Issuu on Google+


RaptorsConservation ПЕРНАТЫЕ ХИЩНИКИ И ИХ ОХРАНА 2012 №24

ISSN 1814–0076

Ðàáî÷èé áþëëåòåíü î ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêàõ Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïû è Ñåâåðíîé Àçèè The Newsletter of the raptors of the East Europe and North Asia Ñâèäåòåëüñòâî î ðåãèñòðàöèè ÑÌÈ ÏÈ ¹ÔÑ77-38809 îò 08.02.2010 ã. Áþëëåòåíü «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà» ó÷ðåæä¸í ìåæðåãèîíàëüíîé áëàãîòâîðèòåëüíîé îáùåñòâåííîé îðãàíèçàöèåé «Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð» (Íîâîñèáèðñê) è íàó÷íî-èññëåäîâàòåëüñêîé îáùåñòâåííîé îðãàíèçàöèåé «Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé» (Í. Íîâãîðîä). Áþëëåòåíü èçäà¸òñÿ â ïàðòí¸ðñòâå ñ Èíñòèòóòîì ñèñòåìàòèêè è ýêîëîãèè æèâîòíûõ ÑÎ ÐÀÍ (Íîâîñèáèðñê).

The Raptors Conservation Newsletter has been founded by the non-governmental organisations Siberian Environmental Center (Novosibirsk) and Center of Field Studies (Nizhniy Novgorod). The Raptors Conservation Newsletter is published under the partnership agreement with the Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Siberian Branch of RAS (Novosibirsk).

Ðåäàêòîðû íîìåðà: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí (Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, Í. Íîâãîðîä), Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî (Ñèáýêîöåíòð, Íîâîñèáèðñê), Îëåã Áîðîäèí (Ñèìáèðñêîå îòäåëåíèå ÑÎÏÐ, Óëüÿíîâñê).

Editors: Igor Karyakin (Center of Field Studies, N. Novgorod), Elvira Nikolenko (Siberian Environmental Center, Novosibirsk) and Oleg Borodin (Simbirsk Branch of RBCU, Ulyanovsk).

Ôîòîãðàôèÿ íà ëèöåâîé ñòîðîíå îáëîæêè: Ïàðà ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ (Aquila nipalensis) íà îòâëåêàþùåé ïðèñàäå ïòèöåîïàñíîé ëèíèè ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è 10 êÂ. Àêòþáèíñêàÿ îáëàñòü, Êàçàõñòàí, 24 èþíÿ 2010 ã. Ôîòî À. Áàðàøêîâîé.

Photo on the front cover: Pair of the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) on a perch of the power line 10 kV dangerous for birds. Aktobe district, Kazakhstan, 24 June 2010. Photo by A. Barashkova.

Äèçàéí: Ä. Ñåíîòðóñîâ, À. Êëåù¸â ¸ðñòêà: Ä. Êàòóíîâ Êîððåêòóðà: À. Êàþìîâ Ïåðåâîä: À. Øåñòàêîâà, Ä. Òåðïèëîâñêàÿ, Äæ. Ëåâåíò, Þ. Êèñüîðà

Design by D. Senotrusov, A. Kleschev Page-proofs by D. Katunov Proof-reader by A. Kajumov Translation by A. Shestakova, D. Terpilovskaya, J. Levent, Ju. Kis’ora

Èçäàíèå íîìåðà ïîääåðæàíî ïðîåêòîì ÏÐÎÎÍ/ÃÝÔ/Ìèíïðèðîäû Ðîññèè «Ñîâåðøåíñòâîâàíèå ñèñòåìû è ìåõàíèçìîâ óïðàâëåíèÿ ÎÎÏÒ â ñòåïíîì áèîìå Ðîññèè», ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл, Ñîþçîì îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè. Publishing this issue has been supported by UNDP-GEF Project “Improving the Coverage and Management Efficiency of Protected Areas in the Steppe Biome of Russia”, LLC “Eco-NICOR”, Russian Bird Conservation Union.

Ðåäàêöèîííàÿ êîëëåãèÿ:

Ñ.Â. Áàêêà, ê.á.í., ÑÎÏÐ, Í. Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ; sopr@dront.ru Ò.Î. Áàðàáàøèí, ê.á.í., ÐÃÏÓ, Ðîñòîâ-íà-Äîíó, Ðîññèÿ; timbar@bk.ru Ñ.À. Áóêðååâ, ê.á.í., ÈÏÝÝ ÐÀÍ, Ìîñêâà, Ðîññèÿ; sbukreev62@mail.ru Â.Ì. Ãàëóøèí, àêàä. ÐÀÅÍ, ïðîô., ä.á.í., ÌÏÃÓ, Ìîñêâà, Ðîññèÿ; v-galushin@yandex.ru È.Ô. Æèìóë¸â, àêàä. ÐÀÍ, ïðîô., ä.á.í., ÈÕÁÔÌ ÑÎ ÐÀÍ, Íîâîñèáèðñê, Ðîññèÿ; Zhimulev@bionet.nsc.ru Í.Þ. Êèñåë¸âà, äîö., ê.ïåä.í., ÍÃÏÓ, Í. Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ; sopr@dront.ru Ð.Ä. Ëàïøèí, äîö., ê.á.í., ÍÃÏÓ, Í. Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ; lapchine@mail.ru À.Ñ. Ëåâèí, äîö., ê.á.í., Èíñòèòóò çîîëîãèè ÌÎèÍ, Àëìàòû, Êàçàõñòàí; levin_saker@mail.ru Î.Â. Ìèòðîïîëüñêèé, ïðîô., ä.á.í., Íàöèîíàëüíûé óíèâåðñèòåò, Òàøêåíò, Óçáåêèñòàí; olmit@list.ru À.Ñ. Ïàæåíêîâ, ê.á.í., ÖÑ «ÂÓÝÑ», Ñàìàðà, Ðîññèÿ; f_lynx@mail.ru Ì.Â. Ïåñòîâ, ê.á.í., ÝÖ «Äðîíò», Í. Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ; vipera@dront.ru Å.Ð. Ïîòàïîâ, Ph.D., Áðèí Àôèíñêèé Êîëëåäæ, Ïåíñèëüâàíèÿ, ÑØÀ; EugenePotapov@gmail.com Þ.Ñ. Ðàâêèí, ïðîô., ä.á.í., ÈÑèÝÆ ÑÎ ÐÀÍ, Íîâîñèáèðñê, Ðîññèÿ; zm@eco.nsc.ru È.Ý. Ñìåëÿíñêèé, Ñèáýêîöåíòð, Íîâîñèáèðñê, Ðîññèÿ; oppia@yandex.ru À.À. ×èáèë¸â, ÷ëåí-êîðð. ÐÀÍ, ïðîô., ä.ã.í., Èíñòèòóò ñòåïè ÓðÎ ÐÀÍ, Îðåíáóðã, Ðîññèÿ; orensteppe@mail.ru À.À. Øåñòàêîâà, äîö., ê.á.í., ÍÍÃÓ, Í. Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ; f_s_c@mail.ru T. Katzner, Ph.D., West Virginia University, USA; todd.katzner@mail.wvu.edu M.J. McGrady, Ph.D., Natural Research, UK; MikeJMcGrady@aol.com

Àäðåñ ðåäàêöèè: 630090, Ðîññèÿ, Íîâîñèáèðñê, à/ÿ 547 Editorial adress: P.O. Box 547, Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090 Tel./Fax: +7 383 363 49 41 E-mail:

rc_news@mail.ru ikar_research@mail.ru elvira_nikolenko@mail.ru

http://www.sibecocenter.ru/raptors.htm Ïîäïèñíîé èíäåêñ ïî îáúåäèí¸ííîìó êàòàëîãó «Ïðåññà Ðîññèè» — 13175 Ýëåêòðîííàÿ âåðñèÿ/RC online http://www.sibecocenter.ru/RC.htm Ïðàâèëà äëÿ àâòîðîâ äîñòóïíû íà ñàéòå: http://www.sibecocenter.ru/guidelines_rus.htm Guidelines for Contributors available on website: http://www.sibecocenter.ru/guidelines_en.htm


Events

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

3

Events СОБЫТИЯ Äâàäöàòü ïÿòîå ñîâåùàíèå Êîìèòåòà ïî æèâîòíûì ÑÈÒÅÑ ñîñòîÿëîñü 18–22 èþëÿ 2011 ã. â Æåíåâå (Øâåéöàðèÿ)1. Íà ñîâåùàíèè áûë ðàññìîòðåí äîêëàä ïî ïðîãðàììå îõðàíû è óñòîé÷èâîãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) â Ìîíãîëèè, ïðåäñòàâëåííûé ñåêðåòàðèàòîì îò ëèöà Ìîíãîëèè (AC25 Doc. 9.7). Òåêñò äîêëàäà äîñòóïåí íà ñàéòå ÑÈÒÅÑ2. Ñåêðåòàðèàò Áîííñêîé êîíâåíöèè (CMS) ïðîèíôîðìèðîâàë Êîìèòåò ÑÈÒÅÑ î òîì, ÷òî Åâðîñîþç (ÅU) ïðåäñòàâèë ïðåäëîæåíèå î âêëþ÷åíèè áàëîáàíà â Ïðèëîæåíèå I Áîííñêîé êîíâåíöèè, è åñëè Êîìèòåò ïî æèâîòíûì ÑÈÒÅÑ (AC) ñ÷èòàåò, ÷òî ïîïóëÿöèè âèäà â Ìîíãîëèè èñïîëüçóþòñÿ óñòîé÷èâî, òî â ïðåäëîæåíèå áóäåò âíåñåíà ðåìàðêà î âêëþ÷åíèè áàëîáàíà â Ïðèëîæåíèå I Áîííñêîé êîíâåíöèè, çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì ïîïóëÿöèé Ìîíãîëèè. Ìîíãîëèÿ ñîîáùèëà î ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîãðàììû ïðèâëå÷åíèÿ áàëîáàíà â èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäîâüÿ, îòìåòèâ, ÷òî çàïëàíèðîâàííàÿ ýêñïîðòíàÿ êâîòà 300 ñîêîëîâ â 2011 ã. áûëà îñíîâàíà íà ïðîèçâîäèòåëüíîñòè áàëîáàíîâ â èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâüÿõ, ïîñòðîåííûõ â ðàìêàõ ïðîãðàììû.  îòâåò íà çàïðîñû, Ìîíãîëèÿ òàêæå ñîîáùèëà, ÷òî êâîòû íå áûëè èñ÷åðïàíû â ïðåäûäóùèå ãîäû, ýêñïîðò íå èìåë îòðèöàòåëüíîãî âîçäåéñòâèÿ íà ïîïóëÿöèè áàëîáàíà, èíôîðìàöèþ î ãåíäåðíîì ñîîòíîøåíèè ýêñïîðòèðóåìûõ ïòèö íåîáõîäèìî ñîáðàòü, ñìåðòíîñòü îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé áîëåå ñåðü¸çíóþ óãðîçó äëÿ áàëîáàíà â Ìîíãîëèè, ÷åì îòëîâ ñ öåëüþ ýêñïîðòà. Ðÿä ñòðàí ïîääåðæàë ïðåäëàãàåìûå êâîòû íà ýêñïîðò áàëîáàíîâ â 2011 ã., ïðåäïîëàãàÿ, ÷òî Ìîíãîëèÿ îáíîâèò ïðîãðàììó îõðàíû è óñòîé÷èâîãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ áàëîáàíà äî 2014 ã. Ïðè ýòîì, â ýòîò ïåðèîä, ïðè ïîäà÷å ïðåäëàãàåìûõ êâîò íà ýêñïîðò áàëîáàíîâ â Êîìèòåò æèâîòíûõ ÑÈÒÅÑ, îáíîâëåíèå ïðîãðàììû áîëüøå íå áóäåò òðåáîâàòüñÿ. Íà ïëåíàðíîì çàñåäàíèè çàìåñòèòåëü ïðåäñòàâèòåëÿ Àçèè âûðàçèë óäîâëåòâîðåíèå ðåçóëüòàòîì è ïîõâàëèë Ìîíãîëèþ çà 1 2

http://www.cites.org/eng/com/ac/25/sum/E25-SumRec.pdf http://www.cites.org/eng/com/ac/25/E25-09-07.pdf

Twenty-fifth meeting of the CITES Animals Committee took place 18–22 July 2011 in Geneva (Switzerland)1. In plenary, the Secretariat presented on behalf of Mongolia the document on the programme for the conservation and sustainable use of Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in Mongolia (AC25 Doc. 9.7). The report is available on the site of CITES2. The CMS Secretariat informed the Committee that the EU has submitted a proposal to include the Saker Falcon in CMS Appendix I with a note that if the AC considers that the species population is maintained in a sustainable manner then the proposal will be amended to exclude the Mongolian population. Mongolia reported on an artificial nest programme, noting that a planned export quota of 300 live specimens for 2011 was based on productivity at artificial nests. In reply to queries, Mongolia also reported that: the same quota was not exhausted in previous years; exports have not had a detrimental impact on populations; information on the gender ratio of exports needs to be collected; and electrocution is a more serious threat than harvest for trade. Several countries supported the proposed export quota for 2011, suggesting that Mongolia update the AC on the programme implementation in 2014, although it will no longer be required to submit its proposed quota to the AC. In plenary, the Asia representative alternate expressed satisfaction with the outcome and praised Mongolia for its efforts. The Wildlife Conservation Society recalled concerns expressed in the working group that the artificial nest programme has not achieved sustainable harvest, the national conservation programme is only at an initial stage, and that electrocution in power lines kills 300 falcons per year, calling upon Mongolia to report in the future on progress in the development of the national conservation programme and measures related to electrocution.


4

3

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ñîáûòèÿ

å¸ óñèëèÿ â îõðàíå áàëîáàíà. Îáùåñòâî îõðàíû äèêîé ïðèðîäû (Wildlife Conservation Society) íàïîìíèëî îá îçàáî÷åííîñòè, âûñêàçàííîé â ðàáî÷åé ãðóïïå, ÷òî ïðîãðàììà ïî èñêóññòâåííûì ãíåçäîâüÿì ïîêà íå äîñòèãëà óñòîé÷èâîãî çàñåëåíèÿ ñîêîëàìè ãíåçäîâèé è ïðåäïîëàãàåìîé ïðîäóêòèâíîñòè ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð, íàöèîíàëüíàÿ ïðîãðàììà îõðàíû áàëîáàíà íàõîäèòñÿ íà íà÷àëüíîì ýòàïå, îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì íà ËÝÏ åæåãîäíî óìèðàåò îò 300 ñîêîëîâ, ïîýòîìó ïðèçâàëî Ìîíãîëèþ ñîîáùàòü â áóäóùåì î ïðîãðåññå â äîðàáîòêå è ðåàëèçàöèè íàöèîíàëüíîé ïðîãðàììû îõðàíû áàëîáàíà è ìåðàõ, ñâÿçàííûõ ñ ãèáåëüþ ïòèö îò ýëåêòðîòîêà. Ïëåíàðíîå çàñåäàíèå ïðèíÿëî Ðåêîìåíäàöèè ðàáî÷åé ãðóïïû Êîìèòåòà ïî æèâîòíûì ÑÈÒÅÑ.  ðåêîìåíäàöèÿõ (AC25 WG1 Doc. 1) Êîìèòåò ïî æèâîòíûì ÑÈÒÅÑ ïîääåðæèâàåò ïîçèòèâíûé ðåæèì óïðàâëåíèÿ ïîïóëÿöèÿìè áàëîáàíà â Ìîíãîëèè, ñîãëàøàåòñÿ íà ïðåäëàãàåìóþ ýêñïîðòíóþ êâîòó â 300 æèâûõ ñîêîëîâ â 2011 ã. è ïðåäëàãàåò Ìîíãîëèè îáíîâèòü ïðîãðàììó ñîõðàíåíèÿ è óñòîé÷èâîãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ áàëîáàíà è ñîîáùèòü î äîñòèãíóòîì ïðîãðåññå íà 27-ì ñîáðàíèè Êîìèòåòà (AC 27) â àïðåëå 2014 ã.3

Plenary adopted the recommendations of the working group of CITES Animals Committee. Recommendation: In the recommendation (AC25 WG1 Doc.1), the AC: endorses the positive management regime for the Saker falcon established by Mongolia; agrees to the proposed export quota of 300 live specimens for 2011; and invites Mongolia to update AC 27 (April 2014) on progress3.

 ã. Áåðãåí (Íîðâåãèÿ) 20–25 íîÿáðÿ 2011 ã. ïðîøëà 10-ÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ Ñòîðîí Êîíâåíöèè ïî ñîõðàíåíèþ ìèãðèðóþùèõ âèäîâ äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ (ÊÌÂ, Áîííñêàÿ êîíâåíöèÿ; Convention on Migrating Species, CMS). Íà êîíôåðåíöèè îáñóæäàëîñü âîçìîæíîå âêëþ÷åíèå áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) è êîá÷èêà (Falco vespertinus) â Ïðèëîæåíèå I Êîíâåíöèè.  ðåçóëüòàòå ðàáîòû Êîíôåðåíöèè êîá÷èê è áàëîáàí áûëè âíåñåíû â Ïðèëîæåíèå I. Êîá÷èê áûë ïðåäëîæåí äëÿ âíåñåíèÿ â Ïðèëîæåíèå I Íàó÷íûì êîìèòåòîì Êîíâåíöèè. Ïðåäëîæåíèå íå âûçâàëî íèêàêèõ ñïîðîâ. Âíåñåíèå áàëîáàíà â Ïðèëîæåíèå I áûëî èíèöèèðîâàíî Åâðîñîþçîì â ñâåòå äàííûõ î ïðîäîëæàþùåìñÿ ïàäåíèè ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà â ðÿäå ñòðàí àðåàëà. Ïðè îáñóæäåíèè ðåçîëþöèè î âêëþ÷åíèè âèäà â Ïðèëîæåíèå I âîçíèêëè ïðîòèâîðå÷èÿ ñ ðÿäîì ñòðàí, ïðåæäå âñåãî àðàáñêèõ, çàèíòåðåñîâàííûõ â ïðîäîëæåíèè èçúÿòèÿ âèäà èç ïðèðîäû.

CMS 10th Conference of the Parties (COP10) held in Bergen, Norway 20–25 November 2011. The possibility of listing the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) and the Red-Footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus) into Appendix I has been discussed at the Conference. The Conference resulted in listing of the Red-Footed Falcon and the Saker Falcon into Appendix I. The Red-Footed Falcon was proposed to be listed in Appendix I by the Scientific Committee of the Conference. No debates have been invoked by the proposal. The proposal to list the Saker Falcon in Appendix I was submitted from the European Union because of the recently reported data that the species population number is decreasing in a number of countries it inhabits. As expected, the contradictions with a number of countries have emerged when the resolution on listing of the species in Appendix I have emerged. In particular, the Arab countries are interested in continuing to withdraw the falcons from the nature. Appendix I was especially established for

http://www.cites.org/common/com/AC/25/enb_sum.pdf

Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà. Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug). Photo by I. Karyakin.


Events

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24 Ïðèëîæåíèå I âûäåëåíî ñïåöèàëüíî äëÿ âèäîâ, íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ è ïîòîìó òðåáóþùèõ ïåðâîî÷åðåäíûõ è áîëåå ñòðîãèõ ìåð îõðàíû. Êàê èçâåñòíî, êëþ÷åâîé óãðîçîé áàëîáàíó ñ÷èòàåòñÿ îòëîâ ïòèö â ïðèðîäå ðàäè èõ ïðîäàæè â ñòðàíû Ïåðñèäñêîãî çàëèâà, ãäå ýòîò ñîêîë èñïîëüçóåòñÿ êàê èçëþáëåííàÿ ëîâ÷àÿ ïòèöà â àðàáñêîé ñîêîëèíîé îõîòå. Ñïåöèôèêà ýòîé îõîòû òðåáóåò åæåãîäíîãî ââîçà áîëüøîãî êîëè÷åñòâà ñîêîëîâ, à âûñîêèé îáùåñòâåííûé ñòàòóñ òàêîãî òèïà îõîòû ñîçäà¸ò ñòèìóë ê ðîñòó ÷èñëà îõîòíèêîâ è óâåëè÷åíèþ êîëè÷åñòâà èñïîëüçóåìûõ èìè áàëîáàíîâ.  ïðàêòè÷åñêîì ïëàíå âíåñåíèå âèäà â Ïðèëîæåíèå I Áîííñêîé êîíâåíöèè îçíà÷àåò çàïðåò íà äîáûâàíèå ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ æèâîòíûõ â ïðèðîäå, çà íåñêîëüêèìè èñêëþ÷åíèÿìè: äîïóñòèìî äîáûâàíèå â íàó÷íûõ öåëÿõ, äëÿ ñîäåéñòâèÿ â âîñïðîèçâîäñòâå âèäà, äëÿ òðàäèöèîííîãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ ìåñòíûì íàñåëåíèåì ëèáî â ÷ðåçâû÷àéíûõ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâàõ. Ñîâåðøåííî î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî îòëîâ áàëîáàíîâ â ïðèðîäå äëÿ èõ êîììåð÷åñêîãî ýêñïîðòà íè ïîä îäíî èç ýòèõ èñêëþ÷åíèé íå ïîäõîäèò. Äëÿ âûðàáîòêè ñîãëàñîâàííîãî äîêóìåíòà è ðåøåíèÿ ïî áàëîáàíó áûëà ñîçäàíà ñïåöèàëüíàÿ ðàáî÷àÿ ãðóïïà, êóäà âîøëè, èç ÷èñëà ïîñòñîâåòñêèõ ñòðàí, ïðåäñòàâèòåëè Êàçàõñòàíà, Óçáåêèñòàíà è Òàäæèêèñòàíà. Ðîññèÿ íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ Ñòîðîíîé Áîííñêîé êîíâåíöèè è íà êîíôåðåíöèè êàê ãîñóäàðñòâî íå áûëà ïðåäñòàâëåíà, íî ïðèñóòñòâîâàë ïðåäñòàâèòåëü ðîññèéñêîãî îôèñà WWF – Î.Á. Ïåðåëàäîâà. Èç ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ îðãàíèçàöèé â ãðóïïå áûëè ïðåäñòàâëåíû Åâðîñîþç, Ìåæäóíàðîäíîå îáùåñòâî çàùèòû ïòèö (BirdLife International), ñåêðåòàðèàò ÑÈÒÅÑ (CITES), Ôåäåðàöèÿ àññîöèàöèé ïî îõîòå è îõðàíå ïðèðîäû ÅÑ (Federation of Associations for Hunting and Conservation of the EU), Ìåæäóíàðîäíûé ñîâåò ïî ñîõðàíåíèþ äè÷è è äèêîé ïðèðîäû (International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation), Ìåæäóíàðîäíàÿ àññîöèàöèÿ ïî ñîêîëèíîé îõîòå è ñîõðàíåíèþ õèùíûõ ïòèö (International Association for Falconry and Conservation of Birds of Prey).  îáùåé ñëîæíîñòè ãðóïïà ñîñòîÿëà èç 38 ÷åëîâåê. Ðàáîòà îêàçàëàñü íåïðîñòîé, î ÷¸ì ñâèäåòåëüñòâóåò òî, ÷òî ãðóïïà ïðîâåëà ñ 21 ïî 24 íîÿáðÿ ñåìü çàñåäàíèé îáùåé ïðîäîëæèòåëüíîñòüþ 12 ÷àñîâ. Áûñòðî è åäèíîäóøíî áûëî ðåøåíî, ÷òî ñàìîãî ïî ñåáå âêëþ÷åíèÿ áàëîáà-

5

the endangered species that require primary and stricter protection actions to be taken. Wild bird capture aimed at subsequent selling the birds to the Gulf countries, where this falcon species has been used for falconry, has been known to be the key threat to the Saker Falcon. Specifics of this type of hunting requires a great number of falcons to be annually imported; whereas the high social status of it generates a stimulus for the increasing number of hunters and a rise in number of the Saker Falcons used. In practical terms, listing of the species in Appendix I of the Bonn Convention means that catching of the mentioned wild animals will be prohibited, with several exceptions. Thus, it is allowed to catch the wild animals for research purposes, in order to help the species to reproduce, for the traditional use by the local people, or due to extraordinary circumstances. It is absolutely clear that neither of these exceptions can used for catching the Saker falcon for the commercial export. The Saker Falcon Task Force was established to draft the approved document and solution of the Saker Falcon problem; it included the representatives of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (among the CIS countries). Russia is not a Party of the Bonn Convention; thus, it was not presented at the Conference as a state; however, the representative of Russian WWF office, O.B. Pereladova, attended the Conference. The committee included the representatives of such international organizations as the European Union, BirdLife International, the CITES secretariat, Federation of Associations for Hunting and Conservation of the EU, the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation, and the International Associ-

Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà. Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug). Photo by I. Karyakin.


6

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Áàëîáàí. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà. Saker Falcon. Photo by I. Karyakin.

(1) Contact: Nick P. Williams Programme Officer (Birds of Prey – Raptors) UNEP CMS Office – Abu Dhabi c/o Environment Agency – Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 45553 Al Muroor Road Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates tel.: +971 02 6934 624, +971 502 605 569 fax: +971 02 4997 252 nwilliams@cms.int www.cms.int/species/ raptors

4 5

Ñîáûòèÿ

íà â Ïðèëîæåíèå I íåäîñòàòî÷íî è íåîáõîäèìî, êðîìå ýòîãî, ñðàçó ïðåäóñìîòðåòü êîíêðåòíûå äåéñòâèÿ äëÿ ñîõðàíåíèÿ âèäà. Âñ¸ îñíîâíîå âðåìÿ çàñåäàíèé çàíÿë ïîèñê ôîðìóëèðîâîê, êîòîðûå áûëè áû ïðèåìëåìû äëÿ âñåõ ñòðàí, â òîì ÷èñëå çàèíòåðåñîâàííûõ â èñïîëüçîâàíèè áàëîáàíà äëÿ ñîêîëèíîé îõîòû.  ðåçóëüòàòå ðàáîòû ãðóïïû âûðàáîòàíà è ïðèíÿòà Ñòîðîíàìè Êîíâåíöèè ñïåöèàëüíàÿ ðåçîëþöèÿ Res. 10.28 – Áàëîáàí Falco cherrug (Saker Falcon Falco cherrug)4, ïðåäóñìàòðèâàþùàÿ íå òîëüêî âêëþ÷åíèå áàëîáàíà â Ïðèëîæåíèå I (çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì åãî ìîíãîëüñêèõ ïîïóëÿöèé), íî è ñîçäàíèå ïî íåìó îòäåëüíîé ðàáî÷åé ãðóïïû â ðàìêàõ Ìåìîðàíäóìà ïî õèùíûì ïòèöàì ÊÌÂ. Ðàáî÷àÿ ãðóïïà äîëæíà ñðî÷íî âûðàáîòàòü Ïëàí äåéñòâèé ïî ñîõðàíåíèþ âèäà è íåìåäëåííî íà÷àòü åãî âûïîëíåíèå. Íà Êîíôåðåíöèè òàêæå îáñóæäàëàñü ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, ïî ðåçóëüòàòàì îáñóæäåíèÿ êîòîðîé òàêæå ïðèíÿòà îòäåëüíàÿ ðåçîëþöèÿ Res. 10.11 – Ëèíèè ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è è ìèãðèðóþùèå âèäû (Power Lines and Migratory Species)5. Òåêñòû îáåèõ ðåçîëþöèé îïóáëèêîâàíû íà ñòð. 18–24.

ation for Falconry and Conservation of Birds of Prey. The total number of the committee members was 38. The task they had to deal with was rather difficult, which is attested by the fact that the committee had seven meetings (of total duration of 12 hours) during the period from November 21–November 24. It was unanimously decided that listing of the Saker Falcon in Appendix I is insufficient without the specific measures that need to be planned for the conservation of the species. Most of the time of the meetings was devoted to searching for exact wording that would be appropriate in all the countries, including those that are interested in using the Saker Falcon for falconry. The committee designed the special resolution Res. 10.28 – Saker Falcon Falco cherrug4, which provided for listing the Saker Falcon in Appendix I (with the exception for its Mongolian populations) and establishing an individual working committee for this species within the framework of the CMS Memorandum on Birds of Prey; the resolution was adopted by the Parties of the Convention. The working committee is to urgently elaborate the Action Plan on the species conservation and immediately start to fulfil it. The problem of bird electrocution has also been discussed at the Conference. A separate resolution Res. 10.11 – Power Lines and Migratory Species5 has been adopted based on the results of discussion. The texts of both resolutions are presented in page 18–24.

Öåëåâàÿ ãðóïïà ïî áàëîáàíó (STF), ó÷ðåæä¸ííàÿ â íîÿáðå 2011 ã. ðåçîëþöèåé 10.28, ïðèíÿòîé íà 10-é êîíôåðåíöèè Ñòîðîí Áîííñêîé Êîíâåíöèè â Áåðãåíå (Íîðâåãèÿ), ñîçäàíà 11 ÿíâàðÿ 2012 ã. â Àáó-Äàáè (ÎÀÝ). Öåëåâàÿ ãðóïïà íàöåëåíà íà îáúåäèíåíèå óñèëèé ãîñóäàðñòâ àðåàëà, ïàðòí¸ðîâ è çàèíòåðåñîâàííûõ ñòîðîí, ÷òîáû ðàçðàáîòàòü ñêîîðäèíèðîâàííûé ãëîáàëüíûé ïëàí äåéñòâèé, â òîì ÷èñëå ñèñòåìó óïðàâëåíèÿ è ìîíèòîðèíãà, ñ öåëüþ ñîõðàíåíèÿ áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug). Ãðóïïà áóäåò ðàáîòàòü ïîä ýãèäîé Âðåìåííîãî êîîðäèíàöèîííîãî ñîâåòà (ICU) Ìåìîðàíäóìà î âçàèìîïîíèìàíèè ïî õèùíûì ïòèöàì. Èíôîðìàöèÿ î ñîçäàíèè ãðóïïû áûëà ðàñïðîñòðàíåíà âî âñåõ êëþ÷åâûõ ñòðàíàõ àðåàëà áàëîáàíà, ñðåäè ïàðòí¸ðîâ è äðóãèõ çàèíòåðåñîâàííûõ ñòîðîí, ñ ïðîñüáîé ñîîá-

The Saker Falcon Task Force (STF) was established in November 2011 by Resolution 10.28, adopted at the 10th Conference of the Parties (COP10) to CMS, held in Bergen, Norway, created 11 January 2012 in Abu Dhabi (UAE). The Task Force aims to bring together Range States, Partners and interested parties, to develop a coordinated Global Action Plan, including a management and monitoring system, to conserve the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug). It will operate under the auspices of the Interim Coordinating Unit (ICU) of the Raptors MoU. Under the mandate granted at CMS COP10 information about establishing STF have been circulated to all key Saker Falcon Range States, Partners and other interested parties, along with a request for Expressions of Interest from representatives

http://www.cms.int/bodies/COP/cop10/resolutions_adopted/10_28_saker_e.pdf http://www.cms.int/bodies/COP/cop10/resolutions_adopted/10_11_powerlines_e.pdf


Events

(2) Êîíòàêò: Ñåðãåé Ëüâîâè÷ Ñêëÿðåíêî Êàçàõñòàíñêàÿ àññîöèàöèÿ ñîõðàíåíèÿ áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ (ÀÑÁÊ) Öåíòð ïðèêëàäíîé áèîëîãèè 050043, Êàçàõñòàí, Àëìàòû, ìêð Îðáèòà-1, 40 òåë.: +7 727 220 38 77 sergey.sklyarenko@ acbk.kz (2) Contact: Dr. Sergey Sklyarenko Centre for Conservation Biology of the Science Director of ACBK Association for the Conservation of Biodiversity (ACBK) of. 203, 40, Orbita-1, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 050043 tel.: +7 727 220 38 77 sergey.sklyarenko@ acbk.kz

6

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

7

ùèòü î çàèíòåðåñîâàííîñòè ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé, æåëàþùèõ ó÷àñòâîâàòü â ðàáîòå ãðóïïû.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ãðóïïà ñôîðìèðîâàíà. Ðîññèþ â íåé ïðåäñòàâëÿþò Ý.Ã. Íèêîëåíêî (Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð) è È.Â. Êàðÿêèí (Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé). Ïåðâîå çàñåäàíèå ãðóïïû ïðîøëî 29 ìàðòà 2012 ã. â Àáó-Äàáè (ÎÀÝ). Èíôîðìàöèÿ ïî åãî ðåçóëüòàòàì áóäåò îïóáëèêîâàíà â ñëåäóþùåì íîìåðå æóðíàëà «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà». Ñïèñîê ó÷àñòíèêîâ è èõ ðåçþìå äîñòóïíû íà ñàéòå Ñèáýêîöåíòðà6. Êîíòàêò (1).

who wish to be considered to serve on the STF. Now the STF has been established. Representatives from Russia are E. Nikolenko (Siberian Environmental Centre) and I. Karyakin (Centre of Field Studies). The 1st meeting of the STF tool place in 29 March 2012 in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The information on the results will be published in next issue of “Raptors Conservation”. List of participants and their CV are available at the Siberian Environmental Center’s site6. Contact (1).

