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RaptorsConservation ПЕРНАТЫЕХИЩНИКИИИХОХРАНА 2006№5

ISSN 1814–0076

Ðàáî÷èé áþëëåòåíü î ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêàõ Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïû è Ñåâåðíîé Àçèè The Newsletter of the raptors of the East Europe and North Asia Áþëëåòåíü «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà» ó÷ðåæäåí ìåæðåãèîíàëüíîé áëàãîòâîðèòåëüíîé îáùåñòâåííîé îðãàíèçàöèåé «Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð» (Íîâîñèáèðñê) è íàó÷íî-èññëåäîâàòåëüñêîé îáùåñòâåííîé îðãàíèçàöèåé «Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé» (Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä).

The Raptors Conservation Newsletter has been founded by the non-governmental organisations Siberian Environmental Center (Novosibirsk) and Center of Field Studies (Nizhniy Novgorod).

Ðåäàêòîðû íîìåðà: Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî è Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí

Editors: Elvira Nikolenko and Igor Karyakin

Ýòîò âûïóñê ãîòîâèëè: Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî (Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð, Íîâîñèáèðñê, Ðîññèÿ), Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí (Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, Í.Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ), Åâãåíèé Ïîòàïîâ (Èññëåäîâàíèå Ïðèðîäû, Øîòëàíäèÿ, Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ), Íèêîëàé Ïîòàïîâ (Íåâåð Ëèìèòåä, Õàâåðòîóí, ÑØÀ), Àííà Øåñòàêîâà (Íèæåãîðîäñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò, Í.Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ).

This issue has made by: Elvira Nikolenko (Siberian Environmental Center, Novosibirsk, Russia), Igor Karyakin (Center of Field Studies, N.Novgorod, Russia), Eugene Potapov (Natural Research, Scotland, UK), Nikolay Potapov (Never Ltd, Havertown, USA), Anna Shestakova (State University, N.Novgorod, Russia).

Ôîòîãðàôèÿ íà ëèöåâîé ñòîðîíå îáëîæêè: ðûáíûé ôèëèí (Ketupa blakistoni), Àìóðñêàÿ îáëàñòü, áàññåéí ð. Ñåëåìäæà, Íîðñêèé çàïîâåäíèê, ìàðò 2004 ã. Ôîòî Ñ. Àâäåþêà

Photo on the front cover: the Blakiston’s Fish Owl (Ketupa blakistoni), Amur district, Selemdzha river, Norskiy State Nature Reserve, March 2004. Photo by S. Avdeyuk

 èëëþñòðàöèè çàäíåé ñòîðîíû îáëîæêè èñïîëüçîâàíû ôîòîãðàôèè È. Êàðÿêèíà, Å. Êîðøóíîâîé, Å. Ïîòàïîâà

Photos on the back cover by I. Karyakin, E. Korshunova and E. Potapov

Äèçàéí: Ä. Ñåíîòðóñîâ, À. Êëåù¸â Âåðñòêà: À. Êëåù¸â Êîððåêòóðà: Å. Êëåù¸âà

Design by D. Senotrusov, A. Kleschev Page-proofs by A. Kleschev Proof-reader: E. Klescheva

Àäðåñ ðåäàêöèè: 630090 Ðîññèÿ, Íîâîñèáèðñê, à/ÿ 547

Tel./Fax: (383) 339 78 85

Editorial adress: P.O. Box 547, Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090

E-mail: rc_news@mail.ru ikar_research@mail.ru nikolenko@ecoclub.nsu.ru http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors Ïðàâèëà äëÿ àâòîðîâ äîñòóïíû íà ñàéòå:

Ýëåêòðîííàÿ âåðñèÿ/RC online http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/RC

Guidelines for Contributors available on website: http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/RC/guidelines/


Editors ОТРЕДАКЦИИ Äîðîãèå êîëëåãè!

Dear colleagues!

Âû ÷èòàåòå 5-é þáèëåéíûé íîìåð áþëëåòåíÿ «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà».  ýòîì ãîäó áþëëåòåíþ èñïîëíèëñÿ ãîä. Ñðîê íåáîëüøîé, îäíàêî, ýòî óæå ïîâîä äëÿ ïîäâåäåíèÿ ïåðâûõ èòîãîâ.  ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü ðàäóåò òî, ÷òî, íåñìîòðÿ íà ïîëíóþ íåîïðåäåëåííîñòü â ïåðñïåêòèâàõ ôèíàíñèðîâàíèÿ èçäàíèÿ, âñ¸-òàêè óäàëîñü íàéòè ñðåäñòâà íà âñå çàïëàíèðîâàííûå íîìåðà.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ áþëëåòåíü ÿâëÿåòñÿ áåñïëàòíûì, è ïîëó÷àòåëè áóìàæíîé âåðñèè îïëà÷èâàþò ëèøü ïî÷òîâûå ðàñõîäû. Ìû íàäååìñÿ, ÷òî è â äàëüíåéøåì óäàñòñÿ ïðèâëåêàòü áëàãîòâîðèòåëüíûå ñðåäñòâà íà èçäàíèå, è áþëëåòåíü íå ïåðåéäåò íà êîììåð÷åñêóþ ïîäïèñêó, à â ïåðñïåêòèâå è ðàññûëêà áóäåò îïëà÷èâàòüñÿ èç áëàãîòâîðèòåëüíûõ ñðåäñòâ. Çà ãîä áþëëåòåíü âûðîñ â òèðàæå ñ 900 äî 1400 ýêç., à ðàññûëêà óâåëè÷èëàñü ñ 400 äî 1100 àäðåñîâ. Ê êîíöó ãîäà áûëà ñôîðìèðîâàíà ðåäêîëëåãèÿ, â êîòîðóþ âîøëè ó÷¸íûå è îáùåñòâåííûå äåÿòåëè, çàíèìàþùèåñÿ èçó÷åíèåì è îõðàíîé õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ, èç Ðîññèè, Êàçàõñòàíà, Óçáåêèñòàíà è ÑØÀ. Ìàòåðèàëû ÷åòâ¸ðòîãî è ïÿòîãî íîìåðà áþëëåòåíÿ ãîòîâèëèñü ñèëàìè ðåäêîëëåãèè. Áþëëåòåíü ñòàë íàñòîÿùèì ðåôåðèðóåìûì íàó÷íûì èçäàíèåì, âêëþ÷åí â áàçó Zoological Record1, ïðåä-

This is the fifth issue of the newsletter «Raptors Conservation». This year our newsletter is one year old. It is a very small age, but we can sum up the first results. In spite of some uncertainty of financing to publish the newsletter, we have managed to publish all of the scheduled issues. Today the newsletter is free, and recipients of paper copies only pay postal expenses. We hope to raise some funds from charities for further funding of the publication, so that we will be able to subsidize subscribers in Russia. During the last year the number of subscribers has increased from 900 to 1400, and the number of listed addresses has increased from 400 to 1100. By the end of the year we formed the editorial board, which now includes a wide range of raptor-biologists located in Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and USA. Not yet announced, the editorial board has also reviewed the materials of the forth and firth issues of the newsletter so that we will be able to make the review process smooth and efficient. Thus, the newsletter has become a peer-reviewed publication, probably the first peer-reviewed non-governmental publication in Russia. It has been abstracted in the Biosis publications (Biological Abstracts and of Zoological Record)1, and listed in the Russian e-library2.

Ðèñ. 1. Äèíàìèêà çàêà÷åê on-line âåðñèè áþëëåòåíÿ «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà» Fig. 1. Loadings of the online Newsletter «Raptors Conservation»

1 2

http://www.biosis.org http://www.elibrary.ru


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5 ñòàâëåí â ðîññèéñêîé ýëåêòðîííîé áèáëèîòåêå2. Ïðîøåäøèé ãîä ïîêàçàë, ÷òî áþëëåòåíü âîñòðåáîâàí ñðåäè øèðîêîãî êðóãà ÷èòàòåëåé, ïðè÷¸ì íå òîëüêî ïðîôåññèîíàëüíûõ îðíèòîëîãîâ, íî è ëþáèòåëåé ïòèö. Ñðåäè ïîëó÷àòåëåé áþëëåòåíÿ – îòäåëüíûå ñïåöèàëèñòû è íàó÷íûå ó÷ðåæäåíèÿ, êàê â Ðîññèè, òàê è çà ðóáåæîì, çàïîâåäíèêè è íàöèîíàëüíûå ïàðêè, ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå âåäîìñòâà. Óæå ê âûõîäó âòîðîãî íîìåðà ó ýëåêòðîííîé âåðñèè áþëëåòåíÿ ñôîðìèðîâàëàñü ïîñòîÿííàÿ ÷èòàòåëüñêàÿ àóäèòîðèÿ, ñîñòîÿùàÿ áîëüøåé ÷àñòüþ èç ñïåöèàëèñòîâ-îðíèòîëîãîâ. Ïîñëå âûõîäà â ñâåò êàæäîãî íîâîãî íîìåðà êîëè÷åñòâî åãî çàêà÷åê â òå÷åíèå ìåñÿöà äîñòèãàåò 1200 ýêç. Ïî ñîñòîÿíèþ íà êîíåö ÿíâàðÿ 2006 ã. ñ ñàéòà «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè Ðîññèè»3 ñêà÷àíî áîëåå 10 òûñ. ýêçåìïëÿðîâ âñåõ íîìåðîâ áþëëåòåíÿ, èç êîòîðûõ äîìèíèðóåò 2-é íîìåð (3819 çàêà÷åê) (ðèñ. 1). Ñðåäè ïåðâûõ ïîñåòèòåëåé on-line âåðñèè æóðíàëà îêîëî 3% ÷èòàòåëåé ñêà÷èâàëè îòäåëüíûå ñòàòüè, íàðÿäó ñ êîòîðûìè âûñîêàÿ äîëÿ çàêà÷åê ïðèõîäèòñÿ íà ðàçäåë «Ñîáûòèÿ» (ðèñ. 2). Îäíàêî 4 è 5-é íîìåðà ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñå ïîñåòèòåëè ñàéòà ñòàðàëèñü çàêà÷èâàòü ïîëíîñòüþ, è ÷èñëî òåõ, êòî ñêà÷èâàë îòäåëüíûå ñòàòüè, ñîêðàòèëîñü äî 1%. Ýòî, âîçìîæíî, ãîâîðèò è î òîì, ÷òî èçäàíèå ïðåäñòàâëÿåò èíòåðåñ öåëèêîì – íå òîëüêî êàê ñáîðíèê íàó÷íûõ ñòàòåé, íî è êàê ðàáî÷èé áþëëåòåíü. Èäåÿ ñîçäàíèÿ áþëëåòåíÿ ñðàçó âêëþ÷àëà â ñåáÿ àêöåíò íà ïðèðîäîîõðàííîé òå-

Ðèñ. 3. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ïóáëèêàöèé ïî îñíîâíûì íàïðàâëåíèÿì Fig. 3. Distribution of papers between the main themes

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http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors

Ñîáûòèÿ

Ðèñ. 2. Äèíàìèêà çàêà÷åê èçáðàííûõ ñòàòåé on-line âåðñèè áþëëåòåíÿ «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà» Fig. 2. Loadings of the several papers of the on-line Newsletter «Raptors Conservation»

The last year has demonstrated a necessity of such a newsletter for a large number of readers. The list of recipients includes researchers, ornithologists, and research Institutes and Universities in Russia and other countries, State Nature Reserves and National Parks, and Government Authorities. The on-line version of the newsletter also has been a success. After publishing every new issue the number of unique downloads reached 1200 per month. At the end of January of 2006 from the «Russian Raptors»3 web site more than 10 thousand copies of all the issues of the newsletter have been downloaded, with the 2-d issue as the most popular (3819 downloads). Among first visitors of the on-line newsletter about 3% of readers downloaded only some papers, with the section «Events» being downloaded most often. However the entire 4th and 5th volumes were downloaded by the majority of the readers, while the number of downloads of individual sections or papers has decreased to 1%. It has once again confirmed that the newsletter is popular not only because it contains few interesting papers, but because it is a good read in general., It also is a confirmation of good work by the editorial board. One of the main ideas of organizing the newsletter was to draw attention to the nature conservation problems in general as well as to particular actions of raptor conservation and studies of the distribution, numbers and biology of rare species. Exactly these themes are dominated in all five published issues. From the very beginning we planned to report examples of attracting birds of prey and owls to artificial nests, cases of bird electrocutions on power lines, and regional aspects of raptor conservation. The large


Events

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5 ìàòèêå ìàòåðèàëîâ ñ óïîðîì íà êîíêðåòíûå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ ïî îõðàíå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ è èçó÷åíèå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ, ÷èñëåííîñòè è áèîëîãèè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ. Èìåííî ïîýòîìó ýòè íàïðàâëåíèÿ äîìèíèðóþò âî âñåõ ïÿòè âûïóñêàõ (ðèñ. 3). Èçíà÷àëüíî ïëàíèðîâàëîñü èíôîðìèðîâàòü ÷èòàòåëåé î ìåðîïðèÿòèÿõ ïî ïðèâëå÷åíèþ õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ íà èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäà, ñîêðàùåíèþ óðîâíÿ ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è, òåððèòîðèàëüíîé îõðàíå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Áîëüøèíñòâî ñïåöèàëèñòîâ, çàíèìàþùèõñÿ îõðàíîé õèùíûõ ïòèö â Ðîññèè, îòêëèêíóëèñü íà ïðèçûâ ðåäàêöèè îïóáëèêîâàòü ðåçóëüòàòû ñâîèõ ðàáîò, è, áëàãîäàðÿ ýòîìó, óäàëîñü èñïîëíèòü çàäóìàííîå. Îñîáîå âíèìàíèå â æóðíàëå óäåëåíî ïðîáëåìå êîíòðàáàíäû ñîêîëîâ è òåìå ÑÈÒÅÑ. Ê ñîæàëåíèþ, ïîêà ýòî îñòà¸òñÿ ëèøü èíôîðìàöèåé ðàçäåëà «Ñîáûòèÿ». Íèêòî èç ñïåöèàëèñòîâ íå èçúÿâèë æåëàíèå îçâó÷èòü ïðîáëåìû ïî ýòîé òåìå â âèäå îòäåëüíîé ïóáëèêàöèè. Ñðåäè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ, èíôîðìàöèÿ î êîòîðûõ ïðèñóòñòâóåò â ïóáëèêàöèÿõ, àáñîëþòíî äîìèíèðóåò áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) (ðèñ. 4). Îò÷àñòè ýòî ñâÿçàíî ñ âûïîëíåíèåì ÷ëåíàìè ðåäàêöèè òåêóùèõ ïðîåêòîâ ïî ýòîìó âèäó, îò÷àñòè – ñ èíòåðåñîì ê íåìó â ñâÿçè ñ îñâåùåíèåì ïðîáëåì êîíòðàáàíäû ñîêîëîâ è âîïðîñîâ ÑÈÒÅÑ. Èìåííî ýòîìó ñîêîëó ïîñâÿùåíî áîëüøèíñòâî ìîíîâèäîâûõ ñòàòåé êàê íàó÷íîé, òàê è ïðèðîäîîõðàííîé òåìàòèêè. Áëàãîäàðÿ êîëëåãàì, ðàáîòàþùèì ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â ñòåïíûõ ðåãèîíàõ Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíà, â ñòàòüÿõ øèðîêî ïðåäñòàâëåíû è òàêèå ðåäêèå âèäû êàê ôèëèí (Bubo bubo), ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis) è áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos). Ê ñîæàëåíèþ, ñîâñåì íå ïðåäñòàâëåíû â áþëëåòåíå ñòàòüè ïî ïåðíàòûì õèùíèêàì òàéãè è òóíäðîâîé çîíû Ðîññèè, è ìû íàäååìñÿ, ÷òî â äàëüíåéøåì óäàñòñÿ çàïîëíèòü ýòîò ïðîáåë. Ïðîøåäøèé ãîä áûë îáúÿâëåí Ñîþçîì îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè ãîäîì ñîâû.  ïåðâîì íîìåðå ìû èíôîðìèðîâàëè îá ýòîì, à â ýòîì íîìåðå ïîäâîäèì èòîãè ðàáîòû íàèáîëåå àêòèâíûõ ó÷àñòíèêîâ àêöèè «Ñîâà – ïòèöà 2005 ãîäà». Ìû áëàãîäàðèì âñåõ êîëëåã è äîáðîâîëüöåâ, êîòîðûå ïèøóò ñòàòüè, àíîíñû, îñóùåñòâëÿþò ïåðåâîä è âñåñòîðîííå áåñêîðûñòíî ïîìîãàþò â èçäàíèè áþëëåòåíÿ. Ñ óâàæåíèåì, Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí è Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî

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number of ornithologists, who deal with raptor conservation in Russia, ask the editors to publish the results of their studies. The problems of falcon smuggling and CITES-related issues have their place in the newsletter. Unfortunately this is only information from the «Events» section. To the moment nobody with special knowledge has expressed a will to write a paper about this problem. Amongst papers on rare species the information on the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) has absolute dominance. It is connected somewhat to the fact that some of the members of the editorial board have had projects on this species, and to some extent to the interest in the species and related problems of falcon smuggling and CITES. Due to the effort by the colleagues working in the steppe regions of Russia and Kazakhstan, the newsletter contains papers on the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo), Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) and Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). Unfortunately, there is shortage of papers on raptors of the taiga and tundra of Russia. We hope to publish some papers about this group of raptors in future.

Ðèñ. 4. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå èíôîðìàöèè î âèäàõ â ïóáëèêàöèÿõ Fig. 4. Information of species in papers

Last year the Russian Bird Conservation Union named the year 2005 as the year of the Owl. In this issue we are pleased to publish some results of the action «The Owl – Birds of Russia in 2005». We thank all our colleagues, who write and translate and edit the papers and announcements, for their generous help. With thanks Igor Karyakin and Elvira Nikolenko


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5

Ñîáûòèÿ

Events СОБЫТИЯ

(1) Contact: Dimitar Ragyov Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Central Laboratory of General Ecology 2 Yurii Gagarin Str. Sofia 1113 Bulgaria mob.: (+359)898585553 fax: (+359 2) 870 54 98 ragyov@abv.bg dimitarragyov@ yahoo.com

(2) Êîíòàêò: Àëåêñàíäð Ñåðãååâè÷ Çîëîòûõ Ðîññèÿ 662710 Êðàñíîÿðñêèé êðàé ïîñ. Øóøåíñêîå óë. Çàïîâåäíàÿ 7 òåë.: (391 39) 3 14 49 ôàêñ: (391 39) 3 23 00 zapoved7@yandex.ru vstakheev@krasmail.ru (2) Contact: Aleksandr S. Zolotych Zapovednaya str. 7 Shushenskoe Krasnoyarskiy kray Russia 662710 tel./fax: (391 39) 3 23 00 tel.: (391 39) 3 14 49 zapoved7@yandex.ru vstakheev@krasmail.ru

Áîëãàðñêàÿ Àêàäåìèÿ Íàóê 27 – 28 ôåâðàëÿ 2006 ã. îðãàíèçóåò ñåìèíàð ïî òåìå «Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) â Þãî-Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïå – èññëåäîâàíèå è îõðàíà». Ñåìèíàð ÿâëÿåòñÿ ÷àñòüþ ïðîåêòà ïî áàëîáàíó, ðåàëèçóåìîìó â Áîëãàðèè â 2006 ã. Öåëü ñåìèíàðà – îáñóäèòü ïðîáëåìû âèäà â Þãî-Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïå (íàñåëåíèå è ïðèðîäîîõðàííûé ñòàòóñ; ïðåäïðèíÿòûå ìåðû îõðàíû; óãðîçû; íàó÷íî-èññëåäîâàòåëüñêèå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ è ò.ï.). Îñíîâíàÿ èäåÿ ñåìèíàðà – ñîçäàòü ñåòü ïî èçó÷åíèþ è îõðàíå áàëîáàíà â Þãî-Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïå. Íà ñåìèíàð ïðèãëàøàþòñÿ èññëåäîâàòåëè, êîòîðûå ìîãóò îðãàíèçîâàòü ðàáîòó ïî èçó÷åíèþ è îõðàíå áàëîáàíà â Ìîëäàâèè è Óêðàèíå â 2006–2007 ãã. Ïðåäïîëàãàåòñÿ ôèíàíñîâàÿ ïîääåðæêà ýòîé ðàáîòû. Îðãàíèçàòîðû ñåìèíàðà âîçìåùàþò ðàñõîäû íà ïðîåçä è ïðîæèâàíèå ó÷àñòíèêîâ. Êîíòàêò (1).

The Bulgarian Academy of Science organizes a workshop on «Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in Southeast Europe – Research and Conservation» in 27 – 28 February 2006. The meeting will be part of the Saker Falcon Project running in Bulgaria in 2006. The aim of the seminar is to discus the species problems in SE European region (population and conservation status; conservation actions undertaken; threats; research actions put into practice etc.). Our idea is to develop Southeastern European Research/Conservation Saker Network. We are looking for researchers who are able to start a Saker conservation and research programs in Moldova and Ukraina in 2006–2007. Financial support for those efforts could be provided. Travel expenses and accommodation for the workshop in Bulgaria will be covered. Contact (1).

24 – 29 èþëÿ 2006 ã. â ïîñ. Øóøåíñêîå Êðàñíîÿðñêîãî êðàÿ ïðîéä¸ò ìåæðåãèîíàëüíàÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ «Ðåãèîíàëüíûå ïðîáëåìû çàïîâåäíîãî äåëà». Êîíôåðåíöèþ îðãàíèçóþò Ñàÿíî-Øóøåíñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé ïðèðîäíûé áèîñôåðíûé çàïîâåäíèê, Àññîöèàöèÿ çàïîâåäíèêîâ è íàöèîíàëüíûõ ïàðêîâ Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ýêîðåãèîíà, Íàöèîíàëüíûé ôîíä «Ñòðàíà çàïîâåäíàÿ», Êðàñíîÿðñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò.  ïðîãðàììå êîíôåðåíöèè ïðåäïîëàãàåòñÿ îáñóäèòü ñëåäóþùèå âîïðîñû: 1. Èñòîðèÿ è ïåðñïåêòèâû çàïîâåäíîãî äåëà ðåãèîíà. Êîîðäèíàöèÿ äåÿòåëüíîñòè ÎÎÏÒ, èõ àññîöèàöèè. 2. Íàó÷íûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ: èõ ýôôåêòèâíîñòü, îðãàíèçàöèÿ è ðåçóëüòàòû. Çíà÷åíèå ÎÎÏÒ â ñîõðàíåíèè ëàíäøàôòíîãî è áèîëîãè÷åñêîãî ðàçíîîáðàçèÿ ðåãèîíà. 3. Ìåñòî ÎÎÏÒ â ñîöèàëüíî-ýêîíîìè÷åñêîé ñòðóêòóðå ðåãèîíà, èõ ðîëü â îáåñïå÷åíèè åãî óñòîé÷èâîãî ðàçâèòèÿ. 4. Ñàÿíî-Øóøåíñêèé áèîñôåðíûé ðåçåðâàò – åãî ðîëü â ðåãèîíå. Îñîáåííîñòè îïòèìèçàöèè ðåãèîíàëüíîé ñåòè ÎÎÏÒ. Òåîðèÿ è ïðàêòèêà îðãàíèçàöèè áèîñôåðíûõ ïîëèãîíîâ.

The conference «Regional problems of Nature Reserve management» will held in an town of Shushenskoe (Krasnoyarskiy Kray) in 24 – 29 July 2006. Organizers of conference: the SayanoShushenskiy Nature Reserve, Association of Nature Reserves and Nature Parks of the Altai-Sayan ecoregion, National Foundation «Country Reserves», Krasnoyarsk State University. The conference will focus on the following problems: 1. The history and future of Nature Reserve management in the region. Coordination of activities in the protected areas. 2. Organization, management and efficiency of research in Protected Territories. Significance of protected areas for conservation of biodiversity in the region. 3. Role of protected areas in economic and social structure of the region and their role in providing for the sustainable development. 4. Significance of the Sayano-Shushenskiy Nature Reserve in the region. Optimization of the ecological network of protected areas. Theoretical foundations and practice of establishing of protected areas.


Events

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5 5. Ðåãèîíàëüíûå òðàäèöèè ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèÿ, îõðàíû ïðèðîäû è ó÷åò èíòåðåñîâ íàñåëåíèÿ ïðè îðãàíèçàöèè è äåÿòåëüíîñòè ÎÎÏÒ. 6. Ãóìàíèòàðíî-ñîöèàëüíûå àñïåêòû çàïîâåäíîãî äåëà. Ýêîëîãè÷åñêîå ïðîñâåùåíèå. ÎÎÏÒ è òóðèçì. 7. Îõðàíà è ðåæèì ÎÎÏÒ. 8. Ïðàâîâûå è àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûå âîïðîñû çàïîâåäíîãî äåëà. 9. Âçàèìîäåéñòâèå ÎÎÏÒ ñ ÍÈÈ, ÂÓÇàìè, îòå÷åñòâåííûìè è ìåæäóíàðîäíûìè îáùåñòâåííûìè îðãàíèçàöèÿìè è ôîíäàìè. 10. Î ñîòðóäíèêàõ çàïîâåäíèêîâ è äðóçüÿõ ÎÎÏÒ. Çàïîâåäíûé ôîëüêëîð. Ïðîãðàììà êîíôåðåíöèè ïðåäóñìàòðèâàåò ïîëåâûå ýêñêóðñèè è ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ, ñâÿçàííûå ñ 30-ëåòèåì Ñàÿíî-Øóøåíñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà. Êîíòàêò (2).

Æåëàþùèì ïðèíÿòü ó÷àñòèå â êîíôåðåíöèè íåîáõîäèìî âûñëàòü äî 3 àïðåëÿ 2006 ã. â àäðåñ îðãêîìèòåòà: 1. Àíêåòó àâòîðà. 2. Òåçèñû (íå áîëåå 3-õ ñòðàíèö) íà äèñêåòàõ (èìÿ ôàéëà – ôàìèëèÿ ïåðâîãî àâòîðà – Èâàíîâ.doc) ñ ïðèëîæåíèåì ðàñïå÷àòêè òåêñòà â 1 ýêç. èëè ïî ýëåêòðîííîé ïî÷òå â ýëåêòðîííîì âèäå. 3. Îðãâçíîñ äëÿ ðîññèéñêèõ ó÷àñòíèêîâ è ñòðàí ÑÍà – 200 ðóá., ìîëîäûõ ó÷åíûõ – 100 ðóá., àñïèðàíòîâ è ñòóäåíòîâ – 0; âêëþ÷àåò â ñåáÿ îðãàíèçàöèîííûå ðàñõîäû, çàòðàòû íà ïóáëèêàöèþ ìàòåðèàëîâ êîíôåðåíöèè. Êðîìå èçäàíèÿ òåçèñîâ äîêëàäîâ êîíôåðåíöèè îðãêîìèòåò ïëàíèðóåò âûïóñê òðóäîâ êîíôåðåíöèè, âêëþ÷àþùèõ ñòàòüè, îòîáðàííûå îðãêîìèòåòîì è ðåäàêöèîííîé êîëëåãèåé ïî ñîãëàñîâàíèþ ñ àâòîðàìè. Îáú¸ì ñòàòåé äî 10–11 ñòðàíèö. Îôîðìëåíèå – êàê òåçèñîâ. Íåîáõîäèì ñïèñîê ëèòåðàòóðû. Âîçìîæíî ïîìåùåíèå èëëþñòðàòèâíûõ ìàòåðèàëîâ. Ñòàòüè âûñûëàþòñÿ âìåñòå ñ òåçèñàìè èëè äîïîëíèòåëüíî äî 15 àïðåëÿ 2006 ã.

(3) Êîíòàêò: Äèðåêöèÿ ôåñòèâàëÿ «×åëîâåê è Ïðèðîäà» 664056 Ðîññèÿ Èðêóòñê óë. Ìóõèíîé 2à òåë./ôàêñ: (3952) 42 20 77 Êîîðäèíàòîð â Èðêóòñêå: Ìàðêîâà Àííà Áîðèñîâíà òåë.: (3952) 41 98 61 igoobep@rambler.ru, kinofond@angara.ru

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5. Regional traditions of nature management and conservation, incorporation of public interests in establishment and maintenance of protected areas. 6. Human and social aspects of Reserve management .Environmental education. Protected areas and tourism. 7. Protection and its levels in Protected Territories 8. Legislative and administrative problems in Reserve management. 9. Cooperation of Nature Reserves with scientific institutes, universities, national and international organizations and funds. 10. About employees and supporters of Nature Reserves. Folklore of environmentalists. The conference will include field excursions and a gala dedicated to the 30th anniversary of the Sayano-Shushenskiy Nature Reserve. Contact (2).

If you would like to participate the conference, please send the following documents by 3 April 2006: 1. Application form. 2. Abstracts (not more than 3 pages, name of file should be the surname of first author – example: Ivanov.doc) should be sent by e-mail or on floppy disk with paper copy by post. 3. The registration fee for Russians and participants from the FSU: 200 rubles, for young scientists – 100 rubles., for post-graduates and students – 0; the fee includes costs of the and overheads Proceeds of conference. Other categories of the applicants – please contact the organization committee. The Conference Committee is going to publish selected papers, chosen by the Committee and/or the editorial board . Papers should be no more than 10–11 pages long. Deadline for papers and abstracts is 15 April 2006.

2–10 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2006 ã. â ã. Èðêóòñêå (Ðîññèÿ) áóäåò ïðîõîäèòü Ìåæäóíàðîäíûé Áàéêàëüñêèé ôåñòèâàëü äîêóìåíòàëüíûõ, íàó÷íî-ïîïóëÿðíûõ è ó÷åáíûõ ôèëüìîâ «×åëîâåê è ïðèðîäà». Ôåñòèâàëü ó÷ðåæä¸í Ìèíèñòåðñòâîì êóëüòóðû Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè, Ñîþçîì êèíåìàòîãðàôèñòîâ Ðîññèè, àäìèíèñòðàöèåé Èðêóòñêîé îáëàñòè, Âîñòî÷íî-Ñèáèðñêèì îòäåëåíèåì ÑÊ Ðîññèè. Çàäà÷àìè ôåñòèâàëÿ ÿâëÿþòñÿ: • ïðèâëå÷åíèå âíèìàíèÿ ìèðîâîé îáùåñòâåííîñòè ê îáîñòðåíèþ ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ ïðîáëåì;

The Baykal International Festival of Documentary, Scientific and Educational films «Humans and the nature» will be held in Irkutsk (Russia) on 2–10 September, 2006. Festival is founded by the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation, Alliance of Cinematographers (AC) of Russia, administration of the Irkutsk district, the East-Siberian branch of AC of Russia. The main purposes of the Festival are: • attracting the attention of the world public to the intensification of environmental problems;


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5

(3) Êîíòàêò: Êîîðäèíàòîðû â Ìîñêâå: ×åðíåíêî Ðèòà Äàâûäîâíà êèíîêðèòèê òåë.: (095) 251 09 89 ×åðíîâ Âÿ÷åñëàâ Ãåîðãèåâè÷ çàâ. îòäåëîì ïî ðàáîòå ñ ðåãèîíàìè òåë.: (095) 251 08 27 (3) Contact: Committee of the Festival «Human and nature» Muchhinoy str., 2à Irkutsk 664056 Russia tel./fax: (3952) 42 20 77 Coordinator in Irkutsk: Anna B. Markova tel.: (3952) 41 98 61 igoobep@rambler.ru kinofond@angara.ru Coordinators in Moscow: Rita D. Chernenko Film critic tel.: (095) 251 09 89 Vyacheslav G. Chernov Head of the department of co-operations with regions tel.: (095) 251 08 27

(4) Êîíòàêò: Âèêòîð Ïåòðîâ êîîðäèíàòîð ïðîåêòîâ ïî ñîõðàíåíèþ áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ è ïðàâîâûõ ïðîåêòîâ Êîëüñêîãî öåíòðà îõðàíû äèêîé ïðèðîäû ìîá.: +7 (921) 274 0014 òåë.: +7 (815) 556 62 86 pvn@biodiversity.ru (4) Contact: Viktor Petrov Project-leader Kolskiy Biodiversity Conservation Center tel.:+7 (815) 556 62 86 mob.: +7 (921) 274 0014 pvn@biodiversity.ru

Ñîáûòèÿ

• îáúåäèíåíèå è àêòèâèçàöèÿ îáùåñòâåííîãî äâèæåíèÿ â çàùèòó ïðèðîäû; • ïîêàç áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ ïðèðîäû; • îáìåí ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé èíôîðìàöèåé; • ïîîùðåíèå êèíåìàòîãðàôèñòîâ, ñíèìàþùèõ ôèëüìû íà òåìû ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî ìèðíîãî ñîñóùåñòâîâàíèÿ ÷åëîâåêà è ïðèðîäû; • ðàçâèòèå òâîð÷åñêèõ êîíòàêòîâ, îáìåíó îïûòîì è èäåÿìè ìåæäó êèíåìàòîãðàôèñòàìè, ó÷¸íûìè, ýêîëîãàìè è íàñåëåíèåì; • ýêîëîãè÷åñêîå îáðàçîâàíèå è âîñïèòàíèå. Ê ó÷àñòèþ â êîíêóðñíîé ïðîãðàììå äîïóñêàþòñÿ äîêóìåíòàëüíûå, íàó÷íî-ïîïóëÿðíûå è ó÷åáíûå ôèëüìû èç ðàçíûõ ñòðàí ìèðà, ïðîèçâîäñòâî êîòîðûõ çàêîí÷åíî íå ðàíåå, ÷åì çà 2 ãîäà äî íà÷àëà ôåñòèâàëÿ. Çàÿâêè íà ó÷àñòèå â ïðîãðàììå ôåñòèâàëÿ è êîïèè ôèëüìîâ íà âèäåîïëåíêå ïðèíèìàþòñÿ îòáîðî÷íîé êîìèññèåé äî 1 èþëÿ 2006 ãîäà. Ðàñõîäû ïî õðàíåíèþ è ñòðàõîâàíèþ ïðåäñòàâëåííûõ íà êîíêóðñ êèíîâèäåîìàòåðèàëîâ â ïåðèîä ïðîâåäåíèÿ Ôåñòèâàëÿ íåñ¸ò äèðåêöèÿ Ôåñòèâàëÿ. Ïèòàíèå, ïðîæèâàíèå è ïåðåäâèæåíèå ó÷àñòíèêîâ Ôåñòèâàëÿ îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ çà ñ÷¸ò äèðåêöèè ôåñòèâàëÿ. Êîíòàêò (3).

• consolidating public activities in nature protection; • demonstrating the diversity of nature; • exchanging of the environmental information; • encouraging film-makers to film nature and its coexistence with people • developing creative contacts, exchanging experience and ideas between the public and cinematographers, scientists, and environmentalists. • promoting environmental education. To the participation in the Festival documentary, scientific and educating films from different countries of the world, completed later, than for 1st July 2004. Application forms for the participation in the Festival and copies of films on VHScassettes should be send to the Selection Committee. The deadline for submission is 1 July 2006. Expenses on keeping and insurance of submitted films during the period of the Festival will be carried by the Festival Committee. Costs of feeding, living and movement within the framework of the Festival are realized by the Festival Committee. Contact (3).

Êîëüñêèé öåíòð îõðàíû äèêîé ïðèðîäû ñîîáùàåò î íà÷àëå ïðîåêòà ïî ñîçäàíèþ ðåãèîíàëüíûõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ îñîáî îõðàíÿåìûõ ïðèðîäíûõ òåððèòîðèé (ÎÎÏÒ) íà âîçâûøåííîñòè Êåéâû â âîñòî÷íîé ÷àñòè Êîëüñêîãî ïîëóîñòðîâà (Ìóðìàíñêàÿ îáëàñòü) â 2006 ã. Âîçâûøåííîñòü Êåéâû èìååò ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü 140 êèëîìåòðîâ â íàïðàâëåíèè ñåâåðî-âîñòîê – þãî-çàïàä ïðè øèðèíå äî 25 êèëîìåòðîâ è ÿâëÿåòñÿ âîäîðàçäåëîì Áàðåíöåâà è Áåëîãî ìîðåé. Îñíîâíîé çàäà÷åé ïðîåêòèðîâàíèÿ ÎÎÏÒ â ýòîì ðàéîíå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðåäîòâðàùåíèå ïðîìûøëåííîé ðàçðàáîòêè íàèáîëåå öåííûõ ó÷àñòêîâ äèêîé ïðèðîäû.  ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû âîñòî÷íàÿ ÷àñòü Êîëüñêîãî ïîëóîñòðîâà ïðèâëåêàåò âíèìàíèå ïðîìûøëåííèêîâ äëÿ ïîèñêà, ðàçâåäêè è ïîñëåäóþùåé äîáû÷è ïîëåçíûõ èñêîïàåìûõ.  Êåéâàõ ðàñïîëîæåíû êðóïíåéøèå çàïàñû êåàíèòà – àëþìèíèåâîãî ñûðüÿ, êîòîðîå ìîæåò äîáûâàòüñÿ â óñëîâèÿõ Êîëüñêîãî Çàïîëÿðüÿ òîëüêî îòêðûòûì ñïîñîáîì, à òàêæå êðóïíûå çàïàñû ïîäåëî÷íîãî êàìíÿ.  ñëó÷àå ïðîâåäåíèÿ òàêèõ ðàáîò àíòðîïîãåííîå ïðåîáðàçîâàíèå çàòðîíåò çíà÷èòåëüíóþ ÷àñòü òåððèòîðèè. Îñíîâíûìè ïðèðîäîîõðàííûìè öåííîñòÿìè íà ïðåäïîëàãàåìîé ê îáñëåäîâàíèþ

The Biodiversity Conservation Center of the Kola-peninsula informs of the project to establish the regional ornithological protected areas on the Keyvy upland in the eastern part of Kola peninsula (Murmansk district) in 2006. The Keyvy upland is the watershed of the Barents and Beloe Seas with size 140õ25 km. The main purpose of establishing the protected areas in the region is prevention of

Ïòåíöû êðå÷åòà (Falco rusticolus) ó ãíåçäà íà âîçâûøåííîñòè Êåéâû. 2005 ã. Ôîòî Î. Ïåòðîâîé The chicks of the Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) near the nest on the Keyvy upland. 2005. Photo by O. Petrova


Events

Êàðòà ðàéîíà ðàáîò: 1 – òåððèòîðèÿ, íà êîòîðîé ïëàíèðóåòñÿ îáñëåäîâàíèå, 2 – Ïîíîéñêèé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèé çàêàçíèê The map of the surveyed region: 1 – the territory where the survey is planned 2 – Ponoyskiy Ornithological Nature Reserve

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5

òåððèòîðèè ÿâëÿþòñÿ ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ñîêîëîâ: êðå÷åòà (Falco rusticolus) è ñàïñàíà (Falco peregrinus).  çàïàäíîé è öåíòðàëüíîé ÷àñòÿõ âîçâûøåííîñòè èçâåñòíû íàõîäêè ãí¸çä êðå÷åòîâ, à íà ñåâåðíîé ÷àñòè Ïîíîéñêîé áîëîòíîé êîòëîâèíû – êëþ÷åâîé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé òåððèòîðèè – èçâåñòíû ãí¸çäà ñàïñàíà.  ïîëåâîé ñåçîí 2006 ã. ïðåäïîëàãàåòñÿ ïðîâåðèòü ñòàðûå äàííûå è âûÿâèòü íîâûå ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè êðóïíûõ ñîêîëîâ. Íà îñíîâàíèè ïîëó÷åííûõ äàííûõ áóäóò ñïðîåêòèðîâàíû íåñêîëüêî ðåãèîíàëüíûõ ÎÎÏÒ, à òàêæå ðàñøèðåíèå Ïîíîéñêîãî îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîãî çàêàçíèêà, çàùèùàþùåãî Ïîíîéñêóþ áîëîòíóþ êîòëîâèíó, ñ òåì, ÷òîáû âçÿòü ïîä îõðàíó âåñü âîäîñáîð êîòëîâèíû ñî ñòîðîíû âîçâûøåííîñòè Êåéâû. Îôèöèàëüíûå ïðèðîäîîõðàííûå îðãàíû Ìóðìàíñêîé îáëàñòè çàâåðèëè èñïîëíèòåëåé, ÷òî ñïðîåêòèðîâàííûå ÎÎÏÒ áóäóò ñîçäàíû â ñëó÷àå äîñòàòî÷íîãî íàó÷íîãî îáîñíîâàíèÿ. Òå ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè, êîòîðûå íå âîéäóò â ñîñòàâ ñïðîåêòèðîâàííûõ ÎÎÏÒ, áóäóò âçÿòû ïîä îõðàíó íà îñíîâàíèè ïðåäóñìîòðåííîãî çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâîì Ìóðìàíñêîé îáëàñòè ìåõàíèçìà ñîõðàíåíèÿ ó÷àñòêîâ êàê ìåñò îáèòàíèÿ âèäîâ, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Ìóðìàíñêîé îáëàñòè. Êîëüñêèé öåíòð îõðàíû äèêîé ïðèðîäû ïðèãëàøàåò ê ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâó ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàòåëåé, çàíèìàþùèõñÿ ñîõðàíåíèåì áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ, è íàäååòñÿ ïðèâëå÷ü äîïîëíèòåëüíîå ôèíàíñèðîâàíèå ïðîåêòà. Êîíòàêò (4).

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the industrial exploitation of the important wild nature areas. During last years the eastern part of the Kola peninsula becomes to interest for companies for searching, exploring and following mining of minerals. The largest deposit of keanit (aluminum-ore), which can be mined under the conditions of the Kola peninsula by only open method, and deposits of decorate stones locate here. In the case of exploring these deposits the human influence on the territory will very much. The most significant areas on the territory which are going to be surveyed are the breeding areas of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus). During the summer of 2006 the known breeding areas of falcons and searching new ones are planning to carry out. The nature protection state authorities of the Murmansk district guarantee the establishing the protected areas if they would be sufficiently scientific motivated. The breeding areas which will out of the protected areas, will be protected in accordance of the Murmansk district legislation, which provide to conserve breeding areas of species included in the Red Data Book of the Murmansk district. The Biodiversity Conservation Center of the Kola-peninsula invites the field researchers to cooperate, and hopes to attract an additional financing of the project. Contact (4).

Ìåñòà îáèòàíèÿ êðå÷åòà íà ñåâåðî-çàïàäíîé îêîíå÷íîñòè âîçâûøåííîñòè Êåéâû. Ôîòî Î. Ïåòðîâîé Inhabited places of the Gyrfalcon on the Keyvy upland. 2005. Photo by O. Petrova


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5

Ñîáûòèÿ

CITESNews НОВОСТИСИТЕС 21 – 23 íîÿáðÿ 2005 ã. â ã. Àáó-Äàáè (ÎÀÝ) ïðîøëî Ñîâåùàíèå ðàáî÷åé ãðóïïû ÑÈÒÅÑ ïî ìåðàì ïðèíóæäåíèÿ â îáëàñòè òîðãîâëè ñîêîëàìè (äàëåå ÑÐÃ). Ñîâåùàíèå áûëî îðãàíèçîâàíî ïîä ýãèäîé Ñåêðåòàðèàòà ÑÈÒÅÑ Àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûì è Íàó÷íûì îðãàíàìè ÑÈÒÅÑ ÎÀÝ ïðè ó÷àñòèè Àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîãî îðãàíà ÑÈÒÅÑ Êàíàäû.  ÑÐà ïðèíÿëè ó÷àñòèå îôèöèàëüíûå ïðåäñòàâèòåëè Ñåêðåòàðèàòà ÑÈÒÅÑ è ñòðàí-ó÷àñòíèö – Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè, Êàçàõñòàíà, Êàíàäû, Êàòàðà, Êèðãèçñòàíà, Êèòàÿ, Êóâåéòà, Ìîíãîëèè, ÎÀÝ, Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè, à òàêæå ISPO-Èíòåðïîë è Ìåæäóíàðîäíîé òàìîæåííîé îðãàíèçàöèè. Ðîññèþ íà Ñîâåùàíèè ïðåäñòàâëÿëè íà÷àëüíèê Óïðàâëåíèÿ Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà Ä.Â. Ôåäîòêèí è çàâåäóþùèé ëàáîðàòîðèåé ÂÍÈÈïðèðîäû Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà À.Ã. Ñîðîêèí. Öåëüþ ÑÐà áûëî âûÿâëåíèå îñíîâíûõ ïðîáëåì è òåíäåíöèé íåçàêîííîé òîðãîâëè ñîêîëàìè ñ ïðàêòè÷åñêîé òî÷êè çðåíèÿ. Îñîáîå âíèìàíèå áûëî óäåëåíî âîïðîñàì êîíòðîëÿ è íàäçîðà çà âíóòðåííèì îáîðîòîì è ýêñïîðòíî-èìïîðòíûìè îïåðàöèÿìè ñ ñîêîëàìè.  ýòîé ñâÿçè äåòàëüíî îáñóæäàëàñü ñèòóàöèÿ ñ íåëåãàëüíûì îòëîâîì è êîíòðàáàíäîé ñîêîëîâ çà ïåðèîä ñ 2000 ã.  õîäå ñîâåùàíèÿ áûëà ïîä÷åðêíóòà íåîáõîäèìîñòü óëó÷øåíèÿ ìåæäóíàðîäíîé êîîðäèíàöèè äåéñòâèé, íàïðàâëåííûõ íà ïðåñå÷åíèå íåëåãàëüíîé àêòèâíîñòè â ñîêîëèíîì áèçíåñå. Îáñóæäåíû è îäîáðåíû ïðåäëîæåíèÿ Ñåêðåòàðèàòà ÑÈÒÅÑ ïî ñîçäàíèþ èíôîðìàöèîííîé ñåòè äëÿ ïîâûøåíèÿ îïåðàòèâíîñòè ïðàâîïðèìåíèòåëüíûõ äåéñòâèé ïî âñåé êðèìèíàëüíîé öåïî÷êå îò ìåñò íåëåãàëüíîãî îòëîâà äî ïóíêòîâ íàçíà÷åíèÿ êîíòðàáàíäíîé ïðîäóêöèè. Îñíîâíàÿ ÷àñòü ÑÐà áûëà ïîñâÿùåíà äîêëàäàì ñòðàí-ó÷àñòíèö ñ èíôîðìàöèåé ïî íåçàêîííîé òîðãîâëå ñîêîëàìè çà ïåðèîä 2000 – 2005 ãã. è èõ îáñóæäåíèþ. Îò÷¸ò ïî èòîãàì ó÷àñòèÿ ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà â Ñîâåùàíèè ðàáî÷åé ãðóïïû äîñòóïåí íà ñàéòå ÌÏÐ ÐÔ4. Êðàòêèé îò÷¸ò ïî äîêëàäàì, ïðåäñòàâëåííûì íà ÑÐÃ, ÷èòàéòå íà ñòð. 12.

4

http://control.mnr.gov.ru/part/?act=more&id=532&pid=545

In 21 – 23 November 2005 in Abu Dhabi, (UAE) was held the meeting of the CITES Falcon Enforcement Task Force (ETF). The meeting was organized by CITES Secretariat, CITES authorities of the UAE and Canada. The meeting was attended by the CITES Management Authorities, official authorities of Canada, China, India, Kuwait, Qatar, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, the Russian Federation and the United Kingdom and officials of ICPO-Interpol and the World Customs Organization. Russian official authorities were the Director of the Management of the Russian Nature Inspection (RNI) D.V. Fedotkin and the head of laboratory the Russian Scientific Nature Institute of RNI A.G. Sorokin. The main objective of the meeting was to discuss the illegal trade in falcons by identifying the main problems in controlling the trade in falcons for falconry studying seizures that have been made in member country territories since 2000, to identify smuggling methods, routes, means of transport, characteristics of the illicit trade and, if possible, the identities of those involved. The participants noted a necessity to improve the international coordination of actions against the illicit trade of falcons. They also discussed and encouraged the suggestions of CITES Secretariat to organize the informational network for improving the actions to identify illegal harvest methods, smuggling routes, smuggling techniques (forms of transport, concealment techniques, types of couriers, etc. modus operandi associated with dealers, places associated with dealers, transactions, etc., final destinations and markets, prices paid (poacher to final consumer) and individuals known to be involved. The main part of meeting was the country reports, providing details of illegal trade in falcons and seizure information since 2000. The report of results of participation of Russian officials is available on-line on site of the Ministry of Natural Recourses of RF4. Short summary about it see on 12 page.


Events

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5

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ContrabandofFalcons КОНТРАБАНДАСОКОЛОВ

5

 íîÿáðå 2005 ã. â àýðîïîðòó ã. Ìîñêâû ñîòðóäíèêè ÔÑÁ, áëàãîäàðÿ õîðîøî ñïëàíèðîâàííûì îïåðàòèâíî-ðîçûñêíûì ìåðîïðèÿòèÿì, çàäåðæàëè ïàðòèþ êàì÷àòñêèõ êðå÷åòîâ (Falco rusticolus).  áàãàæå îäíîãî èç ïàññàæèðîâ ðåéñà Ïåòðîïàâëîâñê-Ìîñêâà, ïî ïðèáûòèè â àýðîïîðò íàçíà÷åíèÿ, ñîòðóäíèêàìè ÔÑÁ ã. Ìîñêâû è ã. Ïåòðîïàâëîâñê-Êàì÷àòñêîãî áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ïÿòü áåëûõ êðå÷åòîâ. Âëàäåëåö áàãàæà çàäåðæàí. Ïðîâîäèòñÿ ðàññëåäîâàíèå. Èçúÿòûå ïòèöû ïåðåäàíû äëÿ ïðîõîæäåíèÿ ðåàáèëèòàöèè è îïðåäåëåíèÿ äàëüíåéøåé ñóäüáû â ÔÃÓ ÍÈÈ ïðèðîäû «Ðóññêèé ñîêîëèíûé öåíòð». Ïî îïåðàòèâíûì äàííûì ÔÑÁ ñ òåððèòîðèè ïîëóîñòðîâà åæåãîäíî âûâîçèòñÿ îêîëî 100 îñîáåé ýòèõ ðåäêèõ ïòèö. Èíôîðìàöèÿ ïîäãîòîâëåíà ïî äàííûì ÐÈÀ Íîâîñòè ã. Ïåòðîïàâëîâñê-Êàì÷àòñêèé5.

The officials of Federal Security Agency (FSA) of RF were arrested a party of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) from Kamchatka in the airport of Moscow in November, 2005. As a result of united actions of FSA officials of Moscow and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, five white Gyrfalcons were found in the luggage of a passenger of flight Petropavlovsk – Moscow. The owner of the luggage was arrested. Investigation is carried out. The confiscated birds have been kept in the «Russian Falcon Center» for rehabilitation and been waiting a further judgment. Following the information of FSA every year near 100 Gyrs are brought out from Kamchatka. The information has prepared following reports of the Russian Information Agency «Novosty» Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy5.

5 äåêàáðÿ 2005 ã. â àýðîïîðòó ã. Ìàãàäàí (Ðîññèÿ) áûëà çàäåðæàíà êðóïíàÿ ïàðòèÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ – 10 êðå÷åòîâ, 1 ÿñòðåá-òåòåðåâÿòíèê, 1 ÷åãëîê è 1 áåëàÿ ñîâà. Êîíôèñêîâàííàÿ ïàðòèÿ ïòèö áûëà îòëîâëåíà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ Àðìàíè (ðàéîí îçåðà Ñîë¸íîå). Ïî-âèäèìîìó, îñíîâíàÿ èõ ìàññà áûëà ïîéìàíà â íîÿáðå – êîãäà êðå÷åòû, ãíåçäÿùèåñÿ â òóíäðîâîé çîíå, ïîÿâëÿþòñÿ íà îõîòñêîì ïîáåðåæüå. Èçúÿòàÿ ïàðòèÿ ïòèö áûëà äîñòàâëåíà â ïîìåùåíèå Ðîññåëüõîçíàäçîðà, ãäå ïòèöû ïðîâåëè íî÷ü â ñâÿçàííîì ñîñòîÿíèè, â äâóõ òåñíûõ êîíòåéíåðàõ. Îò òÿæ¸ëûõ óñëîâèé ñîäåðæàíèÿ îäèí êðå÷åò ïîãèá. 8 äåêàáðÿ, ïîñëå îôîðìëåíèÿ ïðîòîêîëà î íàðóøåíèè, êðå÷åòû, òåòåðåâÿòíèê è áåëàÿ ñîâà áûëè âûïóùåíû â íåñêîëüêèõ ïóíêòàõ âäîëü àðìàíñêîé òðàññû. ×åãëîê, âðåìÿ îñåííèõ êî÷¸âîê êîòîðîãî äàâíî çàêîí÷èëîñü, áûë ïåðåäàí Äåòñêîìó ýêîëîãè÷åñêîìó öåíòðó, ãäå îí áóäåò çèìîâàòü äî íàñòóïëåíèÿ òåïëà (ôèíàíñîâóþ ïîääåðæêó ïðè ýòîì îáåñïå÷èâàåò Óïðàâëåíèå Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà Ìàãàäàíñêîé îáëàñòè). Íà êóðüåðà, íà êîòîðîãî áûë îôîðìëåí âåñü ãðóç, íàëîæåí àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûé øòðàô â ðàçìåðå 1500 ðóá. Âîçáóæäåíî óãîëîâíîå äåëî.

