Prof. Jochen Gros’ work on “electronic craft“, the

carried out various projects. Projects developing

research of the C...Lab focuses on finding out the

scenarios around virtual companies take turns with

fundamentals of CNC-compatible design and the

projects going into the design of virtual furniture

experimental development of virtual products.

or basic research on CNC-compatible wood joints.


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“Online product“

Scenarios within the Virtual Company

With increasing “virtual production“ as well as sa-

This “digital“ furniture can be sold via the Internet

les of products via the data highway, the project

and thus ordered anywhere in the world. A special

“online. product“ discussed changes for producer,

software called “product finder“ helps the customer

trade and customer. The team worked out comple-

not only to select a desired furniture from an im-

tely new technical and logistical possibilities of or-

mense offer by a “product publisher“, but also to

ganization which will open to companies as well

vary or modify it according to his needs and wis-

as customers in the near future by means of com-

hes. Once the customer has made up his furniture

puter-aided design tools, computer-integrated pro-

as a co-designer, the data file of the furniture will

duction and worldwide communication through

be transmitted to the nearest “techno-factory“

data networks. Central to the project was the si-

where it will be immediately produced on CNC ma-

mulation of a “virtual company“, a “product pu-

chines. Those “techno-factories“ might develop

blisher“ for furniture. As opposed to traditional fur-

from existing craft firms with CNC production ma-

niture companies the “product publisher“ does not

chines and an access to the data highway.

produce any furniture, but digital data files.


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Furniture for the “Virtual“ production While the project “online.produkt“ mainly discussed models of new organizational forms - the scenarios were exemplary demonstrated with the help of Prof. Jochen Gros’ CNC-compatible “Ulm Stool“ - other projects developped so-called “virtual furniture“. Pursuing thoughts that the concept of furniture to be sold world wide in form of digital data files can be produced everywhere using CNC machines, has consequences on the choice of material as well as the design of the furniture. The projects “Furniture out of flat boards“ and “100% C...NC“ aimed at developing furniture that can be produced entirely from flat boards customary in

The “Ulm Stool“ - a homage

trade and on a CNC-machining center, completely

to Max Bill by Jochen Gros

without fittings or connectors. As a result from the

- where the tenons press

projects came interesting furniture designs, like the

into each other and hold

side table “Stand By“ by Dirk Schaefer, and of course

without glue;

also many questions concerning the technology as

Design: Prof. Jochen Gros; Photo: C...Labor

well as the design.


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“Virtual“ furniture requires CNC-compatible joints

One question, for example, concerns CNC-compa-

The project “Japanese wood joints...digital“ shows

tible wood joints. In traditional furniture making vi-

how CNC-compatible, i.e. digital wood joints can

sible joints had a functional but also a design as-

look. Departing from the traditional Japanese mo-

pect. They were sacrificed during the dictatorship

dels we tried in various steps to design CNC-com-

of board material, circular saw and dowelling ma-

patible joints. This led to new types of wood joints

chine in industrial furniture production. Today with

under a functional as well as an esthetic aspect.

the introduction of CAD and CNC-machines it is

The continual development or invention of wood

again possible to produce joints economically. Ho-

joints at the C...Lab is done with the idea of having

wever, the traditional joints cannot simply be

a computer-aided construction tool for CNC-com-

transferred to the CNC-router, the way they used to

patible wood joints at the disposition of carpenters,

be made manually with saw and firmer chisel.

furniture makers or architects in the not so far off future.


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Design Research for Practice Means Dialogue!

The Jigsaw Cross Halving was

Working on publications as well as carrying out

created in the course of the

conferences and exhibitions are important activi-

project “Japanese wood joints

ties of the C...Lab on top of the project work. Apart

... digital“ at the C...Lab at

from presenting the projects to the public, the pur-

the Of fenbach Design School.

pose of these activities is to create a platform for

It is derived from the Dovetail

inter-disciplinary exchange. The scenarios, furnitu-

Cross Halving. Common model

re and wood joints we worked on in projects are

of the joints is the Japanese

not supposed to be patent remedies or products

common halving, the “Shi-ho-

ready to be put on the market, but rather an in-

ari-kuni-te“; Computer visualisation: Friedrich Sulzer; Photo: C...Lab

spiration for thought on the digital future.


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Towards a new, digital era!

With the conference “From the good to the virtual

from: BM 12/96

the C...Lab continued the discussion of the theme

form - product design in the digital age“ in 1995, which started with the “Weissenhof Seminar“ in Stuttgart. Parallel to numerous lectures and forums in which experts of the most varied disciplines discussed the effects of the new technology on design, the exhibition “Digital furniture“ took place in an

The Gooseneck Mortise and

empty furniture store. A selection of furniture was

Tenon Joint with Stub Tenons

shown that was chosen for its CNC-compatible de-

is modelled after the Japanese

sign, i.e. a design that consequently uses the po-

sickle tenon scarf with rabbet

tentials of computer technology. CNC-compatible Double Jigsaw - based on the Japanese double dovetail Photos: C...Labor


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The Open Cross Tenon Joint can be used as corner joint or as lengthening joint

Computer visualisation of the “El Toro Chair“ by Lumcom GmbH, Sielmingen


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The The “El-Toro chair“ consists out of few individual parts and distinguishes itself through clever details. Manufacturer: Biesterfeld + Weiss GmbH; Photos: B + W

The “El-Toro Chair“ by Thomas Starczewski, Ulm, was especially designed for CNC-production


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In November 1996 the series of events was continued with a conference on “Creativity & Technology“ which was organized by the North Rhine/Westphalia Wood and Syntetic Materials Professional Association in cooperation with the C...Lab. The ef-

The “Contorno table“ is made out of a single board. The form of the legs results directly from the contour of the tabletop. Design: Thom Geyer; Manufacturer: Marco Basso Innenausbau GmbH; Computer visulisation: Thom Geyer; The idee to the table was developed during the 11th Weißenhof-Seminar in Stuttgart

fects of technology on the furniture craft was chosen as its special theme.


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Side Board by Claudio Möllinger; The side board was developed in the course of the project “Furniture out of a Board“ by the C...Lab at the Of fenbach Design School; Photo: C...Lab

Detail of the hinge; Photo: C...Labor


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Strategic Alliances for the Future

If the craft trade wants to keep its market positi-

At the center of the “virtual“ organization are effi-

on in furniture making in times of technological

cient information and communication systems

change, it needs to find answers to the new flexi-

which are responsible for the distribution and coor-

bility of industrial furniture production. However,

dination of the tasks to be performed in a decen-

due to the structure of most craft firms and to their

tralized way. Models like the “product publisher“

notorious lack of resources, this is only possible

or the “techno factory“ can only give a taste of how

through strategic alliances with partners from other

such “virtual“ organizations in the craft might look

fields, i.e. design, distribution, technology and in-

like. However, to implement such models it needs

novation management, or from other trades. The

not only the commitment of specialist associations,

model of the “virtual company“ presents itself. It

publishers and research institutes, but most of all

consists of a flexible network in which each of the

the initiative of individual firms.

partners can contribute his core competencies. To the customer the “virtual“ organization appears to

Friedrich Sulzer

be a unity, but it does not need institutionalized functions like a central administration. Every partner who works towards a common business goal keeps his organizational independence.

B


f

e

9

ePublications of the

C...Lab

ö Infothek

l Digital furniture construction - New technologies:

Forerunners of a new Aesthetics

l C... Lab - Conference in Offenbach

dds - der deutsche schreiner und tischler 9/95

Bernhard E. Bürdek, form - The Quaterly Design Magazine 149, 1-1995

l It`s not a trick - digital wood joints

Friedrich Sulzer, l With “online.produkt“ in the Internet.

dds - das magazin für möbel und ausbau 9/96

The possibilities of the “virtual production“ are being tested.

l Towards a new, digital era!

Martin Krauter,

The interplay of design and computertechnology

form - The Quaterly Design Magazine 151, 3-1995

Friedrich Sulzer, BM 12/96

l Companies-virtual?!

l CD-ROM as a sample book

Product design in the digital age

New tools could bring the craft

dds - der deutsche schreiner und tischler 9/95

trade out of the defensive Jochen Gros, Politische Ökologie, Sonderheft 9, Jan. / Feb. ‘97

l Help


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CD-ROM as a sample book

The role of the craft trade defines itself today above

from: POe Sonderheft 9/97

New tools could bring the craft trade

all by contrasting itself to the industry. At the same

out of the defensive

time the local production of customized consumer

by Jochen Gros

goods has been pushed back extensively. It is true that there had always been resistant movements

The decentralized one-off or small-series produc-

in the craftsman’s or neo-craftsman’s trade, but

tion is one of the essential goals of ecological po-

none could stand up against industrial productivity.

litics. The craft trade then usually gets into the

Over one hundred years ago William Morris led the

field of vision of the ecologists. How can one de-

probably most well-known battle of retreat for the

velop this way of production more effectively than

classical craftsman’s production. In the course of

it has been done? How can one go beyond the

the Arts & Crafts Movement, which aesthetically fa-

mere attempt of reanimating the classical craft tra-

vored a shift from pomp to unpretentious forms,

de? Modern computer-technology and CNC-machines

he phrased many good arguments: “Beauty of the

present new directions.

Products“, “Joy at one’s Work“, “Harmony with Nature“ and so on. Only the economic reality stood against it. The decline of the craft trade was not to be stopped in this way.


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CD-ROM as a sample book

from: POe Sonderheft 9/97

In the 70’s the alternative craft trade nevertheless brought two new components into play, ecology

and “middle technology“. But the ecological conscience as well proved a buying motive only for some time in a limited setting and the “middle

The so-called “new design“ of the 80’s developed

technology“ concept was formulated in theory. Ne-

in the direction of art, and was therefore forced to

vertheless, its realization got stuck at the very be-

accept a manual production. The designs were so

ginning. The goal was a “new trade“ that comes to

shrill, skew and individual, that mass production

an arrangement with parts of the industrial pro-

was hardly worthwhile. Furniture, to give an exam-

duction, using industrially created materials and

ple, was welded together out of steel tubes just

semi-finished products, and copying up to certain

like at the locksmith’s and sold without any coat

degree an industrial recipe for success: the con-

of lacquer. It was supposed to look more cool and

struction of jigs and fixtures. Jigs and fixtures and

bring the prices down. In spite of that, the artisti-

special product templates were used in order to

cally inspired furniture craft still proved too ex-

make at least small series payable again. However,

pensive and in the end did not even correspond

with the end of the alternative movement, the

with the Zeitgeist any more.

“middle technologyî concept was given up.


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CD-ROM as a sample book

from: POe Sonderheft 9/97

New Tools

This kind of experience causes skepticism. There-

The new digital or computer-aided production cer-

fore, new formulas are needed upon which to base

tainly starts to move the old balance or rather the

new hopes for the craft trade. Political standards

current imbalance of craft trade and industry. In

are conceivable, but so are “new tools“. If we con-

the interplay of forces between various forms of

sider only the second possibility, then the question

production the cards are being shuffled again. And

is: What opportunities do new technologies open

it looks like the craft trade gets a special joker,

up for the craft trade or for a renewed decentra-

qualitatively new tools.

lization of our production and life style? Will the computer-aided technology be the first step to-

However, to play this card it is essential to have a

wards a more lasting way of production?

closer look at the characteristics of those new production tools. Where actually lies the central difference between the craftsman’s, the industrial and the computer-controlled production?


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from: POe Sonderheft 9/97

For years now a company called “Dick“ has in-

The main characteristic of computer controlled

creased its turnover with the tools of Japanese joi-

tools, is to combine in a completely new way the

ners and carpenters. Today those tools look almost

basic principles of craft trade and industry. While

the way they did 1000 years ago. Other tools like

the hardware (for example CNC-router, water torch

the circular saw and the planer have been electrified

and raise) consists of universal devices again - and

and optimized, but those are only gradual impro-

can therefore be considered as typical for the craft

vements. When we talk of the production techno-

- the software offers the same advantage as indu-

logy in the craft now as well as before, we mean

strial templates and devices. Surely they are not

the decentralized one-off production with a uni-

mechanically built and added to form assembly li-

versal tool.

nes, but transformed into software. When we put

The productive advantages of the industry at any

in a disc with special product data - in a way an

rate are on another level. They are not based upon

electronic device or digital template - the hardware

superior tools, but on the construction with jigs

and software jointly work like an industrial special

and fixtures. For every product a special utensil is

device, only to a high degree independent of lot

built, i.e. contour templates, raises, bending devices

size.

and so on. Assembly lines constitute only the logical sequence of the various devices. Since Henry Ford they are the embodiment of industrial special tools and naturally make sense only with big series.


3

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CD-ROM as a sample book

Equal Opportunities for Craft Trade and Industry

from: POe Sonderheft 9/97

Let us look at the development taking wood wor-

No particular term has yet been named for this

king as an example. At first the new computer-con-

new production pattern. Still it is already conside-

trolled tools are only used within the old structures

red definitely to be “post-industrial“ and “neo-

and nearly only to rationalize existing products. By

craft“ (1). It almost looks like “overcoming indu-

now the furniture industry produces 60-70% of its

strial production in the fastest possible way“, an

products with the new technology, and about 15%

appeal already made by the ecologist Herbert

of the joiner’s and cabinet maker’s workshops in

Gruhl in 1975, and it comes up to us stealthily to-

Germany have one computer controlled router (in-

day in the form of a technological revolution.

stallation cost of at least DM 130.000, it costs considerably more to newly furnish a joiner’s workshop with sawing machines and wide belt sanders) at their disposal. One needs to consciously remind oneself, that in a joiner’s and cabinet maker’s workshop there are now exactly the same computer-controlled machine tools as in a factory.