Êàçàõñòàíñêàÿ àññîöèàöèÿ ñîõðàíåíèÿ áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ (ÀÑÁÊ) ñîâìåñòíî ñ Ñîþçîì îõðàíû ïòèö Êàçàõñòàíà âûáðàëè ñòåïíîãî îðëà (Aquila nipalensis) «Ïòèöåé 2012 ãîäà». Âûáîðû «Ïòèöû ãîäà» ïðîâîäÿòñÿ â ñòðàíå ñåäüìîé ðàç, íî õèùíûå ïòèöû äî ñèõ ïîð íå áûëè óäîñòîåíû ÷åñòè ñòàòü ñèìâîëîì ãîäà, õîòÿ ýòî ýêîëîãè÷åñêè âàæíàÿ ãðóïïà è òðåòü âñåõ âñòðå÷àþùèõñÿ â Êàçàõñòàíå èõ âèäîâ (âêëþ÷àÿ âñå âèäû îðëîâ) çàíåñåíà â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ðåñïóáëèêè. Èç îáèòàþùèõ â Êàçàõñòàíå 40 âèäîâ õèùíèêîâ èìåííî ñòåïíîé îð¸ë âûáðàí íå ñëó÷àéíî. Ýòîò âèä – ñèìâîë êàçàõñòàíñêîé ñòåïè. Îí äîñòàòî÷íî ëåãêî óçíàâàåì, ðàñïðîñòðàí¸í íà áîëüøåé ÷àñòè ñòðàíû, òî åñòü åãî, â îòëè÷èè îò îñîáî ðåäêèõ âèäîâ, ìîæíî ïðè æåëàíèè óâèäåòü.  òî æå âðåìÿ, îí íóæäàåòñÿ â äîïîëíèòåëüíîì âíèìàíèè. Ëåò äåñÿòü-ïÿòíàäöàòü íàçàä ÷èñëåííîñòü ýòîãî îðëà, ñèëüíî ïîñòðàäàâøåãî îò àãðàðíîãî îñâîåíèÿ ñòåïíîé çîíû, çàìåòíî íà÷àëà ðàñòè. Íî â ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû ðîñò ïðåêðàòèëñÿ, áîëåå òîãî – â ðÿäå ðàéîíîâ ïðîèñõîäèò ñíèæåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè. Ïîâûñèëàñü ñìåðòíîñòü ñòåïíîãî îðëà íà ËÝÏ, ïîñêîëüêó â Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå, îäíîì èç îñíîâíûõ ðàéîíîâ åãî ãíåçäîâàíèÿ, èä¸ò àêòèâíàÿ ðàçðàáîòêà íåôòÿíûõ è ãàçîâûõ ìåñòîðîæäåíèé, ñîïðîâîæäàþùàÿñÿ ðàçâèòèåì ñåòè ËÝÏ. Ñîáñòâåííî, ñòåïíîé îð¸ë ñòàëêèâàåòñÿ ñ òåìè æå óãðîçàìè, ÷òî è äðóãèå ñòåïíûå âèäû õèùíûõ ïòèö. Ñàìûå îïàñíûå èç íèõ – óòðàòà ìåñòîîáèòàíèé, îòðàâëåíèå àãðîõèìèêàòàìè – â ïîñëåäíèå äåñÿòèëåòèÿ ñòàëè ìåíåå çíà÷èìûìè. Àêòóàëüíûìè îñòàþòñÿ, êðîìå ãèáåëè íà ËÝÏ, áðàêîíüåðñòâî, âêëþ÷àÿ ïðîñòî îòñòðåë äëÿ çàáàâû è îòñòðåë äëÿ èçãîòîâëåíèÿ ÷ó÷åë, ðàçîðåíèå ãí¸çä (ó ñòåïíîãî îðëà îíè ëåã-

The Association for the Conservation of Biodiversity of Kazakhstan (ACBK) jointly with the Kazakhstan Bird Conservation Union selected the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) to be the Bird of the Year 2012. The “Bird of the Year” competition was held in Kazakhstan for the seventh time already; however, until this year, the birds of prey were not awarded the title of the symbol of the year; although this group of birds is environmentally significant, and a third part of all the species from this group inhabiting Kazakhstan are listed in the Red List of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The Steppe Eagle has been selected from 40 species of the birds of prey inhabiting Kazakhstan not by a random chance. This species is the symbol of the Kazakhstan steppe. It is appreciably easily recognizable and inhabits the largest part of the country. In other words, it can be seen if desired, unlike the especially rare species. Meanwhile, it requires additional attention. Some ten–fifteen years ago, the population number of this eagle, which had suffered a lot from the agrarian development of the steppe zone, began to increase noticeably. However, the increase has recently stopped; moreover, the population number decreases in a number of regions. The death rate of the Steppe Eagle caused by electrocution has increased, since there is the active development of oil and gas deposits accompanied by expansion of the grid of power lines in western Kazakhstan, which is one of the major regions where this species breeds. In fact, the Steppe Eagle faces the same threats as the other steppe species of birds of prey do. The most dangerous threats – habitat loss and pesticide poisoning – have

http://docs.sibecocenter.ru/programs/raptors/Publ/SakerFalconTaskForce-ParticipantsIntroductionForms.pdf


8

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

(3) Êîíòàêò: Ðèíóð Áåêìàíñóðîâ Íàöèîíàëüíûé ïàðê «Íèæíÿÿ Êàìà» 423600, Ðîññèÿ, Ðåñïóáëèêà Òàòàðñòàí, ã. Åëàáóãà, ïð. Íåôòÿíèêîâ, 175 òåë.: +7 85557 795 87 rinur@yandex.ru (3) Contact: Rinur Bekmansurov National Park “Nizhnyaya Kama” Neftyanikov str., 175, Elabuga, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, 423600 tel.: +7 85557 795 87 rinur@yandex.ru

Ñîáûòèÿ

êîäîñòóïíû), íåçàêîííûé îòëîâ äëÿ ñîäåðæàíèÿ â íåâîëå è äð. Êàê îáû÷íî, â ðàìêàõ êàìïàíèè «Ïòèöà ãîäà» â ïîääåðæêó ñòåïíîãî îðëà è äðóãèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö ïëàíèðóåòñÿ ðÿä ìåðîïðèÿòèé, â òîì ÷èñëå ïîäãîòîâêà àãèòàöèîííûõ ìàòåðèàëîâ äëÿ ïðîâåäåíèÿ òðàäèöèîííûõ «Äíåé ïòèö», èíôîðìàöèîííûå ðàññûëêè è ò.ï. Òàê ñîâïàëî, ÷òî èìåííî â ýòîì ãîäó ñòàðòóåò ðîññèéñêî-êàçàõñòàíñêèé ïðîåêò ÏÐÎÎÍ/ÃÝÔ ïî ìîíèòîðèíãó òðàíñãðàíè÷íîé ïîïóëÿöèè ñòåïíîãî îðëà íà ñòûêå Àêòþáèíñêîé îáëàñòè Êàçàõñòàíà ñ Îðåíáóðãñêîé îáëàñòüþ Ðîññèè. Êîíòàêò (2).

become less significant over the past decades. Electrocution, poaching, nest destruction, illegal catching birds to keep them in captivity, etc. still remain urgent. A number of activities, including the preparation of agitation materials, sending newsletters, etc. are planned to be performed within the “Bird of the Year” campaign, as it is usually done. This year is also the year when the UNDP/ GEF Russia–Kazakhstan project on monitoring the transboundary population of the Steppe Eagle on the junction of the Aktyubinsk district of Kazakhstan and the Orenburg district of Russia begins. Contact (2).

 Ðåñïóáëèêå Òàòàðñòàí (Ðîññèÿ) íà÷àòà ðåàëèçàöèÿ ïðîãðàììû ïî çàùèòå ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è.  ðàìêàõ ïðîåêòà ïî ñîõðàíåíèþ ïîïóëÿöèé îðëàíà-áåëîõâîñòà (Haliaeetus albicilla), îðëà-ìîãèëüíèêà (Aquila heliaca) è áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà (Aquila clanga) â Ðåñïóáëèêå Òàòàðñòàí, ïîääåðæàííîãî ôîíäîì ìàëûõ ãðàíòîâ Ðóôôîðä, äîñòèãíóòû îïðåäåë¸ííûå óñïåõè. Íà ñîñòîÿâøåìñÿ 18 ÿíâàðÿ 2012 ã. â ãîðîäå Êàçàíü â ÎÀÎ «Ñåòåâàÿ êîìïàíèÿ» (äî÷åðíÿÿ ñòðóêòóðà ÎÀÎ «Òàòýíåðãî») ðàáî÷åì ñîâåùàíèè ïî ïðîáëåìå ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è íà òåððèòîðèè Ðåñïóáëèêè Òàòàðñòàí áûëî ïðèíÿòî ðåøåíèå î ïðîâåäåíèè ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé â 2012 ã.  îñíîâó äîëãîñðî÷íîé ïðîãðàììû ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé ÎÀÎ «Ñåòåâàÿ êîìïàíèÿ» áóäóò çàëîæåíû ðåêîìåíäàöèè Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè.  2012 ã. ïåðâîî÷åðåäíûå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ ïî çàùèòå ïòèö íà ËÝÏ 6–10 ê ïðîéäóò â Ñïàññêîì ðàéîíå Ðåñïóáëèêè Òàòàðñòàí, ãäå âûÿâëåíû ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè îðëàíîâ, ìîãèëüíèêîâ è ïîäîðëèêîâ – îãîëîâêè îïîð ËÝÏ áóäóò îáîðóäîâàíû ñïåöèàëüíûìè ïëàñòèêîâûìè ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè. Äëÿ ýòîãî â ÎÀÎ «Ñåòåâàÿ êîìïàíèÿ» ïëàíèðóåòñÿ çàêóïêà 2343 ÏÇÓ íà ñóììó áîëåå 1 ìëí. ðóáëåé. Êîíòàêò (3).

The programme to prevent the electrocution of birds starts to be implemented in the Republic of Tatarstan (Russia). Certain success is achieved under the project on conservation of the populations of the White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), and Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) in the Republic of Tatarstan supported by the Rufford Small Grants Foundation. A resolution on conducting the mitigation measures in 2012 was adopted at a meeting devoted to the problem of bird electrocution in the Republic of Tatarstan, which was held in at the JSC “Setevaya kompaniya” (department of “Tatenergo”) Kazan on 18 January 2012. Moreover, the long-term programme on mitigation activities performed by JSC “Setevaya companiya” will be based on the recommendations of the Russian Bird Conservation Union. In 2012, the first priority mitigation activities will be carried out at the 6–10 kV power line in the Spassky region of the Republic of Tatarstan, where the breeding territories of the White-tailed Eagles, Imperial Eagles, and Greater Spotted Eagles have been discovered. The electric poles will be retrofitted with special plastic bird protection devices (BPDs). For this purpose, 2343 BPDs will be purchased, with the total value of 1 million rubles (26,000 Euro). Contact (3).

Çàêîí Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàçàõñòàí îò 25 ÿíâàðÿ 2012 ã. ¹548-IV «Î âíåñåíèè èçìåíåíèé è äîïîëíåíèé â íåêîòîðûå çàêîíîäàòåëüíûå àêòû Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàçàõñòàí ïî âîïðîñàì ëåñíîãî õîçÿéñòâà,

The amendments were made to the Criminal Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan by the law of the Republic of Kazakhstan ¹548-IV on “Making amendments and addenda to some legislative acts of the


Events

(4) Contact: Paweł Mirski Project’s science assistant (English) tel.: +48 604 234 306 mirski.pawel@ gmail.com Przemysław Nawrocki, Project’s coordinator (English and Russian) tel.: +48 608 384 242 przemyslaw.nawrocki@ ptakipolskie.pl

7

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

9

æèâîòíîãî ìèðà è îñîáî îõðàíÿåìûõ ïðèðîäíûõ òåððèòîðèé» âí¸ñ èçìåíåíèÿ â Óãîëîâíûé êîäåêñ Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàçàõñòàí, áëàãîäàðÿ êîòîðûì ñ 2012 ã. â ñòðàíå ïîÿâèëñÿ ðåàëüíûé ìåõàíèçì ïðåñå÷åíèÿ íåçàêîííîé òàêñèäåðìè÷åñêîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè – èçãîòîâëåíèÿ è ïðîäàæè ÷ó÷åë ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ïòèö7. C 25 ÿíâàðÿ 2012 ã. â íîâîé ðåäàêöèè ñòàòüè 290 ÓÊ ÐÊ î íåçàêîííîì îáðàùåíèè ñ ðåäêèìè âèäàìè ïðèçíà¸òñÿ ïðåñòóïëåíèåì íå òîëüêî íåçàêîííîå äîáûâàíèå, ïðèîáðåòåíèå, õðàíåíèå, ñáûò, ââîç, âûâîç, ïåðåñûëêà, ïåðåâîçêà è óíè÷òîæåíèå ðåäêèõ è íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ âèäîâ ðàñòåíèé è æèâîòíûõ, íî è èõ ÷àñòåé è äåðèâàòîâ. Íîâàÿ ðåäàêöèÿ: Ñòàòüÿ 290. Íåçàêîííîå îáðàùåíèå ñ ðåäêèìè è íàõîäÿùèìèñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ âèäàìè ðàñòåíèé è æèâîòíûõ è (èëè) èõ ÷àñòÿìè è äåðèâàòàìè, à òàêæå ñ ðàñòåíèÿìè è æèâîòíûìè è (èëè) èõ ÷àñòÿìè è äåðèâàòàìè, èçúÿòèå êîòîðûõ çàïðåùåíî. Íåçàêîííîå äîáûâàíèå, ïðèîáðåòåíèå, õðàíåíèå, ñáûò, ââîç, âûâîç, ïåðåñûëêà, ïåðåâîçêà, à ðàâíî óíè÷òîæåíèå ðåäêèõ è íàõîäÿùèõñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ âèäîâ ðàñòåíèé è æèâîòíûõ è (èëè) èõ ÷àñòåé è äåðèâàòîâ, à òàêæå ðàñòåíèé è æèâîòíûõ è (èëè) èõ ÷àñòåé è äåðèâàòîâ, íà êîòîðûõ ââåä¸í çàïðåò íà ïîëüçîâàíèå, èëè ìåñò èõ îáèòàíèÿ – íàêàçûâàþòñÿ îãðàíè÷åíèåì ñâîáîäû íà ñðîê äî òð¸õ ëåò èëè ëèøåíèåì ñâîáîäû íà òîò æå ñðîê ñ êîíôèñêàöèåé èìóùåñòâà îñóæä¸ííîãî, à òàêæå èìóùåñòâà, ÿâëÿþùåãîñÿ îáúåêòîì ïðåñòóïíûõ äåéñòâèé, îðóäèåì èëè ñðåäñòâîì ñîâåðøåíèÿ ïðåñòóïëåíèÿ, ïðåäìåòîì, èçúÿòûì èç îáðàùåíèÿ. Òåïåðü ó ïîëèöèè åñòü îñíîâàíèÿ ïðåñåêàòü ïðîäàæó è ïîêóïêó äåðèâàòîâ ðåäêèõ âèäîâ.

Republic of Kazakhstan concerning the problems of forestry, wildlife, and protected areas”, which was adopted on January 25, 2012. Due to these amendments, an actual mechanism for the suppression of illegal taxidermy activity (preparing and selling stuffed rare birds will be established in the country7. Starting on January 25, 2012, not only illegal catching, purchasing, storing, selling, importing, exporting, shipping, transportation, and destroying of rare and threatened wildlife species, but also their parts and derivatives is regarded as a crime, according to new edition of article 290 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan concerning the illegal handling of rare species. New edition. Article 290. Illegal handling of rare or endangered wildlife species and (or) their parts and derivatives, as well as plants and animals and (or) their parts and derivatives, whose withdrawal from the nature is prohibited. The illegal catching, purchasing, storing, selling, importing, exporting, shipping, transportation, and destroying of rare and threatened wildlife species and (or) their parts and derivatives, as well as plants and animals and (or) their parts and derivatives, the use of which or their habitats is prohibited, is penalized by the personal restraint for a period up to three years or imprisonment for the same period with seizure of property of a convicted person, as well as the property that is the object of the criminal pursuit, or the crime instrument. The police now have reasons to suppress selling and purchasing the derivatives of rare species.

 ðàìêàõ ïðîåêòà LIFE08 NAT/PL/000511 AQC Plan «Çàùèòà ïîïóëÿöèé áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà â Ïîëüøå: ïîäãîòîâêà íàöèîíàëüíîãî ïëàíà äåéñòâèé è îõðàíû îñíîâíûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé» â Áåáæàíñêîì íàöèîíàëüíîì ïàðêå (Ïîëüøà) 25–27 ÿíâàðÿ 2012 ã. ïðîø¸ë Ìåæäóíàðîäíûé ñèìïîçèóì ïî îõðàíå áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà (Acuila clanga).  ðàáîòå ñèìïîçèóìà ïðèíÿëè ó÷àñòèå îêîëî 30 îðíèòîëîãîâ èç ñòðàí, ãäå îáèòàåò ýòîò îð¸ë – Ïîëüøè, Óêðàèíû, Áåëàðóñè, Ðîññèè, Ëàòâèè, Ëèòâû è Ýñòîíèè. Áûëè ïðåäñòàâëåíû äîêëàäû îò ó÷àñòíèêîâ âñåõ

International Workshop on the conservation of the Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) conducted within LIFE08 NAT/ PL/000511 AQC Plan “Securing the Population of Aquila clanga in Poland: Preparation of the National Action Plan and Primary Site Conservation” took place in the Goniądz, Biebrza Valley, Poland January, 25th–27th, 2012. Approximately 30 ornithologists from the countries constituting the main area occupied by the species in Europe (Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia) participated in the Work-

http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=31122498&sublink=1100


10

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24 ãîñóäàðñòâ. Ðîññèþ ïðåäñòàâëÿëè È.Â. Êàðÿêèí (Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä) è À.Ë. Ìèùåíêî (ÐÎÑÈÏ, Ìîñêâà). Îñíîâíûå âîïðîñû, êîòîðûå áûëè ðàññìîòðåíû íà êîíôåðåíöèè: áèîëîãèÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà (÷èñëåííîñòü, òåíäåíöèè, ìîíèòîðèíã, èññëåäîâàíèÿ óñïåõà ãíåçäîâàíèÿ, èñïîëüçîâàíèå ìåñò îáèòàíèÿ è ãèáðèäèçàöèÿ ñ ìàëûì ïîäîðëèêîì Aquila pomarina), à òàêæå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå è ýêîëîãèÿ çà ïðåäåëàìè ãíåçäîâîãî àðåàëà (óãðîçû íà ïóòè ìèãðàöèè è ìåñòàõ çèìîâîê, ñîâðåìåííûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ). Ñ ïðèâåòñòâåííûìè ñëîâàìè êîíôåðåíöèþ îòêðûëè äèðåêòîð Áåáæàíñêîãî ÍÏ Âîéöåõ Äóæþê, Ïøåìèñëàâ Íàâðîöêèé (Ïòèöû Ïîëüøè) è Ãæåãîæ Ìàöèîðîâñêèé (Êîìèòåò îõðàíû îðëîâ, Ïîëüøà).  õîäå âûñòóïëåíèé âûÿñíèëîñü, ÷òî îñíîâíîé óãðîçîé äëÿ áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà â Åâðîïå, ïîìèìî èçìåíåíèé ìåñò îáèòàíèÿ, ÿâëÿåòñÿ ãèáðèäèçàöèÿ ñ áëèçêîðîäñòâåííûì âèäîì – ìàëûì ïîäîðëèêîì. Ýòà ïðîáëåìà îñòðî ñòîèò èìåííî â åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè àðåàëà, òàê êàê â öåíòðàëüíîé è âîñòî÷íîé ÷àñòÿõ Ðîññèè ìàëûé ïîäîðëèê íå îáèòàåò. Îäíàêî äàëüíåéøåå ðàñøèðåíèå åãî àðåàëà íà âîñòîê ñòàâèò ïîä óãðîçó ñóùåñòâîâàíèå åâðîïåéñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà. Ïî ðåçóëüòàòàì ïðåäñòàâëåííûõ äîêëàäîâ áûëî âûÿñíåíî òåêóùåå ñîñòîÿíèå ïîïóëÿöèè áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà â ìåñòàõ åãî ãíåçäîâàíèÿ.  Ïîëüøå ýòîò îð¸ë îáèòàåò òîëüêî íà òåððèòîðèè Áåáæàíñêîãî ÍÏ. Çäåñü åãî ÷èñëåííîñòü ñîñòàâëÿåò îêîëî 12–17 ïàð.  Ýñòîíèè èçâåñòíà 1 ïàðà è îêîëî 4 ãèáðèäíûõ ñ ìàëûì ïîäîðëèêîì.  Ëèòâå äîñòîâåðíûõ äàííûõ î ãíåçäîâàíèè ÷èñòîé ïàðû áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà íåò, íî èçâåñòíà 1 ãèáðèäíàÿ ïàðà.  ñîñåäíåé Ëàòâèè òàêæå èçâåñòíà òîëüêî 1 ãèáðèäíàÿ ïàðà. Îäíà èç ñàìûõ ìîùíûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ãðóïïèðîâîê â Åâðîïå íàõîäèòñÿ íà òåððèòîðèè Áåëàðóñè. Çäåñü, ñîãëàñíî èññëåäîâàíèÿì Âàëåðèÿ Äîìáðîâñêîãî, îáèòàåò 150–180 ïàð ýòîãî îðëà.  Óêðàèíå, ïî ïðåäâàðèòåëüíûì îöåíêàì, äîëæíî îáèòàòü 10–20 ïàð áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà, íî èçâåñòíî ïîêà òîëüêî îêîëî 4 ïàð.  Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè, ïî äàííûì Èãîðÿ Êàðÿêèíà, îáèòàåò 800–1000 ïàð, èç íèõ, ïî äàííûì Àëåêñàíäðà Ìèùåíêî, â Ìîñêîâñêîé è Íîâãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòÿõ – îêîëî 100 ïàð. Íó à ñàìàÿ áîëüøàÿ ïîïóëÿöèÿ ïðîñòèðàåòñÿ íà âîñòîê îò Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè: Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêèé

Ñîáûòèÿ shop. The representatives of each country made their reports. Russia was represented by I. Karyakin (Center of Field Studies, N.Novgorod) and A. Mischenko (Birds Russia, Moscow). The main questions discussed at the Workshop were as follows: breeding biology of the Greater Spotted Eagle (population, tendencies, monitoring, studying the breeding success, using the habitats and hybridization with the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina), as well as the distribution and ecology beyond the breeding range (dangers on their migration routes and winterings, modern studies). Wojciech Dudziuk (Biebrza National Park), Przemyslaw Nawrocki (Polish Birds), and Grzegorz Maciorowski (Eagel Conservation Committee, Poland) opened the Conference with a welcome speech. It was ascertained that in addition to the changes in the habitats, cross-breeding with the Lesser Spotted Eagle, is the major threat for the Greater Spotted Eagle in Europe. This problem is particularly acute in the European part of the range, since the Lesser Spotted Eagle does not occur in the central and eastern Russia. However, the further eastward expansion of its range threatens the existence of the European population of the Greater Spotted Eagle. Based on the results of the reports, the current state of the population of the Greater Spotted Eagle in the breeding grounds has been elucidated. In Poland, this eagle species occurs only in the Biebrza National Park. Its population here is approximately 12–17 pairs. In Estonia, the species population numbers only to few pairs of birds with several mixed pairs with the Lesser Spotted Eagle. In Lithuania, no reliable data on breeding of a pure pair of the Greater Spotted Eagle have been obtained; however, one hybrid pair has been known. In neighbouring Latvia, only hybrid pair is also known. One of the largest population in Europe occurs in Belarus. According to the studies by Valery Dombrovskii, 150–180 pairs of this eagle species inhabit this area. According to the preliminary estimations, there should be about 10–20 pairs of the Greater Spotted Eagle in Ukraine; however, only 4 pairs have been found thus far. According to the findings of Igor Karyakin, 800–1000 pairs inhabit the European part of Russia, and, following to Alexander Mischenko, about 100 pairs inhabiting the Moscow and Novgorod districts. And the largest population stretches eastward from the European part of Russia:


Events

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

11

Ïîëüñêàÿ êîìàíäà èññëåäîâàòåëåé áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà (Aquila clanga). Ôîòî Ñ. Äîìàøåâñêîãî. Polish team of Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) researchers. Photo by S. Domashevskiy.

(5) Contact: Joe Taylor Global Species Programme Assistant BirdLife International, Wellbrook Court, Girton Road, Cambridge, CB3 0NA, UK tel.: +44 0 1223 277318 fax: +44 0 1223 277200 joe.taylor@birdlife.org www.birdlife.org

8 9

ðåãèîí – 400–500 ïàð, Çàïàäíàÿ Ñèáèðü – 1200–1600 ïàð, Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêèé ðåãèîí – 150–200 ïàð. Ïî ðåçóëüòàòàì ñèìïîçèóìà áóäóò îïóáëèêîâàíû òåçèñû. Ôîòîîò÷¸ò î ñèìïîçèóìå äîñòóïåí íà ñàéòå ïðîåêòà8. Êîíòàêò (4).

400–500 pairs in the Volga–Ural region and 150–200 pairs in the Altai–Sayan region. Proceedings of the workshop will be published. The photographs made during the Workshop are available at the website of the project8. Contact (4).

Áàëîáàíó (Falco cherrug) âíîâü âîçâðàù¸í ñòàòóñ «óãðîæàåìîãî âèäà» â íîâîì Êðàñíîì ëèñòå ÌÑÎÏ, ïîäãîòîâëåííîì BirdLife International9. Èçâåñòíî, ÷òî äëÿ íóæä ñîêîëüíèêîâ íà Áëèæíèé Âîñòîê ïîñòàâëÿåòñÿ áîëüøîå êîëè÷åñòâî ïòèö, îòëàâëèâàåìûõ â ïðèðîäå. Íàðÿäó ñ òàêèìè ôàêòîðàìè, êàê ãèáåëü íà ËÝÏ è îòðàâëåíèå ÿäîõèìèêàòàìè, èñïîëüçóåìûìè â ñåëüñêîì õîçÿéñòâå, îòëîâ ñîêîëîâ â ïðèðîäå íàíîñèò îãðîìíûé óùåðá äèêèì ïîïóëÿöèÿì.  ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû ëèöàìè, ëîááèðóþùèìè ðåøåíèÿ áëèæíåâîñòî÷íûõ ñîêîëüíèêîâ, ïðèëàãàåòñÿ ìíîãî óñèëèé äëÿ äîêàçàòåëüñòâà òîãî, ÷òî áàëîáàíû â Àçèè ÿâëÿþòñÿ áîëåå ìíîãî÷èñëåííûìè, ÷åì ýòî ñ÷èòàþò àçèàòñêèå îðíèòîëîãè, ñòåïåíü óãðîçû äëÿ áàëîáàíà óìåíüøèëàñü è îí ìîæåò áûòü ïåðåíåñ¸í èç ãðóïïû «óãðîæàåìûõ» â «óÿçâèìûå». Ïîñëåäíèé ñòàòóñ ïîçâîëÿåò çàêîííûé îòëîâ ñîêîëîâ-áàëîáàíîâ â äèêîé ïðèðîäå â íåêîòîðûõ ñòðàíàõ Àçèè è ïðîäàæó èõ àðàáñêèì ñîêîëüíèêàì. Íåîáîñíîâàííîå ñíèæåíèå ñòàòóñà áàëîáàíà â Êðàñíîì ëèñòå ÌÑÎÏ â 2010 ã. âûçâàëî îñòðóþ íåãàòèâíóþ ðåàêöèþ ðÿäà ðîññèéñêèõ è êàçàõñòàíñêèõ îðíèòîëîãîâ,

Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) was raised again in the category of “Endangered” in the new Red List IUCN, prepared by BirdLife International9. It is known that many wild birds are supplied for the needs of falconers in the Middle East. Along with such factors as electrocution and pesticides poisoning, the catching of birds in nature causes a great damage to wild populations. In recent years much effort was exert to prove that the species in Asia are more numerous and the degree of threat was diminished from “Endangered” to “Vulnerable”. This statute allows legal trapping of Saker Falcons from the wild nature in some Asian countries and selling them to Arab falconers. Unreasonable decrease in the status of the Saker Falcon in the Red List IUCN 2010 induced a sharp reaction by Russian and Kazakhstanian ornithologists and experts on the status of the Saker Falcon in Asian countries, including allegations of ignored data from publications of local authors from these countries. At the initiative of Matyas Prommer by BirdLife Hungary, member of the team of LIFE + project “Conservation of the Saker Falcon in northeastern Bulgaria,

http://rrrcn.ru/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/fotorelacjaeng.pdf http://www.saveraptors.org/en/news.php?id=216


12

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ñîáûòèÿ

Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà. Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug). Photo by I. Karyakin.

(6) Êîíòàêò: Ðèíóð Áåêìàíñóðîâ Íàöèîíàëüíûé ïàðê «Íèæíÿÿ Êàìà» 423600, Ðîññèÿ, Ðåñïóáëèêà Òàòàðñòàí, ã. Åëàáóãà, ïð. Íåôòÿíèêîâ, 175 òåë.: +7 85557 795 87 rinur@yandex.ru (6) Contact: Rinur Bekmansurov, National Park “Nizhnyaya Kama” Neftyanikov str., 175, Elabuga, Republic of Tatarstan 423600, Russia tel.: +7 85557 795 87 rinur@yandex.ru

10 11

êîòîðûå çàÿâèëè, ÷òî ïåðåñìîòð ñòàòóñà èãíîðèðóåò ðåàëüíóþ ñèòóàöèþ ñ âèäîì, èíôîðìàöèÿ î êîòîðîé ïóáëèêóåòñÿ â íàöèîíàëüíîé ëèòåðàòóðå, íî áûëà ïðîèãíîðèðîâàíà BirdLife ïðè ïåðåñìîòðå ñòàòóñà áàëîáàíà. Ïî èíèöèàòèâå Ìàòèàøà Ïðîììåðà èç BirdLife Âåíãðèè, ÷ëåíà êîìàíäû LIFE + ïðîåêòà «Ñîõðàíåíèå áàëîáàíà â Ñåâåðî-Âîñòî÷íîé Áîëãàðèè, Âåíãðèè, Ðóìûíèè è Ñëîâàêèè», ñòàòóñ áàëîáàíà áûë ïîâòîðíî ðàññìîòðåí BirdLife International, ðàçâ¸ðíóòà îñòðàÿ äèñêóññèÿ íà ñàéòå BirdLife ñ ó÷àñòèåì îðíèòîëîãîâ èç îñíîâíîãî àðåàëà âèäà, â ðåçóëüòàòå ÷åãî áàëîáàíó âîçâðàù¸í ñòàòóñ óãðîæàåìîãî âèäà. Íå ïîñëåäíþþ ðîëü â ïðèíÿòèè òàêîãî ðåøåíèÿ ñûãðàëè ïóáëèêàöèè À.Ñ. Ëåâèíà (2011) è À.Â. Ìîøêèíà (2010) â æóðíàëå «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà», à òàêæå îò÷¸ò Ïðèðîäîîõðàííîãî ôîíäà Ñèíöçÿíÿ (2008), ðàçìåù¸ííûé â Èíòåðíåò. BirdLife International åæåãîäíî îñóùåñòâëÿåò ðåâèçèþ ñîñòîÿíèÿ ïòèö íà ïëàíåòå è îáíîâëÿåò Êðàñíûé ëèñò ÌÑÎÏ. Ðåâèçèÿ 2012 ã. óæå çàâåðøåíà è å¸ ðåçóëüòàòû ìîæíî ïîñìîòðåòü íà îôèöèàëüíîì ñàéòå BirdLife10. Îêîí÷àòåëüíûé ñïèñîê ãëîáàëüíî óãðîæàåìûõ âèäîâ, âêëþ÷¸ííûõ â Êðàñíûé ñïèñîê ÌÑÎÏ 2012 ã., áóäåò îôèöèàëüíî îïóáëèêîâàí BirdLife è ÌÑÎÏ â ìàå ýòîãî ãîäà. Êîíòàêò (5).

Hungary, Romania and Slovakia”, the status of the Saker Falcon has been reviewed and BirdLife International accepted data provided by ornithologists from the main range of the species. Finally the Saker Falcon returned to the status “Endangered”. Publications of A. Levin (2011) and A. Moshkin (2010) in the Journal “Raptors Conservation”, as well as the report of the Fund of Nature Conservation of Xinjiang (2008) played a significant role in marking such decision. BirdLife International made annually review of the status of bird species on the planet and updated the Red List of IUCN. The review for this year was completed and it can be seen on website BirdLife10. The final 2012 list of Globally threatened species will be included in the Red List for 2012, which will be announced officially by BirdLife and IUCN in May this year. Contact (5).