In 5 December 2005 a large party of raptors (10 Gyrfalcons, 1 Goshawk, 1 Hobby and 1 Snow Owl) was confiscated at the airport of Magadan (Russia). The confiscated party of birds was poached near Arman’ village (vicinities of the Solenoe Lake). Probably the main part of birds was poached in November – during which the Gyrs, inhabiting tundra zone (Northern Yakutia and Chukotika) migrate to the Okhotsk coast. For catching birds nets and pigeons were used. The confiscated party of birds was transported to the office of the Russian Inspection of Agriculture, where 13 birds spent the night kept in 2 small boxes. Due to the unsatisfactory conditions one gyrfalcon died. In 8 December, after filing the case, the Gyrfalcons, Goshawk and Snow Owl were released back to the wild. The hobby was transferred to the Children Environmental Center, where he will spend the winter with plans to be released back to the wild in spring. The courier was imposed a fine in 1500 rubles. The criminal case was filed.

http://www.rian.ru/incidents/crime/20051117/42119599.html


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5

Ñîáûòèÿ

ShortsummaryofthereportsfromthemeetingoftheCITES FalconEnforcementTaskForce(ETF).21–23November2005, AbuDhabi,UAE КРАТКИЙОТЧЁТПОДОКЛАДАМ,ПРЕДСТАВЛЕННЫМНА СОВЕЩАНИИРАБОЧЕЙГРУППЫСИТЕСПОМЕРАМ ПРИНУЖДЕНИЯВОБЛАСТИТОРГОВЛИСОКОЛАМИ. 21–23НОЯБРЯ2005Г.,АБУ-ДАБИ,ОАЭ FedotkinD.V.(TheManagementoftheRussianNatureInspection(RNI),Russia) SorokinA.G.(TheRussianScientificNatureInstituteofRNI,Russia) ФедотинД.В.(УправлениеРосприроднадзора,Россия) СороинА.Г.(ВНИИприродаРосприроднадзора,Россия) Îñíîâíîå íàïðàâëåíèå ñîâåùàíèþ ðàáî÷åé ãðóïïû (äàëåå ÑÐÃ) äàëè óñòàíîâî÷íûå äîêëàäû ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé Ñåêðåòàðèàòà ÑÈÒÅÑ Äæîíàòàíà Áàðçäî (ðóêîâîäèòåëü Îòäåëåíèÿ ïîääåðæêè Êîíâåíöèè) è Äæîíà Ñåëëàðà (ðóêîâîäèòåëü ãðóïïû ïî áîðüáå ñ êîíòðàáàíäîé, ìîøåííè÷åñòâîì è îðãàíèçîâàííîé ïðåñòóïíîñòüþ), ïîñâÿù¸ííûå èñòîðèè Ðàáî÷èõ ãðóïï ÑÈÒÅÑ è îïèñàíèþ öåëåé íàñòîÿùåãî ÑÐÃ.  äîïîëíåíèå ê ýòîìó Àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûé îðãàí ÑÈÒÅÑ â ÎÀÝ ïðåäñòàâèë äîêëàä ïî èñòîðèè ñîêîëèíîé îõîòû â ðåãèîíå è ñîâðåìåííîìó ñîñòîÿíèþ òîðãîâëè ñîêîëàìè äëÿ ñîêîëèíîé îõîòû, à òàêæå ïî ìåðàì, ïðåäïðèíèìàåìûì íà ãîñóäàðñòâåííîì óðîâíå â ÎÀÝ ïî êîíòðîëþ íåçàêîííîãî îáîðîòà ñîêîëîâ.  ÷àñòíîñòè, áûë äåòàëüíî îïèñàí ðàçðàáîòàííûé è âíåäðåííûé ìåõàíèçì «ïàñïîðòèçàöèè» ñîêîëîâ, íàõîäÿùèõñÿ â ëè÷íîé ñîáñòâåííîñòè. Ó÷èòûâàÿ ïîëîæèòåëüíûé îïûò ÎÀÝ è íåêîòîðûõ äðóãèõ ñòðàí ðåãèîíà â «ïàñïîðòèçàöèè» ñîêîëîâ, íàõîäÿùèõñÿ â ëè÷íîé ñîáñòâåííîñòè, Ñåêðåòàðèàò ÑÈÒÅÑ ðåêîìåíäîâàë øèðå èñïîëüçîâàòü ýòîò ìåòîä ðåãèñòðàöèè è êîíòðîëÿ ïåðåìåùåíèÿ ñîêîëîâ. Ïðè ýòîì îáðàùàëîñü âíèìàíèå íà ñëåäóþùåå: - ïàñïîðòà äîëæíû áûòü çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíû â âûäàâøåì èõ íàöèîíàëüíîì îðãàíå; - â ïàñïîðòå äîëæíû áûòü ÷åòêèå óêàçàíèÿ íà ìåòêó äàííîé ïòèöû (â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ ðåêîìåíäàöèÿìè ÑÈÒÅÑ); - ïðè ïåðåñå÷åíèÿõ ãðàíèö â ïàñïîðòå äîëæíû ïðîñòàâëÿòüñÿ äàòû âûåçäà è âúåçäà, çàâåðåííûå ïîäïèñüþ óïîëíîìî÷åííîãî ëèöà è ïå÷àòüþ; - â ïàñïîðòå äîëæíà áûòü ñäåëàíà çàïèñü î òîì, ÷òî, áóäó÷è âûâåçåííîé çà ãðàíèöó, äàííàÿ îñîáü íå ìîæåò áûòü ïðîäàíà (ïîäàðåíà) áåç îôîðìëåíèÿ äîêóìåíòîâ â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ òðåáîâàíèÿìè ÑÈÒÅÑ; - ïàñïîðò âûäàåòñÿ òîëüêî íà ïòèö ñ ïîäòâåðæäåííîé ëåãèòèìíîñòüþ ïðîèñõîæäåíèÿ; - â ñëó÷àå, åñëè ïåðåìåùåíèå ñîêîëà îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ íå âëàäåëüöåì, à åãî äîâåðåííûì ëèöîì, òî ïàñïîðò âûïèñûâàåòñÿ íà òî ëèöî, êîòîðîå íåïîñðåäñòâåííî îñóùåñòâëÿåò ïåðåìåùåíèå ïòèöû ÷åðåç ãðàíèöó. Îñíîâíàÿ ÷àñòü ÑÐà áûëà ïîñâÿùåíà äîêëàäàì ñòðàí-ó÷àñòíèö ñ èíôîðìàöèåé ïî íåçàêîííîé òîðãîâëå ñîêîëàìè çà ïåðèîä 2000 – 2005 ãã. è èõ îáñóæäåíèþ. Êèòàé Ñóùåñòâóåò çàïðåò íà äîáûâàíèå èç ïðèðîäû â êîììåð÷åñêèõ öåëÿõ âèäîâ, çàíåñåííûõ â Ïðèëîæåíèÿ 1 è 2 ÑÈÒÅÑ. Âìåñòå ñ òåì óñòàíàâëèâàåòñÿ åæåãîäíàÿ êâîòà íà îòëîâ áàëîáàíîâ äëÿ ñîêîëèíîé îõîòû.

The main aim of the meeting was recognized in reports of CITES Management Authorities: Jonathan G. Barzdo, Chief, Convention Support Unit, CITES Secretariat and Mr. John M. Sellar, Anti-smuggling, Fraud and Organized Crime, CITES Secretariat, which spoke on the history of CITES ETF and a description of the aims of the Falcon ETF. In addition the CITES authorities of the UAE presented the report on the history of falconry and current trade in falcons for falconry», including an explanation of the falcon ‘passport’ scheme. Following the positive experience of UAE and some other Gulf States in the using of passports for personally owned falcons, CITES Secretariat recommended the broader use of this method of registration and control of cross-border movements of falcons. Besides it was recommended to provide following: - certificate should be registered in the special authorizing national organ; - certificate should include information of bird marks (following recommendations of CITES); - at the border crossing data of in and out coming, notarized by authorized person and a seal should be registered in certificate; - certificate should contain the note that the bird can’t be sold (or presented) without drawing up the documents according requirements of CITES; - certificate is draw up only for a bird with documents to the proof of legal acquisition; - in this case if a falcon is transported by not owner, but his agent, certificate should draw up for the agent, who would undertake cross-border moving a bird. The main part of the meeting was presented by the country reports, providing details of illegal trade in falcons and seizure information since 2000 to 2005. China Harvest of wild birds including in Appendix 1, 2 CITES is prohibited for commercial purposes. However a quota for catching falcons for falconry is established every year.


Events Êîíòðàáàíäà íåçàêîííî îòëîâëåííûõ áàëîáàíîâ îòìå÷àåòñÿ â òå÷åíèå ïîñëåäíèõ 15 ëåò. Ìàêñèìàëüíûé ðàçìàõ îíà èìåëà â êîíöå 1990-õ – íà÷àëå 2000-õ ãã. (â 2001 ã. áûëî çàäåðæàíî 3000 áðàêîíüåðîâ ñ 600 áàëîáàíàìè). Ãëàâíûå ðàéîíû – Ñåâåðî-Çàïàäíûé Êèòàé è Âíóòðåííÿÿ Ìîíãîëèÿ. Îáû÷íî â áðàêîíüåðñòâå è êîíòðàáàíäå çàìåøàíû ãðàæäàíå Ïàêèñòàíà.  ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû çàìåòåí ñïàä êðèìèíàëüíîé àêòèâíîñòè âñëåäñòâèå ïðèíèìàåìûõ ìåð: çà íåçàêîííûé îòëîâ, òðàíñïîðòèðîâêó è ñîäåðæàíèå áàëîáàíà óñòàíîâëåíî óãîëîâíîå íàêàçàíèå. Äëèòåëüíîñòü ñðîêà çàêëþ÷åíèÿ îïðåäåëÿåòñÿ êîëè÷åñòâîì çàäåðæàííûõ ïòèö: çà 1 – 5 áàëîáàíîâ – ìåíåå 5 ëåò, 6 – 10 áàëîáàíîâ – îò 5 äî 10 ëåò, áîëüøå 10 áàëîáàíîâ – îò 10 ëåò è âûøå, âêëþ÷àÿ ñìåðòíóþ êàçíü. Øèðîêî èçâåñòåí ñëó÷àé, êîãäà 2 áðàêîíüåðà çà 42 íåçàêîííî äîáûòûõ ñîêîëà ïîëó÷èëè ïîæèçíåííîå çàêëþ÷åíèå. Õàðàêòåðíî, ÷òî çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâî ïðåäóñìàòðèâàåò îäèí è òîò æå óðîâåíü íàêàçàíèÿ êàê çà íåçàêîííûé îòëîâ, òàê è çà íåëåãàëüíóþ òðàíñïîðòèðîâêó èëè ñîäåðæàíèå. Äëÿ îïòèìèçàöèè ïîëîæåíèÿ ñ áàëîáàíîì â ìåæäóíàðîäíîì ïëàíå êèòàéñêàÿ ñòîðîíà ðåêîìåíäóåò óæåñòî÷åíèå íàêàçàíèÿ, óëó÷øåíèå èíôîðìàöèîííîãî îáìåíà è ñîãëàñîâàíèå êâîò íà íàó÷íîé îñíîâå (äëÿ ñòðàí, ðàçðåøàþùèõ ýêñïîðò îñîáåé èç ïðèðîäû). Êàçàõñòàí Âñïûøêà êîíòðàáàíäû áàëîáàíà èç ðåñïóáëèêè ïðîèçîøëà â íà÷àëå 1990-õ ãã. ïîñëå îáðåòåíèÿ Êàçàõñòàíîì ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíîñòè. Çà íåñêîëüêî ëåò ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà â þæíîì è þãîâîñòî÷íîì Êàçàõñòàíå óïàëà íà 80–90%. Ê íàñòîÿùåìó âðåìåíè, ïîñëå ïðèíÿòèÿ êîìïëåêñà ìåð, ñèòóàöèÿ ñòàáèëèçèðîâàëàñü. Îòëîâ áàëîáàíà â êîììåð÷åñêèõ öåëÿõ ïîëíîñòüþ çàïðåù¸í. Çà íåçàêîííûé îòëîâ ïðåäóñìîòðåíî íàêàçàíèå â âèäå ëèøåíèÿ ñâîáîäû äî 4 ëåò è èñê 5100 äîëëàðîâ ÑØÀ. Çàäåðæàíèÿ è ñóäåáíûå ïðîöåññû øèðîêî îñâåùàþòñÿ ÑÌÈ.  ðåñïóáëèêå àêòèâíî äåéñòâóåò ïèòîìíèê ðåäêèõ ñîêîëîâ «Ñóíêàð», â êîòîðîì ðàçâåäåíî áîëåå 700 ïòåíöîâ, 315 èç êîòîðûõ âûïóùåíî â ïðèðîäó (îñòàëüíûå â óñòàíîâëåííîì çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâîì ïîðÿäêå ýêñïîðòèðîâàíû íà àðàáñêèé ðûíîê).  íåáîëüøèõ êîëè÷åñòâàõ áàëîáàí òàêæå ðàçâîäèòñÿ â Àëìààòèíñêîì çîîïàðêå. Ñ 2004 ã. ââåäåíû òðåáîâàíèÿ ìå÷åíèÿ ðàçâåä¸ííûõ â ïèòîìíèêàõ ïòåíöîâ íåðàçúåìíûìè êîëüöàìè â ôîðìàòå, ñîãëàñîâàííîì ñ Àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûì îðãàíîì ÑÈÒÅÑ. Ê íàñòîÿùåìó âðåìåíè çàâåðøåíà èíâåíòàðèçàöèÿ âñåõ õèùíûõ ïòèö, ñîäåðæàùèõñÿ â íåâîëå. Èõ âëàäåëüöàì âûäàþòñÿ ïàñïîðòà. Çàðåãèñòðèðîâàííûå ïòèöû, ïðîèñõîäÿùèå èç ïðèðîäû, ÷èïèðóþòñÿ.  2003–2004 ãã. ïðè ó÷àñòèè ðîññèéñêèõ ñïåöèàëèñòîâ ïðîâåäåíî øèðîêîìàñøòàáíîå àâòîìîáèëüíîå îáñëåäîâàíèå ãíåçäîâîãî àðåàëà áàëîáàíà (èíôîðìàöèÿ äîñòóïíà â æóðíàëå «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà», 2005, ¹2). Ïî åãî ðåçóëüòàòàì îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà â ðåñïóáëèêå äîñòèãàåò 1800 ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð. Íà áîëüøåé ÷àñòè àðåàëà îíà ñòàáèëüíà, à â ðàéîíàõ, ïîäâåðãàâøèõñÿ â íà÷àëå – ñåðåäèíå 1990-õ ãã. ñèëüíîìó ïðåññó áðàêîíüåðñòâà, èìååò òåíäåíöèþ ê ðîñòó. Ïðåäñòàâèòåëü Êàçàõñòàíà ïîä÷åðêíóë, ÷òî ãëàâíûì ïðèîðèòåòîì â ÷èñëå ìåð ïî ñîõðàíåíèþ ïîïóëÿöèé áàëîáàíà äîëæíî áûòü óñèëåíèå êîíòðîëÿ â àýðîïîðòàõ íàçíà÷åíèÿ áðàêîíüåðñêèõ ïîñòàâîê (àðàáñêèé ðåãèîí).

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5

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Smuggling of illegal sakers is noted during last 15 years. It was of great size since the end of the 1990s to beginning of 2000s. (In 2001 3000 poachers were arrested with 600 sakers). The regions, where poachers and smugglers are the most active, are Northern-Western China and Internal Mongolia. Usually smugglers are persons from Pakistan. Last year’s criminal activity trends show a decrease as a result of measures to curb illegal catching, transporting and keeping sakers, which was punished by imprisonment. The duration of imprisonment depends on the number of confiscated birds: 1 – 5 sakers – less than 5 years, 6 – 10 – from 5 to 10 years, more than 10 sakers – from 10 years to death penalty. There is widely known 2 poachers life imprisoned for illegal catching 42 sakers. Thus the legislation provides similar punishment for illegal catching, transporting and keeping of sakers. As a measure to curb the illegal falcon traffic Chinese officials recommend to increase a punishment, to improve the information exchange and co-ordination of quotas on scientific base (for countries, authorized export of wild birds). Kazakhstan Dramatic increase of illegal traffic of sakers from the Republic was at the beginning of 1990s after Kazakhstan had become an independent state. During several years the number of species in Southern and South-Eastern Kazakhstan declined by 80–90%. Currently after complex actions against poaching and smuggling the number has been stable. Catching sakers for commercial profit is completely prohibited. Illegal catching is punished by imprisonment for a period of up to 4 years and a fine for $5100 . Detentions and lawsuits are broadly reported in the press and TV. There is the center of rare falcon «Sunkar» in the Republic, where more than 700 chicks were bred, 315 from which were released (others according lows will be exported for Arab market). Some numbers of sakers also are bred in the Alma-Ata Zoo. Since 2004 new requirements of marking captive-bred chicks by closed rings, recommended CITES Management Authorities. Currently the inventory of all birds of pray, kept in captivity, has been completed. Their owners are drawing up certificates. Registered wild birds are marked by microchips. In 2003–2004 in cooperation with Russian researchers large survey of the Saker range was carried out (this information is available in Raptors Conservation 2005 ¹2). Following the results the total number of species in the Republic is near 1800 breeding pairs. On the biggest part of the range the number is stable, and in the regions, high stressed by poachers in 1990s. trends to increase. The delegate of Kazakhstan stressed one of the main needs for conservation of populations of sakers to increase of control in airports, where illegal birds are delivered (Arab region).


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5

Ìîíãîëèÿ Âûñòóïëåíèå ïðåäñòàâèòåëÿ Ìîíãîëèè áûëî ïîñâÿùåíî â îñíîâíîì îáùèì âîïðîñàì ïîïóëÿöèîííîé áèîëîãèè áàëîáàíà, èçëàãàâøèìñÿ è ïðåæäå íà çàñåäàíèÿõ 19, 20, 21 Êîìèòåòà ïî æèâîòíûì ÑÈÒÅÑ.  ñòðàíå ïðàêòèêóåòñÿ ýêñïîðò îòëîâëåííûõ â ïðèðîäå áàëîáàíîâ ïî êâîòàì, óñòàíàâëèâàåìûì íà îñíîâå ÷èñëåííîñòè ïîïóëÿöèè. Êâîòà íå äîëæíà ïðåâûøàòü 5% ÷èñëåííîñòè. Ê íåé ïðèáàâëÿåòñÿ íåäîèñïîëüçîâàííîå êîëè÷åñòâî îñîáåé êâîòû ïðåäûäóùåãî ãîäà. Ñòîèìîñòü îòëîâà 1 áàëîáàíà ñ öåëüþ ýêñïîðòà – 4600 $ ÑØÀ. Ëåãàëüíûé ýêñïîðò áàëîáàíà âîçðîñ ñ 25 îñîáåé â 1996 ã. äî 385 â 2004 è 360 îñîáåé â 2005 ãã. Ïðè ýòîì èçâåñòíàÿ íåëåãàëüíàÿ ñîñòàâëÿþùàÿ ýêñïîðòà ñíèçèëàñü îò 150 îñîáåé â 1990 ã. äî 6 â 2004 è 18 îñîáåé â 2005 ãã. Îáúåäèíåííûå Àðàáñêèå Ýìèðàòû ÎÀÝ òðàäèöèîííî ÿâëÿåòñÿ êëþ÷åâîé ñòðàíîé ðåãèîíà Ïåðñèäñêîãî çàëèâà â ôîðìèðîâàíèè è ðåãóëèðîâàíèè ñîêîëèíîãî ðûíêà. Ýòî îñíîâíîé ïóíêò íàçíà÷åíèÿ ïîòîêîâ ëåãàëüíûõ è íåëåãàëüíûõ ñîêîëîâ. Çíà÷èòåëüíàÿ ÷àñòü ñîêîëîâ ïåðåðàñïðåäåëÿåòñÿ îòñþäà â äðóãèå ãîñóäàðñòâà ðåãèîíà (ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â Ñàóäîâñêóþ Àðàâèþ). Ëåãàëüíûé èìïîðò ñîêîëîâ â ÎÀÝ èìååò îò÷åòëèâóþ òåíäåíöèþ ê ðîñòó.  2003 ã. ââåçåíî 1478 îñîáåé, â 2003 ã. – 2714, â 2004 ã. – 3042.  ýòî êîëè÷åñòâî âõîäÿò êàê îòëîâëåííûå â ïðèðîäå, òàê è ðàçâåä¸ííûå ïòèöû. Äîëÿ ïîñëåäíèõ óâåëè÷èâàåòñÿ è ïðåâûøàåò ïîëîâèíó ïîñòàâëÿåìûõ íà ðûíîê ñîêîëîâ. Íàáëþäàåòñÿ ïîñòåïåííàÿ ïåðåîðèåíòàöèÿ îáùåé ìàññû ñîêîëüíèêîâ íà áîëåå äåøåâûõ, íî ïîñòîÿííî óëó÷øàþùèõñÿ ïî êà÷åñòâó ïòèö èç ïèòîìíèêîâ. Àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûì îðãàíîì ÑÈÒÅÑ áûëè ïðèâåäåíû äàííûå ïî çàäåðæàíèÿì ñîêîëîâ çà ïîñëåäíèå 3 ãîäà. 2003 ã. – 38 îñîáåé, 2004 ã. – 17 è 2005 ã. – 38. Ïðè÷èíàìè çàäåðæàíèÿ ÿâëÿþòñÿ îòñóòñòâèå äîêóìåíòîâ ÑÈÒÅÑ, èõ íåâåðíîå îôîðìëåíèå èëè ôàëüñèôèêàöèÿ. Íåçàêîííûé ââîç îñóùåñòâëÿëñÿ èç àýðîïîðòîâ ïðèìåðíî 10 ñòðàí, ñðåäè êîòîðûõ ïî êîëè÷åñòâó çàäåðæàííûõ ïòèö âûäåëÿþòñÿ Óçáåêèñòàí, Êàçàõñòàí, Ìîíãîëèÿ, Òàäæèêèñòàí. Ïî âèäîâîìó ñîñòàâó â êîíôèñêàòå ïðåîáëàäàåò áàëîáàí (43%) è êðå÷åò (15%). Ðîññèÿ  âûñòóïëåíèè îòìå÷åíû îñîáåííîñòè çàêîíîäàòåëüíîé áàçû îõðàíû âèäîâ ñîêîëîâ, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè, ïðåäñòàâëåíà èíôîðìàöèÿ ïî äåÿòåëüíîñòè Êðå÷åò (Falco rusticolus) â âîëüåðå ïèòîìíèêà «ÀëòàéÔàëüêîí». Ôîòî È. Ñìåëÿíñêîãî The Cyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) in an aviary of the Center ‘Altai-Falcon’. Photo by I. Smelansky

Ñîáûòèÿ Mongolia The report of the delegate from Mongolia was about general aspects of population biology of sakers, which sounded earlier on the 19, 20, 21 meetings of Animals Committee of CITES. Mongolia authorizes export of wild sakers according quotas, based on population numbers. The quota should not exceed 5% of total number plus unclaimed part of quota of previous year. The price of catching of one saker for export is 4600 $. The legal trade of sakers was increased from 25 birds in 1996 to 385 in 2004 and 360 birds in 2005. Herewith known illegal trade decreased from 150 birds in 1990 to 6 in 2004 and 18 birds 2005. United Arab Emirates UAE is traditional the country of general establishment and regulation of falcon trade amongst Gulf States. It is the largest importer of legal and illegal falcons. The main part of falcons is distributed to other states of region (mainly in Saudi Arabia). The trend of the legal import to UAE is increasing. In 2003 1478 birds were imported, in 2003 – 2714, in 2004 – 3042. These numbers include wild and captuve-bred birds. The portion of bred birds is increasing and exceeds a half of all sold birds. The biggest amount of falconers seem to graduallly be preferring more cheap captive-bred birds, the quality of which constantly increases. CITES Management Authorities informed of confiscated falcons during last 3 years. 2003 – 38 birds, 2004 – 17 and 2005 – 38. The reasons of confiscation were absence of CITES documents, their unfaithful registration or falsification. The main part of illegal traffic is held through the airports of 10 countries, amongst of which Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and Tadzhikistan are leading on number of smuggled birds. Sakers (43%) and Gyrfalcons (15%) dominate among confiscated birds. Russia Russian delegates noted details of laws for protection of falcons, listed in the Red Data Book of RF, informed about the actions of the Russian Nature Inspection as CITES Management Authority and federal organ of executive authorities to con-


Events Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà â êà÷åñòâå Àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîãî îðãàíà ÑÈÒÅÑ è ôåäåðàëüíîãî îðãàíà èñïîëíèòåëüíîé âëàñòè ïî íàäçîðó â ñôåðå îõðàíû è ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ ðåäêèõ âèäîâ æèâîòíûõ. Ðîññèéñêàÿ ñòîðîíà ðàçäåëèëà îçàáî÷åííîñòü ñîñòîÿíèåì ïîïóëÿöèé áàëîáàíà â ðÿäå ñòðàí è ñîãëàñèëàñü ñ àêòóàëüíîñòüþ ñîâåðøåíñòâîâàíèÿ êîíòðîëüíî-íàäçîðíîãî ìåõàíèçìà çà îáîðîòîì ýòîãî âèäà â ñòðàíàõ àðåàëà. Îäíîâðåìåííî áûëî óêàçàíî íà íåîáõîäèìîñòü áîëåå æåñòêîãî êîíòðîëÿ îáîðîòà ñîêîëîâ íà àðàáñêîì ðûíêå, ñïðîñ êîòîðûõ ÿâëÿåòñÿ îïðåäåëÿþùèì ôàêòîðîì êàê ëåãèòèìíûõ, òàê è êîíòðàáàíäíûõ ïîñòàâîê ñîêîëîâ. Âûâîäû 1.  àêòèâíóþ òîðãîâëþ ñîêîëàìè äëÿ ñîêîëèíîé îõîòû âîâëå÷åíî îêîëî 20 ãîñóäàðñòâ. Ÿ ãîäîâîé îáîðîò â äåíåæíîì âûðàæåíèè ïðåâûøàåò 10 ìëí. äîë. ÑØÀ. Êîíúþíêòóðà ðûíêà ôîðìèðóåòñÿ àðàáñêèìè ãîñóäàðñòâàìè Ïåðñèäñêîãî çàëèâà (â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü Ñàóäîâñêîé Àðàâèåé è ÎÀÝ), ÿâëÿþùèìèñÿ îñíîâíûìè ýêñïîðòåðàìè ñîêîëîâ. 2. Ïî ìàòåðèàëàì Ñîâåùàíèÿ è íåîôèöèàëüíûì äàííûì, ïîëó÷åííûì â õîäå êîíñóëüòàöèé ñ åãî ó÷àñòíèêàìè, â òå÷åíèå ïîñëåäíèõ ëåò â ñòðàíû Ïåðñèäñêîãî çàëèâà åæåãîäíî ââîçèòñÿ äî 5 000 – 5 500 ñîêîëîâ. Îêîëî ïîëîâèíû èç íèõ èìåþò ëåãàëüíîå ïðîèñõîæäåíèå (èç íèõ îêîëî 2 000 îñîáåé ïîñòóïàþò èç ïèòîìíèêîâ è 500 – 600 îñîáåé îòëàâëèâàþòñÿ â ïðèðîäå ïî ðàçðåøåíèÿì), îñòàëüíûå 2 500 – 3 000 ïòèö íåçàêîííî îòëàâëèâàþòñÿ íà ìåñòàõ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ è ïðîëåòå è ââîçÿòñÿ êîíòðàáàíäíûì ïóòåì. 3. Îñíîâíûìè îáúåêòàìè ñóùåñòâóþùåé òîðãîâëè ñîêîëàìè ÿâëÿþòñÿ áàëîáàí, êðå÷åò è ñàïñàí – âèäû, ãíåçäÿùèåñÿ íà òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèè è çàíåñåííûå â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè. Îñíîâíûìè ïîñòàâùèêàìè áàëîáàíà íà ÷¸ðíîì ðûíêå ÿâëÿþòñÿ Ìîíãîëèÿ, Ïàêèñòàí è Êèòàé. Êîíòðàáàíäà èç Ðîññè è äðóãèõ ñòðàí ÑÍà èìååò òåíäåíöèþ ê ñíèæåíèþ è äîñòèãàåò íåñêîëüêèõ ñîòåí ïòèö â ãîä. Ðîññèÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ãëàâíûì (ïðàêòè÷åñêè ýêñêëþçèâíûì) äîíîðîì íåçàêîííî îòëîâëåííûõ êðå÷åòîâ íà ÷¸ðíîì ðûíêå. Åæåãîäíî â ñòðàíû Çàëèâà ïîñòóïàåò äî 100 – 250 òàêèõ ïòèö. Ñ ó÷¸òîì çíà÷èòåëüíîé ñìåðòíîñòè êîíòðàáàíäíûõ ñîêîëîâ âî âðåìÿ òðàíñïîðòèðîâêè, â ñðåäíåì èõ èçúÿòèå èç ïðèðîäû ìîæåò äîñòèãàòü 10% îáùåé ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà, à äëÿ îòäåëüíûõ ïîïóëÿöèé áûòü çíà÷èòåëüíî âûøå, ÷òî ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ðåàëüíóþ óãðîçó äëÿ èõ ñîõðàíåíèÿ. Ñïðîñ è öåíû íà ñàïñàíà íå ñòîëü âåëèêè, êàê íà êðå÷åòà è áàëîáàíà, îäíàêî ïòèöû íåêîòîðûõ ïîäâèäîâ, ãíåçäÿùèåñÿ íà ñåâåðå è ñåâåðî-âîñòîêå Ðîññèè, ïðåäñòàâëÿþò ïîâûøåííûé èíòåðåñ, è èõ íåçàêîííîå èçúÿòèå ìîæåò äîñòèãàòü ñîòíè îñîáåé â ãîä. 4. Íå ñìîòðÿ íà òî, ÷òî íà ñîêîëèíîì ðûíêå ïðåäïî÷òåíèå ïî-ïðåæíåìó îòäàåòñÿ ïòèöàì, îòëîâëåííûì â ïðèðîäå, â ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû ñóùåñòâåííî óâåëè÷èëñÿ ñïðîñ íà ñîêîëîâ, ðàçâåä¸ííûõ â ïèòîìíèêàõ. Ýòî îòêðûâàåò õîðîøèå ïåðñïåêòèâû çàìåùåíèÿ äèêîëîâëåííûõ ñîêîëîâ íà ïðîäóêöèþ ïèòîìíèêîâ, ÷òî ñëåäóåò ðàññìàòðèâàòü êàê ðåàëüíûé èíñòðóìåíò ñíèæåíèÿ ïðåññà áðàêîíüåðñêîãî îòëîâà íà ïîïóëÿöèè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ñîêîëîâ. 5. Ðîññèéñêîé Ñòîðîíîé áûëè ïðåäñòàâëåíû ìàòåðèàëû ïî ñîñòîÿíèþ ïîïóëÿöèé è êîíòðîëþ çà ëåãàëüíûì è íåçàêîííûì îáîðîòîì áàëîáàíà â Ðîññèè, â ðåçóëüòàòå êîòîðûõ ïðåäñòàâèòåëè Ðîññèè íàäåþòñÿ íà ïåðåñìîòð ðóêîâîäñòâîì ÑÈÒÅÑ âîïðîñà îá îòíåñåíèè Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè ê êàòåãîðèè ñòðàí, ñîñòîÿíèå ïîïóëÿöèé áàëîáàíà â êîòîðûõ, â ñâÿçè ñ ìåæäóíàðîäíîé òîðãîâëåé, âûçûâàåò «îñîáóþ îçàáî÷åííîñòü».

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5

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trol a protection and regulation of using the rare animals species. Russian delegates expressed their concern of current status of wild saker populations in range states and recognized the actual providing of techniques control of trafficking this species in the range states. In the same time they stressed the need to increase control of falcon trade on Arab markets, demand of which are the main defining factor for legal and illegal import of falcons. Conclusions 1. Near 20 States are involved in the significant trade of falcons for falconry. Every year size of its trade exceeds $10 000 000. Gulf States as the main exporters of falcons (especially Saudi Arabia and UAE) and formed the market of these species. 2. Following the meeting reports and unofficial information, given from consultations with participants, during last years in near 5 000 – 5 500 falcons are imported in Gulf States every year. Near a half of they are legal (2 000 birds from which are moved from breeding centers and 500 – 600 wild birds are catching on permits), other 2 500 – 3 000 birds are poached on breeding territories or during migrations and smuggled. 3. The main objects of falcon trade are Sakers, Gyrfalcons and Peregrine Falcons, breeding in Russia and included in the Red Data Book of RF. The main illegal exporters of sakers are Mongolia, Pakistan and China. Illegal traffic from Russia and other States of former USSR trends to decrease and reaches several hundreds birds per year. Russia is the main exporter (single in practice) of smuggled Gyrfalcons in the illicit trade. Every year in Gulf States ïîñòóïàåò äî 100 – 250 illegal birds. Taking into account the significant death-rate of illegal falcons during transportation, illegal removing of birds from wild can exceeds 10% at average of the total number of species, but for some population can be higher, that is a real threat for their existence. Demand and prices of peregrine falcons are not so large than gyrfalcons and sakers, however birds of several subspecies, breeding on the north and north-east of Russia are very demanded, and their illegal catching can exceeds near a hundred birds per year. 4. In spite of that wild bird are preferred on falcon markets, last years demand for captivebred falcons has increased. There are may be the well prospects for removing of wild falcons by captive-breeding, thus it may be the real instrument for decreasing of poaching of rare species of falcons. 5. Russian officials reported of population status and control for legal and illegal trade Saker Falcon in Russia, following which they hoped on revising of the conclusion CITES Management Authorities categorize the Russian Federation as country «of urgent concern».


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5

Îáçîðû è êîììåíòàðèè

ReviewsandComments ОБЗОРЫИКОММЕНТАРИИ ‘Altai-Falcon’today «АЛТАЙ-ФАЛЬКОН»СЕГОДНЯ InterviewwithV.N.Plotnilov(TheCenteroftheRareBirds‘Altai-Falcon’, Barnaul,Russia) ThereporterisE.G.Nikolenko(SiberianEnvironmentalCenter,Novosibirsk,Russia) ИнтервьюсВ.Н.Плотниовым(Питомниредихптиц«Алтай-Фальон», Барна$л,Россия) Бесед$велаЭ.Г.Ниолено(МБОО«Сибирсийэоло/ичесийцентр», Новосибирс,Россия) 18 àâãóñòà 2005 ã. â ðåçóëüòàòå îïåðàòèâíî-ðîçûñêíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé ñîòðóäíèêè Ãîðíî-Àëòàéñêîé òàìîæíè ñîâìåñòíî ñ ïîãðàíè÷íèêàìè ïðåñåêëè ïîïûòêó íåçàêîííîãî ïåðåìåùåíèÿ èç Ìîíãîëèè íà òåððèòîðèþ Ðîññèè 19 áàëîáàíîâ (Falco cherrug). 11 ïòèö áûëè âûïóùåíû íà âîëþ ÷åðåç íåñêîëüêî äíåé ïîñëå çàäåðæàíèÿ, à 5 èç íèõ, îñëàáëåííûõ, êîòîðûå íå ñìîãëè óëåòåòü, áûëè ïðèâåçåíû â ã. Áàðíàóë è ïåðåäàíû â Ïèòîìíèê ðåäêèõ ïòèö «Àëòàé-Ôàëüêîí» (Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà, 2005, ¹ 3). Aëòàéñêèé áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug  ñåíòÿáðå íàø ñïåöèàëüíûé milvipes) ò¸ìíîé ìîðôû – ñèìâîë ïèêîððåñïîíäåíò Ýëüâèðà Íèòîìíèêà «Àëòàé-Ôàëüêîí». Ôîòî È. Ñìåêîëåíêî ïîñåòèëà ïèòîìíèê è ëÿíñêîãî âçÿëà èíòåðâüþ ó çàìåñòèòåëÿ The dark morph of the Altai Saker Falcon äèðåêòîðà öåíòðà Âèêòîðà (Falco cherrug milvipes) is the symbol of the Center ‘Altai-Falcon’. Photo by I. SmeÍèêîëàåâè÷à Ïëîòíèêîâà. lansky  êàêîì ñîñòîÿíèè íàõîäÿòñÿ ñåé÷àñ êîíôèñêîâàííûå ïòèöû? Êîíòàêò: Âèêòîð Í. Ïëîòíèêîâ Êîãäà èõ ïðèâåçëè, ïòèöû áûëè î÷åíü Ïèòîìíèê ðåäêèõ ïòèö ñëàáû. Ñåé÷àñ îíè óæå â õîðîøåì ñîñòî«Àëòàé-Ôàëüêîí» ÿíèè. Ïî-õîðîøåìó, èõ ïîðà îòïóñêàòü íà Çàì. äèðåêòîðà âîëþ, òàê êàê îíè ïîëíîñòüþ âîññòàíîâè656065 Ðîññèÿ ã. Áàðíàóë, óë. Ïîïîâà ëèñü. Åñëè äîëãî ñîäåðæàòü èõ â ïèòîìíèä. 118, êâ. 430 êå – ó íèõ áóäåò òåðÿòüñÿ íàâûê îõîòû â falcon_pvn@rambler.ru äèêîé ïðèðîäå. Åñëè æå èõ âûïóñòèòü ýòîé îñåíüþ, òî ê âåñíå îíè ñìîãóò îáðàçîâàòü Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî ÌÁÎÎ «Ñèáèðñêèé ïàðû è ïðèñòóïèòü ê ðàçìíîæåíèþ. ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð» Ó âàñ ïåðâûé ðàç ïîìåùàþò êîíôèñ630090 Ðîññèÿ êîâàííûõ íà òàìîæíå ïòèö? Íîâîñèáèðñê à/ÿ 547 Íåò, äàëåêî íå ïåðâûé.  1997 ã. 8 ïòèö òåë.: (383) 339 78 85 nikolenko@ecoclub.nsu.ru áûëî êîíôèñêîâàíî â Îìñêå, è ïåðåäàíî

On the 18 of August 2005 officers of the Gorno-Altaisk Customs, with the help of the border guards, have intercepted an attempt of illegal smuggling of 19 Sakers (Falco cherrug) from Mongolia to the territory of Russia. A total of 11 birds were released after several days in custody. Five falcons, which were not able to fly, were transferred to Barnaul to the Center of the Rare Birds ‘AltaiFalcon’ (Raptors Conservation, 2005 ¹ 3). In September our special correspondent, Elvira Nikolenko visited the Center and interviewed the Deputy Director of the center Victor N. Plotnikov. What are the conditions of the confiscated birds now? When they had been brought, the birds were very weak. Now they are in good condition. Is this the first time when confiscated birds were transferred by custom to you? No, far from the first. In 1997 8 birds were confiscated in Omsk and given to us. That year also in Novosibirsk a party consisting of more than 30 birds was arrested. In 2003 26 birds confiscated in Moscow, and the Moscow Falcon Center brought them to us to be released in the Altai Kray. How will the futures of these 5 falcons, confiscated this year, be? Now we are waiting instructions from the Gorno-Altaisk customs. After the quarantine period the birds will be released, but only after litigation, as they are, in fact «the evidence». How long the criminal litigation will last, nobody knows. Tell about you breeding center, how was it organized? In 1986 several biologists made an initiative to organize a zoo in Barnaul. The special place had been assigned, but finances


Reviews and Comments Contact: Viktor N. Plotnikov The Center of the Rare Birds ‘Altai-Falcon’ Deputy director Popova str., 118–430 Barnaul 656065 Russia falcon_pvn@rambler.ru Elvira Nikolenko NGO Siberian Enviromental Center P.O. Box 547 Novosibirsk 630090 Russia tel./fax: (383) 339 78 85 nikolenko@ecoclub.nsu.ru

ßñòðåá òåòåðåâÿòíèê (Accipiter gentilis) â ïèòîìíèêå «Àëòàé-Ôàëüêîí». Ôîòî Ý. Íèêîëåíêî The Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) in the Center ‘Altai-Falcon’. Photo by E. Nikolenko

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5

íàì. Äâå èç íèõ, ïî ðàçðåøåíèþ, ìû îñòàâèëè ñåáå, 6 – âûïóñòèëè â Àëòàéñêîì êðàå.  òîì æå ãîäó â Íîâîñèáèðñêå áûëà çàäåðæàíà ïàðòèÿ áîëåå 30 ïòèö, ïîñëå ïåðåäåðæêè ó íàñ èõ òîæå âûïóñòèëè â Àëòàéñêîì êðàå. Îäíàæäû â 2003 ã. ñþäà ïðèâåçëè ïòèö èç Ìîñêîâñêîãî ñîêîëèíîãî öåíòðà äëÿ âûïóñêà â Àëòàéñêîì êðàå – ýòî áûëè 26 ïòèö, êîíôèñêîâàííûå â Ìîñêâå. Êàê ðåøèòñÿ ñóäüáà ýòèõ 5 ñîêîëîâ, êîíôèñêîâàííûõ â ýòîì ãîäó? Ñåé÷àñ ìû æä¸ì ðàñïîðÿæåíèé îò Ãîðíî-Àëòàéñêîé òàìîæíè. Ó ïòèö çàêàí÷èâàåòñÿ êàðàíòèí, èõ ìîæíî áóäåò âûïóñòèòü… Íî êàê äîëãî áóäåò òÿíóòüñÿ äåëî, íèêòî íå çíàåò. Ïòèöû ñîäåðæàòñÿ ïîëíîñ-

òüþ çà íàø ñ÷¸ò. Ìû áû õîòåëè ïðîñèòü ðàçðåøåíèå îñòàâèòü ñåáå õîòÿ áû îäíó èõ íèõ. Ðàññêàæèòå, ïîæàëóéñòà, î âàøåì ïèòîìíèêå, êàê îí ñîçäàâàëñÿ? Èñòîðèÿ ñîçäàíèÿ ïèòîìíèêà íà÷àëàñü â 1986 ã., êîãäà íåñêîëüêî áèîëîãîâ âûñòóïèëè ñ èíèöèàòèâîé ñîçäàíèÿ â ã. Áàðíàóëå çîîïàðêà. Íà÷èíàíèå áûëî ïîääåðæàíî âëàñòÿìè, íî, ê ñîæàëåíèþ, òîëüêî íà ñëîâàõ. Õîòÿ áûëî óæå âûäåëåíî ìåñòî, íî ôèíàíñèðîâàíèå ýòîé ðàáîòû òàê è íå íà÷àëîñü. Íàì áûëè èíòåðåñíû êîíêðåòíûå ãðóïïû æèâîòíûõ – ðåäêèå âèäû ïòèö. Òîãäà è ïîÿâèëàñü èäåÿ ñîçäàíèÿ ïèòîìíèêà ðåäêèõ ïòèö. È â 1991 ã. ïèòîìíèê áûë ñîçäàí íà áàçå Ñàëàèðñêîãî ãîñïðîìõîçà. Ïåðâûå ïòèöû áûëè îòëîâëåíû íà òåððèòîðèè Ðåñ-

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for the building process were not. That time the idea of organizing a center for the breeding of rare birds came up. It was established in 1991 on the base of the Salair state hunting management agency. The first birds were caught on the territory of the Republic of Altai and the Altai Kray. Do you sell falcons? Yes. In 1996 we got permission for the sale of falcons. What is the state of the center now and what is the main goal of it functions? Now the center keeps falcons, hawks, eagles and some other raptors. In general, hunters pass birds, often they bring the sick or injured birds. The main aim of the center is the breeding of rare falconry birds and the promotion of falconry. Besides the center is the educational base for students – biologists of the Altai State University and Altai Agrarian State University. Every year we release birds into the wild. How are birds gotten ready to be released? We use hacking. How many birds have been released? On average from 10 to 50 birds annually. Tell, please, where do you release the birds? At first, in 1996, we erected the artificial hack sites with chicks on a rock in the UstKanskaya steppe (Republic of Altai). That time 8 birds were released. In 2003 nearly 40 birds were released, including 10 falcons in the Tigirekskiy Reserve. Do you try to know how your birds are surviving in the wild? It’s very difficult and we do not care especially about it. Is this year successful for you? This year is more or less usual: we have bred and grown up more than a hundred falcons – sakers and hybrids. 15 birds are getting ready for release. The comment of editors: On the 14 of November 2005 the Center of the Rare Birds ‘Altai-Falcon’ released 15 falcons in Altai kray. On the 24 of November 2005 five falcons, confiscated on 18 August, were released under the sanction of the Office of Public Prosecutor Kosh-Agachskiy region in connection with the end of the criminal case on the fact of smuggling.

Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî â ïèòîìíèêå «Àëòàé-Ôàëüêîí». Ôîòî È. Ñìåëÿíñêîãî Elvira Nikolenko in the Center of the Rare Birds ‘Altai-Falcon’. Photo by I. Smelansky


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5

Ïàðà ñîêîëîâ â âîëüåðå. Ôîòî Ý. Íèêîëåíêî A pair of falcons in an aviary. Photo by E. Nikolenko

Ñêîðëóïà ÿèö, èç êîòîðûõ âåñíîé 2005 ã. â ïèòîìíèêå âûâåëèñü ñîêîëà. Ôîòî Ý. Íèêîëåíêî The shells of the eggs, what falcons were hatching in spring in the Center ‘Altai-Falcon’. Photo by E. Nikolenko

ïóáëèêè Àëòàé è Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ, ìû ñàìè îòëàâëèâàëè èëè áðàëè ïòåíöîâ èç ãí¸çä, êîå-÷òî ïîëó÷èëè ïî îáìåíó èç äðóãèõ ïèòîìíèêîâ ñòðàíû. Âû ïðîäà¸òå ñîêîëîâ? Äà. Ñ 1996 ã. íàì ðàçðåøèëè ïðîäàâàòü. ×òî ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ïèòîìíèê ñåé÷àñ, êàêîâû îñíîâíûå öåëè åãî ñóùåñòâîâàíèÿ? Ñåé÷àñ â ïèòîìíèêå ñîäåðæàòñÿ äàëåêî íå òîëüêî ñîêîëà. Åñòü ÿñòðåáà, áåðêóò, îðëàí, ñòåïíîé îð¸ë, äîìîâûå ñû÷è, äàæå áåëîãîëîâûé ñèï.  îñíîâíîì, ïòèöû ïîñòóïàþò îò îõîòíèêîâ, îíè ïðèíîñÿò ïîäðàíåííûõ èëè áîëüíûõ. Îñíîâíàÿ öåëü ïèòîìíèêà – ðàçâåäåíèå ðåäêèõ ëîâ÷èõ ïòèö è ïðîïàãàíäà îõîòû ñ ëîâ÷èìè ïòèöàìè – êàê ñîêîëàìè, òàê è ÿñòðåáàìè. Ñåé÷àñ ñ êàæäûì ãîäîì òàêàÿ îõîòà ïîëüçóåòñÿ âñ¸ áîëüøèì ñïðîñîì. Êðîìå òîãî, ïèòîìíèê ÿâëÿåòñÿ ó÷åáíîé áàçîé äëÿ ñòóäåíòîâ-áèîëîãîâ áàðíàóëüñêèõ óíèâåðñèòåòîâ: Àëòàéñêîãî è Àëòàéñêîãî àãðàðíîãî. À ïîòîì, âûðàùèâàíèå ïòèö – ýòî ïðîñòî çàíÿòèå äëÿ äóøè, åæåãîäíî ìû âûïóñêàåì ïòèö â ïðèðîäó. À êàê ïðîèñõîäèò ïîäãîòîâêà ïòèöû ê âûïóñêó? Îñíîâíàÿ ìåòîäèêà, êîòîðóþ ìû èñïîëüçóåì, ýòî õåêèíã. Õåê – ýòî ÿùèê, èñêóññòâåííîå ãíåçäî, óñòàíîâëåííîå ðÿäîì ñ ïèòîìíèêîì íà âûñîêîé ñîñíå. Ñàäèì ïòåíöîâ â âîçðàñòå 1 ìåñÿöà (äî ýòîãî èõ âûðàùèâàþò ðîäèòåëè) â õåê, è 2 ðàçà â äåíü íàø ñîòðóäíèê êëàä¸ò â îêîøå÷êî åäó, òàê, ÷òîáû ïòèöû åãî íå âèäåëè, ÷òîáû íå ïðèâûêëè ê ÷åëîâåêó.  âîçðàñòå 2-õ ìåñÿöåâ ïåðåäíÿÿ ñòåíêà õåêà îòêðûâàåòñÿ. Ïòåíöû äåëàþò ïåðâûå äâèæåíèÿ êðûëüÿìè è, â êîíöå êîíöîâ, ñëåòàþò. Íà òðà-

Îáçîðû è êîììåíòàðèè âå ïîä õåêîì âûêàøèâàåòñÿ ïëîùàäêà, òàê æå ðåãóëÿðíî âûêëàäûâàåòñÿ åäà. Ïîòîì îòëàâëèâàåì ëó÷øèõ ãîëóáåé, ïðîëå÷èâàåì èõ, ÷òîáû íå áûëî íèêàêîé çàðàçû, è ïðèâÿçûâàåì ïîä õåêîì, ÷òîáû ñîêîëà ó÷èëèñü áðàòü æèâóþ äîáû÷ó. Ïîòîì, ñìîòðèøü – èñ÷åç, óëåòåë, ïîòîì ïðèëåòåë ñûòûé, óæå ãäå-òî íàó÷èëñÿ è ïîéìàë êîãî-òî. Òàê è óëåòàþò. Ýòî êîãäà âûïóñê ïðîèñõîäèò ïðÿìî ó ïèòîìíèêà. Òàê ñêîëüêî ïòèö áûëî âûïóùåíî çà ýòî âðåìÿ?  ñðåäíåì îò 10 äî 50 ïòèö åæåãîäíî. Ðàññêàæèòå, ïîæàëóéñòà, ãäå åù¸ âû âûïóñêàåòå ïòèö? Çà 9 ëåò áûëè ðàçíûå ìåñòà. Âûïóñê ïðîõîäèë â ðàçíûå ãîäû ïî-ðàçíîìó, òàêæå âî âðåìÿ òðåíèðîâîê ïåðèîäè÷åñêè ïòèöû óëåòàëè, âñåõ è íå óïîìíèøü. Ïåðâûé ðàç, â 1996 ã., óñòàíîâèëè õåê íà ñêàëó â ÓñòüÊàíñêîé ñòåïè (Ðåñïóáëèêà Àëòàé) è âûïóñòèëè 8 ïòèö.  2003 è 2004 ãã. âûïóñêàëè â Òèãèðåêñêîì çàïîâåäíèêå. 2003 ãîäó òàì áûëî âûïóùåíî ïî ðàçðåøåíèþ 10 ïòèö, è åù¸ îêîëî 30 áûëè âûïóùåíû â ðàâíèííîé ÷àñòè êðàÿ. Âû ïûòàëèñü êàê-òî ïðîñëåäèòü, êàê âàøè ïòèöû ïðèæèâàþòñÿ â ïðèðîäå? Ýòî òðóäíî, ñïåöèàëüíî ìû ýòèì íå çàíèìàåìñÿ. Èíîãäà íàì ñîîáùàëè çíàêîìûå îõîòíèêè, ÷òî âèäåëè íàøèõ ïòèö – âûïóùåííûì ïòèöàì ìû íàäåâàåì öâåòíûå êîëüöà – íî òàêèå ñâåäåíèÿ ïðèõîäÿò êðàéíå ðåäêî. Áûëè ñëó÷àè, ÷òî ïòèöó ñ íàøèì êîëüöîì ïðèíîñèëè íàì ÷åðåç ãîä, äðóãîé ïîñëå âûïóñêà… Ìû íàäååìñÿ, ÷òî áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü èç íèõ âûæèâàþò è âåäóò íîðìàëüíûé îáðàç æèçíè â ïðèðîäå. Ìîëîäûå ïòèöû áûñòðî ïðèó÷àþòñÿ ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíî äîáûâàòü ïèùó, áûëè ñëó÷àè, êîãäà ïòèöû óëåòàëè â âîçðàñòå 2 ëåò, à ìû èõ ïîòîì âèäåëè. Íàñêîëüêî óñïåøåí ó âàñ ýòîò ãîä? Ýòîò ãîä áîëåå èëè ìåíåå îáû÷åí: ó íàñ âûâåëîñü è âûðîñëî áîëüøå ñîòíè ñîêîëîâ – êàê áàëîáàíîâ, òàê è ãèáðèäîâ: ó íàñ åñòü óñïåøíûå ïàðû êðå÷åòà ñ áàëîáàíîì. Îáû÷íî ó áàëîáàíà 4–5 äî 6 ÿèö, íàì óäà¸òñÿ ïîëó÷àòü äî 16 îò îäíîé ïàðû çà ñåçîí. Âîò ñåé÷àñ 15 ïòèö ãîòîâû ê âûïóñêó. Êîììåíòàðèé ðåäàêöèè: 14 íîÿáðÿ 2005 ã. 15 ñîêîëîâ, âûðàùåííûõ â ïèòîìíèêå «Àëòàé-Ôàëüêîí», áûëè âûïóùåíû íà òåððèòîðèè Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ. 24 íîÿáðÿ 2005 ã., ïî ðàçðåøåíèþ ïðîêóðàòóðû Êîø-Àãà÷ñêîãî ðàéîíà â ñâÿçè ñ çàâåðøåíèåì óãîëîâíîãî äåëà ïî ôàêòó êîíòðàáàíäû, 5 ñîêîëîâ, êîíôèñêîâàííûõ 18 àâãóñòà, áûëè âûïóùåíû íà âîëþ.


