Issuu on Google+


RaptorsConservation ПЕРНАТЫЕ ХИЩНИКИ И ИХ ОХРАНА 2005 №4

ISSN 1814–0076

Ðàáî÷èé áþëëåòåíü î ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêàõ Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïû è Ñåâåðíîé Àçèè The Newsletter of the raptors of the East Europe and North Asia Áþëëåòåíü «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà» ó÷ðåæäåí ìåæðåãèîíàëüíîé áëàãîòâîðèòåëüíîé îáùåñòâåííîé îðãàíèçàöèåé «Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð» (Íîâîñèáèðñê) è íàó÷íî-èññëåäîâàòåëüñêîé îáùåñòâåííîé îðãàíèçàöèåé «Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé» (Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä).

The Raptors Conservation Newsletter has been founded by the non-governmental organisations Siberian Environmental Center (Novosibirsk) and Center of Field Studies (Nizhniy Novgorod).

Ðåäàêòîðû íîìåðà: Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî è Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí

Editors: Elvira Nikolenko and Igor Karyakin

Ýòîò âûïóñê ãîòîâèëè: Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî (Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð, Íîâîñèáèðñê, Ðîññèÿ), Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí (Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, Í.Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ), Åâãåíèé Ïîòàïîâ (Èññëåäîâàíèå Ïðèðîäû, Øîòëàíäèÿ, Âåëèêîáðèàòíèÿ), Íèêîëàé Ïîòàïîâ (Íåâåð Ëèìèòåä, Õàâåðòîóí, ÑØÀ), Àííà Øåñòàêîâà (Íèæåãîðîäñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò, Í.Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ).

This issue has made by: Elvira Nikolenko (Siberian Environmental Center, Novosibirsk, Russia), Igor Karyakin (Center of Field Studies, N.Novgorod, Russia), Eugene Potapov (Natural Research, Scotland, UK), Nikolay Potapov (Never Ltd, Havertown, USA), Anna Shestakova (State University, N.Novgorod, Russia).

Ôîòîãðàôèÿ íà ëèöåâîé ñòîðîíå îáëîæêè: ìîëîäîé ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca), Îðåíáóðãñêàÿ îáëàñòü, 24 èþëÿ 2000 ã. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà

Photo on the front cover: The juvenile of the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), Orenburg District, 24 July 2000. Photo by I. Karyakin

 èëëþñòðàöèè çàäíåé ñòîðîíû îáëîæêè èñïîëüçîâàíû ôîòîãðàôèè È. Êàðÿêèíà è Ý. Íèêîëåíêî

Photos on the back cover by I. Karyakin and E. Nikolenko

Äèçàéí: Ä. Ñåíîòðóñîâ, À. Êëåù¸â Âåðñòêà: À. Êëåù¸â Êîððåêòóðà: Å. Êëåù¸âà

Design by D. Senotrusov, A. Kleschev Page-proofs by A. Kleschev Proof-reader: E. Klescheva

Àäðåñ ðåäàêöèè: 630090 Ðîññèÿ, Íîâîñèáèðñê, à/ÿ 547

Tel./Fax: (383) 339 78 85

Editorial adress: P.O. Box 547, Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090

E-mail: rc_news@mail.ru ikar_research@mail.ru nikolenko@ecoclub.nsu.ru http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors

Ïðàâèëà äëÿ àâòîðîâ äîñòóïíû íà ñàéòå:

Ýëåêòðîííàÿ âåðñèÿ/RC online http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/RC

Guidelines for Contributors available on website: http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/RC/guidelines/


Events

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4

3

Events СОБЫТИЯ (1) Êîíòàêò: Åëåíà Êðàñíîâà Ñîþç îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè Ðîññèÿ Ìîñêâà 111123 Øîññå Ýíòóçèàñòîâ 60 êîðï. 1 òåë.: (495) 672 22 63 iba@rbcu.ru http://www.rbcu.ru (1) Contact: Elena Krasnova Russian Bird Conservation Union Shosse Entuziastov str. 60/1 Moscow 111123 Russia tel./fax: (495) 672 22 63 iba@rbcu.ru http://www.rbcu.ru

1 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2005 ã. Ïîñòàíîâëåíèåì ¹ 152 Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà Ðåñïóáëèêè Àëòàé (Ðîññèÿ) «Îá óòâåðæäåíèè ïðàâèë îõîòû íà òåððèòîðèè Ðåñïóáëèêè Àëòàé» áûëà ðåãëàìåíòèðîâàíà îõîòà ñ ëîâ÷èìè ïòèöàìè. Ñîãëàñíî ýòîìó äîêóìåíòó, îõîòà ñ ëîâ÷èìè ïòèöàìè íà òåððèòîðèè ðåñïóáëèêè ðàçðåøåíà ñ 1 àâãóñòà ïî 31 ÿíâàðÿ, îõîòíèêó íåîáõîäèìî èìåòü ñëåäóþùèå äîêóìåíòû: (1) îõîòíè÷èé áèëåò, (2) óäîñòîâåðåíèå íà ïðàâî îõîòû, (3) ëèöåíçèþ íà îõîòó, (4) äîêóìåíò íà ñîäåðæàíèå ïòèöû.

1 September 2005 the Government of the Republic of Altai was taken up the Decision ¹ 152 On Endorsement of Hunting Rules on the Territory of the Republic of Altai.

2 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2005 ã. BirdLife International ïîäãîòîâèë îêîí÷àòåëüíûé âàðèàíò êðèòåðèåâ âûäåëåíèÿ êëþ÷åâûõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ òåððèòîðèé ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî çíà÷åíèÿ (IBA) â Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè. Êðèòåðèè ïðåäñòàâëåíû â òàáëèöå 1. Êîíòàêò (1).

The BirdLife International has completed the final concept of criteria for Important Bird Areas in Western Siberia (Russia) in 2 September 2005. The criteria are presented in a table 1. Contact (1).

Following the Endorsement the hunting with birds on the territory of the Republic are permitted since 1 August to 31 January, a hunter should have the following documents: (1) hunting ticket, (2) permission for hunting, (3) license for hunting, (4) permission for the bird keeping.

Òàáë. 1. Êðèòåðèè âûäåëåíèÿ IBA â Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè, Ðîññèÿ Table 1. The criteria for Important Bird Areas in Western Siberia, Russia


4

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

(2) Contact: Robin Nazzaro U.S. Government Accountability Office 441 G Street NW Room LM Washington D.C. 20548 tel.: (202) 512 38 41 fraudnet@gao.gov http://www.gao.gov/ fraudnet/fraudnet.htm

Ñîáûòèÿ

19 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2005 ã. ïðîøëà ïåðâàÿ âñòðå÷à ýêñïåðòíîãî êîìèòåòà ïî ðàññìîòðåíèþ âëèÿíèÿ âåòðîãåíåðàòîðîâ íà ïðèðîäó. Ê ýòîé âñòðå÷å Îôèñ ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî ó÷åòà (GAO) îïóáëèêîâàë ðàáî÷èé äîêóìåíò: «Ìîùíîñòü âåòðà – âëèÿíèå íà äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ – è ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå îáÿçàííîñòè äëÿ ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ, ðàçðàáîòêè è çàùèòû äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ»1. Ïóáëèêàöèÿ ìàòåðèàëîâ èññëåäîâàíèé, ïðîâåä¸ííûõ êîìèòåòîì, ïëàíèðóåòñÿ â êîíöå ïðîåêòà â äåêàáðå 2006 ãîäà. Êîíòàêò (2).

The first meeting of expert committee to consider the environmental impacts of wind turbines was held on 19 September 2005. To the meeting the Government Accounting Office published the document Wind Power – Impacts on Wildlife and Government Responsibilities for Regulating Development and Protecting Wildlife1. A prepublication report will be issued at the end of the project in December 2006. Contact (2).

Ñòàðûå âåòðîãåíåðàòîðû â Àëüòàìîíò Ïàññ, Ñåâåðíîé Êàëèôîðíèè. Ôîòî ïðåäîñòàâëåíî Êàëèôîðíèéñêîé Ýíåðãåòè÷åñêîé Êîìèññèåé The older generation Wind Turbines in Altamont Pass, Northern California. Photo source by California Energy Commission

Ýêñïåðòíûé êîìèòåò äëÿ ïðîâåäåíèÿ íàó÷íîãî àíàëèçà âëèÿíèÿ íà îêðóæàþùóþ ñðåäó ïðîåêòîâ ïî èñïîëüçîâàíèþ ýíåðãèè âåòðà íàçíà÷åí Íàöèîíàëüíîé Àêàäåìèåé ïî èçó÷åíèþ îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû è òîêñèêîëîãèè â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ äèðåêòèâîé Êîíãðåññà è Ñîâåòà Íàöèîíàëüíîé Àêàäåìèè. Ýêñïåðòíûé êîìèòåò âûáðàí èç óâàæàåìûõ ó÷¸íûõ. Èç îðíèòîëîãîâ â íåãî âîøëè Êðèñòîôåð Êëàðê (Íàó÷íî-èññëåäîâàòåëüñêàÿ ïðîãðàììà áèîàêóñòèêè â ëàáîðàòîðèè îðíèòîëîãèè Êîðíåëëà), Ñèäíåé Ãàóôðåóêñ (Ïðîôåññîð áèîëîãè÷åñêèõ íàóê â óíèâåðñèòåòå Êëåìñîí) è Ðîáåðò Óèòìîð (Ïðîôåññîð ýêîëîãèè äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ â çàïàäíîì óíèâåðñèòåòå Âèðäæèíèè). Èññëåäîâàíèÿ êîìèòåòà áóäóò ôîêóñèðîâàòüñÿ íà Ñðåäíåàòëàíòè÷åñêîì ïëîñêîãîðüå, âûáðàííîì â êà÷åñòâå ìîäåëüíîãî ðåãèîíà.  õîäå èññëåäîâàíèé áóäóò âçâåøåíû êàê ïîëåçíûå ýôôåêòû, òàê è íåáëàãîïðèÿòíûå ïîñëåäñòâèÿ, âêëþ÷àÿ âëèÿíèå íà ëàíäøàôò, âíåøíèé âèä, ôàóíó, ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ, âîäíûå ðåñóðñû, çàãðÿçíåíèå àòìîñôåðû è äð. Èñïîëüçóÿ èíôîðìàöèþ î ïîäîáíûõ ïðîåêòàõ, ïðåäëîæåííûõ èëè ðåàëèçîâàííûõ íà Ñðåäíåàòëàíòè÷åñêîì ïëîñêîãîðüå è â äðóãèõ ðåãèîíàõ, êîìèòåò ðàçðàáîòàåò àíàëèòè÷åñêèå êðèòåðèè äëÿ îöåíêè âëèÿíèÿ ïðîåêòîâ âåòðîãåíåðàòîðîâ äëÿ ïðèíÿòèÿ äàëüíåéøèõ ðåøåíèé. Èññëåäîâàíèÿ òàêæå áóäóò íàïðàâëåíû íà âûÿâëåíèå áîëåå çíà÷èìûõ ñôåð èçó÷åíèÿ è ðàçâèòèÿ, íåîáõîäèìûõ äëÿ ëó÷øåãî ïîíèìàíèÿ âîçäåéñòâèÿ ïðîåêòîâ âåòðîãåíåðàòîðîâ íà îêðóæàþùóþ ñðåäó, è óìåíüøåíèÿ èëè ñìÿã÷åíèÿ èõ îòðèöàòåëüíîãî âëèÿíèÿ.

1

http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d05906.pdf

Pursuant to a directive from Congress, the National Academies Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology has established an expert committee of scientists to carry out a scientific study of the environmental impacts of wind-energy projects, focusing on the Mid-Atlantic Highlands as a case example. Ornithologists include Christopher Clark (the Bioacoustics Research Program at the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology), Sidney Gauthreaux (Professor of Biological Sciences at Clemson University), and Robert Whitmore (Professor of Wildlife Ecology at West Virginia University). The study will consider adverse and beneficial effects, including impacts on landscapes, view sheds, wildlife, habitats, water resources, air pollution, greenhouse gases, materials-acquisition costs, and other impacts. Using information from windpower projects proposed or in place in the MidAtlantic Highlands and other regions as appropriate, the committee will develop an analytical framework for evaluating those effects that can inform sitting decisions for wind energy projects. The study also will identify major areas of research and development needed to better understand the environmental impacts of wind-energy projects and reduce or mitigate negative environmental effects.


Events

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4 Íà ñàéòå Gis-Lab.Info2 ïîÿâèëèñü òðåêè ìèãðàöèè õèùíûõ ïòèö, ïîìå÷åííûõ ñïóòíèêîâûìè ïåðåäàò÷èêàìè (Argos), â ôîðìàòå Google Earth: • Ìèãðàöèÿ ÷¸ðíîãî ãðèôà (Aegyptus monachus) â 2004–2005 ãã. Ë. Ãàâàøåëèøâèëè, Å. Ïîòàïîâ, Â. Õðîíóñîâ, M. Äóáèíèí, M. Áàðñêèé3. • Ìèãðàöèÿ áåëîãîëîâîãî ñèïà (Gyps fulvus) â 2004–2005 ãã. Ë. Ãàâàøåëèøâèëè, Å. Ïîòàïîâ, Â. Õðîíóñîâ, M. Äóáèíèí, M. Áàðñêèé4. • Ìèãðàöèÿ ñë¸òêà áåëîïëå÷åãî îðëàíà (Haliaeetus pelagicus). Îõîòñêîå ìîðå, 1997 ã. Å. Ïîòàïîâ, Â. Õðîíóñîâ, M. Äóáèíèí, M. Áàðñêèé5. • Ïîëíûé ãîäîâîé öèêë ìèãðàöèîííûõ ïåðåìåùåíèé ñîêîëà áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug): Öåíòðàëüíàÿ Ìîíãîëèÿ – Öåíòðàëüíûé Òèáåò. Å. Ïîòàïîâ, Â. Õðîíóñîâ, M. Äóáèíèí, M. Áàðñêèé6. • Îñåííÿÿ ìèãðàöèÿ ñîêîëà áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) âäîëü Ðîññèéñêî-Êàçàõñòàíñêîé ãðàíèöû ñ Àëòàÿ â Çàóðàëüå. Å. Ïîòàïîâ, È. Êàðÿêèí, Â. Õðîíóñîâ, M. Äóáèíèí, M. Áàðñêèé7.

Òðåê ìèãðàöèè áåëîãîëîâîãî ñèïà (Gyps fulvus) â 2004–2005 ãã. â Google Earth. Àâòîðû: Ë. Ãàâàøåëèøâèëè, Å. Ïîòàïîâ, Â. Õðîíóñîâ, M. Äóáèíèí, M. Áàðñêèé Dynamic track of migration Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) in 2004–2005 in Google Earth. Authors: L. Gavashelishvili, E. Potapov, V. Hronusov, M. Dubinin, M. Barsky

2 3 4 5 6 7

http://dev.gis-lab.info/google/ http://bbs.keyhole.com/ubb/download.php?Number=158942 http://bbs.keyhole.com/ubb/download.php?Number=158927 http://bbs.keyhole.com/ubb/download.php?Number=149027 http://bbs.keyhole.com/ubb/download.php?Number=166870 http://bbs.keyhole.com/ubb/download.php?Number=166871

5

Dynamic tracks of migration raptors equipped with PTT (Argos) are available on the site Gis-Lab.Info2 in format Google Earth: • Dynamic track of migration Cinereous Vulture (Aegyptus monachus) in 2004– 2005. L. Gavashelishvili, E. Potapov, V. Hronusov, M. Dubinin, M. Barsky3. • Dynamic track of migration Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) in 2004–2005. L. Gavashelishvili, E. Potapov, V. Hronusov, M. Dubinin, M. Barsky4. • Dynamic track of autumn migration of a young Steller’s Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus), Ohotsk Sea, November, 1997. E. Potapov, V. Hronusov, M. Dubinin, M. Barsky5. • Dynamic track of the PTT supplied Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) demonstrating full cycle migration from Central Mongolia to Central Tibet. E. Potapov, V. Hronusov, M. Dubinin, M. Barsky6. • Dynamic track of the PTT supplied Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) from the Russian Altay migrating east along the Russian-Kazakhstan border. E. Potapov, I. Karyakin, V. Hronusov, M. Dubinin, M. Barsky7.


6

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

(3) Êîíòàêò: Ìàêñèì Äóáèíèí ÃÈÑ-öåíòð ÌñîÝÑ Ðîññèÿ Ìîñêâà 107023 ïë. Æóðàâëåâà 1 ñòð.1, îô. 43 òåë.: (495) 963 54 20 (495) 124 50 22 sim@biodiversity.ru http://gis-lab.info Âàëåðèé Õðîíóñîâ Ãîðíûé èíñòèòóò ÓðÎ ÐÀÍ 614007 Ðîññèÿ Ïåðìü óë. Ñèáèðñêàÿ 78à òåë.: (3422) 16 47 31 ôàêñ: (3422) 16 75 02 xbbster@gmail.com Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Êîðîëåíêî 17a–17 òåë.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru (3) Contact: Maxim Dubinin GIS-center of MO SEU GIS-Lab.info sq. Zhuravleva 1 build.1, of. 43 Moscow Russia 107023 tel.: (495) 963 54 20 (495) 124 50 22 sim@biodiversity.ru http://gis-lab.info Valery Hronusov Mines Institute Ural branch of the Russian Academy of sciences Sybirskaya str. 78a, Perm 614007 Russia tel.: (3422) 16 47 31 fax: (3422) 16 75 02 xbbster@gmail.com Igor Karyakin Leader by Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a–17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Eugene Potapov Natural Research, Ltd Eugene_Potapov@ compuserve.com

8 9

Âî âñåõ ïðîåêòàõ â ïîëíîé ìåðå ðåàëèçóþòñÿ ñòàíäàðòíûå âîçìîæíîñòè Google Earth: 1. ïîèñê îáúåêòà ïî íàçâàíèþ ñ ïîääåðæêîé íàöèîíàëüíû�� êîäèðîâîê, íàïðèìåð, êèðèëëèöû; 2. èçìåðåíèå äëèíû; 3. îòîáðàæåíèå êîîðäèíàò è àáñîëþòíûõ îòìåòîê; 4. àâòîìàòè÷åñêîå îáíîâëåíèå âåðñèé ó âñåõ ïîëüçîâàòåëåé äëÿ äèíàìè÷åñêèõ ñëî¸â. Êîíòàêò (3). Äëÿ ïîëüçîâàòåëåé ÃÈÑ-ïàêåòîâ êîìïàíèè ESRI ðàçðàáîòàí ðÿä ìîäóëåé äëÿ ýêñïîðòà øåéï-ôàéëîâ â GOOGLE Earth. • Êîíâåðòîð øåéï-ôàéëîâ èç Arc.View 3õ â ôîðìàò GE äîñòóïåí íà ñàéòå ESRI8 . Âåðñèÿ 1.0.2 îò 14.09.2005.Àâòîð Äîìåíèêî Ñèàâàðåëëà. • Êîíâåðòîð øåéï-ôàéëîâ èç Arc.GIS 9õ â ôîðìàò GE äîñòóïåí íà ñàéòå GIS-lab. info9. Âåðñèÿ 2.3.4 îò 23.10.2005 ã. Àâòîðû Â. Õðîíóñîâ, Ì. Áàðñêèé. Ñ ïîìîùüþ ýòèõ ìîäóëåé, êîòîðûå ðàñïðîñòðàíÿþòñÿ áåñïëàòíî, ëþáîé ïîëüçîâàòåëü ÃÈÑ-ïàêåòà ESRI èìååò âîçìîæíîñòü ïðåîáðàçîâàòü ñâîè òî÷å÷íûå, ëèíåéíûå èëè ïîëèãîíàëüíûå òåìû â ôîðìàò GE (kml, kmz) äëÿ äàëüíåéøåé ïóáëèêàöèè â èíòåðíåòå, ëèáî îáìåíà ìåæäó ïîëüçîâàòåëÿìè GOOGLE. 27–28 îêòÿáðÿ 2005 ã. â ã. Áàðíàóëå ñîñòîÿëàñü Ñèáèðñêàÿ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêàÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ (Àêòóàëüíûå âîïðîñû èçó÷åíèÿ ïòèö Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè), ïîñâÿù¸ííàÿ ïàìÿòè è 70-ëåòèþ Ýäóàðäà Àíäðååâè÷à Èðèñîâà. Òåìà õèùíûõ ïòèö Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè áûëà ïðåäñòàâëåíà â ñëåäóþùèõ äîêëàäàõ: Ñ.À. Ñîëîâü¸â, Â.Â. ßêèìåíêî «Êëþ÷åâûå îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèå òåððèòîðèè ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî çíà÷åíèÿ â Îìñêîé îáëàñòè», À.Í. Êîíóíîâà «Ê ýêîëîãèè ÷¸ðíîãî êîðøóíà â äîëèíå ð. Áàøêàóñ», Þ.Â. Ëàáóòèí «Î ãíåçäîâîì àðåàëå è ðåïðîäóêöèè êðå÷åòà (Falco rusticolus) â ßêóòèè», Ä.Â. Ðûæêîâ «Ê çàïàñàíèþ êîðìà äëèííîõâîñòîé íåÿñûòüþ», À.Ã. Èíîçåìöåâ, Â.Þ. Ïåòðîâ «Ê ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèþ ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ïòèö â Àëòàéñêîì êðàå», À.Ï. Èñàåâ, Þ.Â. Ëàáóòèí «Áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga) â ßêóòèè», À.À. Êîòëîâ

http://arcscripts.esri.com/details.asp?dbid=14254 http://dev.gis-lab.info/typeconvert/index-rus.html

Ñîáûòèÿ In the all projects are realized standard resources of Google Earth: 1. searching the object on name with national coding support; 2. length measurements; 3. image of coordinates and absolute mark; 4. automatic update of versions for all users for dynamic layers. Contact (3). For users of GIS to ESRI, Ltd the number of the extensions for the export shp-files in GOOGLE Earth was designed. • Converter shp-files from Arc.View 3õ in the GE format it is available on site ESRI8. Version 1.0.2 last modified on 14 September 2005. The author is Domenico Ciavarella. • Converter shp-files from Arc.GIS 9õ to the GE format is available on site of GIS-lab info9. Version 2.3.4 last modified on 23 October 2005. The authors are V. Hronusov and M. Barsky. By means of these extensions, which spread gratis, any user of GIS to ESRI, Ltd can convert his own points, lines or polygons in the GE format (kml, kmz) for further publications in internet, or exchange between GOOGLE users.

Ïòåíöû áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà (Aquila clanga). Àëòàéñêèé êðàé. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The chicks of the Great Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga). Altai Kray. Photo by I. Karyakin

27–28 October the Siberian ornithological conference (Actual questions of researching birds in Western Siberia) devoted to memories and 70-th anniversary of Eduard A. Irisov took place in Barnaul. Some reports were about raptors: S.A. Solovev, V.V. Yakimenko «IBA in the Omsk District», A.N. Konunov «Notes of ecology of the Black Kite in flood-lands of the Bashkaus river», Y.B. Labutin «About breeding range and reproduction of the Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) in Yakutia», D.B. Ryzhkov «About food storing by the Ural Owl», A.G. Inozemtsev, V.Y.


Events (4) Êîíòàêò: Íàäåæäà Êîíîâàëîâà Ðîññèéñêèé êîîðäèíàòîð ïðîãðàìì ïî ïðîáëåìå ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà Èíñòèòóò èññëåäîâàíèÿ ãðèïïà Ðîññèéñêîé Àêàäåìèè ìåäèöèíñêèõ íàóê, Ðîññèÿ Ñò.Ïåòåðáóðã óë. Ïðîôåññîðà Ïîïîâà, 15/17 òåë.: (812) 234 62 63 ôàêñ: (812) 346 12 70 influenza@soros.spb.ru (4) Contact: Dr. Nadejda Konovalova Russian Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza Research Institute of Influenza, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences Prof. Popova Str., 15/17 St.Petersburg Russia tel.: (812) 234 62 63 fax: (812) 346 12 70 influenza@soros.spb.ru Dick Thompson Communications officer Communicable Diseases World Health Organization Geneva tel.: +41 22 791 2684 tel.(mob.): +41 79 475 5475 thompsond@who.int Mr. Iain Simpson Communications Officer Director, General’s Office World Health Organization tel.: +41 22 791 3215 tel.(mob.): +41 79 475 5534 simpsoni@who.int

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4 «Ðåäêèå ïòèöû þãî-çàïàäà Êóëóíäû», Î.Á. Ìèòðîôàíîâ «Îðíèòîôàóíà Äæóëóêóëüñêîé êîòëîâèíû», Î.Ñ. Íîñêîâà, Â.Ì. Àíóôðèåâ «Ìàòåðèàëû ó÷¸òîâ ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ïòèö ïîäçîíû õâîéíî-øèðîêîëèñòâåííûõ ëåñîâ Íèæåãîðîäñêîãî Ïðåäâîëæüÿ», Í.Ì. Îëîâÿííèêîâà «Ðåçóëüòàòû èíâåíòàðèçàöèè ôàóíû ïòèö Áàéêàëî-Ëåíñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà», Â.Þ. Ïåòðîâ «Ïòèöû áîðîâ Îáü-Èðòûøñêîãî ìåæäóðå÷üÿ: ýêîëîãè÷åñêèå ãðóïïèðîâêè è òåíäåíöèè èçìåíåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè», Ä.Â. Ðûæêîâ, Ê.Ñ. Ùåðáèíèí «Âñòðå÷è ðåäêèõ è ñëàáîèçó÷åííûõ âèäîâ â Ïðèìîðñêîì êðàå», À.Ì. Ñàí÷û «Íåêîòîðûå ðåäêèå ïòèöû çàïîâåäíèêà «Óáñóíóðñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà», Â.À. Ñòàõååâ «Ðåäêèå ïòèöû çàïîâåäíèêîâ è äðóãèõ ÎÎÏÒ öåíòðàëüíîé ÷àñòè Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ýêîðåãèîíà», È.È. ×óïèí, Â.Þ. Ïåòðîâ «Êîëè÷åñòâåííàÿ õàðàêòåðèñòèêà ïòèö ïî ð. Áîëüøàÿ Ðå÷êà (Ñðåäíåîáñêèé áîð)».

Petrov «To distributions of rare birds species in the Altai Kray», A.P. Isaev, Y.V. Labutin «The Great Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) in Yacutia’, A.A. Kotlov «Rare birds of the SouthWestern Kulunda», O.B. Mitrofanov «Avifauna of the Dzhulucol depression», O.S. Noskova, V.M. Anufriev «Records of rare birds species in the zone of coniferous-broadleaved forests in Nizhegorodskoe Povolzhe», N.M. Olovyannikova «Results of the avifauna inventory in the Baikal-Lena Reserve», V.Y. Petrov «Birds of pine forests between the Ob and Irtysh rivers: ecological groups, number trends», D.V. Ryzhkov, K.S. Sherbinin «Notes of the rare and not enough researched species in the Primorskiy Kray», A.M. Sanchy ‘Some rare birds of the «Ubsunur depression» Reserve», V.A. Staheev «Rare birds of Reserves and other protected areas in the central part of the Altai-Sayan ecoregion», I.I. Chupin, V.Y. Petrov «Records of birds along the Bolshaya Rechka river (the Sredneobskiy pine forest)».

28–31 îêòÿáðÿ 2005 ãîäà â ã. Òàéïèíå (Ìàëàéçèÿ) ïðîø¸ë IV Àçèàòñêèé ñèìïîçèóì ïî õèùíèêàì, îðãàíèçîâàííûé Ñåòüþ èçó÷åíèÿ è îõðàíû õèùíèêîâ Àçèè (ARRCN)10. Íà ñèìïîçèóìå áûëî ïðåäñòàâëåíî 50 äîêëàäîâ11.

The Asian Raptor Research and Conservation Network (ARRCN) held the 4th Asian Raptor Symposium in Taiping, Malaysia, 28 – 31 October 200510. 50 reports have been presented on the symposium11.

7–9 íîÿáðÿ 2005 ã. â Æåíåâå ïðîøëà êîíôåðåíöèÿ ïî ïðîáëåìå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà «Ïòè÷èé ãðèïï è ÷åëîâå÷åñêàÿ ýïèäåìèÿ ãðèïïà» 12. Íà êîíôåðåíöèè îáñóæäàëèñü ìåõàíèçìû, ãàðàíòèðóþùèå ýôôåêòèâíóþ êîîðäèíàöèþ è îöåíêó âëèÿíèÿ ïðîãðàìì ïî ïðîáëåìå ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà, ôèíàíñèðóåìûõ â ñòðàíàõ íà ãëîáàëüíîì è ðåãèîíàëüíîì óðîâíå. Íà êîíôåðåíöèè òàêæå áûëî îáðàùåíî âíèìàíèå íà âîïðîñû ïîäîò÷åòíîñòè, ìîíèòîðèíãà è îáùåãî óïðàâëåíèÿ ðàáîòàìè ïî ðåøåíèþ ïðîáëåìû ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà. Êîíòàêò (4).

The meeting on Avian Influenza & Human Pandemic Influenza Executive Board Room, WHO Headquarters, Geneva November 7–9, 200512. On the meeting was discussed the appropriate mechanisms to ensure effective coordination and assessment of the impact of the avian influenza programmes funded at the countries, regional and global levels. On the meeting were will also look at issues of accountability, monitoring and overall governance of the Avian Flu work moving forward. Contact (4).

Ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî ñòðàòåãè÷åñêèì äåéñòâèÿì «Ðåàãèðîâàíèå íà îïàñíîñòü ïàíäåìèè ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà», ðàçðàáîòàííûå Âñåìèðíîé îðãàíèçàöèåé çäðàâîîõðàíåíèÿ â ðàìêàõ Ãëîáàëüíîé ïðîãðàììû ïî ãðèïïó, äîñòóïíû íà ñàéòå ýòîé îðãàíèçàöèè13. Îïðåäåë¸ííîå âèäåíèå (ñ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé òî÷êè çðåíèÿ) ñèòóàöèè, ñëîæèâøåéñÿ ñ ïòè÷üèì ãðèïïîì â Ðîññèè, îïóáëèêîâàíî íà ñòð. 14–23.

10 11 12 13

7

Recommended strategic actions «Responding to the avian influenza pandemic threat» was designed World Health Organization in the Global Influenza Programme available on the site13. The special opinion of ornithologists about the situation with avian influenza in Russia is published on pp. 14–23.

http://www5b.biglobe.ne.jp/~raptor/FINAL_ANNOUNCE–4thAsianRapSympo2005.htm http://www.ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors http://www.fluwikie.com http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/influenza/WHO_CDS_CSR_GIP_05_8-RU.pdf


8

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Ñîáûòèÿ

16–25 íîÿáðÿ 2005 ã. â ã. Íàéðîáè (Êåíèÿ) ñîñòîÿëàñü êîíôåðåíöèÿ ñòðàíó÷àñòíèö Áîííñêîé Êîíâåíöèè ïî îõðàíå ìèãðèðóþùèõ âèäîâ äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ (CMS)14. Íà êîíôåðåíöèè óòâåðæäåí ðÿä þðèäè÷åñêèõ äîêóìåíòîâ Ñîãëàøåíèÿ ïî ìèãðèðóþùèì Àôðî-Åâðàçèéñêèì ïåðíàòûì õèùíèêàì, âêëþ÷àÿ ìåìîðàíäóì î âçàèìîïîíèìàíèè è ïëàí äåéñòâèé. Îáùåå ïîäòâåðæäåíèå ñîêðàùåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ êàê íà ìåñòíîì, òàê è íà íàöèîíàëüíîì óðîâíå, óâåëè÷åíèå ïðåññà íà èõ ïîïóëÿöèè è ÿâíûå íåóäà÷è ñîâðåìåííûõ ìåð îõðàíû ïðèâåëè ê òîìó, ÷òî íà VI ìåæäóíàðîäíîé Êîíôåðåíöèè ïî õèùíûì ïòèöàì è ñîâàì, êîòîðàÿ ïðîõîäèëà 18–23 ìàÿ 2003 ã. â ã. Áóäàïåøòå (Âåíãðèÿ), ÷òîáû ñãëàäèòü ñèòóàöèþ, áûëî ïðèíÿòî ðåøåíèå, ïðåäëàãàþùåå ñîçäàòü íîâîå ìíîãîñòîðîííåå ñîãëàøåíèÿ äëÿ ñîõðàíåíèÿ Àôðî-Åâðàçèéñêèõ ìèãðèðóþùèõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ â ðàìêàõ Áîííñêîé Êîíâåíöèè ïî îõðàíå ìèãðèðóþùèõ âèäîâ äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ (CMS). Ýòà ðåçîëþöèÿ áûëà ïðèíÿòà äåïàðòàìåíòîì ïî äåëàì îõðàíû îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû, ïèùåâîé ïðîìûøëåííîñòè è ñåëüñêîãî õîçÿéñòâà Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè è Ñåâåðíîé Èðëàíäèè (DEFRA), êîòîðûé ïðåäëîæèë íàó÷íîìó ñîâåòó Êîíâåíöèè ïðîâåñòè àíàëèç äîñòîèíñòâ âíåäðåíèÿ íîâîãî þðèäè÷åñêîãî äîêóìåíòà ïî õèùíûì ïòèöàì, êîòîðûé äîëæåí áûòü ïðèíÿò íà ñëåäóþùåé êîíôåðåíöèè ñòðàí-ó÷àñòíèö Áîííñêîé Êîíâåíöèè. Ýòî ïðåäëîæåíèå áûëî óòâåðæäåíî. Àíàëèç íåîáõîäèìîñòè íîâîãî äîêóìåíòà Áîííñêîé Êîíâåíöèè ïî ìèãðèðóþùèì Àôðî-Åâðàçèéñêèì õèùíûì ïòèöàì è ñîâàì áûë ïîðó÷åí Áþðî ïðèðîäû DEFRA. Êàê ÷àñòü ýòîãî àíàëèçà, â òå÷åíèå ìàðòà-àïðåëÿ 2005 ã. ïðàâèòåëüñòâàì ñòðàíó÷àñòíèö Áîííñêîé Êîíâåíöèè, ïðåäñòàâèòåëüñòâàì Êîíâåíöèè è íåïðàâèòåëüñòâåííûì îðãàíèçàöèÿì (îñîáåííî ïàðòíåðàì BirdLife International) áûëè ðàçîñëàíû êîíñóëüòàöèîííûé äîêóìåíò15, îò÷¸ò î ñòàòóñå è àíêåòà. Ðåçóëüòàòû, ïîëó÷åííûå â õîäå êîíñóëüòàöèé, ñîäåðæàòñÿ â îò÷¸òå16. Îñíîâíàÿ öåëü àíàëèçà ñîñòîÿëà â òîì, ÷òîáû «íåñìîòðÿ íè íà ÷òî, óòâåðäèòü îöåíêó ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî ñîãëàøåíèÿ ïî îõðàíå ìèãðèðóþùèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ ïðè ñîäåéñòâèè Áîííñêîé Êîíâåíöèè â ÀôðîÅâðàçèéñêîì ðåãèîíå».  àâãóñòå 2005 ã. áûë ïîäãîòîâëåí îêîí÷àòåëüíûé äîêóìåíò (AEWA/MOP Inf.3.5)17, â êîòîðîì áûë ïðåäñòàâëåí èòîã îñíîâíûõ ñâåäåíèé, ñîäåðæàâøèõñÿ â îò÷åòå: ñòàòóñ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, ðåçóëüòàòû êîíñóëüòàöèé, ÷åðíîâûå ïðîåêòû ðåêîìåíäóåìîãî Áîííñêîé Êîíâåíöèåé Ìåìîðàíäóìà î âçàèìîïîíèìàíèè, Ïëàí äåéñòâèé ïî îõðàíå ìèãðèðóþùèõ Àôðî-Åâðàçèéñêèõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ è îïèñàíèå ïðîáëåì, êîòîðûå äîëæíû áûòü ðåøåíû äëÿ óëó÷øåíèÿ îõðàíû õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ. 14 15 16 17

The Conference of Parties Bonn Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) 14 has held in Nairobi (Kenya), 16–25 November 2005. Some important documents on agreement for the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Raptors including CMS MoU and Action Plan have approved on the conference.

The cumulative evidence of national or regional declines of raptors, increasing pressures on their populations, and apparent failings in current conservation measures to redress the situation, led the VI World Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls (Budapest, May 2003) to adopt a resolution proposing the establishment of a new multilateral agreement for the conservation of African-Eurasian migratory raptors, under the auspices of the Bonn Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). This resolution was taken up by the UK Government’s Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), which suggested to the CMS Scientific Council that a study of the merits of developing a new instrument on raptors should be undertaken in time for the next Conference of Parties to be held in Nairobi, 16–25 November 2005. The suggestion was endorsed. A study on the desirability of a new CMS instrument for migratory African-Eurasian raptors (including owls) was commissioned from Nature Bureau by the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra, UK). As part of this study, a consultation document15, status report and response form (see Annex 1 for the latter) were circulated to range state governments, CMS focal points and relevant NGOs (especially the BirdLife International partnership) during March and April 2005. The results from the consultation survey are contained in this report16. The overall aim of the study was to «assess whether or not an international agreement to conserve migratory raptors [including owls] should be established under the auspices of the CMS in the African-Eurasian region». In August 2005 the Final Report (AEWA/MOP Inf.3.5)17 was prepared that provides a summary of the main findings of the Raptor Status Report, the results of the consultation exercise, drafts of the recommended CMS MoU and Action Plan for the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Raptors, and a description of the problems to be addressed in order to achieve additional raptor conservation benefits.

http://www.cms.int/bodies/COP/cop8/cop8_mainpage.htm http://www.naturebureau.co.uk/cmsraptors/Consultation/English/Consultation%20Report.pdf http://www.naturebureau.co.uk/cmsraptors/Consultation/Results/English/Consultation%20Results%20(English).pdf http://www.unep-aewa.org/meetings/en/mop/mop3_docs/info-docs-pdf/inf3_5_raptor_study.pdf


Events

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4

9

Ñòðàíû-ó÷àñòíèöû Àôðî-Åâðàçèéñêîãî ñîãëàøåíèÿ ïî îõðàíå ìèãðèðóþùèõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ The Parties of Agreement for the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Raptors

(5) Êîíòàêò: Àííà Âëàäèìèðîâíà Ëóêîíèíà 400131 Ðîññèÿ Âîëãîãðàä ïð. Ëåíèíà 27 Áîòàíè÷åñêèé ñàä ÂÃÏÓ òåë.: (8442) 30 28 41 botsad@vspu.ru (5) Contact: Anna V. Lukonina The Botanical Garden of the Volgograd State Pedagogical University Lenina pr., 27 Volgograd 400131 Russia tel.: (8442) 30 28 41 botsad@vspu.ru

6–8 äåêàáðÿ 2005 ã. â ã. Âîëãîãðàäå (Ðîññèÿ) ñîñòîÿëàñü ìåæðåãèîíàëüíàÿ íàó÷íî-ïðàêòè÷åñêàÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ «Ìîíèòîðèíã ðåäêèõ âèäîâ – âàæíåéøèé ýëåìåíò åäèíîé ãîñóäàðñòâåííîé ñèñòåìû ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî ìîíèòîðèíãà è îõðàíû áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ». Îðãàíèçàòîðû êîíôåðåíöèè: Àäìèíèñòðàöèÿ Âîëãîãðàäñêîé îáëàñòè, Óïðàâëåíèå Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîðà ïî Âîëãîãðàäñêîé îáëàñòè, Âîëãîãðàäñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé ïåäàãîãè÷åñêèé óíèâåðñèòåò, Âîëãîãðàäñêèé ðåãèîíàëüíûé áîòàíè÷åñêèé ñàä, Ðåãèîíàëüíûé öåíòð ïî èçó÷åíèþ è ñîõðàíåíèþ áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ. Öåëüþ êîíôåðåíöèè ÿâëÿëàñü âûðàáîòêà îáùèõ ïîäõîäîâ è ïðèíöèïîâ îðãàíèçàöèè ñèñòåìû ìîíèòîðèíãà ðåäêèõ è íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ âèäîâ íà ðåãèîíàëüíîì óðîâíå. Íà êîíôåðåíöèè îáñóæäàëèñü ñëåäóþùèå òåìû: 1. Ðîëü ñïåöèàëüíî óïîëíîìî÷åííûõ ôåäåðàëüíûõ è ðåãèîíàëüíûõ îðãàíîâ èñïîëíèòåëüíîé âëàñòè â îáåñïå÷åíèè è êîîðäèíàöèè ðàáîò ïî ìîíèòîðèíãó ðåäêèõ è íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ âèäîâ. 2. Óðîâíè ìîíèòîðèíãà ðåäêèõ è íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ âèäîâ (ôåäåðàëüíûé, ðåãèîíàëüíûé, ìóíèöèïàëüíûé). 3. Ðåãëàìåíò ñáîðà, íàêîïëåíèÿ è àíàëèçà èíôîðìàöèè â ñèñòåìå ìîíèòîðèíãà ðåäêèõ è íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ âèäîâ. 4. Ðîëü ðàçëè÷íûõ âåäîìñòâ è îðãàíèçàöèé â ñáîðå ïåðâè÷íîé èíôîðìàöèè î ñîñòîÿíèè ðåäêèõ è íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ âèäîâ. 5. Ôèíàíñîâî-ýêîíîìè÷åñêèå ìåõàíèçìû îðãàíèçàöèè ðåãèîíàëüíîé ñèñòåìû ìîíèòîðèíãà ðåäêèõ è íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ âèäîâ. 6. Ðåãèîíàëüíûå Êðàñíûå êíèãè è êàäàñòðû ðåäêèõ âèäîâ â ñèñòåìå ìîíèòîðèíãà è îõðàíû áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ. 7. Èíòåãðèðîâàííûå Áàçû äàííûõ êàê èíñòðóìåíò îðãàíèçàöèè ìîíèòîðèíãà ðåäêèõ âèäîâ.

Interregional science-in-practice Conference «Monitoring of Rare Species – the Most Important Element of United State System of Ecological Monitoring and Biodiversity Conservation» was held in the 6–8 December 2005 in Volgograd (Russia). Organizers of conference: the Administration of the Volgograd district, the Department of the Russian Nature Inspection in the Volgograd district, the Volgograd State Pedagogical University (VSPU), the Volgograd Botanical Garden, the Regional Center of Biodiversity Studying and Conservation. The main aim of the conferences was to offer the general approaches and principles of organization of the monitoring system of rare and endangered species on the regional level. Following items were discussed on the conference: 1. Significance of special authorized federal and regional offices of executive authorities to provide and co-ordinate monitoring of rare and endangered species. 2. Levels of monitoring of rare and endangered species (federal, regional, municipal). 3. Regime of collecting, accumulating and studying information in the monitoring of rare and endangered species system. 4. Significance of different departments and organizations in the receiving of source information of the condition of rare and endangered species. 5. Financial-economic mechanisms of organizing the regional monitoring of rare and endangered species system. 6. Regional Red Data books and cadastres of rare species in the system of monitoring and conserving of biodiversity. 7. Integrating Databases as an organizing instrument of rare and endangered species monitoring. 8. Methodical approaches to organization of field monitoring of rare and endangered species. 9. Monitoring information as a base of establishing official instruments for the conservation and recovering of rare and endangered species. 10. Protected areas as the main polygons in the monitoring of rare and endangered species system. Contact (5).


10

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4 8. Ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ïîäõîäû ê îðãàíèçàöèè ïîëåâîãî ìîíèòîðèíãà ðåäêèõ è íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ âèäîâ. 9. Äàííûå ìîíèòîðèíãà êàê îñíîâà ïðèíÿòèÿ óïðàâëåí÷åñêèõ ðåøåíèé ïî ñîõðàíåíèþ è âîññòàíîâëåíèþ ðåäêèõ è íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ âèäîâ. 10. ÎÎÏÒ – îñíîâíûå ïîëèãîíû â ñèñòåìå ìîíèòîðèíãà ðåäêèõ è íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ âèäîâ. Êîíòàêò (5).

(6) Êîíòàêò: Ãþëüíàðà Îðóäæåâíà Îñìàíîâà Ìàðèéñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò Êàôåäðà ýêîëîãèè òåë.: (8362) 42 92 23 ecology@marsu.ru (6) Contact: Gulnara Osmanova Mariysky State University Zoological Department tel.: (8362) 42 92 23 ecology@marsu.ru

28–31 ÿíâàðÿ 2006 ã. â Éîøêàð-Îëà (Ðåñïóáëèêà Ìàðèé-Ýë, Ðîññèÿ) ñîñòîèòñÿ II Âñåðîññèéñêàÿ íàó÷íàÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ «Ïðèíöèïû è ñïîñîáû ñîõðàíåíèÿ áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ». Îðãàíèçàòîðû êîíôåðåíöèè: Ìàðèéñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò, Íàöèîíàëüíûé ïàðê «Ìàðèé ×îäðà», Çàïîâåäíèê «Áîëüøàÿ Êîêøàãà», Ìàðèéñêîå îòäåëåíèå ðóññêîãî áîòàíè÷åñêîãî îáùåñòâà è Êîìèòåò ïî ýêîëîãèè è ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèþ ã. Éîøêàð-Îëà. Íà êîíôåðåíöèè ïëàíèðóåòñÿ îáñóäèòü ñëåäóþùèå òåìû: 1. Ðàçíîîáðàçèå æèçíåííûõ ôîðì îðãàíèçìîâ â íàçåìíûõ è âîäíûõ ýêîñèñòåìàõ. 2. Òàêñîíîìè÷åñêîå è ñòðóêòóðíîå áèîðàçíîîáðàçèå ñîîáùåñòâ îõðàíÿåìûõ è íàðóøåííûõ òåððèòîðèé. 3. Ìîíèòîðèíã àáèîòè÷åñêèõ è áèîòè÷åñêèõ êîìïîíåíòîâ ýêîñèñòåì. 4. Áèîðàçíîîáðàçèå è óñòîé÷èâîñòü ïîïóëÿöèé. 5. Ýêîëîãè÷åñêèå ìåõàíèçìû àäàïòàöèè îðãàíèçìîâ. 6. Èìèòàöèîííûå ìîäåëè êàê ñïîñîá ñîõðàíåíèÿ è ïðîãíîçèðîâàíèÿ áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ. 7. Ôîðìèðîâàíèå ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî ñîçíàíèÿ – îäèí èç ïóòåé ñîõðàíåíèÿ áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ ýêîñèñòåì 21 âåêà. Êîíòàêò (6). 15–16 ôåâðàëÿ 2006 ã. â ã. Ëîíäðèíå Øòàòà Ïàðàíà (Þæíàÿ Áðàçèëèÿ) ñîñòîèòñÿ ïåðâûé Áðàçèëüñêèé Ñèìïîçèóì ïî ðàäèîòåëåìåòðèè18. Ýòîò ñèìïîçèóì áóäåò ïðîõîäèòü â ðàìêàõ XXVI Áðàçèëüñêîãî çîîëîãè÷åñêîãî êîíãðåññà (12–17 ôåâðàëÿ). Íàöèîíàëüíûé çîîëîãè÷åñêèé êîíãðåññ – ýòî ñàìîå âàæíîå çîîëîãè÷åñêîå ñîáûòèå Áðàçèëèè, ãäå îæèäàåòñÿ ó÷àñòèå áîëåå ÷åì òð¸õ òûñÿ÷ ñïåöèàëèñòîâ. Íà êîíãðåññå áóäóò ñäåëàíû ñîòíè ñîîáùåíèé, îðãàíèçîâàíî ìíîæåñòâî êðóãëûõ ñòîëîâ, îêîëî 80 êîðîòêèõ êóðñîâ, ñîáðàíèé è äðóãèõ ñîáûòèé.