 2012 ã. ñòàðòóåò ïðîãðàììà ïî öâåòíîìó ìå÷åíèþ õèùíûõ ïòèö, ðåàëèçóåìàÿ Ðîññèéñêîé ñåòüþ èçó÷åíèÿ è îõðàíû ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Ñ ýòîé öåëüþ â êîìïàíèè INTERREX11 (Ïîëüøà) ñîòðóäíèêàìè Ñåòè çàêàçàíû 760 öâåòíûõ êîëåö èç ïëàñòèêà 4-õ ðàçìåðîâ äëÿ ðàçíûõ âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö.  2012 ã. ïðîãðàììà áóäåò ðåàëèçîâàíà â 2-õ ðåãèîíàõ Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè (Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì è Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíàõ), à òàêæå íà òåððèòîðèè Çàïàäíîãî Êàçàõñòàíà. Äëÿ ýòèõ ðåãèîíîâ áûëè âûáðàíû ñëåäóþùèå öâåòîâûå ðåøåíèÿ êîëåö: áåëî-îðàíæåâàÿ êîìáèíàöèÿ – äëÿ Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà, áåëî-çåë¸íàÿ – äëÿ Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîãî, ÷¸ðíî-îðàíæåâàÿ –

The programme on colour ringing of birds of prey implemented by the Russian Raptors Research and Conservation Network (RRRCN) starts in 2012. For this purpose, 760 colour plastic rings in four sizes for different raptor species have been ordered by the staff of RRRCN from the INTERREX company (Poland)11. In 2012, the programme will be implemented in two regions of the Russian Federation (the Altai– Sayan and Volga–Ural regions), as well as in western Kazakhstan. The following colours of the rings have been selected for these regions: the combination of white and orange – for the Altai–Sayan region; the combination of white and green – for the Volga– Ural region; and the combination of black

http://www.birdlife.org/globally-threatened-bird-forums/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/2011-2012-Forum-topics-Final-decisions5.xls http://www.colour-rings.eu/


Events

(7) Êîíòàêò: Îðãêîìèòåò êîíôåðåíöèè zarconf2012@gmail.com (7) Contact: Conference Organizing Committee zarconf2012@gmail.com

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

13

äëÿ Çàïàäíîãî Êàçàõñòàíà. Äëÿ ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîãðàììû öâåòîâûå ðåøåíèÿ êîëåö ñîãëàñîâàíû ñ åâðîïåéñêèìè ïðîãðàììàìè öâåòíîãî êîëüöåâàíèÿ, êîòîðûå âåäóòñÿ â ñòðàíàõ Çàïàäíîé Åâðîïû óæå ìíîãî ëåò. Êîëüöà äëÿ Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíà çàêàçàíû íà ñðåäñòâà ïîæåðòâîâàíèé ñïîíñîðîâ è íà ëè÷íûå äåíüãè ÷ëåíîâ Ñåòè.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ïðîäîëæàåòñÿ ðàáîòà ïî ïðèâëå÷åíèþ ñðåäñòâ äëÿ ðåàëèçàöèè ýòîé ïðîãðàììû. Êðîìå òîãî, äîñòèãíóòî ñîãëàøåíèå ñ Åâðîïåéñêîé ïðîãðàììîé ïî öâåòíîìó ìå÷åíèþ ïîäîðëèêîâ (SECR programme) î ïðåäîñòàâëåíèè êîëåö äëÿ ìå÷åíèÿ áîëüøèõ ïîäîðëèêîâ íà òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèè, îïðåäåëåíû 2 öâåòîâûõ ðåøåíèÿ: æ¸ëòûå êîëüöà ñ ÷¸ðíûì êîäîì è ÷¸ðíûå êîëüöà ñ æ¸ëòûì êîäîì. Ïðîãðàììà ïî öâåòíîìó ìå÷åíèþ ðàññ÷èòàíà ãëàâíûì îáðàçîì íà êîëüöåâàíèå ïòåíöîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö. Öâåòíûå êîëüöà, îáîçíà÷àþùèå êîä ðåãèîíà, äîëæíû çàêðåïëÿòüñÿ íà ëåâîé ëàïå ïòèöû, ïðè ýòîì íà ïðàâîé ëàïå ïîêà áóäóò èñïîëüçîâàòüñÿ ñòàíäàðòíûå àëþìèíèåâûå êîëüöà.  ïîñëåäóþùèå ãîäû âìåñòî ñòàíäàðòíîãî êîëüöà ïëàíèðóåòñÿ èñïîëüçîâàòü âòîðîå öâåòíîå êîëüöî – êîä ãîäà. Íà öâåòíîì êîëüöå ìåëêèì øðèôòîì óêàçàí àäðåñ ñàéòà Ñåòè: WWW.RRRCN.RU äëÿ áîëåå óäîáíîãî ïîëó÷åíèÿ èíôîðìàöèè ÷åðåç Èíòåðíåò î âîçâðàòå êîëåö èëè íàáëþäåíèè îêîëüöîâàííûõ ïòèö. Íà ñàéò áóäåò èíòåãðèðîâàíà îí-ëàéí áàçà äàííûõ ïî êîëüöåâàíèþ, â êîòîðóþ ëþáîé æåëàþùèé ñìîæåò âíåñòè íàáëþäåíèÿ îêîëüöîâàííûõ ïòèö è ïîñìîòðåòü ðåãèñòðàöèè îêîëüöîâàííûõ ïòèö, ñäåëàííûå äðóãèìè èññëåäîâàòåëÿìè. Êîíòàêò (6).

and orange – for western Kazakhstan. The colours of the rings used in the programme have been agreed with the European programmes of marking birds with colour rings, which have been conducted in the countries of Western Europe for many years. The rings to be used in Russia and Kazakhstan have been ordered with the financial support of the sponsors and using the personal funds of RRRCN members. Activities aimed at fundraising to implement this programme are still being carried out. Furthermore, an agreement with the European programme on colour ringing of the Spotted Eagles (SECR programme) has been reached. According to it, the rings to mark the Greater Spotted Eagles in Russia are to be provided; two colour schemes have been designed: yellow rings with a black code and black rings with a yellow code. The programme on marking with colour ring was designed generally to ring raptor nestlings. Colour rings corresponding to the code of a region are to be secured to the bird’s left leg; the standard aluminium rings will be used thus far to be secured to the right leg. Another colour ring (the code of the year) is intended to be subsequently used instead of the standard ring. The colour ring shows the address of the RRRCN website (WWW.RRRCN.RU) in small print to make acquisition of the information through the Internet regarding the ring recovers or observations of the ringed birds more convenient. An online bird-ringing database will be integrated to the website, and any person will be able to add his observations of the ringed birds and see the records of the ringed birds made by the other researchers. Contact (6).

Ìåæäóíàðîäíàÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ «Íàçåìíûå ïîçâîíî÷íûå àðèäíûõ ýêîñèñòåì», ïîñâÿù¸ííàÿ ïàìÿòè Í.À. Çàðóäíîãî, ïðîéä¸ò 24–28 îêòÿáðÿ 2012 ã. â íàöèîíàëüíîì óíèâåðñèòåòå Óçáåêèñòàíà, ã. Òàøêåíò, Óçáåêèñòàí. Îðãàíèçàòîðû: Óçáåêèñòàíñêîå çîîëîãè÷åñêîå îáùåñòâî; Ñðåäíåàçèàòñêîå îòäåëåíèå Ìåíçáèðîâñêîãî îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîãî îáùåñòâà; Ãîñáèîêîíòðîëü Ãîñêîìïðèðîäû Ðåñïóáëèêè Óçáåêèñòàí; Àêàäåìèÿ íàóê ÐÓç; Ìèíèñòåðñòâî âûñøåãî è ñðåäíåñïåöèàëüíîãî îáðàçîâàíèÿ ÐÓç, Íàöèîíàëüíûé óíèâåðñèòåò Óçáåêèñòàíà; Ìèíèñòåðñòâî êóëüòóðû è ñïîðòà ÐÓç, Ìóçåé ïðèðîäû Ðåñïóáëèêè Óçáåêèñòàí.

International conference “Terrestrial vertebrates of arid ecosystems” devoted to the memory of N.A. Zarudny will held in the Uzbekistan national university (Tashkent, Uzbekistan) on 24–28 October 2012. Organizers: Uzbekistan Zoological Society; the Central Asian branch of the Menzbier Ornithological Society; Department for the Protection of Wildlife of the State Committee for Nature Protection of the Republic of Uzbekistan; Academy of Science of RUz; Ministry of Higher and Secondary Special Education of RUz, Uzbekistan national university; Ministry of Culture and Sport of RUz, Museum of nature of RUz.


14

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24 Îñíîâíûå íàïðàâëåíèÿ ðàáîòû êîíôåðåíöèè: ● Ïðîáëåìû ôàóíèñòèêè, çîîãåîãðàôèè è ñèñòåìàòèêè íàçåìíûõ ïîçâîíî÷íûõ ïóñòûííûõ ýêîñèñòåì. ● Ñîâðåìåííîå ñîñòîÿíèå ôàóíû ïîçâîíî÷íûõ ïî ýêñïåäèöèîííûì ìàðøðóòàì Í.À. Çàðóäíîãî (Òÿíü-Øàíü, Àðàëüñêîå ìîðå, Òóðêìåíèñòàí (Çàêàñïèé), Èðàí (Ïåðñèÿ), Îðåíáóðãñêèé êðàé, Ïñêîâñêàÿ îáëàñòü, Õàðüêîâñêàÿ è Ïîëòàâñêàÿ îáëàñòè). ● Ñîâðåìåííîå ñîñòîÿíèå òàêñîíîâ ïîçâîíî÷íûõ æèâîòíûõ, îïèñàííûõ èëè íàçâàííûõ â ÷åñòü Í.À. Çàðóäíîãî. ● Ðîëü çîîëîãè÷åñêèõ êîëëåêöèé è ìóçååâ â èçó÷åíèè ôàóíû. ● Èñòîðèÿ è ïåðñïåêòèâû ðàçâèòèÿ òàêñèäåðìèè â ñòðàíàõ Ñðåäíåé Àçèè è ïðèëåæàùèõ ðåãèîíîâ. Ðàáî÷èå ÿçûêè êîíôåðåíöèè: ðóññêèé, óçáåêñêèé è àíãëèéñêèé. Ìàòåðèàëû ïðèíèìàþòñÿ äî 1 ìàÿ 2012 ã. Êîíòàêò (7).

Ñîáûòèÿ Main topics of the conference will be as follows: ● Problems of faunistics zoogeography and taxonomy of terrestrial vertebrates in desert ecosystems; ● Modern conditions of fauna of vertebrates along the field routes of N.A. Zarudny (Tien-Shan, Aral Sea, Turkmenistan (Trans-Caspian region), Iran (Persia), Orenburg kray, Pskov, Kharkov and Poltava districts); ● Modern status of taxa of vertebrates described or named in honor of N.A. Zarudny; ● Role of zoological collections and museums in the study of fauna ● History and prospects of taxidermy in Central Asia and adjacent regions. Languages of the conference are Russian, Uzbek and English. Deadline for submitting of reports and abstracts is 1 May 2012. Contact (7).

ContrabandofFalcons КОНТРАБАНДА СОКОЛОВ

12 13

Òð¸õ ñîêîëîâ-áàëîáàíîâ (Falco cherrug) 26.11.2011 ã. ñíÿëè ñ ðåéñà â ÎÀÝ â êèåâñêîì àýðîïîðòó «Áîðèñïîëü» (Óêðàèíà)12. Ñîêîëû â èñòîù¸ííîì ñîñòîÿíèè áûëè îáíàðóæåíû â áàãàæå ãðàæäàíèíà Óêðàèíû, êîòîðûé ñîáèðàëñÿ ëåòåòü â Äóáàé, ñîîáùàåò ïðåññ-ñëóæáà ìèíèñòåðñòâà ýêîëîãèè è ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ Óêðàèíû. Ñîêîëû íàõîäèëèñü â íååñòåñòâåííîì ñîñòîÿíèè: óñûïëåíû, îáëîæåíû ëüäîì è ïîìåùåíû â ïëàñòèêîâûé êîíòåéíåð.  òîò æå äåíü ïòèöû áûëè äîñòàâëåíû â Êèåâñêèé çîîïàðê, ãäå âåòåðèíàðû êîíñòàòèðîâàëè ïðèçíàêè àíîðåêñèè è èñòîùåíèÿ. Íåèçâåñòíî, êàêîå âðåìÿ ñîêîëû íàõîäèëèñü â îïàñíîì ïóòåøåñòâèè, íî, âåðîÿòíî, æèâîé ãðóç íàïðàâëÿëñÿ â ÎÀÝ èç Ðîññèè. Âî âðåìÿ êàðàíòèíà â òå÷åíèå 30 äíåé è äî ðåøåíèÿ ñóäà ïòèöû ñîäåðæàëèñü â èçîëÿòîðå âåòåðèíàðíîãî ãîñïèòàëÿ.

Three Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug) were confiscated from the flight to the UAE in the Kiev airport “Borispol” (Ukraine) on 26/11/201112. According to the press service of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Ukraine the falcons in a state of exhaustion were found in the luggage of a Ukrainian citizen, who was going to fly to Dubai. The Falcons were in an unnatural condition: euthanized, lined with ice and placed in a plastic container. The same day, the birds were brought to Kyiv Zoo, where veterinarians noted signs of anorexia and malnutrition. It is not known what time the falcons were in such state, but perhaps they were transported to the UAE from Russia. Birds were kept in the isolation ward of veterinary hospital during the quarantine for 30 days and until a court decision.

Ïîãðàíè÷íèêè ïóíêòà ïðîïóñêà «Ìàíàñ-àýðîïîðò» 02.11.2011 ã. ïðåñåêëè ïîïûòêó íåçàêîííîãî âûâîçà áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) èç Êûðãûçñòàíà13.

The border guards of the “Manas airport” have prevented the illegal export of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) from Kyrgyzstan on 2/11/201113.

http://www.ua.rian.ru/incedents/20111027/78902258.html http://svodka.akipress.org/news:101971/


Events

14 15

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

15

Ïðè îôîðìëåíèè ÷àðòåðíîãî ðåéñà «Áèøêåê-Äîõà» ïîãðàíè÷íèêàìè çàäåðæàí ãðàæäàíèí Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè, ó êîòîðîãî ïðè îñìîòðå ëè÷íîãî áàãàæà îáíàðóæåí îäèí óñûïë¸ííûé áàëîáàí. Ïîñëå îôîðìëåíèÿ ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ äîêóìåíòîâ çàäåðæàííûé ïåðåäàí ñîòðóäíèêàì ÃÊÍÁ ÊÐ. Ïîñëå îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëà ñïåöèàëèñòàìè ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåãî çàâåäåíèÿ, âûÿñíèëîñü, ÷òî ïòèöà íàõîäèòñÿ â îòëè÷íîì ñîñòîÿíèè è ãîòîâà ê æèçíè â ïðèðîäå. Áàëîáàíà âûïóñòÿò íà âîëþ â áëèæàéøåå âðåìÿ.

When making a charter flight “BishkekDoha” the border guards arrested a citizen of the Russian Federation, which during the inspection of his baggage was found a Saker euthanized. After registration of the relevant documents the detainee was handed over to officers of the State Committee of National Security of RK. Examination by experts from the special organization revealed this bird is in perfect condition and ready for life in the wild. Sakers will be released in the near future.

Òàìîæåííàÿ ñëóæáà àýðîïîðòà ã. Àëìàòû (Êàçàõñòàí) 30.11.2011 ã. èçúÿëà 11 ñîêîëîâ áàëîáàíîâ (Falco cherrug) ó æèòåëÿ Êàçàõñòàíà ïðè âûëåòå â Àðàáñêèå Ýìèðàòû14. Ïðè òàìîæåííîì êîíòðîëå ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî àâèàðåéñà ¹254 ïî ìàðøðóòó «Àëìàòû-Øàðäæà» áûë çàäåðæàí 40ëåòíèé êàçàõñòàíåö, êîòîðûé ïûòàëñÿ âûâåçòè ñ òåððèòîðèè ðåñïóáëèêè 11 áàëîáàíîâ. Ïî äàííîìó ôàêòó âîçáóæäåíî óãîëîâíîå äåëî ïî ñò. 209 ÷.1 Óãîëîâíîãî êîäåêñà ÐÊ. Èçúÿòûå ñîêîëû âûïóùåíû íà ñâîáîäó 07.12.2011 ã. íà òåððèòîðèè Àëìàòèíñêîé îáëàñòè – â äîëèíå ð. Èëè, çàïàäíåå âïàäèíû ðåêè Êóðòû, ãäå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíà äàííàÿ ïîïóëÿöèÿ. Îðãàíèçàòîð àêöèè – äåïàðòàìåíò òàìîæåííîãî êîíòðîëÿ ïî ã. Àëìàòû.

Customs Service of the airport in Almaty (Kazakhstan) confiscated 11 Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug) from a resident of Kazakhstan at the departure of the UAE on 11/30/201114. When the customs control of the international flight 254 “Almaty-Sharjah” exercising a 40-year-old citizen of Kazakhstan, who tried to take 11 Sakers off from the territory of the Republic, was arrested. Criminal proceedings were instituted under article 209 Part 1 of the Criminal Code of RK. Confiscated falcons were released in the wild in the territory of the Almaty district – in the Ile river valley, to the west of the Kurta river basin, where this population lives, on 12/07/2011. The Department of Customs Control of Almaty organized the releasing.

×åòûðå êðå÷åòà (Falco rusticolus) áûëè îáíàðóæåíû 15.12.2011 ã. â àýðîïîðòó ã. Ïåòðîïàâëîâñê-Êàì÷àòñêèé15. Ñîòðóäíèêàìè Êàì÷àòñêîãî ËÎ ÌÂÄ Ðîññèè íà òðàíñïîðòå ïðè äîñìîòðå áàãàæíûõ êîíòåéíåðîâ â ïàâèëüîíå âûäà÷è áàãàæà áûëà íàéäåíà ñóìêà, â êîòîðîé íàõîäèëèñü ÷åòûðå êðå÷åòà.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ïî ôàêòó îáíàðóæåíèÿ êîíòðàáàíäíîãî ãðóçà ïðîâîäèòñÿ ïðîâåðêà, óñòàíàâëèâàþòñÿ îòïðàâèòåëè è ïîëó÷àòåëè «æèâîãî ãðóçà». Ïòèöû èçúÿòû è ïåðåäàíû ñïåöèàëèñòó Ðîñîõîòíàäçîðà Àãåíñòâà ëåñíîãî õîçÿéñòâà è îõðàíû æèâîòíîãî ìèðà Êàì÷àòñêîãî êðàÿ äëÿ äàëüíåéøåãî âûïóñêà èõ â åñòåñòâåííóþ ñðåäó îáèòàíèÿ.

Four Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) were found at the airport of PetropavlovskKamchatsky (Russia) on 15/12/201115. The officers of Kamchatka of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia on transport found a black sport bag with four Gyrs when examining the baggage containers in the hall of baggage. Live birds were were cynically packaged and disguised as luggage, if they were not alive. Now the investigation is being carried out, senders and recipients of the “living cargo” are being ascertained. The birds were confiscated and handed to a specialist of the Agency for Forestry and Wildlife Protection of the Kamchatka Kray for releasing in the wild.

http://kzinform.com/ru/news/20111208/05789.html http://www.dvuvdt.ru/node/1136


16

16 17

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ñîáûòèÿ

Ïîëèöèÿ è ÔÑÁ 26.12.2011 ã. èçúÿëè â ã. Àíàäûðü (×óêîòêà, Ðîññèÿ) ÷åòûð¸õ êðå÷åòîâ (Falco rusticolus), ïîäãîòîâëåííûõ ê îòïðàâêå â äðóãîé ðåãèîí16. Ïî ñîîáùåíèþ ïðåññ-ñëóæáû ÓÌÂÄ Ðîññèè ïî ×óêîòñêîìó ÀÎ ÷åòûðå êðå÷åòà – òðè ñàìêè è îäèí ñàìåö – áûëè îáíàðóæåíû â ãàðàæå îäíîãî èç æèòåëåé ñòîëèöû ×óêîòêè âî âðåìÿ ñîâìåñòíî ïðîâåä¸ííîé îïåðàòèâíèêàìè ïîëèöèè Àíàäûðÿ è îðãàíîâ ãîñáåçîïàñíîñòè îïåðàöèè. Âûçâàííûé ñðàçó æå ïîñëå ýòîãî îðíèòîëîã äàë çàêëþ÷åíèå, ÷òî æèçíè ðåäêèõ ïòèö íè÷åãî íå óãðîæàåò. «Áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî, ÷òî ïåðíàòûõ âûëîâèëè íåïîäàëåêó îò Àíàäûðÿ, â ðàéîíå ñîïêè Äèîíèñèÿ.  ñâÿçè ñ òåì, ÷òî ñ ìîìåíòà èõ ïëåíåíèÿ ïðîøëî íå òàê ìíîãî âðåìåíè è ñîñòîÿíèå ïòèö òðåâîãè íå âûçûâàåò, â áëèæàéøåå âðåìÿ îíè áóäóò îòïóùåíû íà âîëþ», – ñîîáùèëè â ïðåññ-ñëóæáå ÓÌÂÄ. Ðåøàåòñÿ âîïðîñ î âîçáóæäåíèè óãîëîâíîãî äåëà â îòíîøåíèè ëèö, ïðåäïîëîæèòåëüíî ó÷àñòâîâàâøèõ â îòëîâå è ïîäãîòîâêå ê îòïðàâêå êðå÷åòîâ çà ïðåäåëû îêðóãà.

In Anadyr (Chukotka, Russia) the officers of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and FSS detained four Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), prepared to ship to another region on 26/12/201116. According to the press service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia on the Chukotka Autonomous Region four Gyrfalcons – three female and one male – were found in a garage of a citizen of Chukotka during a joint operation by FSS and police. An ornithologist, having been called immediately, concluded that the life of rare birds was in no danger. “It was found that the birds were caught near Anadyr, in the hill of Dionysius. Due to the fact that there little time has passed since the birds were caught and condition of the birds does not cause anxiety they will be released in the wild in the near future”, – said the press service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The question about instituting the criminal proceedings against the persons conceivably engaged in illegal catching of Gyrs and preparation for its removal from Chukotka is solving.

 Ìîñêîâñêîé îáëàñòè 05.03.2012 ã. íàïðàâëåíû â ñóä óãîëîâíûå äåëà â îòíîøåíèè áûâøèõ ñîòðóäíèêîâ ìèëèöèè, îáâèíÿåìûõ â çëîóïîòðåáëåíèè äîëæíîñòíûìè ïîëíîìî÷èÿìè ïðè êîíòðàáàíäíîì ïðîâîçå ïòèö, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ17. Ìîñêîâñêèì ìåæðåãèîíàëüíûì ñëåäñòâåííûì óïðàâëåíèåì íà òðàíñïîðòå Ñëåäñòâåííîãî êîìèòåòà ÐÔ ïî ôàêòàì êîíòðàáàíäû æèâûõ êðå÷åòîâ çàâåðøåíî ðàññëåäîâàíèå äâóõ óãîëîâíûõ äåë. Ïåðâîå óãîëîâíîå äåëî çàâåðøåíî â îòíîøåíèè òð¸õ áûâøèõ èíñïåêòîðîâ îòäåëà ïî äîñìîòðó ËÓÂÄ â àýðîïîðòó Äîìîäåäîâî: 38-ëåòíåãî Àëåêñàíäðà Êóñòîâà, 29ëåòíåãî Äìèòðèÿ Ãîðîäåíêà è 34-ëåòíåãî Àëåêñåÿ Êóðîõòèíà.  çàâèñèìîñòè îò ðîëè êàæäîãî, îíè îáâèíÿþòñÿ â ñîâåðøåíèè ïðåñòóïëåíèé, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûõ ÷. 1 ñò. 285 ÓÊ ÐÔ (çëîóïîòðåáëåíèå äîëæíîñòíûìè ïîëíîìî÷èÿìè) è ÷. 4. ñò. 33 ÓÊ ÐÔ (ïîäñòðåêàòåëüñòâî ê çëîóïîòðåáëåíèþ äîëæíîñòíûìè ïîëíîìî÷èÿìè). Âòîðîå óãîëîâíîå äåëî çàâåðøåíî â îòíîøåíèè 42-ëåòíåãî áûâøåãî ñëåäîâàòåëÿ ÑÎ ïðè ËÓÂÄ Äîìîäåäîâî Ìèõàèëà Ëàóâà è 38-ëåòíåãî áûâøåãî ñîòðóäíèêà ËÓÂÄ â

Criminal cases against former police officers who were accused of abuse their authority for the smuggling of birds, listed in the Red Data Book of RF, were brought before the court in the Moscow district on 05/03/201217. Moscow interregional transport investigation department of the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation on the facts of smuggling of live Gyrfalcons completed an investigation of two criminal cases. The first criminal case was against the three former officers of MIA at the Domodedovo Airport: Alexander Kustov, Dmitry Gorodenok and Alexei Kurokhtin. They are accused of committing crimes under the Criminal Code. The second criminal case was against n the former investigator at Domodedovo Michael Lauva and former officer of MIA at Sheremetyevo Airport Gregory Sabodash. They are also accused of committing crimes under the Criminal Code of RF. According to the investigation, in the early 2010, A. Kustov decided to purchase Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) in the territory of Russia for the purpose of selling them to the Middle East. To realize his intention, he drew his colleagues into it for money. Then,

http://eco.ria.ru/danger/20111226/526704457.html http://sledcom.ru/news/88227.html


Events

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24 àýðîïîðòó Øåðåìåòüåâî Ãðèãîðèÿ Ñàáîäàøà. Îíè òàêæå â çàâèñèìîñòè îò ðîëè êàæäîãî îáâèíÿþòñÿ â ñîâåðøåíèè ïðåñòóïëåíèé, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûõ ÷. 1 ñò. 285 ÓÊ ÐÔ (çëîóïîòðåáëåíèå äîëæíîñòíûìè ïîëíîìî÷èÿìè) è ÷. 4. ñò. 33 ÓÊ ÐÔ (ïîäñòðåêàòåëüñòâî ê çëîóïîòðåáëåíèþ äîëæíîñòíûìè ïîëíîìî÷èÿìè). Ïî âåðñèè ñëåäñòâèÿ, â íà÷àëå 2010 ã. À. Êóñòîâ ðåøèë ïðèîáðåñòè íà òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèè êðå÷åòîâ (Falco rusticolus) ñ öåëüþ ïîñëåäóþùåé èõ ïðîäàæè â ñòðàíû Áëèæíåãî Âîñòîêà. Ê ðåàëèçàöèè ñâîåãî óìûñëà îí çà äåíåæíîå âîçíàãðàæäåíèå ïðèâë¸ê ñîñëóæèâöåâ: Ä. Ãîðîäåíêà è À. Êóðîõòèíà. Çàòåì À. Êóñòîâ ÷åðåç ñâîåãî çíàêîìîãî êóïèë ïàðòèþ óêàçàííûõ ïòèö. Âå÷åðîì 4 îêòÿáðÿ 2010 ã. À. Êóðîõòèí è Ä. Ãîðîäåíîê âñòðåòèëè â àýðîïîðòó Äîìîäåäîâî äâóõ äåâóøåê-êóðüåðîâ, ïåðåâîçèâøèõ ðåäêèõ ñîêîëîâ â ÎÀÝ. Îáâèíÿåìûå ïîìîãëè èì çàðåãèñòðèðîâàòüñÿ íà ðåéñ Ìîñêâà-Äóáàé è îôîðìèòü áàãàæ, â êîòîðîì èìåëèñü çàïðåù¸ííûå ê âûâîçó ïòèöû. Âïîñëåäñòâèè, èñïîëüçóÿ ñâîè äîëæíîñòíûå ïîëíîìî÷èÿ, ìèëèöèîíåðû ëè÷íî ïåðåìåñòèëè äàííûé áàãàæ â çîíó ïîãðóçêè â ñàìîë¸ò è äîãîâîðèëèñü ñ ãðóç÷èêàìè î ïðèíÿòèè áàãàæà áåç òàìîæåííîãî äîñìîòðà. Îäíàêî â õîäå îïåðàòèâíî-ðîçûñêíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé ïòèöû áûëè îáíàðóæåíû è èçúÿòû. Ïîäîáíàÿ ïîïûòêà âûâåçòè êðå÷åòîâ â ÎÀÝ áûëà ïðåäïðèíÿòà è ÷åðåç àýðîïîðò Øåðåìåòüåâî. Ñ ýòîé öåëüþ Ì. Ëàóâà ïðåäëîæèë ó÷àñòèå â êîíòðàáàíäå çà âîçíàãðàæäåíèå Ã. Ñàáîäàøó. Ïîñëåäíèé ñîãëàñèëñÿ, è óòðîì 27 íîÿáðÿ 2010 ã. ëè÷íî ïðîí¸ñ ìèìî òàìîæåííîãî äîñìîòðà ÷åòûð¸õ ïòèö è â ñâîáîäíîé çîíå àýðîïîðòà ïåðåäàë èõ êóðüåðó, îæèäàâøåìó ðåéñ â ÎÀÝ. Íî äàííàÿ ïîïûòêà òàêæå áûëà ïðåñå÷åíà îïåðàòèâíûìè ñîòðóäíèêàìè. Ñëåäñòâèåì ñîáðàíà äîñòàòî÷íàÿ äîêàçàòåëüñòâåííàÿ áàçà, â ñâÿçè ñ ÷åì óãîëîâíûå äåëà ñ óòâåðæä¸ííûìè îáâèíèòåëüíûìè çàêëþ÷åíèÿìè íàïðàâëåíû â Äîìîäåäîâñêèé è Õèìêèíñêèé ãîðîäñêèå ñóäû Ìîñêîâñêîé îáëàñòè äëÿ ðàññìîòðåíèÿ ïî ñóùåñòâó.

17

Êðå÷åò (Falco rusticolus), çàäåðæàííûé ñîòðóäíèêàìè òàìîæíè àýðîïîðòà Äîìîäåäîâî. Ôîòî MKRU. Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), confiscated by customs officer of Domodedovo airport. Photo from MKRU.

A. Kustov, through his friend bought the birds. Evening of October 4, 2010, at the airport Domodedovo A. Kurokhtin and D. Gorodenok met with two female couriers with rare specimens of fauna, who were going to the UAE. Defendants had helped them to register on the flight from Moscow to Dubai and arrange luggage with birds, export of which was prohibited. Later, using their official powers, the policemen personally handed this baggage to the loading area on a plane and have agreed with the porters taking luggage without customs inspection. However, the birds were found and confiscated. A similar attempt to take gyrfalcons in the UAE has been made, and through Sheremetyevo Airport. For this purpose, M. Lauva offered G. Sabodash to participate for the money in the smuggling. He consented, and the morning of November 27, 2010 personally carried four birds past the customs inspection and in the free zone of the airport passed to the courier, who was waiting the flight to the UAE. But this attempt was also prevented by officers of police. During the investigation the sufficient evidences were collected, and the criminal cases with the confirmation of the indictment were brought before the Domodedovo and Khimki municipal courts of the Moscow district.


18

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ñîáûòèÿ

UNEP/CMS/Resolution10.11PowerLinesandMigratoryBirds AdoptedbytheConferenceofthePartiesatitsTenthMeeting (Bergen,20–25November2011)

ЮНЕП/ КМВ/РЕЗОЛЮЦИЯ 10.28. ЛИНИИ ЭЛЕКТРОПЕРЕДАЧИ И МИГРИРУЮЩИЕ ВИДЫ Принята Конференцией Сторон на её десятом совещании (Берген, 20–25 ноября 2011 года)

Ññûëàÿñü íà ñòàòüþ III 4(b) Êîíâåíöèè, â êîòîðîé ïðåäëàãàåòñÿ Ñòîðîíàì ÊÌ ñòðåìèòüñÿ, â ÷àñòíîñòè, ê ïðåäóïðåæäåíèþ, óäàëåíèþ, êîìïåíñàöèè èëè ìèíèìèçàöèè, ïðè íåîáõîäèìîñòè, íåãàòèâíûõ ïîñëåäñòâèé äåÿòåëüíîñòè èëè ôàêòîðîâ, êîòîðûå ñåðü¸çíî çàòðóäíÿþò èëè ïðåïÿòñòâóþò ìèãðàöèè âèäîâ; Ïðèçíàâàÿ äàëåå ðåçîëþöèþ 7.4 î ãèáåëè ìèãðèðóþùèõ ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì, êîòîðàÿ ïîîùðÿåò Ñòîðîíû ïðèíèìàòü íàäëåæàùèå ìåðû äëÿ ñîêðàùåíèÿ è ïðåäîòâðàùåíèÿ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è (ËÝÏ) ñðåäíåãî íàïðÿæåíèÿ â ðåçóëüòàòå ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîåêòîâ ïî ñìÿã÷åíèþ ïîñëåäñòâèé ãèáåëè; Ïðèíèìàÿ âî âíèìàíèå, ÷òî ðåçîëþöèÿ 7.4 è «Ïðåäëàãàåìûå ïðàêòè÷åñêèå ðåøåíèÿ ïî çàùèòå ïòèö íà ËÝÏ» (UNEP/CMS/Inf.7.21) äî ñèõ ïîð ïîëíîñòüþ â ñèëå; Ñ óäîâëåòâîðåíèåì îòìå÷àÿ Ðåêîìåíäàöèþ ¹110, êîòîðàÿ áûëà ïðèíÿòà â 2004 ã. Ïîñòîÿííûì êîìèòåòîì Êîíâåíöèè î ñîõðàíåíèè åâðîïåéñêîé äèêîé ïðèðîäû è åñòåñòâåííîé ñðåäû îáèòàíèÿ (Áåðíñêàÿ êîíâåíöèÿ) ïî ìèíèìèçàöèè íåãàòèâíûõ ïîñëåäñòâèé âëèÿíèÿ âîçäóøíûõ ËÝÏ íà ïòèö; Ïðèâåòñòâóÿ äîêëàäû ïðàâèòåëüñòâ ñòðàí î âûïîëíåíèè Ðåêîìåíäàöèè ¹110/2004 (T-PVS/Files (2010) 11), ïðåäñòàâëåííûå íà 30-ì çàñåäàíèè Ïîñòîÿííîãî êîìèòåòà Áåðíñêîé êîíâåíöèè, è îïèñàíèÿ ãëàâíûõ ìåð, ïðèíÿòûõ Ñòîðîíàìè äëÿ óìåíüøåíèÿ îòðèöàòåëüíîãî âîçäåéñòâèÿ ËÝÏ; Ïðèâåòñòâóÿ äàëåå «Çàÿâëåíèå î ïîçèöèè ïî ïðîáëåìå Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ: ðèñêè äëÿ ïòèö îò ËÝÏ è êàê ñâåñòè ê ìèíèìóìó ýòè íåãàòèâíûå ïîñëåäñòâèÿ», ïðèíÿòîå â 2007 ã. BirdLife International è Ðàáî÷åé ãðóïïîé ïî Äèðåêòèâàì î ïòèöàõ è ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿõ, ïðèçûâàþùåå ðåàëèçîâûâàòü ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèå òåõíè÷åñêèå ðåøåíèÿ äëÿ óìåíüøåíèÿ ïîáî÷íûõ ýôôåêòîâ âëèÿíèÿ ËÝÏ íà ïòèö; Ïîä÷åðêèâàÿ íåîáõîäèìîñòü ñáîðà äàííûõ î ðàñïðåäåëåíèè ïòèö, ÷èñëåííîñòè ïîïóëÿöèé è èõ ïåðåìåùåíèÿõ, êàê íåîòúåìëåìîé ÷àñòè îöåíêè âîçäåéñòâèÿ íà îêðóæàþùóþ ñðåäó (ÎÂÎÑ), äî è/èëè íà ýòàïå ïëàíèðîâàíèÿ ýëåêòðîñåòåé, à òàêæå íåîáõîäèìîñòü ðåãóëÿðíîãî ìîíèòîðèíãà ñìåðòíîñòè îò ýëåêòðè÷åñêîãî òîêà è ñòîëêíîâåíèé ïòèö ñ ñóùåñòâóþùèìè ËÝÏ; Ïðèâåòñòâóÿ «Áóäàïåøòñêóþ äåêëàðàöèþ ïî îõðàíå ïòèö è ËÝÏ», ïðèíÿòóþ 13 àïðåëÿ 2011 ã. íà êîíôåðåíöèè «Ëèíèè ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è è ñìåðòíîñòü ïòèö

Recalling Article III 4(b) of the Convention which requests Parties to endeavour, inter alia, to prevent, remove, compensate for or minimize, as appropriate, the adverse effects of activities or obstacles that seriously impede or prevent the migration of species; Further recalling Resolution 7.4 on the electrocution of migratory birds, which encourages Parties to take appropriate measures to reduce and avoid the electrocution of migratory birds from medium voltage transmission lines by implementing a number of mitigation measures; Noting that Resolution 7.4 and the “Suggested Practices for Bird Protection on Power Lines” (UNEP/CMS/ Inf.7.21) are still fully valid; Noting with satisfaction Recommendation ¹110, which was adopted in 2004 by the Standing Committee of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention) on minimizing adverse effects of above-ground electricity transmission facilities (power lines) on birds; Welcoming the Report by the Governments on the implementation of Recommendation ¹110/2004 (TPVS/Files (2010) 11), as presented to the 30th meeting of the Standing Committee of the Bern Convention and describing valuable measures taken by Parties to reduce the adverse effects of power lines; Further welcoming the “Position Statement on Birds and Power Lines: On the risks to birds from electricity transmission facilities and how to minimise any such adverse effects”, adopted in 2007 by the BirdLife International Birds and Habitats Directives Task Force, calling for appropriate technical measures to reduce the adverse effects of power lines; Highlighting the need to collect data on bird distribution, population size and movements as an essential part of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), prior to and/or during the planning phase of a power line, and the need to monitor regularly the mortality caused by electrocution and collision with existing power lines; Welcoming the “Budapest Declaration on bird protection and power lines”, as adopted on 13 April 2011 by the Conference on “Power lines and bird mortality in Europe” which calls for, inter alia, an international programme consisting of groups of national experts on bird safety and power lines, wider dissemination of


