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saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti

rati abulaZe

saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia monogrFAFafia

gamomcemloba `universali~ Tbilisi 2014


rati abulaZe

GEORGIAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

RATI ABULADZE

MARKETING STRATEGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF E-GOVERNMENT OF GEORGIA

Monograph

Publishing House “UNIVERSAL” Tbilisi 2014

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

aRniSnuli proeqti ganxorcielda SoTa rusTavelis erovnul samecniero fondSi mopovebuli grantis (52/08) meSveobiT arakomerciuli gamocema

monografiaSi, marketinguli kvlevis safuZvelze, naCvenebia saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis garemos dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxareebis, potencialisa da prioritetebis, saSiSroebebisa da safrTxeebis analizi. monografiaSi asaxulia saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategiuli saWiroebebi da mosalodneli Sedegebi. monografiuli kvleva warmoadgens cifruli ekonomikis procesebTan, sazogadoebis cvalebad moTxovnebTan da globalur gamowvevebTan adaptaciis pasuxs. kompleqsuri marketinguli kvlevis analizis safuZvelze SemuSavebulia saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia. naSromi gankuTvnilia biznes administrirebis, ekonomikuri, saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis, saxelmwifo marTvisa da sajaro politikis specialobis studentebisaTvis. agreTve sajaro moxeleebisa da mkiTxvelTa farTo wrisTvis, romlebic dainteresebulni arian eleqtronuli mTavrobis marketinguli kvlevis sakiTxebiT. strategia daexmareba aRmasrulebel da sakanonmdeblo organoebis warmomadgenlebs cifruli reformebis ganxorcielebaSi. marketinguli kvlevis Sedegebi ganxiluli da mowonebulia saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis, biznesinJineringis fakultetis biznesis administrirebis departamentis sxdomaze (2014 wlis 18 ivnisis sxdomis oqmi â„–7). agreTve, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos wmida andria pirvelwodebulis saxelobis qarTuli universitetis, ekonomikisa da biznesis marTvis fakultetis sabWos (2014 wlis 27 ivnisis sxdomis oqmi â„– 17 ) sxdomaze.

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rati abulaZe

monografia rekomendebulia gamosacemad saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis, biznes-inJineringis fakultetis biznesis administrirebis departamentis (2014 wlis 21 noembris sxdomis oqmi №9) mier. agreTve, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos wmida andria pirvelwodebulis saxelobis qarTuli universitetis, ekonomikisa da biznesis marTvis fakultetis sabWos (2014 wlis 27 noembris sxdomis oqmi № 4) mier.

avtori: rati abulaZe – ekonomikis doqtori, saqarTvelos

teqnikuri universitetis, biznesinJineringis fakultetis, biznesis administrirebis departamentis asocirebuli profesori

© r. abulaZe, 2014 gamomcemloba `universali~, 2014 Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19, : 2 22 36 09, 5(99) 17 22 30 E-mail: universal@internet.ge

ISBN 978-9941-22-453-9

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

redaqtorebi: evgeni baraTaSvili – ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori, saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis profesori, biznesis administrirebis departamentis ufrosi;

vaxtang sarTania – ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos wmida andria pirvelwodebulis saxelobis qarTuli universitetis profesori, ekonomikisa da biznesis marTvis fakultetis dekani;

recenzentebi: fiqria wowkolauri – ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos wmida andria pirvelwodebulis saxelobis qarTuli universitetis asocirebuli profesori, fakultetis xarisxis uzrunvelyofis samsaxuris ufrosi; mixeil ToqmaziSvili – ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos wmida andria pirvelwodebulis saxelobis qarTuli universitetis profesori; nino abesaZe - ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori; guram jolia – ekonomikis doqtori, saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis profesori; daviT zautaSvili – teqnikis akademiuri doqtori, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis profesori; paata koRuaSvili – ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori, eqsperti agrarul sakiTxebSi, saqarTvelos soflis meurneobis mecnierebaTa akademiis wevri, profesori;

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rati abulaZe

devi Sonia –ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori, soxumis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori; gela mamulaZe - ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori, baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis profesori; eTer sarjvelaZe – ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asistent-profesori, saqarTvelos strategiuli kvlevebisa da ganviTarebis centris eqsperti; lela koWlamazaSvili – ekonomikis doqtori, saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis profesori; dali sexniaSvili – ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori, saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis asocirebuli profesori; maia veSaguri – ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori, kavkasiis saerTaSoriso universitetis asocirebuli profesori;

marketinguli kvlevis jgufis xelmZRvanelebi baTumis regioni

baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis profesori gela mamulaZe;

quTaisis regioni

akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis profesori daviT zautaSvili;

kaxeTis regioni

iakob gogebaSvilis saxelobis Telavis saxelmwifo universitetis xarisxis uzrunvelyofis samsaxuris mTavari specialisti, doqtoranti, salome TaTuliSvili;

Tbilisis regioni, saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis koordinatori asocirebuli profesori rati abulaZe;

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

marketinguli kvlevis jgufi raibul qiria

soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti, sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis samsaxuris ufrosi, doqtoranti; omar anjafariZe saqarTvelos sapatriarqos wmida andria pirvelwodebulis saxelobis qarTuli universiteti, bakalavri; TamTa siWinava ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti, magistranti; Tamar kacitaZe saqarTvelos universiteti, magistranti; diana koleliSvili saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, bakalavri; eTer fanCuliZe saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, bakalavri; iaSa nadiraZe saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, bakalavri; giorgi abulaZe kavkasiis saerTaSoriso universiteti, bakalavri; lela miqautaZe kavkasiis saerTaSoriso universiteti, bakalavri; TamTa WeliZe kavkasiis saerTaSoriso universiteti, bakalavri; nino talabaZe akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; mamuka dvaliSvili akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; aleqsandre noseliZe akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; oTari roxvaZe akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; Tamari SarvaSiZe akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; daviT andriaZe akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; Tamar tukvaZe akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; ana SarabiZe akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; Temur qarqaSaZe akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri;

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Sorena xalvaSi Temur mamulaZe sofio bajaZe SoTa CaCua naTia lorTqifaniZe magdana qondariZe naTia cinariZe qristina daviTaZe malvina varSaniZe giorgi doliZe Tamar malazonia Tamuna TurmaniZe qeTi aslaniSvili elene nadiraZe xatia WuWulaSvili maia lomiZe eka sesikaSvili mariami glaxoSvili kaxaber mWedliSvili salome kirvaliZe lika baCiaSvili cira gigitelaSvili

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baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; iakob gogebaSvilis saxelobis Telavis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; iakob gogebaSvilis saxelobis Telavis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; iakob gogebaSvilis saxelobis Telavis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; iakob gogebaSvilis saxelobis Telavis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; iakob gogebaSvilis saxelobis Telavis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; iakob gogebaSvilis saxelobis Telavis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; iakob gogebaSvilis saxelobis Telavis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; iakob gogebaSvilis saxelobis Telavis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; iakob gogebaSvilis saxelobis Telavis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri; iakob gogebaSvilis saxelobis Telavis saxelmwifo universiteti, bakalavri.


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

reziume eleqtronuli mTavroba warmoadgens Tanamedrove globaluri da nacionaluri gamowvevebis pasuxs. eleqtronuli mTavrobis mier momxmarebelze orientirebuli momsaxurebis sistemis ageba ganixileba, rogorc ekonomikuri, politikuri, teqnologiuri, organizaciuli da socialuri Sedegis miRwevis berketi, garemos gaumjobesebisa da fundamenturi cvlilebebis marTvis srulyofis mcdeloba. igi marTvis axali formaa, romelic sazogadoebrivi momsaxurebis wardgeniT fokusirebulia moqalaqeze da orientirebulia Sedegze. naSromSi ganxilulia saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis garemo, marketinguli kvlevis safuZvelze gansazRvrulia saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis potenciuri saWiroebebi da dadgenilia eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistemis moxmarebis aqtivoba. aseve, dadgenilia eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistemis efeqturoba, sazogadoebis internet-aqtivobis tendenciebi, internet-momxmareblebis moTxovnebi da qcevis ganmsazRvreli faqtorebi. kvlevis Sedegad SemuSavebulia saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis marketinguli strategia, romelic nacionaluri da internacionaluri kapitaldabandebebis zrdis, demokratiuli da angariSvaldebulebiani sistemis implementirebis sabazo dokumentia. eleqtronuli mTavrobis garemos Seswavlis safuZvelze Seqmniliaa moqalaqeebis moTxovnilebaze orientirebuli eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistema, warmodgenilia eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis xelmisawvdomobisa da informaciulobis zrdis gzebi, SemuSavebulia eleqtronuli mTavrobis produqtiulobis stimulirebis programebi, naCvenebia socialuri kapitalis aqtivizaciis rekomendaciebi, dasaxulia internetbazris ganviTarebis mimarTulebebi da gansazRvrulia cifruli ekonomikis zrdis saprognozo maCveneblebi. marketinguli kvlevis safuZvelze dadgenilia miznobrivi samoqmedo asparezi, gamovlenilia eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistemis moTxovnebi, SemuSavebulia cifrul politikaze morgebuli rekomendaciebi

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da gansazRvrulia eleqtronuli saqarTvelos imijis amaRlebis gzebi. kvlevis safuZvelze SemuSavebulia saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis strategiul gegma, romelic warmoaCens cifruli politikis prioritetulobas, eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistemis produqtiulobasa da qveynis ganviTarebaSi mas, rogorc mamoZravebel Zalas. monografia warmoadgens Teoriuli da praqtikuli kvlevebis SerwymiT miRebul mniSvnelovan strategiul dokuments. marketinguli kvlevis xelSewyobisaTvis gansakuTrebul madlierebas gamovxatavT saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos wmida andria pirvelwodebulis saxelobis qarTuli universitetis, baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis, iakob gogebaSvilis saxelobis Telavis saxelmwifo universitetis, soxumis saxelmwifo universitetisa da kavkasiis saerTaSoriso universitetis administraciisa da profesor-maswavleblebis mimarT, romelTa xelSewyobiT universitetis studentebma Caatares gamokiTxva. gansakuTrebul madlierebasa da Rrma pativiscemas gamovxatav redaqtorebisa da recenzentebis mimarT, romelTa rekomendaciebi da rCevebi gaTvaliswinebuli iqna monografiaze muSaobisas. xelSewyobisa da TanadgomisTvis gamovxatav Cems did mokrZalebas kolegebis, TanamSromlebisa da ojaxis mimarT. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis marketingul kvlevaSi CarTvisa da aqtivobisaTvis gansakuTrebul madlobas vuxdiT regionebis kvlevis jgufis xelmZRvanelebs, saqarTvelos umaRlesi saswavleblis bakalavrebs, magistrebsa da doqtorantebs. PhD. rati abulaZe aRniSnuli proeqti ganxorcielda SoTa rusTavelis erovnul samecniero fondSi mopovebuli grantis (52/08) meSveobiT

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

Sinaarsi

reziume................................................................................... 9 abreviaturebi................................................................... 22 Sesavali................................................................................. 25 თავი I. cifruli politika ............................................. 31 1.1. cifruli procesis arsi ................................. 31 1.2. msoflios cifruli strategiebi ............... 35 1.3. cifruli procesebis gamowvevebi .............. 42 თავი II. eleqtronuli mTavroba da cifruli ekonomika.................................................................. 45 2.1. cifruli procesebis socialurekonomikuri Sedegebi ...................................... 45 2.2. globaluri cifruli ekonomika ................. 51 2.3. cifruli sivrcis sainvesticio mimzidveloba ..................................................... 57 2.4. saqarTvelos cifruli ekonomika............... 59 2.5. eleqtronuli mTavrobis arsi da modeli .. 68 2.6. eleqtronuli mTavroba kavkasiis qveynebSi ............................................................... 76 2.6.1. eleqtronuli kavkasia ............................. 76 2.6.2. eleqtronul kavkasiaSi mimdinare tendenciebi ................................................. 79 2.6.3. kavkasiis qveynebis eleqtronuli mTavrobis gamowvevebi da ganviTarebis 11


rati abulaZe

perspeqtivebi .............................................. 89 2.7. eleqtronuli mTavroba da turistuli industria ............................................................ 96 2.7.1. onlain turizmis bazari ..................... 103 2.7.2. saqarTvelos turistuli industria................................................. 105 2.8. eleqtronuli jandacva .................................. 109 2.9. eleqtronuli ganaTleba ................................ 113 2.10. saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri......................... 117 2.10.1. `aRmosavleT partniorobis~ upiratesobebi ........................................ 119 2.10.2. `aRmosavleT partniorobis~ gamowvevebi ............................................... 123 თავი III. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia (2015-2020) .................................................................. 127 3.1. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategiis arsi ......................................................................... 127 3.2. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis marketinguli kvleva ....................................... 131 3.2.1. kvlevis scenari ...................................... 131 3.2.1. marketinguli kvlevis procesi........ 136 3.2.2. saqarTvelos internet-garemo ......... 138 3.2.3. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli 12


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

mTavrobis web-sivrce .......................... 144 3.2.4. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxureba ....................... 158 3.2.5. saqarTvelos onlain biznes garemo 181 3.2.6. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli demokratiis garemo.............................. 196 3.2.7. eleqtronuli mTavrobis gamowvevebi ............................................... 206 3.2.8. internet-momxmarebelTa socialdemografiuli maCvenebeli................ 220 3.2.9. hipoTezis testireba ........................... 225 3.3. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis instituciuri Sefaseba: SWOT analizi .... 262 3.4. eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategiuli dagegmvis ZiriTadi komponentebi............... 266 3.4.1. eleqtronuli mTavrobis miznebi da amocanebi ............................................. 267 3.4.2. eleqtronuli mTavrobis principebi ................................................ 268 3.4.3. eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis uzrunvelyofisaTvis saWiro komponentebi ........................................... 269 3.5. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis instituciuri mowyoba ................................... 270

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3.5.1. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis biurokratia ..................... 272 3.5.1.1. eleqtronuli mTavrobis organizaciuli struqtura.............. 272 3.5.1.2. `centraluri komitetis~ fundamenturi Rirebulebebi da faseulobebi ............................................ 276 3.5.1.3. qarTuli biurokratiis upiratesobebi ........................................ 285 3.5.1.4. qarTuli biurokratiis gamowvevebi ............................................... 286 3.6. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategiuli mimarTulebebi .................... 287 3.7. eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategiuli gegmis kontroli ............................................... 292 3.8. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategiis Sedegi........................................... 293 Sejameba................................................................................. 302 rekomendaciebi ................................................................ 311 danarTi 1 .................................................................................. 319 gamoyenebuli literatura ...................................... 337

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

histogramebis CamonaTvali

histograma 2.1.

samxreT kavkasiis qveynebSi internetis moxmarebis sixSire

histograma 3.1.

internetTan wvdomis popularuli teqnologiebi momxmareblebSi internetisa da ICTis gamoyenebis motivi internet-xarisxis Sefaseba regionebis mixedviT informaciis/komunikaciis popularuli samTavrobo arxebi saqarTvelos samTavrobo web -gverdebis funqcionaluroba samTavrobo web-saitebis inovaciuri funqciebi eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis miRebis motivi eleqtronuli mTavrobis popularuli produqtebi/momsaxureba saxelmwifo struqturis TanamSromelTa kompiuterizaciis/internetizaciis codnis done eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Sesaxeb informirebis donis Sefaseba eleqtronuli mTavrobis komponentebis Sefaseba eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis xelSemwyobi procesebi eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergviT gamowveuli molodini respondentebSi popularuli internet-kompaniebis momsaxureba onlain biznes momsaxurebis arCevis motivi

histograma 3.2. histograma 3.3. histograma 3.4. histograma 3.5. histograma 3.6. histograma 3.7. histograma 3.8. histograma 3.9.

histograma 3.10. histograma 3.11. histograma 3.12. histograma 3.13. histograma 3.14. histograma 3.15.

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histograma 31.6. histograma 3.17. histograma 3.18. histograma 3.19. histograma 3.20. histograma 3.21. histograma 3.22. histograma 3.23. histograma 3.24. histograma 3.25.

histograma 3.26.

organizaciebis onlain momsaxurebis SerCevis faqtorebi siaxleebis miRebisaTvis popularuli onlain mediis saxeebi onlain mediis gamoyenebis motivi onlain momsaxurebisaTvis gaweuli saSualo Tviuri xarji eleqtronuli momsaxurebis bazris ganviTarebis xelSemwyobi faqtorebi qarTuli eleqtronuli demokratiis procesebi eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergviT miRebuli Sedegebi saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Semaferxebeli mizezebi saqarTvelos regionTaSorisi cifruli uTanasworobis gamomwvevi mizezebi saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis prioritetebi

histograma 3.27.

internet-momxmarebelTa ganawileba asakis mixedviT

histograma 3.28.

internet-momxmarebelTa ganawileba ganaTlebis mixedviT

histograma 3.29.

internet-momxmarebelTa ganawileba dasaqmebis seqtoris mixedviT

histograma 3.30.

internet-momxmarebelTa ganawileba Semosavlebis mixedviT

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

cxrilebis CamonaTvali cxrili 1.1.

cifruli ganviTarebisa da farTozolovani strategiis mqone qveynebi

cxrili 1.2.

cifruli procesebis gamowvevebis daZlevis RonisZiebebi cifruli procesebis socialur-ekonomikuri zegavlena

cxrili 2.1. cxrili 2.2. cxrili 2.3. cxrili 2.4. cxrili 2.5.

cxrili 2.6. cxrili 2.7. cxrili 2.8. cxrili 3.1. cxrili 3.2. cxrili 3.3. cxrili 3.4.

cxrili 3.5. cxrili 3.6. cxrili 3.7.

ICT-is ganviTarebis gavlena mSp-sa da dasaqmebaze (2011) cifruli ekonomikis reitingi (2010) TviTmmarTveli erTeulebis mixedviT mosaxleobis ricxovnoba `eleqtronuli mTavrobis~ Tematikaze samecniero statiebis ganawileba (2000-2012) saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis modeli saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTareba (2001-2014) eleqtronuli kavkasiis garemo samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo seqtoris web-saitebis Sefaseba eleqtronuli mTavrobis web-saitebisadmi ndobis done eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis ZiriTadi sargebeli eleqtronuli mTavrobis praqtikuli danergvisa da uzrunvelyofis procesebi pirsonis korelaciis koeficientebi (Correlations) wrfivi regresiuli analizi regresiul analizSi monawile damoukidebeli cvladebis koeficientebi

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cxrili 3.8.

cxrili 3.9.

cxrili 3.10. cxrili 3.11.

cxrili 3.12.

cxrili 3.13.

cxrili 3.14.

cxrili 3.15.

cxrili 3.16.

cxrili 3.17.

cxrili 3.18.

18

faqtoruli analizi samoqalaqo, kerZod da saxelmwifo uwyebebis web-saitebis Sefasebis mixedviT (Component Matrixa) saqarTveloSi samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo uwyebebis web-saitebis Sefaseba ANOVA-s cxrili (web-saitebis Sefasebis indeqsebis mixedviT) samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo uwyebebis web-saitebis Sefasebis mixedviT mosaxleobis segmentacia (5 WrilSi) faqtoruli analizi eleqtronuli mTavrobis praqtikuli danergvisa da uzrunvelyofis procesebis Sefasebis mixedviT (Component Matrixa) eleqtronuli mTavrobis praqtikuli danergvisa da uzrunvelyofis procesebis Sefasebis segmentebis gamoyofa ierarqiuli klasteruli analizis gamoyenebiT eleqtronuli mTavrobis praqtikuli danergvisa da uzrunvelyofis procesebis Sefasebis mixedviT mosaxleobis segmentacia (5 WrilSi) faqtoruli analizi eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis informirebis Sefasebis mixedviT (Component Matrixa) eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Semfasebeli segmentebis gamoyofa ierarqiuli klasteruli analizis gamoyenebiT ANOVA-s cxrili (eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis informirebis indeqsebis mixedviT) eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Sesaxeb informirebis Sefasebis mixed-


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

cxrili 3.19.

cxrili 3.20.

cxrili 3.21.

cxrili 3.22.

cxrili 3.24.

cxrili 3.25.

cxrili 3.26.

cxrili 3.27.

cxrili 3.28.

cxrili 3.29.

cxrili 3.30.

viT mosaxleobis segmentacia (5WrilSi) faqtoruli analizi eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sargeblis Sefasebis mixedviT (Component Matrixa) eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sargeblis Semfasebeli segmentebis gamoyofa ierarqiuli klasteruli analizis gamoyenebiT ANOVA-s cxrili (eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sargeblis indeqsebis mixedviT) eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sargeblis Sefasebis mixedviT mosaxleobis segmentacia (5 WrilSi) eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis Semfasebeli segmentebis gamoyofa ierarqiuli klasteruli analizis gamoyenebiT (SEF_E_M_S_IND) ANOVA-s cxrili (eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis Sefasebis indeqsis mixedviT) eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistemis Sefasebis mixedviT mosaxleobis segmentacia (5 WrilSi) faqtoruli analizi saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebis Sefasebis mixedviT (Component Matrixa) saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebis Semfasebeli segmentebis gamoyofa ierarqiuli klasteruli analizis gamoyenebiT (samt_web_ind) ANOVA-s cxrili (saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebis Sefasebis indeqsis mixedviT) saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebis Sefasebis mixedviT mosaxleobis segmentacia (5 WrilSi)

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cxrili 3.31.

cxrili 3.32.

saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis xelSemwyobi, xelSemSleli faqtorebi, potenciali da SesaZlo safrTxeebi eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategiis mosalodneli Sedegebi(2015-2020 )

wriuli diagramebis CamonaTvali wriuli diagrama 3.1.

samTavrobo web-saitebze Sesvlis motivebi

wriuli diagrama 3.2.

saqarTveloSi biznesisa da saxelmwifo seqtoris eleqtronuli momsaxureba

wriuli diagrama 3.3.

moqalaqeebis mier eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis miRebisaTvis identificirebis meqanizmebi

wriuli diagrama 3.4.

eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergvis politika eleqtronuli mTavrobis sargebeli

wriuli diagrama 3.5. wriuli diagrama 3.6.

internet-garemos regulireba

wriuli diagrama 3.7.

regionTaSorisi cifruli uTanasworobis Sefaseba

wriuli diagrama 3.8.

eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis informirebis wyaroebi

wriuli diagrama 3.9.

internet-momxmarebelTa ganawileba sacxovrebeli regionis mixedviT

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

moculobiTi diagramebis CamonaTvali moculobiTi diagrama 3.1. moqalaqeebis mier samTavrobo web-saitebidan sasurveli momsaxurebis/informaciis miReba moculobiTi diagrama 3.2.. onlain momsaxurebis angariSsworebis formebi moculobiTi diagrama 3.3. saqarTvelos demokratiis uzrunvelmyofi procesebi

naxazebis CamonaTvali naxazi 2.1.

cifruli ekonomika

naxazi 3.1.

eleqtronuli mTavrobis arqiteqtura

naxazi 3.2.

eleqtronuli struqtura

mTavrobis

marTvis

grafikebis CamonaTvali grafiki 3.1.

samTavrobo sixSire

web-saitebTan

wvdomis

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abreviaturebi Agricultural Marketing Information System (SIMA) B2G (Business-to-Government) B2T (Business-to-Tourist) Business Intelligence C2G (Citizen-to- Government) C2T (Citizen-to-Tourist) Cloud Computing Common Services Centers Cost Per Acquisition (CPA) CPC (Cost Per Click) CRM (Customer relationship management ) Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA) Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA) Digitization DMS E2G (Employee -to-Government) Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) Economic Value Added (EVA) Economist Intelligence Unit

EDI E-Government

22

agraruli marketingis informaciuli sistema biznesi-mTavroba biznesi-turisti biznes procesebis marTvis teqnologia moqalaqe-mTavroba moqalaqe-turisti Rrublovani kompiutingi sazogadoebrivi momsaxurebis centrebi fasi yovel SenaZenze fasi yovel dawkapunebaze momxmarebelTan urTierTo-bis marTva sakruizo xazebis saerTaSoriso asociacia Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali vaWrobis sivrce cifruli procesi dokumentebis marTvis sistema TanamSromeli -mTavroba laTinuri amerikisa da karibis zRvis ekonomikuri komisia damatebuli ekonomikuri Rirebuleba britanuli kvleviTi firma, The Economist-is Svilobili kompania monacemTa eleqtronuli gacvla eleqtronuli mTavroba (emTavroba)


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

sawarmoo resursebis dagegmva evropis rekonstruqciisa da ganviTarebis banki evropuli komisia mTavroba-biznesi mTavroba-moqalaqe mTavroba – TanamSromeli (mimarTulia Sida efeqtianobaze) G2G (Government-to-Government) mTavroba-mTavroba mTAavroba-turisti G2T (Government-to-Tourist) globaluri kvlevis/analitiGallup kis organizacia informaciuli teqnologiebis Gartner kvlevis saerTaSoriso firma& konsaltinguri kompania saqarTvelos komunikaciebis GNCC erovnuli komisia informaciuli da sakomuniICT kacio teqnologiebi msoflios saganamanaTleblo Insead biznes skola myisieri Setyobineba Instant Messaging (IM) saerTaSoriso konsaltinguri International Consulting Firm kompania International Monetary Fund (IMF) saerTaSoriso savaluto fondi telekomunikaciebis International Telecommunication saerTaSoriso kavSiri Union (ITU) informaciuli teqnologiebi IT (Information Technology) jons hopkinsis universiteti Johns Hopkins University globaluri konsaltinguri McKinsey Global Insitute (MGI) instituti adreuli Setyobinebisa da Platform for Early Warning and gafrTxilebis platforma Communication (PACT) martivi sindikacia Really Simple Syndication (RSS) rusuli rubli RUB ERP EBRD (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development) European Commission (EU) G2B (Government-to-Business) G2C (Government-to-Citizens) G2E (Government-to-Employee)

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momsaxurebis miwodebis karibWe State Wide Area Network (SWAN) saxelmwifos globaluri qseli evrokavSiris statistikuri Statistical Office of the European ofisi Communities (Eurostat) striming media Streaming Media Zlieri da susti mxareebi, SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, SesaZleblobebi da safrTxeebi Opportunities, Threats) Service Delivery Gateway

Telecom Advisory Services (TAS)

sakonsultacio momsaxurebis telekomis kompania

The Eastern Partnership (EaP) The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) The UN World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) The World Economic Forum (WEF) The World Travel&Tourism Council (WTTC) UNDP United Nations (UN)

aRmosavleT partnioroba ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizacia

World Wide Web

24

gaeros msoflio turizmis organizacia Msoflio ekonomikuri forumi mogzaurobisa da turizmis msoflio sabWo gaeros ganviTarebis programa gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia msoflio internet qseli


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

Sesavali Tanamedrove saxelmwifo saWiroebs eleqtronuli mTavrobis (e-mTavrobis) sistemisa da misi konceptualuri struqturis models, rac warmatebuli marTvis, politikuri sargeblis miRebis, federaluri da regionuli ganviTarebis, gamWvirvale, demokratiuli, Ria sazogadoebis mSeneblobis winapirobaa. internet-potencialis swori da mizanmimarTuli gamoyeneba ganxiluli unda iqnes, rogorc qveynis ekonomikuri, politikuri, socialuri, kulturuli da inteleqtualuri ganviTarebis prioriteti, progresis winapiroba da umniSvnelovanesi faqtori. msoflios erTiani sistemis (internet-qselis) formirebis pirobebSi krizisis marTvis, politikuri ryevebis Tavidan acilebisa da, socialur-ekonomikuri ZvrebTan adaptaciis formaa eleqtronuli mTavroba. eleqtronul mTavrobas, tradiciul mTavrobasTan SedarebiT advilad SeuZlia daZlios globalizaciis negatiuri tendenciebi, aamaRlos moqalaqeebis politikuri CarTvis done, fizikur da iuridiul pirebTan uzrunvelyos efeqtiani TanamSromloba, gaamartivos biznessa/moqalaqeebsa da mTavrobas Soris pirdapiri kontaqti. eleqtronuli mTavroba warmoadgens cifruli garemos, politikuri da social-ekonomikuri procesebis marTvisa da organizaciis ganviTarebis saSualebas, Sesabamisad, saqarTvelos ganviTarebisa da ganaxlebis mniSvnelovan mimarTulebas. eleqtronuli mTavroba, rogorc saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis bunebrivi evoluciis Semdgomi safexuri, aris axali ~arxi� (resursi), romelic mTavrobas moqalaqeebTan daaxloebisa da maT saWiroebebze fokusirebis SesaZleblobas iZleva (vidre mTavrobasTan moqalaqeebis daaxloebis forsaJs). saxelmwifos nebismieri uwyeba iyenebs eleqtronul `resursebs~. e-mTavrobis programebis realizebis pirobebSi qveyana efeqturad reagirebs saxelmwifos servisis,

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ekonomikisa da sazogadoebis cvlilebebze. e-mTavroba, rogorc Tavisufali da gamWvirvale sazogadoebis mSeneblobis sivrce, mTavrobis, moqalaqeebisa da organizaciebis gaerTianebuli garemoa. misi strategiis mravalmizniani ekonomikuri roli ganxilulia, rogorc ekonomikuri recesiis winaaRmdeg brZolisa da ekonomikis aRdgenis programa. saqarTveloSi damoukideblobis mopovebamde saxelmwifos marTvis sistema mkacri, xisti, mouqneli, gaumWvirvale, dabalproduqtiuli da araefeqturi iyo. adgili ar hqonda administraciuli resursebis efeqtian gamoyenebas, saxelmwifos momsaxurebis intensifikaciis stimuls. yovelives xels uwyobda marTvis meTodebis absolutizacia. eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis Seqmnis, procesebis srulyofisa da saxelmwifo momsaxurebis procesebis efeqtiani marTvis mizniT, saqarTvelos mTavrobam efeqturi zomebi gaatara, ris Sedegadac `qarTuli saxelmwifo marTvis sistemaSi~ axali era daiwyo. dReisaTvis saqarTvelos mTavroba, ganviTarebuli qveynebis eleqtronuli mTavrobis moTxovnebis kvaldakval iwyebs ganviTarebas. miuxedavad amisa, saqarTveloSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis efeqtiani marketinguli strategia SemuSavebuli ar aris, faqtobrivad qveyanas ar aqvs miznobrivi mimarTulebiT SemuSavebuli ZiriTadi sagegmo dokumenti (eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis strategiuli gegma). demokratizaciisa da kibersazogadoebis mSeneblobis mimarTulebiT ar aris gaazrebuli internet-resursebis potenciali. saqarTveloSi eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategiis arqonam, saTanado mecnieruli Seswavlis saWiroebam ganapiroba aRniSnuli proeqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli saqmianoba da kvlevis mimarTuleba. proeqtis momzadebisas gamoyenebuli iqna wyaroTa ramdenime jgufi: pirveli jgufi: saerTaSoriso organizaciebis (United Nations, International Telecommunication Union, World Economic Forum, the European Parliament, Global

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

Internet freedom Consortium, World Bank), amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis, germaniis, safrangeTis, kanadis, didi britaneTis, SvedeTis, italiis, avstriis, avstraliis, estoneTis, iranis, indoeTis da sxva qveynebis oficialuri dokumentebi, angariSebi da kvlevebi. aseve mTavrobis oficialuri web-gverdebi. meore jgufi: saerTaSoriso kvleviTi organizaciebis angariSebi, kerZod: AllianceLawGroup, ComsCore, eMarketer, GapGemini, Booz Allen Hamilton, Human Rights Watch, Waseda University. adgilobrivi kvleviTi organizaciebidan SeiZleba gamovyoT: `informaciis Tavisuflebis ganviTarebis instituti~, saqarTvelos komunikaciebis erovnuli komisia. mesame jgufi: ucxoel mecnierTa samecniero da kvleviTi Sromebi. maTgan SeiZleba gamovyoT: Hanna N., Hill K., Hughes J., Durrant F., Aibar E., Battacharya J., Mahadeo J., Wimmerr M., Moon M., Norris D., Nordfors L., Basu S., Bonina C., Hermann H., Ahamdi A., Valdes G., Waiel Said, Zaied A., Millard J., Golubeva A., Ерофеев Е. da sxva. meoTxe jgufi: qarTvel mecnierTa samecniero da kvleviTi Sromebi. maTgan SeiZleba aRvniSnoT: baraTaSvili e., sarTania v., asaTiani r., ToqmaziSvili m., wowkolauri f., jolia g., sexniaSvili d., zautaSvili d., Sonia d., abulaZe r. da sxvebi. kvlevis miznad ganisazRvra saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebisa da momsaxurebis bazarze mimdinare tendenciebis Seswavla da saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategiebis Camoyalibeba. kerZod: saqarTveloSi eleqtronuli mTavrobis politikis formirebis xelSewyoba; e-mTavrobis ganviTarebis xelSemwyobi marketinguli strategiis Camoyalibeba; saxelmwifo eleqtronuli momsaxurebis sistemis ganviTarebis xelSemwyobi RonisZiebebis gatareba;

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internet-kulturisa da eleqtronuli momsaxurebis aTvisebis xelSewyoba; saqarTveloSi e-mTavrobis ganviTarebis problemebis, tendenciebis, informaciuli sazogadoebis moTxovnilebebisa da qveynis politikasa da demokratiul faseulobebze gavlenis masStabebis Seswavla; samoqalaqo sazogadoebaze orientirebuli emTavrobis mimarTulebebis ganviTareba; qarTul internet-garemoSi internet-resursebis potencialis gaZliereba, rogorc demokratizaciisa da politikuri garemos gardaqmnisa da cvlilebebis instrumenti; `eleqtronuli mTavrobis politikis~ dabalansebuli kursis gatarebisaTvis strategiuli dokumentis Seqmna, orientirebuli samTavrobo organoebsa da samoqalaqo sazogadoebas Soris efeqturi urTierTqmedebis uzrunvelyofaze; e-mTavrobis formirebis gziT saxelmwifo marTvaSi samoqalaqo seqtoris CarTulobis donis gaZlierebis pirobebis Seqmna; e-mTavrobis formirebis gziT qveyanaSi demokratiuli Rirebulebebis ganmtkiceba da moqalaqeze orientirebuli garemos Seqmna. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis winaSe arsebuli gamowvevebis gadasaWrelad daisaxa Semdegi RonisZiebebi: eleqtronuli mTavrobis Tanamedrove koncefciis gacnoba da maTi analizi; eleqtronuli mTavrobis Sesaxeb qarTvel da ucxoel mecnierTa Sexedulebebis gacnoba; eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis bazarze momxmarebelTa qcevis ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebis Seswavla; eleqtronuli mTavrobis msoflio bazrisa da saqarTvelos realobis gaanalizeba;

28


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

saqarTveloSi eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sferoSi arsebuli problemebisa da winaaRmdegobebis warmoCena; eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebisadmi qarTveli momxmareblebis damokidebulebis gamovlena; samoqalaqo seqtoris informaciuli kulturis skanireba (daTvaliereba) da analizi; internet-momxmarebelTa survilebisa da moTxovnebis Sesabamisi saxelmwifos web-kontentis warmoCena, web-saitis muSaobis efeqturobis kriteriumebis gansazRvra; ZiriTadi mxareebis rolisa da valdebulebebis gamovlena da Sefaseba (saxelmwifo seqtori, momxmareblebi da gadawyvetilebis mimRebi) moTxovnis stimulireba da saxelmwifo momsaxurebis miwodeba internet-arxebiT; momxmarebelTa prioritetebis, informaciasTan midgomebis, momsaxurebis aspeqtebis, eleqtronuli kontent-momsaxurebis efeqturi arxebis gageba; e-mTavrobis adgilisa da rolis gansazRvra samoqalaqo sazogadoebaSi; e-mTavrobaze moqmedi ekonomikuri, politikuri da socialuri fonis Seswavla, Sefaseba da warmoCena; e-mTavrobis formirebaSi samoqalaqo sazogadoebis CarTulobis amaRleba; samoqalaqo sazogadoebis cnobierebisa da emTavrobis garemos informirebulobis amaRlebis RonisZiebebi (treningebi; swavleba; informaciuli propaganda; pres-relizebi, internetTemebis warmodgena, konferenciebze mocemuli Temis wardgena prezentacia da sxva); saqarTvelos informaciuli sazogadoebis mier internet-resursebis gamoyenebis gaaqtiurebis

29


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RonisZiebebi; e-mTavrobis sabazo strategiis garSemo saxelmwifosa da moqalaqeebs Soris SeTanxmebuli modelis warmodgena; saqarTveloSi marTvis gamWvirvale garemos Seqmnis RonisZiebebi; socialur-ekonomikuri, teqnologiuri ganviTarebis daCqarebisaTvis institucionaluri meqanizmebis koordinacia. naSromi moicavs samecniero-Teoriul kvlevebs, politikur-ekonomikuri da socialur-teqnologiuri mimarTulebebis analizs. Catarebuli kvlevebis safuZvelze Sefasebulia saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis SesaZleblobebi, upiratesobebi, gamowvevebi da safrTxeebi, romlis safuZvelze SemuSavebuli da gansazRvrulia eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategiuli mimarTulebebi. naSromi warmoadgens cifruli ekonomikis, sazogadoebis moTxovnebze fokusirebisa Tu globalur cvlilebebTan adaptaciis pasuxs. proeqtis Sedegebi farTo sazogadoebisaTvis naTel warmodgenas qmnis saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis garemos, internet-garemos, internet-momxmarebelTa qcevis, sazogadoebis eleqtronuli mzadyofnis, eleqtronuli demokratiisa da eleqtronuli regulirebis procesebis Sesaxeb. proeqtis ZiriTadi beneficiarebia: saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi, media sazogadoeba, mcire, saSualo da msxvili biznesi, samTavrobo uwyebebi, arasamTavrobo organizaciebi, mecnier-mkvlevarebi da studentebi. aseve mocemuli sferoTi yvela dainteresebuli piri. naSromis originalobidan gamomdinare dazRveuli araa xarvezebisagan, Sesabamisad rekomendaciebi da saqmiani SeniSvnebi siamovnebiT iqneba gaTvaliswinebuli.

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

თა ვ ი I. cifruli politika 1.1. cifruli procesis arsi Tanamedrove msoflio arsebiTad Seicvala. planetis resursebis limits gascda moxmarebis struqtura, siRaribis masStabi, mosaxleobis demografiuli struqtura, uTanasworobis Semcirebisa da keTildReobis uzrunvelmyofi resursebi. msoflioSi, ukanasknelma krizisebma da gamowvevebma warmoaCina safinanso, globaluri sasursaTo da energetikuli seqtoris sisusteebi. aseve, araefeqturi da susti mmarTveloba, socialuri jgufebis dacvisa da mosaxleobis araxelsayreli pirobebSi yofnis xarisxi. kompleqsuri socialuri problemebi (uTanasworoba, sibere, telekomunikaciis xelmisawvdomoba, genderuli uTanasworoba, kulturuli cvlilebebi, aRzrdisa da ganaTlebis sistema), axalgazrdebisaTvis marTebuli samuSao adgilebis ararseboba, permanentuli ganviTarebis pirobebis arqona, ekonomikuri da politikuri gamowvevebi aCvenebs kompleqsuri, mdgradi ganviTarebis sferos saWiroebas. zemoaRniSnuli gamowvevebisa da barierebis fonze, saxelmwifo seqtorebisaTvis mniSvnelovan gamowvevad iqca momsaxurebis wardgenis efeqturi gzebis Zieba. aRniSnuli gamowvevebis pasuxs warmoadgens cifruli procesi, mdgradi ganviTarebis sfero, saxelmwifo momsaxurebis wardgenis efeqturi, moqmedi gza. msofliom, 90-iani wlebis Semdgom aiTvisa ganviTarebis kompleqsuri da yovelmxrivi midgomis teqnologiebi. kerZod, ICT-isa da farTozolovani teqnologiebi, romlis ganviTarebis bazazec, bolo aTwleulSi daiwyo cifruli procesebi. cifrulma procesma, teqnologiuri miRwevebis fon-

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ze aamaRla cxovrebis pirobebi, gazarda damoukideblobis xarisxi, radikalurad Secvala komunikaciis arxebi, gamoiwvia axali SesaZleblobebis aqtivizeba. igi gaxda socialuri momsaxurebis miRebisa da cxovrebis marTvis efeqturi instrumenti. cifruli garemo SeiZleba ganxiluli iqnes, rogorc msoflios mdgradobis xelSemwyobi saSualeba. progresis, politikisa da socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis ZiriTadi platforma [1]. saxelmwifoTa umravlesobaSi, cifruli procesebi da cifruli komunikaciis infrastruqturis ganTavseba, realizebulia kerZo seqtoris meSveobiT. amasTan, saxelmwifos wamyvani roli ZiriTadad warmodgenilia stabiluri normatiul-samarTlebrivi baziT, investiciebis stimulirebiT, bazarze sxvadasxva subieqtebs Soris Tanabari pirobebis SeqmniT, adekvaturi speqtris politikis SeqmniT, grZelvadiani da mdgradi konkurenciis uzrunvelyofiT, e-mTavrobis programebiT, cifruli wignierebis iniciativebiT, moqalaqeebis mier sajaro marTvaSi CarTulobis pirobebis SeqmniT. cifruli ganviTarebis strategiis politikis SemuSavebiT, saxelmwifoebi cdiloben daaCqaron administraciuli marTvis, jandacvis, socialuri, saganmanaTleblo da sxva sferoebis transformaciis procesi. cifruli procesis strategiuli dagegmvis orientiria eleqtronuli mTavrobis mzadyofnisaTvis saWiro komponentebis; kriteriumebis dakmayofilebis, gamWvirvale, demokratiuli, angariSvaldebulebi eleqtronuli marTvis sistemis Camoyalibeba da Seqmna . mowinave ekonomikis qveynebSi, cifruli ganviTarebis strategia mimarTulia qveynis socialurekonomikuri, teqnologiuri da politikuri pirobebis gaumjobesebisken, sadac strategiuli dagegmvis politikis prioritetebi, ZiriTadad moicavs advilad moxmare-

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

bad da xelmisawvdom saxelmwifo eleqtronul momsaxurebas, infrastruqturis Seqmnasa da wvdomas; mosaxleobis kompiuterizaciasa da internetizacias, aparatuli da programuli uzrunvelyofis gamoyenebis simartives; gancalkavebul kontentsa da informaciasTan SeuzRudav daSvebas; konfidencialobasa da usafrTxoebas. cifruli procesi gaxda msoflios socialur-politikuri, ekonomikuri wesrigisa da Zalauflebis balansis transformatori, ris gamoc wina planze gamovida msoflio teqnologiuri wesrigi. igi SedarebiT diferencirebulia, xolo misi uzarmazari resursebi da Sedegebi umniSvnelovanesia msoflios yvela regionisTvis, maT Soris saqarTvelosTvis. cifruli procesi warmoadgens ICT-s sferos evoluciis axal etaps. cifruli procesebis generirebiT gardaiqmna msoflio bazrebi, inicirebuli iqna ekonomikebis restruqturizacia, warmoebuli iqna industriuli transformacia da formirebuli iqna erTiani globaluri platforma. am procesebis zegavleniT urTierTdakavSirebuli gaxda ekonomika da teqnologia[2]. cifruli procesi, rogorc socialuri transformaciis procesi, cifruli komunikaciebisa da aplikaciebis meSveobiT, mimarTulia teqnikur-ekonomikuri garemosa da social-institucionaluri operaciebis gardaqmnisaken, aseve cifruli servisebis masobrivi danergvisken. procesi generirebs cifruli teqnologiis Seqmnas, damuSavebas, gacvlasa da informaciuli transaqciebis masobriv aTvisebas (TAS). ICT-is politika orientirebulia internetizaciis, kompiuterizaciis, eleqtronuli momsaxurebis, infrastruqturisa da teqnologiuri procesebis srulyofaze, MmaSin, roca cifruli politika aRniSnuli procesebis garda fokusirebulia maT masobriv aTvisebaze da mimar-

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rati abulaZe

Tulia socialuri transformaciis, sazogadoebis aRqmis, azrovnebis, demokratiis, iuridiuli Zalis mqone informaciuli klimatis formirebis, mTavrobis mmarTvelobiTi saqmianobis, procesebis, qveynis ekonomikuri keTildReobis gaumjobesebasa da zrdaze [3]. sxva teqnologiuri inovaciebisagan gansxvavebiT, cifruli procesebi operirdeba[4]: qselTan wvdomis teqnologiebis evoluciaze (mobiluri an fiqsirebuli farTozolovani kavSiri); naxevargamtar teqnologiebze (kompiuterebi/leptopebi, umavTulo/usadeno mowyobilobebi/tabletebi); programuli uzrunvelyofis SemuSavebaze (inJineringi, operaciuli sistemebis funqcionalobis amaRleba); gamoyenebis Sedegebis gare efeqtebze (danarTebis SemuSavebis, samTavrobo momsaxurebis eleqtronuli miwodebis, e-komerciis, socialuri qselis saerTo platformis sargebloba da onlain informaciis misawvdomoba forumebze, blogebsa da portalebze). cifruli procesis ZiriTadi sidideebia (es sidideebi gamoiyeneba cifruli procesis gazomvisTvisac) [5]: globaluroba – momxmareblisa da organizaciebis sayovelTao wvdoma cifrul momsaxurebasa da danarTebTan; misawvdomoba – cifruli momsaxurebis Sefaseba diapazonSi, romelic mas misawvdoms qmnis imdeni adamianisTvis, ramdenic SesaZlebelia; saimedooba – misawdomi, usafrTxo da saimedo cifruli momsaxurebis xarisxi; siCqare – gavrceleba, cifruli momsaxurebis misawvdomoba realuri drois reJimSi;

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

gamoyenebadoba – cifruli momsaxurebis gamoyenebis simartive (adgilobrivi ekosistemis mier momsaxurebis aTvisebis zrdisaTvis); Cvevebi – biznessa da cxovrebaSi cifruli momsaxurebis CarTvis SesaZlebloba. dRes cifrul procesebsa da teqnologiebze gadis saxelmwifos ganviTarebis Tanamedrove gza, romlis moqmedebis safuZvelia cifruli politika. cifruli politikis modusi, ZiriTadad, fokusirebulia fundamentur Sexedulebebsa da faseulobebis gaazrebaze; ekonomikis, politikis, sazogadoebrivi keTildReobis amaRlebaze; stabiluri da usafrTxo garemos formirebaze. ganviTarebul saxelmwifoebTan SedarebiT, ganviTarebadi qveynebis mTavrobebis ritorika, arasakmarisi gamocdilebis Sedegad, cifruli politikis gatarebis nacvlad ICT is politikis gatarebas aniWebs upiratesobas (romelTa Sorisaa saqarTvelo).

1.2. msoflios cifruli strategiebi ganviTarebuli saxelmwifoebisaTvis, cifruli qveynis erovnuli strategia warmoadgens nacionaluri eleqtronuli ganviTarebis strategias, eleqtronuli marTvis sistemis realizebisa da misi infrastruqturis xelSewyobis gegmas. aRniSnuli strategiiT izrdeba cifruli procesebis mkafio aRqma, SesaZleblobebi, kontrasti da qmedebebi. aseve, mas ganixilaven, rogorc miznobrivi mimarTulebiT SemuSavebul sagegmo dokuments, sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis saxelmZRvanelo politikasa da ganviTrebuli qveynebis prioritetul mimarTulebas. zogadad, Tanamedrove samyaroSi uwyvetad mimdinare demokratizaciis, mdgradi ganviTarebisa da Zala-

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rati abulaZe

uflebis gadanawilebis procesi aqtiurad xorcieldeba nacionaluri cifruli ganviTarebis strategiis fonze [6]. msoflio praqtika gviCvenebs, rom umravlesi qveynebis nacionaluri strategis flagmans warmoadgens cifruli ganviTarebis strategia. 2012 wlis International Telecommunication Union-is angariSiT 144 qveynidan mxolod 127 qveyanas hqonda farTozolovani kavSiris nacionaluri strategia (universaluri kavSiris/momsaxurebis CaTvliT), romelTa siaSi saqarTvelo ar aris [6]. jer kidev, 2006 wlamde qveynebis mier wardgenili strategiuli gegmebis umravlesoba fokusirebuli iyo informaciuli sazogadoebis sakiTxebze, xolo 2008 wlidan, wina planze farTozolovani komunikacia gamovida. bolo wlebSi adgili aqvs cifruli politikis popularobasa da cifrul strategiaze gadasvlas. 2013 wels 134 qveynis 69,4%-s hqonda cifruli procesis winsvlis moqmedi nacionaluri strategia (an gegma an politika), 12 qveyana (6,2%) gegmavda strategiuli dagegmvis politikis gatarebas, xolo 47 qveyana (24,4%) ar flobda da arc gegmavda dagegmvasa da gaTvlas (ix. cxrili 1.1). cxrili 1.1 cifruli ganviTarebisa da farTozolovani strategiis mqone qveynebi qveyana / organizacia avRaneTi albaneTi alJiri andora angola

36

saTauri/ detalebi avRaneTis nacionaluri ganviTarebis strategia: 1387-1391 (2008-2013) eleqtronuli albaneTi eleqtronuli alJiri 2013 universaluri momsaxurebis servisi informaciuli da sakomunikacio teq-

strategiis miRebis periodi 2008 2008 2008 2009 2010


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis strategia 1.1marketinguli cxrilis gagrZeleba

antigua &barbuda argentina somxeTi

avstralia avstria bahamis kunZulebi bahreini bangladeSi belarusi belgia brazilia bulgareTi

CineTi hon-kongi, CineTi dania

fineTi

safrangeTi

nologiebis TeTri wigni (Livro branco das Tecnologias da Informacao e Comunicacao – LBTIC) GATE 2012 telekomunikaciis nacionaluri gegma – argentinis komunikacia somxeTis respublikis mTavrobis brZaneba #35 informaciuli -teqnologiuri seqtoris ganviTarebis konceptualuri dokumentis damtkicebis Sesaxeb. nacionaluri farTozolovani qseli farTozolovani avstria – Breitband strategie 2020 eleqtronuli komerciisa da bahamis cifruli gegmis politikuri kursi bahreinis samefos nacionaluri farTozolovani qseli farTozolovanis nacionaluri politikis aqti 2009 ICT-is nacionaluri strategia belgia : evropis cifruli guli nacionaluri farTozolovani gegma (Plano Nacional de Banda Larga -PNBL) bulgareTis respublikis farTozolovani komunikaciis ganviTarebis nacionaluri strategia sami qselis konvergencia – nacionaluri mTavrobis gegma 2008 cifruli strategia mecnierebis, teqnologiisa da inovaciis saministros cifruli moqmedebis gegma farTozolovanis 2015 proeqti, Kainuus informaciuli sazogadoebis strategia 2007-2015 nacionaluri swrafsiCqariani farTozolovanis gegma

2012 2010

2008 2010 2010 2003 2010 2009 2011 2009 2010 2009 2010 2008 2010

2005 2010

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rati abulaZe 1.1 cxrilis gagrZeleba germania saberZneTi

federaluri mTavrobis farTozolovani strategia cifruli strategia 2006-2013

ungreTi

cifruli aRorZinebis moqmedebis gegma

islandia indoeTi indonezia

2005 2011

irani

telekomis politikuri gegma 2005-2010 nacionaluri optikur boWkovani qseli komunikaciebisa da informaciuli teqnologiebis saministros prioritetebi 2010-2014 ww TAKFA gegma

irlandia

irlandiis farTozolovani strategia

2008

israeli

sakomunikacio iniciativa: boWkovanze dafuZnebuli nacionaluri farTozolovani qseli cifruli italiis gegma `Italia Digitale� axali farTozolovani supermagistrali (Haraguchi vision II) iordaniis ICT nacionaluri strategia

italia iaponia iordania yazaxeTi koreis respublika yirgizeTi latvia

ICT ganviTarebis programa ultra farTozolovani konvergenciis qseli moqmedi strategia Aar aqvs farTozolovani ganviTarebis strategia 2006-2012 lixtenStei- eleqtronuli komunikaciis ganviTareni bis strategia litva litvis farTozolovani infrastruqturis ganviTarebis strategia 20052010 moldova farTozolovani internet-wvdomis ganviTarebis dadgenileba 2010-2013ww niderlande- cifruli programa bi axali zelan- ultraswrafi farTozolovani iniciadia tiva, swrafi farTozolovani komunikaciisaTvis xuT punqtiani moqmedebis

38

2009 2006 2010

2010 2002

2012 2010 2010 2007 2010 2009 2005 2006 2005 2010 2010 2010


1.1 marketinguli cxrilis gagrZeleba saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis strategia gegma farTozolovani komunikaciis moqmedebis gegma poloneTi satelekomunikacio momsaxurebisa da qselebis ganviTarebis mxardamWeri aqti portugalia cifruli programa 2015 (2010-2015) norvegia

rumineTis eleqtronuli komunikaciis seqtoris regulirebis strategia 20072010 ruseTis fe- informaciuli sazogadoebis stratederacia gia/informaciuli sazogadoebis programa saudis ara- USF strategiuli gegma, farTozolobeTi vani momsaxurebis ganTavsebis samefo strategia singapuri inteleqtualuri saxelmwifo (IN2015) slovakeTis informaciuli sazogadoebis operacirespublika uli programa slovenia farTozolovani qselis ganviTarebis strategia espaneTi gegma Avanza, 2005. damtkicda 16.07.2010

2001 2010 2010

rumineTi

samxreT afrika SvedeTi tailandi

samxreT afrikis farTozolovani politika SvedeTis farTozolovani strategia

nacionaluri farTozolovani politika TurqeTi informaciuli sazogadoebis strategia 2006-2010, ganviTarebis gegma 20072013 didi brita- britaneTis zeswrafi farTozolovani neTi momavali, britaneTis farTozolovaniT uzrunvelyofa amerikis amerikasTan dakavSireba: nacionaluri SeerTebuli farTozolovani gegma Statebi wyaro: http://www.unesco.org

2007

2010

2010 2005 2006 2008 2010 2010 2011 2010 2006

2010

2010

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rati abulaZe

saerTaSoriso satelekomunikacio kavSiris (International Telecommunication Union -ITU) wevri saxelmwifoebidan, 2010 wlis aprilSi, 163 qveyanas (85,3%) sxvadasxva doneze hqonda SemuSavebuli nacionaluri eleqtronuli strategia, 13 qveyana (6,8%-s) strategiis SemuSavebisa da aTvisebis stadiaze iyo, 6 qveyanas (3,2%) strategia ar hqonda, xolo 9 qveynis (4,7%) statusi informaciuli deficitis gamo gaurkvevelia, kerZod [7]: evropisa da dsT-s qveynebis ICT-s sferos strategia mimarTulia codnaze dafuZnebul ekonomikaze. strategia moicavs eleqtronuli biznesis kanonmdeblobas (rogoricaa eleqtronuli angariSsworeba da autentifikacia). maSin, roca dasavleT evropisa da gardamavali ekonomikis qveynebs Soris mcirdeba cifruli uTanasworoba, farTovdeba farTozolovani uTanasworoba. uTanasworobis SemcirebisaTvis zogierTi qveynis strategiis rekomendacias warmoadgens umravlesi momxmareblisaTvis farTozolovani internetisa da mobiluri farTozolovani infrastruqturis xelmisawvdomoba. aseve, bevri qveynisaTvis Sida cifruli uTanasworobis daZlevisaTvis mniSvnelovania cifruli codnierebis problemis gadaWra; azia-wynari okeanis regionis ekonomikebis aqcenti, ICT-is sferoSi keTdeba regulirebis sistemis politikaze, ICT-is infrastruqturis xelSewyobaze, kiberusafrTxoebasa da lokaluri kontentis Seqmnasa da kontrolze. azia-wynari okeanis regionis umravlesi qveynis ICT -is politikaSi, formulirebulia regulirebis procesSi damoukidebeli organoebis roli, universaluri momsaxurebis politika, kibersivrcis regulire-

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

bis wesebi (rogoricaa cifruli uflebebis marTva, spamis konotroli). aseve, ICT -s sferos liberalizaciisa da privatizaciis xelSewyobis politika; laTinuri amerikisa da karibis qveynebis (maT Soris brazilia da meqsika) mier SemuSavebulia ICT -s sferos politika. procesi stimulirebuli iqna `laTinuri amerikisa da karibis regionSi informaciuli sazogadoebis regionuli moqmedebis gegmiT (the Regional Action Plan for the Information Society in Latin America and the Caribbean (eLAC)), romelmac starti aiRo 2005 wels ECLAC-is (ECLAC – Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean) komisiis koordinaciiT. ICT-s sferos strategia moicavda infrastruqturas, e-mTavrobasa da ganaTlebas; karibis regions SeuZlia gaxdes informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis momsaxurebis hostingis, autsorsingisa da miwodebis centri~ CrdiloeT, centraluri da samxreT amerikisaTvis; afrika warmoadgens kontinents, sadac dabalia ICT-is SeRwevis done da ICT-is sferos strategiis SemuSavebis tempebi. 2003 wels afrikis regionis mxolod 17 qveyanas hqonda ICT-is strategia. amJamad, afrikuli qveynebis 90%, ICT-s miiCnevs nacionalur prioritetad. ICT-is sferos arsebuli politika xasiaTdeba infrastruqturis ararsebobis problemebis gadaWriT, susti normatiulsamarTlebrivi bazis arsebobiTa da dafinansebis meqanizmebis ararsebobiT. afrikis bevri qveyana xels uwyobs privatizacias, xolo Tavis politi-

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rati abulaZe

kiT mimarTulia dasaqmebis zrdiT siRaribis Semcirebisaken; arabuli qveynebi aCvenebs informaciuli sazogadoebis ganviTarebis evoluciis sxvadasxva etaps. maSin, roca zogierTma qveyanam ukve gaatara sazogadoebis transformaciis RonisZiebebi, calkeulma qveyanam axla gadadga pirveli nabijebi an kvlavindeburad infrastruqturis ararsebobis problemebis winaSe aris. Tumca, yvela arabul qveyanas aqvs SemuSavebuli ICT-s sferos strategia, an mzad arian SeimuSaon Sesabamisi proeqtebi.

1.3. cifruli procesebis gamowvevebi cifruli procesebis gavlena qveynebsa da sferoebs Soris gansxvavebulia. ganviTarebuli qveynebi maRal ekonomikur sargebels iRebs (TiTqmis 25%-s), Tumca isini, rogorc wesi ganviTarebadi ekonomikis qveynebs samuSao adgilebis Seqmnis doniT CamorCeba. ZiriTadi mizezia, Tanmdevi Sedegebi. ganviTarebul qveynebSi, cifruli procesebi aumjobesebs mwarmoeblurobas da zrdaze aqvs gavlena. Tumca, maRalkvalificiuri samuSao adgilebis dakargva da damatebiTi Rirebulebis Semcireba sazRvrebs gareT, ganviTarebad qveynebSi axdens adamianuri resursis migrirebas, sadac samuSao Zala iafia. ganviTarebadi bazrebi metadaa orientirebuli eqsportisa da savaWro seqtoris moZraobaze. isini rogorc wesi, koncentrirebulia cifruli procesebiT meti dasaqmebis miRebis efeqtze, aseve, misi ekonomikuri gavlenis Sedegebze.

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

cxrili 1.2 cifrouli procesebis gamowvevebis daZlevis RonisZiebebi komponentebi

raionsa da sofelSi moqalaqeTa dabali msyidvelobiTunarianoba

RonisZiebebi moqalaqeTa subsidireba e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis aRqmisa da aTvisebisaTvis; internet-provaiderTa SeRavaTiani da moqnili faswarmoqmnis politika; saxelmwifosa da kerZo seqtoris TanamSromloba;

SezRuduli finansuri resursebi

cifruli politika (efeqturobis uzrunvelyofisaTvis) warmoebuli unda iqnes internet-operatorebis, adgilobrivi moTxovnebis, saxelmwifo finansirebis mixedviT; aqcenti unda gakeTdes viwrospecializaciis proeqtebze; prioritetuli unda iyos universaluri wvdomis servisi, romelic dafuZnebuli iqneba mkafio kriteriumebze.

mosaxleobaSi ICT gamoyenebis dabali done samomxmareblo eleqtronul mowyobilobasTan SezRuduli wvdoma farTomoxmarebis ZiriTadi produqtebis nakleboba (wyali, sakvebi, deni da sxva)

treningi ICT sferoSi; saxelmwifos subsidirebiT Raribi mosaxleobis kompiuterisa da internetis dabal fasSi (an ufasod) miwodeba.

sajaro telecentrebis, internet-kafeebis gaxsna; sazogadoebriv adgilebSi ufaso Wi-Fi wvdoma;

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rati abulaZe 1.2 cxrilis gagrZeleba

gadasaxadis ganakveTi ICT-mowyobilobebze da teelkomunikaciaze. regionebSi infrastruqturis ararseboba/nakleboba administraciuli Seferxebebi axali infrastruqturis ganTavsebis nebarTvaze ekonomikuri zrdis Seneleba wvdomis speqtris sididis SezRudva

SezRuduli lokaluri kontenti

cifruli procesebis xelSemwyobi miznobrivi sagadasaxo ganakveTebi satelekomunikacio servissa da mowyobilobebze. saxelmwifo subsidirebiT moZvelebuli infrastruqturis modernizacia an axali infrastruqturis Seqmna; internet-provaiderebze grantebis gamoyofa infrastruqturis agebisaTvis. administraciuli procedurebis optimizacia; Seferexebis gamomwvevi mizezebis aRmofxvra. moTxovnis stimulirebis xelSemwyobi programebi da subsidireba; ganawilebis speqtris efeqturi politika; lokaluri kontentis ganviTareba da finansuri stimulireba; e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis ganviTareba, Tavisufali informaciuli politika.

wyaro: www.broadbandcommission.org

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

თა ვ ი II. eleqtronuli mTavroba da cifruli ekonomika 2.1. cifruli procesebis socialur-ekonomikuri Sedegebi cifruli procesi, qveynis nacionaluri konkurentunarianobis pirobebSi, strategiulad aZlierebs makroekonomikur garemos, adgilobriv mwarmoebelTa jgufebisa da firmebis qcevas [8]. cifruli procesebis safuZvelze formirdeba teqnologiuri zegavlenis, konkurentunarianobis amaRlebis, ekonomikuri zrdisa da politikuri procesebis platforma. cifruli garemosagan miRebuli sargebeli aris - xarisxi, romliTac saxelmwifosa da biznes organizaciebis teqnologiebi, aplikaciebi, biznes-procesebi da monacemTa komponentebi standartizebuli, erToblivi da integrirebulia. cifruli garemos zegavlena SeiZleba warmovadginoT ekonomikis, socialuri keTildReobisa da efeqturi marTvis komponentebiT (ix. cxrili 2.1). cxrili 2.1 cifruli procesebis socialur-ekonomikuri zegavlena cifruli procesebis gavlena

komponentebi ekonomika: cifruli procesis gavlena ekonomikis zrdaze. sazogadoeba : cifruli procesi gavlena sazogadoebis keTil-

subkomponentebi mSp-is zrda; samuSao adgilebis zrda; inovacia. cxovrebis xarisxi; ZiriTad momsaxurebasTan

metri/sazomi mSp mosaxleobis erT sulze; umuSevrobis done; inovaciis globaluri indeqsi. OECD saukeTeso cxovrebis indeqsi; Gallup keTildReobis zrdis indeqsi;

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rati abulaZe 2.1 cxrilis gagrZeleba

dReobaze.

marTva : cifruli procesebis gavlena sajaro seqtorze .

wvdoma; informirebuloba gamWvirvaloba; e-mTavroba; ganaTleba.

UNDP adamianuri resursebis ganviTarebis indeqsi. korufciis aRqmis indeqsi; e-mTavrobis ganviTarebis indeqsi; ganaTlebis indeqsi.

wyaro : WEF. The Global Information Technology Report 2012.

cifruli garemo generirebs mcire da saSualo internet-kompaniebis warmoqmnasa da ganviTarebas, rasac nacionaluri ekonomikisaTvis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs (European Commission). cifruli ekonomika izrdeba 7-jer ufro swrafad, vidre romelime mimarTuleba. Sesabamisad, evropis cifruli programa (The Digital Agenda for Erope – DAE), rogorc evrokavSiris swrafi mdgradobisa da inkluziuri ganviTarebis strategia exmareba evropis moqalaqeebsa da biznes organizaciebs maqsimaluri sargeblis miRebaSi [9]. milanis politeqnikuri universitetis (Digital Agenda Observatory of the Milan Polytechnical University) laboratoriis kvlevebi adasturebs, rom cifruli procesebiT miiRweva 20 mlrd evros ekonomia da 5 mlrd dolaris damatebiTi Semosavali. aRniSnuli kvlevis Tanaxmad, cifruli procesiT, saxelmwifos potenciuri ekonomia weliwadSi 7,5 mlrd evros aRwevs (ZiriTadi postulatia: momsaxurebis yvela procesis cifrul formatSi gadayvana, racionalizacia, monacemTa bazebis Tavsebadoba, onlainSi momsaxurebis wardgena) [10]. I-Comp institutis kvlevis Tanaxmad, samomxmareblo momsaxurebis ekonomia 4-dan 14 mlrd evromde fasdeba. cvlilebis diapazoni ganpirobebulia arsebuli Tu araefeqtiani reorganizaciiT, romelic saxelmwifos cifruli procesebis Tanmdevia [4].