18

http://www.xxvicbz.com.br/conteudo/home.php

Ñîáûòèÿ II Russian science Conference «Principles and Ways of Biodiversity Conservation», to be held in the 28–31 January 2006 in Yoshkar-Ola (Mary-L Republic, Russia). Organizers of conference: the Mariysky State University (MSU), the Committee on Ecology and Nature Management in the Yoshkar-Ola, National Park «Mary Chodra», «Bolshaya Kokshaga» Reserve, the Mariyskoe branch of Russian Botanical Society. The plan of following items is to be discussed at the conference: 1. Biodiversity in terrestrial and water ecosystems. 2. Taxonomic diversity and its structure in the communities within protected areas and disturbed territories. 3. Monitoring of the abiotic and biotic components in ecosystems. 4. Biodiversity and stability of populations. 5. Ecological mechanisms of adaptations of organisms. 6. Simulation models as a method of conservation and predicting biodiversity. 7. Developing of environmental awareness as method of biodiversity conservation. Contact (6). The First Brazilian Symposium on Radiotelemetry18, to be held in Londrina, Paraná State, Southern Brazil, 15–16 February, 2006. This Symposium will be held parallel with the XXVI Brazilian Congress of Zoology (12– 17 Feb), the most important zoological event in Brazil, where more than 3 thousand participants are expected to attend. There will be a hundred of invited speeches, several round-tables, about 80 short courses, meetings, and other events in the Congress. Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) c ðàäèîïåðåäàò÷èêîì. Ôîòî Å.Ïîòàïîâà The Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) with radio tag. Photo by E.Potapov


Problem of Number

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4

11

Problemofnumber ПРОБЛЕМА НОМЕРА TheProblemofRaptorsElectrocutions«RaptorsandPowerLines» inRussia ПРОБЛЕМА «ХИЩНЫЕ ПТИЦЫ И ЛЭП» НА ТЕРРИТОРИИ РОССИИ M.V. Pestov (Amphibian and Reptiles Protection Society within the Ecocenter Dront, N.Novgorod, Russia) М.В. Пестов (Общество охраны амфибий и рептилий при Э оцентре «Дронт», Н.Нов ород, Россия) Êîíòàêò: Ìàðê Ïåñòîâ Îáùåñòâî îõðàíû àìôèáèé è ðåïòèëèé ïðè Ýêîöåíòðå «Äðîíò» 603000 Ðîññèÿ Í.Íîâãîðîä, à/ÿ 631 òåë.: (8312) 30 25 07 vipera@dront.ru Contact: Mark Pestov Amphibian and Reptiles Protection Society under Ecocenter Dront P.O. Box 631 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 30 25 07 vipera@dront.ru

Ïî îöåíêàì ðÿäà ðîññèéñêèõ ñïåöèàëèñòîâ, â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ îäíèì èç îñíîâíûõ ôàêòîðîâ, ëèìèòèðóþùèõ ÷èñëåííîñòü áîëüøèíñòâà âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö â ñòåïíîé è ïîëóïóñòûííîé ëàíäøàôòíûõ çîíàõ Ðîññèè è íà âñåì ïðîñòðàíñòâå áûâøåãî ÑÑÑÐ, ÿâëÿåòñÿ èõ ìàññîâàÿ ãèáåëü íà îïîðàõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è (ËÝÏ) ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòè (6–10 êÂ). Îñîáåííîñòè áèîëîãèè áîëüøèíñòâà âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö òàêîâû, ÷òî äëÿ ïðèñàä îíè èñïîëüçóþò íàèáîëåå âûñîêèå ýëåìåíòû ëàíäøàôòà: ñêàëû, äåðåâüÿ, ñòîëáû è ò.ä., ÷òî îáåñïå÷èâàåò èì õîðîøèé îáçîð. È åñëè â ãîðàõ èëè â ëåñèñòîé ìåñòíîñòè ïðîáëåì ñ âûáîðîì ìåñò äëÿ ïðèñàä íå âîçíèêàåò, òî â çîíå ñòåïåé è ïóñòûíü, ãäå äðåâåñíàÿ ðàñòèòåëüíîñòü ïðàêòè÷åñêè îòñóòñòâóåò, íàèáîëåå óäîáíûìè, ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ ïòèö, ÿâëÿþòñÿ îïîðû ËÝÏ.  óñëîâèÿõ îòñóòñòâèÿ èëè íåïðàâèëüíîãî ïðèìåíåíèÿ «ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ» óñòðîéñòâ (ÏÇÓ) íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ ýòî íåðåäêî âåäåò ê ìàññîâîé ãèáåëè ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì â ðåçóëüòàòå êîðîòêîãî çàìûêàíèÿ. Ïðè÷¸ì â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü ãèáíóò êðóïíûå è, êàê ïðàâèëî, íàèáîëåå ðåäêèå âèäû. Äàííàÿ ïðîáëåìà ñòàëà îñîáåííî àêòóàëüíîé íà òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèè â ïîñëåäíèå 30 – 40 ëåò, êîãäà â íàøåé ñòðàíå ñòàëè øèðîêî ïðèìåíÿòü òåõíîëîãèþ èçãîòîâëåíèÿ æåëåçîáåòîííûõ îïîð ËÝÏ ñ ìåòàëëè÷åñêèìè òðàâåðñàìè è øòûðåâûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè, ðàçðàáîòàííóþ â ÑØÀ. Äî ýòîãî â íàøåé ñòðàíå îïîðû ËÝÏ èçãîòàâëèâàëèñü èç äåðåâà è áûëè ïðàêòè÷åñêè íå îïàñíû äëÿ êðóïíûõ ïòèö. Ìàñøòàáû ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ î÷åíü âåëèêè. Òàê, íàïðèìåð, â ðàìêàõ ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîåêòà «Êîìïëåêñíàÿ îïòèìèçàöèÿ óñëîâèé îáèòàíèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö» íà òåð-

Äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü (Strix uralensis) è ñîðîêà (Pica pica), ïîãèáøèå íà ËÝÏ îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì. Íèæåãîðîäñêàÿ îáëàñòü. Ôîòî À. Ìàöûíû The Ural Owl (Strix uralensis) and Magpie (Pica pica) died from electrocutions. N. Novgorod district. Photo by A. Matsinà

Today one of the main factors limiting the number of raptors in the steppe and semidesert zones in the countries of the formerUSSR is mortality caused by electrocutions on power lines (PL) of middle voltage (6–10 kV). Most raptors used to perch at the highest elements of their surrounding landscape: rocks, trees and poles etc., i.e. the structures that improve their scope of view. Mountain and forests raptors have many perching places, but in the open landscape without trees and cliffs the most suitable structures for perching are the electric poles.


12

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Òåòåðåâÿòíèê (Accipiter gentilis), ïîãèáøèé íà ËÝÏ îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì. Íèæåãîðîäñêàÿ îáëàñòü. Ôîòî À. Ìàöûíû The Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) died from electrocutions. N. Novgorod district. Photo by A. Matsina

ðèòîðèè ðåñïóáëèêè Êàëìûêèÿ (þã åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè) â 2004 ã. â õîäå âûáîðî÷íîãî îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ËÝÏ ÂË 10 ê íà ó÷àñòêå ïðîòÿæåííîñòüþ 590 êì îáíàðóæåíû îñòàíêè 334 ïòèö, â òîì ÷èñëå îñòàíêè 272 õèùíûõ ïòèö (81,4%). Ñðåäè ïîãèáøèõ õèùíèêîâ îòìå÷åíû âèäû èç Êðàñíîé êíèãè Ðîññèè: ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis), êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus), áåëîãîëîâûé ñèï (Gyps fulvus), ÷¸ðíûé ãðèô (Aegypius monachus), ñòåðâÿòíèê (Neophron percnopterus), ôèëèí (Bubo bubo), áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) (Ìåäæèäîâ è äð., 2005). Íå ìåíåå ÷óäîâèùíûìè âûãëÿäÿò ìàñøòàáû ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ 6–10 ê è â äðóãèõ ðåãèîíàõ. Òàê â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè åæåãîäíî îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì ïîãèáàåò (èñõîäÿ èç îöåíîê ÷èñëåííîñòè ïîñëå ãíåçäîâîãî ïåðèîäà) 53,2% êàíþêîâ (Buteo buteo) è 58,4% ïóñòåëüã (Falco tinnunculus) (Ìàöûíà, 2005).  Êàçàõñòàíå íà ËÝÏ ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòè òîëüêî â âåñåííþþ ìèãðàöèþ ãèáíóò ñîòíè õèùíûõ ïòèö, èç êîòîðûõ äîìèíèðóþò êóðãàííèê è îðëû: â Ïðèàðàëüå – 5,6 îñîáåé/10 êì ËÝÏ (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005), â Áåòïàêäàëå – 12,1 îñîáåé/10 êì ËÝÏ (Êàðÿêèí, Áàðàáàøèí, íàñò. ñáîðíèê). Ïî íàøèì äàííûì íà 1 êì ËÝÏ ìîùíîñòüþ 10 ê ïðèõîäèòñÿ â ñðåäíåì îêîëî 0,5 îñîáåé ïîãèáøèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö â ãîä. À òîëüêî ïî Êàëìûêèè îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü òàêèõ «ËÝÏ-óáèéö» ñîñòàâëÿåò îêîëî 14 òûñ. êì! Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî òîëüêî íà òåððèòîðèè ýòîé íåáîëüøîé ðåñïóáëèêè åæåãîäíî ãèáíóò òûñÿ÷è õèùíûõ ïòèö.  öåëîì ïî Ðîññèè, ðå÷ü èäåò î åæåãîäíîé ãèáåëè ñîòåí òûñÿ÷ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, ÷òî íàíîñèò îãðîìíûé óùåðá ïîïóëÿöèÿì ðåäêèõ âèäîâ, ñòàâÿ ïîä óãðîçó ñóùåñòâîâàíèå íåêîòîðûõ èç íèõ.

Ïðîáëåìà íîìåðà However the electric poles without efficient bird-protecting constructions result in mass deaths of the falcons from electrocution. It appears that the large and rare species (Eagles, Vultures) die first. This problem has emerged in the territory of Russia in the last 30–40 years, when the metal-concrete electric poles with metal traverses and bar insulators have been built. The scale of bird deaths from electrocution is enormous. Our data shows that on average the powerlines generate 0.5 dead bodies of raptors per 1 km per year of 10 kV PL. Only in Kalmykia the total length of such «killer-PLs» is about 14000 km! Obviously in the territory of this little republic thousands of raptors dies every year. In the whole of Russia hundreds of thousands of raptors die, and that creates enormous damage to the populations of many rare species and even threatens the existence of some species. Not all of the owners of the powerlines of are hiding from this problem. Most of them are trying to install the special bird-repelling devices on the poles. Unfortunately all of the bird-repelling devices produced in Russia are not effective, and some of them even increase the risk of bird deaths from electrocution. There is positive foreign experience in solving this problem. However the positive examples from other countries do not do any good to help solve the problem in Russia. The general reason of the lack of progress is absence of by-laws prohibiting the usage of «killerPLs», nor it is possible to impose any penalties for the wildlife damage. Although the current law advises the installation of the bird-protecting devices on PL, this is not enforced. As a result , formally following these laws, an owner of a PL may equip his lines with any bird-protecting constructions, not concerned with the results. Thus solving the problem of bird electrocution in Russia should be one of the main tasks of bird conservation in Russia. For solving the electrocution problem it is necessary to: 1) Collect statistics on birds deaths from electrocuting in the different districts of Russia and establish instruments to penalize the responsible companies and organizations; 2) Establish laws ensuring obligatory usage of effective bird-protecting devices on PL; Organize production of the effective birdprotecting constructions for PL in Russia.


Problem of Number

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4 Íåëüçÿ ñêàçàòü, ÷òî âñå âëàäåëüöû ËÝÏ áåçðàçëè÷íû ê ýòîé ïðîáëåìå. Íàïðîòèâ, áîëüøèíñòâî èç íèõ äîáðîñîâåñòíî ñîáëþäàþò ñóùåñòâóþùèå ýêîëîãè÷åñêèå òðåáîâàíèÿ ïî îñíàùåíèþ ËÝÏ ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè (ÏÇÓ). Ïðîáëåìà â òîì, ÷òî âñå ðàçðàáîòàííûå äî ñèõ ïîð è âûïóñêàåìûå â íàøåé ñòðàíå ÏÇÓ íåäîñòàòî÷íî ýôôåêòèâíû, à íåêîòîðûå èç íèõ äàæå ïîâûøàþò ðèñê ãèáåëè êðóïíûõ ïòèö, ÷òî íàãëÿäíî îòðàæåíî â ñòàòüå È.Â. Êàðÿêèíà è Ò.Î. Áàðàáàøèíà î ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Çàïàäíîé Áåòïàêäàëå íà ñòð. 29.  òî æå âðåìÿ, ñóùåñòâóåò ïîëîæèòåëüíûé çàðóáåæíûé îïûò ðåøåíèÿ äàííîé ïðîáëåìû, îñíîâàííûé íà ïðèìåíåíèè ñîâðåìåííûõ ïðîìûøëåííûõ ïîëèìåðíûõ ÏÇÓ, èçîëèðóþùèõ ôðàãìåíòû ýëåêòðè÷åñêèõ ïðîâîäîâ â ìåñòå èõ êðåïëåíèÿ ê èçîëÿòîðàì, íàõîäÿùèìñÿ íà îïîðàõ (Õààñ è äð., 2003). Îäíàêî, íåñìîòðÿ íà íàëè÷èå ìíîãî÷èñëåííûõ òåõíè÷åñêèõ ðàçðàáîòîê, äîñòóïíûõ ê âíåäðåíèþ, ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â íàøåé ñòðàíå îñòà¸òñÿ íåðåø¸ííîé. Îñíîâíàÿ ïðè÷èíà ýòîãî – îòñóòñòâèå íîðìàòèâíûõ äîêóìåíòîâ, çàïðåùàþùèõ ýêñïëóàòàöèþ ËÝÏ – «óáèéö ïòèö». Äåéñòâóþùèå Ôåäåðàëüíûé çàêîí «Î æèâîòíîì ìèðå» (ñò. 28) è «Òðåáîâàíèÿ ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè îáúåêòîâ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà ïðè îñóùåñòâëåíèè ïðîèçâîäñòâåííûõ ïðîöåññîâ, à òàêæå ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè òðàíñïîðòíûõ ìàãèñòðàëåé, òðóáîïðîâîäîâ, ëèíèé ñâÿçè è ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è» (óòâ. Ïîñòàíîâëåíèåì Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà ÐÔ îò 13 àâãóñòà 1996 ã. ¹ 997), õîòÿ è ïðåäóñìàòðèâàþò íåîáõîäèìîñòü îñíàùåíèÿ ýëåêòðîëèíèé ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè, îäíàêî íå ñîäåðæàò òðåáîâàíèé, ïðåäúÿâëÿåìûõ ê ýôôåêòèâíîñòè ýòèõ óñòðîéñòâ.  ðåçóëüòàòå, ôîðìàëüíî ñëåäóÿ ýòèì íîðìàòèâàì, âëàäåëåö ËÝÏ ìîæåò îñíàñòèòü ñâîè ëèíèè ëþáûìè ÏÇÓ, íå çàáîòÿñü îá ýôôåêòèâíîñòè ñâîèõ äåéñòâèé. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ðåøåíèå ïðîáëåìû «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ» â Ðîññèè äîëæíî ñòàòü, ïî íàøåìó ìíåíèþ, îäíèì èç ïðèîðèòåòíûõ íàïðàâëåíèé äåÿòåëüíîñòè ïî ñîõðàíåíèþ ðàçíîîáðàçèÿ ïòèö. Àëãîðèòì ðåøåíèÿ äîñòàòî÷íî ïðîñò: 1) ñáîð èíôîðìàöèè î ìàñøòàáàõ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â ðàçëè÷íûõ ðåãèîíàõ Ðîññèè è îòðàáîòêà ìåõàíèçìà âçûñêàíèÿ ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåãî óùåðáà ñ îðãàíèçàöèé – âëàäåëüöåâ ËÝÏ;

13

Îñòàíêè áîðîäàòîé íåÿñûòè (Strix nebulosa), ïîãèáøåé íà ËÝÏ îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì. Êðàñíîÿðñêèé êðàé. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Great Grey Owl (Strix nebulosa) died from electrocutions. Krasnoyarsk Kray. Photo by I. Karyakin

2) ðàçðàáîòêà íîðìàòèâíîé áàçû, îáåñïå÷èâàþùåé îáÿçàòåëüíîå ïðèìåíåíèå ýôôåêòèâíûõ ÏÇÓ ïðè ñòðîèòåëüñòâå è ýêñïëóàòàöèè ËÝÏ; 3) îðãàíèçàöèÿ ìàññîâîãî ïðîìûøëåííîãî ïðîèçâîäñòâà ýôôåêòèâíûõ ÏÇÓ, àäàïòèðîâàííûõ ê óñëîâèÿì ýêñïëóàòàöèè ËÝÏ â Ðîññèè.

Ëèòåðàòóðà Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Íîâèêîâà Ë.Ì., Ïàæåíêîâ À.Ñ. Ãèáåëü õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Ïðèàðàëüå. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2005. ¹ 2. Ñ. 31–32. Ìàöûíà À.È. Îöåíêà è ïðîãíîçèðîâàíèå ìàñøòàáîâ ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè (ëåñíàÿ è ëåñîñòåïíàÿ çîíà Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè). – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2005. ¹ 2. Ñ. 33–41. Ìåäæèäîâ Ð.À., Ïåñòîâ Ì.Â., Ñàëòûêîâ À.Â. Õèùíûå ïòèöû è ËÝÏ – Èòîãè ïðîåêòà â Êàëìûêèè. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2005. ¹ 2. Ñ. 25–30. Õààñ Ä., Íèïêîó Ì., Ôèäëåð Ã., Õàíäøó Ì., Øíàéäåð-ßêîáè Ì., Øíàéäåð Ð. Îñòîðîæíî: âûñîêîå íàïðÿæåíèå! Ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî îõðàíå ïòèö ïðè ñòðîèòåëüñòâå âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è. Ðåä. Äåììåð Á., Íîëåí Í., Õàéìáåðã É. NABU, 2003. 20 ñ.


14

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Ïðîáëåìà íîìåðà

People,BirdsandViruses.WhatistheArbovirusesandAvian InfluenzaandHowdotheyThreatenRaptors? ЛЮДИ, ПТИЦЫ, ВИРУСЫ. ЧТО ТАКОЕ АРБОВИРУСЫ И ПТИЧИЙ ГРИПП И ЧЕМ ОНИ ГРОЗЯТ ХИЩНЫМ ПТИЦАМ? R.D. Lapshin (Central Research Laboratory of Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy, N.Novgorod, Russia) Р.Д. Лапшин (Центральная на чно-исследовательс ая лаборатория Ниже ородс ой ос дарственной медицинс ой А адемии, Н.Нов ород, Россия) Êîíòàêò: Ðîìàí Ä. Ëàïøèí Öåíòðàëüíàÿ íàó÷íîèññëåäîâàòåëüñêàÿ ëàáîðàòîðèÿ Íèæåãîðîäñêîé ãîñóäàðñòâåííîé ìåäèöèíñêîé Àêàäåìèè 603950 Ðîññèÿ Í.Íîâãîðîä ïë. Ìèíèíà 1 òåë.: (8312) 78 45 74 lapchine@mail.ru Contact: Roman D. Lapshin Ph.Dr. Central Research Laboratory of Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy Minina sq. 1 N.Novgorod 603950 Russia tel.: (8312) 78 45 74 lapchine@mail.ru

Íåìíîãî èñòîðèè

History

 1946 ã. â ëåñîñòåïíîé çîíå Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè áûëî îòêðûòî âèðóñíîå çàáîëåâàíèå (ñåìåéñòâî Bunyaviridae, ðîä Hantaan), ïîëó÷èâøåå íàçâàíèå îìñêîé ãåìîððàãè÷åñêîé ëèõîðàäêè ñ ïî÷å÷íûì ñèíäðîìîì (ÎÃËÏÑ) (×óìàêîâ, 1948). Ýïèçîäè÷åñêèå âñïûøêè çàáîëåâàíèé ëþäåé ýòèì çîîíîçîì â 1948–50 ãã. âûçâàëè ïîâûøåííûé èíòåðåñ ê èçó÷åíèþ âîïðîñîâ áîðüáû ñ íèì. Èçó÷åíèåì ÎÃËÏÑ àêòèâíî çàíÿëñÿ êîëëåêòèâ Îìñêîãî íàó÷íî-èññëåäîâàòåëüñêîãî èíñòèòóòà ïðèðîäíîî÷àãîâûõ èíôåêöèé Ìèíèñòåðñòâà çäðàâîîõðàíåíèÿ ÐÑÔÑÐ.  1954 ã. â ëåñíîé çîíå Èíäèè îáíàðóæåíî íîâîå âèðóñíîå çàáîëåâàíèå áëèçêîå ê ÎÃËÏÑ. Îòêðûòèå áëèçêèõ ïî ñâîèì áèîëîãè÷åñêèì ñâîéñòâàì è àíòèãåííîé ñòðóêòóðå âèðóñíûõ çàáîëåâàíèé â óäàë¸ííûõ äðóã îò äðóãà íà îãðîìíûå ðàññòîÿíèÿ ðåãèîíàõ ïîçâîëèëî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî â ñîçäàíèè íîâûõ âèðóñíûõ î÷àãîâ íåìàëàÿ ðîëü ïðèíàäëåæèò ïåðåë¸òíûì ïòèöàì, êîòîðûå ÿâëÿþòñÿ êàê íåïîñðåäñòâåííî íîñèòåëÿìè âèðóñíûõ èíôåêöèé, òàê è ïåðåíîñ÷èêàìè èõ íîñèòåëåé, òàêèõ êàê êëåùè (Ëåâêîâè÷, 1963; Íåöêèé, 1966; Íåöêèé è äð., 1966).  1963 ã. Áèîëîãè÷åñêèì èíñòèòóòîì Ñèáèðñêîãî îòäåëåíèÿ Àêàäåìèè Íàóê ÑÑÑÐ ñîâìåñòíî ñ Îìñêèì ÍÈÈ ïðèðîäíîî÷àãîâûõ èíôåêöèé è Ëàáîðàòîðèåé ïî àðáîâèðóñàì ÑÑÑÐ â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ ïðîãðàììîé Âñåìèðíîãî îáùåñòâà çäðàâîîõðàíåíèÿ (ÂÎÇ) íà÷àòà ðàáîòà ïî èçó÷åíèþ ðîëè ïòèö â ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè àðáîâèðóñíûõ èíôåêöèé (Äàíèëîâ, Ôåäîðîâà, 1966; Äàíèëîâ, 1976).  õîäå ðàáîòû íà ìîäåëüíûõ ó÷àñòêàõ èçó÷àëàñü èììóííàÿ ïðîñëîéêà ïòèö ïóò¸ì ðåàêöèè ãåìàããëþòèíàöèè (ÐÏÃÀ), êîíòàêòíîñòü ïòèö, âîçìîæíîñòè èíôèöèðîâàíèÿ èëè èììóíèçàöèè ïòèö àëèìåíòàðíûì ïóò¸ì, èõ ÷óâñòâèòåëüíîñòü ê âèðóñó ÎÃËÏÑ è ò.ï. Ñïîíòàííîå âèðóñîíîñèòåëüñòâî ÎÃËÏÑ â Íîâîñèáèðñêîé

In 1946, in the steppe-forest zone of Western Siberia, a viral disease named «the Omsk hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome» (OHFRS) was first discovered (Chumakov, 1948). In 1954, in the forest zone of India, a new viral disease similar to OHFRS was found. It seemed that the migratory birds that carried over virus infections played an important role in forming the new centers of the virus pandemic (Levkovich, 1963; Neckiy, 1966; Neckiy et all, 1966). In 1963 the Biological Institute of the Siberian branch of the Soviet Academy of Science in Novosibirsk, with the Institute of Zoonotic Diseases in Omsk, and the Laboratory for Arboviruses Investigations of USSR, within the frame-works of the Program by the World Health Organization (WHO) started to study the role of birds in spreading of the arbovirus infections (Danilov, Fedorova, 1966; Danilov, 1976). In the Northern Kulunda (the border between the Novosibirsk district and the Altai Kray) the presence of antibodies to OHFRS was found in 34 out of 84 species of birds (including 5 species of birds of prey and owls). There was a group of bird species which demonstrated immunity to the OHFRS with the Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) dominating (Danilov, 1976). The experiments of infecting the birds of prey gave data which suggested that the raptors do not play any important role in the spread of OHFRS. However it is possible that raptors could act as a vector of the OHFRS, or could be infected from quarry, but due to the relatively low number of raptors their role in the spread of the pandemic is negligible. In some cases as a response to the experimental infection the raptors generated antibodies specific to the OHFRS (Kharitonova et all, 1969; 1972). The problem of arboviruses was in the spotlight for a decade, but by the mid–1970s the interest in the problem declined. By that time serums had been developed, and measures


Problem of Number

Ïòè÷èé ãðèïï, H5N1. Ôîòî ïðîôåññîðà Ñòþàðòà ÌàêÍàëòè / Ìåæäóíàðîäíûé êîìèòåò ïî òàêñîíîìèè âèðóñîâ Avian Flu, H5N1. Photo by Prof. Stewart McNulty / International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4 îáëàñòè áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî ó íåñêîëüêèõ âèäîâ ìåëêèõ ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ (Õàðèòîíîâà, Õàäæèåâà, 1966; Ëåîíîâ è äð., 1969). Ó÷èòûâàÿ íàèáîëåå òåñíûå ñâÿçè ñ ìåëêèìè ìëåêîïèòàþùèìè õèùíûõ ïòèö, îñíîâíîé óïîð áûë ñäåëàí èìåííî íà èçó÷åíèå ýòîé ãðóïïû ïòèö. Òåì íå ìåíå, â Ñåâåðíîé Êóëóíäå íàëè÷èå àíòèòåë ê ÎÃËÏÑ îáíàðóæåíî ó 34 èç 84-õ âèäîâ ïòèö (â òîì ÷èñëå 5 âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ), ïðè÷¸ì ñðåäè ïòèö èììóíèçèðîâàííûõ ê ÎÃËÏÑ äîìèíèðîâàë ñêâîðåö (Sturnus vulgaris) (Äàíèëîâ, 1976). Ýêñïåðèìåíòû ïî èíôèöèðîâàíèþ õèùíûõ ïòèö äàëè îñíîâàíèå ïîëàãàòü, ÷òî õèùíûå ïòèöû â ýïèçîîòîëîãèè ÎÃËÏÑ ñóùåñòâåííîé ðîëè íå èãðàþò. Âìåñòå ñ òåì, èõ ñïîñîáíîñòü èíôèöèðîâàòüñÿ âèðóñîì òðàíñìèññèâíûì è àëèìåíòàðíûì ïóò¸ì ñâèäåòåëüñòâóþò î âîçìîæíîñòè ó÷àñòèÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ â öèðêóëÿöèè âèðóñà ÎÃËÏÑ â ïðèðîäå, íî, ó÷èòûâàÿ èõ íèçêóþ ÷èñëåííîñòü, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü, ÷òî ýòà ðîëü êðàéíå íè÷òîæíà.  ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ, èíôèöèðîâàíèå âåä¸ò ê ïîÿâëåíèþ ó ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ñïåöèôè÷åñêèõ ê âèðóñó ÎÃËÏÑ àíòèòåë (Õàðèòîíîâà è äð., 1969; 1972). Èíòåðåñ ê èçó÷åíèþ àðáîâèðóñîâ ïðîäåðæàëñÿ ïî÷òè 10 ëåò è óãàñ ê ñåðåäèíå 70-õ ãã. Ê ýòîìó âðåìåíè óæå áûëè ðàçðàáîòàíû ñûâîðîòêè ê ÎÃËÏÑ, êëåùåâîìó ýíöåôàëèòó è ðÿäó äðóãèõ âèðóñíûõ çîîíîçîâ, à ìåðû áîðüáû ñ ïåðåíîñ÷èêàìè ýòèõ çàáîëåâàíèé ñ ïîìîùüþ ïåñòèöèäîâ ïðèîáðåëè êàòàñòðîôè÷åñêèå ìàñøòàáû. Î ïòèöàõ â ýòî âðåìÿ çàáûëè, ïîñòàâèâ íåêîòîðûå âèäû íà ãðàíü âûæèâàíèÿ.  ðåçóëüòàòå ìåð áîðüáû ñ ïåðåíîñ÷èêàìè ÎÃËÏÑ (âîäÿíàÿ ïîë¸âêà è äð. âèäû ãðûçóíîâ) è êëåùåâîãî ýíöåôàëèòà (òà¸æíûé êëåù) â Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè áûëè ïîäîðâàíû ïîïóëÿöèè áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà (Aquila

15

of struggle with vectors of these diseases using pesticides had reached catastrophic scales. Unfortunately the birds were forgotten at that time, and as a result some species became endangered. As a result measures of struggle with the vectors of zoonotic diseases in the populations of the Great Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) and the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) declined (Danilov, 1976) and the numbers of the Peregrine Falcon still have not recovered (after 40 years).

Avian influenza (AI) The virus of avian influenza (family Orthomyxoviridae, genus Influenzavirus A) was discovered for the first time in Italy at the beginning of the XXth century and for a long time it was considered harmless to the human being. In most cases it was studied by special veterinary laboratories working for the food industry. However in the 1960s when the interest to arboviruses was still at its height some scientists started to study the AI viruses. In the 1970s there was a discovery of a highly pathogenic form of AI in waterbirds migrating across Northern America (Slemons et all., 1974; Slemons, Easterday, 1977). It was demonstrated that the virus was very similar to forms of the human influenza epidemic of 1918 which killed from 20 to 40 million people, and the epidemic of the 1950–60s which killed several thousand people (Scholtissek et all., 1978; Webster et all., 1992). However these facts did not attract any attention. The first evidence of a human infected by the virus of avian influenza was found in Honkong in 1997, when the virus H5N1 caused an infection in 18 people, 6 of which died. Since that period the AI became fashionable in the mass-media. Mass-media has quickly joined in on the new idea and many bureaucrats and fiscal organizations jumped on this publicity train. With the chain of quickly developing events highlighted by the panicking mass-media, has anybody actually thought about the scale of the problem? The events of human cases involving the H5N1 began in 2003 when they were recorded in 9 Asian countries: Vietnam, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Pakistan, Korea, Thailand, Taiwan, and Japan. According to data from the WHO, there were about 100 people infected by H5N1 and more than 50% of them died. This caused a worldwide panic fueled by the mass-media. According to data from the Ministry of Health of Russia the same number of people died


16

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4 clanga) è ñàïñàíà (Falco peregrinus) (Äàíèëîâ, 1976), ïðè÷¸ì ÷èñëåííîñòü ïîñëåäíåãî òàê è íå âîññòàíîâèëàñü ñïóñòÿ 40 ëåò.

Ïòè÷èé ãðèïï Âèðóñ ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà (ñåìåéñòâî Orthomyxoviridae, ðîä Influenzavirus A) áûë âïåðâûå âûäåëåí â Èòàëèè â íà÷àëå XX âåêà è äîëãîå âðåìÿ ñ÷èòàëñÿ äëÿ ÷åëîâåêà áåçâðåäíûì. Îñíîâíûå ðàáîòû ïî åãî èçó÷åíèþ âåëèñü ñïåöèàëèçèðîâàííûìè âåòåðèíàðíûìè ëàáîðàòîðèÿìè, ðàáîòàþùèìè íà ïèùåâóþ ïðîìûøëåííîñòü. Îäíàêî óæå â 60-õ ãîäàõ íà ôîíå ïèêà èíòåðåñà ê àðáîâèðóñàì íåêîòîðûå ó÷¸íûå ñòàëè îáðàùàòü âíèìàíèå íà ïåðåíîñ âèðóñîâ ãðèïïà ïòèöàìè.  70-õ ãã. äîêàçûâàåòñÿ ëîêàëèçàöèÿ âûñîêîïàòîãåííûõ ôîðì ãðèïïà À â îêîëîâîäíûõ ïòèöàõ, ìèãðèðóþùèõ ÷åðåç Ñåâåðíóþ Àìåðèêó (Slemons et all., 1974; Slemons, Easterday, 1977), è èõ îáùíîñòü ñ ÷åëîâå÷åñêèìè ôîðìàìè ãðèïïà, ýïèäåìèè êîòîðîãî â 1918 ã. óíåñëè æèçíè îò 20 äî 40 ìèëëèîíîâ ÷åëîâåê è íåñêîëüêèõ òûñÿ÷ â 1950–60-õ ãã. (Scholtissek et all., 1978; Webster et all., 1992), îäíàêî ýòî íå âûçûâàëî äîëæíîãî âíèìàíèÿ îáùåñòâåííîñòè è îñòàëîñü äîñòîÿíèåì ëèøü óçêîãî êðóãà ñïåöèàëèñòîâ. Ïåðâîå ñâèäåòåëüñòâî î çàðàæåíèè ÷åëîâåêà âèðóñîì «ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà» áûëî ïîëó÷åíî èç Ãîíêîíãà â 1997 ã., êîãäà âèä H5N1 âûçâàë çàáîëåâàíèå 18 ÷åëîâåê, 6 èç êîòîðûõ óìåðëè. Ýòîò ïåðèîä ìîæíî ñ÷èòàòü íà÷àëîì ìîäû íà «ïòè÷èé ãðèïï». Âîò òóò-òî è âñïëûëè ïðåæíèå èññëåäîâàíèÿ ó÷¸íûõ î ïåðåíîñå ãðèïïà ïòèöàìè, ýïèäåìèè «èñïàíêè», áëèçêîé ê ïòè÷üåìó ãðèïïó, è ò.ï. Ñðåäñòâà ìàññîâîé èíôîðìàöèè áûñòðî ïîäõâàòèëè íîâóþ èäåþ è íà÷àëàñü «ðàñêðóòêà ýïèäåìèîëîãè÷åñêèõ ñòðàøèëîê», â êîòîðóþ ñòàëè âîâëåêàòüñÿ âûñîêîïîñòàâëåííûå ÷èíîâíèêè, à áëàãîäàðÿ èì èç áþäæåòîâ ðàçëè÷íîãî óðîâíÿ âûäåëÿòüñÿ ôèíàíñîâûå ñðåäñòâà íà ðåøåíèå ïðîáëåìû ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà. Íî íà ôîíå áûñòðî ðàçâèâàþùèõñÿ ñîáûòèé, ìàëî êòî çàäóìàëñÿ íàä ìàñøòàáàìè ïðîáëåìû, êîòîðûå õàðàêòåðèçóåò íèæåñëåäóþùàÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ. Ñëó÷àè çàáîëåâàíèÿ ëþäåé âèðóñîì H5N1, íà÷àâøèåñÿ â 2003 ã., çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíû â äåâÿòè àçèàòñêèõ ñòðàíàõ: Âüåòíàì, Êàìáîäæè, Êèòàé, Èíäîíåçèÿ, Ëàîñ, Ïàêèñòàí, Ðåñïóáëèêà Êîðåÿ, Òàèëàíä, Òàéâàíü è ßïîíèÿ. Ïî äàííûì ÂÎÇ, æåðòâàìè H5N1 ñòàëè ïî÷òè 100 ÷åëîâåê (áîëåå 50% óìåðëè). Ïî äàííûì Ìèíèñòåðñòâà çäðàâîîõðàíåíèÿ Ðîññèè

Ïðîáëåìà íîìåðà from OHFRS and its complications at the Lower Volga in 1997, and more than 3000 people (the majority from the Samara district) were hospitalized. The Russian government failed to acknowledge the outbreak of OHFRS, and the occurrence was never brought to the world's attention.

Avian influenza in Russia In 2004 «specialists» in the mass-media predicted the occurrence of the pathogenic AI in migratory birds and the AI spread caused by the wild birds wintering in Asia and migrating to their to breeding areas in Siberia. And thus in 2005 the arrival of avian influenza to Russia was announced. The first cases came from the birthplace of the studies of arboviruses in Russia – from the Novosibirsk District. On 22 July 2005 the first AI outbreak was identified in a backyard flock at the Suzdalka village of the Dovolenskiy Region, where more than 500 domestic fowl were lost. From 22 July to 7 October 2005 AI outbreaks among fowl and wild birds were detected in the Novosibirsk, Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Omsk, Tiumen Districts and the Altai Kray. Later the AI virus was reported in the Republic of Kalmikya, the Tula District and further in Turkey and Romania. Look at the Google-Earth site for the latest information (fig. 1). Under the project of AI monitoring the populations of wild birds were sampled in August-September 2005. The samples were collected from 466 individuals of 33 species of wild birds. 4.7% of the samples from the Novosibirsk, Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Omsk, Tyumen Districts and the Altai Kray, were positively tested as carriers of the H5N1. Also the presence of the H5N1 was found in 4 game birds out of the 74 (5,4%) hunted in the Tomsk district, one – in the Perm district and 4 out of 32 wild birds (12,5%) –in Kalmikya. On this basis the waterfowl was announced as the main vector of the AI virus. However, we believe that the main reason of this accusation of waterfowl was that it was a prime target in the 'sampling'. In these samples there were only two individuals of two species of raptors (harrier and buzzard). An individual Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo), shot on the 15 August 2005 in the Tyukalinsk region of the Omsk district happened to be a carrier of the H5N1 (Brown et al, 2005). In Novosibirsk in the 5–7 October 2005 meeting on the problem of AI, where the Russian and foreign scientists discussed the


Problem of Number

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4 ñòîëüêî æå ÷åëîâåê óìåðëî â 1997 ãã. îò ÎÃËÏÑ è å¸ îñëîæíåíèé ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â Ïîâîëæüå, à áûëî ãîñïèòàëèçèðîâàíî â îáùåé ñëîæíîñòè áîëåå 3 òûñ. ÷åëîâåê, áîëüøèíñòâî â Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè. Îäíàêî ñëó÷àè çàáîëåâàíèÿ ïòè÷üèì ãðèïïîì âûçâàëè àæèîòàæ âî âñåì ìèðå, à âñïûøêà ÎÃËÏÑ ïðîøëà íåçàìå÷åííîé äàæå ïðàâèòåëüñòâîì Ðîññèè.

Ïòè÷èé ãðèïï â Ðîññèè  2004 ã. íà ñòðàíèöàõ ñðåäñòâ ìàññîâîé èíôîðìàöèè ïîÿâèëèñü ïåðâûå ïðåäïîñûëêè ïîÿâëåíèÿ ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà â Ðîññèè – «ñïåöèàëèñòû» ïðîãíîçèðîâàëè çàíîñ ïàòîãåííûõ ôîðì âèðóñà ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà ïòèöàìè, âîçâðàùàþùèìèñÿ ñ àçèàòñêèõ çèìîâîê â ìåñòà ãíåçäîâàíèÿ â Ñèáèðè. È âîò â 2005 ã. ïòè÷èé ãðèïï ïðèø¸ë, à òî÷íåå ñêàçàòü ñòðåìèòåëüíî ïðèëåòåë â Ðîññèþ. Âñå, êàê íè ñòðàííî, íà÷àëîñü ñ ðîññèéñêîé ðîäèíû èçó÷åíèÿ àðáîâèðóñîâ – Íîâîñèáèðñêîé îáëàñòè. 22 èþëÿ 2005 ã. â ñ. Ñóçäàëüêà Äîâîëåíñêîãî ð-íà ïîãèáëî áîëåå 500 äîìàøíèõ ïòèö. Àíàëèç ïðîá, âçÿòûõ ó ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö, äàë ïîëîæèòåëüíûé ðåçóëüòàò íà íàëè÷èå âûñîêîïàòîãåííîé ôîðìû H5N1. Ñ 22 èþëÿ ïî 7 îêòÿáðÿ 2005 ã. âñïûøêè ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà â ñðåäå äîìàøíèõ è äèêèõ ïòèö íàáëþäàëèñü â Íîâîñèáèðñêîé, Îìñêîé, Òþìåíñêîé, Êóðãàíñêîé, ×åëÿáè��ñêîé îáëàñòÿõ è Àëòàéñêîì êðàå. Çàòåì ïòè÷èé ãðèïï äîáðàëñÿ äî Êàëìûêèè, Òóëüñêîé îáëàñòè è äàëåå Òóðöèè è Ðóìûíèè. Íàèáîëåå ïîëíûå äàííûå î ëîêàëèçàöèè âñïûøåê çàáîëåâàíèÿ ìîæíî îáíàðóæèòü â êàðòîãðàôè÷åñêîì ìàòåðèàëå íà ñàéòå î ïòè÷üåì ãðèïïå19.  ðàìêàõ ïðîåêòà ïî ìîíèòîðèíãó ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà â ïîïóëÿöèÿõ äèêèõ ïòèö â àâãóñòå-ñåíòÿáðå 2005 ã. áûëè ñîáðàíû ïðîáû 466 îñîáåé 33 âèäîâ äèêèõ ïòèö. Èç íèõ 4,7% îñîáåé èç Íîâîñèáèðñêîé, Îìñêîé, Òþìåíñêîé, Êóðãàíñêîé, ×åëÿáèíñêîé îáëàñòåé è Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ îêàçàëèñü íîñèòåëÿìè H5N1 (ðèñ. 1). Ïîìèìî ýòîãî íîñèòåëÿìè H5N1 îêàçàëèñü 4 ïòèöû èç 74 (5,4%), äîáûòûõ â Òîìñêîé îáëàñòè, 1 â Ïåðìñêîé îáëàñòè è 4 èç 32 ïòèö (12,5%) â Êàëìûêèè. Îñíîâíûìè íîñèòåëÿìè âèðóñà ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà îêàçàëèñü îêîëîâîäíûå è âîäîïëàâàþùèå ïòèöû. Îñíîâíàÿ ïðè÷èíà ýòîãî êðîåòñÿ â òîì, ÷òî èìåííî îíè ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî äîáûâàëèñü äëÿ âçÿòèÿ ïðîá. Èç õèùíûõ

19

http://www.fluwikie.com/index.php?n=Main.OutbreakMap

17

spreading of AI and the problem of wild birds deaths from AI. In the meeting Yurlov A.K. (Head of Laboratory for Population Ecology, Institute of Animal Ecology and Systematic, Novosibirsk) reported that the timing of the spring migration (April-May) and the first sign of an epizootic (end of July) does not coincide. There was no evidence of any massive «die off» or outbreaks in local wild avifauna from the start of the spring migration and during the breeding season. However the massmedia has broadcasted this wrong information on a wide scale. After comparing the data even a laymen will understand that Western Siberia is a natural center of the H5N1. This conclusion is supported by the fact that there are lot of species-vectors, including healthy birds, and a broad distribution of the vectors. This situation is practically identical to OHFRS which is well known to many virologists of Russia. However some specialists actively support the hypothesis of the swift spreading the AI virus by wild birds on the whole territory of Northern Eurasia in less than a year. Why and what are the reasons of it?

Some aspects of fashion of the avian influenza Since the 1980s the central system of financing the scientific research in Russia in different branches of biological sciences (ornithology, epidemiology and others) ceased to exist, and many scientists did not have enough funds for their research or were laid off. The problem of avian influenza gives a chance for Russian scientists to earn money. The amount, location and time of AI cases found also completely depend on money. When there is more money and then there is more avian influenza. Strictly only the rate of funding defines the fact that almost all the records of AI in Western Siberia are located along the highway ChelyabinskNovosibirsk. There was simply no money to survey avian influenza far away from the main road. The hysteria surrounding the AI cases has caused the panicking decisions on the autumn hunting regulations. Gun people have requested unlimited bag for waterfowl, claiming that a significant reduction of the game population will prevent the epidemic (Infamous Khabarosvk Kray Game committee decision). The anti-hunting people campaign to ban hunting, as it makes more wounded birds, and therefore will increase


18

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Ðèñ. 1. Êàðòà ëîêàëèçàöèè âñïûøåê H5N1 â Àçèè è Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè Fig 1. Map of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in Asia and Western Siberia

ïòèö â ðàññìàòðèâàåìóþ âûáîðêó ïîïàëè ëèøü äâå îñîáè äâóõ âèäîâ (ëóíü è êàíþê), ïðè÷¸ì êàíþê (Buteo buteo), äîáûòûé 15 àâãóñòà 2005 ã. â Òþêàëèíñêîì ðàéîíå Îìñêîé îáëàñòè îêàçàëñÿ íîñèòåëåì H5N1 (Brown et all., 2005).  Íîâîñèáèðñêå 5–7 îêòÿáðÿ 2005 ã. ïðîõîäèëà âñòðå÷à ðîññèéñêèõ è çàðóáåæíûõ ñïåöèàëèñòîâ ïî ïðîáëåìå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà, íà êîòîðîé îáñóæäàëàñü ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè äèêèõ ïòèö îò ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà. Íà ýòîé âñòðå÷å çàâåäóþùèé ëàáîðàòîðèåé ïîïóëÿöèîííîé ýêîëîãèè ÈÑÝÆ ÑÎ ÐÀÍ À.Ê. Þðëîâ îáðàùàë âíèìàíèå ñîáðàâøèõñÿ íà îòñóòñòâèå ðåãèñòðàöèè ñëó÷àåâ ïîâûøåííîé ñìåðòíîñòè äèêèõ ïòèö íà âîäîåìàõ Áàðàáèíñêîé íèçìåííîñòè â Íîâîñèáèðñêîé îáëàñòè â 2005 ã. è îòñóòñòâèå êîððåëÿöèè âñïûøåê ãðèïïà â ñðåäå äîìàøíèõ ïòèö ñ ïðîë¸òîì äèêèõ ïòèö. Òåì íå ìåíåå, ÑÌÈ ïåðåäàëè èíôîðìàöèþ ñ òî÷íîñòüþ äî íàîáîðîò. Ïîñëå ñîïîñòàâëåíèÿ ïîëó÷åííûõ äàííûõ, äàæå äàë¸êèì îò áèîëîãèè è ãåîãðàôèè ëþäÿì ñòàíîâèòñÿ ïîíÿòíî, ÷òî Çàïàäíàÿ Ñèáèðü ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðèðîäíûì î÷àãîì H5N1, íà ýòî óêàçûâàþò êàê øèðîêèé ñïåêòð âèäîâ-íîñèòåëåé, âêëþ÷àÿ çäîðîâûõ ïòèö, òàê è øèðîòà ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ íîñèòåëåé. Ýòà ñèòóàöèÿ ñ H5N1, ïðàêòè÷åñêè òàêàÿ æå, êàê ñ ÎÃËÏÑ, èçâåñòíà ìíîãèì âèðóñîëîãàì ñòðàíû. Òåì íå ìåíåå, íåêîòîðûå ñïåöèàëèñòû àêòèâíî ïðîïàãàíäèðóþò ãèïîòåçó ñòðåìèòåëüíîãî ðàçíîñà ïòèöàìè âèðóñà ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà ïî âñåé Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè ìåíåå ÷åì çà ãîä. Çà÷åì?

Ïðîáëåìà íîìåðà the spread of the pandemic. It appears that all the pro and anti-hunting people were speculating around the problem, but the birds were, as usual, forgotten.