Events â Åâðîïå», êîòîðàÿ ïðåäóñìàòðèâàåò, â ÷àñòíîñòè, ìåæäóíàðîäíóþ ïðîãðàììó, ðåàëèçóåìóþ ãðóïïàìè íàöèîíàëüíûõ ýêñïåðòîâ ïî áîðüáå çà áåçîïàñíîñòü ïòèö îò ËÝÏ, áîëåå øèðîêîå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå çíàíèé è óëó÷øåíèå ïðîåêòèðîâàíèÿ ËÝÏ íà îñíîâàíèè äàííûõ î ðàñïðåäåëåíèè ïòèö; Ññûëàÿñü íà «Ðóêîâîäñòâî î òîì, êàê èçáåæàòü, ìèíèìèçèðîâàòü èëè ñìÿã÷èòü âîçäåéñòâèå ðàçâèòèÿ èíôðàñòðóêòóðû è ñâÿçàííûõ ñ íåé íàðóøåíèé, âëèÿþùèõ íà ïòèö» (Ñîõðàíåíèå Ïðàâèëà ¹11), ïîäãîòîâëåííîå Àôðî-Åâðàçèéñêèì Ñîãëàøåíèåì ïî ìèãðèðóþùèì âîäíî-áîëîòíûì ïòèöàì, êîòîðîå ñîäåðæèò ðÿä ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ ðåêîìåíäàöèé; Ïðèçíàâàÿ âàæíîñòü äëÿ îáùåñòâà áåñïåðåáîéíûõ ïîñòàâîê ýíåðãèè è ýëåêòðè÷åñêîãî òîêà, â ÷àñòíîñòè, êîãäà çàìûêàíèÿ, âûçâàííûå ïòèöàìè, ïðèâîäÿò ê ïðîñòîÿì è íàðóøåíèÿì â ïîäà÷å ýíåðãèè, è, ñëåäîâàòåëüíî, óäà÷íîå ðàñïîëîæåíèå ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è è çàùèòíûå ìåðû, ïðèìåíÿåìûå íà íèõ, îáåñïå÷àò áåñïðîèãðûøíóþ ñèòóàöèþ è äëÿ ïòèö, è äëÿ ñòàáèëüíîãî îáåñïå÷åíèÿ ýëåêòðîýíåðãèåé; Îòìå÷àÿ «Îáçîð êîíôëèêòîâ ìåæäó ïåðåë¸òíûìè ïòèöàìè è ñåòÿìè ýëåêòðîñíàáæåíèÿ â ÀôðîÅâðàçèéñêîì ðåãèîíå» (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.29), à òàêæå áóäó÷è îáåñïîêîåííûìè òåì, ÷òî â ðàìêàõ Àôðî-Åâðàçèéñêîãî ðåãèîíà äåñÿòêè ìèëëèîíîâ ïåðåë¸òíûõ ïòèö ïîãèáàþò åæåãîäíî â ðåçóëüòàòå ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì è ñòîëêíîâåíèé, â òîì ÷èñëå àèñòû, æóðàâëè, ìíîãèå äðóãèå âèäû âîäîïëàâàþùèõ ïòèö, õèùíûõ ïòèö, äðîôû è êóðèíûå; Îòìå÷àÿ, ÷òî ìíîãèå ïòèöû, ïîãèáàþùèå îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì è/èëè ñòîëêíîâåíèé, ÿâëÿþòñÿ îõðàíÿåìûìè íà ìåæäóíàðîäíîì óðîâíå, â òîì ÷èñëå íàõîäÿùèåñÿ ïîä çàùèòîé ÊÂÌ è ñîãëàøåíèé ïî Àôðî-Åâðàçèéñêèì ìèãðèðóþùèì âîäíîáîëîòíûì ïòèöàì, Áëèæíåâîñòî÷íîé äðîôå è ÀôðîÅâðàçèéñêèì õèùíûì ïòèöàì; Îáåñïîêîåííûå òåì, ÷òî ñðî÷íî íåîáõîäèìû äàëüíåéøèå èññëåäîâàíèÿ è ìîíèòîðèíã ïðîáëåìû ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, ÷òî î÷åíü ìàëî èññëåäîâàíèé, êîòîðûå â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ äîñòàòî÷íî õîðîøî âåäóòñÿ è ìîãóò áûòü ó÷òåíû â ðóêîâîäÿùåé ïîëèòèêå, è ÷òî ñóùåñòâóåò ñåðü¸çíûé ãåîãðàôè÷åñêèé ïåðåêîñ â èññëåäîâàíèÿõ, êîòîðûé äîëæåí áûòü èñïðàâëåí; Ïðèçíàâàÿ âûâîäû è ðåêîìåíäàöèè îòíîñèòåëüíî ïðîáëåìû ñóùåñòâîâàíèÿ ïòèö è ËÝÏ, ïðåäñòàâëåííûå â äîêóìåíòå UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.29, â êîòîðîì, â ÷àñòíîñòè, ïîä÷¸ðêèâàåòñÿ, ÷òî ÷èñëî ãèáíóùèõ ïòèö ìîæåò áûòü ñóùåñòâåííî óìåíüøåíî, åñëè ïðè ïëàíèðîâàíèè è ñòðîèòåëüñòâå ËÝÏ áóäóò ïðèìåíÿòüñÿ ìåðû ïî ñìÿã÷åíèþ ïîñëåäñòâèé; Ïðèâåòñòâóÿ «Ðóêîâîäñòâî î òîì, êàê èçáåæàòü èëè ñìÿã÷èòü ïîñëåäñòâèÿ âëèÿíèÿ ñåòåé ýëåêòðîñíàáæåíèÿ íà ïåðåë¸òíûõ ïòèö â Àôðî-Åâðàçèéñêîì ðåãèîíå» (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.30), êîòîðîå ñîäåðæèò øèðîêîå ïðàêòè÷åñêîå ðóêîâîäñòâî, â ÷àñòíîñòè, ìåðû ïî ñìÿã÷åíèþ ïîñëåäñòâèé, ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé è ìîíèòîðèíãà ïòèö, à òàêæå òåõíè÷åñêèå ïðîåêòû ËÝÏ; Ïðèçíàâàÿ, ÷òî ðÿä ãîñóäàðñòâ àðåàëà óæå ïðèìå-

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

19

knowledge, and improved planning of power lines in relation to bird distribution data; Recalling the African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbird Agreement’s “Guidelines on how to avoid, minimize or mitigate impact of infrastructural developments and related disturbance affecting waterbirds” (Conservation Guidelines No. 11), which contain a number of relevant recommendations; Recognizing the importance for society of maintaining a stable energy supply and that electrocutions, in particular, sometimes cause outages or disruption and thus that appropriate location of power lines and mitigation measures applied to power lines provide a winwin situation for birds and stability of power provision; Noting the “Review of the conflict between migratory birds and electricity power grids in the African-Eurasian region” (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.29), and concerned that within the African-Eurasian region tens of millions of migratory birds are killed annually as a result of electrocution and collision, including storks, cranes, many other waterbird species, birds of prey, bustards and grouse; Noting that many of the birds killed by electrocution and/or collision are internationally protected, including under CMS and the CMS instruments on AfricanEurasian Migratory Waterbirds, Middle-European Great Bustard and African-Eurasian Birds of Prey; Concerned that further research and monitoring on birds and power lines are urgently required, that only few studies are currently available that are sufficiently well-designed to assist in guiding policy, and that there is a serious geographical bias in research that needs to be addressed; Recognizing the conclusions and recommendations concerning birds and power lines presented in document UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.29 which, inter alia, highlight that the number of birds killed can be substantially reduced if mitigation measures are applied during the planning and construction of power lines; Welcoming the “Guidelines on how to avoid or mitigate the impact of electricity power grids on migratory birds in the African-Eurasian region” (UNEP/CMS/ Conf.10.30), which provide extensive practical guidance on, inter alia, mitigation measures, bird surveys and monitoring and the technical design of power lines; Acknowledging that a number of Range States are already applying mitigation measures, for example, during planning of the location and route of new power lines; Noting with satisfaction that funding has been made available, inter alia, through the EU/LIFE programme, to take immediate measures to protect a number of rare species, including the Great Bustard (Otis tarda) and Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), from electrocution and collision; Noting with satisfaction also the UNDP/GEF ‘Migratory Soaring Birds Project’, which is being implemented by BirdLife International, and which aims to ensure


20

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

íÿåò ìåðû ïî ñìÿã÷åíèþ ïîñëåäñòâèé, íàïðèìåð, ïðè ïëàíèðîâàíèè ìàðøðóòîâ ïðîõîæäåíèÿ íîâûõ ËÝÏ; Ñ óäîâëåòâîðåíèåì îòìå÷àÿ, ÷òî áûëî âûäåëåíî ôèíàíñèðîâàíèå, â ÷àñòíîñòè, ÷åðåç ïðîãðàììû ÅÑ/ LIFE, è ïðèíÿòû íåçàìåäëèòåëüíûå ìåðû äëÿ çàùèòû ðÿäà ðåäêèõ âèäîâ, â òîì ÷èñëå äðîôû (Otis tarda) è îðëà-ìîãèëüíèêà (Aquila heliaca), è äëÿ ñíèæåíèÿ óðîâíÿ ãèáåëè ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì è ñòîëêíîâåíèé ñ ïðîâîäàìè; Ñ óäîâëåòâîðåíèåì îòìå÷àÿ òàêæå ïðîåêò ÏÐÎÎÍ/ ÃÝÔ «Ìèãðèðóþùèå ïàðÿùèå ïòèöû», êîòîðûé ðåàëèçóåòñÿ BirdLife International, íàïðàâëåííûé íà ñîõðàíåíèå ìèãðèðóþùèõ ïòèö-ïàðèòåëåé, íàöåëåííûé íà ïðîìûøëåííîñòü, âêëþ÷àÿ ýíåðãåòè÷åñêèé ñåêòîð, íà áåðåãó Êðàñíîãî ìîðÿ íà ïðîë¸òíîì ïóòè Ðèôò-Âàëëè, è ÷òî ýòîò ïðîåêò èìååò öåëüþ ñîäåéñòâèå îñóùåñòâëåíèþ íàñòîÿùåé ðåçîëþöèè è âûøåóïîìÿíóòûõ ðóêîâîäÿùèõ ïðèíöèïîâ íà íàöèîíàëüíîì è ìåñòíîì óðîâíÿõ; Îòìå÷àÿ ñ áëàãîäàðíîñòüþ ùåäðóþ ôèíàíñîâóþ ïîääåðæêó êîìïàíèè ÐÂÅ Ðåéí-Ðóõ Ãàìáóðã Íåòñåðâèñ (RWE Rhein-Ruhr GmbH Netzservice) â ðàçðàáîòêå è ïðîèçâîäñòâå âûøåóïîìÿíóòîãî îáçîðà è ðóêîâîäÿùèõ äîêóìåíòîâ (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.29 è UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.30) è Ñ óäîâëåòâîðåíèåì îòìå÷àÿ äèñêóññèè íà 17-ì çàñåäàíèè Ó÷¸íîãî ñîâåòà è çàñåäàíèè òåõíè÷åñêîãî êîìèòåòà AEWA íà ñâî¸ì 10-ì çàñåäàíèè ïî ïðîåêòàì âûøåóïîìÿíóòîãî îáçîðà è ðóêîâîäÿùèõ äîêóìåíòîâ ïî ïðîáëåìå «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ», è îñîçíàâàÿ óêàçàíèÿ ýòèõ ôîðóìîâ, êîòîðûå áûëè âêëþ÷åíû â îáîèõ äîêóìåíòàõ; Êîíôåðåíöèÿ Ñòîðîí Êîíâåíöèè î ñîõðàíåíèè ìèãðèðóþùèõ âèäîâ äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ: 1. Ïðèâåòñòâóåò «Ðóêîâîäñòâî î òîì, êàê èçáåæàòü èëè ñìÿã÷èòü ïîñëåäñòâèÿ ñåòåé ýëåêòðîñíàáæåíèÿ íà ïåðåë¸òíûõ ïòèö â Àôðî-Åâðàçèéñêîì ðåãèîíå» (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.30); 2. Íàñòîÿòåëüíî ïðèçûâàåò Ñòîðîíû è ïðèçûâàåò ñòðàíû, íå ÿâëÿþùèåñÿ Ñòîðîíàìè ÊÂÌ, ê ïðèìåíåíèþ ýòèõ ðóêîâîäÿùèõ ïðèíöèïîâ â çàâèñèìîñòè îò îáñòîÿòåëüñòâ, à òàêæå: 2.1 ïðèìåíÿòü â Àôðî-Åâðàçèéñêîì ðåãèîíå, íàñêîëüêî ýòî âîçìîæíî, è â ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ ñëó÷àÿõ â äðóãèõ ñòðàíàõ, Ñòðàòåãèþ ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ ïðàâèë AEWA ¹11 ïî ñòðàòåãè÷åñêîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé îöåíêå (ÑÝÎ) è îöåíêå âîçäåéñòâèÿ íà îêðóæàþùóþ ñðåäó (ÎÂÎÑ) ïðîöåäóð, ñâÿçàííûõ ñ ðàçâèòèåì ËÝÏ; 2.2 êîíñóëüòèðîâàòü íà ðåãóëÿðíîé îñíîâå çàèíòåðåñîâàííûå ñòîðîíû, âêëþ÷àÿ ïðàâèòåëüñòâåííûå ó÷ðåæäåíèÿ, íàó÷íûå îðãàíèçàöèè, ÍÃÎ è îðãàíèçàöèè ýíåðãåòè÷åñêîãî ñåêòîðà, â öåëÿõ ñîâìåñòíîãî êîíòðîëÿ çà âîçäåéñòâèåì ËÝÏ íà ïòèö è äîãîâîðèòüñÿ î ñîâìåñòíûõ äåéñòâèÿõ; 2.3 âûÿâëÿòü îñíîâíîå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå ïòèö, ÷èñëåííîñòü ïîïóëÿöèé, ìèãðàöèè è ïåðåìåùåíèÿ, â òîì ÷èñëå ìåæäó ìåñòàìè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ, îòäûõà è êîðìëåíèÿ, êàê ìîæíî ðàíüøå ïðè ïëàíèðîâàíèè ëþáîãî ïðîåêòà ËÝÏ, â òå÷åíèå íå ìåíåå îäíîãî ãîäà, è ñ îñîáûì àêöåíòîì íà òå âèäû, ïðî êîòîðûõ èçâåñòíî, ÷òî îíè óÿçâèìû ê ïîðàæåíèþ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì èëè ñòîëêíîâåíèþ ñ ïðîâîäàìè, ïðîâîäèòü öåëåâûå èññëåäîâà-

Ñîáûòèÿ that the conservation needs of migratory soaring birds are addressed by industry, including the energy sector, along the Red Sea/Rift Valley Flyway, and the potential this project has to promote the implementation of this resolution and the above-mentioned guidelines at national and local levels; Acknowledging with thanks the generous financial support provided by RWE Rhein-Ruhr Netzservice GmbH towards the development and production of the above-mentioned review and guideline documents (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.29 and UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.30); and Noting with satisfaction the discussions at the 17th Meeting of the Scientific Council and those during the AEWA Technical Committee at its 10th meeting on the drafts of the above-mentioned review and guideline documents on power lines and birds, and aware of the guidance provided by these fora, which has been incorporated into both documents; The Conference of the Parties to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals 1. Welcomes the “Guidelines on how to avoid or mitigate the impact of electricity power grids on migratory birds in the African-Eurasian region” (UNEP/CMS/ Conf.10.30); 2. Urges Parties and encourages non-Parties to implement these Guidelines as applicable and to: 2.1 apply, in the African-Eurasian region as far as possible, and as applicable elsewhere, AEWA Conservation Guidelines No. 11 on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) procedures regarding the development of power lines; 2.2 consult regularly relevant stakeholders, including government agencies, scientific bodies, non-governmental organizations and the energy sector, in order to monitor jointly the impacts of power lines on birds and to agree on a common policy of action; 2.3 establish a baseline of bird distribution, population sizes, migrations and movements, including those between breeding, resting and feeding areas, as early as possible in the planning of any power line project, over a period of at least one year, and with particular emphasis on those species known to be vulnerable to electrocution or collision and if such studies identify any risks, to make every effort to ensure these are avoided; 2.4 design the location, route and direction of power lines on the basis of national zoning maps and avoid, wherever possible, construction along major migration flyways and in habitats of conservation importance, such as Important Bird Areas, protected areas, Ramsar sites, the East Asian-Australasian Flyway Site Network, the West/Central Asian Site Network for Siberian Crane and other waterbirds and other critical sites as identified by the Critical Site Network (CSN) Tool for the African-Eurasian region; 2.5 identify those sections of existing power lines


Events íèÿ, è åñëè òàêèå èññëåäîâàíèÿ âûÿâëÿþò ëþáûå ðèñêè äëÿ ïòèö, ñäåëàòü âñ¸ âîçìîæíîå, ÷òîáû èõ èçáåæàòü; 2.4 ðàçðàáàòûâàòü ìåñòîïîëîæåíèå, ìàðøðóòû è íàïðàâëåíèå ËÝÏ íà îñíîâå íàöèîíàëüíûõ êàðò çîíèðîâàíèÿ, èçáåãàòü, ïî âîçìîæíîñòè, ñòðîèòåëüñòâà ËÝÏ âäîëü îñíîâíûõ ïóòåé ìèãðàöèè è â ìåñòàõ îáèòàíèÿ, èìåþùèõ ïðèðîäîîõðàííîå çíà÷åíèå, íàïðèìåð, êëþ÷åâûõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ òåððèòîðèÿõ, îõðàíÿåìûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ, Ðàìñàðñêèõ óãîäüÿõ, ó÷àñòêàõ ñåòè Âîñòî÷íîãî – Àçèàòñêî-Àâñòðàëèéñêîãî è Çàïàäíîãî – Öåíòðàëüíî-Àçèàòñêîãî ïðîë¸òíûõ ïóòåé äëÿ ñòåðõà (Grus leucogeranus) è äðóãèõ îêîëîâîäíûõ ïòèö, äðóãèõ êðèòè÷åñêè âàæíûõ ó÷àñòêàõ, îïðåäåë¸ííûõ Ðóêîâîäñòâîì Ñåòè êðèòè÷åñêèõ ìåñò (Critical Site Network – CSN) äëÿ Àôðî-Åâðàçèéñêîãî ðåãèîíà; 2.5 âûÿâëÿòü òå ó÷àñòêè ñóùåñòâóþùèõ ËÝÏ, êîòîðûå ÿâëÿþòñÿ ïðè÷èíîé îòíîñèòåëüíî âûñîêîãî óðîâíÿ òðàâìàòèçìà ïòèö è/èëè ñìåðòíîñòè îò ýëåêòðè÷åñêîãî òîêà è/èëè ñòîëêíîâåíèé ñ ïðîâîäàìè, è ðåêîíñòðóèðîâàòü èõ â ïåðâîî÷åðåäíîì ïîðÿäêå ñ ïðèìåíåíèåì ìåòîäîâ, ðåêîìåíäîâàííûõ Ðóêîâîäÿùèìè ïðèíöèïàìè UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.30 è 2.6 ðåãóëÿðíî ïðîâîäèòü ìîíèòîðèíã è îöåíêó âëèÿíèÿ ËÝÏ íà ïîïóëÿöèè ïòèö â íàöèîíàëüíîì ìàñøòàáå, à òàêæå ýôôåêòèâíîñòè ìåð ïî ñìÿã÷��íèþ ïîñëåäñòâèé, ïðèíÿòûõ äëÿ ìèíèìèçàöèè âëèÿíèÿ ËÝÏ íà ïîïóëÿöèè ïòèö; 3. Íàñòîÿòåëüíî ïðèçûâàåò Ñòîðîíû è ïðåäëàãàåò ñòðàíàì, íå ÿâëÿþùèìñÿ Ñòîðîíàìè, ìåæïðàâèòåëüñòâåííûì îðãàíèçàöèÿì è äðóãèì ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèì ó÷ðåæäåíèÿì, ïðè íåîáõîäèìîñòè, âêëþ÷àòü ìåðû, ñîäåðæàùèåñÿ â äàííîé ðåçîëþöèè, â èõ íàöèîíàëüíûå ñòðàòåãèè, ïëàíû äåéñòâèé è ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåå çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâî, åñëè ýòî ïðèìåíèìî, äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû óáåäèòüñÿ, ÷òî âëèÿíèå ËÝÏ íà ïîïóëÿöèè ïòèö ñâåäåíî ê ìèíèìóìó, è ïðèçûâàåò Ñòîðîíû ïðåäñòàâëÿòü äîêëàäû î õîäå îñóùåñòâëåíèÿ íàñòîÿùåé ðåçîëþöèè íà êàæäîé Êîíôåðåíöèè Ñòîðîí â êà÷åñòâå ÷àñòè èõ íàöèîíàëüíûõ äîêëàäîâ; 4. Ïðèçûâàåò ýëåêòðîýíåðãåòè÷åñêèå êîìïàíèè, òàêèå êàê RWE ÐÂÅ Ðåéí-Ðóõ Ãàìáóðã Íåòñåðâèñ, ê øèðîêîìó ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèþ Ðóêîâîäÿùèõ ïðèíöèïîâ â èõ ñåòÿõ, â òîì ÷èñëå íà ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ êîíôåðåíöèÿõ; 5. Ïðîñèò ó÷¸íûé ñîâåò, â ÷àñòíîñòè, ðàáî÷èå ãðóïïû ïî ïòèöàì è ïðîë¸òíûì ïóòÿì, ñëåäèòü çà âûïîëíåíèåì ýòîé ðåçîëþöèè è äàâàòü äàëüíåéøèå óêàçàíèÿ, êîãäà ñòàíîâÿòñÿ äîñòóïíûìè íîâûå ðàçðàáîòêè ïî ñíèæåíèþ âëèÿíèÿ ËÝÏ íà ïòèö, íàïðèìåð, óñîâåðøåíñòâîâàííûå ìåòîäû ñìÿã÷åíèÿ èõ âëèÿíèÿ; 6. Ïîðó÷àåò ñåêðåòàðèàòó, â òåñíîì ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâå ñ ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèìè ñîãëàøåíèÿìè ÊÂÌ, îçíàêîìèòü ñåêðåòàðèàò Áåðíñêîé êîíâåíöèè ñ öåëüþ ðåãóëÿðíîãî îáíîâëåíèÿ ðóêîâîäñòâ ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ âëèÿíèÿ ËÝÏ, ïî ìåðå íåîáõîäèìîñòè, è äîíåñòè ýòî äî ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ Ñòîðîí, è 7. Íàñòîÿòåëüíî ïðèçûâàåò Ñòîðîíû è ïðåäëàãàåò ÞÍÅÏ è äðóãèì ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèì ìåæäóíàðîäíûì îðãàíèçàöèÿì, à òàêæå îðãàíèçàöèÿì ýíåðãåòè÷åñêîãî ñåêòîðà, îêàçûâàòü ôèíàíñîâóþ ïîääåðæêó îñóùåñòâëåíèþ ýòîé ðåçîëþöèè.

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

21

Êàíþê (Buteo buteo), ïîãèáøèé íà ËÝÏ îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì. Ôîòî À. Ëåâàøêèíà. Electrocuted Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo). Photo by A. Levashkin.

that are causing relatively high levels of bird injury and/ or mortality due to electrocution and/or collision, and modify these as a matter of priority by applying the techniques recommended by the Guidelines in UNEP/ CMS/Conf.10.30; and 2.6 regularly monitor and evaluate the impact of power lines on bird populations at the national scale, as well as the effectiveness of mitigation measures put in place to minimize the impact of power lines on bird populations; 3. Urges Parties and invites non-Parties, inter-governmental organizations and other relevant institutions, as appropriate, to include the measures contained in this Resolution in their National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans and relevant legislation, if applicable, in order to ensure that the impact of power lines on bird populations is minimized, and calls on Parties to report progress in implementing this Resolution to each Conference of the Parties as part of their National Reports; 4. Encourages electricity companies such as RWE Rhein-Ruhr Netzservice GmbH to disseminate the Guidelines widely within their networks, including at relevant conferences; 5. Requests the Scientific Council, specifically the Working Groups on birds and flyways, to monitor the implementation of this Resolution and to provide further guidance when relevant new developments on reducing the impact of power lines on birds become available, such as improved mitigation techniques; 6. Instructs the Secretariat, in close cooperation with relevant CMS agreements, to consult the Secretariat of the Bern Convention in order to update the mitigation guidelines regularly, as appropriate, and to disseminate these to their respective Parties; and 7. Urges Parties and invites UNEP and other relevant international organizations, as well as the energy sector, to support financially the implementation of this Resolution.


22

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ñîáûòèÿ

UNEP/CMS/Resolution10.28SakerFalconFalco cherrug AdoptedbytheConferenceofthePartiesatitsTenthMeeting (Bergen,20–25November2011)

ЮНЕП/ КМВ/РЕЗОЛЮЦИЯ 10.28. БАЛОБАН FALCO CHERRUG Принята Конференцией Сторон на её десятом совещании (Берген, 20–25 ноября 2011 года)

Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà. Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug). Photo by I. Karyakin.

Ïðèíèìàÿ âî âíèìàíèå, ÷òî 10-ÿ Êîíôåðåíöèÿ Ñòîðîí ÊÌ ñîçäàëà Ðàáî÷óþ ãðóïïó äëÿ ðàññìîòðåíèÿ âíåñ¸ííîãî Åâðîïåéñêèì Ñîþçîì è åãî ãîñóäàðñòâàìè-÷ëåíàìè ïðåäëîæåíèÿ î âêëþ÷åíèè áàëîáàíà (çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì ìîíãîëüñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè) â Ïðèëîæåíèå I ÊÌÂ; Ïðèíèìàÿ âî âíèìàíèå, ÷òî õîòÿ â äàííûé ìîìåíò íåêîòîðûå Ñòîðîíû íå âïîëíå óâåðåíû, ÷òî âêëþ÷åíèå â Ïðèëîæåíèå I ÊÌ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ëó÷øèì ñðåäñòâîì äëÿ óëó÷øåíèÿ ïðèðîäîîõðàííîãî ñòàòóñà áàëîáàíà, è ïîëàãàþò, ÷òî ñòîðîíû äîëæíû ïðåäïðèíèìàòü ìåðû, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûå äðóãèìè ìåæäóíàðîäíûìè èíñòðóìåíòàìè, îñîáî óêàçûâàÿ íà íåîáõîäèìîñòü ìåð, êîòîðûå áûëè áû ïîääåðæàíû âñåìè, Ñòîðîíû ãîòîâû ïðèñîåäèíèòüñÿ ê êîíñåíñóñó; Ñîãëàøàÿñü, ÷òî ïðåäëîæåíèå î âêëþ÷åíèè áàëîáàíà â Ïðèëîæåíèå I ÊÌ èñêëþ÷àåò ïîïóëÿöèþ Ìîíãîëèè ââèäó ñóùåñòâóþùåé â ýòîé ñòðàíå ïðîãðàììû ñîõðàíåíèÿ áàëîáàíà è óïðàâëåíèÿ åãî ïîïóëÿöèåé, êîòîðàÿ ðàçâèâàåòñÿ â ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâå ñ Ýêîëîãè÷åñêèì àãåíòñòâîì Àáó-Äàáè, äåéñòâóþùèì îò èìåíè Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà Îáúåäèí¸ííûõ Àðàáñêèõ Ýìèðàòîâ; Ïðèçíàâàÿ äàëåå, ÷òî ñîõðàíåíèå áàëîáàíà äîëæíî îñíîâûâàòüñÿ íà ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâå, âîâëåêàþùåì øèðîêèé êðóã ñòîðîí, è îòìå÷àÿ, â ÷àñòíîñòè, âêëàä Ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî àãåíòñòâà Àáó-Äàáè, äåéñòâóþùåãî îò èìåíè Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà Îáúåäèí¸ííûõ Àðàáñêèõ Ýìè-

Noting that CMS COP10 created a Working Group to consider the proposal made by the European Union and its Member States to list the Saker Falcon Falco cherrug in CMS Appendix I, excluding the population of Mongolia; Noting that, although some Parties are not, at this point in time, fully convinced that Appendix I listing is the best means of achieving improvements in the conservation status of the Saker Falcon and believe that parties should take actions consistent with other international instruments, stressing the need for conservation actions to be supported by all, Parties are ready to join a consensus; Recognizing that the proposal to list the Saker Falcon in CMS Appendix I excludes the population in Mongolia, in recognition of their Saker conservation and management programme, which has been carried out in collaboration with the Environment Agency – Abu Dhabi, on behalf of the Government of the United Arab Emirates; Further recognizing that the conservation of the Saker Falcon should be a partnership involving a wide range of parties, and noting in particular the contributions made to date by the Environment Agency – Abu Dhabi on behalf of the Government of the United Arab Emirates and by the Saudi Wildlife Authority on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Also recognizing the need for CMS to work with a range of Multilateral Environmental Agreements in the conservation and restoration of Saker Falcon populations, including in particular CITES; The Conference of the Parties to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals: 1. Agrees to list the Saker Falcon in CMS Appendix I, excluding the population in Mongolia, and decides to establish an immediate Concerted Action supported by all parties; 2. Decides, as part of the Concerted Action, on the establishment of a Task Force under the auspices of the Interim Coordinating Unit of the UNEP/CMS Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MoU), to bring together Range States, Partners and interested parties, to develop a coordinated Global Action Plan, including a management and monitoring system, to conserve the Saker Falcon;


Events ðàòîâ, è Ñàóäîâñêîé ïðèðîäîîõðàííîé àäìèíèñòðàöèè (Saudi Wildlife Authority), äåéñòâóþùåé îò èìåíè Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà Êîðîëåâñòâà Ñàóäîâñêîé Àðàâèè; Òàêæå ïðèíèìàÿ âî âíèìàíèå, ÷òî íàä ñîõðàíåíèåì è âîññòàíîâëåíèåì ïîïóëÿöèé áàëîáàíà ÊÌ äîëæíà ðàáîòàòü ñ ðÿäîì äðóãèõ ìíîãîñòîðîííèõ ïðèðîäîîõðàííûõ ñîãëàøåíèé, âêëþ÷àÿ, â ÷àñòíîñòè, ÑÈÒÅÑ; Êîíôåðåíöèÿ Ñòîðîí Êîíâåíöèè ïî ñîõðàíåíèþ ìèãðèðóþùèõ âèäîâ äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ: 1. Ñîãëàøàåòñÿ âêëþ÷èòü áàëîáàíà â Ïðèëîæåíèå I ÊÌÂ, çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì ìîíãîëüñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè, è ðåøàåò ïðèñòóïèòü ê íåìåäëåííûì Ñîãëàñîâàííûì äåéñòâèÿì, ïîääåðæàííûì âñåìè ñòîðîíàìè. 2. Ïðèíèìàåò ðåøåíèå î ñîçäàíèè â ðàìêàõ ýòèõ Ñîãëàñîâàííûõ äåéñòâèé Òåìàòè÷åñêîé ðàáî÷åé ãðóïïû (Task Force) ïîä ïîêðîâèòåëüñòâîì Âðåìåííîãî êîîðäèíàöèîííîãî îðãàíà ÞÍÅÏ/Ìåìîðàíäóìà ÊÌ î âçàèìîïîíèìàíèè â ñôåðå ñîõðàíåíèÿ ìèãðèðóþùèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö â Àôðèêå è Åâðàçèè (Ìî î ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêàõ), ÷òîáû îáåñïå÷èòü âçàèìîäåéñòâèå ãîñóäàðñòâ àðåàëà áàëîáàíà, ïàðòí¸ðîâ è çàèíòåðåñîâàííûõ ñòîðîí ñ öåëüþ ðàçðàáîòêè ñêîîðäèíèðîâàííîãî Ãëîáàëüíîãî ïëàíà äåéñòâèé ïî ñîõðàíåíèþ áàëîáàíà, âêëþ÷àþùåãî ñèñòåìó ìîíèòîðèíãà è óïðàâëåíèÿ. 3. Ðåøàåò ïðåäîñòàâèòü ôèíàíñîâûå è äðóãèå ðåñóðñû äëÿ äåÿòåëüíîñòè Òåìàòè÷åñêîé ðàáî÷åé ãðóïïû è äëÿ âûïîëíåíèÿ Ñîãëàñîâàííûõ äåéñòâèé â ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâå ñî Ñòîðîíàìè Ìî î ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêàõ, ãîñóäàðñòâàìè àðåàëà è äðóãèìè çàèíòåðåñîâàííûìè ñòîðîíàìè. 4. Ðåøàåò, ÷òî óëó÷øåíèå ïðèðîäîîõðàííîãî ñòàòóñà áàëîáàíà â îäíîé èç ñòðàí àðåàëà ìîæåò áûòü îñíîâàíèåì äîïóñòèòü íåèñòîùèòåëüíîå èçúÿòèå èç ïðèðîäû â ýòîé ñòðàíå ïðè óñëîâèè ðåàëèçàöèè ñèñòåìû óïðàâëåíèÿ.  òàêèõ ñëó÷àÿõ Ñòîðîíà èëè Ñòîðîíû ìîãóò ïîïðîñèòü ñäåëàòü äëÿ ýòîé ñòðàíû àðåàëà èñêëþ÷åíèå èç òðåáîâàíèé Ïðèëîæåíèÿ I. Òåìàòè÷åñêàÿ ðàáî÷àÿ ãðóïïà áóäåò ïðèëàãàòü óñèëèÿ, ÷òîáû îáëåã÷èòü ïðîõîæäåíèå ýòîãî ïðîöåññà â Íàó÷íîì ñîâåòå ìåæäó ñåññèÿìè è â Êîíôåðåíöèè Ñòîðîí. 5. Óêàçûâàåò, ÷òî Òåìàòè÷åñêàÿ ðàáî÷àÿ ãðóïïà äîëæíà ñîáðàòüñÿ â ïåðâîì êâàðòàëå 2012 ã., ÷òîáû îïðåäåëèòü ïåðâîî÷åðåäíûå äåéñòâèÿ è íåìåäëåííî íà÷àòü èõ âûïîëíåíèå. 6. Ðåêîìåíäóåò óñòàíîâèòü ñëåäóþùèå ñðîêè äëÿ ìîíèòîðèíãà äåÿòåëüíîñòè Òåìàòè÷åñêîé ðàáî÷åé ãðóïïû è å¸ îò÷åòîâ: – Îò÷¸ò ê 1-é Âñòðå÷å Ñòîðîí Ìî î ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêàõ, îæèäàåìîé â ïîñëåäíåì êâàðòàëå 2012 ã.; – Îò÷¸ò ê ìåæñåññèîííîé 18-é âñòðå÷å Íàó÷íîãî ñîâåòà Êîíâåíöèè; – Îò÷¸ò ê 11-é Êîíôåðåíöèè Ñòîðîí, è ê òîìó æå âðåìåíè äîëæíû áûòü ïðåäñòàâëåíû ïðåäëîæåíèÿ î ïîíèæåíèè ñòàòóñà áàëîáàíà [ò.å. î ïåðåâîäå åãî â äðóãîå Ïðèëîæåíèå]. 7. Ïðåäïèñûâàåò Ñåêðåòàðèàòó ÊÌ îçíàêîìèòü ñ ýòîé Ðåçîëþöèåé ìíîãîñòîðîííèå ïðèðîäîîõðàííûå ñîãëàøåíèÿ, â ÷àñòíîñòè Ñåêðåòàðèàò ÑÈÒÅÑ, è ïîïðîñèòü èõ âíåñòè ñâîé âêëàä â äåÿòåëüíîñòü Òåìàòè÷åñêîé ðàáî÷åé ãðóïïû ïî áàëîáàíó.