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

maSin, rodesac qveyanas ar aqvs progresis miRwevis gegma, cifruli procesi SeiZleba iyos rTuli an bundovani. qveynebi, romlebic cifruli ganviTarebis gegmiT moqmedeben 2.5%-iT met sargebels iReben, vidre gegmebis ar mqone qveynebi[11]. cifruli procesebis ganviTarebam uzrunvelyo Tavisufali konkurenciis mxardaWera, saerTaSoriso kavSirgabmulobis qselis gafarToeba, globaluri bazris formireba (internet-bazris saxiT). cifrul procesebs mniSvnelovani gavlena aqvs politikisa da mmarTvelobiTi gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi. igi zrdis moqalaqeebis, saxelmwifosa da biznes seqtoris CarTulobas eleqtronul mmarTvelobiT gadawyvetilebebSi, amaRlebs saxelmwifo marTvis efeqtianobas, xels uwyobs fiskalur decentralizaciasa da fiskalur disciplinas, stimulirebs gamWvirvalobas, sakuTrebis uflebis dacvas, amcirebs biurokratiis zegavlenas sabazro institutebis saqmianobaze. cifruli procesi uzrunvelyofs axali teqnologiebis farTo misawvdomobas. qveynebi, romlebic cifruli ganviTarebis mowinave stadiaze imyofebian, moimkian 20%-iT met ekonomikur sargebels, vidre is qveynebi, sadac cifruli procesi sawyis etapzea. cifruli procesi generirebs 3-jer met ekonomikur sargebels, vidre farTozolovani kavSiris ganviTarebis procesi. cifruli procesi, rogorc ekonomikis zrdis damaCqarebeli, 4,7-jer ufro mZlavria, vidre mSp-is erT sulze farTozolovani kavSiris 0,16%-iani zemoqmedeba. aseve qveyanaSi cifruli procesis 10%-iani zrda iwvevs mosaxleobis erT sul mosaxleze mSp-is 0,75%-ian matebas[3]. cifrul procesebs pozitiuri kontribucia Seaqvs samuSao adgilebis SeqmnaSi. cifruli procesebis 10%-ia-

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rati abulaZe

ni zrda umuSevrobis dones amcirebs 0,84%-iT (Booz & Company) [12]. sxva kvlevebiT es maCvenebeli 1,02%-ia, es ki 4,6-jer metia, vidre farTozolovani kavSiris danergviT umuSevarTa donis Semcireba. farTozolovani kavSiri umuSevarTa dones 0,22%-iT amcirebs. ekonomikuri stimulirebisa da dasaqmebis mxriv, mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs ICT-is industriis ganviTarebis procesi. sailustraciod moyvanilia msoflios tendencia. kerZod, 2011 wels ICT-is industriis ganviTarebam xeli Seuwyo 192,6 mlrd dolaris produqciis gamoSvebas da 6 mln samuSao adgilis Seqmnas. sadac, mxolod laTinuri amerikis, aRmosavleT da samxreT aziis regionSi Seiqmna 4 mln-ze meti samuSao adgili (ix. cxrili 2.2). cxrili 2.2 ICT-is industriis ganviTarebis gavlena mSp-sa da dasaqmebaze (2011)* regionuli zegavlena regioni damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobroba (СНГ) aRmosavleT azia da wynari okeanis regioni samxreT azia dasavleT evropa aRmosavleT evropa CrdiloeT amerika laTinuri amerika da karibis qveynebi afrika axalo aRmosavleTi da CrdiloeT afrika jamSi

11.8

Seqmnili samuSao adgilebis raodenoba 340.820

55.8

2.370.241

9.4 31.5 7.0 25.3 27.0

1.117.753 213.578 159.015 167.650 636.737

8.3 16.5

618.699 377.772

192.6

6.002.266

mSp-ze gavlena (mlrd $)

*wyaro: WEF, The Global Information Technology Report 2013.

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

amrigad, cifruli garemos sargeblisa da Seqmnili, miRebuli faseulobis Seswavlis safuZvelze SeiZleba aRiniSnos Semdegi: cifruli teqnologiebis ganviTareba zrdis cifrul procesebsa da midgomebSi klientebis, produqtebis, momsaxurebisa da operaciuli modelebis migrirebas; cifruli procesebis ganviTareba zrdis eleqtronuli vaWrobis liberalizacias, amaRlebs ekonomikuri efeqtianobasa da mosaxleobis keTildReobas; cifruli teqnologiebis gavlena zrdis momxmarebelTa moTxovnas, ganaTlebasa da momsaxurebis efeqturobas. aseve, kapitalis, resursebis efeqturi gamoyenebas, romelic generirebs ekonomikis zrdas; qveynis cifruli ganviTarebis pirobebSi zrdadia inflaciur procesebze cifruli procesebis pozitiuri zegavlena; cifrul qveyanaSi, cifruli procesebis ganviTarebiT maRldeba ekonomikuri subieqtebis Tavisuflebis xarisxi, molodini da ndoba; cifruli procesebis ekonomikuri zegavleniT Cqardeba mowinave stadiaze gadasvla. amasTan, cifrulad SezRuduli ekonomikebi Rebuloben mcire sargebelsac, radgan isini ICT-is ekosistemis Seqmnis winaSe dganan, romelic SeiZleba kapitalizebuli iqnes cifrul sargebelSi (WEF, 2013); ganviTarebuli qveynebis gamocdilebiT dasturdeba, rom cifruli procesebis generirebiT mcirdeba danaxarjebi, izrdeba produqtiuloba, xdeba inovaciis stimulireba, xolo dasaqmebis

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mxriv warmodgeba mcire sargebliT (radgan samuSao adgilebi teqnologiebiT Canacvldeba), vidre ganviTarebad qveynebSi. dabali damatebiTi Rirebulebisa da Sromis zedamxedvelobis sakiTxebis gamo, kompaniebi amjobineben im ganviTarebadi qveynebis bazarze gasvlas, sadac iafi samuSao Zalaa. cifruli procesebi, aRniSnuli qveynebis dasaqmebis doneze gavlenas axdens da Sesabamisad misi sargebelic maRalia; cifruli procesis zrdis paralelurad izrdeba ofSoringi (ofSoruli `iafi samuSao Zalisa~ da ofSori qveynis strategiuli xelsayrelobidan gamomdinare. ofSoris dominirebad moTamaSeebad aRiarebulia: indoeTi, CineTi, filipinebi, ruseTi da sxva)[13]; cifruli procesebis generirebiT fundamenturad gardaiqmneba arsebuli biznes modelebi, icvleba kompaniis mier produqtisa da brendis agebis principebi, momxmarebelTan urTierTobis marTvisa da momsaxurebis wardgenis procesis Taviseburebebi; cifrul procesSi dominanti xdeba socialuri media teqnologiebi (magaliTad, brendis agebisas), umjobesdeba kompaniis mier sawarmoo aqtivebis marTvis gzebi, riTac kompanias SesaZlebloba eZleva formirebuli sabazro ekonomikisken imoZraos; cifruli garemoSi, izrdeba socialuri mediis roli da faseuloba, kerZo da saxelmwifo organizaciebisaTvis socialuri media teqnologiebi warmodgenilia praqtikis gaziarebisa da Ria inovaciebis stimulirebis SesaZleblobiT[14]; cifruli procesebiT stimulirebs globaluri

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

organizaciebis Seqmnas. konkurentuli upiratesobis mopovebisaTvis gavlenas axdens resursebis marTvaze, sawarmoo procesis organizebasa da samuSaos ganxorcielebaze; cifruli procesi, kompaniebis efeqturobis zrdisaTvis, Sida funqciebis autsorsingisa da mTliani procesis avtomatizaciis SesaZleblobas iZleva (WEF, 2013);

2.2. globaluri cifruli ekonomika cifruli ekonomikis mamoZravebeli Zalaa internetis infrastruqtura, internetTan xelmisawvdomoba, internetis siCqare, internet-momxmarebelTa matebis tempi, internet-wigniereba da sxva faqtorebi. cifruli procesebi qmnis ekonomikis axal sivrceebs, misi ekosistemis ganviTareba generirebs cifrul ekonomikas, zegavlenas axdens sazogadoebis keTildReobasa da socialur procesebze. msoflio ekonomikuri forumis kvlevis angariSiT, mdgradi cifruli ekonomikis sakvanZo elementebia [15]: maRali teqnologiebi: umaRlesi ganaTlebis done, samecniero da sainJinro disciplinebi; mewarmeobis xelSewyoba, mewarmeobis kultura; infrastruqtura: misawvdomoba, maRali xarisxis wvdoma da mowyobilobebi; investiciebi momavali Taobis infrastruqturaSi; saerTaSoriso cloud infrastruqturaze wvdoma; biznesisa da garemos regulaciebi: venCuruli kapitalis arseboba, xelsayreli sagadasaxado/samarTlebrivi garemo, Ria monacemTa dacvis sakuTrebis ufleba, regionul da saerTaSoriso

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bazrebTan wvdoma, investiciebis mxardamWeri maregulirebeli baza. saboloo momxmarebeli: eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxureba, ICT-s ZiriTadi unarebi, teqnologiebis aTviseba. cifruli ekonomika Sedgeba telekomunikaciis infrastruqturisagan, ICT industriisa (programuli, aparatuli da ICT-s servisi) da social-ekonomikuri aqtivobisagan, romelic internetiT, Cloud Computing da mobiluri, socialuri da sensoruli qselebiT aris stimulirebuli. aRsaniSnavia, rom cifruli ekonomika Sedgeba 3 ZiriTadi komponentisagan[16]; 1. farTozolovani qseluri infrastruqtura (ZiriTadi elementebia: nacionaluri da saerTaSoriso kavSiri, lokaluri wvdomis qselebi, sazogadoebrivi wvdomis wertilebi da xelmisawvdomoba); 2. ICT-aplikaciebis industria (onlain servisebi da aplikaciebi, programuli da aparatuli industria, biznes-procesebi, analitika, sacalo vaWroba); 3. saboloo momxmarebeli (fizikuri da iuridiuli piri, mTavroba). aRsaniSnavia is, rom msoflios bevr qveyanas gaaCnia cifruli ekonomikis ganviTarebis strategia. magaliTad, melburnis cifruli ekonomikis ganviTarebis strategiuli dokumentis (avstralia) Tanaxmad, garemo ganxilulia biznesisa da sazogadoebis potencialis konteqstSi. dokumentSi xazgasmulia politikis, regulirebis, konkurenciis, infrastruqturis, inovaciisa da ganaTlebis mimarTulebebi (ix. naxazi 2.1) [17].

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

naxazi 2.1. cifruli ekonomika

Economist Intelligence Unit-is angariSSi, mocemulia cifruli ekonomikis reitingi da Sefasebebi. angariSis Tanaxmad, cifrul msoflioSi, cifruli ekonomikis mqone lider qveynebs warmoadgens SvedeTi, meore da mesame adgilebs inawilebs dania da aSS, xuTeulSi Sedis fineTi da niderlandebi, aTeuls aboloebs axali zelandia (ix. cxrili 2.3) [18]. cifrul ekonomikaSi, mTavrobisa da biznesis transaqciebis mniSvnelovani nawili warmoebs cifruli saSualebebiT. cifruli ekonomikis indikatorebi zomavs cifruli ekonomikis aspeqtebs. magaliTad, rogoricaa: saxelmwifo momsaxurebis miwodebisaTvis IT gamoyeneba, farTozolovani komunikaciis saSualo siCqare, jandacvaSi informaciuli teqnologiebis gamoyeneba, fermerebis mier biznes saqmianobaSi internetis/kompiuteris gamoyeneba da sxva[19].

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cxrili 2.3

biznes garemo

socialuri da kulturuli garemo

samarTlebrivi garemo

samTavrobo politika da xedva

samomxmareblo da biznes aRqma

20%

15%

15%

10%

15%

20%

8.49 8.41 8.41 8.36 8.36

8.20 7.85 7.35 8.00 8.05

8.13 8.18 7.85 8.30 8.05

8.53 8.47 9.00 8.47 8.07

8.25 8.10 8.70 8.35 8.45

8.90 8.70 9.25 8.00 8.25

8.75 8.90 8.60 8.85 9.00

8.24 8.22 8.22 8.21 8.07

7.95 7.65 7.35 7.35 6.80

7.95 8.40 8.63 8.24 8.17

8.00 7.27 7.33 8.53 8.60

8.30 9.00 8.70 8.50 8.45

8.05 9.18 9.13 8.85 8.50

8.90 8.28 8.48 8.18 8.29

saerTo Sefaseba

#

kavSiris infrastruqtura da teqnologiebi

cifruli ekonomikis reitingi (2010)

qveyana

xvedriTi wona 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

SvedeTi dania aSS fineTi niderlandebi norvegia honkongi singapuri avstralia axali zelandia

msoflioSi cifruli servisebis gavrcelebas xels uwyobs internetis globaluri masStabebi [20]. interneti gaxda kacobriobis gardamqneli mZlavri Zala, axali saxis social-ekonomikuri sivrce. interneti da ICT mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs korporaciis menejmentis, produqciis, autsorsingis, marketingis geografiuli gavrcelebis uzurnvelyofaSi. igi warmodgenilia, rogorc Tanamedrove globaluri ekonomikisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli qseluri sistemis ganviTarebis integraluri nawili[21]. internetma da ICT-ma (informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologia) warmoqmna axali biznes modelebi, xeli Seuwyo bazrebis konsolidacias, biznes garemos mdgra-

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

dobas, internet-ekonomikis Seqmnas, biznesisa da vaWrobis fasilitacias, biznesis dinamizms, konkurentunarianobis amaRlebas da sxva[22]. cifrul ekonomikas, aseve uwodeben `internet-ekonomikas~, web-ekonomikas, axal ekonomikas [23,24]. qarTveli mecnierebi `internet-ekonomikas~ uwodeben `eleqtronul ekonomikas~, `qselur ekonomikas~, `virtualur ekonomikas~, `axal ekonomikas~, romlis kvlevis sagania globalur eleqtronul sivrceSi ekonomikuri subieqtebis (saxelmwifo, firma, individi) sameurneo saqmianobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli kanozomierebebis Seswavla [25]. internetma gavlena moaxdina ekonomikis yvela seqtorze da gardaqmna arsebuli bazrebi. internetis pirvelamTvisebeli iyo korporaciuli seqtori, romelic mas daexmara maRali siswrafiT ganviTarebasa da ganaxlebaSi. 2003 wels 10-dan 4 kompanias gaaCnda farTozolovan kavSirTan wvdomis SesaZlebloba (EU15), 2009 wels ki 10-dan 9 kompanias. 2011 wels OECD wevri qveynebis kompaniaTa ZiriTadi nawili CarTuli iyo internetSi. OECD wevri qveynebis kompaniaTa 95% iyenebda internets, xolo EU25 -is 94,3%-s hqonda internetTan wvdomis SesaZlebloba (OECD, 2012). internetis ganviTarebis fonze, 2014 wlis dasawyisSi planetis internet-momxmarebelTa raodenoba 2,8 mlrd Seadgina, planetis mosaxleobis 39% [26]. maT Soris ganviTarebuli qveynebis onlain mosaxleoba Seadgens 69%-s, xolo ganviTarebadi qveynebis – 31%-s. globalurad, internet-wvdoma aqvs 750 mln ojaxs (41%), xolo 1068 mln ojaxi internetis gareSea (2013)[27], rac ganpirobebulia social-ekonomikuri mdgomareobis, cudi infrastruqturis, xelmisawvdomobis, dabali internetmoxmarebis, cifruli politikis uqonlobis da sxva faqtorebis gamo.GA msoflio bankis monacemebiT, cifruli garemos pi-

55


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robebSi msoflio ekonomikam Seadgina 71,6 trln dolari (2013). msoflio savaluto fondis SefasebiT msoflio ekonomikis matebis tempma 2013 wels 3,3% Seadgina (2012 wels iyo – 3,2%). formirebuli bazrebisa da ganviTarebadi qveynebis ekonomikis zrda ki ganisazRvra 5%-mde. aRniSnulis mizezs warmoadgens samomxmareblo moTxovnis zrda, makroekonomikuri politikis xelsayreloba, eqsportis gamococxleba da sxva faqtorebi. 2013 wels 3,3%-iani globaluri garemos inflaciis pirobebSi (2012 wels iyo 3,6%) (IMF, 2013), ganviTarebuli qveynebis ekonomikis matebis tempi iyo 1,2%, xolo 2014 wels matebis tempi 2,2%dafiqsirda. globaluri internet-ekonomika 20 trln dolaris moculobisaa, sadac ganviTarebadi qveynebis internetekonomikis matebis tempi 12-25% Seadgens. msoflio ekonomikuri forumis monacemebiT, G-20 qveynebis internetze-dafuZnebuli ekonomikis moculoba wliurad 10%-iT izrdeba. gaeros angariSiT, G-20 qveynebis ekonomika globaluri mSp-s 90%-s qmnis da msoflio mosaxleobis 2/3-s Seadgens. kvleviTi kompaniis IDC-s angariSis Tanaxmad, msoflio eleqtronuli komerciis moculoba, B2B da B2C transaqciis CaTvliT 16 trln dolars Seadgens. safrangeTis teqnologiebis kvlevis firma IDate SefasebiT, cifruli produqtis/momsaxurebis globaluri bazari 4,4 trln dolars Seadgens, rac mTliani gayidvebis 13,8%-s warmoadgens(2013) [28]. msoflioSi, internetSi unikaluri IP misamarTiT 2,5 mlrd mowyobiloba iyo CarTuli (2009). maT umravlesobas mobiluri telefoni da personaluri kompiuteri warmoadgens. aRniSnuli procesi qmnis axal ekonomikas, sadac Gartner-is prognoziT, 2020 wels, internetSi CarTuli iqneba 30 mlrd teqnologiuri mowyobiloba da damatebuli

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

ekonomikuri RirebulebiT (EVA)1 1,9 trln dolari Seiqmneba [29].

2.3. cifruli sivrcis sainvesticio mimzidveloba cifruli procesis axalma talRam gamoiwvia kibersivrcis sainvesticio mimzidvelobis zrda, globaluri eleqtronuli bazris aspeqtebis gardaqmna, momxmareblis qcevis transformacia, axali biznes modelebis ganviTAareba, rac sainvesticio gadawyvetilebebsa da interesebze mniSvnelovan zegavlenas axdens. dReisaTvis, ganviTarebadi qveynebis mier investiciebis mozidvis xelSewyobis procesSi, investorebis ZiriTadi interesi mimarTulia axal teqnologiebze. Sesabamisad, aRniSnuli sfero qveynis ganviTarebis mamoZravebel Zalas warmoadgens. saerTaSoriso kvlevebis Tanaxmad firmas, romelsac gaaCnia biznesis uzrunvelyofis Zlieri sistema da axal teqnologiebSi axorcielebs kapitaldabandebebs, misi konkurentunarianobis zrda 35%-dan 74%-mde Seadgens da piriqiT, rodesac firma axal teqnologiebSi mcire biznes resursebiT axorcielebs investirebas, SesaZloa misi mwarmoebluroba saerTod ar gaizardos, xolo axal teqnologiebSi investireba sarisko an fuWi Zalisxmeva aRmoCndes. cvlilebebs xels uwyobs iseTi teqnologiebi, rogoricaa: mobiluri teqnologiebi, kolaboraciis instrumentebi, Cloud Computing, Business Intelligence da socialuri media. aRniSnuli teqnologiebi zrdis organizaci1

Economic Value Added (EVA) – biznesis ganviTarebis ekonomikuri efeqtianobis sazomia, ekonomikuri mogebis tipia, romelic kompaniis gadasaxadis gadaxdis Semdeg wminda operaciul mogebas gamoklebuli kapitalis Rirebuleba.

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is mwarmoeblurobas, dramatulad amaRlebs korporaciul konkurentunarianobas da iZleva konkurentul sargebels. Sesabamisad, mocemul teqnologiebSi maRalia investireba da misi ganviTarebis Semdgomi interesi. msoflioSi, axal teqnologiebSi investirebiT liderobs azia-wynari okeanis regioni (sxva regionebTan SedarebiT). soliduria regionis korporaciuli seqtoris mier axal teqnologiebSi kapitaldabandeba da ICT-is ganviTarebis biujeti. kerZod [30]: mobiluri teqnologiebis upiratesobam da biznes TamaSis wesebis cvlilebebma gamoiwvia moTxovnisa da kapitaldabandebebis zrda. Sedegad, aziawynari okeanis regionSi mobiluri teqnologiebSi investirebis moculoba 31%-mde gaizarda (prognoziT 2 weliwadSi gaizrdeba 82%-mde). evropis regionSi investirebis moculoba gaizarda 20%-mde (prognoziT gaizrdeba 66%-mde); azia-wynari okeanis regionSi, Cloud -Si investiciebis moculobis zrda 30%-ia, (prognoziT gaxdeba 150%), xolo evropis regionSi aRniSnuli maCvenebeli 23%-s Seadgens (prognoziT gaizrdeba 96%-mde); kvleviTi firma Gartner- is monacemebiT globaluri Cloud Computing-is bazari ((programuli momsaxurebis servisis platforma da infrastruqtura (rogorc servisi)) 69,3 mlrd dolaridan (2010) 148,8 mlrd dolaramde gaizarda (2014), romlis naxevari aSS-is wilad modis; azia-wynari okeanis regionSi, kolaboraciis instrumentebSi investirebis moculobis zrda 44%-ia (2013 wels iyo 26%-iani zrda), xolo evropis regionSi - 17%. imisaTvis, rom msoflioSi SenarCundes globaluri

58


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

cifruli ekonomikis dagegmili zrda (2030 wlamde), telekomunikacia, transporti (gza, rkinigza, porti, aeroporti), energetika da wyali saWiroebs infrastruqturaSi investirebas (jamSi 57 trln dolaris investicia, rac ufro metia, vidre msoflios infrastruqturis dRevandeli savaraudo Rirebuleba), sadac, mxolod telekomunikaciis infrastruqturisaTvis aucilebelia 10 trln dolaris investireba. dadgenilia, rom mxolod infrastruqturis srulyofis SemTxvevaSi miiRweva mwarmoebulobis amaRleba 40%-iani ekonomiiT, es ki jamSi Seadgens 1 trln dolaris ekonomias (2013-2030) (McKinsey Global Insitute). cnobilia, rom niSandoblivi kavSiri arsebobs konkretul teqnologiebSi investirebasa da organizaciuli saqmianobis srulyofas Soris. Sesabamisad, teqnologiebis sferos zogierTi investicia warmatebulia, xolo zogierTi warumatebeli, risTvisac aucilebelia winaswari kvlevebis Catareba (Insead.edu, 2013). aRsaniSnavia, rom konkurentunarianobis amaRlebisaTvis arasakmarisia mxolod axal teqnologiebSi investireba, organizaciisaTvis, aseve mniSvnelovan faqtorebs warmoadgens Zlieri da komplementari biznes resursebi. dReisaTvis, investorebis arCevani ganisazRvreba, rogorc qveynis ekonomikis maCveneblebiT, ise cifruli garemos procesebiT, rac investorebis usafrTxo aqtivebis uzrunvelmyof sivrces wardmoadgens.

2.4. saqarTvelos cifruli ekonomika msoflios ekonomikuri problemebis fonze, saqarTvelos ekonomika agrZelebs gajansaRebas, izrdeba mTliani Sida produqti, saxelmwifo biujeti, inflacia

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zomier farglebSi agrZelebs arsebobas. mTlianobaSi, qveynis makroekonomikuri garemo SeiZleba daxasiaTdes pozitiuri cvlilebebiT, ekonomikuri gacocxlebiT, sagareo vaWrobis brunvisa da mosaxlebis saSualo Tviuri Semosavlebis zrdiT[31]. cifruli saqarTvelosTvis damaxasiaTebelia ekonomikis liberalizacia, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis institutebis ganviTareba, kulturuli Rirebulebebis unifikacia, Tavdacvis, usafrTxoebis, regulirebis da sazogadoebrivi Zalis zrda. saqarTvelos mosaxleoba 2013 wlis monacemebiT Seadgenda 4487,2 aTas kacs, xolo 2014 wlis 1 ianvris monacemebiT Seadgens 4490,5 aTas kacs (statitika ar moicavs afxazeTis mosaxleobas) (ix. cxrili 2.4). cxrili 2.4 TviTmmarTveli erTeulebis mixedviT mosaxleobis ricxovnoba * TviTmmarTveli erTeulebi Tbilisi aWara guria imereTi kaxeTi mcxeTa-mTianeTi raWa-leCxumi da qvemo svaneTi samegrelo zemo svaneTi samcxe-javaxeTi qvemo qarTli Sida qarTli afxazeTis a.r. wyaro: *saqstati, 2014 ** http://www.washingtonpost.com/

60

aTasi 1 173,2 395,4 139,0 703,6 405,0 108,9 46,1 476,6 213,6 512,1 313,7 240,0**


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

saqarTvelos nacionaluri ekonomikis nawilis warmoadgens centraluri da adgilobrivi organoebi. isini uzrunvelyofs ganaTlebas, jandacvas, policiasa da usafrTxoebas, nacionaluri infrastruqturis ganviTarebas da sxva. zogadad, dadgenilia, rom saxelmwifo da adgilobrivi organoebi qmnian nacionaluri ekonomikuri saqmianobis 8,8%-s [32] (aSS-Si -12%-s, rac mTlianobaSi 1,8 trln dolars Seadgens (2012) [33]. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli komunikaciebis bazari faseuli, mravalferovani da ekonomikurad mimzidvelia, rac gamoixateba kompaniebis Semosavlebis, internet-momxmarebelTa segmentis, web-saitebis raodenobis, internet-kompaniebis produqtiulobis, qarTuli kompaniebisTvis e-komerciidan Semosavlebis zrdiT, aseve teqnologiebis, aplikaciebisa da kontentis mravalferovnebiT[34]. saqarTvelos internet-momxmarebelTa raodenoba 1 weliwadSi 1,6 mln-dan [35] 2,1 mln-mde gaizarda (mosaxleobis 46,7 %). saxlidan internet-wvdoma mosaxleobis 34,6 %s aqvs (ITU, 2014). saqarTvelos satelekomunikacio bazari generirebs 1 mlrd-ze met Semosavals. Freedom House kvlevis angariSiT (Freedom on the Net, 2013), saqarTvelos internet-qselis damoukideblobis statusi aris `Tavisufali~, 2012-2013 ww-Si saqarTvelom aCvena maRali internet-Tavisufleba[36]. saqarTvelos telekomunikaciis bazris ZiriTadi maCveneblebia: saqarTvelos mTliani Sida produqtis dargobriv struqturaSi kavSirgabmulobis seqtoris mTliani gamoSveba 961 mln laria [37]; saqarTvelos ICT-is sferos saqonlis/momsaxurebis eqsportis wili qveynis mTlian saeqsporto struqturaSi 35%-ia, xolo ICT-is saqonlis

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importis wili qveynis mTlian saimporto struqturaSi Seadgens – 10,4% (2010) [4]; saqarTvelos kavSirgabmulobis seqtoris mTliani gamoSveba 961 mln laria, dasaqmebulTa raodenoba 15952 kaci, kavSirgabmulobis sawarmoebis brunva da produqciis gamoSvebis moculoba 1100,6 mln lars warmoadgens (2012) [37]; saqarTvelos komunikaciebis erovnuli komisiis wliuri angariSiT saqarTvelos eleqtronuli komunikaciebis Semosavali 2011 wels Seadgenda 952 mln lars, samauwyeblo mediis Semosavlebi – 88,2 mln-s, sakabelo operatorTa Semosavlebi – 21,8 mln-s, xolo mobiluri komunikaciis bazari, romelic did rols asrulebs regionis satelekomunikacio bazarze, warmodgenili iyo 441 mln laris SemosavliT [38]; saqarTvelos satelekomunikacio momsaxurebidan miRebul SemosavlebSi yvelaze didi xvedriTi wili ukavia mobiluri telefonis momsaxurebis bazars (49 %), Semdeg modis sakomutacio terminalur elementebTan daSvebisa da urTierTCarTvis momsaxureba (bazris 18%-iT), fiqsirebuli internetis bazari (12%), mobiluri sadeniani telefonis bazris segmentis wilad modis 8%, xolo danarCeni segmentis wili 5%-s ar aRemateba (fiqsirebuli usadeno telefoni, mobiluri interneti, mauwyeblobis tranziti da sxva) [35]; saqarTvelo, teqnologiuri inovaciis ganviTarebis mizniT maRalteqnologiuri produqciis SesyidviT 60-e adgils ikavebs (WEF, 2013). saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuris monacemebiT, saqarTveloSi daregistrirebulia 588782 su-

62


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

bieqti, romelTa Soris moqmedia 113017 subieqti[37]. aRsaniSnavia, rom maTi 91,6% kerZo pirebs warmoadgens, xolo danarCeni saxelmwifo, municipalitetisa da sakuTrebis sxva tipi. xazgasasmelia, rom qveyanaSi ar moipoveba informacia im kompaniebis Sesaxeb, romelic pirdapir Tu iribad dakavSirebulia internet-momsaxurebasTan. amave saqstatis monacemebiT, cnobilia, rom transportisa da kavSirgabmulobis sferoSi operirebs 6179 organizacia, xolo GNCC-s monacemebiT, saqarTveloSi, internetiT momsaxurebas (rogorc sacalo, ise sabiTumo) 145 kompania eweva. informaciul-sakomunikacio teqnologiebis servisebis miwodebaSi finansurma investiciebma da profesiuli ganviTarebis xelSewyobam, saqarTveloSi, warmoSva 40000 axali samuSao adgili da gamoiwvia mSp-s 8%-iT zrda[39]. ukanasknel wlebSi, dominanti gaxda adamianuri ganviTarebis potenciali, kapitali da misi wvlili ekonomikasa da Tanamedrove teqnologiebis ganviTarebaSi. gaeros adamianuri ganviTarebis indeqsiT saqarTvelo 72-e adgilze imyofeba. aRniSnul reitingSi saqarTvelo adamianuri ganviTarebiT saSualo ganviTarebis doneze imyofeba (UN, Human Development Index 2013). Sesabamisad, qveynis ekonomikaSi mecnierul-teqnikuri progresis wili dabalia, degradirebulia samecniero garemo da mecnier-mkvlevarTa imiji. pozitiuri tendenciebis fonis miuxedavad, saqarTvelo jer kidev aRiarebulia erT-erT uTanasworo saxelmwifod. qveyanaSi mosaxleobis 35,6%-is siRaribis maCvenebeli dRiurad 2 dolars Seadgens (2010). ukidures siRaribeSi cxovrobs bavSvebis 9,4%, mosaxleobis 40%-s surs saarsebo Semweobis (60 laris) miReba, maTgan faq-

63


rati abulaZe

tobrivad iRebs 10% (2013). pensionrebis raodenoba 15%-s Seadgens, xolo sapensio xarjebi – daaxloebiT 1 miliard lars Seadgens. oficialuri monacemebiT, saqarTveloSi umuSevrobis done 15%-ia, xolo saerTaSoriso kvleviTi angariSebiT (Economist Intelligence Unit -sa da Johns Hopkins University-kvleva) umuSevrobis done 27,7%-s Seadgens, sadac dasaqmebulTa 2/3 TviTdasaqmebulia (1,724 aTasi kaci), ZiriTadad soflis meurneobaSi[40]. saqarTvelos ekonomikuri garemos ZiriTadi gamowvevebia: ekonomikuri stagnaciis Tanmdevi Zlieri da Tanamimdevruli politikis uqonloba; polarizebuli sazogadoeba, seismuri politikuri da ekonomikuri garemo; Zalauflebis aRebis Semdgomi ekonomikuri politikis testireba da gaurkveveli Sedegebi; qveynis met-naklebad wamyvani dargebis ganviTarebis traeqtoris cvlileba; Sida investirebis `siZunwe da SiSi~; aramdgradi samarTlebrivi sivrce, strategiuli gegmebisa da mimarTulebebis ararseboba. zogadad, cnobili ar aris saqarTvelos ekonomikis gamococxlebisaTvis saWiro infrastruqturis modernizebis sruli xarji, telekomunikaciis ganviTarebis Sedegad mosalodneli ekonomikuri sargebeli (saqarTvelos komunikaciebis erovnuli komisia muSaobs qveyanaSi arsebuli magistraluri xazebis cifruli rukis Seqmnis proeqtze, romelic wlis bolos unda dasruldes, xolo telekomunikaciis infrastruqturis modernizebis sakiTxi jer dRis wesrgigSi ar dgas). sazogadoebisaTvis mkafiod gansazRvruli araa cifruli qveynis agebisaTvis saWiro resursebi, rac moklevadian Tu grZelvadian pirobebSi qveynis ekonomikis xerxemali da keTildReobis uzrunvelmyofia. aseve, araprognozirebadia cifruli procesis zrdis an matebis tempi. qveynis ekonomikaze gavlenas axdens politikuri

64


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

SfoTvebi/mRelvareba, regulirebis wesebis mudmivi cvlileba, politikuri gaurkvevloba, rac disfunqciuri Sedegebisaa. negatiuria politikuri Sefasebebi samTavrobo korufciis, finansuri spekulaciebisa da sainvesticio fondebis iracionalur gamoyenaze. problemas warmoadgens ekonomikuri politikis deformacia, zedmetad damokidebuleba investiciebsa da importze. teritoriuli konfliqti warmoadgens `vaWrobis politikis~ sakiTxs, rac regionis qveynebs Soris vaWrobasa da kapitalis nakadSi ekonomikur ryevebs iwvevs. zemoaRniSnuli zegavlena da ryevebi mxolod internet-bazarzea warmodgenili mcire doziT. qveyanaSi adgili aqvs `socialur depresias~, rasac xels uwyobs dabali ekonomikuri mdgomareoba da mosaxleobis arasaxarbielo molodini. dabalia Sobadobis, qorwinebisa da ojaxis Seqmnis, uZrav-moZravi qonebis yidva-gayidvis statistika. maRalia socialuri da ekonomikuri uTanasworoba, rogorc sofelsa da qalaqs Soris, aseve, qveynis regionebs Soris. umaRlesi ganaTlebis mqone axalgazrdebi (maT Soris axalgazrda mecnierebi) ver uzrunvelyofen sakuTar Tavs, rom araferi vTqvaT ojaxis daxmarebaze, CamorCebian permanentuli zrdasrulobis mdgomareobas, ver gadian sazRvargareT, ver imaRleben codnas, ayovneben ojaxis Seqmnasa da Svilebis gaCenas, wlis manZilze arasrulad muSaoben, Tmoben grZelvadian miznebs. saqarTvelos mTavrobis `saqarTvelos mTavroba Ria mmarTvelobis~ proeqti ZiriTadad fokusirebulia mediasTan angariSvaldebulebaze, xolo `sazogadoebis CarTuloba~, mxolod gansazRvruli Zalisa da statusis aqtorebs exeba. demokratia, rogorc faseuloba, msoflio mimarTvisaa. demokratiis indeqsiT saqarTvelo 93-e adgil-

65


rati abulaZe

ze imyofeba, romelic 5 kategoriaSi Sefasda (The Economist Intelligence Unit. Democracy index, 2012): politikuri procesebi da pluralizmi; moqalaqeTa Tavisufleba; mTavrobis funqcionireba; politikuri CarTuloba; politikuri kultura. nacionaluri da adgilobrivi organoebis sidide mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs qveynis ekonomikaSi, uSualo zegavlenas axdens ekonomikur ciklze, gvevlineba aRorZiebis (gamococxlebis) xelSewyobis lokomotivad, kerZo seqtoris gamococxlebisaTvis warmodgenilia `buqsiris~ rolSi. amitom, sididisa da zegavlenis efeqtianobis zrdisTvis saWiroa cifruli politikis gansazRvra da mis safuZvelze eleqtronuli mTavrobis formireba. saqarTvelos mosaxleoba rTul geografiul sivrceSi cxovrobs. garkveuli urTierTkavSiria geografiul izolaciasa (mosaxleobis ZiriTadi nawilisTvis sazRvrebs gareT gasvla SeuZlebelia an SesaZlebelia arakanonieri da aralegaluri gzebiT) da siRaribis dones Soris. regionebSi arasaTanadodaa ganviTarebuli satelekomunicio infrastruqtura. mosaxleobis ekonomikur keTildReobasTan mizez-Sedegobriv kavSirSia qveynis demokratiis done. uTanasworobas aRrmavebs finansuri resursebis misawvdomoba, samTavrobo struqturebis momsaxureba da yuradReba, moqalaqeebze orientireba, sainvesticio proeqtebis nakleboba, calkeul mimarTulebebSi saWiro intervenciuli RonisZiebebis nakleboba. saqarTveloSi, satelekomunikacio infrastruqtu-

66


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

ra SeiZleba Sefasdes terminiT `sustia~ aRiniSnos, rac forsmaJoruli movlenebis safuZvelze optikur-boWkovan kabelebis dazianebiTaa ganpirobebuli [39]. saqarTvelos regionebsa da soflebSi xarisxiani internet-kavSiris miRwevadoba jer kidev gadasaWreli problemaa . kavkasiis regionSi saqarTvelos satelekomunikacio sivrce ganviTarebis doniT uswrebs somxeTs, azerbaijans, calkeul mimarTulebebSi ruseTsac ki. marTalia, kavkasiis regionis mosaxleobis moTxovnebi rig SemTxvevaSi msgavsia, Tumca umetes SemTxvevaSi aRniSnuli moTxovnebi gansxvavebulia. magaliTad, moTxovnebi kulturaSi, cxovrebis wesSi, moralur normebSi, garkveuli movlenebisadmi, sagnebisadmi. aseve, gansxvavebulia Sexedulebebi, ganaTlebis masStabi da faseuloba RirebulebaTa sistemaSi. saqarTvelo kavkasiis regionis qveynebs CamorCeba internet-momxmarebelTa procentuli raodenobiT (mosaxleobis saerTo raodenobasTan mimarTebiT), teqnologiebis aTvisebiT, kompiuterizaciis tempebiT, internetganaTlebiT, socialuri media teqnologiebis gamoyenebis doniT. aRniSnulis gamowvev mizezs warmoadgens: cifruli politikis uqonloba, misi araprioritetuloba. aseve, qveyanaSi Tanamedrove teqnologiebis aTvisebasa da farTod danergvis procesSi adgili araaqvs mecniermkvlevarebisa da akademiuri pirebis CarTvas (rac ganviTarebul qveynebSi aprobirebuli meTodia, aRarafers vambob demokratiis damaxasiaTebel maCveneblebze). msoflio ekonomikuri forumis mier klasificirebuli cifruli procesis 4 donedan (SezRuduli, ganviTarebadi, gardamavali da mowinave done) saqarTvelo imyofeba meore (ganviTarebad) stadiaze, romelic ra Tqma unda gan-

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rati abulaZe

pirobebulia cifruli strategiis arqoniTa da qveynis eleqtronuli ganviTarebis araswor traeqtoriaze moZraobiT.

2.5. eleqtronuli mTavrobis arsi da modeli internetis ganviTarebam gamoiwvia cifruli garemos formireba da axali saxelmwifo sistemis Seqmna. cifruli procesebiT miiRweva e-mTavrobis mzadyofna, ganviTarebis maRali tempebi, eleqtronuli momsaxurebis sazogadoebrivi popularoba. cifruli procesebi da faqtorebi gansazRvravs emTavrobis ganviTarebas (aRniSnuli procesebidan SeiZleba aRvniSnoT [41]: cifruli wignierebisa da cnobierebis amaRleba; moqalaqeebisaTvis administraciuli safexurebis gamartiveba; momsaxurebasTan wvdoma, damokidebuleba da gamoyeneba; administraciuli marTvis cifrul reformirebas; procedurebis dematerializacia; cifruli problemebis Seswavla; cifruli procesi sawyis etapze fokusirebulia infrastruqturis, Cvevebisa da konkurenciis xelSewyobaze, meore etapze mowyobilobebis gavrcelebaze, xolo mesame etapze - integrirebul cifrul garemoze). e-mTavroba aRqmulia, rogorc `samTavrobo informaciisa da momsaxurebis miwodebis saSualeba~ (Moon., Norris, 2005) [42], romelic mimarTulia informaciuli da sa-

68


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

komunikacio teqnologiebis gamoyenebiT samTavrobo procesebis organizaciis, struqturis transformaciis (Lenk., Traunmßller,2000)[43], saxelmwifo marTvis sferos inovaciisa da modernizaciis, momsaxurebisa da marTvis optimizaciis [44], efeqtiani, angariSvaldebuli da gamWvirvale mTavrobis Camoyalibebisken. e-mTavrobis definiciis forma Seicavs oTx ZiriTad komponents – eleqtronuli mTavroba warmoSobilia e-moqalaqeebis, ICT-is, biznesisa da marTvis urTierTkavSiris erTobliobiT. misi warmatebuli funqciuroba saWiroebs oTxive komponents (Misra, 2006) [45]. eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistema uzrunvelyofs[46]: mTavrobis generirebul informaciasTan daSvebas; mTavrobis funqciebisa da saqmianobis qmedunarianobas; efeqtianobis amaRlebas; moqalaqeebisa da biznesisTvis ekonomikur sargebels; mTavrobis gamWvirvalobas; procesebis standartizacias; samTavrobo regulaciebisa da politikis srulyofas; biznesklimatis srulyofas; saxelmwifos Semosavlebis zrdas [47]; Tanabaruflebianobas, emansipaciasa da avtonomias (biujetTan damokidebulebaSi)[48]. e-mTavrobas

ganmartaven, rogorc saxelmwifo

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rati abulaZe

marTvis organoebis mier qseluri infrastruqturis Seqmnis, urTierTkavSiris, momsaxurebis wardgenis, Sedegianobis, efeqtianobis, gamWvirvalobisa da angariSvaldebulebis mizniT informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis gamoyenebas (Yildiz M., 2007)[28]] ]. eleqtronuli mTavrobis konfcefcia ganixileba, rogorc sazogadoebis ganviTarebis axali faza, adamianis civilizaciis evoluciis axali safexuri, romelic qveynis ganviTarebaze gadamwyvet gavlenas axdens. eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistema warmoadgens mravalganzomilebian teqnologiur koncerns, romlis ZiriTadi principebia[49]: samTavrobo informaciasTan Tavisuflad daSveba; marTvaSi moqalaqeTa CarTuloba; realuri drois reJimSi saxelmwifo momsaxurebis wardgena; moqalaqeze orientirebuli midgoma; moqalaqeebTan urTierTobis marTva; demokratiuli faseulobebis ganmtkiceba; sazogadoebis zrda.

informaciulobisa

da

codnis

eleqtronuli mTavrobis programa gaxda qveynis inovaciuri ganviTarebis mamoZravebeli Zala. man gamoiwvia rogorc marTvis institutebis, ise ganaTlebis, jandacvis, turizmis sferos xarisxobrivi cvlileba, misma danergvam gadaaWarba mosalodnel efeqts. amitom, samecniero da gamoyenebiTi kvlevis proeqtebi aTaswleulis dasawyisSi aqtualuri gaxda, roca `eleqtronuli mTavrobis~ agebis amocana Teoriidan praqtikul realizebaze gadavida [50]. msoflio publikaciebis repertuarSi, samecniero

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

publikaciebis raodenoba

mTlian moculobaSi % wili

axali zelandia tailandi litva ungreTi portugalia iordania

10

0.606 %

10 9 8 8 7

0.606 % 0.545 % 0.485 % 0.485 % 0.424 %

7 7

0.424 % 0.424 %

2.970 % 2.848 % 2.545 %

ruseTi arabTa gaerTianebuli saamiroebi dania meqsika poloneTi

6 5 5

0.364 % 0.303 % 0.303 %

2.424 % 1.758 % 1.697 %

argentina bocvana estoneTi

4 4 4

0.242 % 0.242 % 0.242 %

CineTi

279

16.909 %

aSS saberZneTi inglisi italia niderlandebi avstralia germania

176 113 107 88 69

10.667 % 6.848 % 6.485 % 5.333 % 4.182 %

64 55

3.879 % 3.333 %

espaneTi taivani samxreT korea avstria SvedeTi kanada

49 47 42 40 29 28

qveyana

mTlian moculobaSi % wili

publikaciebis raodenoba

qveyana

perioduli gamocemebis analizi aCvenebs, rom 2000-2012 ww, Web of Science sistemaSi, recenzirebul JurnalebSi `eleqtronuli mTavrobis~ Tematikaze gamoqveynebuli iqna 3000-ze meti statia. `eleqtronuli mTavrobis~ Temaze gamoqveynebuli publikaciebis raodenobiT liderobs CineTi, aSS da germania (ix. cxrili 2.5). statiebis Tematuri mimarTulebebi moicavs: informatikas, sainJinro mecnierebas, telekomunikacias, biznes-ekonomikas, sajaro smarTvas, saxelmwifo samarTali, marTvis mecnierebas, socialur problemebs, ganaTlebasa da cifrul 50 process[ ]. cxrili 2.5 `eleqtronuli mTavrobis~ Tematikaze samecniero statiebis ganawileba (2000-2012)

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rati abulaZe 2.5 cxrilis gagrZeleba malaizia Sveicaria

26 25

irlandia 20 slovenia 20 TurqeTi 20 brazilia 19 rumineTi 19 samxreT af19 rika indoeTi 18 irani 18 singapuri 18 norvegia 17 iaponia 16 Sotlandia 16 uelsi 15 safrangeTi 13 belgia 12 CexeTi 11 egvipte 11 fineTi 10 wyaro: Web of Science

4 4

0.242 % 0.242 %

1.212 % 1.212 % 1.212 % 1.152 % 1.152 % 1.152 %

luqsemburgi CrdiloeT irlandia serbeTi slovakeTi indonezia latvia makedonia namibia

4 4 3 3 3 3

0.242 % 0.242 % 0.182 % 0.182 % 0.182 % 0.182 %

1.091 % 1.091 % 1.091 % 1.030 % 0.970 % 0.970 % 0.909 % 0.788 % 0.727 % 0.667 % 0.667 % 0.606 %

omani pakistani Sri lanka Cile xorvatia kviprosi israeli kenia maroko nigeria filipinebi katari

3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

0.182 % 0.182 % 0.182 % 0.121 % 0.121 % 0.121 % 0.121 % 0.121 % 0.121 % 0.121 % 0.121 % 0.121 %

1.576 % 1.515 %

ganviTarebis etapebi asaxavs eleqtronuli mTavrobis miRweul Sedegebs, xolo misi modeli Sedgeba qveda safexuridan zeda safexurisken zrdis stadiebiT. e-mTavrobasTan dakavSirebuli problemebis marTvisa da koordinaciis sakiTxebis mogvarebasTan dakavSirebiT, calkeul qveynebSi, moqmedebs sxvadasxva institucionaluri meqanizmebi, romelic moicavs erTi modelidan meoreze gadasvlis process, hibridis eqsperimentebs, sruliad axali modelebis Seqmna/ganviTarebas. samecniero literaturaSi, SeiZleba gamovyoT eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis etapebi da modelebi: Khalid M. Al-Tawil-is modeli, Layne Karen & Lee Jungwoo -is modeli, United Nations-DPEPA-is modeli, Moon M., Hiller, BĂŠlanger -is modeli, Siau K., Long Y.-is modeli, Deloitte

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

Research cited in Silcock-is modeli, Asia Pacific (Clay G. Wescott) is modeli. es modelebi warmodgenilia e-mTavrobis maxasiaTeblebis kombinaciiT, e-mTavrobis momsaxurebidan miRebuli faseulobebiTa da aRmavali fazis zrdisas miRebuli sargebliT. modelebSi asaxuli e-mTavrobis etapebi warmoadgens e-mTavrobis maxasiaTeblebis kombinacias, emTavrobis momsaxurebebisa da ganviTarebis doneebs[51]. saqarTvelos cifruli garemosTvis mizanSewonilia ganxiluli iqnes eleqtronuli mTavrobis modeli, romelic uzrunvelyofs nacionaluri eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebasa da mravalferovani SedegebiT mis sisruleSi moyvanas (ix. cxrili 2.6). cxrili 2.6 saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis modeli modeli

eleqtronuli mTavrobis

etapebi

e-mTavrobis maxasiaTeblebis kombinacia

I etapi. dawyebiTi stadia

samTavrobo web-saitebi, limitirebuli kontenti, martivi interaqtiuli formebi, warmomadgenlobiTi informacia, biurokratiul procesebze fokusireba.

II etapi. ganviTareba

saxelmwifo marTvis procesebis Sesaxeb sazogadoebis informireba, angariSvaldebulebis Canasaxovani formebi, biznesis/moqalaqeebisa da mTavrobis interaqtiuli urTierTqmedeba, monacemTa bazebi, eleqtronuli servisebi, onlain aplikaciebi.

III etapi. transaqcia

usafrTxo kibergaremo, mravalferovani sakomunikacio arxebi, funqcionaluroba, moqalaqeebis/biznesis saWiroebebze fokusirebuli emomsaxureba, onlain transaq-

qarTuli (kavkasiis) modeli

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2.6 cxrilis gagrZeleba rati abulaZe

ciis warmoeba, mosaxleobis sruli kompiuterizacia, internetizacia. sajaro samsaxuris TanamSromlebis maRali donis IT codniT/unarebiT uzrunvelyofa;

74

IV etapi. vertikaluri da horizontaluri integracia

calkeuli sistemebis integracia sxvadasxva etapze (vertikaluri), sxvadasxva departamentebSi (horizontaluri); kompleqsuri momsaxurebis erTiani portalis Seqmna. yvela saitis koordinireba da erTian sivrceSi moqceva. kiberusafrTxoebisa da ganviTarebis swori veqtoris gansazRvrisaTvis, internet-garemos sazogadoebrivi (kerZo da saxelmwifo seqtorTan TanamSromlobiT) monitoringi.

V etapi. eleqtronuli demokratia

e-mTavrobis ganviTareba, onlain arCevnebi, xmis micema, politikuri procesebis gamWvirvaloba, marTvaSi moqalaqeebis CarTuloba, marTvis gamWvirvalobis srulyofa, onlain kvlevis instrumentebis gamoyeneba.

VI etapi. sruli konvergencia da integrirebuli mTavroba

saxelmwifo uwyebebis integracia, optimizacia, gardaqmna da moqalaqeebis moTxovnilebebis Sesabamisi uwyebebis formireba. SekveTebis sistemebis, procesebis avtomatizacia. moqalaqeebis, biznesisa da mTavrobis integrirebuli garemos Camoyalibeba. saxelmwifos eleqtronuli momsaxurebis universaluri wvdomis uzrunvelyofa.


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

gaeros 2014 wlis kvleva aCvenebs, rom msoflios eleqtronuli mTavrobis lider qveynebs warmoadgens koreis respublika, avstralia da singapuri, xuTeulSi Sedis safrangeTi da niderlandebi. mas mosdevs iaponia da aSS. aTeuls aboloebs fineTi. saqarTvelos ukavia 56-e adgili da uswrebs somxeTsa (61-adgili) da azerbaijans (65-adgili) (UN,2014). cxrili 2.7 saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTareba (2001-2014)* komponentebi e-mTavrobis ganviTarebis indeqsi

e-CarTulobis indeqsi

2001

2003

2004

2005

2008

minima- 0.351 luri (99-e mwaradg.) moeblurobis done (indeqsi 1.39 )

0.378 (94-e adg.)

0.403 (83-e adg.)

0.459 (90-e adg.)

0.017 (36-e adg.)

0.016 (36-e adg.)

_

2010

2012

2014

0.424 0.556 (100-e (72-e adg.) adg.)

0.6047 (56-e adg.)

0.0159 0.045 0.0571 0.210 (43-e (135-e (127-e (24-e adg.) adg.) adg.) adg.)

0.5882 (49-e adg.)

cxrili Sedgenilia Cvens mier gaeros kvleviTi angariSebis safuZvelze

cifrul garemoSi, saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavroba mmarTvelobis realizebisaTvis iyenebs Semdeg teqnologias: web-saitebi, internet-portali, e-fosta, onlain forumi, CeTi, IM (Instant Messaging), inteleqtualuri agentebi -botebi (BOTS), Streaming Media, socialuri qselebi, viki (wiki), blogi, mobiluri komerciis danarTebi, podkastingi, RSS (Really Simple Syndication), internet- televizia, internet-radio, internet-telefoni, semantikuri

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rati abulaZe

-web, mobiluri telefoni, fiqsirebuli telefoni, Setyobinebis gacvlis sistema (MMS,SMS), faqsi, video konferencia da sxva web 2.0 instrumentebi[52].

2.6. eleqtronuli mTavroba kavkasiis qveynebSi 2.6.1. eleqtronuli kavkasia cifrul epoqaSi, kavkasiis eleqtronuli komunikaciebis bazari gaxda faseuli, mravalferovani da ekonomikurad mimzidveli; gaizarda sakomunikacio bazris Semosavlebi, web-saitebi, internet-momxmarebelTa segmenti, e-komerciis Semosavlebi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis procesebi; gafarTovda teqnologiebi, internet-aplikaciebi, kontenti; aqtiuri gaxda kerZo da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis mier ICT-is aTviseba, politikuri da social-ekonomikuri progresis mizniT ICT-is gamoyeneba. dReisaTvis, TiToeuli qveynis ganviTarebis gza, katalizirebuli mdidari resursebiT (kerZod, navTobi da gazi azerbaijanSi, diasporis mxardaWera sasomxeTSi, biznes garemos mimzidveloba saqarTveloSi, navTobi ruseTSi, rogorc ekonomikis `lokomotivi~) [53], fokusirebulia ICT-s industriisa da e-mTavrobis garemos ganviTarebis, saxelmwifo marTvis modernizebisa da biznes procesebis gardaqmnis strategiul mimarTulebebze. aRniSnuli procesebi mizez-Sedegobriv kavSirSia kavkasiis regionis konfiguraciis, saxelmwifoTa marTvis landSaftis cvlilebis, urTierTqmedebis, kolaboraciisa da, mTlianobaSi, samxreT kavkasiis formirebaze[54]. kavkasiis regionSi, (SemdgomSi regioni) 90-iani wlebis Semdgom daiwyo teqnologiuri, ekonomikuri, socialuri da politikuri cvlilebebis eleqtronuli era, ra-

76


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

mac safuZveli Cauyara regionis web-sivrcis (world wide web) zrdas, informaciuli sazogadoebis warmoqmnas, emTavrobis procesis formirebas, globaluri da lokaluri informaciuli sivrcis gamowvevebis Sesabamis ganviTarebas. kavkasiis qveynebis mTavrobebSi mimdinare procesebi fundamentur gavlenas axdens saxelmwifo organoebis saqmianobis, regionis kerZo da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis kolaboraciis, regionis racionaluri eleqtronuli politikis warmoebis, uwyebaTSorisi da mTavrobaTSorisi komunikaciis, erTiani informaciuli sazogadoebis formirebis procesebze. e-mTavrobis koncefciis gamoyeneba axal impulsa da katalizators warmoadgens regionis qveynebis daaxloebis procesSi. misi politikis potencialSia erTiani regionis mTavrobaTaSorisi kolaboraciuli damokidebulebis formireba, regionis mosaxleobis mier politikur, ekonomikur da socialur procesebTan mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiris axali aRqmis formireba, sazogadoebrivi interesebisa da adaptirebadi ideologiuri horizontebis miRweva [55]. igi stimulirebs regionul social-ekonomikur kavSirebs, aadvilebs social-ekonomikur integracias, faruli da regionuli konfliqtebis gamovlenasa da prevencias. magaliTad, kavkasiis gayinuli konfliqtebis maprovocirebeli rusi, somexi da azerbaijaneli hakerebis kiberTavdasxmebi SeiZleba lokalizebuli iyos regionuli midgomiT. regionSi e-mTavrobis ganviTarebis potencialSia samoqalaqo sazogadoebis aqtivoba, sazogadoebis marTvaSi CarTuloba, informaciis Zala, politikuri procesebis gansajaroeba, demokratiuli procesebis amaRleba da zrda. igi stimulirebs regionuli, ekonomikuri, socialuri kavSirebis zrdas, faruli konfliqtebis gamovlenasa da prevencias, pozitiur damokidebulebaSia ekono-

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rati abulaZe

mikur da adamianuri ganviTarebis donesTan, qmnis regulaciebs regionis orientaciisaTvis, aadvilebs ekonomikur da socialur integracias. kavkasiis regionisTvis globaluri qseli ekonomikuri da socialuri aqtivobisaa. igi moicavs internetis, mobiluris, korporaciuli da saxelmwifo qselebis platformas, warmoadgens erTiani informaciuli sazogadoebis formirebisa da cifruli ekonomikis generators. cifruli ekonomikis pirobebSi, regionis mTavrobebis mier ICT-is gamoyeneba ekonomikuri gadarCenis efeqtiani instrumenti gaxda. misi iniciativebi zegavlenas axdens socialur, kulturul, politikur sferoebze, qmnis genderul kompetenciebs, sargebeli moaqvs e-mTavrobis beneficiarTa segmentisaTvis, zrdis maT uflebebs, codnasa da informirebas, avsebs informaciul rRvevas. eleqtronuli kavkasiis ganviTarebis veqtors warmoadgens e-mTavrobis momsaxurebaze orientireba da eleqtronuli kavkasiis mimarTulebiT moZraoba, romlis ZiriTad mizans warmoadgens politikuri, socialuri da ekonomikuri progresi. kavkasiis regionisTvis e-mTavrobis roli da faseuloba, eleqtronuli komunikaciebis bazari, informaciuli sazogadoeba, ICT-is sfero SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes, rogorc axal impulsi da katalizatori regionis qveynebis daaxloebis procesSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom qveynis konkurentunarianobis amaRlebisTvis ICT-s gamoyenebisa da eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis moqmedebis gansazRvruli gegma mxolod azerbaijans aqvs (mTavroba ekonomikis wamyvan prioritetad aRiarebs ICT-is seqtors, codnis ekonomikas, informaciuli sazogadoebis ganviTarebas), xolo somxeTis, saqarTvelosa da ruseTis moqmedebis gegma jer kidev formirebaSia. zogadad, globaluri da lokaluri informaciuli garemos gamowvevebis pasuxs ganviTarebuli ICT-

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

is sfero warmoadgens. kavkasiis qveynebisaTvis (amowurvadi resursebis pirobebSi) sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis resursia eleqtronuli komunikaciebis bazari, informaciuli sazogadoeba, ICT, internet-aplikaciebi da kontenti, radgan igi warmodgenilia TviTregeneraciis unariTa da kumulatiuri sargeblianobiT. amrigad, regionis mravalwaxnagovani problemebisa da gamowvevebis gadaWrisaTvis aucilebelia cifruli resursebis warmoCena, romlis potenciali, kavkasiis regionis qveynebs gaaCnia (SemdgomSi regioni). aseve, kavkasiis geopolitikur faqtorebze cifruli Rirebulebebis rolisa da gavlenis gansazRvra.

2.6.2.

eleqtronul kavkasiaSi mimdinare tendenciebi

kavkasiis regionis qveynebis urTierTobebSi mravali winaaRmdegobrivi sakiTxia. problemebis daregulirebis meqanizmad ganixileba qveynebs Soris mWidro TanamSromloba, diskusia, komunikacia, integracia da sxva. praqtikulad problemebis mogvarebis mza recepti kvleva-Ziebis sagania. kiTxvaze, SesaZlebelia Tu ara saerTod mogvardes problemebi da kavkasia harmoniul WrilSi vixiloT, turbulenturi `politikuri resursebis~ fonze, pasuxebi an bundovani da zogadia, an warmodgenilia regionis sociumis problemebis fragmentuli daregulirebis SesaZleblobiT. mas Semdgom, rac kavkasiis regionSi daiwyo teqnologiuri, ekonomikuri, socialuri da politikuri cvlilebebi (90-iani wlebis Semdgom), regionSi formirebuli iqna sicocxlisunariani web-sivrce, informaciuli sazogadoeba; safuZveli Caeyara eleqtronuli mTavrobis

79


rati abulaZe

procesebs. faqtobrivad, kavkasiis regionisTvis globaluri qseli gaxda ekonomikuri da social-politikuri aqtivobis, erTiani informaciuli sazogadoebis formirebisa da cifruli ekonomikis generatori. jer kidev mimdinare aTaswleulis dasawyisSi, kavkasiis telekomunikaciis bazarze, SedarebiT ganviTarebuli da mimzidveli iyo saqarTvelos provaiderebis bazari. saqarTvelosTan SedarebiT metad iyo ganviTarebuli ruseTis internetis segmenti. azerbaijanSi liberalizaciisa da konkurenciis xarisxi ar iyo maRali, xolo somxeTSi bazari saerTod sustad iyo ganviTarebuli. msoflioSi, kavkasiis qveynebis internet-momxmarebelTa raodenoba msoflios internet-momxmarebelTa 3,2%-s Seadgens.] kavkasiis mosaxleoba 160 mln kacia. regionis internet-momxmarebelTa saerTo raodenoba – 76,5 mln [56]], sadac ruseTis internet-momxmarebelTa segmentis wili 88,8%-ia, azerbaijanis internet-momxmarebelTa segments 6,2% ukavia, saqarTvelos internet-momxmarebelTa segments – 2,6%, xolo somxeTis internet-momxmarebelTa segments 2,4%. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) kvlevis angariSiT, yofili dsT-s wevri 11 qveynis (saqarTvelo, somxeTi, azerbaijani, yazaxeTi, yirgizeTi, moldova, mongoleTi, tajikeTi, TurqmeneTi, ukraina, ruseTi) eleqtronuli komunikaciis bazari (mosaxleobis saerTo raodenoba 280 mln) araTanabradaa ganviTarebuli. regionis bazrebi erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdeba sididis, valdebulebebis, faswarmoqmnis politikiT, momsaxurebis misawvdomobiTa da xarisxiT. aradamakmayofilebladaa Sefasebuli sainvesticio pirobebi, rac ganpirobebulia aramxolod geografiuli pirobebiTa da socio-ekonomi-

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

kuri ganviTarebis neli tempebiT, aramed evrokavSiris (EU) qveynebTan SedarebiT dabali tempis liberalizaciiT, maregulireblebis susti ganviTarebiT, dabali standartebis satelekomunikacio momsaxurebis SeRwevadobiT. mocemuli regionis eleqtronuli komunikaciis bazari 56 mlrd evros Semosavals generirebs [57]. kavkasiis eleqtronuli komunikaciis bazarze ruseTis federacia 52 mlrd dolaris Semosavals generirebs[57], rac mSp-s 2,4%-s Seadgens. saqarTvelos telekomunikaciis bazris Semosavali mSp-s 3,9%-ia[37]. somxeTis telekomunikaciis Semosavlebi mSp-s 3,4%-ia, xolo azerbaijanis telekomunikaciis Semosavlebi mSp-s 2,4%-ia[58]. WEF-is The Global Information Technology Report 2013-is angariSSi mocemulia kavkasiis qveynebis qseluri mzadyofnis landSafti da kompleqsuri Sefaseba. WEF-is kvlevaSi, kavkasiis eleqtronul garemoSi, samTavrobo seqtorSi ICT-is prioritetulobiT, komponentebiT, orientirebiT, internetisa da kompiuteris moxmarebiT, Sinameurneobebis socialur qselSi aqtivobiT liderobs azerbaijani, pozitiur tendencias aCvenebs ruseTis federacia, SedarebiT dabal tendencias aCvenebs saqarTvelosa da somxeTis eleqtronuli aqtivoba (ix. cxrili 2.8)[59]. cxrili 2.8 eleqtronuli kavkasiis garemo azerbaijasomxeTi ni uaxlesi teqnolo- 81adgili 101adgigiebis misawvdomo- (4.8) li (4.5) ba saxelmwifos mier 19 adgili 108adgimaRalteqnologi- (4.4) li uri produqciis (301) Sesyidva 56adgili ICT-is samTavrobo 9adgili (5.2) prioritetuloba (5.4) samTavrobo onla- 97adgili 106adgikomponentebi

ruseTis saqarTvelo federacia 129 adgili 94adgili (3.9) (4.6) 124adgili (2.9)

61adgili (3.7)

116adgili (3.3) 37adgili

91adgili (3.7) 42 adgili

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rati abulaZe 2.8 cxrilis gagrZeleba in momsaxurebis (0.37) li (0.66) (0.60) indeqsi (0.33) mobiluri qseliT 1 adgili 72 adgili 90 adgili 50 adgili mosaxleobis moc- (100%) (98.9%) (95.0%) (99.1%) va saerTaSoriso in- 64adgili 58 adgili 45 adgili 50 adgili ternet -trafiki (19.1 kb/w) (22.2 kb/w) (31.7 kb/w) (26.7 kb/w) (erT inter-netmomxmarebelze) cifruli konten- 71 adgili 75 adgili 63 adgili 70 adgili tis mosawvdomoba (5.0) (4.9) (5.1) (5.0) internetisa da 104 adgili 115 adgi- 93 adgili 1 adgili telefonis seqto- (1.35) li (1.21) (1.60) (2.0) ris konkurentunarianobis indeqsi mobiluri tele64 adgili 78 adgili 5 adgili 81 adgili fonis xelmomwe(108.7) (103.6) (179.3) (102.3) rebi (100kacze) internet-momxma- 56 adgili 83 adgili 57 adgili 76 adgili rebeli (100 kacze) (50.0) (32.0) (49.0) (36.6) SinameurneobebSi 86 adgili 87 adgili 50 adgili 91 adgili personaluri kom- (21.5.) (20.0) (57.1) (18.2) piuterebis wili Sinameurneobebis 62 adgili 86 adgili 53 adgili 82 adgili internet-wvdoma (35.3) (13.6) (46.0) (16.6) socialuri qselis 41 adgili 68 adgili 99 adgili 60 adgili moxmareba (5.9) (5.4) (5.1) (5.6) B2B-is mier inter- 78 adgili 54 adgili 107 adgili (4.8) (5.2) (4.4) netis gamoyeneba cxrili Sedgenilia Cvens mier WEF-is The Global Information Technology Report 2013-is masalebis safuZvelze

EU-is qveynebisaTvis mniSvnelovania kavkasiis regionis roli, radgan regioni ganixileba, rogorc satranzito magistrali, aseve energo resursebis mimwodebeli. Sesabamisad, maRalia kavkasiis qveynebTan partniorobisa da EU-is qveynebis vaWrobis moculoba [60]. kavkasiis qveynebis e-mTavrobis infrastruqtura ganixileba, rogorc cifruli ekonomikis xelSewyobisa da grZelvadiani, mdgradi ganviTarebis SesaZleblobebis instrumenti.