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from: POe Sonderheft 9/97

As a matter of fact, the new production technology constitutes only a necessary but insufficient condition for the development and reformation of the craftsman’s production. It is only the basis for a

Double Jigsaw Joint

possible structural change. Therefore, the new styThe new craft trade gains equal opportunities at

le of production surely also requires a new product

least concerning the production technology, some-

style and finally a lifestyle that responds to both.

thing the classical craft trade never had compared with the industry. To be precise, structural changes announce themselves, changes which will lead to a convergence of craft trade and industry. Corresponding cues are for example “electronic craft trade“ or “techno-factory“. (2)


3

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from: POe Sonderheft 9/97

The interaction between production style and product style are clear to the designer to start with.

This central design problem is maybe best shown

But, as it is well known, the industrialization of the

in a review of the history of design. Let us simply

furniture industry only started to really get going

take the example of the Thonet chairs. At the be-

after Michael Thonet had developed a chair which

ginning of the industrialization companies tried to

broke off radically from the craftsman’s techniques

mass-produce Biedermeier tables, rustic cupboards

and made deliberate use of the industrial con-

and flowery ornaments with special devices.

struction of jigs and fixtures. Since then this chair design is not only regarded as the prototype for production-compatible industrial design, but also as a precedent that shows that new forms of pro-

Shouldered Dovetail Halving

duction demand new product forms and vice versa.


3

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from: POe Sonderheft 9/97

From the view-point of production-compatible de-

sign it becomes obvious why neither the classical craftsman’s products nor the classics of industrial design are suitable for the computer controlled Gooseneck Mortise and Tenon

technology. Thonet chairs for example could never

Joint with Stub Tenons

be and still can not be produced with decentralized one-off production. The project of local customized furniture production would have to fail, if we only tried to take our current product mix over to computer-controlled production. In the same way that industrial production could only develop with production-compatible industrial design, the computer-controlled production also needs its production-compatible products.


3

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CD-ROM as a sample book

The C...Lab at the Hochschule f端r Gestaltung in Of-

from: POe Sonderheft 9/97

1994 and currently tries to develop programs for

fenbach (Offenbach Design School) was founded in

What is CNC-technology capable of?

the practical use of CNC-technology.

The classic Japanese wood joints are for several

The goal is a CD-ROM which allows for example to

reasons a suitable touchstone for the thesis that

input board measurements whereupon it automa-

the computer-controlled machines are a new tool.

tically calculates the corresponding routing pro-

These highly developed joining elements have

gram. (3)

been manufactured in nearly the same form and with the same tools for a thousand years. The ent-

However, the products must be exclusively produ-

ire industrial progress could not produce a better

ced with CNC-technology. Only then can the ad-

tool. Until today these joints cannot be industrial-

vantages of the new tool be fully used. If a furniture

ly produced. Therefore, if we succeed to produce

still contains industrial parts, i.e. a serially produced

such complex wood joints in payable one-off pro-

injection mold piece, then changes in the measure-

duction with CNC-technology, there should be ba-

ments become difficult, if not impossible. The de-

sically no problem with most other joints.

centralized production does not make sense. Embracing 100% CNC-production is decisive for the structural change. We can not tell yet though which products can actually be designed under these conditions and whether the customer gets used to their form.


3

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CD-ROM as a sample book

A joint project of the C...Lab, the Technology Center

from: POe Sonderheft 9/97

the North Rhine/Westphalia Wood and Synthetic

for the Wood Manufacturing Industry in Lemgo and Materials Professional Association has been started to explore this possibility. To start with ten prototypes of tables, stools, shelves and beds are supposed to be developed.

Virtual products out of the computer:

The Italian furniture brand “Op Top“ has already gone further. This company has developed a fran-

Tenon-Shelf System. The con-

chising model for the decentralized furniture pro-

struction is based on tenons

duction based on its own design catalogue. It con-

joints that penetrate each

sists of a “showroom“ in the city center and a

other. The shelf is stable

production site on the outskirts equipped with

even without a back due to

CNC-controlled machines. The customer who orders

an inclined track of holes in

a customized piece of furniture in the showroom

the floor shelves.

will get it within 72 hours - allegedly 20% cheaper than comparable industrial furniture. This seems credible even when the higher costs of customized one-off production are taken into account.


3

p 11

#

CD-ROM as a sample book

from: POe Sonderheft 9/97

The retail price of industrial furniture, caused by

storage costs, not salable end-of-line items, ad-

And why a special showroom when there are

vertising, transport and trade margins, is generally

enough furniture stores next door who will soon

about four times as much as the production costs.

get into the same difficulties travel agents and book shops are in. What is left is the biggest ad-

The customized craft trade can therefore produce

vantage of “Op Top“: Their own design collection.

more expensively and sell more cheaply and still

No individual joiner can afford this, not even when

have lower retail prices. Now that the “Op Top“

he cooperates with a furniture store.

The Rib-Bed. Trying to deve-

model has proved itself in Milan, it is supposed to

lop a straight slot together

be realized in 50 Italian cities and the exported all

system was in the foreground.

across Europe. If you want, an industrial mass production of decentralized “craftsman’s workshops“ and furniture stores. But the example “Op Top“ also raises questions: Why are new production centers for the decentralized furniture production necessary, if they are only equipped with the same tools as the joinery around the corner?


3

p 12

#

New Prospects

CD-ROM as a sample book

While the new tools open up a realistic chance to the craft trade of reviving the local customized fur-

from: POe Sonderheft 9/97

For design studios, however, highly interesting

niture production, the furniture industry will also

possibilities are developing. Supposing there are

try to conquer this market. The difference will then

already a sufficient number of specialists who can

probably only be comparable to McDonaldís and a

develop CNC-compatible products and offer corre-

restaurant.

sponding production programs in the Internet or on sample-CDs. Could not then any alliance of jca-

After the first concrete steps, other scenarios ap-

binet maker and furniture store put together their

pear:

own design collection from an “electronic sample book“? Would not the craft trade even have an ad-

• The more clearly the computer-controlled univer-

vantage due to its historically grown and flexible

sal tools are present, the more the structure of the

structure?

crafts according to material will lose its foundation. As wood, metal and stone can be worked in a similar fashion with the CNC-technology, there will probably develop material-overlapping “techno-factories“ due to the new technologies.


3

p 13

#

CD-ROM as a sample book

from: POe Sonderheft 9/97

• Sooner or later the awareness will develop, that

the new tools not only make the one-off payable, but are also perfectly capable of producing individual engravings, intarsia, reliefs and so on. This

prospect is called “new arts and crafts“. Then it would not be accidental, that a key term will become fashionable again during the transition from Greek Key Pattern Shelf: Both

the craftsman’s form to industrial design in the

shelf sides are cut in one go.

context of the new tools, the ornament. • While industrially produced parts would look like alien elements in the computer-controlled production, classic arts and crafts could be combined with it without problems. But only “partly handcrafted“ due to costs.


3

p 14

#

CD-ROM as a sample book

The only comfort then is that those traditional qua-

from: POe Sonderheft 9/97

craft trade and that, after all, the prospect of new

lities are already very rare today in the existing

• In the same way that the furniture production

qualities, even when mourning for the old ones, is

turns individual and decentralized, it will be pos-

not to be despised.

sible in the end to produce iron balcony gratings or garden gates with a computer-controlled laser beam, inlay work in stone with the water torch,

Notes

parts of the facade with the CNC-router and so forth. Beyond the furniture trade the view onto a “new construction trade“ opens up.

1 William H. Davidow and Michael S. Mallone: The Virtual Corporation-Structuring and Revitalization the Corporation for the 21st Century,

Finally those prospects cannot and must not hide a basic ambivalence. There is satisfaction, as the

Harper Collins, New York 1992 2 Jochen Gros: Virtuelle Alternativkultur (Virtual

supporters of the craftsman’s production style and

alternative culture), in: Welche Dinge braucht der

its ecological advantages can not be put down so

Mensch (What things does man need),

easily with by pointing out their obsolete techno-

editor Dagmar Steffen, Anabas-Verlag,

logy and lack of competitiveness.But at the same

Gießen 1995

time there is the nostalgic feeling, that many of its

3 Friedrich Sulzer: It’s not a trick - Digitale Holz

traditional qualities will get lost in the perspective

verbindungen (digital wood joints) in,

of a new craft trade.

dds - der deutsche schreiner und tischler, 9/96

B


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#

CAD/CAM Producers

a

PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

AutoCad und 3D-Studio Autodesk , Incorporated

Europa / Europe

111 McInnis Parkway

Autodesk SA, Europe Headquarters

San Rafael, California 94903, USA

20 Route de Pre-Bois

Tel.: +1 415 507 5000

Case Postale 766

Fax: +1 415 507 5100

CH - 1215 Geneva 15

Internet: l http://www.autodesk.com

Tel.: +41 61 8210204 Fax: +41 61 821010 Internet: http://www.autodesk.de 채


3 #

p2

PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

Autodesk

# Deutschland / Germany AutoDesk GmbH Deutschland Hansastraße 28 D - 80686 München Tel.: +49 89 54769-0 Fax: +49 89 54769-400 Internet: http://www.autodesk.de Österreich / Austria Autodesk Ges. m.b.H Traungasse 16 A - 4600 Wels Tel.: +43 7242 68465 Fax: +43 7242 67994 Internet: http://www.autodesk.de ä


3 #

p3

PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

Autodesk

# Frankreich / France Autodesk S.A.R.L. Bâtiment Les Ellipses 3/5, Avenue du Chemin de Presles F - 94150 Saint-Maurice Tel.: +33 1 45115000 Fax: +33 1 45115001 Internet: http://www.autodesk.co.fr Großbritannien / Great Britain Autodesk LTD. England Cross Lanes GB - Guildford, Surrey GU1 1UJ Tel.: +44 1483 303322 Fax: +44 1483 304556 ä


3 #

p4

PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

Autodesk

# Italien / Italy Autodesk S.p.A., Italy Milanofiori Strada 4 Palazzo A5 I - 20090 Assago (Milano) Tel.: +39 2 57510050 Fax: +39 2 57510205 Internet:http://www.autodesk.it Niederlande / Netherlands Autodesk Benelux B.V. Rivium Quadrant 81 NL - 2909 LC Capelle a/d IJssel Tel.: +31 10 2885024 Fax: +31 10 2022155 채


3 #

p5

PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

Autodesk

# Japan Autodesk, Ltd.; Japan Yebisu Garden Place Tower, 24F 4-20-3, Ebisu Shibuya-Ku Tokyo, 150, Japan Tel.: +81 33 4739511 Fax: +81 33 4736755 Internet: http://www.autodesk.com/japan/ Singapur / Singapore - Regional Headoffice for ASEAN Autodesk Asia Pte Ltd. 391B Orchard Road #12-06 Ngee Ann City, Tower B Singapore 238874 Tel.: +65 7355388 Fax: +65 7355188


3 #

p6

PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

c

CADKEY Baystate Technologies

Deutschland / Germany

33 Boston Road

Advanced Grafics Software GmbH

Marlborough, MA 01752-1829, USA

Mollenbachstraße 37

Tel.: +1 508 229 -2020

D - 71229 Leonberg

E-Mail USA: sales@baystate.com

Tel.: +49 7152 42081

E-Mail International: mgraveli@baystate.com

Fax: +49 7152 74166

Internet: l http://www.cadkey.com

d

DeskArtes DeskArtes Oy

Deutschland / Germany

Apollonkatu 3 C 17

Macrotron Systems

Fin - 00100 Helsinki, Finland

Wamslerstraße 9

Tel.: +358 0 444335

D - 81804 München

Fax: +358 0 444 601

Tel.: +49 89 45111-0

E-Mail: DA@deskartes.fi

Fax: +49 89 45111-102

Internet: l http://www.deskartes.fi

E-Mail:RGS@mcsystems.macrotron.de


3 #

p7

PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

f

Form Z autodessys Incorporation 2011 Riverside Drive Columbus, Ohio 43221, USA Tel.: +1 614 488-8838 Fax: +1 614 488-0848 Internet: l http://www.formZ.com

m

Mastercam CNC Software, Inc.

Deutschland / Germany

344 Merrow Road

Intercam

Tolland, Conneticut 06084, USA

Lagesche Straße 12

Tel.: +1 860 875 5006

D - 33102 Paderborn

Fax: +1 860 872 1565

Tel.: +49 5251 14905

E-Mail: mcinfo@mastercam.com

Fax: +49 5251 14906

Internet: l http://mastercam.com

E-Mail: info@mastercam.de Internet: http://www.mastercam.de ä


3 #

p8

PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

Mastercam

# Schweiz / Switzerland Intercam SA Case Postale 249 CH - 1110 Morges Tel.: +41 21 8022790 Fax: +41 21 8022878

MicroStation Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Europa /Europe

690 Pennsylvania Drive

Bentley Systems Europe

Exton, PA 19341, USA

Wegalaan 2

Tel.: +1 610 458-5000

NL - 2132 JC Hoofddorp

Tollfree: 800-Bentley

Tel.: +31 23 5560560

Fax: +1 610 458-1060

Fax: +31 23 5560565 채

E-Mail: family@bentley.com Internet: l http://www.bentley.com


3 #

p9

PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

Bentley Systems

# Deutschland / Germany Bentley Systems Germany GmbH Carl-Zeiss-Ring 3 D - 85737 Ismaning Tel.: +49 89 962432-0 Fax: +49 89 962432-20 Asien-Pazifik / Asia - Pacific Bentley Systems Pty.Ltd. Suite 8, 51 City Road South Melbourne VIC 3205, AUSTRALIA Tel.: +61 3 9699 8699 Fax: +61 3 9699 8677


3 #

p 10

PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

MiniCad Diehl Graphsoft, Inc.