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

23

3. Decides to provide financial and other resources for the operation of the Task Force and for the implementation of the Concerted Action in cooperation with the Signatories of the Raptors MoU, Range States and other interested parties; 4. Decides that improvements in the conservation status of the Saker Falcon in any Range State may allow sustainable taking from the wild in that Range State under a management system. In such cases a Party or Parties may request an exclusion from Appendix I listing to apply in that Range State. The Task Force will endeavour to facilitate this process through the Scientific Council inter-sessionally and through the Conference of the Parties; 5. Instructs the Task Force to meet in the first quarter of 2012 to identify priority actions and to begin implementation immediately; 6. Recommends that the timeline for the monitoring activities and reporting of the Task Force would be as follows: – Report to the 1st Meeting of the Signatories of the UNEP/CMS Raptors MoU, envisaged for the last quarter of 2012; – Report to the intersessional 18th Scientific Council meeting; – Report to COP11, and consideration given to downlisting the Saker Falcon at that time; 7. Instructs the CMS Secretariat to convey this Resolution to the Multilateral Environmental Agreements, in particular to the CITES Secretariat, and to request them to contribute to the efforts of the Saker Falcon Task Force.

Áàëîáàí. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà. Saker Falcon. Photo by I. Karyakin.


24

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

ProceedingsofConferences МАТЕРИАЛЫ КОНФЕРЕНЦИЙ AScientificWorkshop“ProblemsofBirdElectrocutionand SafetyonOverheadPowerLinesofMiddleVoltage:Modern ScientificandPracticeExperience”,10–11November,2011, Ulyanovsk,Russia НАУЧНО-ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ СЕМИНАР «ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГИБЕЛИ ПТИЦ И ОРНИТОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ БЕЗОПАСНОСТЬ НА ВОЗДУШНЫХ ЛИНИЯХ ЭЛЕКТРОПЕРЕДАЧИ СРЕДНЕЙ МОЩНОСТИ: СОВРЕМЕННЫЙ НАУЧНЫЙ И ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ ОПЫТ», 10–11 НОЯБРЯ 2011 ГОДА, УЛЬЯНОВСК, РОССИЯ ResultsoftheScientificWorkshop“ProblemsofBirdElectrocution andSafetyonOverheadPowerLinesofMiddleVoltage: ModernScientificandPracticeExperience”(Ulyanovsk, 10–11November2011),Russia ИТОГИ НАУЧНО-ПРАКТИЧЕСКОГО СЕМИНАРА «ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГИБЕЛИ ПТИЦ И ОРНИТОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ БЕЗОПАСНОСТЬ НА ВОЗДУШНЫХ ЛЭП СРЕДНЕЙ МОЩНОСТИ: СОВРЕМЕННЫЙ НАУЧНЫЙ И ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ ОПЫТ» (УЛЬЯНОВСК, 10–11 НОЯБРЯ 2011 ГОДА), РОССИЯ SaltykovA.V.(RussianBirdConservationUnion,Moscow,Russia) Салтыков А.В. (Cоюз охраны птиц России, Москва, Россия)

Êîíòàêò: Àíäðåé Âëàäèìèðîâè÷ Ñàëòûêîâ Ñîþç îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè 111123, Ðîññèÿ, Ìîñêâà, øîññå Ýíòóçèàñòîâ, 60/1 òåë.: +7 906 393 78 97 +7 8422 300 704 aves-pl@mail.ru Contact: Andrey Saltykov Russian Bird Conservation Union Entusiastov highway, 60/1 Moscow, Russia, 111123 tel.: +7 906 393 78 97 +7 8422 300 704 aves-pl@mail.ru

Ðåçþìå  ñòàòüå èçëàãàåòñÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ î íàó÷íî-ïðàêòè÷åñêîì ñåìèíàðå, ïîñâÿù¸ííîì ïðîáëåìå «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ», ñîñòîÿâøåìñÿ 10–11 íîÿáðÿ 2011 ã. Äà¸òñÿ êðàòêèé îáçîð ìàòåðèàëîâ, ïðåäñòàâëåííûõ äîêëàä÷èêàìè. Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: ïòèöåîïàñíûå ýëåêòðîóñòàíîâêè, ËÝÏ, ýëåêòðîñåòåâàÿ ñðåäà, ËÝÏ-óÿçâèìûå ïòèöû, ýëåêòðîïîðàæåíèÿ, ïòèöåçàùèòíûå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ, ïòèöåçàùèòíûå óñòðîéñòâà, ðåïåëëåíòíûé ìåòîä. Ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ: 17.03.2012 ã. Ïðèíÿòà ê ïóáëèêàöèè: 25.03.2012 ã. Abstract The article presents information on the workshop devoted to the problem “Birds and Power Lines” that took place on 10–11 November 2011. There is a review of reports sounded at the workshop. Keywords: electrical installation dangerous for birds, power lines, grid of power lines, species threatened by electrocution, electrocution, mitigation measures, bird protection devices, repellent method. Received: 17/03/2012 Accepted: 25/03/2012.

 Óëüÿíîâñêå 10–11 íîÿáðÿ 2011 ã. ïðîø¸ë íàó÷íî-ïðàêòè÷åñêèé ñåìèíàð, ïîñâÿù¸ííûé ïðîáëåìå «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ». Àêòóàëüíîñòü òåìû îáóñëîâëåíà ìíîãî÷èñëåííûìè äàííûìè î ìàññîâîé ãèáåëè ïòèö îò ýëåêòðè÷åñêîãî òîêà íà ËÝÏ â ðàçëè÷íûõ ðåãèîíàõ. Òàê, ïî îöåíêàì îðíèòîëîãîâ, â Ðîññèè åæåãîäíî æåðòâàìè ýëåêòðîïîðàæåíèé íà ÂË 6–10 ê ñòàíîâÿòñÿ ïîðÿäêà 20 ìèë-

The scientific workshop on the problem “Birds and Power Lines” was held in Ulyanovsk on 10–11 November 2011. Relevance of the topic is caused by the numerous data on the mass bird deaths from electrocution on power lines in different regions. Thus, according to estimations of ornithologists, in Russia bird mortality from electrocution on the over-


Proceedings of Conferences ëèîíîâ ïòèö, âêëþ÷àÿ âèäû, çàíåñ¸ííûå â Êðàñíûå êíèãè ðàçëè÷íîãî óðîâíÿ. Îðãàíèçàòîðàìè ñåìèíàðà âûñòóïèëè Ñîþç îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè (ÑÎÏÐ) è ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл (Óëüÿíîâñê). Ìåñòî ïðîâåäåíèÿ ñåìèíàðà áûëî âûáðàíî íåñëó÷àéíî.  Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè íà ïðîòÿæåíèè ìíîãèõ ëåò ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíî ðàçðàáàòûâàþòñÿ, èñïûòûâàþòñÿ è âíåäðÿþòñÿ ðàçëè÷íûå ñðåäñòâà çàùèòû ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì íà ËÝÏ. Èìåííî çäåñü îäíèìè èç ïåðâûõ â Ðîññèè ïîÿâèëèñü è áûëè çàïóùåíû â ñåðèéíîå ïðîèçâîäñòâî îòå÷åñòâåííûå ïòèöåçàùèòíûå óñòðîéñòâà äëÿ ÂË 6–10 êÂ. Íî, ïîæàëóé, ñàìîå ãëàâíîå äîñòèæåíèå óëüÿíîâñêèõ çàùèòíèêîâ ïòèö – ýòî èõ îïûò ðàçðàáîòêè è ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîåêòîâ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé, îáëàäàíèå òåõíîëîãèåé èíèöèèðîâàíèÿ ïëàíîâ è ïðîãðàìì ïî çàùèòå ïòèö íà ËÝÏ. Èìåííî çäåñü âïåðâûå â Ðîññèè ïðèíÿòà è ðåàëèçóåòñÿ ìàñøòàáíàÿ «Ïðîèçâîäñòâåííàÿ ïðîãðàììà ïî óñòàíîâêå ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ íà ÂË 6–10 ê Ôèëèàëà «ÌÐÑÊ Âîëãè» – «Óëüÿíîâñêèå ðàñïðåäåëèòåëüíûå ñåòè» íà 2011–2026 ãã.», ïðåäóñìàòðèâàþùàÿ îñíàùåíèå 7,7 òûñ. êì ËÝÏ ñïåöèàëüíûìè ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè. Ïðèìå÷àòåëüíî, ÷òî â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü çàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè îñíàùàþòñÿ ËÝÏ, ðàñïîëîæåííûå â þæíûõ ðàéîíàõ îáëàñòè, ãäå ñîñðåäîòî÷åíà êðóïíàÿ ãíåçäîâàÿ ãðóïïèðîâêà îðëîâ-ìîãèëüíèêîâ (Aquila heliaca). Ñëåäóåò òàêæå çàìåòèòü, ÷òî ýòà êðàñèâàÿ ïòèöà ïîä íàçâàíèåì «ñîëíå÷íûé îð¸ë» ÿâëÿåòñÿ îôèöèàëüíûì ïðèðîäíûì îáðàçîì (ñèìâîëîì) Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè. Îòêðûâàÿ ñåìèíàð, Ïðåçèäåíò Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè Âèêòîð Çóáàêèí ïîïðèâåòñòâîâàë ñîáðàâøèõñÿ è, îõàðàêòåðèçîâàâ ïîçèöèþ Ñîþçà ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé ïðîáëåìå, ïîæåëàë êîëëåãàì óñïåøíîé ñîâìåñòíîé ðàáîòû ïî âûðàáîòêå ñîãëàñîâàííûõ ðåøåíèé, ïðèçâàííûõ îïðåäåëèòü äàëüíåéøóþ ïîëèòèêó âñåõ çàèíòåðåñîâàííûõ ñòîðîí â ñôåðå îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé áåçîïàñíîñòè ýëåêòðîñíàáæåíèÿ. Â.À. Çóáàêèí òàêæå çà÷èòàë ïðèâåòñòâèå ó÷àñòíèêàì ñåìèíàðà îò Êîìèòåòà Ãîñóäàðñòâåííîé Äóìû Ôåäåðàëüíîãî Ñîáðàíèÿ Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè ïî ïðèðîäíûì ðåñóðñàì, ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèþ è ýêîëîãèè. Ïðåäñåäàòåëü Êîìèòåòà ïî íàäçîðó â ñôåðå ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèÿ è îõðàíû îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè (Ãîñýêîíàäçîð) Êîíñòàíòèí Äîëèíèí ðàññêàçàë ïðèñóòñòâóþùèì î äåÿòåëüíîñòè Ãîñýêîíàäçîðà. Ýòî ñïåöèàëüíî óïîëíîìî÷åííûé îð-

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

25

Ñîëíå÷íûé îð¸ë (Aquila heliaca) – îôèöèàëüíûé ïðèðîäíûé ñèìâîë Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè – îí æå âûáðàí ýìáëåìîé ñåìèíàðà. The Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) – official nature symbol of the Ulyanovsk district – selected symbol of the seminar.

head power lines 6–10 kV are approximately 20 millions birds a year, including species listed in the Red Data Books of different levels. Organizers of the workshop were the Russian Bird Conservation Union (RBCU) and LLC “Eco-NIOKR” (Ulyanovsk). Opening the workshop, President of RBCU Viktor Zubakin, welcomed the participants and having described the Union’s position in relation to the issue wished colleagues every success to develop concreted solutions determining the future policy of all parties leading to effective minimisation of the power line induced bird mortality. The Chairman of the Committee for Supervisory Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Management of the Ulyanovsk district Konstantin Dolinin told the participants about the activities of the Committee. This is a specially authorized department of the Government of the Ulyanovsk district for ensuring the state environmental control, which also carries out activities to control the wildlife management and protection. The Committee sued the branch of “IRDNC of Volga” – “Ulyanovsk Distribution Grids” for damage caused by deaths of Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca) in the amount of 194 thousand rubles as well as the “Gasprom-transgas Samara” company in the amount of 350 thousand rubles. The


26

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Êîíñòàíòèí Äîëèíèí. Ôîòî Î. Ñàëòûêîâîé. Konstantin Dolinin. Photo by O. Saltykova.

ãàí Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè â ñôåðå ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî êîíòðîëÿ, êîòîðûé îñóùåñòâëÿåò òàêæå äåÿòåëüíîñòü ïî êîíòðîëþ èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ è îõðàíå îáúåêòîâ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà. Êîíñòàíòèí Àëåêñàíäðîâè÷ ñîãëàñèëñÿ ñ òåì, ÷òî ïðîáëåìà «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ», íåîáõîäèìîñòü îáîðóäîâàíèÿ ýëåêòðîëèíèé ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè ñòîèò î÷åíü ñåðü¸çíî: «Ïðèõîäèòñÿ êîíñòàòèðîâàòü, ÷òî ÷àùå âñåãî ïòèöû ñòðàäàþò íå îò áðàêîíüåðîâ, à îò ïîðàæåíèÿ òîêîì íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è, íå îñíàù¸ííûõ ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè. Îðãàíèçàöèè, êîòîðûå èãíîðèðóþò òðåáîâàíèÿ çàêîíà è íå äåëàþò ËÝÏ áåçîïàñíûìè äëÿ íàøèõ ïåðíàòûõ, ñàìè ÿâëÿþòñÿ ñâîåãî ðîäà áðàêîíüåðàìè». Ìîæíî ïðèâåñòè ïðèìåðû äåÿòåëüíîñòè Ãîñýêîíàäçîðà â ïëàíå çàùèòû ïòèö.  2008 ã., ïðè ïðîâåäåíèè ïðîâåðêè â Ìàéíñêîì ðàéîíå Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè, íà ó÷àñòêå ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è ïîä îïîðàìè áûëè îáíàðóæåíû 75 îñîáåé ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ âñëåäñòâèå ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì, â òîì ÷èñëå «êðàñíîêíèæíûõ» îðëîâ-ìîãèëüíèêîâ (Aquila heliaca). Ãèáåëü ïòèö ïðîèçîøëà âñëåäñòâèå òîãî, ÷òî ÎÀÎ «ÌÐÑÊ Âîëãè» – «Óëüÿíîâñêèå ðàñïðåäåëèòåëüíûå ñåòè» íå îáîðóäîâàëî ó÷àñòîê ËÝÏ ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè. Èñê çà íàíåñåíèå óùåðáà æèâîòíîìó ìèðó ñîñòàâèë 194 òûñ. ðóáëåé.  îêòÿáðå 2009 ã. áûëà çàôèêñèðîâàíà ãèáåëü äâóõ ìîãèëüíèêîâ âñëåäñòâèå îòñóòñòâèÿ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ íà âîçäóøíûõ ËÝÏ10 ê â Íîâîñïàññêîì ðàéîíå Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè ïî âèíå ýêñïëóàòèðóþùåé îðãàíèçàöèè – ÎÎÎ «Ãàçïðîì-òðàíñãàç Ñàìàðà». Èñê ñîñòàâèë 350 òûñ. ðóáëåé.  îêòÿáðå 2009 ã., ïî òðåáîâàíèÿì Óëüÿíîâñêîé ìåæðàéîííîé ïðèðîäîîõðàííîé ïðîêóðàòóðû, äîëæíîñòíûìè ëèöàìè Êîìèòåòà ñîâìåñòíî ñ ïðåäñòàâèòåëÿìè Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè áûëè ïðîâåäåíû âûáîðî÷íûå îñìîòðû ó÷àñòêîâ âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è 6–10 ê ó ñëåäóþùèõ îðãàíèçàöèé: ÎÎÎ «Ãàçïðîì-òðàíñãàç Ñàìàðà»; ÎÀÎ «ÌÐÑÊ ÂÎËÃÈ» – «Óëüÿíîâñêèå ðàñïðåäåëèòåëüíûå ñåòè»; ÎÀÎ «Óëüÿíîâñêíåôòü»; ÎÎÎ «Ñåâåðî-Çàïàäíûå ìàãèñòðàëüíûå íåôòåïðîâîäû».  õîäå îñìîòðà ïîä îïîðàìè ËÝÏ, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ âñåì óêàçàííûì îðãàíèçàöèÿì, áûëè îáíàðóæåíû òðóïû ïòèö ñî ñëåäàìè ýëåêòðîïîðàæåíèé.

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé Chairman of the Committee promised to cooperate fully with bird conservationists, invited them to participate in the development of coordinated strategies and action plans to protect the birds from electrocution. An employee of the Coordination Center of RBCU, project-leader for “Birds and Power Lines,” Andrei Saltykov reported on “Initiatives of Russian Bird Conservation Union in addressing the problem of “Birds and Power Lines” (for more information on the initiatives see p. 30–33). At the workshop the reports on the issue of “Birds and Power Lines” in different regions of Russia were sounded. So, Elvira Nikolenko, director of the Siberian Environmental Center (Novosibirsk), presented a detailed report “Birds and Power Lines in the Altai-Sayan Region: The Scale of the Problem and Ways to Address it”. As a result of conducted surveys experts of the Siberian Environmental Center have concluded that only in the breeding season the power lines with a total length of about 2,500 km on the territory of the Republic of Altai and the Altai Kray annually kill nearly 40–50 thousand birds, of which 10–15 thousand – birds of prey. The annual damage caused by bird electrocution for the two regions, calculated by the fee approved by the Ministry of Russia, is at least 150 million rubles, mainly due to loss of rare raptors in steppe habitats. All participants noted the positive experience of cooperation between the Siberian Environmental Center and the “IRDC of Siberia” company. The result of this cooperation is the development and implementation of departmental action plan to retrofit power lines with the special bird protection devices. The employee of the branch of the “IRDC of Volga” – “Orenburgenergo” about mitigation activities implemented by the branch, which management intends to achieve a high level of bird safety in cooperation with RBCU. The well-known defender of birds of prey, ornithologist Igor Karjakin – Head of Field Projects of the Ecological Center “Dront”, Director of the Field Study Center (Nizhny Novgorod), presented conclusive proofs on the negative impact of the hazardous power lines to birds, listed in the Red Data Books, called on participants to take urgent measures to prevent bird mortality on power lines – “killers” in the habitats of the


Proceedings of Conferences Ïðåäñåäàòåëü Ãîñýêîíàäçîðà ïîîáåùàë âñÿ÷åñêîå ñîäåéñòâèå çàùèòíèêàì ïòèö, ïðèãëàñèë èõ ïðèíÿòü ó÷àñòèå â ðàçðàáîòêå ñòðàòåãèè è ñêîîðäèíèðîâàííûõ ïëàíîâ äåéñòâèé ïî çàùèòå ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì íà ËÝÏ. Ñîòðóäíèê Êîîðäèíàöèîííîãî öåíòðà ÑÎÏÐ, ðóêîâîäèòåëü ïðîåêòà «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ» Àíäðåé Ñàëòûêîâ âûñòóïèë ñ äîêëàäîì «Èíèöèàòèâû Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè â îáëàñòè ðåøåíèÿ ïðîáëåìû «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ».  ÷èñëå îñíîâíûõ èíèöèàòèâ áûëè íàçâàíû: âêëþ÷åíèå òåìû «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ» â ïåðå÷åíü îñíîâíûõ çàäà÷ Ñîþçà íà 2011–2013 ãîäû, ïðîâåäåíèå îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîãî ýêñïåäèöèîííîãî îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ â êëþ÷åâûõ ðåãèîíàõ Ðîññèè, íàïðàâëåíèå çàèíòåðåñîâàííûì ëèöàì ñâåäåíèé î âûÿâëåííûõ ôàêòàõ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ è îáðàùåíèé ñ ïðîñüáàìè î ïðèíÿòèè íåîáõîäèìûõ ìåð ïî çàùèòå ïòèö, íàïðàâëåíèå ðóêîâîäèòåëÿì ðÿäà ðåãèîíîâ è âåäóùèõ îòðàñëåé ýêîíîìèêè îáðàùåíèé ïðåçèäåíòà ÑÎÏÐ è ìåòîäè÷åñêèõ ðåêîìåíäàöèé ïî ðàçðàáîòêå è ðåàëèçàöèè ïëàíîâ äåéñòâèé ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, ïîäãîòîâêà ïðåäëîæåíèé ïî óñîâåðøåíñòâîâàíèþ íîðìàòèâíûõ ïðàâîâûõ àêòîâ ïî çàùèòå ïòèö îò íåãàòèâíîãî âîçäåéñòâèÿ ËÝÏ, ðàçðàáîòêà àòëàñà-îïðåäåëèòåëÿ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ýëåêòðîóñòàíîâîê, âåäåíèå ðååñòðà ËÝÏ-óÿçâèìûõ ïòèö, ñîñòàâëåíèå êàðòû êðèòè÷íûõ çîí ãèáåëè ïòèö ðåäêèõ âèäîâ, ãèáåëè ïòèö íà îñîáî îõðàíÿåìûõ ïðèðîäíûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ è Êëþ÷åâûõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ òåððèòîðèÿõ Ðîññèè (ÊÎÒÐ). Äîêëàä÷èê ñîîáùèë òàêæå î ïîñòîÿííîì êîíñóëüòèðîâàíèè çàèíòåðåñîâàííûõ ëèö ïî âîïðîñàì îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé áåçîïàñíîñòè ýëåêòðîñåòåâûõ è èíûõ ýíåðãåòè÷åñêèõ îáúåêòîâ, îêàçàíèè þðèäè÷åñêîé ïîìîùè â ðåøåíèè ïðîáëåì ïî íàïðàâëåíèþ «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ», îá îòêðûòèè ðàçäåëà «Ïòèöû è ýíåðãåòèêà» íà îôèöèàëüíîì ñàéòå Ñîþçà, ñîçäàíèè òåìàòè÷åñêîé ýëåêòðîííîé áèáëèîòåêè, î ïóáëèêàöèÿõ ìàòåðèàëîâ â æóðíàëàõ «Ìèð ïòèö», «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà / Raptors Conservation», «Ñòåïíîé áþëëåòåíü», à òàêæå «Ýëåêòðîýíåðãèÿ. Ïåðåäà÷à è ðàñïðåäåëåíèå». Íà ñåìèíàðå òàêæå áûëè çàñëóøàíû äîêëàäû î ñîñòîÿíèè ïðîáëåìû «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ» â ðàçëè÷íûõ ðåãèîíàõ Ðîññèè. Òàê, Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî, äèðåêòîð Ìåæðåãèîíàëüíîé áëàãîòâîðèòåëüíîé îáùåñòâåííîé îðãàíèçàöèè «Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð» (Íîâîñèáèðñê),

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

27

Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) and Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug), without which this bird species threatened with extinction. The title of his report “Birds of Prey and Power Lines in Northern Eurasia: what are the prospects for survival?” is conspicuous and proves the scale of bird mortality on the vast territory. Ruslan Medjidov represented the Republic of Kalmykia at the workshop: he is an employee of the “Center of Environmental Projects”. His report “The experience of studying and practical solution to the problem of “Birds and Power Lines” in the Republic of Kalmykia” was devoted to the analysis of the issue in the developed grid of power lines, as well as evaluation of the effectiveness of various bird protection devices. He drew attention of participants on the need to assist the regions by the federal government, without which it is impossible to enforce mitigation activities within a reasonable time.

Àíäðåé Ñàëòûêîâ. Ôîòî Î. Ñàëòûêîâîé. Andrey Saltykov. Photo by O. Saltykova.

The results of studying the problem of bird electrocution in Tatarstan were presented by Rinur Bekmansurov – the Head of the Museum of Nature of the National Park “Lower Kama”. He reported the results of studies carried out in 2011. Somewhat apart, at first glance, there was a report of Nadezhda Sapunkova, an employee of the Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Science (Moscow). The title of her report was “Features of Protection of Open Switching Centres from the Damages Caused by Birds (On the Example of Nuclear Power Plant): Experience of Ap-


28

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî. Ôîòî Î. Ñàëòûêîâîé. Elvira Nikolenko. Photo by O. Saltykova.

ïðåäñòàâèëà îáñòîÿòåëüíûé äîêëàä íà òåìó: «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå: ìàñøòàá ïðîáëåìû è ïóòè ðåøåíèÿ».  ðåçóëüòàòå ïðîâåä¸ííûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, îñíîâûâàÿñü íà óñðåäí¸ííûõ äàííûõ ïî ÷èñëåííîñòè ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ (32,68 îñîáåé íà 10 êì ëèíèé), ñïåöèàëèñòû Ñèáýêîöåíòðà ïðèøëè ê çàêëþ÷åíèþ, ÷òî òîëüêî â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä íà òåððèòîðèÿõ Ðåñïóáëèêè Àëòàé è Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ íà ËÝÏ îáùåé ïðîòÿæåííîñòüþ îêîëî 2,5 òûñ. êì åæåãîäíî ïîãèáàåò îêîëî 40–50 òûñ. ïòèö, 10–15 òûñ. èç êîòîðûõ – ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè. Ãîäîâîé óùåðá îò ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ òîëüêî äëÿ ýòèõ äâóõ ðåãèîíîâ, ðàññ÷èòàííûé ïî òàêñàì, óòâåðæä¸ííûì Ìèíïðèðîäû Ðîññèè, ñîñòàâëÿåò ìèíèìóì 150 ìëí. ðóáëåé, â îñíîâíîì èç-çà ãèáåëè ðåäêèõ õèùíèêîâ â ñòåïíûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿõ. Âñå ó÷àñòíèêè ñåìèíàðà îòìåòèëè ïîëîæèòåëüíûé îïûò ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâà îáùåñòâåííîé îðãàíèçàöèè «Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð» ñ ÌÐÑÊ Ñèáèðè. Ðåçóëüòàòîì òàêîãî ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâà ñòàëè ðàçðàáîòêà è ðåàëèçàöèÿ âåäîìñòâåííîãî ïëàíà äåéñòâèé ïî îñíàùåíèþ ËÝÏ ñïåöèàëüíûìè ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè. Î ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèÿõ, ðåàëèçóåìûõ Ôèëèàëîì ÎÀÎ «ÌÐÑÊ Âîëãè» – «Îðåíáóðãýíåðãî», ñîîáùèëè ñîòðóäíèöû ôèëèàëà, ðóêîâîäñòâî êîòîðîãî íàìåðåíî äîáèâàòüñÿ âûñîêîãî óðîâíÿ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé áåçîïàñíîñòè â ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâå ñ Ñîþçîì îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè. Èçâåñòíûé çàùèòíèê õèùíûõ ïòèö, îðíèòîëîã Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí – êîîðäèíàòîð ïîëåâûõ ïðîåêòîâ Ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî öåíòðà «Äðîíò», äèðåêòîð Öåíòðà ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé (Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä), ïðèâ¸ë óáåäèòåëüíûå äàííûå î íåãàòèâíîì âëèÿíèè ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ íà «êðàñíîêíèæíûõ» ïòèö, ïðèçâàë ó÷àñòíèêîâ ñåìèíàðà ê ïðèíÿòèþ ýêñòðåííûõ ìåð ïî íåéòðàëèçàöèè «ËÝÏ-óáèéö» â ðàéîíàõ îáèòàíèÿ ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ (Aquila nipalensis) è ñîêîëîâáàëîáàíîâ (Falco cherrug), áåç ÷åãî ýòèì âèäàì ïòèö ãðîçèò ïîëíîå èñ÷åçíîâåíèå. Íàçâàíèå äîêëàäà – «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè â ýëåêòðîñåòåâîé ñðåäå Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè: êàêîâû ïåðñïåêòèâû âûæèâàíèÿ?» – êðàñíîðå÷èâî ãîâîðèò î ìàñøòàáàõ ïðîáëåìû ãèáåëè ïòèö íà îãðîìíîé òåððèòîðèè. Ðåñïóáëèêó Êàëìûêèÿ íà ñåìèíàðå

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé plication of Repellent Technique”. She was convincing in the demonstration of the possibility and necessity of using the sparing (humane) techniques to scare birds from the expensive equipment at nuclear power plants. One of the central places in the workshop took the report of the director of LLC “EcoNIOKR” Sergey Tetnev, in which he spoke about the work of his company that produces the special bird protection devices for power lines in the middle voltage range. Using the display stands, he presented the range of bird protection devices (BPD) produced in Ulyanovsk, focusing on advantages of the design and construction of them, as well as told about a success at the conduction of the laboratory, bench and field testing of BPD. At the end of the workshop the report of a lawyer Vitaly Ivanov “Judicial Opinion on Protecting the Birds from Electrocution in the Ulyanovsk District” was presented. The author told about the features of hearing the disputes between representatives of environmental organizations and owners of power line hazardous to birds in courts consider, shared the experience of conflictfree trials. The participants visited existing power lines retrofitted with bird protection devices. According to participants, the objectives and goals stated in the program of workshop have been successfully achieved. As a result of the workshop the Ulyanovsk resolution “Birds and Power Lines – 2011” was adopted unanimously. Taking into account national and international experience the Resolution calls on all interested parties jointly to promote the implementation of advanced technical means for protecting the birds from electrocution, to distribute the experience of Ulyanovsk specialists in planning the mitigation measures, as well as the experience of some regions in the legal regulation for preventing the negative impact of power lines on birds and their habitats. The resolution followed by three applications, with which it forms a single set of working documents, that forms the general methodological basis for the conservation of birds and ensuring the bird safety under conditions of the developed grid of power lines in Russia (text of the Resolution has been published in the Journal “Raptors Conservation” ¹23).