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

saerTaSoriso organizaciis ITU-is angariSiT, ICT-is ganviTarebiT, liderobs ruseTis federacia. mas ukavia 38-e adgili (6.00 ganviTarebis indeqsiT), Semdeg modis azerbaijani 68-e adgiliT (4.39 ganviTarebis indeqsiT) da saqarTvelo 72-e adgiliT, (4.20 ganviTarebis indeqsiT). mocemul reitingSi ar figurirebs somxeTi (2012) [61]. TvalsaCinoa, kavkasiis regionis ICT-is sferos saqonlis/momsaxurebis eqsport-importis dinamika, sadac ruseTis ICT-is saqonlis/momsaxurebis eqsports qveynis mTlian saeqsporto struqturaSi 21% ukavia, xolo ICT-is saqonlis imports qveynis mTlian saimporto struqturaSi – 14,9% (2010). ITU-s angariSiT, regionSi, ICT-is ganviTarebiT, liderobs ruseTis federacia (6.00 indeqsiT), mas CamorCeba azerbaijani (4.39 indeqsiT) da saqarTvelo (4.20 indeqsiT). gaeros angariSiT, regionSi eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis doniT, eleqtronuli CarTulobis indeqsiT, onlain momsaxurebisa da komponentebis ganviTarebiT liderobs ruseTi, Semdeg modis saqarTvelo,A maT CamorCebaT azerbaijani da somxeTi (2012). United Nations `E-Government Survey 2012~ kvlevis angariSSi naCvenebia kavkasiis qveynebis analizi, romlis safuZvelze SeiZleba aR vniSnoT, rom: dasavleT aziis regionSi, saqarTvelo e-mTavrobis ganviTarebis doniT, e-CarTulobis indeqsiT, onlain momsaxurebis ganviTarebis indeqsiT uswrebs somxeTsa da azerbaijans [62]. eleqtronuli mTavrobis koncefciis gamoyeneba axal impulsa da katalizators warmoadgens regionis qveynebis daaxloebis procesSi. misi politikis potencialSia erTiani regionis mTavrobaTaSorisi kolaboraciuli damokidebulebis Camoyalibeba, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis aqtivoba, sazogadoebis marTvaSi CarTuloba, informaciuloba, politikuri procesebis gansajaroeba, demok-

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ratiuli procesebis amaRleba da zrda. igi stimulirebs regionis social-ekonomikur kavSirebs, aadvilebs social-ekonomikur integracias, faruli da regionuli konfliqtebis gamovlenasa da prevencias. magaliTad, kavkasiis gayinuli konfliqtebis maprovocirebeli rusi, somexi da azerbaijaneli hakerebis kiberTavdasxmebi SeiZleba regionuli midgomiT iyos lokalizebuli. kavkasiis qveynebis e-mTavrobis garemo gviCvenebs Semdeg tendenciebs: I.

ruseTis mosaxleoba 142,5 mln kaci, internet-momxmarebelTa raodenoba 67,9 mln kaci (mosaxleobis 47,7%) [26]; ruseTis federaciis saxelmwifos mier informaciul da sakomunikacio teqnologiebze gaweuli danaxarjebi 57233,7 mln rusul rubls Seadgens[63]; ruseTma e-mTavrobis sferoSi ganaxorciela 80 mlrd RUB-is investireba (2011). `informaciuli sazogadoebis~ proeqtis farglebSi Seqmna uwyebaTSorisi eleqtronuli urTierTqmedebis erTiani sistema, rac aerTianebs moqalaqeebze orientirebuli momsaxurebis wardgenisa da aRniSnuli momsaxurebis xarisxis amaRlebis sistemebs [64]. aseve, rusuli silikonis velis farglebSi gaSvebuli iqna proeqti, romlis gegmac qveynis teqnologiuri ambicia gaxda.

II.

azerbaijanis mosaxleoba 9,4 mln kaci, internetmomxmarebelTa raodenoba 4,7 mln kaci (mosaxleobis 50%). saxlidan internet-wvdomis SesaZlebloba mosaxleobis 35,3%-s gaaCnnia. azerbaijanis mTavrobis strategiul mizans ICT seqtoris Semosavlebis im doneze zrda

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

warmoadgens, rom man navTobisa da gazis seqtoris Semosavlebs gadaaWarbos. azerbaijani dainteresebulia ambiciuri sloganis ganxorcielebiT moaxdinos `Savi oqros gadaqceva adamianur oqroSi~. azerbaijanis prezidentis ilham alievis mier azerbaijanis ekonomikis wamyvan prioritetad aRiarebuli iqna ICT-is seqtori, codnis ekonomika, nebismier sferoSi axali teqnologiebis gamoyenebis zrda, informaciuli sazogadoebis swrafi ganviTareba, ICT-is seqtoris mimarTulebiT mravali samuSao adgilebis Seqmna. Sedegad ICT-is seqtoris zrdam Seadgina 32,1% (2010)[65]; azerbaijanSi e-mTavrobis formireba 2003 wlidan xorcieldeba `azerbaijanis respublikis ganviTarebisaTvis ICT-is ganviTarebis nacionaluri strategiiT~. azerbaijanis e-mTavroba uzrunvelyofs saxelmwifo informaciuli sistemis efeqtianobis, usafrTxoebis, interaqtiulobis, sazogadoebis informirebisa da `erTi fanjris~ principiT moqmedebas [66]; azerbaijanis informaciisa da sakomunikacio momsaxurebis saerTo Semosavali Seadgens 1,273 aTas manaTs, ICT-is warmoebuli produqcia 1236,4 mln azerbaijanul manaTs, xolo ICT-Si dasaqmebuli adamianebis raodenoba – 18,500 adamians (2011) [67]; 2012 wlis gazafxulze, azerbaijanma estoneTSi Seqmnili e-mTavrobis platformaze gauSva pirveli sistema EHDIS. sistema moicavs 15 samTavrobo dawesebulebas da 60 eleqtronul momsaxurebas. kompleqsuri proeqtis implementaciisaTvis 7 mln evro iqna gamoyofili[68];

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rati abulaZe

azerbaijanis ICT-is saqonlis/momsaxurebis eqsportis wili qveynis mTlian saeqsporto struqturaSi 21.3%-ia, xolo ICT-is saqonlis importis wili qveynis mTlian saimporto struqturaSi – 15% (2010); azerbaijani, teqnologiuri inovaciis ganviTarebis mizniT maRalteqnologiuri produqciis Sesyidvis safuZvelze 19-e adgils ikavebs (WEF, 2013). III.

somxeTis mosaxleoba 3,2 mln kaci, internet-momxmarebelTa raodenoba 1,8 mln (mosaxleobis 56,2%) [26]. saxlidan internet-wvdoma mosaxleobis 13,6 %s SeuZlia. somxeTis ekonomikaSi prioritetuli dargia ICT-is seqtori, romlis Semosavlebis wliuri matebis tempi 31%-s aWarbebs. msoflio bankis xelSewyobiT qveyanaSi xorcieldeba msxvili proeqti `konkurentunarianobisaTvis somxeTis eleqtronuli sazogadoebisa da inovaciis programa~; 2010 wlidan, somxeTSi farTod dainerga da amoqmedda saxelmwifo organoebis e-marTvis sistema, rogorc sazogadoebis mier mTavrobis kontrolis, urTierTqmedebis, dokumentbrunvis, momsaxurebis miRebis, efeqtianobisa da gamWvirvalobis amaRlebis instrumenti [69]; somxeTis mTavrobis stimulirebiT dinamiur zrdas ganicdis socialuri media, romelic mZafr rols asrulebs somxeTis informaciul sivrceSi, onlain aqtivobis zrdaSi, tradiciuli media saSualebebis reformirebaSi, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis aRdgenaSi, sazogadoebrivpolitikur cxovrebaSi. socialuri media som-

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xeTis socialuri impulsi da reluri cxovrebis sicocxlisunarianobis elementia; dRes, somxeTSi 10000 internet-momxmarebels gaaCnia blogi, maT Soris premier ministrsa da sxva xelmZRvanel pirebs [70]; somxeTis ICT-is saqonlis/momsaxurebis eqsportis wili qveynis mTlian saeqsporto struqturaSi 36%-ia, xolo ICT-is saqonlis importis wili qveynis mTlian saimporto struqturaSi – 10,4% (2010)[4]; somxeTis kavSirgabmulobis seqtoris Semosavlebi Seadgens 14344,6 mln somxur drams [71]; somxeTi, teqnologiuri inovaciis ganviTarebis mizniT maRalteqnologiuri produqciis SesyidviT 108-e adgils ikavebs(WEF, 2013). The Caucasus Research Resource Centers-is kvlevis angariSiT (2012 Caucasus Barometer), samxreT kavkasiis qveynebSi internetis aqtiuri moxmarebiT liderobs somxeTi, meore adgilzea saqarTvelos aqtiuri internet-momxmarebelTa segmenti, maT CamorCebaT azerbaijani. aRsaniSnavia, rom samxreT kavkasiis qveynebidan, azerbaijanis mosaxleobis 12%-ma arc ki icis internetis Sesaxeb, somxeTSi msgavsi arainformirebuli segmentis wili 6%-s Seadgens, xolo saqarTveloSi 1%-s (ix. histograma 2.1) [72]. TvalsaCinoa, rom samxreT kavkasiis regionis qveynebi im qveynebis siaSia, romeli qveynebic samTavrobo web-saitiT, Facebook-iTa da Twitter-iT axorcielebs oficialuri informaciis gacemas. socialuri qselebis moxmarebis TvalsazrisiT, kavkasiis qveynebSi informirebis, kontentis generirebis, informaciis gacvlis, komunikaciis, sazogadoebrivi azris formirebis, socialuri aqtivobisa da sxva miznebisaTvis,

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histograma 2.1 samxreT kavkasiis qveynebSi internetis moxmarebis sixSire

gansakuTrebiT popularulia Facebook, romlis momxmarebelTa raodenoba ruseTSi 42,7 mln, azerbaijanSi 963,1 aTasi, saqarTveloSi – 911,9 aTasi, xolo somxeTSi 362,0 aTasi xelmomweria. qarTuli socialuri media e-mTavrobis Tanamedrove saxea, romlis platformac lokalizebulia e-mTavrobis integrirebamde. saqarTvelos samTavrobo dawesebulebebic moqalaqeebis mizidvisa da masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis saxiT aqtiurad iyenebs socialuri qselis saitebsa da platformebs [73]. kavkasiis regionis kvleviT, TiToeuli qveynis emTavroba fokusirebulia iseT wamyvan sferoebze, rogoricaa: Sinameurneobebis mier onlain Tanamonawileoba, biznes organizaciebis mier internetis gamoyeneba, onla-

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in saqmianoba, telekomunikaciis garemosa da infrastruqturis marTva, farTozolovani kavSiris siCqare da misawvdomoba, farTo internet-ganaTleba, onlain samedicino momsaxureba, distanciuri muSaoba, e-mTavrobis momsaxureba, raionebis meti CarTuloba. marTalia, kavkasiis regionis qveynebSi calkeuli komponenti Canasaxovan mdgomareobaSia, Tumca qveynebs politikuri neba (metnaklebi xarisxiT) gaaCnia, rom aRniSnuli sferoebi gamoyenebuli iqnes qveynis konkurentunarianobis, produqtiulobis, ekonomikuri da socialuri uzrunvelyofis zrdisaTvis.

2.6.3.

kavkasiis qveynebis eleqtronuli mTavrobis gamowvevebi da ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi

kavkasiis qveynebi, Tanmdevi problemebiT - `samarTlebrivi konfliqtebi~, eTnikur-teritoriuli omebi, mosaxleobis iZulebiT gadaadgileba, `informaciuli omebi~, kibersafrTxeebi, Zalauflebis araTanabari gadanawileba, - Sefasebulia (gaeros mier), rogorc postkonfliqturi regionis saxelwodebiT. magaliTad, gaerTianebuli erebis angariSis UUnited Nations `E-Government Survey 2012~ SefasebiT, kavkasiis qveynebis analizis safuZvelze aRniSnulia, rom: postkonfliqturi qveynebis siaSi (postkonfliqturi situacia asocirebulia sust da myife saxelmwifosTan, sadac legitimuroba da marTva araefeqtiania da momsaxureba sustia) saqarTvelo me-2 adgilzea da uswrebs iseT qveynebs, rogoricaa: bosnia-hercogovina, azerbaijani, indonezia, tajikeTi, avRaneTi da sxva; dasavleT aziis regionSi saqarTvelo e-mTav-

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robis ganviTarebiT imyofeba me-9 adgilze, somxeTi 12-e adgilze, xolo azerbaijani 13-e adgilze; eleqtronuli CarTulobis indeqsiT liderobs saqarTvelo (24-e adgili),Amas mosdevs azerbaijani (27-e adgili) da somxeTi (32-e adgili); onlain momsaxurebis ganviTarebis indeqsiT onlain momsaxurebis indeqsisa da komponentebis ganviTarebiT, liderobs saqarTvelo (43-e adgili), Semdeg modis azerbaijani (104-e adgili), maT CamorCebaT somxeTi (119-e adgili). aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelo onlain momsaxurebis ganviTarebis indeqsiT uswrebs latvias, saberZneTs, italias, islandias, rumineTs, bulgareTs, TurqeTs, ukrainas da sxva qveynebs; adamianuri kapitalis indeqsisa da misi komponentebiT (codniereba) somxeTi imyofeba 55-e adgilze, Semdeg modis saqarTvelo (65-e adgili), bolos azerbaijani (73-e adgili); msoflioSi, e-mTavrobis ganviTarebiT, saqarTvelo imyofeba 72-e adgilze, somxeTi – 94-e adgilze, xolo Aazerbaijani 96-e adgilze; telekomunikaciis infrastruqturis indeqsisa da misi komponentebiT liderobs somxeTi (83-e adgili), mas CamorCeba azerbaijani (88-e adgili) da saqarTvelo 104-e adgili); kavkasiis qveynebi im qveynebis siaSia, romlebic samTavrobo web-satis meSveobiT, oficialuri informaciiT uzrunvelyofs Facebook-isa da Twitter-is mimdevrebs. ukanasknel wlebSi internet-usafrTxoeba, fizikuri insfrastruqturis safrTxeebi, kiberTavdasxmebi gaxda turbulenturi kavkasiis mTavrobebis ZiriTadi gamow-

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veva. internet-infrastruqturis simyife daadastura 75 wlis qarTveli qalis mier somxeTis internet-sivrcis (90%) gaTiSvam, spilenZis mavTulis Txrisas optikur-boWkovanis kabelis gadaWriT. dasavleT evropis monitoringis uwyebis gafrTxilebiT, saqarTvelos xelisuflebis mier qseli 5 saaTSi aRdga [74]. kavkasiis internet-sivrcis did nawils faravs Savi zRviT Semosuli optikur boWkovani kabeli, romelic arasaTanado donezea daculi. yvelaze didi riskis qveSaa somxeTi, radgan misi sazRvari TurqeTTan da azerbaijanTan daketilia, xolo irani awvdis internet-trafikis 10%-s, igi ZiriTadad damokidebulia saqarTveloze (2015 wlidan internet-trafiki gaezrdeba irani-somxeTis sarkinigzo magistraliT gayvanili optikur-boWkovanis kabelis safuZvelze). kavkasiaSi, konfliqtis SemTxvevaSi `kibersivrce iqceva ZiriTad brZolis velad~. samxreT kavkasiis gayinul konfliqtebs nel kocons unTeben Turqi, somexi, rusi da azerbaijaneli hakerebis kiberTavdasxmebi. kavkasiis qveynebSi arsebuli samxedro, politikuri, religiuri cenzura negatiurad moqmedebs qveynis saSinao da sagareo mdgomareobaze, did zians ayenebs TiToeuli qveynis ekonomikur da socialur garemos. safrTxe vrceldeba rogorc kavkasiis regionze, ise kavkasiisa da centraluri aziis internet-sivrceze. kavkasiis qveynebSi liberalur-demokratiuli Rirebulebebis xelSewyobis, satelekomunikacio sivrceSi ganviTarebuli tendenciebis, arsebuli sistema warmomqmneli infrastruqturis, saxelmwifo da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis codnierebis, informaciuli kulturisa da Cvevebis ganviTarebis veqtoris gamo mizanSewonilia Seiqmnas samxreT kavkasiis e-mTavrobis sistema, eleqtronuli momsaxurebis procesebis danergvisa da implementaciis xelSemwyobi garemo.

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aRsaniSnavia, rom kavkasiis eleqtronul mTavrobaze saubari gulisxmobs mxolod eleqtronuli mTavrobis im procesebs, romelic fundamentur gavlenas iqoniebs saxelmwifo organoebis efeqtiani saqmianobis, regionis kerZo da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis kolaboraciis, regionis racionaluri eleqtronuli politikis warmoebis, uwyebaTSorisi da mTavrobaTSorisi komunikaciis, regionuli informaciuli sazogadoebis formirebis procesebze. aseve, sxva qveynebTan partniorobasa da vaWrobaze. eleqtronuli mTavrobis meSveobiT SesaZlebelia kavkasiis urTierTobebis transformacia; regionis marTvisa da erTiani informaciuli sistemis Seqmna; regionis informaciul sivrceSi eleqtronuli administraciis efeqtiani saqmianobisa da urTierTqmedebis organizeba; cifruli procesebis organizeba; sazogadoebrivi, politikuri da samomxmareblo faseulobebis amaRleba. igi iqceva kavkasiis sociumis krizisis daZlevis platformad da demokratiuli kavkasiis formirebis indikatorad. kavkasiis integrirebisaTvis, regionuli informaciuli sivrcis formireba, xels Seuwyobs demokratiuli sazogadoebis Seqmnas, romelic TavisTavad gamoiwvevs konfliqtebs anulirebas da xels Seuwyobs mSvidobas. aseve, igi gaxdeba regionis ganviTarebis erT-erTi sakvanZo faqtori da iseTi iniciativebis flagmani, rogoricaa: produqtisa da momsaxurebis erTiani cifruli bazris Seqmna, samuSao adgilebis Seqmna, samuSao Zalis eleqtronuli Cvevebis amaRleba, codnieri sazogadoebis formireba. Tavis mxriv, regionis informaciuli platforma saxelmwifoebis kiberTanafardobis uzrunvelyofas 75 gamoiwvevs [ ]. eleqtronuli mTavrobis programis farglebSi Seqmnili regionebis erTiani informaciuli sistema iqneba regionuli biurokratiuli procedurebis gamartivebis, administraciuli barierebis moxsnis, kulturuli da fsiqologiuri barierebis Semcirebisa da erTian sivrce-

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Si integrirebis platforma . kavkasiaSi unda gatardes kiberveqtoruli politika, rac eleqtronuli demokratiis wesebiT iqneba mimarTuli konfliqtebis transformaciasa da wlebis ganmavlobaSi Seqmnili stereotipebis deformirebaze. calkeuli qveynis eleqtronuli mTavrobis biurokratiulma postulatebma xeli unda Seuwyos kavkasiis politikas, qveynebs Soris efeqtian urTierTkavSirs, mxareebs Soris konfliqtis marTvasa da problemebis gadaWras. aRniSnuli ki gansazRvravs regionis ganviTarebis veqtorebsa da cifruli sferos sainvesticio mimzidvelobas. amowurvadi resursebis, globalizaciis beneficiarTa dominantobis, uTanasworobis gaRrmavebis, ekonomikuri da politikuri krizisis pirobebSi, regionisaTvis sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis resurss warmoadgens ICT da regionis eleqtronuli mTavrobis teqnologiebi. Sesabamisad, politikurad stratifikaciul regionSi, azerbaijanisa da ruseTis ganviTarebis bunebrivi resursebisa da somxeTis Zlieri diasporis pirobebSi, saqarTvelos ICT-s industriasa da eleqtronuli mTavrobis sferoSi lideri pozicia sWirdeba. World Economic Forum-is SefasebiT saqarTvelos, somxeTis, azerbaijanis (aseve tajikeTi, yirgizeTi) poziciebi, Sesabamisoba da regionuli reitingebi, ICT-is infrastruqturis ganviTarebis arasakmarisi done, internetwvdomis maRali fasebi, mTavrobis mier ICT-is potencialis mwiri gamoyeneba, kavkasiis qveynebisaTvis amcirebs socialur sargebelsa da zemoqmedebas [5]. kavkasiis cifruli ekonomika, regionis ganviTarebis erT-erTi sakvanZo faqtoria. kavkasiis cifruli ekonomika SeiZleba iseTi iniciativebis flagmani gaxdes, rogoricaa: produqtisa da momsaxurebis erTiani cifruli bazris Camoyalibeba, samuSao adgilebis Seqmna, samuSao Zalis eleqtronuli Cvevebis amaRleba, regionuli in-

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formaciuli sazogadoebis formireba, socialuri, politikuri da ekonomikuri problemebis gadaWrisaTvis ICTis gamoyeneba. miiCneva, rom ekonomikis konkurentunarianobis sakvanZo faqtoria mowinave da cifrul teqnologiebSi lideroba, e-mTavrobis ganviTareba, internet-biznesis jansaRi garemos formireba, internet-kompaniebisa da internet-momxmareblebis zrda. amitom, mocemul strategiul mimarTulebebze orientireba uzrunvelyofs kavkasiis cifrul ekonomikas, xolo teqnologiebis aTvisebiTa da informaciuli sazogadoebis formireba uzrunvelyofs kavkasiis regionis erTmaneTTan daaxloebas. aRsaniSnavia, rom qveynis konkurentunarianobis amaRlebisTvis ICT-s gamoyenebisa da e-mTavrobis ganviTarebis moqmedebis gansazRvruli gegma aqvs azerbaijans, xolo somxeTis, saqarTvelos da ruseTis moqmedebis gegma jer kidev Camouyalibebeli da formirebaSia. Sesabamisad, qveynebi, droulad saWiroebs mkafiod gansazRvrul strategiasa da instituciuri meqanizmebis formirebas. kavkasiis regionis qveynebSi arsebuli internetcenzura (met-naklebi xarisxiT yvela qveyanaSia) sakmao zians ayenebs, rogorc qveyanas, ise regions; negatiurad moqmedebs aRniSnuli qveynebis saSinao da sagareo mdgomareobaze; gavlenas axdens regionis erTiani informaciuli sazogadoebisa da internet-bazris formirebaze. regionSi arsebuli cenzura saWiroebs sazogadoebrivi monitoringis meqanizmebs, samarTlebrivi SezRudvis wesebisa da regulirebis dasaSvebi formebis SemuSavebas, rac SesabamisobaSi unda iyos, rogorc erovnul kanonebTan ise saerTaSoriso samarTlis normebTan. kavkasiis kibersivrceSi unda aRmoifxvras eleqtronuli biznesisa da eleqtronuli samTavrobo procesebis organizaciuli da samarTlebrivi safuZvlebis disproporcia.

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kavkasiis qveynebSi xeli unda Seewyos e-mTavrobis marTvis samarTlebriv safuZvlebs, e-mTavrobis implementacias, ICT-is seqtoris ganviTarebas, moqalaqeze orientirebul eleqtronul administrirebas, saxelmwifo da kerZo organizaciebis mier mobiluri platformiT onlain momsaxurebis ganxorcielebas. eleqtronuli kavkasia danaxuli unda iyos ekonomikuri, politikuri, teqnologiuri da socialuri sistemis TvalTaxedviT. e-mTavrobis meSveobiT SesaZlebeli unda gaxdes urTierTobis transformacia; regionis erTian sivrceSi informaciuli sazogadoebis integrirebis informaciuli sistemis Seqmna; regionis erTian informaciul sivrceSi eleqtronuli administraciis efeqtiani saqmianobisa da urTierTqmedebis organizeba; cifruli procesebis farTo gavrceleba; sazogadoebrivi, politikuri da samomxmareblo faseulobebis amaRleba. e-mTavrobis biurokratiulma postulatebma xeli unda Seuwyos kavkasiis politikas, qveynebs Soris efeqtian urTierTkavSirs, mxareebs Soris konfliqtis marTvasa da daregulirebas. aucilebelia Seiqmnas, regionuli struqturebisa da moqalaqeebs Soris eleqtronuli urTierTqmedebis, kavkasiis mTavrobebis daaxloebis, regionis biurokratiuli procedurebis implementaciis, administraciuli barierebis moxsnis, kulturuli da fsiqologiuri barierebis Semcirebis, `regionuli~ informaciuli sazogadoebis Seqmnisa da maTi erTian sivrceSi integrirebis informaciuli sistema. man unda gansazRvros regionis ganviTarebis veqtorebi da ICT-is sferos sainvesticio mimzidveloba. mkafiod unda ganisazRvros saxelmwifo xelisuflebis organoebis angariSvaldebuleba, informaciuloba, gamWvirvaloba, interaqtiuloba, konsultaciebis iuri-

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diuli Zala. unda daixvewos eleqtronuli komerciis warmoebis meqanizmebi, unificirebuli unda iqnes informaciuli kanonmdeblobis terminologiuri baza. nebismieri resursi amowurvadia, mxolod ICT-ia TviTregeneraciis unarisa da kumulatiuri sargeblianobis mqone, rac eleqtronuli kavkasiisaTvis SeiZleba iqces sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis resursad.

2.7. eleqtronuli mTavroba da turistuli industria samSoblos saerTaSoriso reputaciaze zrunavs, rogorc moqalaqe, ise korporaciuli da saxelmwifo seqtori, risTvisac solidur resursebs (fuladi, droiTi) ixarjeba. am mizniT, calkeuli saxelmwifo, resursebis investirebas axdens olimpiadis maspinZlobaSi, regionul Tu msoflio sportuli RonisZiebebis mowyobaSi. calkeuli saxelmwifo iyenebs ZviradRirebul da inovaciur marketingul instrumentebs imisaTvis, rom moizidos meti turisti, investori da sxva kategoriis vizitori. Tumca, Tanamedrove pirobebSi aqtualuri gaxda reputaciis amaRleba e-mTavrobis sistemis warmatebuli implementaciiT, romelic qveynis reputaciiasa da avtoritetis ganamtkiceba/gaaumjobesebis potencialisaa[76]. Tanamedrove pirobebSi, calkeulma qveyanam, drois mokle periodSi mniSvnelovani reputacia moipova eleqtronuli mTavrobis reformis warmatebuli gatarebiT. warmatebuli ZalisxmeviT, maT SeZles saerTaSoriso asparezze konkurentunarianobis miRweva, ekonomikis modernizacia, qveynis imijis zrda da saerTaSoriso ndobis amaRleba. msgavs qveynebs miekuTvneba estoneTi, moldova. estoneTi mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs saerTaSoriso mTavrobaTSorisi virtualuri garemos SeqmnaSi. am Tval-

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sazrisiT SeiZleba aRvniSnoT estoneTi. dRes umravlesi qveynis mTavroba cdilobs estoneTis modelis elementebis gaTvaliswinebas. TvalsaCinoa, aRiniSnos estoneTisa da fineTis memorandumi, cifruli formatis TanamSromloba (2013 wlis 11 dekemberi), rac msoflioSi, pirvel cifrul xelmoweril saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebas warmoadgens [76]. eleqtronuli mTavrobis dinamiuri garemo SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes cifruli procesebis, globalizaciis, planetis mosaxleobisa (mosaxleobis raodenoba 1900 wels iyo 1,65 mlrd, xolo 2013 wels – 7,17 mlrd) da ganviTarebis eqsponencialuri zrdis fonze. globalur speqtrSi SeiZleba aRvniSnoT mosaxleobis cifruli uTanasworobis zrda, moZvelebuli an/da arasakmarisi infrastruqtura, araTanabari ganviTareba, ekosistemis rRveva, ekologiuri degradacia, regionuli konfliqtebi, specifiuri adgilobrivi problemebi, politikuri mRelvareba, globaluri finansur-ekonomikuri krizisi, resursebis araracionaluri marTva. msgavs garemoSi, eleqtronuli mTavroba (e-mTavroba) warmoadgens `krizisis marTvis instruments~, romlis meSveobiT, mTavroba, rogorc saxelmwifo instituti Tavis funqciebs informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis saSualebebiT asrulebs [ 77]. eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis platforma samamulo da saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTarebis, biznesTan/moqalaqeebTan urTierTqmedebis, produqtis/momsaxurebis stimulirebis umniSvnelovanes marketingul instruments warmoadgens. misi teqnologiebi xels uwyobs kulturis sferoSi TanamSromlobis gaRrmavebas, turistuli potencialis warmoCenas, onlain turizmis ganviTarebas. igi warmodgenilia biznesisa da sazogadoebis keTildReobis zrdis farTo SesaZleblobebiT. e-mTavrobis arqiteqtura SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes,

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rogorc novatoruli azrovnebis, momsaxurebis procesebis, codnisa da dargobrivi ideebis stimulirebis sivrces. misi garemo stimulirebs turistul proeqtebsa da onlain turistul aqtivobebs. kvlevebi adasturebs, rom maRalia e-mTavrobis faseuloba da roli turizmis industriaSi. aseve, SeiZleba aRvniSnoT, rom e-mTavrobis procesebi mizez-Sedegobriv kavSirSia turizmis marTvis landSaftis cvlilebebTan da mdgrad ganviTarebasTan. eleqtronuli mTavroba biznesorientirebuli strategiaa. misi momsaxurebis miwodebis optimizaciiTa da xelmisawvdomobiT miiRweva Rirebulebis Semcireba da Semosavlebis zrda [78]. biznesis konteqstSi e-mTavrobas gansazRvraven, rogorc mTavrobisTvis eleqtronuli komerciis teqnologiebis gamoyenebas, xolo moqalaqeebisa da biznesisaTvis – saxelmwifo momsaxurebis gamoyenebas. misi garemo qmnis mdgradi ganviTarebis pirobebs[79]. eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis farTo gavrcelebiT miiRweva mosaxleobis yvela fenisTvis momsaxurebis saxeebis misawvdomoba (geografiuli adgilmdeobareobisa da Semosavlebis miuxedavad). misi procesebi stimulirebs demokratiuli mmarTvelobis formirebas, kanonis uzenaesobis damkvidrebas, usafrTxo da stabiluri garemos Seqmnas. misi sistema, Tavis mxriv momsaxurebis dargebisaTvis qmnis ganviTarebis pirobebs. erT-erT msgavs dargs warmoadgens turizmi. eleqtronuli mTavrobas sistemas mniSvnelovani wvlili Seaqvs ekonomikaSi turizmis wilis zrdis, mdgradi ganviTarebis xelSemwyobis, efeqtiani dagegmvis, turizmis socialur-ekonomikuri sargeblis amaRlebis procesSi. eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis farTo danergviTa da ganviTarebiT maRldeba korporaciuli socialuri

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pasuxismgebloba, efeqturad warmoCindeba turistuli potenciali. eleqtronuli mTavroba pozitiur gavlenas axdens turistul faseulobebze, amaRlebs mdgradi garemos marTvas, xels uwyobs mdgradi turizmis ganviTarebas, gansakuTrebul yuradRebas uTmobs arqiteqturuli memkvidreobis dacva-Senaxvas, genderul Tanasworobas, misawvdoms xdis turistul produqtebs, uzrunvelyofs fasisa da turistuli produqtebis Sesabamisobis balanss, xels uwyobs turistul biznesSi investirebis zrdas. aseve, samTavrobo danaxarjebs, romlis gareSec turizmi ver ganviTardeba. Tanamedrove garemoSi, turistuli sistemis funqcionireba realizebulia marTvis iseTi midgomebiT, romlis konteqsti socialuri, kulturuli, garemosdacvis, ekonomikis, eleqtronuli saxelmwifo politikisa da teqnologiis sferos ganviTarebas efuZneba[80]. turizmis industria SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes, rogorc dasaqmebis, ucxouri valutis, biujetis Sevsebis wyaro, ise saerTaSoriso urTierTobis, socialuri integraciis, globaluri integraciis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani sfero[81]. msoflioSi, turizmi ikavebs me-5 adgils navTobis, qimiuri produqtebis, sakvebisa da avtomobilis saeqsporto struqturaSi, xolo zogierT ganviTarebad qveynebSi – pirvel adgils. mzardia msoflio turizmis Semosavlebic. 2013 wels saerTaSoriso turizmis saeqsporto Semosavlebma Seadgina 1,4 trln dolari, turcentrebis Semosavlebma – 1159 mlrd dolari (wina welTan SedarebiT gaizarda 5%-iT). msoflioSi, turizmis Semosavlebis swrafi matebis tempiT gamoirCeva azia-wynari okeanis regioni (Semosavlebis wili aris 31%), Tumca evropis wilad modis saerTaSoriso turizmis Semosavlebis yvelaze meti wili (42%), soliduri moculobiTaa warmodgenili ame-

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rikis regionis Semosavlebi (20%), xolo umniSvneloa axlo aRmosavleTisa (4%) da afrikis regionis turizmis Semosavlebi (3%)[82]. msoflio ekonomikuri forumis (WEF) angariSiT `mogzaurobisa da turizmis konkurentunarianobis indeqsiT~ msoflioSi liderobs Sveicaria, meore da mesame adgilebs inawilebs germania da avstria, xuTeulSi Sedis espaneTi da didi britaneTi, Semdeg modis amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi, safrangeTi, kanada, SvedeTi da aTeuls aboloebs singapuri (2013). aRniSnul reitingSi saqarTvelo imyofeba 66-e adgilze da uswrebs rumineTs (68-e adgili), ukrainas (76-e adgili), azrebaijans (78-e adgili), somxeTs (79-e adgili), moldovas (102-e adgili) [83]. WEF-is kvlevis angariSiT, turizmisa da mogzaurobis dargis ganviTarebis sakvanZo maCveneblebis SefasebiT warmoCenilia lideri qveynebi: turizmis infrastruqtura (liderobs avstria, saberZneTi da italia), ekologiuri mdgradoba (liderobs SvedeTi, Sveicaria da fineTi), usafrTxoeba da dacva (liderobs fineTi, SvedeTi, Sveicaria ), jandacva da higiena (liderobs avstria, germania da yazaxeTi), turizmisa da mogzaurobis prioritetuloba (seiSelis kunZulebi, kipri, mavriki), avia transportis infrastruqtura (kanada, aSS da arabTa gaerTianebuli saamiroebi), saxmeleTo transportis infrastruqtura (honkongi, singapuri da Sveicaria), informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis infrastruqtura (samxreT korea, SvedeTi da honkongi), faswarmoqmnis politika (irani, brunei da gambia), adamianuri resursi (islandia, singapuri da Sveicaria), turizmisa da mogzaurobis mimzidveloba (barbadosi, honkongi da libani), bunebrivi resursebi (avstralia, brazilia da aSS), kulturuli resursebi (espaneTi, SvedeTi

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da didi britaneTi), politikuri wesebi da regulaciebi (liderobs singapuri, honkongi da axali zelandia). globaluri forumis World Travel & Tourism Council-is ekonomikuri analizis angariSi aCvenebs, rom 2013 wels[84]: msoflio ekonomikaSi, mogzaurobisa da turizmis wili gaizarda 9,5%-mde (7 trln dolaramde), rac aWarbebs ekonomikis matebis tempebs. 2014 wlis saSualo wliuri matebis tempi warmoadgens 4,3%-s (2013 wels Seadgenda 3%-s). misi kontribucia bolo oTx weliwadSi uwyvetad izrdeba; mogzaurobisa da turizmis industria moicavs 266 mln samuSao adgils. bolo erT weliwadSi turistuli saqmianobis Sedegad Seiqmna 4,7 mln samuSao adgili (2014 wels mosalodnelia 6,5 mln samuSao adgilis Seqmna); prognoziT, 2014 wels mogzaurobisa da turizmis sferoSi investiciebi gaizrdeba 5,6%-iT. G20-is qveynebidan zrdis maRali tempi aqvs CineTs; turizmis industriaSi aRsaniSnavia sakruizo industriis ekonomikuri Sedegebi. kerZod: 2013 wels amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis sakruizo turizmis industriis brunvam Seadgina 42,3 mlrd dolari, avstraliis wilad modis 2,9 mlrd, xolo evropis sakruizo turizmis industriis wilad modis 51,1 mlrd dolari [85] (2011 wels evropis sakruizo industriis saerTo moculoba 36,7 mlrd evro iyo [86], xolo samuSao adgilebis raodenoba 326,9 aTasi) [87,88]; Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA) angariSiT, mimdinare wels, sakruizo turizmis momxmarebel mgzavrTa raodenoba miaRwevs 21,7 mln (2013 wels iyo 21,3 mln). aRsaniSnavia, rom saerTaSoriso bazarze dominirebadi poziciiT warmodgenilia

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amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi (51,7%), meore da mesame adgilebs inawilebs didi britaneTi (8,1%) da germania (7,7%), xuTeulSi Sedis italia (4%) da avstralia (3,6%). me-6 adgilzea kanada (3,4%), mas mosdevs brazilia (3,4%) da espaneTi (2,8%). aTeuls aboloebs safrangeTi (2,4%) da skandinavia (1,6%) [89]. turizmis sferosadmi mzard interess iwvevs misi ekonomikuri da swrafad ganviTarebis statusi. mniSvnelovania turizmis ekonomikuri, socialuri da ekologiuri aspeqtebis zegavlena sxvadasxva sazogadoebebsa da mimarTulebebze. turizmis potenciali ganixileba, rogorc ganviTarebis instrumenti, siRaribis winaaRmdeg brZolis saSualeba, mdgradi ganviTarebis procesis xelSemwyobi mimarTuleba [3]. turizmis sferosaTvis gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria mdgradi ganviTarebis principiT midgoma, radgan aRniSnuli seqtori ZiriTadad damokidebulia turizmis RirSesaniSnaobebsa da saqmianobis saxeebze, romelic dakavSirebulia bunebriv resursebsa da istoriul-kulturul tradiciebze. turizmi umniSvnelovanes ekonomikur saqmianobas warmoadgens sazRvao da sasazRvro raionebisaTvis. turizmis bazarze, turistul qcevebze, dasvenebisa da msyidvelobiTunariaobis struqturaze gavlenas axdens msoflios ekonomikuri cvlilebebi [90]. aseve, mogzaurobisa da turizmis ganviTarebas aferxebs msoflios qveynebis Riaobis dabali done, rac zRudavs maT turistul potencials. Sesabamisad, umravlesi qveynis mogzaurobisa da turizmis ekonomikuri kontribucia uwindeburad ucvlelia, rac ganpirobebulia SezRuduli savizo politikiT. WTTC-isa da The UN World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) prognoziT, G20-is qveynebSi savizo procesis gaumjobese-

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ba gamoiwvevs damatebiT 206 mlrd dolaris turistuli Semosavlis generirebasa da 5,1 mln samuSao adgilis Seqmnas (2015).

2.7.1. onlain turizmis bazari eleqtronuli mTavrobis garemos formirebiT viTardeba onlain komerciis biznes modelebi, maT Soris konkurentunariania onlain turistuli bazari. izrdeba turistuli internet-saitebis raodenoba, kontenti, muSavdeba axali aplikaciebi da teqnologiebi. e-mTavrobis garemoSi mzardia turistuli organizaciebis sargebeli, mcirea transaqciis pirdapiri da iribi xarji, komunikaciis gaumjobesebiT minimumade dadis klientis dakargvis xarji, umjobesdeba klientebTan urTierToba da loialoba. eleqtronulma biznesma, rogorc damoukidebelma warmonaqmnma moicva eleqtronuli komerciis sfero, romelic misi integrali gaxda. maT sferoSi warmoiSva axali biznes modelebi da teqnologiebi, romelic mimarTulia komerciis zrdasa da internet-ekonomikis ganviTarebaze[91]. eleqtronuli mTavrobis urTierTqmedeba moqalaqeebTan, biznesTan da mTavrobasTan ganixileba, rogorc: G2C, G2B, G2G, G2E, C2G, B2G, E2G biznes modeli. msgavsi urTierTqmedeba moicavs biznes urTierTobebs, saxelmwifo momsaxurebis wardgenas, ukukavSiris organizacias, momsaxurebis optimizacias, efeqtur mmarTvelobas da sxva procesebs. eleqtronuli komerciis ZiriTadi biznes modelebis garda sazogadoebrivi ganxilvis Temaa mTavroba-turistis G2T (Government-to-Tourist), biznesi-turistis B2T

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(Business-to-Tourist), moqalaqe-turistis C2T (Citizen-to-Tourist) biznes modeli [92]. aRniSnuli biznesmodelebiT gavrcelebulia turistuli momsaxurebis komponentebi da iniciativebi. TiToeuli modelis unikaluri maxasiaTebeli moicavs marketingis axal SesaZleblobebs, rogoricaa: mZlavri interaqtiuli mimarTuleba, turistuli produqtis/momsaxurebis wardgena, informireba, transaqcia, personalizacia, mdidari mesijebi, romelic xelsayrelia miznobriv auditoriasTan urTierTqmedebisaTvis. onlain turizmi ganixileba, rogorc eleqtronuli komerciis erT-erTi msxvili segmenti. igi onlain biznesis sxva mimarTulebebTan SedarebiT gamoirCeva maRali SemosavlebiT. turistebisaTvis aRniSnuli mimarTuleba warmoadgens samogzauro turebis Ziebis, saukeTeso fasebis SerCevis, bileTebis, sastumro nomrebis, avtomobilis ijaris, kruizis da turistuli turebis dajavSnis metad xelsayrel arxs [93]. dReisaTvis onlain turistuli bazari warmodgenilia 4 msxvili seqtoriT: aviabileTebis internet-bazari (94 mlrd dolaris SemosavliT), sastumros dajavSna internetiT (52 mlrd dolari), manqanebis gaqiraveba internet-arxebiT (11 mlrd dolari) da kruizebi/turebi (3 mlrd dolari) (2012). internetma gardaqmna biznes-landSafti da warsdga axali biznes-procesebiT. dRes biznes seqtorisaTvis gadamwyveti mniSvnelobis gaxda internet-momxmarebelTa moTxovnisunarianoba, moTxovnis struqturis cvlileba, procesebis optimizacia, ekonomiis miRweva, potencialis realizeba, internet-bazarze konkurentunarianobisa da globaluri upiratesobis miRweva. aRniSnul teqnologiur wesrigSi turistul industrias gansakuTrebuli sargebeli gaaCnia[94].

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onlain gayidvebSi liderobs evrokavSiris turizmis industria. Eurostat-is kvlevis safuZvelze saerTo ekonomikis 15% modis eleqtronuli komerciis wilad (2012), sadac ZiriTadi Semosavlebi warmodgenilia sastumros, transportis, kvebisa da turistuli saagentoebis momsaxurebiT. onlain mogzaurobis produqtebis vaWrobis maCvenebeli 2012 wels gaizarda 8,4%-iT da globalur masStabSi Seadgina 524 mlrd dolari. prognoziT, msoflio onlain mogzaurobis bazris matebis tempi, momaval 5 weliwadSi, saSualod 9,5% iqneba [95]. turistul kompaniebs gaaCniaT onlain aqtivobis konversiis maRali done. maTi onlain aqtivobis done warmoadgens 45%-s, xolo onlain gayidvebis maCvenebeli 32%- s [3].

2.7.2.

saqarTvelos turistuli industria

dReisaTvis, qveynis ganviTarebis gza e-mTavrobis garemos ganviTarebaze gadis, rac qmnis saxelmwifos marTvis filosofiis formirebis pirobebs, romelic marTvis racionalizaciiskenaa mimarTuli. Tanamedrove pirobebSi e-mTavrobis arqiteqturis kompozicia warmodgenilia mravalferovani teqnologiebiT, produqtebis/momsaxurebis farTo arCevaniTa da ganviTarebadi sistemiT [96]. Sesabamisad, misi sistema ganixileba, rogorc turistuli bazris ekonomikuri efeqtianobis, biznes procesebis gardaqmnisa da internet-momxmarebelTa singularulad gaerTianebis stimulatori. niSandoblivia aRvniSnoT, rom saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis potencialSi moiazreba onlain tu-

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rizmis bazris ganviTarebis xelSewyoba, turistul kompaniebs Soris konkurentuli sivrcis formireba, turistebisaTvis xelsayreli da moqnili faswarmoqmnis politikis gatareba, mravalferovani angariSsworebis formebis Camoyalibeba, produqtis/momsaxurebis personalizacia, faseuli informaciuli sivrcis Seqmna. mogzaurobisa da turizmis sferoSi swarfad izrdeba internet-teqnologiebis optimaluri gamoyenebis saWiroeba, internet-marketingis aRqma da praqtikuli implementacia. globaluri turizmis kompoziciaSi, qarTul turistul potencials gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia. qarTuli turistuli seqtori xasiaTdeba ganviTarebisa da zrdis perspeqtiviT. izrdeba turizmis wili mSp-Si (2012 wels iyo 6,32%), 2013 wlis 3 kvartlis monacemebiT saerTaSoriso turizmidan miRebulma Semosavlebma 1,3 mlrd dolari Seadgina (2012 wels iyo 1,4 mlrd), xolo saerTaSoriso mogzaurebis raodenobam 5,4 mln. aqtiurdeba saxelmwifos marketingi, mimdinare wels qveynis popularizaciis xarji 8,9 mln lariT ganisazRvra [97]. saqarTvelos turizmis ganviTarebis speqtrSi unda aRiniSnos, rom dabali tempiT mimdinareobs mosaxleobis mdgradi zrda-ganviTareba; siRaribis aRmofxvris procesi; socialur-ekonomikuri progresi; onlain turistuli potencialis srulad aTvisebis, socialuri subieqtebis urTierTqmedebis, kompiuterizaciisa da internetizaciis procesebi; usistemoa qalaqebisa da urbanizaciis marTva; regionuli SfoTvebis pirobebSi, araprognozirebadia mdgradi ekonomikuri ganviTarebis strategiuli da instituciuri midgomebi. qveyanaSi, mcirea mogzaurobisa da turizmis ganviTarebisaTvis saWiro samTavrobo xarji, sustad viTarde-

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ba iseTi mimarTulebi, rogoricaa: onlain turizmis marketingi, onlain promouSeni, sastumro industria, aviacia, sanitaruli samsaxuri. qveyana turistul sivrces ver uzrunvelyofs qarTuli soflis meurneobis produqtebiT, ar aris warmoCenili ekologiurad sufTa qarTuli produqtis sargeblianoba da mimzidveloba. saqarTveloSi, dabali kompiuterizaciisa da internetizaciis fonze, ar xdeba mosaxleobis codnisa da internet-wignierebis zrda iseT sakvanZo sakiTxebze, rogoricaa: onlain turistuli teqnologiebis gamoyeneba, globaluri garigebisa da transaqciis meqanizmebis gamoyenebis unarebis floba. saqarTvelos mTavroba ver uzrunvelyofs saerTaSoriso sivrceSi mosaxleobis Tavisuflad mogzaurobas. turistuli seqtori ganicdis evoluciur transformacias, romelic saWiroebs marTvelobiTi sistemis reformirebisa da modernizaciis revoluciur midgomebs. msgavs midgomas warmoadgens e-mTavroba. e-mTavrobis sistemis gamoyeneba axal impulsa da katalizators warmoadgens administraciuli modernizaciis procesSi[6]. turizmi moicavs, rogorc saxelmwifo ise kerZo seqtoris dainteresebul mxareebs, romelic administraciulad erTmaneTisagan izolirebulia [98]. turizmis marTvaSi xelisuflebis sust (politikuri da administraciuli aqtorebis) rolsa da marTvis efeqturobas zrdis e-mTavrobis procesebi. turistul seqtorSi samomxmareblo resursebisa da sivrcobrivi cvlilebebis arseboba, swrafi urbanizaciisa da miwaTsargeblobis marTvis strategiis uqonloba, momavali Taobis keTildReobas eWvqveS ayenebs. Sesabamisad, saWiroebs turistuli produqtebis,

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turizmis marketingis, strategiuli dagegmvisa da marTvis axal paradigmas[3]. Tanamedrove marTvis paradigmas warmoadgens e-mTavroba. mniSvnelovania e-mTavrobis kontribucia mdgradi turizmis ganviTarebaSi, siRaribis Semcirebis prevenciis RonisZiebebSi, genderuli uTanasworobis Semcirebasa da mdgradi ganviTarebis xelSewyobaSi. misi sivrce generirebs, rogorc onlain turistebis, ise onlain turistuli organizaciebis sargebels. qveyana saWiroebs turizmis internet-marketingis winsvlisa da yvelasaTvis xelmisawvdomi infrastruqturis aucileblobas, Sida turistul potencialsa da teqnologiur moTxovnebs Soris balansis dacvas; dabolos, eleqtronuli mTavrobis landSaftSi, turizmis/onlain turizmis ganviTarebisaTvis aucilebeli midgomebia: interfeisi turistebsa da saxelmwifo administracias Soris urTierTobebisTvis; samarTlebrivi, organizaciuli, teqnologiuri, sakadro da fsiqologiuri aspeqtebis formireba; onlain turizmis strategiis formireba, samoqmedo wesebi da politika; eleqtronuli mTavrobis infrastruqturis platformis safuZvelze mosaxleobis farTo fenebisaTvis, onlain turizmis xelmisawvdomoba; teqnologiuri inovaciebis, eqsperimentebis, onlain turizmis axali modelebis, onlain turistuli produqtebis/momsaxurebis SemuSavebis stimulireba; regionuli turizmis ganviTarebis strategiebs,

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romelic adgilobrivi sazogadoebis monawileobiTa da CarTulobiT iqneba ganpirobebuli; ekonomikurad mimzidvelia aqcenti gakeTdes daivingis, komerciuli Tevzaobis, wyalqveSa nadirobis, akvakulturis, sakruizo turizmis, dasvenebisa da samecniero kvlevebis marTvaze.

2.8. eleqtronuli jandacva qveynis ganviTarebisaTvis pirveli rigis amocanaa jandacvis saTanado marTva. jandacva moicavs yvela asakis, genderis, rasis, kulturisa da geografiul sazRvrebs. susti jandacva xels uSlis keTildReobas da biznes rentabelobas, ver axdens siRaribis Semcirebas, arapirdapir gavlenas axdens xalxis sikvdilianobaze[99]. msiflioSi, sul ufro izrdeba mosaxleobis mier jandacvis momsaxurebis moTxovnebi da efeqtur pirobebSi misi misawdomobis saWiroeba. e-jandacva aerTianebs jandacvis sistemas da informaciul da sakomunikacio teqnologiebs, imisaTvis, rom ukeTesi gaxdes janmrTeloba da janmrTelobaze zrunvis procesi. e-jandacva informaciul aplikaciebsa da sakomunikacio teqnologiebs jandacvaze zemoqmedi funqciebis speqtrSi iyenebs[99]. dadasturebulia, rom eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis ZiriTadi komponentia eleqtronuli jandacva, romelic warmoadgens jandacvis sistemis ganviTarebis sakvanZo instruments. dRes, e-jandacva warmoadgens jandacvis sistemis reformirebis saSualebas; qveynebis jandacvaSi, erTmaneTis msgavsi gamowvevebis maregulirebeli RonisZiebaTa dublirebis Tavidan acilebis resurss. jandacvis Tavsebadi sistema da monacemTa standartizacia warmoadgens

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jandacvis mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis umTavres baziss[100]. eleqtronuli jandacvis koncefcia moicavs jandacvas, teqnologias, komercias. igi ganixileba, rogorc momxmarebelze orientirebuli jandacvis modeli, sadac dainteresebuli mxare TanamSromlobisas ICT-is gamoyenebiT sargeblobs; maT Soris internet-teqnologiebiT, romelic jandacvis marTvis, organizebis, daxmarebis aRmoCenis da samedicino-sanitaruli sistemis mxardaWeris SesaZleblobas iZleva. aseve, e-jandacva ICT-s da gansakuTrebiT internets jandacvisa da janmrTelobis dacvis gaumjobesebisa da srulyofisaTvis iyenebs [100]. ITU-T moxsenebaSi `standartebi da eleqtronuli jandacva~, aRwerilia e-jandavis sferos zogierTi specifikuri tendencia, maT Soris genuri medicina, eleqtronuli samedicino Canawerebis standartizeba, distanciuri jandacva da diagnostika, sazogadoebis janmrTelobis monacemebis agregireba. moxsenebaSi aRniSnulia, rom eleqtronuli jandacvis sistema, ganviTarebul msoflioSi, xels uwyobs janmrTelobis gaumjobesebas. ganviTarebad qveynebSi, standartizaciis procesis miRwevas xels uSlis sxvadasxva faqtori, maT Soris[101]: nacionaluri mniSvnelobis mqone aRqma; kerZo seqtoris standartizaciis procesSi CarTvis dabali aqtivoba; standartizaciis arasakmarisi dafinanseba; arasakmarisi adamianuri resursebi; standartebis SemuSavebis saerTaSoriso procesSi CarTvis dabali done; arasakmarisi teqnikuri infrastruqtura. e-jandacva msoflios wamyvan qveynebSi ganixileba, rogorc ekonomikis gajansaRebisa da jandacvis seqtoris

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zrdis instrumenti. e-jandacva (igive “eleqtronuli jandacva”, ”cifruli jandacva”) teqnologebis meSveobiT axal gzebs gvTavazobs ukeTesi sazogadoebrivi jandacvis, cxovrebis xarisxis da sicocxlis xangrZlivobis gasaumjobeseblad. igi moicavs, Semdeg seqtorebs[102]: janmrTelobis sainformacio teqnologiebi da avadmyofobis eleqtronuli istoriebi; telemedicina; jandacvis profesionalTa eleqtronuli (distanciuri) swavleba da gadamzadeba; momxmareblisaTvis saintereso janmrTelobis informacia; janmrTelobis codnis marTvis meTodologia; mobiluri jandacva; virtualuri hospitlebi da virtualuri samedicino jgufebi; grid meTodologiiT ganxorcielebuli samecniero kvlevebi. Wickramasinghe-is mier mocemulia eleqtronuli jandacvis mzadyofnis struqtura, romelic moicavs [99]: informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis arqiteqtura/ infrastruqtura; standartizebuli politika, protokolebi da procedurebi; momxmareblis misawvdomoba, misawvdomobis politika; samTavrobo regulireba da kontroli; IT ganaTlebis gavlena; ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gavlena; avadmyofobis maCvenebeli;

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kulturuli da socialuri cvlilebebis gavlena. msoflioSi, moqalaqeebis mobiloba yvela seqtorSi zrdis eleqtronuli momsaxurebis wardgenis mniSvnelobas, dawyebuli eleqtronuli mTavrobidan damTavrebuli eleqtronuli jandacviTa da e-komerciiT. mobilur moqalaqeebs, rogorc wesi unda hqondeT qveynis momsaxurebasTan wvdoma. amrigad, msoflio mobilobis pirobebSi eleqtronuli jandacvis momsaxurebis miRebas pirvelxarisxovani mniSvneloba gaaCnia[103]. msoflioSi, popularuli kompaniis GSMA kvlevis angariSiT, e-jandacvis msoflio bazris mateba 2015 wlisaTvis 12-16% Seadgens da 160 mlrd dolars miaRwevs, rac Seexeba mobiluri jandacvis bazars 2017 wlisTvis 23 mlrd dolars miaRwevs [104]. saqarTveloSi, 2010 wels, saqarTvelos Sromis janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis saministrom SeimuSava saqarTvelos jandacvis marTvis erTiani sainformacio sistemis strategia `janmrTeli saqarTvelo SenTvis~, xolo 2011 wlis dasawyisSi, amerikis ganviTarebis saagentos jandacvis sistemis ganmtkicebisaTvis moxda eleqtronuli jandacvis sistemis danergvis dafinanseba da teqnikuri mxardaWera[105]. dRes, qveyanaSi dargTaSorisi koordinaciis gaZlierebis, informaciis identificirebisa da generirebisaTvis, jandacvis sistemis efeqturobis gazrdisaTvis, samedicino momsaxurebis xarisxis kontrolis, marTvis, usafrTxoebisa da regulirebisaTvis danergilia eleqtronuli jandacva da informaciuli sistema. dabolos, SeiZleba aRvniSnoT, rom saqarTvelos eleqtronuli jandacvis servisis ganviTareba xels Seuwyobs janmrTelobis dacvis bazris zrdas, Seamcirebs jandacvis sistemis gadatvirTvis problemebs, generirebas

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gauwevs mkurnalobis procesis integrirebasa da koordinirebas, xelsayrels gaxdis pacientebis momsaxurebis garemosa da momsaxurebis xarisxs.

2.9. eleqtronuli ganaTleba eleqtronuli mTavrobis marTvis procesi xels uwyobs reformebis gatarebas, zrdis xarisxs, sistemis gamWvirvalobasa da procesis efeqtianobas iseT sferoSi, rogoricaa umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistema. sistema SesaZleblobas aZlevs studentebs, mSoblebs, profesor-maswavleblebsa da administracias isargeblon maRali xarisxis interfeisiT, eleqtronuli ganaTlebis aplikaciebiTa da instrumentebiT [106]. eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistema warmoadgens teqnologiur berkets, mecnierebis eleqtronuli administrirebis sistemas, inovaciebis globalur platformas, romelic qveyanaSi qmnis pirobebs efeqturad gatardes msoflio standartebisa da principebis akademiuri sistemis fundamenturi reforma (magaliTad, umaRlesi ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis reforma, dvalis komisia). eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistema saswavlo-saganmanaTleblo procesis dagegmvis, saganmanaTleblo kontentis miwodebis, samecniero potencialis warmoCenis, individualuri programebis saSualebiT saswavlo procesis organizebis, codnierebis zrdis, motivaciisa da saswavlo procesis kontrolis ganxorcielebis sabazo komponentebis integrirebuli platformaa. ganviTarebul qveynebSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis politika stimulirebs eleqtronul ganaTlebas, inovaciur swavlebas, xels uwyobs eleqtronuli swavlebis ganviTarebas (didi britaneTi, italia, SvedeTi da sxva).

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amasTan, eleqtronuli ganaTleba eleqtronuli mTavrobis birTvis ZiriTadi komponentia. eleqtronuli ganaTlebis modeli qmnis pirobas onlain reJimSi ganxorcieldes saswavlo-saganmanaTleblo procesi, web 2.0 teqnologiebisa da programul-aparatuli saSualebebis gamoyenebiT moxdes optimizebuli saswavlo procesis moqnili marTva, interaqtiuli urTierTqmedeba. misi platforma xels uwyobs samecniero-kvleviT proeqtebis ganxorcielebas, akademiuri seqtoris kolaboracias, codnisa da gamocdilebis gaziarebas, treningebisa da kvalifikaciis amaRlebis RonisZiebebis gatarebas. swrafad cvalebad globalur garemoSi, liderobis SenarCunebisaTvis aucilebelia strategiis ganxorcieleba, romelic sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi ganaxorcielebs swavlebisa da Sromisnayofierebas Soris sinergiis maqsimizacias. imisaTvis, rom miRweuli iqnes maqsimaluri efeqti, procesi saWiroebs teqnologiur mxardaWeras. kvlevebiT dadasturebulia, rom eleqtronuli ganaTleba iTvleba strategiul mimarTulebad, radgan [107]: igi warmoadgens uwyveti swavlebis saSualebas; adamianuri resursebi advilad axdens codnisa da Cvevebis aTvisebas da advilad progresirebs organizaciaSi; minimaluri biujetiT xdeba TanamSromelTa kvalifikaciis amaRlebis miiRweva; swrafad da moqnilad miiRweva codnisa da kompetenciebis zrda; xels uwyobs mwarmoeblurobis zrdas. kvlevebi adasturebs, rom globaluri saganmanaTleblo bazari swrafi tempiT izrdeba. msoflios saganmanaTleblo bazris ganviTarebas xels uwyobs: demografiuli zrda, saxelmwifos mier saganmanaTleblo siv-

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rcis stimulireba, ganaTlebis dafinansebis zrda, swavlis msurvelTa mateba, codnaze dafuZnebul ekonomikis zrda, ganaTlebis globalizacia, ganaTlebaSi informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis mniSvnelobis amaRleba, umaRles da zogadsaganamanaTleblo sivrceSi reformebisa da codnis xarisxis mateba [108]. Sesabamisad, Tu 2005 wels globaluri saganmanaTleblo bazris moculoba 2,5 trln dolars Seadgenda, 2013 wels globaluri saganmanaTleblo bazari 4,4. trln dolariT Sefasda [109]. kompania Docebo-s kvlevis Tanaxmad, eleqtronuli ganaTlebis msoflio bazris moculoba 35,6 mlrd dolars Seadgens (2011). amave kvleviT, 5 wliani matebis tempi ganisazRvra 7,6%-ian doniT, xolo Semosavlebi 51,5 mlrd dolariT (2016) [107]. londonis sainvesticio bankis `IBIS Capital-is~ angariSis Tanaxmad, yvelaze swrafad mzard seqtors warmoadgens eleqtronuli ganaTleba. prognoziT, 2012-2017 ww-Si eleqtronuli ganaTlebaze gaweuli xarjebis zrda 23% iqneba, xolo tradiciul ganaTlebaze gaweuli xarjebis zrda mxolod 7,4%-s moicavs. qveyanaSi, eleqtronuli ganaTlebis warmatebuli implementacia, eleqtronuli ganaTlebis ganviTarebis politikas saWiroebs. politikis Tanaxmad, eleqtronuli ganaTlebis miReba unda iyos samarTlebrivad regulirebuli, integrirebuli unda iyos saganmanaTleblo sistemaSi; eleqtronuli ganaTlebis transformaciuli roli ganxiluli unda iqnes ganaTlebis horizontebisa da umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemis funqcionirebis cvlilebis mimarTulebiT. garda amisa, politikuri iniciativebi unda moicavdes [110]: fizikuri infrastruqturis ganviTarebis strategias; eleqtronuli swavlebis xarisxis uzrunvelyo-

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fas; eleqtronuli swavlebis midgomebis sistemis Seqmnas; eleqtronuli swavlebis seqtoriT dainteresebas. saqarTveloSi arsebobs saerTaSoriso standartebis eleqtronuli ganaTlebis sistema da moduli. praqtikulad, yvela umaRles saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebaSi danergilia eleqtronuli swavlebis moduli. arsebiTia, rom saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemaSi ganaTleba warmoadgens prioritetul mimarTulebas, xolo mecnier-mkvlevari da doqtoris xarisxis mqone pirebi ganixileba, rogorc ekonomikur-politikuri da samecniero-teqnikuri progresis resursi. xazgasasmelia sakadro politikis gamowvevebi, gansakuTrebiT saxelmwifo struqturebSi, telekomunikaciis sferoSi. qveyanaSi, kadrebis deficitsa da arakvalificiur kadrebze `msjelobis pirobebSi~ adgili araaqvs problemis kvlevasa da analizs. magaliTad, ucnobia kerZo Tu saxelmwifo seqtorisaTvis saWiro kvalificiuri kadrebis raodenoba. ucnobia ucxoeli specialistebis mozidvaze gaweuli saSualowliuri xarji, ucnobia adamianuri kapitalis sruli bazis SeqmnisaTvis saWiro finansuri resursis raodenoba da dro. faqtobrivad ki, qveyanaSi ar xdeba arsebuli SromiTi resursebisa da potencialis efeqturi gamoyeneba da marTva. kerZo da saxelmwifo struqturebi dainteresebulni ar arian qarTveli mecnier-mkvlevarTa potencialis aTvisebiTa da marTvaSi CarTviT. qveyanaSi, iqmneba mecnieruli Sromebi, warmoebs kvlevebi, iwereba rekomendaciebi, Tumca saxelmwifo mmarTvelobiT saqmianobaSi mecnieruli Sromebis gamoyenebis praqtika mwiria. marTvis efeqturobis amaRlebisaTvis aucilebelia gaZlierdes saxelmwifo struqturebis

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TanamSromloba samecniero sazogadoebasTan, profesormaswavleblebTan, profesional kadrebTan da eleqtronuli marTvis sferos mkvlevarebTan. garda amisa, qveyanaSi yuradReba unda mieqces profesor-maswavleblebs, moxdes maTi potencialis gamoyeneba, ar iqnes ugulebelyofili maTi aqtivoba da mecnieruli Sexedulebebi, moxdes maTi CarTva strategiebisa da gegmebis SemuSavebaSi. qveynis strategiuli mimarTulebebis gansazRvrisa da strategiuli gegmebis SemuSavebaSi lokomotivis roli qarTulma samecniero sazogadoebam unda itvirTos (maT Soris saqarTvelos cifruli ganviTarebis strategiis SemuSavebaSi).