Birds and avian influenza Circulation of the AI virus in wild bird populations is as common as the circulation of any other viruses of influenza in populations of any other living beings on our planet. Viruses and their vectors are constantly evolving. New strains of viruses evolve, and in response the birds create immune systems capable of withstanding the attack: a typical arms race scenario. This is the usual process of natural selection. There are many instruments to control the model of virus- vectors in nature. There have been no reliable records of species extinction caused by epizootic reasons. Having a low density of breeding, the birds of prey have a minimal level of risk The main source of AI is domestic poultry. Flocks of domestic poultry with highdensity are susceptible to the quick spread of the infection. The transmission of the disease between infected domestic poultry and wild birds and the spreading of the disease across large distances are a result of close contacts between domestic and wild birds. There is no poultry farm in Russia where the contact between domestic and wild birds is completely absent. If even the contact with waterfowl is not present, there would be abundant starlings or sparrows which come into contact with poultry (chickens, ducks,


Problem of Number

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4

Íåêîòîðûå àñïåêòû ìîäû íà ïòè÷èé ãðèïï Ñ 80-õ ãã. ñèñòåìà ôèíàíñèðîâàíèÿ äåÿòåëüíîñòè ó÷¸íûõ ðàçëè÷íûõ áèîëîãè÷åñêèõ ñïåöèàëüíîñòåé (îðíèòîëîãîâ, ýïèäåìèîëîãîâ è äð.) ðóõíóëà, è îíè îêàçàëèñü íåâîñòðåáîâàííûìè, íî ñïóñòÿ 20 ëåò ïðîáèë èõ «çâ¸çäíûé ÷àñ», è ìíîãèå íå óäåðæàëèñü è óõâàòèëèñü çà ñïàñèòåëüíóþ ñîëîìèíêó, áîÿñü îêàçàòüñÿ çà áîðòîì ïðîöåññà.  íàøó æèçíü áóðíî âîðâàëñÿ ïòè÷èé ãðèïï! PR-êîìïàíèÿ ïî ïîïóëÿðèçàöèè ïðîáëåìû ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà â 2005 ã. äîñòèãëà ñâîåãî àïîãåÿ. Òåïåðü ìàëî êòî â Ðîññèè íå çíàåò, ÷òî òàêîå ïòè÷èé ãðèïï è «ñ ÷åì åãî åäÿò». È ñàìàÿ ãëàâíàÿ ïðè÷èíà «ðàñêðóòêè» ïðîáëåìû – äåíüãè. ÑÌÈ ïîëó÷àþò äåíüãè çà îñâåùåíèå ïðîáëåìû, ïîòîìó ÷òî îíà àêòóàëüíà è âîñòðåáîâàíà. Ó÷¸íûå ïîëó÷àþò äåíüãè, ïîêà ýòà ïðîáëåìà àêòóàëüíà è âîñòðåáîâàíà. Ýòîò ïîðî÷íûé êðóã ïîääåðæèâàåòñÿ ïîëèòèêàìè, êîòîðûå èìåþò ñâîè ïðîöåíòû ñ âûäåëÿåìûõ èç áþäæåòà ñóìì íà ðàçäóâàåìóþ ïðîáëåìó. Ñêîëüêî, ãäå è êîãäà ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà áóäåò íàéäåíî òîæå öåëèêîì è ïîëíîñòüþ çàâèñèò îò äåíåã. ×åì áîëüøå äåíåã, òåì áîëüøå ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà. Ñåãîäíÿ ïòè÷èé ãðèïï íàéä¸ì ó ïòèö, à åñëè äåíåã äàäóò áîëüøå, òî ìîæíî åãî áóäåò íàéòè ó ñâèíåé è êîðîâ. Ñîáñòâåííî, ñóãóáî óðîâíåì ôèíàíñèðîâàíèÿ îïðåäåëÿåòñÿ òî, ÷òî ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñå ðåãèñòðàöèè ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà â Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè ëîêàëèçîâàíû âäîëü àâòîòðàññû ×åëÿáèíñê-Íîâîñèáèðñê – ïîåçäèòü øèðå â ïîèñêàõ ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà ïîêà íå õâàòèëî ñðåäñòâ. Íà ôîíå èñòåðèè ïî ïîâîäó ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà àêòèâèçèðîâàëèñü ïðîòèâíèêè è ñòîðîííèêè îõîòû íà ïòèö. Ñòîðîííèêè ïûòàþòñÿ ïðîâåñòè â âèäå ïîñòàíîâëåíèé ìåñòíûõ îðãàíîâ âëàñòè ñíÿòèå îãðàíè÷åíèé íà îõîòó íà âîäîïëàâàþùèõ è îêîëîâîäíûõ ïòèö, ìîòèâèðóÿ ýòî òåì, ÷òî èñòðåáëåíèå ïòèö ñóùåñòâåííî ñîêðàòèò ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà (ýòî óæå ñëó÷èëîñü â Õàáàðîâñêå). Ïðîòèâíèêè ïûòàþòñÿ çàïðåòèòü îõîòó, ìîòèâèðóÿ ýòî òåì, ÷òî îõîòà ëèøü óâåëè÷èò ðàññåèâàíèå áîëüíûõ ïòèö ïî òåððèòîðèè è óâåëè÷èò ïëîùàäü çàðàæåíèÿ. Ïðåäëîæåíèÿ î çàïðåòå îõîòû íà ïòèö, õîòÿ áû âåñåííåé, áîëåå ãóìàííû, íî íè òå, íè äðóãèå íå èìåþò íè÷åãî îáùåãî ñ ðåøåíèåì ïðîáëåìû ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà. Òðàäèöèîííî, ðåøàÿ ñâîè ïðîáëåìû è ñïåêóëèðóÿ ïòè÷üèì ãðèïïîì, ëþäè çàáûëè î ïòèöàõ.

19

geese). Starlings visit the poultry farms both at wintering grounds in Asia as well as in the breeding areas in Siberia. These species are the most probable direct vectors of the H5N1 (but not yet documented. EP).

Raptors and avian influenza – is the threat real? Deaths of domestic poultry from AI in poultry farms are a common occurrence. In the majority of Russian poultry farms the corpses of birds aren't burnt, but thrown onto heaps near farms where they could be accessed by wild birds. The nesting colonies of the Black Kite (Milvus migrans) are formed with a density of 10–30 nests/km2 around many poultry farms in Western Siberia. The kites eat corpses picked up from the poultry farms. Mass deaths of domestic poultry at the poultry farms, especially during the spring period, increase the breeding success of kites nesting nearby. The Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) and the White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) also breed near poultry farms. The corpses of domestic birds are not the main diet items by the latter species, but are taken with content. The White-Tailed Eagle is the main predator of the sick waterfowl in Western Siberia. There were cases of the outbreaks of diseases in flocks of molting ducks, when more than 20% of the individuals died: the White-Tailed Eagles were noted to eat corpses of ducks and prosper. Up to now there have been no documented events of deaths of the eagles or the kites near the poultry farms, where mass deaths of domestic poultry were recorded. The same situation remains at the nests and colonies of raptors near the areas of regular deaths of wild waterfowl. Interestingly, the «new epicenter» of AI in Western Siberia coincides with the raptor diversity hotspot of Southern Siberia (Smelyanskiy, 2005; Karyakin at all, 2005). The previous statements do not imply that the raptors don't die of AI. As the studies of the OHFRS have shown during the outbreaks of virus infections up to 30% of the rodent populations die off, due to lack of food and/ or perhaps due to infections, and some individuals of raptors die too, but this is by no means a mass death of raptors. It is possible to conclude that the spread of the AI is not a threat to raptors. The main threat for raptors during the AI pandemic may be human activity, which combats the avian influenza using inadequate methods.


20

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Äîìàøíèå ãóñè íà âîëüíîì âûïàñå. Ôîòî À. Ïàæåíêîâà Domestic geese are grazing on a pasture. Photo by A. Pazhenkov

Ïðîáëåìà íîìåðà

Ïòèöû è ïòè÷èé ãðèïï

People and avian influenza

Öèðêóëÿöèÿ âèðóñà ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà â ïîïóëÿöèÿõ äèêèõ ïòèö – ýòî òàêàÿ æå íîðìà, êàê è öèðêóëÿöèÿ ëþáîãî äðóãîãî âèðóñà ãðèïïà â ïîïóëÿöèÿõ ëþáûõ äðóãèõ æèâûõ ñóùåñòâ íà íàøåé ïëàíåòå. È âèðóñû, è èõ íîñèòåëè ïîñòîÿííî ýâîëþöèîíèðóþò. Ïîÿâëÿþòñÿ íîâûå ôîðìû âèðóñîâ, ñëåäîì â ïîïóëÿöèÿõ íîñèòåëåé ôîðìèðóåòñÿ èììóíèòåò ê íèì. Îò ìîìåíòà ïîÿâëåíèÿ íîâîé ôîðìû âèðóñà äî ôîðìèðîâàíèÿ èììóíèòåòà â ïîïóëÿöèÿõ íîñèòåëåé ïðîõîäèò âðåìÿ, â õîäå êîòîðîãî íàáëþäàåòñÿ îòõîä îïðåäåë¸ííîé ÷àñòè îñîáåé. Ýòî è åñòü åñòåñòâåííûé îòáîð.  ïðèðîäå ñóùåñòâóåò ìàññà ìåõàíèçìîâ, ïîääåðæèâàþùèõ ðàâíîâåñèå ìîäåëè «âèðóñ-íîñèòåëü». Åù¸ íå äîêàçàíî íè îäíîãî ñëó÷àÿ âûìèðàíèÿ âèäà ïî ïðè÷èíå ýïèçîîòèè.

Despite the finding of the H5N1 virus in Western Siberia the cases of human illness have not been documented. There has been no documented cases of transmission of the disease between infected wild birds and humans. The H5N1 virus strain is not currently contagious to humans and most human cases to date have been associated to close contact with infected domestic poultry. The risk of a human contracting the disease from a wild bird is negligible, unless there was an excessive close contact with infected birds and their excreta.

Äàæå åñëè íà çèìîâêàõ ïòèö, ãäå îíè êîíöåíòðèðóþòñÿ ñ âûñîêîé ïëîòíîñòüþ, íàáëþäàåòñÿ âñïûøêà çàáîëåâàíèÿ, òî â ïåðèîä ïðîë¸òà ê ìåñòàì ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ïðîèñõîäèò èçúÿòèå áîëüíûõ ïòèö õèùíèêàìè, à â ìåñòàõ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ, ãäå áîëüøèíñòâî ïòèö íå îáðàçóåò ñêîïëåíèé, ìàññîâàÿ ïåðåäà÷à âèðóñà èñêëþ÷åíà. Èíäèêàòîðíàÿ ãðóïïà – ýòî êîëîíèàëüíûå ïòèöû. Îíè â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü ñòðàäàþò îò ýïèäåìèé âèðóñíûõ èíôåêöèé, è ïî íàëè÷èþ ïîâûøåííîãî îòõîäà â êîëîíèÿõ ìîæíî ñóäèòü î âñïûøêàõ òåõ èëè èíûõ çàáîëåâàíèé. Ïîæàëóé, ìèíèìàëüíîé ãðóïïîé ðèñêà ÿâëÿþòñÿ õèùíûå ïòèöû, èìåþùèå îäíó èç ñàìûõ íèçêèõ ïëîòíîñòåé íà ãíåçäîâàíèè. Îñíîâíûì «ðàññàäíèêîì» èíôåêöèé, â òîì ÷èñëå è ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà, ÿâëÿþòñÿ äîìàøíèå ïòèöû, îñîáåííî íàñåëåíèå ïòèöåôàáðèê (ÏÒÔ). Äîìàøíèå ïòèöû îáðàçóþò ñêîïëåíèÿ ñ âûñîêîé ïëîòíîñòüþ è ïîäâåðæåíû áûñòðîìó çàðàæåíèþ â áîëüøèõ êîëè÷åñòâàõ. Ïåðåíîñ âèðóñà îò äîìàøíèõ ïòèö ê äèêèì è åãî ðàçíîñ íà îãðîìíûå ðàññòîÿíèÿ ïðîèñõîäèò â ðåçóëüòàòå êîíòàêòà äîìàøíèõ ïòèö ñ äèêèìè.

Recommendations Wildlife and health experts (including the World Health Organization, Food and Agri-

culture Organization of the United Nations, and World Organization for Animal Health) have agreed that the control of the avian influenza infection in wild bird populations is not feasible and should not be attempted. Also they noted that culls of wild birds are highly unlikely to stop the spread of the disease. Moreover, culls would divert resources away from important disease control measures20. Lasting experience of struggle against the carriers of zoonotic infections in the USSR has shown that this activity was unsuccessful even for sedentary rodents: for wild birds such measures would be absolutely meaningless. Thus following the recommendations of international organizations, and building upon previous experiences in our country, regional governmental bodies should be advised: • Do not attempt to control the number of wild birds; • Pay attention to the improvement and efficiency of control measures in the poultry industry, especially on culls of infected poultry flocks and disposal of the corpses.


Problem of Number

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4  Ðîññèè íåò íè îäíîé ïòèöåôåðìû, íà êîòîðîé áû ïîëíîñòüþ èñêëþ÷àëñÿ êîíòàêò äîìàøíèõ ïòèö ñ äèêèìè. Äàæå åñëè èñêëþ÷åí êîíòàêò ñ îêîëîâîäíûìè è âîäîïëàâàþùèìè ïòèöàìè, òî îí èìååòñÿ ñî ñêâîðöàìè è âîðîáüÿìè, êîòîðûå â òîé æå ìåðå ÿâëÿþòñÿ ïåðåíîñ÷èêàìè âèðóñà ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà, êàê êóðû, óòêè è ãóñè. Ñêâîðöû ïîñåùàþò ïòèöåôåðìû êàê íà çèìîâêàõ â Àçèè, òàê è íà ìåñòàõ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ â Ñèáèðè è ÿâëÿþòñÿ íàèáîëåå ïåðñïåêòèâíûìè ïðÿìûìè ïåðåíîñ÷èêàìè H5N1.

Õèùíûå ïòèöû è ïòè÷èé ãðèïï: åñòü ëè óãðîçà? Ãèáåëü äîìàøíåé ïòèöû îò ãðèïïà íà ïòèöåôåðìàõ íàáëþäàëàñü âñåãäà. Íà áîëüøèíñòâå ÏÒÔ Ðîññèè òðóïû ïòèö íå ñæèãàþòñÿ, à âûáðàñûâàþòñÿ íà ñâàëêè è äîñòóïíû äëÿ äèêèõ ïòèö. Âîêðóã áîëüøèíñòâà ÏÒÔ â Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè ôîðìèðóþòñÿ ãíåçäîâûå ïîñåëåíèÿ êîðøóíà (Milvus migrans) ïëîòíîñòüþ äî 10–30 ãíåçä/êì2, êîòîðûå ïèòàþòñÿ îòáðîñàìè, âêëþ÷àÿ òðóïû âçðîñëûõ ïòèö è öûïëÿò. Òåì íå ìåíåå, ìàññîâàÿ ãèáåëü ïòèö íà ôåðìàõ, îñîáåííî â âåñåííèé ïåðèîä, ëèøü ñïîñîáñòâóåò óâåëè÷åíèþ óñïåõà ðàçìíîæåíèÿ êîðøóíîâ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïîáëèçîñòè. Ê ïòèöåôåðìàì òÿãîòåþò íà ãíåçäîâàíèè è òàêèå êðóïíûå ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè êàê ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca), îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò (Haliaeetus albicilla). Äëÿ íèõ òðóïû äîìàøíèõ ïòèö íå ÿâëÿþòñÿ îïðåäåëÿþùèìè â ïèòàíèè, â îòëè÷èå îò êîðøóíîâ, íî âñ¸ æå âõîäÿò â ðàçðÿä æåëàííîé äîáû÷è. Îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò ÿâëÿåòñÿ îñíîâíûì ïîòðåáèòåëåì áîëüíûõ âîäîïëàâàþùèõ è îêîëîâîäíûõ ïòèö â Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè. Ïðè ýòîì, íåñìîòðÿ íà ðåãóëÿðíûå âñïûøêè çàáîëåâàíèé â ñêîïëåíèÿõ ëèíÿþùèõ

21

óòîê, â õîäå êîòîðûõ ïîãèáàåò äî 20% îñîáåé, îðëàíû, ïèòàþùèåñÿ óòèíûì îòõîäîì, ïðîöâåòàþò. Äî ñèõ ïîð íå èçâåñòíî ñëó÷àåâ èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ ãíåçäîâèé îðëîâ èëè ñêîïëåíèé êîðøóíîâ áëèç ÏÒÔ, íà êîòîðûõ ðåãèñòðèðîâàëàñü ìàññîâàÿ ãèáåëü ïîãîëîâüÿ äîìàøíèõ ïòèö. Òî æå ñàìîå ìîæíî ñêàçàòü è î ãíåçäîâüÿõ, ðàñïîëîæåííûõ â ðàéîíàõ ðåãóëÿðíîé ãèáåëè äèêèõ âîäîïëàâàþùèõ ïòèö. Âèäèìî åù¸ ìåíåå âåðîÿòíî ìàññîâîå çàðàæåíèå îò æåðòâ, áîëüíûõ ïòè÷üèì ãðèïïîì, òàêèõ òèïè÷íûõ îðíèòîôàãîâ êàê òåòåðåâÿòíèê (Accipiter gentilis), ñàïñàí, äåðáíèê (Falco columbarius), òàê êàê îíè äëèòåëüíîå âðåìÿ ýâîëþöèîíèðîâàëè âìåñòå ñ âèäàìè, íà êîòîðûõ îõîòèëèñü, è ïðèîáðåëè èììóíèòåò ê èõ âèðóñíûì èíôåêöèÿì. Èíòåðåñíî òî, ÷òî âåñü «íîâîÿâëåííûé î÷àã» ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà â Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè ÿâëÿåòñÿ öåíòðîì ðàçíîîáðàçèÿ è ìàêñèìàëüíîé ÷èñëåííîñòè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ (Ñìåëÿíñêèé, 2005; Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005). Âñ¸ âûøåñêàçàííîå íå çíà÷èò, ÷òî õèùíûå ïòèöû íå ãèáíóò îò ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà. Êàê áûëî äîêàçàíî â õîäå ðàáîòû ñ ÎÃËÏÑ, ïðè âñïûøêàõ âèðóñíîé èíôåêöèè â ïîïóëÿöèÿõ ãðûçóíîâ ãèáíåò äî 30% ïîòåíöèàëüíûõ æåðòâ õèùíèêîâ è íåêîòîðîå êîëè÷åñòâî ñàìèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö, îäíàêî ýòî íå âûçûâàåò èõ ìàññîâîé ãèáåëè. Ìîæíî ñ óâåðåííîñòüþ ñêàçàòü, ÷òî ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà íå òàèò â ñåáå îïàñíîñòè äëÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Îñíîâíàÿ

Ãóñè ñ ïòèöåôàáðèêè (ôîòî ñëåâà) îáû÷íàÿ äîáû÷à îðëà-ìîãèëüíèêà (Aquila heliaca), ãíåçäÿùåãîñÿ ïîáëèçîñòè (ôîòî ñïðàâà). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Domestic geese from poultry farm (photo on the left) are common victims for the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) nesting in neighborhood (photo on the right). Photos by I. Karyakin


22

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4 óãðîçà õèùíûì ïòèöàì â óñëîâèÿõ ýïèäåìèè ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà ìîæåò èñõîäèòü ëèøü îò ÷åëîâåêà, áîðþùåãîñÿ ñ ïòè÷üèì ãðèïïîì íåàäåêâàòíûìè ìåòîäàìè.

×åëîâåê è ïòè÷èé ãðèïï Íåñìîòðÿ íà ëîêàëèçàöèþ ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà H5N1 â Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè, ñëó÷àåâ çàáîëåâàíèÿ ó ëþäåé íå çàôèêñèðîâàíî. Ñðåäè âèðóñîëîãîâ äî ñèõ ïîð íåò åäèíîãî ìíåíèÿ î ïàòîãåííîñòè äëÿ ÷åëîâåêà ñèáèðñêîé ôîðìû.  ìèðå òàêæå íå çàôèêñèðîâàíû ñëó÷àè çàðàæåíèÿ ïòè÷üèì ãðèïïîì ÷åëîâåêà îò ÷åëîâåêà, òàêèì îáðàçîì, ãðóïïà ðèñêà – ýòî ëþäè, åæåäíåâíî êîíòàêòèðóþùèå ñ ïòèöåé â áîëüøèõ å¸ ñêîïëåíèÿõ. Ñòîðîííèêè áûñòðîé ìóòàöèè âèðóñà ïóãàþò âîçíèêíîâåíèåì àíàëîãà «èñïàíêè». Íåñîìíåííî, ýòî íåëüçÿ èñêëþ÷àòü, îäíàêî ïîêà ýòî îñòàåòñÿ ëèøü ïåðñïåêòèâíûì ñþæåòîì äëÿ ãîëëèâóäñêèõ ôèëüìîâ. Îò ôîðìû, ïåðåíîñèìîé ïòèöàìè, äî ôîðìû, ïåðåäàþùåéñÿ îò ÷åëîâåêà ê ÷åëîâåêó, âèðóñ ýïèäåìèè 1918 ã., óíåñøèé ìèëëèîíû ÷åëîâå÷åñêèõ æèçíåé, ïðîø¸ë äëèííûé ïóòü ìóòàöèè â ñðåäå ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ (Fanning et all., 2002).

Ïðîáëåìà íîìåðà Ýêñïåðòû ÂÎÇ, îðãàíèçàöèè ïèùåâîé ïðîìûøëåííîñòè è ñåëüñêîãî õîçÿéñòâà ïðè ÎÎÍ (ÔÀÎ), Âñåìèðíîé âåòåðèíàðíîé îðãàíèçàöèè è Ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî öåíòðà ïî ýïèçîîòèÿì ïðèøëè ê âûâîäó, ÷òî êîíòðîëèðîâàòü çàðàæåíèå ïòè÷üèì ãðèïïîì â ïîïóëÿöèÿõ äèêèõ ïòèö íåâîçìîæíî, è òàêèå ïîïûòêè áåññìûñëåííû. Óíè÷òîæåíèå äèêèõ ïòèö äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû îñòàíîâèòü ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå çàáîëåâàíèÿ, íå ìîæåò áûòü ýôôåêòèâíî è, áîëåå òîãî, îíî ìîæåò èìåòü ïðîòèâîïîëîæíûé ýôôåêò20. Ìíîãîëåòíèé îïûò áîðüáû ñ íîñèòåëÿìè çîîíîçíûõ èíôåêöèé â ÑÑÑÐ ïîêàçûâàåò áåçóñïåøíîñòü ýòèõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé äàæå ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê ãðûçóíàì, âåäóùèì îñ¸äëûé îáðàç æèçíè, à â ñëó÷àå ñ ïòèöàìè òàêèå ìåðû àáñîëþòíî áåññìûñëåííû. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, â ñâåòå ðåêîìåíäàöèé ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ îðãàíèçàöèé è íà îñíîâå ïðåäûäóùåãî îïûòà íàøåé ñòðàíû, îðãàíàì âëàñòè ñóáúåêòîâ ÐÔ ìîæíî ðåêîìåíäîâàòü: • íå ïðèíèìàòü íèêàêèõ ìåð ïî ðåãóëèðîâàíèþ ÷èñëåííîñòè äèêèõ ïòèö, • îáðàòèòü âíèìàíèå íà óñèëåíèå ìåð êîíòðîëÿ â ñôåðå ïðîìûøëåííîãî ïòèöåâîäñòâà, îñîáåííî ïî èçîëÿöèè èíôèöèðîâàííûõ ïòèö è óòèëèçàöèè èõ òðóïîâ.

Ëèòåðàòóðà

Îðëàíû-áåëîõâîñòû (Haliaeetus albicilla) êîðìÿòñÿ òðóïàìè êóð íà ñâàëêå ïòèöåôàáðèêè. Ôîòî È.Êàðÿêèíà. The White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) are eating hen corpses on a dump near a poultry-farm. Photo by I.Karyakin.

Ðåêîìåíäàöèè Ïîêà PR-ùèêè ðàñêðó÷èâàþò êàìïàíèþ ïî ïðîáëåìå ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà, ëîááèñòû âûáèâàþò äåíüãè íà ðåøåíèå ýòîé ïðîáëåìû, âèðóñîëîãè ñîçäàþò âàêöèíû, à ýïèäåìèîëîãè ñîáèðàþò ïðîáû, îðíèòîëîãàì ñòîèò ïîäóìàòü î ñâîåé ïîçèöèè îòíîñèòåëüíî îõðàíû ïòèö â óñëîâèÿõ ïîâûøåííîãî èíòåðåñà ê ïðîáëåìå ïòè÷üåãî ãðèïïà. 20

http://www.rbcu.ru/news/Press-release/090905_3.html

Äàíèëîâ Î.Í., Ôåäîðîâà Ò.Í. Íàëè÷èå ó ïòèö àíòèòåë ê âèðóñíûì çàáîëåâàíèÿì â î÷àãàõ ÎÃË. – Ðîëü ïåðåëåòíûõ ïòèö â ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè àðáîâèðóñîâ. Íîâîñèáèðñê, 1966. Ñ. 55–60. Äàíèëîâ Î.Í. Õèùíûå ïòèöû è ñîâû Áàðàáû è Ñåâåðíîé Êóëóíäû. Íîâîñèáèðñê: Èçä-âî «Íàóêà», 1976. 158 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Ñìåëÿíñêèé È.Ý., Áàêêà Ñ.Â., Ãðàáîâñêèé Ì.À., Ðûáåíêî À.Â., Åãîðîâà À.Â. Êðóïíûå ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà, 2005. ¹ 3. Ñ. 28–51. Ëåâêîâè÷ Å.Í. Ìèðîâîå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå àðáîâèðóñíûõ èíôåêöèé è ðîëü ïòèö â ñîçäàíèè ïðèðîäíûõ î÷àãîâ. – Çîîãåîãðàôèÿ ñóøè. Òàøêåíò, 1963, Ñ. 170–171. Ëåîíîâ Þ.À., Áàðàáàø Ë.À., Õàðèòîíîâà Í.Í. Çíà÷åíèå ôîíîâûõ âèäîâ ìåëêèõ ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ Ñåâåðíîé Êóëóíäû â ýïèçîîòîëîãèè ÎÃË. – Ïåðåë¸òíûå ïòèöû è èõ ðîëü â ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè àðáîâèðóñîâ. Íîâîñèáèðñê, 1969. Ñ. 322–327. Íåöêèé Ã.È. Ñîâðåìåííîå ñîñòîÿíèå ïðèðîäíûõ î÷àãîâ îìñêîé ãåìîððàãè÷åñêîé ëèõîðàäêè è î÷åðåäíûå çàäà÷è èçó÷åíèÿ ðîëè ïåðåë¸òíûõ ïòèö â ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè àðáîâèðóñîâ â ðàéîíå Çàïàäíàÿ Ñèáèðü – Èíäèÿ. – Ðîëü ïåðåë¸òíûõ ïòèö â ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè àðáîâèðóñîâ. Íîâîñèáèðñê, 1966. Ñ.12–16.


Problem of Number

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4 Íåöêèé Ã.È., Ôåäîðîâà Ò.Í., Ðóñàêîâà Î.Å., Äàíèëîâ Î.Í., Áóñûãèí Ô.Ô., Ìàëüêîâ Ò.Á., Áîãäàíîâ È.È. Âîïðîñû èçó÷åíèÿ ðîëè ïåðåë¸òíûõ ïòèö â ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè àðáîâèðóñîâ â ñâÿçè ñ ïðîáëåìîé îìñêîé ãåìîððàãè÷åñêîé ëèõîðàäêè â Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè. – Êëåùåâîé ýíöåôàëèò, êåìåðîâñêàÿ êëåùåâàÿ ëèõîðàäêà, ãåìîððàãè÷åñêàÿ ëèõîðàäêà è äðóãèå àðáîâèðóñíûå èíôåêöèè. Ìàòåðèàëû XI íàó÷íîé ñåññèè

Êîðøóí (Milvus migrans) – îäèí èç îñíîâíûõ óòèëèçàòîðîâ òðóïîâ ïòèö ñðåäè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Black Kite (Milvus migrans) is one of the main eaters of dead birds among raptors. Photos by I. Karyakin

Ññûëêè ïî òåìå: Ïòè÷èé ãðèïï: ïîçèöèÿ BirdLife International (Áðèôèíã, îêòÿáðü 2005)21. Ïðåññ-ðåëèç Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè «Ïòè÷èé ãðèïï è äèêèå ïòèöû»22. À.Ï. ßíîâñêèé. Ïòè÷èé ãðèïï â Ñèáèðè – ðåïîðòàæ ñ ìåñòà ñîáûòèé23. Ðåçîëþöèÿ IX.23 ïî ïòè÷üåìó ãðèïïó 9-é êîíôåðåíöèè ñòðàí ó÷àñòíèêîâ Ðàìñàðñêîé Êîíâåíöèè ïî âîäíî-áîëîòíûì óãîäüÿì.24

22 23 24

ñèáèðñêîé îáëàñòè. – Îíäàòðà â Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè. Íîâîñèáèðñê, 1966. Ñ. 141–142. Õàðèòîíîâà Í.Í., Äàíèëîâ Î.Í., Ëåîíîâ Þ.À. Çíà÷åíèå õèùíûõ ïòèö â î÷àãàõ îìñêîé ãåìîððàãè÷åñêîé ëèõîðàäêè (ÎÃË). – Òåçèñû äîêëàäîâ 5-ãî ñèìïîçèóìà ïî èçó÷åíèþ ðîëè ïåðåëåòíûõ ïòèö â ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè àðáîâèðóñîâ. Íîâîñèáèðñê, 1969. Ñ. 86–87. Õàðèòîíîâà Í.Í., Äàíèëîâ Î.Í., Ëåîíîâ Þ.À. Çíà÷åíèå õèùíûõ ïòèö â î÷àãàõ îìñêîé ãåìîððàãè÷åñêîé ëèõîðàäêè. – Òðàíñêîíòèíåíòàëüíûå ñâÿçè ïåðåë¸òíûõ ïòèö è èõ ðîëü â ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè àðáîâèðóñîâ. Íîâîñèáèðñê, 1972. Ñ. 353–355. ×óìàêîâ Ì.Ï. Ê èòîãàì ýêñïåäèöèè Èíñòèòóòà íåâðîëîãèè ïî èçó÷åíèþ îìñêîé ãåìîððàãè÷åñêîé ëèõîðàäêè (ÎÃË). – Âåñòí. ÀÌÍ ÑÑÑÐ, 1948, ¹ 2, Ñ. 19–26. Brown I., Gaidet N., Guberti V., Marangon S., Olsen B. Rapport De Mission. Mission to Russia to assess the avian influenza situation in wildlife and the national measures being taken to minimize the risk of international spread. World Organisation for Animal Health. 2005. 29 p. Fanning T.G., Slemons R.D., Reid A.H., Janczewski T.A., Dean J. and Taubenberger J.K. 1917 Avian Influenza Virus Sequences Suggest that the 1918 Pandemic Virus Did Not Acquire Its Hemagglutinin Directly from Birds. Virology 76, 15. 2002. P. 7860–7862. Scholtissek, C., W. Rohde, V. von Hoyningen, and R. Rott. On the origin of the human influenza virus subtypes H2N2 and H3N2. Virology 87, 1978. P. 13–20.

References on the theme: The avian influenza – oppinion of the BirdLife International (Briefing, October 2005)21. The avian influenza and wild birds (Press Release of the Russian Bird Conservation Union)22. A.P. Yanovsky. The report from the scene of action «The avian influenza in Siberia»23. 9th Meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. Resolution IX.23 on avian influenza.24

Èíñòèòóòà ïîëèîìèåëèòà è âèðóñíûõ ýíöåôàëèòîâ. Ì., 1966. Ñìåëÿíñêèé È.Ý. Àëòàéñêèé êðàé – áóäóùåå îäíîãî èç êðóïíåéøèõ ðîññèéñêèõ î÷àãîâ ðàçíîîáðàçèÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ çàâèñèò îò ïðèðîäîîõðàííûõ ìåð. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà, 2005. ¹ 3. Ñ. 18–27. Õàðèòîíîâà Í.Í., Õàäæèåâà Ò.Ì. Âûäåëåíèå àðáîâèðóñîâ îò îíäàòðû, äðóãèõ ãðûçóíîâ è íàñåêîìîÿäíûõ â Êàðàñóêñêîì ðàéîíå Íîâî-

21

23

http://www.rbcu.ru/news/Press-release/141105_1.html http://www.rbcu.ru/news/Press-release/141105.html http://www.biodiversity.ru/publications/odp/archive/33/st06.html http://ramsar.org/res/key_res_ix_23_e.htm

Slemons R.D. and Easterday B.C. T ype-A influenza viruses in the feces of migratory waterfowl. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 171, 1977. P. 947–948. Slemons R.D., Johnson D.C., Osborn J.S. and Hayes F. Type-A influenza viruses isolated from wild free-flying ducks in California. Avian Dis. 18, 1974. P. 119–124. Webster R.G., Bean W.J., Gorman O.T., Chambers T.M. and Kawaoka Y. Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. Microbiol. Rev. 56, 1992. P. 152–179.


24

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

RaptorsConservation ОХРАНА ПЕРНАТЫХ ХИЩНИКОВ ProjectforRestorationoftheNestingPlacesoftheSakerFalcon andUplandBuzzardintheTuvaRepublic:SuccessesandFailures, Russia ПРОЕКТ ПО ВОССТАНОВЛЕНИЮ МЕСТ ГНЕЗДОВАНИЯ БАЛОБАНА И МОХНОНОГОГО КУРГАННИКА В РЕСПУБЛИКЕ ТЫВА: УСПЕХИ И НЕУДАЧИ, РОССИЯ I.V. Karyakin (Center for Field Studies, N.Novgorod, Russia) И.В. Каря ин (Центр полевых исследований, Н.Нов ород, Россия) Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Êîðîëåíêî, 17a–17 òåë.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Contact: Igor Karyakin Leader by Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a–17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru

Ãíåçäîâàÿ ïëàòôîðìà èç îñòàòêîâ òðàíñôîðìàòîðà (ââåðõó) è ïòåíöû ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà (Buteo hemilasius), êîòîðûå âûâåëèñü íà íåé â 2005 ã. (âíèçó). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The artificial nest on concrete poles of destroyed transformer (at the top) and chicks of the Upland Buzzard (Buteo hemilasius) on this nest in 2005 (at the foot). Photos by I. Karyakin

 2002 ã. â Ðåñïóáëèêå Òûâà Öåíòðîì ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé áûëî ïîëîæåíî íà÷àëî ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîåêòà ïî óñòàíîâêå èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé äëÿ ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà (Buteo hemilasius) è áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug). Öåëü ïðîåêòà – âîññòàíîâ-

The project to erect artificial nests for the Upland Buzzard (Buteo hemilasius) and the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) has been initiated by the Center for Field Studies in 2002. The purpose of the project was to restore nests of the Upland Buzzard and Saker Fal-


Raptors Conservation

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4 ëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ãðóïïèðîâîê îáîèõ âèäîâ, êîòîðûå äî íåäàâíåãî âðåìåíè ãíåçäèëèñü â ðîâíûõ ñòåïÿõ íà îïîðàõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è (ËÝÏ), èíôðàñòðóêòóðà êîòîðûõ áûëà ïðàêòè÷åñêè ïîëíîñòüþ óíè÷òîæåíà ìåñòíûìè æèòåëÿìè çà ïîñëåäíèå 5 ëåò. Äëÿ ðåàëèçàöèè ìåðîïðèÿòèé áûëè âûáðàíû íåñêîëüêî àáñîëþòíî ðîâíûõ ñòåïíûõ ó÷àñòêîâ â Þæíîé Òóâå (Óáñóíóðñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà), ãäå ïðîäîëæàëè äåðæàòüñÿ ïàðû ìîõíîíîãèõ êóðãàííèêîâ è áàëîáàíîâ, íåêîòîðûå èç êîòîðûõ ïûòàëèñü ãíåçäèòüñÿ äàæå íà çåìëå. Ïðåäïîëàãàëîñü, ÷òî ïîñëå óñòàíîâêè èñêóññòâåííûõ ñîîðóæåíèé, ïòèöû íà÷íóò çàíèìàòü èõ äëÿ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ. Ñòàâêà áûëà ñäåëàíà íà òî, ÷òî ïîñëå òîòàëüíîãî óíè÷òîæåíèÿ èíôðàñòðóêòóðû ËÝÏ íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè ìåñòíûå æèòåëè íå áóäóò ðàçðóøàòü èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäîâüÿ, ñîîðóæåííûå èç îñòàòêîâ òðàíñôîðìàòîðîâ, àðìàòóðû, êóñêîâ äîñîê è ïðîâîëîêè. Îäíàêî íàøè íàäåæäû íå îïðàâäàëèñü. Èç 47 èñêóññòâåííûõ ñîîðóæåíèé (Êàðÿêèí, 2005) ê ëåòó 2005 ã. ñîõðàíèëîñü ëèøü 20. Ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñå èñêóññòâåííûå ãí¸çäà, óñòðîåííûå íà ñïèëàõ äåðåâÿííûõ òðåíîãèõ îïîð ËÝÏ, áûëè óòèëèçèðîâàíû ìåñòíûìè æèòåëÿìè íà äðîâà â çèìíèé ïåðèîä. Áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü òðàíñôîðìàòîðîâ è èõ ÷àñòåé, èç êîòîðûõ ñîñòîÿëè îñíîâû ãíåçäîâûõ ïëàòôîðì, áûëè ñäàíû ìåñòíûìè æèòåëÿìè â ïóíêòû ïðè¸ìà öâåòíîãî ìåòàëëà, à ó íåêîòîðûõ èç íèõ áûëè âûäåðíóòû äàæå áåòîííûå ñòîëáèêè èç çåìëè, èç êîòîðûõ áûëà âûáèòà àðìàòóðà äëÿ ñäà÷è â ïóíêòû ïðè¸ìà ÷¸ðíûõ ìåòàëëîâ, ëèáî îíè áûëè èñïîëüçîâàíû äëÿ ñòðîèòåëüñòâà íîâûõ êîøàð. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ìåñòíûå æèòåëè çà ïîëãîäà óíè÷òîæèëè áîëåå ïîëîâèíû èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé, ïðè÷¸ì òðè ãíåçäà ìîõíîíîãèõ

Ðèñ. 1. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) (äâóõöâåòíûå òî÷êè) è ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà (Buteo hemilasius) (ñåðûå òî÷êè) íà ìîäåëüíîì ó÷àñòêå â Þæíîé Òóâå (Óáñóíóðñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà) â 1999 – 2005 ãã. Fig. 1. Location of nesting areas of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) (bicolor spots) and Upland Buzzard (Buteo hemilasius) (grey spots) on the surveyed polygon in Southern Tuva (the Ubsunur depression) in 1999–2005.

25

con in the flat steppe (Karyakin, 2005). Several flat steppe sites were selected for the project in the Southern Tuva (the Ubsunur depression), where pairs of Upland Buzzards and Sakers were known to live before, and even tried to nest on the ground. Birds in such places were considered to be nest-site limited and were expected to occupy the artificial nests. Unfortunately out of 47 artificial nests (Karyakin, 2005) only 20 survived till the summer of 2005. Most of the artificial nests, which were erected on tips of electric poles, were fallen by herders for firewood during the winter period. Herders also collected metal used as bases of nesting platforms. Even some concrete poles were removed on several plots for use on farms. Thereby, for half a year herders have destroyed more than half of the artificial nests. It appears that three nests of Upland Buzzards on platforms had clutches at a moment of destruction. From the three pairs, the nests of which had been destroyed by herders, two pairs clutched one more, one of which was successful at the time of our visiting. The most awful situation was in the steppe along the northern side of the Agar-DagTaiga Mountains (fig.1, 2), where for 7 years 93,3% nests of the Saker Falcon and 76,7% nests of the Upland Buzzard were destroyed. Only 4 families of herders lived here at the time. All of the remaining artificial nests are located too far from homes of herders and too close to the military zone along the Russian-Mongolian border. It appears that in general the project of providing artificial nesting places for Upland Buzzards and Sakers in the Southern Tuva has failed due consumeristic attitudes to the environment of the local herdsmen.


26

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Ãíåçäîâàÿ ïëàòôîðìà íà ñïèëå äåðåâÿííîé îïîðû ËÝÏ, çàíÿòàÿ ìîõíîíîãèì êóðãàííèêîì (ââåðõó) è ïòåíöû áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) è ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà, â ãí¸çäàõ íà ïëàòôîðìàõ â 2005 ã. (âíèçó). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The living nest of the Upland Buzzard on a platform on cut of tips of electric pole occupancy by (at the top) and chicks of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) and Upland Buzzard on artificial nests in 2005 (at the foot). Photos by I. Karyakin

êóðãàííèêîâ íà ïëàòôîðìàõ â ìîìåíò ðàçðóøåíèÿ ïëàòôîðì áûëè ñ êëàäêàìè. Èç òð¸õ ïàð, ãí¸çäà êîòîðûõ áûëè óíè÷òîæåíû ëþäüìè, äâå ïàðû ïðèñòóïèëè ê ïîâòîðíîé êëàäêå, îäíà èç êîòîðûõ îêàçàëàñü óñïåøíîé íà ìîìåíò íàøåãî ïîñåùåíèÿ òåððèòîðèè. Íàèáîëåå êàòàñòðîôè÷íîé îêàçàëàñü ñèòóàöèÿ â ñòåïè âäîëü ñåâåðíîãî ñêëîíà õð. Àãàð-Äàã-Òàéãà (ðèñ. 1 è 2), ãäå çà 7 ëåò áûëî óíè÷òîæåíî 93,3% ãí¸çä áàëîáàíà è 76,7% ãí¸çä ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà. È ýòî ïðè òîì, ÷òî íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè æèâ¸ò â þðòàõ ëèøü 4 ñåìüè òóâèíöåâ. Ëåòîì 2005 ã. èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäîâüÿ ñîõðàíèëèñü ëèáî íà ñèëüíîì óäàëåíèè îò þðò è, êàê ñëåäñòâèå, ÷àñòî èñïîëüçóåìûõ äîðîã, ëèáî â íåïîñðåäñòâåííîé áëèçîñòè îò êîíòðîëüíî-ñëåäîâîé ïîëîñû âäîëü ðîññèéñêîìîíãîëüñêîé ãðàíèöû. Ó÷èòûâàÿ âûøåïðèâåä¸ííûå öèôðû ìîæíî ñêàçàòü, ÷òî ïðîåêò ïî âîññòàíîâëåíèþ ìåñò ãíåçäîâàíèÿ áàëîáàíà è ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà â Þæíîé Òóâå ïîòåðïåë êðàõ, è ïåðñïåêòèâ ó íåãî íåò, ïîêà â ñîçíàíèè ìåñòíûõ æèòåëåé äîìèíèðóåò ïîòðåáèòåëüñêîå îòíîøåíèå ê îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäå.  òî æå âðåìÿ íåñîìíåííûì óñïåõîì ïðîåêòà ÿâëÿåòñÿ òî, ÷òî áàëîáàí è ìîõíîíîãèé êóðãàííèê âñ¸ æå ñîõðàíèëèñü íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè, òàê êàê âñå îñòàâøèåñÿ ïòèöû (100% îò îáùåãî êîëè÷åñòâà ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð) ãíåçäÿòñÿ èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî íà èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâüÿõ, êîòîðûå åù¸ íå óñïåëè óíè÷òîæèòü ìåñòíûå æèòåëè. Ëåòîì 2005 ã. â ñòåïè ñåâåðíåå õð. ÀãàðÄàã-Òàéãà íàìè áûëî âîññòàíîâëåíî 5 èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé, ðàçðóøåííûõ ìåñòíûìè æèòåëÿìè. Ýòî ïîçâîëÿåò íàäåÿòüñÿ, ÷òî åù¸ íåêîòîðîå âðåìÿ áàëîáàí è ìîõíîíî-

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Ðèñ. 2. Èçìåíåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè áàëîáàíà è ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà íà ìîäåëüíîì ó÷àñòêå â Þæíîé Òóâå (Óáñóíóðñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà) â 1999 – 2005 ãã. Fig. 2. Changing a number of Saker Falcon and Upland Buzzard on the surveyed polygon in Southern Tuva (Ubsunur depression) in 1999–2005.

At the same time there is a success in the project. That is conserving Sakers and Upland Buzzards in the territory, as all remained birds occupying for the nests on the platforms, not yet destroyed by herders. In the summer of 2005 in the steppe to the north from the Agar-Dag-Taiga Mountains we reconstructed 5 artificial nests, destroyed by herders. We hope that Saker Falcon and the Upland Buzzard will breed on this territory in the future. A project, carried out in a flat steppe without any mountains or woods in the Central Tuva (the Tuva depression) between the Hadyn and Cheder lakes has a different fate. Agriculture was developed here before the 1990s. The fields were stretched and were surrounded by the planted narrow tree-lines made of poplars or elms. Already at the beginning of 1990 s the fields were deserted, irrigation stopped, and by the end of the 90’s herders completely destroyed the power-lines thus cutting any possible power supply to any industrial and large scale agricultural activity. As a result by 2002 the Saker Falcon started to nest on electric poles, now has disappeared and Upland Buzzards have switched to the nests of on trees in tree-lines (fig. 3, 4). Moreover an evident shortage of trees suitable for nesting was noted in that period. Without irrigation more than 70% of the trees in forest-lines dried and fell down. This somehow has decreased the nesting frequency of Upland Buzzards. Often illegal logging of the last big trees in tree-lines does not stop the birds from breeding here. In 2004 Center for Field Studies has initiated a project to erect artificial nests in for-


Raptors Conservation

Ðèñ. 3. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ áàëîáàíà (äâóõöâåòíûå òî÷êè) è ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà (ñåðûå òî÷êè) íà ìîäåëüíîì ó÷àñòêå â Öåíòðàëüíîé Òóâå (Òóâèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå) â 1999–2005 ãã. Fig. 3. Location of nesting areas of the Saker Falcon (bicolor spots) and Upland Buzzard (grey spots) on the surveyed polygon in Central Tyva (the Tuva depression) in 1999–2005.