Proceedings of Conferences ïðåäñòàâëÿë Ðóñëàí Ìåäæèäîâ – ñîòðóäíèê ÊÐÎÎ «Öåíòð ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ ïðîåêòîâ». Åãî äîêëàä «Îïûò èçó÷åíèÿ è ïðàêòè÷åñêîãî ðåøåíèÿ ïðîáëåìû «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ» â Ðåñïóáëèêå Êàëìûêèÿ» áûë ïîñâÿù¸í àíàëèçó îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé ñèòóàöèè â ýëåêòðîñåòåâîé ñðåäå, à òàêæå îöåíêå ýôôåêòèâíîñòè ïðèìåíåíèÿ ðàçëè÷íûõ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ. Äîêëàä÷èê àêöåíòèðîâàë âíèìàíèå ó÷àñòíèêîâ ñåìèíàðà íà íåîáõîäèìîñòè îêàçàíèÿ ïîìîùè ðåãèîíàì ñî ñòîðîíû ôåäåðàëüíîãî öåíòðà, áåç ÷åãî íåâîçìîæíî îáåñïå÷èòü âûïîëíåíèå ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé â ïðèåìëåìûå ñðîêè. Î ðåçóëüòàòàõ èçó÷åíèÿ ïðîáëåìû ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Òàòàðñòàíå ðàññêàçàë Ðèíóð Áåêìàíñóðîâ – çàâåäóþùèé ìóçååì Ïðèðîäû ÔÁÓ Íàöèîíàëüíûé ïàðê «Íèæíÿÿ Êàìà», ñîîáùèâøèé, ÷òî â 2011 ã. ïîä îïîðàìè îáñëåäîâàííûõ 49 ËÝÏ íàéäåíû îñòàíêè áîëåå 190 ïòèö, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ê 12 âèäàì. Íåñêîëüêî îñîáíÿêîì, íà ïåðâûé âçãëÿä, ñòîÿë äîêëàä Íàäåæäû Ñàïóíêîâîé, ñîòðóäíèöû Èíñòèòóòà ïðîáëåì ýâîëþöèè è ýêîëîãèè èìåíè À.Í. Ñåâåðöîâà ÐÀÍ (ã. Ìîñêâà). Òåìà å¸ äîêëàäà: «Îñîáåííîñòè çàùèòû îòêðûòûõ ðàñïðåäåëèòåëüíûõ óñòðîéñòâ îò ïîâðåæäåíèé, âûçûâàåìûõ ïòèöàìè. Ïðèìåíåíèå êîìïëåêñíîãî ðåïåëëåíòíîãî ìåòîäà». Äîêëàä÷èöà óáåäèòåëüíî ïðîäåìîíñòðèðîâàëà âîçìîæíîñòü è íåîáõîäèìîñòü ïðèìåíåíèÿ ùàäÿùèõ (ãóìàííûõ) ñðåäñòâ îòïóãèâàíèÿ ïòèö îò äîðîãîñòîÿùåãî ýëåêòðîîáîðóäîâàíèÿ íà ÀÝÑ. Îäíî èç öåíòðàëüíûõ ìåñò â ñåìèíàðå ïî ïðàâó çàíÿëî âûñòóïëåíèå ðóêîâîäèòåëÿ ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл Ñåðãåÿ Òåòí¸âà, â êîòîðîì îí îáñòîÿòåëüíî ðàññêàçàë î ðàáîòå ñâîåé îðãàíèçàöèè â ñôåðå êîíñòðóèðîâàíèÿ ñïåöèàëüíûõ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ äëÿ ËÝÏ ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòè. Èñïîëüçóÿ äåìîíñòðàöèîííûå ñòåíäû, îí îõàðàêòåðèçîâàë ìîäåëüíûé ðÿä âûïóñêàåìûõ â Óëüÿíîâñêå ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ, îòäåëüíî îñòàíîâèëñÿ íà êîíñòðóêòèâíîýêñïëóàòàöèîííûõ ïðåèìóùåñòâàõ ñâîèõ ðàçðàáîòîê, à òàêæå ïîâåäàë îá óñïåøíûõ èñïûòàíèÿõ ÏÇÓ, ïðîâåä¸ííûõ êàê â ëàáîðàòîðíûõ, íàòóðíî-ñòåíäîâûõ, òàê è â ðåàëüíûõ ïîëåâûõ óñëîâèÿõ.  çàâåðøåíèå ñåìèíàðà ïðîçâó÷àë äîêëàä þðèñòà Âèòàëèÿ Èâàíîâà «Ñóäåáíàÿ ïðàêòèêà çàùèòû ïòèö îò óíè÷òîæåíèÿ íà ËÝÏ â Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè». Àâòîð îñâåòèë îñîáåííîñòè ðàññìîòðåíèÿ ñóäàìè ñïîðîâ ìåæäó ïðåäñòàâèòåëÿìè ïðèðîäîîõðàííûõ

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

29

îðãàíèçàöèé è âëàäåëüöàìè ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ, ðàñêðûë îïûò áåñêîíôëèêòíîãî âûõîäà èç ñóäåáíûõ ïðîöåññîâ. Ãîñòè Óëüÿíîâñêà ïîñåòèëè äåéñòâóþùèå ËÝÏ, îñíàù¸ííûå ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè. Ïî ìíåíèþ ó÷àñòíèêîâ ñåìèíàðà, åãî öåëè è çàäà÷è, çàÿâëåííûå â ïðîãðàììå, áûëè óñïåøíî äîñòèãíóòû.  ðåçóëüòàòå îñóùåñòâëåíà îöåíêà ñîâðåìåííîé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé ñèòóàöèè â ýëåêòðîñåòåâîì êîìïëåêñå Ðîññèè, ñîñòîÿëñÿ îáìåí îïûòîì ïî èçó÷åíèþ ïðîáëåìû «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ», âûðàáîòêå è ðåàëèçàöèè ðåãèîíàëüíûõ è âåäîìñòâåííûõ ïëàíîâ äåéñòâèé ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ýëåêòðîóñòàíîâêàõ. Íà ñåìèíàðå áûëè ðàññìîòðåíû îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèå, ïðàâîâûå, ýêîíîìè÷åñêèå, òåõíè÷åñêèå è îðãàíèçàöèîííûå âîïðîñû çàùèòû ïòèö íà ËÝÏ. Íåëèøíå çàìåòèòü, ÷òî íà ñåìèíàðå öàðèëà äåëîâàÿ äîáðîæåëàòåëüíàÿ àòìîñôåðà, íåñìîòðÿ íà òî, ÷òî â îäíîé àóäèòîðèè ñîáðàëèñü, êàçàëîñü áû, ïðåäñòàâèòåëè «ïðîòèâîïîëîæíûõ ëàãåðåé»: îðíèòîëîãè, ýêîëîãè, àêòèâèñòû ðåãèîíàëüíûõ îòäåëåíèé Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè, ïðåäñòàâèòåëè ðÿäà ïðèðîäîîõðàííûõ îáùåñòâåííûõ è ãîñóäàðñòâåííûõ îðãàíèçàöèé – ñ îäíîé ñòîðîíû, è ñîòðóäíèêè ïîäðàçäåëåíèé ýëåêòðî-ýíåðãåòè÷åñêîãî êîìïëåêñà, îñóùåñòâëÿþùèå äåÿòåëüíîñòü â ñôåðàõ ïðîåêòèðîâàíèÿ, ñòðîèòåëüñòâà è ýêñïëóàòàöèè ýëåêòðè÷åñêèõ ñåòåé – ñ äðóãîé ñòîðîíû. Êóëüìèíàöèîííûì èòîãîì ñåìèíàðà ñòàëî åäèíîãëàñíîå ïðèíÿòèå «Óëüÿíîâñêîé ðåçîëþöèè «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ-2011»», ïðèçâàííîé ñ ó÷¸òîì îòå÷åñòâåííîãî è çàðóáåæíîãî îïûòà îáúåäèíèòü óñèëèÿ âñåõ ñòîðîí, çàèíòåðåñîâàííûõ âî âíåäðåíèè ïåðåäîâûõ òåõíè÷åñêèõ ñðåäñòâ çàùèòû ïòèö îò ýëåêòðîïîðàæåíèé, ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè óëüÿíîâñêîãî îïûòà ïëàíèðîâàíèÿ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé, à òàêæå îïûòà ðÿäà ðåãèîíîâ ïî íîðìàòèâíî-ïðàâîâîìó ðåãóëèðîâàíèþ â ñôåðå ïðåäîòâðàùåíèÿ íåãàòèâíîãî âîçäåéñòâèÿ ýëåêòðîóñòàíîâîê íà ïòèö è ñðåäó èõ îáèòàíèÿ. Ðåçîëþöèÿ ñîïðîâîæäàåòñÿ òðåìÿ ïðèëîæåíèÿìè, ñ êîòîðûìè îíà îáðàçóåò åäèíûé ïàêåò ðàáî÷èõ äîêóìåíòîâ, ôîðìèðóþùèé îáùóþ ìåòîäè÷åñêóþ îñíîâó äëÿ ñîõðàíåíèÿ îðíèòîôàóíû è îáåñïå÷åíèÿ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé áåçîïàñíîñòè ýëåêòðîñåòåâîãî êîìïëåêñà Ðîññèè (òåêñò ðåçîëþöèè îïóáëèêîâàí â æóðíàëå «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà / Raptors Conservation» ¹23).


30

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

InitiativesoftheRussianBirdConservationUnioninAddressingthe Issueof"BirdsandPowerLines",Russia ИНИЦИАТИВЫ СОЮЗА ОХРАНЫ ПТИЦ РОССИИ В ОБЛАСТИ РЕШЕНИЯ ПРОБЛЕМЫ «ПТИЦЫ И ЛЭП», РОССИЯ SaltykovA.V.(RussianBirdConservationUnion,Moscow,Russia) Салтыков А.В. (Cоюз охраны птиц России, Москва, Россия)

Êîíòàêò: Àíäðåé Âëàäèìèðîâè÷ Ñàëòûêîâ Ñîþç îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè 111123, Ðîññèÿ, Ìîñêâà, øîññå Ýíòóçèàñòîâ, 60/1 òåë.: +7 906 393 78 97 +7 8422 300 704 aves-pl@mail.ru

Ðåçþìå Çàäà÷à ñîõðàíåíèÿ ïòèö îò ìàññîâîé ãèáåëè íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è âêëþ÷åíà â ïåðå÷åíü îñíîâíûõ çàäà÷ Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè (ÑÎÏÐ) íà 2011–2013 ãã.  2011 ã. íà÷àòû ðàáîòû ïî îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîìó îáñëåäîâàíèþ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ â íåñêîëüêèõ þæíûõ ðåãèîíàõ Ðîññèè. Ðóêîâîäèòåëÿì ðÿäà ðåãèîíîâ è âåäóùèõ îòðàñëåé ýêîíîìèêè áûëè íàïðàâëåíû îáðàùåíèÿ ñ ïðåäëîæåíèÿìè è ìåòîäè÷åñêèìè ðåêîìåíäàöèÿìè ïî ðàçðàáîòêå è ðåàëèçàöèè ïëàíîâ äåéñòâèé ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ. Ýòà èíèöèàòèâà âî ìíîãèõ ñëó÷àÿõ ïîëó÷èëà ïîëîæèòåëüíûé îòêëèê. Èìååòñÿ öåëûé ðÿä ïðèìåðîâ ïîëîæèòåëüíîé ñóäåáíîé ïðàêòèêè ïî ïîíóæäåíèþ âëàäåëüöåâ ËÝÏ ê ïðîâåäåíèþ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé. Ñîþç ïðèñòóïèë ê âûäåëåíèþ ãðàíòîâ íà âûïîëíåíèå ðåãèîíàëüíûõ ðàáîò ïî ïðîâåäåíèþ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîãî îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ è èíèöèèðîâàíèþ ïðîâåäåíèÿ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé â êîíêðåòíûõ ðåãèîíàõ. Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: ëèíèè ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è, ËÝÏ, Ñîþç îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè, ïòèöåçàùèòíûå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ, ïòèöåçàùèòíûå óñòðîéñòâà, «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ», ýëåêòðîñåòåâûå îáúåêòû. Ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ: 17.03.2012 ã. Ïðèíÿòà ê ïóáëèêàöèè: 25.03.2012 ã.

Contact: Andrey Saltykov Russian Bird Conservation Union Entusiastov highway, 60/1 Moscow, Russia, 111123 tel.: +7 906 393 78 97 +7 8422 300 704 aves-pl@mail.ru

Abstract The task of protecting birds from electrocution on power lines is included in the list of the priority tasks of the Russian Bird Conservation Union for the period of 2011–2013. In 2011, the surveys of power lines dangerous for birds have begun in several southern regions of Russia. A number of authorities of some regions and major industries were addressed with suggestions and guidance on developing and implementing action plans to prevent bird mortality on power lines. In a whole number of cases this initiative has got a positive response. There are many examples when court decided positively to compel the owners of power lines to the mitigation actions. The Union began to allocate grants for performing the regional surveys of power lines dangerous for birds and the initiation of mitigation activities in the certain regions. Keywords: power lines, the Russian Bird Conservation Union, mitigation actions, bird protection devices, “Birds and Power Lines”, powerline facilities. Received: 17/03/2012. Accepted: 25/03/2012.

Îäíîé èç ãëàâíûõ èíèöèàòèâ Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè (ÑÎÏÐ) ïî çàùèòå ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñòâîì íà âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è ñòàëî âêëþ÷åíèå òåìû «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ» â ïåðå÷åíü îñíîâíûõ çàäà÷ Ñîþçà íà 2011–2013 ãã. Ýòî ïðîèçîøëî íà VI îò÷¸òíî-âûáîðíîé êîíôåðåíöèè ÑÎÏÐ, êîòîðàÿ ïðîõîäèëà â Ìîñêâå 19–20 ôåâðàëÿ 2011 ã.  èòîãå â ðàçäåëå «Ïðàâîâàÿ, òåððèòîðèàëüíàÿ è ïðàêòè÷åñêàÿ îõðàíà ïòèö» «Îñíîâíûõ çàäà÷» ïîÿâèëñÿ ïóíêò «Ïðåäîòâðàùåíèå ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ è ïðî÷èõ òåõíîãåííûõ ñîîðóæåíèÿõ è îáúåêòàõ», à â ãðàôå «Îæèäàåìûé ðåçóëüòàò» ñôîðìóëèðîâàíà ïðîãðàììíàÿ çàäà÷à – øèðîêîå âíåäðåíèå ñèñòåìû îñíàùåíèÿ ËÝÏ ñïåöèàëüíûìè ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè, ìîäåðíèçàöèÿ ËÝÏ ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì àëüòåðíàòèâíûõ îïîð, ïðîâîäîâ è èçîëÿòîðîâ. Ðóêîâîäèòåëåì ïðîåêòà ïî çàÿâëåííîìó íàïðàâëåíèþ ñòàë àâòîð íàñòîÿùåé ñòàòüè, âîøåäøèé â ñîñòàâ Öåíòðàëüíîãî Ñîâåòà ÑÎÏÐ.  2011 ã. íàìè áûëè íà÷àòû ðàáîòû ïî îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîìó îáñëåäîâàíèþ ïòè-

The Russian Bird Conservation Union (RBCU) has formulated the priority strategic tasks for the period of 2011–2013 which are the following: broad adoption of the system of retrofitting the power lines (PL) with bird protection devices as well as reconstruction of PL with the usage of alternative poles, wires and insulators. In 2011, the surveys of PL hazardous to birds have begun in the following southern regions of Russia: Republic of Kalmykia, Stavropol, Rostov, Astrakhan, Volgograd, Orenburg, Saratov, Samara, Penza, Ulyanovsk districts. The President of RBCU has called on the authorities of some regions and major industries to develop and implement action plans for preventing the bird electrocution on PL. The initiative was met favorably in some regions of the federation and amongst the companies which own PL. Consequently, the surveys on bird mortality on some powerline facilities and the development of plans on mitigation measures have begun. There are many examples when court de-


Proceedings of Conferences öåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ â íåñêîëüêèõ þæíûõ ðåãèîíàõ Ðîññèè: Ðåñïóáëèêå Êàëìûêèÿ, Ñòàâðîïîëüñêîì êðàå, Ðîñòîâñêîé, Àñòðàõàíñêîé, Âîëãîãðàäñêîé, Îðåíáóðãñêîé, Ñàðàòîâñêîé, Ñàìàðñêîé, Ïåíçåíñêîé, Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòÿõ.  ðåçóëüòàòå áûëî îáñëåäîâàíî îêîëî òûñÿ÷è êèëîìåòðîâ ËÝÏ, âûÿâëåíî òðè ëîêàëüíûõ î÷àãà ãèáåëè ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ (Aquila nipalensis) (íà ñåâåðî-âîñòîêå Êàëìûêèè, þãå Ñàðàòîâñêîé îáëàñòè è â ñòåïíîì Çàâîëæüå Âîëãîãðàäñêîé îáëàñòè), óñòàíîâëåíû âëàäåëüöû öåëîãî ðÿäà ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ. Ðóêîâîäèòåëÿì ðÿäà ðåãèîíîâ è âåäóùèõ îòðàñëåé ýêîíîìèêè ïðåçèäåíòîì ÑÎÏÐ áûëè íàïðàâëåíû îáðàùåíèÿ ñ ïðåäëîæåíèÿìè è ìåòîäè÷åñêèìè ðåêîìåíäàöèÿìè ïî ðàçðàáîòêå è ðåàëèçàöèè ïëàíîâ äåéñòâèé ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ.  èòîãå ýòà èíèöèàòèâà ïîëó÷èëà ïîëîæèòåëüíûé îòêëèê â íåñêîëüêèõ ñóáúåêòàõ Ðîññèè (ðåñïóáëèêè: Êàëìûêèÿ, Òàòàðñòàí, Áàøêîðòîñòàí; Ñàðàòîâñêàÿ, Ðîñòîâñêàÿ îáëàñòè è äð.) è îðãàíèçàöèÿõ-âëàäåëüöàõ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ (êîìïàíèè íåôòåãàçîâîãî êîìïëåêñà è äð.), ãäå áûëè íà÷àòû ðàáîòû ïî èçó÷åíèþ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé ñèòóàöèè íà ýëåêòðîñåòåâûõ îáúåêòàõ è ïî ðàçðàáîòêå ïëàíîâ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé. Ñâåäåíèÿ î âûÿâëåííûõ ïðè îáñëåäîâàíèè ËÝÏ ôàêòàõ ãèáåëè ïòèö è îáðàùåíèÿ ñ ïðîñüáàìè î ïðèíÿòèè íåîáõîäèìûõ ìåð ðåãóëÿðíî íàïðàâëÿþòñÿ â ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå ïðèðîäîîõðàííûå íàäçîðíûå îðãàíû ðåãèîíîâ.  ðåçóëüòàòå òàêèõ îáðàùåíèé íàäçîðíûìè îðãàíàìè ïðîèçâîäèòñÿ âûäà÷à ïðåäñòàâëåíèé è òðåáîâàíèé î ðàçðàáîòêå è âûïîëíåíèè ïëàíîâ ïî îñíàùåíèþ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ çàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè, îá óñòðàíåíèè âëàäåëüöàìè ËÝÏ íåäîñòàòêîâ ïðè íåêà÷åñòâåííîì âûïîëíåíèè çàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé (íàïðèìåð, ïðè èñïîëüçîâàíèè êîíñòðóêòèâíî íåñîâìåñòèìûõ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ (ÏÇÓ), ìîíòàæå çàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ â íåïîëíîé êîìïëåêòàöèè è ò. ä.). Ïðåäñòàâèòåëè Ñîþçà óñïåøíî ó÷àñòâóþò â êà÷åñòâå èñòöîâ, ñâèäåòåëåé, ýêñïåðòîâ ëèáî òðåòüèõ ëèö â ñóäåáíûõ ïðîöåññàõ ïî èñêàì ê âëàäåëüöàì ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ ñ ïðåäúÿâëåíèåì òðåáîâàíèé îá îñíàùåíèè ËÝÏ ñïåöèàëüíûìè ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè. Òàê, íàïðèìåð, ÎÎÎ «Óëüÿíîâñêíåôòü» ïî ðåøåíèþ ñóäà îñíàñòèëî ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè âñå ñâîè ïòèöåîïàñíûå ËÝÏ, ýêñïëóàòèðóåìûå íà ìåñòîðîæäåíèÿõ íåôòè â Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè. Òàêóþ æå ðàáîòó â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ïðîâîäèò ÎÀÎ «Óëüÿ-

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

31

cided positively to compel the owners of PL to the mitigation actions. New version of “Requirements for prevention of bird mortality on power lines in Russian Federation” was developed. It was a prominent initiative to create a new category “Birds and Energy” on the official site of RBCU18. The Union has started to grant (out of sponsors’ funds) the surveys of PL hazardous to birds and the initiation of mitigation activities in some regions. The first target grant is planned to give out to the Saratov branch of RBCU to carry out the examination of key sites of PL in the six southern regions of the Saratov Trans-Volga region in 2012. A network of activists across the country, possessing the skills to identify and commit violations of the requirements for the protection of wildlife during the economic activity, followed by usage of PL dangerous for birds is forming.

Ïðèâû÷êà îõîòèòüñÿ ñ îïîð ËÝÏ â ðàéîíàõ ñ ðàçâèòîé ñåòüþ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ 6–10 ê çàêàí÷èâàåòñÿ äëÿ ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ (Aquila nipalensis), êàê ïðàâèëî, ãèáåëüþ. Ôîòî À. Ñàëòûêîâà. The habit of the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) to hunt from the electric poles in areas with a developed grid of power lines 6–10 kV hazardous to birds is a common reason for the death from electrocution. Photos by A. Saltykov.


32

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ðåçóëüòàòû àêöèè ïî ìàðêèðîâêå ïòèöåîïàñíûõ è ñòàâøèõ áåçîïàñíûìè äëÿ ïòèö ËÝÏ. Ôîòî À. Ñàëòûêîâà. Results of the action on marking the power lines dangerous to birds and power lines retrofitted with bird protective devices. Photoû by A. Saltykov.

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

íîâñêöåìåíò», îñíàùàÿ ÏÇÓ ñâîè ëèíèè, ðàñïîëîæåííûå íà êàðüåðàõ öåìåíòíîãî ñûðüÿ ïîä Íîâîóëüÿíîâñêîì. Èìååòñÿ öåëûé ðÿä è äðóãèõ ïîäîáíûõ ïðèìåðîâ ïîëîæèòåëüíîé ñóäåáíîé ïðàêòèêè ïî ïîíóæäåíèþ âëàäåëüöåâ ËÝÏ ê ïðîâåäåíèþ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé. Îñîáîå âíèìàíèå óäåëÿåòñÿ Ñîþçîì ïîäãîòîâêå ïðåäëîæåíèé ïî óñîâåðøåíñòâîâàíèþ íîðìàòèâíûõ ïðàâîâûõ àêòîâ ïî çàùèòå ïòèö îò íåãàòèâíîãî âîçäåéñòâèÿ ËÝÏ.  ÷àñòíîñòè, ñ ó÷àñòèåì ðàçëè÷íûõ ñïåöèàëèñòîâ â 2011 ã. áûë ïîäãîòîâëåí ïðîåêò íîâûõ «Òðåáîâàíèé ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è íà òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè», êîòîðûé âîø¸ë â êà÷åñòâå îäíîãî èç ïðèëîæåíèé ê Ðåçîëþöèè íàó÷íî-ïðàêòè÷åñêîãî ñåìèíàðà «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ-2011», ñîñòîÿâøåãîñÿ â Óëüÿíîâñêå (Íàó÷íî-ïðàêòè÷åñêèé ñåìèíàð…, 2011; Ðåêîìåíäàöèè…, 2011; Òðåáîâàíèÿ…, 2011). Åù¸ îäíîé çàìåòíîé èíèöèàòèâîé Ñîþçà ÿâèëîñü îòêðûòèå íà ñâî¸ì îôèöèàëüíîì ñàéòå ðàçäåëà «Ïòèöû è ýíåðãåòèêà»18, ãäå ðàçìåùåíû òåìàòè÷åñêèå íîâîñòè, êëþ÷åâûå ïóáëèêàöèè è ðóêîâîäÿùèå ìàòåðèàëû, îçíàêîìëåíèå ñ êîòîðûìè ïîìîæåò íà÷èíàþùèì çàùèòíèêàì ïòèö îñâîèòü ìåòîäû ðàáîòû ïî íàïðàâëåíèþ «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ». Áîëüøóþ êðîïîòëèâóþ ðàáîòó âûïîëíèë àêòèâèñò ÑÎÏÐ Î.Â. Áîðîäèí, ñîçäàâøèé íà ñàéòå «Ïòèöû Ñðåäíåãî Ïîâîëæüÿ»19 ýëåêòðîííóþ áèáëèîòåêó ïî òåìå «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ» è îñóùåñòâëÿþùèé ðåãóëÿðíîå ðàçìåùåíèå íîâîñòåé ïî äàííîé ïðîáëåìå íà ýòîì ñàéòå. Íåìàëîå çíà÷åíèå ïðèäà¸òñÿ íàìè ïó-

http://www.rbcu.ru/programs/311/ http://volgabirds.ru http://www.rbcu.ru/rbcu/1762 http://www.sibecocenter.ru/RC.htm http://www.sibecocenter.ru/sb.htm http://eepr.ru/ http://www.bellona.ru/enwl/Archive/2008/1215590476.72 http://www.rbcu.ru/programs/312/3951

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

áëèêàöèè ðàçíîîáðàçíûõ ìàòåðèàëîâ â æóðíàëå «Ìèð ïòèö»20 è èíûõ èçäàíèÿõ, ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâó ñ ðåäàêöèÿìè æóðíàëîâ «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà / Raptors Conservation»21, «Ñòåïíîé áþëëåòåíü»22, «Ýëåêòðîýíåðãèÿ. Ïåðåäà÷à è ðàñïðåäåëåíèå»23 è äðóãèì. Ñóùåñòâåííûì âêëàäîì â ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå çíàíèé î ïðîáëåìå ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ ñòàëà ðåàëèçàöèÿ ïðîåêòîâ Ñîþçà è âåäóùèõ ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ ðîññèéñêèõ è ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ îáùåñòâåííûõ îðãàíèçàöèé: - ñîçäàíèå èëëþñòðèðîâàííîãî ïîïóëÿðíîãî áóêëåòà «Æèâàÿ ïðèðîäà è ýíåðãåòèêà»24; - âûðàáîòêà è îáíàðîäîâàíèå «Ïîçèöèè ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ ÍÏÎ ïî ñîöèàëüíûì è ýêîëîãè÷åñêèì ïðîáëåìàì ïðîèçâîäñòâà è ïåðåäà÷è ýíåðãèè»25. Ñòàëî òðàäèöèåé åæåãîäíîå ïðîâåäåíèå â ðàìêàõ «Äíåé ïòèö» êðåàòèâíûõ àêöèé ïî ìàðêèðîâàíèþ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ, íåîáîðóäîâàííûõ ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè, ÿðêèìè ñòèêåðàìè ñ íàäïèñÿìè «SOS!», «ËÝÏ-óáèéöà ïòèö!», «Îïîðà îïàñíà äëÿ ïòèö!», à îáîðóäîâàííûõ – «ËÝÏ áåçîïàñíà äëÿ ïòèö», «Îïîðà áåçîïàñíà äëÿ ïòèö». Èíôîðìàöèÿ î ïðîâåäåíèè ýòèõ àêöèé ðàçìåùàåòñÿ íà ñàéòàõ Ñîþçà è «Ïòèöû Ñðåäíåãî Ïîâîëæüÿ». ×ëåíàìè ÑÎÏÐ îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ ïîñòîÿííîå êîíñóëüòèðîâàíèå çàèíòåðåñîâàííûõ ëèö ïî âîïðîñàì îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé áåçîïàñíîñòè ýëåêòðîñåòåâûõ è èíûõ ýíåðãåòè÷åñêèõ îáúåêòîâ, îêàçàíèå þðèäè÷åñêîé ïîìîùè â ðåøåíèè ïðîáëåì ïî íàïðàâëåíèþ «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ». Êðîìå òîãî, îðãàíèçóþòñÿ ñîâåùàíèÿ, ïðîâåä¸í


Proceedings of Conferences íàó÷íî-ïðàêòè÷åñêèé ñåìèíàð, ïëàíèðóåòñÿ ïðîâåäåíèå êîíôåðåíöèè ïî ïðîáëåìàòèêå «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ». Îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ ñáîð ñðåäñòâ (ïîæåðòâîâàíèé) íà ïðîâåäåíèå ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé.  êà÷åñòâå îäíîãî èç àêòèâíûõ ñïîíñîðîâ ñëåäóåò íàçâàòü ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл (ã. Óëüÿíîâñê). Ñðåäñòâà, âûäåëÿåìûå ýòîé îðãàíèçàöèåé, íàïðàâëÿþòñÿ íà ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ ïî çàùèòå ïòèö îò ãèáåëè íà ËÝÏ.  ÷àñòíîñòè, èñïîëüçóÿ ñïîíñîðñêèå ñðåäñòâà, Ñîþç ïðèñòóïèë ê âûäåëåíèþ ãðàíòîâ íà âûïîëíåíèå ðåãèîíàëüíûõ ðàáîò ïî ïðîâåäåíèþ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîãî îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ è èíèöèèðîâàíèþ ïðîâåäåíèÿ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé â êîíêðåòíûõ ðåãèîíàõ. Ïåðâûé öåëåâîé ãðàíò ïëàíèðóåòñÿ âûäåëèòü Ñàðàòîâñêîìó îòäåëåíèþ ÑÎÏÐ, â ñâÿçè ñ ÷åì ïîäãîòîâëåíî òåõíè÷åñêîå çàäàíèå (ïðîãðàììà) ê ïðîåêòó äîãîâîðà íà âûïîëíåíèå â 2012 ã. îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîãî îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ýëåêòðîñåòåâûõ êëþ÷åâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ â øåñòè þæíûõ ðàéîíàõ Ñàðàòîâñêîãî Çàâîëæüÿ. Ïî èíèöèàòèâå Ñîþçà âåä¸òñÿ ðàçðàáîòêà àòëàñà-îïðåäåëèòåëÿ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ýëåêòðîóñòàíîâîê, ñîñòàâëåíèå ðååñòðà ËÝÏ-óÿçâèìûõ ïòèö, êàðòû êðèòè÷íûõ çîí ãèáåëè ïòèö ðåäêèõ âèäîâ, ãèáåëè ïòèö íà îñîáî îõðàíÿåìûõ ïðèðîäíûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ è Êëþ÷åâûõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ òåððèòîðèÿõ Ðîññèè. Ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Ðîññèè èìååò îãðîìíûå ìàñøòàáû, îäíàêî îíà ðåøàåòñÿ áëàãîäàðÿ ðàçâèòèþ ñåòè àêòèâèñòîâ. Ôîòî À. Ñàëòûêîâà. The problem of bird mortality on power lines in Russia has a huge scale, but it is solved thanks to the development of a network of enthusiasts. Photos by A. Saltykov.

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

33

È, íàêîíåö, âàæíîé èíèöèàòèâîé Ñîþçà ÿâëÿåòñÿ îñóùåñòâëåíèå îáùåñòâåííîãî êîíòðîëÿ è îöåíêè ýôôåêòèâíîñòè ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé íà ýëåêòðîñåòåâûõ îáúåêòàõ. Ñîçäà¸òñÿ ñåòü àêòèâèñòîâ â ðàçëè÷íûõ ðåãèîíàõ ñòðàíû, âëàäåþùèõ íàâûêàìè ïî âûÿâëåíèþ è ôèêñàöèè íàðóøåíèé òðåáîâàíèé ïî îõðàíå æèâîòíîãî ìèðà ïðè îñóùåñòâëåíèè õîçÿéñòâåííîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè, ñîïðîâîæäàåìîé ýêñïëóàòàöèåé ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ. Ëèòåðàòóðà Íàó÷íî-ïðàêòè÷åñêèé ñåìèíàð «Ïðîáëåìû ãèáåëè ïòèö è îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêàÿ áåçîïàñíîñòü íà âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòè: ñîâðåìåííûé íàó÷íûé è ïðàêòè÷åñêèé îïûò», 10–11 íîÿáðÿ 2011 ãîäà, Óëüÿíîâñê, Ðîññèÿ. Óëüÿíîâñêàÿ ðåçîëþöèÿ «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ – 2011». – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2011. ¹23. Ñ. 23–26. Ðåêîìåíäàöèè Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè (ÑÎÏÐ) ïî ðàçðàáîòêå è ðåàëèçàöèè ðåãèîíàëüíûõ êîìïëåêñíûõ (ìåæâåäîìñòâåííûõ) ïëàíîâ äåéñòâèé ïî çàùèòå ïòèö îò ìàññîâîé ãèáåëè íà ýëåêòðîóñòàíîâêàõ. Ïðèëîæåíèå ¹1 ê Óëüÿíîâñêîé ðåçîëþöèè «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ – 2011». – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2011. ¹23. Ñ. 27–29. Òðåáîâàíèÿ ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è íà òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè (ïðîåêò). Ïðèëîæåíèå ¹2 ê Óëüÿíîâñêîé ðåçîëþöèè «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ – 2011». – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2011. ¹23. Ñ. 29–32.


34

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

BirdsandPowerLinesinSteppeCrimea: PositiveandNegativeImpacts,Ukraine ПТИЦЫ И ВОЗДУШНЫЕ ЛИНИИ ЭЛЕКТРОПЕРЕДАЧИ В СТЕПНОМ КРЫМУ: МИНУСЫ И ПЛЮСЫ, УКРАИНА AndriushchenkoYu.A.,PopenkoV.M.(TheAzov-BlackSeaOrnithologicalStation, Melitopol,Ukraine) Андрющенко Ю.А., Попенко В.М. (Азово-Черноморская орнитологическая станция, Мелитополь, Украина)

Êîíòàêò: Þðèé Àëåêñååâè÷ Àíäðþùåíêî Ëàáîðàòîðèÿ îðíèòîëîãèè þãà Óêðàèíû Àçîâî-×åðíîìîðñêîé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé ñòàíöèè Èíñòèòóòà çîîëîãèè èìåíè È.È. Øìàëüãàóçåíà ÍÀÍÓ 72312, Óêðàèíà, Çàïîðîæñêàÿ îáë., Ìåëèòîïîëü, óë. Ëåíèíà, 20 òåë./ôàêñ: +38 0619 44 04 09 anthropoides@mail.ru azov.black.station@ gmail.com Âëàäèìèð Ìàêàðîâè÷ Ïîïåíêî Ëàáîðàòîðèÿ îðíèòîëîãèè þãà Óêðàèíû Àçîâî-×åðíîìîðñêîé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé ñòàíöèè Èíñòèòóòà çîîëîãèè èìåíè È.È. Øìàëüãàóçåíà ÍÀÍÓ 72312, Óêðàèíà, Çàïîðîæñêàÿ îáë., Ìåëèòîïîëü, óë. Ëåíèíà, 20 òåë./ôàêñ: +38 0619 44 04 09 anthus@mail.ru azov.black.station@ gmail.com

Ðåçþìå  îñíîâó ñîîáùåíèÿ ëåãëè ðåçóëüòàòû íàáëþäåíèé íà âñåé òåððèòîðèè Ñòåïíîãî Êðûìà è áîëåå ñêðóïóë¸çíûõ ó÷¸òîâ ïòèö âäîëü ËÝÏ íà Êåð÷åíñêîì ïîëóîñòðîâå â 2001–2002 ãã., íà í¸ì æå â 2005–2006 ãã. è íà Òàðõàíêóòñêîé âîçâûøåííîñòè â 2006–2007 ãã. Èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïîêàçàëè, ÷òî íàèáîëåå îïàñíû ËÝÏ äëÿ ïòèö â ïåðèîä ìèãðàöèé è çèìîâîê, ïðåæäå âñåãî â ìåñòàõ èõ áîëüøèõ êîíöåíòðàöèé.  áîëüøèíñòâå ñëó÷àåâ îò ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ñ ïðîâîäàìè ãèáíóò íàèáîëåå ìàññîâûå âèäû. ×àùå ñòàëêèâàþòñÿ ñ ïðîâîäàìè êðóïíûå ïòèöû. Íàèáîëåå ìàññîâî îò ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ñ ïðîâîäàìè ïòèöû ãèáíóò ïðè ïëîõîé âèäèìîñòè. Çíà÷èòåëüíîå ÷èñëî âèäîâ ïòèö èñïîëüçóþò îïîðû è ïðîâîäà âîçäóøíûõ ËÝÏ âûñîêîãî íàïðÿæåíèÿ äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ, îòäûõà, îõîòû, íî÷¸âêè, îñîáåííî â îòêðûòûõ ëàíäøàôòàõ. Ïîëó÷åííûå ðåçóëüòàòû ïîçâîëÿþò êîíñòàòèðîâàòü ïîçèòèâíîå çíà÷åíèå ËÝÏ âûñîêîãî íàïðÿæåíèÿ äëÿ ðÿäà ðåäêèõ âèäîâ, ïðåæäå âñåãî õèùíûõ ïòèö, îñîáåííî êàê èñêóññòâåííûõ àíàëîãîâ óíè÷òîæåííîé äðåâåñíîé ðàñòèòåëüíîñòè â îòêðûòûõ ëàíäøàôòàõ, äîìèíèðóþùèõ â Ñòåïíîì Êðûìó. Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: Êðûì, ËÝÏ, ïòèöû, ãèáåëü îò ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ. Ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ: 14.03.2012 ã. Ïðèíÿòà ê ïóáëèêàöèè: 22.03.2012 ã. Abstract The article is based on the results of surveys carried out throughout the territory of Steppe Crimea and the detailed counts of birds along power lines going across the Kerch peninsula in 2001–2002 and in 2005–2006, in the Tarkhankut upland in 2006–2007 as well. The studies have shown that power lines are hazardous to birds during migrations and wintering, especially in the areas of their congestions. Numerous species generally suffer from collision with wires. And there are large birds in many cases. Poor visibility is the main reason of increasing in numbers of bird collisions Many birds used electric poles and wires as a nesting and roosting sites as well as for hunting, especially in open landscapes. The results obtained allow to claim that the power lines in the high voltage range have a positive impact to some rare species as well. There are birds of prey, which used which used artificial constructions instead the destroyed natural wood vegetation in open landscapes that predominate in Steppe Crimea. Keywords: Crimea, power lines, bird electrocution, bird collision. Received: 14/03/2012. Accepted: 22/03/2012.