2.10. saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri dReisaTvis, evrokavSiris `aRmosavleT partniorobis~ upiratesobebi da gamowvevebi saqarTvelosTvis identificirebs evrointegraciis zegavlenis Sedegebs. `aRmosavleT partnioroba~ The Eastern Partnership (EaP) warmoadgens politikur iniciativas, romelic mimarTulia evrokavSirTan aRmosavleT qveynebis daaxloebaze. aRniSnuli qveynebis rigSia saqarTvelo, romelic iswrafvis evropul sivrceSi integraciisaken[111]. saqarTvelosTvis `aRmosavleT partnioroba~ SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes, rogorc evrokavSiris xuTwledi, romlis programebi mimarTulia evrokavSiris qveynebTan intensiuri urTierTobebisa da mis standartebTan SesabamisobiT farTo TanamSromlobisaken. saqarTvelo aqtiurad TanamSromlobs evrokavSirTan `sainformacio sazogadoebis~ sferos, eleqtronuli sakomunikacio qselebisa da momsaxurebis regulirebasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebSi.

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saqarTvelo - evrokavSiris `aRmosavleT-partniorobis~ urTierTobis konteqstis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani mimarTulebaa TanamSromloba informaciuli sazogadoebis sferoSi (kari VI, Other Cooperation Policies. Tavi 8, gv. 169). TanamSromlobis farglebSi, mxareebi moqmedeben moqalaqeebisa da biznes organizaciebis interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT, informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis farTo xelmisawvdomobis, misawvdomi fasebisa da xarisxiani momsaxurebis miRwevisaTvis. TanamSromloba moicavs nacionaluri informaciuli sazogadoebis iniciativebis, gamocdilebisa da informaciis gacvlas; farTozolovani kavSiris ganviTarebis xelSewyobas; administraciuli potencialis gaZlierebas; resursebis speqtris ukeT gamoyenebas; globalur qselebTan saqarTvelos qselebis Tavsebadobas; evrokavSiris kiberusafrTxoebis amaRlebasa da sazogadoebrivi onlain-servisebis ganviTarebas. TanamSromloba mimarTulia eleqtronuli komunikaciis bazris misawvdomobis xelSewyobaze, konkurenciisa da investiciebis stimulirebaze[112]. evrokavSiris iniciativis `aRmosavleT partniorobis~ farglebSi, saqarTvelom, evrokavSiris wevr qveynebSi danergil kanonmdeblobasTan TanxvedraSi unda moiyvanos sakanonmdeblo baza. qveyanam `asocirebis Sesaxeb~ SeTanxmebis xelmoweris safuZvelze iseTi moTxovnebis Sesrulebis valdebulebas iRebs, romlis farglebSic unda ganxorcieldes Semdegi evrodireqtivebi: CarCo direqtiva, avtorizaciis Sesaxeb direqtiva, daSvebis Sesaxeb direqtiva, universaluri momsaxurebis Sesaxeb direqtiva, piradi cxovrebis konfidencialurobisa da eletronuli komunikaciebis Sesaxeb direqtiva, radiosixSiruli speqtris politikis maregulirebeli CarCos Sesaxeb direqtiva da audiovizualuri mediis momsaxurebebis direqtiva [113]. qarTuli realobisaTvis `aRmosavleT partnioroba~

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warmodgenilia, rogorc ekonomikuri WiSkari, instituciuri ganviTarebis instrumenti, demokratiis fundamenti da qveynis ganviTarebis donis Sefasebis barometri. partnioroba mimarTulia aRmosavleT qveynebTan politikur-samarTlebrivi stabilurobis, social-ekonomikuri keTildReobis, demokratiis zrdisa da globaluri struqturis, cifruli balansis formirebisken.

2.10.1. `aRmosavleT partniorobis~ upiratesobebi aRmosavleT partnioroba warmoadgens erTobliv iniciativas evrokavSiris, evrokavSiris qveynebsa da aRmosavleT partniorobis qveynebs Soris. aRniSnuli, partnior qveynebs SesaZleblobas aZlevs dainteresdes evrokavSirSi Sesvlis mimarTulebiT da aamaRlos politikuri, ekonomikuri da kulturuli kavSirebi. igi gamyarebulia saerTo saerTaSoriso samarTlis normebiTa da fundamentur RirebulebebiT – demokratia, kanonis uzenaesoba da adamianis uflebebisa da Tavisuflebis dacva – agreTve, sabazro ekonomikis, mdgradi ganviTarebisa da marTvis efeqturobis zrda[114]. aRmosavleT partniorobas ganmartaven, rogorc `evropis kavSiris wevri saxelmwifoebisa da aRmosavleT evropis partniorebis saerTo miswrafebas~, romelic proeqtSi mkafiod egalitaruli saxis CarTvas moicavs [115] partnioroba efuZneba or ganzomilebas [116]: 1. ormxrivi: evrokavSirsa da partnior qveynebs Soris mWidro TanamSromlobis ganviTareba; 2. mravalmxrivi: partniorebis SeTanxmeba gacvlisa da mWidro TanamSromlobis farglebSi. evrokavSiris `aRmosavleT partnioroba~ warmodgenilia transformaciis potencialiT, romelic saqar-

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Tvelos `avaldebulebs~ evropuli standartebis danergvis, reformirebis, procesebis harominizaciis, mmarTvelobis efeqturobisa da gamWvirvalobis amaRlebas. aseve, uflebebisa da usafrTxoebis dacvis, tarifebisa da seqtorebis liberalizaciisa da qveynis ekonomikuri mdgradobis zrdas. evrokavSirTan asocirebis xelSekrulebis parafirebiT, saqarTvelom Seqmna evrokavSirTan daaxloebis, qveynis evropeizaciis generaciis, politikuri asocirebisa da ekonomikuri integraciis platforma. evrokavSirTan TanamSromlobis safuZvelze, saqarTvelos surs gaxdes evrokavSiris politikis sruluflebiani wevri, isargeblos gamartivebuli savizo reJimiT, savaWro preferenciaTa sistemiT, Rrma ekonomikuri integraciiT, sainvesticio da finansuri mxardaWeriT, mobilurobiT, xalxebs Soris komunikaciiT, usafrTxo da stabiluri garemos platformis formirebiT. evrokavSiri, yofili evropuli post-sabWoTa qveynebisTvis ekonomikur partniors warmoadgens. evrokavSiris ekonomikuri interesi mimarTulia post-sabWoTa regionTan vaWrobis ganviTarebis, investiciebis ganxorcielebis SesaZleblobiTa da energetikuli resursebisken. evrokavSiri warmoadgens umsxviles savaWro partniors 4 evropuli post-sabWoTa qveynebis ekonomikisaTvis[117]. maT Sorisaa saqarTvelos ekonomika. saqarTvelosTvis `aRmosavleT partniorobis~ ekonomikuri aspeqti evrokavSiris ekonomikaSi integracias moicavs. 2013 wels saqarTvelos sagareo vaWrobam Seadgina 10,8 mlrd dolari, rac wina welTa SedarebiT 6%-iT metia. aqedan, eqsporti Seadgens 2909 mln dolars, xolo importi – 7874 mln dolars. saqarTvelos msxvil savaWro partniors warmoadgens evrokavSiri, romlis wilad mTliani vaWrobis

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27% modis [118]. aseve, mniSvnelovania dsT-s qveynebTan, sagareo savaWro brunvis moculoba, romelic Seadgens 3787 mln dolars (mTliani brunvis 35%-s), saqarTvelos sagareo savaWro brunvaSi dsT-is qveynebis wili eqsportSi 56 %-s Seadgens, xolo importSi – 28 %-s. danarCeni qveynebis wili 38%-ia, sadac umsxviles savaWro partnior qveynebs warmoadgens TurqeTi (1,529 mln dolari) azerbaijani (1,348 mln dolari), ukraina 795,1 mln dolari), ruseTi 779,6 (mln dolari), CineTi (597,5 mln dolari), somxeTi 497,6 mln dolari), aSS (390,3 mln dolari) [119 ]. evrokavSiris savaWro preferenciebis e.w. `GSP+� sistema, evrokavSiris bazarze 7200 dasaxelebis produqciis nulovani ganakveTiT Setanis SesaZleblobas iZleva . partniorobis sargebeli ekonomikur maCveneblebSi gviCvenebs, rom DCFTA-s (Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area) implementaciiT saqarTvelos eqsporti 12%iT gaizrdeba, xolo importi 7,5%-iT gaizrdeba (EU qveynebSi), mTlianobaSi, ki, saqarTvelos ekonomika 4,3%-iT gaizrdeba [120]. EU-sa da saqarTvelos specifikur sferoebSi TanamSromlobis farglebSi (transporti, energetika, telekomunikacia, garemo, kvlevebi, inovaciebi), infrastruqturuli strategiis SemuSaveba da infrastruqturuli proeqtebis implementacia SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes, rogorc ekonomikis xelSewyobisa da grZelvadiani ganviTarebis politika[121]. qarTuli sazogadoebisaTvis evrokavSiris ekonomikuri politikis molodins warmoadgens meti investicia, samuSao adgilebi, socialuri dacva, socialuri uTanasworobis Semcireba da sxva. evrokavSiris `aRmosavleT partnioroba~ saqarTve-

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loSi xels uwyobs demokratias, kanonis uzenaesobas, efeqtur mmarTvelobas, energousafrTxoebas, garemos dacvas, seqtorul reformirebas, ekonomikur da socialur ganviTarebas, ekonomikur integraciasa da evrokavSiris politikasTan Sesabamisobis uzrunvelyofas, socialuri uTanasworobis Semcirebas, xalxTa Soris kontaqtebs, usafrTxoebis zrdasa da konfliqtebis regulirebas, risTvisac 2007-2010 ww-Si 120 mln evro gamoiyo [122], xolo 2011-2013 ww-Si 180.7 mln evro [123]. asocirebis SeTanxmebis miznebisaTvis, saqarTvelos dafinansebis meqanizmebi da instrumentebi mimarTulia 25 seqtorSi TanamSromlobisaken. qveynisTvis ekonomikuri dividendebi moaqvs im faqtorsac, rom EU-is qveynebisaTvis saqarTvelo ganixileba, rogorc satranzito magistrali, aseve, energo resursebis mimwodebeli. evrokavSirTan SeTanxmebis farglebSi, saqarTvelos moqalaqeebisaTvis gaizarda evropis qveynebSi yofnis vadebi, savizo mosakrebeli 35 evromde (60 evrodan) Semcirda, moqalaqeTa 12 kategoriisaTvis mosakrebeli gauqmda [124]. kvlevebi adasturebs, rom saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 70% mxars uWers saqarTvelos evrokavSirSi gawevrianebas[125]. saqarTvelo geopolitikuri mdgomareobiT, marTlmadidebluri urTierTobebiT, civilizaciiT, ganviTarebiTa da kulturiT qristianuli evropis nawilia, Sesabamisad, patriarqis mowodebaSi, eklesiasa da `qarTul mrevlSi~, evropul kulturasTan kavSirisa da daaxloebis mzaoba aris [126]. `aRmosavleT partniorobis~ erT-erT sargebels warmoadgens qarTuli samarTlebrivi garemos SesabamisobaSi moyvana. ekonomikuri interesebis dacva. kerZod: antimonopoliuri kanonmdeblobiT Ria Tu faruli monopo-

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liebis regulireba. sabanko-safinanso sferoSi, evrokavSiris samarTlebriv garemosTan samomxmareblo xelSekrulebebis (kreditze, dazRvevaze) harmonizacia (arsebuli xelSekrulebebi saerTaSoriso kanonebs ar arRvevs, Tumca warmodgenilia dabali socialuri pasuxismgeblobiTa da momxmareblisaTvis kabaluri pirobebiT), sursaTis uvneblobis sferoSi moqalaqeTa dacva da sxva. ruseTTan ekonomikuri da savaWro kavSirebis gauaresebis, postkrizisuli periodis, 2008 wlis sagareo gamowvevebisa da globaluri krizisis Semdgom evrokavSiri ganixileba, rogorc saqarTvelos `mdgradi ganviTarebis galaqtika~.

2.10.2. `aRmosavleT partniorobis~ gamowvevebi asocirebis xelSekruleba Tavisi arsiT, saqarTvelosaTvis, ekonomikuri, politikuri da socialuri sargeblis momtania, Tumca xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli `programa-reforma~, qveynis mravalwaxnagovani problemebisa da gamowvevebis gadaWrisaTvis; regionis ganviTarebis harmoniul WrilSi arsebuli rekomendaciebi, turbulenturi `politikuri, ekonomikuri da socialuri resursebis~ fonze bundovani da zogadia, an warmodgenilia qveyanaSi arsebuli problemebis grZelvadiani da fragmentuli daregulirebis SesaZleblobiT. strategiuli partnioroba mizez-Sedegobriv kavSirSia kavkasiis regionis konfiguraciis, saxelmwifoTa marTvis landSaftis cvlilebis, qveynebs Soris urTierTqmedebis, kolaboraciisa da mTlianobaSi, kavkasiis formirebis procesebTan. zemoaRniSnuli xelSekruleba axal impulsa da katalizators warmoadgens saqarTvelos evrokavSiris qveynebTan daaxloebis procesSi. Tumca, aseve zrdis sagareo

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gamowvevebs TurqeTis, ruseTis politikisa da konfliqturi teritoriebis (afxazeTi da cxinvali) faqtors, rac fundamentur gavlenas moaxdens kavkasiis regionis racionaluri politikis warmoebaze, uwyebaTSorisi da mTavrobaTSoris komunikaciaze. aseve, SesaZlo partniorobasa da vaWrobaze. Teoriulad, evrokavSiris `aRmosavleT partnioroba~ erTgvari pasuxia saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobisa da teriotoriuli mTlianobis aRiarebis mimarT. Tumca, praqtikulad ruseTTan evrokavSiris strategiuli partniorobis fonze, saqarTvelos regionuli problemebis daregulirebis gzebi rTuli da bundovania. qarTuli samarTlebrivi garemos evrokavSiris samarTlebriv standartebTan SesabamisobaSi moyvana gulisxmobs axali kanonebis miRebas an/da arsebuli kanonebis Secvlas, romelTa raodenoba sxvadasxva SefasebiT 350-s aRwevs. saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo organos `muSaobis tempisa~ da `qveynisaTvis saWiro sakanonmdeblo samuSao drois~ analizis (2008-2011 ww miRebuli iqna 1642 kanoni, 2012-2013 ww – 500 kanoni) [127] safuZvelze SeiZleba ganvsazRvroT, rom evrokavSirSi Sesvla qarTuli sakanonmdeblo sivrcisTvisac mniSvnelovani gamowveva iqneba. amasTan, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT evrokavSiris qveynebTan saWiro `biurokratiul procedurebs~ aRniSnuli dro 5-6 weliwadze naklebs ar moicavs. evrokavSirTan partnioroba erTis mxriv xels uwyobs biznes klimatis gaumjobesebas, xolo meores mxriv adgilobriv mwarmoeblebs arakonkurentul pirobebs uqmnis globalur evropul firmebTan mimarTebaSi. aseve, Tavisufali vaWrobis sivrcis formireba, qarTul ekonomikas mniSvnelovani gamowvevebis winaSe ayenebs. saqarTvelosTvis, evrokavSiris socialuri, ekonomikuri, sazogadoebrivi da mmarTvelobiTi mowyoba misaRebia, urTierTobebis dinamika pozitiuria, magram evro-

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

kavSirSi Sesvlis zusti TariRi qveynisaTvis mkafiod garkveuli araa. evrokavSirSi gawevrianebis saboloo TariRs qarTuli sazogadoeba mxolod evropisa da evrokavSiris xelmZRvanelobis gancxadebebis `optimisturi analizis safuZvelze sazRvravs~. mTlianobaSi, ki zemoaRniSnuli gamowvevebi da problemebi ver akninebs aRmosavleT partniorobis rolsa da faseulobas.

Sejameba praqtikulad, aRmosavleT partniorobis roli da faseuloba saqarTvelosaTvis warmoadgenilia ekonomikuri, politikuri, samarTlebrivi, teqnologiur da socialuri sargebliT. Tumca, sirTules warmoadgens dagegmili partniorobis Sedegebis, evrokavSirTan asocirebis programis danergvisa da realizebis Tanmdevi dabrkolebebis Sefaseba, xarjebisa da Semosavlebis zusti gazomva, warmatebebis avtomaturi garantirebis prognozireba. aucilebelia aRiniSnos, rom mdgradi ganviTarebis saqarTvelos kargad aqvs gaTvicnobierebuli qveynisTvis sasargeblo kursi da mimarTulebebi, gaaCnia ganviTarebis Sesabamisi resursi (romelic bolomde araa gamoyenebuli), Sesabamisad, evrokavSirSi gawevrianebiT sargebels miiRebs ara mxolod saqarTvelo, aramed TviT evrokavSiric, civilizebuli da kulturuli mezoblisa da auTvisebeli resursis saxiT (geopolitikuri, inteleqtualuri, energetikuli, politikuri da sxva resursi). `aRmosavleT partniorobis~ farglebSi ekonomikuri, politikuri, socialuri da savaWro sargebeli TanabarmniSvnelovania rogorc saqarTvelosaTvis, ise ev-

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rokavSiris qveynebisTvis, Tumca Tanabarsargeblis momtani ar iqneba orivesTvis. evropel bizneswreebs meti resursi, teqnologia da upiratesoba aqvs. Sesabamisad, saqarTvelos mTavrobas EU-is xelSewyobiT, saWiroebs adgilobrivi biznes garemos konkurentunariobis amaRlebaze zrunvas. evrointegraciisken qarTuli xelisuflebisa da sazogadoebis erTiani azris, mimdinare politikuri nebis, xelisuflebisa da sazogadoebis pasuxismgeblobis, evrokavSiris standartebis Sesabamisi qveynis transformaciisa da mondomebis miuxedavad, mxolod `xelSekrulebebis deklarirebiT~ evropasTan mezobloba gamoiwvevs urTierToebis gadafasebas. dabolos, unda aRiniSnos, rom dRevandeli mdgomareobiT, saqarTvelo warmatebiT asrulebs moTxovnebsa da valdebulebebs, sazogadoebis azric aRniSnuli mimarTulebiT mdgradia, Tumca ~dRevandeli sazogadoeba~ procesebs SedegebiT zomavs da afasebs, amitom saWiroa evrokavSiris qveynebis mxardaWeriT daCqardes evrokavSirSi drouli Sesvla, imisaTvis, rom `evropul modelze~ transformaciisaTvis gaweuli (daxarjuli) fuladi, adamianuri, materialuri da teqnologiuri resursi, dro da energia ar aRmoCndes uSedego, sazogadoebaSi ar Caqres evrokavSirSi Sesvlis impulsi da ar moaxdinos xelSekrulebis gadafaseba `rwmenis/imedis asocirebad~.

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თა ვ ი III. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia (2015-2020) 3.1.

saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategiis arsi

eleqtronuli mTavrobis mier sazogadoebrivi amocanebis Sesrulebisa da progresis miRwevisTvis saWiroa e-mTavrobis ganviTarebis nacionaluri strategiuli dagegmva. e-mTavrobis strategia warmoadgens eleqtronuli marTvis sistemisa da misi infrastruqturis xelSewyobis gegmas, romelic organizaciis miznis miRwevisaTvis marTvis SesaZleblobebis maqsimizacias axdens. misi miznobrivi mimarTulebiT SemuSavebuli sagegmo dokumenti gansazRvravs e-mTavrobis grZelvadian miznebs, amocanebsa da prioritetul mimarTulebebs [128]. e-mTavrobis strategia warmoadgens e-mTavrobis realizebis baziss, romelic moicavs strategiul mimarTulebebs, amocanebs, komponentebs, saxelmZRvanelo principebsa da gzis maCveneblebs, sadac strategiuli struqturisa da komponentebis ganviTareba urTierTdamokidebulebaSia. ganviTarebis strategiuli gegmis mizania saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis procesis dagegmva nacionalur, lokalur da globalur garemosTan TanamSromlobis meqanizmebis SemuSaveba; saWiroebebisa da gamowvevebis gaanalizeba, momgebiani zrda/gafarToeba; eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis procesebis ukeT warmarTvis mizniT ganviTarebis mimarTulebebis Camoyalibeba. zogadad, strategiuli gegma, asaxavs arsebul struqturas, strategiuli gegmis process, problemebs,

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ayalibebs ganviTarebis strategiul RonisZiebebs, prioritetul mimarTulebebs da orientirebulia saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis institucionalur ganviTarebaze. strategiuli dagegmvis mizans warmoadgens gegmis ganviTarebis SemuSavebiT iniciativebis miRweva, romelic mxardaWerilia moqmedebis gegmiT da moicavs operaciebs, procesebsa da procedurebs, imisaTvis, rom proaqtiuli iyos momavali, amaRldes mwarmoebluroba, gaiTvalos moklevadiani gegmebi, gadawyvetilebis miReba iyos moqnili da individualuri, makro doneze gadaiWras ZiriTadi problemebi da ganxorcieldes mniSvnelovani sakiTxebis sayovelTao informireba. risTvis aris saWiro strategiuli dagegmva? ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis (cifruli ekonomikis zrdisaTvis); regionSi mowinave teqnologiuri upiratesobis miRwevisaTvis; demokratiuli, samarTlebrivi, swori politikuri garemosa da instituciuri struqturis SeqmnisaTvis; socialuri keTildReobis miRwevisaTvis; saxelmwifo seqtoris teqnologiuri arqiteqturis (erTiani qseli, telekomunikaciis infrastruqtura, monacemTa bazebi) Seqmnis, integraciis, koordinaciisa da efeqturi marTvisaTvis; qveynis sruli kompiuterizaciisa da internetizaciis procesebis uzrunvelyofisaTvis; internet-bazris ganviTarebis xelSemwyobi pirobebis SeqmnisaTvis; internet-kompaniebis warmoqmnis stimulirebisa da subsidirebisaTvis;

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

usafrTxo kibergaremos SeqmnisaTvis; e-mTavrobis iniciativebis efeqturobis maqsimizaciisaTvis; internet-momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvisaTvis; onlain vaWrobis sagarantio meqanizmebis uzrunvelyofisaTvis. strategiuli dagegmvis orientiria e-mTavrobis mzadyofnisaTvis saWiro komponentebis, kriteriumebis dakmayofileba da miRweva; gamWvirvale, demokratiuli da angariSvaldebuliani eleqtronuli marTvis sistemis Camoyalibeba da Seqmna . e-mTavrobis strategiis mamoZravebelia efeqtiani, misawvdomi da produqtiuli sazogadoebrivi momsaxurebis wardgenis srulyofis procesi, moqmedebis koordinacia, ekonomikuri efeqtianobisa da Tavsebadobis uzrunvelyofa. aseve, swrafva e-mTavrobis Semdgomi ganviTarebisTvis. strategiuli dagegmvis politikis prioritetebi moicavs advilad moxmarebad da xelmisawvdom saxelmwifo momsaxurebis, infrastruqturis Seqmnasa da wvdomas; mosaxleobis kompiuterizaciasa da internetizacias, aparatuli da programuli uzrunvelyofis gamoyenebis simartives; gancalkavebul kontentsa da informaciasTan SeuzRudav daSvebas; konfidencialobasa da usafrTxoebas. e-mTavrobaze orientirebuli strategia mimarTulia informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis aTvisebiT, socialur-ekonomikuri pirobebis gaumjobesebisken. aRniSnulisaTvis gegma unda pasuxobdes Semdeg kiTxvebs: 1. sad vimyofebiT axla? marketinguli kvleva;

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SWOT analizi. 2. sad gvinda rom viyoT (ra mimarTulebiT gvsurs moZraoba)? misia&xedva&faseulobebi; saxelmZRvanelo principebi. 3. rogor vimoqmedoT (rogor aRmovfxvraT uTanasworoba da problemebi)? ZiriTadi strategiuli iniciativebi; qmedeba. 4. rogor vmuSaobT (rogor gavakontroloT progresi)? gegmis marTva; progresis ganxilva da gegmis kontroli. strategiuli gegma warmoadgens valdebulebebis, direqtivebis, cvlilebebis, ganviTarebis gegma, romlis implementacia Seqmnis jansaRi sazogadoebisa da saxelmwifos mSeneblobis kvleviT-eqspertul `platformas~. aRniSnuli dokumentis strategiuli amocanebis teqnikuri formulireba dasaxvewia. strategiuli dagegmvis procesisaTvis aucilebelia sakvanZo elementebis kvleva da analizi, Semdegi mimarTulebiT: arsebuli resursebi da potenciali; organizaciuli prioritetebi ; politika da procedurebi; instituciuri faseulobebi; ganviTarebis pirobebisa da tendenciebis analizi; garemo faqtorebis kvleva da Sefaseba; web-saiti (kontenti, dizaini da sxva); saqmianobis samarTlebrivi baza;

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mosalodneli riskebi; kritikuli sakiTxebi; mosalodneli Sedegebis prognozireba.

3.2.

saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis marketinguli kvleva 3.2.1. kvlevis scenari

saqarTveloSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Seswavlis mizniT, 2014 wlis 24 Tebervlidan – 17 martis CaTvliT, Catarda marketinguli kvleva. gamokiTxuli iqna Tbilisis, imereTis, aWaris, kaxeTis regionis miznobrivi jgufis 1600 respondenti. gamoyenebuli iqna raodenobrivi kvlevis pirispir intervius meTodi da internetgamokiTxva specialuri internet-programiT – ~Google Drive”. samizne auditorias warmoadgenda 18 welze zeviT asakis internet-momxmarebeli. kvlevis procesi moicavs 6 etaps: 1. bazris segmentirebis safuZvlis gansazRvra da miznobrivi segmentebis SerCeva; 2. intervius organizeba; 3. kiTxvaris (anketis) SemuSaveba; 4. gamokiTxvis Catareba; 5. Sedegebis analizi (Sefaseba da interpretacia); 6. miRebuli Sedegebis analizis safuZvelze saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategiis SemuSaveba.

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1 ეტაპი.

bazris segmentirebis safuZvlis gansazRvra da miznobrivi segmentebis SerCeva. ganisazRvra eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis miznobrivi jgufebi. gansakuTrebuli aqcenti gakeTda moqalaqeebze, romlebic warmoadgens yvelaze mravalricxovan beneficiarebs, Seswavlili iqna maTi interesebi, aRqma da damokidebuleba. samizne jgufis zoma ganisazRvra 1600 respondentiT (TiToeuli regionidan SerCeuli iqna miznobrivi jgufis 400 warmomadgeneli). respondentebis SerCevisas, ZiriTad moTxovnas, informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis sabaziso codna warmoadgenda. aseve, im pirTa SerCeva, visac kompiuterTan da internetTan wvdomis SesaZlebloba gaaCnda;

2 ეტაპი.

intervius organizeba. SemuSavda individualuri intervius organizebis scenari; ganisazRvra respondentebTan dakavSirebis meTodi (pirispir da internetiT);. daigegma respondentTa gamokiTxvis adgili (umaRles saswavlo dawesebulebebSi, quCaSi, kerZo da saxelmwifo organizaciebSi);

3 ეტაპი.

SemuSavda kiTxvari, romelic Sedgeba 7 blokisa da 50 kiTxvisagan. kiTxvarSi mocemuli iqna: respodentisadmi mimarTva, gamokiTxvis miznebis ganmarteba, personaluri xasiaTis kiTxvebi; kiTxvebis formulirebisas gamoyenebuli iqna ~Sereuli tipis” Ria da daxuruli kiTxvebi, e.i. CamoTvlilia pasuxebis SesaZlo variantebi, romlebmac saSualeba misca respondents gamoexata Tavisi originaluri azri; gamomdinare imisa, rom ~daxuruli” kiTxvebis SemuSavebisas SeuZlebelia pasuxebis yvela variantis gaTvla, SemuSavda kiTxvebis ~Ria” forma, rac ~ganmasxvavebeli Taviseburebis” ideis povnis SesaZlebloba mogvca;

4 ეტაპი. 132

gamokiTxvis Catareba. anketuri gamokiT-


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

xva, ZiriTadad Catarda Tbilisis, imereTis, aWarisa da kaxeTis regionSi (kiTxvari Seavso 1600-ma respondentma). faqtobrivad kvlevaSi yvela regionma miiRo monawileoba. gamoikiTxa 18 wlis da ufrosi asakis mosaxleoba. anketis Sevsebis xangrZlivobam 35-40 wuTi Seadgina;

5 ეტაპი.

Sedegebis Sefaseba da interpretacia. mopovebuli monacemebis statistikuri analizi ganxorcielda SPSS 20-Si. kvlevis Sedegebi, Sefasebisa da recenzirebisaTvis wardgenili iqna saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetisa da saqarTvelos sapatriarqos wmida andria pirvelwodebulis saxelobis qarTuli universitetis profesor-maswavleblebisaTvis;

6 ეტაპი.

saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis marketinguli strategiis SemuSaveba. Catarebuli kvlevebis safuZvelze dadginda eleqtronuli mTavrobis tendenciebi; Seswavlili da gaanalizebuli iqna ganviTrebis perspeqtivebi; miRebuli Sedegebisa da daskvnebis safuZvelze SemuSavda saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis moqmedebis gegma da marketinguli strategia.

proeqtisaTvis, sawyis etapze, Seiqmna samuSao jgufi, romelic dakompleqtda 40 studentiT (moxaliseebiT). samuSao jgufebi dakompleqtda baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis, iakob gogebaSvilis saxelobis Telavis saxelmwifo universitetis, saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis, soxumis saxelmwifo universitetis, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos wmida andria pirvelwodebulis saxelobis qarTuli universitetis, saqarTvelos universitetis, kavkasiis saerTaSoriso universite-

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tis student-axalgazrdebisagan. kvlevis procesis samuSao jgufis dakompleqtebisaTvis samuSao Sexvedrebi Sedga baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis, iakob gogebaSvilis saxelobis Telavis saxelmwifo universitetis kolegebTan, romelTa wardginebiT kvlevis procesisasTvis airCa biznes administrirebis (konkretulad marketingis) mimarTulebis studentebi. Tbilisis regionis studentebTan samuSao Sexvedrebi Sedga saqarTvelos teqnikur universitetSi. samuSao Sexvedris farglebSi ganxorcielda samuSao jgufis treningi, kvlevis scenarisa da kiTxvaris gacnoba. Sexvedris formatSi, kvlevaSi monawile pirebi gaecno kvlevis miznebs, amocanebs, kvlevis sagansa da obieqts. aseve, proeqtis ganxorcielebis aucileblobasa da saWiroebas. intervuerebisTvis cnobili gaxda kiTxvaris meSveobiT Sesaswavli sakiTxebi, romliTac dadginda: eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebisadmi moqalaqeebis sandoobis done; eleqtronuli momsaxurebis sistemis gamoyenebis motivebi da Taviseburebebi; qarTuli onlain biurokratiuli servisi; eleqtronuli momsaxurebis sistemis xelmisawvdomoba, xelsayreloba, regionebis mixedviT Tanabarmisawvdomoba; moqalaqeebisaTvis eleqtronuli momsaxurebis sistemis sargebeli da molodini; eleqtronuli momsaxurebis sistemis socialuri gavlena; eleqtronuli momsaxurebis sistemis ekonomiku-

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ri gavlena; eleqtronuli momsaxurebis sistemis momxmarebelTa geografiuli da demografiuli struqtura; eleqtronuli mTavrobis formirebaSi moqalaqeebis CarTulobis done; moqalaqeebis mier eleqtronuli momsaxurebis sistemisadmi wayenebuli moTxovnebi; eleqtronuli momsaxurebis miRebis xelSemwyobi da ganmsazRvreli faqtorebi; segmentTa moTxovnis struqtura da Taviseburebebi; eleqtronuli momsaxurebis miRebis ZiriTadi arxebi; eleqtronuli mTavrobis roli mTavrobasa da moqalaqeebis daaxlobaSi; moqalaqeTa internet-kultura, interesebi da gaTvicnobierebis done; informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis ganviTarebis, danergvisa da gavrcelebis gavlena sazogadoebriv cxovrebaze; eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistemis informaciuloba, iuridiuli Zala, interaqtiuli kavSiris xarisxi da efeqturoba; regionsa da dedaqalaqs Soris cifruli uTanasworobis Sefaseba; regionsa da dedaqalaqs Soris eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistemis aTvisebisa da integrirebis procesebis Sefaseba; saministroebis web-gverdebis muSaobisadmi moqalaqeebis damokidebuleba.

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3.2.1. marketinguli kvlevis procesi saqarTveloSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Seswavlis mizniT Catarda marketinguli kvleva. kvlevis procesi 6 etapad Catarda: pirvel etapze ganxorcielda bazris segmentirebis safuZvlis gansazRvra da miznobrivi segmentebis SerCeva; SemuSavda kiTxvari (anketa) da Catarda gamokiTxva; miRebuli Sedegebis analizis, Sefasebisa da interpretaciis safuZvelze SemuSavda saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis marketinguli strategia. imisaTvis, rom zustad asaxuliyo mTliani populaciis suraTi, dadginda kvlevis erTeuli: generaluri erToblioba: 1,6 mln kaci (GNCC); SerCeviTi erToblioba : 1600 kaci (0.1%); gamokiTxulTa erToblioba: romlebic realurad monawileoben kvlevaSi; analizi: analitikuri xasiaTis multivariaciuli analizi. kvlevis miznebidan gamomdinare, SerCevis saxe aris albaTuri tipis. SerCevisas generaluri erTobliobis TiToeuli elementi SerCeviT erTobliobaSi moxvedris Tanabari SansiT iqna warmodgenili. albaTuri SerCevis tipi: gamoyenebuli iqna martivi SemTxveviTi SerCeva. cnobilia, rom nebismieri SerCeva cdomilebas iwvevs, rac sxvadasxva mizezebiT (pasuxis gaucemloba, kiTxvaze aradaekvaturi pasuxi, kodirebis Secdomebi da sxva) aris gamowveuli. cdomileba martivi SemTxveviTi SerCevis SemTxvevaSi gamoiTvleba Semdegi formuliT:

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Δ error 

P(1  P) n

sadac:

P - warmoadgens raime sididis procents n - gamokiTxuli respodentebis raodenobas 95%-iani garantiiT, generaluri erTobliobis procentuli mniSvneloba (imave sididis) moTavsebuli iqneba Semdeg intervalSi.

 P(1  P) P(1  P)  ; P  1.96 P  1.96  n n   cdomileba maqsimalur mniSvnelobas aRwevs P  0.5 procentisaTvis:

1.96

P(1  P) 0.5(1  0.5)  1.96  1.3% n 1600

anu Cveni kvlevis maqsimaluri SesaZlo cdomileba 95%-iani garantiiT tolia 1,3%

Δ error  1.3% anketa Sedgeba 7 blokisa da 50 kiTxvisagan. pirveli bloki Sedgeba 3 kiTxvisagan. pirveli blokiT dagegmili iqna regionebis mixedviT, saqarTvelos internet-garemos Seswavla; internetSi daSvebis ZirTadi mowyobilobebis, internetis gamoyenebis motivebis, internetis xarisxis gamovlena; meore bloki Sedgeba 16 kiTxvisagan. meore blokiT dagegmili iqna saxelmwifos eleqtronuli momsaxurebis sistemis Seswavla; mesame bloki Sedgeba 3 kiTxvisagan. mesame blokiT dagegmili iqna eleqtronuli mTavrobis so-

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cialuri rolis gamovlena; meoTxe bloki Sedgeba 6 kiTxvisagan. meoTxe blokiT dagegmili iqna qarTuli eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergviT eleqtronuli demokratiis uzrunvelyofis aspeqtebis Seswavla; mexuTe bloki Sedgeba 4 kiTxvisagan. mexuTe blokiT dagegmili iqna eleqtronuli mTavrobis gamowvevebis gamovlena; meeqvse bloki Sedgeba 11 kiTxvisagan. meeqvse blokiT dagegmili iqna biznes seqtoris onlain momsaxurebis bazris garemos Seswavla da ganviTarebis perspeqtivebis gamovlena; meSvide bloki Sedgeba 6 kiTxvisagan. meSvide blokiT dagegmili iqna respondentTa social-demografiuli maCveneblebis dadgena. mopovebuli monacemebis statistikuri analizi SPSS 20-Si gan xorcieldeba. gamokiTxvis Sedegad miRebuli informaciis safuZvelze SesaZlebeli gaxda saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategiis Seqmna.

3.2.2.

saqarTvelos internet-garemo

cifruli procesebis generirebiT gardaiqmna saqarTvelos virtualuri da fizikuri sivrce, inicirebuli iqna momxmarebelTa molodinisa da qcevebis transformacia, SesaZlebeli gaxda samoqalaqo da kerZo seqtoris saWiroebebis speqtris dakmayofileba. eleqtronuli momsaxurebis (kerZo da saxelmwifo seqtoris e-momsaxureba) aTvisebisa da misi yoveldRiur saqmianobaSi integrirebisaTvis saxelmwifom ganaxorciela Sesabamisi garemos

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

uzrunvelyofa. saqarTveloSi Catarebuli kvleva fokusirebulia internet-bazris resursebis, faseulobebisa da SesaZleblobebis warmoCenis, eleqtronuli momsaxurebis stimulirebisa da internet-garemos gajansaRebis xelSewmyobi rekomendaciebis SemuSavebaze. Catarebulma marketingulma kvlevam aCvena, rom respondentebis 49,9% internetTan wvdomisaTvis ZiriTadad, personalur kompiuters iyenebs;gamokiTxulTa 36,9% internetSi Sedis nouTbuqis meSveobiT; kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 13,2%, internet-bazarze aqtivobisTvis kompaqtur mobilur telefons, planSets da sxva teqnologias iyenebs; yuradsaRebia, rom internetTan wvdomisaTvis mobilur telefonsa da planSets, ZiriTadad 18-28 wlis axalgazrdebi iyenebs, romelTa ojaxis Semosavlebi 1000 larze metia(ix.histograma 3.1). histograma 3.1 internetTan wvdomis popularuli teqnologiebi

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internetisa da ICT-is gamoyenebis motivebis Seswavlam cxadyo, rom respondentTa naxevarze meti (52%) internets ganixilavs, rogorc globaluri komunikaciur garemos, komunikaciis efeqtur da iaf instruments. internet-momxmarebelTa mesamedi internets ganixilavs garTobisa da gantvirTvisaTvis, aseve, ganaTlebis, codnis amaRlebis, siaxleebis gacnobisa da samuSaos efeqturad SesrulebisaTvis moixmars. gamokiTxulTa mexuTedisTvis interneti socialuri urTierTobis platformas warmoadgens(ix.histograma 3.2). histograma 3.2 momxmareblebSi internetisa da ICT-is gamoyenebis motivi

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

internet-bazris erT-erTi aucilebeli parametrisinternet-xarisxis Sefasebis kvlevisas dadginda, rom maRali xarisxis internetiT mxolod Tbilisia uzrunvelyofili (aRniSna momxmarebelTa 42,4%-ma), xolo regionebSi interneti, ZiriTadad, saSualo da dabali donis siCqariTaa warmodgenili (respondenTa udidesma nawilma internetis siCqare ver Seafasa). kerZod: imereTis regioni. internet-momxmarebelTa 25,6%ma aRniSna, rom regionis mosaxleobas saSualosiCqarian internetTan wvdoma gaaCnia; gamokiTxulTa 9,7%-ma, regionis internet-garemo dabalsiCqariani wvdomiT Seafasa; respondentTa 4,7% regionSi maRalsiCqariani internetis arseboba miiCnia, xolo momxmarebelTa 60%-ma ver Seafasa da Tavi Seikava pasuxis gacemisagan; kaxeTis regioni. gamokiTxulTa 17,7%-ma aRniSna, rom regionis mosaxleoba saSualo siCqaris internets moixmars; momxmarebelTa 8,6%-ma daasaxela, rom regionSi dabali siCqaris interneti arsebobs; respondentTa 1,8% fiqrobs, rom regionSi maRali siCqaris internetia, xolo internet-momxmarebelTa 71,9%-ma Tavi Seikava pasuxis gacemisagan; aWara-guriis regioni. respondentTa 17,4%-ma aRniSna, rom regionSi internetis saSualo siCqarea; momxmarebelTa 6,8% acxadebs, rom regionSi internet siCqare dabalia; gamokiTxulTa 5,4%-s miaCnia, rom regioni maRali siCqaris internetiT sargeblobs, xolo 70,4%-ma Tavi Seikava pasuxis gacemisagan; mcxeTa-mTianeTis regioni. kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 9,3%-s miaCnia, rom regionSi internetis saSualo siCqarea; momxmarebelTa 6,3% regionis

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histograma 3.3 internet-xarisxis Sefaseba regionebis mixedviT

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

internetis dabalsiCqarianobas adasturebs; gamokiTxulTa 1,8% miaCnia, rom regionSi maRali siCqaris interneti arsebobs, xolo internet-momxmarebelTa 82,6%-ma Sefasebisagan Tavi Seikava; qvemo qarTlis regioni. respondentTa 8,6%-ma aRniSna, rom regionSi saSualo siCqaris internetia; gamokiTxulTa 5,5%-s miaCnia, rom regionSi dabali siCqaris internetia; kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 1,8%-s miaCnevs, rom regionSi maRali siCqaris internetia, xolo internet-momxmarebelTa 84,1%-ma Sefasebisagan Tavi Seikava; Sida qarTlis regioni. kvlevisas, internet-momxmarebelTa 8,8%-ma aRniSna internetis saSualo siCqare, momxmarebelTa 5,4%-is SefasebiT regionSi dabali siCqaris internetia, gamokiTxulTa 1,8% regionSi maRali siCqaris internetis arsebobas adasturebs, xolo internet-momxmarebelTa 84,0%ma Sefasebisagan Tavi Seikava; samegrelo-zemo svaneTis regioni. momxmarebelTa 6,6 %-ma aRniSna internetis saSualo siCqare; respondenTa 9,5%-ma daasaxela dabali siCqare; gamokiTxulTa 1,5%-ma regioni maRalsiCqariani internetiT Seafasa, xolo internet-momxmarebelTa 82,4%-ma Sefasebisagan Tavi Seikava; afxazeTis regioni. kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 3,3%ma regionis internetis siCqare saSualo doneze Seafasa; gamokiTxulTa 2,5%-is SefasebiT regionSi dabali siCqaris internetia; momxmarebelTa 1%-ma regionSi maRalsiCqariiani internetis arseboba daadastura, xolo internet-momxmarebelTa 93,2%ma pasuxis gacemisagan Tavi Seikava.

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3.2.3. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis web-sivrce qarTuli sazogadoebisaTvis web-teqnologiebi warmoadgens komunikaciis, informaciis, garTobisa da komerciis saSualebas. aseve, politikis, samTavrobo procesebisa da saxelmwifo funqciebis ganxorcielebis instruments. qarTuli web-sivrce web-teqnologiebiTa da web-saitebiT warmoadgens eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis ZiriTad instrumentebs, romlebic aqtiurad gamoiyeneba qveynis mmarTvelobiT saqmianobaSi. moqalaqeebis momsaxureba mTavrobis web-saitebiT ufro efeqturi, xelsayreli da swrafia. mTavrobis momsaxurebis tradiciul meTodebTan SedarebiT, mTavrobis web-saitebiT momsaxureba/informacia SesaZlebelia miRebuli iqnes nebismier drosa da adgilas, gadaadgilebisa da lodinis gareSe, naklebi danaxarjebiTa da maRali xarisxiT[129]. mTavrobis web-saitebi gamWvirvalobisa da demokratiis efeqtur instruments warmoadgens [130]. aseve, samTavrobo web-saiti SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes, rogorc politikuri, socialuri da ekonomikuri efeqtianobis maqsimaluri misawvdomobis arxi [131]. dRes, gaeros wevri yvela qveyana eleqtronuli samTavrobo web-saitiTaa warmodgenilia. gaeros kvleva adasturebs, rom eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis Zalian maRali indeqsiTaa warmodgenili qveynebis 13%, maRali Sefasebisaa qveynebis 32% (maT Sorisaa saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavroba), saSualo Sefasebisaa qveynebis 38%, xolo dabali Sefasebisaa qveynebis 17% [22]. statistikurad, msoflioSi, mTavrobis web-saitebs mosaxleobis 30%intensiurad moixmars [132].

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

zogadad, kvlevebiT dadasturebulia, rom mravali qveynis eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategiaSi ZiriTadi aqcenti web-saitis funqcionalurobazea gadatanili[131]. sxvadasxva kvleviT dasturdeba, rom saqarTvelos mTavroba saWiroebs: struqturul reformebs; moqalaqeebTan partniorul politikas; moqalaqeebis momsaxurebis efeqtur meqanizmebs; sazogadoebasTan urTierTqmedebis instrumentebs; swraf da gamWvirvale biurokratiuli struqturis formirebas. mmarTvelobiTi sistema integrirebuli unda iqnes eleqtronuli mTavrobaSi, xolo realizebuli – web-teqnologiebiTa da web-saitebiT. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis web-saitebis Seswavlam daadastura, rom saxelmwifo uwyebebi moqalaqeebis oficaluri informirebisaTvis iyenebs komunikaciis Tanamedrove teqnologiebs: Facebook, eleqtronuli fosta, web-saiti, mobiluri kavSiri. internet-momxmareblebis gamokiTxvisas gamovlinda, rom maTi umravlesoba (momxmarebelTa 38,2%) samTavrobo informaciis miRebas tradiciuli da eleqtronuli fostiT amjobinebs, momxmarebelTa 22,1% samTavrobo informaciis miRebas Facebook/Twitter-iT aniWebs upiratesobas, gamokiTxulTa 14,9%- web-saitze gamoqveynebiT, respondentTa 9,5% – mobiluri telefonis teqnologiebis (sms) gamoyenebiT. samTavrobo informaciis miRebis tradiciul meTods – adgilze misvliT informaciis miRebas 6,4% amjobinebs, xolo 3,6%-s informaciis miReba telefoniT/faqsiT urCevnia (ix.histograma 3.4).

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histograma 3.4 informaciis/komunikaciis popularuli samTavrobo arxebi

kvlevisas dadginda, rom qarTveli internet-momxmareblebis mier samTavrobo web-saitebze Sesvlis ZiriTadi motivs informaciulobis amaRleba warmoadgens. kerZod: siaxleebis gacnoba (daasaxela respondentTa 45,5%-ma) da profesiuli informaciis Zieba (daasaxela respondentTa 34,8%-ma). kvlevisas gamovlinda, rom samTavrobo web-saitebis momsaxurebiT sargebloba 5%-s ar aRemateba (segmentebis mixedviT) (ix. wriuli diagrama 3.1). marketinguli kvlevis Sedegebma cxadyo, rom qveyanaSi dabalia sazogadoebis mier samTavrobo web-saitebis

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

wriuli diagrama 3.1 samTavrobo web-saitebze Sesvlis motivebi

faseulobis aRqma da mniSvnelobis gaazreba, rac sxvadasxva faqtoriTaa ganpirobebuli: dabali socialur-ekonomikuri foni, internet-wignierebis deficiti, eleqtronuli mTavrobis arasakmarisi propaganda, mosaxleobis dabali informirebuloba da sxva. samTavrobo web-saitebis moxmarebis intensivobis kvlevam daadastura, rom internet-momxmarebelTa ZiriTadi nawili pasiuri segmentia (51,2%), romelic samTavrobo web-saits mxolod aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi mimarTavs. kvlevisas gamovlinda, rom internet-momxmare-

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belTa 14,2% -s web-saitebTan wvdoma yoveldRe gaaCnia, 8,3%-s – kviraSi erTxel, 6,7%-s – TveSi erTxel, 4%-s – weliwadSi erTxel, xolo gamokiTxulTa 11%-ma pasuxis gacemisagan Tavi Seikava (ix. grafiki 3.1). grafiki 3.1 samTavrobo web-saitebTan wvdomis sixSire

marketinguli kvlevis Sedegad gamovlinda, rom respondentTa 27,3%, yvela samTavrobo web-saitidan sasurveli momsaxurebis/informaciis miRebas ver axerxebs, 24,8% - xSirad axerxebs, 20,3% -iSviaTad axerxebs. kvlevam cxadyo, rom momxmarebelTa 9,5% samTavrobo web-saitebiT kmayofilia, radgan yovelTvis axerxebs informaciis miRebas, Tumca 6% samTavrobo web-saitebs arasdros mimarTavs, radgan momsaxurebisa da informaciis miRebas adgilze misvliT amjobinebs, pirispir urTierTobiTa da

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

tradiciuli biurokratiuli meqanizmebis gamoyenebiT. aRniSnulis mizezs warmoadgens ara mxolod saxelmwifos mier dagvianebuli eleqtronuli ganviTarebis procesi, aramed sakanonmdeblo garemo, romelic satelekomunikacio mowyobilobebis gamoyenebiT, momsaxurebisa da informaciis samarTlebriv uzrunvelyofas garantirebs. mocemul etapze, mxolod finansuri seqtori imyofeba mowinave stadiaze. moculobiTi diagrama 3.1 moqalaqeebis mier samTavrobo web-saitebidan sasurveli momsaxurebis/informaciis miReba

kerZo da saxelmwifo seqtoris web-saitebis Sefasebam aCvena, rom kerZo seqtoris web-saitebs respondentTa 47,4% maRal da dadebiT Sefasebas aZlevs; aRmasrulebeli organoebis (saministroebi) web-saitebs maRal da dadebiT Sefasebas aZlevs 53,3%; sakanonmdeblo organos websaits maRal da dadebiT Sefasebas aZlevs 46,3%; centra-

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luri mTavrobis departamentebis/uwyebebis web-saitebs maRal da dadebiT Sefasebas aZlevs 41,5%; adgilobrivi mTavrobis web-saitebs maRal da dadebiT Sefasebas aZlevs 22,6%; arasamTavrobo seqtoris web-saitebs maRal da dadebiT Sefasebas aZlevs 33,9%; umaRlesi da zogadsaganmanaTleblo seqtoris web-saitebs maRal da dadebiT Sefasebas aZlevs 44,9 %; samoqalaqo seqtoris web-saitebs maRal da dadebiT Sefasebas aZlevs 34,3 %; saqarTveloSi arsebul saerTaSoriso organizaciebis web-saitebs maRal da dadebiT Sefasebas aZlevs 40,9 % (ix. cxrili 3.1). cxrili 3.1 samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo seqtoris web-saitebis Sefaseba

Zalian kargi

kargi

saSualo

cudi

Zalian cudi

ar vici/ver vafaseb

Sefaseba

biznes seqtori

13,1%

34,4%

27,1%

2,8%

0,9%

21,7%

saministroebi

16,2%

37,2%

24,3%

2,6%

0,9%

18,8%

12,5%

33,8%

27,6%

2,5%

0,8%

22,8%

10,6%

30,9%

27,9%

3,6%

1,3%

25,7%

4,2%

18,4%

39,8%

10,4%

3,3%

23,9%

7,4%

26,6%

32,2%

5,8%

1,4%

26,6%

11,3%

33,6%

27,8%

4,3%

1,4%

21,6%

5,6%

28,8%

32,8%

5,3%

1,5%

26,0%

12,9%

28,0%

27,4%

3,5%

1,9%

26,3%

web-saitebi

sakanonmdeblo organo centraluri mTavrobis departamentebi/uwyebebi adgilobrivi mTavroba arasamTavrobo seqtori umaRlesi da zogadsaganmanaTleblo seqtori samoqalaqo seqtori saerTaSoriso organizaciebi

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

moqalaqeebisaTvis, eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistemis gamarTuli muSaoba damokidebulia erTian integrirebul sivrceSi arsebuli samTavrobo websaitebis muSaobaze. zogadad, web-saitis mizans warmoadgens momxmareblebisaTvis kontentis miwodeba, komunikacia, transaqciis Sesruleba, momsaxureba da sxva (aRniSnuli amocanebi ufro swrafad da saimedod sruldeba efeqturi veb-saitis, mwarmoeblurobis maqsimizaciisa da momxmarebelTa molodinis Sesabamisi mimarTulebiT muSaobisas). eleqtronuli mTavrobis web-saitebis kvlevam daadastura, rom respondentTa 66,8% endoba saqarTvelos prezidentis web-saits, respondentTa 58,5% – saqarTvelos mTavrobis (saministroebi) web-saitebs, respondentTa 66,6% – saqarTvelos parlamentis web -saits, respondentTa 55% – avtonomiuri respublikebis xelisuflebis organoebis web-saitebs, respondentTa 55,7% – adgilobrivi mmarTvelobisa da TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis web -saitebs, respondentTa 53,4% – samxareo administraciebis web-saitebs, respondentTa 62,5% – damoukidebeli organoebis web-saitebs, respondentTa 63,5% – sajaro samsaxuris biuros web-saits (ix. cxrili 3.2). cxrili 3.2 eleqtronuli mTavrobis web -saitebisadmi ndobis done

uari pasuxze

dabali

saSualo

25,0% 30,2% 8,1%

ver vafaseb

11,6%

Zalian dabali

saqarTvelos prezidentis web-saiti

maRali

web-saiti

Zalian maRali

ndobis done

3,5%

11,8%

9,8%

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3.2 cxrilis ratigagrZeleba abulaZe

saqarTvelos mTavrobis (saministroebi) web-saiti saqarTvelos parlamentis web-saiti avtonomiuri respublikebis xelisuflebis organoebis websaitebi adgilobrivi mmarTvelobisa da TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis web-saitebi samxareo administraciebis web-saitebi damoukidebeli organoebis websaitebi sajaro samsaxuris biuros websaiti

8,8%

27,9% 31,8% 7,7%

3,1%

10,8%

9,9%

8,0%

25,7% 32,9% 9,0%

2,5%

12,1%

9,8%

4,0%

13,5% 37,5% 15,7%

3,6%

15,7%

10,0%

4,3%

15,2% 36,2% 16,3%

4,7%

13,3%

10,0%

4,2%

13,8% 35,4% 16,7%

4,2%

15,6%

10,1%

6,1%

23,2% 33,2% 11,1%

2,7%

14,1%

9,6%

6,3%

23,1% 34,1% 10,2%

2,4%

13,8%

10,1%

web-saitis danarTebi warmoadgens programul sistemebs, romelic saitis funqcionalurobas uzrunvelyofs. saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebis funqcionalurobis Sefasebisas dadginda, rom internet-momxmarebelTa didi nawili dadebiTad axasiaTebs samTavrobo web-gverdebis funqcionalurobas, muSaobis sakvanZo faqtorebs, aplikaciebs, navigacias, interaqtiuli formebis mravalferovnebas, SemoTavazebul servisebs. marketinguli kvlevisas aRmoCnda, rom respondentTa naxevari (49%) kmayofilia web-gverdebidan informa-

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

ciuli CamotvirTvis funqciiT, internet-momxmarebelTa 45,7% – web-gverdebis enobrivi mravalferovnebiT, gamokiTxulTa 43,8% – samTavrobo web -gverdebis dizainiT, respondentTa 34,6% – navigaciiT, respondentTa 33,4% emTavrobis momsaxurebasTan wvdomiT, respondentTa 34,2%- e-mTavrobis aplikaciebiT (danarTebi), 30,3% – eleqtronuli autentifikaciis meqanizmebiT, respondentTa 37,7% – kompiuteris IT-sistemebTan Tavsebadobis SesaZleblobebiT, internet-momxmarebelTa 30,6% – interaqtiulobis formebiT, internet-momxmarebelTa 36,2% – informaciulobis xarisxiT, internet-momxmarebelTa 34% – SemoTavazebuli servisebiT, gamokiTxulTa 32,2% – axali informaciis warmodgenis intensivobiT (ix. histograma 3.5). mniSvnelovania samTavrobo web-saitebisadmi wayenebuli moTxovnebi. aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelos internet-moxmarebeli progresuli da Tanamedrove moTxovnebisaa. marketinguli kvlevis farglebSi Seswavlili iqna samTavrobo web-saitebis inovaciuri funqciebi, romlis danergviT miiRweva saxelmwifo marTvis efeqtianoba. kvlevisas respondentTa 27,6%-ma aRniSna, rom qveyanaSi gamWvirvale saxelmwifos mSeneblobisa da sazogadoebis social-ekonomikuri sakiTxebis ganxilvisaTvis mizanSewonilia, yovelwliurad gaimarTos samTavrobo onlain konferencia; gamokiTxulTa 21%-ma aRniSna, rom samTavrobo web-saitebs unda gaaCndeT iseTi inovaciuri funqcia, rogoricaa video mimarTvebis aplikacia; internetmomxmarebelTa 20%-s surs, rom samTavrobo web-saitze arsebobdes prezidentTan interaqtiuli urTierToebis aplikacia; respondentTa 18,9% premier ministrTan interaqtiuli urTierToebis aplikacias amjobinebs;

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histograma 3.5 saqarTvelos samTavrobo web -gverdebis funqcionaluroba

kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 15,7% ki ministrebTan interaqtiuli urTierToebis aplikacias iTxovs; momxmarebelTa 17,6%-s surs, rom qveyanaSi ganviTardes inkluziuri eleqtronuli mTavroba, xolo 13% aRniSnavs, rom samTavrobo web-saitebze unda warmoebdes kvlevebi da arsebobdes programebisa da proeqtebis wardgenis SesaZlebloba (ix. histograma 3.6).

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

histograma 3.6 samTavrobo web-saitebis inovaciuri funqciebi

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aRiarebulia, rom eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistema da samTavrobo web-saitebi morgebuli unda iyos politikur da ekonomikur klimats, informaciuli sazogadoebis kulturul da socialur Taviseburebebs. Sesabamisad, saqarTvelosaTvis, araefeqturi iqneba sxva qveynis eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemisa da web-saitebis funqcionalurobis kopireba. dasasrul, Catarebuli kvlevis safuZvelze SeiZleba aRvniSnoT, rom: internet-momxmarebeli kmayofilia saqarTvelos samTavrobo web -gverdebis funqcionalurobiT: konteqsti, dizaini, navigacia, CamotvirTva, wvdoma, autentifikacia, programuli Tavsebadoba, SeTavazebuli servisebi; saWiroa mxolod efeqturi administrireba, eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis strategia da sferos prioritetuloba; saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavroba warmodgenilia mravalferovani eleqtronuli momsaxurebiTa da Tanamedrove web-teqnologiebiT, Tumca saxelisuflebo uwyebebi erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdeba web-teqnologiebis speqtriTa da gamoyenebiT (gansxvavebulia informaciulobis xarisxi, siaxleebis wardgena, eleqtronuli momsaxurebis speqtri, momsaxurebis misawvdomoba, mobiluri da web-teqnologiebis gamoyeneba, onlain kosultacia, interaqtiuloba da sxva).mTavrobasTan interaqtiulobisaTvis TiToeul moqalaqes/organizacias unda gaaCndes misTvis xelsayreli sakomunikacio arxis arCevisa da gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba; saqarTvelos mTavrobam, moqalaqeebis informirebisaTvis, prioriteti unda mianiWos eleqtro-

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

nul fostas, Facebook/Twitter-sa da web-saitebs; qveyanaSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis valdebulebas unda warmoadgendes sazogadoebisaTvis intensiurad ganaxlebuli informaciis miwodeba, konsultacia, interaqtiuli urTierTqmedeba, momsaxureba da angariSvaldebuleba. samTavrobo web-saiti unda ganixilebodes, rogorc informaciis onlain sacavi; qarTuli samTavrobo web-sivrcis mravalferovnebisa da sargeblianobis miuxedavad, momxmarebelTa didi nawili pasiuri segmentia, naklebad mimarTavs mTavrobis web-saitebs, ar aris gaTvicnobierebuli. amitom, qveyanaSi saWiroa eleqtronuli mmarTvelobis informaciuli propaganda, saxelmwifo marketinguli aqtivobebi, sazogadoebis ganaTleba da saganmanaTleblo programebi ; dakmayofilebuli unda iqnes sazogadoebis TiToeuli wevris moTxovna da saWiroeba. magaliTad: sazogadoebas surs social-ekonomikur sakiTxebze, yovelwliuri, onlain samTavrobo konferencia; prezidentTan da premier ministrTan onlain interaqtiuli urTierTqmedeba, aRmasrulebeli da sakanonmdeblo uwyebisaTvis programebisa da proeqtebis wardgenis SesaZlebloba; aRniSnuli sakiTxebi sasargebloa, rogorc moqalaqeebisaTvis, ise mTavrobisaTvis; kerZod: mTavroba informirebulia sazogadoebis saWiroebebsa da moTxovnilebebze; formirdeba ndobaze damyarebuli urTierTobebi; vlindeba biurokratiis mankieri mxareebi; martivdeba operatiuli reagireba, socialuri kontroli; izrdeba marTvis efeqtianoba, saxelmwifo gadawyvetilebebi ufro qmediTi da produqtiulia. moqalaqeebisaTvis iz-

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rdeba gavlena mTavrobaze, marTvaSi monawileoba da CarTuloba, formirdeba aqtiuri samoqalaqo da informaciuli sazogadoeba, umjobesdeba sazogadoebis socialuri keTildReoba.

3.2.4.

saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxureba

cifruli epoqa warmodgenilia saxelmwifo marTvis, samTavrobo momsaxurebis sistemis, sazogadoebrivi faseulobebisa da msoflmxedvelobis transformaciT. epoqa cnobilia eleqtronuli mTavrobis gamowvevebiTa da upiratesobebiT. eleqtronuli mTavroba (e-mTavroba) warmoadgens Tanamedrove globaluri da nacionaluri gamowvevebis pasuxs. eleqtronuli mTavrobis mier momxmarebelze orientirebuli momsaxurebis sistemis ageba ganixileba, rogorc ekonomikuri, politikuri, teqnologiuri, organizaciuli da socialuri Sedegis miRwevis berketi, garemos gaumjobesebisa da fundamenturi cvlilebebis marTvis srulyofis mcdeloba. igi marTvis axali formaa, romelic sazogadoebrivi momsaxurebis wardgeniT fokusirebulia moqalaqeze da orientirebulia Sedegze. msoflioSi, warmoebuli iqna mravali kvleva e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis Seswavlis, misi aRqmisa da gavrcelebis mimarTulebiT. saxelmwifo momsaxurebis gaumjobesebis safuZvelze, kvlevebis umravlesoba, mimarTulia moqalaqeebisaTvis optimaluri saxelmwifo momsaxurebis/informaciis miwodebis, biznesTan gamWvirvale da efeqturi urTierTqmdebis, samoqalaqo da kerZo seqtorTan saxelmwifo transaqciis efeqturobis amaRlebaze[133].