Belgien / Belgium

10270 Old Columbia Road

Design Express

Columbia, MA 21046, USA

Kon Astridlaan 56

Tel.: +1 410 290 5114

B - 2800 Mechelen

Fax: +1 410 290 8050

Tel.: +32 15 202828

E-Mail: marketing@diehlgraphsoft.com

Fax: +32 15 202868

Internet: l http://www.diehlgraphsoft.com

E-Mail: info@designexpress,be Internet: http://www.designexpress.be Deutschland / Germany ComputerWorks GmbH Schwarzwaldstraße 67 D - 79539 Lörrach Tel.: 07621 4018-0 Fax: 07621 4018-18 ä


3 #

p 11

PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

MiniCad

# Frankreich / France CESYAM 62, Rue Jeanne d’Arc F - 75013 Paris Tel.: +33 1 44065251 Fax: +33 1 44065355 E-Mail: info@cesyam.com Großbritannien / Great Britain Gomark 10 Hurlingham Business Park Sulivan Road GB - London SW6 3DU Tel.: +44 171 7317930 Fax: +44 171 7361215 Internet: http://www.gomark.com ä


3 #

p 12

PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

MiniCad

# Italien / Italy VideoCom Via Lamarmora 7 I - 27058 Voghera (PV) Tel.: +39 383 3666712 Fax: +39 383 43899 E-Mail: info@videocom.it Internet: http://videocom.it Österreich / Austria Net Consult Körblergasse 5 A - 8010 Graz Tel.: +43 316 348540-0 Fax: +43 316 348540-30 ä


3 #

p 13

PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

MiniCad

# Japan A & A Co., Ltd. Takadanobada Building Nishi-Waseda 2-20-15 Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo Tel.: +81 3 52852351 Fax: +81 3 52822350 E-Mail: info@aanda.co.jp Internet: http://www.aanda.co.jp Kanada / Canada PaXar 3443 Fulton Road CDN - Victoria BC, V9C 3N2 Tel.: +1 250 474 8975 Fax: +1 250 474 8976 E-Mail: sales@trimount.com 채


3 #

p 14

PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

MiniCad

# Niederlande / The Netherlands Design Express NL - 3311 AD Dordrecht Tel.: +31 78 6139439 Fax: +31 78 6136429 E-Mail: info@designexpress,be Internet: http://www.designexpress.be Schweiz / Switzerland ComputerWorks Langgartenweg 27 CH - 4123 Allschwill Tel.: + 41 486 4343 Fax: +41 486 4342 E-Mail: info@computerworks.ch Internet: http://www.computerworks.de


3 #

p 15

PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

p

Pytha TWS Flassig GmbH

Österreich / Austria

Inselstraße 3

Herwig Peer EDV-Berater

D - 63741 Aschaffenburg

Joisingweg 2A

Tel.: +49 6021 37060

A - 3264 Gresten

Fax: +49 6021 48455

Tel.: +43 7487 2656

E-Mail: pytha@compuserve.com

Fax: +43 7487 26564

Internet: l http://www.pytha.de

E-Mail: peer@via.at USA Parallel Performance Group Inc. 450 Jordan Road, Suite E Sedona, Arizona, 86 336 - 4100 USA Tel.: +1 520 282-6300


3 #

p 16

PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

s

SolidWorks SolidWorks Corporation

Europa / Europe

150 Baker Avenue Ext

SolidWorks Europe

Concord, MA 01742, USA

Parc du Relais - Bat. D

Tel.: +1 508 371-2910

201, Route de la Seds

Tollfree: 800 693-9000

F - 13127 Vitrolles, France

Fax: +1 508 371-7303

Tel.: +33 442 150385

E-Mail: info@solidworks.com

Fax: +33 442 753194

Internet: l http://www.solidworks.com Deutschland / Germany SolidWorks Germany Rotwandweg 5a D - 82024 Taufkirchen Tel.: +49 89 612956-0 Fax: +49 89 612956-16 채


3 #

p 17

PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

SolidWorks

# GroĂ&#x;britannien / Great Britain SolidWorks UK 4 Home Farm GB - Luton Hoo, Bedfordshire LU1 3TD Tel.: +44 1582 431166 Fax: +44 1582 431188 E-Mail: info@solidworksuk.co.uk Asien-Pazifik / Asia-Pacific SolidWorks Asia Pacific 27 Jalan Jintan #12-29 Singapore 229017, SINGAPORE Tel.: +65 8353952 Fax: +65 8353714 E-Mail: Cmartel@SolidWorksAP.com.sg


3 #

p 18

PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

v

Vellum CAD Ashlar Inc.

Deutschland / Germany

2001 Gateway Place, Suite 300 West

Vellum Software GmbH

San Jose, CA 95110, USA

Burgweg 79

Tel.: +1 408 487 9800

D - 63897 Miltenberg

Fax: +1 408 487 9815

Tel.: +49 9371 65397

E-Mail: info@ashlar.com

Fax: +49 9371 69241

Internet: l http://www.ashlar.com

E-Mail: Info@vellum.de Internet: http://www.vellum.de Frankreich / France Vellum France S.A. 50, avenue de la République F - 92120 Montrouge Tel.: +33 1 40848801 Fax: +33 1 40849702 E-mail: lbergeron@cadware.fr Internet: http://cadware.fr ä


3 #

p 19

PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

Ashlar

# GroĂ&#x;britannien / Great Britain Vellum Software Ltd. Bishop Bateman Court GB - CB5 8AQ Cambridge Tel.: +44 1 223 300943 Fax: +44 1 223 363812 E-Mail: info@vellum.uk Internet: http://vellum.com Italien / Italy Mikron Research Computer Viale Zileri 8/23 I - 36050 Monteviale Tel.: +39 444 961243 Fax: +39 444 960521 E-Mail: mikron@mikron.it


3 #

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PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems

International Distribution

Virtual Gibbs Gibbs and Associates

Schweiz + Frankreich /

5400 Tech Circle

Switzerland + France

Moorpark, CA 93021, USA

Productec SA

Tel.: +1 805 523 0004

Les Grands-Champs 85

Tollfree Us only: 800 654 9399

CH - 2842 Rossemaison

Fax: +1 805 523 0006

Tel.: +41 32 4214433

E-Mail: sales@gibbsnc.com

Fax: +41 32 4214438

Internet: l http//:www.gibbsnc.com

E-Mail: productec@access.ch Internet: http//:www.access.ch/productec Deutschland / Germany Wingenbach & Pickhardt GmbH Potshauser StraĂ&#x;e 12 D- 42 651 Tel.: +49 212 2541610 Fax: +49 212 2541611 E-Mail: info@datho.de Internet: http//:www.datho.de

B


9

p1

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CAD/CAM Producers

a

CAD/CAM-Systeme für Holzverarbeitung

Internationaler Vertrieb

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems for the wood worker

International Distribution

AlphaCAM Licom Systems Ltd.

Deutschland / Germany

Davenport Road

Licom Systems GmbH

GB - Coventry, CV5 6PY

Kaiserstraße 100

Tel.: +44 1203 713439

D - 52134 Herzogenrath

Fax: +44 1203 714449

Tel.: +49 2407 91867-0 Fax: +49 2407 91867-5

Licom Systems Inc. 125 Turnpike Road

Niederlande / The Netherlands

Westborough, MA 01518, USA

Licom Systems bv

Tel.: +1 508 870 1941

Kloosterstraat 3

Fax: +1 508 870 5793

NL - 5408 BA Volkel

E-Mail: 100522.123@compuserve.com

Tel.: +31 413 272092

Internet: l http://www.licom.com

Fax: +31 413 274360 ä


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p2

CAD/CAM-Systeme f端r Holzverarbeitung

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems for the wood worker

International Distribution

AlphaCAM

# Schweiz + Frankreich / Switzerland + France MW Programmation CNC Rue Ch. Schaublin 2 CH - 2735 Malleray Tel.: +41 32 4916530 Fax: +41 32 4916535

AutoCabinet 15200 Babcock Avenue Rosemount, MN 55068, USA Tel.: +1 612 423-9285 Toolfree US only 800 242-6903 Fax: +1 612 423-9285 e-mail: sales@autocabinet.com Internet: l http://www.autocabinet.com


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p3

CAD/CAM-Systeme für Holzverarbeitung

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems for the wood worker

International Distribution

b

BormCAD Borm- Informatik GmbH Kanalstraße 1/2 D - 72669 Unterensingen Tel.: +49 7022 67592 ? Fax: +49 7022 67594

Cad Tischler Cad+T GmbH

Deutschland / Germany

Gewerbepark 16

Cad+T Consulting GmbH

A - 4052 Ansfelden

Vattmannstraße 1

Tel.: +43 729 83100-0

D - 33100 Paderborn

Fax: +43 729 83100-60

Tel.: +49 5251 150-240

E-Mail: office@cadt.co.at

Fax: +49 5251 150-249

Internet: l http://www.cadt.co.at

E-Mail: cadt-pb@t-online.de


3 #

p4

CAD/CAM-Systeme für Holzverarbeitung

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems for the wood worker

International Distribution

CAMtasik Direkt CNC-Systeme GmbH Brühlweg 26 D - 73553 Alfdorf Tel.: +49 7172 93770-0 Fax: +49 7172 93770-8

d

DaVinci Pinncalc - EDV Beratungs- und Vertiebs- GmbH Norderstraße 8 D - 24340 Eckernförde Tel.: +49 4351 7505-40 Fax: +49 4351 7505-70


3 #

p5

CAD/CAM-Systeme für Holzverarbeitung

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems for the wood worker

International Distribution

h

Hoku CAD Osterloh, G. Schuler

Österreich /Austria

& Partner Software GmbH

Unternehmensberatung

Fritz-Müller-Straße 100

G. Schuler & Partner GmbH

D - 73730 Esslingen

Schillerstraße 12

Tel.: +49 711 93940-0

A - 8940 Liezen

Fax: +49 711 93940-40

Tel.: +43 3612 26978 Fax: +43 3612 26978 Italien-Tirol / Italy-Tyrol CS-Computer Service GmbH Unterdrittelgasse 16 I - 39042 Brixen (Bo) Tel.: +39 472 831122 Fax: +39 472 831125


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p6

CAD/CAM-Systeme f端r Holzverarbeitung

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems for the wood worker

International Distribution

i

I-CAD Vellum VSA Software GmbH Alter Spitalweg 1 D - 77723 Gengenbach Tel.: +49 7803 980952 Fax: +49 7803 980953 E-Mail: raepple@vsa-cad.de Internet: l http://www.vsa-cad.de

IMOS - CAD/CAM Dr. F. Prekwinkel GmbH Lehmkuhlenweg 9 D - 32052 Herford Tel.: +49 5221 97005 Fax: +49 5221 97009


3 #

p7

CAD/CAM-Systeme für Holzverarbeitung

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems for the wood worker

International Distribution

k

Korpus Vlecad BVBA Nijverheidslaan 1557 B - 3660 Opglabbeek (Limburg), Belgium Tel.: +32 89 853133 Fax: +32 89 853135 E-Mail: Vlecad@tornado.be

l

LignoCAD DCD GmbH

Magic CAD/CAM

Erpenbeckerstraße 68

ECO GmbH

D - 49525 Lengerich

Robert-Bosch-Str. 81

Tel.: +49 5481 2462

D - 73431 Aalen

Fax: +49 5481 3973

Tel.: +49 7361 9272 - 0 Fax: +49 7361 9272 - 1 0 E-Mail: info@eco-cadcam.de Internet: l http://www.eco-cadcam.de


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p8

CAD/CAM-Systeme f端r Holzverarbeitung

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems for the wood worker

International Distribution

m

MegaCAD Hokoplan EDV-CAD Planungsb端ro Linkeweg 12A D - 84032 Landshut Tel.: +49 871 693-00 Fax: +49 871 693-47

o

OSD-Spirit OS Datensysteme GmbH Am Erlengraben 5 D - 76275 Ettlingen Tel.: +49 7243 509-0 Fax: +49 7243 509-200


3 #

p9

CAD/CAM-Systeme für Holzverarbeitung

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems for the wood worker

International Distribution

p

ProHandwerk theta group - Gesellschaft für EDV-Systeme

Österreich / Austria

Waldstraße 49

Net Consult

D - 76133 Karlsruhe

Körblergasse 5

Tel.: +49 721 91324-0

A-8010 Graz

Fax +49 721 91324-44

Tel.: +43 316 348540-0

E-Mail: haerdle@thetagroup.de

Fax: +43 316 348540-30

Internet: l http://www.thetagroup.com

E-Mail: netconsult.graz@digitalis.co.at Internet: l http://www.digitalis.co.at/NCGraz

Pytha CAD/CAM Holz Frank Ruschmeier Benzstraße 33 D - 71083 Herrenberg Tel.: +49 7032 9269-00 Fax: +49 7032 9269-31 E-Mail: info@ruschmeier.de


3 #

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CAD/CAM-Systeme für Holzverarbeitung

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems for the wood worker

International Distribution

r

ROBOCAD Holz Robocom Deutschland Dipl.-Ing. M. Pook Jahnstraße 5 D - 74336 Brackenheim Tel.: +49 7135 4016 Fax: +49 7135 12715