Ââåäåíèå  ñòåïíîé ÷àñòè Óêðàèíû ðàñïîëîæåíî ìíîæåñòâî ýëåêòðîñòàíöèé (ÃÝÑ, ÒÝÑ, ÀÝÑ) è áîëüøèõ ïîòðåáèòåëåé ýëåêòðîýíåðãèè: êðóïíûõ ïðåäïðèÿòèé (â îñíîâíîì ìåòàëëóðãè÷åñêèõ, ìàøèíîñòðîèòåëüíûõ, õèìè÷åñêèõ) è ãîðîäîâ (èç êîòîðûõ â ÷åòûð¸õ áîëåå ìèëëèîíà æèòåëåé, à åù¸ â ÷åòûð¸õ ïðèáëèæàåòñÿ ê ìèëëèîíó). Âñå îíè ñîåäèíåíû ãóñòîé ñåòüþ âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è (ËÝÏ).  òî æå âðåìÿ, èíòåíñèâíîå ðàçâèòèå ðåêðåàöèîííîé èíôðàñòðóêòóðû â Êðûìó âëå÷¸ò çà ñîáîé óâåëè÷åíèå ãóñòîòû ËÝÏ, êîòîðîå â ïîñëåäíåå äåñÿòèëåòèå óñóãóáëÿåòñÿ ìàññîâûì ñòðîèòåëüñòâîì âåòðîâûõ ýëåêòðîñòàíöèé (ÂÝÑ).  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ â Ñòåïíîì Êðûìó óæå ýêñïëóàòèðóåòñÿ ðÿä ÂÝÑ è åù¸ íåñêîëüêî íàõîäÿòñÿ íà ñòàäèè ïðîåêòèðîâàíèÿ èëè ñòðîèòåëüñòâà.  ñâÿçè

Introduction There are a lot of electric power stations and large consumers of electricity in the steppes of the Ukraine. As a result a dense grid of overhead power lines (PL) is developed. Steppe Crimea is a unique bird area, so the study negative or positive impact of Pl on birds is very important. The article is based on the results of surveys carried out throughout the territory of Steppe Crimea and the detailed counts of birds along power lines going across the Kerch peninsula in 2001–2002 (Andriuschenko et al., 2002), and in 2005– 2006, in the Tarkhankut upland in 2006– 2007 (Popenko et al., 2006) as well. Material and Methods In the winter of 2001/2002, surveys were conducted along the PL by two observers


Proceedings of Conferences Contact: Yuriy Andriushchenko The Azov-Black Sea Ornithological Station Lenin Str., 20, Melitopol, Zaporizhzhya region, Ukraine, 72312 tel./ fax +38 0619 44 04 09 anthropoides@mail.ru azov.black.station@ gmail.com Vladimir Popenko The Azov-Black Sea Ornithological Station Lenin Str., 20, Melitopol, Zaporizhzhya region, Ukraine, 72312 tel./ fax +38 0619 44 04 09 anthus@mail.ru azov.black.station@ gmail.com

ñ òåì, ÷òî îáñóæäàåìûé ðåãèîí ÿâëÿåòñÿ óíèêàëüíîé â îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîì ñìûñëå òåððèòîðèåé, äëÿ êîòîðîé ñâîéñòâåííî îäíîâðåìåííîå âçàèìîïðîíèêíîâåíèå ñòåïíûõ, ãîðíî-ëåñíûõ è âîäíî-áîëîòíûõ îðíèòîêîìïëåêñîâ, èññëåäîâàíèå çíà÷åíèÿ ËÝÏ äëÿ ïòèö, êàê îòðèöàòåëüíîãî, òàê è ïîëîæèòåëüíîãî, ÿâëÿåòñÿ äîâîëüíî àêòóàëüíûì.  îñíîâó ñîîáùåíèÿ ëåãëè ðåçóëüòàòû íàáëþäåíèé íà âñåé òåððèòîðèè Ñòåïíîãî Êðûìà è áîëåå ñêðóïóë¸çíûõ ó÷¸òîâ ïòèö âäîëü ËÝÏ íà Êåð÷åíñêîì ïîëóîñòðîâå â 2001–2002 ãã. (Àíäðþùåíêî è äð., 2002), íà í¸ì æå â 2005–2006 ãã. è íà Òàðõàíêóòñêîé âîçâûøåííîñòè â 2006–2007 ãã. (Ïîïåíêî è äð., 2006). Ìàòåðèàë è ìåòîäû èññëåäîâàíèé Çèìîé 2001/2002 ãã. ó÷¸òû âäîëü ËÝÏ ïðîâîäèëèñü îäèí ðàç â íåäåëþ. Ïðè âûáîðå äíÿ è âðåìåíè ó÷¸òà ðóêîâîäñòâîâàëèñü òåì, ÷òî îí äîëæåí îñóùåñòâëÿòüñÿ: ïîñëå îõîòû; ïîñëå íåáëàãîïðèÿòíîé ïîãîäû; ïðè õîðîøåì åñòåñòâåííîì îñâåùåíèè. Ó÷¸ò ïðîâîäèëè îäíîâðåìåííî äâà íàáëþäàòåëÿ. Ìàðøðóò ó÷¸òà ïðîõîäèë ïî îáå ñòîðîíû îò ËÝÏ íà ðàññòîÿíèè 25 ì îò íå¸ ïðè ïåðåìåùåíèè â îäíîì íàïðàâëåíèè è 75 ì – ïðè ïåðåìåùåíèè îáðàòíî. Ýòî ïîçâîëÿëî äåòàëüíî îñìîòðåòü äâå ïîëîñû, øèðèíîé ïî 100 ì, ñ äâóõ ñòîðîí îò ËÝÏ. Äëèíà êîíòðîëüíîé ïëîùàäêè ñîñòàâèëà 10 êì. Äàííûå ó÷¸òà çàíîñèëèñü â ñïåöèàëüíî ðàçðàáîòàííûå êàðòî÷êè, â êîòîðûõ ôèêñèðîâàëèñü: âðåìÿ íà÷àëà è îêîí÷àíèÿ ó÷¸òà; ñîñòîÿíèå ïîãîäû; âèä ïîãèáøåé èëè ïîðàíåííîé ïòèöû (åñëè âîçìîæíî, òî å¸ ïîë è âîçðàñò); ðàññòîÿíèå â ìåòðàõ îò ËÝÏ äî ìåñòà ïàäåíèÿ ïòèöû è ìåñòà îáíàðóæåíèÿ å¸ îñòàíêîâ; ñîõðàííîñòü îñòàíêîâ (öåëûå, ïîëîâèíà, ìàëî); ñóäüáà ïòèöû (óøëà ðàíåííîé, îñòàëàñü íåòðîíóòîé, ñúåäåíà ëèñîé, ñîáàêîé èëè äðóãèì õèùíèêîì, ïîäîáðàíà ÷åëîâåêîì, äðóãîå). Íà êîïèè êàðò êîíòðîëüíûõ ïëîùàäîê íàíîñèëèñü ìåñòî îáíàðóæåíèÿ ïîãèáøåé ïòèöû è ìåñòî å¸ ïàäåíèÿ, åñëè åãî ìîæíî îïðåäåëèòü. Âñå ñëó÷àè îáíàðóæåíèÿ îñòàíêîâ ïòèö ôîòîãðàôèðîâàëèñü (íå òîëüêî îñòàíêè, íî è ìåñòî èõ ïàäåíèÿ, ñëåä ïåðåìåùåíèÿ ïòèö èëè îñòàíêîâ õèùíèêîì è ò.ï.). Îñòàíêè, êîòîðûå íåâîçìîæíî áûñòðî îïðåäåëèòü â ïîëå, ñîáèðàëèñü äëÿ ïîñëåäóþùåé èäåíòèôèêàöèè. Ïàðàëëåëüíî ïðîèçâîäèëñÿ ó÷¸ò âñåõ ïòèö âäîëü ËÝÏ. Èõ âèäîâîé ñîñòàâ

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

35

once a week. The route of counts was going on both sides of the PL at a distance of 25 m from it when they move in one direction and 75 m – when they move back. This allowed us examine in detail two transects, width of 100 m on both sides of the PL. The transect length was 10 km. Every point of detected dead bird was fixed on the map of transect. All cases of found remains of birds were photographed. The remains that were not able to be quickly identified in the field, were collected for later identification. Also all birds encountered along PL were recorded. Results and Discussion In southern Ukraine, as a result of the network transmission line there was a danger of collision of birds with wires or death by electric current, but it was a lot of benefits, using their ability to live wires and supports, especially in the prevalence of open landscapes in the steppe Crimea. That is why, in this report examined in detail, “pluses” – the benefits of the transmission line birds than the more widely known “cons” – the threat of their contact with the wires. In Southern Ukraine, the developed grid of PL is a hazard to birds due to electrocution

Äðîôà (Otis tarda), ðàçáèâøàÿñÿ î ïðîâîäà ËÝÏ âûñîêîãî íàïðÿæåíèÿ. Ôîòî Þ. Àíäðþùåíêî. Great Bustard (Otis tarda) killed by collision with wires of the high voltage power line. Photo by Y. Andriushchenko.


36

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24 îïðåäåëÿëñÿ ñ ïîìîùüþ 8–12-êðàòíûõ áèíîêëåé è ïîäçîðíûõ òðóá ñ óâåëè÷åíèåì 30× – 45×. Èñïîëüçîâàëèñü ñòàíäàðòíûå îáùåïðèçíàííûå ìåòîäèêè ó÷¸òîâ ïòèö, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ìàðøðóòíûå ó÷¸òû è àáñîëþòíûå ó÷¸òû íà ïëîùàäêàõ. Äëÿ îõâàòà áîëüøåé òåððèòîðèè ïðèìåíÿëèñü ìàðøðóòíûå àâòîìîáèëüíûå ó÷¸òû. Âî âðåìÿ ó÷¸òîâ èñïîëüçîâàëàñü ìåòîäèêà ó÷¸òíûõ êâàäðàòîâ ðàçìåðîì 10×10 êì. Ðåçóëüòàòû è îáñóæäåíèå Ñðåäè çàùèòíèêîâ îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû òðàäèöèîííî ïîâåëîñü âñ¸ àíòðîïîãåííîå îòíîñèòü â ðàçðÿä íåãàòèâíîãî äëÿ ïòèö, ïðè ýòîì, ïîðîé, áåç ó÷¸òà î÷åâèäíûõ ïðåèìóùåñòâ äëÿ íåêîòîðûõ, à òî è ìíîãèõ èõ âèäîâ. Òàê, íà þãå Óêðàèíû, ñî ñëàáî ðàçâèòîé åñòåñòâåííîé ãèäðîëîãè÷åñêîé ñåòüþ, ïðóäû è âîäîõðàíèëèùà ÿâëÿþòñÿ ìåñòàìè âûñîêîãî âèäîâîãî ðàçíîîáðàçèÿ: èõ ñîçäàíèå ïðèâåëî ê ñîêðàùåíèþ, â îñíîâíîì àâòîõòîííûõ, âèäîâ, ñòåïíûõ è ñîëîí÷àêîâûõ, íî ñïîñîáñòâîâàëî çíà÷èòåëüíîìó óâåëè÷åíèþ êîëè÷åñòâà âèäîâ è ðîñòó îáùåé ÷èñëåííîñòè ïòèö. Ïðèìåðíî òî æå ïðîèçîøëî è ñî ñòðîèòåëüñòâîì ËÝÏ: õîòÿ è ñóùåñòâóåò îïàñíîñòü ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ïòèö ñ ïðîâîäàìè èëè âîçäåéñòâèÿ íà íèõ ýëåêòðîòîêà, íî ïðè ýòîì íåìàëî âèäîâ ïîëó÷èëî âûãîäû, èñïîëüçóÿ â ñâîåé æèçíåäåÿòåëüíîñòè ïðîâîäà è îïîðû, îñîáåííî â óñëîâèÿõ ïðåîáëàäàíèÿ îòêðûòûõ ëàíäøàôòîâ â Ñòåïíîì Êðûìó. Èìåííî ïîýòîìó â äàííîì ñîîáùåíèè äåòàëüíåå ðàññìîòðåíû «ïëþñû» – ïðåèìóùåñòâà, ïîëó÷àåìûå ïòèöàìè îò ËÝÏ, íåæåëè áîëåå øèðîêî èçâåñòíûå «ìèíóñû» – óãðîçû îò èõ êîíòàêòîâ ñ ïðîâîäàìè. Ìèíóñû: Ðåçóëüòàòû ïðîâåä¸ííûõ èññëåäîâàíèé óêàçûâàþò íà òî, ÷òî ñóùåñòâóþùèå ËÝÏ ÿâëÿþòñÿ èñòî÷íèêîì óãðîçû äëÿ ìíîãèõ âèäîâ ïòèö. Íàèáîëåå îïàñíû îíè â ïåðèîä ìèãðàöèé è çèìîâîê, ïðåæäå âñåãî â ìåñòàõ áîëüøèõ êîíöåíòðàöèé ïòèö.  òå÷åíèå 31 öåëåíàïðàâëåííîãî îáñëåäîâàíèÿ òåððèòîðèè ïîä êîíòðîëüíûìè ËÝÏ (äëèíà ìàðøðóòà 20 êì) óñòàíîâëåíà ãèáåëü 57 îñîáåé ïòèö, èç êîòîðûõ èäåíòèôèöèðîâàíî 7 âèäîâ. Òàêîå íåçíà÷èòåëüíîå êîëè÷åñòâî îñòàíêîâ ñâÿçàíî, ïî âñåé âèäèìîñòè, ñ äåÿòåëüíîñòüþ õèùíèêîâ, ïðåæäå âñåãî ëèñ (Vulpes vulpes), áðîäÿ÷èõ ñîáàê (Canis familiaris) è êîøåê

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé and collision, but many bird species benefit from using of electric poles and wires, especially in the prevalence of open landscapes in the Steppe Crimea. That is why, “pluses” – the benefits from PL to birds were studied more thoroughly than the more widely known “minuses” – a hazard from collision and electrocution. Negative impact: The results of the studies carried out indicate that PL are a hazard to many species of birds. They are most dangerous during migration and wintering, especially in areas of large congestions of birds. The targeted examinations of the PL were carried out 31 times (the length of the route was 20 km) was detected 57 events of bird deaths, whilst 7 species of killed birds were identified (table 1). Mostly the large birds were proved to suffer from collision: Swans (Cygnus sp.), Cranes (Grus sp.), Great Bustard (Otis tarda), being not able to maneuver quickly in flight. Under conditions of poor visibility (at night, in heavy rain, snowfall, fog, wind, against a background of forest belts) a number of bird deaths from collision increases. In this sense, the most dangerous power lines are as follows: - located between the water bodies (for example – between Karleutskoe and Aygulskoe lakes in the north of Crimea); - going across or along wetlands, areas covered tree or shrub vegetation and other lands with high accumulation of birds (for example – the Siwash along the Naiman dam at the junction of the Kherson district and Crimea); - crossing highlands (for example – the system of ridges on the Kerch Peninsula); - going along the artificial forest lines (flying to they birds can take no notice of wires on a background of trees, and birds crossing they – suddenly run across the wire). Thus, special studies need to develop recommendations for reducing bird deaths from collisions under the concrete conditions of the PL location. Optimal placement of PL and the use of bird protection devices can significantly reduce bird deaths. Besides collisions, birds are killed by electrocution, when they bridge the wires or a wire and pole; mainly large birds suffer from it. Among birds of prey we found remains of the Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) killed by electrocution, on a pole of the medium voltage PL


Proceedings of Conferences

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

37

Òàáë. 1. Ñâåäåíèÿ îá îñòàíêàõ ïòèö (n=57 îñîáåé), ñîáðàííûõ ïîä êîíòðîëüíûìè ËÝÏ íà Êåð÷åíñêîì ïîëóîñòðîâå çèìîé 2001–2002 ãã. Table 1. Data on bird remains (n=57 ind.), collected beneath the surveyed power line located in the Kerch peninsula in winter 2001–2002.

¹ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Âèä / Species Ëåáåäü (Cygnus sp.) Ãóñü (Anser sp.) Óòêà (Anas sp.) Ïîëåâîé ëóíü (Circus cyaneus), ìîëîäîé ñàìåö / juvenile male Ñåðàÿ êóðîïàòêà (Perdix perdix) Äðîôà (Otis tarda) ×àéêà (Larus sp.) Ñîâà (Asio sp.) Ñåðàÿ âîðîíà (Corvus cornix) Âîðîí (Corvus corax) Âðàíîâûå (Corvidae sp.) Ñòåïíîé æàâîðîíîê (Melanocorypha calandra) Ñêâîðåö (Sturnus vulgaris) Ìåëêèå âîðîáüèíûå / Passerines

Êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus), ïîãèáøèé îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì íà ËÝÏ ñðåäíåãî íàïðÿæåíèÿ. Ôîòî Þ. Àíäðþùåíêî. Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) killed by electrocution on PL in the medium voltage range. Photo by Y. Andriushchenko.

Êîë-âî îñîáåé Number of ind. 2 4 1 1

Îñòàíêè / Remains êîñòè / bones êîñòè, ïåðüÿ, â îñíîâíîì ìàõîâûå / bones, feathers êîñòè òàçà / bones ìàõîâûå è êîíòóðíûå ïåðüÿ / feathers

2 ïåðüÿ / feathers 11 êîñòè, ïåðüÿ è 2 öåëûõ ïòèöû / bones, feathers and 2 carcasses 8 ïåðüÿ, êîñòè, ó÷àñòêè êîæè / feathers, bones, skin 2 ìàõîâûå ïåðüÿ / feathers 2 âòîðîñòåïåííûå ìàõîâûå è êîíòóðíûå ïåðüÿ / feathers 1 êîñòè, ÷åðåï / bones 12 ïåðüÿ, êîñòè, ÷åðåïà / feathers, bones 6 ïåðüÿ, êîñòè, êðûëî / feathers, bones, entire wing 2 4

(Felis catus), à òàêæå âðàíîâûõ, õèùíûõ ïòèö è ÷àåê-õîõîòóíèé (Larus [argentatus] sp.) (òàáë. 1). Èç ïðèâåä¸ííîãî ñïèñêà âèäíî, ÷òî â áîëüøèíñòâå ñëó÷àåâ îò ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ñ ïðîâîäàìè ãèáíóò ïòèöû, êîòîðûå ÿâëÿþòñÿ íàèáîëåå ìàññîâûìè çèìîé â ðàéîíå êîíòðîëüíûõ ËÝÏ, íåçàâèñèìî îò èõ ðåäêîñòè â ðåãèîíå â öåëîì. Êàêîéòî ÿâíîé «ïðåäðàñïîëîæåííîñòè» èëè òåíäåíöèè ê ñòîëêíîâåíèþ ñ ËÝÏ ó îòäåëüíûõ âèäîâ íå âûÿâëåíî, õîòÿ ÷àùå ñòàëêèâàþòñÿ ñ ïðîâîäàìè êðóïíûå ïòèöû: ëåáåäè (Cygnus sp.), æóðàâëè (Grus sp.), äðîôû (Otis tarda), íå ñïîñîáíûå â ïîë¸òå áûñòðî ìàíåâðèðîâàòü. Ñâèäåòåëüñòâî òîìó – íàáëþäåíèÿ Ñ.Ï. Ïðîêîïåíêî è À.Á. Ãðèí÷åíêî (2000), íà ãëàçàõ ó êîòîðûõ âî âðåìÿ äîæäÿ îäíîâðåìåííî î ïðîâîäà ðàçáèëèñü ÷åòûðå

ïåðüÿ, ïëå÷åâîé ïîÿñ ñ ïåðüÿìè / feathers, bones êîñòè, ïåðüÿ / bones, feathers

near the eastern shore of Aigul Lake on 08/08/2010. It seems that such cases are not unique, but their detection requires the special study. Positive impact: A significant number of bird species uses electric poles and wires for perching, hunting and roosting, especially in open landscapes (fig. 1). Under conditions of open landscapes predominating in the Steppe Crimea electric poles are important as nesting sites for several species, especially listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine (2009). The Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus). The first record of the species breeding in Crimea was made in 1997. (Grinchenko et al., 2000). For the short period its number has sharply increased, and now it is the most numerous species among other Buzzards in the Steppe Crimea during the year. It nests in trees, but we are aware of two cases of nesting. The species prefer to nest on trees but we know two events of breeding on metal electric poles: near Shaumyan village (Saksk region) in 2007 and near the Sari-Bash village (Pervomaysk region) in 2010. The Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca). In Crimea the species is observed to expand its breeding range from the mountain forest part to the steppe. In 2011, there was the first record of eagles building their own nest on a crossarm of the metal electric pole. Burning of artificial forest lines and felling of trees following it are a com-


38

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24 ìîëîäûå äðîôû, ëåòåâøèå ïîñëåäíèìè â ñòàå èç 40 îñîáåé, â òî âðåìÿ êàê ïåðåäíèå óñïåëè èçáåæàòü ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ. Íàìè 10.11.2008 ã., òàêæå ïîä ËÝÏ íà Êåð÷åíñêîì ï-îâå, ïîñëå óòðåííåãî òóìàíà áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ÷åòûðå îäíîâðåìåííî ðàçáèâøèõñÿ äðîôû, èç êîòîðûõ îäíà îêàçàëàñü æèâàÿ ñ ïåðåáèòîé íîãîé, îäíà ì¸ðòâàÿ ñ ïîâðåæä¸ííîé øååé è ãðóäèíîé è äâå ñúåäåííûå îðëàíîìáåëîõâîñòîì (Haliaeetus albicilla) è âðàíîâûìè ïòèöàìè. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, íàèáîëåå ìàññîâî îò ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ñ ïðîâîäàìè ïòèöû ãèáíóò ïðè ïëîõîé âèäèìîñòè (íî÷üþ, ïðè ñèëüíîì äîæäå, ñíåãîïàäå, òóìàíå, âåòðå, íà ôîíå ëåñîïîëîñ).  ýòîì ñìûñëå íàèáîëåå îïàñíû ËÝÏ: - ðàñïîëîæåííûå ìåæäó âîäî¸ìàìè (ïðèìåð – ìåæäó îç¸ðàìè Êàðëåóòñêîå è Àéãóëüñêîå íà ñåâåðå Êðûìà); ïåðåñåêàþùèå âîäíî-áîëîòíûå óãîäüÿ (ïðèìåð – Ñèâàø ïî Íàéìàíñêîé äàìáå íà ñòûêå Õåðñîíñêîé îáëàñòè è Êðûìà) èëè ðàñïîëîæåííûå âáëèçè âîäíî-áîëîòíûõ, äðåâåñíîêóñòàðíèêîâûõ è äðóãèõ óãîäèé ñ âûñîêîé êîíöåíòðàöèåé ïòèö; - èäóùèå ïî âîçâûøåííûì ìåñòàì (ïðèìåð – øèðîòíàÿ ãðÿäîâàÿ ñèñòåìà íà Êåð÷åíñêîì ï-îâå); - èäóùèå âäîëü ëåñîïîëîñ (ïòèöû, ëåòÿùèå ê íåé, ìîãóò íå çàìå÷àòü ïðîâîäà íà ôîíå äåðåâüåâ); Ñëåäîâàòåëüíî, íåîáõîäèìû ñïåöèàëüíûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ, íàïðàâëåííûå íà ðàçðàáîòêó ðåêîìåíäàöèé ïî ñíèæåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö îò ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ñ ïðîâîäàìè â êîíêðåòíûõ óñëîâèÿõ ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ËÝÏ. Îïòèìàëüíîå ðàçìåùåíèå ËÝÏ è èñïîëüçîâàíèå óñòðîéñòâ, îòïóãèâàþùèõ ïòèö, ìîæåò ñóùåñòâåííî ñîêðàòèòü ìàñøòàáû ãèáåëè ïòèö. Ïîìèìî ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ñ ïðîâîäàìè ïòèöû ãèáíóò îò ýëåêòðîòîêà, «çàìûêàÿ» ñîáîé ïðîâîäà èëè ïðîâîä è îïîðó, â îñíîâíîì ýòî òàêæå êðóïíûå âèäû. Èç õèùíûõ ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ äîñòîâåðíî ïî ýòîé ïðè÷èíå, íàìè îáíàðóæåí òðóï êóðãàííèêà (Buteo rufinus) íà îïîðå ËÝÏ ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòè ó âîñòî÷íîãî áåðåãà îç. Àéãóë 8.08.2010 ã. Õîòÿ, î÷åâèäíî, òàêèå ñëó÷àè íå åäèíè÷íû, îäíàêî äëÿ èõ âûÿâëåíèÿ íåîáõîäèìû ñïåöèàëüíûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ. Ïëþñû: Çíà÷èòåëüíîå ÷èñëî âèäîâ ïòèö èñïîëüçóþò îïîðû è ïðîâîäà ËÝÏ íå òîëüêî äëÿ îòäûõà èëè îõîòû, íî è äëÿ íî÷¸âêè, îñî-

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé mon phenomenon in the south of Ukraine. As a result many tree-nesting species lose their nesting sites, and under such conditions the high voltage electric poles are almost the only alternative nesting sites for them. The Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug). Up to 58.3% of pairs nest on electric poles in the Steppe Crimea, and up to 76.3% – in all over the steppe part of Ukraine (Milobog, Vetrov et al., 2010). The authors believe that birds started to occupy electric poles in large scale in 1970-s after developing the dense grid of PL. Our observations showed the occurrence of the species (as well as of some others) nesting on electric poles is rather high (table 2). The Raven (Corvus corax) is the main nest builder for the Sake Falcon on electric poles. Installing the artificial nests on poles of the high voltage power lines can provide recovering the species population. The Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). The species nesting on electric poles is a common phenomenon. As a rule, birds use nests of Jackdaws (Corvus monedula) and Ravens. In several areas the species prefers to nest on poles, despite the presence of well developed artificial forest lines with plenty of old nests of Crows and Magpies close to them. The Little Owl (Athene noctua). Being a nocturnal species with rather small population it is underestimated and the nesting in electric poles may be more widespread than it is known. We observed the Little Owl nesting in the defective concrete pole in the vicinity of the Chernyshovo settlement of the Razdolnenskiy region in Crimea in 2001. Conclusions On the one hand, the birds are killed by electrocution and collision, and on the other hand, many of them receive significant benefits. Thus, in order to prevent the bird deaths from electrocution and collision the special studies are required for developing recommendations on the optimal placement of PL and use of bird protection devices. The ornithological expertise should be included in the “Assessment of Environmental Impact” at the design of PL. We can state that PL have not only the negative impact on birds, but also, under certain conditions, a positive one for nesting and resting, especially rare species. Electric poles may be used as artificial analogues of destroyed tree vegetation in open landscapes.


Proceedings of Conferences

Ïðèìå÷àíèå: * – â òîì ÷èñëå êàê ïðèñàäó Note: * – including used as perch Ðèñ. 1. Èñïîëüçîâàíèå ËÝÏ âèäàìè ïòèö Ñòåïíîãî Êðûìà (n=258). Fig. 1. Using of PL by birds in the Steppe Crimea (n=258).

áåííî â îòêðûòûõ ëàíäøàôòàõ (ðèñ. 1). Ïðîâîäà è îïîðû êàê ïðèñàäó èñïîëüçóþò äàæå òàêèå âîäíî-áîëîòíûå âèäû ïòèö, êàê òðàâíèê (Tringa totanus) è êóëèê-ñîðîêà (Haematopus ostralegus), îñîáåííî â ñëó÷àå èõ áåñïîêîéñòâà. Ìàññîâî (ñòàÿìè â íåñêîëüêî òûñÿ÷ îñîáåé) íà ïðîâîäàõ îòäûõàþò êîá÷èêè (Falco vespertinus), ëàñòî÷êè (Riparia riparia, Hirundo rustica, Delichon urbica), ñêâîðöû îáûêíîâåííûå è ðîçîâûå (Sturnus vulgaris, S. roseus), äðîçäû-ðÿáèííèêè (Turdus pilaris) è äð.  óñëîâèÿõ ïðåîáëàäàíèÿ â Ñòåïíîì Êðûìó îòêðûòûõ ëàíäøàôòîâ îïîðû ËÝÏ èìåþò áîëüøîå çíà÷åíèå òàêæå êàê ìåñòà ãíåçäîâàíèÿ äëÿ ðÿäà âèäîâ, îñîáåííî çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Óêðàèíû (2009). Áåëûé àèñò (Ciconia ciconia). Íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â Êðûìó âèä ïîÿâèëñÿ â òå÷åíèå ïîñëåäíèõ 15 ëåò, êîíöåíòðèðóÿñü â íèçîâüå ð. Ñàëãèð, âäîëü áîëüøèõ ïðåñíûõ âîäî¸ìîâ è â ïîëîñå ðèñîñåÿíèÿ: þæíîå ïîáåðåæüå Êàðêèíèòñêîãî çàëèâà, Ñèâàø è Ïðèñèâàøüå.  Ñòåïíîì Êðûìó, êàê è âî âñ¸ì ãíåçäîâîì àðåàëå, àèñò ñòðîèò ãí¸çäà íà äåðåâüÿõ, âîäîíàïîðíûõ áàøíÿõ, âûñîêèõ ðàçâàëèíàõ çäàíèé (íà êðûøàõ äîìîâ íå çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíû) è áîëåå ìàññîâî – íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ, ïðè÷åì èñïîëüçóåò, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî, ìàëîìîùíûå ëèíèè.

Ãí¸çäà ìîãèëüíèêà (Aquila heliaca) è êóðãàííèêà íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ âûñîêîãî íàïðÿæåíèÿ. Ôîòî Þ. Àíäðþùåíêî. Nests of the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) and LongLegged Buzzard on electric poles of the high voltage PL. Photos by Y. Andriushchenko.

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

39

Êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus). Íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â Êðûìó âïåðâûå îòìå÷åí â 1997 ã. (Ãðèí÷åíêî è äð., 2000). Çà êîðîòêèé ñðîê ÷èñëåííîñòü åãî ðåçêî âûðîñëà è ñåé÷àñ èç ðîäà Buteo â Ñòåïíîì Êðûìó îí ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñàìûì ìíîãî÷èñëåííûì â òå÷åíèå ãîäà. Ãíåçäèòñÿ íà äåðåâüÿõ, íî íàì èçâåñòíû äâà ñëó÷àÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ íà ìåòàëëè÷åñêèõ «àæóðíûõ» îïîðàõ ËÝÏ: â 2007 ã. ó ñ. Øàóìÿí Ñàêñêîãî ðàéîíà è â 2010 ã. ó ñ. Ñàðè-Áàø Ïåðâîìàéñêîãî ðàéîíà. Ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca).  Êðûìó íàáëþäàåòñÿ ðàñøèðåíèå ãíåçäîâîãî àðåàëà âèäà èç ãîðíî-ëåñíîé ÷àñòè â ñòåïíóþ. Íàìè íàéäåíû ãí¸çäà íà ðàññòîÿíèè áîëåå 100 êì îò ãðàíèöû åñòåñòâåííûõ ëåñîâ. Îäíà èç îáíàðóæåííûõ ïàð ãíåçäèëàñü íà äåðåâå â ëåñîïîëîñå. Íî ê ñëåäóþùåé âåñíå ëåñîïîëîñà âûãîðåëà, à áîëüøèíñòâî âûñîêèõ äåðåâüåâ áûëî ñðóáëåíî. Òîãäà ïàðà ïîñòðîèëà ãíåçäî íà îñòàâøåìñÿ ñóõîì äåðåâå. Íà ñëåäóþùèé ãîä ìîãèëüíèêè çàãíåçäèëèñü íà âûñîêîì êóñòå, òàê êàê â ëåñîïîëîñå óæå áûëè ñðóáëåíû âñå äåðåâüÿ. Åù¸ ÷åðåç ãîä (â 2011 ã.) îðëû ïîñòðîèëè ãíåçäî íà áîêîâîé òðàâåðñå ìåòàëëè÷åñêîé «àæóðíîé» îïîðû ËÝÏ. Âûæèãàíèå ëåñîïîëîñ ñ ïîñëåäóþùåé ðóáêîé – ìàññîâîå ÿâëåíèå íà þãå Óêðàèíû, îñîáåííî âîêðóã íåãàçèôèöèðîâàííûõ ñåëüñêèõ íàñåë¸ííûõ ïóíêòîâ. Îíî ëèøàåò ìíîãèõ âèäîâ-êðîííèêîâ, îñîáåí-


40

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Òàáë. 2. ×èñëåííîñòü íåêîòîðûõ âèäîâ ïòèö, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ â Ñòåïíîì Êðûìó íà âîçäóøíûõ ËÝÏ (5–9.06.2006 ã.). Table 2. Numbers of some bird species, nesting on electric poles in the Steppe Crimea (5–9/06/2006).