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

wamyvani mecnier-mkvlevarebis mier warmodgenili eleqtronuli mTavrobis definiciis analizis safuZvelze SeiZleba aRvniSnoT, rom : samTavrobo saqmianobaSi informaciuli teqnologiebi gamoiyeneba moqalaqeebisaTvis samTavrobo momsaxurebis xelmisawvdomobisa da efeqturad miwodebis, biznes seqtorTan interaqtiulobisa da urTierTqmedebis srulyofis [134], informaciasTan wvdomis amaRlebis, korufciis Semcirebis, efeqturi marTvis, marTvaSi moqalaqeebis CarTulobis, angariSvaldebulebis zrdis, cifruli procesebis generirebis, gamWvirvalobis amaRlebis, Semosavlebis zrdisa da danaxarjebis SemcirebisaTvis [135]. aseve, saxelmwifo seqtorSi, eleqtronuli momsaxurebis danergva xels uwyobs informaciuli monopoliisa da biurokratiis Tavidan acilebas[136]. eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis, procesebis srulyofis, infrastruqturis organizebisa da saxelmwifo momsaxurebis procesebis efeqtiani marTvis mizniT, saqarTvelos mTavrobam efeqturi zomebi gaatara, ris Sedegadac `qarTuli saxelmwifo marTvis sistemaSi~ axali era daiwyo. dReisaTvis, saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavroba Tanamedove moTxovnebis kvaldakval progresirebs da globalur garemosTan adaptirdeba. saqarTveloSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis formebis warmoqmnamde, saxelmwifos marTvis sistema mkacri, xisti, mouqneli, gaumWvirvale, dabalproduqtiuli da araefeqturi iyo. adgili ar hqonda administraciuli resursebis efeqtian gamoyenebas, saxelmwifos efeqtur momsaxurebas, moqalaqeebze orientirebul marTvas. yovelive xels uwyobda marTvis meTodebis absolutizacias. gaeros 2014 wlis kvlevis safuZvelze, saqarTvelo, onlain momsaxurebis indeqsiTa da misi komponentebiT 54-

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rati abulaZe

e adgilze imyofeba. amave kvleviT, saqarTvelo, eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis maRali donisa da saSualoze dabali ekonomikis mqone saxelmwifoa [22]. saqarTveloSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Sedegad SesaZlebeli gaxda qveyanaSi eleqtronuli momsaxurebis garemos asaxva. marketinguli kvlevis farglebSi, respondentebma upiratesoba mianiWes saxelmwifo seqtoris eleqtronuli momsaxurebas, vidre biznes seqtors; kerZod: gamokiTxulTa 21,3%-ma aRniSna, rom saxelmwifo seqtoris eleqtronuli momsaxureba ufro ganviTarebulia, vidre biznes seqtori; internet-momxmarebelTa 19,4%-ma aRniSna, rom saqarTveloSi, biznesisa da saxelmwifo seqtoris eleqtronuli momsaxureba Tanabradaa ganviTarebuli; internet-momxmarebelTa 11,3%-ma uaryofiTad Seafasa orive seqtoris momsaxureba; respondentTa 18,1%- ma upiratesoba mianiWa biznes seqtoris eleqtronul momsaxurebas, xolo uari ganacxada Sefasebaze 29,9%-ma (ix. wriuli diagrama 3.2). saqarTvelos sazogadoeba maRal moTxovnebs uyenebs saqarTvelos eleqtronul mTavrobasa da mis momsaxurebas. aseve, maRalia eleqtronuli momsaxurebis sargeblisa da faseulobis gaTvicnobierebis done. Sesabamisad, sazogadoeba strategiulad afasebs eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergvisaTvis cifruli qveynis politikis gatarebis aucileblobas. marketingulma kvlevam cxadyo, rom respondentTa 74%-saTvis, saqarTveloSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis ZiriTadi sargebeli saSualo da maRali donis faseulobisaa, mxolod 26%-s miiCnevs, rom eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis faseuloba dabalia.

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

wriuli diagrama 3.2 saqarTveloSi biznesisa da saxelmwifo seqtoris eleqtronuli momsaxureba

saqarTvelos e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis faseulobis kvlevisas dadginda Semdegi: e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis miRebis/moTxovnis Rirebulebas saSualo da maRal Sefasebas aZlevs respondentTa 49,3%, e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis miRebis siswrafes – respondentTa 52%, mTavrobasTan interaqtiul urTierTqmedebas – gamokiTxulTa 42,4%, informaciis/momsaxurebis miRebis xelsayrelobas -respondentTa 50,4%, momsaxurebis miRebis procesis marTvis moqnilobas – gamokiTxulTa 45,9%, eleqtronuli dokumentbrunvis efeqtianobas – respondentTa 46,4%, eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistemis informaciulobas - gamokiTxulTa 47,5%, e-mTavrobis momsaxurebasTan wvdomas-kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 47,6% (ix.cxrili 3.3).

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cxrili 3.3 eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis ZiriTadi sargebeli Sefaseba maRali

ver vafaseb

uari pasuxze

e-mTavrobis momsa11,0% xurebis Rirebuleba

43,0%

6,3%

22,7%

17,0%

e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis grZelvadia- 12,1% ni sargebeli

38,0%

7,7%

25,3%

16,9%

e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis miRebis sis- 11,9% wrafe/dro

39,7%

12,2%

20,1%

16,1%

mTavrobasTan interaqtiuli urTier- 13,3% Tqmedeba

34,6%

7,8%

27,0%

17,3%

informaciis/momsaxurebis miRebis xelsayreloba

9,2%

38,8%

11,6%

23,3%

17,1%

momsaxurebis miRebis procesis moqni- 10,9% li marTva

35,4%

10,5%

26,1%

17,1%

biurokratiuli uwyebebis zegavlenis 10,7% Tavis arideba

31,8%

8,4%

31,3%

17,8%

efeqturi interaq11,7% tiuli urTierToba

33,6%

8,8%

28,4%

17,5%

13,7%

28,6%

16,8%

dabali

saSualo

e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis faseuloba

eleqtronuli dokumentbrunvis efeqtianoba

8,2%

e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistemis informaciuloba

9,1%

33,8%

13,7%

26,7%

16,7%

e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis iuridiuli

8,8%

32,3%

13,7%

28,1%

17,1%

162

32,7%


3.3 marketinguli cxriliს გაგრძელება saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis strategia

Zala samTavrobo web-satebze interaqtiuli kavSiris xarisxi

8,9%

38,3%

9,6%

26,5%

16,7%

e-mTavrobis momsaxurebasTan wvdoma

9,5%

36,8%

10,8%

25,2%

17,7%

dRes, gaeros wevri yvela qveynis mTavroba warmodgenilia eleqtronuli momsaxurebiT, romlis aTviseba sxvadasxva qveyanaSi sxvadasxva donezea. gaeros eleqtronuli mTavrobis kvlevis safuZvelze (UN, E-Government Survey, 2014), onlain momsaxurebis indeqsiT safrangeTi liderobs, meore da mesame adgils ikavebs singapuri da koreis respublika, xuTeulSi Sedis iaponia da espaneTi, mas mosdevs aSS, aTeuls aboloebs kanada, oceuls saudis arabeTi. onlain momsaxurebis ganviTarebis indeqsiT saqarTvelo 54-e adgilze imyofeba da uswrebs lixteSteins, indoeTs, moldovas. saqarTveloSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis aTviseba, internet-momxmarebelTa raodenobisa da saxelmwifos mier stimulirebis RonisZiebaTa proporciulia. saqarTveloSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis miRebis motivebis kvlevisas gamovlinda, rom respondentTa 39,9% eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebas saqmiani miznebiT iyenebs, respondentTa 21,6% – socialurma motivebiT, internet-momxmarebelTa 19,5% – ekonomikuri motivebiT, momxmarebelTa 18,5% – sazogadoebrivi interesebisa da ojaxis saWiroebebis dakmayofilebisaTvis, gamokiTxulTa 18,4% – teqnologiuri miRwevebisadmi interesisa da cnobismoyvareobisaTvis. aseve, respondentTa 18,4%-isaTvis eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis moxmarebis motivs garkveuli saxis Sexedulebebi warmoadgens, respondentTa 17% -

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rati abulaZe

isaTvis, ki cxovrebis stili (ix.histograma 3.7) . histograma 3.7 eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis miRebis motivi

eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis moxmareba saWiroebs identificirebis meqanizmebis arsebobas. aRniSnuli mimarTulebiT, sxvadasxva qveyanaSi, qselTan wvdomis sxvadasxva meTodi da meqanizmia gavrcelebuli. saqarTveloSi, identificirebis meqanizmebis kvlevisas dadginda, rom respondentTa 35%-saTvis eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis miRebisaTvis yvelaze xelsayrel da usafrTxo identificirebis meqanizms ID monacemebiT (piradobis mowmoba) identificireba warmoadgens, respondentTa 16%-sTvis personaluri kodiT registracia,

164


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

gamokiTxulTa 13,2%-sTvis, saxelmwifos mier dadgenili meqanizmi. aseve, kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 5,3%-ma upiratesoba biometrul pasports mianiWa, respondentTa 4,8%-ma – cifrul xelmoweras, respondentTa 4,4%-ma- smart baraTs, xolo respondentTa 21,3%-ma Sefasebisagan Tavi Seikava (ix. wriuli diagrama 3.3). wriuli diagrama 3.3 eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis miRebisaTvis identificirebis meqanizmebi

qveyanaSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistema mravalferovani aplikaciebiTa da momsaxurebis formebiTaa warmodgenili. iseve, rogorc kerZo seqtori, saxelmwifo seqtoris eleqtronuli produqtebi da momsaxureba, qarTveli internet-momxmareblebis aqtivobasa da raodenobis zrdas stimulirebs. kvlevis farglebSi, saxelmwifos eleqtronuli

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produqtebis/momsaxurebis Seswavlam cxadyo, rom respondentebSi popularulia satelefono kontaqtebi, saregistracio momsaxureba, misamarTebiTa da linkebiT sargebloba, monacemTa bazebiT sargebloba, gancxadebebis wardgena/statusis Semowmeba, dokumentaciis registracia, jandacvis servisi, samuSaos Ziebis servisi da sxva. (ix. histograma 3.8). histograma 3.8 eleqtronuli mTavrobis popularuli produqtebi/momsaxureba

kvlevisas, Seswavlili iqna saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergvis politika, romelic unda gaxdes qveynis strategiuli gegmis orientiri. kvlevisas

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

dadginda, rom internet-momxmarebelTa mxolod 27%-s arsebiT faqtorad miaCnia strategiuli ganviTarebis politikis SemuSaveba, sadac: momxmarebelTa 14,8%-ma aRniSna, rom saqarTveloSi e-mTavrobis danergvisaTvis saWiroa e-mTavrobis ganviTarebis politika; respondentTa 8,3% aRniSna, rom saWiroa farTozolovani infastruqturis ganviTarebis strategia; gamokiTxulTa 7,4%-is azriT qveyanas sWirdeba cifruli politika, xolo internetmomxmarebelTa 5,7%-is azriT – ICT-is politika. sakmaod maRali aRmoCnda im pirTa segmenti (63,2%), romelmac pasuxis gacemisagan Tavi Seikava (ix. wriuli diagrama 3.4). wriuli diagrama 3.4 saqarTveloSi eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergvis politika

167


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kvlevaSi monawile respondentTa 61% aRirebs, rom centraluri saxelmwifo uwyebebis TanamSromelTa kompiuterizaciis/ internetizaciis done sakmaod maRalia, xolo regionis samTavrobo uwyebebis TanamSromelTa kompiuterizaciis/ internetizaciis dones maRal Sefasebas aZlevs respondentTa -34,5% (ix. histograma 3.9). histograma 3.9 saxelmwifo struqturis TanamSromelTa kompiuterizaciis/internetizaciis codnis done

saqarTveloSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis praqtikuli danergvisa da uzrunvelyofis procesebis Seswavlisas gamovlinda, rom qveyanaSi, moqalaqeebis informaciuli uflebebis dacvas dadebiT Sefasebas aZlevs respondentTa 72,8%, telekomunikaciis momsaxurebis regulire-

168


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

bas – respondentTa 72,4%, internet-provaiderebis regulirebas – respondentTa 66,8%, telekomunikaciisa da internet-infrastruqturis misawvdomobas – internetmomxmarebelTa – 59,7%, saxelmwifos TanaSromlobis efeqturobas – gamokiTxulTa 64,4%, internet-garemos usafrTxoebas – momxmarebelTa 57,4%, mTavrobis onlain servisebis efeqturobas – gamokiTxulTa 65,5%, mTavrobis onlain servisebis farTo arCevans –momxmarebelTa 62,5%, kompiuterizaciisa da internetizaciis codnis dones – respondentTa 59,5%, informaciul wignierebas – gamokiTxulTa 56,6%, teqnologiur progress – gamokiTxulTa 61,9%, centraluri mTavrobis teqnologiur progress – 65,9%, xolo adgilobrivi mTavrobis teqnologiur progress – respondentTa 57,9% (ix. cxrili 3.4). cxrili 3.4 eleqtronuli mTavrobis praqtikuli danergvisa da uzrunvelyofis procesebi

saSualo

cudi

Zalian cudi

ar vici/ver vafaseb

moqalaqeTa informaciuli uflebebi telekomunikaciis momsaxurebis regulireba internet-provaiderebis regulireba telekomunikaciisa da internet-infrastruqturis misawvdomoba saxelmwifosa da biznes seqtoris TanamSromloba

kargi

procesebi

Zalian kargi

Sefaseba

9,2%

22,4%

41,2%

6,5%

1,4%

19,3%

5,0%

29,5%

37,9%

5,5%

0,3%

21,8%

6,6%

21,1%

39,1%

7,8%

1,3%

24,1%

5,3%

17,7%

36,7%

16,0%

3,0%

21,3%

5,4%

21,8%

36,1%

9,6%

1,2%

25,9%

169


ratiგაგრძელება abulaZe 3.4 cxriliს saxelmwifosa da arasamTavrobo seqtoris TanamSromloba usafrTxo internetgaremo mTavrobis onlain servisebis efeqturoba mTavrobis onlain servisebis farTo arCevani kompiuterizaciisa da internetizaciis done informaciuli wigniereba teqnologiuri progresi centraluri mTavrobis teqnologiuri progresi adgilobrivi mTavrobis teqnologiuri progresi

3,6%

23,3%

37,5%

9,3%

1,3%

25,0%

4,9%

15,5%

37,0%

15,8%

3,8%

23,0%

6,3%

22,5%

36,7%

7,8%

1,5%

25,2%

6,2%

20,6%

35,7%

9,2%

1,9%

26,4%

4,7%

18,8%

36,0%

14,0%

4,2%

22,3%

4,8%

16,5%

35,3%

16,5%

4,5%

22,4%

3,3%

19,3%

39,3%

12,9%

2,4%

22,8%

5,7%

24,2%

36,0%

8,5%

1,2%

24,4%

3,8%

15,3%

38,8%

15,3%

3,0%

23,8%

efeqturi marTvisa da yoveldRiuri samTavrobo momsaxurebisaTvis umTavresia informaciis nakadi. saxelmwifo momsaxurebis warmoeba, ZiriTadad, moicavs informaciis “Seqmnasa” da warmodgenas. moqalaqis sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis TiToeuli aspeqti informacias generirebs. TiToeuli gadaxdili gadasaxadi, ganaxlebuli licenzia, dabadeba, sikvdili, qorwineba, uZrav-moZravi qonebis SeZena da a.S. informaciis generirebis SesaZleblobas iZleva, romelic mTavrobis mier xdeba moZiebuli, damuSavebuli, gaanalizebuli da Senaxuli. aRniSnuli informacia warmoadgens mTavrobis marTvis ZiriTad ingredients imisaTvis, rom marTos Tavisi resursi, warmoadginos momsaxureba da uzrunvelyos misi Sesruleba. informacia faseuli nacionaluri resursia, romelic uzrunvelyofs mTavrobis anagariSvaldebulebas, samTavrobo operaciebis marTvas, ekonomikis jansaRi mwarmoebluro-

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

bis xelSewyobas da a.S. saxelmwifosa da sazogadoebas Soris informaciis Tavisufal dinebas udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs demokratiuli sazogadoebisaTvis [137]. kvlevis safuZvelze SesaZlebeli gaxda, eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Sesaxeb informirebis donis gansazRvra. kvlevam cxadyo, rom respondentTa mxolod mcire nawili flobs informacias e-mTavrobis procesebsa da mis komponentebze. internet-momxmarebelTa ZiriTadi nawili eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Sesaxeb nawilobriv an Zalian mwiredaa informirebuli. kerZod, internet-momxmarebelTa didi nawili (calkeuli komponentebis mixedviT aRniSnuli cifri 42%-dan 54%-mde meryeobs), e-mTavrobis miznebis, amocanebis, funqciebis, samarTlebrivi regulirebis sakiTxebis, normatiuli aqtebis, procesebis realizebisaTvis gamoyofili resursebis, xelmZRvanelobisa da makoordinirebeli organos Sesaxeb, saSualo donezea informirebuli (ix.histograma 3.10). efeqtur saxelmwifo momsaxurebas moqalaqeze orientirebuli momsaxureba warmoadgens, romelic sazogadoebrivi faseulobis gazomvis SesaZleblobas iZleva, risTvisac saxelmwifo seqtori qmnis marketingul strategias [138]. Teoriulad, moqalaqeebi diskreciuli uflebiT imsaxureben individualur momsaxurebas, mTavrobasTan maRali donis interaqtiulobas, gansakuTrebul SemTxvevaSi saukeTeso samTavrobo momsaxurebis miRebas[139]. praqtikulad, moqalaqeebis TiToeuli survilis dakmayofileba, SeiZleba arastandartuli gadawyvetilebiT uzrunvelyofas saWiroebdes, rac biurokratiul sirTuleebs warmoSobs. marketinguli kvlevis Sedegad, kerZo, saxelmwifo da samoqalaqo seqtorisaTvis dadginda e-mTavrobis sargebeli.kvlevis Sedegebis mixedviT, respondentTa 50%

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histograma 3.10 eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Sesaxeb informirebis donis Sefaseba

miiCnevs, rom eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergva Tanabrad faseulia moqalaqeebisTvis, kerZo da saxelmwifo seqtorisTvis, 27,1% – zustad ver xvdeba konretulad romeli mxarisTvisaa ufro faseuli, xolo calkeuli mxaresaTvis upiratesi faseulobis miniWeba mxolod mcire nawilma aRniSna (ix. wriuli diagrama 3.5).

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

wriuli diagrama 3.5 eleqtronuli mTavrobis sargebeli

saqarTveloSi, e-mTavrobis sistemis gamowvevebis Seswavlisas gamovlinda, rom eleqtronuli mTavrobis komponentebi yvela moqalaqisaTvis ar aris Tanabrad misawvdomi, gamoyenebadi, advilad Sesaswavli, mkafiod da gasagebad aRsaqmeli. respondentTa naxevarze meti nawilobriv aRiarebs sistemis efeqtur muSaobas, eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebiT biurokratiuli momsaxurebis xelsayrelobas (ix. histograma 3.11). saqarTvelos e-mTavrobis garemo formirebisa da frangmentirebuli procesebis integrirebis procesSia. qveyanas ar gaaCnia erTiani globaluri eleqtronuli garemo. kvlevisas gamovlinda e-mTavrobis programebis efeqturad danergvis xelSemwyobi iniciativebi. gamokiTxvis Sedegebis safuZvelze dadginda, rom internet-momxmarebelTa 24,5% e-mTavrobis programebis efeqturad danergvisaTvis, e-mTavrobis strategiis Seqmnas aniWebs upiratesobas; respondentTa 22,7% upiratesobas aniWebs

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histograma 3.11 eleqtronuli mTavrobis komponentebis Sefaseba

samarTlebrivi meqanizmebisa da sakanonmdeblo bazis ganviTarebas; gamokiTxulTa 21,8% miiCnevs, rom e-mTavrobis programebis danergvis xelSewyobisaTvis qveyana saWiroebs piradi informaciis usafrTxoebisa da konfidencialobis politikis daxvewas; respondentTa 20,4% miiCnevsusafrTxo internet-garemos formirebis aucileblobas; momxmarebelTa 17,2% aRniSnavs-globalur saxelmwifo portals; momxmarebelTa 15,6% miiCnevs - teqnologiebis ganviTarebasa da infrastruqturis Camoyalibebas; respondentTa 13,4% miiCnevs – e-momsaxurebis aplikaciebisa da mravalferovani servisebis Seqmnas (ix.histograma3.12).

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histograma 3.12 eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis xelSemwyobi procesebi

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aRiarebulia, rom eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebi uzrunvelyofs moqalaqeTa molodinis zrdas; kerZo, samoqalaqo da saxelmwifo uwyebebis moTxovnebis cvlilebas; samarTlebrivi garemos daxvewas; politikuri, ekonomikuri, socialuri da teqnologiuri ganviTarebis miRwevas. inovaciurma teqnologiebma (gansakuTrebiT socialurma qselma), moqalaqeebisaTvis yvela saxis komunikaciis saSualebebis misawvdomobas Seuwyo xeli [140]. internet-momxmarebelTa molodinis kvlevisas, gamovlinda: samTavrobo struqturebis momsaxurebis efeqtianobis zrda (aRniSna gamokiTxulTa 31,6%-ma), sajaro momsaxurebis siswrafe (24,6%), sajaro momsaxurebis saqmianobis xarisxis amaRleba (24,2%), biznes-garemos gaumjobeseba (14,3%), TanamSromelTa optimizacia (11,2%), administraciuli danaxarjebis Semcireba (10,5%), moqalaqeebis Semosavlebis zrda (8,5%). aseve, dabali molodini (11,8%) da skeptikuri damokidebuleba (14,3%) (ix. histograma 3.13). marketingulma kvlevam Rirebuli informaciis warmodgenis SesaZlebloba mogvca, romlis Sedegebi mniSvnelovania saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergvis procesebze orientirebuli saxelmwifo struqturebisaTvis (am etapze erTi struqturac ararsebobs, romelic koordinirebas gauwevs globaluri e-mTavrobis sistemis Seqmnas). dabolos, saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis garemos kvlevis safuZvelze, SeiZleba warmovadginoT Semdegi daskvnebi da winadadebebi: kvlevis Sedegebma, eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis aTvisebisa da gavrcelebisTvis, informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis

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histograma 3.13 eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergviT gamowveuli molodini

infrastruqturis modernizebisa da xarisxis amaRlebis saWiroeba daadastura. saqarTveloSi, informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis infrastruqturis (regionis infrastruqtura) didi nawili post-sabWoTa periodSi agebulia. Sesabamisad, arsebuli infrastruqtura ver uzrunvelyofs Tanamedrove moTxovnebis momsaxurebas, amitom, vidre eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis danergvasa da ganviTarebas SevexebiT, upirvelesad infrastruqturis modernizebis gamowvevebis ganxilvaa saWiro (an axali in-

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frastruqturis Seqmna); marketingulma kvlevam cxadyo, rom moqalaqeebis didi nawilisaTvis, e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis mravali komponenti aTvisebuli ar aris. Sesabamisad, sazogadoebas misi faseulobis gacnobiereba uWirs da arc cxovrebis yovldRiur nawilad aRiqvavs. amitom, mizanSewonilia, inovaciis informirebis amaRlebis RonisZiebebis gatareba da sazogadoebis farTo fenisaTvis teqnologiebis misawvdomobis marketinguli programebis SemuSaveba; SeiZleba aRvniSnoT, rom qarTveli internet-momxmareblis mier aRqmuli eleqtronuli mTavroba ganviTarebadi, progresirebadi, mdidari faseulobisa da didi potencialis matarebelia, romelic efeqtur administrirebasa da strategias saWiroebs; eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis warmatebuli aTviseba strategiul gegmas saWiroebs. saxelmwifos strategiuli gegma SeiZleba moicavdes ganviTarebis procesebs, politikas, programuli uzrunvelyofis Seqmna/SeZenas, operaciuli da servisuli garemos ganviTarebas, menejments, autsorsings, TanamSromlebis momzadebasa da moqalaqeebis informirebis komunikaciur politikas[141]; saqarTvelos mTavrobis eleqtronuli momsaxurebis potenciali, gavrcelebis areali da moxmarebis masStabi mcirea. gansxvavebulia eleqtronuli mTavrobis faseulobisadmi moqalaqeebis, kerZo da saxelmwifo seqtoris molodini. Sedegad eleqtronuli mTavrobis iniciativebi Sedegs ver aRwevs;

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

qveyanaSi, interaqtiuli urTierTqmedebis aRiarebuli standartebi ararsebobs; eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sivrceSi, pasuxismgebloba mxolod eTikur standartebs eyrdnoba, rac winaaRmdegobaSi ar modis iuridiul pasuxismgeblobasTan. Sesabamisad, moqalaqeebis interesebis gaTvaliswineba, ZiriTad SemTxvevaSi, `personalur komunikaciazea damokidebuli; mosaxleobis farTo fenebisaTvis eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistemis misawvdomobis uzrunvelyofas sakmao dro dasWirdeba, radgan qveyanaSi sustia internet-bazris ganviTareba, dabalia mosaxleobis kompiuterizaciisa da internetizaciis tempebi, dabalia axalgazrda ojaxebisTvis keTildReobis uzrunvelyofis pirobebi, qveyanas ar gaaCnia eleqtronuli ganviTarebis strategiebi da gegmebi; qveyanaSi, saxelmwifo seqtoris eleqtronuli momsaxureba ufro ganviTarebulia, vidre biznes seqtori. rogorc pirveladi, ise meoreuli kvlevebi cxadyofs, rom qveyanaSi internet-bazari ganviTarebuli ar aris; ar arsebobs statistika eleqtronuli komerciis, internet-bazarze moqmedi kompaniebis, maTi saqmianobis, internet-bazarze dasaqmebulTa raodenobisa dasaqarTvelos ekonomikaSi cifruli ekonomikis wilis Sesaxeb, aseve, ar moipoveba informacia saqarTvelos telekomunikaciis infrastruqturis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb; saqarTveloSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergva saWiroebs internet-momxmarebelTa informaciuli uflebebis dacvas, eleqtronuli momsaxurebisa da internet-provaiderTa sazogadoebriv

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regulirebasa da monitorings, usafrTxoebas, progress. misi ganviTarebisaTvis saWiroa strategiuli dagegmva, informaciis/momsaxurebis gavrcelebisa da dacvis samarTlebrivi meqanizmebi, konfidencialobis politikis dacva, internet-garemos usafrTxoeba, yvela moqalaqisaTvis misawvdomi globaluri saxelmwifo portali, teqnologiebisa da infrastruqturis ganviTareba; eleqtronuli mTavrobis uwyebis saqmianobisaTvis aucilebelia sisxarte, mravalmxrivoba, sistemuroba da farTo uflebamosileba[142]. eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis marTvis modeli sawyis etapze ganxiluli unda iqnes centralizebuli marTvis modelis CarCoebSi, xolo intergirebuli mTavrobis etapze decentralizebis marTvis modelis CarCoebSi; qveyanisaTvis sasicocxloa eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistemis Sesaxeb saxelmZRvanelos SemuSaveba, sadac beneficiari pirebisaTvis Tematurad iqneba mocemuli momsaxurebis saxeebi, momsaxurebis kategoriebi, web-saitebis misamarTebi, samizne auditoria, aRweriloba, momsaxurebis maxasiaTeblebi da maCveneblebi; saqarTvelos kerZo da saxelmwifo struqturebis eleqtronuli servisebis portali (moqalaqis portali MY.GOV.GE) STambeWdav onlain resurss warmoadgens, romelic msoflios nebismieri wertilidan wvdomisa da sargeblobis SesaZleblobas iZleva. amasTan, unda aRiniSnos, rom mocemuli onlain resursiT sargebloba da portalze Sesvla iusticiis saxlSi misvlas da adgilze registracias, an axali piradobis mowmobisa da baraTis

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

wamkiTxveli mowyobilobis (e.w. `qard rideri~) aRebas saWiroebs. eleqtronuli mTavrobis Sesaxeb informirebulobis miuxedavad, sazogadoeba ar icnobs moxmarebis wesebs. amitom, mizanSewonilia sazogadoebis kompiuterizaciis, internetizaciis, portaliT sargeblobis informirebisa da stimulirebis RonisZiebebis gatareba, romelic kerZo da saxelmwifo seqtoris mier unda iyos inicirebuli; saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis garemo Tamam reformebs, dinamiur progressa da strategiul dagegmvas saWiroebs (eMmTavrobis momsaxurebis sistemis moxmareba, mxolod onlain aplikaciebiT ver miiRweva) .

3.2.5.

saqarTvelos onlain biznes garemo

saqarTveloSi, internetis danergvis sawyis etapze, interneti misawvdomi iyo mxolod maRali socialuri klasis, elituris fenis, maRali ganaTlebis donis, maRali Semosavlebisa da profesiuli gamocdilebis mqone pirTaTvis. aRniSnuls ganapirobebda kompiuterisa da internetis maRali fasi, misawvdomoba, gamoyenebis wigniereba, gavrcelebis SezRuduli areali da sxva faqtorebi. saqarTvelos internet-auditoria axalgazrda, dinamiuri da mravalferovania. urbanuli mocva intensiuria, Tumca aRniSnuli mobiluri mowyobilobisa da mobiluri internetis misawvdomobiTaa ganpirobebuli. qveyanaSi, internet-garemo Tavisufalia, advilia saitisa da blogis Seqmna, postis/azris/Sexedulebis gamoqveyneba. marketinguli kvlevis farglebSi, Seswavlili iqna

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biznes seqtoris onlain momsaxurebisadmi momxmarebelTa damokidebuleba, gamoyenebis motivebi, momsaxurebis SerCevisas gadawyvetilebis miRebaze moqmedi faqtorebi, ganxilulia qarTuli onlain media, naCvenebia eleqtronuli momsaxurebis miRebisaTvis gaRebuli xarji da warmodgenilia eleqtronuli momsaxurebis bazris ganviTarebis xelSemwyobi faqtorebi. marketinguli kvlevis Sedegebis Tanaxmad, saqarTvelos internet-bazarze, respondentTa 44,7%-Si popularobiT sargeblobs informaciuli momsaxureba, momxmareblebis 37,3% interesdeba saganmanaTleblo momsaxurebiT, gamokiTxulTa 34,3% iyenebs saZiebo sistemebs, internet-momxmareblebis 17,9% aqtiurad moixmars finansur momsaxurebas, kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 11,5% upiratesobas aniWebs onlain turistul momsaxurebas. aseve, internet-momxmareblebSi gansakuTrebuli moTxovniT sargeblobs onlain TamaSebi, onlain aplikaciebi, eleqtronuli birJa da momsaxurebis sxva saxeebi (ix. histograma 3.14). kvlevisas dadginda internet-momxmarebelTa mier Sesyidvis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebasa da momsaxurebis arCevaze zemoqmedi faqtorebi. kvlevam cxadyo, rom internet-momxmarebelTa 32,8% onlain biznes momsaxurebas xelsayrelobis gamo irCevs; gamokiTxulTa 25,1% upiratesobas momxmareblis saWiroebebze orientirebul organizaciebs aniWebs; kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 19,4%-is arCevans dabali fasi ganapirobebs; momxmareblTa 16,8% internet-organizaciebs irCevs efeqturi sainformacio politikis gamo; respondentTa 16,4%-s mravalferovani momsaxureba izidavs, xolo internet-momxmarebelTa 11,9% yuradRebas amaxvilebs drois ekonomiaze. aseve, onlain biznes momsaxurebis arCevisas, respondentebisaTvis mniSvnelovania:

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histograma 3.14 respondentebSi popularuli internet-kompaniebis momsaxureba

anonimuroba (8%), gamyidvelTa swrafi interaqtiuloba (5,3%), moqnili faswarmoqmnis politika (3,4%), emociuri/damarwmunebeli zegavlenisagan Tavis arideba (3%) (ix. histograma 3.15). arsebiTia, rom internet-bazarze, cifruli kontenti samomxmareblo internet-aRqmis mamoZravebeli Zalaa. igi internet-bazris umsxviles seqtors warmoadgens (OECD, 2012). Catarebulma kvlevam cxadyo, rom saqarTveloSi, kerZo seqtoris onlain momsaxurebis organizaciebis ganviTarebas ganapirobebs internet-moxmarebelTa mzardi segmenti, globaluri konkurentunarianoba, moqniloba da globaluri bazris moTxovnebis Sesabamisi produqtis

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histograma 3.15 onlain biznes momsaxurebis arCevis motivi

/momsaxurebis warmoeba/wardgena. respondentTa gadmocemiT, kerZo seqtoris onlain momsaxurebis organizaciebis SerCevisas, mniSvnelovania internet-kompaniis imiji da popularoba (aRniSna 28,4%ma), internet-kompaniebis SerCevisas momxmarebelTa 22,3% upiratesobas aniWebs momsaxurebis Rirebulebas, gamokiTxulTa 21,9% ZiriTad yuradRebas amaxvilebs miwodebis fassa da vadebze, kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 19,9% mniSvnelovnad miiCnevs piradi wyaroebis (megobrebis/ojaxis) rekomendacias. aseve, respondenTa mier dasaxelda internet-kompaniebis TanamSromelTa profesionalizmi (17,8%), mravalferovani produqti da momsaxurebis nakrebi (15%), web-saitis saxe da dizani (8,7%), moqnili faswarmoqmnis politika (6,4%) (ix. histograma 3.16).

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histograma 3.16 organizaciebis onlain momsaxurebis SerCevis faqtorebi

dRes, biznes seqtoris integraluri nawilia onlain media (cifruli media). kvlevebi adasturebs, rom biznes saqmianobis Zlier fundaments qmnis onlain mediaze fokusireba. onlain media faseuli instrumenti da axali biznes modelia. aRsaniSnavia, rom mediis teqnologiasTan kavSiri gaxda Taviseburi saxis epoqaluri movlena. igi, rogorc cifruli matarebeli, warmoadgens socialuri, teqnologiuri da kulturuli cvlilebis landSaftis nawils. cifruli media tradiciuli mediis, kulturisa da teqno-

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logiis urTierTkavSirs istoriul, ekonomikur, socialur da politikur konteqstSi ganixilavs (Rheams, 2013). cifrul medias miekuTvneba audio, video da foto kontenti, romelic aris kodirebuli (cifrulad SekumSulia). kontentis kodireba moicavs audio da videos gardaqmnas cifrul media failebSi. misi marTva, ganawileba, renderingi2 kompiuteriT, kompiuteruli qseliT advilad gadaecema (Microsoft,2010). saqarTvelos onlain mediis garemo warmodgenilia mravalferovani saxeebiTa da media matareblebiT. qveyanaSi onlain mediis saxeebis moxmarebis kvlevisas dadginda, rom respondentTa 50% siaxleebis miRebisaTvis Facebook-sa da Twetter-s iyenebs; gamokiTxulTa 24,8% upiratesobas internet-televizias aniWebs; kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 18,8% ZiriTadad onlain Jurnalebs moixmars; momxmarebelTa 13,3% siaxleebis miRebisas blogebze orientirebulia; internet-momxmarebelTa 10,7% aqcents multimedis gaziarebis servisze akeTebs (Flickr, YouTube); gamokiTxulTa 7,3% informirebisaTvis yvelaze xSirad Ria standarts - wiki-s mimarTavs, xolo respondentTa 3,8% siaxleebis miRebisaTvis internet-radios irCevs (ix. histograma 3.17). respondentebi, onlain mediis moxmarebisas ZiriTad prioritetad informaciis miRebis siswrafes, obieqturobas, xarisxsa da simarTles miiCnevs; kvlevisas aRmoCnda, rom gamokiTxulTa 27,8% onlain medias axali ambebis swrafad miRebis mizniT moixmars; momxmarebelTa 27,1% – obieqturi informaciis miRebis mizniT. 2

renderingi - procesi romlis, drosac xdeba ganaTebis, Crdilebis, obieqtebis materialebis Tvisebebis, atmosferuli efeqtebis da a.S. gamoTvla da kompresia romlis Sedegadac miiReba gamosaxuleba.

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histograma 3.17 siaxleebis miRebisaTvis popularuli onlain mediis saxeebi

kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 24,3% miiCnevs, rom onlain media simarTles ambobs; intenret-momxmarebelTa 23,8%-is SefasebiT onlain mediis xarisxi maRalia; respondentTa 22,2% Tvlis, rom onlain media xelmisawvdomia; gamokiTxulTa 12,9%-s SefasebiT onlain mediis arCevans sizuste da balansis dacva ganapirobebs; respondenTa 5,9% mas megobrebis/axloblebis rekomendaciiT irCevs; gamokiTxulTa 4,7% arCevanis ganmapirobebel faqtors ver afasebs, xolo kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 1,1% sxva faqtorebze miuTiTebs(ix. histograma 3.18).

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histograma 3.18 onlain mediis gamoyenebis motivi

saqarTveloSi eleqtronuli gadaxdis saSualebebis gamoyeneba zrdis tendenciiT xasiaTdeba. gamoyenebuli sagadasaxado instrumentebidan, momxmareblebSi popularulia sagadaxdo baraTebi. STambeWdavia, rom 2013 wels baraTebiT ganxorcielebuli gadaxdis operaciebis raodenobis wili mTlian unaRdo gadaxdebSi 49,8% aris, internetis meSveobiT ganxorcielebuli transaqciebis raodenobis wili 24,8% aris, telefonis/mobail bankingis wili – 6,1%. aseve, gadaxdebis 19,3% qaRaldiT sakredito sagadasaxado davalebis, sadebeto davalebis, sagadaxdo baraTis da sxva saSualebebis wilad modis. aRsaniSnavia, rom Tanxobrivi maCveneblebiT internet-bankiT inicirebuli davalebis safuZvelze ganxorcielebuli gadaxdebi

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unaRdo gadaxdis operaciebs Soris udavo lideria (61%iT). amasTan, saqarTveloSi gamoSvebuli baraTebis raodenoba 5,948,691 erTeulia, rac 10 sul mosaxleze 13 baraTs Seadgens (seb, wliuri angariSi, 2013). saqarTveloSi, eleqtronuli sagadasaxado instrumentebis kvlevisas dadginda, rom momxmareblebis 27,3% naRd angariSsworebas amjobinebs, respondentTa 23,5% internet-bankiT/sabanko gadaricxvas irCevs, internetmomxmarebelTa 11,9% plastikuri baraTiT angariSsworebas irCevs, kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 10,1% terminalze angariSsworebas mimarTavs. aRsaniSnavia, rom angariSsworebis sxva formebi nakleb popularulia da 4,8%- s ar aRemateba (ix. moculobiTi diagrama 3.2). moculobiTi diagrama 3.2 onlain momsaxurebis angariSsworebis formebi

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unda aRiniSnos, rom internet-kompaniebis Semosavlebis ZiriTadi wyaroebia: Semosavlebi onlain kontentis xelmomwerebidan, gadasaxadi dokumentTan wvdomisaTvis, Semosavlebi CRM reklamidan, Semosavlebi CPC reklamebidan, Semosavlebi saitis calkeuli seqciis an kontentis tipis sponsorobidan, partnioruli Semosavlebi (Cost Per Acquisition - CPA), Semosavlebi e-fostis marketingidan (xelmomwerTa monacemTa bazasTan wvdomisaTvis), Semosavlebi onlain kvlevebidan (smartinsights.com). marketinguli kvlevis farglebSi, gamovlinda respondentTa mier onlain vaWrobis/momsaxurebis sargeblobaze gaweuli xarji. kvlevam daadastura, rom internet-momxmareblebis 23,6% onlain vaWrobis/momsaxurebis miRebisaTvis 50 laramde xarjavs, kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 10,3% –50-100 lars xarjavs, gamokiTxulTa 18,7% onlain vaWrobis/momsaxurebaze 101-300 lars xarjavs, respondentTa 4,4%-is mier gaweuli xarji, 301-500 laris farglebSi meryeobs, momxmarebelTa 1,7%-is onlain bazarze gaRebuli danaxarji 501-1000 lars Seadgens, xolo kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 1,5%-is xarji 1000 larze metia. kvlevisas, respondentTa 34,4%-ma onlain vaWrobis/momsaxurebis miRebaze gaweuli xarjis dasaxelebaze uari ganacxada (ix.histograma 3.19). marketinguli kvlevisas aRmoCnda Semdegi: respondentTa 32,4%, saqarTveloSi, eleqtronuli momsaxurebis bazris ganviTarebisaTvis internet-wignierebisa da informaciulobis amaRlebis RonisZiebebis gatarebas miiCnevs; moqalaqeTa 26,3%, problemebis gadaWrisaTvis ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebas asaxelebs; gamokiTxulTa 25,5% Tvlis, rom bazris ganviTarebisaTvis mravalferovani qarTulenovani kontentia saWiro; momxmarebelTa 17%-s mniSvnelovnad miaCnia internet-momxmarebelTa segmentis zrda.

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histograma 3.19 onlain momsaxurebisaTvis gaweuli saSualo Tviuri xarji

kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 15,3% internet-marketingis instrumentebis efeqtur gamoyenebas miiCnevs. aseve, eleqtronuli momsaxurebis bazris ganviTarebis xelSemwyobi faqtorebis kvlevisas dasaxelda: komunikaciuri da interaqtiuli politikis (11,7%), sagarantio meqanizmebis (10,7%), internet-maRaziebis dizainis (10,8%), internetbazris samTavrobo subsidireba/xelSewyobis (9,9%) aucilebloba. azri ver gamoxata respondentTa 5,7%-ma (ix.histograma 3.20).

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histograma 3.20 eleqtronuli momsaxurebis bazris ganviTarebis xelSemwyobi faqtorebi

Sejameba internet-bazris ganviTarebis dabali tempebi, eleqtronuli komerciis susti zrda, ICT-s infrastruqturis modernizebis saWiroeba, internet-kompaniebis warmoqmnis stimulirebis ararseboba SesabamisobaSia internetmoxmarebelTa aqtivobasTan, mSp-Si cifruli ekonomikis wilis zrdasTan, dasaqmebasTan, internet-bazridan miRebul SemosavlebTan, eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistemis misawvdomobasa da sargeblobasTan. mZlavri saxelmwifo institutebis miuxedavad, qveyanaSi, ar moipoveba informacia saqarTvelos cifruli ekonomikis moculobis, internet-kompaniebis brunvis, ga-

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moSvebuli produqciis moculobis, internetis momsaxurebiT dakavebuli organizaciebis raodenobis Sesaxeb. aseve, ar moipoveba informacia iseT umniSvnelovanes statistikur monacemebze, rogoricaa eleqtronuli biznesis wili mSp-Si, internet-kompaniebSi dasaqmebuli adamianebis raodenoba, Semosavlebi, eleqtronuli biznesis ganviTarebis maCveneblebi. arsebuli informaciuli vakuumis pirobebSi, saqarTvelos eleqtronuli biznes garemos ganviTarebis zusti prognozebis gakeTeba rTulia. Tumca, internet-bazris kvleva informaciuli deficitis Sevsebis mniSvnelovani cdaa. xazgasasmelia, rom qveyanaSi, interaqtiuli urTierTqmedebis saerTo aRiarebuli standartebis ararsebobiT, qveyanaSi eleqtronuli biznesis pasuxismgebloba (aseve, eleqtronuli mTavrobis) mxolod eTikur standartebs eyrdnoba, rac winaaRmdegobaSi ar modis iuridiul pasuxismgeblobasTan, Sesabamisad, socialuri pasuxismgeblobis valdebulebis nacvlad, moqalaqeebis interesebis gaTvaliswineba ZiriTad SemTxvevaSi, `biznesis survilsa da komunikaciazea~ damokidebuli. dabolos, saqarTvelos eleqtronuli biznes garemos kvlevis Sejamebis safuZvelze mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos Semdegi: saqarTvelos internetis momsaxurebis bazris kvlevis safuZvelze, SeiZleba aRiniSnos, rom internet-xarisxi maRalia TbilisSi, xolo regionebSi – dabali. kvlevis Tanaxmad, Tbilisis internet-bazari SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes, rogorc maRali siCqaris internet-momsaxurebis sivrce, konkurentunariani bazari, internet-provaiderebis saqmianobis `sarfiani adgili~, rentabeluri da msyidvelobiTunariani garemo. Tbilisis internet-momxmareblebisaTvis farToa internet-

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provaiderebisa da internet-momsaxurebis speqtri. rac Seexeba saqarTvelos danarCeni 7 regionis internet-garemos, igi SeiZleba daxasiaTdes, rogorc: arakonkurentunari bazari, sadac segmetebis/raionebis eqskluziuri flobaa gavrcelebuli, SeferxebiT muSaobs satelefono sadgurebi, mouwesrigebelia sakabelo meurneoba, dausabuTebelia gaTiSvebi, SezRudvebia internetkavSirSi, dabalia internet-momxmarebelTa dakmayofileba da loialoba. aRniSnuli problemebi eleqtronuli biznesis (aseve, eleqtronuli mTavrobis) ganviTarebas mniSvnelovanad aferxebs; kvlevam cxadyo, rom saqarTvelos internet-bazarze, respondentebSi, popularobiT sargeblobs informaciuli, saganmanaTleblo, onlain turistuli, finansuri momsaxureba. aseve internet-momxmarebelebi aqtiurad moixmaren saZiebo sistemebs, onlain TamaSebs, onlain aplikaciebs, eleqtronul birJasa da momsaxurebis sxva saxeebs; internet-bazris kvlevis safuZvelze dadginda, rom samomxmareblo qcevasa da motivaciaze gavlenas axdens momsaxurebis miRebis xelsayreloba, dabali fasi, momsaxurebis farTo speqtri, Ziebis mcire dro. sazogadoeba gansakuTrebul yuradRebas im internet-kompaniebze amaxvilebs, romelic momxmareblis saWiroebebzea orientirebuli, gaaCniaT efeqturi sainformacio da anonimurobis dacvis politika, moqnili faswarmoqmnis politika; moxmareblebTan swrafi interaqtiuli kavSiri; saqarTvelos sazogadoebis mier onlain media Sefasebulia, rogorc obieqturi, xarisxiani, zus-

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ti, siaxlis swrafad miRebis saSualeba; onlain mediis bazris kvlevisas gamovlinda, rom respondentebi informirebisa da siaxleebis miRebisaTvis, ZiriTadad, iyeneben Facebook-s, Twetter-s, internet-televizias, onlain Jurnalebs, blogebs, multimedis gaziarebis servisebs (Flickr, YouTube), Ria standartebs (wiki), internet-radios; samwuxaroa, rom internet-vaWrobis ekonomiurobis, efeqturobisa da xelsayrelobis miuxedavad, saSualo statistikuri momxmareblis mier onlain momsaxurebis miRebaze gaweuli saSualo xarji mxolod 50-300 lars Seadgens; eleqtronuli biznesis ganviTareba saWiroebs telekomunikaciis modernizebul infrastruqturas (gansakuTrebiT regionebSi), instituciuri wvdomisa da social-ekonomikuri problemebis mogvarebas. aseve, mniSvnelovania TiToeuli ojaxisaTvis internet-wvdomisa da kompiuteris xelmisawvdomobis uzrunvelyofis sakiTxebi; eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebaSi, saxelmwifosTan erTad wamyvani roli kerZo seqtormac unda itvirTos. mocemul etapze, qveyanaSi, kerZo seqtoris susti sicocxlisunarianobidan gamomdinare, regionebis infrastruqturis CamoyalibebaSi mowinave unda iyos mTavroba (magaliTad, aseTi midgomaa aSS-Si, safrangeTSi, did britaneTSi, ruseTSi, indoeTSi). jamSi, eleqtronuli mTavroba da kerZo seqtoris erToblioba, qveynis ekonomikuri keTildReobisaTvis Seqmnis bunebriv sinergias; dabolos, saqarTvelos eleqtronuli biznes garemos ganviTarebisaTvis aucilebelia gatardes

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RonisZiebebi internet-wignierebis zrdis, ekonomikuri mdgomareobis amaRlebis, qarTulenovani kontentis mravalferovnebis mimarTulebebiT. aseve, unda gaizardos informaciuloba, internet-momxmarebelTa segmenti, internet-marketingis instrumentebis gamoyeneba; SemuSavdes efeqturi sagarantio meqanizmebi; efeqturi gaxdes internet-maRaziebis dizaini, gaizardos internet-bazris samTavrobo subsidireba/xelSewyoba; jamSi, kvlevisa da rekomendaciebis Sedegi gamoiwvevs internet-kompaniebis warmoqmnas, dasaqmebis zrdas, umuSevrobis Semcirebas, saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi cifruli ekonomikis matebas (5-20%), bujetis zrdas, sazogadoebis socialekonomikuri keTildReobis zrdas.

3.2.6. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli demokratiis garemo cifrulma teqnologiebma radikalurad Secvala demokratiuli urTierTobebi, politikuri sivrce, xeli Seuwyo moqalaqeebis mTavrobasTan daaxloebas, sajaro marTvaSi CarTulobis zrdas, gamWvirvalobisa da ndobis amaRlebas. teqnologiis ganviTareba demokratiis zrdasTan korelaciur damokidebulebaSi aRmoCnda, romlis pirobebSi, mniSvnelovnad gaizarda mTavrobaze moqalaqeebis realuri gavlena. demokratiuli procesebis gardaqmna arasdros yofila iseTi swrafi, rogorc dRvandel cifrul eraSia. Tavis mxriv, cifrulma garemom xeli Seuwyo eleqtronuli demokratiis procesebis generirebas. rogorc cnobilia, demokratiis pirobebSi moqalaqe

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ufro Tavisufali, informaciuli, Tavdajerebuli, aqtiuri da naklebad mokrZalebulia araefeeqtur mTavrobasTan mimarTebaSi. demokratia warmoadgens mmarTvelobis formas, saxalxo suverenitetis safuZvels, aseve, sazogadoebis Zalis, nebis gamovlinebisa da Tanasworobis sistemas. eleqtronuli demokratia Tanamedroveobis WrilSi, warmodgenilia iseTi RirebulebebiT, romelTa Sorisaa individualizmi, informaciis miRebis ufleba, Zalauflebis gadanawileba samive seqtorze (samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo seqtori), informaciuli sazogadoebis politikuri kulturis formireba, eleqtronuli arCevnebi da saxelmwifo organoebis funqcionireba. zogadad, demokratia yovelTvis sxvadasxva formasa da sidideSi gvevlineboda, romlis sargebelsac moqalaqeebis umravlesoba mudmivad elodeba. dRes, ki demokratiis konteqsti warmodgenilia Tanamedrove teqnologiebiT, romlis safuZvelzec iqna formirebuli eleqtronuli demokratia[143]. Webster-is gansazRvrebiT, demokratia warmoadgens mmarTvelobis formas, rodesac umaRlesi ZalauflebiT xalxia aRWurvili, da pirdapir Tu iribad sistemis meSveobiTaa warmodgenili. eleqtronuli demokratia niSnavs ki, demokratiis gaumjobesebisa da gavrcelebis xelSewyobisaTvis informaciuli teqnologiebis instrumentebis gamoyenebas [144]. eleqtronuli demokratia warmoadgens sazogadoebriv, politikur da sajaro marTvaSi, demokrati aqtorebis mier ICT-sa da strategiebis gamoyenebis process. demokratiuli aqtorebi/seqtorebi moicavs mTavrobas, arCeul oficialur pirebs, medias, politikur organizaciebsa da moqalaqeebs/amomrCevlebs. eleqtronuli demokratia moqalaqeebs internetis, mobiluri komunikacie-

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bisa da warmomadgenlobiTi demokratiis sxva teqnologiuri saSualebebiT aZlevs farTo da aqtiuri monawileobis CarTvis SesaZleblobas [145]. eleqtronuli demokratia (aseve uwodeben cifruli demokratias, eleqtronul CarTulobas), moicavs samTavrobo institutebTan da oficialur pirebTan moqalaqeebis wvdomas. eleqtronuli demokratiis garemoSi, moqlaqeebi, sajaro sakiTxebis ganxilvaSi monawileoben ICT-s meSveobiT. Sesabamisad, eleqtronuli demokratia SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes, rogorc moqalaqeebis cifruli CarTulobis aqtivoba, romelic politikuri gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi, sazogadoebisaTvis gavlenis miniWebiT, nawilobriv Slis (asustebs) mTavrobis Zalas[146]. eleqtronuli demokratia, gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi sazogadoebis monawileobis uzrunvelsayofad, ICT-s mxardaWeras iyenebs (mag.: eleqtronuli monawileoba, eleqtronuli konsultacia, eleqtronuli arCevnebi da a.S.) [147]. eleqtronuli demokratia efuZneba eleqtronul marTvas da fokusirebulia ICT-iT gamowveul qmedebebsa da inovaciebze, maRali donis demokratiuli motivebiTa da ganzraxvebis gaTvaliswinebiT [135]. igi SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes, rogorc saSualeba, instrumenti, mizani da amocana. eleqtronuli demokratia efuZneba demokratiul, adamianur, socialur, sazogadoebis eTikur da kulturul faseulobebs, romelSic is realizdeba. eleqtronuli demokratia ar ganixileba rogorc teqnokratiuli panacea (Coleman, 2005). saqarTveloSi, eleqtronuli demokratiis procesebi demokratiis uzrunvelyofas garantirebs, romelic ICT-s meSveobiT demokratiul institutebsa da demokra-

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tiul procesebs mxars uWers da amtkicebs. ganviTarebul da ganviTarebad qveynebSi aRiarebulia eleqtronuli demokratiis oTx safexuriani modeli[148]: 1. informaciis gavrceleba/gaxsniloba; 2. mosmena/konsultaciebi; 3. onlain ganxilvebi/TaTbirebi; 4. onlain gadawyvetilebis miReba. eleqtronuli demokratiis formirebisaTvis saWiroa eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistema, eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxureba, eleqtronuli konsultacia da urTierToba, onlain biurokratiuli servisi da aplikaciebi, informaciuli sazogadoeba da maTi aqtivoba, saxelmwifos gamWvirvaloba da angariSvaldebuleba, samTavrobo marTvaSi moqalaqeTa CarTuloba. saqarTveloSi, Catarebuli marketinguli kvlevisa da internet-momxmarebelTa Sefasebis safuZvelze qarTuli eleqtronuli demokratiis tendenciebi dadginda. kvlevisas gamovlinda, rom qarTveli eleqtronuli demokratiis garemo da misi uzrunvelyofis aspeqtebi, ZiriTadad, saSualo donezea. Catarebuli marketinguli klevisas gamovlinda, rom internet-momxmarebelTa soliduri nawili - 42,1% qveyanaSi, biurokratiul serviss saSualo doneze afasebs, momxmarebelTa 17,4% maRal da Zalian maRal doneze, xolo momxmarebelTa 11,1% dabal da Zalian dabal doneze, gamokiTxulTa 29.4% saerTod ver afasebs. kvlevisas dadginda, rom eleqtronuli demokratiis mniSvnelovan aspeqts warmoadgens samTavrobo marTvaSi CarTuloba. saqarTveloSi, moqalaqeTa samTavrobo marTvaSi CarTuloba respondentTa 34,4%-is azriT saSualo

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doneze Sefasda; respondentTa 14,4%-is azriT maRal da Zalian maRal doneze, xolo 26,1%-is SefasebiT dabal da Zalian dabal doneze. meoTxedze meti (25,1%) Seadgina gamokiTxulTa raodenobam, romelmac mocemuli sakiTxi ar icis. demokratiuli aspeqtebidan gamomdinare, respondentTa 36,1%-ma saministroebSi rekomendaciebisa da winadadebebis wardgenis SesaZlebloba saSualo doneze Seafasa; gamokiTxulTa 15%-ma aRniSnuli procesi maRal da Zalian maRal doneze Seafasa, xolo gamokiTxulTa 20,5%is azriT, qveyanaSi aRniSnuli mimarTuleba jer kidev problemuri sakiTxia. qveyanaSi, TiTqmis SeuZlebelia biujetis dagegmvis procesSi monawileobis miReba. mxolod calkeul SemTxvevebSi iyo, zogierTi saxelmwifo uwyebis mier SesaZlebeli biujetis dagegmvis procesSi monawileobis SesaZlebloba, Tumca, aRniSnul process, qveyanaSi ar gaaCnia sayovelTao xasiaTi. procesis organizebisaTvis Seqmnili ar aris konkretuli web-saiti, sazogadoebis didi nawilisTvis (28,1%) ucnobic ki aris msgavsi procesis praqtika. gamokiTxulTa 48,9%-azriT saministroebis angariSvaldebulebis done saSualo, maRali da Zalian maRali Sefasebisaa; respondentTa 19,8%-is azriT dabali da Zalian dabali Sefasebisaa, xolo Sefasebisagan Tavi Seikava 31,3%-ma. politikuri procesebis gamWvirvaloba momxmarebelTa 50%-s SefasebiT saSualo, maRal da Zalian maRal donezea; momxmarebelTa 20,7%-s SefasebiT dabal da Zalian dabal doneze, xolo momxmarebelTa 29,3%-s Sefaseba uWirs. aseve, kvlevisas, maRali Sefaseba miiRo dokumentebis ganxilvaSi moqalaqeTa CarTulobam, informaciuli sazogadoebis aqtivobam, eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebam, eleqtronuli konsultaciebisa da eleqtronuli urTierTobis aspeqtebma (ix.histograma 3.21).

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histograma 3.21 qarTuli eleqtronuli demokratiis procesebi

demokratizaciis procesebis xelSewyobisaTvis, ganviTarebul qveynebSi, danergilia sxvadasxva instrumentebi da formebi, romelic xels uwyobs sajaro mmarTvelobis procesebis ganxilvas. erT-erTi farTod gavrcelebuli instrumentia saxelmwifo portali, sadac SesaZlebelia qveynis aRmasrulebel da sakanonmdeblo organoebTan interaqtiuli urTierTqmedeba, sajaro mmarTvelobiT procesebSi aqtiuri CarTva, rekomendaciebisa da

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winadadebebis wardgena da sxva. aRniSnuli mimarTulebiT sajaro mmarTvelobis procesebSi CarTvis iniciativebi trafaretuli da politikuri formatisaa, vidre realuri formatis. marketingulma kvlevam daadastura, rom internetmomxmareblebis 66%-s portalis arsebobis Sesaxeb ar gaugia; 28,5%-s qarTul realobaSi aseTi portalis arsebobis Sesaxeb ar smenia, xolo 5,5%-s miaCnia, rom msgavs funqciebs sxvadasxva saitebi iTavsebs, rac informaciulobis naklebobiTaa ganpirobebuli. respondentTa 45,3% aRniSnavs, rom saqarTveloSi, demokratiis procesebis xelSewyobisaTvis, sazogadoebrivi azris gamoxatvisaTvis, saWiroa saxelmwifo portali; gamokiTxulTa 29,5%-s miaCnia, rom samTavrobo web-saitebze sadiskusio gverdi (forumi) unda arsebobdes; respondentTa 20,2%-s miaCnia, rom informaciulobis politikis marTvaze unda arsebobdes pasuxismgebeli organo; gamokiTxulTa 17,5% demokratiuli procesebis xelSewyobisaTvis asaxelebs onlain sakonsultacio sistemis arsebobis aucileblobas; gamokiTxulTa 9,8%-is azriT saWiroa eleqtronuli mimarTvis servisis arseboba; gamokiTxulTa 9,7%-s azriT ki - saxelmwifos mier organizebuli da warmoebuli onlain kvlevis servisi. mcirea im pirTa segmenti (4,1%), romelmac Tavi Seikava demokratiuli procesis xelSemwyobi faqtorebis dasaxelebisagan (ix. moculobiTi diagrama 3.3). kvlevisas gamovlinda eleqtronuli mTavrobis gavlena demokratiul procesebze da dadginda demokratiuli procesebis zrdis tendenciebi. kvlevis Sedegebma cxadyo, rom eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergviT respondentTa 35,4%-is molodins saxelmwifo marTvaSi moqalaqeTa CarTulobis miRweva warmoadgens; respondentTa

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moculobiTi diagrama 3.3 saqarTvelos demokratiis uzrunvelmyofi procesebi

25,4%-is molodins – demokratiuli procesebis damkvidreba da gaRrmaveba; respondentTa 25,4%-is molodins – saxelmwifos gamWvirvalobis zrda; respondentTa 14,5%is molodins – saxelmwifos angariSvaldebulebis zrda; respondentTa 13,2%-is molodins – moqalaqeebis Tavisuflebis amaRleba da dacva; respondentTa 12%-is molodins – globaluri imijis zrda; respondentTa 9,1%-is molodins – ekonomikuri sargebeli, xolo respondentTa 8%-is molodins – socialuri keTildReobis zrda. aRsaniSnavia momxmarebelTa pasiuri segmentis (9,2%) molodini, romelTac miaCniaT, rom momavalSi cvlilebebi ar

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moxdeba (ix.histograma 3.22). histograma 3.22 eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergviT miRebuli Sedegebi

internet-momxmarebelTa azriT, qveyanaSi eleqtronuli mTavrobis ZiriTad mimarTulebas warmoadgens moqalaqeebTan daaxloeba (aRniSna 24,1%-ma), moqalaqeebis momsaxureba (18%), samTavrobo saqmianobis gamWvirvaloba (12,2%). moqalaqeebis informaciuloba (7,6%), politikuri miznebis gansazRvra (mTavrobis imijis zrda, agitacia, propaganda) (4,5%), demokratiis miRwevis uzrunvelyofa (3,3%), sazogadoebrivi azris formireba (3.2%) (ix.histograma 3.23).

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histograma 3.23 saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi

kvlevis safuZvelze SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom saqarTvelos garemo, eleqtronuli demokratiuli cnobierebis amaRlebas, sazogadoebis koordinirebas, samive seqtoris (samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo seqtoris) efeqtur urTierTqmedebas, sazogadoebrivi faseulobis Seqmnasa da marTvis efeqtianobas saWiroebs. arsebiTia aRiniSnos, rom eleqtronuli mTavroba da demokratia erTad, eleqtronuli demokratiis gansazRvruli pirobaa.

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eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistema demokratiis dones zrdis, romelic ekonomikuri da adamianis ganviTarebis donesTan mimarTebaSi Zlier da pozitiur TanafardobaSia. ekonomikuri donis amaRleba demokratizaciis donis zrdas iwvevs, xolo adamianis ganviTarebis Sedegad warmoiqmneba demokratia. `adamianis ganviTarebaSi~ igulisxmeba ganaTlebis saerTo done, samedicino-sanitarul daxmarebasTan wvdoma, kompiuteris/ internetis misawvdomoba da sxva momsaxureba, romelic amartivebs cxovrebas da saWiroa srulfasovani moqalaqis cxovrebisaTvis[149].

3.2.7. eleqtronuli mTavrobis gamowvevebi eleqtronuli mTavroba (e-mTavroba) ganixileba, rogorc krizisis, politikuri ryevebis socialur-ekonomikuri gamowvevebis marTvis efeqturi forma. igi warmoadgens qveynis progresis, mdgradobis xelSewyobis, politikisa da socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis ZiriTadi platformas. misi strategiis ekonomikuri roli ganxilulia, rogorc ekonomikuri recesiis winaaRmdeg brZolisa da ekonomikis aRdgenis programa. saqarTvelos sabWoTa kavSiridan gamoyofis Semdgom, qveyana mudmivi ekonomikuri, socialuri da politikuri gamowvevebisa da problemebis daZlevaSia. aRniSnuli droidan moyolebuli mTavrobac da sazogadoebac mudmivad eZebs efeqturi ekonomikuri politikis midgomebs, socialuri sakiTxebis mogvarebis gzebs, saxelmwifos marTvis qmedunarian instrumentebs, rac sxvadasxva wlebSi sxvadasxva SedegebiT iyo warmodgenili. dRes, msgavs midgomasa da instruments eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistema warmoadgens[150]. ganviTarebul saxelmwifoebSi social-ekonomikuri

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da politikuri problemebis daZlevis instruments eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistema warmoadgens. aRiarebulia, rom eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis ZiriTadi gamowvevebi mravalferovania, romelic SeiZleba Semdegi niSniT dajgufdes [151]: finansuri aspeqtebi (dafinanseba, struqturuli xarjebi, ganviTarebis xarjebi, instituciuri xarjebi, internetis xarji, momsaxurebis ganviTarebis xarji, eleqtronuli mTavrobis servisis xarji, eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis danergvisa da implementaciis xarji); organizaciuli aspeqtebi (marTvis jgufi, xelmZRvaneloba, adamianuri kapitalis ganviTareba, organizaciuli motivacia, informaciis marTva, Sida efeqtianoba, kerZo da saxelmwifo seqtors Soris TanamSromloba, Sefasebis struqtura, gamWvirvaloba, moqalaqeTa CarTuloba); politikuri aspeqtebi (politikuri situacia, politikur-administraciuli marTvis sistema, sajaro administrirebis reforma, Sesyidvebis regulireba, eleqtronuli mTavrobis politikis uzrunvelyofa, mediis Tavisufleba, politikuri neba, monacemTa konfidencialobis dacva, eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategia, regulirebis sakiTxebi, monacemTa standartizacia, ICT-is gamoyenebis nacionaluri politika); social-ekonomikuri aspeqtebi (internet-wigniereba, ekonomikuri ganviTareba, kultura, demografia, cifruli kultura, siRaribe, korufcia, konkurentuli garemo, enobrivi barieri, ekonomikis mdgradoba, IT faseulobis aRqma, komunikacia, umuSevrobis done, ganaTlebis done, kompiuteris xelmi-

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sawvdomoba da internetis xelmisawvdomoba); adamianuri resursebi, adamianuri aspeqti (adamianuri resursi, swavlebis kontenti/resursebi, informirebuloba, ndoba, sazogadoebrivi mxardaWera, kvalificiuri personali, genderuli balansi, moqalaqeTa CarTulobis dabali done, potenciali, eleqtronuli mzadyofan); infrastruqturuli aspeqtebi (ICT infrastruqtura, usafrTxoeba, konfidencialoba, informaciis gacvlis urTierTqmedeba, internetTan wvdoma, TanamSromlobis sistema, samTavrobo web-saitebis mxardaWera, monacemTa gadacemis sistema, cifruli uTanasworoba, kiberusafrTxoeba). aRsaniSnavia eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis marketinguli kvlevis Sedegebi, romelic moicavs eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Semaferxebel mizezebsa da ZiriTad gamowvevebs, maT Soris: saxelmwifos internet-regulireba, regionTaSorisi cifruli uTanasworoba, infrastruqturis modernizaciis aucilebloba, kompiuterizaciisa da internetizaciis problemebi, socialekonomikuri faqtorebi. mimdinare aTaswleulSi, saqarTvelom, mniSvnelovan progress miaRwia informaciuli teqnologiebis realizaciis, internet-momxmarebelTa raodenobis zrdis, eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis, eleqtronuli momsaxurebis sistemis gafarToebis, cifruli procesebis, mSp-Si informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis wilis zrdis mimarTulebiT. qveyana mowinavea eleqtronuli CarTulobis amaRlebis, cenzuris Semcirebis, ganaTlebis, aqtivobis, informaciuli Tavisuflebisa da demokratiuli procesebis zrdis konteqstSi.