RouterCIM CIM-Tech 1020 Carolina Drive West Chicago, IL 60185. USA Tel. +1 708 876-7600 Fax: +1 708 876-9836 E-Mail: sales@cimtech-cnc.com Internet: l http://cimtech-cnc.com


3 #

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CAD/CAM-Systeme für Holzverarbeitung

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems for the wood worker

International Distribution

s

Scanvec The Graphics Specialist Atidim Industrial Park, POB 58158

Deutschland / Germany

IL-61581 Tel Aviv

Scanvec Deutschland

Tel.: +972 3 6474477

Dr. Georg Heim Straße 15

Fax: +972 3 6490778

D - 97688 Bad Kissingen

e-mail: intisales@scanvec.com

Tel.: +49 971 72600

Internet: l http://www.scanvec.com

Fax: +49 971 726060 USA Scanvec USA 115 West Street Willmington, MA 01887, USA Tel.: +1 800-866-6227 / 508-694-9488 Fax: +1 508-694-9482 e-mail: usasales@scanvec.com


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CAD/CAM-Systeme für Holzverarbeitung

Internationaler Vertrieb

CAD/CAM Producers

PC- based CAD/CAM-Systems for the wood worker

International Distribution

w

WoodCAM Gesellschaft für Technische Rechneranwendungen mbH Felix-Wankel-Straße 10 D - 73431 Aalen Tel. + Fax : +49 73661 94110

B


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CAD/CAM

e

รถ Infothek

l PC-based CAD/CAM-Systems

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Producers l CAD/CAM-Systems for wood processing


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e

9

e รถ Infothek

further

reading

l Wood joints l CAD/CAM for wood processing

l Virtual companies l Practical examples

Articles on this CD-ROM do not appear on the reading list.

l Help


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Holzverbindungen

Further reading

Woodjoints

Mechanical Connections in Wood Structures American Society Of Civil Engineers, 1995 ISBN 07-8440-1101

Fügen und Verbinden / joint and connection Werner Blaser Einführung von / Introduction by Charles von Büren Mit Essays von / Essays by Wolfgang Bessenich und / and Lucius Burckhardt Übersetzung / Translation into English by D. Q. Stephenson Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Boston, Berlin, 1992 ISBN 3-7643-2647-6 (Basel) ISBN 0-8176-2647-6 (Boston)


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Holzverbindungen

Further reading

Woodjoints

Joining Wood Techniques for Better Woodworking Nick Engler Rodale Press, Incorporated, 1992 ISBN 0-8759-6121-5

Fine Woodworking on Joinery Fine Woodworking Magazine The Taunton Press, Inc., Newtown 1985 ISBN 0-918804-25-6 in Germany to be ordered from Dick GmbH, D - 94523 Metten

Encyclopedia of Wood Joints Wolfgang Graubner The Taunton Press, Inc., Newtown 1992 ISBN 156158004X


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Holzverbindungen

Further reading

Woodjoints

Holzverbindungen Gegenüberstellungen japanischer und europäischer Lösungen Wolfgang Graubner Deutsche Verlags - Anstalt GmbH, Stuttgart 1986 ISBN 3-421-02850-8

Wood Joints Stepbystep Techniques Anthony Hontoir Trafalgar Square Publishers, 1992 ISBN 1852234423

Good Wood Joints Albert Jackson, David Day F & W Publishing Inc., 1995 ISBN 1558704086


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Holzverbindungen

Further reading

Woodjoints

Handbuch der Konstruktion: Möbel und Einbauschränke Wolfgang Nutsch Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt GmbH, Stuttgart 1971 14. Auflage 1994 ISBN 3-421-02275-5 in Germany to be ordered from Dick GmbH, D - 94523 Metten

Das Holz und seine Verbindungen

oder / or

Traditionelle Bautechniken in Europa und Japan

Wood and Wood Joints

Klaus Zwerger

Building Traditions of Europe and Japan

Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Berlin, Boston, 1997

Klaus Zwerger

ISBN 3-7643-5482-8

Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Berlin, Boston 1997 ISBN 0-8176-5483-6

The Art of Japanese Joinery Kiyosi Seike Weatherhill, New York 1977 ISBN 0-8348-1516-8

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CAD - CAM in der Holzverarbeitung

Further reading #

CAD - CAM in the woodworking industry

CAD - CAM in der Holzverarbeitung CAD - CAM in the woodworking industry

Software-Parade Hg. dds - das magazin fĂźr mĂśbel und ausbau Sonderdruck 1996/97 dds, Stuttgart 1997 to be ordered from l dds media service


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CAD - CAM in der Holzverarbeitung

Further reading

CAD - CAM in the woodworking industry

Industrielle Möbelfertigung Innovation, Management, Fertigung DGfH Fachtagung 17. und 18. Juni 1996, Dresden Hg. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Holzforschung e.V. Eigenverlag, München 1996

Digitaler Möbelbau Chancen und Probleme moderner Technologien in der Holzverarbeitung Hg. Institut für Innnenarchitektur und Möbeldesign Stuttgart Mit Beiträgen von H. E. Dehlinger, J. Gros, M. de Lucchi, F. Sulzer und A. Votteler Edition dds/ Deutsche Verlags - Anstalt GmbH, Stuttgart 1994 to be ordered from l dds media service


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CAD - CAM in der Holzverarbeitung

Further reading

CAD - CAM in the woodworking industry

Leitfaden CNC-Bearbeitungszentren im holz- und kunststoffverarbeitenden Handwerk Reiner Janz Hg. Technologie-Zentrum Holzwirtschaft GmbH, Eigenverlag,Lemgo 1995 zu beziehen über den Fachverband Holz + Kunststoff NRW, Dortmund

Neue Technologien für die Möbelindustrie Ein europäisches Verbundprojekt Hg. R. Marutzky, M.H. Kessel Wilhelm - Klauditz- Institut, Fraunhofer-Arbeitsgruppe für Holzforschung Braunschweig Eigenverlag, WKI-Bericht Nr. 25 Braunschweig 1991


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CAD - CAM in der Holzverarbeitung

Further reading

CAD - CAM in the woodworking industry

artigiani, modelli, numeri / craftsmen, models, numbers Felice Ragazzo stileindustria no. 6, 06/97 EditorialeDomus, Milano

bottega virtuale / virtual workshop Felice Ragazzo stileindustria no. 7, 09/97 EditorialeDomus, Milano

Flexibel , umweltbewußt und produktiv Neue Produktionskonzepte für die Holzindustrie heute und morgen 8. Holztechnisches Kolloquium Braunschweig, 1991 Hg. E. Westkämper Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Werkzeugmaschinen, TU Braunschweig Vulkan Verlag, Essen 1991 ISBN 3-8027-8604-1


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CAD - CAM in der Holzverarbeitung

Further reading

CAD - CAM in the woodworking industry

CNC-Fräsen: Holz Fachtagung der NC-Gesellschaft 12. und 13. Oktober 1995, Gütersloh Hg. NC - Gesellschaft e.V., Ulm Mit Beiträgen von F. Sulzer, H. Kempkensteffen, H. Windmann, G. Hoppe, F. Saueressig, U. Kleemann, F. Möller und J. Bußmann Eigenverlag, Ulm 1995

CNC- Holztechnik - Innovation - Wirtschaftlichkeit Fachtagung der NC- Gesellschaft e.V. 8. und 9.Mai 1992, Paderborn Hg. NC- Gesellschaft e.V., Ulm Mit Beiträgen von A. Laika, M. Kreidel, R. Gehr, T. Grüner, W. Hahn, K. Richter, B. Wiethase und W. Visser Eigenverlag, Ulm 1992

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Praxisbeispiele

Further reading

Casestudies

Transfer virtuosi / Virtuoso transfers Clino T. Castelli Interni - La Rivista Dell’Arredamento, Nº 471, 07/97, Seite / page 134 Schuster bleib bei deinen Leisten Ein neues technisches Verfahren soll das Schuhmacherhandwerk wieder beleben Christine Ax in Sonderheft 9 - Werkstatt für Nachhaltigkeit - Handwerk als Schlüssel für eine zukunftsfähige Wirtschaft Politische Ökologie, Januar/ Februar 1997, 15. Jahrgang, Seite / page 29


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Praxisbeispiele

Further reading

Casestudies

Sakko in Echtzeit Berliner Techniker haben einen elektronischen Maßschneider entwickelt Der Spiegel, 19.8.1996, Seite / page 142

L’ebenista informatico / Computerized woodworking Daniela Falsitta Interni - La Rivista Dell’Arredamento, Nº 471, 07/97, Seite / page 130

Mit neuer Technik machen Arbeitnehmer Druck in der Textilbranche Gegen den Abwanderungstrend gründen entlassene Fachkräfte eigene Firma in Mönchengladbach Computer schafft Jobs Christine Kostrzewa Frankfurter Rundschau, 19.9.1996


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Praxisbeispiele

Further reading

Casestudies

Maßgeschneiderte Möbel - Sofort! Das OpTop-Projekt oder die Realisierung einer faszinierenden Idee Manfred Maier BM - Bau und Möbelschreiner 8/97, Seite / page 22

Nur auf Bestellung In den USA revolutioniert eine neue, datengestützte Produktionsmethode die Fabriken Isidor F. Stein Wirtschaftswoche Nr. 13, 23.3.1995 Seite / page 124 /125

Nach Mass? - Sofort! Die Revolution im Möbelbau aus Turin Friedrich Sulzer dds - das magazin für möbel und ausbau 1/97, Seite / page 69


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Praxisbeispiele

Further reading

Casestudies

Massgeschneidert Ein Schreibtisch in nur 7 Minuten Friedrich Sulzer dds - das magazin fĂźr mĂśbel und ausbau 9/97, Seite / page 40 ff

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Virtuelles Unternehmen / Virtuelle Produkte

Further reading

virtual corporation / virtual products

Virtuelle Unternehmen:

oder / or

Begriffsbildung und -diskussion

online im Internet / online on the web:

O. Arnold, M. Härtling

http://www.uni-leipzig.de/wifa/oki/VU-Abs.html

Hg. Prof. Dr. Dieter Ehrensberg Institut für WirtschaftsinformatikUniversität Leipzig Eigenverlag, Arbeitsbericht Nr. 9 Leipzig 1995

Losgröße eins und virtuelle Produkte Computertechnik und neue Fertigungsweisen verändern Anforderungen und Möglichkeiten des Designs Bernhard E. Bürdek in Blick durch die Wirtschaft der FAZ1.8.1996, Jahrgang 38 / Nr. 146


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Virtuelles Unternehmen / Virtuelle Produkte

Further reading

virtual corporation / virtual products

Neue Organisationsformen im Unternehmen Ein Handbuch für das moderne Management Hans-Jörg Bullinger, Hans Jürgen Warnecke (Hg.) Springer Verlag GmbH & Co KG Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1996 ISBN 3-540-60263-1

Agile Product Development for Mass Customization M. David, P.E. Anderson, B. Joseph Pine Irwin Professional Publishing, 1996 ISBN 07-8631-1754

The Virtual Corporation

oder / or

Structuring and Revitalization the Corporation

Das virtuelle Unternehmen

for the 21st Century

Der Kunde als Co-Produzent

William H. Davidow und Michael S. Malone

William H. Davidow und Michael S. Malone

Harper Collins, New York 1992

aus dem Englischen von Hasso Rost

Reprint Edition, Harperbusiness, 1993

Campus Verlag, Frankfurt / Main, New York 1993

ISBN 08-8730-6578

ISBN 3-593-34947-7


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Virtuelles Unternehmen / Virtuelle Produkte

Further reading

virtual corporation / virtual products

Anders arbeiten, anders leben - andere Gesellschaft? Edgar Einemann in Verlagsbeilage „CeBIT’97“ der Frankfurter Rundschau, 13.3.1997

Virtuelle Alternativen? Jochen Gros in: Welche Dinge braucht der Mensch? Hintergründe, Folgen und Perspektiven der heutigen Alltagskultur Hg. Dagmar Steffen Anabas-Verlag Günter Kämpf KG, Gießen 1995 ISBN 3-87038-275-9


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Virtuelles Unternehmen / Virtuelle Produkte

Further reading

virtual corporation / virtual products

Virtuelle Organisation Informations- und kommunikationstechnische Infrastrukturen ermöglichen neue Formen der Zusammenarbeit Stefan Klein Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik, Hochschule St. Gallen, 1996 Online im Internet / online on the web: http://www-iwi.unisg.ch/iwipub/internet.htlm

Wer sich ändert, gewinnt Verhängnisvolles Schielen auf den Erfolg von gestern Ulrich Klotz Teil 1 der Serie: „Lehren aus der Computerindustrie“ in Blick durch die Wirtschaft der FAZ, 24.1.1995


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Virtuelles Unternehmen / Virtuelle Produkte

Further reading

virtual corporation / virtual products

Abschied vom Dienstweg Die Arbeit in der Informationsgesellschaft Ulrich Klotz Teil 2 der Serie: „Lehren aus der Computerindustrie“ in Blick durch die Wirtschaft der FAZ, 25.1.1995

Vom Massenmarkt zum virtuellen Produkt Ulrich Klotz Teil I der Serie „ZukunftsArbeit“ in Computer 1/96, Bund Verlag, Köln 1996

Vom Fließband zur Firma Morgana Ulrich Klotz Teil II der Serie „ZukunftsArbeit“ in Computer 2/96, Bund Verlag, Köln 1996


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Virtuelles Unternehmen / Virtuelle Produkte