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4 ãèé êóðãàííèê áóäóò èìåòü âîçìîæíîñòü õîòÿ áû â ìèíèìàëüíîì êîëè÷åñòâå ðàçìíîæàòüñÿ íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè. Ïîìèìî ïðîåêòà â ðîâíîé ñòåïè, ëèø¸ííîé ñêàë è äðåâåñíîé ðàñòèòåëüíîñòè, ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ ïî óñòàíîâêå èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé áûëè ïðîâåäåíû â Öåíòðàëüíîé Òóâå (Òóâèíñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà), íà òåððèòîðèè, ëåæàùåé ìåæäó îçåðàìè Õàäûí è ×åäåð. Äî 90-õ ãã. çäåñü áûëî ðàçâèòî ñåëüñêîå õîçÿéñòâî. Ïîëÿ, ïðîòÿíóâøèåñÿ â âèäå ëåíò, áûëè îáñàæåíû óçêèìè ëåñîïîëîñàìè èç òîïîëÿ è âÿçà ìåëêîëèñòíîãî. Óæå â íà÷àëå 90-õ ã.ã. óõîä çà íèìè ïðåêðàòèëñÿ, èíôðàñòðóêòóðà ïîëèâà áûëà ïîëíîñòüþ óíè÷òîæåíà, à ê êîíöó 90-õ ãã. ìåñòíûìè æèòåëÿìè áûëè ïîëíîñòüþ ñïèëåíû è ËÝÏ, ïîäâîäèâøèå ýëåêòðè÷åñòâî íà ïîëåâûå ñòàíû.  ðåçóëüòàòå ê 2002 ã. áàëîáàí, ãíåçäèâøèéñÿ íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ, íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè ïîëíîñòüþ èñ÷åç, à ãí¸çäà ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà ñîõðàíèëèñü òîëüêî íà äåðåâüÿõ â ëåñîïîëîñàõ (ðèñ. 3 è 4). Ïðè÷¸ì óæå òîãäà íàáëþäàëñÿ ÿâíûé äåôèöèò ãí¸çä. Ïðè îòñóòñòâèè ïîëèâà áîëåå 70% äåðåâüåâ â ëåñîïîëîñàõ ïîãèáëè, è ñóõîñòîé ïîñòåïåííî ïàäàë, òåì ñàìûì ëèøàÿ êóðãàííèêîâ ãíåçäîâîãî ôîíäà. Ê òîìó æå â ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ ó÷àñòèëèñü íåëåãàëüíûå ðóáêè ïîñëåäíèõ êðóïíûõ äåðåâüåâ â ëåñîïîëîñàõ. Ñ öåëüþ ñòàáèëèçàöèè ãíåçäîâîãî ôîíäà Öåíòðîì ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé â 2004 ã. íà÷àòà ðàáîòà ïî óñòðîéñòâó èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé â ëåñîïîëîñàõ íà ìåñòàõ ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ïðåæíèõ ãí¸çä. Äîëãîñðî÷íîé öåëüþ äàííûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñîõðàíåíèå ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêè ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà è âîçâðàùåíèå íà ãíåçäîâàíèå íà äàííóþ òåððèòîðèþ áàëîáàíà. Áûëî ðåøåíî óñòàíàâëèâàòü ãíåçäîâûå ïëàò-

27

Ðèñ. 4. Èçìåíåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè áàëîáàíà è ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà íà ìîäåëüíîì ó÷àñòêå â Öåíòðàëüíîé Òóâå (Òóâèíñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà) â 1999 – 2005 ãã. Fig. 4. Changing a number of the Saker Falcon and Upland Buzzard on the surveyed polygon in Central Tuva (the Tuva depression) in 1999–2005.

est-lines in the places where Saker and Buzzars were known to nest earlier. The longterm purpose of this activity is conservation of the breeding population of the Upland Buzzard and recovering the breeding of the Saker Falcon in this territory. Artificial nests were erected on the young living trees and also on special wood poles. Already in 2005 a total of 5 pairs of Upland Buzzards have successfully nested in artificial nests (this is 26,3 % of the total number of breeding birds). In the summer of 2005 3 fallen nests have been restored and 6 new nest platforms have been erected. The results of the project have confirmed the fact that artificial nests facilitate conservation and the recovery of such rare species as the Saker Falcon and the Upland Buzzard. However obtaining some positive results is very difficult without the adequate help from the herders and regional author-


28

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4 ôîðìû êàê íà ìîëîäûõ æèâûõ äåðåâüÿõ, òàê è íà ñïåöèàëüíûõ îïîðàõ, èçãîòîâëÿåìûõ èç ñòâîëîâ ñóõèõ äåðåâüåâ. Óæå â 2005 ã. ýòà ðàáîòà ïðèíåñëà ñâîè ïëîäû – 5 ïàð ìîõíîíîãèõ êóðãàííèêîâ ïîëó÷èëè âîçìîæíîñòü óñïåøíî âûâåñòè ïîòîìñòâî, ÷òî ñîñòàâëÿåò 26,3 % îò îáùåãî êîëè÷åñòâà ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïòèö. Ëåòîì 2005 ã. áûëî ðåñòàâðèðîâàíî 3 óïàâøèõ ãíåçäà è óñòàíîâëåíî 6 ãíåçäîâûõ ïëàòôîðì. Ìîæíî ñ óâåðåííîñòüþ êîíñòàòèðîâàòü ôàêò, ÷òî ñ ïîìîùüþ èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé ìîæíî ñîõðàíÿòü è ïðèóìíîæàòü òàêèå ðåäêèå âèäû, êàê áàëîáàí è ìîõíîíîãèé êóðãàííèê. Îäíàêî áåç àäåêâàòíîé ïîìîùè ìåñòíîãî íàñåëåíèÿ è àäìèíèñòðàöèè Ðåñïóáëèêè ïîëîæèòåëüíûõ ðåçóëüòàòîâ äîáèòüñÿ î÷åíü òðóäíî. Òûâà – ýòî îäíî èç íåìíîãèõ ìåñò, ãäå õèùíûå ïòèöû, â òîì ÷èñëå ìîõíîíîãèé êóðãàííèê è áàëîáàí, åù¸ ïðîäîëæàþò ãíåçäèòñÿ â äîñòàòî÷íîì êîëè÷åñòâå. Îäíàêî òåíäåíöèè â èõ ïîïóëÿöèÿõ, íàñåëÿþùèõ ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûå òåððèòîðèè, ÿâíî íåãàòèâíûå, ÷òî äîñòàòî÷íî õîðîøî ïîêàçàíî íà íàøèõ ìîäåëüíûõ ó÷àñòêàõ. Îñíîâíûìè ïðè÷èíàìè ñîêðàùåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ÿâëÿþòñÿ ñìåíà ðåæèìà ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííîãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ çåìåëü è ðàçðóøåíèå ãíåçäîâèé ìåñòíûìè æèòåëÿìè. Ïåðâûé íåãàòèâíûé ôàêòîð èìååò ãëóáîêèå ñîöèàëüíûå è ýêîíîìè÷åñêèå êîðíè, ñ íèì òàêæå òåñíî ñâÿçàí è âòîðîé. Íî åñëè èçìåíèòü ðåæèì ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííîãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ çåìåëü íåâîçìîæíî áåç îãðîìíûõ ôèíàíñîâûõ çàòðàò, òî âîññòàíîâèòü ãíåçäîâîé ôîíä õèùíèêîâ âåñüìà âåðîÿòíî ïðè îñâîåíèè íåçíà÷èòåëüíûõ â ìàñøòàáàõ ðåñïóáëèêè ôèíàíñîâûõ ñðåäñòâ. Åäèíñòâåííàÿ ïðîáëåìà â òîì, ÷òî ïîêà óðîâåíü æèçíè æèòåëåé Òûâû íå ïîäíèìåòñÿ, è îíè íå îñîçíàþò, ÷òî äåðåâüÿ è êîíñòðóêöèè, íà êîòîðûõ óñòðàèâàþò ãí¸çäà õèùíûå ïòèöû, èìåþò öåííîñòü íå òîëüêî êàê äðîâà è ìåòàëë, âñå óñèëèÿ ïî âîññòàíîâëåíèþ õèùíûõ ïòèö áóäóò ìàëîïðîäóêòèâíû. Ëèòåðàòóðà Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ïðîåêò ïî âîññòàíîâëåíèþ ìåñò ãíåçäîâàíèÿ áàëîáàíà â Ðåñïóáëèêå Òûâà, Ðîññèÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà, 2005. ¹ 1. Ñ. 28–31.

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ities. The Republic of Tuva is a unique place where birds of prey, including Upland Buzzards and Sakers, still breed in sufficient numbers. However, trends in their populations inhabiting agricultural territory are obviously negative. This was sufficiently shown on our model study areas. The main reasons for the decreasing numbers are the land-use changes and the destruction of raptor nests by herders. The first negative factor has deep social and economic roots, and the second one is related to the first one in a great degree. However whilst the change of agricultural land-use is impossible without enormous financial expenses, the recovery of nests of raptors is feasible even with minor funds. The only problem is that all the activities for the recovery of raptors will be productive only if herders would leave alone the remaining trees and constructed nest structures and not use them for firewood or scrap metal. The latter might happen only if the standard of living of the herders would improve.

Ãíåçäîâàÿ ïëàòôîðìà íà òîïîëå (ââåðõó) è ïòåíöû ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà, êîòîðûå âûâåëèñü íà íåé â 2005 ã. (âíèçó). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The artificial nest on poplar (at the top) and chicks of the Upland Buzzard on this nest in 2005 (at the foot). Photos by I. Karyakin


Raptors Conservation

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4

29

DarkHolesintheRaptorPopulations(ElectrocutionsofBirds ofPreyonPowerLinesintheWesternBetpak-Dala),Kazakhstan ЧЁРНЫЕ ДЫРЫ В ПОПУЛЯЦИЯХ ХИЩНЫХ ПТИЦ (ГИБЕЛЬ ХИЩНЫХ ПТИЦ НА ЛЭП В ЗАПАДНОЙ БЕТПАК-ДАЛЕ), КАЗАХСТАН I.V. Karyakin (Center for Field Studies, Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia) T.O. Barabashin (Ulyanovsk Branch of the Russian Birds Conservation Union, Rostov-on-Don, Russia) И.В. Каря ин (Центр полевых исследований, Россия, Н.Нов ород) Т.О. Барабашин (Ульяновс ое отделение Союза охраны птиц России, Ростов-на-Дон , Россия) Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Êîðîëåíêî, 17a–17 òåë.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Òèìîôåé Áàðàáàøèí Óëüÿíîâñêîå îòäåëåíèå Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè Ðîññèÿ 344065 Ðîñòîâ-íà-Äîíó ïåð. Äíåïðîâñêèé ä. 118, êâ. 520 timbar@bk.ru Contact: Igor Karyakin Leader by Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a–17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Tim Barabashin The Ulyanovsk branch of RBCU, Russia Dneprovsky lane, 118–520 Rostov-na-Donu 344065 Russia timbar@bk.ru

 2005 ã. íàìè ïîñåùàëàñü Çàïàäíàÿ Áåòïàê-Äàëà (Êàçàõñòàí) â ðàìêàõ ïðîåêòà ïî èçó÷åíèþ ñîêîëà-áàëîáàíà Èíñòèòóòà èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ (FRI, IWC Ltd.). Òåððèòîðèÿ ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ðîâíóþ ãëèíèñòóþ ïóñòûíþ. Íåñìîòðÿ íà îòñóòñòâèå ñåòè íàñåë¸ííûõ ïóíêòîâ, òåððèòîðèÿ èìååò ðàçâèòóþ èíôðàñòðóêòóðó îáúåêòîâ ïî äîáû÷å ïîëåçíûõ èñêîïàåìûõ, ìåæäó êîòîðûìè ïðîòÿíóëèñü ëèíèè ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è (ËÝÏ). Áîëüøèíñòâî ËÝÏ ìîùíîñòüþ 6–10 êÂ, íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ìåæäó îáúåêòàìè, îòíîñèòñÿ ê ãðóïïå «ïòèöåîïàñíûõ». Ïðîòÿæåííîñòü ËÝÏ èìåííî òàêîãî òèïà â Çàïàäíîé Áåòïàêäàëå ñîñòàâèëà 322,56 êì (76,6% îò îáùåé ïðîòÿæåííîñòè ËÝÏ) è áûëà îïðåäåëåíà ïî êàðòàì Ì 1:500000 è êîñìîñíèìêàì Landsat–7. 27 àïðåëÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ï. Ñòåïíîé ìû îñìîòðåëè 2 ó÷àñòêà àíòèêîððîçèîííîé ËÝÏ 6–10ê íà áåòîííûõ îïîðàõ äëèíîé 26,4 è 9,1 êì. Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ýòîé ËÝÏ ñîñòàâëÿëà 120 êì (ðèñ. 1).  õîäå îñìîòðà ïîä îïîðàìè ðåãèñòðèðîâàëèñü òðóïû ïòèö èëè èõ îñòàíêè, ïðåäïîëîæèòåëüíî ïîãèáøèõ â òå÷åíèå ïîñëåäíèõ 7 äíåé. Ïàðàëëåëüíî ó÷¸òó îñòàíêîâ ïòèö, ïîðàæ¸ííûõ ýëåêòðîòîêîì, â çîíå âëèÿíèÿ ËÝÏ (1–5 êì â îáå ñòîðîíû) ó÷èòûâàëèñü âñå æèâûå õèùíûå ïòèöû. Äàííàÿ ëèíèÿ òèïè÷íà äëÿ îáñëåäîâàííîé òåððèòîðèè. Ÿ îïîðû îñíàùåíû «ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè» ñîîðóæåíèÿìè (ÏÇÓ) 2-õ òèïîâ, õàðàêòåðíûõ äëÿ ËÝÏ Çàïàäíîé Áåòïàêäàëû. Îïîðû ïåðâîãî ó÷àñòêà (òèï 1) îñíàùåíû ñòàëüíûìè óñàìè, ïðèâàðåííûìè ê ãîðèçîíòàëüíîé òðàâåðñå, íåñóùåé èçîëÿòîðû (ðèñ. 2). Îïîðû âòîðîãî ó÷àñòêà (òèï 2), ïîìèìî ñòàëüíûõ óñîâ èìåþò ñòàëüíóþ ïðèñàäó, ïðèâàðåííóþ ê ïåðåêëàäèíå, íåñóùåé âåðõíèé èçîëÿòîð (ðèñ. 3). Èç-çà ñâîåîáðàçíûõ ÏÇÓ íà îáñëåäîâàííûõ ó÷àñòêàõ ËÝÏ îòìå÷åí î÷åíü âûñîêèé

Ðèñ. 1. Ðàéîí ðàáîò Fig. 1. The study area

In 2005 we surveyed Western Betpak-Dala (Kazakhstan), within the framework of the project on the Saker Falcon by the Falcon Research Institute (FRI, IWC Ltd.). The surveyed territory was a flat clay desert with a well-developed infrastructure of mines and miner’s villages inter-connected by a net of powerlines (PL). The biggest part of 6–10 kV PL-s is dangerous for birds. The total length of the PL 322,56 km (76,6% from the total length of the PL). Near Stepnoy village on 27 April two fragments of a 120 km long PL were surveyed in order to asses the electrocution rate. The lengths of the fragments were 26.4 and 9.1 km (fig. 1) accordingly. We recorded only kills that were 1–7 days old. We also counted the live raptors on a 1–5 km wide area on both sides of the powerline. This PL was typical for the surveyed territory. The electric poles were equipped by 2


30

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4 óðîâåíü ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö (òàáë. 1). Âñåãî ó÷òåíû îñòàíêè 43-õ õèùíûõ ïòèö, à èõ îáèëèå ñîñòàâèëî 12,1 ýêç/10 êì ËÝÏ. Ñðåäè ïîãèáøèõ íà ËÝÏ õèùíûõ ïòèö àáñîëþòíî äîìèíèðîâàë êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) – 3,6 ýêç/10 êì ËÝÏ (30,2%). Îí æå áûë åäèíñòâåííûì èç âñòðå÷åííûõ æèâûõ õèùíèêîâ íà ìàðøðóòàõ âäîëü ËÝÏ – 0,56 îñîáåé/10 êì ËÝÏ. Âñå âñòðå÷åííûå æèâûå êóðãàííèêè äåðæàëèñü â çîíå âëèÿíèÿ ËÝÏ ñ ÏÇÓ 1-ãî òèïà è, âèäèìî, îñòàâàëèñü æèâûìè äî òåõ ïîð, ïîêà íå ïðèñàæèâàëèñü íà îïîðû. Îïîðû ñ ÏÇÓ 2-ãî òèïà óáèâàþò â 7,5 ðàç áîëüøå õèùíûõ ïòèö, ÷åì îïîðû ñ ñîîðóæåíèÿìè 1-ãî òèïà. Èìåííî íà îïîðàõ ñ ñîîðóæåíèÿìè 2-ãî òèïà ãèáíåò îñíîâíàÿ ìàññà îðëîâ (81,8%), ò.ê. óñòðîåííûå íà äàííûõ îïîðàõ ïðèñàäû áîëåå ïðèâëåêàòåëüíû äëÿ íèõ, ÷åì èçîëÿòîðû íà îïîðàõ ñ ñîîðóæåíèÿìè 1-ãî òèïà. Óãëîâûå îïîðû îáñëåäîâàííîé ïòèöåîïàñíîé ËÝÏ è áëèæàéøèå ê íåé îïîðû áåçîïàñíûõ äëÿ ïòèö ËÝÏ ïðèâëåêàòåëüíû äëÿ óñòðîéñòâà ãí¸çä õèùíûìè ïòèöàìè, îäíàêî, íåñìîòðÿ íà ýòî, íàìè íå îáíàðóæåíî íè îäíîãî ãíåçäà õèùíûõ ïòèö, êàê íà ýòèõ ËÝÏ, òàê è â ðàäèóñå 3 êì îò

Ðèñ. 2. Ïòèöåîïàñíàÿ ËÝÏ. Òèï 1. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Fig. 2. The power lines dangered for birds. Type 1. Photo by I. Karyakin

Òàáë. 1. Ðåçóëüòàòû ó÷¸òîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ, ïîãèáøèõ ïðè êîíòàêòå ñ ÂË 6–10 ê â Çàïàäíîé Áåòïàê-Äàëå Table 1. Results of census for killed raptors by electrocutions on the PL 6–10 kV in the Western Betpak-Dala

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Çìååÿä (Circaetus gallicus), ïîãèáøèé îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus) is killed by electrocutions. Photo by I. Karyakin

types of «bird-protecting» constructions usual for PLs in the Western Betpak-Dala. The poles in the first area (type 1) are equipped by steel bars, laid on to a horizontal traverse with insulators (fig. 2). The poles of the second area (type 2) have one curved steel bar, attached to a vertical traverse with an upper insulator (fig. 3). Because of special «bird-protecting» devices on surveyed fragments of PL we recorded a high level of dead raptors (table 1). The corpses of 43 raptors were found with a den-


Raptors Conservation

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4

31

Òàáë. 2. Îöåíêà ìàñøòàáîâ ãèáåëè â ïåðèîä âåñåííåé ìèãðàöèè õèùíûõ ïòèö ïðè êîíòàêòå ñ ÂË 6–10 ê â Çàïàäíîé Áåòïàê-Äàëå Table 2. The estimation of deaths of raptors on the PL 6–10 kV in the spring migration in the Western Betpak-Dala

Òèì Áàðàáàøèí ñ ïîãèáøèì íà ËÝÏ çìååÿäîì. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Tim Barabashin with the killed Short-Toed Eagle by electrocutions. Photo by I. Karyakin

íèõ.  36 è 43 êì îò îáñëåäîâàííûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ËÝÏ ñîîòâåòñòâåííî óñòàíîâëåíî ãíåçäîâàíèå ëèøü ïàðû ìîãèëüíèêîâ (Aquila heliaca) è ïàðû áàëîáàíîâ (Falco cherrug). Áëèæàéøèå ìåñòà ãíåçäîâàíèÿ êóðãàííèêà, çìååÿäà (Circaetus gallicus), áåðêóòà (Aquila chrysaetos), ñòåïíîãî îðëà (Aquila nipalensis) è ôèëèíà (Bubo bubo) âûÿâëåíû â 60–80-òè êì îò îñìîòðåííîé ËÝÏ íà ÷èíêàõ Áåòïàê-Äàëû.  ñâåòå ýòîãî ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü, ÷òî òåððèòîðèÿ Çàïàäíîé Áåòïàê-Äàëû, ïîêðûòàÿ ñåòüþ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ, íà ïëîùàäè 9000 êì 2 , ïðàêòè÷åñêè ïîëíîñòüþ ëèøåíà óñïåøíî ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, à áîëüøèíñòâî ïîãèáøèõ íà ËÝÏ ïòèö ÿâëÿþòñÿ ïðîë¸òíûìè è êî÷óþùèìè, ïðè÷¸ì, â îñíîâíîì, âçðîñëûìè ïòèöàìè. Ëèøü 3 êóðãàííèêà, 2 ñòåïíûõ Ðèñ. 3. Ïòèöåîïàñíàÿ ËÝÏ. Òèï 2. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Fig. 3. The power lines dangered for birds. Type 2. Photo by I. Karyakin

sity of 12.1 ind/10 km of PL. Among the dead raptors the Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) dominated– 3,6 ind/10 km of PL (30,2%). It was also a dominating species of live raptors on the transects – 0.56 ind/10 km of PL. All of the live Long-Legged Buzzards were recorded near the PL with the type 1 «bird-protecting» constructions. They seem to live until landing on the poles. The poles with the type 2 «bird-protecting» devices killed raptors at a rate of 7.5 times more than at the poles with type 1 construction. It is the poles of the 2nd type of construction


32

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Ìîëîäîé ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca), ïîãèáøèé îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The juvenile Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) is killed by electrocutions. Photo by I. Karyakin Êîðøóí (Milvus migrans), ïîãèáøèé îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Black Kite (Milvus migrans) is killed by electrocutions. Photo by I. Karyakin

îðëà, 1 áåðêóò è 1 ìîãèëüíèê îêàçàëèñü ìîëîäûìè ïòèöàìè 2–3-ãî ãîäà æèçíè. Áåç ãåíåðàëüíîé ñõåìû ýíåðãîñåòè íåâîçìîæíî îïðåäåëèòü ñîîòíîøåíèå ÏÇÓ 1-ãî è 2-ãî òèïîâ íà ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ íà èçó÷àåìîé òåððèòîðèè. Åñëè ðàññ÷èòûâàòü ÷èñëåííîñòü ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö èñõîäÿ èç ñðåäíèõ ïîêàçàòåëåé îáèëèÿ (12,1 ýêç/10 êì ËÝÏ), ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî òîëüêî â ïåðèîä âåñåííåé ìèãðàöèè íà íèõ ïîãèáàåò îêîëî 1500 îñîáåé õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ, èç êîòîðûõ äîìèíèðóþò êóðãàííèê (30,2%), ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (18,6%), çìååÿä (16,3%) è áåðêóò (14,0%) (òàáë. 2). Ãèáåëü õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, îñíàù¸ííûõ «ïòèöåîïàñíûìè ÏÇÓ», â Çàïàäíîé Áåòïàê-Äàëå íîñèò óãðîæàþùèé õàðàêòåð. ×òîáû ñíèçèòü îáú¸ìû ãèáåëè õèùíèêîâ íà ËÝÏ íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè, íåîáõîäèìî êàê ìèíèìóì äîáèâàòüñÿ äåìîíòàæà ýòèõ ÏÇÓ ñèëàìè âëàäåëüöåâ ËÝÏ, è, â ïåðñïåêòèâå, óñòàíàâëèâàòü äåéñòâèòåëüíî çàùèùàþùèå ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì êîæóõè íà òîêîíåñóùèå êîíñòðóêöèè.

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ which killed the most eagles (81,8%), because the erected «bird-protecting» constructions were very attractive for them. Along the surveyed PL and at a distance within 3 km from it we didn’t found any raptor nests. In the surveyed fragments of PL (36 and 43 km accordingly) we found one nesting pair of the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) and a pair of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug). The nearest breeding areas of the Long-Legged Buzzard, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) and Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) were noted in 60–80-km from the surveyed PL on the cliff-faces in Betpak-Dala. We can predict that in the territory of the Western Betpak-Dala (about 9 000 km2), with a grid of bird-threatening PL, the breeding of any raptors is virtually nill, and the biggest portion of the birds killed by electrocutions are migrating adults. Only 3 Long-Legged Buzzard, 2 Steppe Eagle, 1 Golden Eagle and 1 Imperial Eagle were subadults (2–3-years old). The number of perished birds estimated from average abundance (12.1 ind/10 km PL), shows that only in a period of spring migrations about 1500 individuals of raptors die from electrocutions, with the Long-Legged Buzzard (30,2%), Steppe Eagle (18,6%), Short-Toed Eagle (16,3%) and the Golden Eagle (14,0%) (table 2). For protection of the raptors in Western Betpak-Dala the existing «bird-protecting» devices must immediately be removed. Ìîëîäîé ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis), ïîãèáøèé îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The juvenile Imperial Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) is killed by electrocutions. Photo by I. Karyakin


Raptors Conservation

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4

33

TheResultsofMonitoringtheArtificialNests intheNizhniyNovgorodDistrict РЕЗУЛЬТАТЫ МОНИТОРИНГА ИСКУССТВЕННЫХ ГНЁЗД В НИЖЕГОРОДСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ S.V. Bakka, L.M. Novikova (The N. Novgorod branch of RBCU, N.Novgorod, Russia) С.В. Ба а, Л.М. Нови ова (Ниже ородс ое отделение Союза охраны птиц России, Н. Нов ород, Россия) Êîíòàêò: Ñåðãåé Áàêêà Ëþäìèëà Íîâèêîâà Íèæåãîðîäñêîå îòäåëåíèå ÑÎÏÐ 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä à/ÿ 631 Ýêîöåíòð «Äðîíò» òåë.: (8312) 34 46 79 sopr@dront.ru Contact: Sergey Bakka Ludmila Novikova The N. Novgorod branch of RBCU ecocenter ‘Dront’ P.O. Box 631 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 34 46 79 sopr@dront.ru

25

 1990-õ ãîäàõ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè ñêîïà (Pandion haliaetus), áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos) è îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò (Haliaeetus albicilla) îêàçàëèñü íà ãðàíè èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ, õîòÿ äî ñåðåäèíû ÕÕ âåêà ñ÷èòàëèñü îáû÷íûìè.  1998 ã. â ðàìêàõ ðåàëèçàöèè Ïëàíà äåéñòâèé ïî ñîõðàíåíèþ áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè áûëà íà÷àòà êðóïíîìàñøòàáíàÿ ðàáîòà ïî âîññòàíîâëåíèþ ÷èñëåííîñòè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö ïóò¸ì îïòèìèçàöèè óñëîâèé èõ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ. Äëÿ ýòîãî Ëàáîðàòîðèåé îõðàíû áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ ïðè ýêîöåíòðå «Äðîíò» è Íèæåãîðîäñêèì îòäåëåíèåì Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè ê 2004 ãîäó áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî 266 èñêóññòâåííûõ ãí¸çä äëÿ êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö.  èþíå-èþëå 2005 ã. â õîäå î÷åðåäíîé ïðîâåðêè áûëî îáñëåäîâàíî 212 èñêóññòâåííûõ ãí¸çä. Âñåãî â 2005 ã. èñïîëüçîâàëèñü 24 èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäà ñåìüþ âèäàìè õèùíûõ ïòèö: ñêîïîé (Pandion haliaetus) – 10, áåðêóòîì (Aquila chrysaetos) – 8, îðëàíîìáåëîõâîñòîì (Haliaeetus albicilla) – 2, áîëüøèì ïîäîðëèêîì (Aquila clanga) – 1, ÷¸ðíûì êîðøóíîì (Milvus migrans) – 1, îñîåäîì (Pernis apivorus) – 1, ÷åãëîêîì (Falco subbuteo) – 1. Áåðêóòàìè â èñêóññòâåííûõ ãí¸çäàõ áûëî âûâåäåíî êàê ìèíèìóì 3 ïòåíöà, ñêîïàìè – íå ìåíåå 16, êîðøóíàìè – íå ìåíåå 1, îñîåäàìè – 2, ÷åãëîêàìè – 2. Îáðàçîâàâøååñÿ â Ñîêîëüñêîì ðàéîíå â 2004 ã. «êîëîíèàëüíîå» ïîñåëåíèå òð¸õ ïàð ñêîï íà îòíîñèòåëüíî áëèçêîì ðàññòîÿíèè äðóã îò äðóãà â 2005 ã. ñîõðàíèëîñü. Áëàãîäàðÿ ïðîâåäåííûì áèîòåõíè÷åñêèì ìåðîïðèÿòèÿì â ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè ïðîèñõîäèò çàìåòíûé ðîñò (âîññòàíîâëåíèå îïòèìàëüíîãî óðîâíÿ) ÷èñëåííîñòè ýòèõ âèäîâ. Ïîäðîáíàÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ î ðåçóëüòàòàõ ìîíèòîðèíãà äîñòóïíà íà ñàéòå25.

http://kop.nnov.ru/release/release010.asp

Ïòåíåö áåðêóòà (Aquila chrysaetos) íà èñêóññòâåííîì ãíåçäå. Ôîòî Ì. Äîðîæêèíà The chick of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) on artificial nest. Photo by M. Dorozhkin

Ïòåíåö ñêîïû (Pandion haliaetus) èç èñêóññòâåííîãî ãíåçäà. Ôîòî Ë. Íîâèêîâîé The juvenile of the Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) from artificial nest. Photo by L. Novikova

The erecting artificial nests activities to recover the number of rare species of the bird of prey manage in the Nizhniy Novgorod district. 266 artificial nests had been erected to 2004. In 2005 212 artificial nests were surveyed. At whole in 2005 the birds of prey occupied 24 artificial nests: Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) – 10, Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) – 8, White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) – 2, Great Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) – 1, Black Kite (Milvus migrans) – 1, Honey Buzzard (Pernis apivorus) – 1, Hobby (Falco subbuteo) – 1. In the Nizhniy Novgorod district the erecting artificial nests has increased the total number of the Golden Eagle in five times, the Osprey – twice. Managing of the erecting artificial nests activities is the effective instrument for recovering the number of the rare species of the bird of prey.


34

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

RaptorsResearch ИЗУЧЕНИЕ ПЕРНАТЫХ ХИЩНИКОВ ResultsofResearchesofSteppePineForestsintheNortheast ofKazakhstanin2005 РЕЗУЛЬТАТЫ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЙ 2005 Г. В СТЕПНЫХ БОРАХ НА СЕВЕРО-ВОСТОКЕ КАЗАХСТАНА I.V. Karyakin (Center for Field Studies, N.Novgorod, Russia) A.S. Levin (Institute of Zoology, Kazakhstan National Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan) T.O. Barabashin (Ulyanovsk Branch of the Russian Birds Conservation Union, Rostov-on-Don, Russia) F.F. Karpov (Bird Conservation Union of Kazakhstan, Almaty, Kazakhstan) И.В. Каря ин (Центр полевых исследований, Н.Нов ород, Россия) А.С. Левин (Инстит т зооло ии, Алматы, Казахстан) Т.О. Барабашин (Ульяновс ое отделение Союза охраны птиц России, Ростов-на-Дон , Россия) Ф.Ф. Карпов (Союз охраны птиц Казахстана, Алматы, Казахстан) Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Êîðîëåíêî, 17a–17 òåë.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Àíàòîëèé Ëåâèí Èíñòèòóò çîîëîãèè Íàöèîíàëüíîé Àêàäåìèè íàóê Êàçàõñòàíà Êàçàõñòàí 480060 ã. Àëìà-Àòà Àêàäåìãîðîäîê Èíñòèòóò çîîëîãèè òåë.: (3272) 48 26 32 levin_saker@nursat.kz Contact: Igor Karyakin Leader by Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a–17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Anatoliy Levin Institute of Zoology Kazakhstan National Academy of Sciences Kazakhstan 480060 Almaty Institute of Zoology tel.: (3272) 48 26 32 levin_saker@nursat.kz

Ââåäåíèå Íà òåððèòîðèè Êóëóíäèíñêîé ðàâíèíû (Àëòàéñêèé êðàé Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè, Ïàâëîäàðñêàÿ è Âîñòî÷íî-Êàçàõñòàíñêàÿ îáëàñòè Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàçàõñòàí) äî íàñòîÿùåãî âðåìåíè ñîõðàíÿþòñÿ óíèêàëüíûå ñòåïíûå áîðû, ïðîèçðàñòàþùèå ïðåèìóùåñòâå��íî íà äðåâíèõ ïåñ÷àíûõ äþíàõ, ïðîòÿíóâøèõñÿ â âèäå ëåíò îò Èðòûøà äî Îáè. Ïîñëå ðàñïàäà ÑÑÑÐ ïëîùàäü ñòåïíûõ áîðîâ ñòàëà ðåçêî ñîêðàùàòüñÿ èç-çà íåêîíòðîëèðóåìûõ ðóáîê è ïîæàðîâ, è áîëüøå âñåãî ïîñòðàäàëè áîðû íà òåððèòîðèè Êàçàõñòàíà. Ñ 1991 ïî 2005 ã. èõ ïëîùàäü ñîêðàòèëàñü íà 24%, ÷òî î÷åíü õîðîøî âèäíî íà êîñìîñíèìêàõ (ðèñ. 1).  ïîñëåäíèå íåñêîëüêî ëåò ëåñõîçàì, ýêñïëóàòèðóþùèì ñòåïíûå áîðû â Ïàâëîäàðñêîé è Âîñòî÷íî-Êàçàõñòàíñêîé îáëàñòÿõ, áûë ïðèäàí ñòàòóñ çàïîâåäíûõ çîí. Íåñìîòðÿ íà ýòî, íà áîëüøåé ïëîùàäè áîðîâ äî ñèõ ïîð âåäóòñÿ ðóáêè, îäíàêî èõ îõðàíà ñóùåñòâåííî óñèëåíà â îòëè÷èå îò îõðàíû áîðîâ ñîñåäíåãî ñ Êàçàõñòàíîì Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ Ðîññèè.  ðåçóëüòàòå, çà ñ÷¸ò ñäåðæèâàíèÿ øòàòîì ëåñíîé îõðàíû ñïîíòàííîãî íàïëûâà îòäûõàþùèõ, ñíèçèëñÿ ðèñê âîçíèêíîâåíèÿ ïîæàðîâ è óìåíüøèëñÿ ôàêòîð áåñïîêîéñòâà, ÷òî áëàãîïðèÿòíî ñêàçàëîñü íà ðåäêèõ âèäàõ ïòèö, íàñåëÿþùèõ ñòåïíûå áîðû, â òîì ÷èñëå è

The territory of the steppe pine forests in the Northeast of Kazakhstan has been surveyed in 13–23 May 2005. The total length of survey routes was 1172,6 km. The total length of edges of pine forests available for

Ðèñ. 1. Ñòåïíûå áîðû íà êîñìîñíèìêå Landsat–7 (2004 ã.) Fig.1 The pine forests on satellite image Landsat–7 (2004)


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4

Âíóòðåííÿÿ îïóøêà ñòåïíîãî áîðà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Internal edge of a steppe pine forest. Photo by I. Karyakin

Êîíòàêò: Òèìîôåé Áàðàáàøèí Óëüÿíîâñêîå îòäåëåíèå Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè 344065, Ðîññèÿ Ðîñòîâ-íà-Äîíó ïåð. Äíåïðîâñêèé 118 êâ. 520 timbar@bk.ru Contact: Tim Barabashin The Ulyanovsk branch of RBCU, Russia Dneprovsky lane 118–520 Rostov-na-Donu 344065 Russia timbar@bk.ru

õèùíèêîâ. Îäíàêî äî ïîñëåäíåãî âðåìåíè áîðû, ëåæàùèå íà òåððèòîðèè Êàçàõñòàíà, îñòàâàëèñü ñëàáî èçó÷åííûìè â îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîì ïëàíå. ×òîáû çàêðûòü ýòî áåëîå ïÿòíî íà îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé êàðòå Êàçàõñòàíà, ñ 13 ïî 23 ìàÿ 2005 ã. ýêñïåäèöèîííîé ãðóïïîé Öåíòðà ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé (Ðîññèÿ) è Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Êàçàõñòàíà áûëà ïðîâåäåíà ðàáîòà ïî èçó÷åíèþ ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â ñòåïíûõ áîðàõ ñåâåðî-âîñòî÷íîãî Êàçàõñòàíà ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ïòèö, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàçàõñòàí. Ýòà ðàáîòà áûëà âûïîëíåíà â ðàìêàõ ïðîåêòîâ ïî èíâåíòàðèçàöèè Êëþ÷åâûõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ òåððèòîðèé è èçó÷åíèþ ñîâðåìåííîãî ñîñòîÿíèÿ ñîêîëà-áàëîáàíà.  õîäå èññëåäîâàíèé â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü óäåëÿëîñü âíèìàíèå êðóïíûì ïåðíàòûì õèùíèêàì.

Ìåòîäèêà Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ýêñïåäèöèîííûõ ìàðøðóòîâ ñîñòàâèëà 1172,6 êì, èç íèõ àâòîìîáèëüíûõ – 1160 êì, ïåøèõ – 12,6 êì. Ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ âûÿâëÿëèñü áîëüøåé ÷àñòüþ â õîäå àâòîìàðøðóòîâ è â ìåíüøåé ñòåïåíè – â õîäå ïåøèõ ìàðøðóòîâ, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî âäîëü îïóøåê. Ðàáîòà áûëà îñíîâàíà íà ðåãèñòðàöèè

Ãàðü íà îêðàèíå ñòåïíîãî áîðà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Burnt edge of a steppe pine forest. Photo by I. Karyakin

35

raptors in the region measured 1782,02 km, the length of the surveyed edges of pine forests was 809,53 km (45,43%) (fig. 1, 2). The Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus). Two living nests were found in steppe pine forests in the Northeast of Kazakhstan. All nests were located on pines. A total of 3–5 breeding pairs are extrapolated for the region (fig. 3). The Great Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga). A total of 3 breeding areas were found on the territory of the steppe pine forests in the Northeast of Kazakhstan, 2 living nests located on pines were found (fig. 4). The internal edge of pine forests have numbers of Great Spotted Eagle – about 1,08 pairs per 100 km. A total of 7–15 breeding pairs are estimated in the Altai Kray. The Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca). A total of 60 breeding areas were found on the territory of the pine forests in the Northeast of Kazakhstan (fig. 5). There, 65 nests were found (47 active). All nests were located on pines (on tops of trees – 73,85%). Clutches size (n=2) was 2 eggs. The internal edge of pine forests have numbers of Imperial Eagle – about 4,68 pairs per 100 km, the external edge of pine forests – 8,28 pairs per 100 km. The maximum local density of Imperial Eagles was recorded in external edge of pine forests. The nearest neighbor distance was 5,7±2,91 (M±SD), N=60, range 1,4 to 11,8 km. A total of 126– 133 breeding pairs are estimated for the steppe pine forests in the Northeast of Kazakhstan. The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). One young dead from electrocution was observed in the north edge of pine forest near Sariozek village. The sitting place of adult bird was observed in the internal edge of pine forest near Shalday village.


36

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ Ðèñ. 2. Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü îïóøåê áîðîâ, íåçàòðîíóòûõ âåðõîâûìè ïîæàðàìè (1) è ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü îáñëåäîâàííûõ îïóøåê (2). À – ëåñíûå ìàññèâû è ðåêè; B – îöèôðîâàííûå ïî êîñìîñíèìêàì Landsat–7 îïóøêè; Ñ – ãðàíèöà Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíà Fig. 2. The total length of edge of intact pine forests (1) and surveyed edge of intact pine forests (2). A – forest and river B – line of edge of intact pine forests C – border of Russia and Kazakhstan

îõîòÿùèõñÿ ïòèö è ïîèñêå èõ ãí¸çä â ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïàõ. Ïîä ãíåçäîâûìè ó÷àñòêàìè ïîäðàçóìåâàþòñÿ òåððèòîðèè, íà êîòîðûõ áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ãí¸çäà (æèëûå èëè ïóñòóþùèå, íî àáîíèðóåìûå ïòèöàìè) ëèáî áûëè âñòðå÷åíû âçðîñëûå ïòèöû, íåîäíîêðàòíî ïðîÿâëÿâøèå ïðèçíàêè áåñïîêîéñòâà êàê ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê ÷åëîâåêó, òàê è ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê äðóãèì ïòèöàì. Âûÿâëåííûå ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè êàðòèðîâàëèñü, äàííûå âíîñèëèñü â ñðåäó ÃÈÑ (ArcView 3.2a, ESRI, CA, USA), ãäå ïðîèçâîäèëñÿ ðàñ÷¸ò îáùåé ÷èñëåííîñòè, èíäèâèäóàëüíî äëÿ êàæäîãî âèäà, èñõîäÿ èç åãî ãíåçäîâûõ ñòåðåîòèïîâ (Êàðÿêèí, 1996; 2000). Ðàáîòà â Àëòàéñêîì êðàå (È. Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005) ïîêàçàëà, ÷òî êðóïíûå ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè â ñòåïíûõ áîðàõ ãíåçäÿòñÿ ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî âäîëü îïóøåê, íåçàòðîíóòûõ êðóïíûìè âåðõîâûìè ïîæàðàìè, ñïëîøíûìè ðóáêàìè è óäàÝêñïåäèöèîííàÿ ãðóïïà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The field group. Photo by I. Karyakin

The Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug). A total of 20 territories were found in the steppe pine forests in the Northeast of Kazakhstan in 2005 (fig. 6). There, 18 nests were found (10 active). There, 17 nests were located in Imperial Eagle nests on pines and one nest was located in Great Spotted Eagle nest on pine. The internal edge of pine forests have numbers of Sakers – about 0,36 pairs per 100 km, the external edge of pine forests – 3,39 pairs per 100 km. The maximum local density of Sakers (90% breeding territories) was recorded in external edge of pine forests. The nearest neighbor distance was 13,71±7,82 (M±SD), N=20, range 4,45 to 34,36 km. A total of 39–42 breeding pairs are estimated for the steppe pine forests in the Northeast of Kazakhstan. The Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo). A total of 11 breeding areas were found on the territory of the steppe pine forests in the Northeast of Kazakhstan (fig. 7). There, 15 nests were found (2 living nests). All nests were located on the ground in the foot of pinetrees. Two broods contained 3 chicks each. A total of 73–83 breeding pairs are estimated to breed in the steppe pine forests in the Northeast of Kazakhstan.


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4 ë¸ííûõ îò êðóïíûõ íàñåë¸ííûõ ïóíêòîâ áîëåå ÷åì íà 150 ì. Ïîýòîìó äëÿ äàëüíåéøåé îáðàáîòêè ïîëó÷åííîãî ìàòåðèàëà â ÃÈÑ ïî êîñìîñíèìêàì áûëè îöèôðîâàíû òàêèå îïóøêè (ðèñ. 2). Îáùàÿ èõ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ñîñòàâèëà 1782,02 êì (ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü âíåøíèõ îïóøåê áîðîâûõ ìàññèâîâ – 1099,63 êì, âíóòðåííèõ – 682,39 êì). Ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü îáñëåäîâàííûõ íåíàðóøåííûõ îïóøåê ñîñòàâèëà 809,53 êì èëè 45,43% îò èõ îáùåé ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòè (âíåøíèõ – 531,69 êì èëè 48,35%, âíóòðåííèõ – 277,84 êì èëè 40,72%). Ïðèãîäíûå äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ õèùíèêîâ îïóøêè îêàçàëèñü î÷åíü ñèëüíî ðàñ÷ëåí¸ííûìè íà íåáîëüøèå ïî ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòè ó÷àñòêè ïÿòíàìè ñãîðåâøåãî ëåñà, âûðóáêàìè è íàñåëåííûìè ïóíêòàìè. Ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü öåëüíûõ ó÷àñòêîâ îïóøêè ñîñòàâèëà â ñðåäíåì (M±SD) 9,53±10,07 êì (0,38 – 52,56 êì). Ëèøü 26 öåëüíûõ ó÷àñòêîâ îïóøêè èìåëè ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü áîëåå 20 êì. Òåððèòîðèÿ áîðîâ, ïðèëåãàþùàÿ ê äîëèíå ð. Èðòûø, íàìè íå îáñëåäîâàíà, ïîýòîìó ìû å¸ íå ðàññìàòðèâàåì è â ÃÈÑ-àíàëèçå ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ (ðèñ. 2).

Ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé Çìååÿä (Circaetus gallicus). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus). Photo by I. Karyakin

Çìååÿä (Circaetus gallicus) Î÷åíü ðåäêèé ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ âèä ñòåïíûõ áîðîâ ñåâåðî-âîñòîêà Êàçàõñòàíà.  õîäå ýêñïåäèöèè áûëî îáíàðóæåíî 2 çàíÿòûõ ãíåçäà, óäàë¸ííûõ äðóã îò äðóãà íà 150,9 êì (ðèñ. 3). Âåñüìà âåðîÿòíî, ÷òî êàêàÿ-òî ÷àñòü ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð çìååÿäà áûëà ïðîïóùåíà, ïîýòîìó ìîæíî ëèøü ïðåäïîëàãàòü, ÷òî â áîðàõ ãíåçäèòñÿ îêîëî 3–5 ïàð ýòèõ õèùíèêîâ. Îáà ãíåçäà ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà îïóøå÷íûõ ñîñíàõ â ïðåäâåðøèííûõ ðàçâèëêàõ íà âûñîòå 15 è 20 ì ñîîòâåòñòâåííî. Ïåðâîå ãíåçäî áûëî îñìîòðåíî 13 ìàÿ. Ëîòîê â í¸ì áûë ïîëíîñòüþ âûñòëàí çåë¸íûìè âåòî÷êàìè ñîñíû è óñåÿí ëèííûì ïóõîì èç íàñåäíîãî ïÿòíà ñàìêè, íî êëàäêè íå áûëî. Âòîðîå ãíåçäî áûëî îáíàðóæåíî 22 ìàÿ. Ðÿäîì ñ íèì óäàëîñü ñôîòîãðàôèðîâàòü âçðîñëóþ ïòèöó.

Ãíåçäî áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà (Aquila clanga).Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The nest of the Great Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga). Photo by I. Karyakin

37

Ðèñ. 3. Êàðòà ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ çìååÿäà (Circaetus gallicus) Fig. 3. The distribution of breeding territories of ShortToed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus)

Ïîäîðëèê áîëüøîé (Aquila clanga) Î ãíåçäîâàíèè ýòîãî âèäà â Êàçàõñòàíå çà ïîñëåäíèå íåñêîëüêî ëåò èíôîðìàöèÿ íå ïîñòóïàëà (Êàçàõñòàíñêèé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèé áþëëåòåíü, 2002; 2004). Íàìè âûÿâëåíî 3 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà áîëüøèõ ïîäîðëèêîâ, óäàë¸ííûõ äðóã îò äðóãà íà


38

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Òàáë. 1. ×èñëåííîñòü ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ êðóïíûõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ Table 1. The number of breeding raptors

16,5 è 37,8 êì (ðèñ. 4). Âñå îíè áûëè ïðèóðî÷åíû ê âíóòðåííèì îïóøêàì áîðîâ è ðàñïîëàãàëèñü â 100–400-õ ì îò íåáîëüøèõ âîäîåìîâ. 16 è 17 ìàÿ íà 2-õ ó÷àñòêàõ áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ãí¸çäà, ðàñïîëàãàâøèåñÿ íà ñîñíàõ â íèæíåé òðåòè êðîíû íà âûñîòå 9 è 10 ì ñîîòâåòñòâåííî.  îáîèõ ãí¸çäàõ ñàìêè íàñèæèâàëè êëàäêè. Åù¸ îäèí ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê ïîäîðëèêîâ áûë âûÿâëåí íà ãðàíèöå Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíà â 51,5 êì îò áëèæàéøåé êàçàõñòàíñêîé ïàðû. Ñòàðîå ãíåçäî áûëî óñòðîåíî íà ñîñíå è ðàñïîëàãàëîñü íà êàçàõñêîé òåððèòîðèè â 15 ì îò ïîãðàíè÷íîé ïðîñåêè, îäíàêî ïòèöû äåðæàëèñü â 0,5 êì îò ñòàðîãî ãíåçäà íà ðîññèéñêîé òåððèòîðèè, ÷òî áûëî âûÿñíåíî ïîçæå ïðè îáñëåäîâàíèè òåððèòîðèè Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ. Ïîìèìî âñòðå÷ ïòèö íà âûøåóêàçàííûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ, 14 ìàÿ â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ñ. Æàíààóë (ñåâåðíàÿ ÷àñòü áîðîâîãî ìàññèâà) íàáëþäàëàñü ïðîëåòàâøàÿ íàä áîðîì ìîëîäàÿ ïòèöà (ñë¸òîê ïðîøëîãî ãîäà).  ýòîé ÷àñòè áîðîâ òàêæå èìåþòñÿ Ðèñ. 4. Êàðòà ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà (Aquila clanga) Fig. 4. The distribution of breeding territories of Great Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga)

ó÷àñòêè ëåñà, ïðèãîäíûå äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà, íî îíè íàìè íå áûëè îáñëåäîâàíû. Ïðè ïëîòíîñòè 1,08 ïàð íà 100 êì âíóòðåííåé îïóøêè áîðîâ íà ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè ìîæåò ãíåçäèòüñÿ 7 ïàð áîëüøèõ ïîäîðëèêîâ. Íà ïàðó ��îäîðëèêîâ ïðèõîäèòñÿ 7,56 êì áîðîâûõ îïóøåê âäîëü âîäîåìîâ, ÷òî ïðè ïðîòÿæåííîñòè òàêèõ îïóøåê â 67,52 êì äà¸ò îöåíêó â 9 ïàð. Âïîëíå âîçìîæíî, íà îáñëåäîâàííîé òåððèòîðèè áûëè ïðîïóùåíû åù¸ 1–2 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà ïîäîðëèêîâ, ïîýòîìó èñïîëüçîâàíèå äëÿ ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè èìåþùèõñÿ äàííûõ çàíèæàåò îöåíêè ÷èñëåííîñòè â 1,5–2 ðàçà. Âèäèìî, îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè â 12–15 ïàð äëÿ ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè áîëåå áëèçêà ê äåéñòâèòåëüíîñòè (òàáë. 1). Ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca) Ñàìûé îáû÷íûé îð¸ë â ñòåïíûõ áîðàõ íà ñåâåðî-âîñòîêå Êàçàõñòàíà.  õîäå ýêñïåäèöèè âûÿâëåíî 60 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ìîãèëüíèêîâ (ðèñ. 5). Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ó÷àñòêàìè (n=60) âàðüèðóåò îò 1,4 äî 11,8 êì, ñîñòàâëÿÿ â ñðåäíåì 5,7±2,91 êì. Áîëüøèíñòâî ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ (73,33%) ïðèóðî÷åíî ê âíåøíèì îïóøêàì, 21,67% ìîãèëüíèêîâ ãíåçäèòñÿ íà âíóòðåííèõ îïóøêàõ ñòåïíûõ áîðîâ, ïðè óñëîâèè åñëè ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ïðîòèâîïîëîæíûìè êðîìêàìè ëåñà ïðåâûøàåò 2 êì, à ïëîùàäü îòêðûòîãî ïðîñòðàíñòâà 30 êì2 è 5,0% ïàð ãíåçäèòñÿ íà îäèíî÷íûõ ñîñíàõ ñðåäè îñòåïíÿþùèõñÿ ãîðåëüíèêîâ. Ïëîòíîñòü ìîãèëüíèêà íà âíåøíèõ è âíóòðåííèõ îïóøêàõ áîðîâ ñîñòàâëÿåò 8,28 è 4,68 ïàð/100 êì ñîîòâåòñòâåííî. Ó÷èòûâàÿ ýòî ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî íà ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè â àíàëîãè÷íûõ áèîòîïàõ ãíåçäèòñÿ 91 è 32 ïàðû ìîãèëüíèêîâ ñîîòâåòñòâåííî. Âåðîÿòíî, îêîëî 10 ïàð ìîãèëüíèêîâ ãíåçäÿòñÿ íà îäèíî÷íûõ ñîñíàõ ñðåäè îñòåïíÿþùèõñÿ ãîðåëüíèêîâ.