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pozitiuri faqtorebis miuxedavad, qarTuli sazogadoebis winaSe eleqtronuli mTavrobis problemebis farTo speqtria warmodgenili, romelic marketinguli kvlevis safuZvelze iqna dadgenili. marketinguli kvlevis farglebSi Seswavlili iqna internet-regulirebis sakiTxi, romelic jansaRi da demokratiuli sazogadoebis Camoyalibebis instrumenti, usafrTxo internet-bazris formirebis saSualeba, Tavisuflebis xarisxis sazomi da eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistemis ganviTarebis uzrunvelmyofi instrumentia. kvlevam cxadyo, rom qarTuli internet-garemo saWiroebs normatiul-samarTlebriv bazas (miiCnevs respondentTa 23,3%), saxelmwifo kontrolis meqanizmebs (fiqrobs respondentTa 12,2%), sazogadoebrivi kontrolis meqanizmebs (aRniSnavas gamokiTxulTa 8,5%). amasTan, respondenTa 15,2% Tvlis, rom interneti sazogadoebrivi TviTregulirebis meqanizmia da Sesabamisad, ar saWiroebs saxelmwifos Carevas. maTi SefasebiT, saxelmwifos internet regulirebaSi Careva niSnavs demokratiuli Rirebulebebis, sityvis Tavisuflebis, Sexedulebebisa da azris gamoxatvis xelyofas, gamokiTxulTa 14,9% iziarebs im mosazrebas, rom internetis kontroli SeuZlebelia, xolo 25,9%-ma pasuxis gacemisagan Tavi Seikava (ix. wriuli diagrama 3.6). saqarTveloSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesis ganviTarebis Semaferxebeli faqtorebis Sefasebisas momxmarebelTa 26,3% internetis xelmisawvdomobis problemas asaxelebs (fasi, gavrcelebis areali da sxva); gamokiTxulTa 24,8% kompiuterizaciis dabal dones miiCnevs (kompiuteris fasi, yidvis SesaZlebloba, misawvdomoba); respondentTa 22,7% ICT-is sferoSi wignierebis dabal

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wriuli diagrama 3.6 internet-garemos regulireba

dones asaxelebs; kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 22,2% internetis dabal siCqares aRniSnavs; respondenTa 22,1% aqcents dabal informaciulobaze akeTebs (eleqtronul mTavrobaze); gamokiTxulTa 18,1% ki, e-mTavrobis erovnuli strategiis uqonlobas asaxelebs. aseve, internet-momxmarebeli miiCnevs, rom eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesis ganviTarebis Semaferxebeli faqtorebia: arasaTanado samarTlebrivi garemo, eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis speqtri, ndobis uqonloba, araefeqturi produqtebi, cifruli xelmoweris mflobelTa mcire raodenoba, monacemTa konfidencialobis dacva, inteleqtualuri sakuTrebisa da kopiraiTis dacva (ix.histograma 3.24).

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histograma 3.24 eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Semaferxebeli mizezebi

aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelo erT-erTi uTanasworo saxelmwifoa. uTansworoba, romelic arsebobs cifrul garemoSi gavlenas axdens qveynis ekonomikur, politikur, socialur da teqnologiur ganviTarebaze. cifruli uTanasworoba warmoadgens socialur problemas, romelic gulisxmobs internet-qselTan, in-

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formaciul da sakomunikacio teqnologiebTan, mediasTan wvdomis mqone pirebsa da wvdomis ar mqone pirebs Soris gansxvavebas [26]. gaeros kvlevis (E-Government Survey, 2014) angariSiT, saqarTveloSi, cifruli uTanasworobas internetis dabali moxmareba da Semosavlebis dabali done ganapirobebs. mniSvnelovani uTanasworobaa teqnologiuri unarebis, cifrul wignierebis, informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis misawvdomobaSi, informaciul codnasa da resursebis gamoyenebaSi. mniSvnelovani gansxvavebaa regionebs Soris ICT-is misawvdomobis uzrunvelyofaSi. kvlevisas dadginda, rom regionebi ufro maRali uTanasworobiT sargeblobs, vidre Tbilisi. respondenTa umravlesobas (51%) miaCnia, rom Tbilissa da regionebs Soris arsebuli uTanasworoba saSualo da maRali donisaa; internet-momxmarebelTa 13,9%-iziarebs im azrs, rom uTanasworoba maRali araa, xolo kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 35,1% uTanasworobis dones ver afasebs (ix.wriuli diagrama 3.7). empiriul kvlevebSi, cifruli uTanasworoba ganxilulia, rogorc socialuri fenomeni, romelic qveyanaSi socialuri da ekonomikuri uTanasworobis barometria. cifruli uTanasworobis daxasiaTebisas, internetizaciisa da kompiuterizaciis aspeqtebis garda, mniSvnelovania gaTvaliswinebuli iqnes internetis xarisxi, siCqare, servisi, fasebi, mosaxleobaSi internet-SeRweva, mobiluri kavSirisa da satelefono sistemis gamoyeneba, telekomunikaciis infrastruqturis mdgomareoba[26]. saqarTvelos, regionTaSorisi cifruli uTanasworobis Sefasebisas, respondentTa 29,7% uTanasworobis

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wriuli diagrama 3.7 regionTaSorisi cifruli uTanasworobis Sefaseba

gamomwvev faqtorad regionebSi arsebul dabali xarisxis internets asaxelebs (TbilisTan SedarebiT); respondentTa 29,6% ICT-Si ganaTlebisa da codnis dones miiCnevs; gamokiTxulTa 26% socialur-ekonomikur fons asaxelebs; kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 18,6% regionebSi profesionaluri kadrebis deficits aRniSnavs; gamokiTxulTa 18,4% dabal internet-kulturasa da unar-Cvevebs miiCnevs; respondentTa 15% regionis mosaxleobis dabal aqtivobas asaxelebs. internet-momxmarebelTa 13,8% fiqrobs, rom uTanasworobis erT-erT safuZvels informaciuli vakuumi warmoadgens. garda amisa, kvlevam cxadyo, rom regionebSi dabali socialur-ekonomikuri fonis gamo internet-kompaniebis interesi, mxolod did qalaqebzea fokusirebuli (miiCnevs respondentTa 7,8). aseve, gamokiTxulTa 7,2% aRniSnavs, rom saxelmwifos mzaoba, mxo-

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lod Tbilisis eleqtronul ganviTarebazea orientirebuli (ix. histograma 3.25). histograma 3.25 saqarTvelos regionTaSorisi cifruli uTanasworobis gamomwvevi mizezebi

saqarTvelos cifruli uTanasworobis gamomwvev mizezad gvevlineba daubalanesebeli cifruli politika, mosaxleobis dabali Semosavlebi, kompiuterizaciis dagvianebuli procesi, informaciuloba, internet-wigniereba da sxva; saqarTvelos regionebSi, telekomunikaciis infrastruqtura savalalo mdgomareobaSia, romelic araTanab-

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radaa ganviTarebuli. qveyanaSi SeuZlebelia telekomunikaciis infrastruqturis mdgomareobis sruli suraTis asaxva. ar moipoveba informacia qveynis infrastruqturis (telekomunikacia, energetika, gza, wyali) saerTo mdgomareobis, infrastruqturis reabilitaciisaTvis saWiro vadebis, modernizebisaTvis saWiro xarjebis, dafinansebis savaraudo wyaroebis, modernizebisaTvis saWiro teqnologiebisa da kadrebis Sesaxeb). ganviTarebul infrastruqturas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs internet-bazris ganviTarebis, ekonomikuri zrdis miRwevis, siRaribis masStabebis Semcirebisa da samuSao adgilebis SeqmnisaTvis. ganviTarebadi qveynebis infrastruqtura didi moculobis dafinansebas saWiroebs, romlis uzrunvelyofac saxelmwifo da kerZo seqtoris partniorobis safuZvelze moziduli kapitaliTa da finansuri garantiebis instrumentebiTaa SesaZlebeli. sadac, saxelmwifo dafinanseba gamoyenebuli unda iqnes infrastruqturuli proeqtebis investirebis mimzidvelobisa da gaumjobesebis riskebis minimizaciiT[152]. mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos, rom eleqtronuli mTavrobis teqnologiebs ekonomikuri resursis saxiT ganixilaven, romlis gavrcelebasac qveynis ekonomikaSi mniSvnelovani wvlili Seaqvs. Sesabamisad, eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis dones mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiri aqvs qveynis ganviTarebisa da social-ekonomikuri sargeblis zrdasTan. niSandoblivia aRniSnuli iqnes kvlevis Sedegi, romelic cxadyofs saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis ZiriTad prioritetebs. marketinguli kvlevis Sedegebis Tanaxmad, respodentTa 25%-s miaCnia, rom saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis ZiriTad prioritets qveyanaSi arsebuli resursebi unda warmoadgendes; respondentTa 26,3% fiqrobs, rom prioritetad biznes seqtoris iniciativebi da inovaciebi unda ganixilebode; gamokiT-

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xulTa 23,6%-is azriT, qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis ZiriTad prioritets, ultraRaribi mosaxleobis cxovrebis donis amaRleba unda warmoadgendes. kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 22,6%-s surs, rom saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis ZiriTadi prioriteti eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTareba iyos. aseve, kvlevaSi monawile pirebis azriT, saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis ZiriTad prioritetad unda ganisazRvros finansuri da sadazRvevo seqtoris momsaxurebasTan xelmisawvdomoba, mecnierebis xelSewyoba, inovaciebi telekomunikaciis seqtorSi, cifruli politika da sxva (ix.histograma 3.26). histograma 3.26 saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis prioritetebi

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

marketinguli kvlevis procesSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis analizisa da Sefasebisas, respondentTa 32,6% eyrdoba pirad azrsa da Sexedulebas, gamokiTxulTa 21,5% – faqtobriv monacemebs, kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 20% Sefasebas sazogadoebaSi damkvidrebuli Sexedulebisa da gavrcelebuli mosazrebiT axorcielebs, momxmarebelTa 15,1% mediaSi arsebuli informaciis safuZvelze msjelobs, internet-momxmarebelTa 5,5% mecnierul Sromebsa da kvlevebs eyrdnoba, xolo respondentTa 5,3% – sxva wyaroebs (ix. wriuli diagrama 3.8). wriuli diagrama 3.8 eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis informirebis wyaroebi

kvlevis analizis safuZvelze SeiZleba aRvniSnoT, rom saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis ga-

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mowvevebisa da problemebis speqtri mravalferovania. Sesabamisad, gamowvevebis pasuxs mxolod erTi an ori komponenti ar warmoadgens, rac misi sistemuri da kompleqsuri midgomis saWiroebaze metyvelebs. saqarTveloSi, respondentebis 44% saWirod miiCnevs internet-garemos regulirebas kanonebiT, saxelmwifos administrirebiTa da sazogadoebrivi kontrolis meqanizmebiT. naSromSi gansazRvrulia saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesis ganviTarebis Semaferxebeli faqtorebi, sadac momxmarebeli internetisa da kompiuteris xelmisawvdomobas, internet-wignierebas, informaciulobas, internet-siCqares, strategiis uqonlobas, dacvisa da usafrTxoebis sakiTxebs kritikulad afasebs. cifruli uTanasworobis SemuSavebisaTvis saWiroa marketinguli programebis ganxorcieleba, saxelmwifos mxardamWeri da xelSemwyobi RonisZiebebis gatareba. regionTaSorisi cifruli uTanasworobis Semcireba unda gaxdes rogorc centraluri, ise adgilobrivi mTavrobis mizani da amocana. Catarebuli kvlevis Sedegad rekomendirebulia, rom saqarTvelos ganviTarebis ZiriTad prioritets arsebul resursebze, inovaciebsa da eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebaze fokusireba warmoadgendes. aseve, saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis gamowvevebisa da problemebis gadaWrisaTvis SeiZleba ganxiluli iqna Semdegi sakiTxebi: saqarTveloSi, internet-momxmarebelTa mxolod mcire segmenti flobs eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis Sesaxeb, sruli speqtris informacias. Sesabamisad, eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistema saWiroebs informaciul propagandas, sas-

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

wavlo programebs, finansur mxardaWeras (sabiujeto dafinansebis zrdas), regionis materialurteqnikur mxardaWeras, mosaxleobis farTo fenebisaTvis kompiuterisa da internetis xelmisawvdomobas, infrastruqturis modernizebas (regionebSi), internet-wignierebis amalebis RonisZiebebs, onlain momsaxurebis farTo speqtrsa da aplikaciebs; saqarTveloSi, praqtikulad, SeuZlebelia moipovo informacia telekomunikaciis infrastruqturis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb (informacia ar arsebobs), xolo saxelmwifo uwyebebidan informaciis moTxovnis SemTxvevaSi an monacemi ar gaaCniaT (saqarTvelos komunikaciebis erovnuli komisia) an gpasuxoben, rom informacia saxelmwifo saidumloebas warmoadgens (saqarTvelos ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministro). amitom, qveyanaSi, rTulia gansazRvro telekomunikaciis infrastruqturis arsebuli mdgomareoba, asaxo infrastruqturis reabilitaciis saWiro xarji, vada da resursi. Sesabamisad, problemebis Seswavlisa da Sefasebis gareSe warmodgenili ganviTarebis strategiuli gegmebi zogadia; arsebul realobaSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis usafrTxo da stabiluri garemos formirebis uzrunvelyofisaTvis, saWiroa samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo seqtoris TanabarmonawileobiTi zrunva; dabolos, usafrTxo eleqtronuli mTavrobis formirebisaTvis aucilebelia axali teqnologiebis, politikis, procedurebis, kanonebisa da dargobrivi standartebis arseboba.

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3.2.8. internet-momxmarebelTa social-demografiuli maCvenebeli internetis garemo Sedgeba nebismieri socialuri fenis, ganaTlebis donis, Sexedulebisa Tu faseulobis mqone pirebisagan. internetisadmi interesi gaaCnia sqesasakobrivi struqturis yvela warmomadgenels. marTalia, moxmarebis mxriv, internet-bazari ZiriTadad axalgazrda auditoriiT warmodgeba, Tumca internetis sargeblobis survili da gamoyenebis miswrafeba yvela asakSi maRalia. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis marketingul kvlevaSi monawile pirTa sqes-asakobrivi struqtura gviCvenebs Semdegs: respondentTa 59% warmoadgens qals da 41% mamakacs, romelTa asakobrivi kategoria mravalferovania. kerZod: internet-momxmarebelTa 42,1% 18-22 wlis asakis Taobas warmoadgens, internet-momxmarebelTa 14,3% - 23-28 wlis, internet-momxmarebelTa 10,9% - 29-35 wlis, internet-momxmarebelTa 15,5% - 36-45 wlis, internet-momxmarebelTa 11,9% - 46-55 wlis, internet-momxmarebelTa 3,9% -56-65 wlis da internet-momxmarebelTa 1,4% 65 welze zeviT asakis warmomadgenlebs warmoadgens (ix.histograma 3.27) [153]. internet-momxmarebelTa aqtivobisa da eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis gamoyenebaSi kvlav umniSvnelovanes sakiTxs ganaTleba da wigniereba warmoadgens. kvlevaSi monawile pirTa ganaTlebis kvlevam cxadyo Semdegi: internet-momxmarebelTa naxevari (49,6%) umaRlesi ganaTlebis mqone pirebs warmoadgenen, gamokiTxulTa meoTxeds aRemateba student-axalgazrdoba (27,1%), SedarebiT mcirea profesiul teqnikuri saswavleblis kursdamTavrebulTa (9,4%) da saSualo skolis ganaTlebis mqone (8,6%) segmenti. umniSvnelova daumTavrebeli

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histograma 3.27 internet-momxmarebelTa ganawileba asakis mixedviT

profesiul-teqnikuri ganaTlebis mqone studentebis segmenti (5,3%) (ix. histograma 3.28). socialuri kategoriis mixedviT internet-momxmarebelTa 61,2% dasaqmebulia, xolo 38,8% dausaqmebeli/droebiT umuSevari.maT Soris 25,2% muSaobs ganaTlebis sferoSi, respondentTa 11,1% – saxelmwifo seqtorSi, kvlevaSi monawile pirTaA 8,8% – biznes seqtorSi, gamokiTxulTa 6,1% – momsaxurebis seqtorSi, respondentTa 4% – arasamTavrobo seqtorSi, 1,4% -mSeneblobis seqtorSi, internet-momxmarebelTa 1,3% – soflis meurneobis seqtorSi, gamokiTxulTa 1,1% – mrewvelobis seqtorSi, momxmarebelTa 0,6% – saerTaSoriso organizaci

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histograma 3.28 internet-momxmarebelTa ganawileba ganaTlebis mixedviT

ebSi, xolo sxva seqtori gamokiTxulTa 1,6%-ma daasaxela (ix.histograma 3.29). mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos, rom kvlevaSi monawileoba miiRo saqarTvelos yvela regionma, sadac Tbilisis regionis respondentTa raodenobam 23,5% Seadgina, mcxeTa-mTianeTis regionis respondenTa raodenobam – 2,1%, qvemo qarTlis regionis respondenTa raodenobam -1,9%, Sida qarTlis regionis respondenTa raodenobam – 1%, aWara-guriis regionis respondenTa raodenobam -20,5%, samcxe-javaxeTis regionis respondenTa raodenobam – 4%, imereTis regionis respondenTa raodenobam -23,5%,

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histograma 3.29 internet-momxmarebelTa ganawileba dasaqmebis seqtoris mixedviT

samegrelo-zemo svaneTis regionis respondenTa raodenobam 2,5%, kaxeTis regionis respondenTa raodenobam – 20,3%, xolo afxazeTis regionis respondentTa raodenobam - 0,7% (ix. wriuli diagrama 3.9). respondentTa ojaxis saSualoTviuri Semosavali ZiriTadad 1000 laramdea, sadac 300 laramde gaaCnia respondentTa 8,9%-s, 301-500 lari – momxmarebelTa16,5%-s, 501-800 lari – kvlevaSi monawile pirTa 15,3%-s, 801-1000 lari 13,5 %-s. respondentTa 15,6% maRalSemosavlian

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wriuli diagrama 3.9 internet-momxmarebelTa ganawileba sacxovrebeli regionis mixedviT

ojaxebs warmoadgens, romelTa Semosavali aRemateba 1000 lars. kvlevisas Semosavalis dasaxelebisagan Tavi Seikava 30,2%-ma (ix. histograma 3.30). amrigad, daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba aRvniSnoT, rom kvlevaSi monawile regionebis internet-momxmarebelTa segmentis portreti Semdegnairad gamoiyureba: gamokiTxulTa 62,2% dasaqmebulia, respondentTa 54,2%-is ojaxis Tviuri Semosavali saSualod 300-dan 1000 laramdea, romelic ZiriTadad warmodgenilia 18-45 wlis asakobrivi kategoriiT (82,8%), maTgan 59% warmoadgens qals, xolo 41% mamakacs.

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histograma 3.30 internet-momxmarebelTa ganawileba Semosavlebis mixedviT

3.2.9. hipoTezis testireba kvlevis miznebis misaRwevad daigegma sakvlevi hipoTezebis testireba. naSromSi hipoTezebis Sesamowmeblad gamoyenebulia kros-tabulacia, xi-kvadratis, Anova-s testis statistika, SPSS-is gamoyenebiT. amiT dgindeba, aris Tu ara cvladebs Soris kavSiri statistikurad mniS-

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vnelovani, xolo calkeuli SemTxvevisaTvis metrul (igive intervalur-fardobiT) cvladebs Soris kavSiris gamosavlenad gamoyenebulia korelacia, martivi wrfivi regresia. dadgenilia aris Tu ara kavSiri statistikurad mniSvnelovani, roca a=0.05. indeqsebis formirebis meqanizmi: 1. faqtoruli analizis gamoyenebiT moxda miTiTebul blokebSi Semavali kiTxvebis gamoyenebiT faqtorebis gamoyofa 2. ierarqiuli klasteruli analizis gamoyenebiT, moxda faqtorebis mniSvnelobebis dayofa damaxasiaTebel 5 segmentad. 3. regresiuli analizis gamoyenebiT dadginda faqtoris gansazRvraSi TiToeuli kiTxvis wona, risi gamoyenebiTac faqtori iqna normirebuli [0;1] intervalSi. sadac 0 – niSnavs, rom faqtorSi Semavali yvela kiTxva iRebs minimalur mniSmnelobas, xolo 1- niSnavs, rom faqtorSi Semavali yvela kiTxva iRebs maqsimalur mniSvnelobas.

 B x K

Y

i

i 1

 B x

i

 x i,min 

K

i 1

i

i,max

 x i,min 

Y - indeqsis mniSvneloba

x i - blokSi Semavali i-uri kiTxvis mniSvneloba.

x i,min - blokSi Semavali i-uri kiTxvis yvelaze dabali mniSvneloba.

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

xi,max - blokSi Semavali i-uri kiTxvis yvelaze maRali mniSvneloba.

B i - blokSi Semavali i-uri kiTxvis regresiis koeficienti faqtoris gansazRvraSi. saanalizo cvladebs Soris statistikurad sarwmuno kavSirs adasturebs pirsonis korelacia, rodesac a=0.05 aRmoCnda, 3.5 cxrilSi korelaciis TiToeuli koeficienti mniSvnelovnad aRemateba, rac dadebiT kavSirze miuTiTebs. pirsonis korelacia saqarTveloSi, samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo uwyebebis web-saitebis Sefasebis qulasa da eleqtronuli mTavrobis praqtikuli danergvisa da uzrunvelyofis procesis Sefasebis qulas Soris aris 0.547. es niSnavs, rom mizezSedegobrivi kavSiri saSualoze maRalia. rac gulisxmobs, rom aRniSnul or cvlads Soris mizezSedegobrivi kavSiri aris saSualoze maRali, rac gulisxmobs, rom erT-erTi cvladis qula Tu maRalia, es iwvevs meore cvladis qulis amaRlebas. cxrilidan Cans, rom aRniSnuli cvladis yvelaze maRali korelacia aris saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebis Sefasebis cvladTan, xolo saSualoze dabalia danarCen sam cvladTan (eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebze informirebis, samTavrobis momsaxurebis sargeblis, eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistemis Sefasebisas). rac Seexeba sandoobis maCvenebeli Sig. (2-tailed) naklebia 0.05, rac niSnavs, rom damokidebuleba sandoa da SesaZlebelia ganvazogadoT generalur erTobliobaze (ix. cxrili 3.5).

227


rati abulaZe

228

e.m. praqtikuli danergvisa da uzrunvelyofis procesis Seafaseba

gTxovT SeafasoT eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebze Tqveni informireba_ indeqsi:

gTxovT, aRniSnoT TqvenTvis samTavrobis momsaxurebis sargebeli _indeqsi

SeafaseTe, m. s. sistema indeqsi

gTxovT SeafasoT saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebi_indeqsi

samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo uwyebebis web-saitebis Sefaseba saqarTveloSi e.m. praqtikuli danergvisa da uzrunvelyofis procesis Seafaseba eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis informireba indeqsi: e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis sargeblis Sefaseba indeqsi

SeafaseT samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo uwyebebis web-saitebi saqarTveloSi:

cxrili 3.5 pirsonis korelaciis koeficientebi (Correlations)

1

0.547**

0.126**

0.198**

0.304**

0.515**

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

1600

1600

1600

1600

1600

1600

PearsonC orrelation Sig. (2tailed) N

0.547**

1

0.262**

0.255**

0.351**

0.553**

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

1600

1600

1600

1600

1600

1600

PearsonC orrelation Sig. (2tailed) N

0.126**

0.262**

1

0.247**

0.127**

0.160**

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

1600

1600

1600

1600

1600

1600

PearsonC orrelation Sig. (2tailed) N

0.198**

0.255**

0.247**

1

0.237**

0.229**

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

1600

1600

1600

1600

1600

1600

PearsonC orrelation Sig. (2tailed) N

0.000


3.5 cxrilis gagrZeleba saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia SeafaseTe, PearsonC m. s. siste- orrelation ma indeqsi Sig. (2tailed) N qarTvelos PearsonC samTavro- orrelation bo webSig. (2gverdebi tailed) indeqsi N

0.304**

0.351**

0.127**

0.237**

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

1600

1600

1600

1600

**

0.515

**

0.553

**

0.160

0.000 1600

**

0.229

0.424**

1

1600

**

1

0.424

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

1600

1600

1600

1600

1600

1600

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

cvladebs Soris wrfivi urTierTkavSiris siZlieris dasadgenad gamoyenebuli iqna wrfivi regresiuli analizi. wrfivi regresiuli analizi gamoiyeneba im SemTxvevaSi, roca damokidebuli cvladi aris 1, xolo damoukidebeli cvladebi ramdenime. 3.6 cxrilSi vigebT determinaciis koeficients, romelic icvleba 0;1 da gviCvenebs ramdenad kargad ixsneba damoukidebeli cvladebis erTobliobiT damokidebuli cvladi. me-14 cxrilSi, determinaciis koeficinti axloa saSualosTan (0.366), magram damokidebuleba sandoa. amis arguments warmoadgens cxrili 15, sadac damoukidebeli cvladis sandoobis koeficientebi 0.05-ze naklebia (ix. cxrili 3.6). cxrili 3.6 wrfivi regresiuli analizi Model 1

R 0.366a

R Square 0.134

Adjusted R Square 0.125

Std. Error of the Estimate 0.13852

TiToeuli damoukidebeli cvladis mniSvnelovnebas damokidebuli cvladis gansazRvraSi gviCvenebs 3.7 cxrili, sadac aRniSnul cvladebidan damokidebul cvladze

229


rati abulaZe

yvelaze maRali gavlena gaaCnia eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebze informirebis koeficients da Seadgens 0.186, xolo yvelaze dabali gavlena e-mTavrobis praqtikuli danergvisa da uzrunvelyofis procesis Sefasebis koeficients gaaCnia. asakobrivi jgufebidan pozitiuri damokidebulebisken midrekileba aqvT axalgazrdebs, razec metyvelebs asakis gavlenis ganmsazRvreli koeficienti aris uaryofiTi (ix.cxrili 3.7). cxrili 3.7 regresiul analizSi monawile damoukidebeli cvladebis koeficientebi Standardi zedCoeff icients Std. Error B Beta 0.245 0.038

6.512 0.000

0.102

0.048

0.090

2.132 0.033

0.137

0.024

0.186

5.723 0.000

0.107

0.027

0.139

3.927 0.000

-0,006

0.003

-0.064

-1.725 0.085

Unstandardized Coefficients

(Constant) e-mTavrobis praqtikuli danergvisa da uzrunvelyofis procesis Seafaseba eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebze informireba: SeafaseT emTavrobis sistema asaki

t

Sig.

faqtoruli analizis gamoyenebiT, miTiTebul blokebSi Semavali kiTxvebiT faqtorebis gamoyofa moxda. 3.8 cxrilSi web-saitebis Sefasebis 9 parametri (debuleba) warmoadgens erT faqtors, rac faqtoruli analizis gamoyenebiT dadginda. me-16 cxrilSi mocemulia

230


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

TiToeuli parametris (faqtoruli wona) korelacia Sedgenil faqtorTan. faqtoruli wona (korealaciis koeficienti) aris -1;+1 Soris. rac niSnavs, rom 9 parametri namdvilad warmoadgens 1 faqtors. cxrili 3.8 faqtoruli analizi samoqalaqo, kerZod da saxelmwifo uwyebebis web-saitebis Sefasebis mixedviT (Component Matrixa) komponentebi

faqtoruli wonebi

biznes seqtoris web-saitebi

1 0,612

saministroebis web-saitebi

0,770

sakanonmdeblo organos web-saitebi centraluri mTavrobis departamentebis/uwyebebis web-saitebi adgilobrivi mTavrobis (municipalitetis, raionis) web-saitebi arasamTavrobo seqtoris web-saitebi umaRlesi da zogadsaganmanaTleblo seqtorisweb-saitebi samoqalaqo seqtoris web-saitebi saqarTveloSi arsebuli saerTaSoriso organizaciebis web-saitebi

0,751 0,758 0,599 0,658 0,698 0,654 0,687

ierarqiuli klasteruli analizis gamoyenebiT, mosaxleoba misTvis damaxisiaTebel 5 segmentad daiyo. cxrilSi, pirveli sveti aris Sefasebis saSualo mniSvneloba; meore svetSi - segmentis moculoba; mesame sveti aris standartuli gadaxra, xolo meoTxe sveti aris saSualo cdomileba. cxrilSi saSualoze Zalian dabali maCveneblis moculoba aris 16.8%, maCveneblis mniSvneloba – 0.44, rac ar aris dabali, Tumca saSualosTan SedarebiT dabalia; saSualoze dabali mniSvneloba Seafasa respon-

231


rati abulaZe

Std. Error of Mean

Std. Deviation

Sefasebis segmenti

CL_VEB_SAIT_SEFASEB A SeafaseT samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo uwyebebis web-saitebi saqarTveloSi

Sefasebis indeqsi

dentTa 16.7%-ma, maCveneblis mniSvneloba – 0.56; saSualo mniSvneloba Seafasa respondentTa 45.76%-ma, maCveneblis mniSvneloba – 0.66, rac aris maRali, saSualosTan SedarebiT meti; saSualoze maRali mniSvneloba Seafasa respondentTa 15.4%-ma, mniSvneloba – 0.77, rac saSualosTan SedarebiT Zalian maRalia; xolo saSualoze Zalian maRali mniSvneloba 5.92%-ma. mniSvneloba – 0.91, rac aris saSualoze Zalian maRalia (ix. cxrili 3.9). cxrili 3.9 saqarTveloSi samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo uwyebebis web-saitebis Sefaseba

1 saSualoze Zalian dabali 2 saSualoze dabali 3 saSualo

0,4438

16,85%

0,10

0,01

0,5641 0,6620

16,07% 45,76%

0,02 0,03

0,00 0,00

4 saSualoze maRali 5 saSualoze Zalian maRali

0,7760

15,40%

0,03

0,00

5,92%

0,05

0,01

Total

0,6421 100,00%

0,13

0,00

0,9164

dispersiuri analizis gamoTvla gviCvenebs damokidebulebas, imis Sesaxeb, rom Cvens mier gamoyofili segmentebi namdvilad gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan indeqsis (web-saitebis Sefasebis indeqsebis mixedviT) msjelobebis mixedviT. mniSvnelobis asaxvisaTvis gamoyenebuli iqna fiSe-

232


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

ris statistika, romelic gviCvenebs SigniTa da jgufebsSorisi dispersiebis fardobas. saqarTveloSi samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo uwyebebis web-saitebis Sefasebis sandooba aris 0.05 naklebi, rac gviCvenebs rom Cvens mier SemoRebuli jgufebi web-saitebis Sefasebis mixedviT namdvilad gansxvavdebian erT maneTisagan (ix. cxrili 3.10). cxrili 3.10 ANOVA-s cxrili (web-saitebis Sefasebis indeqsebis mixedviT)

saqarTveloSi Between (Comsamoqalaqo, kerZo da saxel- Groups bined) mwifo uwyebebis web-saitebi SeaWithin Groups faseba * saqarTveloSi samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo uwyebebis Total web-saitebi Seafaseba

Sum of Squares

df

13,443

4

2,340

1600

15,783

1600

Mean Square

F

Sig.

3,361 1279,758 0,000

0,003

TiToeuli segmentis aRwera faqtorul analizSi Semavali parametrebis gamoyenebiT moxda. samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo uwyebebis web-saitebis Sefaseba, krostabulaciuri analizis gamoyenebiT gviCvenebs 3.11 cxrili. cxrilis mixedviT saSualoze dabal jgufSi gaerTianda is respondentebi, romlebsac parametrebis mixedviT ZiriTadad miRebuli aqvs Sefaseba saSualo da ufro dabali. saSualoze dabali mniSvneloba TiToeuli parametrebis mixedviT aqvs 20-dan 25%-s, Tu cxrils gavanalizebT aRmoCndeba, rom respondentebma, romlebmac erT-erT parametrSi miiRo saSualo, Semdeg sxva parametrebSi man miiRo saSualoze dabali mniSvne-

233


rati abulaZe

lobebi, aman ganapiroba is faqtori, rom respondentTa es jgufi moxvda saSualoze dabal segmentSi, romelTa raodenobam Seadgina klasteris pirveli ori jgufi saSualoze Zalian dabali da saSualo (ix. cxrili 3.11). cxrili 3.11 samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo uwyebebis web-saitebis Sefasebis mixedviT mosaxleobis segmentacia (5 WrilSi)

1 Zalian kargi 2 kargi biznes seqtoris websaitebi

Total

5 saSualoze Zalian maRali

4 saSualoze maRali

3 saSualo

Column Colum Colum Colum Colum Colum N% nN% nN% nN% nN% nN% 2,7% 9,1% 11,7% 26,8% 70,6% 16,0% 9,3%

33,3%

60,6%

66,9%

21,6%

43,8%

3 saSualo 4 cudi

72,0%

51,5%

25,9%

6,3%

5,9%

35,0%

12,0%

5,3%

1,4%

0,0%

2,0%

4,0%

5 Zalian cudi 1 Zalian kargi 2 kargi

4,0%

0,8%

0,4%

0,0%

0,0%

1,1%

0,7%

4,6%

12,7%

46,0%

96,2%

20,5%

10,6%

30,0%

73,0%

50,4%

1,9%

45,2%

71,5%

61,5%

14,3%

2,9%

1,9%

30,3%

12,6%

2,3%

0,0%

0,7%

0,0%

2,9%

4,6%

1,5%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

1,1%

0,7%

1,6%

9,8%

32,6%

90,6%

16,4%

8,1%

26,0%

65,2%

62,9%

7,5%

42,4%

76,4%

67,7%

24,3%

4,5%

1,9%

37,1%

saministro3 saSuaebis web-sailo tebi 4 cudi 5 Zalian cudi 1 Zalian sakanonkargi mdeblo or- 2 kargi ganos web3 saSuasaitebi lo

234

2 saSualoze dabali

1 saSualoze Zalian dabali

samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo uwyebebis web-saitebi saqarTveloSi (segmenti)


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis strategia 3.11 marketinguli cxrilis gagrZeleba

4 cudi

10,1%

3,9%

0,7%

0,0%

0,0%

3,0%

5 Zalian cudi 1 Zalian kargi 2 kargi

4,7%

0,8%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

1,1%

0,0%

2,5%

8,5%

26,0%

84,6%

14,5%

6,7%

23,5%

57,3%

69,5%

15,4%

40,2%

3 saSualo 4 cudi

67,8%

67,2%

32,7%

3,8%

0,0%

38,1%

17,4%

5,0%

1,5%

0,8%

0,0%

5,2%

5 Zalian cudi 1 Zalian kargi adgilobrivi mTavro- 2 kargi bis (munici- 3 saSuapalitetis, lo raionis) 4 cudi web-saitebi 5 Zalian cudi 1 Zalian kargi 2 kargi arasamTavrobo seq3 saSuatoris web- lo saitebi 4 cudi

8,1%

1,7%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

2,0%

0,7%

0,0%

4,7%

6,8%

41,5%

6,1%

1,3%

16,4%

21,5%

63,9%

35,8%

25,3%

58,7%

54,1%

62,0%

26,3%

22,6%

50,7%

24,7%

23,0%

10,9%

3,0%

0,0%

13,5%

14,7%

6,6%

0,7%

0,0%

0,0%

4,4%

0,0%

3,2%

6,0%

12,3%

51,0%

8,7%

6,8%

20,2%

40,7%

71,5%

45,1%

36,1%

62,3%

65,3%

50,4%

14,6%

3,9%

45,5%

22,6%

10,5%

2,8%

1,5%

0,0%

7,9%

8,2%

0,8%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

1,9%

1,3%

4,0%

9,1%

27,1%

73,1%

14,3%

8,0%

29,0%

62,2%

63,9%

25,0%

43,7%

66,0%

55,6%

27,7%

9,0%

1,9%

34,8%

17,3%

10,5%

0,7%

0,0%

0,0%

5,4%

7,3%

0,8%

0,3%

0,0%

0,0%

1,7%

0,7%

0,9%

3,5%

10,2%

54,9%

7,4%

4,7% 69,3%

19,7% 66,7%

48,4% 42,2%

74,8% 14,2%

41,2% 3,9%

38,5% 44,2%

centraluri mTavrobis departamentebis/uwyebebis web-saitebi

5 Zalian cudi 1 Zalian kargi 2 kargi

umaRlesi da zogadsaganmanaT3 saSualeblo seq- lo toris web- 4 cudi saitebi 5 Zalian cudi 1 Zalian samoqalaqo kargi seqtoris 2 kargi web-saitebi 3 saSualo

235


ratigagrZeleba abulaZe 3.11 cxrilis 4 cudi

saqarTveloSi arsebuli saerTaSoriso organizaciebis web-saitebi

17,3%

11,1%

5,0%

0,8%

0,0%

7,5%

5 Zalian cudi 1 Zalian kargi 2 kargi

8,0%

1,7%

0,8%

0,0%

0,0%

2,3%

0,0%

3,3%

14,9%

22,9%

86,5%

16,5%

4,7%

36,7%

45,9%

68,7%

13,5%

37,4%

3 saSualo 4 cudi

68,7%

50,8%

36,5%

8,4%

0,0%

37,9%

16,7%

6,7%

1,2%

0,0%

0,0%

5,1%

5 Zalian cudi

10,0%

2,5%

1,6%

0,0%

0,0%

3,1%

3.12 cxrilSi mocemuli 14 parametris (debuleba) Sefaseba warmoadgens erT faqtors, rac faqtoruli analizis gamoyenebiT dadginda. cxrilSi mocemulia TiToeuli parametris (faqtoruli wona) korelacia Sedgenil faqtorTan. faqtoruli wona (korealaciis koeficienti) aris -1;+1 Soris. rac niSnavs, rom 14 parametri namdvilad warmoadgens 1 faqtors. cxrili 3.12 faqtoruli analizi eleqtronuli mTavrobis praqtikuli danergvisa da uzrunvelyofis procesebis Sefasebis mixedviT (Component Matrixa) komponentebi

Component

moqalaqeTa informaciuli uflebebi

1 0,676

telekomunikaciis momsaxurebis regulireba

0,670

internet-provaiderebis regulireba yvela moqalaqisaTvis telekomunikaciisa da internet-infrastruqturis misawvdomoba saxelmwifosa da biznes seqtoris TanamSromloba saxelmwifosa da arasamTavrobo seqtoris TanamSromloba

0,696

usafrTxo internet-garemo

0,675

236

0,616 0,715 0,672


3.12 cxrilis gagrZeleba saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

mTavrobis efeqturi onlain servisebi

0,709

mTavrobis onlain servisebis farTo arCevani qveynis sruli kompiuterizacia da internetizacia informaciuli wigniereba

0,687

teqnologiuri progresi qveynis doneze

0,682

progresi saministroebis doneze

0,636

progresi adgilobrivi mTavrobis/municipa-litetebis eleqtronuli momsaxurebis doneze

0,668

0,639 0,670

eleqtronuli mTavrobis praqtikuli danergvisa da uzrunvelyofis procesis Sefasebis segmentebis gamoyofa ierarqiuli klasteruli analizis gamoyenebiT gviCvenebs, rom saSualoze Zalian dabali maCveneblis moculoba aris 9,2%, saSualoze dabali mniSvneloba Seafasa respondentTa 9,4%-ma, saSualo mniSvneloba Seafasa respondentTa 58,6%-ma, saSualoze maRali Seafasa – 11,5%-ma, xolo saSualoze Zalian maRali -11,4%-ma (ix. cxrili 3.13). cxrili 3.13 eleqtronuli mTavrobis praqtikuli danergvisa da uzrunvelyofis procesebis Sefasebis segmentebis gamoyofa ierarqiuli klasteruli analizis gamoyenebiT segmentis moculoba

Total

Std. Error of Mean

4 saSualoze maRali 5 saSualoze Zalian maRali

Std. Deviation

e-mTavrobis praqti- e-mTavrobis praqtikuli danergvisa da kuli danergvisa da uzrunvelyofis uzrunvelyofis proprocesis Seafasebis cesis Sefasebis insegmenti deqsis saSualo 1 saSualoze Zalian 0,31 dabali 0,43 2 saSualoze dabali 0,55 3 saSualo

0,07

0,01

9,2%

0,02

0,00

9,4%

0,04

0,00

58,6%

0,67

0,02

0,00

11,5%

0,79

0,07

0,01

11,4%

0,55

0,13

0,00

100,0 %

237


rati abulaZe

eleqtronuli mTavrobis praqtikuli danergvisa da uzrunvelyofis procesebis Sefaseba, krostabulaciuri analizis gamoyenebiT gviCvenebs cxrili 3.14. Tu cxrils gavanalizebT aRmoCndeba, rom respondentebma, romlebmac erT-erT parametrSi Tu miiRo saSualo, Semdeg sxva parametrebSi man miiRo saSualoze dabali mniSvnelobebi, aman ganapiroba is faqtori, rom respondentTa aRniSnuli jgufi saSualoze dabal segmentSi moxvda, romelTa raodenobam Seadgina klasteris pirveli ori jgufi, saSualoze Zalian dabali da saSualo (ix. cxrili 3.14). cxrili 3.14 eleqtronuli mTavrobis praqtikuli danergvisa da uzrunvelyofis procesebis Sefasebis mixedviT mosaxleobis segmentacia (5 WrilSi)

4. saSualoze maRali

5. saSualoze Zalian maRali

jami

2,6%

9,0%

7,8%

13,8%

37,7%

9,8%

7,3%

23,6%

26,1%

43,5%

34,0% 25,7%

3 saSualo 64,9%

50,0%

38,0%

32,6%

22,6% 42,7%

15,2%

9,0%

4,4%

3,6%

1,9%

6,7%

6,6%

1,4%

0,7%

0,0%

0,0%

1,7%

3,3%

6,9%

22,9%

6,5%

3,8% 13,4%

2,0%

2,8%

4,1%

11,6%

1 Zalian kargi 2 kargi moqalaqeTa informaciuli uflebebi

4 cudi

5 Zalian cudi 99 ar vici / ver vafaseb telekomu- 1 Zalian nikaciis kargi

238

2. saSualoze dabali

3. saSualo

1. saSualoze Zalian dabali

eleqtronuli mTavrobis praqtikuli danergvisa da uzrunvelyofis procesebis Sefaseba_segmenti:

18,9%

5,6%


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia 3.14 cxrilis gagrZeleba

momsaxure- 2 kargi 13,9% bis regu3 saSualo 60,3% lireba 4 cudi 16,6%

27,1%

34,4%

48,6%

54,7% 33,1%

52,1%

32,4%

33,3%

18,9% 39,6%

7,6%

4,6%

0,0%

0,0%

6,1%

5 Zalian 2,0% cudi 99 ar vici 5,3% / ver vafaseb 1 Zalian 1,3% kargi 2 kargi 10,6%

0,7%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

,4%

9,7%

24,4%

6,5%

7,5% 15,1%

4,2%

5,1%

15,9%

24,5%

19,4%

22,0%

37,7%

37,7% 23,0%

3 saSualo 57,0%

49,3%

37,3%

34,8%

30,2% 41,7%

4 cudi

19,2%

11,8%

4,9%

2,9%

0,0%

7,8%

5 Zalian 5,3% cudi 99 ar vici 6,6% / ver vafaseb 1 Zalian 2,6% moqalaqeekargi biisaTvis 2 kargi 13,2% telekomu3 saSualo 43,7% nikaciisa da inter- 4 cudi 30,5% net-in5 Zalian 6,0% frastruqcudi turis mi99 ar vici 4,0% sawvdomo/ ver vafaba seb 1 Zalian 1,3% saxelmwi- kargi fosa da 2 kargi 9,9% biznes seq- 3 saSualo 53,6% toris Ta4 cudi 21,9% namSrom-

1,4%

0,7%

0,0%

1,9%

1,6%

13,9%

30,0%

8,7%

5,7% 18,8%

2,8%

5,9%

8,7%

16,0%

17,6%

26,1%

28,3% 18,5%

49,3%

34,6%

40,6%

34,0% 39,4%

17,4%

16,6%

13,0%

13,2% 18,3%

2,8%

2,7%

2,9%

1,9%

11,8%

22,7%

8,7%

3,8% 14,5%

4,2%

2,9%

10,1%

26,4%

18,8%

22,7%

41,3%

37,7% 23,7%

47,2%

36,1%

31,2%

24,5% 39,4%

11,8%

6,1%

7,2%

1,9%

9,6%

0,7%

0,2%

0,0%

0,0%

1,1%

internetprovaiderebis regulireba

loba

5 Zalian cudi

5,3%

18,9%

7,1%

6,0%

3,2%

5,4%

239


3.14 cxrilis gagrZeleba rati abulaZe 99 ar vici 7,9% / ver vafaseb 1 Zalian 0,0% kargi 2 kargi 13,2%

17,4%

32,0%

10,1%

1,4%

2,2%

7,2%

24,3%

19,0%

43,5%

39,6% 23,9%

3 saSualo 50,3%

47,2%

39,5%

37,0%

24,5% 41,3%

23,2%

9,7%

7,8%

2,9%

5,7%

9,8%

5 Zalian cudi 99 ar vici / ver vafaseb 1 Zalian kargi 2 kargi

7,3%

2,1%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

1,6%

6,0%

15,3%

31,5%

9,4%

0,7%

5,6%

4,6%

11,6%

15,1%

6,0%

14,6%

15,6%

31,9%

30,2% 17,2%

internet- 3 saSualo garemos 4 cudi usafrTxo5 Zalian eba cudi 99 ar vici / ver vafaseb 1 Zalian kargi 2 kargi mTavrobis 3 saSualo onlain servisebi 4 cudi efeqturo- 5 Zalian ba cudi 99 ar vici / ver vafaseb mTavrobis 1 Zalian kargi onlain servisebis 2 kargi

52,3%

50,7%

32,2%

37,0%

34,0% 39,4%

27,2%

15,3%

14,9%

9,4%

15,1% 16,2%

9,3%

3,5%

3,4%

0,7%

0,0%

4,6%

10,4%

29,3%

9,4%

5,7% 17,6%

0,7%

2,8%

4,9%

13,8%

39,6%

8,6%

18,8%

22,0%

47,8%

30,2% 23,7%

53,0%

52,1%

37,3%

26,8%

24,5% 40,0%

24,5%

7,6%

4,4%

2,9%

0,0%

7,8%

6,6%

2,8%

0,2%

0,0%

0,0%

1,7%

6,6%

16,0%

31,2%

8,7%

5,7% 19,6%

1,3%

4,9%

4,4%

9,4%

9,9%

15,3%

21,0%

47,1%

saxelmwifosa da arasamTavrobo seqtoris TanamSromloba

240

4 cudi

9,4% 20,9%

17,0%

3,3%

13,2% 20,1%

39,6%

5,8%

3,8%

7,3%

6,8%

24,5% 22,4%


3.14marketinguli cxrilis gagrZeleba saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis strategia mravalfe- 3 saSualo 53,6% rovneba 4 cudi 19,2%

41,7%

34,6%

26,8%

16,0%

5,9%

3,6%

3,8%

9,3%

5 Zalian 8,6% cudi 99 ar vici 7,3% / ver vafaseb 1 Zalian 0,7% kargi 2 kargi 13,9%

4,2%

0,7%

0,0%

0,0%

2,5%

18,1%

33,4%

13,0%

2,8%

3,7%

11,6%

13,2%

16,0%

16,3%

32,6%

39,6% 19,8%

3 saSualo 49,7%

46,5%

35,4%

33,3%

30,2% 39,0%

4 cudi

21,9%

17,4%

15,4%

10,1%

9,4% 15,6%

8,6%

5,6%

3,9%

2,2%

5,3%

11,8%

25,4%

10,1%

0,7%

2,8%

3,4%

10,1%

24,5%

9,9%

15,3%

18,8%

26,1%

24,5% 18,2%

moqalaqe- 3 saSualo 51,7% Ta infor- 4 cudi 19,9% maciuli 5 Zalian 11,3% wigniereba cudi 99 ar vici 6,6% / ver vafaseb 1 Zalian 0,7% kargi 2 kargi 13,9% qveyanaSi 3 saSualo 49,0% teqnolo4 cudi 22,5% giuri 5 Zalian 7,9% progresi cudi ar vici/ver 6,0% vafaseb

38,9%

34,1%

39,9%

32,1% 38,6%

21,5%

16,1%

15,2%

11,3% 17,2%

4,9%

2,7%

0,7%

0,0%

16,7%

24,9%

8,0%

7,5% 16,9%

2,8%

2,0%

4,3%

13,9%

18,8%

36,2%

41,5% 21,2%

47,2%

38,3%

39,9%

35,8% 41,6%

18,1%

12,4%

8,7%

3,8% 14,0%

2,1%

1,2%

0,7%

0,0%

16,0%

27,3%

10,1%

qveynis kompiuterizacia da internetizacia

5 Zalian cudi 99 ar vici / ver vafaseb 1 Zalian kargi 2 kargi

24,5% 37,2%

7,5% 21,9%

0,0%

4,8%

4,5%

7,5% 16,4%

15,1%

5,1%

4,0%

3,0%

2,3%

3,8% 17,9%

241


3.14 cxrilis gagrZeleba rati abulaZe 1 Zalian kargi 2 kargi saministroebis teqnologiuri progresi

adgilobrivi mTavrobis/municipalitetebis teqnologiuri progresi

2,0%

3,5%

2,7%

11,6%

35,8%

6,0%

11,9% 3 saSualo 54,3% 4 cudi 21,2%

21,5%

27,8%

42,0%

30,2% 26,5%

49,3%

32,0%

31,9%

22,6% 37,9%

9,7%

6,3%

5,1%

1,9%

8,9%

5 Zalian cudi 99 ar vici / ver vafaseb

4,6%

0,7%

0,7%

0,0%

1,9%

1,3%

6,0%

15,3%

30,5%

9,4%

7,5% 19,3%

1 Zalian kargi 2 kargi

1,3%

2,1%

2,4%

8,7%

7,3%

14,6%

14,6%

29,7%

45,3% 17,5%

3 saSualo 48,3%

47,9%

37,6%

42,0%

28,3% 41,2%

4 cudi

27,8%

16,0%

14,6%

9,4%

7,5% 15,8%

9,9%

5,6%

2,0%

0,7%

0,0%

5,3%

13,9%

28,8%

9,4%

3,8% 18,0%

5 Zalian cudi 99 ar vici / ver vafaseb

15,1%

3,9%

3,6%

eleqtronuli mTavrobis miznebis, funqciebis, amocanebis, samarTlebrivi regulirebis, procesebis makoordinirebeli organos, dafinansebis da usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb informirebis parametrebis Sefaseba dadginda faqtoruli analizis gamoyenebiT. 3.15 cxrilSi mocemulia Sedgenil faqtorTan TiToeuli parametris (faqtoruli wona) korelacia. faqtoruli wona (korealaciis koeficienti) aris -1;+1 Soris. rac niSnavs, rom 14 parametri namdvilad warmoadgens 1 faqtors (ix. cxrili 3.15). eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Semfasebeli segmentebis gamoyofa ierarqiuli klasteruli analizis gamoyenebiT gviCvenebs, rom saSualoze Zalian dabali maCveneblis moculoba aris 13,8%, saSualoze dabali

242


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

cxrili 3.15 faqtoruli analizi eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis informirebis Sefasebis mixedviT (Component Matrixa) komponentebi e-mTavrobis miznebis, funciebis, amocanebis Sesaxeb informireba e-mTavrobis samarTlebrivi regulirebis Sesaxeb informireba e-mTavrobis amocanebis ganmsazRvreli normatiuli aqtebis Sesaxeb informireba e-mTavrobis procesebis realizebis makoordinirebeli organis Sesaxeb informireba e-mTavrobis procesebis realizebis xelmZRvanelobis Sesaxeb informireba e-mTavrobis ganviTarebisaTvis gamoyofili finansuri resursebis Sesaxeb informireba internet-sivrcis usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb informireba

Component 1 0,681 0,793 0,769 0,782 0,777

0,678 0,591

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

mniSvnelobis moculoba – 15.2%, saSualo mniSvnelobis moculoba – 24.7%, saSualoze maRali mniSvnelobis moculoba – 32.7%, xolo saSualoze Zalian maRali mniSvnelobis moculoba – 13.6%. klasteruli analizis gamoyenebiT dadginda, rom eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Sesaxeb informirebulia mosaxleobis 38%, rac ganpirobebulia sxvadasxva faqtoriT (ix. cxrili 3.16). 3.16 cxrilSi, dispersiuri analizis gamoTvla gviCvenebs damokidebulebas, rom Cvens mier gamoyofili segmentebi, indeqsis (eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Sesaxeb informirebis indeqsebis mixedviT) msjelobebis mixedviT namdvilad gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan.

243


rati abulaZe

segmentis moculoba

Std. Error of Mean

Std. Deviation

eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Sesaxeb informireba_segmenti:

Mean

cxrili 3.16 eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Semfasebeli segmentebis gamoyofa ierarqiuli klasteruli analizis gamoyenebiT

1 saSualoze Zalian dabali 2 saSualoze dabali

0,02

0,03

0,00

13,8%

0,23

0,06

0,01

15,2%

3 saSualo

0,37

0,02

0,00

24,7%

4 saSualoze maRali 5 saSualoze Zalian maRali

0,48

0,03

0,00

32,7%

0,68

0,13

0,01

13,6%

Total

0,38

0,20

0,01

100,0%

eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Sesaxeb

244

Mean Square

Sum of Squares

ANOVA-s cxrilis mixedviT, eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Sesaxeb informirebis Sefasebis sandooba aris 0.05 naklebi, rac gviCvenebs rom Cvens mier SemoRebuli jgufebi eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Sesaxeb informirebis mixedviT namdvilad gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan (ix. cxrili 3.17). cxrili 3.17 ANOVA-s cxrili (eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis informirebis indeqsebis mixedviT)

df

Between (Combi 33,421 Groups ned)

4

3,062

1600

Within Groups

F 8,355 2431,314

0,003

Sig. 0,000


3.17 marketinguli cxrilis gagrZeleba saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis strategia informireba_ indeqsi: * eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Sesaxeb informireba_segmenti:

36,483

Total

1600

eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Sesaxeb informirebis Sefaseba, krostabulaciuri analizis gamoyenebiT, naCvenebia 3.18 cxrilSi. cxrilis analizma cxadyo, rom respondentTa aRniSnuli jgufi saSualoze dabal segmentSi moxvda, romelTa raodenobam Seadgina klasteris pirveli ori jgufi saSualoze Zalian dabali da saSualo (ix. cxrili 3.18). cxrili 3.18 eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Sesaxeb informirebis Sefasebis mixedviT mosaxleobis segmentacia (5 WrilSi)

5 . saSualoze Zalian maRali

1 dabali 94,4% e-mTavrobis 2 saSualo 5,6% miznebis, funciebis, 3 maRali 0,0% amocanebis Sesaxeb in- 99 ar vici 0,0% formireba / ver vafaseb e-mTavrobis 1 dabali 100,0%

39,0%

10,9%

9,2%

3,3%

25,1%

58,8%

48,9%

86,7%

57,4%

57,9%

2,2%

3,6%

2,4%

39,3%

7,4%

0,0%

36,7%

1,7%

0,0%

9,6%

52,9%

12,7%

3,4%

0,8%

26,2%

samarTleb- 2 saSualo rivi regulirebis Se- 3 maRali

0,0%

46,3%

32,1%

89,8%

62,3%

52,8%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

3,4%

36,9%

6,1%

jami

3. saSualo

4. saSualoze maRali

2. saSualoze dabali

1. saSualoze Zalian dabali

eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Sesaxeb informireba (segmenti)

245


3.18 cxrilis gagrZeleba rati abulaZe saxeb in99 ar vici 0,0% formireba / ver vafaseb e-mTavrobis 1 dabali 96,0% amocanebis 2 saSualo 2,4% ganmsazRvreli norma-3 maRali 0,0% tiuli aqte99 ar vici 1,6% bis Sesaxeb informire- / ver vafaseb ba e-mTavrobis 1 dabali 97,6% pro-cesebis 2 saSualo 2,4% realizebis 3 maRali 0,0% makoordinirebeli 99 ar vici 0,0% orga-nos Se-/ ver vafasaxeb inseb formireba e-mTavrobis 1 dabali 100,0% procesebis 2 saSualo 0,0% realizebis 0,0% xelmZRvane- 3 maRali lobis Sesa- 99 ar vici 0,0% xeb infor- / ver vafamireba seb e-mTavrobis 1 dabali 96,8% ganviTare2 saSualo 2,4% bisaTvis gamoyofili 3 maRali 0,0% finansuri resursebis 99 ar vici 0,8% Sesaxeb in- / ver vafaformireba seb 1 dabali 83,9% internet2 saSualo 16,1% sivrcis usafrTxoe- 3 maRali 0,0% bis Sesaxeb informire- 99 ar vici 0,0% / ver vafaba seb

246

0,7%

55,2%

3,4%

0,0%

14,8%

53,7%

14,0%

4,4%

3,3%

26,8%

43,4%

29,4%

87,0%

49,2%

49,3%

0,7%

0,9%

4,1%

46,7%

8,0%

2,2%

55,7%

4,4%

0,8%

15,8%

64,0%

14,5%

4,8%

1,6%

28,6%

31,6%

23,5%

86,3%

51,6%

46,2%

0,7%

1,8%

3,4%

44,3%

7,7%

3,7%

60,2%

5,5%

2,5%

17,5%

60,3%

12,7%

6,1%

0,8%

28,2%

36,0%

25,3%

85,7%

57,4%

47,5%

0,0%

3,2%

3,8%

39,3%

7,4%

3,7%

58,8%

4,4%

2,5%

16,9%

60,3%

20,4%

7,2%

11,5%

31,5%

30,1%

19,0%

80,5%

46,7%

42,3%

4,4%

0,9%

6,1%

37,7%

8,0%

5,1%

59,7%

6,1%

4,1%

18,2%

52,9%

14,0%

14,3%

8,2%

28,9%

42,6%

27,1%

77,5%

48,4%

47,3%

1,5%

6,8%

4,8%

42,6%

9,3%

2,9%

52,0%

3,4%

0,8%

14,5%


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sargeblis parametrebis Sefaseba faqtoruli analizis gamoyenebiT dadginda. 3.19 cxrilSi mocemulia Sedgenil faqtorTan TiToeuli parametris (faqtoruli wona) korelacia. faqtoruli wona (korealaciis koeficienti) aris -1;+1 Soris. rac niSnavs, rom 13 parametri namdvilad 1 faqtors warmoadgens. cxrili 3.19 faqtoruli analizi eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sargeblis Sefasebis mixedviT (Component Matrixa) komponentebi e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis miRebis/moTxovnis Rirebuleba e-mTavrobis momsaxurebidan miRebuli grZelvadiani sargebeli e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis miRebis siswrafe/dro mTavrobasTan interaqtiuli urTierTqmedeba informaciis/momsaxurebis miRebis xelsayreloba momsaxurebis miRebis procesis moqnili marTva biurokratiuli uwyebebis zegavlenis Tavi arideba efeqturi interaqtiuli urTierToba

Component 1 0,407 0,566 0,609 0,629 0,666 0,645 0,571 0,658

eleqtronuli dokumentbrunvis efeqtianoba

0,660

eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistemis informaciuloba eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis iuridiuli Zala samTavrobo web-satebze interaqtiuli kavSiris xarisxi e-mTavrobis momsaxurebasTan wvdoma

0,617 0,624 0,574 0,604

eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sargeblis Semfasebeli segmentebis gamoyofa ierarqiuli klaste-

247


rati abulaZe

ruli analizis gamoyenebiT cxadyofs, rom saSualoze Zalian dabali maCveneblis moculoba aris 9,0%, saSualoze dabali mniSvnelobis moculoba – 16,9%, saSualo mniSvnelobis moculoba – 49,0%, saSualoze maRali mniSvnelobis moculoba – 10,7%, xolo saSualoze Zalian maRali mniSvnelobis moculoba – 14,4% (ix. cxrili 3.20). cxrili 3.20 eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sargeblis Semfasebeli segmentebis gamoyofa ierarqiuli klasteruli analizis gamoyenebiT e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis sargebeli (segmenti) 1 saSualoze Zalian dabali 2 saSualoze dabali 3 saSualo 4 saSualoze maRali 5 saSualoze Zalian maRali Total

0,1969

0,10341

Std. Error of Mean 0,01149

0,4157

0,04209

0,00343

16,9%

0,5107

0,01405

0,00067

49,0%

0,5990

0,02184

0,00223

10,7%

0,7469

0,09197

0,00810

14,4%

0,5098

0,14804

0,00495

100%

Mean

Std. Deviation

N 9,0%

3.21 cxrilSi, dispersiuri analizis gamoTvla gviCvenebs damokidebulebas, Cvens mier gamoyofili segmentebi indeqsis (eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sargeblis indeqsebis mixedviT) msjelobebis mixedviT namdvilad gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan. ANOVA-s cxrilis mixedviT, eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sargeblis Sefasebis sandooba aris 0.05 naklebi, rac gviCvenebs rom Cvens mier SemoRebuli jgufebi. eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sargeblis mixedviT namdvilad gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan (ix. cxrili 3.21).

248


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

cxrili 3.21 ANOVA-s cxrili (eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sargeblis indeqsebis mixedviT) Sum of Squares

df

Mean Squar e

F

Sig.