Further reading

virtual corporation / virtual products

Kooperationsmodelle für vernetzte KMU-Strukturen C. Kocian, F. Milius, M. Nüttgens, J. Sander, A.-W. Scheer Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik, Universität Saarbrücken Eigenverlag, Heft 120, Saarbrücken 1995

Being Digital

oder / or

The Road Map for the Survival

Total Digital

on the Information Highway

Die Welt zwischen 0 und 1

Nicholas Negroponte

oder Die Zukunft der Kommunikation

Hodder & Stoughton, London 1995

Nicholas Negroponte

ISBN 0 340 64525 3

Aus dem Amerikanischen von Franca Fritz und Heinrich Koop C. Bertelsmann Verlag GmbH, München 1995 ISBN 3-570-12201-8


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Virtuelles Unternehmen / Virtuelle Produkte

Further reading

virtual corporation / virtual products

Mass Customization

oder / or

The New Frontiers in Business Competition

Massgeschneiderte Massenfertigung

B. Joseph Pine

Neue Dimensionen im Wettbewerb

Harvard Business School Press, Boston 1993

B. Joseph Pine

ISBN 08-7584-3727

aus dem Amerikanischen von Hannelore Fischer Wirschaftsverlag Carl Ueberreuther, Wien 1994 ISBN 3-901260-66-8

Digital Economy

oder / or

Promise and Peril in the age of

Die digitale Revolution

networked intelligence

VerheiĂ&#x;ung einer vernetzten Welt -

Don Tapscott

die Folgen fĂźr Wirtschaft, Management

McGraw Hill, New York 1996

und Gesellschaft

ISBN 0-07-062200-0

Don Tapscott Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1996 ISBN 3-409-18929-7


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Virtuelles Unternehmen / Virtuelle Produkte

Further reading

virtual corporation / virtual products

Revolution der Unternehmenskultur Das Fraktale Unternehmen Hans JĂźrgen Warnecke Springer Verlag GmbH & Co KG Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1993, 2. Auflage ISBN 3-540-57196-5

Mass Customization: Japan’s New Frontier R. Westbrook, P. Williamson in: European Management Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1 pp. 38-45, 1993

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l Infothek

l Examples

l About this CD

l Help

H

Tutorial H H

lFrom the CAD data file to the router

H H

l Data formats on this CD-ROM

H

l Wood Joints

H

the

HH

H

H H

รถ Start

รŸ D H

D H

D

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The Data formats

....cad

Data format of the FBZ CAD/CAM 2D software of

The digital wood joints are available in the CAD-

the l MBA GmbH, formerly Robert Bosch GmbH.

format - version 1.2 / update 98 - as 2D router con-

The FBZ CAD/CAM 2D software is mainly used in

tours, and include the selection of necessary tools,

vocational schools for training purposes, together

the dimensions of the stock part, as well as the

with the CNC-training machine FBZ. The FBZ

work plan. These data can be passed on directly

CAD/CAM 2D software contains all functions that

to the corresponding CNC-training machine FBZ

are necessary to create simple geometries and to

40/30 via the postprocessor, and then be machi-

prepare their machining. The machining process

ned.

can be simulated on the screen for controlling purposes.

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The Data formats ....dgn

Short for design-file. Design files of the CAD program

The digital wood joints are available in the DGN-

MicroStation of l Bentley Systems Incorporated

format as solids. The parametric volumes can be

are filed in IGDS data formats. This format has

opened with the MicroStation Modeller. Should the

been tried and tested for many years. It allows the

DGN-files be opened without the Modeller, the so-

user to read and work on data from former Micro

lids will be converted into wire frames. They can

Station versions without having to convert them

be processed as wire frames, but they can not be

first. In addition, this data format is binary-compa-

converted back to a parametric solids.

tible for all operating systems; i.e. data can be processed on a Windows PC or Macintosh today, and

The following MicroStation demo-version is available

processed further on a Unix system tomorrow, and

on this CD-ROM: MicroStation SE incl. Modeller for

vice versa. This ensures a maximum of flexibility in

Windows.

processing and a high investment protection for existing data.

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The Data formats ....dxf

Short for drawing exchange format. DXF has been developed by the software company l Autodesk. It is a neutral data exchange format for exchanging design-files. Most CAD/CAM-systems support importing and exporting of design-files in the DXFformat. Due to its restrictive number of describable geometric elements, DXF is mainly suited for the transfer of simple geometrical models. The efficiency of the DXF-format is directly linked to the development of AutoCad. The digital wood joints are available as 2D-contours in the DXF-format version 10 and as 3D wire frames in the DXF version 12.

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The Data formats ....iges

Short for initial graphics exchange specification, an interface for the transfer of product definition data, that is independent of the software producer, and normed by ANSI, the American National Standardisation Institute. IGES allows the transfer of all currently available wire frames and surface models, as well as technical drawings. IGES transfers apart from geometric elements - e.g. point, line, circular arch, plane or free form areas - and symbolic elements - e.g. text, dimensioning or hatching - also structural elements like allocations and attributes. It is, however, only of limited use for the transfer of complex surfaces and solid models. The digital wood joints are available as surface models in the IGES-format version 5.

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The Data formats ....mcd

Short for MiniCad file. MiniCad is a wire frame and surface Modeller of lDiehl Graphsoft, Incorporated. The digital wood joints are available as wire-frames in the MiniCad-format version 7. There is a demo-version of MiniCad 7 Interior Fittings for Windows and for MAC-OS on this CDROM.

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H

on this CD-Rom

ö Tutorial

The digital wood joints are available on this CD-ROM in various data formats: 2 data exchange formats, 3 native CAD formats and 2 CAM formats. Please take note of your CAD or CAM software producer’s instructions when importing data via the exchange formats DXF and IGES.

l ....dgn

l ....dxf

l ....mcd

l ....iges

l ....vlm

l ....cad l ....sim

l Help

H

H H

H

ß D Data formats H

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The Data formats ....sim

Short for simulations file. The SIM-file contains the NC data file of a workpiece according to DIN 66025 in the ASCII-format. The digital wood joints are available as data files in SIM-format. They have been prepared on the FBZ CAD/CAM 2D software by the MBA GmbH, and generated with the postprocessor for their use on the MBA CNC-training center FBZ 40/30. In the header of the SIM-file are given the dimensions of the stock part- U=length; V=width; W=height - with the position of the workpiece origin X, Y, Z as well as the reference point as starting point for the tools - E=cutter diameter; L=cutter length; H=total cutter length. SIM-files can be opened with text editors, like Wordpad or Simpletext.

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The Data formats ....vlm

Short for Vellum-file. Vellum is a wire frame, surface or solid Modeller of l Ashlar, Incorporated. The digital wood joints are available in the Vellumformats version 2.7 as 3D wire frames and in version 4.0 as surface models. There is a demo-version of Vellum 3D Pro 4.0 for Windows and for MAC-OS on this CD-ROM.

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CNC-maschines in wood processing

In the course of the last forty years - in 1957 the U.S. Air Force installed the first NC-milling machine in their workshops - a multitude of CNC-machines BIMA-machining center - 3

has been developed for the craft trades and indu-

NC-axes, tool changer and

stry. The most common CNC-machines in the field

console table - for a complete

of furniture construction and interior fitting are

processing of workpieces

CNC- machining centers, CNC-machines with more

Photo IMA AG

then 3 axes and CNC-panel saws. The following text primarily deals with CNC-machining centers.


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CNC-maschines in

wood processing CNC-machining centers have developed from CNCdrill centers and CNC-routers. They combine drill, saw and router units and allow to completely machine a workpiece on its topside and edges. At least 3 mobile NC-axes are standard today for CNCmachining centers. According to the construction of the machines, we distinguish: CNC-training machine -

• moving table machines, where the X and Y-move-

3 NC-axes - put to use

ments are executed by the machine table, and

Photo MBA GmbH

the Z-movements by the tools, • fixed table machines, where the X, Y and Z-movements are executed by the tools, while the machine table can be turned and swung due to additional axes, • gantry machines with fixed or mobile bridges.


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CNC-maschines in

wood processing Tool changer and clamping devices are further components of CNC-machining centers. Due to their 3 NC-axes and a limited Z-axis lift, CNC-machining centers are primarily suited for processing flat workpieces. Depending on the use, the range offered by manufacturers starts with simple training machines and CNC-machining centers for craftsmen’s workshops, and ends with machines that take over routing and drilling operations in Schematic illustration of a

flexible production lines of the furniture industry.

3 axe gantry CNC-machining center

The digital wood joints presented on this CD-ROM are developed in such a way, that they can be machined on all common CNC-machining centers without having to change the position of the workpiece. For training purposes on the CNC-trainig machineFBZ 40/30 of the MBA GmbH, the digital wood joints are provided on this CD-ROM in the CAD-format, which can be directly opened in the FBZ CAD/CAM software.

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Data transfer

Once the geometric data of a workpiece are created, they can be used to generate technical drawings with dimensioning, and instructions concer-

In order to successfully transfer the geometric data

ning material and manufacturing. They also form

of the workpiece to a CAM-system, various things

the basis for NC-programming. The transfer of geo-

need to be considered already at the time the

metric data from a CAD-system to a CAM-program

workpiece is generated in CAD.

is usually accomplished with neutral data exchange formats, like DXF or IGES. CAD/CAM link-ups do very rarely function straight away. They require purposeful testing of the various adjustment options of the export and import filters in both programs.


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Data transfer All geometric data need to be geometrically perfect. Even the smallest deviation of transitions, e.g. between a straight line and a circle, means that the straight line is not accepted as a tangent. Geometric parts that exist twice, or geometric leftovers that were not trimmed or deleted, also cause problems generating the NC-contour. Lines used to help with constructing or dimensioning, and hatchings are considered to be geometric elements by the CAM-system, and should therefore not be passed on in the first place. Working consequently with different levels in the CAD-system not only facilitates the data transfer, but also the generation of the NC-process in the CAM-program.

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Structure of a NCprogram according to DIN 66025 / ISO 6983/1 - 1982 Even though modern CAM-systems and workshop

• geometric instructions, that control the relative

orientated programming systems automatically ge-

movements between workpiece and tool through

nerate NC-programs, so that hardly anybody still

space coordinates,

programs directly using machine code, it is an advantage to have some basic knowledge of the structure of a NC-program.

• technological instructions, that define tools, revolutions per minute and feed, • motion instructions, that define the type of movement (direction, entry move, etc…),

NC-programs consist of a series of instructions in

• switchboard instructions, like spindle on/running

address format, which the CNC-machine works one

direction right, change tools, or clamp workpiece,

by one in order to process a workpiece. The follo-

• corrective calls, like compensation of the contour

wing instructions can be distinguished:

cutter line or the cutter radius, or shifting of the workpiece origin, and • calling up subprograms and cycles for work pro cesses that are always repetitive.


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Structure of a NC-program

according to DIN 66025 /

ISO 6983/1 - 1982

The structure of a NC-program is determined by the syntax - rules of a programming language ac-

ROHTEIL

cording to DIN 66025, page 1 - and the semantic -

X+0000.00 Y+0000.00 Z+0000.00 U+0050.00 V-0190.00 W-0032.00

meaning of the individual words according to DIN

REFERENZ

X+0245.72 Y+0099.56 Z+0056.00

66025, page 2. The content of the program con-

WERKZEUG

T01 E+0008.00 S+0008.00 L+0035.00

sists of a multitude of so-called blocks, which are

H+0045.00

serially numbered, and which each consists of one

% (START)

or several words. Numerical values that determine

N0010 F800 (EINSCHALTZUSTAND)

the position to be reached are entered in decimal

N0020 M03 (SPINDEL EIN)

notation.

N0030 G90 (ABSOLUTE KOORDINATEN) N0040 G00 Z+0004.00 (Z-ACHSE SICHERN)

Beginning of the NC-program

Even though the structure of NC-programs is stan-

N0050 (B1 BOHRZYKLUS)

of the digital wood joint G_003

dardized by DIN 66025, the various NC-programs

N0060 G00 X+0053.00 Y-0169.05

can not directly be run on CNC-machining centers

N0070 G01 X+0053.00 Y-0169.05 Z-0032.50

of different manufacturers. This is due to the fact,

N0080 G00 Z+0004.00

that only one part of the available instructions is

N0090 G00 X+0052.00 Y-0169.05

standardized, while the manufacturer can freely de-

N0100 G01 X+0052.00 Y-0169.05 Z-0032.50

fine others.

N0110 G00 Z+0004.00 N0120 G00 X+0051.00 Y-0169.05 N0130 G01 X+0051.00 Y-0169.05 Z-0032.50 N0140 G00 Z+0004.00

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Completing the geometrical data with technological data

In order to manufacture a workpiece on a CNC-machine, geometric data are required as well as data concerning the production, like the particular machine that has been selected, the fixing of the workpiece origin, the definition of the machining operations, the choice of tools with rate of feed and spindle revolutions per minute, instructions about tool changes, etc. By means of a postprocessor, which needs to be adapted to each paticular machine, the geometric and technological data are generated into a NC-program, which can then be worked by the corresponding CNC-machine.

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Generating the workpiece model in CAD

Generating the workpiece geometry on a CAD-sy-

These repetitive elements, e.g. cupboard sides, can

stem is a prerequisite for processing a workpiece

be filed in the database as a program of variants,

on a CNC-machine. The CAD-program assists the

so that it can be adapted for different uses with

designer with creating and modifying the workpie-

the input of parameters that change dimensions

ce, as well as with routines like drawing, hatching,

and form.

dimensioning or inscribing. Appropriate CAD databases can be used to directly access standard

The description of the workpiece geometry inside

parts, like screws or fittings, or self-created repeti-

the computer depends on the efficiency of the

tive elements.