Raptors Research

Îð¸ë-ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca). Photo by I. Karyakin

Êëàäêà îðëà-ìîãèëüíèêà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The clutch of the Imperial Eagle. Photo by I. Karyakin

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4 Íà 59 ó÷àñòêàõ îáíàðóæåíû 65 ãí¸çä, 47 èç êîòîðûõ îêàçàëèñü æèëûìè – â íèõ ñàìêè íàñèæèâàëè êëàäêè. Åù¸ 2 ãíåçäà ïòèöû äîñòðàèâàëè â ìîìåíò íàáëþäåíèÿ, â îäíîì ãíåçäå ïîãèáëà êëàäêà, 6 ãí¸çä ïóñòîâàëè, íî ðÿäîì ñ íèìè ïðèñóòñòâîâàëè âçðîñëûå ïòèöû, îñòàëüíûå 7 ãí¸çä îêàçàëèñü ñòàðûìè ïîñòðîéêàìè íà 4-õ ó÷àñòêàõ ïòèö ñ æèëûìè ãíåçäàìè è íà 3-õ ïóñòóþùèõ ó÷àñòêàõ. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, çàíÿòîñòü ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ìîãèëüíèêîâ â 2005 ã. ñîñòàâèëà 95,0%. Êîëè÷åñòâî æèëûõ ãíåçä ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê çàíÿòûì ó÷àñòêàì ñîñòàâèëî 79,66%, à ñ ó÷¸òîì ñòðîÿùèõñÿ ãí¸çä, êîòîðûå ñ áîëüøîé âåðîÿòíîñòüþ ñòàëè æèëûìè, – 81,36%.  òî æå âðåìÿ, ðàáîòà âåëàñü â íà÷àëüíûé ïåðèîä íàñèæèâàíèÿ êëàäîê ìîãèëüíèêàìè, ê êîíöó æå íàñèæèâàíèÿ ïîãèáøèõ êëàäîê ñòàíîâèòñÿ áîëüøå, íà ÷òî óêàçûâàþò áîëåå ïðîäîëæèòåëüíûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ â áîëåå ïîçäíèé ïåðèîä â ñîñåäíåì Àëòàéñêîì êðàå. Âèäèìî, ðåàëüíîå êîëè÷åñòâî óñïåøíûõ ãíåçä ìîãèëüíèêîâ â áîðàõ ñåâåðî-âîñòîêà Êàçàõñòàíà ïðèáëèæàåòñÿ ê 60–70%. Ó÷èòûâàÿ ýòî ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî â ãîä óñïåøíî ãíåçäèòñÿ îêîëî 82–86 ïàð. Äâå îñìîòðåííûå íàìè êëàäêè ñîäåðæàëè ïî 2 ÿéöà. Âñå îáíàðóæåííûå ãí¸çäà ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà ñîñíàõ. Ëèøü îäíà ñòàðàÿ ïîñòðîéêà îáíàðóæåíà íà ñóõîé ñîñíå, âñå îñòàëüíûå ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà æèâûõ ñîñíàõ. Ïîäàâëÿþùåå áîëüøèíñòâî ãí¸çä áûëî ðàñïîëîæåíî íåïîñðåäñòâåííî íà îïóøêå èëè íà îäèíî÷íûõ ñîñíàõ áëèç íå¸, è ëèøü 6,15% ãí¸çä áûëè óäàëåíû îò îïóøêè âãëóáü ëåñà íà 50–200 ì è ëèáî íå ïðîñìàòðèâàëèñü ñ îòêðûòîãî ïðîñòðàíñòâà, ëèáî ïðîñìàòðèâàëèñü ñ òðóäîì. Áîëüøèíñòâî ãí¸çä (n=65) áûëè óñòðîåíû íà âåðøèíàõ ñîñåí è âîçâûøàëèñü íàä êðîíîé (73,85%), 12,31% ðàñïîëàãàëèñü â ïðåäâåðøèííûõ ðàçâèëêàõ è áûëè ÷àñòè÷íî ñêðûòû âåòâÿìè êðîíû, ñòîëüêî æå ãí¸çä – â ðàçâèëêàõ ëèáî â îñíîâàíèè ìîùíûõ âåòâåé ó ñòâîëà â âåðõíåé òðåòè êðîíû è, êàê ïðàâèëî, áûëè ïîëíîñòüþ ñêðûòû êðîíîé, è îäíî ãíåçäî (1,54%) áûëî óñòðîåíî â íèæíåé ÷àñòè êðîíû â ðàçâèëêå ñòâîëà. Ïîñëåäíåå ãíåçäî ðàñïîëàãàëîñü íà îäèíî÷íîé ñîñíå è ïî õàðàêòåðó ñâîåãî ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ áûëî áëèçêî ê ñòåðåîòèïó

39

Ðèñ. 5. Êàðòà ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ìîãèëüíèêà (Aquila heliaca) Fig. 5. The distribution of breeding territories of Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca)

ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ìîãèëüíèêîâ íà áåð¸çàõ â ïðåäãîðüÿõ Àëòàÿ. Âûñîòà ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãí¸çä âàðüèðóåò îò 4 äî 25 ì, ñîñòàâëÿÿ â ñðåäíåì 19,3±4,76 ì. Òèïè÷íîå ãíåçäî îðëà-ìîãèëüíèêà íà âåðøèíå ñîñíû íà îïóøêå ëåíòî÷íîãî áîðà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The typical nest of the Imperial Eagle on the top of a pine tree on edge of a line pine forest. Photo by I. Karyakin


40

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Ïîãèáøèé ìîëîäîé áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The dead young Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). Photo by I. Karyakin

Áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos)  õîäå ýêñïåäèöèè íàìè íå îáíàðóæåíî ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ýòèõ îðëîâ.  ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü ýòî ñâÿçàíî ñ òåì, ÷òî ìåòîäèêà ïîèñêà ãíåçä, âûáðàííàÿ íàìè, õîðîøà äëÿ ïîèñêà ãí¸çä ìîãèëüíèêîâ, íî äàëåêà îò îïòèìàëüíîé ïðè ðàáîòå ñ áåðêóòîì. Ýòîò êðóïíûé õèùíèê ãíåçäèòñÿ ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî âíóòðè áîðîâûõ ìàññèâîâ áëèç íåáîëüøèõ îòêðûòûõ ïðîñòðàíñòâ. Òåì íå ìåíåå ìû ñ÷èòàåì, ÷òî íà ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè ìîæåò ãíåçäèòüñÿ 2–5 ïàð áåðêóòîâ, â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ íàñåëåííûõ ïóíêòîâ Øàëäàé è Ñàðûîçåê. Ýòî ìíåíèå îñíîâàíî îò÷àñòè íà íàáëþäåíèÿõ íà òåððèòîðèè Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ, îò÷àñòè íà íàøèõ èññëåäîâàíèÿõ â Êàçàõñòàíå.  ÷àñòíîñòè, 15 ìàÿ â 6,5 êì îò ï. Øàëäàé áûëà îáíàðóæåíà ïðèñàäà áåðêóòà ñ îñòàòêàìè ïèùè è ïîãàäêàìè èç øåðñòè çàéöåâ-áåëÿêîâ. Îáñëåäîâàíèå âíåøíèõ è âíóòðåííèõ îïóøåê áîðà íà ïðåäìåò ãí¸çä ìîãèëüíèêà è ïîäîðëèêà íà ïðîòÿæåíèè 67,67 êì â ðàäèóñå 12 êì îò ïîñåëêà íå ïðèíåñëè íèêàêèõ ðåçóëüòàòîâ, ÷òî êîñâåííî ìîæåò óêàçûâàòü íà íàëè÷èå çäåñü ãíåçäîâîãî ó÷àñòêà áîëåå ñèëüíîãî õèùíèêà, òàêîãî êàê áåðêóò. 18 ìàÿ îñòàíêè ñë¸òêà áåðêóòà ïðîøëîãî ãîäà îáíàðóæåíû ïîä ïòèöåîïàñíîé ËÝÏ íà ñåâåðíîé îïóøêå áîðà â 5,5 êì îò ä. Ñàðûîçåê. Çäåñü îïóøêà íà ïðîòÿæåíèè 15 êì îêàçàëàñü íåçàíÿòîé ìîãèëüíèêàìè, õîòÿ âñåãî ëèøü â 5 êì ñ äðóãîé ñòîðîíû áîðîâîé ëåíòû ýòè îðëû ãíåçäèëèñü áîëåå èëè ìåíåå ðàâíîìåðíî â 2–5 êì ïàðà îò ïàðû. Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug)  èìåþùåéñÿ ëèòåðàòóðå èíôîðìàöèÿ î áàëîáàíå íà ñåâåðî-âîñòîêå Êàçàõñòàíà êðàéíå ïðîòèâîðå÷èâà.  ìàòåðèàëàõ ïî îðíèòîôàóíå Ïàâëîäàðñêîãî Ïðèèðòûøüÿ ó À.Î. Ñîëîìàòèíà ñâåäåíèÿ î áàëîáàíå îòñóòñòâóþò (Ñîëîìàòèí, 1999à, á).  òî æå âðåìÿ åùå â 1989 ã. 10 èþíÿ ãíåçäî áàëîáàíà ñ 5 îïåðÿþùèìèñÿ ïòåíöàìè áûëî íàéäåíî íà çàïàäíîé êðîìêå Øàëäàéñêîãî áîðà â ðàéîíå ïîñ. Ìàéêàðàãàé, à 11 èþíÿ â òîì æå ðàéîíå âèäåëè îäèíî÷íóþ ïòèöó (Êîâøàðü, Õðîêîâ, 1993).  ñâîäêå «Ïîçâîíî÷íûå âîñòî÷íîãî Êàçàõñòàíà» óêàçûâàåòñÿ, ÷òî áàëîáàí ãíåçäèòñÿ ïî âîñòî÷íîìó Êàçàõñòàíó ïîâñþäó, êðîìå ðàâíèííûõ òåððèòîðèé (Ïðîêîïîâ è äð., 2002).

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ Ïî íàøèì íàáëþäåíèÿì áàëîáàí äîñòàòî÷íî ðåäêèé, íî â òî æå âðåìÿ õàðàêòåðíûé õèùíèê ñòåïíûõ áîðîâ ñåâåðî-âîñòîêà Êàçàõñòàíà.  õîäå ýêñïåäèöèè âûÿâëåíî 19 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ýòèõ ñîêîëîâ è ïðîâåðåí 1 ðàíåå èçâåñòíûé (ðèñ. 6). Ðàíåå èçâåñòíûé ó÷àñòîê ðàñïîëàãàëñÿ íà ãðàíèöå Êàçàõñòàíà è Ðîññèè è áûë îáíàðóæåí â 2003 ã. – çäåñü ñîêîëû ãíåçäèëèñü â 600õ ì îò ïîãðàíè÷íîé ïðîñåêè íà òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèè, óæå â 2004 ã. èõ ïðåæíåå ãíåçäî ïóñòîâàëî, à â 2005 ã. áûëî îáíàðóæåíî íîâîå ãíåçäî íà êàçàõñêîé òåððèòîðèè â 1,5 êì îò ïðåæíåãî. Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ãíåçäîâûìè ó÷àñòêàìè áàëîáàíîâ (n=20) âàðüèðóåò îò 4,45 äî 34,36 êì, ñîñòàâëÿÿ â ñðåäíåì 13,71±7,82 êì. Áîëüøèíñòâî ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ (90,0%) ïðèóðî÷åíî ê âíåøíèì îïóøêàì è ëèøü ïî 5,0% áàëîáàíîâ ãíåçäèòñÿ ëèáî íà âíóòðåííèõ îïóøêàõ ñòåïíûõ áîðîâ, ëèáî íà îäèíî÷íûõ äåðåâüÿõ ñðåäè îòêðûòîãî ïðîñòðàíñòâà çà ïðåäåëàìè âíåøíèõ îïóøåê. Îáðàùàåò íà ñåáÿ âíèìàíèå è òîò ôàêò, ÷òî 16 ïàð áàëîáàíîâ èç 20 (80,0%) ïðèóðî÷åíû ê öåëüíûì ó÷àñòêàì îïóøåê ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòüþ áîëåå 20 êì. Ñîêîë ÿâíî èçáåãàåò îïóøêè, ñèëüíî ðàñ÷ëåí¸ííîé â ðåçóëüòàòå àíòðîïîãåííûõ íàðóøåíèé.  òî æå âðåìÿ 70,0% ïàð áàëîáàíîâ ãíåçäèòñÿ íà ðàññòîÿíèè îò 1,4 äî 5,6 êì îò íàñåëåíÐèñ. 6. Êàðòà ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) Fig. 6. The distribution of breeding territories of Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug)


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4

41

Ïóõîâûå ïòåíöû áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) â ïîñòðîéêå áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà íà ñîñíå. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The chicks of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in the old nest of the Great Spotted Eagle on a pine tree. Photo by I. Karyakin

íûõ ïóíêòîâ, ò.å. íàñåëåííûé ïóíêò íàõîäèòñÿ â ïðåäåëàõ ãíåçäîâîãî ó÷àñòêà ïàðû ñîêîëîâ. Ïëîòíîñòü áàëîáàíà íà âíåøíèõ è âíóòðåííèõ îïóøêàõ áîðîâ ñîñòàâëÿåò 3,39 è 0,36 ïàð/100 êì ñîîòâåòñòâåííî. Ó÷èòûâàÿ ýòî ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî íà ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè â àíàëîãè÷íûõ áèîòîïàõ ãíåçäèòñÿ 37 è 2 ïàðû áàëîáàíîâ ñîîòâåòñòâåííî. Âîçìîæíî, 3 ïàðû ñîêîëîâ ãíåçäÿòñÿ íà îäèíî÷íûõ ñîñíàõ ñðåäè îñòåïíÿþùèõñÿ ãîðåëüíèêîâ íà çàïàäíîé ïåðèôåðèè áîðîâîãî ìàññèâà áëèç ñ¸ë Àðáèãåëü, Êîðò è Êàçàíòàé.  õîäå ýêñïåäèöèè îáíàðóæåíî 18 ãí¸çä áàëîáàíà íà 16 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ, 10 èç êîòîðûõ îêàçàëèñü æèëûìè (â 7 ãíåçäàõ ñàìêè ïëîòíî ñèäåëè íà êëàäêàõ ëèáî ìàëåíüêèõ ïóõîâè÷êàõ, â 2-õ ãíåçäàõ â ìîìåíò èõ ïîñåùåíèÿ ñàìêè êîðìèëè ïóõîâûõ ïòåíöîâ, è â òðóáó óäàëîñü ðàçãëÿäåòü 2-õ è 4-õ ïòåíöîâ ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, è 1 ãíåçäî áûëî îáñëåäîâàíî è â í¸ì îáíàðóæåí âûâîäîê èç 4-õ ïóõîâûõ ïòåíöîâ). Íà 3-õ ó÷àñòêàõ ãí¸çäà áàëîáàíà îêàçàëèñü ïóñòûìè, õîòÿ ïòèöû ïðèñóòñòâîâàëè íà íèõ: â îäíîì ãíåçäå ïîãèá âûâîäîê, à â äðóãîì – ñàìêà ïî ïðè÷èíå õèùíè÷åñòâà ôèëèíà, íà òðåòüåì ó÷àñòêå áûëî îáíàðóæåíî ïðîøëîãîäíåå ãíåçäî, à æèëîãî ãíåçäà ýòîãî ãîäà íàéäåíî íå áûëî, õîòÿ áûëà âñòðå÷åíà áåñïîêîÿùàÿñÿ ïòèöà (ïðåäïîëîæèòåëüíî, ñàìåö). Ïîìèìî ýòîãî åù¸ íà 4-õ ó÷àñòêàõ íàáëþäàëèñü ïàðû âçðîñëûõ ïòèö (2 ñëó÷àÿ) è áåñïîêîÿùèåñÿ ñàìöû, íî æèëûõ èëè ñòàðûõ ãí¸çä îáíàðóæåíî íå áûëî. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, âñå ëîêàëèçîâàííûå â õîäå ýêñïåäèöèè ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè áàëîáàíîâ áûëè çàíÿòû ñîêîëàìè. Êîëè÷åñòâî æèëûõ ãí¸çä ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê çàíÿòûì ó÷àñòêàì ñ îáíàðóæåííûìè ãí¸çäàìè ñîñòàâèëî

66,67%. Èñõîäÿ èç ýòîãî ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî â áîðàõ óñïåøíî ãíåçäèòñÿ 26– 28 ïàð â ãîä. Îñíîâíûìè ïðè÷èíàìè íèçêîãî óðîâíÿ óñïåøíîãî ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ÿâëÿþòñÿ õèùíè÷åñòâî ôèëèíà è ôàêòîð áåñïîêîéñòâà ñî ñòîðîíû ÷åëîâåêà. Òàê 3 ïóñòóþùèõ ãíåçäà, â îäíîì èç êîòîðûõ ïòåíöîâ ñúåë ôèëèí, ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà ó÷àñòêàõ ôèëèíà â íåïîñðåäñòâåííîé áëèçîñòè îò åãî ãí¸çä (0,24, 0,63 è 0,93 êì ñîîòâåòñòâåííî). À ïîä åù¸ îäíèì èç ïóñòóþùèõ ãí¸çä, ñ ÿâíûìè ïðèçíàêàìè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ñîêîëîâ, áûë óñòðîåí ñêëàä äðåâåñèíû.  ñâî¸ì ðàñïðåäåëåíèè íà ãíåçäîâàíèè áàëîáàí òÿãîòååò ê ïîñòðîéêàì ìîãèëüíèêà. Èç 18 îáíàðóæåííûõ ãí¸çä 17 ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà êðàéíèõ ñîñíàõ â ïîñòðîéêàõ ìîãèëüíèêà, óñòðîåííûõ ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî íà âåðøèíàõ äåðåâüåâ (72,2%), è ëèøü îäíî ãíåçäî áûëî îáíàðóæåíî â ïîñòðîéêå áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà â ãëóáèíå ëåñà. Âûñîòà ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãí¸çä áàëîáàíà â ïîñòðîéêàõ ìîãèëüíèêà âàðüèðóåò îò 4 äî 25 ì, ñîñòàâëÿÿ â ñðåäíåì 19,02±6,06 ì. Ãíåçäî, óñòðîåííîå â ïîñòðîéêå ïîäîðëèêà, ðàñïîëàãàëîñü â ðàçâèëêå ñòâîëà â íèæíåé ÷àñòè êðîíû â ñåðåäèíå ñòâîëà íà âûñîòå 10 ì. Âåñüìà âåðîÿòíî, ÷òî ñîêîëû, ãí¸çäà êîòîðûõ îáíàðóæèòü íå óäàëîñü, òàêæå çàíèìàëè ïîñòðîéêè íå ìîãèëüíèêà, à äðóãèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö.  ÷àñòíîñòè, â ñîñåäíåì Àëòàéñêîì êðàå èçâåñòíû ñëó÷àè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ áàëîáàíà â ïîñòðîéêàõ êîðøóíà. Ôèëèí (Bubo bubo)  õîäå ýêñïåäèöèè áûëî îáíàðóæåíî 11 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíà (ðèñ. 7), îäíàêî â ðåàëüíîñòè íà îáñëåäîâàííîé òåððèòîðèè åãî ãîðàçäî áîëüøå. Íà áîëüøåé ÷àñòè òåððèòîðèè áîðîâ îïóøêè ïðîõî-


42

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

äèëèñü àâòîìàðøðóòîì, â õîäå êîòîðîãî ìîæíî äîñòàòî÷íî óñïåøíî âûÿâëÿòü ãíåçäà ìîãèëüíèêà è áàëîáàíà, íî ñîâåðøåííî íåâîçìîæíî âûÿâëÿòü ãí¸çäà ôèëèíà. Âñå ãí¸çäà ôèëèíà áûëè îáíàðóæåíû â õîäå ïðåäìåòíîãî îáñëåäîâàíèÿ îïóøêè ïåøèìè ìàðøðóòàìè, ëèáî íà òî÷êàõ íà ìåñòàõ ñòîÿíîê. Èìåííî ýòè äàííûå ìû èñïîëüçîâàëè äëÿ ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà. Âñå îáíàðóæåííûå ãí¸çäà ðàñïîëàãàëèñü â ïîäíîæèè ñòàðûõ ñîñåí â 100-ìåòðîâîé îïóøå÷íîé ïîëîñå áîðà â 120–280 ì îò âîäî¸ìà èëè âëàæíîé çàïàäèíû. Íà ìàðøðóòàõ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòüþ 12,6 êì âäîëü îïóøåê, ãðàíè÷àùèõ ñ çàïàäèíàìè è âîäî¸ìàìè, áûëî âûÿâëåíî 8 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíà. Ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâèëà 0,63 ïàð/1 êì. Ó÷èòûâàÿ îáùóþ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü îïóøåê âäîëü òàêèõ áèîòîïîâ 107,16 êì, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü ãíåçäîâàíèå 68 ïàð ôèëèíîâ íà ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé òåððèòîðèè. Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó æèëûì ãíåçäîì è ïîãèáøèì ãíåçäîì, áëèç êîòîðîãî äåðæàëàñü ïàðà ïòèö, ñîñòàâèëî 2,3 êì, ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ãíåçäîì ñ ïîãèáøåé êëàäêîé, áëèç êîòîðîãî äåðæàëèñü âçðîñëûå ïòèöû, è ó÷àñòêîì, çàíÿòûì âçðîñëîé ïòèöåé, ñîñòàâèëî 1 êì. Òðè ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà ôèëèíîâ áûëè ëîêàëèçîâàíû íà òî÷êàõ ñòîÿíîê, îäèí èç êîòîðûõ íàõîäèëñÿ íà îïóøêå íàïðîòèâ ñóõîãî ïàñòáèùà.  ïîñëåäíåì ñëó÷àå ãíåçäî ðàñïîëàãàëîñü ïðÿìî íà îïóøêå â ïîäíîæèè êðàéíåé ñîñíû. Î ïîäîáíîì æå ãíåçäå, îáíàðóæåííîì â Øàëäàéñêîì ëåñíè÷åñòâå â èþíå 2004 ã., íàì ñîîáùèëè ñîòðóäíèêè Øàëäàéñêîãî ëåñõîçà. Ó÷èòûâàÿ ðåäêîñòü òàêîãî òèïà ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà â ñòåïíûõ áîðàõ, ìîæíî ëèøü ïðåäïîëàãàòü ãíåçäîâàíèå 5–15 ïàð âäîëü ñóõèõ îïóøåê.

Ðèñ. 7. Êàðòà ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíà (Bubo bubo) Fig. 7. The distribution of breeding territories of Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo)

Íà 7 ó÷àñòêàõ îáíàðóæåíî 15 ãí¸çä ôèëèíà. Ëèøü 2 ãíåçäà îêàçàëèñü æèëûìè â ìîìåíò èõ îáíàðóæåíèÿ – â îáîèõ áûëî ïî òðè ïòåíöà. Ñòîëü íèçêèé óñïåõ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ôèëèíà (28,57%) ñâÿçàí îò÷àñòè ñ ïîãîäíûìè óñëîâèÿìè, à îò÷àñòè ñ äåÿòåëüíîñòüþ ÷åëîâåêà.  ãíåçäå, îáíàðóæåííîì 20 ìàÿ, äâà ñòàðøèõ ïòåíöà èìåëè íà òðåòü îòðîñøèå ìàõîâûå, à ìëàäøèé ïòåíåö òîëüêî íà÷àë îäåâàòüñÿ â ìåçîïòèëü. Ýòî ãîâîðèò î òîì, ÷òî ôèëèíû äîëîæèëè òðåòüå ÿéöî íà ïîñëåäíåé ñòàäèè íàñèæèâàíèÿ êëàäêè èç 2-õ ÿèö, ïîñëå òîãî êàê ðåçêî íà÷àëîñü èíòåíñèâíîå ñíåãîòàÿíèå, è óâåëè÷èëàñü äîñòóïíîñòü êîðìà. Ìíîãèå æå ïàðû, âèäèìî, ïðîñòî íå ïðèñòóïèëè ê ðàçìíîæåíèþ, î ÷¸ì ñâèäåòåëüñòâîâàëè 4 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà, íà êîòîðûõ ïòèöû äåðæàëèñü áåç âèäèìûõ ïðèçíàêîâ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ. Íà 3-õ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ãí¸çäà ñ ïîãèáøèìè êëàäêàìè. Âñå òðè ãíåçäà ïîãèáëè â ðåçóëüòàòå ðóáîê, ïðîâîäèâøèõñÿ â êîíöå àïðåëÿ-íà÷àëå ìàÿ áëèç íèõ. Ñëåäû çèìíèõ ðóáîê îáíàðóæåíû íà âñåõ äðóãèõ ó÷àñòêàõ ôèëèíîâ.  ÷àñòíîñòè, íåñêîëüêî ñòâîëîâ ñî-

Ïòåíöû ôèëèíà (Bubo bubo) â ãíåçäå ïîä ñîñíîé. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The chicks of the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) in the nest by the pine tree. Photo by I. Karyakin


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4 ñíû, ïîä êîòîðîé óñòðîèëà ãíåçäî ïàðà ôèëèíîâ, îáíàðóæåííàÿ 20 ìàÿ, áûëè ñðóáëåíû â êîíöå çèìû. Îäíî ãíåçäî ôèëèíîâ ïîãèáëî â ðåçóëüòàòå íèçîâîãî ïîæàðà, ïðîøåäøåãî çà 1–2 íåäåëè äî íàøåãî ïîñåùåíèÿ ãíåçäà. Òàê èëè èíà÷å, ïîëîâèíà âñåõ ñëó÷àåâ îòñóòñòâèÿ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ôèëèíà ñâÿçàíà ñ íåãàòèâíûìè ïîñëåäñòâèÿìè äåÿòåëüíîñòè ÷åëîâåêà.

Çàêëþ÷åíèå Ýêñïåäèöèÿ ïîêàçàëà èñêëþ÷èòåëüíóþ öåííîñòü îáñëåäîâàííûõ ñòåïíûõ áîðîâ êàê ðåôóãèóìà ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ñåâåðî-âîñòîêå Êàçàõñòàíà.  ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü ýòî êàñàåòñÿ îðëà-ìîãèëüíèêà, êðóïíåéøàÿ ãíåçäîâàÿ ãðóïïèðîâêà êîòîðîãî ñîõðàíÿåòñÿ íà òåððèòîðèè êàçàõñòàíñêîé ÷àñòè áîðîâ. Ïîìèìî êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö â ñòåïÿõ, ïðèëåãàþùèõ ê áîðàì, îáíàðóæåíû ãíåçäîâûå êîëîíèè êðå÷¸òêè (Chettusia gregarius), âûñîêàÿ ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ áîëüøèõ êðîíøíåïîâ (Numenius arquata), âñòðå÷åí ñòðåïåò (Tetrax tetrax), óñòàíîâëåíî ãíåçäîâàíèå ñòåïíîãî ëóíÿ (Circus macrourus). Âñ¸ ýòî äåëàåò âñþ òåððèòîðèþ â êîìïëåêñå óíèêàëüíîé è òðåáóþùåé îõðàíû.  òî æå âðåìÿ, îõðàíà ñòåïíûõ áîðîâ ëèøü äåêëàðèðóåòñÿ. Ëåñõîçû, íåñìîòðÿ íà ñìåíó íàçâàíèé íà áîëåå ïðèðîäîîõðàííûå, ïðîäîëæàþò îñâàèâàòü ðåñóðñ, è åñëè ðå÷ü èä¸ò îá îõðàíå, òî îá îõðàíå ëåñíîãî ðåñóðñà äëÿ äàëüíåéøåãî åãî îñâîåíèÿ, à íå îá îõðàíå ëàíäøàôòà èëè áèîòû, ò.ê. ïîñëåäíåå èñêëþ÷àåò ðóáêè. Äëÿ îõðàíû õèùíûõ ïòèö çäåñü âîîáùå íå îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ ñïåöèàëüíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé, êîòîðûå íàñóùíî íåîáõîäèìû. Âäîëü áîðîâ ïðîòÿíóëèñü ËÝÏ, íå îñíàù¸ííûå ïòèöå-

43

çàùèòíûìè ñîîðóæåíèÿìè, íà êîòîðûõ ãèáíóò õèùíèêè, ïîñëå êðóïíûõ ïîæàðîâ â êîíöå 90-õ îùóùàåòñÿ ÿâíûé äåôèöèò êðóïíûõ ãíåçäîâûõ äåðåâüåâ è, êàê ñëåäñòâèå, ãíåçäîâîãî ôîíäà äëÿ îðëîâ, êîòîðûå âûíóæäåíû ñòðîèòü ãíåçäà íà íèçêîðîñëûõ ñîñíàõ áëèç äîðîã, óâåëè÷èâàÿ ðèñê ãèáåëè ïîòîìñòâà ïî ïðè÷èíå áåñïîêîéñòâà ëþäüìè. Âñ¸ ýòî óêàçûâàåò íà íåîáõîäèìîñòü ðåàëèçàöèè öåëåâîãî ïðîåêòà ïî îõðàíå õèùíûõ ïòèö â ñòåïíûõ áîðàõ. Ñàìûì íàñóùíûì ÿâëÿåòñÿ çàïðåò ëþáûõ ðóáîê â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä (ñ ìàðòà ïî àâãóñò) â îïóøå÷íîé çîíå áîðîâ è îñíàùåíèå ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ, ïðîòÿíóâøèõñÿ âäîëü îïóøåê áîðîâ, ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè ñîîðóæåíèÿìè. Àâòîðû áëàãîäàðÿò âîäèòåëåé ýêñïåäèöèîííîé ãðóïïû Ðîìàíà Ëàïøèíà è Åâãåíèÿ Ëåâèíà, áåç êîòîðûõ áû âðÿä ëè óäàëîñü òàê ïðîäóêòèâíî îáñëåäîâàòü ñòîëü îãðîìíóþ òåððèòîðèþ çà î÷åíü êîðîòêèé ïðîìåæóòîê âðåìåíè, à òàêæå ERWDA è IWC çà ôèíàíñîâóþ ïîìîùü â ïðîâåäåíèè ðàáîòû. Ëèòåðàòóðà Êàçàõñòàíñêèé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèé áþëëåòåíü 2002. Àëìàòû: «Tethys», 2002. 154 ñ. Êàçàõñòàíñêèé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèé áþëëåòåíü 2003. Àëìàòû: «Tethys», 2004. 254 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Ñìåëÿíñêèé È.Ý., Áàêêà Ñ.Â., Ãðàáîâñêèé Ì.À., Ðûáåíêî À.Â., Åãîðîâà À.Â. Êðóïíûå ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà, 2005. ¹3. Ñ. 28–51 Êîâøàðü À.Ô., Õðîêîâ Â.Â. Ê ôàóíå ïòèö Ïàâëîäàðñêîãî Çàèðòûøüÿ. – Ôàóíà è áèîëîãèÿ ïòèö Êàçàõñòàíà. Àëìàòû, 1993. Ñ.133–144. Ïðîêîïîâ Ê.Ï., Ñòàðèêîâ Ñ.Â., Áðàòàø È.Â. Ïîçâîíî÷íûå âîñòî÷íîãî Êàçàõñòàíà. Óñòü-Êàìåíîãîðñê, 2002. 206 ñ. Ñîëîìàòèí À.Î. Ìàòåðèàëû ê îðíèòîôàóíå Ïàâëîäàðñêîãî Ïðèèðòûøüÿ. – Ïðîáëåìû îõðàíû è óñòîé÷èâîãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà Êàçàõñòàíà. Àëìàòû, 1999. Ñ. 84. Ñîëîìàòèí À.Î. Íîâûå äàííûå ïî ðåäêèì ïòèöàì Ïàâëîäàðñêîé îáëàñòè. – Ïðîáëåìû îõðàíû è óñòîé÷èâîãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà Êàçàõñòàíà. Àëìàòû, 1999. Ñ. 85–86.

Ïòåíöû ôèëèíà â ãíåçäå ïîä ñîñíîé. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The chicks of the Eagle Owl in the nest by the pine tree. Photo by I. Karyakin


44

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

TheSakerFalconinAralSeaRegion БАЛОБАН В ПРИАРАЛЬЕ I.V. Karyakin (Center for Field Studies, Russia, N.Novgorod) T.O. Barabashin (Ulyanovsk Branch of the Russian Birds Conservation Union, Rostov-on-Don, Russia) A.V. Moshkin (Center for Field Studies, Russia, Kurgan) И.В. Каря ин (Центр полевых исследований, Россия, Н.Нов ород) Т.О. Барабашин (Ульяновс ое отделение Союза охраны птиц России, Ростов-на-Дон , Россия) А.В. Мош ин (Центр полевых исследований, Россия, К р ан) Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Êîðîëåíêî, 17a–17 òåë.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Contact: Igor Karyakin Leader by Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a–17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru

 ðàìêàõ ïðîåêòà ïî èçó÷åíèþ è îõðàíå áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) â Êàçàõñòàíå, ðåàëèçóåìîì íà ñðåäñòâà Èíñòèòóòà èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ (Falcon Research Institute, Carmarthen, IWC; UK) è Àãåíòñòâà ïî îõðàíå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû Îáúåäèíåííûõ Àðàáñêèõ Ýìèðàòîâ (ERWDA, UAE), Öåíòðîì ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé â 2003–2004 ãã. ìåæäó Êàñïèéñêèì è Àðàëüñêèì ìîðÿìè áûëà îáíàðóæåíà êðóïíàÿ ïîïóëÿöèÿ ýòîãî ðåäêîãî ñîêîëà, ÷èñëåííîñòü êîòîðîé ïðåäâàðèòåëüíî îöåíåíà â 1200–1400 ïàð (Karyakin et all., 2004; Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005). Èññëåäîâàíèÿ 2005 ã. äîïîëíÿþò ðàíåå ïîëó÷åííûå ñâåäåíèÿ î áàëîáàíå â äàííîì ðåãèîíå.

Ìåòîäèêà

Òèïè÷íûé äëÿ Ïðèàðàëüÿ ãëèíÿíûé îáðûâ. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The typical clay cliff-face in the Aral Sea region. Photo by I. Karyakin

Ïðèàðàëüå, â íàøåì ïîíèìàíèè, – ýòî îáøèðíàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ, ðàñêèíóâøàÿñÿ âîêðóã Àðàëüñêîãî ìîðÿ, âêëþ÷àþùàÿ âîñòî÷íóþ ïîëîâèíó ïëàòî Óñòþðò, ïåñêè Áîëüøèå è Ìàëûå Áàðñóêè, Ïðèàðàëüñêèå Êàðàêóìû, ñåâåðî-çàïàäíóþ ÷àñòü Êûçûëêóìîâ, îãðàíè÷åííàÿ íà ñåâåðå óñòóïîì Èðãèçñêîãî ïëàòî è íèçîâüÿìè Òóðãàÿ, íà âîñòîêå – ïåðåäîâûìè âîçâûøåííîñòÿìè

In 2003–2004 a large population of Sakers was found by the Center of Field Studies in Caspian-Aral Sea region (Western Kazakhstan). In 2005 we continued surveys started in 2003. In the 2005 season there were two Field Research Center groups working on the Saker surveys in Western and Kazakhstan (13–20 April 2005 and 25–27 April 2005). The total length of survey routes was 977 km. We set 3 new study areas for long-term monitoring with a total area of 196.43 km2 (¹ 33 – 36.37, ¹ 34 – 28.69, ¹ 35 – 131.37 km2) in the Northern Aral Sea region. Three additional study areas were ‘linear’ plots along power lines in the Northern and Eastern Aral Sea region totaling 379.15 km (130.00, 59.11, 50.24, 41.07 and 98.73 km). The Aral Sea region is large territory around Aral Sea. The region includes Eastern part of the Usturt plateau, Bolshie and Malye Barsuki sands, Priaralskie Karakumy sands, Northwestern part of the Kyzylkum sands. The Aral Sea region was limited on north of the Irgizskoe plateau and the Turgayskaya depression with a total area of 160 000 km2. In 2004 we classified all groups of the cliffs into 10 categories in GIS (Arc.View 3.2a, ESRI). The study areas were set so as to cover all cliff types in the region. Extrapolation of the Saker numbers was made using the same types of cliffs in the region. The total length of cliffs in the Aral Sea region measured 927.40 km, the lengths of the cliffs within the new study areas was 49.16 km. All cliffs in the Aral Sea region are clay cliffs. We classified the Aral Sea region clay cliffs into 3 groups (Aral cliff-face of the Usturt Plateau, Northern Aral seaside cliffs, Northern Aral Sea region cliffs). The group of Northern Aral seaside cliffs includes Karatup peninsula cliffs, Kokaral peninsula cliffs, Koktyrnak peninsula cliffs, Shubartarau peninsula cliffs.


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4 Êàçàõñêîãî ìåëêîñîïî÷íèêà (ïî äîëèíå ð. Ñûðäàðüè äî Áàéêîíóðà). Ðàññìàòðèâàåìûé â ñòàòüå ðåãèîí â àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ ãðàíèöàõ Êàçàõñòàíà çàíèìàåò ïëîùàäü 160,0 òûñ. êì2 è ëåæèò ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â çîíå ïîëóïóñòûíü. Äàííàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ îáñëåäîâàëàñü äâóìÿ ãðóïïàìè Öåíòðà ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 13–20 àïðåëÿ 2005 ã. è 25–27 àïðåëÿ 2005 ã. â ðàìêàõ ïðîåêòà «Áàëîáàí â Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíå». Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ýêñïåäèöèîííîãî ìàðøðóòà ñîñòàâèëà 977 êì. Ïî àíàëîãèè ñ ðàáîòîé 2003–2004 ãã. (Êàðÿêèí, 2005) íà òèïè÷íûõ ó÷àñòêàõ îáðûâîâ â Ïðèàðàëüå áûëî çàëîæåíî 3 íîâûõ ïëîùàäêè îáùåé ïëîùàäüþ 196,43 êì2 (¹ 33 – 36,37 êì2, ¹ 34 – 28,69 êì2, ¹ 35 – 131,37 êì2) è ïðîâåðåíî 2 ñòàðûõ ïëîùàäêè (¹11, ¹18) (ðèñ.1). Òàêæå áûëî çàëîæåíî 5 ëèíåéíûõ ó÷¸òíûõ ìàðøðóòîâ âäîëü ËÝÏ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòüþ 379,15 êì (130,00 êì, 59,11 êì, 50,24 êì, 41,07 êì è 98,73 êì). Ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè áàëîáàíà âûÿâëÿëèñü â õîäå àâòîìîáèëüíûõ è ïåøèõ ìàðøðóòîâ, êîòîðûå ïëàíèðîâàëèñü ïî ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûì äëÿ âèäà áèîòîïàì – ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî âäîëü îáðûâîâ ðàçëè÷íîãî òèïà è â ìåíüøåé ñòåïåíè âäîëü ËÝÏ. Ðàáîòà áûëà îñíîâàíà íà ïîèñêå ãí¸çä è ðåãèñòðàöèè îõîòÿùèõñÿ ïòèö. Îáðûâû è îïîðû ËÝÏ îñìàòðèâàëèñü â îïòèêó (áèíîêëè 8õ30, 12õ50) ñ öåëüþ îáíàðóæåíèÿ íèø è ãíåçäîâûõ ïîñòðîåê, ïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ áàëîáàíà. Îáíàðóæåííûå íèøè è ãíåçäîâûå ïîñòðîéêè ñ ïðèçíàêàìè çàñåëåíèÿ èõ áàëîáàíîì ïîäðîáíî îñìàòðèâàëèñü â òðóáó 30–60õ äëÿ âûÿñíåíèÿ çàíÿòîñòè ãí¸çä. Ïîä ãíåçäîâûìè ó÷àñòêàìè ïîäðàçóìåâàþòñÿ òåððèòîðèè, íà êîòîðûõ îáíàðóæåíû ãí¸çäà áàëîáàíà (ëèáî æèëûå, ëèáî ïóñòóþùèå, íî àáîíèðóåìûå ïòèöàìè),

Ðèñ. 1. Ðàñïîëîæåíèå ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê Fig. 1. Location of surveyed plots

45

Òèïè÷íàÿ äëÿ Ïðèàðàëüÿ âûñîêîâîëüòíàÿ ËÝÏ ñ áåòîííûìè îïîðàìè. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The typical high voltage power line with concrete electric poles in the Aral Sea region. Photo by I. Karyakin

The total length of the powerlines in the Aral Sea region was 6311.50 km. We consider all safe types of powerlines suitable for nesting. The lengths of such powerlines were 2002.10 km (31.7%). In total, in the season 2005, we found 21 breeding territories of Sakers. We also revisited 10 breeding territories found in 2003–2004 located in the surveyed territories ¹ 11 (Aral cliff-face of the Usturt Plateau) and ¹ 18 (Karatup peninsula cliffs) (table 2). In new plots (study areas ¹¹ 33–35) the Saker Falcon nested in the gorges clay cliffs. Here the nearest neighbor distance was 2.62±1.83 km (average ± SD), N=8, range 0.74 to 5.19 km. The density of Sakers in clay cliffs varied from 15.6 to 27.6 pairs per 100 km, with average 20.2±7.0 pairs/100 km of cliffs. The powerline nested by Sakers was recorded only in the Aral Sea region in the Bolshie Barsuki sands in 2003 (Karyakin, 2004; Karyakin, 2005). In 2005 field season the powerline nested by Sakers was not found. However every third pole of the surveyed powerline had a nest of raptors (mostly steppe or imperial eagles, and buzzards). The density of raptors in powerline was 11.6 pairs/100km of powerline (Long-Legged Buzzard – 7.91 pairs/100 km, Steppe Eagle – 3.16 pairs/100 km, Imperial Eagle – 0.53 pairs/100 km). The total numbers of Sakers in the cliffs of this region is estimated as 130–245 pairs (estimated average 197 pairs). The total numbers of the Sakers in the Western Kazakhstan is 1306–1638 (median 1482 pairs). The Priaralskie Karakumy sands disappointed us with their lack of sakers, the reasons for which are difficult to understand. A lack of Sakers in the Priaralskie Karakumy


46

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Ðèñ. 2. Îáðàçåö âåêòîðèçàöèè îáðûâîâ ïî êîñìîñíèìêó Landsat 7, ïðåîáðàçîâàííîìó 3Dìîäóëåì (âíèçó) è âíåøíèé âèä ýòèõ æå îáðûâîâ (ââåðõó). Ïëîùàäêà ¹ 35 Fig. 2. Sample of cliff-faces vectorizations on the satellite image Landsat 7 transformed by 3D-module (at the foot) and these cliff-faces on photo (at the top). Plots ¹ 35

Òàáë. 1. Îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug), ãíåçäÿùåãîñÿ íà îáðûâàõ â Ïðèàðàëüå Table 1. Estimated numbers of breeding pairs of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) on cliffs in Aral Sea region

âñòðå÷åíû âçðîñëûå ïòèöû, íåîäíîêðàòíî ïðîÿâëÿâøèå ïðèçíàêè áåñïîêîéñòâà êàê ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê ÷åëîâåêó, òàê è ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê äðóãèì õèùíûì ïòèöàì. Ê âîçìîæíûì ãíåçäîâûì ó÷àñòêàì ìû ïðèðàâíèâàåì èþíüñêèå âñòðå÷è âçðîñëûõ ïòèö ñ äîáû÷åé, íåîäíîêðàòíî ðåãèñòðèðîâàâøèõñÿ íà îäíîé è òîé æå òåððèòîðèè. Âûÿâëÿåìûå ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè áàëîáàíà êàðòèðîâàëèñü, äàííûå âíîñèëèñü â ñðåäó ÃÈÑ (ArcView 3.2a, ESRI, CA, USA), ãäå è ïðîèçâîäèëñÿ ðàñ÷¸ò îáùåé ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà (Êàðÿêèí, 2000, 2004). Íà îñíîâå ðàñòðîâûõ êàðò Ì 1:500000 è êîñìîñíèìêîâ Landsat–7 áûëè ïîäãîòîâëåíû âåêòîðíûå ñëîè îáðûâîâ è ËÝÏ, íà îáùóþ ïðî-

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ sands means that it is possible that there is a gap between the breeding groups of the Sakers of the Caspian-Aral population and the population of the Central Kahakhstan. The gap is 350 km wide and covers forestless, which also lacks good cliffs, thus dividing the Saker range in Kazakhstan into 3 comparable parts (Caspian-Aral Sea region, Northern Kazakhstan and Central Kazakhstan). In 2005-field season we found 14 active nests of Sakers (66.7% of all nests), 5 from which were occupied, but empty, and 4 were olds on occupied territories. The average clutch size was 4.5±0.58 (4–5 eggs, N=4). In one nest in 27 April a brood was observed (four chicks 1–2 days old). The figures of occupancy project 87–163 (131– median) breeding pairs in an average year, the total number of adults is 260– 490 individuals, 173–327 of which take part in breeding. The cliffs facing of the Usturt Plateau have high success of Sakers – about 70%, the cliffs the Aral seaside have low success of Sakers – about 63.6%, the lower the cliff Northern Aral Sea region, the fewer the Sakers. The high density of the Eagle Owl in the lower the cliff Northern Aral Sea region is to blame. In 2005 observed two females Sakers killed by Eagle Owl. The Sakers in this region occupy nests of Long-Legged Buzzard (82.6%) and empty niches on the clay cliffs (17.4%). The height of nests location varied from 6 to 50 m, with average (N=22) 25.41±16.24 m.


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4

47

Òàáë. 2. ×èñëåííîñòü è ïëîòíîñòü áàëîáàíà íà îáðûâàõ ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê. Íîìåðà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê ñîîòâåòñòâóþò íîìåðàì íà ðèñ. 1. Table 2. Number and density of the Saker Falcon on cliffs on the plots. Number of the plots are similar ones in the fig. 1.