Raptors Conservation

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5

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RaptorsConservation ОХРАНАПЕРНАТЫХХИЩНИКОВ ActionsforattractingowlsinnestboxesintheN.Novgoroddistrict in2005 МЕРОПРИЯТИЯПОПРИВЛЕЧЕНИЮСОВВИСКУССТВЕННЫЕ ГНЁЗДАВ2005Г.ВНИЖЕГОРОДСКОЙОБЛАСТИ S.V.Bakka(StateNatureReserve‘Kerzhensky’,N.Novgorod,Russia) N.Yu.Kiseleva,L.M.Novikova(RussianBirdConservationUnion,N.NovgorodBrunch, Russia) С.В.Баа(Керженсийзаповедни,Н.Нов/ород,Россия) Н.Ю.Киселёва,Л.М.Новиова(Ниже/ородсоеотделениеСоюзаохраныптиц России,Н.Нов/ород,Россия)

Ïòåíöû óøàñòîé ñîâû (Asio otus) îêîëî ãíåçäà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Chicks of the Long-Eared Owl (Asio otus) near the nest. Photo by I. Karyakin

Êîíòàêò: Ñåðãåé Áàêêà Çàïîâåäíèê «Êåðæåíñêèé» 603134 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Êîñòèíà 2, îô. 162 òåë.: +7 (8312) 34 08 32 ôàêñ: +7 (8312) 340951 zapoved@dront.ru Contact: Sergey Bakka State Nature Reserve ‘Kerzhensky’ Kostina str., 2, of. 162 N. Novgorod 603134 Russia tel.: +7 (8312) 34 08 32 fax: +7 (8312) 34 09 51 zapoved@dront.ru

 2005 ã. â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â ðàìêàõ àêöèè Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè «Ñîâà – ïòèöà 2005 ãîäà» ïðîâåäåíû ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ ïî ñîçäàíèþ óñëîâèé äëÿ óâåëè÷åíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ñîâ, â òîì ÷èñëå çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, ïóò¸ì ïðèâëå÷åíèÿ íà èñêóññòâåííûå ãí¸çäà. Äàííàÿ ðàáîòà áûëà ïðîôèíàíñèðîâàíà îáëàñòíûì Ýêîôîíäîì è Êîîðäèíàöèîííûì öåíòðîì Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè, â ðàìêàõ ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîåêòîâ «Îðãàíèçàöèÿ ïðîâåäåíèÿ áèîòåõ-

Activity for attracting owls in nest boxes as an action of Russian Bird Conservation Union «Owl – Bird of Russia in 2005» have been hold in the N. Novgorod district in 2005. During that activity 570 owl nest boxes were installed (including 265 boxes in Mart, 2005). Nest boxes were installed in 22 regions of the N. Novgorod district (fig. 1, table 1). In June-July 114 nest boxes installed in spring 2005 were checked up. Long-eared Owls (Asio otus) had successful bred in two nest baskets. Òàáë. 1. Òèïû óñòàíîâëåííûõ èñêóññòâåííûõ ãí¸çä äëÿ ñîâ Table 1. Types of installed owl nestboxes


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Øêîëüíèêè ñ êîðçèíàìè äëÿ ñîâ. Ôîòî ïðåäîñòàâëåíî Í. Êèñåë¸âîé School children with owl baskets. Photo from N. Kiseleva

Øêîëüíèêè ñ ãíåçäîâûìè ÿùèêàìè äëÿ ñîâ. Ôîòî ïðåäîñòàâëåíî Í. Êèñåë¸âîé School children with owl nest boxes. Photo from N. Kiseleva

íè÷åñêèõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé äëÿ ñîâ» è ïðîãðàììû «Êëþ÷åâûå îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèå òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèè», ïîääåðæàííîé Îáùåñòâîì îõðàíû ïòèö Íèäåðëàíäîâ Vogelbesher ming Nederland/BirdLife International.  22 ðàéîíàõ Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè ñèëàìè ñïåöèàëèñòîâ, à òàêæå àêòèâèñòîâ îõðàíû ïðèðîäû èç ÷èñëà ìåñòíîãî íàñåëåíèÿ áûëà îðãàíèçîâàíà óñòàíîâêà 570 èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé äëÿ ñîâ (â òîì ÷èñëå 265 ãí¸çä â ìàðòå 2005 ã.) (ðèñ. 1, òàáë. 1). 114 ãí¸çä, óñòàíîâëåííûõ âåñíîé 2005 ã., áûëè ïðîâåðåíû â èþíå-àâãóñòå.  äâóõ êîðçèíàõ (â Âàðíàâèíñêîì è Ñåì¸íîâñêîì ðàéîíàõ) óñïåøíî îòãíåçäèëèñü óøàñòûå ñîâû (Asio otus). Çàñåë¸ííîñòü èñêóññòâåííûõ ãí¸çä â ãîä ðàçâåøèâàíèÿ ñîñòàâèëà 1,75 %. Íèçêàÿ çàñåë¸ííîñòü, âî-ïåðâûõ, îáúÿñíÿåòñÿ òåì, ÷òî â 2005 ã., â ñâÿçè ñ äåïðåññèåé ÷èñëåííîñòè ãðûçóíîâ, ÷èñëåí-

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Ðèñ. 1. Êàðòà ðåàëèçàöèè ìåðîïðèÿòèé ïî ðàçâåøèâàíèþ èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé äëÿ ñîâ â 2005 ã. â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè Fig. 1. The distribution of installed owl nestboxes in 2005 in the N.Novgorod district

íîñòü ïåðåë¸òíûõ âèäîâ ñîâ (óøàñòàÿ, áîëîòíàÿ) â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè áûëà êðàéíå íèçêîé, à ìíîãèå ïàðû îñ¸äëûõ âèäîâ ñîâ (ñû÷è, íåÿñûòè), âåðîÿòíî, íå ãíåçäèëèñü. Âî-âòîðûõ, îñ¸äëûå âèäû ñîâ çàíèìàþò ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè â îñíîâíîì îñåíüþ è â íà÷àëå çèìû, ïîýòîìó âåðîÿòíîñòü çàñåëåíèÿ èìè èñêóññòâåííîãî ãíåçäà â ãîä ðàçâåøèâàíèÿ ìèíèìàëüíà.  äàëüíåéøåì ìîæíî îæèäàòü óâåëè÷åíèå çàíÿòîñòè èñêóññòâåííûõ ãí¸çä. Ñ öåëüþ îïðåäåëåíèÿ ýôôåêòèâíîñòè ïðîâåä¸ííûõ áèîòåõíè÷åñêèõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè öåëåñîîáðàçíî îðãàíèçîâàòü ìîíèòîðèíã çàñåë¸ííîñòè èñêóññòâåííûõ ãí¸çä.


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ActionsforattractingofowlstoartificialnestsintheNationalPark ‘NizhnyayaKama’ МЕРОПРИЯТИЯПОПРИВЛЕЧЕНИЮСОВВИСКУССТВЕННЫЕ ГНЕЗДОВЬЯВНАЦИОНАЛЬНОМПАРКЕ«НИЖНЯЯКАМА» RinurBekmansurov(NationalPark‘NizhnyayaKama’,RepublicofTatarstan,Russia) Рин$рБеманс$ров(НациональныйПар«НижняяКама»,Респ$блиаТатарстан, Россия)

Êîíòàêò: Ðèíóð Áåêìàíñóðîâ Íàöèîíàëüíûé ïàðê «Íèæíÿÿ Êàìà» 423600 Ðîññèÿ Òàòàðñòàí ã. Åëàáóãà óë. Íåôòÿíèêîâ 175 òåë.: +7 (855 57) 43356 rinur@yandex.ru ecoturizm@yandex.ru Contact: Rinur Bekmansurov National Park ‘Nizhnyaya Kama’ Heftyannikov str., 175 Elabuga Republic of Tatarstan 423600 Russia tel.: +7 (855 57) 43356 rinur@yandex.ru ecoturizm@yandex.ru

Íà òåððèòîðèè íàöèîíàëüíîãî ïàðêà «Íèæíÿÿ Êàìà» äî íåäàâíåãî âðåìåíè áûëî èçâåñòíî îáèòàíèå 7 âèäîâ ñîâ èç 12, îáèòàþùèõ â Òàòàðèè. Äëÿ óâåëè÷åíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ñîâ íà òåððèòîðèè íàöïàðêà â 2005 ã. áûëè ðàçâåøåíû 16 äóïëÿíîê òð¸õ òèïîâ: 5 äóïëÿíîê äëÿ äëèííîõâîñòîé íåÿñûòè (Strix uralensis), 6 – äëÿ ñåðîé íåÿñûòè (Strix aluco) è 5 – äëÿ ìîõíîíîãîãî ñû÷à (Aegolius funereus). Òàêæå áûëè ðàçâåøàíû 11 èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé äëÿ óøàñòîé ñîâû (Asio otus), èçãîòîâëåííûå èç æåëåçíûõ è ïëàñòèêîâûõ â¸äåð. Êîîðäèíàòû ãíåçäîâèé áûëè çàôèêñèðîâàíû ïðè ïîìîùè ñïóòíèêîâîãî íàâèãàòîðà (ðèñ. 1). Áëàãîäàðÿ ïðîâîäèâøèìñÿ ðàííåå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿì ïî ðàçâåøèâàíèþ èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé äëÿ âîðîáüèíûõ, â 2005 ã. ñïèñîê ñîâîîáðàçíûõ ïàðêà áûë ïîïîëíåí âîðîáüèíûì ñû÷èêîì (Glaucidium passerinum). Ïðè ïðîâåðêå çàñåëÿåìîñòè ñèíè÷íèêîâ è ñêâîðå÷íèêîâ íà äâóõ èññëåäóåìûõ ó÷àñòêàõ ïàðêà â Ìàëîì áîðó (ó÷àñòîê ¹ 1) è Òàíàéñêîì ëåñó (ó÷àñòîê ¹ 2) â ñîäåðæèìîì ÷àñòè ñêâîðå÷íèêîâ (äèàìåòð ëåòêà 5 – 6 ñì) áûëè îáíàðóæåíû çàïàñû ñû÷èêà. Íà ó÷. ¹1 â àïðåëå 2004 ã. áûëè âûâåøåíû 33 ñèíè÷íèêà è ñêâîðå÷íèêà. Ïðè ïðîâåðêå è ÷èñòêå äîìèêîâ â îêòÿáðå 2004 ã. â îäíîì ñêâîðå÷íèêå áûëà îáíàðóæåíà òóøêà ïîë¸âêè. À ïðè ïðîâåðêå â îêòÿáðå-íîÿáðå 2005 ã. óæå â òð¸õ ñêâîðå÷íèêàõ áûëè îáíàðóæåíû çàïàñû ñû÷èêà.  ïåðâîì – 1 êðîò, âî âòîðîì – ñåðàÿ êðûñà, â òðåòüåì – áîëüøîé ï¸ñòðûé äÿòåë. Íà ó÷. ¹2 â àïðåëå 2005 ã. áûëè âûâåøåíû 10 ñêâîðå÷íèêîâ è ñèíè÷íèêîâ. Ïðè ïðîâåðêå è ÷èñòêå äîìèêîâ â íîÿáðå áûëè îáíàðóæåíû çàïàñû èç òóøåê ìûøåâèäíûõ ãðûçóíîâ è áóðîçóáîê â òð¸õ ñêâîðå÷íèêàõ: 51 øò. (â îñíîâíîì ðûæàÿ ïîë¸âêà), 19 øò. è 1 øò. ñîîòâåòñòâåííî. Ôàêòîâ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ñû÷èêà â ñêâîðå÷íèêàõ íå âûÿâëåíî.

Ðèñ. 1. Ðàçìåùåíèå èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé äëÿ ñîâ íà òåððèòîðèè Íàöïàðêà «Íèæíÿÿ Êàìà» Fig. 1. Locations of artificial nests for owls in the National Park ‘Nizhnyaya Kama’

At the moment a total of 7 species of owls are known in the territory of the National Park ‘Nizhnyaya Kama’ out of 12 breeding species recorded in the Republic of Tatarstan. In order to increase the numbers of owls in the territory of the Park in 2005 we set up 16 wooden nest boxes for owls: 5 boxes were designed for the Ural Owl (Strix uralensis), 6 – for the Tawny Owl (Strix aluco), 5 – for the Tengmalm’s Owl (Aegolius funereus). The majority of owl-boxes were installed in a 60 – 80 year old pine-forest, where old-grown hollow trees were absent. In addition 11 artificial nests for the Longeared Owl (Asio otus) were installed. Thanks to the early installation of the artificial nests in 2005 the Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium passerinum) previously not known to occur in the National Park was noted to use a nesting box. While checking nest boxes for tits and starlings in two study plots in the Maliy Bor (plot ¹ 1) and the Tanayskiy forest (plot ¹ 2) we found a food cache of the Pygmy Owl in a starling nest box (diameter of hole was 5 – 6 sm).


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Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

RaptorsResearch ИЗУЧЕНИЕПЕРНАТЫХХИЩНИКОВ DistributionandnumberofowlsintheN.Novgoroddistrict НОВЫЕДАННЫЕОРАСПРОСТРАНЕНИИИЧИСЛЕННОСТИСОВВ НИЖЕГОРОДСКОЙОБЛАСТИ S.V.Bakka(StateNatureReserve‘Kerzhensky’,N.Novgorod,Russia) I.V.Karyakin(CenterforFieldStudies,N.Novgorod,Russia) N.Yu.Kiseleva,L.M.Novikova(RussianBirdConservationUnion,N.NovgorodBranch, Russia) С.В.Баа(Керженсийзаповедни,Н.Нов/ород,Россия) И.В.Каряин(Центрполевыхисследований,Н.Нов/ород,Россия) Н.Ю.Киселёва,Л.М.Новиова(Ниже/ородсоеотделениеСоюзаохраныптиц России,Н.Нов/ород,Россия) Êîíòàêò: Ñåðãåé Áàêêà Çàïîâåäíèê «Êåðæåíñêèé» 603134 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë.Êîñòèíà 2, îô. 162 òåë.: +7 (8312) 34 08 32 ôàêñ: +7 (8312) 340951 zapoved@dront.ru Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Êîðîëåíêî, 17a–17 òåë.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Íàäåæäà Êèñåë¸âà Ëþäìèëà Íîâèêîâà Íèæåãîðîäñêîå îòäåëåíèå ÑÎÏÐ 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä à/ÿ 631 Ýêîöåíòð «Äðîíò» òåë.: +7 (8312) 34 46 79 sopr@dront.ru

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Ñîâîîáðàçíûå – îäíà èç íàèáîëåå ñëîæíûõ äëÿ èçó÷åíèÿ ãðóïï, ïîýòîìó â Íèæåãîðîäñêîì Ïîâîëæüå ïîïûòêè èññëåäîâàíèÿ ýòèõ ïòèö ôðàãìåíòàðíû è íåìíîãî÷èñëåííû. Àâòîðû ðåãèîíàëüíûõ ôàóíèñòè÷åñêèõ ñâîäîê (Ñåðåáðîâñêèé, 1918; Êèðïè÷íèêîâ, 1915; Ïóçàíîâ è äð., 1955; Çèìèí, 1974), õàðàêòåðèçóÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü è ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå ñîâ, îãðàíè÷èâàþòñÿ åäèíè÷íûìè ôàêòàìè íàõîäîê è ñóáúåêòèâíûìè îöåíêàìè («îáû÷íûé, øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàíåííûé âèä», «íåðåäêî âñòðå÷àþùèéñÿ âèä» è ò.ï.). Öåëüþ äàííîé ðàáîòû ÿâëÿåòñÿ îáîáùåíèå èíôîðìàöèè î ÷èñëåííîñòè è ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè ñîâ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè äëÿ âêëþ÷åíèÿ â Ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé êàäàñòð æèâîòíîãî ìèðà Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè.

Ìàòåðèàë è ìåòîäèêà Íàìè áûëè ïðîàíàëèçèðîâàíû äàííûå, îïóáëèêîâàííûå â îñíîâíûõ ôàóíèñòè÷åñêèõ ñâîäêàõ (Êèðïè÷íèêîâ, 1915; Ñåðåáðîâñêèé, 1918; Ïóçàíîâ è äð., 1955; Âîðîíöîâ, 1967; Çèìèí, 1974), à òàêæå ìàòåðèàëû êîëëåêöèé Çîîëîãè÷åñêèõ ìóçååâ Ìîñêîâñêîãî è Íèæåãîðîäñêîãî ãîñóíèâåðñèòåòîâ, Íèæåãîðîäñêîãî èñòîðèêî-àðõèòåêòóðíîãî ìóçåÿ-çàïîâåäíèêà. Èç ýòèõ èñòî÷íèêîâ ïîëó÷åíû è âêëþ÷åíû â êàäàñòð äàííûå î 173 ìåñòàõ íàõîäîê ñîâ â 1898–1979 ãã. è î 7 ìåñòàõ íàõîäîê ñîâ â 1980–1990 ãã.6

http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/publicat/raptors/Paper_data_nn.pdf

The purpose of the paper is to summarize the information of owl numbers and the distribution in the Nizhniy Novgorod district in order to prepare a State Wild Animals list of the Nizhniy Novgorod district. The owl numbers and distribution were studied in several papers, (Kirpichnikov, 1915; Serebrovskiy, 1918; Puzanov & all., 1955; Vorontsov, 1967; Zimin, 1974). In addition we used skin collections of Zoological museums of the state Universities in Moscow and N. Novgorod, and Historical and architectural museum of N. Novgorod. Also data of owl sighting records in the N. Novgorod district in 1985–2004 were analyzed. In 2005 special surveys of owls as actions of the RBCU ‘The Owl – Bird of Russia in 2005’ were carried out in 15 regions of the N. Novgorod district. Owl mating-calls were registered in March-May, provoked by the playback of owl call recordings (Voronetskiy & all., 1989; Karyakin, 2004). In July we registered broods, staying in or near the breeding areas (Karyakin, 2004). For 20 years the total length of the survey routes was more than 1000 km, and surveyed territory was about 2000 km2, taking in account that in 2005 more than a quarter of all surveys were carried out (table 1). Snow Owl – Nyctea scandiaca (L.) a rather common winter and rare summer vagrant – in the N. Novgorod district. We estimated that in different years its numbers fluctuate from 1 to 100. Eagle Owl – Bubo bubo (L.) – was not rare before the middle of the twentieth cen-


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Òàáë. 1. Îáú¸ì ðàáîò ïî ó÷¸òó ñîâîîáðàçíûõ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â 1985–2005 ãã. Table 1. Information of Owls studies in the N. Novgorod district in 1985–2005

Contact: Sergey Bakka State Nature Reserve ‘Kerzhensky’ Kostina str., 2 of. 162 N. Novgorod 603134 Russia tel.: +7 (8312) 34 08 32 fax: +7 (8312) 34 09 51 zapoved@dront.ru Igor Karyakin Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a–17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Nadezhda Kiseleva Ludmila Novikova The N. Novgorod branch of RBCU ecocenter ‘Dront’ P.O. Box 631 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: +7 (8312) 34 46 79 sopr@dront.ru

Òàáë. 2. ×èñëî íàõîäîê ñîâ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â 1898–2005 ãã. Table 2. Records of Owls in the N.Novgorod district in 1898–2005

Ïðîàíàëèçèðîâàíû è îáðàáîòàíû äàííûå î âñòðå÷àõ ñîâ è ðåçóëüòàòû ó÷¸òîâ ýòèõ ïòèö â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â 1985–2004 ãã. (Áàêêà, Êèñåë¸âà, 2005).  2005 ã. ñïåöèàëüíûå ó÷¸òû ñîâ â ðàìêàõ Àêöèè Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè «Ñîâà – ïòèöà 2005 ã.» áûëè ïðîâåäåíû â 15 àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ ðàéîíàõ Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. Ó÷¸ò ñîâ ïðîâîäèëè ïî ãîëîñàì âî âðåìÿ òîêà â ìàðòå-ìàå ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì èìèòàöèè ãîëîñîì òîêîâûõ ñèãíàëîâ ñîâ (Âîðîíåöêèé è äð., 1989; Êàðÿêèí, 2004), à òàêæå â èþëå ìåòîäîì ðåãèñòðàöèè âèçóàëüíî è ïî ãîëîñàì âûâîäêîâ, êîòîðûå â ýòî âðåìÿ äåðæàòñÿ âáëèçè ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ (Êàðÿêèí, 2004). Íàðÿäó ñ ïðîâåäåíèåì ñïåöèàëüíûõ ó÷¸òîâ, ðåãèñòðèðîâàëè ëþáûå ñëåäû ïðåáûâàíèÿ âñåõ âèäîâ ñîâ (âñòðå÷è ïòèö, ëèííûå ïåðüÿ, ïîãàäêè). Îñîáîå âíèìàíèå óäåëÿëîñü ñïåöèàëüíîìó ïîèñêó ðåäêèõ âèäîâ è, ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, îáñëåäîâàíèþ ïîòåíöèàëüíûõ ìåñò èõ îáèòàíèÿ. Çà 20 ëåò äëèíà ó÷¸òíûõ ìàðøðóòîâ ñîñòàâèëà áîëåå 1000 êì, à ïëîùàäü, îõâà÷åííàÿ ó÷¸òàìè – ïî÷òè 2000 êì2, â òîì ÷èñëå â 2005 ã. ñäåëàíî áîëåå ÷åòâåðòè âñåãî îáú¸ìà ðàáîò (òàáë. 1). Âñåãî çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíî è âíåñåíî â êàäàñòð 586 ìåñò íàõîäîê âñåõ 12 âèäîâ ñîâ, âñòðå÷àþùèõñÿ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè (òàáë. 2). Ñîñòàâëåí ÃÈÑ-ïðîåêò «Ìåñòà îáíàðóæåíèÿ ñîâîîáðàçíûõ íà òåððèòîðèè Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè» â ArcView 3.2. ÃÈÑ-

tury. In the beginning of the twenty first century the distribution of the Eagle Owl had a little change (fig. 2), but the numbers decreased dramatically to 30–40 breeding pairs (Red Data Book of the N. Novgorod district, 2003). All available information on the species within the territory of the district was analyzed in the course of the studies. A total of 36–83 breeding pars (53 pairs on average) were estimated using GISmethods. We project 70–80 pairs as most probable to breed in the N. Novgorod district today. Long-eared Owl – Asio otus (L.) – is a common breeding species. Today it is the most numerous species of owl in the district, and it breeds evenly in the territory of N. Novgorod and within towns. The average density in the N. Novgorod district is 25 breeding pairs per 100 km of edges of forest patches larger than 1 km2 . The average density on cultivated land is 5–6 breeding pairs/100 km2 , and in large forest-marsh lands – c. 2 pairs/100 km 2. An average of 7500–7800 breeding pairs are estimated in the N. Novgorod district (range 5000–10000 pairs) (fig. 3). Such fluctuation between minimal and maximal numbers in different years depends on the fluctuation of the number of rodents. Short-eared Owl – Asio flammeus (Pontopp.) – was a common species the middle of twentieth century, inhabiting open lands in the entire territory of the district. In 1960–


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ïðîåêò âêëþ÷àåò òðè òåìû, ñîäåðæàùèõ òî÷êè îáíàðóæåíèÿ ñîâ 1) – â 1898–1979 ãã., 2) – â 1980–2004 ãã., 3) – â 2005 ã. Ñ êàæäîé òî÷å÷íîé òåìîé ñâÿçàíà ýëåêòðîííàÿ òàáëèöà, ñîäåðæàùàÿ ñëåäóþùóþ èíôîðìàöèþ: âèä ñîâû, äàòà âñòðå÷è, ÷èñëî âñòðå÷åííûõ ïòèö, õàðàêòåð ïðåáûâàíèÿ, ÔÈÎ íàáëþäàòåëÿ èëè èñòî÷íèê èíôîðìàöèè. Äëÿ âñòðå÷ ñîâ ïîñëå 1980 ã. ïðèâîäÿòñÿ êîîðäèíàòû. Ó÷¸òû ÷èñëåííîñòè ñåìè íàèáîëåå ðàñïðîñòðàíåííûõ âèäîâ ñîâ ïðîâåäåíû íà 73 ïëîùàäêàõ, îòíîñèòåëüíî ðàâíîìåðíî ðàñïðåäåë¸ííûõ ïî òåððèòîðèè îáëàñòè (ðèñ. 1). Îáú¸ì ýòèõ ó÷¸òíûõ ðàáîò õàðàêòåðèçóåò òàáëèöà 3. Ðàçíèöà â ïëîùàäÿõ ïðè îäíèõ è òåõ æå ìåñòàõ ïðîâåäåíèÿ ó÷¸òîâ äëÿ ðàçíûõ âèäîâ îáúÿñíÿåòñÿ ðàçëè÷èÿìè äàëüíîñòè îáíàðóæåíèÿ ïî ãîëîñàì è ðàçíûìè ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿìè. Äëÿ êàæäîãî âèäà ó÷¸òíîé Ðèñ. 1. Ìåñòà ïðîâåäåíèÿ ó÷¸òîâ ñîâ â ïëîùàäêîé ñ÷èòàëè òîëüêî òåðÍèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â 1985–2004 ãã. ðèòîðèþ ïîòåíöèàëüíî ïðè(1) è 2005 ã. (2) ãîäíîãî ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ. Fig. 1. Places of Owls studying in the N. Novgorod district in 1985–2004 (1) and Íà îñíîâàíèè ðåçóëüòàòîâ 2005 (2) ó÷¸òîâ áûëè ðàññ÷èòàíû ïëîòíîñòè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ýòèõ ñîâ íà êàæäîé ó÷¸òíîé ïëîùàäêå. Çàòåì ðàññ÷èòûâàëè ñðåäíåâçâåøåííóþ ïëîòíîñòü, îòíîñèòåëüíóþ ñòàòèñòè÷åñêóþ îøèáêó è äîâåðèòåëüíûé èíòåðâàë â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ ìåòîäè÷åñêèìè ðåêîìåíäàöèÿìè Å.Ñ. Ðàâêèíà è Í.Ã. ×åëèíöåâà (1990), äàëåå «Ìåòîä 1». Ïðè ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè äàííûõ, èñõîäÿ èç ñðåäíåé ïëîòíîñòè è äîâåðèòåëüíîãî èíòåðâàëà, ðàññ÷èòûâàëè ñðåäíþþ ãíåçäîâóþ ÷èñëåííîñòü, à òàêæå å¸ äîñòîâåðíûé ìèíèìóì è âåðîÿòíûé ìàêñèìóì. Äëÿ ëåñíûõ âèäîâ (íåÿñûòåé è ñû÷åé) ó÷¸òíûå ïëîùàäêè ðàñïîëàãàëèñü ñëó÷àéíûì îáðàçîì íà ëåñíûõ çåìëÿõ, ïîýòîìó äëÿ ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè èñïîëüçîâàëè îáùóþ Òàáë. 3. Îáú¸ì ðàáîò ïî ó÷¸òó íàèáîëåå ðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííûõ âèäîâ ñîâ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè Table 3. Information of studying the common species of Owls in the N. Novgorod district

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ 70s as a result of ditching of marshes and usage of pesticides on fields the numbers of the species declined; with the minimal numbers registered in the beginning of 1980s. Since the end of 1980s the numbers of the Short-eared Owl have recovered. Its number varies in the N. Novgorod district from year to year. Recent numbers of the short-eared owl is estimated to 4000–4500 breeding pairs, ranging from 1500–2000 pairs to 7000–7500 pairs in different years. Thus the numbers of the Short-eared Owl is 1.5–2 times lower than that of the Long-eared Owl. The average density on treeless lands in the N. Novgorod district is c. 14 breeding pair/100 km2, in different cultivated lands from 8 to 24 pairs/100 km2, the highest density is 1,5 pair/1 km2, and minimum distance between nests is 400 m (fig. 4). Scops Owl – Otus scops (L.). All records of the Scops Owl were located in the forests of southern Zavolzh’e and in the territory between the Volga and Oka rivers. The average density is about 4 breeding pairs/100 km2 in forests. An average of 349 pairs (214–568 pairs) is estimated to breed in the N. Novgorod district. In the northern Zavolzh’e only single records and the absence of the species in the surveyed plots (including data of 2005) confirmed the extremely low numbers of the species (fig. 5). A total of 400– 2000 breeding pairs are estimated in the N. Novgorod district. During the twentieth century the species started to spread across the territory of the district and increased in numbers. The numbers of this species are probably increasing now too. Tengmalm’s Owl – Aegolius funereus (L.) – is not a numerous species. Following the methods of processing the results of the surveys by E.S. Ravkin and N.G. Chelintsev (1990) an average 2000 pairs (1300–2900 pairs) is estimated to breed in the N. Novgorod district. Compare that to the results given by the GIS-methods – 1000– 10000 pairs estimated (average 6000 pairs).


Raptors Research

Òàáë. 4. Ìàòåðèàëû, èñïîëüçîâàííûå äëÿ îöåíêè ÷èñëåííîñòè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ñîâ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè Table 4. Main parameters, used for estimating the number of rare owl species in the N. Novgorod district

Òàáë. 5. Îöåíêà îòíîñèòåëüíîé ÷èñëåííîñòè ñîâîîáðàçíûõ ïî ÷èñëó âñòðå÷ â ðàçíûå ãîäû Table 5. Estimations of the relative owl numbers following the records in different years

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5

ïëîùàäü ëåñíûõ çåìåëü â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè (Ñîñòîÿíèå…, 2004). Äëÿ áîëîòíîé ñîâû áîëüøèíñòâî ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê ðàñïîëàãàëîñü ñëó÷àéíûì îáðàçîì íà ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûõ óãîäüÿõ. Äëÿ ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè èñïîëüçîâàëè îáùóþ ïëîùàäü ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûõ óãîäèé çà âû÷åòîì ìíîãîëåòíèõ íàñàæäåíèé (ñàäîâ) (Ñîñòîÿíèå…, 2004). Êðîìå ñåëüõîçóãîäèé, áîëîòíàÿ ñîâà îáíàðóæåíà â ëåñîáîëîòíûõ ìàññèâàõ. Äëÿ ýòèõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé áûë ñäåëàí îòäåëüíûé ðàñ÷¸ò, à ïîëó÷åííûå öèôðû ñóììèðîâàëèñü. Óøàñòàÿ ñîâà – îïóøå÷íûé âèä. Áîëüøèíñòâî å¸ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ðàñïîëàãàåòñÿ ëèíåéíî âäîëü îïóøåê. Îñíîâíûì èñõîäíûì ìàòåðèàëîì äëÿ ðàñ÷¸òà áûëè ðåçóëüòàòû îáñëåäîâàíèé 36 ó÷àñòêîâ ëåñíûõ îïóøåê îáùåé ïðîòÿæåííîñòüþ 247 êì, íà êîòîðûõ áûëè ó÷òåíû 62 ïàðû. Ðàññ÷èòûâàëè ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ íà 100 êì ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòè îïóøåê è ýêñòðàïîëèðîâàëè íà îáùóþ äëèíó îïóøåê ëåñíûõ ìàññèâîâ ïëîùàäüþ îò 1 êì2. Ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü îïóøåê áûëà èçìåðåíà ïî êîñìè÷åñêèì ñíèìêàì Landsat–7 è ñîñòàâèëà 22747,25 êì. Äîïîëíèòåëüíî ïî 11 ó÷¸òíûì ïëîùàäêàì (òàáë. 3) áûëà ðàññ÷èòàíà ÷èñëåííîñòü óøàñòûõ ñîâ â ëåñîáîëîòíûõ ìàññèâàõ è íà ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûõ óãîäüÿõ. Äëÿ ñïëþøêè âñå ó÷¸òíûå ïëîùàäêè îêàçàëèñü ðàñïîëîæåíû â ëåñàõ Þæíîãî Çà-

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In reality a total of 2000–6000 breeding pairs are projected in the district. Average density in forests is c 5 breeding pairs/100 km2 (3,3–7,3 pair/100km2). The species are noted to breed in different forests, with a preference of humid old spruce forests. In optimal habitat the density exceeds 30 breeding pair/100 km2. The recorded minimum distance between neighboring breeding areas is 570 m (fig. 6). Little Owl – Athene noctua (Scop.) is a rare species of the N. Novgorod district. The northern border of the species range crosses the N. Novgorod district approximately along the Volga river (fig. 7). Probably in 1950–70s the numbers decreased. Now the Little owl is very rare. No more than 20 pairs are estimated to breed in the district. Pygmy Owl – Glaucidium passerinum (L.). Distribution of the species in the N. Novgorod district is similar with latter one. On study plots the average density was 4.6 breeding pairs/100 km2 (2.5–8.4 pairs/100 km2) (fig. 8). As a result of extrapolating the density measured in the survey plots onto the total forested area we get 1841 breeding pairs estimated (range 1010 – 3354 pairs). A total of 2000–5000 breeding pairs are projected in the N. Novgorod district. Hawk Owl – Surnia ulula (L.). All authors note this species to breed rarely, but regularity visit the territory of the district during


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Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Òàáë. 6. Ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ è ÷èñëåííîñòü ñîâ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, ðàññ÷èòàííàÿ ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì Ìåòîäà 1 Table 6. The Breeding density and number of owls in the N.Novgorod district using the Method 1 (Ravkin, Chelintsev, 1990)

âîëæüÿ è Âîëæñêî-Îêñêîãî Ìåæäóðå÷üÿ. Ïîýòîìó ýêñòðàïîëÿöèþ äàííûõ è ðàñ÷¸ò ÷èñëåííîñòè óäàëîñü ñäåëàòü òîëüêî äëÿ ýòèõ ïðèðîäíî-òåððèòîðèàëüíûõ êîìïëåêñîâ. Äëÿ îáëàñòè â öåëîì îêàçàëîñü âîçìîæíîé òîëüêî ýêñïåðòíàÿ îöåíêà. Ìåòîäèêà îïðåäåëåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ñîâ áûëà èíîé. Äëÿ ôèëèíà è áîðîäàòîé íåÿñûòè ïîñëå ñïåöèàëüíîãî ïîèñêà ìåñò îáèòàíèÿ äàâàëàñü îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè íà êëþ÷åâûõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ òåððèòîðèÿõ (ÊÎÒÐ), ãäå ýòè âèäû áûëè âûÿâëåíû. Ðàññ÷èòûâàëè ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ äëÿ êàæäîé ÊÎÒÐ è ñðåäíþþ äëÿ ïðèãîäíûõ ìåñò îáèòàíèÿ. Èñõîäÿ èç ñðåäíèõ

winter migrations. In 1980–90s even winter records became very rare, which makes us to conclude that the numbers of the Hawk Owls are declining. We registered a single adult bird in the breeding period at the end of June – beginning of July 1995 in the Sokolskiy region (fig. 9). Tawny Owl – Strix aluco (L.) – was a common owl species in the district before 1970s. In northern regions with large forests the species was not numerous, and in the central and southern region it was common in forests and cultivated lands. During the twentieth century its numbers were steadily decreasing. This decline was obvious in


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5

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Òàáë. 7. Ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ è ÷èñëåííîñòü ñîâ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, ðàññ÷èòàííàÿ ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì ÃÈÑ (Ìåòîä 2) Table 7. The Breeding density and number of owls in the N. Novgorod district using the GIS-methods (Method 2: Karyakin, 2004)

,

a – Ïðåäâîëæüå / Predvolzhie; b – Çàâîëæüå / Zavolzhie

ïëîòíîñòåé è ïëîùàäè ïðèãîäíûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé, îïðåäåëåíà îáëàñòíàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ýòèõ âèäîâ. Äëÿ äîìîâîãî ñû÷à è ÿñòðåáèíîé ñîâû íà îñíîâàíèè îáùåãî ÷èñëà íàõîäîê ñäåëàíà ýêñïåðòíàÿ îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. Ó÷èòûâàëîñü, ÷òî ÿñòðåáèíàÿ ñîâà âñòðå÷àåòñÿ òîëüêî â ëåñàõ Çàâîëæüÿ, à äîìîâûé ñû÷

the numbers of sightings (table 5). The most probable reason of its decline is a direct competition from Ural Owls rapidly spreading in forests of the district. The Tawny Owl is remained only in cultivated lands and old forests along rivers (fig. 10). The number of species estimated by E.S. Ravkin and N.G. Chelintsev methods (1990) for 1985–2005


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5 – òîëüêî â Ïðåäâîëæüå. Ìàòåðèàëû, èñïîëüçîâàííûå äëÿ îöåíêè ÷èñëåííîñòè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ñîâ, ïðèâåäåíû â òàáëèöå 4. Ñîñòàâëåííûé ÃÈÑ-ïðîåêò ïîçâîëèë ïðèìåíèòü åù¸ îäíó ìåòîäèêó îáðàáîòêè è ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè äàííûõ ïî ÷èñëåííîñòè ñîâ, äàëåå «Ìåòîä 2» èëè «ÃÈÑ-ìåòîä». Îáðàáîòêà ìàòåðèàëîâ áûëà ïðîâåäåíà â ïðîãðàììå ArcView 3.2 (ESRI).  õîäå àíàëèçà âåêòîðíûõ ñëî¸â âûäåëåíû çàíèìàåìûå ñîâàìè ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ â ïðåäåëàõ ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê. ×èñëåííîñòü âèäà â ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿõ, íå ïðåäñòàâëåííûõ íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ, ñ÷èòàëè íóëåâîé.  ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ êëþ÷åâûì ìåñòîîáèòàíèåì îêàçàëèñü ëåñíûå îïóøêè, â êà÷åñòâå ðàçìåðíîé õàðàêòåðèñòèêè êîòîðûõ (â îòëè÷èå îò âñåõ îñòàëüíûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé) èñïîëüçîâàëè ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü, à íå ïëîùàäü. Ïëîùàäü ëèáî ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ìåñòîîáèòàíèé ñîâ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, íà êîòîðûå è ýêñòðàïîëèðîâàëèñü ó÷¸òíûå äàííûå, áûëè ïîëó÷åíû â õîäå ïîëóàâòîìàòè÷åñêîé äåøèôðîâêè êîñìîñíèìêîâ Landsat–7, ïðåäâàðèòåëüíî ïðèâÿçàííûõ â ïðîåêöèþ Àëüáåðñà äëÿ Åâðîïû â ERDAS Imagine 8.7. Ïðè îáðàáîòêå ó÷¸òíûõ äàííûõ èñïîëüçîâàëè ìîäóëè Spatial Analyst 1.1 è Animal Movement 2.0. Ïëîòíîñòü ðàññ÷èòûâàëè êàê ñðåäíåâçâåøåííóþ, îïðåäåëÿëè ñòàíäàðòíóþ îøèáêó è äîâåðèòåëüíûé èíòåðâàë íà ïëîùàäêàõ äëÿ êàæäîãî òèïà ìåñòîîáèòàíèé.

I. ÐÅÇÓËÜÒÀÒÛ È ÈÕ ÎÁÑÓÆÄÅÍÈÅ Îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ âèäîâ ñîâ è å¸ äèíàìèêè Îäíèì èç ïîêàçàòåëåé îáèëèÿ âèäà ìîæåò ñëóæèòü åãî âñòðå÷àåìîñòü â îáùåì êîëè÷åñòâå íàõîäîê. Âñòðå÷àåìîñòü ñîâ â ðàçíûå ïåðèîäû èññëåäîâàíèé ïðåäñòàâëåíà â òàáëèöå 5. Áåëàÿ ñîâà â îáëàñòè íå ãíåçäèòñÿ, è ïîýòîìó â êàäàñòð âíåñåíû òîëüêî ìåñòà äîáû÷è ýêçåìïëÿðîâ, ïîïàâøèõ â êîëëåêöèè ìóçååâ â 1898–1979 ãã.  2005 ãîäó ýòà ñîâà íå áûëà îòìå÷åíà íà òåððèòîðèè îáëàñòè, à èíôîðìàöèÿ î âñòðå÷àõ áåëîé ñîâû âî âðåìÿ êî÷¸âîê è çèìîâîê â 1980–2004 ãã., ñîáðàííàÿ, â îñíîâíîì, ñîöèîëîãè÷åñêèìè ìåòîäàìè, íå ïðåäñòàâëÿåò êàäàñòðîâîé öåííîñòè. Ìàòåðèàëû òàáëèöû 5 ïîçâîëÿþò íå òîëüêî ñóäèòü îá îòíîñèòåëüíîé ÷èñëåííîñòè ñîâîîáðàçíûõ, íî è îöåíèòü äèíàìèêó èõ àáñîëþòíîé ÷èñëåííîñòè. Áîëîòíàÿ ñîâà, êîòîðàÿ áûëà íà òåððèòîðèè îáëàñòè â íà÷àëå ÕÕ âåêà íàèáîëåå ìíîãî÷èñëåííîé,

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ period is near 1200 breeding pairs (table 6), thus the species is not common. Results of our studies have demonstrated the dramatic declining if the numbers of species regardless of methods of extrapolation (table 8). The numbers of the Tawny Owl decreased 3–6 times in the past 10–15 years. Using the records of 2005 surveys, extrapolated using the GIS-methods, we get 251 breeding pairs in the district. Probably the numbers is higher, because we omitted records of owls in towns and village parks. A total of 300–500 breeding pairs are projected in the N. Novgorod district. Ural Owl – Strix uralensis (Pall.) – was a rare breeding species in the northern part (Zavolzh’e) of the N. Novgorod district before the middle of ÕÕ century. In 1980s its numbers seemed to increase. This increase in the numbers was also registered in our surveys (table 5). This species is spread in the entire territory of the district and is known to out compete the Tawny Owl. Recently it is common breeding species not only in coniferous, coniferous-broad-leaved but also in broad-leaved forests. In 2004 A.P. Levashkin (2005) found a nest in the oak forest of the Botanical Garden of the N. Novgorod state university within the city of N. Novgorod boundaries (fig. 11). The average numbers in the N. Novgorod district in 1985–2005, is 5500–5700 breeding pairs (table 6, 7). The number of species has been rapidly increasing during last 12 years from 2800 breeding pairs in 1980s to 6800 pairs in 2005 (table 8). Thus today’s total of 6000– 6800 breeding pairs is estimated in the district. The numbers of the Ural Owl approaches the numbers of the Long-eared Owl. Average density in forests of the district is 13.8 breeding pairs per 100 km2 (range 10,3–18,6 pairs/100 km2). In optimal inhabitances density is 1–2 pairs per 1 km2. Minimal registered distance between neighboring breeding areas is 0.5–0.6 km. The trend in the numbers is increasing and the species is spreading geographically. Great Grey Owl – Strix nebulosa (J.R. Forst.). Before our surveys this species was not registered on the territory of district. A single nest was found in the Krasnobakovskiy region in 1992 (Bakka, Bakka, 1998). In the Red Data Book we estimated a total of 10 pair (Red Data Book of the N. Novgorod district, 2003) for the district (fig. 12). Following the later studies we now project a total of 20–30 breeding pair for the N. Novgorod district.


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5

ïîñòåïåííî óñòóïèëà ëèäåðñòâî óøàñòîé ñîâå. Òàáëèöà 5 îò÷åòëèâî ïîêàçûâàåò êàðòèíó ïàäåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ñåðîé íåÿñûòè îäíîâðåìåííî ñ ðîñòîì ÷èñëåííîñòè äëèííîõâîñòîé. Âìåñòå ñ òåì, íå ïðåäñòàâëÿåòñÿ êîððåêòíûì äåëàòü âûâîäû î äèíàìèêå ÷èñëåííîñòè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ, âñòðå÷àåìîñòü êîòîðûõ íèêîãäà íå ïðåâûøàëà 10%. Îáùåå ÷èñëî âñòðå÷ ñîâ â êàæäûé ïåðèîä èññëåäîâàíèé ñîñòàâëÿëî îò 150 äî 263, ïðè ýòîì êàæäàÿ íîâàÿ ðåãèñòðàöèÿ ðåäêîãî âèäà, çàâèñÿùàÿ îò ñëó÷àéíûõ ôàêòîðîâ, ñóùåñòâåííî èçìåíÿëà îáùóþ êàðòèíó. Îòíîñèòåëüíî âûñîêàÿ âñòðå÷àåìîñòü ôèëèíà â 1980–2004 ãã. ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñëåäñòâèåì öåëåíàïðàâëåííûõ ïîèñêîâ ìåñò îáèòàíèÿ ýòîãî ðåäêîãî âèäà. Âîðîáüèíûé ñû÷ â íà÷àëå ÕÕ âåêà çàíèìàë ÷åòâ¸ðòîå ìåñòî ïî âñòðå÷àåìîñòè. Âîçìîæíî, ýòî ñâèäåòåëüñòâóåò î åãî çíà÷èòåëüíî áîëåå âûñîêîé ÷èñëåííîñòè ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ ñîÐèñ. 2. Ìåñòà îáíàðóæåíèÿ ôèëèíà âðåìåííîé. (Bubo bubo) â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â Íà îñíîâàíèè îáðàáîòêè 1898–1979 ãã. (1), 1980–2004 ãã. (2) è 2005 ã. (3) ðàçíûìè ìåòîäàìè ðåçóëüòàòîâ ó÷¸òîâ ñîâîîáðàçíûõ â Fig. 2. Points of the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) records in the N.Novgorod district in 1898– 1985–2005 ãã. ñîñòàâëåíû 1979 (1), 1980–2004 (2) and 2005 (3) ñâîäíûå òàáëèöû, îáúåäèíÿþùèå ìàòåðèàëû ïî ïëîòíîñòè, îáùåé ÷èñëåííîñòè è å¸ äèíàìèêå (òàáëèöû 6–9). Îáñóæäåíèå ïîëó÷åííûõ ðåçóëüòàòîâ ìû âåä¸ì ïî êàæäîìó âèäó â îòäåëüíîñòè.

Êðàòêàÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ î ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè, ÷èñëåííîñòè è ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿõ îòäåëüíûõ âèäîâ ñîâ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè Áåëàÿ ñîâà – Nyctea scandiaca (L.) – çèìóþùèé, ïðîë¸òíûé è êðàéíå ðåäêî, íåðåãóëÿðíî ëåòóþùèé âèä. Ñîãëàñíî ôàóíèñòè÷åñêèì ñâîäêàì (Ñåðåáðîâñêèé, 1918; Êèðïè÷íèêîâ, 1915; Ïóçàíîâ è äð., 1955; Çèìèí, 1974), ðåãóëÿðíî âñòðå÷àåòñÿ â ïåðèîä ïîñëåãíåçäîâûõ êî÷¸âîê è çèìîâêè, íî íå âñåãäà â îäèíàêîâîì êîëè÷åñòâå è, ìîæåò áûòü, äàæå íå êàæäûé ãîä. Âñòðå÷è áåëîé ñîâû îáû÷íî íàáëþäàëèñü â íà÷àëå îêòÿáðÿ – íà÷àëå ìàÿ, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â ÿíâàðå. ×àùå âñåãî îíè äåðæàòñÿ íà ïîëÿõ è ïóñòûðÿõ. Ïî-âèäèìîìó, äàííàÿ ñèòóàöèÿ ñîõðàíèëàñü äî íàñòîÿùåãî âðåìåíè áåç ïðèíöèïèàëüíûõ èçìåíåíèé. Êîððåñïîíäåíòû Íèæåãîðîäñêîãî îòäåëåíèÿ ÑÎÏÐ ñîîáùà-

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þò î âñòðå÷àõ áåëîé ñîâû ïî÷òè êàæäóþ çèìó.  ðåçóëüòàòå îïðîñîâ íàñåëåíèÿ, ïðîâåä¸ííûõ Äðóæèíîé îõðàíû ïðèðîäû Ãîðüêîâñêîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà â 1980–1991 ãã., ïîëó÷åíû ñâåäåíèÿ î êðàéíå ðåäêèõ íàõîäêàõ åäèíè÷íûõ ëåòóþùèõ îñîáåé. Íàìè ìîëîäàÿ áåëàÿ ñîâà íàáëþäàëàñü â Áîðñêèõ ëóãàõ â îêòÿáðå 1979 ã. Àíàëèç ñîîáùåíèé ñâèäåòåëüñòâóåò, ÷òî ÷èñëåííîñòü çèìóþùèõ â îáëàñòè ñîâ çíà÷èòåëüíî èçìåíÿåòñÿ ïî ãîäàì. Ïî íàøåé ýêñïåðòíîé îöåíêå ÷èñëåííîñòü êîëåáëåòñÿ â ðàçíûå ãîäû âíóòðè äèàïàçîíà 1–100 îñîáåé. Ôèëèí – Bubo bubo (L.) – ðåäêèé, ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ è çèìóþùèé âèä. Äî ñåðåäèíû XX âåêà íå ïðåäñòàâëÿë ðåäêîñòè è âñòðå÷àëñÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè ïî âñåé òåððèòîðèè Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè – êàê â ëåñàõ Çàâîëæüÿ, òàê è ïî îâðàæíûì ëåñàì þãà îáëàñòè, âî âðåìÿ êî÷¸âîê ïîÿâëÿÿñü äàæå â íåïîñðåäñòâåííîé áëèçîñòè îò ã. Í. Íîâãîðîäà (Êèðïè÷íèêîâ, 1915; Ñåðåáðîâñêèé, 1918; Ïóçàíîâ è äð., 1955; Âîðîíöîâ, 1967). Ê íà÷àëó òðåòüåãî òûñÿ÷åëåòèÿ ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå ôèëèíà â îáëàñòè ìàëî èçìåíèëîñü (ðèñ. 2), íî ÷èñëåííîñòü ñèëüíî ñîêðàòèëàñü è îöåíèâàëàñü â 30–40 ïàð (Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, 2003).  õîäå ðàáîòû áûëà ïðîàíàëèçèðîâàíà èíôîðìàöèÿ (ñ ó÷¸òîì âñòðå÷ â ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû) î íàõîäêàõ âèäà íà òåððèòîðèè îáëàñòè. Ýêñòðàïîëÿöèÿ ïëîòíîñòè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà c ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê íà ëåñíûå çåìëè îáëàñòè íåâîçìîæíà, òàê êàê ó÷¸òíûå ïëîùàäêè è ìàðøðóòû â 1985–2004 ãã. çàêëàäûâàëèñü â îñíîâíîì ñïåöèàëüíî ñ öåëüþ âûÿâëåíèÿ ìåñò îáèòàíèÿ ôèëèíà. Ýêñòðàïîëÿöèÿ ïëîòíîñòè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà, ðàññ÷èòàííîé äëÿ êëþ÷åâûõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ òåððèòîðèé, ïîçâîëÿåò îöåíèòü ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà â ëåñàõ îáëàñòè îò 144 äî 224 ïàð. Ýòî äà¸ò çàâåäîìî çàâûøåííûé ðåçóëüòàò, òàê êàê íà ÊÎÒÐ ïðåäñòàâëåíû îïòèìàëüíûå ìåñòà îáèòàíèÿ âèäà. Ïîëó÷åííàÿ ÃÈÑ-ìåòîäîì îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè ôèëèíà ñîñòàâëÿåò 36–83 ïàðû (â ñðåäíåì 53 ïàðû). Ìû ñ÷èòàåì, ÷òî íàèáîëåå âåðîÿòíàÿ ñîâðåìåííàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè ñîñòàâëÿåò 70–80 ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð. Êàðòà ìåñò íàõîäîê ôèëèíà ïðåäñòàâëåíà íà ðèñóíêå 2.  ëåñàõ Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â ñðåäíåì îäíà ïàðà ôèëèíîâ ïðèõîäèòñÿ íà 500 êì2, íà êëþ÷åâûõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ òåððèòîðèÿõ – íà 250 êì2, òîãäà êàê â îòäåëüíûõ ëåñíûõ è ëåñîáîëîòíûõ ìàññèâàõ ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ïðåâûøàåò 2 ïàðû íà 100 êì2, à ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó áëèæàéøèìè ó÷àñòêàìè ñîñòàâëÿåò îêîëî 4 êì.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5

Ìîëîäîé ôèëèí (Bubo bubo). Ôîòî Ñ. Áàêêà The juvenile of the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo). Photo by S. Bakka

Ðèñ. 3. Ìåñòà îáíàðóæåíèÿ óøàñòîé ñîâû (Asio otus) â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â 1898–1979 ãã. (1), 1980–2004 ãã. (2) è 2005 ã. (3) Fig. 3. Points of the Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) records in the N.Novgorod district in 1898–1979 (1), 1980–2004 (2) and 2005 (3)

 Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè âñå íàõîäêè âèäà çà ïîñëåäíèå 25 ëåò ïðèóðî÷åíû ê òðóäíîäîñòóïíûì è ìàëîïîñåùàåìûì ìåñòàì (ýòî, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî, ñîõðàíèâøèåñÿ ó÷àñòêè ñòàðîâîçðàñòíûõ ëåñîâ ðàçíûõ òèïîâ, ëèáî êðóïíûå áîëîòíûå ìàññèâû). Äîêàçàíî 7 ñëó÷àåâ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ, â òîì ÷èñëå 3 ãíåçäà ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà âíóòðåííèõ ñóõîäîëàõ êðóïíûõ âåðõîâûõ è ïåðåõîäíûõ áîëîò ñðåäè ñòàðûõ ñîñåí, 2 – íà êðóòûõ áåðåãàõ íåáîëüøèõ ëåñíûõ ðå÷åê, 1 – íà ñêëîíå íàäïîéìåííîé òåððàñû ð. Âîëãè íà ãðàíèöå âûðóáêè è ñòàðîâîçðàñòíîãî ëåñà è 1– â íèøå, îáðàçîâàâøåéñÿ â ñòåíêå êàðñòîâîãî ïðîâàëà. Äëÿ ôèëèíà îñíîâíûå ëèìèòèðóþùèå ôàêòîðû ãíåçäîâàíèÿ – ýòî ðàçðóøåíèå ìåñòîîáèòàíèé: ðóáêè ëåñà (â òîì ÷èñëå ñàíèòàðíûå), î÷èñòêà ëåñîâ îò çàõëàìë¸ííîñòè, à òàêæå âîçðàñòàíèå ôàêòîðà áåñïîêîéñòâà èç-çà óâåëè÷åíèÿ ïîñåùåíèÿ ëåñîâ ëþäüìè è ïðÿìîå ïðåñëåäîâàíèå ÷åëîâåêîì.  ñâÿçè ñ óìåíüøåíèåì îáú¸ìà ëåñîçàãîòîâîê è óâåëè÷åíèåì ïëîùàäè ðåãèîíàëüíûõ ÎÎÏÒ, ñ íà÷àëà 1990-õ ãã. ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà â îáëàñòè ñòàáèëèçèðîâàëàñü. Âèä âíåñåí â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Ðîññèè (êàòåãîðèÿ 2 – âèä, ñîêðàùàþùèé ÷èñëåííîñòü) è â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â êàòåãîðèþ À (âèä, íàõîäÿùèéñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ). Óøàñòàÿ ñîâà – Asio otus (L.) – îáû÷íûé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ, ïåðåë¸òíûé, ìåñòàìè çèìóþùèé âèä. Îíà íàñåëÿåò ëåñíûå îïóøêè, íåáîëüøèå ðîùè, ñàäû è ïàðêè, èçáåãàåò êðóïíûõ ñïëîøíûõ ëåñíûõ ìàññèâîâ, ïîýòîìó áîëåå Ïòåíåö óøàñòîé ñîâû (Asio otus). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The chick of the Long-Eared Owl (Asio otus). Photo by I. Karyakin