CAD-system. In principle, we distinguish three different presentation models:


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Generating the workpiece

model in CAD 1. Wire frame. This is the simplest computer pre-

3. The solid model. Complex objects are presented

sentation, which describes the two or three-di-

by combining individual solid parts, like sphere,

mensional workpiece only by means of its con-

cuboid, cylinder, or torso. These complex objects

tours, like lines and arcs.

are generated by means of Boolean functions. In

3D wire frame of the

addition, it is possible to generate volumes with

wood joint G_001

surfaces.

3D solid model of the wood joint G_001

2. The surface model. The workpiece is described by individual surfaces that are not connected with each other.


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Generating the workpiece

model in CAD Today’s trend goes towards CAD-systems with a volume-oriented presentation. This enables us to illustrate all generated objects as realistic as possible on the screen. Solid models also offer other advantages, like the problemless penetration and sectioning of geometric objects, the fading out of hidden lines, as well as the automatic generation of sections. The data of the solid model can also be used for further geometric applications, which go beyond generating a drawing. For these applications wire frames and surface models lack important information in the computer presentation of the data.

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The milling on the CNC-training machine FBZ 40-30

1. The digital wood joints are designed so that they can be processed with an 8mm router bit. Due to the cutter line compensation in the FBZ CAD/CAM 2D software, it is necessary to choose a smaller router for some wood joints. Hard-tipped router bits with a positive spiral should be used. They allow for optimal chip ejection and guarantee a good cutting quality as well as little wear and tear. Due to their construction, the following points need to be paid attention to when machining the digital wood joints on a CNC-training machine FBZ 40-30 of the MBA GmbH (formerly Bosch GmbH):


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The milling on the CNC-training

machine FBZ 40-30

2. If the cutting depth is too deep when machining

4. The workpieces that are going to be processed

solid wood, the Z-axis of the FBZ 40/30 will be

are positioned and held down by means of a

pushed away from the edge of the material. It

wooden template or a clamping device. To avo-

should therefore be processed with a cutting

id a splintering of the material, it should be

depth of 1mm per machining cycle. This has al-

clamped together with appropriate cauls.

ready been taken into account in the CAD-files and SIM-files.

5. Please look up the dimensions of the stock part, as well as the diameter of the router bit, in the

3. Depending on the kind of wood, the feed can be fixed between 600 and 800 mm/min.

SIM-file headder of the corresponding digital wood joint.

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Machining of woodbased materials and solid woods

The surface quality of the processed workpiece de-

There are guidelines for the cutting speed when

pends on the correct choice of tools, as well as on

machiningdifferent materials. The rate of feed, ho-

the technological data, e.g. milling direction, rate

wever, depends on the following factors: chip

of feed or spindle revolutions per minute, which

thickness, engine performance, tools, material to

are defined by the machine operator or the pro-

be processed, and grain direction. The cutting

grammer. The technological data need to be defi-

speed equals the tip speed of the cutter blade. It

ned in accordance with the material that is machi-

depends on the tool diameter and the spindle re-

ned.

volutions per minute, and is calculated according to the formula:

When processing solid woods, special attention needs to be paid to the cutting direction, to the v c = cutting speed in m/s

sequence of the machining operations, and to high

d = tool diameter in mm

cutting speeds - between 50 and 90 m/s depen-

n = revolutions in l/min

ding on the kind of materials.

d*π*n vc = ––––––––– 1000 * 60


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Machining of wood-based

materials and solid woods As the spindle revolutions can not be increased at

When processing thermoplastic synthetic materials,

will, the optimal cutting speed can often not be

e.g. acrylic glass the workpiece must not be hea-

achieved, especially with tools that have a small

ted too much during the machining process, as

tool diameter.

this would lead to a smearing of the cutting edge. A heating of the material can be avoided by redu-

Cutting speed guidelines

cing the spindle revolutions.

Material

Hard-tipped or polycrystalline diamond tipped

Cutting speed

tools are commonly used today when processing Softwood

60 - 90 m/s

solid woods or wood-based materials. The tool

Hardwood

50 - 80 m/s

manufacturers offer a multitude of tools for the va-

Chipboard

60 - 80 m/s

rious types of processing or materials, with a ran-

Coreboard

60 - 80 m/s

ge from straight router bits to profile cutter heads.

MDF

40 - 60 m/s

Polycrystalline diamond tipped tools are used in particular for material that is difficult to chip or heavily abrasive. The lower wear and tear makes up easily for the higher purchase costs.

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H to the router H

From the CAD data file

Ăś Tutorial

The machining of the workpiece The CAD data file, starting point for NC-machining l Generating the workpiece model in CAD l Data transfer

l CNC-machines in wood processing l Clamping of the workpiece l Machining of wood based materials and

solid woods l Machining of the digital wood joints on the

From CAD data file to the NC-program l Completing the geometrical data with

technological data l Various ways of NC-programming l Structure of a NC-program according to

DIN 66025 / ISO 6983/1 - 1982 l Postprocessor

l Help

CNC-training machine FBZ 40-30


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Postprocessor

The postprocessor is the linkbetween the CLDATA

The CLDATA-file can not be run on a machine,

/ cutting location data that have been generated in

without being translated by a postprocessor into

the CAM-program, and the CNC-machine on which

the machine syntax of the particular machine that

the workpiece is going to be processed. The CL-

is going to process the workpiece. Postprocessors

DATA-file essentially contains the calculated locati-

are not easily exchangeable, as they take into ac-

on of the contour cutter line (CLDATA1). The tech-

count specific machine characteristics, like number

nological data are contained in CLDATA2. Some

of NC-axes, maximal movements, kinematics (feed

systems issue them together. The structure of a CL-

and spindle revolutions per minute), tool changes,

DATA-file is defined in the standards ISO

as well as the NC-instructions that can be freely

3592/4343 and DIN 66215.

defined by the manufacturer. The postprocessor automatically generates the machine-specific NCprogram with all its instructions, feeds, revolutions per minute and compensation data in the correct block sequence.

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The clamping of the workpiece

It is important for processing a workpiece on a

Common clamping systems in wood processing are

CNC-machining center, that the workpiece is held

either pneumatic or mechanical, or use vacuum.

down properly. The demands on a clamping sy-

The use of the correct clamping system not only

stem depend on the workpiece geometry and the

determines the stability of the workpiece rest, its

type of processing. It can generally be said, howe-

optimal positioning or safety at work, but also the

ver, that the workpiece needs to be positioned in a

efficient use of CNC-machining centers. The more

way that it can not be shifted. This means, that the

time is needed to prepare for the processing of a

force of friction between workpiece and clamping

workpiece, the higher the costs per unit. This ap-

device needs to be bigger than the cutting force

plies in particular to one-off pieces and small series.

caused by the machining process.


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The clamping of the workpiece

Console tables with hoseless seals are frequently used to hold down workpieces with a large surface. Consoles and seals can be positioned manually or automatically, depending on how the machine is equiped. Photo: HOMAG AG

Machine manufacturers, as well as suppliers of auxiliary equipement, offer various clamping systems. The range for CNC-machining centers includes smooth machine tables with vacuum seals, grid tables and console tables, where consoles and clamping elements are positioned automatically.


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The clamping of the workpiece The clamping of sizable flat workpieces Block of four seals with two

The clamping of sizable flat workpieces is general-

separate vacuum circuits for

ly straightforward. Ideally, they can be clamped

smooth machine tables. The

with vacuum from below. This allows processing

modules are sucked against

the workpiece on its topside as well as on all its

the table on their undersides;

edges. Using vacuum seals close to the edges, also

the workpiece is held down

allows processing the workpiece from underneath

on their topsides.

with special tools. This is not possible when clam-

Photo: INNOSPANN

ping the workpiece on a grid table. The use of vacuum templates is recommended for small parts, or parts with free form contours. For this purpose, a groove is cut into a particle board parallel to the workpiece contour and slightly to the inside. A rubber string is then inserted into this groove. Should the frictional force, created by the vacuum, not be sufficient, sticking on sandpaper strips can increase it.


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The clamping of the workpiece The clamping of small workpieces Small workpieces, e.g. carcass parts, can generally

The simplest type of power clamp is the manually

not be held down using vacuum. Mechanical and

operated clamp. This type of power clamp is scr-

pneumatic power clamps come into use here. As

ewed, together with stops for the workpiece, onto

power clamps do not fix the workpiece in a certain

a particle board, which in turn is vacuum-clamped

position from below, but from one or several sides,

to the machine table. When positioning the power

or from the top, it takes several machining opera-

clamp, it is important to make sure that they are

tions to process the part from all sides. The posi-

as close as possible to where the cutting process

tion of the power clamps needs to be changed af-

is going to take place without impeding the cho-

ter every machining operation, in such a way that

sen cutter line.

the remaining surfaces can be processed.

Pneumatic power clamp for carcass parts. Photo: IMA


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The clamping of the workpiece Useful devices for positioning the clamping elements On screen visulisation of the

The position of clamping devices depends on the

SCM-auto positioning system

workpiece geometry, the type of processing and

“AutoSet“. Based on the

the machine equipment. The amount of time nee-

workpiece contour, the clam-

ded for positioning depends on the workpiece. So-

ping elements are automati-

lutions are developed with systems, which project

cally placed in a collisionfree

the positions of clamping elements with lasers

position.

onto the machine table, or which, directly through

Photo: SCM

the NC-program, automatically placed and fasten the vacuum seals in a collisionfree position. When such systems are not at your disposal, you can, in case of smooth machine tables, draw the workpiece contour on the machine table with chalk by running the NC-program. Within this contour, the seals can now be positioned in a way to avoid collisions.

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Various ways of NC-programming

NC programming, i.e. the generation of controlling

The various steps in the program can be simulated

information for the machining of a workpiece on

in real time on the screen for controlling purposes.

CNC-machines, was formerly manually executed in

The final NC-program is then automatically written

block format according to DIN 66025. Today this is

by the machine’s postprocessor.

done more and more with graphically supported CAM-programs. The geometric data of a workpiece

CAM-systems aim at producing workable and to a

is imported from a CAD-program, or generated di-

large extent flawless NC-programs without going

rectly in the geometry-creation module of the CAM-

through the trial and error process. This does not

program, and then processed for NC-machining in

only avoid longwinded trial runs and program

the machine module. Contours are transformed

changes; it also increases work safety records in

into cutter lines and the required tools are chosen.

manufacturing. In addition, complex workpiece

In case of complex parts, the sequence of the va-

geometries can not be created without problems

rious machining operations, as well as tool chan-

by manual programming in DIN-oriented cycles.

ges are also defined.

Only machine programming in CAM-programs allows further use of complex CAD data models.


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Various ways of

NC-programming Next to machine independent CAM-systems, workshop orientated programming systems have evolved the manuasl programming at the CNC-machine. Workshop orientated programming systems are machine-dependent and are usually offered by the manufacturers of CNC-machining centers. They are generally based on the same programming structure, but distinguish themselves through their degree of user-friendliness and in details. Their graphic user surface and various Macros, i.e. subprograms for certain router operations, obtain data needed by the machine in a dialogue with the user. This facilitates and shortens programming, especially when parts, that need to be produced frequently, are available as a program for variants.

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About this

CD-ROM

รถ Start

l Examples

l List of Authors l Informations about the C ...Lab

l Wood Joints

l Informations about dds l Imprint l Help

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l Infothek

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l Tutorial

l Set-up of this CD-ROM


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Set-up of this

CD-ROM The CD-ROM “Digital Wood Joints“ was created

In addition to the functions and tools provided by

with Adobe Acrobat 3.0, one of the leading elec-

the Acrobat Reader - they will be briefly described

tronic publishing systems. With the Acrobat Reader

on the following pages - Acrobat enable the pro-

the user can view, browse and print documents in

ducer of electronic documents to create their own

the PDF format (Portable Document Format). The

navigational layer with so-called links, i.e. definable

Acrobat Reader Software runs on various operating

hyperlinks.

systems and can be passed on free of charge by the producers of electronic documents or downlo-

A specific navigational layer, which in some cases

aded by the user from the Adobe Homepage

also uses tools provided by the Acrobat Reader,

l www.adobe.com.

has been created for the CD-ROM “Digital Wood Joints“.

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Set-up of this

1.

2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

CD-ROM The most important functions of the Acrobat Reader

1. Hand Tool 2. Zoom Tool 3. back to beginning 4. back one page 5. forward one page 6. forward to end 7. back to previous view 8. next link forward

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Set-up of this

CD-ROM The hand is probably the most important tool for browsing in an electronic document. When the hand is passed over a link, it changes to an index finger or an arrow, enabling the user to launch another page, a file or a Website.

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Set-up of this

CD-ROM The navigational principles of the CD-ROM “Digital Wood Joints“ The content of the CD-ROM “Digital Wood Joints“ is organised in chapters and sub-chapters. The user reaches a desired chapter via a series of linked overview pages. From each chapter he can go back to an overview page or launch another chapter via a link in the text. Links to other chapters, or to Websites which give access to up-to-date information from the Internet are marked with a preceding arrow. When the user passes the hand over a link, it turns into an index finger. One mouse click is sufficient to activate the link.