Between (Combi e-mTavrobis 17,280 4 4,320 1648,065 0,000 Groups ned) momsaxurebis sargebeli _in2,336 1600 0,003 Within Groups deqsi * e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis sargebeli _segmenti

19,615 1600

Total

e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis sargeblis Sefaseba, krostabulaciuri analizis gamoyenebiT mocemulia 3.22 cxrilSi, sadac respondentTa ZiriTadi jgufi moxvda saSualo segmentSi (ix. cxrili 3.22). cxrili 3.22 e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis sargeblis Sefasebis mixedviT mosaxleobis segmentacia (5 WrilSi)

e-mTavro- 1 dabali bis momsa2 normaluri xurebis miRebis/moT- 3 maRali

jami

5. saSualoze Zalian maRali

4. saSualoze maRali

3. saSualo

2. saSualoze dabali

1. saSualoze Zalian dabali

e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis sargebeli (segmenti)

Colum Colum Colum Colum Colum Colum nN% nN% nN% nN% nN% nN% 44,4% 25,2% 4,8% 8,3% 4,7% 12,2% 44,4% 53,6% 47,2% 67,7% 54,3% 51,2% 2,5%

7,3%

1,8% 10,4% 25,6%

7,1%

249


3.22 cxrilis gagrZeleba rati abulaZe xovnis Rirebuleba e-mTavrobis momsaxurebidan miRebuli grZelvadiani sargebeli e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis miRebis siswrafe/dro

4 ar vici/ ver 8,6% 13,9% 46,2% 13,5% 15,5% 29,5% vafaseb 1 dabali 67,9% 28,5% 2,1% 6,3% 0,8% 12,7% 2 normaluri

19,8% 48,3% 44,4% 61,5% 45,7% 44,9%

3 maRali

2,5%

4 ar vici/ ver vafaseb

9,9% 17,2% 51,0% 16,7% 14,7% 32,7%

2,5% 15,6% 38,8%

9,7%

1 dabali

66,7% 31,1%

2 normaluri

30,9% 57,0% 48,7% 46,9% 33,3% 46,1%

3 maRali

1,2%

4 ar vici/ ver 1,2% vafaseb mTavrobas- 1 dabali 74,1% Tan interaqtiuli 2 normaluri 17,3% urTier3 maRali 0,0% Tqmedeba 4 ar vici/ ver 8,6% vafaseb informaci- 1 dabali 66,7% is/momsaxurebis miRe- 2 normaluri 27,2% bis xelsay- 3 maRali 0,0% reloba 4 ar vici/ ver 6,2% vafaseb momsaxure- 1 dabali bis miRebis procesis 2 normaluri moqnili 3 maRali marTva 4 ar vici/ ver vafaseb biurokra- 1 dabali tiuli uwyebebis ze- 2 normaluri gavlenis 3 maRali Tavi aride4 ar vici/ ver ba vafaseb efeqturi 1 dabali interaqtiuli urTi- 2 normaluri

250

6,0%

2,0%

2,3% 11,5%

4,3% 30,2% 58,1% 14,2%

9,9% 44,6% 11,5% 28,5%

1,6% 13,8%

3,9%

8,3%

7,0% 25,9% 1,6% 14,5%

45,0% 40,1% 52,1% 45,0% 40,8% 2,0%

2,5% 18,8% 43,4%

9,8%

24,5% 53,5% 20,8% 10,1% 34,8% 19,2%

1,8%

6,3%

0,0% 10,8%

64,9% 43,1% 51,0% 34,9% 45,0% 2,0%

3,2% 28,1% 58,9% 13,4%

13,9% 51,9% 14,6%

70,4% 27,8%

1,8%

6,3%

6,2% 30,8% 1,6% 12,8%

24,7% 49,0% 40,8% 52,1% 34,1% 41,0% 2,5%

4,6%

1,8% 21,9% 53,5% 11,9%

2,5% 18,5% 55,6% 19,8% 10,9% 34,3% 58,0% 28,5%

2,5%

6,3%

2,3% 12,3%

22,2% 36,4% 38,3% 40,6% 32,6% 35,9% 4,9%

6,0%

1,1% 18,8% 42,6% 10,2%

14,8% 29,1% 58,1% 34,4% 22,5% 41,6% 75,3% 21,9%

2,3%

8,3%

0,8% 12,6%

23,5% 56,3% 36,7% 42,7% 41,1% 40,1%


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis strategia 3.22marketinguli cxrilis gagrZeleba

erToba

3 maRali

0,0%

2,0%

2,5% 21,9% 46,5% 10,6%

4 ar vici/ ver 1,2% 19,9% 58,5% 27,1% 11,6% 36,7% vafaseb 1 dabali 59,3% 13,2% 1,8% 1,0% 0,8% 8,7%

eleqtronuli dokumentbrun- 2 normaluri vis efeqti- 3 maRali anoba 4 ar vici/ ver vafaseb eleqtro- 1 dabali nuli mTavrobis mom- 2 normaluri saxurebis 3 maRali sistemis informaci- 4 ar vici/ ver vafaseb uloba eleqtro- 1 dabali nuli mTav2 normaluri robis momsaxurebis 3 maRali iuridiuli 4 ar vici/ ver Zala vafaseb samTavro- 1 dabali bo web-sa2 normaluri tebze interaqtiuli 3 maRali kavSiris xa4 ar vici/ ver risxi vafaseb e-mTavro- 1 dabali bis momsa2 normaluri xurebasTan wvdoma 3 maRali 4 ar vici/ ver vafaseb

30,9% 57,0% 37,4% 37,5% 28,7% 38,8% 1,2%

7,3%

4,1% 37,5% 62,0% 16,3%

8,6% 22,5% 56,7% 24,0% 56,8% 19,2%

0,7%

3,1%

8,5% 36,2% 0,8%

9,2%

37,0% 47,0% 39,6% 35,4% 33,3% 39,3% 1,2%

9,3%

5,7% 42,7% 56,6% 17,2%

4,9% 24,5% 54,0% 18,8% 56,8% 12,6%

0,9%

5,2%

9,3% 34,4% 0,8%

8,4%

29,6% 53,0% 38,7% 41,7% 23,3% 38,4% 3,7% 10,6%

4,1% 33,3% 65,9% 17,2%

9,9% 23,8% 56,3% 19,8% 10,1% 36,0% 49,4% 17,2%

1,6%

7,3%

1,6%

9,2%

43,2% 55,0% 42,1% 51,0% 37,2% 44,6% 1,2%

4,6%

3,6% 21,9% 48,1% 11,9%

6,2% 23,2% 52,6% 19,8% 13,2% 34,3% 58,0% 23,2%

1,6%

5,2%

1,6% 10,7%

34,6% 55,6% 41,5% 50,0% 34,1% 43,1% 0,0%

6,0%

3,4% 30,2% 51,2% 13,3%

7,4% 15,2% 53,5% 14,6% 13,2% 32,9%

eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis parametrebis Sefaseba dadginda faqtoruli analizis gamoyenebiT. 3.23 cxrilSi mocemulia TiToeuli parametris (faqtoruli wona) korelacia Sedgenil faqtorTan. faqtoruli wona (korealaciis koeficienti) aris -1;+1 Soris. rac niSnavs,

251


rati abulaZe

rom 8 parametri namdvilad 1 faqtors warmoadgens (ix. cxrili 3.23). cxrili 3.23 faqtoruli analizi eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis Sefasebis mixedviT (Component Matrixa) eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis komponentebi

Component 1

e-mTavrobis sistemiT davaleba/amocana sruldeba swrafad

0,608

e-mTavrobis momsaxurebiT viTardeba biurokratiuli momsaxureba

0,437

e-mTavrobis sistema yvela moqalaqisaTvis Tanabrad misawvdomia

0,648

e-mTavrobis sistema yvela moqalaqisaTvis Tanabrad gamoyenebadia

0,674

e-mTavrobis sistema integrirdeba yvela saxelmwifo uwyebis sistemasTan

0,613

e-mTavrobis sistema advilad Sesaswavlia

0,717

e-mTavrobis sistemis kvalificiuri gamoyeneba advilia

0,734

e-mTavrobis sistemasTan urTierTqmedeba mkafio da gasagebia

0,761

eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis Semfasebeli segmentebis gamoyofa ierarqiuli klasteruli analizis gamoyenebiT gviCvenebs, rom saSualoze Zalian dabali maCveneblis moculoba aris 19,6%, saSualoze dabali mniSvnelobis moculoba – 14,8%, saSualo mniSvnelobis moculoba – 39,5%, saSualoze maRali mniSvnelobis moculoba – 14,6%, xolo saSualoze Zalian maRali mniSvnelobis moculoba – 11,4% (ix. cxrili 3.24).

252


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

cxrili 3.24 eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis Semfasebeli segmentebis gamoyofa ierarqiuli klasteruli analizis gamoyenebiT (SEF_E_M_S_IND) eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistema (segmenti) 1 saSualoze Zalian dabali

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

Std. Error of Mean

0,2304

0,10694

0,00806

19,6%

2 saSualoze dabali

0,4233

0,02970

0,00258

14,8%

3 saSualo

0,5167

0,02554

0,00136

39,5%

4 saSualoze maRali

0,6535

0,03845

0,00336

14,6%

5 saSualoze Zalian maRali

0,8587

0,09173

0,00908

11,4%

Total

0,5056

0,19274

0,00644

100,0%

ANOVA-s cxrilis mixedviT, eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis Sefasebis sandooba aris 0.05 naklebi, rac gviCvenebs rom Cvens mier SemoRebuli jgufebi namdvilad gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan (eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis Sefasebis mixedviT (ix. cxrili 3.25). cxrili 3.25 ANOVA-s cxrili (eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis Sefasebis indeqsis mixedviT) Sum of Squares SeafaseT Between (Comb mTavrobis Groups ined) sistema_indeqsi * Within Groups

29,860

Mean Square

df 4

3,390 1600

F

Sig.

7,465 1962,034 0,000

0,004

253


3.25 cxrilis gagrZeleba rati abulaZe

SeafaseT emTavrobis sistema_segmenti

33,250 1600

Total

eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistemis Sefaseba, krostabulaciuri analizis gamoyenebiT mocemulia 3.26 cxrilSi (ix. cxrili 3.26). cxrili 3.26 eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistemis Sefasebis mixedviT mosaxleobis segmentacia (5 WrilSi)

1 srulad eTanxmebi e-mTavro2 nawibis sistelobriv miT davaeTanxmebi leba/amo3 ar eTancana xmebi sruldeba 99 ar viswrafad ci/ver vafaseb e-mTavro- 1 srulad bis momsa- eTanxmebi 2 nawixurebiT viTardeba lobriv biurokra- eTanxmebi tiuli mo- 3 ar eTanmsaxureba xmebi

254

3 saSualo

Column N%

Column N%

5 saSualoze Zalian maRali

2 saSualoze dabali

Column N%

4 saSualoze maRali

1 saSualoze Zalian dabali

eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis sistema_ segmenti

Column Column N% N%

4,0%

9,8%

10,5%

32,8%

74,5%

58,5%

66,2%

57,6%

65,6%

25,5%

37,5%

18,0%

2,0%

1,5%

0,0%

0,0%

6,0%

29,9%

0,0%

0,0%

2,8%

3,0%

6,5%

24,4%

50,0%

57,4%

48,1%

49,2%

59,5%

32,4%

38,6%

31,6%

6,8%

11,5%

13,7%


3.26 cxrilis gagrZeleba saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

e-mTavrobis sistema yvela moqalaqisaTvis Tanabrad misawvdomia

e-mTavrobis sistema yvela moqalaqisaTvis Tanabrad gamoyenebadia

e-mTavrobis sistema integrirdeba yvela saxelmwifo uwyebis sistemasTan

e-mTavrobis sistema advilad Sesaswavlia

99 ar vici/ver vafaseb 1 srulad eTanxmebi 2 nawilobriv eTanxmebi 3 ar eTanxmebi 99 ar vici/ver vafaseb 1 srulad eTanxmebi 2 nawilobriv eTanxmebi 3 ar eTanxmebi 99 ar vici/ver vafaseb 1 srulad eTanxmebi 2 nawilobriv eTanxmebi 3 ar eTanxmebi 99 ar vici/ver vafaseb 1 srulad eTanxmebi 2 nawilobriv eTanxmebi 3 ar eTan-

1,1%

17,3%

37,6%

4,6%

3,9%

2,3%

8,3%

8,2%

44,3%

66,7%

26,7%

44,4%

54,8%

40,5%

29,4%

71,0%

34,6%

5,9%

12,2%

3,9%

0,0%

12,8%

31,1%

3,1%

0,0%

1,1%

5,3%

6,5%

36,6%

66,7%

25,0%

43,6%

52,8%

48,9%

31,4%

73,3%

40,6%

5,9%

10,7%

2,0%

0,6%

10,5%

34,7%

3,8%

0,0%

0,6%

8,3%

7,1%

31,3%

70,6%

48,9%

52,6%

49,4%

57,3%

27,5%

4,5%

5,3%

0,0%

44,9%

17,3%

5,7%

21,8%

39,0%

6,1%

2,0%

2,3%

8,3%

6,2%

43,5%

81,4%

56,4%

53,4%

46,6%

16,7%

18,8%

2,5%

1,5%

0,0%

36,4% 58,0%

255


rati abulaZe 3.26 cxrilis gagrZeleba xmebi 99 ar vici/ver vafaseb 1 srulad eTanxmebi e-mTavro- 2 nawibis siste- lobriv mis kvali- eTanxmebi ficiuri 3 ar eTangamoyeneba xmebi advilia 99 ar vici/ver vafaseb 1 srulad eTanxmebi e-mTavro2 nawibis sistelobriv masTan ureTanxmebi TierTqme3 ar eTandeba mkaxmebi fio da ga99 ar visagebia ci/ver vafaseb

3,4%

16,5%

37,9%

8,4%

2,0%

0,0%

6,0%

7,3%

38,9%

84,3%

38,6%

66,2%

53,7%

55,7%

14,7%

56,3%

12,0%

2,3%

2,3%

0,0%

5,1%

15,8%

36,7%

3,1%

1,0%

0,0%

2,3%

3,1%

35,9%

85,3%

34,1%

66,2%

57,6%

57,3%

11,8%

63,1%

13,5%

2,8%

3,1%

1,0%

2,8%

18,0%

36,4%

3,8%

2,0%

saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebis parametrebis Sefaseba dadginda faqtoruli analizis gamoyenebiT. 3.27 cxrilSi mocemulia TiToeuli parametris (faqtoruli wona) korelacia Sedgenil faqtorTan. faqtoruli wona (korealaciis koeficienti) aris -1;+1 Soris. rac niSnavs, rom 13 parametri namdvilad 1 faqtors warmoadgens. saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebis Semfasebeli segmentebis gamoyofa ierarqiuli klasteruli analizis gamoyenebiT gviCvenebs, rom saSualoze Zalian dabali maCveneblis moculoba aris 11,4%, saSualoze dabali mniSvnelobis moculoba – 24,7%, saSualo mniSvnelobis

256


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

cxrili 3.27 faqtoruli analizi saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebis Sefasebis mixedviT (Component Matrixa) samTavrobo web-gverdebis komponentebis Sefaseba

Component 1

informaciuli CamotvirTva

0,658

enobrivi mravalferovneba

0,680

samTavrobo web-saitebis dizaini navigacia

0,739

e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis wvdoma

0,711

e-mTavrobis aplikaciebi (danarTebi) eleqtronuli autentifikacia/ identifikacia

0,690

kompiuteris IT-sistemebTan Tavsebadoba interaqtiulobis formebi

0,720

informaciulobis xarisxi

0,704

SemoTavazebuli servisebi

0,694

sxva uwyebebis veb-gverdebze popularizacia axali informaciis warmodgenis intensivoba

0,648

0,684

0,709 0,703

0,667

moculoba – 40%, saSualoze maRali mniSvnelobis moculoba – 11,5%, xolo saSualoze Zalian maRali mniSvnelobis moculoba – 12,5% (ix. cxrili 3.28). cxrili 3.28 saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebis Semfasebeli segmentebis gamoyofa ierarqiuli klasteruli analizis gamoyenebiT (samt_web_ind) saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebi_segmentebi

Mean

1 saSualoze Zalian dabali

0,3678

Std. Deviation

Std. Error of Mean

N

0,08374

0,00829

11,4%

257


3.28 cxrilis gagrZeleba rati abulaZe

2 saSualoze dabali

0,5027

0,02275

0,00153

24,7%

3 saSualo

0,5862

0,02348

0,00124

40,0%

4 saSualoze maRali

0,6781

0,01983

0,00195

11,5%

0,7959

0,07076

0,00669

12,5%

0,5775

0,12392

0,00414

100%

5 saSualoze Zalian maRali Total

ANOVA-s cxrilis mixedviT, saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebis Sefasebis sandooba aris 0.05 naklebi, rac adasturebs, rom Cvens mier SemoRebuli jgufebi saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebis Sefasebis mixedviT namdvilad gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan (ix. cxrili 3.29). cxrili 3.29 ANOVA-s cxrili (saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebis Sefasebis indeqsis mixedviT) Sum of Squares saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebi_indeqsi * saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebi_segmentebi

Betwee (Com n bined) Groups Within Groups

Total

12,130

Mean Square

df 4

3,032

1,615 1600

0,002

F

Sig.

1673,183 0,000

13,744 1600

saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebis Sefasebis mixedviT mosaxleobis TiToeuli segmentis aRwera faqtorul analizSi Semavali parametrebis gamoyenebiT moxda. krostabulaciuri analizis gamoyenebiT 3.30 cxrilSi (ix. cxrili 3.30).

258


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

cxrili 3.30 saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebis Sefasebis mixedviT mosaxleobis segmentacia (5 WrilSi) saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebis Sefaseba 1. saSu2. saSu4. saSualoze 3. saSualoze aloze Zalian alo dabali maRali dabali

5. saSualoze Zalian maRali

Column N%

Column N%

Column N%

Column N%

Column N%

1,0%

2,3%

10,9%

21,6%

40,0%

7,9%

19,0%

48,3%

60,8%

58,2%

57,4%

72,9%

39,6%

15,7%

1,8%

29,7%

5,4%

0,9%

2,0%

0,0%

5 Zalian cudi

4,0%

0,5%

0,4%

0,0%

0,0%

1 Zalian kargi

0,0%

0,9%

4,2%

12,9%

32,1%

5,9%

20,1%

49,1%

69,3%

60,7%

43,6%

71,7%

43,9%

15,8%

7,1%

41,6%

6,8%

2,8%

2,0%

0,0%

5 Zalian cudi

8,9%

0,5%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

1 Zalian kargi

0,0%

0,5%

1,4%

13,1%

31,8%

2 kargi

5,0%

10,7%

49,3%

75,8%

63,6%

3 saSualo

51,0%

82,8%

48,8%

11,1%

3,6%

4 cudi

36,0%

5,6%

0,5%

0,0%

0,9%

5 Zalian cudi

8,0%

0,5%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

1 Zalian kargi

0,0%

0,5%

2,1%

7,3%

24,8%

2 kargi

5,9%

8,0%

40,8%

57,3%

66,1%

1 Zalian kargi 2 kargi informaciuli Camotvir- 3 saSualo Tva 4 cudi

2 kargi enobrivi mravalferovne- 3 saSualo ba 4 cudi

samTavrobo web-saitebis dizaini

navigacia

259


3.30 rati cxrilis gagrZeleba abulaZe 3 saSualo

46,1%

81,2%

52,4%

32,3%

7,3%

4 cudi

37,3%

9,4%

4,7%

2,1%

1,8%

5 Zalian cudi

10,8%

0,9%

0,0%

1,0%

0,0%

1 Zalian kargi

0,0%

0,5%

1,5%

4,1%

29,6%

3,0%

5,2%

39,9%

53,6%

59,3%

38,6%

83,9%

54,0%

40,2%

10,2%

48,5%

9,0%

4,5%

2,1%

0,0%

5 Zalian cudi

9,9%

1,4%

0,0%

0,0%

0,9%

1 Zalian kargi

2,0%

1,9%

2,7%

5,2%

23,9%

2 kargi

3,1%

8,2%

32,8%

58,3%

70,6%

3 saSualo

40,8%

78,4%

62,3%

34,4%

5,5%

4 cudi

44,9%

10,6%

2,2%

2,1%

0,0%

5 Zalian cudi

9,2%

1,0%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

1 Zalian kargi

1,0%

0,5%

1,2%

3,2%

34,0%

2 kargi

4,1%

7,2%

30,6%

45,3%

56,6%

3 saSualo

39,8%

85,0%

65,3%

48,4%

9,4%

4 cudi

40,8%

5,8%

2,9%

2,1%

0,0%

5 Zalian cudi

14,3%

1,4%

0,0%

1,1%

0,0%

1 Zalian kargi

1,0%

1,0%

2,3%

6,2%

35,1%

9,9%

9,6%

40,3%

62,9%

56,8%

38,6%

80,3%

53,4%

29,9%

8,1%

42,6%

9,1%

4,0%

1,0%

0,0%

5 Zalian cudi

7,9%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

1 Zalian kargi

0,0%

1,0%

0,6%

7,3%

22,2%

2 kargi

4,0%

4,8%

31,0%

49,0%

66,7%

46,0%

85,5%

64,3%

43,8%

10,2%

2 kargi e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis 3 saSualo wvdoma 4 cudi

e-mTavrobis aplikaciebi (danarTebi)

eleqtronuli autentifikacia/ identifikacia

kompiuteris 2 kargi IT-sistemeb3 saSualo Tan Tavsebadoba 4 cudi

interaqtiulobis formebi

260

3 saSualo


cxrilisstrategia gagrZeleba saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis3.30 marketinguli 4 cudi

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2 kargi informaciulobis xaris- 3 saSualo xi 4 cudi

SemoTavazebuli servisebi

sxva uwyebe- 2 kargi bis web-gver3 saSualo debze popularizacia 4 cudi

axali infor- 2 kargi maciis war3 saSualo modgenis intensivoba 4 cudi 5 Zalian cudi

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3.3. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis instituciuri Sefaseba: SWOT analizi saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategiul dagegmvaSi SWOT analiziT aisaxeba eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis Zlieri da susti mxareebi, potenciuri SesaZleblobebi da mosalodneli safrTxeebi. arsebiTia aRiniSnos, rom eleqtronuli mTavroba ar warmoadgens calkeul organizacias an uwyebas. igi ganixileba, rogorc eleqtronuli momsaxurebis konglomerati, warmodgenili xelisuflebis sxvadasxva doniT da koordinirebuli xelisuflebis centraluri organos mier. SWOT analizi uzrunvelyofs proeqtis miznis miRwevas, romliTac xorcieldeba Sesabamisi faqtorebis identifikacia da klasifikacia. igi fokusirebuli ara mxolod Sida sakiTxebze, aramed gare komponentebze, romelic proeqtis warmatebebaze axdens gavlenas (Tsourela, 2011). naSromSi, SWOT analizi warmoadgens strategiuli dagegmvis instruments, romelic CarTulia saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategiuli dagegmvis proeqtSi. Sesabamisad, kompleqsuri kvlevisa da analizis safuZvelze, eleqtronuli mTavrobis efeqturi sistemis formirebisaTvis ganxorcielda saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis instituciuri Sefaseba. marketinguli kvlevis Sedegebis safuZvelze gamovlinda saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis xelSemwyobi da xelSemSleli faqtorebi, ganisazRvra potenciali da SesaZlo safrTxeebi (ix. cxrili 3.31).

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cxrili 3.31 saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis xelSemwyobi da xelSemSleli faqtorebi, potenciali da SesaZlo safrTxeebi Zlieri mxareebi mWidro saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi; politikuri neba da mSvidobiani sazogadoeba; saxelmwifo organoebis mier eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis danergvis Zalisxmeva; mTavrobis mier e-momsaxurebis ganviTarebis donis mudmivi zrda; ganviTarebuli qveynis warmomadgenlebis mier eleqtronuli mTavrobis garemos maRali Sefaseba; kerZo da samoqalaqo seqtorisadmi saxelmwifos mxardaWera; strategiuli geografiuli ganlageba; mosaxleobis 69% aris 1564 wlis–Sromisunariani asakis; saxelmwifo mosamsaxureebis motivacia; eleqtronuli momsaxurebis aplikaciebis mravalferovneba; momxmarebelTa mier emTavrobis momsaxurebis sargeblis aRqmis maRali done; sazogadoebrivi molodini da survili;

susti mxareebi kvlevebis safuZvelze Camoyalibebuli da detalurad gawerili strategiis ararseboba; saxelmwifo organoebis susti mzadyofna: susti IT baza, regonebSi cudi satelekomunikacio infrastruqtura; erTiani globaluri platformis ararseboba; mosaxleobaSi internetis SeRwevis dabali done; ICT-is mxardamWeri kanonmdeblobis ararseboba; biznes seqtoris mier saxelmwifos eleqtronuli momsaxurebis susti gamoyeneba; erTiani internet-arqiteqturis ararseboba; erTiani monacemTa bazis ararseboba; saxelmwifo organoebis saitebis mier arasruli momsaxureba; eleqtronulo momsaxurebis miRebis SesaZleblobebsa da saxeebze dabali informaciuloba; samTavrobo web-saitebze informaciulobis ganaxlebis dabali intensivoba; kompiuterizaciis da internetizaciis dabali tempebi; internet-momxmarebelTa mcire segmenti;

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rati abulaZe 3.31 cxrili gagrZeleba

Zlieri mxareebi (gagrZeleba) eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis prioritetuloba da prestiJuloba; centrsa da regionis struqturuli erTeulebis, rogorc faseulobaTa jaWvis Semadgeneli rgolis SeTanxmebuli muSaoba da koordinirebuli moqmedeba; materialur-teqnikuri baza; eleqtronuli momsaxurebis kultura da savaldebulo moTxovnebi; problemebis identificirebisa da misi gadawyvetisaTvis mdidari adgilobrivi resursebi; korelacia efeqtur strategiul administrirebasa da eleqtronuli momsaxurebis ganxorcielebas Soris; SesaZleblobebi integrirebuli mTavrobis danergvisa da formirebis 6 wliani periodi; saqarTvelos teqnologiuri, socialur-ekonomikuri da politikuri ganviTareba; axali bazrebi; mezobel qveynebTan teqnologiuri, socialurekonomikuri integracia; pirdapiri da arapirdapiri ekonomikuri efeqti;

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susti mxareebi (gagrZeleba) dabali msyidvelobiTunarianoba; brendirebis komponentis ararseboba; eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis danergvasa da ganxilvaSi mosaxleobis dabali CarTuloba; internetis maRali fasi; mZime social-ekonomikuri foni; mcire sabiujeto dafinanseba; internet-provaiderebis interesi mxolod did qalaqebzea fokusirebuli; internet-komerciis susti zrda; internet-kompaniebis warmoqmnis neli tempi; eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis Sesaxeb dabali informaciuloba; eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis misawvdomoba geografiuli niSniT; mobiluri mTavrobis aplikaciebis ar arseboba; marketinguli komunikaciis kompleqsis gamoyenebis simcire; samarTlebrivi garemos sirTuleebi; eqspertul-kvleviTi eleqtronuli platformis ararseboba; e-mTavrobis ganviTarebis xelSemwyobi adekvaturi resursebis ararseboba; ekonomikis susti zrda, ucxour investiciebze damokidebuleba;


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia 3.31 cxrili gagrZeleba

SesaZleblobebi (gagrZeleba) internet-xarisxis zrda; mimzidveli sainvesticio garemo; cvlilebebisadmi sazogadoebisa da saxelmwifos moqniloba; sazogadoebriv adgilebSi (skola, universiteti, biblioTeka, dasavenebeli parkebi, skverebi) eleqtronuli wvdomis arseboba; internet-momsaxurebisa da internet aplikaciebis ganviTareba; saxelmwifos eleqtronuli momsaxurebisadmi moqalaqeebis interesebis zrda; mobiluri internet-qselis misawvdomoba da dafarva saqarTvelos dasaxlebuli teritoriis 98%ze; administraciuli resursi; internet-bazris potencialis zrda; mosaxleobis internetizaciisa da kompiuterizaciis zrda;

susti mxareebi (gagrZeleba) teqnologiebisa da inovaciuri progresis xelSemwmyobi programebis, infrastruqturis, kvleviT centrebis dafinansebis nakleboba; regionuli ekonomikuri da infrastruqturuli disproporcia; cifruli politikis formirebis sakanonmdeblo da maregulirebeli iniciativebis ararseboba; safrTxeebi informaciuli okupacia, informaciuli genocidi, informaciuli agresia; informacia, rogorc dezinformaciis iaraRi; raionebSi/soflebSi kvalificiuri specialistebis deficiti; eleqtronuli mTavrobis gaurkveuli da araformirebuli imiji; susti mmarTveloba; socialur-ekonomikuri, kulturuli da politikuri garemos cvlilebebi; globalizaciis safrTxeebi; globaluri kibersafrTxeebi; teqnologiuri cvlilebebi; seismuri politikuri garemo;

ekonomikuri krizisebi da cikluri ryevebi; arastabiluri socialuri pirobebi da Rrma uTanasworoba;

konfliqturi regionuli garemo;

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grZelvadiani mdgradobis uzrunvelyofisaTvis, emTavrobis sistemis implementacia fokusirebuli unda iqnes Zlier mxareebze, amave dros unda gatardes sisusteebisa da gamowvevebis prevenciis RonisZiebebi. saxelmwifos eleqtronuli momsaxureba ukonkurentoa, misi Sida SesaZleblobebi da safrTxeebi dakavSirebulia ara konkurentul garemosTan, aramed momxmarebelTan da infrastruqturasTan. eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategia fokusirebulia iseT ZiriTad problemebze, rogoricaa: sazogadoebis internet-wignierebis zrda; infrastruqturis modernizacia da yvela moqalaqisaTvis misi xelmisawvdomoba; saxelmwifo organoebis mzadyofnis amaRleba; TanamSromlebis kvalifikaciisa da eleqtronuli marTvis unarebis gaumjobeseba; kompiuterizaciisa da internetizaciis tempebis zrda; internet-misawvdomobis uzrunvelyofa mosaxleobis 70%-Si; aqtiuri samoqalaqo da informaciuli sazogadoebis formireba.

3.4.

eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategiuli dagegmvis ZiriTadi komponentebi

aRsaniSnavia, rom qarTuli sazogadoeba cifruli, ekonomikuri da socialuri problemebis lokalizebisa da hermetulobisaTvis, strategiebs, politikur gegmebs, komleqsur midgomebsa da cifruli ekonomikis ganviTarebis programebs iTxovs. Sesabamisad, sazogadoebrivi moTxovnebis pasuxs saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavro-

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

bis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia warmoadgens.. strategiuli dagegmva mimarTulia telekomunikaciis infrastruqturis gaumjobesebis, ekonomikis struqturuli gardaqmnisa da socialuri Tanasworobis stimulirebisaken. aseve, iseT strategiul mimarTulebebis fokusirebaze, romic globaluri konkurentunarianobis iqneba. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia asaxavs kompleqsur gadawyvetilebebs, romelic generirebs e-mTavrobis danergvis xelSemSleli problemebis gamovlenas, gamomwvevebis daZlevisa da ganviTarebis gzebis dasaxvas. strategia, qarTuli sazogadoebis moTxovnebisa da saWiroebebis kvlevisa da analizis konteqstSi axdens arsebuli politiisa da qveynis strategiuli mimarTulebebis konsolidaciasa da dagegmvas. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategiuli gegma warmoadgens ganaxlebis, harmonizaciis, TanamSromlobis, gamWvirvalobis, angariSvaldebulebis, marTvis axali instrumentebisa da cifruli da ekonomikuri ganviTarebis “CarCo mimarTulebas�.

3.4.1. eleqtronuli mTavrobis miznebi da amocanebi kavkasiis regionSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobisa da cifruli ekonomikis ganviTarebis mimarTulebiT qveynis pirvelobis dasaxva; saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategiis vizireba; moqalaqeebis moTxovnilebebze orientirebuli

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momsaxurebis warmoeba; moqalaqeebis dakmayofileba, marTvaSi CarTuloba, sazogadoebrivi faseulobis amaRleba; codnaze dafuZnebuli informaciuli sazogadoebis ganviTareba; inkluziuri eleqtronuli mTavroba, mTavrobis transaformacia; globaluri mzadyofnis amaRleba, cifruli uTanasworobis Semcireba; biurokratiis Semcireba; gamWvirvalobis amaRleba; angariSvaldebulebis zrda; samoqalaqo sazogadoebaze orientirebuli emTavrobis ganviTareba; qarTul internet-garemoSi internet-resursebis potencialis gaZliereba; `eleqtronuli mTavrobis politikis~ dabalansebuli kursis gatareba; e-mTavrobis formirebis gziT, saxelmwifo marTvaSi, samoqalaqo seqtoris CarTulobis donis gaZliereba; e-mTavrobis formirebis gziT, qveyanaSi demokratiuli Rirebulebebis ganmtkiceba.

3.4.2. eleqtronuli mTavrobis principebi eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategiis fundamenturi principebia: universaluroba (geografiuli adgilmdebare-

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

obis, Semosavlebis da ganaTlebis donis miuxedavad satelekomunikacio momsaxurebis misawvdomoba); yvela moqalaqisaTvis eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis Tanabrad misawvdomoba, harmonizacia, TanamSromloba, erTianoba, sayovelTao misawvdomoba; angariSvaldebuleba, pasuxismgebloba, saimedooba, rwmena, konfidencialoba; produqtiuloba, mwarmoebluroba, wvdoma-arCevani; resursebis nacionalizacia, standartizacia, individualizacia, socialuri ganviTarebis balansireba; gamWvirvaloba da marTvaSi CarTuloba,marTvis gaumjobeseba, marTvis meqanizmis srulyofa, usafrTxoeb; erTi fanjris principi; kolaboracia da integraci; dinamiuri, cocxali da moqnili mTavrobis formireba.

3.4.3. eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis uzrunvelyofisaTvis saWiro komponentebi xelmZRvaneloba; kulturuli cvlilebebi; marTvis meqanizmi; moqalaqeze orientirebuli midgoma; kolaboraciuli urTierToba da integracia; teqnologiuri arqiteqtura da Tavsebadoba;

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politika da samarTlebrivi struqtura; informaciuli menejmenti.

3.5.

saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis instituciuri mowyoba

eleqtronuli mTavrobis instituciuri mowyobis safuZvelia infrastruqtura, arqiteqtura, politika, samarTlebrivi baza, eleqtronuli momsaxurebis sistema, marTva da procesebis reinJiringi. aRsaniSnavia, rom eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis funqcionirebis safuZvelia: standartebi; strategia; teqnologiebi da danarTebi; infrastruqtura; xalxi da IT specialistebi; biznes modelebi da procesebi. swavlul-mecnierTa naSromebis kvlevis safuZvelze, eleqtronuli mTavrobis arqiteqturis meqanizmis mocemulobas warmoadgens (ix. naxazi 3.1): wvdomis Sre; aplikaciebis Sre; monacemTa Sre; infrastruqturis Sre; usafrTxoebis Sre; operaciuli da integraciuli Sre.

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naxazi 3.1 eleqtronuli mTavrobis arqiteqtura*

naxazi agebulia sxvadasxva wyaros ((Booz&Company, Ebrahim Z., 2005., Valdes G.,) safuZvelze

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3.5.1. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis biurokratia 3.5.1.1. eleqtronuli mTavrobis organizaciuli struqtura saqarTveloSi e-mTavrobis implementacia unda ganxorcieldes saxelmwifos damoukidebeli organos `saqarTvelos centraluri komitetis~ (SemdgomSi komiteti) mier. komiteti Tavis saqmianobaSi sruliad Tavisufali unda iyos sakanonmdeblo da aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis warmomadgenelebis Carevisa da gavlenisagan, Tumca angariSvaldebulia prezidentisa da parlamentis winaSe. `centraluri komitetis~ ufleba-movaleobani, biznesTan da moqalaqeebTan TanamSromloba, sxva qveynebTan eleqtronuli TanamSromloba unda ganisazRvrebodes organuli kanoniT. qveyanaSi, `saqarTvelos centraluri komiteti~ unda iyos kiberusafrTxoebis, gamWvirvalobis, stabilurobis, moqalaqeze orientirebuli da mdgradi ganviTarebis eleqtronuli mTavrobis garanti. man zedamxedveloba da kontroli unda gauwios saqarTvelos kiber garemos. `centraluri komiteti~ saerTaSoriso standartebis Sesabamisad unda awarmoebdes eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebas, unda uzrunvelyofdes eleqtronuli momsaxurebis efeqtian da gamarTul muSaobas; `centralurma komitetma~ unda SeimuSos saqarTvelos cifruli ganviTarebis politika, Seqmnas internetbazris xelSemwyobi garemo, xolo politikis marTvisa da procesebis ganviTarebisaTvis kontroli gauwios saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis strategiis implementacias. `centraluri komitetis~ Tavjdomares prezidentis wardginebiT niSnavs premier ministri, komitetetis 9 wev-

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

ridan, 2 wevri iniSneba parlamentis mier, 2 wevri aRmasrulebeli organoebis mier, 5 wevri saxelmwifo universitetis profesor maswavleblebisa da mecnier-mkvlevarTa mier (saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti, wmida andria pirvelwodebulis saxelobis qarTuli universiteti, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universiteti, SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti – TiTo universitetidan 1 wevri). komiteti angariSvaldebulia saqarTvelos prezidentisa da parlamentis winaSe, romelTac saqmianobis Sesaxeb angariSs warudgens yovelwliurad. saqarTvelos centraluri komiteti dafinansdeba saxelmwifo biujetidan. komitetis koordinirebiT ganxorcieldeba eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis dagegmva, danergva, organizacia, implementacia, motivacia, kontroli da monitoringi. `centraluri komitetis~ ZiriTadi funqciebia: erTiani integrirebuli eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis Seqmna; kibersufrTxoebis xelSemwyobi RonisZiebebis gatareba; kiberarmiis formireba; saqarTvelos cifruli ekonomikis ganviTarebis politikis SemuSaveba da mdgradobis xelSewyoba; strategiis ganxorcieleba; mTavrobis eleqtronuli momsaxurebis sistemis gamarTuli muSaobis kontroli; mecnierul-teqnikuri progresis RonisZiebebis gatareba;

xelSemwyobi

sazogadoebis kompiuterizacia da internetizacia, cifruli uTanasworobis aRmofxvra;

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internet-kompaniebisa da internet-momxmarebelTa interesebis dacva; onlain vaWrobis, onlain garigebebis, onlain transaqciis sagarantio meqanizmebis SemuSaveba da kontroli; onlain kvlevebis warmoeba, internet-bazris statistikis warmoeba; onlain konsultaciebisa da onlain daxmarebis gaweva moqalaqeebis, kerZo da saxelmwifo seqtoris warmoadgenlebisaTvis; internet-bazris ZiriTadi mimarTulebebis gansazRvra; eleqtronuli mTavrobis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebis gansazRvra; usafrTxo da jansaRi kibergaremos Seqmna; saxelmwifo, korporaciuli da samoqalaqo seqtoris CarTulobiT, globaluri masStabis platformiT sajaro ganxilvebisa da konferenciebis organizebis uzrunvelyofa; saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros xelSewyobiT eleqtronuli ganaTlebis sistemis formireba; eleqtronuli ganaTlebis inicirebiT, ganaTlebis saSualebebis modernizeba da informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis urTierTqmedeba; eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemisa da internetbazris ganviTarebisaTvis stabiluri normatiul-samarTlebrivi bazis formireba; saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis saministros xelSewyobiT, eleqtronuli jandacvis sistemis formireba;

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

saqarTvelos eleqtronuli jandacvis sistemis meSveobiT jandacvis strategiul programis realizeba; socialuri daxmarebis misawvdomobis gazrdisaTvis socialuri daxmarebis integrirebuli informaciuli sistemis formireba; eleqtronuli arqivis warmoeba; saqarTvelos iusticiis saministros xelSewyobiT eleqtronuli momsaxurebis marTvis uzrunvelyofa; Sinagan saqmeTa saministros xelSewyobiT, kiberpatrulis platformaze, eleqtronuli saCivrebis, jarimebis gadaxdis, gadaudebeli daxmarebis operatiuli marTvis centris, kiberusafrTxoebis sistemis marTvis warmoeba; erT uwyebaze daqvemdebarebiT, erTian sivrceSi moqceuli, erTiani sabiujeto uwyebis kontroli, rac am sferos mdgradi ganviTarebis SesaZleblobis momcemi iqneba; eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemaSi integrirebuli sabaJo da sagadasaxado eleqtronuli sistemis formireba; saqarTvelos turizmis cifruli ruqis, geografiuli informaciuli sistemis formireba da ganviTAareba; realuri drois reJimSi, web-iTa da mobiluri sistemiT, informaciisa da monacemTa gadacemis uzurnvelyofa; eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemaSi, sabiblioTeko fondis cifrul formatSi integrireba; mecnieruli memkvidreobis cifrul formatSi gadatana.

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3.5.1.2. `centraluri komitetis~ fundamenturi Rirebulebebi da faseulobebi gamWvirvaloba; marTvaSi CarTuloba; samarTlianoba ; miukerZoebloba; eTikis kodeqsis dacva; demokratiuli Rirebulebebis dacva; momsaxurebis saerTaSoriso standartebi; kompleqsuri momsaxureba; xelmisawvdomoba; ndoba da loialuroba; konfidencialoba; gulisxmiereba da mgrZnobiare damokidebuleba; angariSvaldebulebianoba; momxmarebelze orientireba da kmayofilebis formireba; Sedegiani da efeqturi urTierToba; swrafva inovaciisa da teqnologiebis ganviTarebisken ; TanamSromlebis orientireba mizanze da amocanebze ; kolegialuri, pozitiuri urTierTTanamSromloba da gunduroba; profesiuli reputacia; kompetenturi da profesionali TanamSromlebi; mudmivi ganviTarebis koncefcia; maRali donis menejmenti.

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naxazi 3.2. eleqtronuli mTavrobis marTvis struqtura

aRmasrulebeli marTvis jgufis funqciebi: lideroba da marTva; qveynis mzadyofna; mTavrobis mzadyofna; sazogadoebis mzadyofna; ICT industriis promouSeni;

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ICT industriis standartizacia da auditi; ICT industriis SesaZleblobebis gazrdis RonisZiebebi gatareba; ICT industriis samarTlebrivi gaZliereba; eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemebis, programuli uzrunvelyofis, kontentis ganviTareba; adamianuri resursebi; sazogadoebrivi informaciulobis regulireba; eleqtronuli transformacia; kontraqtebi, ganviTareba;

urTierToba,

TanamSromlobis

autsorsingi, unarebisa da kompetenciebis ganviTareba; informaciuli politika; seqtoruli ganviTareba. federaluri da regionuli samTavrobo teqnologiebis ganviTarebis jgufis funqciebi: e-mTavrobis gadawyvetilebebis lokalizeba; onlain tenderebi; onlain produqtis ganviTareba da marTva; onlain programebis marTva; monacemTa marTva; cifruli politikis gadawyvetilebebi; State Wide Area Network (SWAN), Service Delivery Gateway, Common Services Centers, GI Cloud (MeghRaj)[154]; strategiuli da inovaciuri gadawyvetilebebi;

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

federaluri da regionuli samTavrobo platformis xelSemwyobi RonisZiebebis gatareba; federaluri da regionuli samTavrobo kibergaremos promouSeni; federaluri da regionuli samTavrobo webgverdebze kontentis regulireba. monacemTa resursebis marTvis jgufis funqciebi: monacemTa bazis arqiteqturis marTva; monacemTa sistemis marTva; monacemTa swrafi moZraobis kontroli; monacemTa klasificireba da monacemTa krebulis marTva; samTavrobo monacemTa konfidencialobis politika; monacemTa generireba socialuri mediis, Cloudis, mobiluri telefonis, smartfonebis, planSetebis da sxva teqnologiebis inicirebiT. mTavrobis ZiriTadi monacemTa bazis formireba da kontroli; sazRvrebs gareT samTavrobo monacemTa resursebis kontroli. konkurenciisa da infrastruqturis ganviTarebis jgufis funqciebi: kiberusafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa; marTvis, konsultaciebisa da informirebis xelSDewyoba; konkurenciisa da resursebis ganviTareba; kavSirurTierTobisa da wvdomis amaRleba ;

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internet-resursebis marTva; internet-standartebis gansazRvra; eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebasTan wvdomis biometruli (an registraciiT) identificirebis meqanizmebis srulyofa; kontrolis sistemebis xelSewyoba. saxelmwifos mier biznes seqtoris momsaxurebis funqciebi: biznes funqciebis ganxorcielebis uzrunvelyofisaTvis biznes uwyvetobis antikrizisuli gegmis SemuSaveba; korporatiuli da marketinguli komunikacia; biznes seqtorTan urTierTqmedebis xelSemwyobi garemos formireba; onlain biznesis xelSewyoba; axali biznes modelebis ganviTareba; miwodebis jaWvisa da sistemis marTva; biznes momsaxurebis aplikaciebis SemuSaveba da ganviTareba. kvlevebis, analizisa da ganviTarebis jgufis funqciebi: internet-marketingi; benCmarkingi; biznes procesebis marTvis teqnologia (Business Intelligence); centraluri da adgilobrivi mTavrobis inicirebuli onlain kvlevebi;

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

kvlevisa da analizis safuZvelze ganviTarebul mimarTulebebis gansazRvra; axali programebis, aplikaciebis, inovaciebis gamovlena da gacnoba; eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis problemebisa da perspeqtivebis gansazRvra; kvlevis angariSis momzadeba. strategiuli dagegmvisa da inovaciebis jgufis funqciebi: cifruli politikis warmoeba; eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategiuli dagegmva; farTomasStabiani proeqtebi; resursebis racionalizacia; valdebulebebis demarkacia; nou-haus politikis SemuSaveba; marTvis procesebis modernizaciis teqnologiuri iniciativebis SemuSaveba. portalis marTvis jgufis funqciebi: samTavrobo web-saitebis dizainze zrunva; samTavrobo web-saitebis funqcionalurobis, martivi moxmarebis, optimizaciis instrumentebis marTva; samTavrobo web-saitebis muSaobis efeqturobis zrda; sakvanZo sityvebis dadgena da saZiebo sistemaSi optimizacia; partnioruli marketingis warmoeba;

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samTavrobo web-saitebis saxelmZRvanelo principebis SemuSaveba. infrastruqturis marTvis jgufis funqciebi: ICT infrastruqturis gafarToeba; eleqtronuli mTavrobis ICT infrastruqturis moqniloba da sistemebTan Tavsebadoba; centraluri da lokaluri mTavrobis integrirebuli eleqtronuli qselis infrastruqturis marTva; integrirebuli eleqtronuli qselis infrastruqturasTan moqalaqeebis, biznes seqtorisa da samTavrobo organizaciebis Tavsebadoba; internet-momxmarebelTa zrdis Sesabamisad infrastruqturis ganviTarebaze zrunva; samTavrobo web-saitebis, samTavrobo informaciis usafrTxoebisa da qselis daculobis uzrunvelyofa; serverebias da kompiuteruli qselebis (LAN) marTva; interneti, intraneti, eqstraneti, kerZo qselebis ganviTarebasa da usafrTxoebaze zrunva; kiberusafrTxoebaze regireba. samTavrobo servisebTan daSvebisa da urTierTobebis mimarTuleba: 1. mTavrobis momxmarebeli samTavrobo uwyebebi; moqalaqeebi;

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

biznes organizaciebi; TanamSromlebi; sxva organizaciebi; sxva qveynis samTavrobo uwyebebi. 2. monacemTa gadacemis arxebi da mowyobilobebi: web-saiti; personaluri kompiuteri; mobiluri telefoni; qol-centri; planSeti; telekonferencia/forumi; cifruli televizia; socialuri qselis saitebi. eleqtronul biznesTan urTierTobebis mimarTulebis funqciebi: 1. monacemTa damuSavebis programebis qseluri SesaZleblobebi eleqtronuli biznesis xelSewyoba; eleqtronuli xelmoweris, onlain garigebebis uzrunvelmyofi RonisZiebebis gatareba; onlain biznes sivrcis xelSewmyobi samarTlebrivi da sagadasaxado garemos formireba; dokumentebis marTvis sistema (DMS); momxmarebelTan urTierToebis marTva (CRM); sawarmoo resursebis dagegmva (ERP);

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monacemTa eleqtronuli gacvla (EDI); web-momsaxurebis danarTebi; lojistikis sistema. informaciul sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis mimarTulebis funqciebi: informaciul sazogadoebasTan urTierTobebis marTva; informaciuli kontentis ganviTareba; informaciuli garemos xelSewmyobi RonisZiebebis gatareba; samTavrobo uwyebebisa da infrormaciuli sazogadoebis urTierTqmedebisaTvis onlain konferenciebis organizeba; cifruli uTanasworobis Semcireba. mrCevelTa sabWo formirdeba aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis 7 wevriT: saqarTvelos erovnuli banki (1 wevri); saqarTvelos finansTa saministro (1 wevri); saqarTvelos ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministro (1 wevri); saqarTvelos iusticiis saministro (1 wevri); saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saministro (1 wevri); saqarTvelos komunikaciebis erovnuli komisia (1 wevri); saqarTvelos erovnuli uSiSroebis sabWo (1 wevri);

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

3.5.1.3. qarTuli biurokratiis upiratesobebi saxelmwifo programebis Sesrulebias Sedegebis miRebis tendencia;

da

eleqtronuli mTavrobis informaciis/momsaxurebis xelmisawvdomoba; Sida efeqtianobis zrdis mzaoba; procedurebis gamartivebis mzaoba; ndobis ganmtkicebis survili da miswrafeba; codnis/informaciis marTvis efeqtianobis zrdis miswrafeba; moqalaqeebs, kerZo da saxelmwifo organoebs Soris komunikaciis amaRlebaze zrunva; saxelmwifos xelSewyobiT eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis swavleba da aqtiuri propaganda (romelic politikuri mxardaWeriT aris uzrunvelyofili); saxelmwifos eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebisadmi damokidebuleba, romelic gaigivebulia, rogorc koleqtiuri saqmianobis, sazogadoebrivi koordinirebisa da problemebis gadaWris gza; Tanabaruflebiani SesaZleblobebis garemos Seqmnis mzadyofna; resursebis miznobrivi da moqnili gamoyenebis miswrafeba; qveyanaSi, saerTaSoriso standartebis saxelmwifo momsaxurebis saxeebis ganviTareba; saxelmwifoSi resursebis marTvis depolitizireba;

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qveynis saxelmwifo procesebis avtomatizaciis ganviTarebis procesis uwyvetoba; eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemisa da momsaxurebis inovaciuri formebis SemuSavebis mzaoba.

3.5.1.4. qarTuli biurokratiis gamowvevebi biurokratiis zrdis tendencia; funqcionaluri struqtura; Rrma ierarqia; cvlilebebisadmi winaaRmdegoba (umaRlesi ganaTlebis programa, soflis meurneoba ); nepotizmi; paternalizmis formebi; qveyanas ar aqvs erTiani globaluri platforma eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis realizebisaTvis. saxelmwifo procesebi da uwyebebi ar aris erTian integrirebul sivrceSi; sazogadoebis mier saxelmwifo struqturebis eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis dabali moxmareba; sajaro mmarTvelobis dagvianebuli procesi.

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

3.6. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategiuli mimarTulebebi eleqtronuli mTavrobis marketinguli kvlevis safuZvelze SesaZlebelia davsaxoT saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis strategiuli mimarTulebebi, kerZod: I. strategiuli mizani: cifruli ekonomikis ganviTareba biznes meTodebisa da procesebis dapatentebis xelSemwyobi garemos formireba; internet-komercializaciis zrdis uzrunvelyofisaTvis saavtoro da sapatento uflebebis, kopiraiTisa da savaWro markebis dacvis samarTlebrivi politikis gatareba; ICT-is sferoSi Sromebisa da miRwevebisTvis avtorebisa da mwarmoeblebis dajildoeba, waxaliseba da finansuri stimulireba; teqnologiuri da industriuli xelovnebis progresirebisaTvis ideebis teqnikuri gamoyenebis biznes kulturis formirebaCamoyalibeba; licenziebisa da gamoqveynebuli patentebis farTo gavrcelebis xelSemwyobi sivrcis formireba; ICT-isa da internetis ganviTarebis reformaTa jgufis (romelic unda dakompleqtdes gamomgoneblebis, teqnologebis, ICT-is sferos specialistebis, eqspertebisa da akademiuri pirebisagan) Seqmna.

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1.1. infrastruqturis modernizeba infrastruqturis modernizeba qmnis pirobas eleqtronuli mTavrobis efeqturad danergvis, biznes-procesebis ganxorcielebis, momxmarebelTa aqtivobis, eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis misawvdomobis zrdisa da cifrul uTanasworobis aRmofxvrisaTvis. II. strategiuli mizani: informaciuli sazogadoebis formireba mosaxleobis kompiuteriTa da internetis xelmisawvdomobis zrdis mizniT socialurad daucveli fenebisaTvis saxelmwifo daxmarebis programis ganxorcieleba; korporaciuli da saxelmwifo seqtorTa mier regionebis macxovreblebis kompiuteriT aRWurvis valdebuleba; TviTmarTveli organoebis organizebiTa da dafinansebiT geografiulad rTulad misaRwevi dasaxlebebis Wi-Fi infrastruqturiT aRWurva. 2.1. saxelmwifo marTvaSi eleqtronuli CarTulobis xelSewmyobi RonisZiebebi gatareba saxelmwifo uwyebebis warmomadgenlebTan interaqtiuli urTierTobisa da sazogadoebrivi azris gamoxatvis uzrunvelmyofi `saxelmwifo forumis~ warmoeba; onlain sakonsultacio sistemis Camoyalibeba; internet-portalis Seqmna, romelic mosaxleobis problemebis identificirebas, pre-

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

tenziebis miRebasa da aRricxvas moaxdens; onlain kvlevis servisi. III. strategiuli mizani: eleqtronuli usafrTxo garemos Camoyalibeba

mTavrobis

cifruli garemos Seqmna, romelic uzrunvelyofs axal gamowvevebsa da usafrTxoebis mowyvladi Sreebis warmoCenas; usafrTxoebis portfelis Seqmna da procesebis moqnili marTva; kiberTavdasxmebisa da katastrofis regeneraciis (aRdgenis) gegmis SemuSaveba; kiberTavdasxmebisa da katastrofis sistemis Camoyalibeba. 3.1. sazogadoebrivi kontroli (procesi, rogorc ganviTarebis inercia) telekomunikaciebis, sakomunikacio infrastruqturis, telekomunikaciis monacemebis, informaciis, sazogadoebis komunikaciis kontroli unda gnaxorcieldes samoqalaqo, biznes da saxelmwifo seqtoris Tanabaruflebiani monawileobiT; telekomunikaciis kompaniebis momxmarebelTa saidentifikacio da personaluri monacemebis marTvis `gasaRebi~ unda gadaeces uwyebas ~personalur monacemTa dacvis inspeqtors~. amasTan, aRniSnuli uwyeba modificirebas saWiroebs. aseve, unda gaizardos uwyebis angariSvaldebuleba, sajaro pasuxismgebloba. personaluri monacemTa dacvis inspeqtoris kontrolisaTvis unda Seiqmnas aRmasrulebeli organo – sazogadoebrivi sabWo

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(dakompleqtebuli samoqalaqo, biznes da saxelmwifo seqtoris warmomadgenlebisagan); kerZo da sazogadoebrivi interesebis balansis uzrunvelmyofi samarTlebrivi garemos Seqmna. IV. strategiuli mizani: eleqtronuli demokratiis formireba globaluri portalis Seqmna (sazogadoebis samive seqtoris interaqtiulobisaTvis); informaciulobis politikaze pasuxismgebeli uwyebis Camoyalibeba; yvela samTavrobo web-saitebze sadiskusio gverdis (forumis) arsebobis valdebuleba; mTavrobas mier onlain sakonsultacio sistemis muSaobis uzrunvelyofa; mTavrobis mier onlain kvlevis servisis Seqmna (sazogadoebrivi pulsis monitoringisaTvis); aRmasrulebel da sakanonmdeblo organoebTan, mosaxleobis problemebis eleqtronuli mimarTvis servisis uzrunvelyofa; regionebis cifruli ganviTarebis programebis Seqmna; informaciuli gegmis Seqmna.

sazogadoebis

ganviTarebis

V. strategiuli mizani: kiberarmiis Seqmna erovnuli usafrTxoebisaTvis, organizebuli kiberarmiis formireba, romelic unda

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

dakompleqtdes: hakerebis, swavlul-mecnierebis, Zalovani uwyebis TanamSromlebis, usafrTxoebis specialistebis, IT sferos warmomadgenlebis, programistebis, kompiuteris specialistebis, kvalificiuri inJinrebisa da eqspertebisagan; kibergaremos ganviTarebis veqtoris gansazRvra, kiberusafrTxoebis ganmtkiceba, sferos uzrunvelmyofi rekomendaciebisa da winadadebebis paketis SemuSaveba, sakanonmdeblo organoSi ICT industriisa da eleqtronuli mTavrobis samarTlebrivi garemos formireba; kiberarmiis Statiani da uStato (sazogadoebriv sawyisebze) `eqspertebiT~ dakompleqteba; `centraluri komitetis~ mier kiberarmiis formirebis koordinireba. VI. strategiuli mizani: integrirebuli mTavrobis Camoyalibeba miznobrivi mimarTulebiT SemuSavebuli sagegmo dokumentis samarTlebrivi dadastureba; strategiis implementacia, rogorc saxelmwifos ZiriTadi orientiri da eleqtronuli marTvis maqsimizaciis miRwevis gegma; saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier “saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategiiT� moqmedeba; integrirebuli mTavrobis garemos formireba.

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6.1. eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis procesebis standartizacia da serTifikacia saxelmwifos web-saitebis erTiani informaciuli politikis gatareba; gamWvirvalobis, angariSvaldebulebis savaldebulo RonisZiebebis implementireba; saxelmwifo marTvaSi mecnier-mkvlevaris rolis gazrda. 6.2. eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategiuli dagegmvis procesis kontroli da auditi mecnier-mkvlevarebis mier saxelmwifos strategiuli mimarTulebebis koreqtireba; ZiriTadi parametrebis Sefaseba: menejmenti, adamianuri resursebi, marketingi, infrastruqtura, teqnologiebi, momsaxurebis xarisxi,informacia, iuridiuli sakiTxebi, logistika, usafrTxoeba; eleqtronuli monacemTa bazis formireba; saxelmwifos ZiriTadi problemebis dadgena da gamovlena; strategiuli gegmis marTva racionaluri da samecniero mosazrebebis, globaluri tendenciebisa da saqarTvelos garemos TaviseburebaTa SeTanwyobis gaTvaliswinebiT. 3.7. eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategiuli gegmis kontroli monitoringisa da Sefasebis meTodologiis gansazRvra; dagegmili da realurad miRebuli Sedegebis

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

Sejameba; gegmiuri maCveneblebidan gadaxris analizi; eqspert-monitoringis jgufis Seqmna; marketinguli auditi; Sefasebis instrumentebisa da indikatorebis gamoyeneba. samTavrobo web-saitis efeqturobis Sefasebis kriteriumebi: dizaini; samomxmareblo servisi; kopiraiTis dacva; interaqtiuloba; teqnologiebi; inovaciebi; kontenti. qveyanaSi unda Seiqmnas eleqtronuli mTavrobis aplikaciebis, politikis, eleqtronuli biznes momsaxurebis, saxelmZRvanelo principebis, eleqtronuli produqtebis, kontentis, web-saitis interaqtiulobis, komunikaciis, usafrTxoebis, mobiluri aplikaciebis, mobiluri marTvis, cifruli procesebis, momsaxurebis xarisxis, standartebi.

3.8.

saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategiis Sedegi

eleqtronuli mTavroba, ganixileba rogorc biznesis forma da sargebeli, romelic warmodgenilia biznes procesebis struqturirebuli erTobliobiT, aqti-

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vobebiT, momsaxurebiTa da biznes saqmianobis farTo speqtriT[155]. saqarTveloSi integrirebuli eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergviT miRweuli iqneba: eleqtronuli biznes garemos stimulireba; mcire da saSualo onlain biznesis mxardaWera; biznes sargeblis zrda; internet-bazris ganviTareba; eleqtronuli komerciis brunvis zrda, Semosavlebis zrda, konurentunarianobis amaRleba; biznes mwarmoeblurobis amaRleba; ekonomikur informaciasTan wvdoma: bazris tendencia, eqsportis SesaZleblobebi, programuli mxardaWera, biznes seqtorisTvis administraciuli procedurebis gamartiveba da sxva sakiTxebi; biznes saqmianobisaTvis stabiluri da usafrTxo garemos formireba; internetis universaluri standartebis gaTvaliswinebiT biznes procesebis efeqturi ganxorcieleba; sabaJo da sagadasaxado procedurebis gamartiveba; biurokratiuli barierebis Semcireba; axali biznes modelebis warmoqmna, eleqtronuli biznes modelebisa da procesebis efeqturi marTva; momsaxurebis procesebis optimizacia;

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

biznes procesebis xarisxis, siswrafis zrda; kvalificiuri specialistebis zrda; samarTaliani faswarmoqmnis, gamWvirvale partnioruli urTierTobebis, patiosani konkurenciis, momavali Taobis teqnologiebSi investiciebisa da kapitalis zrda; saxelmwifosTan TanamSromlobis individualuri danaxarjebis (drois, fulis, energiis) Semcireba; biznes seqtoris mier eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis mravalferovani formebis aqtiuri gamoyeneba; garigebebisa da urTierTqmedebis gamartiveba. moqalaqe warmoadgens mTavrobas da mTavroba warmoadgens moqalaqes. `moqalaqeebis keTildReoba~ damokidebulia eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebul sistemaze da mis komponentebze. Sesabamisad, saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis ZiriTadi molodinia: instituciuri cvlilebebi da telekomunikaciis modernizebuli infrastruqtura; moTxovnilebis Sesabamisi konkretuli profilebis demarkacia, momxmarebelTa konfiguracia da momsaxurebis personalizacia; mravalferovani samTavrobo servisebi, procesebi da danarTebi; mTavrobasTan interaqtiuli urTierTqmedebisaTvis erTiani erovnuli portali; cifruli uTanasworobis aRmofxvra; mosaxleobis yvela fenisaTvis xelmisawvdomi kompiuteri da interneti, monacemTa gadacemisa da miRebis mowyobilobebi;

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aqtiuri informaciuli sazogadoeba; socialuri erToba; moqalaqeebis moTxovnebze umaRlesi xelisuflebis reagirebisaa da fokusirebis zrda; kulturuli progresi; dasaqmebis zrda; social-ekonomikuri keTildReobis zrda; codnis zrda; momsaxurebis swrafad miReba; biurokratiuli meqanizmebis gamartiveba; regionis mosaxleobasa da mTavrobas Soris informaciis miwodebis arxebis formireba; saavtoro uflebebis, sapatento uflebebis, kopiraiTis dacvisa da kontrolis zrda; moqalaqeebis mier eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis mravalferovani formebis aqtiuri gamoyeneba: satelefono kontaqtebi, saregistracio momsaxureba, internet-misamarTebi, linkebi, monacemTa bazebi, gancxadebebis wardgenis momsaxureba, statusis Semowmebis momsaxureba, dokumentaciis registraciis momsaxureba, nebarTvebi da sxva; cxovrebis xarisxis gaumjobesebisaTvis kapitaluri aqtivebis Seqmna: inteleqtualuri, ekonomikuri, socialuri, institucionaluri, teqnologiuri da politikuri kapitali. Teoriulad, eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistema Tanabrad sasargebloa, rogorc moqalaqeebisTvis, ise kerZo da saxelmwifo seqtorisTvis. Tumca, praqtikulad, saqarTveloSi eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergva (mocemul etapze) ufro faseulia samTavrobo uwyebebi-

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

saTvis, vidre moqalaqeebisaTvis/ biznes seqtorisaTvis. qveyanaSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergviT miRweuli iqneba: novatoruli azrovnebis mmarTveloba; politikuri ndobisa da rwmenis zrda; recesiis Semdgom ekonomikis aRdgena; centraluri da regionuli xelisuflebis organoebis angariSvaldebuleba da gamWvirvaloba; organizaciuli, politikuri da institucionaluri struqturebis gaZliereba; saxelmwifos efeqturi marTva, marTvis donisa da saxelmwifo Zalauflebis zrda; korufciis Semcireba; Tanabaruflebianoba da miukerZoebloba; saxelmwifo uwyebebis mier gatarebuli RonisZiebebisa da reformebis Sedegebis Sesaxeb sazogadoebis sruli informireba; saxelmwifos mSeneblobis procesSi emigraciaSi myofi pirebis aqtiuri CarTva; qveyanaSi, iseTi faseulobis damkvidreba, rodesac sajaro samsaxurSi muSaoba aRqmuli iqneba, rogorc `saxelmwifos mSeneblobaSi CarTvis saSualeba~ da ara mxolod dasaqmebis adgili; gamWvirvale sakadro politikis warmoeba, rodesac aRmasrulebel da sakanonmdeblo organoSi, arsebiTi yuradReba mieqceva doqtoris xarisxis mqone pirebs, mecnier-mkvlevarebsa da dargis wamyvan specialistebs; demokratiuli procesebis gaRrmaveba;

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saxelmwifo momsaxurebis Zalisxmevis fokusireba yovel moqalaqeze da ara biurokratiaze; saxelmwifo sistemis Riaoba; saxelmwifo saxsrebis efeqturi marTva; agitacia-propagandis efeqturobis zrda, propagandistuli jgufebis gegmebis ganxorcieleba; politikuri sistemisa da ideologiuri orientaciis zrda; samTavrobo sistemasTan, TiToeuli moqalaqis interaqtiulobisa da marTvaSi CarTuloba; sazogadoebisaTvis, mmarTvelobaSi CarTulobis, winadadebebisa da rekomendaciebis miwodebis, strategiis Seqmna-ganxilvaSi monawileobis SesaZleblobis micema; sistemis Seqmna, romelic araefeqturi marTvis, qmeduunaro mmarTvelobis, uSedego reformis prevenciis, krizisis marTvisa da gamowvevebze drouli reagirebis SesaZleblobis momcemi iqneba; cifruli administraciis saqmianobis efeqturoba, politikasa da biurokratias Soris efeqtiani urTierTkavSiri; saarCevno valdebulebebis zrda; mmarTvelis unarisa da potencialis realizebis platformis formireba, romelic mimarTuli iqneba mosaxleobis social-ekonomikuri keTildReobis aMmaRlebis, biujetis zrdis, axali resursebis warmoCenis, proeqtebis efeqturad ganxorcielebis, Semosav-

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

lebis zrdis, samecniero-teqnikuri progresisa da sazogadoebis koordinirebisaken; samTavrobo struqturebis efeqturi komunikaciis, centraluri koordinaciis, kolaboraciisa da funqcionaluri Tavsebadobis zrda; eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergviT, mouqneli biurokratiuli struqtura Canacvldeba reaqtiuli, gulisxmieri da moqnili saxelmwifo struqturiT. aRmasrulebeli organo, eleqtronuli mTavrobis platformiT qmnis sazogadoebaze orientirebul politikur cxovrebas da axdens sazogadoebrivi saWiroebebis dakmayofilebas.Tavis mxriv, eleqtronuli mTavrobis instrumentebi uzrunvelyofs[156]: aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis maRali pasuxismgebloba, kvalifikacia, ganaTlebis xarisxi, gamWvirvaloba da angariSvaldebuleba[157]; demokratiuli institutebis gaZliereba; nacionaluri politikis moTxovnebis zrda; samTavrobo formireba;

elitis

onlain

avtoritetis

kvleva da sazogadoebrivi azris Seswavla; mxardaWerebis demonstrireba; protestis, peticiis organizeba, ro/privatuli saubrebis warmoeba;

saja-

vizitorebs Soris informaciis gaziareba, vizitorebis mier informaciis atvirTva/ganaxleba; politikuri

mxardaWeris

mopovebisa

da

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rati abulaZe

saxelmwifoebrivi azrovnebis miRwevis mizniT xalxis inspirireba; ideebis generireba; virusulis saxiT informaciis gavrceleba; globalizaciis negatiur tendenciebze prevenciisa da procesebis efeqturi marTva[158]; biurokratiuli sakiTxebis warmoCena, administraciuli klaudsorsingi. partiis onlain kongresis, onlain konferenciisa an onlain yrilobis organizeba; xelisuflebis liderebs SesaZleblobas aZlevs xalxTan awarmoon uSualo komunikacia, pirdapiri agitacia, sxvadasxva sferoze saubrebi, Tavisi azrebisa da Sexedulebebis gaziareba, politikaze ormxrivi diskusia, politikur kampaniaSi CarTva, fandraizingi, miznobriv auditoriaze fokusireba. eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistema qveynis ekonomikuri infrastruqturis sakvanZo elementia. misi efeqturi funqcionireba da marTvis procedurebis mwarmoeblurobis zrda ganapirobebs internet-ekonomikis zrdas. eleqtronuli mTavroba qmnis mimzidvel sainvesticio klimats, romelic xels uwyobs kapitalis mozidvas; qveyanaSi, cifruli procesebi qmnis axal samuSao adgilebs, iZleva socialur da ekonomikur sargebels; infrastruqturaSi 1.2 mln dolaris dabandeba generirebs saSualod 75 samuSao adgils. saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia miznad isaxavs xelsayreli saprognozo maCveneblebis miRwevas (ix. cxrili 3.32).