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ìíîãî÷èñëåííà â Ïðåäâîëæüå (Êèðïè÷íèêîâ, 1915; Ñåðåáðîâñêèé, 1918; Ïóçàíîâ è äð., 1955; Âîðîíöîâ, 1967). ×èñëåííîñòü è ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå óøàñòîé ñîâû â òå÷åíèå ÕÕ âåêà, ïî-âèäèìîìó, ìàëî èçìåíèëèñü (ðèñ. 3).  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ óøàñòàÿ ñîâà – ñàìàÿ ìíîãî÷èñëåííàÿ èç ñîâ, ãíåçäèòñÿ äàæå íà òåððèòîðèè ã. Íèæíåãî Íîâãîðîäà è äðóãèõ íàñåëåííûõ ïóíêòîâ.  Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè îáèòàåò 7500–7800 ïàð.  ðåçóëüòàòå îìîëîæåíèÿ è ôðàãìåíòèðîâàíèÿ êðóïíûõ ëåñíûõ ìàññèâîâ ïëîùàäü ïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ýòîãî âèäà ìåñòîîáèòàíèé äàæå óâåëè÷èëàñü. Ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè óøàñòîé ñîâû íåïîñòîÿííû. ×èñëåííîñòü çàìåòíî âàðüèðóåò â ðàçíûå ãîäû â çàâèñèìîñòè îò ôàçû äèíàìèêè ÷èñëåííîñòè ãðûçóíîâ – îò 5000 (â ãîäû äåïðåññèè ãðûçóíîâ) äî 10000 ïàð (â «ìûøèíûå» ãîäû). Ñðåäíÿÿ ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ óøàñòîé ñîâû â îáëàñòè ñîñòàâëÿåò îêîëî 25 ïàð/ 100 êì ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòè îïóøåê ëåñíûõ ìàññèâîâ, ïëîùàäü êîòîðûõ áîëåå 1êì2.  ñðåäíåì íà îäíó ïàðó ïðèõîäèòñÿ îêîëî 4 êì ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòè ëåñíîé îïóøêè, à ìèíèìàëüíîå ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ãíåçäîâûìè ó÷àñòêàìè ñîñòàâëÿåò 250 ì. Íàðÿäó ñ ëåñíûìè îïóøêàìè ýòîò âèä èñïîëüçóåò äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ëåñîïîëîñû, íåáîëüøèå ãðóïïû äåðåâüåâ è êóñòàðíèêîâ â ìàññèâàõ ñåëüõîçóãîäèé, à òàêæå ðàçðåæåííûå ñîñíÿêè ñðåäè êðóïíûõ ëåñîáîëîòíûõ ìàññèâîâ. Ñðåäíÿÿ ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ óøàñòûõ ñîâ â ìàññèâàõ ñåëüõîçóãîäèé ñîñòàâëÿåò 5–6 ïàð/100 êì2, â êðóïíûõ ëåñîáîëîòíûõ ìàññèâàõ – îêîëî 2 ïàð/100 êì2. Áîëîòíàÿ ñîâà – Asio flammeus (Pontopp.) – ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ, ïåðåë¸òíûé è ðåäêî çèìóþùèé âèä.  Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè äî ñåðåäèíû ÕÕ âåêà áûëà îáû÷íåéøèì âèäîì, íàñåëÿâøèì îòêðûòûå ëàíäøàôòû ïî âñåé òåððèòîðèè. Ïî ÷èñëåííîñòè îíà ïðåâîñõîäèëà äðóãèå âèäû ñîâ, â òîì ÷èñëå óøàñòóþ (Êèðïè÷íèêîâ, 1915; Ñåðåáðîâñêèé, 1918; Ïóçàíîâ è äð., 1955; Âîðîíöîâ, 1967).  1960–70-å ãã. â ñâÿçè ñ øèðîêèì ïðèìåíåíèåì ïåñòèöèäîâ è ìåëèîðàöèåé çåìåëü ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà ñèëüíî ñîêðàòèëàñü; ìèíèìóì ïðèø¸ëñÿ íà íà÷àëî 1980-õ ãã. Ñ êîíöà 1980-õ ãã. íàáëþäàåòñÿ âîññòàíîâëåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè áîëîòíîé ñîâû â ñâÿçè ñî ñíèæåíèåì ïåñòèöèäíîãî ïðåññà è ñîêðàùåíèåì ïàõîòíûõ óãîäèé. Ê íàñòîÿùåìó âðåìåíè ïðåæíåãî óðîâíÿ îíà íå äîñòèãëà. Ñîâðåìåííàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè ñîñòàâëÿåò 4000– 4500 ïàð, âàðüèðóÿ â ðàçíûå ãîäû îò 1500–


Raptors Research

Ðèñ. 4. Ìåñòà îáíàðóæåíèÿ áîëîòíîé ñîâû (Asio flammeus) â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â 1898–1979 ãã. (1), 1980–2004 ãã. (2) è 2005 ã. (3) Fig. 4. Points of the Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus) records in the N.Novgorod district in 1898–1979 (1), 1980–2004 (2) and 2005 (3)

Ðèñ. 5. Ìåñòà îáíàðóæåíèÿ ñïëþøêè (Otus scops) â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â 1898–1979 ãã. (1), 1980–2004 ãã. (2) è 2005 ã. (3) Fig. 5. Points of the Scops Owl (Otus scops) records in the N.Novgorod district in 1898– 1979 (1), 1980–2004 (2) and 2005 (3)

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5 2000 ïàð äî 7000–7500 ïàð, îñòàâàÿñü â ïîëòîðà-äâà ðàçà ìåíüøå ÷èñëåííîñòè óøàñòîé ñîâû. Îñíîâíûå ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ âèäà – ìàññèâû ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûõ óãîäèé, ïðè ýòîì ïàõîòíûå çåìëè áîëîòíàÿ ñîâà ìîæåò èñïîëüçîâàòü òîëüêî êàê îõîòíè÷üþ ñòàöèþ, ðàñïîëàãàÿ ãí¸çäà íà ñåíîêîñàõ, ïàñòáèùàõ, çàëåæàõ, â ïîñåâàõ ìíîãîëåòíèõ òðàâ. Ñâî¸ íàçâàíèå îíà íå îïðàâäûâàåò: â áîëîòàõ ãíåçäèòñÿ êðàéíå ðåäêî. Ãí¸çäà ðàñïîëàãàþòñÿ íà çàëèâíûõ è ìàòåðèêîâûõ ëóãàõ íåçàâèñèìî îò ñòåïåíè óâëàæíåíèÿ, íà ó÷àñòêàõ ëóãîâûõ ñòåïåé, â çàðîñëÿõ âûñîêèõ ðóäåðàëüíûõ ðàñòåíèé íà çàëåæàõ (ðèñ. 4). Ñðåäíÿÿ ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ â îòêðûòûõ ëàíäøàôòàõ Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè ñîñòàâëÿåò îêîëî 14 ïàð/100 êì2, âàðüèðóÿ â ðàçíûõ ìàññèâàõ ñåëüõîçóãîäèé îò 8 äî 24 ïàð/100 êì2, ïðè ýòîì â îïòèìàëüíûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿõ áîëîòíàÿ ñîâà ãíåçäèòñÿ ñ ïëîòíîñòüþ äî 1,5 ïàð/1 êì2, à ìèíèìàëüíîå ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ãí¸çäàìè ñîñòàâëÿåò 400 ì.  êðóïíûõ ëåñîáîëîòíûõ ìàññèâàõ ñ ó÷àñòêàìè îòêðûòûõ áîëîò ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ñîñòàâëÿåò 1–4 ïàðû/100 êì2 . Áîëîòíàÿ ñîâà âíåñåíà â Ïåðå÷åíü âèäîâ, íóæäàþùèõñÿ â îñîáîì êîíòðîëå çà ñîñòîÿíèåì â ïðèðîäíîé

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ñðåäå íà òåððèòîðèè Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè (Ïðèëîæåíèå 2 ê Êðàñíîé êíèãå). Ñïëþøêà – Otus scops (L.) – ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ, ïåðåë¸òíûé âèä.  Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè ñïëþøêà õîòÿ è îáèòàåò íà ñåâåðíîì ïðåäåëå ñâîåãî àðåàëà, íî âñòðå÷àåòñÿ è â Ïðåäâîëæüå, è â Çàâîëæüå.  íà÷àëå XX âåêà îíà áûëà îòìå÷åíà â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä íà òåððèòîðèè ã. Í. Íîâãîðîäà, íà ð. ׸ðíîé è ó Æóêîâñêîãî çàòîíà â Áîðñêîì ðàéîíå, ó ñ. Ëûêîâî â Ñåì¸íîâñêîì ðàéîíå (Ñåðåáðîâñêèé, 1918). Ïî êðàÿì îïîëèé ïðîíèêàëà ê ñåâåðó äî Øàðüè (Âîðîíöîâ, 1967).  ìóçåÿõ õðàíèòñÿ ñåìü ýêçåìïëÿðîâ, äîáûòûõ â 1910–1929 ãã. íà òåððèòîðèè ñîâðåìåííûõ Âåòëóæñêîãî, Ñåìåíîâñêîãî, Âîëîäàðñêîãî ðàéîíîâ.  1980–90-å ãã. â ãíåçäîâîå âðåìÿ îòìå÷åíà â Êîâåðíèíñêîì (1987 ã.), Âîëîäàðñêîì (1996 ã.), Ëûñêîâñêîì (1998, 2000 ãã.), Âà÷ñêîì (1993 ã.), Äàëüíåêîíñòàíòèíîâñêîì (1995 ã.), Âûêñóíñêîì (1999 ã.) ðàéîíàõ è âî âðåìÿ îñåííèõ êî÷¸âîê â 1989 ã. âñòðå÷åíà â ã. Ñåðãà÷.  1998 ã. ì¸ðòâàÿ ïòèöà íàéäåíà â ï. Ðóñòàé Áîðñêîãî ðàéîíà. Äî 2000 ã. ñîñòîÿíèå èçó÷åííîñòè âèäà íå ïîçâîëèëî îöåíèòü åãî ÷èñëåííîñòü è òåíäåíöèè å¸ èçìåíåíèÿ, ïîýòîìó ñïëþøêà áûëà âíåñåíà â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â êàòåãîðèþ Â2 êàê ðåäêèé âèä, íàõîäÿùèéñÿ íà ãðàíèöå àðåàëà (2003). Ðåçóëüòàòû ó÷¸òîâ 2000–2005 ãã. ïîçâîëÿþò ñäåëàòü ïðåäâàðèòåëüíóþ îöåíêó (ðèñ. 5). Âñå ó÷¸òíûå ïëîùàäêè, íà êîòîðûõ áûëà çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíà ñïëþøêà, ðàñïîëàãàëèñü â ëåñàõ Þæíîãî Çàâîëæüÿ è Âîëæñêî-Îêñêîãî ìåæäóðå÷üÿ. Ïîýòîìó êîððåêòíîé ìîæíî ñ÷èòàòü ýêñòðàïîëÿöèþ ïîëó÷åííûõ äàííûõ òîëüêî â ïðåäåëàõ ýòèõ äâóõ ïðèðîäíî-òåððèòîðèàëüíûõ êîìïëåêñîâ. Ñðåäíÿÿ ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ çäåñü ñîñòàâèëà îêîëî 4 ïàð/100 êì2 ëåñîâ, à îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà îöåíåíà â 349 ïàð (214–568 ïàð).  Ñåâåðíîì Çàâîëæüå åäèíè÷íûå âñòðå÷è è îòñóòñòâèå íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ (â òîì ÷èñëå â 2005 ã.) ñâèäåòåëüñòâóþò î òîì, ÷òî âèä îáèòàåò, íî ÷èñëåííîñòü åãî êðàéíå íèçêà è ìîæåò íå ïðèíèìàòüñÿ â ðàñ÷¸ò. Îòñóòñòâèå ðåãèñòðàöèé ñïëþøêè íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ â Ïðåäâîëæüå îáúÿñíÿåòñÿ íåñîâïàäåíèåì ìåòîäîâ è ñðîêîâ âûÿâëåíèÿ ýòîãî âèäà ñ ìåòîäàìè è ñðîêàìè âûÿâëåíèÿ äðóãèõ ñîâîîáÒàáë. 8. Äèíàìèêà ÷èñëåííîñòè íåêîòîðûõ âèäîâ ñîâ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. 1 – ìåòîä Ðàâêèíà è ×åëèíöåâà (1990), 2 – ÃÈÑ-ìåòîä (Êàðÿêèí, 2004). Table 8. Trends of numbers of some owl species in the N.Novgorod district. 1 – method of Ravkin and Chelincev (1990), 2 – GIS-method (Karyakin, 2004)


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5

ðàçíûõ. Îòäåëüíûå íàõîäêè ñâèäåòåëüñòâóåò îá îáèòàíèè ñïëþøêè â ëåñàõ Ïðåäâîëæüÿ.  ïðèñóðñêèõ øèðîêîëèñòâåííûõ ëåñàõ íà òåððèòîðèè ×óâàøèè è Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè, â íåïîñðåäñòâåííîé áëèçîñòè îò ãðàíèöû Ïèëüíåíñêîãî ðàéîíà Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, ñïëþøêà ãíåçäèòñÿ ñ áîëåå èëè ìåíåå âûñîêîé ïëîòíîñòüþ.  áîëåå ïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ æèçíè ñïëþøêè è óäàë¸ííûõ îò ñåâåðíîé ãðàíèöû å¸ àðåàëà øèðîêîëèñòâåííûõ è õâîéíî-øèðîêîëèñòâåííûõ ëåñàõ Ïðåäâîëæüÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ýòîé ñîâêè íå ìîæåò áûòü ìåíüøå, ÷åì â Þæíîì Çàâîëæüå è Âîëæñêî-Îêñêîì Ñïëþøêà (Otus scops). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà ìåæäóðå÷üå. Îáùóþ ñîâðåThe Scops Owl (Otus scops). Photo by I. Karyakin ìåííóþ ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè ìû îöåíèâàåì â 400–2000 ïàð. Ýòè öèôðû äîëæíû áûòü óòî÷íåíû â ðåçóëüòàòå äîïîëíèòåëüíûõ èññëåäîâàíèé.  òå÷åíèå ÕÕ âåêà, âåðîÿòíî, ïðîèñõîäèëî ðàññåëåíèå âèäà ïî òåððèòîðèè îáëàñòè, ñîïðîâîæäàâøååñÿ ìåäëåííûì ðîñòîì ÷èñëåííîñòè. Ïî-âèäèìîìó, ýòà òåíäåíöèÿ ïðîäîëæàåòñÿ è â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ. Ìîõíîíîãèé ñû÷ – Aegolius funereus (L.) – ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ, çèìóþùèé âèä.  ïåðâîé ïîëîâèíå ÕÕ âåêà ñ÷èòàëñÿ ðåäêèì ãíåçäÿùèìñÿ âèäîì îáëàñòè; â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä áûë îòìå÷åí â ñòàðîâîçðàñòíûõ õâîéíûõ ëåñàõ êàê Çàâîëæüÿ, òàê è Ïðåäâîëæüÿ. Âî âðåìÿ îñåííèõ è çèìíèõ êî÷¸âîê íåîäíîêðàòíî ïîÿâëÿëñÿ íà òåððèòîðèè ã. Í. Íîâãîðîäà (Ñåðåáðîâñêèé, 1918; Ïóçàíîâ è äð., 1955; Âîðîíöîâ, 1967). Ìû ñ÷èòàåì, ÷òî ìàëîå ÷èñëî âñòðå÷ îáúÿñíÿåòñÿ, â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü, íå íèçêîé ÷èñëåííîñòüþ, à áèîëîãè÷åñêèìè îñîáåííîñòÿìè ýòîãî ñû÷à: êîðîòêèì ïåðèîäîì âîêàëèçàöèè, ïðèÐèñ. 6. Ìåñòà îáíàðóæåíèÿ ìîõíîíîãîãî ñû÷à (Aegolius funereus) â Íèæåãîðîäõîäÿùèìñÿ íà ðàííþþ âåñíó, ñêîé îáëàñòè â 1898–1979 ãã. (1), 1980– îòíîñèòåëüíî òèõèì ãîëîñîì, 2004 ãã. (2) è 2005 ã. (3) ñëûøíûì ëèøü íà íåáîëüøîì Fig. 6. Points of the Tengmalm’s Owl (Aeðàññòîÿíèè (ðèñ. 6). golius funereus) records in the N.Novgorod ×èñëåííîñòü ìîõíîíîãîãî district in 1898–1979 (1), 1980–2004 (2) and 2005 (3) ñû÷à â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëà-

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ñòè (Ìåòîä 1) îöåíåíà â 2000 ïàð (1300– 2900).  ðåçóëüòàòå îáðàáîòêè ó÷¸òíûõ äàííûõ ÃÈÑ-ìåòîäîì ÷èñëåííîñòü îöåíåíà â 1000–10000, â ñðåäíåì 6000 ïàð. Ðåàëüíàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà, âåðîÿòíî, ëåæèò â äèàïàçîíå îò 2000 äî 6000 ïàð. Ñðåäíÿÿ ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ìîõíîíîãîãî ñû÷à â ëåñàõ îáëàñòè ñîñòàâëÿåò îêîëî 5 ïàð/100 êì2 (3,3–7,3 ïàð/100êì2). Âèä îòìå÷åí â ðàçíûõ òèïàõ ëåñîâ, íî ïðåäïî÷èòàåò âëàæíûå ñòàðîâîçðàñòíûå åëüíèêè.  îïòèìàëüíûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿõ ïëîòíîñòü ïðåâûøàåò 30 ïàð/100 êì2. Ìèíèìàëüíîå ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ñîñåäíèìè ãíåçäîâûìè ó÷àñòêàìè ñîñòàâëÿåò 570 ì. Äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ïðåäïî÷èòàåò èñïîëüçîâàòü äóïëà ÷¸ðíîãî äÿòëà (Dryocopus martius), ïîýòîìó íàõîäèòñÿ â çàâèñèìîñòè îò åãî ÷èñëåííîñòè.  1990 ã. íà òåððèòîðèè È÷àëêîâñêîãî áîðà áûëî îáíàðóæåíî ãíåçäî ìîõíîíîãîãî ñû÷à â ñòàðîé ñîðî÷üåé ïîñòðîéêå. Ìîõíîíîãèé ñû÷ âíåñ¸í â Ïåðå÷åíü âèäîâ, íóæäàþùèõñÿ â îñîáîì êîíòðîëå çà ñîñòîÿíèåì â ïðèðîäíîé ñðåäå íà òåððèòîðèè Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè (Ïðèëîæåíèå 2 ê Êðàñíîé êíèãå). Äîìîâûé ñû÷ – Athene noctua (Scop.) – ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ, âåðîÿòíî çèìóþùèé âèä. ×åðåç Íèæåãîðîäñêóþ îáëàñòü ïðîõîäèò ñåâåðíàÿ ãðàíèöà àðåàëà, ïðèáëèçèòåëüíî ñîâïàäàþùàÿ ñ äîëèíîé ð. Âîëãè. Âñå íàõîäêè ýòîãî ñû÷à â ãíåçäîâîå âðåìÿ ïðèóðî÷åíû ê Ïðåäâîëæüþ.  1980–90-å ãã. â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä ýòó ñîâó íàõîäèëè â Êóëåáàêñêîì, Áóòóðëèíñêîì, Âà÷ñêîì,

Ðèñ. 7. Ìåñòà îáíàðóæåíèÿ äîìîâîãî ñû÷à (Athene noctua) â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â 1898–1979 ãã. (1), 1980–2004 ãã. (2) è 2005 ã. (3) Fig. 7. Points of records of the Long-eared Owl (Athene noctua) in the N.Novgorod district in 1898–1979 (1), 1980–2004 (2) and 2005 (3)


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5

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Òàáë. 9. Îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ âèäîâ ñîâ è å¸ äèíàìèêè â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè Table 9. Estimations of number of breeding owls and its trends in the N. Novgorod district

Ñû÷èê âîðîáüèíûé (Glaucidium passerinum). Ôîòî À. Ëåâàøêèíà The Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium passerinum). Photo by A. Levashkin

Ðèñ. 8. Ìåñòà îáíàðóæåíèÿ âîðîáüèíîãî ñû÷à (Glaucidium passerinum) â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â 1898–1979 ãã. (1), 1980–2004 ãã. (2) è 2005 ã. (3) Fig. 8. Points of the Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium passerinum) records in the N.Novgorod district in 1898–1979 (1), 1980–2004 (2) and 2005 (3)

Äàëüíåêîíñòàíòèíîâñêîì, Ïèëüíèíñêîì è Êðàñíîîêòÿáðüñêîì ðàéîíàõ, à òàêæå â ã. Í. Íîâãîðîäå.  àâãóñòå 1995 ã. îäíà ïòèöà îòìå÷åíà â ïîñ. Ðóñòàé Áîðñêîãî ðàéîíà – ïåðâàÿ íàõîäêà â Çàâîëæüå (Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, 2003).  íà÷àëå ÕÕ âåêà â îòäåëüíûõ ðàéîíàõ Ïðåäâîëæüÿ (íàïðèìåð, â Ëóêîÿíîâñêîì óåçäå Íèæåãîðîäñêîé ãóáåðíèè) áûë îáû÷åí íà ãíåçäîâàíèè (Ñåðåáðîâñêèé, 1918) (ðèñ. 7). Ïî-âèäèìîìó, â 1950– 1970-õ ãã. ïðîèçîøëî ñíèæåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ îí î÷åíü ðåäîê. Ïî íàøåé îöåíêå, â îáëàñòè ñåé÷àñ ãíåçäèòñÿ íå áîëåå 20 ïàð.  1988–1999 ãã. íàìè çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíû 4 ñëó÷àÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ äîìîâîãî ñû÷à â ã. Í. Íîâãîðîä, â ñ. Äàâûäîâî Âà÷ñêîãî ðàéîíà, íà îáíàæåíèè èçâåñòíÿêîâ è ãèïñîâ ñ íèøàìè è ïåùåðàìè, ðàñïîëîæåííîì â àíòðîïîãåííîì ëàíäøàôòå (Áîðíóêîâñêàÿ ïåùåðà â Áóòóðëèíñêîì ðàéîíå) è â ñòàðîâîçðàñòíîé ïîéìåííîé äóáðàâå (Êóëåáàêñêèé ðàéîí).  2005 ã. íàì íå óäàëîñü îáíàðóæèòü íîâûõ ìåñò îáèòàíèÿ ýòîé ñîâû. Âèä âíåñåí â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â êàòåãîðèþ Ä êàê íåîïðåäåë¸ííûé, íåäîñòàòî÷íî èçó÷åííûé.

Âîðîáüèíûé ñû÷ – Glaucidium passerinum (L.) – ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ è çèìóþùèé âèä. Íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ ñðåäíÿÿ ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâèëà 4,6 ïàð/100 êì2 (2,5– 8,4 ïàð/100 êì2). Íå áûëî çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíî íè îäíîãî ñëó÷àÿ ñîïðèêîñíîâåíèÿ ãðàíèö ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ âîðîáüèíûõ ñû÷åé. Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó òî÷êàìè âñòðå÷ âñåãäà çíà÷èòåëüíî ïðåâûøàëî äèàìåòð íå òîëüêî ãíåçäîâîãî, íî è îõîòíè÷üåãî ó÷àñòêà (ðèñ. 8). Ýêñòðàïîëÿöèÿ ïëîòíîñòè ñ ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê íà ëåñíûå çåìëè îáëàñòè ïîçâîëÿåò îöåíèòü ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà â 1841 ïàðó (1010 – 3354 ïàðû). Íàèáîëåå âåðîÿòíîé ïðåäñòàâëÿåòñÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü âîðîáüèíîãî ñû÷à îò 2000 äî 5000 ïàð. Âîðîáüèíûé ñû÷ âíåñ¸í â Ïåðå÷åíü âèäîâ, íóæäàþùèõñÿ â îñîáîì êîíòðîëå çà ñîñòîÿíèåì â ïðèðîäíîé ñðåäå íà òåððè-

Ðèñ. 9. Ìåñòà îáíàðóæåíèÿ ÿñòðåáèíîé ñîâû (Surnia ulula) â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â 1898–1979 ãã. (1), 1980–2004 ãã. (2) è 2005 ã. (3) Fig. 9. Points of the Hawk Owl (Surnia ulula) records in the N.Novgorod district in 1898– 1979 (1), 1980–2004 (2) and 2005 (3)


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Ñîâà ÿñòðåáèíàÿ (Surnia ulula). Ôîòî Å. Ïîòàïîâà The Hawk Owl (Surnia ulula). Photo by E. Potapov

Ðèñ. 10. Ìåñòà îáíàðóæåíèÿ ñåðîé íåÿñûòè (Strix aluco) â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â 1898–1979 ãã. (1), 1980–2004 ãã. (2) è 2005 ã. (3) Fig. 10. Points of the Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) records in the N. Nov-gorod district in 1898–1979 (1), 1980–2004 (2) and 2005 (3)

òîðèè Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè (Ïðèëîæåíèå 2 ê Êðàñíîé êíèãå). ßñòðåáèíàÿ ñîâà – Surnia ulula (L.) – Íèæåãîðîäñêàÿ îáëàñòü íàõîäèòñÿ íà þæíîì ïðåäåëå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ âèäà, ïîýòîìó ÿñòðåáèíàÿ ñîâà âñòðå÷àëàñü òîëüêî â Çàâîëæüå. Âñå àâòîðû ôàóíèñòè÷åñêèõ ñâîäîê îòìå÷àþò ðåäêîñòü ýòîé ñîâû íà ãíåçäîâàíèè, íî ïðè ýòîì óêàçûâàþò íà ðåãóëÿðíûå âñòðå÷è â ïåðèîä êî÷¸âîê è çèìîâêè, ïðè÷¸ì â îòäåëüíûå ãîäû â áîëüøîì êîëè÷åñòâå (Ñåðåáðîâñêèé, 1918; Ïóçàíîâ è äð., 1955; Âîðîíöîâ, 1967).  1980–90-õ ãã. äàæå çèìíèå âñòðå÷è ñòàëè èñêëþ÷èòåëüíîé ðåäêîñòüþ, ÷òî ñâèäåòåëüñòâóåò î ñîêðàùåíèè ÷èñëåííîñòè â 1960–70-õõ ãã. Íàìè âçðîñëàÿ ïòèöà âñòðå÷åíà îäíàæäû â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä â êîíöå èþíÿ – íà÷àëå èþëÿ 1995 ã. â Ñîêîëüñêîì ðàéîíå (ðèñ. 9). Ïî-âèäèìîìó, â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ÿñòðåáèíàÿ ñîâà â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè – íåðåãóëÿðíî ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ âèä, è âðÿä ëè ìîæíî ðàññ÷èòûâàòü íà îäíîâðåìåííîå ãíåçäîâàíèå áîëåå 2–3 ïàð. Âèä âíåñ¸í â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â êàòåãîðèþ Ä êàê íåîïðåäåë¸ííûé, íåäîñòàòî÷íî èçó÷åííûé. Ñåðàÿ íåÿñûòü – Strix aluco (L.) – ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ, çèìóþùèé âèä. Äî 1970-õ ãã. áûëà â íàøåé îáëàñòè îäíîé èç ñàìûõ îáû÷íûõ ñîâ.  ñåâåðíûõ ðàéîíàõ ñ êðóïíûìè ëåñíûìè ìàññèâàìè áûëà íåìíîãî÷èñëåííà, â öåíòðàëüíûõ è þæíûõ ðàéîíàõ îáû÷íà êàê â ëåñàõ, òàê è â àíòðîïîãåííîì ëàíäøàôòå (Êèðïè÷íèêîâ, 1915; Ñåðåáðîâñêèé, 1918; Ïóçàíîâ è Äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü (Strix uralensis). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Ural Owl (Strix uralensis). Photo by I. Karyakin

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ äð., 1955; Âîðîíöîâ, 1967).  òå÷åíèå ÕÕ âåêà å¸ ÷èñëåííîñòü íåóêëîííî ñíèæàëàñü. Îá ýòîì ñâèäåòåëüñòâóþò êàê ñíèæåíèå âñòðå÷àåìîñòè ýòîé ñîâû (òàáë. 5), òàê è äàííûå íàøèõ ó÷¸òîâ. Íàïðèìåð, ïðè ïðîâåäåíèè ó÷¸òîâ â È÷àëêîâñêîì áîðó èç 5 ïàð, îáíàðóæåííûõ â 1990 ã., ê 2000 ã. îñòàëàñü îäíà, à íà ó÷¸òíîé ïëîùàäêå â Ïóñòûíñêîì çàêàçíèêå èç 3 ïàð, ó÷ò¸ííûõ â 1987 ã., â 2000 ã. ñîõðàíèëàñü òàêæå îäíà ïàðà. Íàèáîëåå âåðîÿòíàÿ ïðè÷èíà ñîêðàùåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè – âûòåñíåíèå áûñòðî ðàññåëÿþùåéñÿ â ëåñàõ îáëàñòè äëèííîõâîñòîé íåÿñûòüþ. Íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ â È÷àëêîâñêîì áîðó è Ïóñòûíñêîì çàêàçíèêå íàëèöî ôàêò çàìåùåíèÿ ñåðîé íåÿñûòè äëèííîõâîñòîé íà êîíêðåòíûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ. Ñåðàÿ íåÿñûòü ñîõðàíÿåòñÿ â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü â àíòðîïîãåííîì ëàíäøàôòå, à òàêæå â ñòàðîâîçðàñòíûõ ïîéìåííûõ ëåñàõ. Ýòà ñîâà ãíåçäèòñÿ â äóïëàõ ñòàðûõ äåðåâüåâ íà òåððèòîðèè ã. Í. Íîâãîðîäà (ðèñ. 10). Çà ïåðèîä 1985–2005 ãã. ÷èñëåííîñòü (Ìåòîä 1) ñîñòàâèëà îêîëî 1200 ïàð (òàáë. 6), ò.å. âèä óæå íåëüçÿ íàçâàòü îáû÷íûì. Ðåçóëüòàòû ó÷¸òîâ, ïðîâåä¸ííûõ â ðàçíûå ïåðèîäû äàííîãî äâàäöàòèëåòèÿ, ïîêàçûâàþò êàðòèíó êàòàñòðîôè÷åñêîãî ïàäåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ýòîãî âèäà íåçàâèñèìî îò ìåòîäîâ îáðàáîòêè (òàáë. 8). ×èñëåííîñòü ñåðîé íåÿñûòè óìåíüøèëàñü â 3–6 ðàç çà 10–15 ëåò. Ïî äàííûì ó÷åòîâ 2005 ã. ñðåäíÿÿ âåëè÷èíà ÷èñëåííîñòè â îáëàñòè, ðàññ÷èòàííàÿ ÃÈÑ-ìåòîäîì, ñîñòàâèëà 251 ïàðó. Ïî-âèäèìîìó, ýòà âåëè÷èíà íåñêîëüêî çàíèæåíà, òàê êàê íåâîçìîæíî áûëî âêëþ÷èòü â ðàñ÷¸ò ñîâ, îáèòàþùèõ â ñåëüñêèõ ïàðêàõ.  ðåçóëüòàòå ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè íà ëåñíûå çåìëè îáëàñòè äàííûõ ó÷åòîâ 2000–2005 ãã. ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà îöåíåíà â 487 ïàð (224–970 ïàð). Íàèáîëåå âåðîÿòíîå çíà÷åíèå ñîâðåìåííîé ÷èñëåííîñòè ñåðîé íåÿñûòè â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè ëåæèò â èíòåðâàëå 300–500 ïàð. Ñåðàÿ íåÿñûòü âíåñåíà â Ïåðå÷åíü âèäîâ, íóæäàþùèõñÿ â îñîáîì êîíòðîëå çà ñîñòîÿíèåì â ïðèðîäíîé ñðåäå íà òåððèòîðèè Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè (Ïðèëîæåíèå 2 ê Êðàñíîé êíèãå). Äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü – Strix uralensis (Pall.) – ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ, çèìóþùèé âèä.  Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè äî ñåðåäèíû ÕÕ âåêà áûëà ðåäêîé ãíåçäÿùåéñÿ ïòèöåé Çàâîëæüÿ (Ñåðåáðîâñêèé, 1918; Ïóçàíîâ è äð., 1955; Âîðîíöîâ, 1967).  1980-õ ãîäàõ å¸ ÷èñëåííîñòü óâåëè÷èëàñü, î ÷¸ì ñâèäåòåëüñòâóþò êàê ðîñò å¸ âñòðå÷àåìîñòè (òàáë. 5), òàê è äàííûå íàøèõ


Raptors Research ó÷¸òîâ. Ýòà ñîâà ðàññåëèëàñü ïî âñåé òåððèòîðèè îáëàñòè, ïîâñþäó âûòåñíÿÿ ñåðóþ íåÿñûòü. Ê íàñòîÿùåìó âðåìåíè îíà ñòàëà îáû÷íà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè íå òîëüêî â õâîéíûõ è õâîéíî-øèðîêîëèñòâåííûõ ëåñàõ, íî è â äóáðàâàõ. Îñåíüþ è çèìîé, âî âðåìÿ êî÷¸âîê, ýòà ñîâà ðåãóëÿðíî ïîñåùàåò Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä.  2004 ã. À.Ï. Ëåâàøêèí (2005) îáíàðóæèë ãíåçäî â äóáðàâå Áîòàíè÷åñêîãî ñàäà Íèæåãîðîäñêîãî ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà íà òåððèòîðèè Ðèñ. 11. Ìåñòà îáíàðóæåíèÿ äëèííîõâîñòîé íåÿñûòè (Strix uralensis) â Íèæåãîãîðîäà (ðèñ. 11). ðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â 1898–1979 ãã. (1), Ñðåäíÿÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü äëèí1980–2004 ãã. (2) è 2005 ã. (3) íîõâîñòîé íåÿñûòè â ÍèæåFig. 11. Points of the Ural Owl (Strix uralenãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â ïåðèîä sis) records of Long-eared Owl in the 1985–2005 ãã., ðàññ÷èòàííàÿ N.Novgorod district in 1898–1979 (1), 1980–2004 (2) and 2005 (3) ñ ïîìîùüþ ðàçíûõ ìåòîäîâ, ñîñòàâèëà 5500–5700 ïàð (òàáë. 6, 7). Ïðè ýòîì â òå÷åíèå âñåãî äâàäöàòèëåòèÿ ïðîèñõîäèë áûñòðûé ðîñò ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà îò 2800 ïàð â 1980-å ãã. äî 6800 ïàð â 2005 ã. (òàáë. 8). Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ñîâðåìåííàÿ îáëàñòíàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà ñîñòàâëÿåò 6000–6800 ïàð, òî åñòü ïî ÷èñëåííîñòè äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü ïî÷òè íå óñòóïàåò óøàñòîé ñîâå. Ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ â ëåñàõ îáëàñòè â ñðåäíåì ñîñòàâëÿåò 13,8 ïàð íà 100 êì2 (10,3–18,6 ïàð/ 100êì2).  îïòèìàëüíûõ óñëîâèÿõ îáèòàíèÿ íà îòäåëüíûõ ó÷àñòêàõ ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâëÿåò 1–2 ïàðû íà 1 êì2. Ìèíèìàëüíîå çàðåãèñòðèðîâàííîå ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ñîñåäíèìè ó÷àñòêàìè ñîñòàâëÿåò 0,5–0,6 êì. Ðîñò ÷èñëåííîñòè è ðàññåëåíèå âèäà ïî îáëàñòè ïðîäîëæàåòñÿ. Áîðîäàòàÿ íåÿñûòü (Strix nebulosa). Ôîòî Áîðîäàòàÿ íåÿñûòü – Strix È. Êàðÿêèíà nebulosa (J.R. Forst.) – ãíåçThe Great Grey Owl (Strix nebulosa). Phoäÿùèéñÿ, çèìóþùèé âèä.  to by I. Karyakin Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè íàõîäèòñÿ ó þæíîé ãðàíèöû ãíåçäîâîãî àðåàëà, âñòðå÷àåòñÿ èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî â Çàâîëæüå. Äî íà÷àëà íàøèõ èññëåäîâàíèé å¸ ãíåçäîâàíèå íà òåððèòîðèè îáëàñòè íå áûëî çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíî; ìíîãî÷èñëåííûå âñòðå÷è îòíîñèëèñü ê ïåðèîäó îñåííèõ è çèìíèõ êî÷¸âîê (Ñåðåáðîâñêèé, 1918; Ïóçàíîâ è äð., 1955; Âîðîíöîâ, 1967; Çèìèí, 1974). Åäèíñòâåííîå ãíåçäî îáíàðóæåíî â 1992 ãîäó â Êðàñíîáàêîâñêîì ðàé-

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5

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Ðèñ. 12. Ìåñòà îáíàðóæåíèÿ áîðîäàòîé íåÿñûòè (Strix nebulosa) â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â 1898–1979 ãã. (1), 1980–2004 ãã. (2) è 2005 ã. (3). Fig. 12. Points of the Great Grey Owl (Strix nebulosa) records in the N.Novgorod district in 1898–1979 (1), 1980–2004 (2) and 2005 (3)

îíå (Áàêêà, Áàêêà, 1998). Áîðîäàòàÿ íåÿñûòü, âåðîÿòíî, ãíåçäèòñÿ íà Êàìñêî-Áàêàëäèíñêèõ áîëîòàõ (Âîðîòûíñêèé ðàéîí), â Êîâåðíèíñêîì, Ãîðîäåöêîì, âîçìîæíî – â Ñîêîëüñêîì è Áîðñêîì ðàéîíàõ; îñåííèé òîê îòìå÷åí â 2000 ã. â Òîíøàåâñêîì ðàéîíå. Äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ âûáèðàåò ó÷àñòêè ñòàðûõ ïèõòîâî-åëîâûõ èëè ñîñíîâûõ ëåñîâ, ãðàíè÷àùèå ñ îòêðûòûìè ñôàãíîâûìè áîëîòàìè, ãàðÿìè è âûðóáêàìè (ðèñ. 12).  2005 ã. íàì íå óäàëîñü îáíàðóæèòü íîâûõ ìåñò îáèòàíèÿ ýòîé ñîâû. Ïðè ñîñòàâëåíèè îáëàñòíîé Êðàñíîé êíèãè ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà áûëà îöåíåíà íå áîëåå ÷åì â 10 ïàð (Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, 2003). Áîëåå òùàòåëüíàÿ èíòåðïðåòàöèÿ ñîáðàííûõ äàííûõ ïîçâîëèëà îöåíèòü ñîâðåìåííóþ ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà â 20–30 ïàð. Ó÷èòûâàÿ, ÷òî â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ äàæå çèìíèå âñòðå÷è ýòèõ ñîâ íåëüçÿ íàçâàòü ìíîãî÷èñëåííûìè, ìû ñ÷èòàåì, ÷òî ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà ñîêðàòèëàñü â 1960–70-õ ãã. Áîðîäàòàÿ íåÿñûòü – îäíà èç íàèáîëåå ðåäêèõ ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ñîâ îáëàñòè – âíåñåíà â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â êàòåãîðèþ À, êàê âèä, íàõîäÿùèéñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ.

II. Ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî îõðàíå ñîâ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè è âíåñåíèþ èçìåíåíèé â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè Âñå ñîâîîáðàçíûå, êàê õèùíûå ïòèöû, íàõîäÿùèåñÿ íà âåðõíèõ «ýòàæàõ» òðîôè÷åñêèõ ïèðàìèä, îñîáåííî óÿçâèìû. Ñîâû


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5 – âàæíåéøèå ðåãóëÿòîðû ÷èñëåííîñòè ãðûçóíîâ. Ñ óòèëèòàðíîé òî÷êè çðåíèÿ âûãîäåí ðîñò ÷èñëåííîñòè ýòèõ åñòåñòâåííûõ ðåãóëÿòîðîâ ÷èñëåííîñòè ìûøåâèäíûõ ãðûçóíîâ. Ïîýòîìó ñîõðàíåíèþ è ïðèâëå÷åíèþ ñîâ äîëæíû óäåëÿòü âíèìàíèå íå òîëüêî ïðàêòèêè îõðàíû ïðèðîäû, íî è ñïåöèàëèñòû ðàçíûõ îòðàñëåé õîçÿéñòâà. Áåëàÿ ñîâà íà òåððèòîðèè Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè èñïîëüçóåò àãðîëàíäøàôòû, ñêîïëåíèé íå îáðàçóåò, ïîýòîìó òåððèòîðèàëüíàÿ îõðàíà âèäà â îáëàñòè íåâîçìîæíà. Íà òåððèòîðèè îáëàñòè, äàæå â ãîäû ìàññîâûõ «çàë¸òîâ», êîíöåíòðèðóåòñÿ íåçíà÷èòåëüíàÿ äîëÿ åâðîïåéñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè.  òî æå âðåìÿ âèä â Åâðîïå íåáëàãîïîëó÷åí, äîáûâàíèå åãî íåäîïóñòèìî. Ñóùåñòâóþùèé ñòàòóñ íåîõîòíè÷üåãî âèäà, êîòîðûé íå ïîçâîëÿåò äîáûâàòü ïòèö áåç ñïåöèàëüíîãî ðàçðåøåíèÿ, äîñòàòî÷åí.  ðåçóëüòàòå ïðîâåä¸ííûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, ÷èñëåííîñòü ôèëèíà â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè îêàçàëàñü âûøå, ÷åì ïðåäïîëàãàëîñü ðàíåå. Òåì íå ìåíåå, âèä êðàéíå óÿçâèì. Ïðåäñòàâëÿåòñÿ öåëåñîîáðàçíûì ñîõðàíèòü äëÿ äàííîãî âèäà êàòåãîðèþ À. Óøàñòàÿ ñîâà, êàê íàèáîëåå ìíîãî÷èñëåííûé è ïðåäïî÷èòàþùèé àíòðîïîãåííî ïðåîáðàçîâàííûå ëàíäøàôòû âèä ñîâîîáðàçíûõ, â ñïåöèàëüíûõ ìåðàõ îõðàíû íå íóæäàåòñÿ.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ áîëîòíàÿ ñîâà ìîæåò ñ÷èòàòüñÿ â îáëàñòè áëàãîïîëó÷íûì âèäîì, íå òðåáóþùèì ñïåöèàëüíûõ ìåð îõðàíû. ×èñëåííîñòü ñïëþøêè, çàíåñ¸ííîé â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, îêàçàëàñü, ïî ìåíüøåé ìåðå, íà ïîðÿäîê âûøå, ÷åì ïðåäïîëàãàëîñü ðàíåå. Öåëåñîîáðàçíî ðàññìîòðåòü íà êîìèññèè ïî Êðàñíîé êíèãå Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè âîïðîñ èñêëþ÷åíèÿ ñïëþøêè èç Êðàñíîé êíèãè è âêëþ÷åíèÿ å¸ â Ïðèëîæåíèå 2 ê Êðàñíîé êíèãå Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. Ñåðóþ íåÿñûòü íåîáõîäèìî âíåñòè â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â êàòåãîðèþ Á (óÿçâèìûé âèä, áûñòðî ñîêðàùàþùèé ÷èñëåííîñòü). Ïåðâîî÷åðåäíûå ìåðû ïî å¸ ñîõðàíåíèþ è âîññòàíîâëåíèþ – íå äîïóùåíèå âûðóáêè ñòàðûõ äóïëèñòûõ äåðåâüåâ â íàñåë¸ííûõ ïóíêòàõ è óñòàíîâêà èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé (çàêðûòûå ãíåçäîâûå ÿùèêè ñ äèàìåòðîì ëåòêà 12–15 ñì) â àíòðîïîãåííîì ëàíäøàôòå è ïîéìåííûõ ëåñàõ. Áèîòåõíè÷åñêèå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ îñîáåííî àêòóàëüíû â Ïðåäâîëæüå. Äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü – îäèí èç ñàìûõ áëàãîïîëó÷íûõ âèäîâ ñîâîîáðàçíûõ íà òåððèòîðèè Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, íå íóæäàþùèéñÿ â ñïåöèàëüíûõ ìåðàõ îõðàíû.

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ×èñëåííîñòü áîðîäàòîé íåÿñûòè â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè îêàçàëàñü âûøå, ÷åì ïðåäïîëàãàëîñü ðàíåå. Òåì íå ìåíåå, âèä êðàéíå óÿçâèì. Ïðåäñòàâëÿåòñÿ öåëåñîîáðàçíûì ñîõðàíèòü äëÿ äàííîãî âèäà êàòåãîðèþ À. Ðåêîìåíäóåòñÿ óñòàíîâêà ãíåçäîâûõ ïëàòôîðì ïî îêðàèíàì êðóïíûõ áîëîòíûõ ìàññèâîâ. Ëèòåðàòóðà Áàêêà Ñ.Â., Áàêêà À.È. Áîðîäàòàÿ íåÿñûòü â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. – Ðåäêèå âèäû ïòèö Íå÷åðíîçåìíîãî öåíòðà Ðîññèè. Ìàòåðèàëû ñîâåù. «Ðåäêèå ïòèöû öåíòðà Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè», Ìîñêâà, 25–26 ÿíâàðÿ 1995 ã. Ì., 1998. Ñ. 151–153. Áàêêà Ñ.Â., Êèñåë¸âà Í.Þ., Íîâèêîâà Ë.Ì. Êëþ÷åâûå îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèå òåððèòîðèè Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. Ìåòîäè÷åñêîå ïîñîáèå. Í.Íîâãîðîä: Ìåæäóíàðîäíûé Ñîöèàëüíî-ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé Ñîþç, Ýêîöåíòð «Äðîíò», 2004. 95 ñ. Áàêêà Ñ.Â., Êèñ¸ëåâà Í.Þ. ×èñëåííîñòü è ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå ñîâ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. – Ñîâû Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè. Ì., 2005. Ñ. 211–218. Âîðîíåöêèé Â.È., Òèøå÷êèí À.Ê., Äåìÿí÷èê Â.Ò. Ìåòîäû ó÷¸òà ñîâ. – Ìåòîäû èçó÷åíèÿ è îõðàíû õèùíûõ ïòèö (Ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè). Ì., 1989. Ñ. 23–36. Âîðîíöîâ Å.Ì. Ïòèöû Ãîðüêîâñêîé îáëàñòè. Ãîðüêèé, Âîëãî-Âÿòòñêîå êíèæíîå èçäàòåëüñòâî, 1967. 167 ñ. Çèìèí Í.È. Ïòèöû. – Ïðèðîäà Ãîðüêîâñêîé îáëàñòè. – Ãîðüêèé, Âîëãî-Âÿòñêîå êíèæíîå èçäâî, 1974. 319–365. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè (ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî èçó÷åíèþ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è ñîâîîáðàçíûõ). Í. Íîâãîðîä: Èçäàòåëüñòâî «Ïîâîëæüå», 2004. 351 ñ. Êèðïè÷íèêîâ Á.Ä. Ìàòåðèàëû ê ïîçíàíèþ ïòèö Êîñòðîìñêîé ãóáåðíèè. – Ìàòåðèàëû ê ïîçíàíèþ ôàóíû è ôëîðû Ðîññèéñêîé Èìïåðèè. Îòä. çîîëîãè÷åñêèé. Âûïóñê XIV. Ì. 1915. Ñ. 380–435. Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. Ò. 1. Æèâîòíûå. 2004. Í. Íîâãîðîä. 380 ñ. Ëåâàøêèí À.Ï. Ïåðâûé ñëó÷àé ãíåçäîâàíèÿ äëèííîõâîñòîé íåÿñûòè â Íèæíåì Íîâãîðîäå. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2005. ¹2. Ñ. 60. Ïóçàíîâ È.È., Êîçëîâ Â.È., Êèïàðèñîâ Ã.Ï. Æèâîòíûé ìèð Ãîðüêîâñêîé îáëàñòè: (Ïîçâîíî÷íûå). – 2-å äîï. èçä. – Ãîðüêèé: Êí. èçä-âî, 1955. 432 ñ. Ðàâêèí Å.Ñ., ×åëèíöåâ Í.Ã. Ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî êîìïëåêñíîìó ìàðøðóòíîìó ó÷¸òó ïòèö. Ì.: ÂÍÈÈ îõðàíû ïðèðîäû è çàïîâåäíîãî äåëà, 1990. 33 ñ. Ñåðåáðîâñêèé Ï.Â. Ìàòåðèàëû ê èçó÷åíèþ îðíèòîôàóíû Íèæåãîðîäñêîé ãóáåðíèè. –  êí.: Ìàòåðèàëû ê ïîçíàíèþ ôàóíû è ôëîðû Ðîññèè. Îòä. çîîë., âûï. 15, Ì. 1918. Ñ. 23– 134. Ñîñòîÿíèå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû è ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â 2003 ã. Åæåãîäíûé äîêëàä. Í.Íîâãîðîä, 2004. 232 ñ.


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5

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ThebirdsofpreyandowlsoftheUlutaumountains ХИЩНЫЕПТИЦЫИСОВЫУЛУТАУ I.V.Karyakin(CenterforFieldStudies,Russia,N.Novgorod) T.O.Barabashin(UlyanovskBranchoftheRussianBirdConservationUnion, Rostov-na-Donu) И.В.Каряин(Центрполевыхисследований,Россия,Н.Нов/ород) Т.О.Барабашин(УльяновсоеотделениеСоюзаохраныптицРоссии, Ростов-на-Дон$) Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Êîðîëåíêî, 17a–17 òåë.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Òèìîôåé Áàðàáàøèí Óëüÿíîâñêîå îòäåëåíèå Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè, Ðîññèÿ 344065 Ðîñòîâ-íà-Äîíó ïåð. Äíåïðîâñêèé ä. 118, êâ. 520 timbar@bk.ru Contact: Igor Karyakin Leader by Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a–17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Tim Barabashin Ulyanovsk Branch of the Russian Bird Conservation Union, Dneprovsky lane, 118–520 Rostov-na-Donu 344065 Russia timbar@bk.ru

Ìåòîäèêà

Methods

 ðàìêàõ ïðîåêòà ïî èçó÷åíèþ è îõðàíå áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) â Êàçàõñòàíå, ðåàëèçóåìîì íà ñðåäñòâà Èíñòèòóòà èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ (Falcon Research Institute, Carmarthen, IWC; UK) è Àãåíòñòâà ïî îõðàíå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû Îáúåäèíåííûõ Àðàáñêèõ Ýìèðàòîâ (ERWDA, UAE), Öåíòðîì ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé ïîñåùàëñÿ ãðÿäîâî-ìåëêîñîïî÷íûé ìàññèâ Óëóòàó. Ýòîò ìàññèâ çàíèìàåò çàïàäíóþ ÷àñòü Êàçàõñêîãî ìåëêîñîïî÷íèêà íà ïëîùàäè îêîëî 20 òûñ. êì2 è ðàñïîëàãàåòñÿ íà ãðàíèöå ïîëóïóñòûííîé è ñòåïíîé çîí. Îñíîâíóþ ÷àñòü òåððèòîðèè çàíèìàþò âñõîëìëåííûå ñòåïè, ñèëüíî èçðåçàííûå âðåìåííûìè âîäîòîêàìè ñ ìàññîé âëàæíûõ çàïàäèí. Ñêàëüíûå îáíàæåíèÿ â âèäå ïðèðå÷íûõ ñêàë è âîäîðàçäåëüíûõ îñòàíöîâûõ ãðÿä äîñòàòî÷íî ðåäêè. Êðóïíûõ âîäîðàçäåëüíûõ ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâîâ âñåãî òðè, è îíè óäàëåíû äðóã îò äðóãà íà äåñÿòêè êèëîìåòðîâ. Äðåâåñíàÿ ðàñòèòåëüíîñòü â âèäå êîëêîâûõ ëåñîâ, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî èç îñèíû, ðàñïðîñòðàíåíà ïî óùåëüÿì ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâîâ. Äàííàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ îáñëåäîâàëàñü 29 àïðåëÿ – 7 ìàÿ 2005 ã. Ãðóïïà ïåðåäâèãàëàñü íà àâòîìîáèëå ÓÀÇ 31519. Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ýêñïåäèöèîííîãî ìàðøðóòà ñîñòàâèëà 636 êì. Îñíîâíîå âíèìàíèå áûëî óäåëåíî îáñëåäîâàíèþ ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé ðàçëè÷íîãî òèïà è ëåñíûõ êîëêîâ. Òåì íå ìåíåå, ðåãèñòðèðîâàëèñü âñå õèùíûå ïòèöû è, ïî âîçìîæíîñòè, èñêàëèñü èõ ãí¸çäà.

In 2005 we continued the surveys of the raptor population of Kazakhstan which was started in 2003. In this season a field group of the Field Research Center surveyed Central Kazakhstan (29 April –7 May 2005). The total length of the survey routes was 636 km. We set two new study areas with a total area of 310.63 km2 (¹ 38 – 147.49 km2, ¹ 39 – 163.14 km2) for monitoring the numbers of raptors in the Ulutau region (fig. 1). The Ulutau region is a large territory in Central Kazakhstan. The region includes the Ulutau mountains and steppe hills around the Ulutau mountains. The total area of the Ulutau region is 20 000 km2. The located breeding territories of raptors were GPSed and mapped using in GIS software (ArcView 3.2a, ESRI, CA, USA) for the subsequent calculation of the density (Karyakin, 2000, 2004). The study areas include 4 types of

Çàïàäíûé ñêëîí ãîðû Óëóòàó íà ñíèìêå Landsat–7, òðàíñôîðìèðîâàííîì 3D-ìîäóëåì (1), è íà ôîòîãðàôèè (2). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The western side of Ulutau mount on the satellite image Landsat 7 transformed by 3D-module (1) and this side on photo (2). Photo by I. Karyakin


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5

Ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûå áèîòîïû îñìàòðèâàëèñü â îïòèêó (áèíîêëè 8õ30, 12õ50) ñ öåëüþ îáíàðóæåíèÿ íèø è ãíåçäîâûõ ïîñòðîåê, ïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Îáíàðóæåííûå íèøè è ãíåçäîâûå ïîñòðîéêè ñ ïðèçíàêàìè èõ çàñåëåíèÿ õèùíèêàìè, íåäîñòóïíûå äëÿ áûñòðîãî îáñëåäîâàíèÿ áåç àëüïèíèñòñêîãî ñíàðÿæåíèÿ, ïîäðîáíî îñìàòðèâàëèñü â òðóáó 30–60õ, äëÿ âûÿñíåíèÿ èõ çàíÿòîñòè.  ñâÿçè Ðèñ. 1. Ðàñïîëîæåíèå ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàñî ñëîæíîñòüþ ðåëüåôà îñäîê è ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâîâ, îöèôðîâàííûõ ïî êîñìîñíèìêàì Landsat–7 íîâíûõ ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâîâ Óëóòàó, îíè îáñëåäîâàëèñü íà Fig. 1. Location of surveyed plots and rocks verified by using satellite images Landsat– ïðåäìåò ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö â õîäå ïåøèõ ìàðøðóòîâ. Ïîä ãíåçäîâûìè ó÷àñòêàìè ìû ïîäðàçóìåâàåì òåððèòîðèè, íà êîòîðûõ îáíàðóæåíû ãí¸çäà õèùíûõ ïòèö, âñòðå÷åíû âçðîñëûå ïòèöû, íåîäíîêðàòíî ïðîÿâëÿâøèå ïðèçíàêè áåñïîêîéñòâà. Ê âîçìîæíûì ãíåçäîâûì ó÷àñòêàì ìû ïðèðàâíèâàåì èþíüñêèå âñòðå÷è âçðîñëûõ ïòèö ñ äîáû÷åé, íåîäíîêðàòíî ðåãèñòðèðîâàâøèõñÿ íà îäíîé è òîé æå òåððèòîðèè. Âûÿâëÿåìûå ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ êàðòèðîâàëèñü, äàííûå âíîñèëèñü â ñðåäó ÃÈÑ (ArcView 3.2a, ESRI, CA, USA), ãäå è ïðîèçâîäèëñÿ ðàñ÷¸ò îáùåé ÷èñëåííîñòè êàæäîãî âèäà â îòäåëüíîñòè (Êàðÿêèí, 2000, 2004). Äëÿ ó÷¸òà è ðàñ÷¸òà ÷èñëåííîñòè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ â þæíîé è öåíòðàëüíîé ÷àñòÿõ ãðÿäîâî-ìåëêîñîïî÷íîãî ìàññèâà áûëè çàëîæåíû 2 ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêè îáùåé ïëîùàäüþ 310,63 êì2 (¹ 38 – 147,49 êì2, ¹ 39 – 163,14 êì2) (ðèñ. 1). Ïëîùàäêè âêëþ÷àëè â ñåáÿ 4 òèïà ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé, õàðàêòåðíûõ äëÿ èññëåäóåìîé òåððèòîðèè (ðèñ. 2). Íà îñíîâå ðàÐèñ. 2. Òèïû ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé, âèäèìûå íà êîñìîñíèìêàõ Landsat–7 Fig. 2. The types of rocks on the satellite images Landsat–7

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ rocks and cliffs, which are very character for the surveying territory (fig. 2). The total area of the outcrops of high rocks and cliffs in the Ulutau region occupy 556.0 km2 (n=46; 0.48 – 197.56 km2, average 12.1±29.4 km2; average ± SD), and the area of similar habitats of the rocks and cliffs within the study areas was 94.72 km 2 (17.1%) (fig. 3). The total area of forests in the Ulutau region was (n=97) 45.71 km2, the same within the study areas was 4.7 km2 (10.3%). The numbers species, breeding in rocks, cliffs and forests, were extrapolated for the total area on the basis of the surveys.