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Set-up of this

CD-ROM Within a chapter pages can be flipped forwards “back to overview“

and backwards with the scroll bar, the cursor keys up/down on the keyboard or with the functions “back one page/forward one page“ in the tool bar. In addition the tool bar also provides the functions “back to beginning/forward to end“, which permit a jump to the beginning or the end of the chapter. If you reach a page, from which there is no link back to the previous page, you can return to the latter via the function “back to previous view“ in the tool bar. From every single page of a chapter, the user can

Page end symbol

get back to the next overview page any time via a link in the upper left corner. The link on the end symbol of every chapter also gets you back to the next overview page.

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Set-up of this

CD-ROM Webjumps The Webjumps integrated in the texts and directories are links, which launch Websites in the Internet. A precondition for executing a Webjump is that you have installed a Web Browser, like Netscape Communicator or Microsoft Internet Explorer on your computer and that you have access to the Internet through a modem or ISDN. In the Weblink PrefeWith a Webjump in a

rences, which you find in the menu Preferences,

directory the Website of

you can set up the interaction of Acrobat Reader

the corresponding supplier

with your Internet Browser.

is launched

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Set-up of this

CD-ROM Opening of CAD-files out of the Acrobat Reader Apart from Webjumps the Acrobat Reader gives the user the option of opening files directly in other

If a particular file can not be allocated to an appli-

applications. All files, in which the digital wood

cation, which is the case of the neutral data

joints are provided in the l various data formats,

exchange formats dxf and IGES, a dialog box will

can be opened in the corresponding applications

open up and you will be asked to select an appli-

from the overview page that is annexed to the de-

cation to open the file. You can also open each file

scription of each wood joint. Again the precondition

of the “digital wood joints“ directly out of your

is that you have installed the corresponding appli-

CAD-program. You will find the files of the “digital

cations on your computer.

wood joints“ in the directory/folder 3D-Data.

Opening a file out of the Acrobat Reader

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Set-up of this

CD-ROM Demo-versions of CAD-programs The corresponding software companies put the

dds has published CAD-courses for MiniCad and

demo-versions of the CAD-programs MicroStation,

Vellum for cabinet-makers and joiners. In these

MiniCad and Vellum at your disposal. In case you

courses, experts explain the various aspects of

do not dispose of a CAD-program, these demo-ver-

CAD, e.g. CAD/CAM or 3-D CAD, on the basis of the

sions should enable you to test the various pro-

above mentioned CAD-programs. Further informa-

grams and thus get a first idea of the different

tion on the two courses can be obtained from

spectra of performance of each application.

l dds-editorial staff, Mr. Thomas Hausberg. They can be ordered from l dds media service.

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Bernhard E. Bürdek

authors

is professor for design-methodology, product planning and interface-design at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach. He also works as a freelance designer and journalist.

Jochen Gros

has been professor for design theory at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach since 1974. He studied mechanical engineering, psychology and design and did freelance work for projects of the Siemens “Trendforschung“ (trend research). He was a member of the Des-In group, which developed alternative design and manufacturing concepts in the 70s. He currently focuses his work on “product language“, ecology and new technologies. In 1994 he was co-founder of the C...Lab at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach, which he has since been directing.

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Martin Krauter

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graduated as designer from the Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach in 1996. He had already started publishing articles during his studies. Since 1997 he has been working for Erco.

Friedrich Sulzer

is a master cabinet-maker and industrial designer with a diploma from the Ecole Nationale Superieure de Création / Les Ateliers in Paris. From 1993 until 1994 he was in charge of the research project “New Technologies in Wood Processing“ at the Institute for Interior Design and Furniture Design at the Kunstakademie Stuttgart. In 1994 he was appointed visiting professor at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach, where he has been lecturer for C-Technology since 1996. In 1994 he was co-founder of the C...Lab, for which he has been working since. In addition he works as freelance designer and journalist.

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Editor

C...Labor an der Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach Fachbereich Produktgestaltung Schloßstraße 31 D - 63065 Offenbach am Main eMail: C-Labor@em.uni-frankfurt.de Edition dds Deutsche Verlagsanstalt Neckarstraße 121 D - 70190 Stuttgart eMail: dds@dva.de l http://www.dva.de

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Imprint


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the Imprint Project idea

Jochen Gros, Thomas Hausberg, Martin Kunz and Friedrich Sulzer

Project manager

Friedrich Sulzer

CAD-Conversion

Friedrich Sulzer

Design concept

l Kai Bergmann

Multimedia-Consulting

Lars Ohlerich

Multimedia-Conversion

Kai Bergmann and Jörg Mühle

Texts Translations Furniture selection Photos and illustrations

unless stated otherwise: Friedrich Sulzer Ilga Gröschel Jochen Gros and Friedrich Sulzer unless stated otherwise: C...Labor an der HfG Offenbach


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the Imprint Compiling of the data files for the wood joints DXF- and IGES MBA-CAD and -SIM MicroStation Minicad Vellum Editorial Staff

Friedrich Sulzer MBA GmbH Friedrich Sulzer theta-group VSA Software GmbH Thomas Hausberg Jochen Gros Martin Kunz Gudrun Steinle-Sauer Friedrich Sulzer Sabina Heimerdinger

General co-ordination Production Manufacturing

Martin Kunz C ...Labor an der HfG Offenbach B&B Datadesign GmbH, D-57462 Olpe

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the Imprint The digital wood joints presented on this CD-Rom are based on the results of the experimental study “Japanese Wood Joints ... digital“ at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach in the winter term 1995/96

Tutors Participants

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Jochen Gros and Friedrich Sulzer

© 1998 C...Labor an der Hochschule für Gestaltung

Alexander Bosnjak, Volker Klag, René Müller

Offenbach and Edition dds / Deutsche Verlagsan-

and Rainer Strauss

stalt Stuttgart. All rights reserved. Copying, public presentation, hire and rent, swap and/or circumventing transactions only with the permission of the editor. Violations will be prosecuted. Neither the author, nor the editor, nor the publishing house are liable for any possible damage due to mistakes and defects of the wood joints and their data, that are presented on this CD-Rom.

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KAI BERGMANN SCHLOSSSTRASSE 63 60486 FRANKFURT/M

l

T +49 69 70 79 45 - 70

F +49 69 70 79 45 - 74 KAIBERGM@STUD. UNI-FRANKFURT.DE


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C...Lab - design research

The C...Lab was founded by the product design de-

for the digital age

partment at the Hochschule f端r Gestaltung Offenbach (Offenbach Design School) in 1994 and analyses changes in product design, which are a result of the current transfer from industrial to computerintegrated or virtual manufacturing. The task of the C...Lab is to continually focus teaching, research and experimental design on cultural or aesthetic aspects of the product, as well as on conditions and objectives of the new production technology. Particular attention is paid to de-

Of fenbach Design School

fining foundations of CNC-compatible design, and to the experimental development of so-called virtual products with emphasis on the furniture industry.

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Research and transfer

At the C..Lab professors and students of the pro-

of technology

duct design department work together on projects. These research projects are partly internal projects and partly projects with external partners. The C...Lab is also in charge of organizing conferences, seminars and workshops, of editing publications and advising companies and institutions on technology transfer. The C...Lab has acess to the technical equipment of the Product Design Department: Training at the CNC-wood machining center

• Computerpool - Macintosh, PC and Silicon Gra phics / CAD/CAM, DTP, Graphics and Multimedia • 3D Laser scanner • CNC-model-making router • CNC-wood machining center

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Contact

C...Labor an der HfG Offenbach Fachbereich Produktgestaltung SchloĂ&#x;straĂ&#x;e 31 D - 63065 Offenbach/Main Tel. +49 69 80059-63 Fax +49 69 80059-66 eMail: l C-Labor@em.uni-frankfurt.de

Jochen Gros

professor for design theory eMail: l Gros@em.uni-frankfurt.de

Friedrich Sulzer

qualified designer, master cabinet-maker and associate lecturer for C...technologies eMail: l Sulzer@em.uni-frankfurt.de

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Welcome at the รถ About this CD

l Design research for the digital age l Research and technology transfer l Projects

l Help

l Conferences and trade fair participation l Topics l Contatct


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Topics

Special emphasis for future research and development by the C...Lab will be on: • customized production instead of mass production • the electronic craft trade • digital arts and crafts • ornament in art and design • the customer as co-designer • digital sample libraries for design elements • design systems for customized products • development of online products

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100% C...NC

The project “100% C...NC - prototypes for the immediate production of customized furniture“ took place in the summer term 1996 in co-operation with the Technology Centre for the Woodprocessing Industry, Lemgo. The project group’s goal was to develop virtual furniture which could be manufactured in a decentralised way on CNC-standard ma-

C...Stool - a tribute to the

chines of the kind that are already increasingly

“Ulm Stool“ by Max Bill

used in the cabinet-makers’ and joiners’ works-

Design: Jochen Gros

hops. Ideally at 100%! In addition, the virtual furniture should not only use the potentials of CNCmanufacturing, but also express the latter in their design. Prototypes of the furniture developed within the framework of this project were presented at the professional conference “Creativity & Technology“ in Hamm in November 1996. Kitchen table with tenon relief

Design: Thilo Schwer

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Japanese

The experimental study project “Japanese wood

wood joints... digital

joints ... digital“ formed part of the activities carried out by the C...Lab in the winter term 1995/96. The project aimed at reviving the technical and

Halved Dovetail Corner

aesthetic qualities of traditional wood joints by making use of computer-controlled manufacturing. Japanese wood joints, which epitomize skills that have been perfected over centuries, were chosen Gehrungspuzzle-Eckblatt

as models for the CNC-compatible wood joints

Plain Scarf with Dovetail Keys

which were yet to be developed. Taubenschwanz-Eckblatt

The project “Japanese wood joints ... digital“ laid the foundations for the CNC-compatible wood

Blattstoß mit Taubenschwanzriegeln

joints presented on the CD-ROM “Digital Wood Joints“. To get more information about the project “Japanese wood joints ... digital“ look up the article l IT’S NOT A TRICK - Digital Wood Joints.

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NEWCRAFT is a project, a co-operation of: • North Rhine-Westphalia Wood and Synthetic

Die Werkstätten Möbel

Materials Professional Association • Technology Centre for the Woodprocessing Industry, Lemgo • C...Lab at the Offenbach Design School NEWCRAFT trade fair stand at the Cologne Crafts Fair 1998

The tradition of the cabinet-maker’s craft and new Tenon shelf Unit R1

technologies find a new expression in the works-

Design: Jochen Gros

hop furniture. They are the cabinet-makerís answer to the increasing individualisation of mass production. 11 cabinet-makers from North Rhine-Westphalia have been developing and marketing the Werkstätten-Möbel under the brand name NEWCRAFT since summer 1998. The furniture is manufactured in the NEWCRAFT workshops: decentralised, environmentally friendly, without long-distance transport, within the tradition of the cabinet-maker’s craft as well as on the most modern computer-controlled production machines.

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The project online. produkt was developed during

online.produkt

a theory seminar under the tutelage of Prof. Jochen Gros in the summer term 1995. The goal of the seminar was to work out scenarios, which project the effects of the new technology on the production style and therefore also on product design in the future. The scenarios were based on the l model for virtual production, which had been developed at the C...Lab. online. produkt is a virtual product publisher. Its foundation was simulated by 15 students on the occasion of the C...Lab conference lFrom the Good to the Virtual Form - Product Design in the Digital Age in July 1995. To get more information about the project online. produkt look up the articles l“With online. produkt in the Internet“ and l “Virtual company?!“

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Projects ö C...Labor

l online.produkt l Japanese wood joints... digital l 100% C...NC-furniture for the immediate prol duction of costumized furniture l NEWCRAFT - Die Werkstätten-Möbel l (the workshop furniture)

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Special Show

On the occasion of the Cologne Interzum Fair 1997,

“Digital Furniture -

the Technology Centre for the Woodprocessing In-

100% C...NC“

dustry, Lemgo and the C...Lab presented the special show “Digital Furniture - 100% C..NC“. In order to give as clear an idea as possible of the elements of l “Vision of a virtual furniture construction“, which was developed at the C...Lab, the de-

Simulation of the product

signers at the C...Lab developed a small collection

publisher on the Internet

of “virtual furniture“ especially for the Interzum. Together with the companies l CAD+T, EDP-Consul-

Stand at the special show

ting Stange and the Italian machine manufacturer

“Digital Furniture - 100%

l Morbidelli, the customization of the virtual fur-

C..NC“ at the Interzum 1997

niture, e.g. of the l “Simplizissimus table“ by the customer on the computer screen, as well as its immediate production on a CNC-machining center could be demonstrated.

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HKH-professional conference

The North Rhine-Westphalia Wood and Synthetic

“Creativity & Technology“

Materials Professional Association (HKH), in cooperation with the C...Lab, organized the professional conference “Creativity & Technology“ in Hamm on the 8th and 9th November 1998. Its theme was: “Electronic media also open new perspectives to the cabinet-maker’s craft.“ Topics of

Panel discussion

the conference were: Interrelation between design and C-technology, digital production - a user’s view, CNC-technology in the cabinet-maker’s workshop,

CAD in contest and training. Further information could be gathered at an accompanying exhibition,

Exhibition “100% C..NC“ in

where CAD-suppliers, manufacturers of mountings

the machine hall of a former

and fittings as well as computer visualization spe-

coal mine

cialists showed their newest products, while the C...Lab presented the projects l “Japanese wood joints ... digital“ and l “100% C..NC - prototypes for the immediate production of customized furniture“.