òÿæ¸ííîñòü êîòîðûõ ïðÿìî ýêñòðàïîëèðîâàëèñü äàííûå ïî ÷èñëåííîñòè áàëîáàíîâ, ïîëó÷åííûå íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ (ðèñ. 2). Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü îáðûâîâ â Ïðèàðàëüå ñîñòàâëÿåò 927,40 êì, èç êîòîðûõ 96,53 êì ïðèõîäèòñÿ íà Àðàëüñêèé ÷èíê Óñòþðòà. Ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü îáðûâîâ íà ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ 2005 ã. ñîñòàâèëà 49,16 êì. Ïî ñâîåìó ãåîãðàôè÷åñêîìó ðàñïîëîæåíèþ âñå îáðûâû Ïðèàðàëüÿ ïîäåëåíû íà 6 ãðóïï: Àðàëüñêèé ÷èíê ïëàòî Óñòþðò, îáðûâû ïîëóîñòðîâà Êàðàòóï, îáðûâû ïîëóîñòðîâà Êîêàðàë, îáðûâû ïîëóîñòðîâà Êîêòûðíàê, îáðûâû ïîëóîñòðîâà Øóáàðòàðàó, îáðûâû âïàäèí Ñåâåðíîãî Ïðèàðàëüÿ (òàáë. 1). Âñå îáðûâû â Ïðèàðàëüå ñëîæåíû ãëèíàìè. Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ËÝÏ â ðåãèîíå ñîñòàâèëà 6311,50 êì, èç íèõ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûìè äëÿ áàëîáàíà ìû ñ÷èòàëè âñå áåçîïàñíûå äëÿ ïòèö òèïû ËÝÏ, ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü êîòîðûõ ñîñòàâèëà 2002,10 êì (31,7%). Òèìîôåé Áàðàáàøèí íàáëþäàåò çà ãíåçäîì áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug), ðàñïîëîæåííûì â ïîñòðîéêå êóðãàííèêà (Buteo hemilasius) íà ãëèíÿíîì îáðûâå. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Tim Barabashin observes a nest of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in old-nest of the Upland Buzzard (Buteo hemilasius) on the clay cliff. Photo by I. Karyakin

Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå, ÷èñëåííîñòü, îñîáåííîñòè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ  õîäå ýêñïåäèöèè ëîêàëèçîâàíî 11 íîâûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ áàëîáàíà (âñå íà íîâûõ ó÷åòíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ) è ïðîâåðåíî 10 ðàíåå èçâåñòíûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ íà ïëîùàäêàõ Àðàëüñêîãî ÷èíêà ïëàòî Óñòþðò (¹ 11) è îáðûâàõ ïëàòî Êàðàòóï (¹ 18) (òàáë. 2). Íà âíîâü èññëåäîâàííûõ ïëîùàäêàõ áàëîáàíû ãíåçäÿòñÿ íà ñòåíêàõ ãëèíÿíûõ îáðûâîâ, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â óùåëüÿõ, íà ðàññòîÿíèè (n=8) îò 0,74 äî 5,19 êì ïàðà îò ïàðû, â ñðåäíåì â 2,62±1,83 êì (çäåñü è äàëåå ñðåäíåå ± SD). Ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ èçìåíÿåòñÿ îò 15,6 äî 27,6 ïàð/100 êì îáðûâîâ, ñîñòàâëÿÿ â ñðåäíåì 20,2±7,0 ïàð/100 êì. Íà áîëüøåé ÷àñòè îáñëåäîâàííûõ ãëèíÿíûõ îáðûâîâ ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ áàëîáàíà äîñòàòî÷íî ðàâíîìåðíî. Åñòü ëèøü ðàçëè÷èÿ â âûáî-


48

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Ãíåçäî áàëîáàíà â íèøå ãëèíÿíîãî îáðûâà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The nest of the Saker Falcon in niche on the clay cliff. Photo by I. Karyakin

ðå ìåñò óñòðîéñòâà ãí¸çä ó áàëîáàíîâ, íàñåëÿþùèõ Àðàëüñêèé ÷èíê ïëàòî Óñòþðò è ÷èíêè ïîáåðåæüÿ è âïàäèí Ñåâåðíîãî Ïðèàðàëüÿ. Ãëèíÿíûå ÷èíêè Ñåâåðíîãî Ïðèàðàëüÿ îòëè÷àþòñÿ îò ÷èíêîâ ïëàòî Óñòþðò áîëüøåé èçðåçàííîñòüþ è ìåíüøåé âûñîòîé ñòåí. Âèäèìî ñ ýòèì è ñâÿçàíà óäàë¸ííîñòü ãí¸çä ïðèàðàëüñêèõ áàëîáàíîâ îò ëèöåâûõ ñòåí â ãëóáü óùåëèé, â îòëè÷èå îò òàêîâûõ óñòþðòñêèõ. Íà ËÝÏ áàëîáàí áûë îáíàðóæåí íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â Ïðèàðàëüå â 2003 ã. íà òåððèòîðèè ïåñ÷àíîãî ìàññèâà Áîë. Áàðñóêè. Çäåñü áûëî âûÿâëåíî 4 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà ñîêîëîâ, ïðèóðî÷åííûõ ê äåìîíòèðîâàííîé âûñîêîâîëüòíîé âåòêå ËÝÏ ñ áåòîííûìè îïîðàìè, à îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ñîêîëîâ äëÿ ïåñ÷àíîãî ìàññèâà Áîë. Áàðñóêè îöåíåíà â 10–12 ïàð (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005). Äî ñèõ ïîð ýòî åäèíñòâåííàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ â Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå, ãäå áàëîáàí îáíàðóæåí íà ãíåçäîâàíèè íà ËÝÏ.  2005 ã. íè íà îäíîé èç ïðîâåðåííûõ îò ×åëêàðà äî Áàéêîíóðà ËÝÏ áàëîáàí íå âñòðå÷åí. Íå îáíàðóæåíî è ïðèçíàêîâ åãî ïðåæíåãî ãíåçäîâàíèÿ çäåñü, õîòÿ ãíåçäîâîé ôîíä äîñòàòî÷íî áîãàò: íà ËÝÏ â Ïðèàðàëüå ñ äîñòàòî÷íî âûñîêîé ïëîòíîñòüþ ãíåçäÿòñÿ êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) – 7,91 ïàð/100 êì, ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis) – 3,16 ïàð/100 êì è ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca) – 0,53 ïàð/100 êì, èñïîëüçóÿ äëÿ óñòðîéñòâà ãí¸çä ñàìûå ðàçíîîáðàçíûå æåëåçîáåòîííûå è ìåòàëëè÷åñêèå êîíñòðóêöèè îïîð. Âåðîÿòíî,

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ãíåçäîâàíèå áàëîáàíà íà ËÝÏ â ìàññèâå ïåñêîâ Áîë. Áàðñóêè âûçâàíî òåì, ÷òî ýòîò ìàññèâ îêðóæåí êðóïíûìè ãíåçäîâûìè ãðóïïèðîâêàìè áàëîáàíîâ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ íà ÷èíêàõ, îòêóäà èäåò âûñåëåíèå ïòèö â ìåñòà íåòðàäèöèîííîãî äëÿ ìåñòíîé ïîïóëÿöèè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ. Èñõîäÿ èç ðàñ÷¸òîâ (òàáë. 1), îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà â Ïðèàðàëüå ñîñòàâëÿåò 130–245, â ñðåäíåì 197 ïàð, 59% èç êîòîðûõ ãíåçäèòñÿ íà îáðûâàõ ïîáåðåæüÿ Àðàëüñêîãî ìîðÿ.  2005 ã. îáíàðóæåíî 23 ãíåçäà, èç íèõ 14 îêàçàëèñü æèëûìè íà ìîìåíò îáíàðóæåíèÿ, 5 – ïóñòóþùèìè, íî çàíÿòûìè ïòèöàìè, è 4 ãíåçäà – ñòàðûìè ïîñòðîéêàìè íà çàíÿòûõ, ëèáî ïóñòóþùèõ ó÷àñòêàõ. ×åòûðå ãíåçäà ñîäåðæàëè êëàäêè èç 4–5 ÿèö (â ñðåäíåì 4,5±0,58 ÿèö). 27 àïðåëÿ â îäíîì ãíåçäå îáíàðóæåí âûâîäîê èç 4-õ ïòåíöîâ â âîçðàñòå 1–2 äíÿ. Óñïåøíûìè îêàçàëèñü ëèøü 66,7% ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ áàëîáàíîâ, ïðè÷¸ì íàáëþäàëàñü çàâèñèìîñòü óñïåõà ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ñîêîëîâ îò òèïà ÷èíêà. Íà âûñîêèõ ñòåíàõ àðàëüñêîãî ÷èíêà ïëàòî Óñòþðò è ïîëóîñòðîâà Êàðàòóï óñïåøíîå ðàçìíîæåíèå çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíî ó 70,0% ïàð áàëîáàíîâ, â òî âðåìÿ êàê íà íèçêèõ, ñèëüíî èçðåçàííûõ óùåëüÿìè îáðûâàõ Ñåâåðíîãî Ïðèàðàëüÿ óñïåøíî ãíåçäèëîñü òîëüêî 63,6% ïàð áàëîáàíîâ. Îñíîâíàÿ ïðè÷èíà íèçêîãî óñïåõà ðàçìíîæåíèÿ áàëîáàíîâ â Ñåâåðíîì Ïðèàðàëüå â ýòîì ãîäó – õèùíè÷åñòâî ôèëèíà (Bubo bubo), êîòîðûé ãíåçäèòñÿ çäåñü ñ ïëîòíîñòüþ â 3 ðàçà ïðåâûøàþùåé ïëîòíîñòü ôèëèíà íà àðàëüñêîì ÷èíêå ïëàòî Óñòþðò. Äîñòîâåðíî óñòàíîâëåíà ãèáåëü ñàìîê áàëîáàíîâ íà 2-õ ãí¸çäàõ (îñòàíêè îáîèõ íàéäåíû íà ïðèñàäàõ ó ãí¸çä ôèëèíîâ), è åù¸ îäíî ïóñòóþùåå ãíåçäî ñîêîëîâ, áëèç êîòîðîãî äåðæàëñÿ îäèíî÷íûé ñàìåö, ðàñïîëàãàëîñü â íåïîñðåäñòâåííîé áëèçîñòè îò æèëîãî ãíåçäà ôèëèíîâ. Ñèëüíûé õèùíè÷åñêèé ïðåññ ôèëèíîâ â ýòîì ãîäó âûçâàí çàòÿæíîé âåñíîé è, êàê ñëåäñòâèå, ïîçäíèì âûõîäîì èç íîð ñóñëèêîâ è íèçêîé àêòèâíîñòüþ ïåñ÷àíîê. Ôèëèíû, âî-ïåðâûõ, ñòàëè ðàçìíîæàòüñÿ íà ìåñÿö ïîçæå îáû÷íûõ ñðîêîâ (ñðîêè îòêëàäêè ÿèö ó ôèëèíà è áàëîáàíà ñîâïàëè, ÷òî áûâàåò êðàéíå ðåäêî), âî-âòîðûõ, â ñâÿçè ñ íèçêîé ÷èñëåííîñòüþ îñíîâíîé äîáû÷è áûëè âûíóæäåíû îõîòèòñÿ íà õèùíûõ ïòèö (áàëîáàí, êóðãàííèê), ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ íà èõ ó÷àñòêàõ. Èñõîäÿ èç äàííûõ ïî óñïåøíîñòè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî â Ïðèàðàëüå óñïåøíî ãíåçäèòñÿ îò 87 äî 163


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4

49

Ýêñïåäèöèîííàÿ ãðóïïà íà Àðàëüñêîì ÷èíêå. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The field group on the Aral cliff-face. Photo by I. Karyakin

ïàð áàëîáàíîâ â ãîä, â ñðåäíåì 131 ïàðà áàëîáàíîâ â ãîä. Îáùåå êîëè÷åñòâî âçðîñëûõ ïòèö ñîñòàâëÿåò 260–490 îñîáåé, èç êîòîðûõ 173–327 îñîáåé åæåãîäíî ó÷àñòâóþò â ðàçìíîæåíèè. Îñíîâíàÿ ìàññà ãí¸çä áàëîáàíà â Ïðèàðàëüå (82,6%) îáíàðóæåíà â ïîñòðîéêàõ êóðãàííèêà, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â íèøàõ â âåðõíåé òðåòè ãëèíÿíûõ îáðûâîâ. Ëèøü íåçíà÷èòåëüíàÿ ÷àñòü ïàð (17,4%) çàíèìàåò ãîëûå íèøè èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî â âåðõíåé òðåòè ãëèíÿíûõ îáðûâîâ. Âûñîòà ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãí¸çä âàðüèðóåò îò 6 äî 50 ì, ñîñòàâëÿÿ â ñðåäíåì (n=22) 25,41±16,24 ì. Áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü ñîêîëîâ ãíåçäèòñÿ íà ñòåíàõ îáðûâîâ â äèàïàçîíå âûñîò îò 15 äî 40 ì (68,2%), âûáèðàÿ èç èìåþùèõñÿ íà ó÷àñòêå íàèáîëåå âûñîêèå. Ãíåçäà áàëîáàíà ñ êëàäêîé (ââåðõó) è âûâîäêîì (âíèçó). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The nests of the Saker Falcon with clutch (at the top) and brood (at the foot). Photos by I. Karyakin

Çàêëþ÷åíèå Ïðåæíÿÿ íàøà îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè áàëîáàíà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå áåç ó÷¸òà Ñåâåðíîãî Ïðèàðàëüÿ ñîñòàâèëà 1204–1427, â ñðåäíåì 1316 ïàð (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2005).  ñâåòå íîâûõ äàííûõ ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî ÷èñëåííîñòü áàëîáàíà â Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå ñîñòàâëÿåò 1306–1638 ïàð, â ñðåäíåì 1482 ïàðû. Ïðèàðàëüå îñòàâàëîñü ïîñëåäíèì áåëûì ïÿòíîì â Êàñïèéñêî-Àðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå, è â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ìîæíî ãîâîðèòü î äîñòàòî÷íî ïîëíîé èçó÷åííîñòè ïîïóëÿöèè áàëîáàíà, íàñåëÿþùåé òåððèòîðèþ ìåæäó Êàñïèéñêèì è Àðàëüñêèì ìîðÿìè. Ê íåñ÷àñòüþ, íå îïðàâäàëèñü íàøè íàäåæäû íà íàëè÷èå ãíåçäîâûõ ãðóïïèðîâîê áàëîáàíà íà ËÝÏ â Ïðèàðàëüñêèõ Êàðàêóìàõ. Ýòî ìîæåò ñâèäåòåëüñòâîâàòü î íàëè÷èå 350-òè êì ðàçðûâà â àðåàëå ìåæäó áàëîáàíàìè Êàñïèéñêî-Àðàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà è ñîêîëàìè, íàñåëÿþùèìè Öåíòðàëüíûé Êàçàõñòàí. Ëèòåðàòóðà Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî ó÷åòó ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ è îáðàáîòêå ó÷åòíûõ äàííûõ. Íîâîñèáèðñê: èçä. äîì «Ìàíóñêðèïò». 2000. 32 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè (ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî èçó÷åíèþ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è ñîâîîáðàçíûõ). Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä: Èçäâî «Ïîâîëæüå». 2004. 351 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Ëåâèí À.Ñ., Íîâèêîâà Ë.Ì., Ïàæåíêîâ À.Ñ. Áàëîáàí â Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå: ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé 2003–2004 ãã. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2005. ¹ 2. Ñ.42–55. Karyakin I., Levin A., Novikova L., Pazhenkov A. Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in Russia. – Falco. 2004. ¹ 24. P. 11–13.


50

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

NewRecordsofSomeRaptorsSpeciesintheKalbinskiyAltai, EastKazakhstan НОВЫЕ НАХОДКИ НЕКОТОРЫХ ВИДОВ ПЕРНАТЫХ ХИЩНИКОВ В КАЛБИНСКОМ АЛТАЕ, ВОСТОЧНЫЙ КАЗАХСТАН I.E. Smelansky (Siberian Environmental Center, Novosibirsk, Russia) A.A. Tomilenko (Siberian Environmental Center, Novosibirsk, Russia) И.Э. Смелянс ий (МБОО «Сибирс ий э оло ичес ий центр», Новосибирс , Россия) А.А. Томилен о (МБОО «Сибирс ий э оло ичес ий центр», Новосибирс , Россия)

Èçâåñòíÿêîâûé ãðåáåíü Êàðæàëüñêèõ ãîð. Ôîòî È. Ñìåëÿíñêîãî Limestone ridge of the Karzhalsky Mountains. Photo by I. Smelansky

Êîíòàêò: Èëüÿ Ñìåëÿíñêèé Àíäðåé Òîìèëåíêî ÌÁÎÎ «Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð» 630090 Ðîññèÿ Íîâîñèáèðñê à/ÿ 547 òåë./ôàêñ: (383) 339 78 85 ilya@ecoclub.nsu.ru aatom@ngs.ru Contact: Ilya Smelansky Andrey Tomilenko NGO Siberian Environmental Center P.O. Box 547 Novosibirsk 630090 Russia tel./fax: (383) 339 78 85 ilya@ecoclub.nsu.ru aatom@ngs.ru

 õîäå ýêñêóðñèè ñ 24 ïî 30 èþíÿ 2005 ã. áûëî îáñëåäîâàíî íåñêîëüêî ìåëêîñîïî÷íûõ è ãðÿäîâî-ñîïî÷íûõ ìàññèâîâ â ïðåäãîðüÿõ Êàëáèíñêîãî õðåáòà, íà åãî âîñòî÷íîì è çàïàäíîì ìàêðîñêëîíàõ (Âîñòî÷íî-Êàçàõñòàíñêàÿ îáë.). Âñå îíè íåñóò ñòåïíóþ ðàñòèòåëüíîñòü, â ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ ïðåäñòàâëåíû ïîéìåííûå ëåñà â äîëèíàõ (óðåìà) è áàéðà÷íûå ëåñêè â ñîïî÷íûõ ëîãàõ. Ïðèëåãàþùèå ïëîñêèå ðàâíèíû íà êîíòàêòå ñ ïðåäãîðüÿìè òàêæå îäåòû ñòåïíîé è ïóñòûííî-ñòåïíîé ðàñòèòåëüíîñòüþ, çíà÷èòåëüíóþ ïëîùàäü çàíèìàþò ñòàðîâîçðàñòíûå îñòåïíÿþùèåñÿ çàëåæè, çàñåâàåìàÿ ïàøíÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè îòñóòñòâóåò. Âñå ñòåïíûå ìàññèâû ðàíåå èñïîëüçîâàëèñü äëÿ âûïàñà ñêîòà, íî íûíå ïîãîëîâüå íåâåëèêî, ìíîãèå ïàñòáèùíûå ó÷àñòêè ëèøåíû âûïàñà. Âûÿâëåíèå ãí¸çä ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ïðîâîäèëîñü íà ïåøèõ, ðåæå àâòîìîáèëüíûõ ìàðøðóòàõ â ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïàõ. Ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis) Íå íàéäåíî íè îäíîãî æèëîãî ó÷àñòêà. Âçðîñëûå ïòèöû íàáëþäàëèñü íåñêîëüêî ðàç íà ðàâíèíå ó çàïàäíîãî ïîäíîæèÿ ìàññèâà Äåëüáåãåòåé (íå ìåíåå 4 âñòðå÷ íà àâòîìîáèëüíîì ìàðøðóòå 20 êì) è â ñîïî÷íîì ìàññèâå â ñèñòåìå ð. Êûçûëñó, çàïàäíåå ã. Øàð (2 âñòðå÷è). Ñòàðîå íåæèëîå ãíåçäî ñòåïíîãî îðëà âñòðå÷åíî â ïîñ-

The territory of the Kalbinskiy Altai (Eastern-Kazakhstan District) has been surveyed in 24–30 June 2005. This territory (the foothills of the Kalbinskiy Altai) are occupied by steppe. Nests of raptors were found mostly during surveys of suitable for breeding habitats using cars, but some were located during foot surveys. The Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis). The occupied breeding areas were not found. The adult eagles were observed in the Kalbinskiy Altai six times. The one old nest was found in the surveyed territory near Kyzylsu river (49.7 N, 81.3 E; Jarminsky region). The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). A total of 3 breeding areas were found on the surveyed territory (2 living nests: 15 km on West from city a Shar and basin from Kyzylsu river; Jarminsky region). All nests were located on rock. Two broods contained 2 chicks each. The Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus). Two old nests were found on the surveyed territory. One adult bird was observed in the old Kazakhs cemetery. The Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus). A hunting male was observed near the Kyzylsu river. The Hobby (Falco subbuteo). An adult male was observed near the Kokpekty river. The Red-Footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus). An adult male was observed on the edge of forest in a river valley in the surveyed territory. The Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni). Four pairs were found near the Beloe village. One living nest and nesting colony consisted of three pairs were found near the Shar city. All nests were located in the wall of a vault in the old Kazakhs cemetery. One pair was observed on a rock. The Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo). One occupied breeding area was found on the surveyed territory.


Raptors Research

Ïòåíöû áåðêóòà (Aquila chrysaetos) â ãíåçäå íà ñêàëå (28.06.2005). Ôîòî È. Ñìåëÿíñêîãî The chicks of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in the nest on the rock (28/06/2005). Photo by I. Smelansky

Êàìåííûå ñòåíêè ìîãèë ñòàðîãî êëàäáèùà ñ êîëîíèåé ñòåïíûõ ïóñòåëüã (Falco naumanni) (28.06.2005). Ôîòî È. Ñìåëÿíñêîãî The stone walls of a vault in the old Kazakhs cemetery with the Lesser Kestrel’s (Falco naumanni) nesting colony (28/06/ 2005). Photo by I. Smelansky

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4

ëåäíåì îêîëî 49,7° ñ.ø. 81,3° â.ä. (Æàðìèíñêèé ð-í). Áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos) Âûÿâëåíî 3 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà, íà äâóõ èç êîòîðûõ äîêàçàíî óñïåøíîå ðàçìíîæåíèå. (1) Ïàðà âçðîñëûõ ïòèö íàáëþäàëàñü ó îòâåñíîé ñêàëû íàä ð. Òàðãûí 1 êì þæíåå ï. Òàðãûí, îêîëî 49,5° ñ.ø. 82,8° â.ä. Ïðè ïîâåðõíîñòíîì îñìîòðå ãíåçäî íå íàéäåíî. (2) Æèëîé ó÷àñòîê â 15 êì çàïàäíåå ã. Øàð (×àð; Æàðìèíñêèé ð-í), îêîëî 49,6° ñ.ø. 81,3° â.ä. Òðè ìíîãîëåòíèõ ãíåçäà ðàñïîëîæåíû íà êðóòîì ñêëîíå èçâåñòíÿêîâîé ãðÿäû, îáðàçóþùåé áîðò äîëà â ñèñòåìå ð. Êûçûëñó (ïðèòîê Èðòûøà). Âñå ãí¸çäà ðàçìåùàþòñÿ îòêðûòî íà óñòóïàõ ñêàëüíîé ñòåíêè è äîìèíèðóþò íàä îáøèðíîé ìåñòíîñòüþ (íå ìåíåå 4–5 êì). Æèëîå ãíåçäî îáðàùåíî íà þãî-âîñòîê, íåæèëûå – íà âîñòîê-ñåâåðî-âîñòîê.  1–2 êì îò ãíåçäà íàõîäÿòñÿ 2 áðîøåííûõ ñòîÿíêè ñêîòà. Äâà ïòåíöà – ñòàðøèé ïîëíîñòüþ îïåðåí, ìëàäøèé åù¸ ñîõðàíÿåò ìåçîïòèëü íà ãîëîâå è íîãàõ. Íà âåðøèíå ñîïî÷íîãî óâàëà â 3,5 êì îò æèëîãî ãíåçäà (â ïðÿìîé âèäèìîñòè) íàõîäèòñÿ ïðèñàäà, ó êîòîðîé íàáëþäàëè ïàðó âçðîñëûõ áåðêóòîâ. (3) Æèëîé ó÷àñòîê â ãîðàõ Äåëüáåãåòåé, 10 êì çàïàäíåå ï. Êèøêåíè Êàðàñó (Ì. Êàðàñó; Æàðìèíñêèé ð-í), îêîëî

51

50° ñ.ø. 81° â.ä. Åäèíñòâåííîå íàéäåííîå ãíåçäî ðàñïîëîæåíî â ïðèâåðøèííîé ÷àñòè îòâåñíîãî ñêëîíà ãðàíèòíîé ãðÿäû, íà óñòóïå ñêàëû. Ñâåðõó ïðèêðûòî ñêàëüíûì êîçûðüêîì, ìàëîçàìåòíî è íåäîñòóïíî. Äîìèíèðóåò íàä îáøèðíîé ìåñòíîñòüþ (îáçîð íå ìåíåå 6 êì).  2 êì îò ãíåçäà ðàñïîëîæåíà êðóãëîãîäè÷íî íàñåë¸ííàÿ çèìîâêà. Äâà ïòåíöà, îáà îïåðåíû. Ïàðà âçðîñëûõ íàáëþäàëàñü ó ãíåçäà â óòðåííèå ÷àñû. Êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) (1) Äâà ñòàðûõ íåæèëûõ ãíåçäà íàéäåíû â ìàññèâå ïî ðó÷. Òåíòåêæûðà (ïðèòîê ð. Êîêïåêòû) è íà ñîïî÷íîì óâàëå íàä äîëèíîé Êîêïåêòû, 12–15 êì þãî-çàïàäíåå ï. Êîêïåêòû (Êîêïåêòèíñêèé ð-í), îêîëî 48,6° ñ.ø. 82,3° â.ä. (2) Âçðîñëàÿ ïòèöà, âåðîÿòíî íà ãíåçäîâîì ó÷àñòêå, îòìå÷åíà â ìàññèâå Äåëüáåãåòåé, îêîëî 50° ñ.ø. 81° â.ä., íà çàáðîøåííîì êàçàõñêîì êëàäáèùå. Ñòåïíîé ëóíü (Circus macrourus) Îõîòÿùèéñÿ ñàìåö âñòðå÷åí â ìàññèâå ñèñòåìû ð. Êûçûëñó, îêîëî 49,6°ñ.ø. 81,3°â.ä., íàä ñîëîí÷àêîâàòûì ëóãîì ïî äíèùó øèðîêîãî äîëà. ×åãëîê (Falco subbuteo) Âçðîñëûé ñàìåö îòìå÷åí ó ñêëîíîâ ñîïî÷íîãî óâàëà íàä äîëèíîé ð. Êîêïåêòû, îêîëî 48,6° ñ.ø. 82,3° â.ä. Êîá÷èê (Falco vespertinus) Âçðîñëûé ñàìåö íàáëþäàëñÿ íà îïóøêå óð¸ìíîãî ëåñà â ìàññèâå Äåëüáåãåòåé, îêîëî 50° ñ.ø. 81° â.ä. Ñòåïíàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco naumanni) (1) Íå ìåíåå 4 ïàð âñòðå÷åíî íà ïåøåì ìàðøðóòå 5 êì ïî äîëèíå ðó÷. Àëòûáàé â ìàññèâå ó ñ. Áåëîå (Àê-Êàëà; Êîêïåêòèíñêèé ð-í), îêîëî 48,9° ñ.ø. 82,9° â.ä. Òàì æå íàéäåíî ãíåçäî îáûêíîâåííîé ïóñòåëüãè (Falco tinnunculus) ñ 5 ïòåíöàìè â ïóõîâîì íàðÿäå (òðóáêè ðóëåâûõ è ìàõîâûõ). (2) îäèíî÷íîå æèëîå ãíåçäî è êîëîíèÿ èç 3 ãí¸çä ñ ïòåíöàìè (â îáîèõ ñëó÷àÿõ ïðè ãíåçäàõ íàáëþäàëèñü âçðîñëûå ïòèöû) íàéäåíû â 20 êì çàïàäíåå ã. Øàð, îêîëî 49,7° ñ.ø. 81,3° â.ä. â êàìåííûõ ñòåíêàõ ìîãèë ñòàðûõ êàçàõñêèõ êëàäáèù. (3) ïàðà ïòèö äåðæàëàñü ó ñêëîíà, ñëîæåííîãî ìàòðàöåâèäíûìè ãðàíèòàìè, â ìàññèâå Äåëüáåãåòåé, îêîëî 50° ñ.ø. 81° â.ä. Ôèëèí (Bubo bubo) Îáñëåäîâàí æèëîé ó÷àñòîê (ðàçìíîæåíèå íå âûÿâëåíî) â óçêîé äîëèíå ïðèòîêà ðó÷. Àëòûáàé â ìàññèâå ó ñ. Áåëîå (Àê-Êàëà), îêîëî 48,9° ñ.ø. 82,9° â.ä. Íàéäåíà æèëàÿ íèøà ïîä âûñòóïîì ñêàëû ñî ñëåäàìè ïðåáûâàíèÿ ïòèöû (ñâåæèå ïîãàäêè, ïîìåò, ïåðüÿ ôèëèíà è âðàíîâûõ).


52

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

NotesofBreedingtheSakerFalconinCentralKazakhstan О ГНЕЗДОВАНИИ БАЛОБАНА В ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОМ КАЗАХСТАНЕ A. Levin (Institute of Zoology, Ministry of Education and Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan) F. Karpov (Institute of Zoology, Ministry of Education and Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan) А. Левин (Инстит т зооло ии, Министерство образования и на и, Алматы, Казахстан) Ф. Карпов (Инстит т зооло ии, Министерство образования и на и, Алматы, Казахстан) Êîíòàêò: Àíàòîëèé Ëåâèí Ëàáîðàòîðèÿ îðíèòîëîãèè Èíñòèòóòà çîîëîãèè Ìèíèñòåðñòâà îáðàçîâàíèÿ è íàóêè Êàçàõñòàíà Êàçàõñòàí 480060 Àëìàòû Àêàäåìãîðîäîê óë. Àëü-Ôàðàáè 93 Èíñòèòóò çîîëîãèè òåë.: 7 (3272) 69 48 76 ôàêñ: 7 (3272) 69 48 70 inst.zoo@nursat.kz levin_saker@nursat.kz Contact: Anatoliy Levin Laboratory of Ornithology of the Institute of Zoology Al-Faraby str., 93 Academgorodok 480060 Almaty Kazakhstan tel.: 7 (3272) 69 48 76 fax: 7 (3272) 69 48 70 inst.zoo@nursat.kz levin_saker@nursat.kz

Ðàéîí ðàáîò Surveyed area

Ââåäåíèå

Introduction

Ëèòåðàòóðíûå ñâåäåíèÿ î ãíåçäîâàíèè áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) â Öåíòðàëüíîì Êàçàõñòàíå äîñòàòî÷íî ñêóäíû. Ì.Í. Êîðåëîâ (1962) óêàçûâàåò íà ãíåçäîâàíèå ýòîãî ñîêîëà â ×ó-Èëèéñêèõ ãîðàõ, íî îòìå÷àåò, ÷òî îí îòñóòñòâóåò â ðàâíèííîé ÷àñòè ïóñòûíè Áåòïàê-Äàëà. Áîëåå ïîçäíèå èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïîêàçàëè, ÷òî îí îáèòàåò ïî âñåé Áåòïàê-Äàëå, îäíàêî íàèáîëåå îáû÷åí â ãîðèñòîé âîñòî÷íîé å¸ ÷àñòè (Êîâøàðü è äð., 2004).  1981 è 1982 ãã. Ð.Ã. Ïôåôôåðîì (1983) áûëè îáíàðóæåíû 7 ãí¸çä ñ ïòåíöàìè â ãîðàõ Æåëüòàó, íà Áàéãîðå è Äæàìáóëãîðå. Ïðè îáñëåäîâàíèè ýòîãî ðåãèîíà â 1983 ã. ìû îòìåòèëè áàëîáàíà 10 ìàÿ â ãîðíîé ãðóïïå Êóðìàí÷èòå, à òàêæå 6 ïòèö áûëè âñòðå÷åíû 21 èþíÿ íà ìàðøðóòå â 115 êì ìåæäó ïîñ. ×óëàêýñïå è ïåñêàìè Ñàñûê÷åíåëü. Äâà ãíåçäà áàëîáàíà áûëè íàéäåíû â öåíòðàëüíîé ðàâíèííîé ÷àñòè Áåòïàê-Äàëû â óðî÷èùå Êîãàøèê 13 èþíÿ 1984 ã. Îíè ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà äåðåâÿííûõ òðèàíãóëÿöèîííûõ âûøêàõ è ñîäåðæàëè 4 è 3 îïåðÿþùèõñÿ ïòåíöà (Êîâøàðü è äð., 2004). Ïðè ïîñåùåíèè Áåòïàê-Äàëû ñ 15 ïî 20 àïðåëÿ 1994 ã. íàìè áûëè íàéäåíû íà ñêàëàõ åùå 5 æèëûõ ãí¸çä.

M.N. Korelov (1962) mentioned breeding of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in the Chu-Iliy mountains, and reported the absence of breeding in the flat part of the Betpak-Dala desert. Later the Saker was surveyed and was noted to breed in the whole territory of the Betpak-Dala. It was noted that it was more abundant in the eastern mountain part of the desert (Kovshar’& all, 2004). In 1981 and 1982 R.G. Pfeffer (1983) found 7 nests with chicks. During the survey in this region in 1983 we recorded 6 birds on 21 June on the 115 km long route between the Chulakspe village and the Saskychen’ sands. Two nests of the Saker were found in the central flat part of the BetpakDala in the Kogashik natural boundary on 13 June 1984. They were located on the wood triangular poles and contend 4 and 3 fledglings (Kovshar’& all, 2004). During the Betpak-Dala survey since 15 to 20 April 1994 we found 5 living nests on cliffs. Since 1995 within the project «The Saker in Central Asia» we were monitoring the population of the Saker of the Betpak-Dala every year. In 1995 the density of the Saker was 1.21 pairs per 100 êì2. Since that time intensive exploitation of the Saker population started and as a result the number of breeding pairs has decreased. In 1999 all the known nests in the region had been destroyed. In 2000 ornithologists didn’t survey the central regions of Kazakhstan and there is no recent inforation on the status of the saker population.

Methods The biggest part of Central Kazakhstan was preliminarily surveyed during the period between 30 September and 8 October 2004 within the state program «Recording the number of the hunting birds of prey the Ka-


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4 Ñ 1995 ã. â ðàìêàõ ïðîåêòà «Áàëîáàí â Öåíòðàëüíîé Àçèè» íà÷àëè ïðîâîäèòü åæåãîäíûé ìîíèòîðèíã áåòïàêäàëèíñêîé ãðóïïèðîâêè áàëîáàíà, èìåâøåé èçíà÷àëüíóþ ïëîòíîñòü 1,21 ïàðû íà 100 êì2.  ýòîò æå ïåðèîä íà÷àëàñü èíòåíñèâíàÿ å¸ ýêñïëóàòàöèÿ, ÷òî ïðèâåëî ê ñíèæåíèþ êîëè÷åñòâà ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð. Ê 1999 ã. âñå èçâåñòíûå â ðåãèîíå ãí¸çäà îêàçàëèñü ðàçîðåííûìè.  ñâÿçè ñ ïîëíûì îòñóòñòâèåì çàíÿòûõ ãíåçäîâûõ òåððèòîðèé ðàáîòû â Áåòïàê-Äàëå âûíóæäåíû áûëè ïðåêðàòèòü. Ñ 2000 ã. öåíòðàëüíûå ðàéîíû Êàçàõñòàíà íå ïîñåùàëèñü îðíèòîëîãàìè, è íå áûëî èíôîðìàöèè î ñîâðåìåííîì ñîñòîÿíèè ãðóïïèðîâêè áàëîáàíà, íàñåëÿþùåé Çàïàäíîå Ïðèáàëõàøüå è ïóñòûíþ Áåòïàê-Äàëà. Èç ïîëÿ çðåíèÿ îðíèòîëîãîâ Êàçàõñòàíà âûïàäàëà òàêæå îãðîìíàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ Êàçàõñêîãî ìåëêîñîïî÷íèêà, ãäå áàëîáàíà âñòðå÷àëè, íî ãíåçäîâàíèå åãî íå áûëî ïîäòâåðæäåíî.

Ìàòåðèàë è ìåòîäèêà Ðåêîãíîñöèðîâî÷íîå îáñëåäîâàíèå çíà÷èòåëüíîé ÷àñòè Öåíòðàëüíîãî Êàçàõñòàíà áûëî ïðîâåäåíî âíîâü ñ 30 ñåíòÿáðÿ ïî 8 îêòÿáðÿ 2004 ã. â ðàìêàõ ãîñóäàðñòâåííîé ïðîãðàììû «Ó÷¸ò ÷èñëåííîñòè ëîâ÷èõ õèùíûõ ïòèö â ðåñïóáëèêå Êàçàõñòàí». Öåëüþ ýòîé ðàáîòû áûëî âûÿñíåíèå ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ è ÷èñëåííîñòè áàëîáàíà è áåðêóòà â ïóñòûíå Áåòïàê-Äàëà è â Êàçàõñêîì ìåëêîñîïî÷íèêå â ïåðèîä îñåííåé ìèãðàöèè, à òàêæå âûÿâëåíèå ìåñò èõ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ íà òåððèòîðèè Êàðàãàíäèíñêîé îáëàñòè. Äëÿ ðåøåíèÿ ïîñòàâëåííûõ çàäà÷ áûëà îñóùåñòâëåíà ïîåçäêà ïî ìàðøðóòó ã. Êàðàãàíäà – ïîñ. Êàðàæàë – ïîñ. Êëû÷ – ïîñ. Äàðàò – ãîðû Êûçûëòàó – ïîñ. Êèèê – ñò. Ìîèíòû – ïîñ. Ñàðûøàãàí – ïîñ. Ãóëüøàä – ã. Áàëõàø – ãîðû Áåêòàóàòà – ãîðû Êûçûëðàé – ïîñ. Òàëäû – ãîðû Êåíò – ã. Êàðêàðàëèíñê – ã. Êàðàãàíäà. Ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü àâòîìîáèëüíîãî ìàðøðóòà ïî îáëàñòè ñîñòàâèëà 2530 êì, èç íèõ ïî ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûì ìåñòàì – 1315 êì, ïî ËÝÏ – 598 êì, ïî ãîðèñòîé ìåñòíîñòè – 484 êì è ïî ðàâíèííûì ó÷àñòêàì – 233 êì. Êðîìå ñîòðóäíèêà Èíñòèòóòà çîîëîãèè â ïîåçäêå ó÷àñòâîâàëè ïðåäñòàâèòåëè Êàðàãàíäèíñêîãî Áàññåéíîâîãî Óïðàâëåíèÿ ëåñíîãî è îõîòíè÷üåãî õîçÿéñòâà Ë.À. Òåìáîðîâñêèé è Ñ. Ëåîíòüåâ, è ñîòðóäíèêè îáëàñòíîãî îòäåëåíèÿ ÒÎÎ «Îõîòçîîïðîì» Â.À. Õîõëîâ è À. Êàïóñòèí. Ìàðøðóò ïîåçäêè ôîðìèðîâàëñÿ â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ

53

zakhstan Republic». The total length of car survey routes was 2530 km, the length of the routes within the areas suitable for breeding was 1315 km, along power lines (PL) – 598 km, in the mountains territories – 484 km and in the flat areas – 233 km. The second detail survey of Central Kazakhstan to find the breeding pairs of the Saker took place between 19 April to 6 May 2005. The survey routes were along PL, the total length of which was 420.6 km.

Results During the trip 87 individuals of 10 species of raptors were recorded. Among raptors the most numerous were of the Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) – 55.2% from all the records of raptors, the Saker – 14.1%, LongLegged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) – 12.8%, harriers (Circus sp.) – 6.9%, Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) – 3.4%, Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) – 3.4%, Short-toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus) – 2.3%, Great Spotted (Aquila clanga) – 2.3%, Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) – 1.1% and Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) – 1.1%. Thus on the route over mountain territory 484 km long, two falcons were noted (0.41 individuals per 100 km). The density of Sakers on PL was 1.34 ind. per 100 km. Surveyes of the nests of the Saker in the Betpak-Dala found that the Sakers attempted to nest in old nesting places. However the press of humans on population has been hard, as indicated by the finding of nests in the old nests. The second survey of the eastern part of the Betpak-Dala desert (May, 2005) has confirmed our suggestions of an existing population of the Saker, nesting on electric poles. In this period 364 nests of different raptors were found on electric poles, 70 of which were empty. The other 294 nests were occupied by the Kestrel (166), LongLegged Buzzard (78), Brown-necked Raven (Corvus ruficollis) (18), Saker (16), Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) (6) and the Carrion Crow (Corvus corone) (6). Apart from the 16 nests of the Saker with clutches and chicks, 6 occupied nesting territories, and were found with birds near the empty nests. The biggest part of the occupied nests (88.2%) located in the upper parts of the poles, less – in the middle parts (9.2%) or on the traverses (2.6%). The highest density of nesting of the Saker was noted in the eastern edge of the Betpak-Dala desert,


54

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4 èíôîðìàöèåé î âñòðå÷àõ ëîâ÷èõ õèùíûõ ïòèö â ïðåäûäóùèå ãîäû, ïîëó÷åííîé îò ñîòðóäíèêîâ ïðèðîäîîõðàííûõ ñëóæá îáëàñòè. Îí îõâàòèë ðàçëè÷íûå ïî âûñîòå, ñòðóêòóðå è õàðàêòåðó ðàñòèòåëüíîãî ïîêðîâà ãîðíûå ãðóïïû, ïåðñïåêòèâíûå äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ áàëîáàíà, îòêðûòûå òåððèòîðèè ñ ëèíèÿìè ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷ (ËÝÏ) ðàçíûõ êîíñòðóêöèé, èäóùèìè êàê â øèðîòíîì, òàê è â äîëãîòíîì íàïðàâëåíèè. Íà ìàðøðóòå ðåãèñòðèðîâàëè âñåõ âñòðå÷åííûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö. Òî÷êè âñòðå÷ ôèêñèðîâàëè ñ ïîìîùüþ ïåðñîíàëüíîãî íàâèãàòîðà GPS–72. Êðîìå òîãî, äëÿ âûÿâëåíèÿ ìåñò êîíöåíòðàöèè õèùíèêîâ â ïåðèîä ðàçìíîæåíèÿ è ïîñëåäóþùåãî îïðåäåëåíèÿ èõ ñîñòàâà, ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ è ÷èñëåííîñòè îòìå÷àëè âñå âñòðå÷åííûå ãí¸çäà. Äîñòóïíûå ãí¸çäà îñìàòðèâàëèñü äëÿ âûÿñíåíèÿ ñîñòàâà èõ îáèòàòåëåé. Ñïåöèàëüíîå îáñëåäîâàíèå öåíòðàëüíûõ ðàéîíîâ Êàçàõñòàíà ñ öåëüþ ïîèñêà ìåñò ãíåçäîâàíèÿ áàëîáàíà áûëî ïðîâåäåíî â ïåðèîä ñ 19 àïðåëÿ ïî 6 ìàÿ 2005 ã. Ïîâòîðíîå äåòàëüíîå îáñëåäîâàíèå âîñòî÷íîé ÷àñòè ïóñòûíè Áåòïàê-Äàëà è Êàçàõñêîãî ìåëêîñîïî÷íèêà, à òàêæå çíàêîìñòâî ñ ãîðàìè Áåêòàóàòà, Êûçûëðàé, Êàðêàðàëèíñêèé ìàññèâ è Êåíò ïîçâîëèëî ñîáðàòü èíôîðìàöèþ î ñîâðåìåííîì ðàñïðåäåëåíèè è ÷èñëåííîñòè áàëîáàíà â öåíòðàëüíûõ ðàéîíàõ Êàçàõñòàíà. Çà 3 íåäåëè áûëè îñìîòðåíû âûñîêîâîëüòíûå ëèíèè, èäóùèå ïî çàïàäíîìó è ñåâåðíîìó áåðåãó îç. Áàëõàø âäîëü àâòîìîáèëüíîé ìàãèñòðàëè Àëìàòû – Àñòàíà, à òàêæå ËÝÏ, èäóùèå îò îç. Áàëõàø â ñòîðîíó ïóñòûíè Áåòïàê-Äàëà. Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü îáñëåäîâàííûõ ëèíèé ñîñòàâèëà 420,6 êì.

Ðåçóëüòàòû Çà âðåìÿ ýêñïåäèöèè 2004 ã. áûëî âñòðå÷åíî 87 õèùíûõ ïòèö 10 âèäîâ, ñðåäè êîòîðûõ íàèáîëåå ìíîãî÷èñëåííîé áûëà îáûêíîâåííàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus). Íà äîëþ ýòîãî ìåëêîãî ñîêîëà ïðèøëîñü 55.2% âñåõ âñòðå÷ õèùíûõ ïòèö. Íà âòîðîì ìåñòå ïî âñòðå÷àåìîñòè íàõîäèòñÿ áàëîáàí (14,1%), çàòåì êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) (12,8%), ëóíè (Circus sp.) (6,9%), ïåðåïåëÿòíèê (Accipiter nisus) (3,4%), áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos) (3,4%), çìååÿä (Circaetus gallicus) (2,3%), áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga) (2,3%), îð¸ë-êàðëèê (Hieraaetus pennatus) (1,1%) è ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis) (1,1%). Ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñå âñòðå÷åííûå íàìè ïòèöû äåðæàëèñü íà

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ where on some fragments of PL the nests were located on every metal electric pole with an intern-nest distance of 250 m. The highest density of nesting in the Saker was noted at the high voltage PL between large industrial centers. On the fragments with metal double electric poles it reached 10.6 pairs per 100 km, and on the portions of the powerline with concrete electric poles it reached 5.6 pairs per 100 km. There were no nests on the newly built metal double electric, because such poles did not have places for perching. The density was 7.9 pairs per 100 km on the old PL with metal electric poles with 3 traverses, on some from which nests located in 2–3 levels. We hoped that in this year we will find some nests at the PL, where many nests were recorded in 2004. However on the portion of 25.7 km out 104 nests found on PL 21 were occupied by kestrels, 8 – LongLegged Buzzards and 1 – the Brown-necked Raven. The Saker was located in its nest only once. The density of the Saker on this PL was minimal – 3.9 pairs per 100 km. Deaths birds from electrocuting on this PL was not documented. The most possible reason of the absence the Saker on this PL is the removal of adult birds and chicks.

Conclusions A total of 50 breeding pairs of the Saker are estimated for the Betpak-Dala. Following the records of sakers during the breeding period in the Bektauata mountains it seems the same pairs could breed in the Kyzylray and Kent mountains. Based on our surveys of 2004 and 2005 PL seems to be the main breeding substrate in Central Kazakhstan. The Saker tends to use the PL during the periods of breeding, spring and autumn migrations. It is possible that the human pressure on the Saker populations during many years have forced the Saker to find new more safe nesting places, such as the electric poles. High electric poles give a better chance for falcons and eagles to breed, perch and hunt successfully.

Acknowledgments We wish to offer thanks to Nick Fox – the head of the Falcon Research Institute (UK) for funding the surveys of 2005.