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

cxrili 3.32 eleqtronuli mTavrobis strategiis mosalodneli Sedegebi ( 2015-2020 ) komponentebi

arsebuli mdgomareoba

saprognozo mdgomareoba 2020 wlisaTvis

eleqtronuli mTavrobis wili mSp-Si (%)

8

12

1712.1

1801.2

cxovrebis xarisxis indeqsi [159]

65.02

82.0

e-mTavrobis momsaxurebasTan wvdomis zrda (%)

5

45

internet-momxmarebelTa raodenoba (%)

46.7

75

samomxmareblo momsaxurebis ekonomia (%)

-

40

saxelmwifos ekonomia (%)

-

35

codnaze dafuZnebuli ekonomikis indeqsi[40]

68

45

globaluri inovaciebis indeqsi [160,40]

74

60

inovaciebis SesaZleblobis indeqsi [40]

44

36

globaluri informaciuli teqnologiebis indeqsi [40]

65

50

mecniereba&teqnologiebze gaweuli saxelmwifo danaxarjebi (%)

0.2

5

samuSao adgilebis (aTasi kaci)

zrda

301


rati abulaZe

Sejameba naxevarsaukunovani istoriis mqone internet garemo warmodgenilia, rogorc mravaferovani sargebliT, faseulobebiTa da upiratesobebiT, ise safrTxeebiTa da gamowvevebiT. misi garemo xelsayreli da mimzidvelia, rogorc kanonmorCili moqalaqeebisaTvis, ise kriminalebisTvis. interneti Ria, sustad daproeqtebuli qselia, sadac safrTxeebis horizontebi da kiberkriminalebis qmedebebi ZviradRirebuli Sedegebisaa, rogorc internetmomxmareblebisaTvis, ise kerZo da saxelmwifo organizaciebisaTvis. eleqtronuli mTavroba evoluciuri fenomenia, romlis gavrceleba Seuwyveteli procesia [161]. `eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia 2015-2020~ aRwers sad dgas qveyana, ra strategiuli gamowvevebis winaSea da ra mimarTulebiT unda imoZraos man. zemoaRniSnuli kvlevis safuZvelze, saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis koncefciis danaxva, ekonomikuri sistemis TvalTaxedviT sakmaod rTulia. eleqtronuli mTavrobis arsebuli platformiT ar xdeba ekonomikuri da biznes realiebis Sesaxeb informireba, klientebis saWiroebebze fokusireba, momsaxurebaTa sididis gansazRvra, teqnologiuri infrastruqturis Sefaseba, administraciuli sargeblisa da danaxarjebis dadgena, cifruli politikisa da strategiuli prioritetebis argumentirebuli analizi [162]. eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis centraluri aspeqtia danaxarjebi da Semosavlebi, mcire kapitaldabandebebi da sabiujeto dafinanseba (biujetis dafinanseba 3,1 mln lari). miznobrivi ekonomikuri politikis prioritets ar warmoadgens ICT-is sfero. Sesabamisad, cxadi

302


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

makroekonomikuri efeqtis warmoqmnis albaToba dabalia. saqarTveloSi fragmentulia eleqtronuli mTavrobis sferos kvlevebi, onlain biznes tendenciebis miuxedavad ar xdeba eleqtronuli komerciis tempebisa da internet-ekonomikis raodenobriv maCveneblebSi gazomva, eleqtronuli biznes modelebis Semosavlebisa da brunvis moculobis dadgena, ar warmoebs eleqtronuli mTavrobisa da eleqtronuli komerciis stimulirebis intervencionistuli midgoma. amitom, rTulia qarTuli e-mTavrobis ekonomikuri Sedegebis Sefaseba. eleqtronuli mTavrobis prizmaSi gatarebuli procesebi da tendenciebi, mainc eleqtronuli biznes procesebis konteqstSi ganixileba. eleqtronuli mTavrobis modeli kiberbalkanizaciisa da fragmentirebuli sazogadoebis gaerTianebis modelia, romelic axdens sociumis xmis cirkulirebas. eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistema xels uwyobs optimaluri marTvis gadawyvetilebis miRebas, realizebas, gadawyvetilebis procesis dagegmvas, Tanamimdevruli gadawyvetilebis generacias, prognozirebadi mdgomareobis miRwevas. igi amaRlebs centraluri da regionuli menejmentis efeqturobas da xels uwyobs efeqturi gadawyvetilebis miRebas. Sesabamisad, efeqturi menjmentis realizeba da formireba ekonomikuri zrdis stimulatoria[163]. eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergva xels uwyobs konstituciuri sakiTxebis warmoCenas, biurokratiuli kolaboraciis efeqturobas, uwyebebis funqcionalur Tavsebadobas, moqalaqeebis uflebebisa da saxelmwifo wyobis efeqtianobis zrdas[164]. qarTuli kibergaremo SeiZleba daxasiaTdes, rogorc mowyvladi da TviTregulirebadi qseli, sadac adgili aqvs TaRliTobas, SpionaJs, kiberkriminals, eqstre-

303


rati abulaZe

mizms, rasobriv da religiur propagandas. kvlevis Sedegebidan gamomdinare SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi adgili aqvs demokratizacias, evropeizacias, cifrul procesebsa da Zalauflebis gadanawilebas. aRniSnuli procesi `bundovani~ strategiebis fonze xorcieldeba. Catarebuli kvlevis Sedegebidan gamomdinare, SesaZlebelia aRvniSnoT Semdegi: 90-iani wlebis bolodan, qveyanaSi mwiri biujetirebis fonze xdeba cifruli procesebis danergva, eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemisa da implementaciis xelSemwyobi garemos formireba; saqarTvelos ar aqvs efeqturi cifruli politika, ar warmoebs axali teqnologiebisa da cifruli instrumentebis aTviseba, SemuSavebuli araa ICT-s momsaxurebasTan wvdomisa da infrastruqturis gaumjobesebis programebi; saqarTvelos informaciuli sazogadoeba ganxiluli unda iqnes, rogorc sazogadoebrivi aqtivi da elita[165]; qveyanaSi, cifruli procesebis miuxedavad, jer kidev ar arsebobs cifruli ganviTarebis nacionaluri strategia. 2012 wlis Semdgom, qveyanaSi SemuSavda sxvadasxva strategiuli gegma, Tumca isini warmodgenili ar aris kompleqsuri kvlevebisa da realobebis Seswavlis safuZvelze; qveyanaSi, e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis gavrcelebas xels uSlis dabali motivacia, onlain unarebis uqonloba, inteleqtualuri disbalansi, teqnologiuri da finansuri barieri, saTanado adgilas teqnologiuri daSvebisa da infrastruqturis uqonloba; saqarTvelosTvis, krizisis Semdgom, ekonomikuri

304


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

aRmavlobis konkretuli vadebi Tavis bunebiT araprognozirebadia (rac ekonomikis araefeqturi regulirebis winapirobaa), Tumca tendenciebis SesaZlo Sedegebis gageba SesaZlebelia; zogadad, qveyana ramdenad Zlier zaraldeba krizisiT, imdenad zrdis poziciaSia, radgan qveynisaTvis `adre miuRwevel~ kapitalTan, talantebTan da kvalificiur menejerebTan, inteleqtualur sakuTrebasTan da sxva resursebTan wvdoma advili xdeba, es ki saqarTvelom pragmatulad SeiZleba gamoiyenos; saqarTvelo ganicdis politikuri da biznes garemos ndobis, stabilurobis, sazogadoebrivi da politikuri garantiebis naklebobas. politikuri cvlilebebis Semdgom adgili ar aqvs statuskvos SenarCunebas. erTaderTi internet-garemoa, romlis mimarTac politikuri damokidebuleba da mimarTulebebi ar icvleba; saqarTvelos cifruli media garemos gamowvevebia: socialuri pasuxismgeblobis regulirebis problemebi; globaluri onlain mediis gavlenis safrTxeebi; sazogadoebrivi codnis formirebis gamowvevebi (onlain propagandis, onlain rekalamis, onlain PR-is gavlena); samTavrobo, media institutebsa da sazogadoebas Soris urTierTobis gadafaseba; saqarTveloSi demokratiuli institutebisa da demokratiuli procesebis fonze mniSvnelovan gamowvevas warmoadgens sazogadoebis koordinireba da urTierTanamSromloba; sazogadoeba, romelic gaerTiandeba Zlieri, erTiani, socialurekonomikuri keTldReobis mqone qveynis mSeneblobisTvis;

305


rati abulaZe

qarTuli saeqsporto potencialis (programuli produqtebi, ICT, eleqtronuli komercia) xelSewyobisaTvis saWiroa potenciuri da faqtobrivi saeqporto bazrebis warmoCena, maTi analizi, saerTaSoriso/regionul bazrebTan wvdomisa da globaluri kavSirebis ganviTarebis konkretuli RonisZiebebis dagegmva da miRwevis gzebis dasaxva; saeqsporto potencialis Sefasebisas analizs saWiroebs potenciuri bazrebi, bazris sidide, bazris savaraudo wili, distancia, mocemul bazrebze arsebuli imiji (qarTuli produqtis/momsaxurebis, warmoebis da a.S.). aseve, saWiroa arsebuli geografiuli bazrebis, barierebisa da kontrastis ekonomikur maCveneblebSi Sefaseba; evrokavSirSi, samuSao adgilebis Seqmnisa da zrdis pirobebis stimulirebis identificirebis sakvanZo sferoebia: axali da stabiluri farTozolovani momsaxurebis samarTlebrivi garemos Seqmna; evropis sakredito fondebis meSveobiT axali cifruli momsaxurebis infrastruqturis formireba; evrokavSiris kiber-strategiis Seqmna; evrokavSiris kopiraiTis struqturis ganaxleba; saxelmwifo seqtoris Sesyidvis meSveobiT Cloud Computing-is aCqareba; eleqtronuli industriis strategiis implementacia[9]; cifruli politikis gatareba biurokratias (saxelmwifos sakvanZo rols) ufro efeqturs xdis; makroekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT biurokratiis xarisxi ekonomikuri zrdis sakvanZo faqtoria. saxelmwifo momsaxureba yvela ekonomikuri saqmianobis arsebiTi nawilia, romlis efeqtur wardgenas didi mniSvneloba aqvs (mikroekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT) [166];

306


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

qveyanaSi, sazogadoebisa da biznes seqtoris interesi fokusirdeba cifrul industriaze (informacia, media, telekomunikacia). cifruli biznesi xdeba warmatebuli biznes mimarTuleba, romelic farTod idgams fesvebs. Sesabamisad, qveynis prioritetul mimarTulebad unda iqces teqnologiaze dafuZnebuli ekonomikuri ganviTareba (Cloud Computing, informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis, bioteqnologiebi, biomedicina, energia da sxva); gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda gamaxvildes saqarTveloSi mcxovreb uRaribes mosaxleobaze mimarTul programebze. aseve, regionsa da centrs Soris arsebuli ekonomikuri, socialuri da cifruli uTanasworobis prevenciis RonisZiebebze; ukiduresad Raribi mosaxleobisaTvis, socialuri daxmarebis zrdasTan erTad, umjobesia SemuSavdes specialuri programebi (individualuri). ojaxebis siRaribidan amosvlis mizniT, sazogadoebis, biznes seqtorisa da saxelmwifos erToblivi TanamSromlobiT unda gatardes specialuri RonisZiebebi. mTavar prioritetad unda iqces ukiduresad Raribi ojaxebis wyliT, sakvebiT, energiiTa da telekomunikaciiT uzrunvelyofa; saxelmwifosaTvis, prioritetuli unda gaxdes axalgazrda ojaxebis keTildReobis uzrunvelmyofi RonisZiebebi da SeRavaTebi. magaliTad, axalgazrda ojaxebisaTvis biznesis keTebis, codnisa da ekonomikuri keTildReobis amaRlebisaTvis gamoyofili unda iqnes grZelvadiani da dabalprocentiani sakredito xazi. msgavis midgoma qmnis axalgazrdebis permanentuli ganviTarebis xelSemwyob pirobebs, xolo saxelmwifosaTvis SromiTi resursebis

307


rati abulaZe

efeqtianobas; kvlevaSi monawileoba miiRo saqarTvelos yvela regionma. kvlevidan gamomdinare, internet-momxmarebelTa segmentis portreti Semdegnairad gamoiyureba: gamokiTxulTa 62.2% dasaqmebulia, respondentTa 54.2%-is ojaxis Tviuri Semosavali saSualod 300-dan 1000 laramdea, ZiriTadad warmodgenilia 18-45 wlis asakobrivi kategoriiT (82.8%), maTgan 59% aris qali, xolo 41% mamakaci; kvleva aCvenebs, rom qarTuli sazogadoebisaTvis mniSvnelovania samTavrobo marTvaSi CarTuloba da dagegmvis procesebSi monawileoba; kvlevisas gamovlinda, rom qarTuli sazogadoebis naxevari kmayofilia eleqtronuli demokratiis uzrunvelyofi procesebiTa da instrumentebiT; qveyanaSi, demokratizaciis procesebis xelSewyobisaTvis saWiroa sazogadoebrivi mniSvnelobis mqone instrumenti – globaluri saxelmwifo portali, romelic gaxdeba sazogadoebis yvela fenis azris gamoxatvisa da interaqtiuli urTierTqmedebaTa saSualeba; saxelmwifo saWiroebs eleqtronuli mTavrobis globalur sistemasa da marketingul strategias, romelic sazogadoebis samive seqtoris monawileobiT unda iqnes ganxiluli da damtkicebuli; qveyanaSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistema amcirebs socialur uTanasworobas, informaciul asimetriulobas, zrdis bazris efeqturobas, xels uwyobs ekonomikis wonasworobas, informaciis ganawilebaSi qmnis samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo seqtoris Tanabaruflebian pirobebs; Catarebulma marketingulma kvlevam aCvena, rom

308


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

saqarTveloSi eleqtronuli demokratiuli politikis kultura swrafad formirdeba, Tumca am fonze mudmivi politikuri cvlilebebi eWvqveS ayenebs saxelmwifo dawesebulebebis ndobas; eleqtronul demokratias sWirdeba mosaxleobis social-ekonomikuri keTildReoba, internet-misawvdomoba, erTiani da informaciuli sociumi; saqarTveloSi, demokratiuli institutebisa da demokratiuli procesebis fonze mniSvnelovan gamowvevas warmoadgens sazogadoebis koordinireba da urTierTanamSromloba. sazogadoeba, romelic gaerTiandeba Zlieri, erTiani, socialurekonomikuri keTldReobis mqone qveynis mSeneblobisTvis; qveyanaSi, iwereba strategiebi, romelic muSavdeba ucxoelebis mier aRniSnuli strategiebi ar eyrdnoba marketingul kvlevebs, araa fokusirebuli adgilobriv SesaZleblobebze, ar iTvaliswinebs adgilobriv resursebs, moTxovnebsa da wesCveulebebs. igi asaxavs saerTaSoriso qveynebis gamocdilebas, warmodgenilia strategiis aprioruli codnis midgomiT da ra Tqma unda ara aqvs aposteriori mtkicebuleba [167]; SemuSavebuli eleqtronuli mTavrobis marketinguli strategia xels uwyobs demokratiuli institutebis gaZlierebas; eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia qmnis saqarTvelos social-ekonomikuri problemebis lokalizebisa da politikuri gamowvevebis hermetulobis pirobas; saqarTvelos gayinuli ekonomikis fonze, `eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia (2015-2020)~ ekonomikis zrdis, samuSao

309


rati abulaZe

adgilebis Seqmnis, qveynis konkurentunarianobis amaRlebis, socialuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis, demokratiuli procesebisa da eleqtronuli mTavrobis formirebisaTvis strategiuli mniSvnelobisaa. strategiuli dagegmvis politikiT miRweuli iqneba politikuri klimatis stabiluroba, ekonomikuri klimatis `aRdgena~ da sabazro kursis efeqturi marTva; eleqtronul mTavroba qmnis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis pirobas. eleqtronuli mTavrobis ekonomikuri ganzomileba farToa da resursebiT mdidari, amitom saqarTvelos mTavrobisTvis mizanSewonili iqneba eleqtronul mTavrobaze fokusireba, rac qveyanaSi Seqmnis ekonomikis ganviTarebis baziss, xolo kerZo da samoqalaqo seqtors uzrunvelyofs social-ekonomikuri sargebliT. misi ganviTarebiT fundamenturad Seicvleba ekonomikuri landSafti, gatardeba administraciuli samsaxurebis reforma, administraciuli SesaZleblobebis gaumjobesebiT ki moxdeba ekonomikuri ganviTarebis stimulireba, samuSao Zalis progresuli ganviTareba da dasaqmebis zrda; dabolos, ganviTarebis tendencia gviCvenebs, rom momavali ekuTvnis mobiluri mTavrobas. Sesabamisad, qveyanaSi integrirebuli mTavrobis doneze miRwevis Semdgom saWiro gaxdeba mobiluri mTavrobis momsaxurebis, mobiluri platformis, mobiluri komunikaciebis danarTebis, mobiluri servisebis, mobiluri portalebis, mobiluri socialuri komunikaciis, mobiluri komerciis, mobiluri transaqciis, mobiluris gamoyenebiT xelmoweris, mobiluri internetis, mobiluri komunikaciis bazris ganviTareba da farTod gamoyeneba.

310


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

rekomendaciebi saxelmwifo saWiroebs `cifrul reformas~; saxelmwifo fokusirebuli unda iyos moqalaqeebsa da biznes seqtoris moTxovnebze da ara biurokratiaze; mizanSewonilia gamkacrdes qarTuli kibergaremos regulireba (internet-cenzura ar igulisxmeba), samarTlebrivi baziT ganmtkicdes internet-momxmarebelTa uflebebi, mkacri sasjeli dawesdes `arasrulwlovanTaTvis Seuferebeli~ kontentis generirebisaTvis, internet-trolingze, SemuSavdes sakanonmdeblo modeli internetSi iseTi safrTxeebis regulirebisaTvis, rogoricaa: arasrulwlovanTa uflebebis dacva, informaciuli usafrTxoebis dacva, piradi cxovrebis dacva, reputaciis dacva, inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis dacva[168]; qveyanas sWirdeba eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergvis samsaxuri, romelic sazogadoebisa da biznes seqtoris koordinaciiT SeZlebs eleqtronuli mTavrobis efeqturi platformis Seqmnas, integrirebuli eleqtronuli garemos Sesabamisi sajaro samsaxuris struturirebas, mecnierul-teqnikuri kvlevebisaTvis saTanado garemos Camoyalibebas; socialurad daucveli ojaxebisaTvis biznes seqtorTan TanamSromlobiT unda SemuSavdes saxelmwifos socialuri daxmarebis programebi, romelic ojaxebs kompiuteriTa da internetiT aRWurvis xelSemwmyobi iqneba; saxelmwifo orientirebuli unda iyos Sedegebze, rac uzrunvelyofili unda iyos aRmasrulebeli

311


rati abulaZe

organos pasuxismgeblobiT; eleqtronuli mTavrobis antikrizisuli gegma unda moicavdes Zlier genderul aspeqtebs, genderul saWroebebs, genderuli uTanasworobis Semcirebis RonisZiebebs, teqnologiur iniciativebs, cifruli genderuli uTanasworobis normatiul-samarTlebriv regulirebas[169]; saxelmwifo bazirebuli unda iyos biznes procesebsa da bazarze; saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis platforma unda uzrunvelyofdes: moqalaqeebTan produqtiuli da ndobaze damyarebuli urTierTobis formirebas; momxmarebelTa moTxovnilebebze saxelmwifos swraf reagirebas; momxmareblis saerTo molodinisa da e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis faqtobrivi gamoyenebis Secnobas; samTavrobo uwyebebTan e-momsaxurebis funqciur Tavsebadobas; teqnologiuri, politikuri da socialuri landSaftis Sesabamisad e-momsaxurebis politikis formirebas; e-momsaxurebis danarTebis mudmiv srulyofas; globalur da lokalur tendenciebTan e-momsaxurebis adaptacias; moqalaqeebisTvis informaciuli da servisuli arxebis diversifikacias[170]; saxelmwifos mamoZravebeli unda iyos teqnologiebi, codna, inovaciebi da progresi; moqalaqeebis saidentifikacio da personaluri monacemebis marTvis mamoZravebeli unda iyos samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo seqtoris erToblivi administrireba, arapolitikuri survilebi da demokratiis aqtivizeba; saxelmwifom unda Seqmnas monacemTa baza, romelic sazogadoebrivi sargeblobisaTvis infor-

312


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

maciis misawvdomobis SesaZleblobis momcemi iqneba; qveyanaSi unda ganviTardes moqalaqeebsa da politikur liderebs Soris interpersonaluri komunikacia, interaqtiulobisa da ukukavSiris sistemebi ganxorcieldes kvalificiuri specialistebis mier, romelTa konsultacias eqneba samarTlebrivi Zala[171]; onlain social-eTikuri pasuxismgeblobis zrdisaTvis unda gamkacrdes samarTlebrivi normebi; saxelmwifo/kerZo organizaciebis mwarmoeblurobis amaRleba unda ganxorcieldes intervenciuli RonisZiebebiTa da iseTi axali teqnologiebis aTvisebiT, rogoricaa: Cloud Computing, Business Intelligence, socialuri media, mobiluri teqnologiebi, kolaboraciis instrumentebi. Tumca, cifruli politikis gareSe mxolod axali teqnologiis aTviseba pasuxi ar aris da qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTareba garkveul riskebTanaa dakavSirebuli. moqniloba da konkurentunarianoba ar niSnavs iyo Zalian swrafi, is gulisxmobs yovelTvis iyo siswrafis mdgomareobaSi; gamomdinare iqidan, rom sazogadoebis mier axali teqnologiebis myisieri aTviseba yovelTvis mniSvnelovan gamowvevas warmoadgens, amitom qveyanaSi masobrivi aTviseba unda moxdes advilad aRsaqmeli teqnologiebis SemuSavebiTa da misawvdomi fasebiT; qveyanaSi xelmisawvdomi unda gaxdes cifrul teqnologiebTan da aplikaciebTan kompleqsuri kavSiris infrastruqtura, moxdes maTi masobrivi aTviseba, ganisazRvros maTi zegavlena sazogadoebasa da ekonomikaze, Sefasdes sargebeli da saWi-

313


rati abulaZe

ro danaxarjebi. amisaTvis, mTavrobam unda gansazRvros cifruli procesebis sargeblis gazomvis saimedo instrumenti (rac Tavis mxriv mizezSedegobriv kavSirSia investirebis xelsayreli sivrcis SeqmnaSi), xolo sazogadoebisaTvis unda ganisazRvros cifruli procesis xarisxis standartuli indikatori (WEF, 2012); qveyanaSi ekonomikis aqtivobisa da dasaqmebis zrdis lokomotivi unda gaxdes informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis dargi, xolo misi ganviTarebis strategiul gegmas `eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia 2015-2020~ unda warmoadgendes; ekonomikaSi ICT-is maqsimalurad da farTod gamoyenebis xelSewyoba unda ganxorcieldes `eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategiiT ( 2015-2020)~; demokratiasa da cifrul process Soris arsebuli korelaciis gamo, qveynis demokratiis donis amaRleba unda `eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategiT (2015-2020)~; qveyanam unda daabalansos regionuli ganviTareba, ZiriTadi aqcenti unda gakeTdes arsebuli resursebis efeqtian gamoyenebaze, Sida investirebaze, Sida potencialis (mecnier-mkvlevarebi) gamovlenasa da gamoyenebaze; aRmofxvrili unda iqnes Sida `investirebis siZunwis~ gamomwvevi mizezebi; saqarTvelos cifruli ekonomikis formirebisaTvis saWiroa janmrTeli, gamWvirvale, investirebisaTvis mimzidveli sabazro platformis xelSewyoba da stimulebi. internet-bazari, romelic milionobiT monawilesaTvis Riaa riskebis, cva-

314


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

lebadobis, aqtivebisa da kapitalis SefasebisaTvis, saWiroebs centralizebul sabazro manipulaciebs, garkveul intervenciebsa da subsidiebs. Tavis mxriv internet-bazris, eleqtronuli vaWrobisa da momsaxurebis liberalizacia, regionuli integraciis, ganviTarebisa da dasaqmebis safuZvelia; qveynis cifruli ekonomikuri zrdisaTvis gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs kreditebis nakads, SeRavaTebs. mniSvnelovania bankebis mier satelekomunikacio infrastruqturisa da sxva iniciativebis finansireba; saxelmwifos mier mxardaWerili organizaciebi (da ara konkretuli sferos organizaciebi), Zviri sabanko kreditebi, arasakmarisi maragebisa da kreditebis gamoyofa (sabazro principebis mixedviT) afarToebs uTanasworobas SemosavlebSi. problemas warmoadgens energiisa da resursebis araefeqtiani gamoyeneba, socialuri dacva, garemos dacvis araefeqturi RonisZiebebi. am mxriv internet-biznesi dgas upirates mdgomareobaSi. internet-kompaniebis warmatebuli saqmianoba dakreditebis avtomatur pirobebs qmnis, xolo procesebis optimizacia, avtomatizacia, energiisa da resursebis efeqtiani gamoyeneba, mcire riskebi da dabali barierebi, amaRlebs internet subieqtebis mwarmoeblurobas; ekonomikuri problemebidan gamomdinare, arsebul samTavrobo instituciur struqturaSi, ekonomikuri mmarTvelobis, ekonomikuri politikis ZiriTadi CarCosa da misi parametrebis Camoyalibeba unda ganxorcieldes eqspertebis, akademiuri wreebis, sazogadoebis aqtiuri pirebis mier, kvlevebiT dasabuTebuli rekomendaciebis gaTva-

315


rati abulaZe

liswinebiT, risTvisac gamoyenebuli unda iqnes eleqtronuli mTavrobis platforma; ekonomikuri uZraobidan gamosvlisaTvis samTavrobo da biznes seqtorma unda gansazRvros, romeli teqnologia iqneba produqtiuli da romeli daexmareba ukeTesi saxiT qveyanas (samTavrobo/biznes seqtors) globalur konkurenciul maraTonSi. garda amisa, unda moxdes axali teqnologiebis aRqmis formireba, Sefasdes misi roli mwarmoeblurobis amaRlebaSi, SemuSavdes sargeblis uzrunvelyofis meTodebi; saqarTvelos ICT-is ganviTarebis politikis nacvlad sWirdeba Tanamedrove cifruli politika, romelic ar unda iyos ekonomikuri da socialuri politikis damateba. qveyanas sWirdeba ekonomikis struqturuli gardaqmna, socialuri Tanasworobis stimulireba da iseT strategiul mimarTulebebze fokusireba, romelsac globaluri masStabiT konkurenciis SesaZlebloba eqneba; saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategiis safuZvelze unda ganxorcieldes momavali Taobis informaciuli teqnologiebis, ICT -s sferosa da eleqtronuli mTavrobisadmi yovlismomcveli da kompleqsuri midgoma. aseTi midgomis dagegmva unda moxdes samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifos seqtoris TanamonawileobiT; saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis formirebisaTvis saWiroa: infrastruqturis ganviTareba; interfeisis misawvdomoba; arxebis integrirebis platforma, Tavsebadobi platforma; administraciuli reformireba; informaciuli usafrTxoebis sistemebi; personalis ganviTareba, kooperacia;

316


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

saqarTvelos ekonomikis farTo aRdgena grZelvadiani perspeqtivisaa, saWiroebs saukeTeso siaxleebs, resursebis ganviTarebas, adaptaciis unars, mkacr xels, mizanmimarTul politikas gaormagebuli ZalebiT ekonomikur da finansur `remonts~, globaluri zrdis mamoZravebel – eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis politikis gatarebas; mizanSewonilia qveynis sajaro samsaxurebSi daixvewos arsebuli adamianuri kapitalisadmi midgoma, ucxoeTidan mowveuli adamianuri resursis nacvlad aqcenti gakeTdes `arsebuli kadrebis~ efeqtur marTvasa da racionalur gamoyenebaze, kerZod, ki qarTvel mecnier-mkvlevarebsa da maT potencialze; mniSvnelovania, rom saqarTvelom ifiqros globalurad, magram imoqmedos lokalurad. magaliTad, globaluri bazrisa da evropasTan ekonomikuri integraciis pirobebSi, imisaTvis, rom qarTuli kompaniebi ar aRmoCndes arakonkurentul mdgomareobaSi, aqcenti unda gakeTdes maT dacvaze; radganac evrokavSirSi Sesvla adgilobriv mwarmoeblebs araTanabar mdgomareobaSi Caayenebs, Sesabamisad nacionaluri biznes seqtoris dacvisaTvis saWiroa samTavrobo SeRavaTebi da subsidireba. aRniSnuli RonisZieba globaluri kompaniebisaTvis `xelovnur~ bariers Seqmnis (globaluri kompaniebi gamoirCeva maRali ganviTarebis doniTa da konkurentuli upiratesobiT). mizanSewonilia saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi ekonomikis calkeul seqtorSi saxelmwifos intervenciac[165]; sazogadoebis ekonomikuri keTildReobisaTvis kargi iqneba Sefasdes da gaizomos sajaro mmar-

317


rati abulaZe

Tvelobisa da saxelmwifo momsaxurebis gaumjobesebis xarisxi – ekonomikuri, politikur da socialur WrilSi. mkafiod Camoyalibdes saxelmwifo momsaxurebis gaumjobesebis konkretuli gzebi. Sefasdes eleqtronuli mmarTvelobis mega mimarTulebebi ekonomikur, politikur, teqnologiur da socialuri kuTxiT. sajaro mmarTvelobis efeqturobis amaRlebisaTvis mizanSewonilia ZiriTadi aqcenti gakeTdes eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis ganviTarebasa da xelSemwyobi RonisZiebebis gatarebaze; prioritetul mimarTulebas unda warmoadgendes grantebis zrda mecnierebis potencialis gaZlierebisaTvis, umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo sivrcis xelSemwyobi RonisZiebebis gatareba; eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis farglebSi, mecnier-mkvlevarTaTvis unda Seiqmnas infrastruqtura da finansuri baza, imisaTvis rom maT moaxdinon TavianTi codnisa da ideebis komercializacia da gardaqmna inovaciaSi; dasasrul, eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebaSi saxelmwifosTan erTad wamyvani roli unda iTamaSos kerZo seqtormac. mocemul etapze qveyanaSi kerZo seqtoris susti sicocxlisunarianobis gamo, regionebSi infrastruqturis SeqmnaSi mowinave unda iyos mTavroba (magaliTad, aseTi midgomaa aSS-Si, safrangeTSi, did britaneTSi, ruseTSi, indoeTSi)[172]. jamSi, eleqtronuli mTavroba da kerZo seqtoris erToblioba, qveynis ekonomikuri keTildReobisaTvis Seqmnis bunebriv sinergias.

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saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

danarTi 1 Zvirfaso respondento ! saqarTveloSi, eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis Seswavlis mizniT mecnierTa sainiciativo jgufis mier xorcieldeba marketinguli kvleva. Tqveni gulwrfeli pasuxebi dagvexmareba informaciis mopovebasa da swori daskvnebis gakeTebaSi. winaswar gixdiT madlobas. anonimuroba daculia. I bloki. saqarTvelos internet-garemo 1. internetSi wvdomisaTvis ZiriTadad romel `mowyobilobas~ iyenebT (aRniSneT erTi pasuxi) 1.1. nouTbuqi 1.2. personaluri kompiuteri 1.3. planSeti/iPad 1.4. mobiluri telefoni 1.5. sxva (gTxovT, aRniSnoT)-----------------

2. internetisa da ICT-is gamoyenebis motivi? 2.1. komunikacia 2.2. garToba 2.3. eleqtronuli komercia 2.4. samuSaos Sesruleba 2.5. ganaTlebis zrda 2.6. socialuri urTierTobebi 2.7. politikuri miznebi 2.8. siaxleebis gacnoba 2.9. samecniero/saganmanaTleblo informaciis miReba 2.10. iuridiuli/samarTlebrivi informaciis miReba 2.11. samTavrobo informaciis miReba 2.12. turizmis Sesaxeb informaciis miReba 2.13. kultura/xelovnebis Sesaxeb informaciis miReba 2.14. sxva (gTxovT aRniSnoT)----

ar vici/ ver vafaseb

dabali siCqare

saSualo siCqare

regionebi

maRali siCqare

3. gTxovT SeafasoT internetis xarisxi regionebis mixedviT

Tbilisi

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rati abulaZe aWara-guriis regioni imereTis regioni kaxeTis regioni mcxeTa-mTianeTis regioni samegrelo-zemo svaneTis regioni samcxe-javaxeTis regioni qvemo qarTlis regioni Sida qarTlis regioni afxazeTi II bloki. saxelmwifos eleqtronuli momsaxurebis sistema 2. 1. samTavrobo web-saitebze Sesvlis ZiriTadi motivi? 1.1. profesiuli informaciis Zieba 1.2. samTavrobo procesebis Sefaseba 1.3. siaxleebis gacnoba 1.4. kanonebis/maregulirebeli dokumentebis gacnoba 1.5. gancxadebis Seqmna 1.6. serTifikatis/mowmobis/nebarTvis miReba 1.7. registracia 1.8. finansuri sakiTxebisa da biujetis gacnoba 1.9. sxva (gTxovT aRniSneT)--------3. saxelmwifos romeli eleq- 4. tronuli produqtiT/ momsaxurebiT gisargebliaT / sargeblobT? 3.1. gancxadebebis wardgena/statusis Semowmeba; 3.2. interaqtiuli urTierToba 3.3. saSemosavlo gadasaxadi: deklaracia, dabegvris Setyobineba ; 3.4. sabaJo deklaraciebi 5. 3.5. sagadasaxado kvitancia;

320

eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis miRebisas Tqven identificirebis (registraciis) ra `meqanizms~ amjobinebT? 2.1. biometruli 2.2. smart baraTi 2.3. cifruli xelmowera 2.4. tradiciuli ID (piradoba) 2.5. personaluri kodi/registracia 2.6. rasac saxelmwifo daadgens 2.7. ar vici/ver vafaseb

ra sixSiriT gaqvT samTavrobo momsaxurebasTan wvdoma? 4.1. yoveldRe 4.2. dReSi erTze metad 4.3. kviraSi erTxel 4.4. TveSi erTxel 4.5. TveSi erTxel 4.6. weliwadSi erTxel 4.7. aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi samTavrobo web-saitebze


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

3.6. satelefono kontaqtebi 3.7. misamarTebi/sxva saitebis linkebi 3.8. publikaciebi 3.9. personaluri dokumentebi: pasporti, marTvis licenzia 3.10. mowmobebi/serTifikatebi (dabadeba, qorwineba) 3.11. aSenebis nebarTvis aplikacia 3.12. monacemTa bazebi 6. 3.13. audio/video klipebi 3.14. saCivrebis/winadadebis wardgena 3.15. policiaSi gancxadebis gakeTeba 3.16. ganacxadis gakeTeba samsaxurze/an stipendiaze; 3.17. biznesis/sainvesticio procedurebis dagegmva; 3.18. jandacvis servisi 3.19. universitetSi registracia 3.20. sxva (gTxovT, aRniSnoT)----------

TqvenTvis sasurveli momsaxurebas/informacias iRebT: 5.1. yovelTvis 5.2. xSirad 5.3. iSviaTad 5.4. gaaCnia samTavrobo web-saits 5.5. arasodes amTavrobo informaciis/momsaxurebis (adgilobrivi, centraluri mTavrobis) miRebas amjobinebT? 6.1. e-fostiT/fostiT 6.2. web-saitze gamoqveynebiT 6.3. Facebook/Twitte-ze gamoqveynebiT 6.4. adgilze misvliT (pirispir SexvedriT) 6.5. telefoniT/faqsiT 6.6. mobiluri telefoniT/sms-iT 6.7. sxva

7. e-mTavrobis danergvis ZiriTadi samoqmedo dokumenti unda iyos: 7.1. cifruli politika 7.2. ICT-is politika 7.3. farTozolovani infastruqturis ganviTarebis strategia 7.4. e-mTavrobis ganviTarebis politika 7.5. sxva (gTxovT aRniSnoT). 7.6. ar vici./ver vafaseb 8.

gTxovT SeafasoT saxelmwifo uwyebebaSi TanamSromelTa kompiuterizaciis/ internetizaciis (danergvis/codnis) done: kompiuterizaciis/internetizaciis done 0-25% 26-50% 51-75% 76-100%

centraluri saxelmwi-

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rati abulaZe fo uwyebebi regionuli saxelmwifo uwyebebi

5-Zalian cudi

4-cudi

3-saSualo

2 kargi

SeafaseT samoqalaqo, kerZo da saxelmwifo uwyebebis web-saitebi saqarTveloSi: 1-Zalian kargi

9.

biznes seqtoris websaitebi saministroebis web-saitebi sakanonmdeblo organos web-saitebi centraluri mTavrobis departamentebis/uwyebebis web-saitebi adgilobrivi mTavrobis (municipalitetis, raionis) web-saitebi arasamTavrobo seqtoris web-saitebi umaRlesi da zogadsaganmanaTleblo seqtorisweb-saitebi samoqalaqo seqtoris web-saitebi saqarTveloSi arsebuli saerTaSoriso organizaciebis web-saitebi

moqalaqeTa informaciuli uflebebi telekomunikaciis

322

5.Zalian cudi

4-cudi

3-saSualo

2 kargi

1-Zalian kargi

10. gTxovT SeafasoT eleqtronuli mTavrobis praqtikuli danergvisa da uzrunvelyofis procesebi saqarTveloSi:


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

momsaxurebis regulireba internet-provaiderebis regulireba yvela moqalaqisaTvis telekomunikaciisa da internet-infrastruqturis misawvdomoba saxelmwifosa da biznes seqtoris TanamSromloba saxelmwifosa da arasamTavrobo seqtoris TanamSromloba usafrTxo internetgaremo mTavrobis efeqturi onlain servisebi mTavrobis onlain servisebis farTo arCevani qveynis sruli kompiuterizacia da internetizacia informaciuli wigniereba teqnologiuri progresi qveynis doneze progresi saministroebis doneze progresi adgilobrivi mTavrobis/municipalitetebis eleqtronuli momsaxurebis doneze 11. Tqveni SeafasebiT ra siaxleebsa da inovaciuri funqciebs isurvebdiT samTavrobo web-saitebze? 11.1. web-saitebze samTavrobo uwyebebis virtualuri turebi; 11.2. video mimarTvebi sxvadasxva seqtoris prob-

11.6. onlain interaqtiuli urTierTobis SesaZlebloba prezidentTan; 11.7. onlain interaqtiuli urTierTobis SesaZlebloba premier ministrTan; 11.8. onlain interaqtiuli urTierTobis SesaZleb-

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rati abulaZe lemebis gadaWris mimarTulebiT; 11.3. samTavrobo web-saitebiT yovelwliuri onlain konferencia sazogadoebrivi problemebis ganxilvisaTvis; 11.4. samTavrobo web-saitebiT onlain konferencia biznes problemebis ganxilvisaTvis; 11.5. samTavrobo web-saitebis meSveobiT onlain konferencia eqspertebis, akademiuri, samoqalaqo, saxelmwifo da biznes seqtoris monawileobiT;

loba ministrebTan; 11.9. marTvaSi CarTulobis instrumentebi; 11.10. programebis, proeqtebis wardgenis SesaZlebloba; 11.11. samTavrobo kvlevebSi monawileoba; 11.12. SezRuduli SesaZleblobebis pirTaTvis misawvdomi onlain sivrcis formireba; 11.13. sxva (gTxovT aRniSnoT)-----------------------

12. gTxovT SeafasoT eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebze Tqveni informireba: daba- saSuamaRakomponentebi li lo li e-mTavrobis miznebi, funciebi, amocanebi e-mTavrobis samarTlebrivi regulireba e-mTavrobis amocanebis ganmsazRvreli normatiuli aqtebi e-mTavrobis procese-bis realizebis makoordinirebeli organo e-mTavrobis procesebis realizebis xelmZRvaneloba e-mTavrobis ganviTarebisaTvis gamoyofili finansuri resursebi internet-sivrcis usafrTxoeba 13. gTxovT SeafasoT saqar- 14. Tqveni SefasebiT, eleqtronuli mTavrobis danergva TveloSi biznesisa da sasargebloa/faseulia: saxelmwifo seqtoris eleqtronuli momsaxu14.1. mxolod mTavrobisrebis ganviTarebis doTvis ne : 14.2. mxolod biznes seq13.1. biznesis seqtoris torisaTvis eleqtronuli momsa14.3. mxolod moqalaqeexureba ufro ganviTa-

324


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

rebulia vidre saxelmwifo seqtoris; 13.2. saxelmwifo seqtoris eleqtronuli momsaxureba ufro ganviTarebulia vidre biznes seqtoris; 13.3. biznes seqtoris eleqtronuli momsaxureba da saxelmwifo seqtoris eleqtronuli momsaxureba Tanabradaa ganviTarebuli; 13.4. arc erTi araa ganviTarebuli; 13.5. ar vici/ver vafaseb

14.4. 14.5.

14.6.

bisaTvis sxva qveynis mTavrobebTan urTierTobisTvis Tanabrad, moqalaqeebisTvis, kerZo da saxelmwifo seqtorisTvis ar vici/ver vafaseb

15. gTxovT aRniSnoT, TqvenTvis e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis sargebeli samTavrobo informaar vici/ dabanormaciis/ momsaxurebis maRali ver vafali luri sargebeli seb e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis miRebis/moTxovnis Rirebuleba e-mTavrobis momsaxurebidan miRebuli grZelvadiani sargebeli e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis miRebis siswrafe/dro mTavrobasTan interaqtiuli urTierTqmedeba informaciis/momsaxurebis miRebis xelsayreloba momsaxurebis miRebis procesis moqnili marTva biurokratiuli uwyebebis zegavlenis arideba efeqturi interaqtiuli urTierToba eleqtronuli dokumentbrunvis efeqtianoba eleqtronuli mTavro-

325


rati abulaZe bis momsaxurebis sistemis informaciuloba eleqtronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis iuridiuli Zala samTavrobo web-satebze interaqtiuli kavSiris xarisxi e-mTavrobis momsaxurebasTan wvdoma sxva (gTxovT aRniSnoT)

saqarTvelos prezidentis web-saiti saqarTvelos mTavrobis (saministroebi) web-saiti saqarTvelos parlamentis web-saiti avtonomiuri respublikebis xelisuflebis organoebis (afxazeTi, aWara) web-saitebi adgilobrivi mmarTvelobisa da TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis web-saitebi samxareo administraciebis web-saitebi damoukidebeli organoebis (maregulirebeli komisiebi, saqarTvelos saxalxo damcveli, erovnuli banki, saarCevno komisia) web-saitebi sajaro samsaxuris biuros web-saiti

326

5-Zalian dabali

4-daba-li

saxelmwifo institutebi

3-saSualo

rogoria Tqveni sandoobis done saxelmwifo institutis eleqtronuli momsaxurebisadmi (gTxovT, SeafasoT 5 baliani skaliT)? 1-Zalian maRali 2-maRali

16.


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

III bloki . socialuri gavlena 1. gTxovT aRniSnoT, eleqtro2. Tqveni SefasebiT e-mTavronuli mTavrobis momsaxurebis programebis efeqturad bis miRebis motivi TqvendanergvisaTvis saWiroa: Tvis: 2.1. globaluri saxelmwifo 1.1. cxovrebis stili ; portali 1.2. ekonomikuri motivacia; 2.2. e-mTavrobis strategia 1.3. socialuri motivacia; 2.3. eleqtronuli momsaxu1.4. teqnologiuri miRwevebisadmi rebis aplikaciebi da serinteresi ; visi 1.5. saqmianoba (samuSao, socialu2.4. momsaxurebis/informaciri movlenebi); is gavrcelebisa da dac1.6. interesebi (moda, ojaxis saWivis samarTlebrivi meqaroebebis dakmayofileba); nizmebi 1.7. Sexedulebebi (socialuri 2.5. adekvaturi sakanonmdebproblemebis mogvareba, sakulo garemo, kanonebi da Tari Tavis warmodgena da regulaciebi sxva); 2.6. iuridiuli Zalis eleq1.8. sxva (gTxovT, aRniSneT)----------tronuli xelmowera --------------2.7. inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis dacvis kanoni 3. Tqveni SefasebiT e-mTavro2.8. piradi informaciis bis danergva gamoiwvevs: usafrTxoebisa da konfi3.1. samTavrobo struqturebis dencialobis politika momsaxurebis efeqtianobis 2.9. usafrTxo internet-gazrdas remo 3.2. sajaro mosamsaxureebis rao2.10. ganviTarebuli teqnolodenobis Semcirebas giebi da infrastruqtu3.3. sajaro mosamsaxureebis saqmira anobis xarisxis amaRlebas 2.11. teqnologiuri progresi 3.4. sajaro mosamsaxureebis mom2.12. ganviTarebuli internetsaxurebis siswrafes bazari 3.5. moqalaqeebis Semosavlebis 2.13. zrdadi tempis e-komerzrda cia 3.6. samTavrobo struqturebis Se2.14. e-mTavrobis proeqtebis mosavlebis zrda efeqturi koordinacia 3.7. biznes-garemos gaumjobesebas 3.8. administraciul danaxarjebis 2.15. globaluri gamowvevebis Semcirebas Sesabamisi saxelmwifo 3.9. jer adrea raime sargebelze midgomebi saubari 2.16. codnieri moqalaqeebi 3.10. ar vici 2.17. ar vici/ver vafaseb 2.18. sxva (gTxovT aRniSnoT)-----

327


rati abulaZe IV bloki. eleqtronuli demokratia 1. Tqveni SefasebiT saqarTve- 3. Tqveni SefasebiT saqarTveloSi eleqtronuli los eleqtronuli mTavromTavrobis danergva: bis momsaxurebis procesebi 3.1. uzrunvelyofs demokZiriTad warmodgenilia Semratiuli procesebis degi mimarTulebiT: damkvidrebas 1.1. mTavrobis mier moqalaqe3.2. uzrunvelyofs moqaebTan daaxloeba; laqeebis CarTvas sa1.2. moqalaqeebis momsaxureba xelmwifo marTvaSi 1.3. mTavrobis saqmianobis 3.3. xels Seuwyobs moqalagamWvirvaloba qeTa Tavisuflebis 1.4. marTvaSi CarTuloba dacvas 1.5. angariSvaldebulebis 3.4. uzrunvelyofs moqazrda laqeebis kerZo cxov1.6. politikuri agitarebis dacvas cia/propaganda 3.5. gazrdis moqalaqeebis 1.7. mTavrobis reklamireba ekonomikur keTil1.8. moqalaqeebis informacidReobas uloba 3.6. gazrdis saxelmwifos 1.9. sazogadoebrivi azris gamWvirvaloba formireba 3.7. gazrdis saxelmwifos angariSvaldebulebas 1.10. demokratizaciis proce3.8. gazrdis moqalaqeebis sebis zrda socialur keTildRe1.11. ar vici/ver vafaseb obas 3.9. gazris saxelmwifos globalur imijs 2. Tqveni SefasebiT aris Tu 3.10. xels Seuwyobs regioara qarTuli saxelmwifo nuli konfliqtebis portali, sadac xalxs SeuZmogvarebas lia Tavisi ideebis/azris 3.11. verafers ver Secvlis gamoxatva mmarTvelobis procesebze (mmarTvelobiTi procesebis ganxilva)? 2.1. ara 2.2. ki (gTxovT daasaxeleT)2.3. arvici/ar gamigia

328


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

5-Zalian dabali

4 dabali

3-saSualo

demokratiis uzrunvelyofis aspeqtebi

2-maRali

SeafaseT qarTuli eleqtronuli demokratiis uzrunvelyofis aspeqtebis done (5 baliani sistemiT) 1-Zalian maRali

4.

onlain biurokratiuli servisi samTavrobo marTvaSi moqalaqeTa CarTuloba saministroebSi rekomendaciebis/ winadadebebis wardgena biujetis dagegmvaSi monawileoba saministroebis angariSvaldebuleba politikuri procesebis gamWvirvaloba noematiul-samarTlebrivi dokumentebis ganxilvaSi moqalaqeTa CarTuloba informaciuli sazogadoebis aqtivoba mTavrobis eleqtronuli momsaxureba mTavrobis eleqtronuli konsultacia eleqtronuli urTierToba (onlain konferencia, cxeli xazi, video konferencia) onlain forumi da onlain CeTi

329


rati abulaZe 5. Tqveni SefasebiT, demokra- 6. ras efuZneba Tqveni Sefatiuli procesebis formireseba, saqarTveloSi eleqbisaTvis, umjobesia Seiqtronuli momsaxurebis mnas: procesebis Sesaxeb? 5.1. moqalaqeebis azris/ideis gamoxatvisa da ganxilvis 6.1. faqtobriv monacems; saxelmwifo portali; 6.2. mediidan miRebul mona5.2. informaciis miReba/anacems; lizze pasuxismgebeli sa6.3. mxolod piradi azrs; xelmwifo uwyeba,; 6.4. sazogadoebaSi arsebul 5.3. TiToeul samTavrobo azrs; web-saitze sadiskusio 6.5. naSromebidan/kvlevebigverdi (forumi) dan miRebul monacems; 5.4. mTavrobasTan e-fostis 6.6. sxva (gTxovT aRniSservisi noT)_----------5.5. onlain sakonsultacio sistema 5.6. eleqtronuli mimarTvis servisi 5.7. onlain kvlevis servisi 5.8. sxva (gTxovT aRniSnoT)---

V bloki. eleqtronuli mTavrobis gamowvevebi 1. SeafaseT eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistema (gTxovT aRniSnoT)

eleqtronuli mTavrobis sistemis komponentebi e-mTavrobis sistemiT davaleba/amocana sruldeba swrafad e-mTavrobis momsaxurebiT viTardeba biurokratiuli momsaxureba e-mTavrobis sistema yvela moqalaqisaTvis Tanabrad misawvdomia e-mTavrobis sistema yvela moqalaqisaTvis Tanabrad gamoyenebadia e-mTavrobis sistema integrirdeba yvela saxelmwifo uwyebis sistemasTan e-mTavrobis sistema advilad Sesaswavlia

330

srulad eTanxmebi

nawilobriv eTanxmebi

ar eTanxmebi


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

e-mTavrobis sistemis kvalificiuri gamoyeneba advilia e-mTavrobis sistemasTan urTierTqmedeba mkafio da gasagebia

5.Zalian cudi

4-cudi

3-saSualo

2-kargi

gTxovT, SeafasoT saqarTvelos samTavrobo web-gverdebi 1-Zalian kargi

2.

informaciuli CamotvirTva enobrivi mravalferovneba samTavrobo web-saitebis dizaini navigacia e-mTavrobis momsaxurebis wvdoma e-mTavrobis aplikaciebi (danarTebi) eleqtronuli autentifikacia/ identifikacia kompiuteris IT-sistemebTan Tavsebadoba interaqtiulobis formebi informaciulobis xarisxi SemoTavazebuli servisebi sxva uwyebebis veb-gverdebze popularizacia axali informaciis warmodgenis intensivoba 3.

rogor afasebT internet-qselis saqarTvelos segmentis saxelmwifo regulirebis sakiTxs? 3.1. radganac internetqseli ukontroloa,

4.

Tqveni SefasebiT, saqarTveloSi eleqtronuli mTavrobis procesebis ganviTarebis Semaferxebeli mizezebia: 4.1. erovnuli e-mTavrobis strategiis uqonloba 4.2. e-mTavrobis samarTlebri-

331


rati abulaZe

3.2.

3.3.

3.4.

3.5.

saxelmwifom unda gaakontrolos; internet-qselis kontroli SeuZlebe-lia; internets sazogadoebrivi TviTregulirebis meqanizmis gamo ar sWirdeba saxelmwifos Careva; internet-qseli saWiroebs internetgaremos kanonebis SemuSavebas, rac iqneba internetis samarTlebrivi regulirebis safuZveli; interneti saxelmwifos nacvlad unda gaakontrolos sazogadoebam (eqspertebis, akademiuri pirebis, media da informaciuli sazogadoebis gaerTianebam);

3.6. ar vici./ver vafaseb.

4.3. 4.4. 4.5. 4.6. 4.7.

4.8. 4.9. 4.10. 4.11. 4.12. 4.13. 4.14. 4.15. 4.16. 4.17. 4.18.

vi garemo mosaxleobaSi kompiuteris uqonloba moqalaqeebis wvdoma internetTan dabali internet-siCqare ICT-is sferoSi moqalaqeebis dabali codna ICT-is sferoSi saxelmwifo mosamsaxuree-bis dabali codna, unari, motivi dabali informaciuloba (e-mTavrobaze) e-mTavrobis momsaxurebisadmi dabali ndoba e-mTavrobis produqtebis araefeqturoba qveyanaSi farTo speqtriT ar aris warmodgenili emTavrobis momsaxureba cifruli xelmowera identificirebis monacemebis dacva piradi cxovrebis/informaciis gamWvirvalobis dacva monacemTa konfidencialobis dacva inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis dacva kopiraiTis dacva sxva (gTxovT aRniSnoT)

VI bloki. biznes seqtoris onlain momsaxurebis bazari 1.

332

internet-kompaniebis onlain momsaxurebis romel formebs iyenebT? 1.1. informaciuli momsaxureba (masobrivi informaciis saSualebebi) 1.2. turistuli momsaxureba

2.

ra faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT irCevT biznes seqtoris onlain momsaxurebas? 2.1. dabali fasi 2.2. xelsayreloba 2.3. kompaniis imiji/popularoba 2.4. Cems saWiroebaze fokusireba


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

1.3. saganmanaTleblo momsaxureba 1.4. finansuri momsaxureba internetSi (internetbankingi, dazRveva, tredingi) 1.5. eleqtronuli birJa 1.6. onlain TamaSi 1.7. onlain aplikaciebi 1.8. saZiebo sistemebi 1.9. sxva (gTxovT aRniSnoT)--------------

2.5. detaluri informireba 2.6. mravalferovani momsaxureba 2.7. Ziebisa da yidvis mcire dro 2.8. gamyidvelTan swrafi interaqtiuloba 2.9. emociuri/damarwmunebeli zegavlenisagan Tavis arideba 2.10. anonimurobis dacva 2.11. moqnili faswarmoqna 2.12. sxva (gTxovT aRniSnoT)

3. siaxleebisa da informaciis miRebisaTvis romel onlain medias aniWebT upiratesobas? 3.1. onlain Jurnalebi 3.2. blogebi 3.3. internet-televizia 3.4. internet-radio 3.5. Facebook, Twetter 3.6. wiki 3.7. multimediis gaziarebis servisi (Flickr, Youtube) 3.8. sxva (gTxovT aRniSneT)---------

4. ra faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT irCevT onlain medias? 4.1. simarTle 4.2. axali ambebis swrafi gavrceleba 4.3. sizuste da balansis dacva 4.4. informacia wyaroze dayrdnobiT 4.5. obieqturoba 4.6. xarisxi 4.7. xelmisawvdomoba 4.8. megobrebis/axloblebis rekomendacia 4.9. sxva (gTxovT aRniSneT)

5. ra faqtorebis gaTvalis- 6. onlain momsaxurebis miwinebiT irCevT kerZo seqRebaze gaweuli saSualo toris onlain momsaxureTviuri xarji (bolo 1 webis organizacias? liwadSi) 5.1. kompaniis popularo6.1. 50 laramde ba/cnobadoba; 6.2. 51-100 lari 5.2. megobrebis/ojaxis reko6.3. 101-300 lari mendacia; 6.4. 301-500 lari 5.3. miwodebis fasi da vadebi; 6.5. 501-1000 lari 5.4. momsaxurebis Rirebule6.6. 1001 larze meti ba; 6.7. arafers ar vxarjav 5.5. onlain konsultantebis 6.8. uari pasuxze profesionalizmi

333


rati abulaZe

7.

5.6. moqnili faswarmoqmnis politika; 5.7. produqtis/momsaxurebis mravalferovneba 5.8. web-saitis saxe da dizaini; 5.9. sxva (gTxovT aRniSneT) Tqveni SefasebiT saqar9. TveloSi Tbilissa da regionebs Soris arsebobs ? 7.1. maRali donis cifruli uTanasworoba 7.2. saSualo donisa cifruli uTanasworoba 7.3. dabali donis cifruli uTanasworoba 7.4. ar vici/ver vafaseb

8. onlain momsaxurebis miRebisas ZiriTadad angariSsworebis romel formas iyenebT? 8.1. naRdi angariSsworeba 8.2. sakredito/sadebeto baraTi 8.3. sabanko gadaxda/internet-bankiT 8.4. terminalze angariSworeba 8.5. eleqtronuli fuliT angariSworeba 8.6. fostiT/telegrafiT angariSsworeba 8.7. sxva (gTxovT aRniSnoT) 10. kerZo seqtoris eleqtronuli momsaxurebis bazris ganviTarebisaTvis aucilebelia ganviTardes: 10.1. qarTul enovani kontenti 10.2. internet-marketin-

334

11.

Tqveni SefasebiT saqarTvelos regionebs Soris cifrul uTanasworobas ganapirobebs? 9.1. informaciuli vakuumi 9.2. ganaTlebis done 9.3. socialur-ekonomikuri mdgomareoba 9.4. regionebSi dabali xarisxis interneti, vidre TbilisSi 9.5. regionebSi profesionalur kadrebis deficiti, vidre TbilisSi 9.6. regionebSi dabali internet-kultura, vidre TbilisSi 9.7. regionis mosaxleobis dabali aqtivoba 9.8. regionebisadmi biznes seqtoris dabali interesi 9.9. saxelmwifos mzaoba, mxolod Tbilisis eleqtronul ganviTarebaze 9.10. sxva (gTxovT aRniSnoT)

Tqveni SefasebiT saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis saWiroa: 11.1. eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTareba; 11.2. cifruli politikis gatareba;


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

gis instrumentebi 10.3. internet-maRaziebis dizaini, servisi 10.4. internet-momxmarebelTa raodenoba 10.5. moqalaqeebis internet-wigniereba 10.6. moqalaqeebis ekonomikuri mdgomareoba 10.7. internet-bazris samTavarobo xelSewyoba/subsidireba 10.8. komunikaciuri da interaqtiuli politika 10.9. momsaxurebis miRebis sagarantio meqanizmebi 10.10. sxva (gTxovT aRniSnoT)---------

11.3. inovaciebi telekomunikaciis sferoSi; 11.4. arsebuli resursebiT ekonomikuri ganviTareba; 11.5. inovaciebi biznes seqtorSi; 11.6. finansebTan da dazRvevasTan xelmisawvdomoba; 11.7. infrastruqturuli investireba (telekomunikacia, transporti, energetika, wyali); 11.8. ultraRaribi mosaxleobis cxovrebis gaumjobeseba; 11.9. mecnierebis xelSewyoba; 11.10. sxva (gTxovT aRniSnoT)

VII. bloki. respondentis saidentifikacio monacemebi 1.

sqesi 1.1. 1.2.

3.

mdedrobiTi mamrobiTi

asaki 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5.

2.

18-22 23-28 29-35 36-45 46-55

4.

ganaTleba 2.1. saSualo skola 2.2. profesiul-teqnikuri saswavlebeli 2.3. daumTavrebeli profesiul-teqnikuri saswavlebeli (studenti) 2.4. daumTavrebeli umaRlesi (studenti) 2.5. umaRlesi saqmianobis sfero 4.1. biznes seqtori 4.2. momsaxurebis seqtori (vaWroba, transporti, kavSirgabmuloba, sastumro)

335


rati abulaZe 3.6. 56-65 3.7. 65 welze zeviT

5.

sacxovrebeli regioni 6. Tqveni ojaxis saSualo Tviuri Semosavali 5.1. Tbilisi 5.2. aWara-guriis regioni 6.1. 300 laramde 5.3. imereTis regioni 6.2. 301-500 lari 5.4. kaxeTis regioni 6.3. 501-800 lari 5.5. mcxeTa-mTianeTis re6.4. 801-1000 lari gioni 6.5. 1001-2000 lari 5.6. samegrelo-zemo svaneTis regioni 6.6. 2001-5000 lari 5.7. samcxe-javaxeTis re6.7. 5001 larze meti gioni 6.8. uari pasuxze 5.8. qvemo qarTlis regioni 5.9. Sida qarTlis regioni 5.10. afxazeTi

saxeli, gvari-----------------mob. ----------------------------

336

4.3. saxelmwifo seqtori 4.4. arasamTavrobo seqtori 4.5. soflis meurneobis sferoi 4.6. mSeneblobis seqtori 4.7. mrewvelobis seqtori 4.8. saerTaSoriso organizaciebi 4.9. ganaTlebis sfero 4.10. umuSevari 4.11. sxva sfero (gTxovT miuTiTeT)-------------


saqarTvelos eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategia

gamoyenebuli literatura 1

2

3

4 5 6

7

8 9 10

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169 abulaZe r. e-mTavroba da genderi. saerTaSoriso urTierTobaTa saswavlo universiteti. saqarTvelos damoukideblobis dRisadmi miZRvnili samecniero konferencia `genderi da Tanamedrove sazogadoeba~. gamomcemloba `universali~, Tbilisi. 2 maisi, 2012. gv. 5-8 170 abulaZe r. eleqtronuli momsaxurebis sistemis aqtualuri sakiTxebi. saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis daarsebidan 90 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili saerTaSoriso samecniero konferencia. Tbilisi, 19-21 seqtemberi, 2012. gv. 214-219 171 abulaZe r. kiberpolitikis safrTxeebi da gamowvevebi. Jurnali `ekonomika da biznesi~, â„–3, maisi-ivnisi 2012. gv.113-122 http://www.tsu.edu.ge/data/file_db/economist_faculty/ekonomika%203-2012.pdf 172 The Economist Intelligence Unit. Redefining the digital divide. A report from The Economist Intelligence Unit. 2013.

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Marketing strategy for the development of e government of georgia  

მონოგრაფიაში, მარკეტინგული კვლევის საფუძველზე, ნაჩვენებია საქართველოს ელექტრონული მთავრობის გარემოს დადებითი და უარყოფითი მხარეების, პოტენცი...

Marketing strategy for the development of e government of georgia  

მონოგრაფიაში, მარკეტინგული კვლევის საფუძველზე, ნაჩვენებია საქართველოს ელექტრონული მთავრობის გარემოს დადებითი და უარყოფითი მხარეების, პოტენცი...

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