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Conferences and trade fair participation ö C...Labor

l “From the good to the virtual form - product l design in the digital age“, a professional l conference of the C...Lab, Offenbach 1995 l HKH-conference “Creativity & Technology“, l Hamm 1996 l “Digital furniture - 100% C...NC“, a special l show at the Cologne Interzum Fair 1997

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Professional conference “from the good to

On the 13th and 14th of July 1995 many experts ga-

the virtual form“

thered at the professional conference “from the good to the virtual form - product design in the Prof. Jochen Gros during his

digital age“ in order to discuss the effects of the

lecture on “product language

new technology on furniture design from the most

criteria of the virtual form“

varied perspectives. Next to specific aspects of the computer technology, like virtual reality, virtual modelling or CNC-wood machining, the lectures also dealt with philosophical aspects of an aesthetic of the new technology. In addition to the lectures, there were reports from the practical side of design, craft trade and industry, as well as various exhibitions. To get more information about the professional conference “from the good to the virtual form“ look up the article l“C...Lab - professional conference in Offenbach“.

Announcement of the conference on the shop-windows of a former furniture store in Of fenbach


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dds-aktiv offers real added value for the committed cabinet-maker and joiner. The dds “belly-shop“ offers know-how for the cabinet-maker in the shape of selected technical literature, software, videos, professional seminars, exclusive study trips, as well as all sorts of things from the joiner’s shop. The dds-software, technical literature and special products can be ordered with ldds media service, where you can also obtain the exclusive book and software catalogue.


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Impressions from the dds trip for readers to Verona Prof. Axel MĂźller-SchĂśll has been in charge of the

Information on workshops and dds readers trips

dds trips for readers for years. His graphic and vivid

can be obtained from the current edition of dds,

lectures are very helpful for the visualisation of the

from dds-online or from the l dds-Leserservice.

cabinet-makers and joiners ideas and design projects. dds trips for readers distinguish themselves not only through interesting visits to workshops, sightseeing and lectures, but also through their exclusive side-program.

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offers constructive and design-oriented solutions dds-im Detail (in detail)

for complex interior fittings and complicated oneoff furniture pieces to prospective master craftsmen, technicians and designers. It also offers spe-

... IM DETAIL

cific help to the craftsman in the workshop in the form of blueprints. Next to an extensive look at the design quality of each piece of work, there is a presentation of the respective designers, who, through their blueprints, permit an interesting glimpse behind the scenes. The concrete examples are presented in co-operation with the Hochschule für Kunst und Design

Entwurf: Studio Paretaia

(Academy for Art and Design) Burg Giebichenstein

Stuttgart

in Halle and are published in every dds edition. We

Ausführende

not only aim at attractive and ambitious reports,

Betriebe: Schreinerei Wesle,

but also at giving pragmatic help which will sup-

Ehemaliges Pfarrhaus Wiechs am Randen

port designers and craftsmen in their everyday work.

Gespachtelte Flächen in Türfüllungen


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p2 Studio Paretaia Das Studio Paretaia wurde 1984 als Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Innenarchitektur und Designplanung in Stuttgart gegründet. Neben Umbauten und Erweiterungen bestehender Gebäude und der Entwicklung von Ausstellungs- und Messe-Environments setzt sich das Studio Paretaia in auftragsungebundenen Arbeiten mit der Schnittstelle von Handwerk, industrieller Fertigung und deren Auswirkungen auf die Wohnumwelt auseinander.

dds-im Detail

1

Die gestaltete Oberfläche als Kodierung Bei Schrankeinbauten setzt das Studio Paretaia häufig Kassetten als gestalterische Kodierung ein, entweder, um in einer langen Zeile ein besonderes Element hervorzuheben (zum Beispiel, um in einem Gästezimmer denjenigen Schrank zu markieren, den der 2

Gast für seine Kleidung benutzen 1 2 3 4 5

soll). Häufig verwenden sie aber die Kassettierung als Kontrast, um so Wirkung und Wertigkeit des Holzes zu steigern. Bei einem Schlafzimmerschrank aus Birnbaum und Ahorn zum Beispiel wurden die Füllungen in blauem Linoleum ausgeführt, um so die Birnbaumschrankfläche in ihrem Ausdruck zu steigern. Bei einem 4

dds – ...IM DETAIL

Esszimmer mit gespachtelten Füllungstüren Detail der Esszimmerschranktüren Ankleide mit Linoleumkassetten Schrankoberflächen im Bad mit Linoleumkassetten Schlafzimmer mit Linoleumkassetten


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dds-im Detail

Typ B

Typ A

M 1:20

1m dds – ...IM DETAIL

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dds - Editorial Staff dds-Contact

PO box 106012 D - 70049 Stuttgart Ulrich Müller, editor-in-chief, in charge of marketing and design Thomas Hausberg, deputy editor-in-chief, in charge of new media and training Hans-Jörg Graffé, in charge of technology, machines and material Elke Hambrecht, in charge of current-affairs Manuela Fischer, secretariat Tel.: +49 711 2631-245 Fax: +49 711 2631-108 e-mail: dds@dva.de l Internet: http://www.dds-online.de


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Verlegerdienst München (publishers’ service) Subscribers’ Service, Trial Copies, Single Copy Sale

Monika Schmid PO box 1280 D - 82197 Gilching Tel.: +49 8105 388-201 Fax: +49 8105 388-180 Purchase of dds-videos, dds software, technical literature, special products, etc. l dds media service (specialist media)

Information on Workshops and Journeys for readers

dds-Leserservice Petra Frank PO box 106012 D - 70049 Stuttgart Tel.: +49 711 2631-384 Fax: +49 711 2631-110 e-mail: petra.frank@dva.de

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E 6154 E

3 / MÄRZ 1998

das magazin für möbel und ausbau

dds-the magazine for furniture and interior fitting l http://www.dds-online.de

is a technical journal of “Der Deutschen Schreiner Verlag GmbH“, a subsidiary of the renowned Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt Stuttgart. dds is an active and innovative technical journal for cabinet-makers and joiners. dds is read in small and medium-sized craft companies as well as in vocational and tech-

GESTALTUNG

nical colleges, polytechnics, academies and uni-

MÖBEL MIT NEUEN IDEEN

versities in the fields of architecture, interior design

MASCHINEN

and furniture design. The machine manufacturers

HOHER STANDARD

and suppliers of semi-finished products for woodworking also value the comprehensive information of this technical journal. As regards content, the main emphasis of dds is design and construction, machine and tool technology, business management, and specialized EDP for cabinet-makers and joiners, CAD and CAM.

BESCHLÄGE

ZUM SCHIEBEN UND FALTEN BAUELEMENTE

WIN DOOR Fenster · Türen · Bauelemente


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dds appears monthly with an average circulation of 26.000 copies and is sold via subscriptions only. One year’s subscription in Germany costs DM 199,20 and can be obtained via the l Verlegerdienst Mßnchen. dds not only stands for the printed product. dds

dds supports the training of future master craftsmen

is the only technical journal for cabinet-makers and

and technicians with the specialist insert l ddsim Detail (in detail), that is part of every edition.

joiners that offers information in moving pictures with l dds-Video, specialist TV for cabinet-makers and joiners. The technical journal offers a wide ran-

dds also offers the latest information for cabinet-

ge of help and know-how for the everyday work in

Under lwww.dds-online.de, apart from information,

l dds-aktiv. For window and door construction dds offers a quarterly specialist insert l WINDO-

the Internet user will find the springboard to the

makers and joiners via the Internet.

world of woodworking.

OR with interesting information for this field. For apprentices to cabinet-makers and joiners dds edits the insert l view, Aussichten im Beruf (professional prospects) six times a year.

And this is how you l contact dds

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dds Media service

One of the biggest German language suppliers of

professional knowledge for

professional knowledge for cabinet-makers and joi-

cabinet-makers and joiners

ners, with more than 1.500 books, practical guides,

formerly Krebs Fachmedien

CD-ROM’s and Videos.

24 hour ordering service: Tel

+49 711 2631-381 +49 711 2631-382

Fax Internet Mail

+49 711 2631-112 l http://www.dva.de/krebs dds-Medienservice PO box 10 28 63 D - 70024 Stuttgart Ask for our free comprehensive catalogue!

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dds-online informs about the content of the curdds-online

rent dds magazine and offers up-to-date as well as continuous information in its many columns and fora. Via the webside “Links“, Internet users can jump directly into the online-world of woodworking, e.g. onto the homepage of the American cabinet-makers magazine “Fine Woodworking“, or the

l http://www.dds-online.de

Association of the Swiss master cabinet-makers and furniture manufacturers or simply onto the websites of cabinet-maker’s workshops in the Internet.


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dds-online

l http://www.dds-online.de

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SICHERHEIT dds-video, technical TV for cabinet-makers and joiners complements the technical journal with moving pictures. The video-magazine is published twice a year and offers 30 exciting minutes on a selected topic, which will be analysed and presented in four to five individual reports from different angles. Processes thus become easy to understand and to comprehend. Experts are directly addressed. The spectator experiences “life“ how tasks and problems are solved. So far ldds-Videos with the following topics have been published.


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dds-Videos published:

Machine Technology - dds-video 3/95

C-Technology - dds-video 3/93

Renovating and Refurbishment - dds-video 4/95

Masterpiece - dds-video 4/93

Windows and Doors - dds-video 1/96

Windows - dds-video 1/94

Masterly Furniture - dds-video 2/96

Construction Elements - dds-video 2/94

Winning Customers - dds-video 1/97

Interior Fitting - dds-video 3/94

Security for Windows and Doors - dds-video 2/97

Environment - dds-video 4/94

Renovating Kitchens - dds-video 1/98

Fitting and Transport - dds-video 1/95 each video has a running time of about 35 minutes. Dry Construction - 2/95

Price: DM 68,90 The dds-videos can be ordered from l dds media service.

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Supporting vocational and further training is of

[vju:]

particular importance to dds. dds is the only tech-

[vju:] die Lehrlingsbeilage von dds

nical journal for cabinet-makers and joiners that of-

view. Aussichten im Beruf

fers a separate brochure to the young people of

Nr.1 Februar/März ’98

the trade. In 6 editions each year view, Aussichten im Beruf (professional prospects) presents and de-

Vorschlag fürs

Gesellenstück

scribes a particular apprentice’s diploma piece. Problems and their solutions are shown. In “expert tip“ peculiarities and suggestions for improvement are shown by competent design experts.

Überblick Themen aus dds

Durchblick Barschrank– Mit X-pertentip

dds das magazin für möbel und ausbau

Einblick Fineline-Furnier


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x

Durchblick.

x pertentip 1

2

Entwurf

In der Antike, vor allem aber in der Renaissance, bedienten sich Baumeister und Handwerker insbesondere dreier Proportionsparameter, die aus den

15

30

Körpermaßen des Menschen und Erkentnissen der Geometrie hergeleitet wurden. Zum einen das Quad-

60

rat (a) – und mit ihm der Kreis, der das Quadrat umschreibt.

50 MAE 0,5

1

MAE 0, 5 X

Zum

anderen

die

Fläche,

deren

Diagonalen zwei sich gegenüberliegende, gleichseiti-

MDF 16

MDF 16

ge Dreiecke (b) beschreiben und schließlich den AH 0,5 X

Goldenen Schnitt (c). Diese Maßbeziehungen verkör-

AH 0,5 X

60

MAE 0,5

perten Göttlichkeit, Schönheit und Harmonie. In

2

Flächen lassen sich diese Maßbeziehungen über die 1315 Diagonale nachweisen. Am besten nimmt man sich

430

3

hierfür ein Transparentblatt und zeichnet sich die 1

420

385

Winkel 10

45°

(Quadrat),

60° (gleichseitiges Dreieck) und 32° (= Goldener Schnitt) auf.

975

2 MDF 16

[vju:]

[vju:]

Auch in zeigenössischen Möbeln findet man diese klassischen Proportionen – z.B. bei dem Regal „Carlton“ von Ettore Sottsass. Als ich ihn einmal dar-

5

270

270

Rollenband gerade

auf ansprach und ihn fragte, wie er dabei beim

815

Entwerfen vorgeht, war er erstaunt. In seinem Büro, 3 Handschriftliche Anmerkungen: Prof. Axel Müller-Schöll

dds

dds

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WIN DOOR

WINDOOR - windows, doors and construction ele-

Fenster · Türen · Bauelemente

WIN DOOR Fenster · Türen · Bauelemente

ments are the topics of this specialist dds insert. WINDOOR always supplements dds in March, June,

JUGENDSTIL-VILLA KASTENFENSTER HAUSTÜREN TÜRSCHLIESSER SICHERHEIT BESCHLÄGE JALOUSIESYSTEME PRODUKTE

September and December. Design, construction, use of semi-finished products and ready-made construction elements as well as machine technology and construction physics are typical themes of WINDOOR. With an additional circulation to 6,000 specialised companies, dds offers information to window and facade constructors, door manufacturers, glazier’s workshops and fitters.

FENSTER • TÜREN • BAUELEMENTE Vom 26.3. bis zum 29.3.1998 öffnet die „Fensterbau ´98“ in Nürnberg ihre Pforten. Daten und Fakten zum Fenstermarkt, neue Produkte,Verfahren und Techniken – ein kaum überschaubares Informationsangebot. dds-WINDOOR wird für Sie dabei sein und berichtet schon vorab über Neuheiten im Sektor Bauelemente. (Bild: Sälzer

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0

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Welcome to

dds

รถ About this CD

l dds, the magazine for furniture and interior l WINDOOR fitting l view, the insert for apprentices l dds-contact l dds-video, Specialist- l dds-in detail TV for cabinet-makers l dds-online and joiners l dds-activ l Help

l dds media service

CNC Wood Joints  

CNC Wood Joints

CNC Wood Joints  

CNC Wood Joints

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