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4

Îäíî èç ãí¸çä áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) â ðàéîíå ïîñ. Àêáîêàé. Ôîòî À. Ëåâèíà A nest of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) near Akbokay village. Photo by A. Levin

îïîðàõ ËÝÏ èëè âáëèçè íèõ, è ëèøü ëóíè îòìå÷åíû íà îòêðûòûõ ïðîñòðàíñòâàõ. Èç 10 çàðåãèñòðèðîâàííûõ íàìè îäèíî÷íûõ áàëîáàíîâ 8 äåðæàëèñü íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ, èäóùèõ ïî ðàâíèííûì òåððèòîðèÿì. Ïëîòíîñòü ýòîãî ñîêîëà ñîñòàâèëà çäåñü 1,34 ïòèöû íà 100 êì. Èç ýòèõ 8 îñîáåé 6 äåðæàëèñü íà ìåòàëëè÷åñêèõ è 2 – íà áåòîííûõ îïîðàõ âûñîêîâîëüòíûõ ëèíèé. Äâà áàëîáàíà íàõîäèëèñü ó ãí¸çä è ïðîÿâëÿëè òåððèòîðèàëüíîå ïîâåäåíèå. Êðîìå òîãî, ñëåäû ïðåáûâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ îòìå÷åíû íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ åù¸ â íåñêîëüêèõ ìåñòàõ. Èç äâóõ áàëîáàíîâ, âñòðå÷åííûõ â ñòîðîíå îò êðóïíûõ ËÝÏ, îäíà îñîáü äåðæàëàñü â íèçêîãîðüå áëèç ïîñ. Àêæàðûê, äðóãàÿ – íà ñêàëüíîì âûõîäå íà þæíîé ñòîðîíå ãðàíèòíîãî ìàññèâà Áåêòàóàòà. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, íà ìàðøðóòå â 484 êì ïî ãîðèñòîé ìåñòíîñòè îòìåòèëè äâóõ ñîêîëîâ, Íàõîäÿùàÿñÿ íà âîåííîì ïîëèãîíå ËÝÏ ñ ãí¸çäàìè íà êàæäîé îïîðå. Ôîòî À. Ëåâèíà The power line on a military territory with nests on every pole. Photo by A. Levin

55

÷òî ñîñòàâëÿåò 0,41 îñîáè íà 100 êì. Èç äåâÿòè ðàññìîòðåííûõ ïòèö âîñåìü áûëè âçðîñëûìè ñàìöàìè, îäíà ïòèöà îêàçàëàñü ìîëîäîé ñàìêîé. Äàííàÿ ïîåçäêà âûÿâèëà íà îïîðàõ íåêîòîðûõ ËÝÏ áîëüøîå êîëè÷åñòâî ãí¸çä õèùíûõ ïòèö. Ñîòðóäíèêè ïðèðîäîîõðàííûõ âåäîìñòâ Êàðàãàíäèíñêîé îáëàñòè ñîîáùèëè, ÷òî îíè âñòðå÷àþò áàëîáàíà íå òîëüêî â ïåðèîä ïðîë¸òà, íî è â ãíåçäîâîå âðåìÿ. Ïî óñòíîìó ñîîáùåíèþ íà÷àëüíèêà Êàðàãàíäèíñêîãî òåððèòîðèàëüíîãî Óïðàâëåíèÿ ëåñíîãî è îõîòíè÷üåãî õîçÿéñòâà À. Áåðáåðà, â ïðåäûäóùèå ãîäû 3–4 ïàðû åæåãîäíî ãíåçäèëèñü íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ â ðàçíûõ ðàéîíàõ Êàðàãàíäèíñêîé îáëàñòè è äî òð¸õ ïàð áàëîáàíîâ æèëè â ãîðàõ Êåíò. Ñ ïåðåðûâîì â 6 ëåò â 2005 ã. íàìè áûëè âíîâü ïðîâåðåíû ãí¸çäà áàëîáàíà ê çàïàäó îò îç. Áàëõàø íà âîñòî÷íîé êðîìêå ïóñòûíè Áåòïàê-Äàëà. Èç ÷åòûð¸õ îñìîòðåííûõ ãí¸çä, êîòîðûå ê 1999 ã. áûëè ðàçîðåíû, îäíî îêàçàëîñü çàíÿòûì.  í¸ì 21 àïðåëÿ ñàìêà íàñèæèâàëà êëàäêó èç 5 ÿèö. Ñâåæèå ñëåäû ïðåáûâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ áûëè îòìå÷åíû åù¸ íà îäíîì ãíåçäå. Îáñëåäóÿ íîâûå ó÷àñòêè ãîð ê âîñòîêó îò ïîñ. Àêáîêàé, ìû îáíàðóæèëè çàíÿòûé ó÷àñòîê áàëîáàíà ñ äâóìÿ ãí¸çäàìè. Îáå ïîñòðîéêè îêàçàëèñü ïóñòûìè è áûëè îïóòàíû òîíêèìè ðûáîëîâíûìè ñåòÿìè. Ïîñåùåíèå áåòïàêäàëèíñêèõ ãí¸çä ïîêàçàëî, ÷òî ñîêîëà ïûòàþòñÿ âåðíóòüñÿ íà îáæèòûå ìåñòà. Îäíàêî àíòðîïîãåííîå âëèÿíèå âñ¸ åù¸ îñòà¸òñÿ äîñòàòî÷íî ñèëüíûì, ÷òî ïîäòâåðæäàåòñÿ íàõîæäåíèåì íà ãí¸çäàõ ñåòåé. Èç ðàçãîâîðà ñ ìåñòíûìè æèòåëÿìè âûÿñíèëîñü, ÷òî íà ðóäíèêàõ âñ¸ åù¸ âñòðå÷àþòñÿ ëþäè, ïûòàþùèåñÿ îòëàâëèâàòü ïòèö íå òîëüêî òðàäèöèîííûìè ñïîñîáàìè â ïåðèîä ìèãðàöèé, íî è â ãíåçäîâîå âðåìÿ. Ïðîâåäåííîå â 2005 ã. îáñëåäîâàíèå ïîäòâåðäèëî íàøè ïðåäïîëîæåíèÿ î ñóùåñòâîâàíèè â öåíòðàëüíûõ ðàéîíàõ Êàçàõñòàíà ïîïóëÿöèè áàëîáàíîâ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ. Çà óêàçàííûé ïåðèîä íà îïîðàõ ýòèõ ëèíèé âñòðå÷åíî 364 ãíåçäà ðàçëè÷íûõ õèùíèêîâ, èç êîòîðûõ ïóñòûìè áûëè ëèøü 70. Îñòàëüíûå 294 áûëè çàíÿòû îáûêíîâåííîé ïóñòåëüãîé (166), êóðãàííèêîì (78), ïóñòûííûì âîðîíîì (Corvus ruficollis) (18), áàëîáàíîì (16), ìîãèëüíèêîì (Aquila heliaca) (6) è ÷¸ðíîé âîðîíîé (Corvus corone) (6). Êðîìå 16 ãí¸çä áàëîáàíà ñ êëàäêàìè èëè ìàëåíüêèìè ïòåíöàìè, âûÿâèëè òàêæå 6 çàíÿòûõ òåððèòîðèé, íà êîòîðûõ ïòèöû äåðæàëèñü ó ïóñòûõ ãí¸çä.


56

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4 Îñíîâíûìè ñòðîèòåëÿìè ãí¸çä íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ ÿâëÿåòñÿ êóðãàííèê, ðåæå ïóñòûííûé âîðîí è ìîãèëüíèê. Äëÿ ïîñòðîéêè ãí¸çä îíè èñïîëüçóþò âñå òèïû îïîð. Íàèáîëüøåå êîëè÷åñòâî ãí¸çä ïîñòðîåíî èìè íà îäèíàðíûõ èëè ñïàðåííûõ ìåòàëëè÷åñêèõ ñâàðíûõ îïîðàõ, ñîáðàííûõ èç óãîëêà. Ýòè îïîðû îáû÷íî èìåþò â âåðõíåé, ðåæå åù¸ è â ñðåäíåé ÷àñòè ãîðèçîíòàëüíûå ïåðåêðåñòüÿ, êîòîðûå è èñïîëüçóþòñÿ ïòèöàìè äëÿ óñòðîéñòâà ãíåçäà. Áîëüøèíñòâî çàíÿòûõ õèùíûìè ïòèöàìè ãí¸çä (88,2%) ðàñïîëàãàëîñü â âåðõíåé ÷àñòè îïîð, ðåæå â ñðåäíåé èõ ÷àñòè (9,2%) èëè íà òðàâåðñàõ è íà ïåðåêëàäèíå ìåæäó äâóìÿ îïîðàìè (2,6%). Íàèáîëåå âûñîêóþ ïëîòíîñòü ãí¸çä íàáëþäàëè íà âîñòî÷íîé êðîìêå ïóñòûíè Áåòïàê-Äàëà, ãäå íà îòäåëüíûõ ó÷àñòêàõ ËÝÏ îíè íàõîäèëèñü ïðàêòè÷åñêè íà êàæäîé ìåòàëëè÷åñêîé îïîðå â 250 ì äðóã îò äðóãà.

Ãíåçäî áàëîáàíà íà ìàãèñòðàëüíîé ËÝÏ ñ âûëóïëÿþùèìèñÿ ïòåíöàìè. Ôîòî À. Ëåâèíà The nest of the Saker Falcon on a high voltage power line with the hatching chicks. Photo by A. Levin

Àíàëèç ñîáðàííîãî íàìè â âîñòî÷íîì è ñåâåðíîì Ïðèáàëõàøüå ìàòåðèàëà ïîêàçàë, ÷òî áàëîáàíû ïðåäïî÷èòàþò çàíèìàòü êðóïíûå ãí¸çäà, ðàñïîëîæåííûå â âåðõíåé ÷àñòè îïîð. Èç 16 ãí¸çä 10 íàõîäèëèñü íà ñàìîé îïîðå íà óðîâíå íèæíåé òðàâåðñû è âûøå è 2 ïîñòðîéêè – íà òðàâåðñàõ. Íà ËÝÏ ñ äâîéíûìè ìåòàëëè÷åñêèìè îïîðàìè áàëîáàíû îõîòíî çàíèìàþò òàêæå ãí¸çäà, ïîñòðîåííûå êóðãàííèêàìè â ñðåäíåé ÷àñòè îïîð. Èç 8 ãíåçä áàëîáàíà, íàéäåííûõ íà ëèíèÿõ ýòîãî òèïà, 4 ïîñòðîéêè íàõîäèëèñü â âåðõíåé è 4 – â ñðåäíåé ÷àñòè îïîð. Íàèáîëåå âûñîêàÿ ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ îòìå÷åíà íà âûñîêîâîëüòíûõ ìàãèñ-

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ òðàëüíûõ ËÝÏ, ñîåäèíÿþùèõ êðóïíûå ïðîìûøëåííûå ðàéîíû. Íà ó÷àñòêàõ ñ äâîéíûìè îïîðàìè èç óãîëêà îíà äîñòèãàåò 10,6 ïàð íà 100 êì, íà ó÷àñòêàõ ñ áåòîííûìè îïîðàìè îíà ñíèæàåòñÿ äî 5,6 ïàð íà 100 êì. Íà ñîâðåìåííûõ äâîéíûõ îïîðàõ èç øâåëëåðà ìû íå íàøëè íè îäíîãî ãíåçäà áàëîáàíà, ïîñêîëüêó íà íèõ îòñóòñòâóþò óäîáíûå äëÿ èõ ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ìåñòà. Ïëîòíîñòü â 7,9 ïàð íà 100 êì çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíà íà ñòàðîé ËÝÏ, èìåþùåé îäèíî÷íûå ìåòàëëè÷åñêèå îïîðû ñ òðåìÿ òðàâåðñàìè. Íà íåêîòîðûõ èç íèõ ãí¸çäà ðàñïîëàãàëèñü â 2–3 ÿðóñà. Íà îòäåëüíûõ ó÷àñòêàõ ìåòàëëè÷åñêèå ñòîëáû íà÷àëè ìåíÿòü íà áåòîííûå.  îäíîì èç äâóõ îñìîòðåííûõ íàìè ãí¸çä, íàõîäèâøèõñÿ íà ìåòàëëè÷åñêèõ îïîðàõ, íàéäåíû ïåðüÿ áàëîáàíà, â äðóãîì – ðàìêà ñ ïåòëÿìè àðàáñêîãî ïðîèçâîäñòâà, èñïîëüçóåìàÿ äëÿ îòëîâà ñîêîëîâ. Îñîáûå íàäåæäû âîçëàãàëè íà ËÝÏ, íà êîòîðîé îñåíüþ 2004 ã. áûëî çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíî áîëüøîå êîëè÷åñòâî ãí¸çä. Ïîñêîëüêó ýòà ëèíèÿ íàõîäèòñÿ íà òåððèòîðèè âîåííîãî ïîëèãîíà, è ïëîòíîñòü ïîñåëåíèé áîëüøîé ïåñ÷àíêè âäîëü íå¸ î÷åíü âûñîêà, ìû ðàññ÷èòûâàëè îáíàðóæèòü íà íåé æèëûå ãí¸çäà áàëîáàíà. Îäíàêî íà ó÷àñòêå â 25,7 êì èç 104 èìåþùèõñÿ íà ëèíèè ãí¸çä 21 áûëî çàíÿòî îáûêíîâåííîé ïóñòåëüãîé, 8 – êóðãàííèêîì è îäíî – ïóñòûííûì âîðîíîì. Áàëîáàíà íàì óäàëîñü óâèäåòü çäåñü ëèøü îäèí ðàç. Îí ñèäåë ó ïóñòîãî ãíåçäà è ïðè ïîÿâëåíèè ìàøèíû óëåòåë â ñòåïü. Ïëîòíîñòü ïîñåëåíèÿ áàëîáàíà íà ýòîé ËÝÏ îêàçàëàñü ìèíèìàëüíîé – 3,9 ïàðû íà 100 êì. Ãèáåëü ïòèö îò ýëåêòðè÷åñêîãî òîêà íà ýòîé ëèíèè íå îòìå÷åíà, è íà îñìîòðåííûõ ó÷àñòêàõ íàì íå óäàëîñü íàéòè íè îäíîé ïîãèáøåé õèùíîé ïòèöû. Åäèíñòâåííûì ëîãè÷åñêèì îáúÿñíåíèåì ïîëíîãî îòñóòñòâèÿ áàëîáàíà íà íåé ÿâëÿåòñÿ îòëîâ âçðîñëûõ ïòèö ó ãí¸çä è èçúÿòèå èç íèõ ïòåíöîâ. Çàäà÷à áðàêîíüåðîâ îáëåã÷àåòñÿ òåì, ÷òî îïîðû ýòîé ëèíèè áîëåå íèçêèå è ãí¸çäà áîëåå äîñòóïíûå, ÷åì íà äðóãèõ ËÝÏ.

Îáñóæäåíèå ìàòåðèàëîâ Ïî èìåþùèìñÿ ó íàñ äàííûì îöåíèòü ÷èñëåííîñòü ãðóïïèðîâêè áàëîáàíà, ãíåçäÿùåéñÿ íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ â öåíòðàëüíîé ÷àñòè Êàçàõñòàíà, ìîæíî ëèøü ïðèáëèçèòåëüíî.  2005 ã. îñìîòðåíà ÷àñòü ëèíèé íà âîñòîêå Áåòïàê-Äàëû è íà þãå Êàçàõñ-


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4 êîãî ìåëêîñîïî÷íèêà. Åñòü èíôîðìàöèÿ î ãíåçäîâàíèè ýòîãî ñîêîëà â ñåâåðíîé ÷àñòè Áåòïàê-Äàëû è ê çàïàäó îò ã. Êàðàãàíäû.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ íåò âîçìîæíîñòè ýêñòðàïîëèðîâàòü ïîëó÷åííûå äàííûå, ïîñêîëüêó íà èìåþùèõñÿ â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ êàðòàõ îòñóòñòâóþò ìíîãèå ËÝÏ, ïîñòðîåííûå â ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû. Ïîñêîëüêó íàìè ïðîâåðåíî ìåíåå ïîëîâèíû ýëåêòðè÷åñêèõ ëèíèé, îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü áàëîáàíà íà íèõ ìîæåò áûòü îöåíåíà â 50 ïàð. Âñòðå÷à áàëîáàíîâ â ãíåçäîâîå âðåìÿ â ãîðíîì ìàññèâå Áåêòàóàòà ïîçâîëÿåò ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî îòäåëüíûå ïàðû ìîãóò ãíåçäèòüñÿ è ïî íàèáîëåå êðóïíûì ãîðíûì îáðàçîâàíèÿì, òàêèì êàê Êûçûëðàé è Êåíò. Íà îñíîâàíèè ïîëó÷åííûõ â 2004 è 2005 ãã. äàííûõ ìîæíî çàêëþ÷èòü, ÷òî ËÝÏ ÿâëÿþòñÿ îñíîâíûìè ìåñòàìè ñðåäîòî÷åíèÿ ýòîãî ñîêîëà â Öåíòðàëüíîì Êàçàõñòàíå â ïåðèîä ðàçìíîæåíèÿ è âî âðåìÿ âåñåííåé è îñåííåé ìèãðàöèè. Âîçìîæíî, ïðåñëåäîâàíèå áàëîáàíîâ ëþäüìè â òå÷åíèå ìíîãèõ ëåò çàñòàâèëî èõ èñêàòü íîâûå áîëåå áåçîïàñíûå ìåñòà, êàêîâûìè è ñòàëè äëÿ íèõ îïîðû ËÝÏ. Âûñîêèå îïîðû äàþò ñîêîëàì è äðóãèì õèùíûì ïòèöàì âîçìîæíîñòü ýôôåêòèâíî ðàçìíîæàòüñÿ, îõîòèòüñÿ è îòäûõàòü. Îäíàêî ËÝÏ ïðèâëåêàþò íå òîëüêî õèùíûõ ïòèö, íî è ëîâöîâ. Âäîëü âñåõ êðóïíûõ ëèíèé ïðîëîæåíû ãðóíòîâûå äîðîãè, íà ìíîãèõ èç êîòîðûõ ìû âñòðåòèëè ñâåæèå ñëåäû ñîâðåìåííûõ ëåãêîâûõ àâòîìîáèëåé. Èç áåñåä ñ ÷àáàíàìè âûÿñíèëîñü, ÷òî ëîâöû ïîñåùàþò ýòè ËÝÏ ðåãóëÿðíî, ïîêóïàÿ ó ìåñòíûõ ÷àáàíîâ ãîëóáåé. Ïîä îäíèì èç ñòîëáîâ â ðàéîíå ã. Áàëõàø áûëè îáíàðóæåíû 5 êîðîáîê, â êîòîðûõ ïåðåâîçèëè è ïåðåäåðæèâàëè ãîëóáåé. Ïîäòâåðæäåíèåì íåëåãàëüíîãî îòëîâà ñîêîëîâ íà ãíåçäîâûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ ÿâëÿåòñÿ è îáíàðóæåíèå â îäíîì èç ãí¸çä ïðèñïîñîáëåíèé äëÿ îòëîâà âçðîñëûõ ïòèö.

57

Íà íåêîòîðûõ îïîðàõ ãí¸çäà ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà êàæäîé òðàâåðñå. Ôîòî À. Ëåâèíà The nests located on every traverse of some poles. Photo by A. Levin

 íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ â Êàðàãàíäèíñêîé îáëàñòè â ïîëå ðàáîòàþò ìîáèëüíûå îòðÿäû, ñîçäàííûå äëÿ îõðàíû ñàéãè è äðóãèõ ðåäêèõ æèâîòíûõ êàçàõñòàíñêîé ôàóíû, â òîì ÷èñëå è áàëîáàíà. Åñòü íàäåæäà, ÷òî ÷èñëåííîñòü áàëîáàíà â áëèæàéøèå ãîäû íà÷íåò âîññòàíàâëèâàòüñÿ, è îíè âåðíóòñÿ íà ïðåæíèå òåððèòîðèè.

Áëàãîäàðíîñòè Àâòîðû ñòàòüè âûðàæàþò èñêðåííþþ áëàãîäàðíîñòü Íèêó Ôîêñó – ðóêîâîäèòåëþ Èíñòèòóòà Èññëåäîâàíèÿ Ñîêîëîâ (Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ) çà ôèíàíñîâóþ ïîìîùü â îñóùåñòâëåíèè èññëåäîâàíèé 2005 ã. Ëèòåðàòóðà Êîâøàðü À.Ô., Ëåâèí À.Ñ., Áåëÿëîâ Î.Â. Ïòèöû ïóñòûíè Áåòïàê-Äàëà. – Òðóäû Èíñòèòóòà çîîëîãèè. Ò. 48. Îðíèòîëîãèÿ. Àëìàòû, 2004. Ñ. 85–126. Êîðåëîâ Ì.Í. Îòðÿä Ñîêîëîîáðàçíûå. – Ïòèöû Êàçàõñòàíà. Ò. 2. Àëìà-Àòà, 1962. Ïôåôôåð Ð.Ã. Î ãíåçäîâàíèè Áàëîáàíà â Áåòïàê-Äàëå. – Îõðàíà õèùíûõ ïòèö. Ì., 1983. Ñ. 153–154.

Ñêàëû ñ ðåäêèìè ãí¸çäàìè áàëîáàíà â ãîðíîì ìàññèâå Êûçûëðàé. Ôîòî À. Ëåâèíà The rocks with sparse nests of the Saker Falcon in the Kyzylray mountains. Photo by A. Levin


58

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

NewRecordsoftheRaptorsintheMugodzaryMountains, Kazakhstan НОВЫЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ О КРУПНЫХ ХИЩНЫХ ПТИЦАХ МУГОДЖАР, КАЗАХСТАН A.S. Pazhenkov (The Volga-Ural ECONET Assistance Center, Samara, Russia) D.A. Korzhev (State University, Samara, Russia) N.A. Hohlova (State University, Samara, Russia) А.С. Пажен ов (Центр содействия Вол о-Уральс ой э оло ичес ой сети, Самара, Россия) Д.А. Коржев (Самарс ий Гос дарственный Университет, Россия) Н.А. Хохлова (Самарс ий Гос дарственный Университет, Россия) Êîíòàêò: Àëåêñåé Ïàæåíêîâ Öåíòð ñîäåéñòâèÿ ÂîëãîÓðàëüñêîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñåòè 443045 Ðîññèÿ Ñàìàðà à/ÿ–8001 òåë.: (9272) 15 39 60 f_lynx@hotbox.ru Alexey Pazhenkov The Volga-Ural ECONET Assistance Center P.O. Box 8001 Samara Russia 443045 tel.: (9272) 15 39 60 f_lynx@hotbox.ru

Ìóãîäæàðû – þæíàÿ îêîíå÷íîñòü Óðàëüñêîé ãîðíîé ñòðàíû, èìåþùàÿ âèä ìåëêîñîïî÷íèêà, ëåæàùàÿ â ïðåäåëàõ Àêòþáèíñêîé îáëàñòè Êàçàõñòàíà. Àáñîëþòíûå âûñîòû íàä óðîâíåì ìîðÿ êîëåáëþòñÿ îò 230 äî 675 ì (â ñðåäíåì 400–500 ì). Ñêëîíû âîçâûøåííîñòåé ïîëîãèå, ïîðîñøèå ñòåïíîé ðàñòèòåëüíîñòüþ.  ïîíèæåíèÿõ ìåæäó óâàëàìè è âäîëü âîäîòîêîâ ðàñïîëàãàþòñÿ çàðîñëè ëóãîâîé è äðåâåñíî-êóñòàðíèêîâîé ðàñòèòåëüíîñòè. Îòíîñèòåëüíî íåáîëüøèå ñêàëüíûå îáíàæåíèÿ ïðèóðî÷åíû ê ãðåáíÿì õðåáòîâ è äîëèíàì ðåê. Òåððèòîðèÿ îáñëåäîâàëàñü ñ 15 ïî 24 ìàÿ 2004 ã. ñîòðóäíèêàìè Öåíòðà ñîäåéñòâèÿ Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñåòè (Ñàìàðà, Ðîññèÿ) â ðàìêàõ ïðîãðàììû ïî èíâåíòàðèçàöèè öåííûõ ïðèðîäíûõ òåððèòîðèé Çàïàäíîãî Êàçàõñòàíà è ïðîåêòà «Áà-

The territory of the Mugodzary mountains has been surveyed in 15–24 May 2005. The total length of survey routes was 740 km. We set 3 study areas for account of the raptors species with a total area of 196,43 km2 The Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus). Seven breeding area with fife living nests were found on the surveyed territory. All nests were located on rock. The Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis). Eight breeding area with six nests were found on the surveyed territory. Three nests were located on rock, three nests – on the ground and one nest was located on electric pole. Two clutches contained 2 eggs each and one brood contained 3 chicks. The total numbers of Steppe Eagles of this region is estimated as 16–20 pairs. The Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus). A total of 3 breeding areas were found on the surveyed territory (2 living nests). All nests were located on birches. Two clutches contained 1 egg each. The total numbers of Short-Toed Eagles of this region is estimated as 8 pairs. The Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo). Seven breeding area with three living nests were found on the surveyed territory. All nests were located in niches in the rock. Two broods contained 3 chicks each and one brood contained 1 chick. The total numbers of Eagle Owls of this region is estimated as 20 pairs.

Ðèñ. 1. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ó÷¸òíûõ ïëîùàäîê è âûÿâëåííûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ â Ìóãîäæàðàõ Fig. 1. Location of the surveyed plots and the nesting areas of raptors in Mugodzary mountains


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4

59

êîâ (3-õ ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ: êóðãàííèê, ñòåïíîé îð¸ë, çìååÿä è 1 âèäà ñîâîîáðàçíûõ: ôèëèí), à òàêæå íåêîòîðûõ äðóãèõ âèäîâ ïòèö, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíûå Êíèãè Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíà (êðå÷¸òêà, ÷¸ðíûé àèñò è ò.ä.).

Êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus)

Ãíåçäî êóðãàííèêà (Buteo rufinus) ñ ïòåíöàìè. Ôîòî À. Ïàæåíêîâà The nest of the Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) with chicks. Photo by A. Pazhenkov

Òàáë. 1. Ãí¸çäà õèùíûõ ïòèö Table 1. The nests of the birds of prey

ëîáàí â Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíå» Èíñòèòóòà èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ (Falcon Research Institute, IWC; Carmarthen, UK). Ïîìèìî àâòîðîâ â ýêñïåäèöèè ïðèíèìàëè ó÷àñòèå Òàòüÿíà Òðîôèìîâà (Ñàìàðñêèé Ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò), Èëüÿ Ñìåëÿíñêèé (ÌÁÎÎ «Ñèáýêîöåíòð», ã. Íîâîñèáèðñê) è Àíäðåé Êîðîëþê (ÖÑÁÑ ÑÎ ÐÀÍ, ã. Íîâîñèáèðñê). Àâòîìîáèëüíûé ìàðøðóò (ÓÀÇ–3909) ñîñòàâèë îêîëî 740 êì. Îò ìåñò ñòîÿíîê è îñòàíîâîê ñîâåðøàëèñü ïåøèå ìàðøðóòû îáùåé ïðîòÿæåííîñòüþ îêîëî 100 êì. Äëÿ ó÷¸òà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ â Ìóãîäæàðàõ áûëè çàëîæåíû òðè ïëîùàäêè îáùåé ïëîùàäüþ 571,23 êì2, íà êîòîðûõ â îñíîâíîì è ïðîõîäèëà ðàáîòà (ðèñ. 1). Òåððèòîðèÿ îñåâîé ÷àñòè Ìóãîäæàð, äëÿ êîòîðîé ïðèâîäÿòñÿ ïðåäâàðèòåëüíûå îöåíêè ÷èñëåííîñòè, çàíèìàåò ïëîùàäü ïðèìåðíî 1,7 òûñ. êì2.  õîäå îáñëåäîâàíèÿ áûëè âûÿâëåíû ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ðÿäà êðóïíûõ õèùíè-

Øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííûé íà èçó÷àåìîé òåððèòîðèè âèä. Äîñòàòî÷íî ðàâíîìåðíî íàñåëÿåò ìåëêîñîïî÷íûé ëàíäøàôò, òÿãîòåÿ ê ó÷àñòêàì ñ íàèáîëåå ïåðåñå÷¸ííûì ðåëüåôîì. Âûÿâëåíî 7 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ (òàáë. 1). Âñå îáíàðóæåííûå ãí¸çäà ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà óñòóïàõ â ñåðåäèíå èëè âåðõíåé òðåòè ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé. Ïî ðåçóëüòàòàì îöåíêè, ÷èñëåííîñòü äàííîãî âèäà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â îñåâîé ÷àñòè Ìóãîäæàð ñîñòàâëÿåò ïîðÿäêà 15–20 ïàð. Ãíåçäî ñòåïíîãî îðëà (Aquila nipalensis) ñ êëàäêîé. Ôîòî À. Ïàæåíêîâà The nest of the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) with clutch. Photo by A. Pazhenkov


60

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Ãíåçäî çìååÿäà (Circaetus gallicus). Ôîòî À. Ïàæåíêîâà The nest of the Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus) with clutch. Photo by A. Pazhenkov

Ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis) Øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííûé íà èçó÷àåìîé òåððèòîðèè âèä. Äîñòàòî÷íî ðàâíîìåðíî íàñåëÿåò ìåëêîñîïî÷íûé ëàíäøàôò è ðàâíèíû â ïîäíîæèè ãîð. Âûÿâëåíî 8 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ. Èç 6 îáñëåäîâàííûõ ãí¸çä (5-æèëûå, 1- ñòàðîå) 3 ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà âåðøèíàõ îñòàíöîâ, 2 – íà ïîâåðõíîñòè çåìëè, 1 – íà ËÝÏ. ×èñëåííîñòü ñòåïíîãî îðëà â îñåâîé ÷àñòè Ìóãîäæàð ìîæíî îöåíèòü â 16–20 ïàð.

Çìååÿä (Circaetus gallicus) Òÿãîòååò ê ó÷àñòêàì ñ äðåâåñíî-êóñòàðíèêîâîé ðàñòèòåëüíîñòüþ. Áûëî âûÿâëåíî 3 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà äàííîãî âèäà, íà êîòîðûõ îáíàðóæåíî 3 ãíåçäà. Âñå îíè ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà áåð¸çàõ â ðàçâèëêàõ ñòâîëà, íà áîêîâîé âåòâè, íà âûñîòå îêîëî 3–4 ì.  äâóõ ãí¸çäàõ îáíàðóæåíû êëàäêè, ïî îäíîìó ÿéöó â êàæäîé. Îäíà ïàðà åù¸ íå ïðèñòóïèëà ê ðàçìíîæåíèþ, õîòÿ äåðæàëàñü ó ãíåçäà. ×èñëåííîñòü çìååÿäà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â îñåâîé ÷àñòè Ìóãîäæàð ìîæåò ñîñòàâëÿòü 8 ïàð. Ïòåíöû ôèëèíà (Bubo bubo) ó ãíåçäà. Ôîòî À. Êîðîëþêà The chicks of the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) near the nest. Photo by A. Korolyuk

Ôèëèí (Bubo bubo) Øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííûé íà èçó÷àåìîé òåððèòîðèè âèä. Êàê è êóðãàííèê, òÿãîòååò ê ó÷àñòêàì ñ íàèáîëåå ïåðåñå÷¸ííûì ðåëüåôîì. Âûÿâëåíî 7 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ, íà òð¸õ èç êîòîðûõ íàéäåíî òðè ãíåçäà ñ âûâîäêàìè (1, 3 è 3 ïóõîâûõ ïòåíöà). Äâà îáíàðóæåííûõ ãíåçäà ðàñïîëàãàëèñü â ãëóáîêèõ íèøàõ ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé, îáðàù¸ííûõ ê äîëèíå âîäîòîêà, íà âûñîòå îêîëî 20 ì. Îäíî ãíåçäî ðàçìåùàëîñü íà ñêëîíå ëîùèíû ïîä íåáîëüøèì êîçûðüêîì âàëóíà. ×èñëåííîñòü ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêè ôèëèíà â îñåâîé ÷àñòè Ìóãîäæàð ìîæíî îöåíèòü ïðèáëèçèòåëüíî â 20 ïàð.


Short reports

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4

61

ShortReports КРАТКИЕ СООБЩЕНИЯ RegistrationoftheGreatSpottedEagle intheNortheastofKazakhstan ВСТРЕЧА БОЛЬШОГО ПОДОРЛИКА НА СЕВЕРО-ВОСТОКЕ КАЗАХСТАНА Askar Isabekov Ас ар Исабе ов

(7) Êîíòàêò: Àñêàð Èñàáåêîâ askarisabekov@ hotmail.com (7) Contact: Askar Isabekov askarisabekov@ hotmail.com

Áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga). Áåñêàðàãàéñêèé ðàéîí, Âîñòî÷íî-Êàçàõñòàíñêàÿ îáëàñòü (29.08.2005). Ôîòî À. Èñàáåêîâà The Great Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga). Beskaragay region, East-Kazakhstan oblast (29/08/ 2005). Photo by A. Isabekov

29 àâãóñòà 2005 ã. â Áåñêàðàãàéñêîì ðàéîíå Âîñòî÷íî-Êàçàõñòàíñêîé îáëàñòè â 35 êì îò Ñåìèïàëàòèíñêà, áëèç òðàññû Ñåìèïàëàòèíñê – Êàíàíåðêà, íà êðîìêå ñòåïíîãî áîðà áûë âñòðå÷åí áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga) 3–4-õ ëåòíåãî âîçðàñòà. Ïòèöà ïîäïóñòèëà íà 30 ì, ïîçâîëèëà ñåáÿ ñôîòîãðàôèðîâàòü è ñêðûëàñü â ëåñó. Êîíòàêò (7).

The Great Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) 3– 4 years old was observed near highway Semipalatinsk – Kanonerka on the edge of a pine forest in the Beskaragay region of the East-Kazakhstan district in 29 August 2005. The bird set at a pine tree and was observed and taken images from 30 m, after that is hidden in the forest. Contact (7).

TheWhite-TailedEagleintheLowerKama ОРЛАН-БЕЛОХВОСТ НА НИЖНЕЙ КАМЕ Rinur Bekmansurov (National Park Nizhnyaya Kama, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia) Рин р Бе манс ров (Национальный пар «Нижняя Кама», Татарстан, Россия) (8) Êîíòàêò: Ðèíóð Áåêìàíñóðîâ Íàöèîíàëüíûé ïàðê «Íèæíÿÿ Êàìà» 423600 Ðîññèÿ Òàòàðñòàí ã. Åëàáóãà óë. Íåôòÿíèêîâ 175 òåë.: (855 57) 4 33 56 rinur@yandex.ru ecoturizm@yandex.ru (8) Contact: Rinur Bekmansurov National Park ‘Nizhnyaya Kama’ Heftyannikov str., 175 Elabuga Republic of Tatarstan 423600 Russia tel.: (855 57) 4 33 56 rinur@yandex.ru ecoturizm@yandex.ru

Ïåðâûé ïåðå÷åíü ïòèö, îáèòàþùèõ â Íàöèîíàëüíîì ïàðêå «Íèæíÿÿ Êàìà», áûë ñîñòàâëåí Â.Ì. Áàñîâûì.  ïåðå÷íå óïîìèíàëîñü åäèíñòâåííîå ìåñòî ãíåçäîâàíèÿ îðëàíà-áåëîõâîñòà (Haliaeetus albicilla) íà òåððèòîðèè ïàðêà. Âåñüìà âåðîÿòíî, ÷òî èìåííî ýòî ãíåçäî îðëàíà, óïîìèíàåìîå Â.Ì. Áàñîâûì, áûëî îñìîòðåíî àâòîðîì â ñåíòÿáðå 2003 ã. ñîâìåñòíî ñ íèæåãîðîäñêèìè îðíèòîëîãàìè Ñ.Â. Áàêêîé è Í.Þ. Êèñåë¸âîé (ðèñ. 1., ó÷àñòîê 1). Ãíåçäî ðàñïîëàãàëîñü íà îêðàèíå Áîëüøîãî Áîðà è ïðåäñòàâëÿëî ñîáîé ìîùíîå ñîîðóæåíèå èç íåñêîëüêèõ ñëî¸â, âûñîòîé îêîëî 5 ìåòðîâ, óñòðîåííîå â âåðõíåé ÷àñòè 100-ëåòíåé ñîñíû. Ñâåæèå ñîñíîâûå âåòêè íà ãíåçäå ñâèäåòåëüñòâîâàëè î òîì, ÷òî ãíåçäî çàíèìàëîñü â ãîä Ðèñ. 1. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ îðëàíàáåëîõâîñòà (Haliaeetus albicilla) íà Íèæíåé Êàìå Fig. 1. Distribution of breeding areas of the WhiteTailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in the Lower Kama

In September of 2003 we with S.V. Bakka, N.Y. Kiseleva surveyed the nest of the White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in the National Park Nizhnyaya Kama (fig. 1. breeding area 1). The nest was located on the edge of pine forest and was a large construction consisted of several layers totaling near 5 meters at height. It was in the upper part of a pine-tree 100 years old. In 2004 adult birds were recorded near the nest. In 25 April 2005 the pair of White-


62

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Ãíåçäî îðëàíà-áåëîõâîñòà (Haliaeetus albicilla) íà ãíåçäîâîì ó÷àñòêå ¹ 1. Ôîòî Ð. Áåêìàíñóðîâà The nest of the WhiteTailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) on the nesting area ¹ 1. Photo by by R. Bekmansurov

îñìîòðà. Ðàññòîÿíèå îò íåãî äî ð. Êàìû – 4,5 êì, à â 2-õ êì îò ãíåçäà íà÷èíàþòñÿ ïîéìåííûå ëóãà ñ ìíîãî÷èñëåííûìè îç¸ðàìè-ñòàðèöàìè. Ãíåçäî õîðîøî ïðîñìàòðèâàåòñÿ ñ ïîëÿ, ãðàíè÷àùåãî ñ ëåñîì.  2004 ã. ó ãíåçäà íåîäíîêðàòíî âèäåëè îðëàíîâ. 25 àïðåëÿ 2005 ã. âáëèçè ýòîãî ãíåçäà áûëà îòìå÷åíà ïàðà îðëàíîâ, à 21 èþíÿ íà ñîñíå â 20 ì îò ýòîãî ãíåçäà áûëî îáíàðóæåíî íîâîå ãíåçäî, íî áåç ïðèçíàêîâ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ â í¸ì.  àïðåëå 2005 ã. íà îäíîì èç îñòðîâîâ ðåêè Êàìà áûëî íàéäåíî åù¸ îäíî æèëîå ãíåçäî (ðèñ. 1, ó÷àñòîê 2). Îíî áûëî ïîñòðîåíî â ðàçâèëêå êðóïíîé èâû è ïðîñìàòðèâàëîñü ñ âûñîêîãî Êàìñêîãî îáðûâà. 30 èþíÿ â ãíåçäå íàáëþäàëèñü äâà ñë¸òêà îðëàíà. Èíòåðåñíî òî, ÷òî íà ýòîì æå îñòðîâå íàõîäèëàñü êîëîíèÿ ñåðûõ öàïåëü (Ardea cinerea), êîòîðàÿ áûëà ïîêèíóòà ïòèöàìè, âîçìîæíî, ïî ïðè÷èíå ïîÿâëåíèÿ íà îñòðîâå îðëàíîâ. Âåñüìà âåðîÿòíî ãíåçäîâàíèå îðëàíîâ íà äðóãîì ïîäîáíîì îñòðîâå, íàïðîòèâ ñ. Ñâèíîãîðüå Åëàáóæñêîãî ðàéîíà, ãäå ÷àñòî âèäÿò âçðîñëûõ îñîáåé, ñèäÿùèõ íà ñóõèõ äåðåâüÿõ.  çàïîâåäíîé çîíå ïàðêà èçâåñòíû òðè ïðèñàäû îðëàíîâ, íî ãí¸çä ïîêà íå áûëî íàéäåíî. Òàê, îáñëåäîâàíèå Òàíàéñêîãî ëåñà, ïëîùàäüþ 956 ãà, íå äàëî ïîëîæèòåëüíûõ ðåçóëüòàòîâ, õîòÿ îðëàí íåîäíîêðàòíî íàáëþäàëñÿ çäåñü íà ïîáåðåæüå. Ýòîò ëåñ ðàñïîëîæåí âáëèçè ãîðîäà è íåñ¸ò íà ñåáå ìîùíûé ãðóç ðåêðåàöèîííîé íàãðóçêè. Íàâåðíîå, ýòî îñíîâíàÿ ïðè÷èíà îòñóòñòâèÿ òóò ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ îðëàíîâ. Òàêæå ðåãóëÿðíî îðëàíû íàáëþäàþòñÿ è íà ëåâîì áåðåãó ð. Êàìû, â ×åëíèíñêîì ëåñíè÷åñòâå íàöèîíàëüíîãî ïàðêà. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, íà òåððèòîðèè íàöèîíàëüíîãî ïàðêà «Íèæíÿÿ Êàìà» îáíàðóæåíû 8 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ îðëàíàáåëîõâîñòà, íà äâóõ èç êîòîðûõ íàéäåíû ãí¸çäà è íà øåñòè – ðåãóëÿðíî íàáëþäàþòñÿ âçðîñëûå ïòèöû. Ñðåäíåå ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó öåíòðàìè ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ, êàê èçâåñòíûõ, òàê è ïðåäïîëàãàåìûõ íà îñíîâàíèè âñòðå÷, ñîñòàâ-

Êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ

Ñë¸òîê îðëàíà-áåëîõâîñòà íà ãíåçäîâîì ó÷àñòêå ¹ 4. Ôîòî Ñ. Áàêêà The juvenile of the White-Tailed Eagle on the nesting area ¹ 4. Photo by S. Bakka

Tailed Eagles were registered near the nest, but in 21 June on 20 m far from the old nest the new nest were found however without any sings of breeding. In April 2005 the active nest located on a willow was found on an island of the Kama river (fig. 1. breeding area 2). In 30 June 2 fledglings were recorded in the nest. On the territory of the National Park Nizhnyaya Kama 8 breeding areas of the White-Tailed Eagle were found, on 2 of which nests were found and on 6 areas adult birds were regular recorded. Average distance between the centers of breeding areas was near 4 km. Following the opinion of S.V. Bakka the minimal number of the White-Tailed Eagle on the territory of the National Park Nizhnyaya Kama are projected as 10 breeding pairs. Îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò íà ãíåçäîâîì ó÷àñòêå ¹ 6. Ôîòî Ñ. Áàêêà The White-Tailed Eagle on the nesting area ¹ 6. Photo by S. Bakka


Short reports

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4 ëÿåò îêîëî 4 êì. Ïî ìíåíèþ Ñ.Â. Áàêà, íà òåððèòîðèè íàöèîíàëüíîãî ïàðêà «Íèæíÿÿ Êàìà» ìîãóò ðàñïîëàãàòüñÿ ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè êàê ìèíèìóì 10 ïàð îðëàíîâ.  ñåíòÿáðå 2005 ã., ñîâìåñòíî ñ íèæåãîðîäñêèìè îðíèòîëîãàìè, â íàöèîíàëüíîì ïàðêå «Íèæíÿÿ Êàìà» íà òåððèòîðèÿõ ïðåäïîëàãàåìûõ è âîçìîæíûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ îðëàíîâ áûëè óñòàíîâëåíû 5 ãíåçäîâûõ ïëàòôîðì, à åù¸ 3 ïëàòôîðìû ïëàíèðóåòñÿ óñòàíîâèòü â áëèæàéøåå âðåìÿ. Ìû íàäååìñÿ, ÷òî äàííûå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ ïîçâîëÿò óâåëè÷èòü ÷èñëåííîñòü îðëàíà â íàöèîíàëüíîì ïàðêå äî ìàêñèìàëüíî âîçìîæíîé. Êîíòàêò (8).

63

In September 2005 we with ornithologists from N. Novgorod on the territory of the National Park Nizhnyaya Kama erected 5 artificial nests on the possible breeding areas of White-Tailed Eagles and are going else to erect 3 artificial nests in the near future. We believe to increase the total number of the White-Tailed Eagle on the territory of the Park by these actions. Contact (8).

NewRecordsoftheEagleOwlandOtherRaptorsintheDaursky ReserveanditsNeighborhoods. НОВЫЕ ДАННЫЕ О ФИЛИНЕ И ДРУГИХ ПЕРНАТЫХ ХИЩНИКАХ ДАУРСКОГО ЗАПОВЕДНИКА И ЕГО ОКРЕСТНОСТЕЙ A.N. Barashkova (Siberian Environmental Center, Novosibirsk, Russia). А.Н. Бараш ова (МБОО «Сибирс ий э оло ичес ий центр», Новосибирс , Россия)

Àííà Áàðàøêîâà â ãíåçäå ôèëèíà (Bubo bubo). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Anna Barashkova on the nest of the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) with chicks. Photo by I. Karyakin

Ñ 25 ïî 31 èþëÿ 2005 ã. íà ïðåäìåò ãíåçäîâàíèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö áûëè îáñëåäîâàíû ñëåäóþùèå ó÷àñòêè çàïîâåäíèêà «Äàóðñêèé»: îêðåñòíîñòè îçåðà Çóí-Òîðåé (ó÷àñòîê «Êóêó-Õîäàí»), ïîéìà ð. Îíîí áëèç ñ. Íèæíèé Öàñó÷åé è íåêîòîðàÿ ÷àñòü îïóøåê Öàñó÷åéñêîãî áîðà. Ðàíåå íà ýòèõ ó÷àñòêàõ áûëè çàôèêñèðîâàíû ëèøü ñëó÷àè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà (Bubo bubo) íà þæíîì ñêëîíå ãîðû Êóêó-Õîäàí, î ÷¸ì ñîäåðæàòñÿ ñâåäåíèÿ â Ëåòîïèñè ïðèðîäû çàïîâåäíèêà, íî ïîñëåäíèå íåñêîëüêî ëåò ãí¸çä ôèëèíà òàì íå íàõîäèëè. 25 èþëÿ 2005 ã. òóò áûëî âíîâü îáíàðóæåíî ãíåçäî ôèëèíà â 2-õ êèëîìåòðàõ ê ñåâåðî-çàïàäó îò ñòàðîãî ìåñòà ãíåçäà. Ãíåçäî ðàñïîëàãàëîñü ïîä íåáîëüøèì êóñòîì èâû â âåðõíåé ÷àñòè óùåëüÿ íà þæíîì ñêëîíå õîëìèñòîé ãðÿäû, ðàñïîëîæåííîé âäîëü ñåâåðî-âîñòî÷íîãî ïîáåðåæüÿ îç. Çóí-Òîðåé.

In the period between 25 and 31 July 2005 we surveyed the Zun-Torey lake («KukuHodan» portion of the Daursky Reserve), the flood-plain of the Onon river near Nizhniy Casuchey village and a portion of the Casuchey pine forest edges. This year the breeding of the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) was recorded at the «KukuHodan» portion of the Daursky Reserve. The nest of the Eagle Owl was found on 25 July. It was located under a small willow bush in the upper part of a canyon on the southern slope of the mountain range. There was a fledgling near the nest. Eagle Owls were also breeding on the flood-plain of the Onon river. One bird was recorded on 29 July near Nizhniy Casuchey village. Near the top of Mount Kuku-Hodan, a Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) was sighted, but we did not found the nest. The area along a 10 km stretch along the Zun-Torey lake accommodated a total of 6 nests of the Upland Buzzard (Buteo hemilasius), only 2 of which were occupied this year: 2 juveniles were noted near each nest. Also several pairs of Uppland Buzzards were breeding in the flood-plain of the Onon river near Nizhniy Casuchey village. One nest of the Upland Buzzard with fledglings was found on a pine on the edge of the Casuchey pine forest, where several pairs of kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) and hobbies (Falco subbuteo) were sighted. Contact (9).