Results of studies Fifteen species of Falconiformes and 5 species of Strigiformes were found on the surveyed territory, and 11 species of Falconiformes and 2 Owls species were proven breeders (table 1). Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) A single bird was recorded on the 29th of April near the Saryiasu river. Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus) Three breeding areas were found (fig. 4). On 3 May a pair of Short-Toed Eagles (territory ¹ 1) was noted, and a single bird was spotted over the Bozdaksay river (BalaZheldy). On 6 May a bird uttering it’s mating-calls (territory ¹ 2) was recorded over a rock in the upper reaches of the Tamda river. On 7 May a Short-Toed Eagle over a nest (territory ¹ 3) was noted in the western side of Dondyg mountain. On 5 May we observed a Short-Toed Eagle, flying on a large distance next to Ulutau mount. We may project 5–10 pairs of the Short-Toed Eagle breeding in the Ulutau mountains. Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) Single birds flying on a large distance were observed on 1 and 5 May in the upper reaches of the Kumola river and near Ulutau mount. Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) We found 4 breeding territories on a rock with total area more than 10 km2, 3 from which were located on study areas (fig. 5). An active nest of the Golden Eagle located on a rock was found on 2 May (territory ¹ 1). On 4 May a pair of adult birds (territory ¹ 2) was observed at the western side of Ulutau mount near the nest. At a distance of 13.7 km from the previous breeding territory on 6 May in southern cliffy parts of the Ulutau mountai another breeding area of the Golden Eagle (territory ¹ 3) was found. The fourth breeding area was found


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5 ñòðîâûõ êàðò Ì 1:500000 è êîñìîñíèìêîâ Landsat–7 áûëè ïîäãîòîâëåíû âåêòîðíûå òåìàòè÷åñêèå ñëîè. Äëÿ ðàñ÷¸òà ÷èñëåííîñòè íàñêàëüíîãíåçäÿùèõñÿ âèäîâ âñå ñêàëüíûå îáíàæåíèÿ, èìåþùèå îòâåñíûå ñòåíû âûñîòîé áîëåå 3-õ ì, âèäèìûå íà êîñìîñíèìêàõ Landsat–7, áûëè îöèôðîâàíû (ðèñ. 3), îïðåäåëåíà èõ ïëîùàäü, íà êîòîðóþ ïðÿìî ýêñòðàïîëèðîâàëèñü ó÷¸òíûå äàííûå ñ ïëîùàäîê. Ïëîùàäü òàêèõ ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé (46 êëàñòåðîâ) ñîñòàâèëà 556,0 êì2 (0,48 – 197,56 êì2, â ñðåäíåì 12,1±29,4 êì2; çäåñü è äàëåå M±SD). Áîëüøèíñòâî ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé ïî ïëîùàäè íå ïðåâûøàëè 10 êì2, è ëèøü ïëîùàäü 12 êëàñòåðîâ áûëà âûøå (26,1% îò îáùåãî êîë-âà ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé, âûäåëåííûõ ïî êîñìîñíèìêàì, 79,1% îò èõ îáùåé ïëîùàäè). Ïëîùàäü ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ ñîñòàâèëà 94,72 êì2 (17,1% îò îáùåé ïëîùàäè âûäåëåííûõ ñêàë). Îáùàÿ ïëîùàäü ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé, âêëþ÷àÿ êàìåííûå ãðÿäû, ñîñòàâèëà îêîëî 1000 êì2. ×èñëåííîñòü ëåñíûõ âèäîâ ðàññ÷èòûâàëàñü äëÿ ïëîùàäè ëåñîâ èñõîäÿ èç ó÷¸òíûõ äàííûõ íà ëåñíûõ ïëîùàäÿõ. Ïëîùàäü ëåñîíàñàæäåíèé (97 êëàñòåðîâ) ñîñòàâèëà 45,71 êì2. Ïëîùàäü ëåñîíàñàæäåíèé íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ ñîñòàâèëà 4,7 êì2 (10,3% îò èõ îáùåé ïëîùàäè íà ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè). Ó÷¸ò ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäîâ, íå ïðèâÿçàííûõ íà ãíåçäîâàíèè ê âûäåëåííûì ñêàëàì èëè êîëêîâûì ëåñàì, îñóùåñòâëÿëñÿ â õîäå ìàðøðóòîâ íà íåîãðàíè÷åííîé ïîëîñå (Êàðÿêèí, 2000, 2004), äàííûå çàíîñèëèñü â Distance 4.1 (Buckland et all., 2001), ñ ïîìîùüþ êîòîðîé è îñóùåñòâëÿëñÿ ðàñ÷¸ò ÷èñëåííîñòè íà îáùóþ ïëîùàäü òåððèòîðèè âûäåëåííîãî â ÃÈÑ ïîëèãîíà.

Ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé Íà îáñëåäîâàííîé òåððèòîðèè âñòðå÷åíî 15 âèäîâ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è 5 âèäîâ ñîâîîáðàçíûõ, äëÿ 11 âèäîâ ñîêîëîîáðàç-

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on 7 May in the rocks of the western side of the Dondyg mountan. The density was 0.03 pairs per km2. A total of 10–18 pairs (14 pairs at average) are estimated to be at the Ulutau mountains. Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) Nine breeding territories of the Imperial Eagle were found (fig. 6). Three breeding territories (territories ¹¹ 3–5) were found on rocks: only 2 were on study areas. All 3 nests were occupied: females were incubating clutches. Two nests located on the tops of aspen trees in a small forested canyons; one nest was on the top of a willow tree in a small forest in the upper reaches of a stream in a steppe. The distance between the two latter nests was 5 km. The density in the rock forests was 0.13 pair per km2. A total of 18–20 pairs are estimated to live in the Ulutau mountains. The breeding territories of the Imperial Eagle ¹¹ 1–2 and 9 were located in the flood-planes of rivers. In the two latter territories on 30 April and 7 May occupied nests of the Imperial Eagles were found on single willow trees. On the watershed of the Tamda and the Kara-Kengir rivers 3 breeding areas of the Imperial Eagles (territories ¹¹ 6–8) with active nests were located on concrete electric poles. The distances between nests were 9.8 and 5.6 km respectively. All the nests of the Imperial Eagles on electric poles and trees coincided with the steppe hills around the Ulutau mountains. The density was a 0.35–0.53 pair per 100 km2 (0.44 pair per 100 km2 on average). A total of 56–82 pairs (71 pairs, average) are extrapolated for the steppe hills around the Ulutau mountains (16000 km2), while a total of 74– 102 pairs are estimated in the Ulutau region. Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) In contrast to the Golden and Imperial Eagles, the Steppe Eagle wasn’t found breeding on rocks in the Ulutau mountains. The Steppe Eagle is a common-breeder in the steppe hills around the Ulutau mountains especially in the southern part. We recorded 26 Steppe Eagles and found 11 breeding territories (fig. 7): 16 individuals were noted within 10 breeding territories; they were concentrated in the upper reaches

Ðèñ. 3. Ïëîùàäêà ¹ 39. Îáðàçåö âåêòîðèçàöèè ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé ïî êîñìîñíèìêó Landsat 7, ïðåîáðàçîâàííîìó 3D-ìîäóëåì (1), è âíåøíèé âèä ýòèõ æå ñêàë íà ôîòîãðàôèè (2). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Fig. 3. Plots ¹ 39. Sample of rock verifications on the satellite image Landsat 7 transformed by 3D-module (1) and these rocks on photo (2). Photo by I. Karyakin


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ Òàáë. 1. ×èñëåííîñòü ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ Table 1. The number of breeding raptors

Ðèñ. 4. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ çìååÿäà (Circaetus gallicus) Fig. 4. The distribution of breeding territories of the Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus)

íûõ è 2-õ âèäîâ ñîâ óñòàíîâëåíî ãíåçäîâàíèå (òàáë. 1). Ñêîïà (Pandion haliaetus) Ïðîë¸òíûé âèä. Îäèíî÷íàÿ ïòèöà íàáëþäàëàñü 29 àïðåëÿ íà îïîðå ËÝÏ íà òåððàñå ð. Ñàðûñó áëèç óñòüÿ ð. Êàðàêåíãèð. Çìååÿä (Circaetus gallicus) Ðåäêèé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ âèä èññëåäóåìîé òåððèòîðèè.  ïåðèîä íàøåé ðàáîòû çìååÿäû åù¸ íå ïðèñòóïèëè ê êëàäêå, è, âåñüìà âåðîÿòíî, ÷òî íå íà âñåõ ó÷àñòêàõ ïòèöû óæå ïðèñóòñòâîâàëè. Òåì íå ìåíåå, íàì óäàëîñü ëîêàëèçîâàòü 3 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà ýòèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö, óäàë¸ííûõ äðóã îò äðóãà íà äåñÿòêè êèëîìåòðîâ (ðèñ. 4): 3 ìàÿ ïàðà çìååÿäîâ (ó÷àñòîê ¹ 1) ñîâåðøàëà äåìîíñòðàòèâíûå ïîë¸òû ïðè òðåòüåé ïòèöå íàä äîëèíîé ð. Áîçäàêñàé (Áàëà-Æåëäû), 6 ìàÿ òîêóþùàÿ ïòèöà (ó÷àñòîê ¹ 2) íàáëþäàëàñü íàä ñêàëüíûì îñòàíöåì â âåðõîâüÿõ ð. Òàìäû, 7 ìàÿ çìååÿä, ñîâåðøàþùèé äåìîíñòðàòèâíûé ïîë¸ò íàä ãíåçäîì (ó÷àñòîê ¹ 3), íàáëþäàëñÿ íàä ëåñíûì êîëêîì íà çàïàäíîì ñêëîíå ã. Äîíäûã. Ïîìèìî ýòèõ âñòðå÷, 5 ìàÿ çìååÿä,

of the Kumola river (territories ¹¹ 1–10). Such a distribution pattern was reflecting our technique of searching for of breeding territories and nests of the Steppe Eagle. During our survey 6 nests were found: in 3 nests females were hutching eggs (territories ¹¹ 1, 4, 9), near 2 nests pairs of birds were building their nests (territories ¹¹ 3, 8), and an old nest was found in already occupied territory (¹ 1). Three nests were located on ledges (2) and on the top (1) of little cliff along dry streams and 3 nests were on ledges (2) and on the top (1) of rocks located on tops (2) and slopes (1) of watershed mountains. The distance between occupied nests and the breeding area centers was (n=8) 2.0±0.73 km on average (1.24–3.27 km). The density was a 0.84 pair per 100 km2, and a total of 119–199 pairs (159 pairs at average) are estimated in the Ulutau region (19000 km2). Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) Six breeding territories of the Long-legged Buzzards with active and old nests were found (fig. 8). Occupied nests were found only in 3 breeding territories in the southern part of the territory (territories ¹¹ 1–3) and had clutches with 3, 3, and 2 eggs respectively. In territory ¹ 4 a pair of birds was actively building a nest, while in the


Raptors Research

Ðèñ. 5. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ áåðêóòà (Aquila chrysaetos) Fig. 5. The distribution of breeding territories of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5 ïðîëåòàâøèé íà áîëüøîé âûñîòå, áûë âñòðå÷åí ïîä ãîðîé Óëóòàó. Ëèøü 1 ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê çìååÿäîâ ïîïàë â ïðåäåëû ó÷¸òíîé ïëîùàäêè, ïîýòîìó íåâîçìîæíî îáúåêòèâíî ðàññ÷èòàòü ÷èñëåííîñòü ýòîãî âèäà íà ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè. Ìîæíî ëèøü ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî íà Óëóòàó ãíåçäèòñÿ îêîëî 5–10 ïàð çìååÿäîâ. Ó÷èòûâàÿ íàõîæäåíèå âèäà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â àíàëîãè÷íûõ áèîòîïàõ Ìóãîäæàð (Ïàæåíêîâ è äð., 2005) è âîñòî÷íîé ÷àñòè Êàçàõñêîãî ìåëêîñîïî÷íèêà (À.Ñ. Ëåâèí, ëè÷íîå ñîîáùåíèå) ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî çìååÿä ÿâëÿåòñÿ õàðàêòåðíûì ãíåçäÿùèìñÿ ñ íèçêîé ïëîòíîñòüþ âèäîì ìåëêîñîïî÷íûõ ëàíäøàôòîâ Öåíòðàëüíîãî Êàçàõñòàíà, îäíàêî ïîêà ðàññ÷èòàòü åãî ÷èñëåííîñòü äëÿ âñåé ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè íå õâàòàåò äàííûõ. Ãðèô (Aegypius monachus) Çàë¸òíûé âèä. Îäèíî÷íûå ïòèöû, ïðîëåòàâøèå íà áîëüøîé âûñîòå, íàáëþäàëèñü 1 è 5 ìàÿ â âåðõîâüÿõ ð. Êóìîëà è áëèç ã. Óëóòàó ñîîòâåòñòâåííî. Áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos) Ðåäêèé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ âèä èññëåäóåìîé òåððèòîðèè. Âûÿâëåíî 4 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà, ïðèóðî÷åííûõ ê êðóïíûì ñêàëüíûì îñòàíöàì (êëàñòåðû ïëîùàäüþ áîëüøå 10 êì2), 3 èç êîòîðûõ ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ (ðèñ. 5). Æèëîå ãíåçäî áåðêóòà, ðàñïîëîæåííîå â íèøå ñòåíêè óùåëüÿ öåíòðàëüíîé ÷àñòè îñòàíöà, áûëî îáíàðóæåíî 2 ìàÿ (ó÷àñòîê ¹ 1). Ñàìêà íàñèæèâàëà êëàäêó. 4 ìàÿ ïàðà âçðîñëûõ ïòèö (ó÷àñòîê ¹ 2) íàáëþäàëàñü â âåðõíåé ÷àñòè óùåëüÿ íà çàïàäíîì ñêëîíå ñêàëüíîãî ìàññèâà ã. Óëóòàó.  íèøå ñòåíû â öåíòðàëüíîé ÷àñòè óùåëüÿ ðàñïîëàãàëîñü ñòàðîå ãíåçäî ïòèö. Åù¸ îäíà ãíåçäîâàÿ ïîñòðîéêà ðàñïîëàãàëàñü íà ïðîòèâîïîëîæíîé ñòåíêå óùåëüÿ, íî îíà íàìè íå áûëà ïðîâåðåíà. 6 ìàÿ â 13,7 êì îò ïðåäûäóùåãî ó÷àñòêà â þæíîé ÷àñòè ñêàëüíîãî ìàññèâà ã. Óëóòàó áûë îáíàðóæåí åù¸ îäèí ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê áåðêóòîâ (ó÷àñòîê ¹ 3). Ïóñòîå ãíåçäî, ïîäíîâë¸ííîå ïòèöàìè, ðàñïîëàãàëîñü íà ïîëêå ñòåíû â ñðåäíåé ÷àñòè óùåëüÿ. Ïàðà ñîñòîÿëà èç ñòàðîé ñàìêè è ñàìöà 3-õ ëåòíåãî âîçðàñòà. ×åòâ¸ðòûé ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê (ïóñòîå ãíåçäî â íèøå ëèöåâîé ñòåíêè ñêàëüíîãî îñòàíöà, ïðè êîòîðîì äåðæàëàñü âçðîñëàÿ ïòèöà) áûë îáíàðóæåí 7 ìàÿ â

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territories ¹¹ 5–6 birds hadn’t begun to build their nests yet. A total of 13 nests of the Long-legged Buzzard were found (including old nests on the occupied territories), and out of them only 2 nests were located in niches, the rest were on ledges of large rocks (6), cliffs (6) and small rocks (1). The density was a 0.02 pair per 100 km2 for large rocks. While the most breeding areas of the Long-legged Buzzard coincide with small cliff-faces out of optimal breeding places of eagles. From 37 to 57 pairs (47 pairs on average) breed in the Ulutau region. Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) On 30 April a pair was observed near a reservoir 15.5 km south from Zhezkazgan. A hunting male was recorded near Ulutau mount on 5 May. We project the total number in the Ulutau mountains as no more than 3–5 pairs. Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus) We noted Montagu’s Harrier regularly from 5 May to the north from Ulutau mount. The number of the species was just slightly less than the number of the Pallid Harrier. Breeding of this species was noted in the bushes and grasslands along river and stream valleys, particular near small forests. Some 23 breeding territories were found (21 – while making car routes). The males uttering their mating-calls were registered on the most breeding areas, and on 3 areas birds were building nests. According the auto rout records the density was a 3.30 pair per 100 km2 for the whole territory, or 6.67 pair per 100 km2 for the northern part of the territory. A total of 583–683 pairs (633 pairs at average) are estimated in the Ulutau region. Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus) 7 This is the most numerous raptor in the Ulutau region. It occupies all types of moist treeless areas. We found 53 breeding territory (fig. 9): 48 – during autoroutes and 5 – while surveying on foot. In the 4 territories nests containing hatching clutches, pairs issuing their mating calls were noted in 6 territories, and in the rest territories we registered males or pairs with breeding behavior. The average distance between occupied nests and the centers of breeding territories (n=35) was 1.6±0.93 km (0.37–3.31 km). The density was a 7.55 pair per 100 km2. A total of 1459–1559 pairs (1509 pairs on average) are estimated for the Ulutau region. Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) Sparrowhawks probably breed in the large forests in the canyons of Ulutau. During the


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5

Ãíåçäî áåðêóòà ñ êëàäêîé. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The nest of the Golden Eagle with a clutch. Photo by I. Karyakin

Ðèñ. 6. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ìîãèëüíèêà (Aquila heliaca) Fig. 6. The distribution of breeding territories of the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca)

ñêàëüíîì ìàññèâå çàïàäíîãî ñêëîíà ã. Äîíäûã. Ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâèëà 0,03 ïàð/êì2 . Ó÷èòûâàÿ óñòàíîâëåííîå ãíåçäîâàíèå áåðêóòà òîëüêî â êðóïíûõ ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâàõ, ìû ñî÷ëè âîçìîæíûì ýêñòðàïîëèðîâàòü ó÷¸òíûå äàííûå òîëüêî íà ïëîùàäü êðóïíûõ ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâîâ (440 êì2), ãäå ÷èñëåííîñòü áåðêóòà îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 10–18 ïàð (â ñðåäíåì 14 ïàð). Ïëîùàäü ãíåçäîâîé òåððèòîðèè ïàðû ïòèö ñîñòàâëÿåò îêîëî 150 êì2. Èñõîäÿ èç ýòîãî ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî ñêàëüíûå ìàññèâû ïëîùàäüþ 10–40 êì2 ìîãóò âìåñòèòü ïî 1 ãíåçäîâîìó ó÷àñòêó îðëîâ, à â ñêàëüíîì ìàññèâå ãîðû Óëóòàó, ïëîùàäüþ 197,56 êì2, ìîæåò ãíåçäèòüñÿ 4 ïàðû áåðêóòîâ. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ðàñ÷¸ò ÷èñëåííîñòè áåðêóòà íà îñíîâàíèè ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ âîçìîæíûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ â ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïàõ (15 ïàð) äà¸ò îöåíêè áëèçêèå ê òàêîâûì, ïîëó÷åííûì â ðåçóëüòàòå ïåðåñ÷¸òà ïëîòíîñòè íà ïëîùàäü ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé. Ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca) Íåìíîãî÷èñëåííûé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ âèä, ðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííûé ïî èññëåäóåìîé òåððèòîðèè çíà÷èòåëüíî øèðå áåðêóòà. Ïî ìàðøðóòó ýêñïåäèöèè îò äîëèíû ð. Ñàðûñó äî âåðõîâüåâ ð. Òåðèñàêàí âûÿâëåíî 9 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ìîãèëüíèêîâ (ðèñ. 6). Íåïîñðåäñòâåííî â îñòàíöîâûõ

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ period of surveys 5 individuals (3 males and a pair with breeding behavior) were noted in forests of the central part of Ulutau. The density was a 0.85 pair per 100 km2. A special search for nests wasn’t performed. Considering the record of an individual as a pair we can project 35–43 pairs (39 pairs on average) breeding in the Ulutau mountains forests. Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) Breeding Sakers were found only in the rocks of the Ulutau mountains. They preferred large rocks, but some pairs bred on the small river cliffs. Several breeding areas were found, and all of them were in the study areas (fig. 10). On 6 breeding territories 8 nests of falcons were found, all originally built by Long-legged Buzzards. Three nests in two breeding territories were located on river cliffs: 2 on ledges and one in a niche. The other 5 nests were located in the central parts with the large rocks: four were on ledges and one on a cliff. On 3 May in Saker nest in the territory ¹ 3 we found a fresh clutch with 4-eggs, the nest in the territory ¹ 5 on 4 May contained 5 chicks at the age of few days. The average distance between nests (n=5) was 7.72±1,63 km (6.62–9.86 km). The density was a 0.07 pair per km2 of rocks and cliffs. A total of 28–38 pairs of the Saker (33 pairs on average) are estimated in the Ulutau mountains. Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) We observed a single birds flying on small height to the north on 3 May in the Kishutau mountains. Hobby (Falco subbuteo) During the period of surveys we noted only 7 pairs of the Hobbies: 6 pairs occupied nests and 1 pair began to breed (the female was laying). Six nests located in the crow nests on aspens and one on a birch. The density was a 1.49 pair per km2 of forests. A total of 63–73 pairs (68 pairs on average) are estimated in the Ulutau mountains. Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) Kestrels were found breeding in forests (3 nests with the females incubating in crow nests on aspens); on rocks (12 pairs, including 2 nests with females on clutches in a niche of a rock and in a Long-legged Buzzard building). The density was a 0.85 pair per km2, and a total of 35–43 pairs (39 pairs at average) were estimated in forests of the Ulutau mountains. The density in rocks and cliffs was a 0.13 pair per km2, total of 65–75 pairs (70 pairs on average) are estimated for the Ulutau mountains. The Kestrels were also found to breed in ruins of villages (30–50 pairs). A total of 130–168


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5 ãîðàõ îáíàðóæåíî ëèøü 3 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà ìîãèëüíèêîâ (ó÷àñòêè ¹¹ 3–5), èç êîòîðûõ ëèøü 2 ó÷àñòêà â ïðåäåëàõ ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê. Âñå 3 ãíåçäà áûëè æèëûìè – â íèõ ñàìêè íàñèæèâàëè êëàäêè. Äâà ãíåçäà ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà âåðøèíàõ îñèí â íåáîëüøèõ êîëêàõ â âåðøèíàõ óùåëèé ñêàëüíûõ îñòàíöåâ, è îäíî ãíåçäî – íà âåðøèíå èâû â êîëêå â âåðõîâüÿõ ðó÷üÿ ñðåäè óâàëèñòîé ñòåïè. Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó äâóìÿ ïîñëåäíèìè ãí¸çäàìè ñîñòàâëÿåò 5 êì. Ïëîòíîñòü, ñ êîòîðîé ìîãèëüíèê ãíåçäèòñÿ â ëåñîíàñàæäåíèÿõ âäîëü îñòàíöîâûõ ãîð, ñîñòàâëÿåò 0,13 ïàð/êì2. Îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü â Óëóòàó îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 18–20 ïàð. Àíàëîãè÷íóþ îöåíêó (20 ïàð) äà¸ò ðàñ÷¸ò ÷èñëåííîñòè ìîãèëüíèêà íà îáùóþ ïëîùàäü îñåâîé ÷àñòè Óëóòàó (4 òûñ. êì2) ïî ïëîòíîñòè (0,51 ïàð/100 êì2), ïîëó÷åííîé íà àâòîìàðøðóòàõ âäîëü îñòàíöîâûõ ãðÿä. Ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ìîãèëüíèêîâ ¹¹ 1–2 è 9 ïðèóðî÷åíû ê ïîéìàì ðåê. Íà äâóõ ïîñ-

Ãíåçäî ìîãèëüíèêà ñ êëàäêîé. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The nest of the Imperial Eagle with a clutch. Photos by I. Karyakin

ëåäíèõ ó÷àñòêàõ 30 àïðåëÿ è 7 ìàÿ ñîîòâåòñòâåííî áûëè îáíàðóæåíû æèëûå ãí¸çäà ìîãèëüíèêîâ, ðàñïîëîæåííûå íà îäèíî÷íûõ èâàõ. Íà âîäîðàçäåëå ðåê Òàìäû è Êàðà-Êåíãèð âûÿâëåíû 3 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà ìîãèëüíèêîâ (ó÷àñòêè ¹¹ 6–8), æèëûå ãí¸çäà êîòîðûõ ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà ãîðèçîíòàëüíûõ òðàâåðñàõ áåòîííûõ îïîð âûñîêîâîëüòíîé ËÝÏ. Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ãí¸çäàìè ñîñòàâèëî 9,8 è 5,6 êì ñîîòâåòñòâåííî. Âñå ãíåçäà ìîãèëüíèêà íà ËÝÏ è äåðåâüÿõ ïðèóðî÷åíû ê õîëìèñòî-óâàëèñòûì ñòåïÿì, óäàë¸ííûì îò îñòàíöîâûõ ãðÿä Óëóòàó. Çäåñü ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ìîãèëüíèêà äàëåêî îò ðàâíîìåðíîãî, ïîýòîìó ðàññ÷èòàòü ÷èñëåííîñòü ìîæíî äîñòàòî÷íî ïðèáëèçèòåëüíî, èñõîäÿ èç ïîêàçàòåëåé ïëîòíîñòè, ïî-

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pairs of the Kestrel (149 pairs) were estimated in the Ulutau mountains. Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni) Lesser Kestrels inhabit niches and cliffs. We observed pairs of the Lesser Kestrel near nesting niches and uttering their matingcalls, sometimes males feeding females, sitting in nests, but we noted no clutches in the surveyed nests. A total of 55 pairs were recorded. The majority of the birds (85,5% pairs) were concentrated into 7 colonies (fig. 11), consisted of 5–10 pairs per each (6.7±2.4 pairs per colony on average). The groups of 2–4 pairs of Lesser Kestrels are evenly distributed across the Ulutau mountains. The density was a 0.51 pair per km2 for rocks and cliffs, while a total of 272– 292 pairs (282 pairs at average) are estimated in the Ulutau mountains. Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) In the studied area we found 8 breeding territories of the Eagle Owl (fig. 12). All found breeding territories located in on rocks and cliffs. Considering the signs of the Eagle Owl presence, we project the Eagle Owl to inhabit ravines close to the Ulutau mountains, river cliffs along the great rivers, such as the Sarysu river (territory ¹ 8). In the upper reaches of the Kumola river on 30 April we found 3 breeding territories on the river cliffs: a pair of birds, a pair near an empty nest and the occupied nest with the clutch of 4 eggs (territory ¹ 3). In the study area ¹ 38 we made a dedicated to the Eagle Owl search. As a result 3 breeding territories were found. The nests of two pairs (one had a dead clutch of 3 eggs and with 2 chicks in first down plumages – territory ¹ 5) were noted in rocks and occupied for many years a nest a pair of the Eagle Owl (empty) – on a river cliff. One more nest was found on a river cliff on 4 May out of the study area. Also we recorded the signs of Eagle Owl presence on rocks of Ulutau mount (territory ¹ 39), unfortunately we don’t have enough time for searching the Eagle Owl nests. The density was a 0.16 pair per km2 for rocks and cliffs. A total of 83–93 pairs (88 pairs at average) were estimated in the Ulutau mountains. The distance between living nests and the centers of breeding areas of Eagle Owls (n=4) was 7.0±4,15 km (1.2– 10.26 km). On the steppe hills around the Ulutau mountains 36–46 pairs breed, while a total of 119–139 pairs are estimated in the Ulutau region (20000 km2). Long-Eared Owl (Asio otus) Long-eared owls breed in small forests in canyons on the Ulutau mountains. A single


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5

Ðèñ. 7. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ñòåïíîãî îðëà (Aquila nipalensis) Fig. 7. The distribution of breeding territories of the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis)

ëó÷åííûõ â õîäå ó÷¸òà íà àâòîìàðøðóòàõ – 0,35–0,53 ïàð/100 êì2 (â ñðåäíåì 0,44 ïàð/100 êì2). Èñõîäÿ èç ýòèõ äàííûõ, ÷èñëåííîñòü ìîãèëüíèêà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â õîëìèñòî-óâàëèñòûõ ñòåïÿõ, ïðèëåãàþùèõ ê îñòàíöîâûì ãðÿäàì Óëóòàó (16 òûñ. êì2), ìîæåò áûòü îöåíåíà â 56–82 ïàð (â ñðåäíåì 71 ïàðà). Îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ìîãèëüíèêà íà ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 74–102 ïàðû. Îð¸ë ñòåïíîé (Aquila nipalensis) Íåìíîãî÷èñëåííûé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ âèä, øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííûé ïî èññëåäóåìîé òåððèòîðèè.  îòëè÷èå îò áåðêóòà è ìîãèëüíèêà, ñòåïíîé îð¸ë îòñóòñòâóåò íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â êðóïíûõ ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâàõ Óëóòàó.  òî æå âðåìÿ îí ñ âûñîêîé ïëîòíîñòüþ ãíåçäèòñÿ â áåçëåñíûõ õîëìèñòî-óâàëèñòûõ ñòåïÿõ âîêðóã îñòàíöîâûõ ãîð, îñîáåííî â þæíîé ÷àñòè ìåëêîñîïî÷íèêà.  öåëîì íà èññëåäîâàííîé òåððèòîðèè íàìè áûëî âñòðå÷åíî 26 ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ è ëîêàëèçîâàíî 11 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ (ðèñ. 7): 16 îñîáåé íàáëþäàëèñü íà 10 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ, ñîñðåäîòî÷åííûõ ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â âåðõîâüÿõ ð. Êóìîëà (ó÷àñòêè ¹¹ 1–10). Òàêàÿ êîíöåíòðàöèÿ îïðåäåëÿåòñÿ íå ìàêñèìàëüíîé ïëîòíîñòüþ âèäà íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè, à òåì, ÷òî èìåííî çäåñü ìû óäåëèëè îñîáîå âíèìàíèå ëîêàëèçàöèè ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ è ïîèñêó ãí¸çä ñòåïíîãî îðëà.  õîäå ðàáîòû áûëî îáíàðóæåíî 6 ãí¸çä, â 3-õ èç êîòîðûõ ñàìêè íàñèæèâàëè êëàäêè (ó÷àñòêè ¹¹ 1, 4 è 9), áëèç 2-õ ãí¸çä äåðæàëèñü ïàðû ïòèö è äîñòðàèâàëè ãí¸çäà (ó÷àñòêè ¹¹ 3 è 8), è îäíî ãíåçäî îêàçàëîñü ñòàðîé ïîñòðîéêîé íà çàíÿòîì ó÷àñòêå (¹ 1) ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ. Òðè ãíåçäà ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà ïîëêàõ (2) è âåðøèíàõ (1) íåáîëüøèõ ñêàë ïî áåðåãàì âðåìåííûõ âîäîòîêîâ è 3 ãíåçäà – íà ïîëêàõ (2) è âåðøèíàõ (1) ñêàëüíûõ âûõîäîâ âåðøèí (2) è ñêëîíîâ (1) âîäîðàçäåëüíûõ ñîïîê. Ïî äàííûì ìàðøðóòíûõ ó÷¸òîâ (ðåãèñòðàöèè ïàð è îäèíî÷íûõ ïòèö ìû â äàííîì ðàñ÷¸òå ïðèðàâíèâàåì ê ïàðàì, n=18) ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâèëà 0,84 ïàð/100 êì2, à îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü äëÿ âñåé òåððèòîðèè áåç ó÷¸òà ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâîâ (19 òûñ. êì2) îöåíåíà â 119–199 ïàð (â ñðåäíåì 159 ïàð). Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó æèëûìè ãí¸çäàìè è öåíòðàìè ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ, íà êîòîðûõ ðåãèñòðèðîâàëèñü ïàðû ïòèö, ñîñòàâ-

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ nest with a clutch was found in a magpie nest on a willow on 4 May. A male uttering its mating-calls was noted in a small aspen forest during the night 5/6 May. The density was a 0.43 pair per km2 for forests. A total of 15–23 pairs (19 pairs at average) are estimated in the Ulutau mountains. Short-Eared Owl (Asio flammeus) Perhaps the Short-eared Owl is a common species in the Ulutau region but unfortunately at the time of our study the number of this species was low. We observed only 3 birds during the auto routes. The density was a 0.56 individual per 100 êì2. A total of 66–146 pairs (106 pars at average) are estimated in the Ulutau region. Little Owl (Athene noctua) The owls inhabit the cliffs. One pair with charactering breeding behavior was observed on Ulutau mountain on 4/5 May. An adult bird was noted during a route on 6 May. The density was a 0.02 pair per km2 of rocks and cliffs. A total of 7–17 pairs (12 pairs at average) of little owls were estimated in the Ulutau mountains. Unfortunately the records are insufficient for extrapolation. Scops Owl (Otus scops) Males uttering their mating-calls were registered during a day (3 individuals), and at night of 5/6 May (3 individuals). The density was 2.65 pair per km2. A total of 91–151 pairs (121 pairs at average) are estimated in forests of the Ulutau mountains.

Ãíåçäî ñòåïíîãî îðëà ñ êëàäêîé. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The nest of the Steppe Eagle with a clutch. Photo by I. Karyakin


Raptors Research

Ðèñ. 8. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ êóðãàííèêà (Buteo rufinus) Fig. 8. The distribution of breeding territories of the Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus)

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5 ëÿåò (n=8) â ñðåäíåì 2,0±0,73 êì (1,24– 3,27 êì). Ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñå ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ïðèóðî÷åíû ê îñåâîé ÷àñòè õîëìèñòî-óâàëèñòûõ âîäîðàçäåëîâ ðåê ñ âûõîäàìè ìàòåðèíñêèõ ïîðîä ïî ñêëîíàì è âåðøèíàì, ëèáî ê ñîïî÷íûì ëàíäøàôòàì, âûòÿíóòûì âäîëü äîëèí íåáîëüøèõ âîäîòîêîâ, òàêæå ñ âûõîäàìè ìàòåðèíñêèõ ïîðîä. Ïëîùàäü ãíåçäîâîé òåððèòîðèè ïàðû ïòèö ñîñòàâëÿåò îêîëî 3,1 êì2 . Èñõîäÿ èç ýòîãî, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî âûøåîïèñàííûå áèîòîïû, ïëîùàäüþ îêîëî 600 êì2 (3,2% îò îáùåé ïëîùàäè òåððèòîðèè), ìîãóò âìåñòèòü îêîëî 190 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ, ÷òî äîâîëüíî áëèçêî ê íàøèì ïðåäûäóùèì îöåíêàì. Êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) Ðåäêèé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ âèä èññëåäóåìîé òåððèòîðèè. Îáíàðóæåí íàìè ãíåçäÿùèìñÿ òîëüêî íà ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèÿõ. Ëîêàëèçîâàíî 6 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ êóðãàííèêà – âñå ïîäòâåðæäåíû íàõîäêàìè ãí¸çä (ðèñ. 8). Æèëûå ãí¸çäà áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ëèøü íà òð¸õ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ â þæíîé ÷àñòè Óëóòàó (ó÷àñòêè ¹¹ 1–3) – îíè ñîäåðæàëè êëàäêè èç 3, 3 è 2 ÿèö ñîîòâåòñòâåííî. Íà ó÷àñòêå ¹ 4 ïàðà ïòèö àêòèâíî ñòðîèëà ãíåçäî, à íà ó÷àñòêàõ ¹¹ 5–6 ïòèöû åù¸ íå ïðèñòóïèëè ê ïîäíîâëåíèþ ãíåçäîâûõ ïîñòðîåê.  îáùåé ñëîæíîñòè îáíàðóæåíî 13 ãíåçäîâûõ ïîñòðîåê êóðãàííèêà (âêëþ÷àÿ ñòàðûå ãí¸çäà íà çàíÿòûõ ó÷àñòêàõ), èç íèõ ëèøü 2 ãíåçäà ðàñïîëàãàëèñü â íèøàõ, à îñòàëüíûå íà ïîëêàõ ãðÿäîâûõ ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé (6), ïðèðå÷íûõ ñêàë (6) è íåáîëüøèõ ñêàëüíûõ îñòàíöåâ ñðåäè ñòåïè (1). Ëèøü 2 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà êóðãàííèêîâ ïîïàëè â ïðåäåëû ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê, ïîýòîìó ïîêàçàòåëè ïëîòíîñòè 0,02 ïàð/êì2 ìîæíî ñ÷èòàòü îáúåêòèâíûìè ëèøü äëÿ êðóïíûõ ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâîâ.  òî æå âðåìÿ áîëüøèíñòâî ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ êóðãàííèêà ïðèóðî÷åíî ê íåáîëüøèì ñêàëüíûì îáíàæåíèÿì, ëåæàùèì çà ïðåäåëàìè îïòèìàëüíûõ ãíåçäîâûõ áèîòîïîâ îðëîâ (áåðêóòà, ìîãèëüíèêà, ñòåïíîãî îðëà). Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî íà ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè ãíåçäèòñÿ 37–57 ïàð (â ñðåäíåì 47 ïàð), èç êîòîðûõ ïîëîâèíà ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð ïðèóðî÷åíà ê ãðÿäîâî-ìåëêîñîïî÷íîìó ìàññèâó îñåâîé ÷àñòè Óëóòàó.

45

Ãíåçäî êóðãàííèêà ñ êëàäêîé. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The nest of the Steppe Eagle with a clutch. Photo by I. Karyakin

Ëóíü áîëîòíûé (Circus aeruginosus) Âåðîÿòíî, ãíåçäèòñÿ îäèíî÷íûìè ïàðàìè â òðîñòíèêîâûõ êðåïÿõ ïî áåðåãàì êðóïíûõ âîäî¸ìîâ íà îáñëåäîâàííîé òåððèòîðèè. Ðåãèñòðèðîâàëñÿ ëèøü äâàæäû: 30 àïðåëÿ ïàðà ïòèö íàáëþäàëàñü áëèç âîäîõðàíèëèùà â 15,5 êì þæíåå Æåçêàçãàíà, è 5 ìàÿ îõîòèâøèéñÿ ñàìåö áûë âñòðå÷åí íàä òðîñòíèêàìè îçåðà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ã. Óëóòàó. ×èñëåííîñòü â Óëóòàó íå ïðåâûøàåò 3–5 ïàð. Ëóíü ëóãîâîé (Circus pygargus) Îáû÷íûé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ âèä ñåâåðíîé ÷àñòè èçó÷àåìîé òåððèòîðèè. Íà÷èíàÿ ñ 5 ìàÿ ðåãèñòðèðîâàëñÿ íàìè ðåãóëÿðíî, è ñåâåðíåå ñêàëüíîãî ìàññèâà ãîðû Óëóòàó ëèøü íåçíà÷èòåëüíî óñòóïàë ïî ÷èñëåííîñòè ñòåïíîìó ëóíþ.  ñâî¸ì ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè òÿãîòååò ê êóñòàðíèêîâûì áèîòîïàì è âûñîêîòðàâíûì ó÷àñòêàì ïî äîëèíàì ðåê è ðó÷üåâ, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ïî ïåðèôåðèè êîëêîâûõ ëåñîâ. Îáíàðóæåíî 23 ãíåçÊóðãàííèê. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Long-Legged Buzzard. Photo by I. Karyakin


46

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5

Ðèñ. 9. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ñòåïíîãî ëóíÿ (Circus macrourus) Fig. 9. The distribution of breeding territories of the Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus)

Ðèñ. 10. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) Fig. 10. The distribution of breeding territories of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug)

7

äîâûõ ó÷àñòêà ëóãîâûõ ëóíåé (21 íà àâòîìàðøðóòàõ). Íà áîëüøèíñòâå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ðåãèñòðèðîâàëèñü òîêóþùèå ñàìöû, íà 3-õ ó÷àñòêàõ ïòèöû ñòðîèëè ãí¸çäà. Ñðîêè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ, âèäèìî, íåñêîëüêî áîëåå ïîçäíèå, ÷åì ñðîêè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ñòåïíîãî ëóíÿ, ó êîòîðîãî òîêîâàíèå â ýòî âðåìÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè çàêàí÷èâàëîñü. Ïëîòíîñòü ëóãîâîãî ëóíÿ ïî äàííûì ó÷¸òîâ íà àâòîìàðøðóòàõ ñîñòàâèëà 3,30 ïàð/100 êì2 äëÿ âñåé òåððèòîðèè èëè 6,67 ïàð/ 100 êì2 äëÿ ñåâåðíîé å¸ ÷àñòè. Ýêñòðàïîëèðóÿ ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèå ïîêàçàòåëè ïëîòíîñòè íà âñþ ïëîùàäü èçó÷àåìîé òåððèòîðèè (19 òûñ. êì 2 ) è ñåâåðíóþ å¸ ïîëîâèíó (9,5 òûñ. êì2), ïîëó÷àåì îöåíêè íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â 577–677 ïàð (â ñðåäíåì 627 ïàð) è 583–683 ïàð (â ñðåäíåì 633 ïàðû). Ïîñëåäíÿÿ îöåíêà ÿâëÿåòñÿ, âèäèìî, áîëåå òî÷íîé. Ëóíü ñòåïíîé (Circus macrourus)7 Îáû÷íûé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ âèä ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè. Ñàìûé ìíîãî÷èñëåííûé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ õèùíèê ìåëêîñîïî÷íûõ ëàíäøàôòîâ Óëóòàó è ïðèëåãàþùèõ òåððèòîðèé. Íàñåëÿåò âñå òèïû âëàæíûõ îòêðûòûõ áèîòîïîâ, âêëþ÷àÿ äíèùà óùåëèé â ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâàõ, ãäå, âïðî÷åì, ðåäîê. Âñåãî îáíàðóæåíî 53 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà ñòåïíûõ ëóíåé (ðèñ. 9), èç íèõ 48 – íà àâòîìàðøðóòàõ è 5 – â õîäå ïåøèõ ìàðøðóòîâ â ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâàõ. Íà 4-õ ó÷àñòêàõ îáíàðóæåíû ãí¸çäà ñ íàñèæèâàþùèìè ñàìêàìè, êîòîðûì ñàìöû ïðèíîñèëè äîáû÷ó, íà 6 ó÷àñòêàõ íàáëþäàëèñü òîêóþùèå ïàðû, íà îñòàëüíûõ ó÷àñòêàõ ðåãèñòðèðîâàëè ñàìöîâ ñ ãíåçäîâûì ïîâåäåíèåì, ëèáî ïàðû ïòèö âî âðåìÿ ïåðåäà÷è äîáû÷è, íî òî÷íûå ìåñòà íàõîæäåíèÿ ãí¸çä íå áûëè óñòàíîâëåíû. Îñíîâíàÿ ìàññà ðåãèñòðèðîâàâøèõñÿ ñòåïíûõ ëóíåé ïðèóðî÷åíà ê ïîéìàì ðå÷åê, âëàæíûì çàïàäèíàì ìåæäó ñîïêàìè è â ïîäíîæèè îñòàíöåâ. Âñå îáíàðóæåííûå ãí¸çäà íàõîäèëèñü â íåáîëüøèõ ïî ïëîùàäè (300–5000 ì2) çàðîñëÿõ îñîêè è

http://bbs.keyhole.com/ubb/download.php?Number=193696

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ òðîñòíèêà. Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó æèëûìè ãí¸çäàìè è öåíòðàìè óñòàíîâëåííûõ è ïðåäïîëàãàåìûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ (n=35) ñîñòàâëÿåò â ñðåäíåì 1,6±0,93 êì (0,37–3,31 êì). Ïëîòíîñòü íà àâòîìàðøðóòàõ ñîñòàâèëà 7,55 ïàð/100 êì2. Îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü äëÿ ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè (20 òûñ. êì2) îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 1459– 1559 ïàð (â ñðåäíåì 1509 ïàð) è, âèäèìî, íåñêîëüêî çàíèæåíà, òàê êàê áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü ìàðøðóòîâ ïðîõîäèëà ïî îñåâîé ÷àñòè ãðÿäîâî-ñîïî÷íîãî ìàññèâà Óëóòàó, ãäå ïëîòíîñòü ñòåïíîãî ëóíÿ íàèìåíüøàÿ. Ïåðåïåëÿòíèê (Accipiter nisus) Ðåäîê. Âåðîÿòíî, ãíåçäèòñÿ â êðóïíûõ êîëêîâûõ ëåñàõ â óùåëüÿõ Óëóòàó. Çà ïåðèîä èññëåäîâàíèé áûëî âñòðå÷åíî 5 îñîáåé (3 ñàìöà è òîêóþùàÿ ïàðà) â êîëêîâûõ ëåñàõ öåíòðàëüíîé ÷àñòè Óëóòàó ñ ïëîòíîñòüþ 0,85 îñîáåé/êì2. Ïîèñê ãí¸çä ýòîãî âèäà ñïåöèàëüíî íå îñóùåñòâëÿëñÿ. Ïðèðàâíèâàÿ ðåãèñòðàöèè ïòèö ê ïàðàì, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü ãíåçäîâàíèå 35–43 ïàð (â ñðåäíåì 39 ïàð) â êîëêîâûõ ëåñàõ Óëóòàó, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â ñåâåðíîé ÷àñòè ãðÿäîâî-ìåëêîñîïî÷íîãî ìàññèâà. Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) Ðåäêèé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ âèä. Îáíàðóæåí íà ãíåçäîâàíèè òîëüêî íà ñêàëàõ îñåâîé ÷àñòè Óëóòàó. Òÿãîòååò â ñâî¸ì ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè ê êðóïíûì ñêàëüíûì ìàññèâàì, õîòÿ îòäåëüíûå ïàðû ãíåçäÿòñÿ è íà íåáîëüøèõ ïðèðå÷íûõ ñêàëàõ. Ëîêàëèçîâàíî 7 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ áàëîáàíà, âñå íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ (ðèñ. 10). Íà 6 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ îáíàðóæåíû 8 ãí¸çä ñîêîëîâ, ðàñïîëàãàâøèåñÿ â ïîñòðîéêàõ êóðãàííèêà. 3 ãíåçäîâûå ïîñòðîéêè êóðãàííèêîâ, çàíÿòûå áàëîáàíîì, íà 2-õ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ ñîêîëîâ ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà ïðèðå÷íûõ ñêàëàõ íà ïîëêàõ (2) è â íèøå ñêàëû. Îñòàëüíûå 5 ãí¸çä áûëè ïðèóðî÷åíû ê öåíòðàëüíûì ÷àñòÿì êðóïíûõ ñêàëüíûõ îñòàíöåâ íà âåðøèíàõ ãðÿä è ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà ïîëêàõ (4) è â ðàñùåëèíå. Âñå ãíåçäà áàëîáàíà íà ñêàëüíûõ îñòàíöàõ áûëè ñêðûòû îò íåïîñðåäñòâåííîãî íàáëþäåíèÿ èç ñòåïè è îáíàðóæåíû ëèøü ïðè äåòàëüíîì îñìîòðå ñêàë ñ èõ âåðøèí.  ãíåçäå áàëîáàíà íà ó÷àñòêå ¹ 3 îáíàðóæåíà ñâåæàÿ êëàäêà èç 4-õ ÿèö 3 ìàÿ, â ãíåçäå íà ó÷àñòêå ¹ 5 – 5 ïòåíöîâ â âîçðàñòå íåñêîëüêèõ äíåé 4 ìàÿ. Íà îñòàëüíûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ äåðæàëèñü âçðîñëûå ïòèöû, ãí¸çäà áûëè ÿâíî ïîñåùàåìûìè, î ÷åì ñâèäåòåëüñòâîâàë ñâåæèé ïîì¸ò è íàñåäíîé ïóõ íà èõ ïîâåðõíîñòè, íî êëàäîê èëè âûâîäêîâ â íèõ íå îáíàðóæåíî. Ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâëÿåò 0,07 ïàð/êì2 ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé. Ó÷è-


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5

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íåáîëüøîé âûñîòå â ñåâåðíîì íàïðàâëåíèè, íàáëþäàëàñü 3 ìàÿ â ãîðàõ Êèøóòàó. ×åãëîê (Falco subbuteo) Íåìíîãî÷èñëåííûé, íî õàðàêòåðíûé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ âèä êîëêîâûõ ëåñîâ Óëóòàó. Çà ïåðèîä èññëåäîâàíèé áûëî âñòðå÷åíî 7 ïàð ÷åãëîêîâ: 6 ïàð àáîíèðîâàëè ãíåçäîâûå ïîñòðîéêè è 1 ïàðà ïðèñòóïèëà ê ðàçìíîæåíèþ (ñàìêà ñèäåëà íà êëàäêå). Øåñòü ãí¸çä ðàñïîëàãàëèñü â ïîñòðîéêàõ âîðîí íà îñèíàõ è îäíî â ïîñòðîéêå âîðîíû íà áåð¸çå. Ïëîòíîñòü ñîêîëîâ ñîñòàâèëà 1,49 ïàð/êì2 ëåñîíàñàæäåíèé. Ýêñòðàïîëÿöèÿ ýòèõ äàííûõ ïîçâîëÿåò îöåíèòü ÷èñëåííîñòü ÷åãëîêà íà ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè â 63–73 ïàðû (â ñðåäíåì 68 ïàð). Ãíåçäî áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) ñ êëàäêîé. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The nest of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) with a clutch. Photo by I. Karyakin

Ãíåçäî áàëîáàíà ñ ïòåíöàìè. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The nest of the Saker Falcon with a brood. Photo by I. Karyakin

òûâàÿ ÿâíîå òÿãîòåíèå áàëîáàíà ê êðóïíûì ñêàëàì, ÷òîáû íå çàâûñèòü åãî ÷èñëåííîñòü, ìû ñî÷ëè íåîáõîäèìûì ýêñòðàïîëèðîâàòü ó÷åòíûå äàííûå ëèøü íà ïëîùàäü êðóïíûõ ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâîâ.  ðåçóëüòàòå ÷èñëåííîñòü áàëîáàíà äëÿ Óëóòàó îöåíåíà â 28–38 ïàð (â ñðåäíåì 33 ïàðû). Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ãíåçäàìè (n=5) ñîñòàâëÿåò 7,72±1,63 êì (6,62–9,86 êì). Ïàðà áàëîáàíîâ çàíèìàåò òåððèòîðèþ ïëîùàäüþ â ñðåäíåì 46,8 êì2. Ó÷èòûâàÿ ýòè öèôðû, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü ãíåçäîâàíèå 5–6 ïàð íà Óëóòàó è 20–30 ïàð â îñòàëüíûõ ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâàõ îñåâîé ÷àñòè ãðÿäîâî-ìåëêîñîïî÷íîãî ìàññèâà ïëîùàäüþ îò 4 äî 40 êì2. Îöåíêè ÷èñëåííîñòè, ïîëó÷åííûå äâóìÿ ðàçíûìè ìåòîäàìè, äîâîëüíî áëèçêè. Ñàïñàí (Falco peregrinus) Ïðîë¸òíûé âèä. Íåñìîòðÿ íà íàëè÷èå ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ è îõîòíè÷üèõ áèîòîïîâ, ãíåçäîâàíèå ñàïñàíà â Óëóòàó íå ïîäòâåðæäåíî. Îäèíî÷íàÿ ïòèöà, ïðîëåòàâøàÿ íà

Ðèñ. 11. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ êîëîíèé ñòåïíîé ïóñòåëüãè (Falco naumanni) Fig. 11. The distribution of nesting colony of the Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni)

Ïóñòåëüãà îáûêíîâåííàÿ (Falco tinnunculus) Íåìíîãî÷èñëåííûé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ âèä ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè. Ãíåçäèòñÿ êàê â ëåñîíàñàæäåíèÿõ (3 ãíåçäà ñ íàñèæèâàþùèìè ñàìêàìè â ïîñòðîéêàõ âîðîí íà îñèíàõ, â òîì ÷èñëå îäíî ãíåçäî íà ñóõîì äåðåâå), òàê è â ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâàõ (12 ïàð, â òîì ÷èñëå 2 ãíåçäà ñ íàñèæèâàþùèìè ñàìêàìè â íèøå ñêàëû è â ñòàðîé ïîñòðîéêå êóðãàííèêà). Äîñòàòî÷íî ðàâíîìåðíî íàñåëÿåò âñþ òåððèòîðèþ Óëóòàó. Ïëîòíîñòü â ëåñîíàñàæäåíèÿõ ñîñòàâëÿåò 0,85 ïàð/êì2, à îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü äëÿ ëåñîâ Óëóòàó îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 35–43 ïàðû (â ñðåäíåì 39 ïàð). Ïëîòíîñòü â ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâàõ ñîñòàâëÿåò 0,13 ïàð/êì2, à îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 65–75 ïàð (â ñðåäíåì 70 ïàð). Çà ïðåäåëàìè ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâîâ âíå ëåñîíàñàæäåíèé ïóñòåëüãà ãíåçäèòñÿ òàêæå â ðàçâàëèíàõ íàñåë¸ííûõ ïóíêòîâ â êîëè÷åñòâå 30–50 ïàð