64

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ Îêðåñòíîñòè îçåðà Çóí-Òîðåé – ìåñòà ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ôèëèíà è ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà (Buteo hemilasius). Ôîòî À. Áàðàøêîâîé Breeding areas of the Eagle Owl and Upland Buzzard (Buteo hemilasius) near the Zun-Torey lake. Photo by A. Barashkova

(9) Contact: Àííà Áàðàøêîâà ÌÁÎÎ «Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð» 630090 Ðîññèÿ Íîâîñèáèðñê à/ÿ 547 òåë./ôàêñ: (383) 339 78 85 yazula@ngs.ru (9) Contact: Anna Barashkova NGO Siberian Enviromental Center P.O. Box 547 Novosibirsk 630090 Russia tel./fax: (383) 339 78 85 yazula@ngs.ru

Ðÿäîì ñ ãíåçäîì áûë âñòðå÷åí õîðîøî ëåòàþùèé ñë¸òîê. Íàäî îòìåòèòü, ÷òî â ôåâðàëå 2004 ã. â ýòîì æå óùåëüå ìíîþ áûë âñòðå÷åí âçðîñëûé ôèëèí, âûëåòåâøèé èç óêðûòèÿ ïðè ìî¸ì ïðèáëèæåíèè. Ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî îí ãíåçäèëñÿ çäåñü è â 2004 ã., íî òîãäà íèêàêèõ îáñëåäîâàíèé ýòîé òåððèòîðèè ñ öåëüþ ïîèñêà ãí¸çä íå ïðîâîäèëîñü. Óùåëüå, ãäå ðàñïîëàãàëîñü ñòàðîå ìåñòî ãíåçäà, â 2005 ã. îêàçàëîñü ñèëüíî ðàçìûòûì è çàðîñøèì âûñîêîé òðàâîé. Êðîìå òîãî, âåðøèíà ã. Êóêó-Õîäàí ÷àñòî ïîñåùàåòñÿ ëþäüìè, î ÷¸ì ñâèäåòåëüñòâóþò ñëåäû àâòîìàøèí è ìóñîð. Áåñïîêîéñòâî è ó÷àñòèâøèåñÿ ïîæàðû ìîãëè ñòàòü ïðè÷èíîé òîãî, ÷òî ôèëèí ñìåíèë ñâîé ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê. Âîçìîæíî, ÷òî êðîìå âûøåóêàçàííîé òåððèòîðèè, ôèëèíû íàñåëÿþò è äîëèíó ð. Îíîí. Òàê, 29 èþëÿ 2005 ã. îäèíî÷íàÿ ïòèöà íàáëþäàëàñü â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ñ. Íèæíèé Öàñó÷åé.  ïîãàäêàõ ôèëèíà, ñîáðàííûõ ó ãíåçäà íà ó÷àñòêå «Êóêó-Õîäàí», íàðÿäó ñ îñòàòêàìè ìåëêèõ ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ áûëè îáíàðóæåíû îñòàòêè äàóðñêîãî åæà (Hemiechinus dauuricus), à òàêæå ðûáû. Íåäàëåêî îò ãíåçäà ëåæàëè ÷àñòè íåäîåäåííîé ÷àéêè. Òàêîå ðàçíîîáðàçèå â ïèùå ñâÿçàíî ñ òåì, ÷òî âñåãî â ïîëóêèëîìåòðå îò ãíåçäà

íà÷èíàåòñÿ áåðåãîâàÿ ïîëîñà. Ïî-âèäèìîìó, ýòîò ãîä âûäàëñÿ íåáëàãîïðèÿòíûì äëÿ ìíîãèõ âèäîâ, è ôèëèí íå áðåçãîâàë íè÷åì.  ëó÷øèå ãîäû (ïî ñëîâàì î÷åâèäöåâ), êîãäà óðîâåíü âîäû â îçåðå ïîâûøåí è íà í¸ì ñêàïëèâàåòñÿ áîëüøîå êîëè÷åñòâî âîäîïëàâàþùèõ ïòèö, à òàêæå â ãîäû âñïûøåê ÷èñëåííîñòè ìåëêèõ ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ, íàä ïîáåðåæüåì ìîæíî âèäåòü îãðîìíîå êîëè÷åñòâî ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ.  ýòîì æå ãîäó òàêîãî îáèëèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö íå íàáëþäàëîñü. Íà äåñÿòèêèëîìåòðîâîì ó÷àñòêå ãðÿäû âäîëü îç. Çóí-Òîðåé áûëî íàéäåíî 6 ïîñòðîåê ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà (Buteo hemilasius), íî òîëüêî â 2-õ èç íèõ â ýòîì ãîäó áûëî ðàçìíîæåíèå: ðÿäîì ñ ãí¸çäàìè åù¸ äåðæàëèñü ïî äâà âçðîñëûõ ñë¸òêà. Áëèç âåðøè��û ã. Êóêó-Õîäàí áûë âñòðå÷åí ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis), íî åãî ãíåçäà íå áûëî íàéäåíî.  ïîéìå ð. Îíîí áëèç ñ. Íèæíèé Öàñó÷åé òàêæå îáèòàþò íåñêîëüêî ïàð ìîõíîíîãèõ êóðãàííèêîâ. Îäíî ãíåçäî ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà ñî ñë¸òêàìè áûëî íàéäåíî íà îäèíî÷íîé ñîñíå íà îêðàèíå Öàñó÷åéñêîãî áîðà. Òàì æå áûëè âñòðå÷åíû íåñêîëüêî ïàð ïóñòåëüã (Falco tinnunculus) è ÷åãëîêîâ (Falco subbuteo).  Äàóðñêîì çàïîâåäíèêå ïðàêòè÷åñêè íå ïðîâîäÿòñÿ èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïî õèùíûì ïòèöàì è ñîâàì.  Ëåòîïèñü ïðèðîäû ïîïàäàþò ñâåäåíèÿ â îñíîâíîì ëèøü î ñëó÷àéíûõ âñòðå÷àõ è ñëó÷àéíûõ íàõîäêàõ èõ ãí¸çä. Îäíà èç ïðè÷èí ýòîãî – íåõâàòêà ñïåöèàëèñòîâ. Îäíàêî Äàóðñêèé çàïîâåäíèê è ïðèëåæàùàÿ ê íåìó òåððèòîðèÿ ÿâëÿþòñÿ î÷åíü âàæíûìè ìåñòàìè îáèòàíèÿ ìíîãèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö è òðåáóþò òùàòåëüíîãî îáñëåäîâàíèÿ. Êîíòàêò (9).

SightingsofRareEaglesintheSouthSiberia ВСТРЕЧИ РЕДКИХ ОРЛОВ В ЮЖНОЙ СИБИРИ I.V. Karyakin (Center for Field Studies, N.Novgorod, Russia) И.В. Каря ин (Центр полевых исследований, Н.Нов ород, Россия)  2000 ã. â õîäå ýêñïåäèöèè ïî Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå (Ðåñïóáëèêà Õàêàñèÿ), â êîòîðîé ïîìèìî àâòîðà ïðèíèìàëè ó÷àñòèå Þ.È. Êóñòîâ, È.È. Ëþáå÷àíñêèé, À.À. Îðëåíêî è Ñ.Ì. Ïðîêîôüåâ, 23–26 ìàÿ

The confluence of the Cherniy Iyus and the Beliy Iyus rivers, (the Republic of Khakasia) totaling c. 1000 km2, was surveyed during the period 23–26 May 2000. We found 10


Short reports

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4 áûëî äåòàëüíî îáñëåäîâàíî ìåæäóðå÷üå ðåê ׸ðíîãî è Áåëîãî Èþñà.  õîäå ðàáîòû íà ïëîùàäè îêîëî 1000 êì2 îáíàðóæåíî 10 ãí¸çä ìîãèëüíèêà (Aquila heliaca), 3 ãíåçäà áåðêóòà (Aquila chrysaetos), 3 ãíåçäà ñòåïíîãî îðëà (Aquila nipalensis) è 2 ãíåçäà áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà (Aquila clanga) è â îáùåé ñëîæíîñòè âñòðå÷åíî 46 âçðîñëûõ îðëîâ, îäèí èç êîòîðûõ, íàáëþäàâøèéñÿ íàä îáøèðíîé çàòîïëåííîé ïîéìîé ðåêè 24 ìàÿ, ïðèâë¸ê îñîáîå âíèìàíèå (ðèñ. 1, ó÷àñòîê ¹ 1). Ïòèöà ïðîëåòåëà íèçêî íàä êðîíàìè äåðåâüåâ è áûñòðî ñêðûëàñü èç âèäà, òåì íå ìåíåå, å¸ ñëîæåíèå è îêðàñêà áðîñèëèñü â ãëàçà è çàïîìíèëèñü. Ïî ñâîèì ïðîïîðöèÿì ïòèöà íàïîìèíàëà áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà, îäíàêî îòëè÷àëàñü îò íåãî ñâåòëîé îêðàñêîé íèçà.  òîò ïåðèîä ìû îïðåäåëèëè ïòèöó, êàê ñâåòëóþ ìîðôó áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà «fulvescens». 24 ìàÿ 2002 ã., â õîäå ýêñïåäèöèè ñ ó÷àñòèåì Ý.Ã. Íèêîëåíêî, ïîõîæåãî îðëà ñâåòëîé îêðàñêè ìû íàáëþäàëè íàä ïîéìîé ð. Áåëûé Èþñ â 38 êì îò ìåñòà ïðåäûäóùåé âñòðå÷è (ðèñ. 1, ó÷àñòîê ¹ 2). Èççà ñèëüíîãî ðàçëèâà ðåêè ãíåçäî, âîçëå êîòîðîãî áûëà âñòðå÷åíà ïòèöà, íå ïîñåùàëîñü, îäíàêî, ñóäÿ ïî çåëåíè â ëîòêå, îíî áûëî çàíÿòûì (ðèñ. 2).  èþíå 2004 ã. ó÷àñòîê ¹ 1 ïîñåùàëñÿ íàìè âíîâü. Íà ãíåçäîâîì ó÷àñòêå óäàëîñü ñôîòîãðàôèðîâàòü ñàìöà è ñàìêó (ðèñ. 3, íà çàäíåé ñòîðîíå îáëîæêè ôîòî ¹ 4–5 – ñàìåö, ¹ 6 – ñàìêà). Âíåøíå ïòèöû áûëè î÷åíü ïîõîæè, õîòÿ ñàìêà îòëè÷àëàñü áîëåå ñâåòëîé, ÷åì å¸ ìàõîâûå, îêðàñêîé ñïèíû è âåðõà êðûëüåâ, êîòîðûå ïðè ýòîì áûëè îäíîãî öâåòà ñ ãîëîâîé, ãîðëîì è ãðóäüþ. Ïîñëå äåòàëüíîãî ðàññìîòðåíèÿ ïòèö ñòàëî ÿñíî, ÷òî ýòî íå ñâåòëàÿ ôîðìà áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà, èçâåñòíàÿ êàê «fulvescens». Êàê ñëåäóåò èç îïðåäåëèòå-

Ðèñ. 1. Êàðòà ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ íåèçâåñòíûõ îðëîâ â Þæíîé Ñèáèðè Fig. 1. The map of the breeding areas of the unknown eagles in South Siberia

65

nests of the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), 3 nests of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), 3 nests of the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) and 2 nests of the Great Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga). We also observed a total of 46 adult eagles, one of which, observed on 24 May was the most peculiar (fig. 1, breeding area ¹ 1) in it’s proportions which were that of a Great Spotted Eagle, but distinguished from it by lighter coloration of belly. Then we defined the bird as A. clanga fulvescens. On 24 May 2002 on the flood plain of the Beliy Iyus river, 38 km from the point of the first registration (fig. 1, breeding area ¹ 2) we observed an eagle with a light plumage which looked like the previous one. The found nest was occupied (fig. 2). In the June 2004 we surveyed breeding area ¹ 1 once again. In the breeding area we had a chance to take pictures of a male and female (fig. 3, photos ¹¹ 4–5 – male, ¹ 6 – female – on the back cover). After detailed consideration the birds were decided not to be A. clanga fulvescens. According to the field-guides (Clark, 1999; Hoyo et all., 1994) the observed birds, resembled a subadult Indian Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax vindhiana) (fig ¹ 9 on the back cover).

Ðèñ. 2. Ãíåçäî îðëà ¹ 2 â ïîéìå ðåêè Á. Èþñ (Ðåñïóáëèêà Õàêàñèÿ). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Fig. 2. The nest of the eagle ¹ 2 in B. Iyus river-forest (Republic of Khakasia). Photo by I. Karyakin


66

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4 ëåé (Clark, 1999; Hoyo et all., 1994 è äð.), ïòèöû ïî ðÿäó ñîâîêóïíûõ ïðèçíàêîâ áûëè ïîõîæè íà ïîëóâçðîñëîãî èíäèéñêîãî ñòåïíîãî îðëà (Aquila rapax vindhiana) (íà çàäíåé ñòîðîíå îáëîæêè ðèñ. ¹ 9, sad). 2 èþëÿ 2004 ã. îð¸ë, î÷åíü ïîõîæèé íà ñàìöà ñ ó÷àñòêà ¹ 1, íàáëþäàëñÿ íàä ïîéìîé ð. ×óëûì íèæå ñ. Êîïü¸âî íà ãðàíèöå Õàêàñèè è Êðàñíîÿðñêîãî êðàÿ (ðèñ. 1, ó÷àñòîê ¹ 3). Ïòèöà ñ äîáû÷åé êðóæèëà íåêîòîðîå âðåìÿ íàä ðåêîé è ñêðûëàñü â ëåñó. 29 ìàÿ 2005 ã. ñâåòëûé îð¸ë, ïîõîæèé íà ñàìêó ñ ó÷àñòêà ¹ 1, íî ñ ðàçìûòîé ãðàíèöåé ðûæåãî è áåëîãî íà íèæíåé ÷àñòè òåëà, áûë âñòðå÷åí â âåðõîâüÿõ ð. Áàèò (ðèñ. 1, ó÷àñòîê ¹ 4).  ýòîò æå äåíü ìû ïîñåòèëè ó÷àñòîê ¹ 2, íà êîòîðîì óäàëîñü ñôîòîãðàôèðîâàòü ñàìöà (íà çàäíåé ñòîðîíå îáëîæêè ôîòî ¹ 2). Îò ïðåäûäóùèõ îðëîâ åãî îòëè÷àëè êðóïíûå áåëûå ïÿòíà íà êðîþùèõ ñïèíû è óçêèå îõðèñòûå êàéìû ïî êðàÿì ìàõîâûõ è áîëüøèõ êðîþùèõ êðûëà, à îñíîâíàÿ îêðàñêà êðîþùèõ ïðèáëèæàëàñü ê îêðàñêå êðîþùèõ áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà. Ïîäîáíûé îêðàñ ñïèíû ïðèõîäèëîñü ÷àñòî íàáëþäàòü ó ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ 3–4-õ ëåòíåãî âîçðàñòà. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ìû ðàñïîëàãàåì âñòðå÷àìè îðëîâ, ëîêàëèçîâàííûìè â áàññåéíå ð. ×óëûì íà ãðàíèöå Õàêàñèè è Êðàñíîÿðñêîãî êðàÿ, êîòîðûå íå ìîãóò áûòü îäíîçíà÷íî èäåíòèôèöèðîâàíû íè êàê áîëüøèå ïîäîðëèêè (íà çàäíåé ñòîðîíå îáëîæêè ôîòî ¹ 1), íè êàê ñòåïíûå îðëû (íà çàäíåé ñòîðîíå îáëîæêè ôîòî ¹ 3). Ìîðôîëîãè÷åñêè îíè çàíèìàþò ïðîìåæóòî÷íîå ïîëîæåíèå ìåæäó íèìè è áîëåå áëèçêè ê èíäèéñêèì ñòåïíûì îðëàì (A. rapax vindhiana).  òî æå âðåìÿ â äâóõ âûâîäêàõ ýòèõ îðëîâ (ïî 2 ïòåíöà â êàæäîì) îêðàñêà ïåðâîãî ïóõîâîãî íàðÿäà áûëà áîëåå áëèçêà ê îêðàñêå ïóõîâè÷êîâ áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà (íà çàäíåé ñòîðîíå îáëîæêè ôîòî ¹ 8), íåæåëè ñòåïíîãî îðëà (íà çàäíåé ñòîðîíå îáëîæêè ôîòî ¹ 7). Ïðåäïîëîæåíèå î òîì, ÷òî â áàññåéíå ×óëûìà ëîêàëüíî ãíåçäèòñÿ èíäèéñêèé ñòåïíîé îð¸ë, â óäàëåíèè íà 3000 êì îò ñâîåãî àðåàëà â Èíäèè, è ýòî äî ñèõ ïîð îñòàâàëîñü íåèçâåñòíûì, âûãëÿäèò áîëåå ÷åì ôàíòàñòè÷íî. Íå ìåíåå ôàíòàñòè÷íûì âûãëÿäèò ïðåäïîëîæåíèå î òîì, ÷òî âñå âûøåïåðå÷èñëåííûå íàáëþäåíèÿ îòíîñÿòñÿ ê áîëüøèì ïîäîðëèêàì – àáåððàíòàì, êîòîðûå íàøëè äðóã äðóãà íà òåððèòîðèè, ïëîòíî íàñåë¸ííîé ðàçëè÷-

Êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ On 2 July 2004 an eagle like the male from area ¹ 1 was observed at the flood plain of the Chulym river downstream from the Kopyevo village at the border of the Khakasia and the Krasnoyarsk Kray (fig. 1, breeding area ¹ 3). On 29 May 2005 a light eagle like the female from area ¹ 1, but with the unclear border between rufous and white on the belly, was observed at the upper Bayt river (fig. 1, breeding area ¹ 4). In the same day we visited area ¹ 2, where we took pictures of a male (photo ¹ 2 on the back cover). From other birds it was distinguished by large white spots on the back and narrow rufous borders on the ends of the primaries. Steppe Eagles 3–4 years old are often seen with similar plumage of the back. The registration of peculiar eagles took place near the Chulym river on the border Khakasia and the Krasnoyarsk Kray. These eagles were not be determined exactly as Great Spotted Eagles (photo ¹ 1 on the back cover) or as Steppe Eagles (photo ¹ 3 on the back cover), because according their characters they fell into an intermediate position between Spotted and Steppe Eagles and close to the Indian Tawny Eagles (A. rapax vindhiana). Meanwhile the first down

Ðèñ. 3. Ñàìåö îðëà èç ïàðû ¹ 1 (ðåñïóáëèêà Õàêàñèÿ). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Fig. 3. The male eagle from pair ¹ 1 (Khakasia Republic). Photo by I. Karyakin


Short reports

(10) Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Êîðîëåíêî, 17a–17 òåë.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru (10) Contact: Igor Karyakin Leader by Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a–17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4 íûìè âèäàìè îðëîâ, ñðåäè êîòîðûõ ïëîòíîñòü áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà ÿâëÿåòñÿ íàèìåíüøåé. Áîëåå ïðàâäîïîäîáíûìè âûãëÿäÿò äðóãèå ãèïîòåçû ïîÿâëåíèÿ ýòèõ ñòðàííûõ îðëîâ â Þæíîé Ñèáèðè, íåîäíîêðàòíî âûñêàçûâàâøèåñÿ Âàëåðèåì Äîìáðîâñêèì (Áåëîðóññèÿ), Èãîðåì Ôåôåëîâûì è Âèêòîðîì Áåëèêîì (Ðîññèÿ) â õîäå îáñóæäåíèÿ íàøèõ íàáëþäåíèé â ýëåêòðîííîé òåëåêîíôåðåíöèè ðàáî÷åé ãðóïïû ïî ñîêîëîîáðàçíûì è ñîâîîáðàçíûì (ÐÃÑÑ): 1. Äàííûå ïòèöû ïîÿâèëèñü â ðåçóëüòàòå ãèáðèäèçàöèè áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà è ñòåïíîãî îðëà, äîâîëüíî îáû÷íîãî íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå, ëèáî áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà è èíäèéñêîãî ñòåïíîãî îðëà, óâëå÷¸ííîãî íà ñåâåð èç Èíäèè â ïåðèîä ïðîë¸òà çèìîâàâøèõ òàì ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ è áîëüøèõ ïîäîðëèêîâ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ â Þæíîé Ñèáèðè. Ýòà âåðñèÿ ïðåäïîëàãàåò òî, ÷òî â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ìû èìååì äåëî ñ ãèáðèäíûìè ïòèöàìè, ÿâëÿþùèìèñÿ ïîòîìñòâîì ýòîé ïàðû. Òàê êàê èíäèéñêèé ñòåïíîé îð¸ë áîëåå áëèçîê ê áîëüøîìó ïîäîðëèêó ìîðôîëîãè÷åñêè è èìååò áëèçêèå ñòåðåîòèïû ãíåçäîâàíèÿ (óñòðàèâàåò ãí¸çäà íà äåðåâüÿõ â ëåñàõ ñàâàííîãî òèïà), âòîðîå ïðåäïîëîæåíèå âûãëÿäèò áîëåå óáåäèòåëüíûì, ó÷èòûâàÿ åù¸ è ñõîæåñòü íàáëþäàåìûõ ïòèö ñ èíäèéñêèìè ñòåïíûìè îðëàìè 3–4-õ ëåòíåãî âîçðàñòà. 2. Äàííûå ïòèöû ýêñïðåññèðîâàëè íåêîòîðûå ÷åðòû ïðåäêîâûõ ôîðì îðëîâ, íàñåëÿâøèõ Àçèþ â ïðîøëîì è äàâøèõ ñîâðåìåííûå âèäû îðëîâ (èíäèéñêîãî (Aquila hastata) è áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêîâ, èíäèéñêîãî (A. rapax vindhiana) è âîñòî÷íîãî (A. nipalensis nipalensis) ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ). Ýòà âåðñèÿ ïðåäïîëàãàåò òî, ÷òî â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ìû èìååì äåëî ñ ïîòîìñòâîì ïàðû ïîäîáíûõ ïòèö. Òàê èëè èíà÷å, âîïðîñ î âèäîâîé ïðèíàäëåæíîñòè è ïðîèñõîæäåíèè îïèñûâàåìûõ ïòèö îñòà¸òñÿ îòêðûòûì è òðåáóåò äàëüíåéøåãî èçó÷åíèÿ. Ýòèì æå ñîîáùåíèåì õî÷åòñÿ îáðàòèòü âíèìàíèå îðíèòîëîãîâ, ðàáîòàþùèõ â Þæíîé Ñèáèðè, âíèìàòåëüíåå îòíîñèòüñÿ ê âñòðå÷àì îðëîâ, îñîáåííî èäåíòèôèöèðóåìûì êàê ñòåïíûå îðëû èëè áîëüøèå ïîäîðëèêè ñâåòëîé ìîðôû, òàê êàê ýòè ïòèöû ìîãóò îêàçàòüñÿ ïîäîáíûìè òåì, ÷òî îïèñàíû â äàííîì ñîîáùåíèè. Âîçìîæíî, ýòî ïîçâîëèò íà øàã áëèæå ïîäîéòè ê ðàçãàäêå èõ ïðîèñõîæäåíèÿ. Êîíòàêò (10).

67

plumage of the nestlings of these eagles is closer to the Great Spotted Eagle (photo ¹ 8 on the back cover) than that of the Steppe Eagles (photo ¹ 7 on the back cover). The assumption that at the Chulym river the Indian Tawny Eagle breed at a distance of 3000 km of its range in India, and the fact that this has not yet been recorderd, looks improbable. Another assumption that all recorded birds are aberrantes of the Great Spotted Eagle and were found in the territory inhabited by other species of eagles where the density of the Great Spotted Eagle is minimal is no less preposterous. There is another hypothesis of the presence of these strange eagles in South Siberia which has been repeatedly suggested by Valeriy Dombrovskiy (Belorussia), Igor Fefelov and Viktor Belik (Russia) as expressed by electronic teleconferences on the East Europe and North Asia Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls (WGBPO): 1. These birds are a result of hybridization of the Great Spotted Eagle and the Steppe Eagle, which is a common breeding species in the Minusinsk Depression, or the Great Spotted Eagle or a stray Indian Tawny Eagle, which was led away from the north of India during the period of migrations of the Steppe Eagles wintering there, or the Great Spotted Eagles. This hypothesis suggests a hybrid origin of the observed birds. 2. These birds display some features of proto-eagles, which inhabited Asia long ago and were common ancestors of the recent species of eagles (Indian Spotted Eagle (Aquila hastata), Great Spotted Eagle, Indian Tawny Eagle (A rapax vindhiana) and Oriental (A nipalensis nipalensis) Steppe Eagle). What species of the birds belong to and their origin is still unknown and requires further study. This report is aiming to attract the attention of ornithologists working in South Siberia to the sightings of eagles, identified as Steppe Eagles or pale forms of the Great Spotted Eagle, because these birds could be similar to the ones described here. More data on such birds means a better chances to solve this ornithological puzzle. Contact (10). Ëèòåðàòóðà William Clark. A field guide to the raptors of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. Oxford Universlty Press, New York. 1999. Del Hoyo, I., Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. (eds) Handbook of the birds of the World. Vol.2. New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. 1994.


68

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

Ãðàíòû

Grants ГРАНТЫ NORTHSTARSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYTRANSMITTERGRANT PROGRAM ПРОГРАММА ГРАНТОВ NORTH STAR В ОБЛАСТИ СПУТНИКОВОЙ ТЕЛЕМЕТРИИ ПТИЦ (11) Contact: George E. Wallace, PhD Vice President and Chief Conservation Officer American Bird Conservancy 4249 Loudoun Avenue P.O. Box 249 The Plains, VA 20198 USA tel.: 540 253 5780 fax: 540 253 5782 gwallace@abcbirds.org www.abcbirds.org

North Star, LLC è Àìåðèêàíñêîå îáùåñòâî îõðàíû ïòèö îáúÿâèëè ÷åòâ¸ðòóþ åæåãîäíóþ ïðîãðàììó ãðàíòîâ â îáëàñòè ñïóòíèêîâîé òåëåìåòðèè ïòèö. Êàê è â 2005 ã., â ðàìêàõ ïðîãðàììû 2006 ã.: • ïðåäîñòàâëÿåòñÿ âîñåìü ñïóòíèêîâûõ òðàíñìèòòåðîâ Argos (PTTs) äëÿ îäíîãî èëè äâóõ ïîëó÷àòåëåé (8 – íà îäèí ïðîåêò, èëè ïî 4 – íà äâà ïðîåêòà); • ïðîãðàììà îòêðûòà äëÿ ïðîåêòîâ ïî âñåìó ìèðó. North Star ïðåäîñòàâëÿåò ÐÒÒ ñ óñëîâèåì, ÷òî âñå ïîëó÷åííûå äàííûå áóäóò äîñòóïíû â îáðàçîâàòåëüíîé ïðîãðàììå Earthspan26 «Ãëàç ñîêîëà», êîòîðàÿ èñïîëüçóåò äàííûå ñïóòíèêîâîé òåëåìåòðèè ïðè îáó÷åíèè ìîëîä¸æè ïî ïðîáëåìàì ìèãðàöèè è îõðàíå ïòèö. Àìåðèêàíñêîå îáùåñòâî îõðàíû ïòèö27 ñîáåð¸ò è ðàññìîòðèò ïîñòóïèâøèå çàÿâêè, ïîñëå ÷åãî âûáåðåò ïîáåäèâøèå ïðîåêòû. Áîëåå ïîëíàÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ î ïðîãðàììå è îñíîâíûõ êðèòåðèÿõ äëÿ ïîäàâàåìûõ ïðîåêòîâ ñîäåðæèòñÿ íà âýá-ñàéòå North Star28. Ïîñëåäíèé ñðîê ïîäà÷è çàÿâîê – 3 ôåâðàëÿ 2006 ã. Èõ ðàññìîòðåíèå çàâåðøèòñÿ ê 3 àïðåëÿ 2006 ã., ïîáåäèòåëè áóäóò óâåäîìëåíû â òå÷åíèå íåäåëè ïîñëå äàòû îêîí÷àíèÿ ðàññìîòðåíèÿ. Âñå âîïðîñû ïî ïðîãðàììå ìîãóò áûòü àäðåñîâàíû Äæîðæó Å. Óîëëåñó. Êîíòàêò (11).

Îáú¸ì çàÿâêè = 3 ñòðàíèöû, ïëþñ 1 ñòðàíèöà ïîäòâåðæäàþùèõ äîêóìåíòîâ (ìèíèìàëüíûé êåãåëü øðèôòà – 11) Ôîðìàò çàÿâêè: Íàçâàíèå ïðîåêòà Íàçâàíèå âûïîëíÿþùåé îðãàíèçàöèè Îñíîâíîé èññëåäîâàòåëü Âèäû, êîòîðûå ïðåäïîëàãàåòñÿ îòñëåæèâàòü, è èõ ñðåäíèé âåñ (ñàìöû, ñàìêè) Öåëè èññëåäîâàíèÿ Ïîñòàíîâêà ïðîáëåìû ×òî âû íàäååòåñü óçíàòü? Êàê ðåçóëüòàòû ïðîåêòà ïîìîãóò ñîõðàíåíèþ âèäà? Ðåãèîí èññëåäîâàíèé. Ïî÷åìó âû âûáðàëè ýòîò ðåãèîí? Ñâåäåíèÿ îá èññëåäîâàòåëÿõ è/èëè îðãàíèçàöèè Ìåòîäû è ìàòåðèàëû, êîòîðûå áóäóò èñïîëüçîâàòüñÿ Êàêîé PTT âû õîòèòå èñïîëüçîâàòü, 20, 30, èëè 80-ãðàììîâóþ áàòàðåþ äëÿ PTT? Ïðî÷èå êîììåíòàðèè è îñîáåííîñòè ïðîåêòà 26 26 28

http://www.earthspan.org http://www.abcbirds.org http://www.northstarst.com

North Star Science and Technology, LLC and American Bird Conservancy announce the 4th annual North Star Science and Technology Transmitter Grant Program. Continuing two major changes instituted last year: • the program will award a total of eight (8) satellite transmitters (Argos Platform Transmitter Terminals (PTTs)), to one or two recipients (8 PTTs to one project or 4 PTTs to each of two projects); • the program is open to projects throughout the world. North Star is providing the PTTs in the spirit of giving back to the research community that they serve, with the condition that the resulting data are available for use in an Earthspan’s26 educational program entitled, «Eye of the Falcon,» which uses satellite tracking data to teach young people about bird migration and conservation. American Bird Conservancy27 will handle the proposal submission process, review proposals, and select the winning projects. For more information and proposal guidelines see the web-site North Star28. Deadline for proposals is February 3, 2006. The proposal review process will be completed by April 3, 2006, and notifications will be provided the following week. Any further questions about the program can be directed to George E. Wallace. Contact (11).

Proposal length = 3 pages, plus 1 page of certifications (11 point font minimum, please) Proposal format: Project Title Name of Performing Organization Principal Investigator Species to be tracked, and its average weight (male, female) Objectives of Study Problem statement (why do it)? What do you hope to learn? How will the results aid in conservation? Where is your study site? Why did you choose this site? Background of researchers and/or organization Methods and materials to be used What kind of PTT do you want to use, 20, 30, or 80 gram battery PTTs? Other comments/special considerations?


New Publications and Videos

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4

69

NewPublicationsandVideos НОВЫЕ ПУБЛИКАЦИИ И ФИЛЬМЫ Books КНИГИ

(12) Contact: Dr.Gabriele Schaden Gabriele.Schaden @vu-wien.ac.at

Îïóáëèêîâàí íîâûé åæåãîäíûé îò÷¸ò çà 2004 ã. î ïðîåêòå ïî ðåèíòðîäóêöèè áîðîäà÷à (Gypaetus barbatus) â Àëüïàõ. Îò÷¸ò ñîäåðæèò ñëåäóþùèå ðàçäåëû: ñåòü âîñïðîèçâåäåíèÿ â 2004 ã., äèíàìèêà ÷èñëåííîñòè â 2004 ã., âîñïðîèçâåäåíèå çà ïåðèîä 1978 – 2004 ãã., äåìîãðàôèÿ íàñåëåíèÿ â 2004 ã., èíôîðìàöèÿ ïî âûïóñêàì ïòèö, ìå÷åíèå êðûëîìåòêàìè è êîëüöàìè â 1986 – 2004 ãã., ìîíèòîðèíã, ëîêàëüíûå ïîïóëÿöèè, îõðàíà è ò.ä. Îò÷¸ò ìîæåò áûòü îòïðàâëåí ïî çàÿâêàì â ýëåêòðîííîé ôîðìå â ôîðìàòå pdf (îáúåì ôàéëà 4 Ìá). Êîíòàêò (12).

The new Annual Report of the Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus) Reintroduction Project in the Alps for the year 2004 (in English) is published. The report contains following parts: Breeding Network Reproduction in 2004, Transfers – Increases – Deaths in 2004, Reproduction between 1978 and 2004, Age distribution in 2004, Release, Wing marks and ring colours from 1986 – 2004, Monitoring, Autochthonous Populations, Conservation and other. Report is available upon request in electronic form in PFD file with volume of about 4MB. Contact (12).

(13) Êîíòàêò: Ñåðãåé Áóêðååâ 111123 Ðîññèÿ Ìîñêâà, Øîññå Ýíòóçèàñòîâ, 60/1 òåë./ôàêñ: (495)176 1063 iba@rbcu.ru

Èíâåíòàðèçàöèÿ, ìîíèòîðèíã è îõðàíà êëþ÷åâûõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ òåððèòîðèé Ðîññèè. Âûï.5. – Îòâ. Ðåä. Ñ.À. Áóêðååâ. – Ì.: ÑÎÏÐ, 2005. 184 ñ. Ñáîðíèê íàó÷íûõ ñòàòåé, ïîäãîòîâëåííûõ ÷ëåíàìè Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè – ó÷àñòíèêàìè ïðîãðàììû «Êëþ÷åâûå îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèå òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèè».  ñáîðíèê âêëþ÷åíî 13 ñòàòåé, ïîñâÿùåííûõ îïèñàíèþ, ìîíèòîðèíãó è îõðàíå âàæíûõ äëÿ ñîõðàíåíèÿ ïòèö ó÷àñòêîâ, îáçîðó è àíàëèçó óæå âûÿâëåííûõ ñåòåé ÊÎÒÐ â ðàçëè÷íûõ ðåãèîíàõ, à òàêæå õàðàêòåðèñòèêå ñîâðåìåííîãî ñîñòîÿíèÿ íåêîòîðûõ ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ïòèö, â ÷àñòíîñòè, áàëîáàíà. Ñáîðíèê ìîæíî ïîëó÷èòü â ìîñêîâñêîì îôèñå Ñîþçà ëèáî çàêàçàòü ïî ýëåêòðîííîé ïî÷òå. Êîíòàêò (13).

Inventory, monitoring and conservation of Important Bird Areas of Russia. Issue 5. – Executive editor S.A. Bukreev. – Moscow: Russian Bird Conservation Union, 2005. 184 p. These are collected scientific articles of the Russian Bird Conservation Union’s members – participants of the program «Important Bird Areas of Russia». There are 13 articles of the description, monitoring and protection of important areas for the conservation of birds, the review and analysis already revealed networks of IBAs in different regions, also the characteristics of modern condition of some rare species of birds such as the Saker Falcon and etc. You can buy it in Moscow office of RBSU or e-mail. Contact (13).

Êðàñíàÿ Êíèãà Ïðèìîðñêîãî êðàÿ. Æèâîòíûå. Ðåäêèå è íàõîäÿùèåñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçàþùèå âèäû æèâîòíûõ. Îôèöèàëüíîå èçäàíèå. – Îòâåòñòâåííûé ðåäàêòîð ä.á.í., ïðîôåññîð Êîñòåíêî Â.À. – Âëàäèâîñòîê: ÀÂÊ «Àïåëüñèí», 2005. 448 ñ. Ñïèñîê âèäîâ Êðàñíîé êíèãè Ïðèìîðñêîãî êðàÿ äîñòóïåí íà ñàéòå «Ýêîëîãèÿ Ïðèìîðüÿ»29.  íåãî âêëþ÷åíû 17 âèäîâ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è 3 âèäà ñîâîîáðàçíûõ, èç êîòîðûõ 1 âèä – áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga) èìååò ðåãèîíàëüíûé ñòàòóñ

The Red Data Book of the Primorsky Kray. Animals. Rare and critical endangered species of Animals. – Edited by prof. Kostenko V.A. – Vladivostok: AVK «Apelsin», 2005. 448 p. The species list of the Red Data Book of the Primorsky Kray is now out of site «Primorye Ecology»29. There are 17 species of Falconifor mes and 3 species of Strigiformes, 1 species from them have a regional status «critical endangered» – 1 category: Great Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga); 4 species have a status «shrinking population» – 2 category: Black Kite (Milvus migrans), Pied Harrier (Circus

(13) Contact: Sergey Bukreev Shosse Entuziastov str., 60/1 Moscow Russia 111123 tel./fax: (495) 176 10 63 iba@rbcu.ru

29

http://www.fegi.ru/ecology/zv_nature/red_book.htm


70

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 4

(14) Êîíòàêò: Âàëåðèé Øàôðàíîâñêèé Ñåðãåé Øâåäîâ Àäìèíèñòðàöèÿ Ïðèìîðñêîãî êðàÿ Êîìèòåò ïî ïðèðîäíûì ðåñóðñàì òåë.: (4232) 20 92 07 (4232) 20 93 41 (14) Contact: Valery Shafranovsky Sergey Shvedov State Committee of Nature Conservation and Management of the Primorsky Kray tel.: (4232) 20 92 07 (4232) 20 93 41

(15) Contact: B.-U. Meyburg World Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls Wangenheimstr 32, D-14193 Berlin, Germany tel.: ++49 30 893 881 33 fax:++49 30 892 80 67 WWGBP@aol.com

30 31

«âèä, íàõîäÿùèéñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ» – 1 êàòåãîðèÿ; 4 âèäà èìåþò ñòàòóñ «ñîêðàùàþùèéñÿ â ÷èñëåííîñòè» – 2 êàòåãîðèÿ: ÷¸ðíûé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans), ïåãèé ëóíü (Circus melanoleucos), ÿñòðåáèíûé ñàðû÷ (Butastur indicus) è ðûáíûé ôèëèí (Ketupa blakistoni); îñòàëüíûå 15 âèäîâ èìåþò ñòàòóñ «ðåäêèé âèä ñ ëîêàëüíûì ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèåì è íèçêîé ÷èñëåííîñòüþ» – 3 êàòåãîðèÿ: ñêîïà (Pandion haliaetus), êàìûøîâûé (âîñòî÷íûé áîëîòíûé) ëóíü (Circus spilonotus), êîðîòêîïàëûé ÿñòðåá (Accipiter soloensis), õîõëàòûé îð¸ë (Spizaetus nipalensis), ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis), ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca), áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos), îðëàíáåëîõâîñò (Haliaeetus albicilla), áåëîïëå÷èé îðëàí (Haliaeetus pelagicus), ÷¸ðíûé ãðèô – (Aegypius monachus), êðå÷åò (Falñî rusticolus), áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug), ñàïñàí (Falco peregrinus), áåëàÿ ñîâà (Nyctea scandica), ôèëèí (Bubo bubo). Êîíòàêò (14). Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè ìèðà. Ìàòåðèàëû 6 ìåæäóíàðîäíîé êîíôåðåíöèè ïî õèùíûì ïòèöàì è ñîâàì. Ìàé 2003. Áóäàïåøò, Âåíãðèÿ. Ðåäàêòîðû: Ð.Ä. ×àíñåëëîð è Á.Ó. Ìåéáóðã. Áóäàïåøò, 2004. 890 ñ. ISBN 963-86418-1-930. Äîâîëüíî îáúåìíûé òîì (890 ñòðàíèö) ìàòåðèàëîâ 6-é ìåæäóíàðîäíîé êîíôåðåíöèè ïî õèùíûì ïòèöàì è ñîâàì, ïðîøåäøåé â ìàå 2003 ã. â Áóäàïåøòå (Âåíãðèÿ), ñîäåðæèò 81 ñòàòüþ íà àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå, íàïèñàííûõ áîëåå ÷åì 150 àâòîðàìè ñî âñåãî ìèðà. Ñáîðíèê èìååò áîëüøîé ðàçäåë î ãðèôàõ, íàõîäÿùèõñÿ íà ãðàíè âûìèðàíèÿ âî ìíîãèõ ÷àñòÿõ èõ ïðåæíåãî àðåàëà, âêëþ÷àÿ 12 ñòàòåé î ñèïàõ è ãðèôàõ Ñòàðîãî è Íîâîãî Ñâåòà è èõ îõðàíå, à òàêæå 8 ñïåöèàëüíûõ èññëåäîâàíèé ïîñëåäíåãî êàòàñòðîôè÷åñêîãî ñîêðàùåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè 3-õ âèäîâ ñèïîâ â Þæíîé Àçèè, îñîáåííî Èíäèè è Ïàêèñòàíå. Äðóãèå ðàçäåëû ïîñâÿùåíû ðàçëè÷íûì âîïðîñàì èçó÷åíèÿ è îõðàíû õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ, â òîì ÷èñëå ñîêðàùåíèþ ÷èñëåííîñòè, òàêñîíîìèè, ïðîáëåìå «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ», âçàèìîîòíîøåíèÿì õèùíèêîâ è ÷åëîâåêà è õèìè÷åñêîìó çàãðÿçíåíèþ îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû. Âñå 173 ðåôåðàòà (124 óñòíûõ ñîîáùåíèÿ è 53 ñòåíäîâûõ ïðåçåíòàöèè), ñîáðàííûå â 72-ñòðàíè÷íîì áóêëåòå, êîòîðûé ðàçäàâàëñÿ ó÷àñòíèêàì â íà÷àëå êîíôåðåíöèè, òåïåðü äîñòóïíû íà ñàéòå31. Êîíòàêò (15).

Íîâûå ïóáëèêàöèè è ôèëüìû melanoleucos), Grey-faced Buzzard (Butastur indicus) and Blakiston’s Fish Owl (Ketupa blakistoni); 15 species have a status «rare species with local distribution and low population» – 3 category: Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Oriental Marsh Harrier (Circus spilonotus), Chinese Sparrowhawk (Accipiter soloensis), Mountain Hawk Eagle (Spizaetus nipalensis), Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis), Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), Steller’s Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus), Black Vulture – (Aegypius monachus), Gyrfalcon (Falñî rusticolus), Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug), Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), Snowy Owl (Nyctea scandica), Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo). Contact (14). Raptors Worldwide. Proceedings of the 6th World Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls May. 2003, Budapest, Hungary. Edited by R.D. Chancellor and B.-U. Meyburg. Budapest, 2004. 890 pp. ISBN 96386418-1-930. This copious volume of 890 pages forms the Proceedings of the 6th World Conference on Birds of Prey & Owls held in May 2003 in Budapest, Hungary. Outstanding amongst the 81 refereed original papers in English, presented by over 150 authors from all over the world, is an extensive section on vultures, severely threatened if not already extinct in many parts of their former range, comprising 12 papers on different Old and New World species and their conservation together with eight special studies providing a comprehensive picture of the recent catastrophic decline of species in the genus Gyps in Southern Asia, particularly India and Pakistan, the hitherto inexplicable cause of which was first revealed during this conference. Other sections are devoted, among others, to such wide-ranging topics as Population Limitation, Taxonomy, Electrocutions. Other special sections are devoted to Falcons and Eagles respectively, including accounts of the unrivalled conservation work carried out in Hungary on such endangered species as the Saker Falcon and Imperial Eagle, forming an object lesson for other countries. In all 173 abstracts were submitted for 124 oral and 53 poster presentations which were assembled in a 72-page booklet given to all participants at the start of the conference, which is now out of site31. Contact (15).

http://www.raptors-international.de/BOOKS/Raptors_Worldwide/raptors_worldwide.html http://www.raptors-international.de/LAST_CONFERENCE/Abstracts/abstracts.html


Contents

Raptors Conservation 2005, 4

71

Ñîäåðæàíèå

Contents

Ñîáûòèÿ ................................................................. 3 Ïðîáëåìà íîìåðà ............................................... 11 Ïðîáëåìà «Õèùíûå ïòèöû è ËÝÏ» íà òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèè. Ì.Â. Ïåñòîâ ....................... 11 Ëþäè, ïòèöû, âèðóñû. ×òî òàêîå àðáîâèðóñû è ïòè÷èé ãðèïï è ÷åì îíè ãðîçÿò õèùíûì ïòèöàì? Ð.Ä. Ëàïøèí .......................................... 14 Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ .............................. 24 Ïðîåêò ïî âîññòàíîâëåíèþ ìåñò ãíåçäîâàíèÿ áàëîáàíà è ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà â ðåñïóáëèêå Òûâà: óñïåõè è íåóäà÷è, Ðîññèÿ. È.Â. Êàðÿêèí ......................................... 24 ׸ðíûå äûðû â ïîïóëÿöèÿõ õèùíûõ ïòèö (ãèáåëü õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Çàïàäíîé Áåòïàê-Äàëå), Êàçàõñòàí. È.Â. Êàðÿêèí, Ò.Î. Áàðàáàøèí .................................................. 29 Ðåçóëüòàòû ìîíèòîðèíãà èñêóññòâåííûõ ãí¸çä â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. Ñ.Â. Áàêêà, Ë.Ì. Íîâèêîâà ................................................... 33 Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ .......................... 34 Ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé 2005 ã. â ñòåïíûõ áîðàõ íà ñåâåðî-âîñòîêå Êàçàõñòàíà. È.Â. Êàðÿêèí, À.Ñ. Ëåâèí, Ò.Î. Áàðàáàøèí, Ô.Ô. Êàðïîâ ....................................................... 34 Áàëîáàí â Ïðèàðàëüå. È.Â. Êàðÿêèí, Ò.Î. Áàðàáàøèí, À.Â. Ìîøêèí ........................... 44 Íîâûå íàõîäêè íåêîòîðûõ âèäîâ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ â Êàëáèíñêîì Àëòàå, Âîñòî÷íûé Êàçàõñòàí. È.Ý. Ñìåëÿíñêèé, À.À. Òîìèëåíêî.... 50 Î ãíåçäîâàíèè áàëîáàíà â Öåíòðàëüíîì Êàçàõñòàíå. À. Ëåâèí, Ô. Êàðïîâ ....................... 52 Íîâûå ñâåäåíèÿ î êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèöàõ Ìóãîäæàð, Êàçàõñòàí. À.Ñ. Ïàæåíêîâ, Ä.À. Êîðæåâ, Í.À. Õîõëîâà ................................ 58 Êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ ............................................ 61 Âñòðå÷à áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà íà ñåâåðî-âîñòîêå Êàçàõñòàíà. Àñêàð Èñàáåêîâ .............................. 61 Îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò íà Íèæíåé Êàìå. Ðèíóð Áåêìàíñóðîâ ............................................ 61 Íîâûå äàííûå î ôèëèíå è äðóãèõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêàõ Äàóðñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà è åãî îêðåñòíîñòåé. À.Í. Áàðàøêîâà .......................... 63 Âñòðå÷è ðåäêèõ îðëîâ â Þæíîé Ñèáèðè. È.Â. Êàðÿêèí ...................................................... 64 Ãðàíòû .................................................................. 68 Ïðîãðàììà ãðàíòîâ NORTH STAR â îáëàñòè ñïóòíèêîâîé òåëåìåòðèè ïòèö ........................... 68 Íîâûå ïóáëèêàöèè è ôèëüìû ........................... 69 Êíèãè ..................................................................... 69

Events ...................................................................... 3 Problem of number ............................................... 11 The Problem of Raptors Electrocutions «Raptors and PowerLines» in Russia. M.V. Pestov .............. 11 People, Birds and Viruses. What is the Arboviruses and Avian Influenza and How do they Threaten Raptors? R.D. Lapshin .............. 14 Raptors Conservation ........................................... 24 Project for Restoration of the Nesting Places of the Saker Falcon and Upland Buzzard in the Tuva Republic: Successes and Failures, Russia. I.V. Karyakin ............................................. 24 Dark Holes in the Raptor Populations (Electrocutions of Birds of Prey on Power Lines in the Western Betpak-Dala), Kazakhstan. I.V. Karyakin,T.O. Barabashin ............................... 29 The Results of Monitoring the Artificial Nests in the Nizhniy Novgorod District. S.V. Bakka, L.M. Novikova .................................................... 33 Raptors Research .................................................. 34 Results of Researches of Steppe Pine Forests in the Northeast of Kazakhstan in 2005. I.V. Karyakin, A.S. Levin, T.O. Barabashin, F.F. Karpov .......................................................... 34 The Saker Falcon in Aral Sea Region. I.V. Karyakin, T.O. Barabashin, A.V. Moshkin ............................. 44 New Records of Some Raptors Species in the Kalbinskiy Altai, East Kazakhstan. I.E. Smelansky, A.A. Tomilenko .......................... 50 Notes of Breeding the Saker Falcon in Central Kazakhstan. A. Levin, F. Karpov .......................... 52 New Records of the Raptors in the Mugodzary Mountains, Kazakhstan. A.S. Pazhenkov, D.A. Korzhev, N.A. Hohlova ............................... 58 Short Reports ........................................................ 61 Registration of the Great Spotted Eagle in the Northeast of Kazakhstan. Askar Isabekov .. 61 The White-Tailed Eagle in the Lower Kama. Rinur Bekmansurov ............................................. 61 New Records of the Eagle Owl and Other Raptors in the Daursky Reserve and its Neighborhoods. A.N. Barashkova ....................... 63 Sightings of Rare Eagles in the South Siberia. I.V. Karyakin ........................................................ 64 Grants .................................................................... 68 NORTH STAR science and technology transmitter grant program ..................................................... 68 New Publications and Videos .............................. 69 Books ..................................................................... 69

Îòïå÷àòàíî â òèïîãðàôèè ÍÍÃÓ ñ ãîòîâîãî îðèãèíàë-ìàêåòà Ëèö. ÏÄ ¹ 18–0099 îò 04.05.01 ã. 603000, ã. Í. Íîâîãîðîä, óë. Á. Ïîêðîâñêàÿ, 37



Raptors Conservation 4/2005