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5

Ñòåïíûå ïóñòåëüãè (Falco naumanni) (ñàìêà – ââåðõó, ñàìåö – âíèçó) íà ãíåçäîâîé ñêàëå. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni) (female and male) on the nesting cliff. Photos by I. Karyakin

Ðèñ. 12. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíà (Bubo bubo) Fig. 12. The distribution of breeding territories of the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo)

äëÿ âñåé ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè. Îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü âñåé ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêè ïóñòåëüãè â Óëóòàó îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 130–168 ïàð (â ñðåäíåì 149 ïàð). Ïóñòåëüãà ñòåïíàÿ (Falco naumanni) Îáû÷íûé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ âèä îñåâîé ÷àñòè Óëóòàó. Ãíåçäèòñÿ â íèøàõ è òðåùèíàõ ñêàë.  ïåðèîä èññëåäîâàíèé ñòåïíûå ïóñòåëüãè äåðæàëèñü ïàðàìè áëèç ãíåçäîâûõ íèø, òîêîâàëè, à â ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ íàáëþäàëîñü êîðìëåíèå ñàìîê, ñèäÿùèõ â ãí¸çäàõ, ñàìöàìè, íî êëàäîê åù¸ íå áûëî íè â îäíîì èç ïðîâåðåííûõ ãí¸çä.  îáùåé ñëîæíîñòè áûëî ó÷òåíî 55 ïàð ñòåïíûõ ïóñòåëüã. Îñíîâíàÿ ìàññà îáíàðóæåííûõ ïòèö (85,5% ïàð) ñîñðåäîòî÷åíà â 7 êîëîíèÿõ (ðèñ. 11), ñîñòîÿùèõ èç 5–10 ïàð (â ñðåäíåì 6,7±2,4 ïàð â êîëîíèè). Òåì íå ìåíåå, ãðóïïàìè èç 2–4 ïàð ñòåïíàÿ ïóñòåëüãà ãíåçäèòñÿ, âèäèìî, äîñòàòî÷íî ðàâíîìåðíî âî âñåõ ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâàõ Óëóòàó. Ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâëÿåò 0,51 ïàð/êì2 ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé, à îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü äëÿ ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâîâ Óëóòàó îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 272–292 ïàðû (â ñðåäíåì 282 ïàðû). Âèäèìî, îïðåäåë¸ííàÿ ÷àñòü ñòåïíûõ ïóñòåëüã ãíåçäèòñÿ â ðàçâàëèíàõ íàñåë¸ííûõ ïóíêòîâ è êàçàõñêèõ ìîãèë.  òàêèõ áèîòîïàõ ìû ðåãèñòðèðîâàëè ïòèö, îäíàêî öåëåíàïðàâëåííî ãí¸çä íå èñêàëè. Íà ïðèëåãàþùèõ ê Óëóòàó òåððèòîðèÿõ õîëìèñòî-óâàëèñòûõ ñòåïåé âèä íå âñòðå÷åí, õîòÿ âîçìîæíîñòü åãî ãíåçäîâàíèÿ çäåñü êàê ìèíèìóì â ðå÷íûõ îáðûâàõ è ðàçâàëèíàõ íàñåë¸ííûõ ïóíêòîâ íåëüçÿ èñêëþ÷àòü. Ôèëèí (Bubo bubo) Íåìíîãî÷èñëåííûé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ âèä. Íà îáñëåäîâàííîé òåððèòîðèè ëîêàëèçîâàíî 8 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíà (ðèñ. 12). Âñå âûÿâëåííûå ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ïðèóðî÷åíû ê ñêàëüíûì îáíàæåíèÿì ðàçëè÷íîãî òèïà.  áîëüøåé ñòåïåíè ýòî ñâÿçàíî ñ òåì, ÷òî ñêàëû îáñëåäîâàëèñü íàìè â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü.  òî æå âðåìÿ, ñóäÿ ïî âñòðå÷àì ñëåäîâ ïðåáûâàíèÿ ôèëèíà, îí íàñåëÿåò è îâðàæíî-áàëî÷íûå ñèñòåìû òåððèòîðèé, ïðèëåãàþùèõ ê Óëóòàó, à òàêæå áåðåãîâûå îáðûâû êðóïíûõ ðåê, òàêèõ êàê Ñàðûñó (ó÷àñòîê ¹ 8).  âåðõîâüÿõ ð. Êóìîëà 30 àïðåëÿ íàìè áûëè îáíàðóæåíû òðè ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà ôèëèíîâ íà ïðèðå÷íûõ ñêàëàõ íåáîëüøèõ ïðèòîêîâ ðåêè: ïàðà ïòèö (ãíåçäî íå íàéäåíî), ïàðà ó ïóñòîãî ãíåçäà è æèëîå ãíåçäî ñ êëàäêîé èç 4-õ ÿèö (ó÷àñòîê ¹ 3). Íà ó÷åòíîé ïëîùàäêå ¹ 38 ïîèñêó ãí¸çä ôèëèíà òàêæå áûëî óäåëåíî îñîáîå âíèìàíèå, â ðåçóëüòàòå ÷åãî ëîêàëèçîâàíî 3 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà. Ãí¸çäà 2-õ ïàð (ñ ïîãèáøåé êëàäêîé èç 3-õ ÿèö è 2 ïòåíöàìè â ïåðâîì ïóõîâîì íàðÿäå – ó÷àñòîê ¹ 5) áûëè îáíàðóæåíû â ñêàëüíûõ îñòàíöàõ è ìíîãîëåòíåå ãíåçäî ïàðû ôèëèíîâ (ïóñòîå) – íà ïðèðå÷íîé ñêàëå. Åù¸ îäíî ãíåçäî ôèëèíà íà ïðèðå÷íîé ñêàëå áûëî îáíàðóæåíî 4 ìàÿ çà ïðåäåëàìè ó÷¸òíîé ïëîùàäêè.  ñêàëüíîì ìàññèâå ã. Óëóòàó (ïëîùàäêà ¹ 39) íàìè áûëè òàêæå îáíàðóæåíû ñëåäû ïðåáûâàíèÿ ôèëèíà, îäíàêî çäåñü ïîèñê ãí¸çä íå îñóùåñòâëÿëñÿ èç-çà ëèìèòà âðåìåíè, ïîýòîìó äàííûå, ïîëó÷åííûå íà ýòîé ïëîùàäêå, ìû íå ó÷èòûâàåì â ðàñ÷¸òå ÷èñëåííîñòè ýòîãî âèäà. Ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâèëà 0,16 ïàð/êì 2 ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé. Îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè, èñõîäÿ èç ýòèõ äàííûõ, îïðåäåëåíà â 83–93 ïàðû (â ñðåäíåì 88 ïàð). Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó æèëûìè ãí¸çäàìè è öåíòðàìè ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíîâ (n=4) ñîñòàâëÿåò 7,0±4,15 êì (1,2– 10,26 êì), è â çàâèñèìîñòè îò òèïà ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé îíî ìîæåò ñèëüíî âàðüèðîâàòü. Ìàêñèìàëüíàÿ ïëîòíîñòü íàáëþäàåòñÿ íà ïðèðå÷íûõ ñêàëàõ, ïðîòÿæ¸ííûõ ïî äëèíàì êðóïíûõ ðåê, êîòîðûå äîñòàòî÷íî ðåäêè íà òåððèòîðèè ãðÿäîâî-ìåëêîñîïî÷íîãî ìàññèâà Óëóòàó. Íà íåáîëüøèõ âîäîðàçäåëüíûõ ñêàëàõ ïëîòíîñòü ôèëèíà, âèäèìî, ìèíèìàëüíà. Ó÷èòûâàÿ ýòî, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî íà òåððèòîðèè õîëìèñòî-óâàëèñòûõ ñòåïåé, ïðèëåãàþùèõ ê Óëóòàó, ãíåçäèòñÿ 36–46 ïàð, à îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü íà ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè (20 òûñ. êì2) ñîñòàâëÿåò 119–139 ïàð. Ñîâà óøàñòàÿ (Asio otus) Ðåäêà. Ãíåçäèòñÿ â êîëêîâûõ ëåñàõ â óùåëüÿõ Óëóòàó. Åäèíñòâåííîå ãíåçäî, â êîòîðîì ñàìêà íàñèæèâàëà êëàäêó, áûëî îá-


Raptors Research

Ãíåçäî ôèëèíà (Bubo bubo) ñ êëàäêîé. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The nest of the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) with a clutch. Photos by I. Karyakin

Ãíåçäî ôèëèíà ñ ïòåíöàìè. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The nest of the Eagle Owl with chicks. Photo by I. Karyakin

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5

íàðóæåíî 4 ìàÿ â ïîñòðîéêå ñîðîêè íà èâå â óùåëüå þãî-çàïàäíîãî ñêëîíà ìàññèâà ã. Óëóòàó.  íî÷ü 5/6 ìàÿ áûë âñòðå÷åí òîêóþùèé ñàìåö â îñèíîâîì êîëêå â âåðõîâüÿõ ðó÷üÿ â ïîäíîæèè þæíîãî ñêëîíà ìàññèâà ã. Óëóòàó. Ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâëÿåò 0,43 ïàð/êì2 ëåñîíàñàæäåíèé. Îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 15–23 ïàð (â ñðåäíåì 19 ïàð). Âåñüìà âåðîÿòíî, ÷òî ÷èñëåííîñòü çàíèæåíà ïî ïðè÷èíå îòñóòñòâèÿ öåëåíàïðàâëåííûõ ó÷¸òîâ ýòîãî ñêðûòíîãî âèäà. Ñîâà áîëîòíàÿ (Asio flammeus) Ïî-âèäèìîìó, áîëîòíàÿ ñîâà äîñòàòî÷íî îáû÷íà â Óëóòàó è íà ïðèëåãàþùèõ òåððèòîðèÿõ â îòäåëüíûå ãîäû, îäíàêî â ïåðèîä íàøåé ðàáîòû íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè ýòè ñîâû áûëè êðàéíå íåìíîãî÷èñëåíû. Ìû íàáëþäàëè ëèøü 3-õ ïòèö íà àâòîìàðøðóòàõ è, êàê ñëåäñòâèå, äàæå íå

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ïûòàëèñü ïðè ñòîëü íèçêîé ÷èñëåííîñòè èñêàòü ãí¸çäà. Ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâèëà 0,56 îñîáåé/100 êì2. Åñëè ïðèðàâíÿòü äàííûå ðåãèñòðàöèè ê òåððèòîðèàëüíûì ïàðàì, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî íà âñåé ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè (19 òûñ. êì2) ãíåçäèòñÿ 66–146 ïàðû (â ñðåäíåì 106 ïàð). Âèäèìî, ïîëó÷åííóþ îöåíêó ìîæíî ñ÷èòàòü ìèíèìàëüíîé. Âñå ðåãèñòðàöèè ñîâ áûëè ïðèóðî÷åíû ê âëàæíûì áèîòîïàì äîëèí íåáîëüøèõ ðå÷åê ñðåäè õîëìèñòîóâàëèñòûõ ñòåïåé. Ñû÷ äîìîâûé (Athene noctua) Ãíåçäèòñÿ â ðàñùåëèíàõ ñêàë. 1 ïàðà ñ ãíåçäîâûì ïîâåäåíèåì íàáëþäàëàñü â ñêàëüíîì ìàññèâå ã. Óëóòàó íà ñòîÿíêå 4/ 5 ìàÿ. Âçðîñëàÿ ïòèöà âñòðå÷åíà íà ìàðøðóòå 6 ìàÿ. Ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâèëà 0,02 ïàð/êì2 ñêàë. Èñõîäÿ èç ýòèõ äàííûõ, îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü äîìîâûõ ñû÷åé â ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâàõ Óëóòàó îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 7–17 ïàð (â ñðåäíåì 12 ïàð). Ó÷¸òíûõ äàííûõ ÿâíî íåäîñòàòî÷íî, è, ïî-âèäèìîìó, ÷èñëåííîñòü äîìîâîãî ñû÷à íà ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè ñóùåñòâåííî âûøå. Ñïëþøêà (Otus scops) Îáû÷íûé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ âèä ëåñîíàñàæäåíèé Óëóòàó. Òîêóþùèå ñàìöû ðåãèñòðèðîâàëèñü êàê íà äíåâíûõ ìàðøðóòàõ (3 îñîáè), òàê è íà òî÷êå ñòîÿíêè 5/6 ìàÿ (3 îñîáè). Ìû ñî÷ëè âîçìîæíûì ýêñòðàïîëèðîâàòü äàííûå ñ òî÷êè ó÷¸òà íà íî÷íîé ñòîÿíêå (ó÷¸òíàÿ ïëîùàäü – 1,13 êì2, ïëîòíîñòü – 2,65 ïàð/êì2), òàê êàê, ïî íàøåìó ìíåíèþ, îíè äàþò áîëåå îáúåêòèâíóþ îöåíêó ÷èñëåííîñòè, êîòîðàÿ ñîñòàâëÿåò äëÿ ëåñîíàñàæäåíèé Óëóòàó 91–151 ïàð (â ñðåäíåì 121 ïàðà). Ëèòåðàòóðà Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî ó÷¸òó ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ è îáðàáîòêå ó÷¸òíûõ äàííûõ. Íîâîñèáèðñê: èçä. äîì «Ìàíóñêðèïò». 2000. 32 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè (ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî èçó÷åíèþ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è ñîâîîáðàçíûõ). Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä: Èçäâî «Ïîâîëæüå». 2004. 351 ñ. Ïàæåíêîâ À.Ñ., Êîðæåâ Ä.À., Õîõëîâà Í.À. Íîâûå ñâåäåíèÿ î êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèöàõ Ìóãîäæàð, Êàçàõñòàí. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2005. ¹ 4. Ñ. 58–60. Buckland S.T., Anderson D.R., Burnham K.P., Laake J.L, Borchers D.L. and Thomas L. Introduction to Distance Sampling. Estimating abundance of biological populations. Oxford University Press. 2001. 448 p.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

TheBlackVultureintheNurataumountains,Uzbekistan ГРИФНАХРЕБТЕНУРАТАУ,УЗБЕКИСТАН KorshunovaE.N.,KorshunovE.N.(StateNatureReserve‘Kerzhensky’, N.Novgorod,Russia) Корш$новаЕ.Н.,Корш$новЕ.Н.(Заповедни«Керженсий»,Н.Нов/ород,Россия) Êîíòàêò: Åëåíà Íèêîëàåâíà Êîðøóíîâà Çàïîâåäíèê «Êåðæåíñêèé» 603134 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Êîñòèíà 2,êàá. 162 òåë.: +7 (8312) 34 08 32 ôàêñ: +7 (8312)340951 zapoved@dront.ru Contact: Elena N. Korshunova State Nature Reserve «Kerzhensky» Kostina str. 2, of. 162 N. Novgorod 603134 Russia tel.: +7 (8312) 34 08 32 fax: +7 (8312) 34 09 51 zapoved@dront.ru

׸ðíûé ãðèô (Aegypius monachus) âíåñ¸í â Êðàñíûé ñïèñîê ÌÑÎÏ (LR-nt) è Êðàñíûå êíèãè ðÿäà ñòðàí, òàêèõ êàê Ðîññèÿ è Óçáåêèñòàí.  Óçáåêèñòàíå áëèçîê ê óÿçâèìûì (Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà Ðåñïóáëèêè Óçáåêèñòàí, 2003). Îïàñåíèå ñïåöèàëèñòîâ çà áëàãîïîëó÷èå ýòèõ ïòèö âûçûâàåò óìåíüøåíèå êîëè÷åñòâà âûïàñàþùèõñÿ â ïóñòûíå Êûçûëêóì îòàð îâåö â ñâÿçè ñ ïàäåíèåì ñïðîñà íà êàðàêóëü.  òî æå âðåìÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè íåò ðàáîò, ïîñâÿù¸ííûõ àíàëèçó äèíàìèêè ÷èñëåííîñòè ýòîãî âèäà â Óçáåêèñòàíå. Íàèáîëåå ïîäðîáíûå ñâåäåíèÿ î ÷¸ðíîì ãðèôå íà õðåáòå Íóðàòàó ïðèâåäåíû â íàøèõ ðàáîòàõ áîëåå äâàäöàòè ëåò íàçàä (Êîðøóíîâà, Êîðøóíîâ, 1983; Korshunova, 1985), à â öåëîì ïî Óçáåêèñòàíó – â ðàáîòàõ Î.Â. Ìèòðîïîëüñêîãî è äð. (1987). Ïîýòîìó ñîïîñòàâëåíèå íàøèõ ìàòåðèàëîâ ïî ãíåçäîâàíèþ ÷¸ðíîãî ãðèôà â 1978–87 ãã. ñ äàííûìè, ïîëó÷åííûìè íàìè â ìàå-èþíå 2005 ã. íà õðåáòå Íóðàòàó, ìîæåò ïðåäñòàâëÿòü îïðåäåë¸ííûé èíòåðåñ.

The Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) is listed in the Red Data List of IUCN (LR-nt) and in the Red Data Book of Uzbekistan (Red Data Book of the Uzbekistan, 2003). At the same time there are no special studies of the Black Vulture numbers in Uzbekistan. This paper summarizes data on breeding of the Black Vulture in the Nuratau mountains in 1978–87 and in May-June of 2005. We have studied the breeding biology of the Black Vulture in the Nuratau Nature Reserve located in the central part of the Nuratau mountains (N 40.50 E 66.76). In 1978– 1987 we observed a total of 258 clutches with 260 eggs in 103 nests, The hatching success of 200 eggs was recorded. An egg volume (V) was calculated as V = 0.51 L D2, where L – egg length, D – maximal diameter (Hoyt, 1979). In the period of 5–6 May, 2005, we surveyed the central part of the Reserve in detail. About 50 pairs of black vultures were believed to breed in the territory of the Reserve at in the end of 1970s – beginning of 1980s. In 2005, a total of 42 nests were recorded, 25 of which were occupied. Twenty-three of those were used for breeding, and the remaining 2 were used as perches. Chicks were found in 15 nests and an egg in another nest. 17 nests were not occupied. Thirty-five nests were surveyed in the central part of the Reserve: 14 were old, 21 were occupied, 19 of which were used for breeding, 12 nests of which held chicks. In 2005, the nest distribution within the Chayat boundary was measured several times (fig. 2). The numbers of Black vultures within the central part of the Reserve (fig.1), the other territories of the Reserve, and the adjoining areas (fig.4), were stable over the last 30 years. As in 1980s in 2005 a total 40–50 breeding pairs were estimated for the Nature Reserve. Õðåáåò Íóðàòàó: âèä íà ñåâåðíûé ìàêðîñêëîí íà êîñìîñíèìêå Landsat 7, ïðåîáðàçîâàííûé 3D-ìîäóëåì (ââåðõó), è âèä õðåáòîâ íà ôîòî Å. Êîðøóíîâîé (âíèçó) The Nuratau mountains: the northern side on a satellite image Landsat 7 transformed by 3D-module (at the top) and these mountains on the photo by E. Korshunova (at the foot)


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5

Ìàòåðèàë è ìåòîäèêà Èçó÷åíèå îñîáåííîñòåé ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ÷¸ðíîãî ãðèôà ìû ïðîâîäèëè íà òåððèòîðèè Íóðàòèíñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà, ðàñïîëîæåííîãî íà ñåâåðíûõ ñêëîíàõ öåíòðàëüíîé ÷àñòè õðåáòà Íóðàòàó (N 40,50 E 66,76), à òàêæå íà ñîïðåäåëüíîé ñ çàïîâåäíèêîì òåððèòîðèè. Õðåáåò Íóðàòàó – ñåâåðî-çàïàäíûé ôîðïîñò Ïàìèðî-Àëàÿ – ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé äîâîëüíî ñëîæíóþ ñèñòåìó íèçêî è ñðåäíåãîðíûõ ìàññèâîâ, êîòîðûå íà çàïàäå ñëóæàò ïðîäîëæåíèåì Òóðêåñòàíñêîãî õðåáòà è åãî îòðîãîâ.  ïðåäåëàõ çàïîâåäíèêà íàõîäèòñÿ âûñøàÿ òî÷êà õð. Íóðàòàó ã. Õàÿòáàøè (2169 ì). Òåððèòîðèÿ çàïîâåäíèêà çàíèìàåò ðàñ÷ëåí¸ííûé ãëóáîêèìè óùåëüÿìè ó÷àñòîê íèçêîãîðèé è ñðåäíåãîðèé ñåâåðíîãî ñêëîíà õð. Íóðàòàó, ñëîæåííîãî ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ïðîòåðîçîéñêèìè è ïàëåîçîéñêèìè ñëàíöàìè è èçâåñòíÿêàìè è îáðàù¸ííîãî ê îáøèðíîé Àéäàðî-Àðíàñàéñêîé îç¸ðíîé êîòëîâèíå. Ïîëûííî-ýôåìåðîèäîâàÿ ïðåäãîðíàÿ ïîëóïóñòûíÿ íà âûñîòå 700–900 ì ïîñòåïåííî ñìåíÿåòñÿ ñîîáùåñòâàìè ñóõèõ ïûðåéíî-ðàçíîòðàâíûõ ñòåïåé, ðàçíîòðàâíûõ ïîëûííèêîâ, äåðíîâèííî-çëàêîâûõ ãîðíûõ ñòåïåé è êñåðîôèëüíûõ êóñòàðíèêîâ ñ ôðàãìåíòàìè ïîëóêóñòàðíèêîâûõ ñîîáùåñòâ, íàãîðíûõ êñåðîôèòîâ è îòäåëüíûìè äåðåâüÿìè àð÷è çåðàâøàíñêîé. Êóñòàðíèêè íà õðåáòå Íóðàòàó ïðîèçðàñòàþò â çîíå íàèáîëåå ðàñ÷ëåí¸ííîãî ðåëüåôà íà êðóòûõ ñêëîíàõ óùåëèé, â èíòåðâàëå âûñîò îò 800–900 äî 1700–1800 ì. Ýòî ñìåøàííîêóñòàðíèêîâûå ôèòîöåíîçû, â êîòîðûõ äîìèíèðóþò ìèíäàëè áóõàðñêèé è êîëþ÷åéøèé â ñî÷åòàíèè ñ áîëåå ìåçîôèëüíûìè êóñòàðíèêàìè – æèìîëîñòüþ ìîíåòîëèñòíîé è êèçèëüíèêîì ìîíåòíûì. Çàðîñëè ìèíäàëÿ êîëþ÷åéøåãî õàðàêòåðíû äëÿ âåðõíåé ÷àñòè ïîÿñà ïðåäãîðèé è íèæíåãî ïîÿñà ãîð.  ñðåäíåãîðüå íà áîëåå çàñóøëèâûõ ñêëîíàõ ïðåîáëàäàåò ìèíäàëü áóõàðñêèé, à íà áîëåå óâëàæíåííûõ ñåâåðíûõ ñêëîíàõ – æèìîëîñòü è êèçèëüíèê. Çà ïåðèîä èññëåäîâàíèé 1978–1987 ãã. áûëî îïèñàíî è ïðîìåðåíî 258 êëàäîê èëè 260 ÿèö â 103 ãí¸çäàõ, èç êîòîðûõ ó 200 ÿèö óñòàíîâëåí èòîã ãíåçäîâàíèÿ. Ïîçäíåå, â 2005 ã., â ïåðèîä ñ 5 ìàÿ ïî 6 èþíÿ â òå÷åíèå 22 ïîëåâûõ ðàáî÷èõ äíåé íàìè áûëà îáñëåäîâàíà öåíòðàëüíàÿ ÷àñòü çàïîâåäíèêà â óðî÷èùàõ Õàÿò, Òûê÷à è Êàðû, ãäå ðàíåå ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ãðèôîâ áûëà ìàêñèìàëüíîé, à òàêæå ñî-

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Black vultures breeding on rocks were not seen in the surveyed territory. All nest were located on almond trees 1.5–5 m high, on slopes of 25–45°. The majority of the nests (n=101) were located on southern-eastern (30,8%) and southern (22.0%) sides of mount (fig. 5), 20.9% – on eastern sides, 17.6% – on western and 12.1% – on southern-western sides. All nests were located on high 1000–1880 on sea level, at average 1487.03±167.35 m (M±SD), 44.55% from which were on high 1400–1600 m (fig. 6). Half of all registered breeding events and 57% of registered fledglings happened there. The cluster analysis of nest distributions along the gradients of the absolute heights, slope exposition and slope steepness grouped the nest sites into three groups. The largest group included 58.33% of vultures nests, located on southernsouthern-eastern sides (175.98±62.93°), on highs 1592.5±95.9 m on sea level and on slopes 33.71±4.39°. Clutch size is 1 egg. Only 2 clutches (n=258) with 2 eggs were found. Average egg size (n=260) was 91.04 mm (range 69.2 – 102.3 mm) x 69.27 mm (range 51.4 – 75.9). Average egg volume (V) was 223.6 sm 3 (range 93.24–287.3 sm 3). Average breeding success was 58.0%, (n=200), deaths of eggs were noted in 27 cases, deaths of chicks – in 28 cases, and a reason of unsuccessful breeding was not determined in 29 cases. Average volume of dead eggs was 205.38 ñì3, average volume of eggs in the nests, where chicks have died was 217.89 ñì3, average volume of eggs in successful nests was 230.31 ñì3. At the same time in all clutches, where egg volumes were less than 180 sm3 (n=8), breeding was not successful by the reasons of deaths of eggs (5), deaths of chicks (2) and unknown reason (1). The lowest volume of eggs was 181.42 cm3 (egg size 80.2õ66.6 mm); the egg hatched successfully.. In general the egg volume in our sample correlates with breeding success (r = 0.891). The hatching success of black vultures has a negative correlation with egg size. (r = –0.530). In 26 cases in 1978–82, the reason of death was known, they were – deaths of eggs (73%) 46% from which were unfertile 12% with dead embryos; and deaths of chicks (22%), 19% from which were in first days after hatching. Nowadays the status of the population of the Black Vulture breeding in the Nuratau mountains within the Nuratau Nature Reserve is satisfactory, and the number are stable.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5

Ðèñ. 1. Ðàçìåùåíèå ìàðøðóòîâ è îáñëåäîâàííûõ ãí¸çä ÷¸ðíîãî ãðèôà (Aegypius monachus) â 2005 ã. Fig. 1. Expedition routes (1) and surveyed nests of the Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) (2–4) in 2005. 2 – successful nests, 3 – empty nests and 4 – old nests

Ðèñ. 2. Óñïåøíûå, ïóñòûå è ñòàðûå ãí¸çäà ÷¸ðíîãî ãðèôà â óð. Õàÿò â 1978–2005 ãã. Fig. 2. Successful (2), empty (3) and old nests (4) of the Black Vulture in Hayat natural boundary in 1978–2005

âåðøåíî íåñêîëüêî ìàðøðóòîâ ïî ïðèëåãàþùåé ê íåé òåððèòîðèè. Âñåãî áûëî îáíàðóæåíî 42 ãíåçäà. Êðîìå ýòîãî, â ðàáîòå áûëà èñïîëüçîâàíà èíôîðìàöèÿ, ëþáåçíî ïðåäîñòàâëåííàÿ çàìåñòèòåëåì äèðåêòîðà ïî íàó÷íîé ðàáîòå Íóðàòèíñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà Í.Þ. Áåøêî è ñâåäåíèÿ èç Ëåòîïèñè ïðèðîäû çàïîâåäíèêà çà 1978–2004 ãã.  íàñòîÿùåé ñòàòüå âïåðâûå îáîáùåíû ìàòåðèàëû ïî ãíåçäîâàíèþ ÷¸ðíîãî ãðèôà çà âåñü ïåðèîä ðàáîòû 1978 – 87 ãã. â ñîïîñòàâëåíèè ñ áîëåå ïîçäíèìè äàííûìè, ïðèâåä¸ííûìè â Ëåòîïèñè ïðèðîäû Íóðàòèíñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà (Ëåòîïèñü ïðèðîäû, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2003, 2004 ãã.), à òàêæå íàøèìè ìàòåðèàëàìè, ñîáðàííûìè â 2005 ãîäó. Ïðè îòíîñèòåëüíîé ïðîñòîòå ïîèñêà ãí¸çä ÷¸ðíîãî ãðèôà (îñìîòð ïðîòèâîïî-

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ëîæíûõ ñêëîíîâ â áèíîêëü ñ öåëüþ îáíàðóæåíèÿ ãí¸çä ñ ïîñëåäóþùåé èõ ïðîâåðêîé), âûñîêàÿ òðóäî¸ìêîñòü ðàáîò è äàëåêî íå âñåãäà ãàðàíòèðîâàííàÿ âîçìîæíîñòü îáíàðóæåíèÿ âñåõ æèëûõ ãí¸çä ñòàâÿò ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé â çàâèñèìîñòü îò âðåìåíè ïðîâåäåíèÿ ó÷¸òà, êâàëèôèêàöèè èññëåäîâàòåëÿ è åãî òðóäîçàòðàò íà îáñëåäîâàíèå òåððèòîðèè. Îöåíèòü ñòåïåíü îáñëåäîâàíèÿ òåððèòîðèè â 2005 ã. ìîæíî ïî ãóñòîòå ìàðøðóòîâ íà ðèñóíêå 1. Êîñâåííûì ïîêàçàòåëåì äåòàëüíîñòè îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ìîæíî ñ÷èòàòü ñîîòíîøåíèå ÷èñëà íàéäåííûõ ñòàðûõ è æèëûõ ãí¸çä. Òàê, íàïðèìåð, ïðè îáñëåäîâàíèè óðî÷èùà Õàÿò (ðèñ. 2) â 1978 ã. íà 8 æèëûõ ãí¸çä áûëî çàêàðòèðîâàíî 9 ñòàðûõ ãí¸çä, â 1986 ã. íà 10 æèëûõ ãí¸çä ïðèøëîñü 20 ñòàðûõ, â 2005 ã. íà 8 æèëûõ – 8 ñòàðûõ. Íàèáîëåå óäîáíî ïðîâîäèòü ó÷¸ò ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð â ïåðèîä áðà÷íûõ èãð è ñòðîèòåëüñòâà ãíåçäà â êîíöå ôåâðàëÿ – íà÷àëå ìàðòà, êîãäà åù¸ íåò ëèñòâû, è âñå ãí¸çäà õîðîøî çàìåòíû ñ áîëüøîãî ðàññòîÿíèÿ.  áîëåå ïîçäíèå ñðîêè èç ó÷¸òà âûïàäàþò ïàðû, ó êîòîðûõ íå áûëî êëàäêè èëè ïîãèáëè ÿéöà èëè ïòåíöû. Îáñëåäîâàíèå òåððèòîðèè â èþëå-àâãóñòå äà¸ò ðåçóëüòàò ðàçìíîæåíèÿ, à íå ÷èñëî ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð, ò.ê. â ýòî âðåìÿ ó÷èòûâàþòñÿ ëèøü ïàðû, ó êîòîðûõ óñïåøíî âûëóïèëèñü è âûðîñëè ïòåíöû. Õîðîøî çàìåòíû ãí¸çäà ãðèôîâ, êîãäà âçðîñëàÿ ïòèöà ñèäèò íà ãíåçäå, ïðèêðûâàÿ ñâîåé òåíüþ ïòåíöà îò ñîëíöà, èëè êîãäà â ãíåçäå óæå êðóïíûé ïòåíåö.  ïåðèîä íàñèæèâàíèÿ ÿèö èëè îáîãðåâà ïòåíöîâ â õîëîäíóþ ïîãîäó çàìåòèòü ãíåçäî ñ áîëüøîãî ðàññòîÿíèÿ óäà¸òñÿ äàëåêî íå âñåãäà. Ïîýòîìó äëÿ îöåíêè óñïåøíîñòè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ öåëåñîîáðàçíî ïðîâîäèòü ó÷¸ò äâàæäû íà ñðàâíèòåëüíî íåáîëüøèõ êîíòðîëüíûõ ïëîùàäÿõ – â êîíöå ôåâðàëÿ – íà÷àëå ìàðòà è â èþëå, à äëÿ îöåíêè îáùåé ÷èñëåííîñòè – ïðîâîäèòü îáñëåäîâàíèå íà áîëüøèõ ïëîùàäÿõ â èþíå-èþëå, äåëàÿ ïîïðàâêó íà âîçìîæíîñòü íåäîó÷¸òà ïîãèáøèõ ê ýòîìó âðåìåíè ïòåíöîâ è êëàäîê. Ïðè ïðîâåäåíèè ó÷¸òîâ â 1978–1987 ãã. ìåñòà ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãí¸çä îòìå÷àëèñü íà êàðòîñõåìå Íóðàòèíñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà. Ïî ãîðèçîíòàëÿì íà êàðòå îïðåäåëÿëàñü âûñîòà ðàçìåùåíèÿ ãí¸çä íàä óðîâíåì ìîðÿ è êðóòèçíà ñêëîíà.  2005 ã. áûëè îïèñàíû 36 ãí¸çä ñ îïðåäåëåíèåì êîîðäèíàò ïðè ïîìîùè GPS, è 6 ãí¸çä áûëè ïðèâÿçàíû ê òî÷êàì ñ êîîðäèíàòàìè. Ïðè ýòîì ïåðèîä ïðîâåäåíèÿ ðà-


Raptors Research áîò (ìàé 2005 ã.) íå áûë îïòèìàëüíûì äëÿ âûÿâëåíèÿ âñåõ ãí¸çä, ò.ê. èç-çà õîëîäíîé ïîãîäû âçðîñëûå ïòèöû ÷àñòî ëåæàëè â ãí¸çäàõ, îáîãðåâàÿ ïòåíöîâ, à ðàñïóñòèâøàÿñÿ ëèñòâà ñèëüíî ðàçðîñøèõñÿ êóñòîâ ìèíäàëÿ íåðåäêî çàêðûâàëà ñàìè ãí¸çäà, çàòðóäíÿÿ îáíàðóæåíèå äàæå óæå èçâåñòíûõ ãí¸çä. Ýòî, íàðÿäó ñ êðàòêîâðåìåííûì õàðàêòåðîì îáñëåäîâàíèÿ, ïî íàøèì îöåíêàì ïðèâåëî ê íåäîó÷¸òó 10–20 % ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð. Ê æèëûì ãí¸çäàì áûëè îòíåñåíû íå òîëüêî òå, íà êîòîðûõ íàáëþäàëè ïòèö ñ êëàäêîé èëè ïòåíöàìè, íî è òå, ãäå â ìîìåíò îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ïòèö óæå íå áûëî, íî îá èñïîëüçîâàíèè ãíåçäà â òåêóùåì ãîäó ñâèäåòåëüñòâîâàë êîìïëåêñ ïðèçíàêîâ: âûñòëàííûé ñâåæåé ðàñòèòåëüíîé âåòîøüþ ëîòîê ãíåçäà, ïåðüÿ, ïîãàäêè è ïÿòíà ýêñêðåìåíòîâ. Ãí¸çäà, íà êîòîðûõ áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ñëåäû ïîñåùåíèÿ ãðèôàìè, íî ïî ñîñòîÿíèþ êîòîðûõ äîñòîâåðíî ïîäòâåðäèòü ãíåçäîâàíèå íà íàø âçãëÿä íå ïðåäñòàâëÿëîñü âîçìîæíûì, ìû îòíåñëè ê ñòàðûì ãíåçäàì, èñïîëüçîâàííûì â êà÷åñòâå ïðèñàä. Ðàçìåùåíèå è õàðàêòåð èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ âñåõ ãí¸çä ïîìèìî äíåâíèêîâûõ çàïèñåé ïðîòîêîëèðîâàëîñü âèäåîñú¸ìêîé.  ñâÿçè ñ òåì, ÷òî â ðàçíûå Ãðèô (Aegypius monachus) íà ãíåçäå ñ ãîäû âñÿ òåððèòîðèÿ çàïîïòåíöîì. Ôîòî Å. Êîðøóíîâîé âåäíèêà îáñëåäîâàëàñü íåThe Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) ðàâíîìåðíî, ïðè àíàëèçå on a nest with the chick. Photo by E. Koräèíàìèêè ÷èñëåííîñòè ìû shunova îïèðàëèñü ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî íà ðåçóëüòàòû, ïîëó÷åííûå â öåíòðàëüíîé ÷àñòè çàïîâåäíèêà (óðî÷èùà Õàÿò, Òûê÷à è Êàðû), ãäå ó÷¸òû ïðîâîäèëèñü ðåãóëÿðíî.  ïåðèîä ðàáîò 1978–1987 ãã. ïðîâîäèëîñü îïèñàíèå êëàäîê è ïòåíöîâ. Îáú¸ì ÿéöà (V) îïðåäåëÿëñÿ êàê V = 0,51 L D2 , ãäå L – äëèíà ÿéöà, D – íàèáîëüøèé äèàìåòð (Hoyt, 1979), èíäåêñû ôîðìû è óäëèí¸ííîñòè ðàññ÷èòûâàëèñü êàê I = D / L x 100; K = L / D; U = (L – D) / D õ 100. Ðàñ÷¸òû ðàçëè÷íûõ èíäåêñîâ ôîðìû è óäëèí¸ííîñòè ïðèâåäåíû äëÿ óäîáñòâà èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ, ò.ê. â ðàçíûõ ðàáîòàõ ïî îîëîãèè èñïîëüçóþòñÿ ðàçëè÷íûå êîýôôèöèåíòû (À.Ä. Íóìåðîâ è äð. 1995 ã.). Ñðîêè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ, îñîáåííîñòè ïîâåäåíèÿ è äðóãèå ÷åðòû áèîëîãèè áûëè âûÿñíåíû ïðè ïðîâåäåíèè ñòàöèîíàðíûõ íàáëþäåíèé ñ 20 êðàòíîé ïîäçîðíîé òðóáîé, à òàêæå ïðè ðåãóëÿðíûõ (1 ðàç â 6–7 äíåé) ïîñåùåíèÿõ ãí¸çä â 1978–1981 ãã.  áîëåå ïîçäíèå ãîäû áîëüøåå âíèìàíèå

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óäåëÿëîñü ó÷¸òó íà íîâûõ ïëîùàäÿõ, ìå÷åíèþ ñë¸òêîâ êðûëîìåòêàìè èç äâóõñëîéíîãî öåëëóëîèäà è íàáëþäåíèÿì çà ìå÷åíûìè ïòèöàìè. Äëÿ âûÿñíåíèÿ óñïåøíîñòè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ãí¸çäà îáñëåäîâàëèñü òðèæäû: â ïåðèîä íàñèæèâàíèÿ, ïîñëå âûëóïëåíèÿ ïòåíöîâ è ïåðåä âûëåòîì. Îöåíêà óñïåøíîñòè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ îñíîâûâàåòñÿ íà ìàòåðèàëàõ íàáëþäåíèé çà ãí¸çäàìè ñ êëàäêîé, è ëèøü â îòäåëüíûõ ñëó÷àÿõ èñïîëüçîâàëèñü ñòàöèîíàðíûå íàáëþäåíèÿ çà ïîâåäåíèåì ïàð â óðî÷èùå Õàÿò, íà÷èíàÿ ñ ïåðèîäà ãíåçäîñòðîèòåëüñòâà. Àíàëèç ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ãí¸çä ãðèôîâ ïðîâîäèëñÿ â ñðåäå ÃÈÑ ñ ïîìîùüþ ïðîãðàììû ArcView 3.2à (ESRI) è ìîäóëåé Spatial Analyst 1.1, Image Analysis 1.1 è 3D Analysis. Ñòàòèñòè÷åñêèé àíàëèç äàííûõ ïî óñïåøíîñòè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ îñóùåñòâëåí â ïðîãðàììå Statistica 5.0.

Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå è ÷èñëåííîñòü â Óçáåêèñòàíå Ïî ìíåíèþ Î.Â. Ìèòðîïîëüñêîãî ñ ñîàâòîðàìè (1987), ÷¸ðíûé ãðèô – îòíîñèòåëüíî ìíîãî÷èñëåííàÿ ãíåçäÿùàÿñÿ ïòèöà ãîðíûõ ñèñòåì Óçáåêèñòàíà, ïðè ýòîì íå èñêëþ÷åíî, ÷òî âî âòîðîé ïîëîâèíå ïðîøëîãî âåêà ïðîèçîøëî çíà÷èòåëüíîå ïåðåðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãðèôîâ íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â áàññåéíàõ Ñûðäàðüè è Àìóäàðüè.  ÷àñòíîñòè, ÷èñëåííîñòü ãðèôîâ ðåçêî ñíèçèëàñü íà êðóïíûõ õðåáòàõ, îêàéìëÿþùèõ ñðåäíåå òå÷åíèå Ñûðäàðüè, Ãîëîäíóþ ñòåïü, áàññåéíû Êàøêàäàðüè è Ñóðõàíäàðüè, â ñâÿçè ñ âûðóáêîé âûñîêîñòâîëüíûõ ëåñîâ, âîçðîñøèì ôàêòîðîì áåñïîêîéñòâà, êàòàñòðîôè÷åñêèì óìåíüøåíèåì ÷èñëåííîñòè äèêèõ êîïûòíûõ è ïîâñåìåñòíûì çåìëåäåëü÷åñêèì îñâîåíèåì ïðåäãîðíûõ ðàéîíîâ.  òî æå âðåìÿ ãðèôû íà÷àëè ãíåçäèòüñÿ ïî îñòàíöîâûì ãîðàì Êûçûëêóìîâ, ãäå â ïðîøëîì (Áîãäàíîâ, 1882; Çàðóäíûé, 1915, èç: Ìèòðîïîëüñêèé è äð., 1987) íå íàáëþäàëèñü, à òàêæå íà ãëóáîêî âûäâèíóòîì â ïóñòûííûå ðàéîíû õð. Íóðàòàó.  ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ ãðèôû, ãíåçäÿñü â íèçêîñòâîëüíûõ êóñòàðíèêàõ è ñêàëàõ, øèðîêî îñâàèâàþò êîðìîâûå ðåñóðñû ïóñòûííûõ ïàñòáèù. Ñåçîííî âûðàæåííûõ ìèãðàöèé ó ãðèôîâ íåèçâåñòíî. Âçðîñëûå â íåãíåçäîâîå âðåìÿ, à íåïîëîâîçðåëûå è õîëîñòûå îñîáè êðóãëûé ãîä âñòðå÷àþòñÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè ïî âñåé òåððèòîðèè Óçáåêèñòàíà. Îíè ìíîãî÷èñëåííû, îñîáåííî â õîëîäíîå âðåìÿ ãîäà, íà Óñòþðòå, â öåíòðàëüíûõ è þæ-


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Ðèñ. 3. Äàííûå î ãíåçäîâàíèè ãðèôà íà öåíòðàëüíîì ó÷àñòêå Íóðàòèíñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà Fig. 3. Information about nesting of the Black Vulture in the central part of Nuratau Nature Reserve

íûõ Êûçûëêóìàõ, îáû÷íû ïî äîëèíàì ðàâíèííûõ ðåê, ÷àñòî äåðæàòñÿ íà îêðàèíàõ æèâîòíîâîä÷åñêèõ ïîñåëêîâ è íà ñâàëêàõ.  ëåòíåå âðåìÿ ãðèôû â áîëüøîì êîëè÷åñòâå âñòðå÷àþòñÿ íàä âñåìè âûñîêîãîðíûìè ïàñòáèùàìè ñóáàëüïèéñêîé è àëüïèéñêîé çîí, íî ïîñëå îòêî÷¸âêè ñêîòà ïîêèäàþò ýòè ðàéîíû.

ìíåíèþ àâòîðîâ, ìíîãî÷èñëåííû ãðèôû íà ãíåçäîâüå òîëüêî íà õðåáòå Íóðàòàó, îñîáåííî íà òåððèòîðèè Íóðàòèíñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà. Ïî ìàòåðèàëàì Êðàñíîé êíèãè Óçáåêèñòàíà, ïîäãîòîâëåííîé ÷åðåç ïÿòíàäöàòü ëåò ïîñëå ïðîâåä¸ííûõ èññëåäîâàíèé (2003), ÷¸ðíûé ãðèô ðàñïðîñòðàí¸í íà Çàïàäíîì Òÿíü-Øàíå, Çàïàäíîì Ïàìèðî-Àëàå, îñòàíöîâûõ ãîðàõ Áóêàíòàó è Òàìäûòàó, è ÷èñëåííîñòü åãî ïîñòåïåííî ñíèæàåòñÿ.

×èñëåííîñòü ÷¸ðíîãî ãðèôà â Íóðàòèíñêîì çàïîâåäíèêå â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä

Ãðèô íà ãíåçäå ñ ïòåíöîì. Ôîòî Å. Êîðøóíîâîé The Black Vulture on a nest with the chick. Photo by E. Korshunova

Íà òåððèòîðèè Óçáåêèñòàíà èçâåñòíû äâà òèïà ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ãðèôîâ – íà äåðåâüÿõ è íà ñêàëàõ. Íàèáîëåå ñåâåðíîå ãíåçäîâàíèå ãðèôîâ â Óçáåêèñòàíå îòìå÷åíî â öåíòðàëüíûõ Êûçûëêóìàõ íà õðåáòàõ Áóêàíòàó è Òàìäûòàó, à òàêæå çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíû îòäåëüíûå ñëó÷àè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ñðåäè ñïåëûõ ñàêñàóëüíèêîâ â ïåñ÷àíûõ ìàññèâàõ íà ñåâåðî-âîñòîêå öåíòðàëüíûõ Êûçûëêóìîâ.  öåëîì ãðèôû ãíåçäÿòñÿ ïî âñåì êðóïíûì ïåðèôåðèéíûì õðåáòàì çàïàäíîãî Òÿíü-Øàíÿ è Ïàìèðî-Àëàÿ, õîòÿ â áîëüøèíñòâå ðàéîíîâ ìàëî÷èñëåííû. Ïî

 Ëåòîïèñè ïðèðîäû Íóðàòèíñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà çà 2004 ãîä ãîâîðèòñÿ î òîì, ÷òî «… òå÷åíèå ïîñëåäíèõ íåñêîëüêèõ ëåò îòìå÷àåòñÿ ïîñòåïåííîå ñíèæåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð ãðèôà â Íóðàòèíñêîì çàïîâåäíèêå.  êîíöå 70-õ – íà÷àëå 80-õ ãîäîâ ÕÕ âåêà íà òåððèòîðèè çàïîâåäíèêà îòìå÷àëîñü äî 50 ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð, â êîíöå 90-õ è 2000–2002 ãã. – 14–15 ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð â Ìàäæåðóìñàå, Àíäûãåíñàå, Õàÿòñàå, Êàðûñàå, Òûê÷àñàå, Áîëîñàå.  2003 è 2004 ãã. ðåãèñòðèðîâàëèñü ïî 10 æèëûõ ãí¸çä. Âîçìîæíî, ñíèæåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ñâÿçàíî ñ ñîêðàùåíèåì êîðìîâîé áàçû ÷¸ðíîãî ãðèôà èççà óìåíüøåíèÿ ïîãîëîâüÿ îâåö â ñîñåäíèõ ñ çàïîâåäíèêîì õîçÿéñòâàõ». Ïðè ýòîì â 2004 ã. â öåíòðàëüíîé ÷àñòè çàïîâåäíèêà áûëî ó÷òåíî ëèøü 4 æèëûõ ãíåçäà è 8 íåæèëûõ (âñåãî 12).


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5  2005 ã. íàéäåíî 42 ãíåçäà, èç êîòîðûõ 25 áûëè îòíåñåíû ê ÷èñëó èñïîëüçóåìûõ, â òîì ÷èñëå 23 – ê ÷èñëó æèëûõ è 2 ãíåçäà èñïîëüçîâàëèñü, ïî-âèäèìîìó, â êà÷åñòâå ïðèñàä. Ïðè ýòîì â 15 ãí¸çäàõ áûëè ïòåíöû è â 1 – êëàäêà. 17 ãí¸çä áûëè îòíåñåíû ê íåæèëûì è íåèñïîëüçóåìûì.  öåíòðàëüíîé ÷àñòè çàïîâåäíèêà áûëî îáíàðóæåíî 35 ãí¸çä (21 èñïîëüçóåìîå è 14 ñòàðûõ), 19 èç íèõ áûëè îïðåäåëåíû êàê æèëûå, èç êîòîðûõ â 12 áûëè ïòåíöû. Ò.å. â õîäå èññëåäîâàíèé áûëî íàéäåíî ïî÷òè â ïÿòü ðàç áîëüøå æèëûõ ãí¸çä è â òðè ðàçà áîëüøå ãí¸çä ñ ïòåíöàìè, ÷åì ÷èñëî æèëûõ ãí¸çä, óêàçàííûõ â Ëåòîïèñè ïðèðîäû Íóðàòèíñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà çà 2004 ã. Òî, ÷òî â 2005 ã. ÷èñëî ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð è îáíàðóæåííûõ ñòàðûõ ãí¸çä çíà÷èòåëüíî áîëüøå, ÷åì ïðèâåäåíî â Ëåòîïèñè çàïîâåäíèêà çà ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû, îáúÿñíÿåòñÿ çíà÷èòåëüíûì íåäîó÷¸òîì â ïðåäûäóùèé ïåðèîä. Ýòî ñâÿçàíî ñ òåì, ÷òî â ýòîò ïåðèîä äåòàëüíîãî îáñëåäîâàíèÿ òåððèòîðèè íà ïðåäìåò îáíàðóæåíèÿ ãí¸çä ãðèôà íå ïðîâîäèëîñü, ðåãèñòðèðîâàëèñü òîëüêî íàèáîëåå çàìåòíûå ãí¸çäà, êîòîðûå áûëè îáíàðóæåíû âî âðåìÿ ïðîâåäåíèÿ äðóãèõ íàó÷íûõ èññëåäîâàíèé è ïðè ó÷¸òå êûçûëêóìñêîãî áàðàíà (Ovis ammon severtzovi). Ïîýòîìó, ïðèíèìàÿ âî âíèìàíèå äàííûå Ëåòîïèñè ïðèðîäû çà ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû, äà-

Ðèñ. 4. Ðàçìåùåíèå æèëûõ ãí¸çä ÷¸ðíîãî ãðèôà â 1984 ãîäó Fig. 4. Distribution of active nests of the Black Vulture in 1984

ëåå áîëåå äåòàëüíî áóäåì ñðàâíèâàòü íàøè íàáëþäåíèÿ 1978–87 ãã. ñ 2005 ã. Ïî ïðèâåä¸ííûì äàííûì (ðèñ. 3) âèäíî, ÷òî çà ïåðèîä 1978–87 ãã. ÷èñëî ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð â öåíòðàëüíîé ÷àñòè çàïîâåäíèêà íà ïëîùàäè 59,68 êì2 êîëåáàëîñü îò 16 äî 27 ïàð, â ñðåäíåì 20,1 ïàð çà 9 ëåò íàáëþäåíèé. Ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ñîîòâåòñòâåííî ñîñòàâëÿëà îò 0,27 ïàð äî 0,45 ïàð, â ñðåäíåì 0,34 ïàð/êì2.

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Ïî íàøèì íàáëþäåíèÿì â 2005 ã. ãíåçäèëîñü íå ìåíåå 19 ïàð, ÷òî î÷åíü áëèçêî ê ñðåäíåìó çíà÷åíèþ ïðåäûäóùåãî ïåðèîäà íàáëþäåíèé è ñîñòàâëÿåò îêîëî 0,32 ïàð/êì2. Ñîïîñòàâëåíèå ðàçìåùåíèÿ ãí¸çä â óð. Õàÿò â ðàçëè÷íûå ïåðèîäû íàáëþäåíèé (ðèñ. 2), à òàêæå ðàçìåùåíèÿ ãí¸çä â öåíòðàëüíîé ÷àñòè â 2005 ã. (ðèñ. 1) è ðàçìåùåíèÿ ãí¸çä íà çàïîâåäíîé è ñîïðåäåëüíîé òåððèòîðèè â 1984 ã. (ðèñ. 4) ïîçâîëÿåò ñäåëàòü âûâîä î äîñòàòî÷íîé ñòàáèëüíîñòè ÷èñëåííîñòè ãðèôîâ íà çàïîâåäíîé òåððèòîðèè íà ïðîòÿæåíèè ïî÷òè òðèäöàòè ëåò. Íà íàø âçãëÿä, ÷èñëåííîñòü ãðèôà â çàïîâåäíèêå ìîæíî îöåíèòü ïîïðåæíåìó â 40–50 ïàð.

Ôåíîëîãèÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ è îñîáåííîñòè ïîâåäåíèÿ Êàê óæå îïèñûâàëîñü íàìè ðàíåå (Êîðøóíîâà, Êîðøóíîâ, 1983), íà ñåâåðíûõ ñêëîíàõ õðåáòà Íóðàòàó ãðèôû ïðèñòóïàþò ê ãíåçäîâàíèþ â I-II äåêàäàõ ôåâðàëÿ. Ñòðîÿò ãíåçäî è ñàìêà, è ñàìåö, íî ñàìåö – áîëåå àêòèâíî. Ñïàðèâàíèå ïðîèñõîäèò â ãíåçäå 1 – 3 ðàçà â äåíü è ïðîäîëæàåòñÿ 12–22 ñåê.  ïåðèîä ãíåçäîñòðîåíèÿ è â ïåðâîå âðåìÿ ïîñëå îòêëàäêè ÿèö ãðèôû àêòèâíî çàùèùàþò ãíåçäî è ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê îò äðóãèõ ïàð. Îäèí ðàç äðàêó ãðèôîâ íàáëþäàëè äàæå íà çåìëå, õîòÿ îáû÷íî èõ àòàêè íîñÿò äåìîíñòðàòèâíûé õàðàêòåð.  ôåâðàëå-ìàðòå â ìåñòàõ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ìèðíî êðóæèëè ãðóïïû ïòèö èç 2 – 3 è áîëåå ïàð, â òî âðåìÿ êàê «÷óæàêè» èçãîíÿëèñü c ãíåçäîâîãî ó÷àñòêà çà íåñêîëüêî êèëîìåòðîâ. Ñðîêè êëàäêè ðàñòÿíóòû ñ òðåòüåé äåêàäû ôåâðàëÿ ïî ïåðâóþ äåêàäó àïðåëÿ. Ñàìàÿ ðàííÿÿ êëàäêà áûëà îòìå÷åíà íàìè 24 ôåâðàëÿ 1981 ã., íî áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü ïòèö îòêëàäûâàåò ÿéöà â I-II äåêàäàõ ìàðòà, è ëèøü íåìíîãèå – â àïðåëå. Ïîñëå íà÷àëà íàñèæèâàíèÿ ñàìåö íåêîòîðîå âðåìÿ ïðîäîëæàåò äîñòðàèâàòü ãíåçäî. Äàæå ñïóñòÿ ìåñÿö ñàìåö ñ âåòêîé â êëþâå ïðèëåòàë íà ãíåçäî ñìåíèòü ñàìêó, ÷òî, âïðî÷åì, íîñèëî óæå ÿâíî ðèòóàëüíûé õàðàêòåð. Ïðîäîëæàåòñÿ íàñèæèâàíèå 54–56 äíåé, ó÷àñòâóþò â í¸ì îáà ðîäèòåëÿ.  ýòî âðåìÿ â ãíåçäå íî÷óåò òîëüêî íàñèæèâàþùàÿ ïòèöà, à âòîðàÿ óñòðàèâàåòñÿ íåïîäàëåêó íà êóñòàðíèêå èëè íà ñêàëå. Áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü ïòåíöîâ âûëóïëÿåòñÿ â êîíöå àïðåëÿ – ïåðâîé äåêàäå ìàÿ, íî â îòäåëüíûõ ñëó÷àÿõ èç ïîçäíèõ êëàäîê – â êîíöå ìàÿ. Òàê â 2005 ã. 28 ìàÿ â îäíîì èç


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5 ãí¸çä áûëî åù¸ íå íàêëþíóòîå, íî óæå ïèùàùåå ÿéöî, à â äðóãîì ãíåçäå 4 èþíÿ áûë ïòåíåö â âîçðàñòå íå áîëåå 3–5 äíåé, õîòÿ â íåêîòîðûõ ãí¸çäàõ â ýòî âðåìÿ ïòåíöû áûëè óæå â ïîëóòîðàìåñÿ÷íîì âîçðàñòå. Ïîêà ïòåíåö ïëîõî îïåð¸í, âçðîñëàÿ ïòèöà îáîãðåâàåò åãî â õîëîäíóþ ïîãîäó è çàêðûâàåò ñâîåé òåíüþ îò ñîëíöà â æàðó. Ê äâóì ìåñÿöàì òåëî ìîëîäîé ïòèöû ïîëíîñòüþ çàêðûâàåòñÿ ïåðüÿìè, è îíà âñ¸ äîëüøå îñòàåòñÿ â ãíåçäå îäíà.  ýòî âðåìÿ (èþëü-àâãóñò) íà ïðèñàäû íà ñêàëàõ ñîáèðàþòñÿ íà êîëëåêòèâíóþ íî÷¸âêó ñìåøàííûå ãðóïïû ãðèôîâ è ñèïîâ.

Ïòåíåö ãðèôà íà ãíåçäå. Ôîòî Å. Êîðøóíîâîé A chick of the Black Vulture on a nest. Photo by E. Korshunova

Âûëåòàþò ìîëîäûå ãðèôû ïîñëå çàâåðøåíèÿ ôîðìèðîâàíèÿ ìàõîâûõ è ðóëåâûõ â âîçðàñòå 104–120 äíåé. Èõ âåñ íà ýòîò ìîìåíò ñîñòàâëÿåò 7,2–8,8 êã. Íî, êàê ïðàâèëî, ïåðâîå âðåìÿ ïîñëå âûëåòà îíè åù¸ íå ìîãóò âçëåòàòü ñ ãîðèçîíòàëüíîé ïîâåðõíîñòè. Âîçìîæíî, èìåííî ïîýòîìó ãðèôû èçáåãàþò ãíåçäèòüñÿ íà ïîëîãèõ ñêëîíàõ, êðóòèçíà êîòîðûõ ìåíåå 15î – 20 î . Íàèáîëåå ðàííèé âûëåò ìîëîäîãî ãðèôà áûë îòìå÷åí 23 èþëÿ 1985 ã. â óð. Õàÿò. Ñëåòåâøàÿ ñ ãíåçäà ìîëîäàÿ ïòèöà íåïëîõî äåðæàëàñü â âîçäóõå, â òî âðåìÿ êàê â ñîñåäíèõ ãí¸çäàõ ïòåíöàì äî âûëåòà îñòàâàëîñü íå ìåíüøå ìåñÿöà. Íàèáîëåå ïîçäíèé âûëåò îòìå÷åí â ïåðèîä ñî 2 ïî 7 ñåíòÿáðÿ 1979 ã. Îñíîâíàÿ ÷àñòü ñë¸òêîâ ïîêèäàåò ãí¸çäà â ñåðåäèíå – êîíöå àâãóñòà. Âçðîñëûå ïòèöû êîðìÿò ïòåíöîâ îòðûæêîé â ïåðâûå äíè ïîñëå âûëóïëåíèÿ 6–7 ðàç â äåíü, ïîòîì ðåæå, à â ïîñëåäíèé ìåñÿö ïåðåä âûëåòîì 1, ðåäêî – 2 ðàçà â äåíü. Êîðìëåíèå ìîëîäûõ ïòèö ðîäèòåëÿìè ïðîäîëæàåòñÿ è ïîñëå èõ âûëåòà. Äàæå â íà÷àëå îêòÿáðÿ âçðîñëûå êîðìÿò èõ íà ãí¸çäàõ, õîòÿ ìîëîäûå ãðèôû â ýòî âðåìÿ óæå ñîâåðøàëè ïîë¸òû çà äåñÿòêè êèëîìåòðîâ. Íàáëþäåíèÿ çà ïîâåäåíèåì ãðèôîâ íà ïàäàëè ïîêàçàëè, ÷òî òàì äîìè-

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íèðóþò ãîëîäíûå âçðîñëûå ïòèöû, à ìîëîäûì äàëåêî íå âñåãäà óäà¸òñÿ íàêîðìèòüñÿ ó òðóïà. Ê êîíöó îêòÿáðÿ ÷àñòü ãðèôîâ îòêî÷¸âûâàåò. Òàê 7 íîÿáðÿ 1979 ã. îêîëüöîâàííûé ìîëîäîé ãðèô îáíàðóæåí â 250 êì þæíåå ìåñòà ãíåçäîâàíèÿ.  äåêàáðå – ÿíâàðå â ìåñòàõ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ãðèôû âñòðå÷àþòñÿ ðåäêî.

Îñîáåííîñòè óñòðîéñòâà è ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãí¸çä Ïî ìíåíèþ Î.Â. Ìèòðîïîëüñêîãî ñ ñîàâòîðàìè (1987), ïîñòðîéêè ãí¸çä íà ñêàëàõ ñëóæàò íåîïðåäåëåííî äîëãèé ñðîê, íåêîòîðûå èç íèõ â òå÷åíèå íåñêîëüêèõ äåñÿòèëåòèé. Îäíàêî, â ðàéîíå íàøèõ èññëåäîâàíèé ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ãðèôîâ íà ñêàëàõ íå áûëî îòìå÷åíî. Áèîòîïîì ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ãðèôîâ ÿâëÿþòñÿ ñêëîíû ãîð ñ êàìåíèñòûìè îñûïÿìè, ïîðîñøèå ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ìèíäàëåì áóõàðñêèì (Amigdalus bucharica Korsh.), íà âûñîòå îò 900 äî 1900 ì.â.ó.ì., â îñíîâíîì íà þæíûõ, þãî-âîñòî÷íûõ è þãî-çàïàäíûõ ñêëîíàõ. Âñå ãí¸çäà áûëè óñòðîåíû íà êóñòàõ ìèíäàëÿ íà âûñîòå îò 1,5 äî 5 ì íàä çåìë¸é, â çàâèñèìîñòè îò âûñîòû äåðåâà. Ïðè âîçìîæíîñòè âûáîðà ïðåäïî÷òåíèå ÿâíî îòäàâàëîñü íàèáîëåå êðóïíûì äðåâîâèäíûì ìèíäàëÿì, ðàñòóùèì íà êàìåíèñòûõ îñûïÿõ. Ïðè ðàñïîëîæåíèè íà îòíîñèòåëüíî íåáîëüøèõ êóñòàõ, èñïîëüçîâàëèñü òå, ÷òî ðîñëè íà âûñòóïàþùèõ ñêàëèñòûõ ó÷àñòêàõ, òàê, ÷òî âûñîòà ïîä ãíåçäîì â èòîãå ðåäêî áûëà ìåíüøå 3–5 ìåòðîâ. Ãíåçäî óñòðîåíî èç òîëñòûõ âåòîê è ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ïðî÷íîå ñîîðóæåíèå, ñâîáîäíî âûäåðæèâàþùåå âåñ äâóõ ÷åëîâåê. Íàðóæíûé äèàìåòð ãíåçäà äîñòèãàåò 2,8 ì, îáû÷íî 1,4–2 ì. Âûñîòà åãî çàâèñèò îò äëèòåëüíîñòè èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ è âàðüèðóåò îò 0,5 ì äî 1,3 ì, äîñòèãàÿ ïî ìàêñèìàëüíî âûñîêîé ñòîðîíå, ãäå îáâàëèâàþòñÿ âåòêè, 2–2,5 ì. Ëîòîê ãíåçäà âûðàæåí íå÷¸òêî, â âèäå íåáîëüøîãî óãëóáëåíèÿ äî 13 ñì, îáû÷íî 8–11, âûñòëàí ìåëêèìè ïðóòèêàìè, ðàñòèòåëüíîé âåòîøüþ ñòåáëåé ôåðóëû, ïó÷êàìè ñòåáëåé äðóãèõ òðàâÿíèñòûõ ðàñòåíèé è èõ êîðíåé.  õîäå èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ ãíåçäà âûñòèëêà ïîñòåïåííî ïîïîëíÿåòñÿ êëî÷üÿìè øêóð, øåðñòüþ èç ðàçäàâëåííûõ ïîãàäîê, ïåðüÿìè ñàìèõ ãðèôîâ.  ãíåçäå ñ ïòåíöàìè ìîæíî íàéòè ìåëêèå êîñòè êîïûòíûõ, êóñêè ïàíöèðåé è ëàïû ÷åðåïàõ, ÷åðåïà ñóñëèêîâ è ò.ï.


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5

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Òàáë. 1. Ðåçóëüòàò êëàñòåðíîãî àíàëèçà ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ñëó÷àåâ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ÷¸ðíîãî ãðèôà ïî âûñîòå íàä óðîâíåì ìîðÿ, ýêñïîçèöèè, êðóòèçíå ñêëîíîâ è óñïåõó ðàçìíîæåíèÿ Table 1. Results of Cluster Analysis of the Black Vulture nest locations on mountainsides with different elevations, expositions, steepness and successful breeding

Ðèñ. 6. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãí¸çä ÷¸ðíîãî ãðèôà íà ðàçíîé âûñîòå íàä óðîâíåì ìîðÿ Fig. 6. Locations of the Black Vulture nests on mountainsides with different elevations

Ñòðîèòåëüñòâî ãíåçäà è ñïàðèâàíèå íå âñåãäà çàâåðøàþòñÿ êëàäêîé.  1979 ã. â óðî÷èùå Õàÿò íà ãíåçäîïðèãîäíîé ïëîùàäè îêîëî 15 êì2 èç 11 ïàð, ïðèñòóïèâøèõ ê ñòðîèòåëüñòâó ãí¸çä, ëèøü 10 ïàð çàêîí÷èëè ñòðîèòåëüñòâî, è òîëüêî 9 ïàð îòëîæèëè ÿéöà. Îäíà ïàðà, â ÷èñëå ïåðâûõ ïðèñòóïèâøàÿ ê ñòðîèòåëüñòâó íîâîãî ãíåçäà, òàê è íå îòëîæèëà ÿéöî, õîòÿ ñïàðèâàíèå ýòèõ ïòèö íàáëþäàëîñü ñ 11 ôåâðàëÿ ïî 10 àïðåëÿ. Äðóãàÿ ïàðà íå äîñòðîèëà ãíåçäî. Âîçìîæíî, äëÿ ïîñòðîéêè íîðìàëüíîãî ãíåçäà ïòèöàì òðåáóåòñÿ äâà ñåçîíà. Òàê, èç øåñòè ïàð, íà÷èíàâøèõ ñòðîèòåëüñòâî íîâîãî ãíåçäà â 1979–1981 ãã., ïÿòü ïàð íå èìåëî êëàäîê, à ó îäíîé ïàðû êëàäêà ïîãèáëà, òàê êàê ãíåçäî áûëî ñëèøêîì ìàëåíüêèì, à ëîòîê ìåëêèì. Íà âòîðîé ãîä ÷åòûðå ïàðû óñïåøíî âûâåëè ïòåíöîâ â ýòèõ ãí¸çäàõ.  1984 ã. èç 49 íàáëþäàâøèõñÿ ïàð, ó êîòîðûõ áûëà âûÿñíåíà óñïåøíîñòü ðàçìíîæåíèÿ, òðè íå èìåëè êëàäîê. Ó÷èòûâàòü ïðîöåíò «áåçäåòíûõ» ïàð íà áîëüøîé ïëîùàäè ñëîæíî, ò.ê. áåç ñòàöèîíàðíûõ íàáëþäåíèé ðàííþþ ãèáåëü êëàäêè òðóäíî îòëè÷èòü îò îòñóòñòâèÿ êëàäêè âîîáùå. Îäíî ãíåçäî ìîæåò èñïîëüçîâàòüñÿ ãðèôàìè íà ïðîòÿæåíèè íåñêîëüêèõ ëåò, à òî è äåñÿòèëåòèé. Òàê 28 ìàÿ 2005 ã. â óðî÷èùå Êî÷àê íàìè áûëî îáíàðóæåíî æèëîå ãíåçäî ãðèôà, óñòðîåííîå íà ìèíäàëå,

Ðèñ. 5. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãí¸çä ÷¸ðíîãî ãðèôà íà ñêëîíàõ ãîð ðàçíîé ýêñïîçèöèè Fig. 5. Locations of the Black Vulture nests on mountainsides with different expositions

êîòîðîå áûëî îòìàðêèðîâàíî ìåòêîé êàê ãíåçäîâîå áîëåå äâàäöàòè ëåò íàçàä.  ïåðèîä íàáëþäåíèé 1978–1987 ãã. â óðî÷èùå Êàðû äâà ãíåçäà èñïîëüçîâàëèñü âîñåìü ðàç, è óñïåøíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ â íèõ ñîñòàâèëà 92% (â ïåðâîì ãíåçäå – 7 ñë¸òêîâ, è â îäèí ãîä – óñïåøíîñòü íå èçâåñòíà, âî âòîðîì ãíåçäå – 4 ñë¸òêà, â îäèí ãîä – ãèáåëü ïòåíöà, è â 3 äðóãèõ ãîäà – óñïåøíîñòü íå èçâåñòíà). Îò 4 äî 7 ðàç çà 10 ëåò íàáëþäåíèé èñïîëüçîâàëèñü 19 ãí¸çä, óñïåøíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ â êîòîðûõ ñîñòàâèëà 65%, ÷òî íà 7% âûøå ñðåäíåé. ×àùå âñåãî ãíåçäî èñïîëüçóåòñÿ ìåíüøèé ñðîê èëè áîëåå ðåäêî, ò.ê. êîëè÷åñòâî êðóïíûõ äåðåâüåâ ìèíäàëÿ, ñïîñîáíûõ áåçáîëåçíåííî âûäåðæàòü îãðîìíóþ ïîñòðîéêó, îãðàíè÷åíî. Êîãäà æå ãíåçäî óñòðàèâàåòñÿ íà íåäîñòàòî÷íî ñèëüíûõ äåðåâüÿõ è êóñòàõ, ïîñëå íåñêîëüêèõ ëåò äîñòðàèâàíèÿ òÿæ¸ëàÿ ãíåçäîâàÿ ïîñòðîéêà ëèáî «ñïîëçàåò» íà ñòîðîíó è íà çåìëþ, ëèáî ïðèâîäèò ê óñûõàíèþ ìèíäàëÿ è ïîñëåäóþùåìó ðàçðóøåíèþ ñàìîãî ãíåçäà. Ãí¸çäà ãðèôà áûëè óñòðîåíû íà êóñòàõ ìèíäàëÿ áóõàðñêîãî, ðàñòóùèõ íà ãîðíûõ ñêëîíàõ êðóòèçíîé îò 25 äî 45 ãðàäóñîâ, â


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5 ñðåäíåì (n=99) 32,47±4,97 (çäåñü è äàëåå M±SD). Áîëüøèíñòâî ãí¸çä (n=101) ðàçìåùàëîñü íà ñêëîíàõ ñ þãî-âîñòî÷íîé (30,8%) ýêñïîçèöèåé (ðèñ. 5), 22,0% – íà þæíûõ, 20,9% – íà âîñòî÷íûõ, 17,6% – íà çàïàäíûõ è 12,1% – íà þãî-çàïàäíûõ ñêëîíàõ ãîð. Ìåíåå 8% ïàð ãðèôîâ ãíåçäèëîñü íà ñêëîíàõ, èìåþùèõ ñåâåðî-çàïàäíóþ è ñåâåðîâîñòî÷íóþ ýêñïîçèöèþ, ÷òî ìîæíî ñ÷èòàòü èñêëþ÷åíèåì. Îñíîâíàÿ ìàññà ñëó÷àåâ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíà â ãíåçäàõ þãî-âîñòî÷íîé ýêñïîçèöèè (n=256) – 26,5%. Âñå ãí¸çäà (n=101) ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà âûñîòå îò 1000

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãí¸çä ãðèôà ïî âûñîòå è ýêñïîçèöèè â öåíòðàëüíîé ÷àñòè Íóðàòèíñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà íà êîñìîñíèìêå Landsat 7, òðàíñôîðìèðîâàííîì 3D-ìîäóëåì Locations of the Black Vulture nests on mountainsides with different elevations and expositions in central part of the Nuratau Nature Reserve on satellite image Landsat 7 by transformed 3D-module

Õàðàêòåðèñòèêà êëàäîê è ðàçìåðîâ ÿèö â ñâÿçè ñ óñïåøíîñòüþ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ

Ðàçìåð ÿèö â êëàäêàõ ãðèôà Size of eggs in clutches of the Black Vulture

äî 1880 ì íàä óðîâíåì ìîðÿ, â ñðåäíåì íà âûñîòå 1487,03±167,35 ì. Ïðè ýòîì 44,55% âñåõ ãí¸çä áûëè íà âûñîòå îò 1400 äî 1600 ì (ðèñ. 6), íà íèõ ïðèøëîñü 50% âñåõ ñëó÷àåâ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ è 57% âñåõ ñë¸òêîâ. Ïî ðåçóëüòàòàì êëàñòåðíîãî àíàëèçà òàêèõ ôàêòîðîâ ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ñëó÷àåâ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ãðèôà êàê âûñîòà íàä óðîâíåì ìîðÿ, ýêñïîçèöèÿ è êðóòèçíà ñêëîíà â ñðàâíåíèè ñ óñïåõîì ðàçìíîæåíèÿ áûëè âûäåëåíû ÷åòûðå ãðóïïû ãí¸çä (òàáë. 1). Ðàçäåëåíèå íà 2 ãðóïïû ïîêàçàëî, ÷òî ê íàèáîëåå êðóïíîé ãðóïïå îòíîñèòñÿ 58,33% ãí¸çä ãðèôà, ðàñïîëîæåííûõ íà ñêëîíàõ þãî-þãî-âîñòî÷íîé ýêñïîçèöèè (175,98±62,93°) íà âûñîòå 1592,5±95,9 ì íàä óðîâíåì ìîðÿ ïðè êðóòèçíå ñêëîíà 33,71±4,39°. Èìåííî ýòà ãðóïïà ãí¸çä ãðèôîâ õàðàêòåðèçóåòñÿ ìàêñèìàëüíûì óñïåõîì ðàçìíîæåíèÿ – 63,4% óñïåøíûõ ãí¸çä. Êëàäêà ãðèôà. Õðåáåò Êàðàòàó. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà

A clutch of the Black Vulture. Karatau mountains. Photo by I. Karyakin

 êëàäêàõ ãðèôîâ îáû÷íî ïî îäíîìó ÿéöó. Ëèøü â äâóõ êëàäêàõ èç 258 áûëî îáíàðóæåíî äâà ÿéöà.  1981 ã. â óðî÷èùå Êàðû â îäíîé êëàäêå áûëî îòìå÷åíî äâà ÿéöà îáû÷íîé îêðàñêè ðàçìåðàìè 95,0x72,5 ìì è 81,9x72,5 ìì.  1983 ã. â óðî÷èùå Ìàäæåðóì â êëàäêå áûëî äâà ÿéöà, îäíî ÷èñòî áåëîå ðàçìåðîì 90,0õ69,5 ìì, äðóãîå îáû÷íîé îêðàñêè 90,6õ70,7 ìì. Êàê ïðàâèëî, ÿéöà ïîêðûòû áóðûìè ïÿòíàìè ðàçëè÷íîé ôîðìû, ðàçëè÷íûõ îòòåíêîâ è ÿðêîñòè îêðàñêè, íî èíîãäà âñòðå÷àþòñÿ ÷èñòî áåëûå ÿéöà, êîòîðûå â íàøåé âûáîðêå ñîñòàâèëè 9,5 %. Äëèíà ÿèö (n=260) ñîñòàâëÿåò 69,2 – 102,3 ìì, â ñðåäíåì 91,04 ìì; äèàìåòð 51,4 – 75,9 ìì, â ñðåäíåì 69,27 ìì. Ôîðìà ÿèö õàðàêòåðèçóåòñÿ ñëåäóþùèìè, ïðèìåíÿåìûìè â îîëîãèè, êîýôôèöèåíòàìè: I – â ñðåäíåì 76,17 (56,53–88,09); K – â ñðåäíåì 1,32 (1,14–1,77); U – â ñðåäíåì 31,62 (13,52–76,90).


Raptors Research

Ðèñ. 7. Ñîîòíîøåíèå ÿèö ðàçëè÷íîãî îáú¸ìà â êëàäêàõ è èçìåíåíèå óñïåøíîñòè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ãðèôîâ â Íóðàòàó Fig. 7. Correlation between different egg volumes in clutches and changing of successful nesting of the Black Vulture in Nuratau mountains

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Íà íàø âçãëÿä, áèîëîãè÷åñêè çíà÷èì îáú¸ì ÿèö (V), êîòîðûé ñîñòàâèë îò 93,24 ñì3 äî 287,3 ñì3, â ñðåäíåì 223,6 ñì3. Óñïåøíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ â ñðåäíåì ñîñòàâèëà 58,0%, (n=200), ïðè ýòîì ãèáåëü ÿèö áûëà óñòàíîâëåíà â 27 ñëó÷àÿõ, ãèáåëü ïòåíöîâ – â 28, îòñóòñòâèå ñë¸òêîâ áåç áîëåå òî÷íîãî îïðåäåëåíèÿ ñòàäèè ãèáåëè – â 29 ñëó÷àÿõ è â 116 – ñë¸òêîâ óñïåøíî âûðàñòèëè. Ñðåäíèé îáú¸ì ÿèö, ó êîòîðûõ áûëà îòìå÷åíà ãèáåëü, ñîñòàâèë 205,38 ñì3; ñðåäíèé îáú¸ì ÿèö, ïòåíöû èç êîòîðûõ ïîãèáëè, ñîñòàâèë 217,89 ñì3, â òî âðåìÿ êàê ñðåäíèé îáú¸ì «óñïåøíûõ» ÿèö – 230,31 ñì3. Ïðè ýòîì âî âñåõ êëàäêàõ, â êîòîðûõ îáú¸ì ÿèö áûë ìåíåå 180 ñì3 (n=8), èòîã ãíåçäîâàíèÿ áûë íåóñïåøíûì: â ïÿòè ñëó÷àÿõ îòìå÷åíà ãèáåëü ÿèö, â äâóõ ñëó÷àÿõ çàôèêñèðîâàíî îòñóòñòâèå ñë¸òêîâ, â îäíîì ñëó÷àå ãíåçäî áîëåå íå ïðîâåðÿëîñü. Ìèíèìàëüíûé îáú¸ì ÿéöà, ïðè êîòîðîì áûë îòìå÷åí óñïåøíî âûðîñøèé ïòåíåö, ñîñòàâëÿë 181,42 ñì3 ïðè ðàçìåðå ÿéöà 80,2õ66,6 ìì è èíäåêñå ôîðìû 20,42.  öåëîì ïî âûáîðêå îáú¸ì ÿèö õîðîøî êîððåëèðóåò ñ óñïåøíîñòüþ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ (êîýôôèöèåíò êîððåëÿöèè 0,891). Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå êîëè÷åñòâà ÿèö ïî ðàçíûì îáú¸ìíûì ãðóïïàì è ñâÿçü ñ óñïåøíîñòüþ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ïðåäñòàâëåíû íà ðèñóíêå 7.

Ãèáåëü

Ðèñ. 8. Ñîîòíîøåíèå ãèáåëè ÿèö è ïòåíöîâ â ðàçíûõ ãðóïïàõ ÿèö, ðàíæèðîâàííûõ ïî îáú¸ìó (äëÿ ãí¸çä, â êîòîðûõ óñòàíîâëåíû âðåìÿ è ïðè÷èíû ãèáåëè ïîòîìñòâà) Fig. 8. Correlation between deaths of eggs and chicks in different groups of eggs ranged by its volumes

Ðèñ. 9. Ñîîòíîøåíèå ãèáåëè ÿèö è ïòåíöîâ â ðàçíûå ãîäû (äëÿ ãí¸çä, â êîòîðûõ óñòàíîâëåíû âðåìÿ è ïðè÷èíû ãèáåëè ïîòîìñòâà) Fig. 9. Correlation between deaths of eggs and chicks in different years

Àíàëèç óñïåøíîñòè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ãðèôîâ ïîêàçàë, ÷òî ãèáåëü ÿèö è ãèáåëü ïòåíöîâ íàõîäÿòñÿ â ïðîòèâîôàçå êàê ïî ãîäàì, òàê è â ðàçíûõ ãðóïïàõ ÿèö, ðàíæèðîâàííûõ ïî îáú¸ìó (ðèñ. 8, 9). ×åì ìåíüøå ãèáåëü ÿèö, òåì áîëüøå ãèáåëü ïòåíöîâ, è íàîáîðîò (íàáëþäàåòñÿ îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ êîððåëÿöèÿ ìåæäó ãèáåëüþ ÿèö è ïòåíöîâ – 0,530). Åñëè ýòî íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñëó÷àéíûì àðòåôàêòîì íàáëþäåíèé, òî îáúÿñíèòü ýòî ìîæíî, íà íàø âçãëÿä, òîëüêî ñîöèàëüíîé èåðàðõèåé â ñîîáùåñòâå ãðèôîâ. Ïðè íàáëþäåíèÿõ çà êîðìëåíèåì ãðèôîâ íà ïàäàëè ìû îòìå÷àëè, ÷òî äîìèíèðóþò íàèáîëåå êðóïíûå è ñèëüíûå ïòèöû. Íàïðèìåð, ìîëîäûå áåçðîïîòíî óñòóïàëè ìåñòî ó òóøè ñòàðøèì. È, õîòÿ àãðåññèâíîñòü ïðèëåòàþùèõ ãîëîäíûõ ïòèö äà¸ò èì ïðåèìóùåñòâî ïåðåä óæå íàåâøèìèñÿ, ïðîäîëæèòåëüíîñòü êîðì¸æêè ìîëîäûõ è áîëåå ñëàáûõ ïòèö, ïðè íàëè÷èè áîëüøîãî êîëè÷åñòâà áîëåå ñèëüíûõ, îãðàíè÷åíà. Âîçìîæíî, ïðè äåôèöèòå êîðìà ïîä÷èí¸ííûå ïòèöû íå ìîãóò ïîëíîöåííî âûêîðìèòü ïòåíöîâ, è åñëè ó íèõ íå ïðîèçîøëà ãèáåëü êëàä-


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2006, 5 êè íà ñòàäèè ÿéöà, îáðå÷¸ííûì íà ãèáåëü ñòàíîâèòñÿ ïòåíåö. Ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, ëó÷øèå ìåñòà äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ, ïî-âèäèìîìó, òàêæå çàíèìàþò äîìèíèðóþùèå ïàðû.  1978–82 ãã. èç 26 ñëó÷àåâ ãèáåëè ãí¸çä êîãäà áûëà èçâåñòíà ïðè÷èíà 73% ïðèøëîñü íà ãèáåëü ÿèö, â ò.÷. 46% – áîëòóíû, 12% – ãèáåëü ýìáðèîíà, 22 % – ãèáåëü ïòåíöîâ, ïðè÷¸ì 19% – ãèáåëü â ïåðâûå äíè ïîñëå âûëóïëåíèÿ.  1984 ã. èç 6 ñëó÷àåâ ãèáåëè ÿèö îäíî áûëî ðàñêë¸âàíî, âåðîÿòíî, âîðîíîì, îäíî – îòëîæåíî â íåäîñòðîåííîå ãíåçäî è áðîøåíî, â òð¸õ ñëó÷àÿõ áûëè áîëòóíû, è â îäíîì ñëó÷àå ïðîèçîøëà ãèáåëü çàðîäûøà. Îäèí ðàç çà âñå ãîäû íàáëþäåíèé ó ÷¸ðíîãî ãðèôà áûë îòìå÷åí ñëó÷àé ïðîäàâëèâàíèÿ ñêîðëóïû. Ïðè îáñëåäîâàíèè ãíåçäà â óðî÷èùå Êî÷àê 16 àïðåëÿ 1985 ã. áûëî îáíàðóæåíî ÿéöî-áîëòóí ñ ïðîäàâëåííîé ñêîðëóïîé. Ðàçìåðû ÿéöà 82,6x66,8 ìì. Ïîâåðõíîñòü ñêîðëóïû áûëà ïîêðûòà ïÿòíàìè èçúÿçâëåíèé.  1986 ã. îäíî ÿéöî áûëî, ïî-âèäèìîìó, ðàñêë¸âàíî âîðîíîì. Ïî ìàòåðèàëàì Ëåòîïèñè ïðèðîäû çàïîâåäíèêà çà 2003 ãîä ó ïàð, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ â Ñåíòÿáñàå è â óð. Õàÿò (Àíäåáàðàóò è Íîâè Õóøê), êëàäêà ïîãèáëà âåñíîé, ïî-âèäèìîìó, â ðåçóëüòàòå ñèëüíîãî çàìîðîçêà.  ïåðèîä 1978–82 ãã. íà 150 ñëó÷àåâ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî òðè ñëó÷àÿ (2%) êîãäà ãíåçäî áûëî ðàçîðåíî ÷åëîâåêîì (Êîðøóíîâà, Êîðøóíîâ, 1983).  2005 ã. â äâóõ èç 23 ñëó÷àåâ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ãí¸çäà áûëè çàáðîñàíû êàìíÿìè (8,7%). Ñëåäóåò îòìåòèòü, ÷òî îáà ãíåçäà áûëè ðàñïîëîæåíû íåïîäàëåêó îò êèøëàêîâ Óõóì è Õàÿò íà òåððèòîðèè, âûøåäøåé èç ñîñòàâà çàïîâåäíèêà. Ê ÷èñëó ãðóñòíûõ êóðü¸çîâ ìîæíî îòíåñòè ñëó÷àé, êîãäà, ïî óñòíîìó ñîîáùåíèþ Í.Þ. Áåøêî, íà âîëíå áóìà ïî èçúÿòèþ è ïðîäàæå ñîêîëîâ, ìåñòíûå æèòåëè ïî îøèáêå èçúÿëè ïòåíöà ãðèôà è çàòåì îòäàëè åãî â çàïîâåäíèê.

Âûâîäû  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ñîñòîÿíèå òåððèòîðèàëüíîé ãðóïïèðîâêè ãðèôîâ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ íà õðåáòå Íóðàòàó, áëàãîäàðÿ ñóùåñòâîâàíèþ Íóðàòèíñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà ìîæíî ñ÷èòàòü âïîëíå óäîâëåòâîðèòåëüíûì, à èõ ÷èñëåííîñòü – äîñòàòî÷íî ñòàáèëüíîé. Âìåñòå ñ òåì ñëåäóåò ïðèçíàòü íåöåëåñîîáðàçíûì èñêëþ÷åíèå èç ñîñòàâà çàïîâåäíèêà ïðèëåãàþùèõ ê êèøëàêàì çåìåëü, ò.ê. â ýòîì ñëó÷àå ìåñòà ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ëèøàþòñÿ îõðàíû. Õîòåëîñü áû

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ïðåäëîæèòü âêëþ÷èòü ýòè çåìëè â êà÷åñòâå áèîñôåðíîãî ïîëèãîíà â ðàìêàõ ïðîåêòèðóåìîãî Íóðàòà-Êûçûëêóìñêîãî áèîñôåðíîãî ðåçåðâàòà è ïåðåäàòü ïîä óïðàâëåíèå Íóðàòèíñêîìó çàïîâåäíèêó. Ó÷èòûâàÿ áîëüøóþ ðîëü çàïîâåäíèêà â ñîõðàíåíèè ìåñò ñ âûñîêîé êîíöåíòðàöèåé ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö, öåëåñîîáðàçíî åãî òåððèòîðèþ âûäåëèòü â êà÷åñòâå êëþ÷åâîé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé òåððèòîðèè. Âìåñòå ñ òåì ñëåäóåò îòìåòèòü öåëåñîîáðàçíîñòü äàëüíåéøåãî èçó÷åíèÿ ÷¸ðíîãî ãðèôà íà õðåáòå Íóðàòàó ñ öåëüþ âûÿñíåíèÿ ñîöèàëüíîé ñòðóêòóðû ãðóïïèðîâêè è âîçìîæíûõ óãðîç. Áëàãîäàðíîñòè Àâòîðû áëàãîäàðÿò çàìåñòèòåëÿ äèðåêòîðà Íóðàòèíñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà Áåøêî Í.Þ. çà ïîìîùü è ñîäåéñòâèå â ïðîâåäåíèè ïîëåâûõ ðàáîò è ïðåäîñòàâëåíèå íåîáõîäèìîãî äëÿ ðàáîòû òðàíñïîðòà è îáîðóäîâàíèÿ. Îñîáóþ áëàãîäàðíîñòü âûðàæàåì äèðåêòîðó Öåíòðà ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé Êàðÿêèíó È.Â., áëàãîäàðÿ çàèíòåðåñîâàííîñòè êîòîðîãî ñîñòîÿëîñü îáñëåäîâàíèå òåððèòîðèè Íóðàòèíñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà â 2005 ã., à òàêæå çà ïîìîùü â ñòàòèñòè÷åñêîé îáðàáîòêå è ÃÈÑ-àíàëèçå ìàòåðèàëà.

Ëèòåðàòóðà Áîãäàíîâ Ì.Í. Î÷åðêè ïðèðîäû Õèâèíñêîãî îàçèñà è ïóñòûíè Êèçûë-Êóì. Îïèñàíèå Õèâèíñêîãî ïîõîäà 1873 ã., ñîñòàâëåííîå ïîä ðåäàêöèåé ãåíåðàëüíîãî øòàáà ãåíåðàë-ëåéòåíàíòà Â.Í. Òðîöêîãî. Âûï. 12. Òàøêåíò. 1882. Çàðóäíûé Í.À. Ïòèöû ïóñòûíè Êèçûëêóì. – Ìàò-ëû ê ïîçíàíèþ ôàóíû è ôëîðû Ðîñ. èìïåðèè, îòä. çîîë., 1915, âûï. 14. Ñ.1–149. Êîðøóíîâà Å.Í., Êîðøóíîâ Å.Í. ׸ðíûé ãðèô â Íóðàòèíñêîì çàïîâåäíèêå – Ìàò. 1 ñîâåù. ïî ýêîëîãèè è îõðàíå õèùíûõ ïòèö. Èçäâî «Íàóêà», Ìîñêâà, 1983. Ñ.124–127. Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà Ðåñïóáëèêè Óçáåêèñòàí. Ò.II. Æèâîòíûå «Chinor ENK», Òàøêåíò, 2003. Ñ. 169–170. Ìèòðîïîëüñêèé Î.Â., Ôîòòåëåð Ý.Ð., Òðåòüÿêîâ Ã.Ï. Îòðÿä Ñîêîëîîáðàçíûå Falconiformes. – Ïòèöû Óçáåêèñòàíà. Ò.1. Òàøêåíò: Èçä-âî ÔÀÍ. 1987. P.123–247. Íóìåðîâ À.Ä., Ïðèêëîíñêèé Ñ.Ã., Èâàí÷åâ Â.Ï., Êîòþêîâ Þ.Â., Êàøåíöåâà Ò.À., Ìàðêèí Þ.Ì., Ïîñòåëüíûõ À.Â. Êëàäêè è ðàçìåðû ÿèö ïòèö þãî-âîñòîêà Ìåùåðñêîé íèçìåííîñòè: Òðóäû Îêñêîãî ãîñóä. Çàïîâåäíèêà. Ðÿçàíü, 1995. Âûï.18. Ñ. 5–10. Hoyt D.F. Practical methods of estimating volume and fresh weight of bird eggs – Auk. 1979. Vol. 96. ¹ 1. P. 73–77. Korshunova E.N. Nesting of the Black Vulture of the Nuratau Ridge (Uzbekistan) – ACTA. XY111 Congress Internationalist Ornithological. Volume 11. Moscow: «Nauka». 1985. P. 1125–1126.


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RecordsofwintervagrantSnowyOwlsinCentralAsia ОБЗОРЗАЛЁТОВБЕЛЫХСОВВСРЕДНЮЮАЗИЮ O.V.Mitropolskiy(NationalUniversity,Tashkent,Uzbekistan) О.В.Митропольсий(Национальный$ниверситет,Ташент,Узбеистан)

Êîíòàêò: Îëåã Âèëüåâè÷ Ìèòðîïîëüñêèé ïðîôåññîð äîêòîð áèîë. íàóê Íàöèîíàëüíûé óíèâåðñèòåò Òàøêåíò, Óçáåêèñòàí olmit@list.ru Contact: Oleg V. Mitropolskiy Prof., Dr. National University Tashkent, Uzbekistan. olmit@list.ru

Áåëàÿ ñîâà (Nyctea scandiaca). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Snowy Owl (Nyctea scandiaca). Photo by I. Karyakin

Ðàéîíû îòíîñèòåëüíî ðåãóëÿðíûõ çèìîâîê áåëûõ ñîâ (Nyctea scandiaca) íå çàõâàòûâàþò òåððèòîðèþ Ñðåäíåé Àçèè è ïðèóðî÷åíû ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ê áîëåå ñåâåðíûì ëåñîñòåïíîé è ñòåïíîé çîíàì Êàçàõñòàíà (Ãàâðèí, 1962; Øåâ÷åíêî, 1986; Ìîñêàë¸â, 1969).  Ñðåäíåé Àçèè ñòàòóñ ýòîãî âèäà íîñèò õàðàêòåð ðåäêèõ è íåðåãóëÿðíûõ çàë¸òîâ. Êðîìå þæíûõ îáëàñòåé Êàçàõñòàíà ïåðèîäè÷åñêèå íàë¸òû áåëûõ ñîâ îòìå÷åíû â Êèðãèçñòàíå, Óçáåêèñòàíå è Òóðêìåíèñòàíå. Þæíûå ãðàíèöû çèìíèõ êî÷¸âîê áåëûõ ñîâ îïðåäåëÿþòñÿ íàõîäêàìè â Ñðåäíåé Àçèè, â ñåâåðíîì Èðàíå è Ïåíäæàáå (Èíäèÿ). Îáùèå îñîáåííîñòè þæíîé ãðàíèöû çèìíåãî àðåàëà áåëûõ ñîâ â áîëüøèíñòâå ñâîäîê âûãëÿäÿò èëè íåïîëíî, èëè íåêîððåêòíî (Ãàâðèí, 1962; Äåìåíòüåâ, 1936, 1951; Èâàíîâ, 1953), âïëîòü äî ïîëíîãî èãíîðèðîâàíèÿ ýòîãî âîïðîñà â ñâîäêå ïî áûâøåìó ÑÑÑÐ (Ïóêèíñêèé,1993) èëè Óçáåêèñòàíà (Ñàãèòîâ, 1990).  äàííîì ñîîáùåíèè îñóùåñòâëåíà ïîïûòêà ñâåñòè âñå èçâåñòíûå ìàòåðèàëû ïî çèìíåìó ðàñïðåäåëåíèþ ýòîãî âèäà íà ïðîñòðàíñòâå Ñðåäíåé Àçèè. Ñåâåðíàÿ ãðàíèöà ðàññìàòðèâàåìîãî çäåñü ðåãèîíà î÷åð÷èâàåòñÿ òàê: îò ñåâåðíîãî áåðåãà îçåðà Áàëõàø ÷åðåç ñåâåðíûé áåðåã Àðàëüñêîãî ìîðÿ è ñåâåðíîå Ïðåäóñòþðòüå ê âîñòî÷íîìó áåðåãó Êàñïèéñêîãî ìîðÿ ó ñåâåðî-âîñòî÷íîãî óãëà ïîëóîñòðîâà Áóçà÷è. Îòìå÷ó, ÷òî ñåâåðíåå óêàçàííîé ãðàíèöû âñòðå÷è áåëûõ ñîâ äîñòàòî÷íî îáû÷íû, òàê ÷òî þæíàÿ ãðàíèöà çèìîâîê, óêàçàííàÿ íà êàðòå Ã.Ï. Äåìåíòüåâà (1951) è ïîâòîðåííàÿ Þ.Á. Ïóêèíñêèì (1993), ÷ðåçìåðíî ñäâèíóòà ê ñåâåðó. Íà þãî-âîñòîêå Êàçàõñòàíà, þæíåå îçåðà Áàëõàø, áåëàÿ ñîâà íàáëþäàëàñü Á.Ê. Øòåãìàíîì â íèçîâüÿõ ð. Èëè, â óðî÷èùå Äæåëüòóðàíãà 02 ÿíâàðÿ 1942 ã., à â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ã. Èëèéñêà áûëà äîáûòà Â.Â. Áåéêîì 27 ìàðòà 1917 ã. Áîëåå îáû÷íû íàõîäêè ïîëÿðíûõ ñîâ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ã. Àëìàòû: 22 ôåâðàëÿ 1868 ã. – äîáûòà Í.À. Ñåâåðöîâûì; ñîâà èç êîëëåêöèè Ì.À. Ìåíçáèðà – äîáûòà â ôåâðàëå (ãîä íåèçâåñòåí); âñòðå÷åíà Ñ.Á. Ïîëå – â îêòÿáðå 1984 ã. (Øíèòíèêîâ, 1949; Ãàâðèí, 1962; íàøè äàííûå).

The Snowy Owl (Nyctea scandiaca) is a rare and irregular vagrant species in Middle Asia. The current paper summarizes all of the available data on the winter records of the species in the territory of Middle Asia. In the South-East of Kazakhstan to the South of the Balchash Lake the Snowy Owl was observed by B.K. Shtegman in the lower part of the Ili river at the Gelturanga boundary on 02.01.1942, one bird was procured by V.V. Beyk near Iliysk on 23/ 03/1917. Snowy Owls were registered more frequently near Almaty: a bird was procured by N.A. Severtsev in 22/02/ 1868, – one bird was collected by M.A. Mensbier in February (year unknown), – recorded by C.B. Pole in the October, 1984 (Shnitnikov, 1949; Gavrin, 1962; our data). Several birds were shot near Bishkek (Northern Kyrgyzstan) in the winters of 1926–1927 (Dementyev, Dementyev, 1930). An owl was shot in a place called Darbaza (to north from Saryagach) in the south of the Southern-Kazakhstan district (Bogdanov, 1960), and one at a lake in the Tashkent district in 23/12/1958 (Gavrin, 1962). Records of snow owls in the south of Western Kazakhstan are rare as well. A bird was shot in the winter 1892/ 1893 on the Magyshlak peninsula (Zarudniy, 1896). A snowy owl was hunted in the end of winter of 1903 near Farab in the middle Amu-Darya river valley in Turkmenistan (Loudon, 1910). At that time the species was noted at the eastern Caspian seaside (Iran) at the Gyrgen river estuary (Zarudny, 1911). An owl was shot near Artyk on the north of the Kopetdag mountain foothills in the 18 April of 1936 (Dementyev, 1952). An owl was noted at the Caspian seaside near Chikishlar in the second half of November, 1976; and 2 dead birds were found simultaneously in the sands 66 kilometers north of Mary town, and a wounded owl was caught in Krasnovodsk in 10/02/1977 (Rustamov, 1977; Karavaev, Beloysov, 1977).


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Áåëàÿ ñîâà îòìå÷åíà â ñåâåðíîé Êèðãèçèè, â ×óéñêîé äîëèíå, ãäå çèìîé 1926–1927 ãã. áûëî äîáûòî íåñêîëüêî ïòèö â ðàéîíå Áèøêåêà, îñìîòðåííûõ ó ìåñòíîãî ïðåïàðàòîðà (Äåìåíòüåâ Ã., Äåìåíòüåâ Ä., 1930). Ã.Ñ. Óìðèõèíà (1970), ñî ñëîâ ïðåïàðàòîðà Í.ß. Âàñèëüåâà, óòî÷íÿåò, ÷òî â òîò ïåðèîä áûëî äîáûòî 5 áåëûõ ñîâ. Õàðàêòåðíî, ÷òî èìåííî â ýòó çèìó îòìå÷åí ìàññîâûé íàë¸ò áåëûõ ñîâ è â Åâðîïåéñêóþ ÷àñòü Ñîâåòñêîãî Ñîþçà (Äåìåíòüåâ, 1951). Êðîìå òîãî, Í.ß. Âàñèëüåâ óêàçûâàåò, ÷òî â çîîëîãè÷åñêîì ìóçåå Êèðãèçñêîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà èìååòñÿ ýêçåìïëÿð èç ×óéñêîé ñòåïè, íàéäåííûé çèìîé 1937 ã. Ðåäêè áåëûå ñîâû è çàïàäíåå – â äîëèíå ñðåäíåé Ñûðäàðüè. Íà þãå Þæíî-Êàçàõñòàíñêîé îáëàñòè â óðî÷èùå Äàðáàçà (ñåâåðíåå ã. Ñàðûàãà÷) áåëàÿ ñîâà áûëà äîáûòà 16 ìàðòà 1956 ã. (Áîãäàíîâ, 1960), à åù¸ þæíåå, íà îäíîì èç îç¸ð Òàøêåíòñêîé îáëàñòè – 23 äåêàáðÿ 1958 ã. (Ãàâðèí, 1962). Îòìåòèì, ÷òî äîáû÷à ñîâû ñåâåðíåå Ñàðûàãà÷à íå ó÷òåíà Â.Ô. Ãàâðèíûì (1962) â ñâîäêå ïî Êàçàõñòàíó, à äîáû÷à ýòîãî âèäà â Òàøêåíòñêîé îáëàñòè îòñóòñòâóåò â ñâîäêå À.Ê. Ñàãèòîâà (1990) ïî Óçáåêèñòàíó. Ïðè÷¸ì â ïîñëåäíåì ñëó÷àå áåëàÿ ñîâà âîîáùå íå óêàçàíà êàê âèä äëÿ ôàóíû Óçáåêèñòàíà.  þæíîé ÷àñòè çàïàäíîé ïîëîâèíû Êàçàõñòàíà íàõîäêè áåëûõ ñîâ òàêæå åäèíè÷íû. Îäèí ýêçåìïëÿð áûë äîáûò çèìîé 1892/1893 ã. íà Ìàíãûøëàêå, â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ã. Ôîðò-Øåâ÷åíêî (Çàðóäíûé, 1896).  òî æå âðåìÿ óêàçàíèå íà íàõîæäåíèå áåëîé ñîâû íà Òþëåíüèõ (Ìàíãèñòàóñêèõ) îñòðîâàõ Ñåâåðíîãî Êàñïèÿ (Äåìåíòüåâ, 1951) äëÿ ìåíÿ îñòàëîñü íåÿñíûì, òàê êàê ïåðâîèñòî÷íèê íå íàéäåí. Âî âñÿêîì ñëó÷àå, â ñâîäêå ïî ïòèöàì ýòîãî ðàéîíà (Ãëàäêîâ, Çàëåòàåâ, 1956) ýòî ìåñòîíàõîæäåíèå áåëîé ñîâû íå óêàçàíî. Íà ñðåäíåé Àìóäàðüå, â ïðåäåëàõ Òóðêìåíèñòàíà, áåëàÿ ñîâà áûëà äîáûòà â êîíöå çèìû 1903 ã. â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ Ôàðàáà, â äîëèíå ðåêè (Loudon, 1910). Èíòåðåñíî îòìåòèòü, ÷òî â ìàðòå 1903 ã. ýòîò âèä íàéäåí è íà þãî-âîñòî÷íîì ïîáåðåæüå Êàñïèÿ (Èðàí), â óñòüÿõ Ãþðãåíÿ (Sarudny, 1911). Çàë¸òû áåëûõ ñîâ â Òóðêìåíèþ ðåäêè, íî ïîâòîðÿþòñÿ ðåãóëÿðíî.  ñåâåðíûõ ïðåäãîðüÿõ Êîïåòäàãà, ó Àðòûêà ñîâà áûëà äîáûòà 18 àïðåëÿ 1936 ã. (Äåìåíòüåâ, 1952). Çèìîé 1976/1977 ã. íàáëþäàëñÿ î÷åðåäíîé íàë¸ò áåëûõ ñîâ. Âî âòîðîé ïîëîâèíå íîÿáðÿ 1976 ã. ñîâà îòìå÷åíà íà ïîáåðåæüå Êàñïèÿ ó ×èêèøëÿðà, â íà÷àëå ÿíâàðÿ 1977 ã. ñðàçó äâå ïîãèáøèå ñîâû íàéäåíû â ïåñêàõ â 66 êì ñåâåðíåå ã. Ìàðû, à 10 ôåâðàëÿ 1977 ã. ðàíåíàÿ ñîâà ïîéìàíà â ã. Êðàñíîâîäñêå (Ðóñòàìîâ, 1977; Êàðàâàåâ, Áåëîóñîâ, 1977). Ñðîêè ìèãðàöèè áåëûõ ñîâ â Ñðåäíåé Àçèè èçó÷åíû íåäîñòàòî÷íî. Îñåíüþ íàèáîëåå ðàííèå ïîÿâëåíèÿ îòìå÷åíû â îêòÿáðå-íîÿáðå, âåñíîé ïîñëåäíèå âñòðå÷è ïðèõîäÿòñÿ íà ìàðò-àïðåëü. Âñåãî èç 13 äàòèðîâàííûõ âñòðå÷ ïî îäíîìó ðàçó ñîâû îòìå÷åíû â îêòÿáðå, íîÿáðå, äåêàáðå è àïðåëå è ïî 3 âñòðå÷è â ìåñÿö â ÿíâàðå, ôåâðàëå è ìàðòå. Äîáàâèì, ÷òî âñòðå÷à áåëîé ñîâû íà ñðåäíåé Àìóäàðüå ïðèõîäèòñÿ íà «êîíåö çèìû». Õàðàêòåðíî, ÷òî îêòÿáðüñêàÿ âñòðå÷à

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ îòíîñèòñÿ ê ñåâåðî-âîñòîêó ðåãèîíà, ê îêðåñòíîñòÿì Àëìàòû, à àïðåëüñêàÿ – ê þãî-çàïàäó, â ïðåäãîðüÿõ Êîïåòäàãà. Âîîáùå, ïðåîáëàäàíèå âñòðå÷ áåëûõ ñîâ â Ñðåäíåé Àçèè âî âòîðîé ïîëîâèíå çèìû ãîâîðèò î ïîñòåïåííîé îòêî÷¸âêå ýòîãî âèäà ê þãó èç áîëåå ñåâåðíûõ, òðàäèöèîííûõ ìåñò çèìíåãî ïðåáûâàíèÿ. Íàìå÷àþòñÿ äâà íàïðàâëåíèÿ ìèãðàöèé – âäîëü ïîäíîæèé Òÿíü-Øàíÿ ñ ñåâåðî-âîñòîêà íà þãî-çàïàä è â çàïàäíîé ïîëîâèíå Êàçàõñòàíà è Ñðåäíåé Àçèè äî âîñòî÷íîãî ïîáåðåæüÿ Êàñïèÿ. Ïðàêòè÷åñêè îòñóòñòâóþò âñòðå÷è áåëûõ ñîâ â ñîáñòâåííî ïóñòûííîé çîíå, ÷òî, âîçìîæíî, ñâÿçàíî ñ îòíîñèòåëüíî âûñîêîé ÷èñëåííîñòüþ çäåñü áîëåå «ñèëüíîãî» ôèëèíà (Bubo bubo). Çèìíèå íàõîäêè áåëûõ ñîâ â Ñðåäíåé Àçèè ïðèóðî÷åíû èëè ê äîëèíàì êðóïíûõ ðåê (Èëè, Ñûðäàðüÿ, Àìóäàðüÿ), èëè ê åñòåñòâåííûì ïðåãðàäàì ïðè èõ äâèæåíèè ê þãó – ê ñåâåðíûì ïîäíîæüÿì ãîðíûõ õðåáòîâ Òÿíü-Øàíÿ (Àëìàòû, Áèøêåê, Ñàðûàãà÷) è Êîïåòäàãà (Àðòûê), èëè ê ìîðñêîìó ïîáåðåæüþ Êàñïèÿ (Ôîðò-Øåâ÷åíêî, Êðàñíîâîäñê, ×èêèøëÿð, þãî-âîñòî÷íàÿ ÷àñòü Êàñïèéñêîãî ìîðÿ). Ëèòåðàòóðà Áîãäàíîâ Î.Ï. Ôàóíà Óçáåêñêîé ÑÑÐ. Çåìíîâîäíûå è ïðåñìûêàþùèåñÿ – Òàøêåíò. Ò. 1. 1960. 260 ñ. Ãàâðèí Â.Ô. Îòðÿä Ñîâû Striges. – Ïòèöû Êàçàõñòàíà. ÀëìàÀòà. 1962. Ò. 2. Ñ. 708–779. Ãëàäêîâ Í.À., Çàëåòàåâ. Î ôàóíå ïòèö Ìàíãûøëàêà è Ìàíãèñòàóñêèõ îñòðîâîâ. – Òðóäû èí-òà áèîëîãèè ÀÍ Òóðêìåíñêîé ÑÑÐ. Àøõàáàä. Ò. 4. 1956. Ñ. 120–164. Äåìåíòüåâ Ã.Ï. Äíåâíûå õèùíûå ïòèöû. Ñîâû. – Ïîëíûé îïðåäåëèòåëü ïòèö ÑÑÑÐ. Ì.-Ë. Ò.3. 1936. Ñ. 42–129. Äåìåíòüåâ Ã.Ï. Îòðÿä ñîâû. Striges. – Ïòèöû Ñîâåòñêîãî Ñîþçà. Ò. 1. 1951. Ñ. 342–429. Äåìåíòüåâ Ã.Ï. Ïòèöû Òóðêìåíèñòàíà. Àøõàáàä. 1952. 546 ñ. Äåìåíòüåâ Ã.Ï., Äåìåíòüåâ Ä.Ï. Ìàòåðèàëû ê ïîçíàíèþ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé ôàóíû Êèðãèçèè. – Òðóäû Êèðãèçñêîãî í.-è. èí-òà êðàåâåäåíèÿ. Ôðóíçå. Ò. 1. 1930. Ñ. 1–48. Çàðóäíûé Í.À. Îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêàÿ ôàóíà Çàêàñïèéñêîãî êðàÿ – Ìàòåðèàëû ê ïîçíàíèþ ôàóíû è ôëîðû Ðîññ. Èìïåðèè. Îòä. çîîë. Âûï. 2. 1896. Ñ. 1–555. Èâàíîâ À.È. Îòðÿä Ñîâû. Strigiformes. – Ïòèöû ÑÑÑÐ. Ò. 2. 1953. Ñ. 261–286. Êàðàâàåâ À.À., Áåëîóñîâ Å.Ì. Íîâûå äàííûå î ïòèöàõ Òóðêìåíñêîãî ïîáåðåæüÿ Êàñïèÿ. – 7 Âñåñîþçíàÿ Îðíèòîë. êîíô., òåç. äîêë. (×åðêàññû, 27–30.09.1977 ã.). ×. 1. Êèåâ. 1977. Ñ. 65. Ìîñêàë¸â À.Ã. Î çèìîâêàõ áåëîé ñîâû â Êóðãàëüäæèíñêîì çàïîâåäíèêå. – Îðíèòîëîãèÿ â ÑÑÑÐ. Êí. 2. Ìàòåð. (Òåç.) 5 Âñåñîþçíîé îðíèòîë. êîíô. Àøõàáàä. 1969. Ñ. 427–429. Ïóêèíñêèé Þ.Á. Ðîä Nyctea Stephans. Áåëàÿ ñîâà. – Ïòèöû Ðîññèè è ñîïðåäåëüíûõ ðåãèîíîâ. Ðÿáêîîáðàçíûå. Ãîëóáåîáðàçíûå. Êóêóøêîîáðàçíûå. Ñîâîîáðàçíûå. Ìîñêâà: Íàóêà. 1993. Ñ. 258–270. Ðóñòàìîâ Ý.À. Çàë¸ò áåëîé ñîâû â Òóðêìåíèþ. – Èçâåñòèÿ ÀÍ ÒóðêìÑÑÐ. ¹ 4. 1977. Ñ. 86. Ñàãèòîâ À.Ê. Îòðÿä ñîâîîáðàçíûå. Strigiformes. – Ïòèöû Óçáåêèñòàíà. Òàøêåíò. Ò. 2. 1990. Ñ. 225–243. Øåâ÷åíêî Â.Ë. Áåëàÿ ñîâà â Ñåâåðíîì Ïðèêàñïèè. – Ðåäêèå, èñ÷åçàþùèå è ìàëîèçó÷åííûå ïòèöû ÑÑÑÐ. Ìîñêâà. 1986. 36 ñ. Øíèòíèêîâ Â.Í. Ïòèöû Ñåìèðå÷üÿ. Ì.-Ë. 1949. 666 ñ. Loudon H. Meine dritte Reise nach Zentral-Asien nnd ihre ornitologische Ausbeute – Journal fur Ornitholgie. 1910. P. 1–90. Sarudny N. Verzeichnis der Vogel Persiens – Journal fur Ornithologie. Jg. 59. 1911. P. 185–214.


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NationalWildlifeFederation’sVermont(USA)PeregrineFalcon RecoveryProgram:ResultsofResearchin2005 НАЦИОНАЛЬНАЯПРОГРАММАВОССТАНОВЛЕНИЯ СОКОЛА-САПСАНАВШТАТЕВЕРМОНТ(США): РЕЗУЛЬТАТЫИССЛЕДОВАНИЙ2005Г. M.Fowle,K.Wohlfort,S.Faccio,andD.Blodgett(Vermont,USA) M.Фо$ли,К.Вольфорт,С.Фассио,Д.Блад/етт(штатВермонт,США) Contact: Margaret R. Fowle Raptor Recovery Program Manager Kathleen A. Wohlfort Associate Wildlife Biologist National Wildlife Federation Northeast Natural Resource Center 58 State Str., Montpelier VT 05602 USA tel.: 802 229 06 50 fowle@nwf.org www.nwf.org Steven D. Faccio Senior Staff Biologist Conservation Biology Department Vermont Institute of Natural Science 2723 Church Hill Rd. Woodstock VT 05091–9773 USA tel.: 802 457 27 79 xt.123 Douglas W. Blodgett Biologist Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department 271 N. Main Str., #215 Rutland VT 05701 USA tel.: 802 786 38 61

Ââåäåíèå

Introduction

Çà ïîïóëÿöèÿìè ñàïñàíà (Falco peregrinus) â ÑØÀ âåä¸òñÿ òùàòåëüíîå íàáëþäåíèå ñî âðåìåí Âòîðîé ìèðîâîé âîéíû.  ðåçóëüòàòå áåñêîíòðîëüíîãî ïðèìåíåíèÿ ÄÄÒ ñàïñàí ïîëíîñòüþ èñ÷åç êàê ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ âèä íà âîñòîêå ÑØÀ ê êîíöó 60-õ ãã. (Berger et al. 1969; Fyfe et al. 1976). Ïîñëåäíåå íàáëþäåíèå ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ñàïñàíîâ äàòèðóåòñÿ 1970 ã. íà Ãîðå Ïèñãàõ â Âåðìîíòå (Spofford 1975).  1975 ã. Ôîíä Ñàïñàíà íà÷àë ðåàëèçàöèþ ïðîãðàììû ïî èñêóññòâåííîìó ðàçâåäåíèþ ñàïñàíà â íåâîëå è âûïóñêó â ïðèðîäó (Barclay 1988). Áëàãîäàðÿ ýòîé ðàáîòå íà âîñòîêå ÑØÀ ñàïñàí áûë óñïåøíî âîññòàíîâëåí.  òå÷åíèå 1982–87 ãã. â 3-õ ìåñòàõ øòàòà Âåðìîíò áûëè âûïóùåíû 93 ìîëîäûõ ïòèöû.  1984 ã., âïåðâûå ïîñëå ñïàäà ÷èñëåííîñòè, ïåðâàÿ òåððèòîðèàëüíàÿ ïàðà ñàïñàíîâ çàíÿëà ñêàëû ãîðû Ïèñãàõ, à â ñëåäóþùåì ãîäó óñïåøíî âûâåëà ïîòîìñòâî. Ñ òåõ ïîð ïîïóëÿöèÿ ñàïñàíà â Âåðìîíòå íåóêëîííî ðàñò¸ò. Ñõîäíûå òåíäåíöèè íàáëþäàþòñÿ íà áîëüøèíñòâå äðóãèõ òåððèòîðèé â âîñòî÷íîé ÷àñòè ÑØÀ.  ñåâåðî-âîñòî÷íîì ðåãèîíå âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ñàïñàíà åãî ïîïóëÿöèÿ ïðåâûñèëà çàïëàíèðîâàííûå ïîêàçàòåëè â

Peregrine Falcon populations have been closely monitored since the post World War II pesticide-induced decline. Due to the indiscriminate use of DDT, the peregrine was extirpated as an eastern breeding species by the mid- to late 1960s (Berger et al. 1969; Fyfe et al. 1976). In 1970 the last observation of a wild adult at a northeastern nesting cliff occurred at Vermont’s Mount Pisgah (Spofford 1975). The Peregrine Fund, Inc. initiated an intensive captive breeding and release (hacking) program in 1975 and successfully reestablished the peregrine to the eastern United States (Barclay 1988). In Vermont, 93 young birds were released at 3 hack sites from 1982–87. In 1984, a territorial falcon pair reoccupied the cliffs of Mount Pisgah and returned the following year to nest successfully. Vermont’s breeding population has since increased steadily, paralleling similar trends throughout much of the eastern U. S. The population in the Northeast Recovery Region reached and surpassed its original federal recovery goals of 20–25 naturally breeding pairs, and the Peregrine Falcon was removed from the federal list of endangered and threatened species in 1999. Peregrine Falcons were proposed to be removed from the state list of endangered and threatened species in 2003 and were delisted in the spring of 2005. The Vermont Institute of Natural Science (VINS) and the Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department (VFWD) have closely monitored this species’ recovery since Mount Pisgah’s reoccupancy, and the National Wildlife Federation (NWF) joined the project in 1999. The Nongame and Natural Heritage Program (NNHP) within the VFWD coordinates activities and sets expectations for the project. Ïòåíöû ñàïñàíà (Falco peregrinus) â ãíåçäå. Îç. Êðèñòàë, 2005 ã. Ôîòî Ñ. Ôàññèî The nestlings of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in nest. Crystal Lake, 2005. Photo by S. Faccio


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Ðèñ. 1. Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå ñàïñàíà (Falco peregrinus) â Âåðìîíòå â 2005 ã. Fig. 1. Distribution on Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Vermont, 2005

20–25 ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð, è â 1999 ã. ñàïñàí áûë èñêëþ÷¸í èç ôåäåðàëüíîãî ñïèñêà óãðîæàåìûõ âèäîâ. Ïî ñîñòîÿíèþ ïîïóëÿöèè â 2003 ã. îæèäàëîñü, ÷òî ñàïñàí áóäåò òàêæå èñêëþ÷¸í èç ñïèñêà óãðîæàåìûõ âèäîâ øòàòà Âåðìîíò, è âåñíîé 2005 ã. ýòî ïðîèçîøëî. Âåðìîíòñêèé èíñòèòóò åñòåñòâåííûõ íàóê (VINS) è Ñëóæáà ðûáû è äè÷è øòàòà Âåðìîíò (VFWD), ïîñòîÿííî êîíòðîëèðóþùèå âîññòàíîâëåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ñàïñàíà ñ ìîìåíòà ïîÿâëåíèÿ ïàðû íà ãîðå Ïèñãàõ, â 1999 ã. îáúåäèíèëè óñèëèÿ ïî ðåàëèçàöèè Ïðîãðàììû ïðèðîäíîãî íàñëåäèÿ (NNHP) ñ Íàöèîíàëüíîé Ôåäåðàöèåé Äèêèõ Æèâîòíûõ (NWF).

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Methods To determine the breeding chronology and status of territorial Peregrine Falcon pairs in Vermont, occupied cliffs throughout the state were monitored from early April through late July. Monitoring equipment included binoculars and spotting scopes equipped with 20–60 power zoom eyepieces. Observation distances varied depending on the proximity of cliffs to natural or created openings (i.e., roads, fields, water bodies, talus slopes) and sensitivity of the falcons to observer presence. Staff from NWF, VINS and VFWD, and various volunteers monitored most occupied territories on a bi-monthly basis. All courtship and breeding behaviors were recorded and interpreted during each visit. At each site, we attempted to determine eyrie location, onset of incubation, hatching and fledging dates, and number and sex (when possible) of young fledged. Banding of nestlings occurred at 3–4 weeks of age, and was coordinated by VINS and NWF. A technical rock climber assisted at most sites, and chicks were banded by S. Faccio. We attempted to determine the banded status of all territorial adults and to read alphanumeric bands when possible. A standardized data form was used to record peregrine activity at each monitored site.

Results

Ìåòîäû  öåëÿõ îïðåäåëåíèÿ âðåìåíè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ è ñòàòóñà òåððèòîðèàëüíûõ ïàð ñàïñàíà â Âåðìîíòå, â ðàéîíå ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé, íàñåëÿåìûõ ñîêîëàìè, ïðîâîäèëñÿ ìîíèòîðèíã ñ íà÷àëà àïðåëÿ ïî êîíåö èþëÿ.  õîäå íàáëþäåíèé èñïîëüçîâàëèñü áèíîêëè è çðèòåëüíûå òðóáû 20–60õ. Ðàññòîÿíèå îò òî÷åê íàáëþäåíèé äî ãí¸çä ñàïñàíà âàðüèðîâàëî â çàâèñèìîñòè îò áëèçîñòè ñêàë ê åñòåñòâåííûì èëè èñêóññòâåííûì îòêðûòûì ó÷àñòêàì (äîðîãè, ïîëÿ, âîäî¸ìû, îòêðûòûå ñêëîíû) è ÷óâñòâèòåëüíîñòè ñîêîëîâ ê ïðèñóòñòâèþ íàáëþäàòåëåé. Âîëîíò¸ðû ïîä ðóêîâîäñòâîì ñîòðóäíèêîâ îðãàíèçàöèé, êóðèðóþùèõ ïðîåêò, äâàæäû â ìåñÿö ïðîâåðÿëè áîëüøèíñòâî ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ñàïñàíîâ.  õîäå êàæäîãî ïîñåùåíèÿ îïèñûâàëèñü è èíòåðïðåòèðîâàëèñü

Thirty-two Peregrine Falcon territories were located in Vermont in 2005 (fig. 1). Twenty-six pairs reoccupied the 28 sites used in 2004. Three new pairs were recorded. Pairs reoccupied 2 nests, which were last used in 2003, and a nest, which was last occupied in 2002. Twenty-three successful pairs fledged 61 young (fig. 2), 17 (28%) of which were banded. In 2005, the total number of territorial pairs in the Northeast Recovery Region, which includes Vermont, Maine, New Hampshire, and the Adirondack Region of New York, increased from 79 pairs in 2004 to 86 in 2005 (table 1). Territorial pairs increased by 4 in Vermont and 7 in the Adirondack Region of New York, and decreased by 3 in New Hampshire and 1 in Maine. After decreasing for 4 years in a row, the number of fledglings in the region surpassed its 2001 record of 115 and reached a new record of 139 in 2005. With 139 fledglings and 86 territorial pairs in 2004, the average productivity for the region increased from 1.18 fledglings per territorial pair in


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5 îñîáåííîñòè ïîâåäåíèÿ ïòèö â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä. Íà êàæäîì ãíåçäîâîì ó÷àñòêå îïðåäåëÿëèñü ñðîêè íà÷àëà ñïàðèâàíèÿ, èíêóáàöèè êëàäêè, âûëóïëåíèÿ è âûëåòà ïòåíöîâ. Ïî âîçìîæíîñòè îïðåäåëÿëèñü êîëè÷åñòâî è ïîë ñë¸òêîâ. Ìå÷åíèå ïòåíöîâ îñóùåñòâëÿëîñü â âîçðàñòå 3–4 íåäåëü è êîîðäèíèðîâàëîñü ñïåöèàëèñòàìè.  áîëüøèíñòâå ñëó÷àåâ â ðàáîòå ïîìîãàëè ïðîôåññèîíàëüíûå àëüïèíèñòû, à ñ ïòåíöàìè ðàáîòàë Ñ. Ôàññèî. Ïî âîçìîæíîñòè îïðåäåëÿëèñü íîìåðà ìåòîê âçðîñëûõ òåððèòîðèàëüíûõ ïòèö. Äëÿ ðåãèñòðàöèè àêòèâíîñòè ñîêîëîâ íà êàæäîì îáñëåäîâàííîì ó÷àñòêå èñïîëüçîâàëàñü ñòàíäàðòèçîâàííàÿ ôîðìà äàííûõ.

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Ðèñ. 2. Êîëè÷åñòâî ïàð è ñë¸òêîâ ñàïñàíîâ â øòàòå Âåðìîíò â 1984–2005 ãã. Fig. 2. Number of Peregrine Falcon pairs and fledglings in Vermont, 1984–2005

Ðåçóëüòàòû  2005 ã. â Âåðìîíòå ëîêàëèçîâàíî 32 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà ñàïñàíîâ (ðèñ. 1). Äâàäöàòü øåñòü ïàð çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíû íà 28 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ, èñïîëüçîâàâøèõñÿ ñîêîëàìè â 2004 ã.  2005 ã. ïîÿâèëèñü 3 íîâûå ïàðû, è 3 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà, ïîñëåäíèé ðàç çàíèìàâøèåñÿ â 2002–2003 ãã., òàêæå áûëè çàíÿòû ñîêîëàìè. Äâàäöàòü òðè ïàðû óñïåøíî âûâåëè 61 ñë¸òêà (ðèñ. 2), 17 (28%) èç êîòîðûõ áûëè ïîìå÷åíû.  2005 ã. îáùåå ÷èñëî òåððèòîðèàëüíûõ ïàð â ñåâåðî-âîñòî÷íîì ðåãèîíå, ãäå îñóùåñòâëÿëîñü âîññòàíîâëåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ñàïñàíà, êîòîðûé âêëþ÷àåò øòàòû Âåðìîíò, Ìýí, Íüþ-Ãýìïøèð è ãîðû Àäèðîíäàê â øòàòå Íüþ-Éîðê, óâåëè÷èëîñü ñ 79 ïàð â 2004 ã. äî 86 ïàð â 2005 ã. (òàáë. 1). Êîëè÷åñòâî òåððèòîðèàëüíûõ ïàð óâåëè÷èëîñü íà 4 â Âåðìîíòå, 7 ïàð – â ãîðàõ Àäèðîíäàê è óìåíüøèëîñü íà 3 – â Íüþ-Ãýìïøèðå è íà 1 ïàðó – â øòàòå Ìýí. Çà ïîñëåäíèå 4 ãîäà êîëè÷åñòâî ñë¸òêîâ â ðåãèîíå óâåëè÷èëîñü ñ 115 â 2001 ã. äî 139 â 2005 ã. Ñðåäíÿÿ ïðîäóêòèâíîñòü â ðåãèîíå óâåëè÷èëàñü ñ 1,18 ñë¸òêîâ íà ïàðó â 2004 ã. (Fowle et al. 2004) äî 1,62 ñë¸òêà íà ïàðó – â 2005 ã.

2004 (Fowle et al. 2004) to 1.62 fledglings per territorial pair in 2005.

Literature cited Barclay J.H. Peregrine restoration in the eastern United States. – Peregrine Falcon populations: their management and recovery / T. J. Cade, J. H. Enderson, C. G. Thelander, and C. M. White (eds.). The Peregrine Fund Inc., Boise, ID. 1988. P. 549–557. Berger D.D., Sindelar C.R. and Gamble K.E. The status of the breeding peregrines of the eastern United States. – Peregrine Falcon populations: their biology and decline / J. J. Hickey (ed.). University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI. 1969. P. 165–173. Fowle M.R., Faccio S.D. and Blodgett D.W. The 2004 breeding status and population dynamics of Peregrine Falcons in Vermont. Unpublished report, National Wildlife Federation, Montpelier, VT. 2004. Fyfe R.W., Temple S.A. and Cade T.J. The 1975 North American Peregrine Falcon survey. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 1976. 90. P. 228–273. Spofford W.R. 1975. Eyries inventory and assessment. Unpublished manuscript. Òàáë. 1. Ðåçóëüòàòû ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ñàïñàíà (Falco peregrinus) â ñåâåðî-âîñòî÷íîì ðåãèîíå âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè â 2005 ã. Table 1. Summary of Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nesting results in the Northeast Recovery Region, 2005


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Êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ

Shortreports КРАТКИЕСООБЩЕНИЯ ShortReportontheResearchoftheBlakiston’sFishOwlinthe SamargaRiverValleyin2005 ПРЕДВАРИТЕЛЬНЫЕРЕЗУЛЬТАТЫИЗУЧЕНИЯРЫБНОГО ФИЛИНАВБАССЕЙНЕР.САМАРГАВ2005Г. SurmachS.G.(InstituteofBiologyandPedology,theFarEasternBranchofthe RussianAcademyofScience,Vladivostok,Russia) С$рмачС.Г.(Биоло/о-почвенныйинстит$тДВОРАН,Владивосто,Россия) Êîíòàêò: Ñåðãåé Ñóðìà÷ Áèîëîãî-ïî÷âåííûé èíñòèòóò ÄÂÎ ÐÀÍ 690022 Âëàäèâîñòîê ïð. 100-ëåòèÿ Âëàäèâîñòîêà, 159 ÁÏÈ ÄÂÎ ÐÀÍ òåë.: +7 (4232) 26 70 70 birds@mail.primorye.ru Contact: Sergey Surmach Institute of Biology and Pedology The Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Science Prospect 100-letiya Vladivostoka, 159 Vladivostok Russia 690022 tel.: +7 (4232) 26 70 70 birds@mail.primorye.ru

Ðûáíûé ôèëèí (Ketupa blakistoni) íà ïðîòÿæåíèè ïîñëåäíèõ 10 ëåò ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðåäìåòîì ñïåöèàëüíûõ èññëåäîâàíèé ëàáîðàòîðèè îðíèòîëîãèè Áèîëîãî-ïî÷âåííîãî èíñòèòóòà ÄÂÎ ÐÀÍ è ÎÎ «Àìóðî-Óññóðèéñêèé öåíòð áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ ïòèö». Ëåòîì 2005 ã. â ðàìêàõ ïðîåêòà ÂÂÔ ïî âûäåëåíèþ îñîáî-çàùèòíûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ëåñà â Ïðèìîðñêîì êðàå áûëî ïðåäïðèíÿòî êðàòêîâðåìåííîå îáñëåäîâàíèå áàññåéíà ð. Ñàìàðãà – ïîñëåäíåãî «áåëîãî ïÿòíà» â ïðèìîðñêîé ÷àñòè àðåàëà âèäà. Ïðåäâàðèòåëüíûå ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿ î ñîñòîÿíèè ðûáíîãî ôèëèíà â áàññåéíå ýòîé ðåêè áûëè ïîëó÷åíû â õîäå ïðåäûäóùèõ ðàáîò.  1998 ã. äàííàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ, íàðÿäó ñ äðóãèìè ðàéîíàìè Ïðèìîðüÿ è þãà Õàáàðîâñêîãî êðàÿ, áûëà îõâà÷åíà ïî÷òîâûì àíêåòèðîâàíèåì.  ìàðòå 2002 ã. áûë îñóùåñòâëåí ïðÿìîé îïðîñ îõîòíèêîâ, è ïðåäïðèíÿòî ðåêîãíîñöèðîâî÷íîå îáñëåäîâàíèå ïîéìû ñðåäíåãî òå÷åíèÿ îò óñòüÿ ð. Á. Ñîõàòêà äî ð. Èññèìè.  2005 ã. áûë ïðîèçâåä¸í äîïîëíèòåëüíûé îïðîñ ïî

Ðèñ. 1. Ïðåäïîëàãàåìàÿ ñõåìà ðàçìåùåíèÿ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ðûáíîãî ôèëèíà (Ketupa blakistoni) â áàññåéíå ð. Ñàìàðãà: I – ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè, ïîäòâåðæä¸ííûå íàõîäêîé æèëûõ ãí¸çä èëè âûâîäêîâ; II – ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè, íà êîòîðûõ çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíû ïòèöû, ñëåäû èõ ïðåáûâàíèÿ èëè âûÿâëåíî ðåãóëÿðíîå îáèòàíèå âèäà â õîäå îïðîñà è àíêåòèðîâàíèÿ ìåñòíîãî íàñåëåíèÿ; III – âåðîÿòíûå ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè, íà êîòîðûõ âûÿâëåíû îäíîêðàòíûå âñòðå÷è ïòèö â õîäå îïðîñà; IV – âîçìîæíûå ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè, ëîêàëèçîâàííûå äèñòàíöèîííûìè ìåòîäàìè. Fig. 1. Locations of the projected breeding areas of the Blakiston’s Fish Owl (Ketupa blakistoni) in the Samarga river valley: I –breeding areas where active nests or broods were recorded; II – breeding areas where adult birds or its signs of activity were recorded or regular activity of birds were made known during the conducting of Gallup polls and questionnaires; III – probable breeding areas where the single notes of birds were made known during the conducting of Gallup polls and questionnaires; IV – projected breeding areas verified by GIS-method

Under the project of WWF for verification of forest protected areas in the Primorskiy Kray two field teams of researches from the Institute of Biology and Pedology, the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Science and NGO «Amuro-Ussurian birds Diversity Center» carried out the surveys of the Samarge river valley in 2005. The first team consisted of S.G. Surmach and A.V. Ryzhov worked since 14 to 30 June in the low and middle part of the river up to the mouth of the Puhi river. The second team (A.V. Avdeyuk, V.S. Sotnikov, S.A. Akulinkin) worked during 17–30 June in the low part of the river up to Unty village. The population of the Blakiston’s Fish Owl (Ketupa blakistoni) found on the Samarga river valley is the one of the largest populations inhabited the Sihote-Alin Mountains and may be – the world. Ten breeding areas were found and 7 areas are projected (probability of which is very high). The maximum of 39 breeding pairs are projected for the Samarga river valley.


Short reports

Ïòåíåö ðûáíîãî ôèëèíà (Ketupa blakistoni) â ãíåçäå. Ôîòî À. Ðûæîâà The chick of the Blakiston’s Fish Owl (Ketupa blakistoni) in the nest. Photo by A. Ryzhov

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5 áîëüøåé ÷àñòè áàññåéíà Ñàìàðãè. Íå óäàëîñü ñîáðàòü îïðîñíûå ñâåäåíèÿ ëèøü äëÿ îäíîé ÷åòâåðòè ïîòåíöèàëüíûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé âèäà: âåðõíåãî îòäåëà ð. Äàãäû, ñðåäíåãî è âåðõíåãî òå÷åíèÿ ð. Ïóõè è âñåé äîëèíû ð. Èññèìè. Ïîëåâîå îáñëåäîâàíèå âûïîëíÿëîñü äâóìÿ íåçàâèñèìî ðàáîòàþùèìè ãðóïïàìè. Ïåðâàÿ, â ñîñòàâå Ñ.Ã. Ñóðìà÷à è À.Â. Ðûæîâà, ðàáîòàëà ñ 14 ïî 30 èþíÿ â íèæíåì è ñðåäíåì òå÷åíèè ââåðõ äî óñòüÿ ïðèòîêà Ïóõè (îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæåííîñòü îêîëî 150 êì), âòîðàÿ – À.Â. Àâäåþê, Â.Ñ. Ñîòíèêîâ, Ñ.À. Àêóëèíêèí – ñ 17 ïî 30 èþíÿ â íèæíåì òå÷åíèè Ñàìàðãè, ââåðõ äî ïîñ. Óíòû, ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü îòðåçêà – îêîëî 30 êì. Îñíîâíàÿ ìåòîäèêà – âûÿâëåíèå ïòèö ïî ãîëîñàì â ïåðâîé ïîëîâèíå íî÷è. Îáùåå ÷èñëî ïðîñëóøèâàíèé ñîñòàâèëî îêîëî 70 ÷åëîâåêî-íî÷åé. Äíåâíûå îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ñâîäèëèñü, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî, ê îñìîòðó ïåñ÷àíî-ãàëå÷íèêîâûõ êîñ è ãðÿçåâûõ îòìåëåé â ïîòåíöèàëüíûõ îõîòíè÷üèõ ó÷àñòêàõ. Ëþáîå äîñòîâåðíîå

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ñâèäåòåëüñòâî ïðèñóòñòâèÿ ïòèö (âèçóàëüíî, ïî ãîëîñó, ëèííûì ïåðüÿì èëè îòïå÷àòêàì ëàï) ñëóæèëî îñíîâàíèåì äëÿ îòíåñåíèÿ äàííîãî ìåñòà ê óñëîâíîìó ãíåçäîâîìó ó÷àñòêó. Ìåñòà ïîäîáíûõ ðåãèñòðàöèé, îòñòîÿùèå äðóã îò äðóãà íà 3 è áîëåå êèëîìåòðîâ, âîñïðèíèìàëèñü êàê ðàçíûå ó÷àñòêè. Óñèëèÿ ïî âûÿñíåíèþ ãíåçäîâîãî ñòàòóñà îáíàðóæåííûõ ïòèö (ñïåöèàëüíûå ïîèñêè ãí¸çä èëè ñë¸òêîâ, îïðåäåëåíèå ãðàíèö ãíåçäîâîãî ó÷àñòêà è äð.) çà íåäîñòàòêîì âðåìåíè ïðåäïðèíèìàëèñü òîëüêî â íèæíåì òå÷åíèè ðåêè. Ñàìàðãèíñêàÿ ïîïóëÿöèÿ ðûáíîãî ôèëèíà ïðåäâàðèòåëüíî îöåíèâàåòñÿ êàê îäíà èç âàæíåéøèõ â Ñèõîòå-Àëèíå, âîçìîæíî – â ìèðå. Äîñòîâåðíî âûÿâëåíî 10 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ, ñ âûñîêîé äîëåé âåðîÿòíîñòè îæèäàåòñÿ ñóùåñòâîâàíèå åù¸ 7. Äëÿ 3 ïàð äîêàçàíî óñïåøíîå ãíåçäîâàíèå â òåêóùåì ñåçîíå. Ïîòåíöèàëüíàÿ ¸ìêîñòü ìåñòîîáèòàíèé âèäà â áàññåéíå Ñàìàðãè ïðåäâàðèòåëüíî (ýêñïåðòíî è ïîñðåäñòâîì äèñòàíöèîííîãî âûäåëåíèÿ) îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 39 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ – ýòî ìàêñèìàëüíî âîçìîæíûé ðàçìåð ìåñòíîé ïîïóëÿöèè.

RegistrationsoftheGoldenEagleinpine forestsintheNortheastofKazakhstan ВСТРЕЧИБЕРКУТАВБОРАХ НАСЕВЕРО-ВОСТОКЕКАЗАХСТАНА AskarIsabekov АсарИсабеов

Êîíòàêò: Àñêàð Èñàáåêîâ askarisabekov@ hotmail.com Contact: Askar Isabekov askarisabekov@ hotmail.com

Áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos) ÿâëÿåòñÿ îäíèì èç ñàìûõ ðåäêèõ îðëîâ â Èðòûøñêèõ áîðàõ (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005), ïîýòîìó åãî âñòðå÷è íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè ïðåäñòàâëÿþò îïðåäåë¸ííûé èíòåðåñ. Äâà âçðîñëûõ áåðêóòà â êèëîìåòðå äðóã îò äðóãà áûëè âñòðå÷åíû 8 ôåâðàëÿ 2005 ã. áëèç òðàññû Ñåìèïàëàòèíñê – Ïàâëîäàð ìåæäó íàñåë¸ííûìè ïóíêòàìè Ñåìåíîâêà è Á. Âëàäèìèðîâêà, ïîáëèçîñòè îò íàèáîëåå êðóïíîãî áîðîâîãî ìàññèâà â ïðàâîáåðåæüå Èðòûøà (N 51,03 E 79,28).

Áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos). Áåñêàðàãàéñêèé ðàéîí, Âîñòî÷íî-Êàçàõñòàíñêàÿ îáëàñòü. 8 ôåâðàëÿ 2006 ã. Ôîòî À. Èñàáåêîâà The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). Beskaragay region, East-Kazakhstan district. 8 February 2006. Photo by A. Isabekov

Ëèòåðàòóðà Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Áàðàáàøèí Ò.Î., Ëåâèí À.Ñ., Êàðïîâ Ô.Ô. Ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé 2005 ã. â ñòåïíûõ áîðàõ íà ñåâåðî-âîñòîêå Êàçàõñòàíà. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2005. ¹ 4. Ñ. 34–43.

Two Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) observed near highway Semipalatinsk – Pavlodar near a pine forest in the Beskaragay region of the East-Kazakhstan district in 8 February 2005 (N 51.03 E 79.28).


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Íîâûå ïóáëèêàöèè è ôèëüìû

NewPublicationsandVideos НОВЫЕПУБЛИКАЦИИИФИЛЬМЫ Films ФИЛЬМЫ (5) Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Ikar_research@mail.ru (5) Contact: Eugene Potapov FLS Natural Research Ltd, UK Eugene_potapov@ compuserve.com

Books КНИГИ

(6) Contact: PAW Secretariat Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs – Defra Zone 1/14 Temple Quay House 2 The Square Temple Quay Bristol BS1 6EB UK tel.: +44 117 372 85 51 paw.secretariat@ defra.gov.uk

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«Áåëîïëå÷èé îðëàí»

«The Steller’s Sea Eagle»

íîâûé äèíàìè÷íûé äîêóìåíòàëüíûé ôèëüì, ñíÿòûé ïðîôåññèîíàëüíûìè ó÷¸íûìè ïðî ñâîþ ðàáîòó. Ïðåäíàçíà÷åííûé äëÿ øèðîêîé àóäèòîðèè ëþáèòåëåé äèêîé ïðèðîäû, ôèëüì çíàêîìèò ñ äèêèìè óãîëêàìè Ñåâåðî-Âîñòîêà Ðîññèè, ãäå òàéãà âñòðå÷àåòñÿ ñ ìîðåì. Çäåñü, íà ïîáåðåæüå Îõîòñêîãî ìîðÿ, âû óâèäèòå æèçíü õîòü è íåáîëüøîé, íî áåññòðàøíîé èññëåäîâàòåëüñêîé ãðóïïû, âåäóùåé íàáëþäåíèÿ çà áåëîïëå÷èì îðëàíîì – ñàìûì áîëüøèì è ñàìûì çðåëèùíûì îðëîì ìèðà. Ðåæèññåð – Å. Ïîòàïîâ. DVD íà äâóõ ÿçûêàõ (ðóññêîì è àíãëèéñêîì), âûïóùåí â äâóõ âåðñèÿõ PAL è NTSC. Êîíòàêò (5).

a new dynamic video filmed by professional scientists. The documentary, produced for a wide audience of wildlife lovers, takes you to the wildest places of Siberia, where the taiga meets the sea. Here, at the northern coasts of the Sea of Okhotsk you will see a small, but brave research group studying the Steller’s Sea Eagle, arguably the largest and definitely the most spectacular eagle in the world. Producer: E. Potapov. Bi-lingual (English and Russian) DVD available for NTSC or PAL systems. Contact (5).

Íîâîå ðóêîâîäñòâî. Ïðåñòóïëåíèÿ ïðîòèâ äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ: Ñïðàâî÷íèê ïî èñïîëüçîâàíèþ ñóäåáíîé ïðàêòèêè è ñïåöèôè÷åñêèõ ïîäõîäîâ â ðàññëåäîâàíèè ïðåñòóïëåíèé ïðîòèâ äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ8.  ýòîé êíèãå, ïîñëåäíåé â ñåðèè «Ïðåñòóïëåíèÿ ïðîòèâ äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ», îïóáëèêîâàííîé äåïàðòàìåíòîì ïî äåëàì îõðàíû îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû, ïèùåâîé ïðîìûøëåííîñòè è ñåëüñêîãî õîçÿéñòâà Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè è Ñåâåðíîé Èðëàíäèè îò èìåíè Ïàðòíåðñòâà ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ïðåñòóïëåíèé ïðîòèâ äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ (PAW), ñîáðàíû ïîäðîáíîñòè èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ ïîäîáíûõ ìåòîäîâ â ðÿäå ðàññìàòðèâàåìûõ ñëó÷àåâ. PAW ñïîñîáñòâóåò è ïðîäâèãàåò èñïîëüçîâàíèå âñåãî ñïåêòðà ñòàíäàðòíûõ è íåñòàíäàðòíûõ ìåòîäîâ ðàññëåäîâàíèÿ.  ýòîé ïóáëèêàöèè èìååòñÿ äîñòàòî÷íî ïîëíûé îáçîð ëèòåðàòóðû ïî äàííîé ïðîáëåìå, à òàêæå ïðèâåäåíû ïðàêòè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè. Ïóáëèêàöèÿ áóäåò ïîëåçíà ïðè ðåàëèçàöèè ìåðîïðèÿòèé ïî áîðüáå ñ ïðåñòóïëåíèÿìè ïðîòèâ äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ. Êîíòàêò (6).

http://www.defra.gov.uk/paw/publications/default.htm

New manual «Wildlife Crime: A guide to the use of forensic and specialist techniques in the investigation of wildlife crime»8. This book, the latest in the ‘Wildlife Crime’ series published by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland’s Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs on behalf of the Partnership for Action Against Wildlife Crime (PAW), pulls together details of a range of cases where such techniques have been used. PAW encourages and promotes the use of a whole range of standard and non-standard techniques. This publication provides a central reference source and a host of practical advice and will further encourage wildlife enforcers to consider using these techniques as they go about their work. Contact (6).


New Publications and Videos

(7) Êîíòàêò: Ëþäìèëà Þðüåâíà ×óéêîâà Ëèëèÿ Çèíãþðîâíà Êóãóøåâà Ðîññèÿ Àñòðàõàíü óë. Òóðãåíåâà/Æåëÿáîâà 10/14 êâ. 427 òåë.: (8512) 22 68 67 k_lilija@mail.ru (7) Contact: Ludmila Y. Chuykova Lilija Z. Kugusheva Turgeneva/Zhelyabova str., 10/14 – 427 Astrahan Russia tel.: (8512) 22 68 67 k_lilija@mail.ru

(8) Êîíòàêò: Àëåêñåé Ïàæåíêîâ Öåíòð ñîäåéñòâèÿ «Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñåòè» 443045 Ðîññèÿ Ñàìàðà óë. Ãàãàðèíà 69, êâ. 39 òåë.: (9272) 15 39 60 f_lynx@hotbox.ru (8) Alexey Pazhenkov The Volga-Ural ECONET Assistance Center Gagarina str. 69–39 Samara Russia 443045 tel.: (9272) 15 39 60 f_lynx@hotbox.ru

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5

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Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà Àñòðàõàíñêîé îáëàñòè. Ïîä ðåä. Þ.Ñ. ×óéêîâà. Àñòðàõàíü: Íèæíåâîëæñêèé öåíòð ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî îáðàçîâàíèÿ. 2004. 356 ñ.  íå¸ âêëþ÷åíû 18 âèäîâ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è 1 âèä ñîâîîáðàçíûõ, èç êîòîðûõ 2 âèäà èìåþò ðåãèîíàëüíûé ñòàòóñ «âèä, íàõîäÿùèéñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ» – 1 êàòåãîðèÿ: îðëàí-äîëãîõâîñò (Haliaeetus leucoryphus) è áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug); 2 âèäà èìåþò ñòàòóñ «âèä, ÷èñëåííîñòü êîòîðîãî áûñòðî ñîêðàùàåòñÿ» – 2 êàòåãîðèÿ: ÷¸ðíûé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans) è ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis); 10 âèäîâ èìåþò ñòàòóñ «ðåäêèé âèä» – 3 êàòåãîðèÿ: ñêîïà (Pandion haliaetus), òåòåðåâÿòíèê (Accipiter gentilis), òþâèê (Accipiter brevipes), áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga), ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca), áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos), ñàïñàí (Falco peregrinus), äåðáíèê (Falco columbarius), ñòåïíàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco naumanni), ôèëèí (Bubo bubo); 4 âèäà èìåþò ñòàòóñ «ìàëîèçó÷åííûé âèä, âîçìîæíî, íàõîäÿùèéñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ» – 4 êàòåãîðèÿ: ñòåïíîé ëóíü (Circus macrourus), êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus), çìååÿä (Circaetus gallicus), ÷¸ðíûé ãðèô (Aegypius monachus) è 1 âèä – îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò (Haliaeetus albicilla) èìååò ñòàòóñ «âèä, ÷èñëåííîñòü êîòîðîãî âîññòàíàâëèâàåòñÿ» – 5 êàòåãîðèÿ. Êîíòàêò (7).

The Red Data Book of the Astrahan District. – Edited by Chuykov Y.S. – Nizhnevolzhskiy Ecological Educating Center, 2004. 356 p. There are 18 species of Falconiformes and 1 species of Strigiformes, 2 of these species have a regional status «critically endangered» – 1 category: Pallas’s Fish Eagle (Haliaeetus leucoryphus) and Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug); 2 species have a status «shrinking population» – 2 category: Black Kite (Milvus migrans) and Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis); 10 species have a status «rare species» – 3 category: Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), Levant Sparrowhawk (Accipiter brevipes), Great Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga), Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), Merlin (Falñî columbarius), Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni), Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo); 4 species have a status «not enough researched species, possible endangered» – 4 category: Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus), Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus), Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) and White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) have a status «recovered species» – 5 category. Contact (7).

Ïàæåíêîâ À.Ñ., Ñìåëÿíñêèé È.Ý., Òðîôèìîâà Ò.À., Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ýêîëîãè÷åñêàÿ ñåòü Ðåñïóáëèêè Áàøêîðòîñòàí. – Ì.: IUCN, 2005 – 197 ñ. èëë. Êíèãà ïîñâÿùåíà õàðàêòåðèñòèêå ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî êàðêàñà Ðåñïóáëèêè Áàøêîðòîñòàí è ïðåäëîæåíèÿì ïî åãî ñîõðàíåíèþ. Ðàçðàáîòàíû ïðèíöèïû è êðèòåðèè âûÿâëåíèÿ ðåãèîíàëüíîãî ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî êàðêàñà; ðàíæèðîâàíû ïî âûïîëíÿåìûì ôóíêöèÿì îñíîâíûå ýëåìåíòû ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî êàðêàñà; ðàçðàáîòàíû ïðèíöèïû îïòèìèçàöèè òåððèòîðèàëüíîé îõðàíû ïðèðîäû. Ïðåäñòàâëåíû êîíêðåòíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ïî îáîñíîâàíèþ è ñîçäàíèþ ðåãèîíàëüíîé ñèñòåìû îõðàíÿåìûõ ïðèðîäíûõ òåððèòîðèé Áàøêîðòîñòàíà, îöåíåíà ñòåïåíü çàùèùåííîñòè åñòåñòâåííûõ ýêîñèñòåì ñóùåñòâóþùèìè ðåçåðâàòàìè.  äàííîé ðàáîòå èñïîëüçîâàíà ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî îäíà ãðóïïà «êëþ÷åâûõ» âèäîâ – êðóïíûå õèùíûå ïòèöû.  êà÷åñòâå «êëþ÷åâûõ» ðàññìàòðèâàëèñü ñëåäóþùèå âèäû ïòèö: áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos), ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca), ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis), áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga), îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò (Haliaeetus

Pazhenkov A.S., Smelyanskiy I.E., Trofimova T.A., Karyakin I.V. Ecological network of the Republic of Bashkortostan. M. IUCN, 2005 – 197 p. This book characterizes the ecological network of the Republic of Bashkortostan and also contains recommendations for its conservation. The principles and criteria of determining the regional ecological network have been developed and described The principles of optimizing of the ecological back-bone ecosystems have been discussed. Some practical recommendations on the motivation and ligitimisation of a regional system of protected areas of the Republic of Bashkortostan have been presented, and the level of protection of the natural ecosystems provided by already established protected areas has been estimated. Only one group of the key species – the large birds of prey, has been discussed in the book. The following species of birds were considered as «key species»: the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis), Great Spotted Eagle (Aquila


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(9) Êîíòàêò: Öåíòð íîâûõ èíôîðìàöèîííûõ òåõíîëîãèé ÊàëìÃÓ 358000 Ðîññèÿ Ýëèñòà óë. Ïóøêèíà, 11 (9) Contact: Center for New Information Technology of the Kalmykia State University Pushkina str., 11 Elista Russia 358000

(10) Êîíòàêò: Íàäåæäà Êèñåë¸âà Íèæåãîðîäñêîå îòäåëåíèå ÑÎÏÐ 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä à/ÿ 631 Ýêîöåíòð «Äðîíò» òåë.: +7 (8312) 34 46 79 sopr@dront.ru (10) Contact: Nadezhda Kiseleva The N. Novgorod branch of RBCU ecocenter ‘Dront’ P.O. Box 631 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: +7 (8312) 34 46 79 sopr@dront.ru

9

Íîâûå ïóáëèêàöèè è ôèëüìû

albicilla), ñêîïà (Pandion haliaetus), çìååÿä (Circaetus gallicus), êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus), ñîêîëû áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) è ñàïñàí (Falco peregrinus), ôèëèí (Bubo bubo). Ýòè âèäû çàíèìàþò ðàçëè÷íûå ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ è èìåþò çíà÷èòåëüíî ðàçëè÷àþùèåñÿ ýêîëîãè÷åñêèå íèøè. Äëÿ âñåõ ïåðå÷èñëåííûõ âèäîâ âûÿâëÿëàñü ïðîñòðàíñòâåííàÿ ñòðóêòóðà ïîïóëÿöèé, îñíîâàííàÿ íà ðåãèñòðàöèè ðåçèäåíòíûõ îñîáåé (íà ãíåçäîâàíèè). Êîíòàêò (8).

clanga), White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Shorttoed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus), Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug), Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), and the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo). These species occupy different habitats and have separate ecological niches. For all these species the spatial structure of populations, based on breeding records, have been described. Contact (8).

Ìàòåðèàëû äëÿ Êðàñíîé êíèãè Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàëìûêèÿ. Ïîä ðåä. Â.Ì. Ìóðçàåâà. Ýëèñòà. 2005. 68 ñ. (ISBN 5-230-20197-5)  ñïèñîê âêëþ÷åíû 15 âèäîâ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è 1 âèä ñîâîîáðàçíûõ, èç êîòîðûõ ñòåïíàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco naumanni) èìååò ðåãèîíàëüíûé ñòàòóñ «âèä, íàõîäÿùèéñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ» – 1 êàòåãîðèÿ; 6 âèäîâ èìåþò ñòàòóñ «âèä ñ ñîêðàùàþùåéñÿ ÷èñëåííîñòüþ» – 2 êàòåãîðèÿ: ñòåïíîé ëóíü (Circus macrourus), áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga), ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca), áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug), ñàïñàí (Falco peregrinus), ôèëèí (Bubo bubo); 9 âèäîâ èìåþò ñòàòóñ «ðåäêèé âèä» – 3 êàòåãîðèÿ: ñêîïà (Pandion haliaetus), òþâèê (Accipiter brevipes), êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus), ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis), áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos), îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò (Haliaeetus albicilla), ñòåðâÿòíèê (Neophron percnopterus), ÷¸ðíûé ãðèô (Aegypius monachus), áåëîãîëîâûé ñèï (Gyps fulvus). Êîíòàêò (9).

Data the for Red Data Book of the Republic of Kalmykia. Edited by V.M.Murzaev. Elista. 2005. 68 p. (ISBN 5–230–20197–5) It contains 15 species of Falconiformes and 1 species of Strigiformes, 1 species from them have a regional status «critical endangered» – 1 category: Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni); 6 species have a status «shrinking population» – 2 category: Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus), Great Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga), Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug), Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo); 10 species have a status «rare species» – 3 category: Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Levant Sparrowhawk (Accipiter brevipes), Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus), Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), WhiteTailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus), Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) and Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus). Contact (9).

Ñ.Â. Áàêêà, Í.Þ. Êèñåë¸âà. Ñîâà – ïòèöà 2005 ãîäà. Ìåòîäè÷åñêîå ïîñîáèå. Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä: Ìåæäóíàðîäíûé Ñîöèàëüíî-ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé ñîþç, ýêîöåíòð «Äðîíò». 2005. 36 ñ. Ìåòîäè÷åñêîå ïîñîáèå ïðèçâàíî îáåñïå÷èòü óñïåõ àêöèè «Ñîâà – ïòèöà 2005 ãîäà» â Ðîññèè è ñîäåðæèò ìàòåðèàëû, íåîáõîäèìûå äëÿ îðãàíèçàöèè àãèòàöèîííîïðîïàãàíäèñòñêîé, èññëåäîâàòåëüñêîé è ïðàêòè÷åñêîé ïðèðîäîîõðàííîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè â ðàìêàõ àêöèè. Áðîøþðà ðàññêàçûâàåò îá îñîáåííîñòÿõ áèîëîãèè ñîâ, çíàêîìèò ñî ñïåêòðîì îòíîøåíèé ðàçíûõ íàðîäîâ ê ýòèì ïòèöàì, îáñóæäàåò ïðîáëåìû îõðàíû ñîâ è ïóòè èõ ðåøåíèÿ. Ñîäåðæèò îáøèðíûé îáçîð èíòåðíåò-ñàéòîâ è ñïèñîê ëèòåðàòóðû. Ïîñîáèå äîñòóïíî íà ñàéòå «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè Ðîññèè» â ôîðìàòå pdf9. Êîíòàêò (10).

S.V. Bakka, N.Y. Kiseleva. Owl – the bird of 2005. Methodical textbook. Nizhniy Novgorod: International Social-Ecological Unit, Ecocenter «Dront». 2005. 36 p. This book was published to promote the success of «Owl – the bird of 2005» in Russia and contains materials for the organization of a promotional campaign, research, and practical conservation. The book tells about the features of owl biology, describes the ethnic attitudes towards the owls in different ethnic groups, and discusses the problems and solutions of owl conservation. Readers can learn to identify owls in the Central European part of Russia, and to manage the habitat of the owls. Reviews of internet resources and literature given in the book help get additional knowledge on these mystic and amazing birds. This book is available on site «Russian Raptors» in pdf9. Contact (10).

http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/methods/Owls_NN.pdf


Contents

Raptors Conservation 2006, 5

71

Ñîäåðæàíèå

Contents

Îò ðåäàêöèè ............................................................ 3

Editors ..................................................................... 3

Ñîáûòèÿ ................................................................. 6

Events ...................................................................... 6

Íîâîñòè ÑÈÒÅÑ ..................................................... 10

CITES News ............................................................ 10

Êîíòðàáàíäà ñîêîëîâ ............................................ 11

Contraband of Falcons ............................................ 11

Êðàòêèé îò÷¸ò ïî äîêëàäàì î ìåðàõ ïðèíóæäåíèÿ â îáëàñòè òîðãîâëè ñîêîëàìè. Ôåäîòêèí Ä.Â., Ñîðîêèí À.Ã. ............................. 12

Short summary of the reports from the meeting of the CITES Falcon Enforcement Task Force. Fedotkin D.V., Sorokin A.G. ................................. 12

Îáçîðû è êîììåíòàðèè ..................................... 16

Reviews and Comments ....................................... 16

«Àëòàé-Ôàëüêîí» ñåãîäíÿ. Èíòåðâüþ ñ Â.Í. Ïëîòíèêîâûì .......................... 16

‘Altai-Falcon’ today. Interview with V.N. Plotnilov ............................... 16

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ.............................. 19

Raptors Conservation ........................................... 19

Ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ ïî ïðèâëå÷åíèþ ñîâ â èñêóññòâåííûå ãí¸çäà â 2005 ã. â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. Ñ.Â. Áàêêà, Í.Þ. Êèñåë¸âà, Ë.Ì. Íîâèêîâà ................................................... 19

Actions for attracting owls in nestboxes in the N.Novgorod district in 2005. S.V. Bakka, N.Yu. Kiseleva, L.M. Novikova .................................................... 19

Ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ ïî ïðèâëå÷åíèþ ñîâ â èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäîâüÿ â Íàöèîíàëüíîì ïàðêå «Íèæíÿÿ Êàìà». Ð. Áåêìàíñóðîâ .............. 21

Actions for attracting of owls to artificial nests in the National Park ‘Nizhnyaya Kama’. Rinur Bekmansurov ............................................. 21

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ .......................... 22

Raptors Research .................................................. 22

Íîâûå äàííûå î ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè è ÷èñëåííîñòè ñîâ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. Ñ.Â. Áàêêà, È.Â. Êàðÿêèí, Í.Þ. Êèñ¸ëåâà, Ë.Ì. Íîâèêîâà .. 22

Distribution and number of owls in the N. Novgorod district. S.V. Bakka, I.V. Karyakin, N.Yu. Kiseleva, L.M. Novikova ............................ 22

Õèùíûå ïòèöû è ñîâû Óëóòàó. È.Â. Êàðÿêèí, Ò.Î. Áàðàáàøèí ........................... 37

The birds of prey and owls of the Ulutau mountains. I.V. Karyakin, T.O. Barabashin ............ 37

Ãðèô íà õðåáòå Íóðàòàó, Óçáåêèñòàí. Êîðøóíîâà Å.Í., Êîðøóíîâ Å.Í. ........................ 50

The Black Vulture in the Nuratau mountains, Uzbekistan. Korshunova E.N., Korshunov E.N. .... 50

Îáçîð çàë¸òîâ áåëûõ ñîâ â Ñðåäíþþ Àçèþ. Î.Â. Ìèòðîïîëüñêèé .......................................... 61

Records of winter vagrant Snowy Owls in Central Asia. O.V. Mitropolskiy ................................................ 61

Íàöèîíàëüíàÿ ïðîãðàììà âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ ñîêîëà-ñàïñàíà â øòàòå Âåðìîíò (ÑØÀ): ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé 2005 ã. M. Ôîóëè, Ê. Âîëüôîðò, Ñ. Ôàññèî, Ä. Áëàäãåòò .................. 63

National Wildlife Federation’s Vermont (USA) Peregrine Falcon Recovery Program: Results of Research in 2005. M. Fowle, K. Wohlfort, S. Faccio, and D. Blodgett ............... 63

Êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ ............................................ 66

Short reports ......................................................... 66

Ïðåäâàðèòåëüíûå ðåçóëüòàòû èçó÷åíèÿ ðûáíîãî ôèëèíà â áàññåéíå ð. Ñàìàðãà â 2005 ã. Ñóðìà÷ Ñ.Ã. ........................................................ 66

Short Report on the Research of the Blakiston’s Fish Owl in the Samarga River Valley in 2005. Surmach S.G. ...................................................... 66

Âñòðå÷è áåðêóòà â áîðàõ íà ñåâåðî-âîñòîêå Êàçàõñòàíà. À. Èñàáåêîâ .................................... 67

Registrations of the Golden Eagle in pine forests in the Northeast of Kazakhstan. A. Isabekov ....... 67

Íîâûå ïóáëèêàöèè è ôèëüìû ........................... 68

New Publications and Videos .............................. 68

Îòïå÷àòàíî â òèïîãðàôèè ÍÍÃÓ ñ ãîòîâîãî îðèãèíàë-ìàêåòà Ëèö. ÏÄ ¹ 18–0099 îò 04.05.01 ã. 603000, ã. Í. Íîâîãîðîä, óë. Á. Ïîêðîâñêàÿ, 37


Raptors Conservation 5/2006  

Pernatye khishniki i ikh okhrana / Raptors Conservation is the unique peer-reviewed periodical journal in the countries of the former USSR,...

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