×èñëåííîñòü / Numbers Ï-îâ Êåð÷åíñêèé ï-îâ Òàðõàíêóò (L=5,3 êì), (L=6,8 êì), ïàðû îñîáè Kerch Tarkhankut Peninsula Peninsula (L=5.3 km), Âñåãî (L=12,1 êì) (L=6.8 km), pairs Total (L=12.1 km) ind. ¹ Âèä / Species 1 Áàëîáàí 1 2 5 îñ. (2 ïàðû) (Falño cherrug) 5 ind. (2 pairs) 2 Ïóñòåëüãà 5 10 îñ. (5 ïàð) (Falco tinnunculus) 10 ind. (5 pairs) 3 Ãàëêà 120 15 150 îñ. (15 ïàð) (Corvus monedula) 150 ind. (15 pairs) 4 Âîðîí 2 ad + 3 juv 5 îñ. (1 ïàðà) (Corvus corax) 5 ind. (1 pair)

íî õèùíèêîâ, ìåñò äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ è â ýòèõ óñëîâèÿõ îïîðû ËÝÏ âûñîêîãî íàïðÿæåíèÿ ÿâëÿþòñÿ ÷óòü ëè íå åäèíñòâåííîé ïîëîæèòåëüíîé àëüòåðíàòèâîé äëÿ íèõ. Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug).  Ñòåïíîì Êðûìó íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ ãíåçäèòñÿ äî 58,3% ïàð, à â öåëîì â ñòåïíîé ÷àñòè Óêðàèíû – äî 76,3% (Ìèëîáîã, Âåòðîâ è äð., 2010). Àâòîðû ñ÷èòàþò, ÷òî ìàññîâîå çàñåëåíèå îïîð íà÷àëîñü â 70-õ ãîäàõ ïðîøëîãî ñòîëåòèÿ ïîñëå ñîçäàíèÿ ãóñòîé ñåòè ËÝÏ. Ñîáñòâåííûå íàáëþäåíèÿ ïîêàçàëè, ÷òî ÷àñòîòà âñòðå÷ ýòîãî è íåêîòîðûõ äðóãèõ ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ íà ËÝÏ âèäîâ áûâàåò äîâîëüíî âûñîêîé (òàáë. 2). Îñíîâíûì «ïîñòàâùèêîì» ãí¸çä äëÿ áàëîáàíà íà ËÝÏ ÿâëÿåòñÿ âîðîí (Corvus corax). Íåñìîòðÿ íà ãíåçäîâóþ êîíêóðåíöèþ ñ ïîñëåäíèì, ãí¸çäà áàëîáàíîì èñïîëüçóþòñÿ ïî ìíîãî ëåò. Íåòåðïèìîñòü áàëîáàíà ê äðóãèì êðóïíûì ïòèöàì íà ñâîåé ãíåçäîâîé òåððèòîðèè ïðèäà¸ò åìó ñòàòóñ âèäàðåïåëëåíòà. Óñòðîéñòâî èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé íà ËÝÏ 110 ê è âûøå ìîæåò ñïîñîáñòâîâàòü íå òîëüêî âîññòàíîâëåíèþ ïîïóëÿöèé ýòîãî âèäà, íî è ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè äðóãèõ âèäîâ ïòèö îò ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ñ ËÝÏ â ìåñòàõ åãî ãíåçäîâàíèÿ. Îáûêíîâåííàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus). Ãíåçäîâàíèå íà ËÝÏ íîñèò ìàññîâûé õàðàêòåð. Êàê ïðàâèëî, èñïîëüçóþòñÿ ñòàðûå ãí¸çäà ãàëîê (Corvus monedula) è âîðîíîâ.  ðÿäå ìåñò îïîðàì ËÝÏ îòäà¸òñÿ ïðåäïî÷òåíèå, íåñìî-

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé òðÿ íà íàëè÷èå ðÿäîì ñ íèìè õîðîøî ðàçâèòûõ ëåñîïîëîñ ñ äîñòàòî÷íûì êîëè÷åñòâîì ñòàðûõ ñîðî÷üèõ è âîðîíüèõ ãí¸çä. Äîìîâûé ñû÷ (Athene noctua). Èç-çà îòíîñèòåëüíîé ìàëî÷èñëåííîñòè è íî÷íîãî îáðàçà æèçíè ãíåçäîâàíèå â îïîðàõ ËÝÏ ìîæåò áûòü áîëåå ðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííûì, ÷åì îá ýòîì èçâåñòíî. Ìû íàáëþäàëè ãíåçäîâàíèå ñû÷à â ïîâðåæä¸ííîé òðóá÷àòîé áåòîííîé îïîðå â 2001 ã. â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ñ. ×åðíûøîâî Ðàçäîëüíåíñêîãî ðàéîíà ÀÐ Êðûì. Îáûêíîâåííûé ñêâîðåö (Sturnus vulgaris). Êðóãëûé ãîä èñïîëüçóåò îïîðû ËÝÏ ðàçëè÷íîé ìîùíîñòè è èõ ïðîâîäà â êà÷åñòâå ïðèñàäû.  îïîðàõ, èìåþùèõ ïóñòîòû è òåõíîëîãè÷åñêèå îòâåðñòèÿ, îõîòíî ãíåçäèòñÿ, îñîáåííî âäàëè îò íàñåë¸ííûõ ïóíêòîâ. Ïîðîé â îäíîé îïîðå ãíåçäèòñÿ äî 5–7 ïàð. Ñîðîêà (Pica pica). ßâëÿåòñÿ ãëàâíûì ïîñòàâùèêîì ãí¸çä äëÿ ìíîãèõ âèäîâ, ïðåæäå âñåãî äëÿ ìåëêèõ ñîêîëîâ è óøàñòîé ñîâû (Asio otus).  ìåñòàõ, ëèø¸ííûõ äðåâåñíî-êóñòàðíèêîâîé ðàñòèòåëüíîñòè, óñòðàèâàåò ñâîè ãí¸çäà â çàëîìàõ òðîñòíèêà, èçãîðîäÿõ, ñòðîåíèÿõ è äàæå íà çåìëå (îñòðîâà Ñèâàøà), íî ÷àùå âñåãî – íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ. Ñòðîéìàòåðèàëîì èççà îòñóòñòâèÿ âåòîê ìîãóò ñëóæèòü ñóõèå ñòåáëè êðóïíûõ òðàâÿíèñòûõ ðàñòåíèé, ñòðîèòåëüíûé è áûòîâîé ìóñîð íåîáõîäèìîé êîíôèãóðàöèè, ïðîâîëîêà è äðóãèå ìàòåðèàëû. Ãàëêà (Corvus monedula).  Ñòåïíîì Êðûìó âèä èñïîëüçóåò òðàäèöèîííûå ãíåçäîâûå ñòàöèè (íèøè â îáðûâàõ, ïîñòðîéêè è ò. ä.), ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â íàñåë¸ííûõ ïóíêòàõ. Âíå èõ ãíåçäèòñÿ ïî÷òè èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî â «òðóá÷àòûõ» îïîðàõ ËÝÏ. Ãíåçäîâàÿ ïëîòíîñòü âèäà äîñòàòî÷íî âûñîêà, ïðàêòè÷åñêè êàæäóþ îïîðó èñïîëüçóåò îäíà, à òî è äâå ïàðû ãàëîê. Ñëåäóåò îòìåòèòü, ÷òî òàêàÿ ïëîòíîñòü íå âåçäå îäèíàêîâà: â íåêîòîðûõ ðàéîíàõ îïîðû ËÝÏ âîâñå íå çàñåëÿþòñÿ. Ñåðàÿ âîðîíà (Corvus cornix).  70-õ ãîäàõ ïðîøëîãî ñòîëåòèÿ âèä íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â Ñòåïíîì Êðûìó íå îòìå÷àëñÿ (Êîñòèí, 1983), îäíàêî ê íàñòîÿùåìó âðåìåíè çàñåëèë åãî ïîëíîñòüþ âñëåä çà ôîðìèðîâàíèåì ñåòè ëåñîïîëîñ. Íåñìîòðÿ íà äîñòàòî÷íîå êîëè÷åñòâî ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ, âîðîíà îõîòíî ïîñåëÿåòñÿ íà ËÝÏ. Âîðîí (Corvus corax).  óñëîâèÿõ Ñòåïíîãî Êðûìà ãíåçäîâàíèå âèäà íà ËÝÏ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè îáëèãàòíûì. Ëèøü îò-


Proceedings of Conferences äåëüíûå ïàðû èíîãäà èñïîëüçóþò äðóãèå ñîîðóæåíèÿ (òðèàíãóëÿöèîííûå çíàêè, âîäîíàïîðíûå áàøíè). Ãíåçäîâàíèå íà äåðåâüÿõ â Ñòåïíîì Êðûìó íàìè íå îòìå÷åíî. Ãí¸çäà èñïîëüçóþòñÿ ïî ìíîãó ëåò, íî îíè ÷àñòî çàíèìàþòñÿ áàëîáàíîì, ÷òî ïîáóæäàåò âîðîíà ê ñòðîèòåëüñòâó íîâûõ. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, âîðîí ñîçäà¸ò áëàãîïðèÿòíûå óñëîâèÿ äëÿ ðàññåëåíèÿ áàëîáàíà ïî ËÝÏ. Îáûêíîâåííàÿ êàìåíêà (Oenanthe oenanthe). Èçâåñòíû ñëó÷àè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ â òåõíîëîãè÷åñêèõ îòâåðñòèÿõ ïîëûõ áåòîííûõ ËÝÏ, îäíàêî äëÿ âèäà, òèïè÷íîãî ñêëåðîôèëà, òàêîå ãíåçäîâàíèå ÿâëÿåòñÿ, ñêîðåå, ñëó÷àéíûì. Äîìîâûé (Passer domesticus) è ïîëåâîé (P. montanus) âîðîáüè. Äîìîâûé âîðîáåé â íîðìå ãíåçäèòñÿ â íèøàõ ñòðîåíèé, ðåæå óñòðàèâàåò øàðîîáðàçíûå ãí¸çäà íà äåðåâüÿõ. Çàñåëÿÿ ãí¸çäà áåëîãî àèñòà íà ñòîëáàõ, êîñâåííî èñïîëüçóåò ËÝÏ.  ïðåäåëàõ íàñåë¸ííûõ ïóíêòîâ è íåïîäàë¸êó îò íèõ èñïîëüçóåò äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ïóñòîòû â îïîðàõ. Ïîëåâîé âîðîáåé, ââèäó äåôèöèòà ãíåçäîâûõ ñòàöèé âíå íàñåë¸ííûõ ïóíêòîâ, îïîðû ËÝÏ äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ èñïîëüçóåò ïîâñåìåñòíî. Ãí¸çäà óñòðàèâàþòñÿ êàê âíóòðè ïîëûõ îïîð, òàê è â ãí¸çäàõ äðóãèõ ïòèö (âîðîíà, õèùíèêîâ). Êðîìå óêàçàííûõ âèäîâ, âïîëíå âîçìîæíî ãíåçäîâàíèå íà èëè â îïîðàõ ËÝÏ îáûêíîâåííîãî êàíþêà (Buteo buteo), êàìåíêè-ïëåøàíêè (Oenanthe pleschanka) è ãîðèõâîñòêè-÷åðíóøêè (Phoenicurus ochruros). Âûâîäû Êàê áûëî ïîêàçàíî, ñ îäíîé ñòîðîíû, ïòèöû ãèáíóò îò êîíòàêòîâ ñ ËÝÏ, à ñ äðóãîé ñòîðîíû, ìíîãèå èç íèõ ïîëó÷àþò çíà÷èòåëüíûå âûãîäû. Ñëåäîâàòåëüíî, äëÿ ðåàëèçàöèè ïðàêòè÷åñêèõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö îò äåéñòâèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêà è ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ñ ïðîâîäàìè íåîáõîäèìû ñïåöèàëüíûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ, íàïðàâëåííûå íà ðàçðàáîòêó ðåêîìåíäàöèé ïî îïòèìàëüíîìó ðàçìåùåíèþ ËÝÏ, èñïîëüçîâàíèþ óñòðîéñòâ, ïðåäóïðåæäàþùèõ ïòèö î íàëè÷èè ïðîâîäîâ, à òàêæå ïðèñïîñîáëåíèé, èñêëþ÷àþùèõ «çàìûêàíèÿ» ïòèöàìè ïðîâîäîâ.  ýòèõ èññëåäîâàíèÿõ ñëåäóåò äåëàòü àêöåíò íà îöåíêå îïàñíîñòè ðàçíûõ òèïîâ ËÝÏ â ðàçëè÷íûõ çîíàõ è ëàíäøàôòàõ, îñîáåííî íà êëþ÷åâûõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ òåððèòîðèÿõ, äëÿ íàêîïëåíèÿ è ïîñëåäóþùåãî òèðà-

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

41

æèðîâàíèÿ îïûòà äàííûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, à òàêæå ìàññèâà çíàíèé ïî äàííîé ïðîáëåìå. Äëÿ ýòîãî íåîáõîäèìî äîáèâàòüñÿ îáÿçàòåëüíîãî âêëþ÷åíèÿ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé ýêñïåðòèçû â ÎÂÎÑ ïðè ïðîåêòèðîâàíèè ËÝÏ, îïèðàþùåéñÿ íà ÷åòûðåõðàçîâûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ (îõâàòûâàþùèå ïåðèîäû âåñåííèõ ìèãðàöèé, ãíåçäîâàíèÿ, îñåííèõ ìèãðàöèé, çèìîâîê), ãäå äîëæíû áûòü ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî ðàñïîëîæåíèþ îïîð, îðèåíòàöèè ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è è ïðîâåäåíèþ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé, à òàêæå ïðèñïîñîáëåíèé, ïðèâëåêàþùèõ èëè îòâëåêàþùèõ ïòèö (èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäîâüÿ, ïðèñàäû è ò. ï.). Ïîäûòîæèâàÿ, ìîæíî êîíñòàòèðîâàòü íå òîëüêî íåãàòèâíîå âîçäåéñòâèå ËÝÏ íà ïòèö, íî è, ïðè îïðåäåë¸ííûõ óñëîâèÿõ, ïîçèòèâíîå èõ çíà÷åíèå äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ è îòäûõà, ïðåæäå âñåãî ðåäêèõ âèäîâ, îñîáåííî êàê èñêóññòâåííûõ àíàëîãîâ óíè÷òîæåííîé äðåâåñíîé ðàñòèòåëüíîñòè â îòêðûòûõ ëàíäøàôòàõ. Ëèòåðàòóðà Àíäðþùåíêî Þ.À., Áåñêàðàâàéíèé Ì.Ì., Ñòàäíè÷åíêî È.Ñ. Î ãèáåëè äðîôû è äðóãèõ âèäîâ ïòèö îò ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ñ ëèíèÿìè ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è íà ìåñòàõ çèìîâêè. – Áðàíòà: Ñáîðíèê òðóäîâ Àçîâî-×åðíîìîðñêîé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé ñòàíöèè. Âûï. 5. Ìåëèòîïîëü, 2002. Ñ. 97–112. Àíäðþùåíêî Þ.À., Ïîïåíêî Â.Ì. Î÷åðåäíûå ðåçóëüòàòû ìîíèòîðèíãà ïòèö, çèìóþùèõ â çîíàëüíûõ ëàíäøàôòàõ þãà Óêðàèíû. – Á³îëîã³ÿ ÕÕ² ñòîë³òòÿ: òåîð³ÿ, ïðàêòèêà, âèêëàäàííÿ: Ìàòåð³àëè ì³æíàðîäíî¿ íàóêîâî¿ êîíôåðåíö³¿. Êè¿â, 2007. Ñ. 186–188. Ãðèí÷åíêî À.Á., Êèíäà Â.Â., Ïèëþãà Â.È., Ïðîêîïåíêî Ñ.È. Ñîâðåìåííûé ñòàòóñ êóðãàííèêà â Óêðàèíå. – Áðàíòà: Ñáîðíèê òðóäîâ Àçîâî-×åðíîìîðñêîé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé ñòàíöèè. Âûï. 3. Ìåëèòîïîëü: Áðàíòà, 2000. Ñ. 13–26. Ìèëîáîã Þ.Â., Âåòðîâ Â.Â., Ñòðèãóíîâ Â.È., Áåëèê Â.Ï. Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug Gray) â Óêðàèíå è íà ñîïðåäåëüíûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ. – Áðàíòà: Ñáîðíèê òðóäîâ Àçîâî-×åðíîìîðñêîé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé ñòàíöèè. Âûï. 13. Ìåëèòîïîëü: Áðàíòà, 2010. Ñ. 143–167. Ïðîêîïåíêî Ñ.Ï., Ãðèí÷åíêî À.Á. Ãèáåëü äðîô íà Êåð÷åíñêîì ïîëóîñòðîâå. – Áåðêóò, 2000. Ò. 9, Âûï. 1–2. Ñ. 123–124. Ïîïåíêî Â.Ì., Àíäðþùåíêî Þ.À., Äÿäè÷åâà Å.À., Âîëîõ À.Ì. Îò÷¸ò î âûïîëíåíèè íàó÷íî-òåõíè÷åñêèõ óñëóã ïî òåìå «Îöåíêà âîçäåéñòâèÿ íà îêðóæàþùóþ ñðåäó. Ïòèöû. Ðóêîêðûëûå», 2006. 65 ñ. (ðóêîïèñü). ×åðâîíà êíèãà Óêðà¿íè (òâàðèííèé ñâ³ò) / ϳä çàãàëüí. ðåä. ². À. Àê³ìîâà. Ê., 2009. 624 ñ.


42

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

StudyingofBirdElectrocutiononOverheadPowerLines6–10kVin theTerritoryoftheRepublicofTatarstantoDeveloptheStep-bystepRegionalPlanonBirdProtection:PreliminaryAnalysisofthe ResultsofAutumnSurveysof2011 ИЗУЧЕНИЕ ГИБЕЛИ ПТИЦ НА ЛИНИЯХ ЭЛЕКТРОПЕРЕДАЧИ 6–10 КВ НА ТЕРРИТОРИИ РЕСПУБЛИКИ ТАТАРСТАН С ЦЕЛЬЮ РАЗРАБОТКИ ПОЭТАПНОГО РЕГИОНАЛЬНОГО ПЛАНА ПО ЗАЩИТЕ ПТИЦ: ПРЕДВАРИТЕЛЬНЫЙ АНАЛИЗ ПО ИТОГАМ ОСЕННИХ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЙ 2011 ГОДА BekmansurovR.H.,ZhukovD.V.,GaleevA.Sh.(NationalPark“NizhnyayaKama”, Elabuga,Russia) Бекмансуров Р.Х., Жуков Д.В., Галеев А.Ш. (Национальный парк «Нижняя Кама», Елабуга, Россия)

Êîíòàêò: Ðèíóð Áåêìàíñóðîâ Íàöèîíàëüíûé ïàðê «Íèæíÿÿ Êàìà» 423600, Ðîññèÿ, Ðåñïóáëèêà Òàòàðñòàí, ã. Åëàáóãà, ïð. Íåôòÿíèêîâ, 175 òåë.:+7 85557 7 95 87 rinur@yandex.ru Äìèòðèé Æóêîâ Íàöèîíàëüíûé ïàðê «Íèæíÿÿ Êàìà» 423600, Ðîññèÿ, Ðåñïóáëèêà Òàòàðñòàí, ã. Åëàáóãà, ïð. Íåôòÿíèêîâ, 175 òåë.:+7 85557 7 95 87 mite-mail@mail.ru Àëüáåðò Ãàëååâ Íàöèîíàëüíûé ïàðê «Íèæíÿÿ Êàìà» 423600, Ðîññèÿ, Ðåñïóáëèêà Òàòàðñòàí, ã. Åëàáóãà, ïð. Íåôòÿíèêîâ, 175 òåë.:+7 85557 7 95 87 galeev.albert@ gmail.com

Ðåçþìå  ñòàòüå âíîâü ïîäíÿòà ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è (ËÝÏ) 6–10 ê â Ðåñïóáëèêå Òàòàðñòàí. Ïðèâåä¸í àíàëèç èññëåäîâàíèé ïî èçó÷åíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ 6 è 10 êÂ, ïðîâåä¸ííûõ â Ðåñïóáëèêå Òàòàðñòàí îñåíüþ 2011 ãîäà. Âñåãî çà íåñêîëüêî äíåé, â ïåðèîä ñ 3.09.2011 ã. ïî 18.10.2011 ã., áûëî îáñëåäîâàíî ïðèáëèçèòåëüíî 101 ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ â 14 ðàéîíàõ ðåñïóáëèêè (122 êì). Ïîä îïîðàìè 49 ËÝÏ íàéäåíû ïîãèáøèå ïòèöû. Âñåãî íàéäåíà 191 ì¸ðòâàÿ ïòèöà è îñòàíêè, ïðèíàäëåæàùèå ê 13 âèäàì. Ïðèâåäåíû îáîñíîâàíèÿ íåîáõîäèìîñòè ðàçðàáîòêè ïîýòàïíîãî ðåãèîíàëüíîãî ïëàíà ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé. Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: ãèáåëü ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, õèùíûå ïòèöû, Ðåñïóáëèêà Òàòàðñòàí. Ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ: 29.12.2011 ã. Ïðèíÿòà ê ïóáëèêàöèè: 22.03.2012 ã. Abstract The problem of bird electrocution on overhead power lines (PL) 6–10 kV in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan is again raised in the article. There is an analysis of autumn surveys of bird electrocution on PL of 6–10 kV carried out in 2011. About 101 PL (122 km) dangerous to birds were investigated in 14 regions of the Republic since 3/09/2011 to 18/10/2011. Died birds were detected beneath poles of 49 PL. A total of 191 corpses and remains of birds belonging to 13 species were found. The substantiation of necessity to develop a step-by-step regional plan on mitigation measures is presented. Keywords: bird electrocution on PL, birds of prey, Tatarstan Republic. Received: 29/12/2011. Accepted: 22/03/2012.

Ââåäåíèå Ãèáåëü ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è (ËÝÏ) 6 è 10 ê ÿâëÿåòñÿ îáùåèçâåñòíûì ôàêòîì íà îñíîâàíèè äàííûõ ðÿäà èññëåäîâàòåëåé ýòîé ïðîáëåìû, â òîì ÷èñëå è íà òåððèòîðèè Òàòàðñòàíà, ãäå èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïî èçó÷åíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ áûëè íà÷àòû â íà÷àëå 1980-õ ãîäîâ (Ñàëòûêîâ, 1999). Íåñìîòðÿ íà èìåþùèåñÿ ìíîãî÷èñëåííûå ôàêòû ãèáåëè ïòèö è ñóùåñòâóþùåå ïðèðîäîîõðàííîå çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâî, ðàáîòà ïî îáåñïå÷åíèþ áåçîïàñíîñòè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â ðÿäå ðåãèîíîâ Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè ïðîõîäèò íåîäèíàêîâûìè òåìïàìè ëèáî âîîáùå îòñóòñòâóåò. Íà òåððèòîðèè Ðåñïóáëèêè Òàòàðñòàí ðàñïîëîæåíû ìíîãèå òûñÿ÷è êèëîìåòðîâ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ 6–10 êÂ, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ðàçëè÷íûì ñîáñòâåííèêàì. Ñ ìîìåíòà íà÷àëà èññëåäîâàíèé ïî ïðîáëåìå ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, íà÷àòûõ À.Â. Ñàëòûêîâûì â íà÷àëå 1980-õ

Introduction Bird electrocution on overhead power lines 6–10 kV is a notorious fact according to many researchers, who studied this problem including in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan, where the surveys of birds electrocution on PL 6–10 kV began in 1980-s (Saltykov, 1999). There are many thousands kilometers of dangerous PL 6–10 kV on the territory of the Republic belonging to different owners. Since the beginning of surveys by A. Saltykov in 1980-s the total length of PL 6–10 kV in Tatarstan increased at least three times. So, the problem of dangerous PL considerably grew and took away millions lives of birds. The developed grid of PL poses and will pose a great risk to large birds of prey being rare in the Republic and listed in the Red Data Book of RF such as the White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga).


Proceedings of Conferences Contact: Rinur Bekmansurov National Park “Nizhnyaya Kama” Neftyanikov str., 175, Elabuga, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, 423600 tel.: +7 85557 7 95 87 rinur@yandex.ru Dmitry Zhukov National Park “Nizhnyaya Kama” Neftyanikov str., 175, Elabuga, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, 423600 tel.: +7 85557 7 95 87 mite-mail@mail.ru Albert Galeev National Park “Nizhnyaya Kama” Neftyanikov str., 175, Elabuga, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, 423600 tel.: +7 85557 7 95 87 galeev.albert@ gmail.com

ãîäîâ, êîëè÷åñòâî è îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ËÝÏ 6–10 ê â Ðåñïóáëèêå Òàòàðñòàí âîçðîñëà, êàê ìèíèìóì, â òðè ðàçà. Òàê, òîëüêî â âåäîìñòâå ÎÀÎ «Òàòýíåðãî» èìååòñÿ 27889 êì ÂË 6–10 êÂ. Åñëè ê ýòîé öèôðå äîáàâèòü òûñÿ÷è êèëîìåòðîâ òàêèõ ËÝÏ, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ÎÀÎ «Òàòíåôòü», à òàêæå äðóãèì ñîáñòâåííèêàì, òî îáùàÿ öèôðà ïîëó÷èòñÿ åù¸ áîëåå âíóøèòåëüíîé. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ïòèöåîïàñíàÿ ýëåêòðîñåòåâàÿ ñðåäà â Ðåñïóáëèêå Òàòàðñòàí çà 30 ëåò óâåëè÷èëàñü çíà÷èòåëüíî è çà ýòî âðåìÿ óíåñëà ìèëëèîíû æèçíåé ïòèö. Ïî äàííûì ïðåäûäóùèõ èññëåäîâàíèé (Ñàëòûêîâ, 1999), â ãðóïïó ðèñêà ïîïàäàþò, êàê ìèíèìóì, 60 âèäîâ ïòèö – ïî÷òè ïÿòàÿ ÷àñòü îáèòàþùèõ íà òåððèòîðèè Òàòàðñòàíà. Âîçðîñøàÿ ïòèöåîïàñíàÿ ýëåêòðîñåòåâàÿ ñðåäà âëèÿåò è â áëèæàéøåå âðåìÿ áóäåò ñóùåñòâåííî âëèÿòü íà ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ â ðåñïóáëèêå êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ, òàêèõ êàê îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò (Haliaeetus albicilla), îð¸ë-ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca), áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga). Äëÿ ðåàëèçàöèè ñòðåìëåíèé ïî ñîõðàíåíèþ ïòèö îò ãèáåëè íà ËÝÏ íåîáõîäèìî ðàçðàáîòàòü ðåãèîíàëüíûé ïîýòàïíûé ïëàí ïî çàùèòå ïòèö. Áîëüøàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ â Òàòàðñòàíå òðå-

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

43

Under the project on conservation of populations of the White-Tailed Eagle, Imperial Eagle, Greater Spotted Eagle in the territory of Tatarstan the additional surveys of bird electrocution on PL 6–10 kV were carried out. The main aims of the surveys were to update the problem of bird electrocution on PL in Tatarstan and to begin the work on revealing of the most dangerous areas of PL, which first of all demand carrying out of mitigation measures, and estimate the impact of PL on large birds of prey. Surveys During surveys PLs going to settlements, objects of oil mining, towers of the mobile communication system, petrol stations as well as near landfills and large cattle-breeding complexes were examined. The examined areas were near to the known nests of large raptors and far from them as well. Surveys of PL were done during pedestrian routes and sometimes by vehicle. The length of examined PL was defined with use of GPS-navigator. About 101 dangerous PL were examined in 14 districts of the Republic since 3 September to 18 October 2011. The total length of surveyed PL was 122 km. Results and discussions Died birds were detected beneath poles of 49 PL. A total of 191 corpses and remains of birds belonging to 13 species were found. The general damage from bird deaths has made 331000 rubles. The average rate of bird mortality has made about 15 individuals per 10 km. In spite of the fact that during autumn it is possible to trace the most part of birds killed by electrocution, this season does not give a complete picture of bird mortality caused by electrocution. We examined PL going across fields, where after harvesting the land was not ploughed, and PL along the road. Choosing the areas for surveys we took PL located far from the forests. In this case there is no choice for birds for nesting. The great number

Ïòèöåîïàñíûå ËÝÏ, ïîäàþùèå ýëåêòðîýíåðãèþ íà àâòîçàïðàâî÷íûå ñòàíöèè (ââåðõó), âûøêè ñîòîâîé ñâÿçè (â öåíòðå), îáúåêòû íåôòåäîáû÷è (âíèçó). Ôîòî Ð. Áåêìàíñóðîâà. Power lines dangerous to birds going to petrol stations (upper), towers of the mobile communication system (center), objects of oil mining (bottom). Photos by R. Bekmansurov.


44

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé of birds dies in the period of fledging of juveniles and their feeding. It concerns also to large birds of prey. For example, all known facts of eagle deaths in Tatarstan apply to juveniles. And many breeding territories of eagles found during the season are located near the PL dangerous to birds that makes them vulnerable. It is obvious that these large birds of prey use electric poles as perches, where they can die. During the surveys some interesting features of behavior of adult eagles were noted: they avoided dangerous PL. May be, adult birds have developed a conditioned reflex to prefer a safe poles. So about 4 cases were noted, when Imperial Eagles avoided dangerous poles, and preferred sitting down on the higher poles of the high voltage power lines. In Tatarstan it is a common event when PL 6–10 kV goes along the high voltage PL (110 kV and higher), that are less dangerous for birds. It has been noticed that if eagles were put up especially at the approach of observer to photograph of them, the bird flew to another electric pole, but again the safe. Unfortunately we did not reveal the nature of this reflex. Nevertheless, the impact of PL 6–10 kV on birds is obvious. We will recommend retrofitting the PL going near the breeding territories of the White-Tailed Eagle, Imperial Eagle, Greater Spotted Eagle.

Êàíþêè (Buteo buteo) (ââåðõó è âíèçó) è ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) (â öåíòðå), ïîãèáøèå íà ËÝÏ. Ôîòî Ð. Áåêìàíñóðîâà è Ä. Æóêîâà. Electrocuted Common Buzzards (Buteo buteo) (upper and bottom) and Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) (center). Photos by R. Bekmansurov and D. Zhukov.

áóåò áîëüøèõ çàòðàò äëÿ èõ ìîäåðíèçàöèè. Ïîýòîìó äëÿ íàèáîëåå ðàöèîíàëüíîãî âëîæåíèÿ ñðåäñòâ íåîáõîäèìû èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïî âûÿâëåíèþ íàèáîëåå îïàñíûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ËÝÏ, íà êîòîðûõ òðåáóåòñÿ ïðèíÿòèå ïåðâîî÷åðåäíûõ ìåð ïî îáåñïå÷åíèþ áåçîïàñíîñòè ïòèö.  ðàìêàõ ïðîåêòà ïî ñîõðàíåíèþ ïîïóëÿöèé îðëàíà-áåëîõâîñòà, ìîãèëüíèêà è áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà íà òåððèòîðèè Ðåñïóáëèêè Òàòàðñòàí ïîñðåäñòâîì ñíèæåíèÿ èõ ãèáåëè íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è

Conclusions The problem of bird electrocution in Tatarstan remains actual, and even has become aggravated. The breeding territories of birds, listed in the Red Data Book of RF – White-Tailed Eagle, Imperial Eagle, Greater Spotted Eagle are located within the zone of impact of PL dangerous to birds. Besides, other bird species, listed in the Red Data Book of the Republic of Tatarstan: the Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and the Red-Footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus) are killed by electrocution on PL. As a result of the surveys we can state that the mitigation measures have immediately to conduct in Tatarstan and the construction of all newly erected power poles and technical structures have to be designed to protect birds. Understanding the complication of situation, the step-by-step regional plan for retrofitting of power lines 6–10 kV to make safe them to birds should be developed. And first of all these mitigation actions should be directed on protecting the rare species of birds breeding in territory of the Republic.


Proceedings of Conferences è ñîçäàíèÿ îñîáî çàùèòíûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ëåñà, îñåíüþ 2011 ãîäà áûëà ïðîâåäåíà äîïîëíèòåëüíàÿ ðàáîòà ïî îöåíêå ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ 6 è 10 êÂ. Îñíîâíûå öåëè ýòîé ðàáîòû çàêëþ÷àëèñü â òîì, ÷òîáû âíîâü àêòóàëèçèðîâàòü ïðîáëåìó ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Ðåñïóáëèêå Òàòàðñòàí, íà÷àòü ðàáîòó ïî âûÿâëåíèþ íàèáîëåå îïàñíûõ äëÿ ïòèö ðàéîíîâ è ó÷àñòêîâ ËÝÏ 6–10 êÂ, êîòîðûå â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü òðåáóþò ïðîâåäåíèÿ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé, à òàêæå îöåíèòü âëèÿíèå ËÝÏ íà êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö. Îäíà èç ãëàâíûõ çàäà÷ îñåííèõ èññëåäîâàíèé – ýòî âûÿâëåíèå ãèáåëè êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö âî âðåìÿ îñåííåãî ïðîë¸òà. Ðàíåå ïðîâåä¸ííûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ À.Â. Ñàëòûêîâà çàòðîíóëè ó÷àñòêè ËÝÏ íà þãîâîñòîêå Òàòàðñòàíà (Ñàðìàíîâñêèé, Àëüìåòüåâñêèé, Ëåíèíîãîðñêèé ðàéîíû). Íàìè áûëè îáñëåäîâàíû ó÷àñòêè ËÝÏ â äðóãèõ ðàéîíàõ ðåñïóáëèêè. Ïîëåâûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ  õîäå ðàáîò áûëè îñìîòðåíû ËÝÏ ìåæäó íàñåë¸ííûìè ïóíêòàìè; ïîäâî-

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

45

äÿùèå ËÝÏ ê îáúåêòàì íåôòåïðîìûñëà, ê âûøêàì ñîòîâîé ñâÿçè, ê ÀÇÑ è, íåçíà÷èòåëüíî, âáëèçè ìóñîðíûõ ñâàëîê è êðóïíûõ æèâîòíîâîä÷åñêèõ êîìïëåêñîâ (ìåãàôåðì). Îñìîòðåííûå ó÷àñòêè ËÝÏ íàõîäèëèñü êàê âáëèçè èçâåñòíûõ ìåñò ãíåçäîâàíèÿ êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö, òàê è äàëåêî îò íèõ. Áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü îñìîòðåííûõ ËÝÏ ïðîõîäèò ïî ñåëüõîçóãîäüÿì. Ïîýòîìó âûáîð ó÷àñòêà ËÝÏ äëÿ îñìîòðà îïðåäåëÿëñÿ îñîáåííîñòÿìè òîãî èëè èíîãî ñåëüõîçóãîäèÿ, íàïðèìåð, íàëè÷èåì óáîðî÷íûõ ðàáîò, çÿáëåâîé âñïàøêè, âñõîäîâ îçèìûõ, íåóáðàííûõ êóëüòóð, êîòîðûå òàê èëè èíà÷å ìîãëè âëèÿòü íà ïðîöåññ è ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé. Îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ËÝÏ ïðîâîäèëèñü êàê ïåøêîì, òàê è íà àâòîìîáèëå íà ìàëîé ñêîðîñòè. Ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü îñìîòðåííûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ËÝÏ îïðåäåëÿëèñü ïðè ïîìîùè GPSíàâèãàòîðà. Âñåãî çà ïåðèîä ñ 3 ñåíòÿáðÿ ïî 18 îêòÿáðÿ 2011 ã. îáñëåäîâàíà 101 ïòèöåîïàñíàÿ ËÝÏ (÷àñòü èç íèõ – ëèíèè, èäóùèå ïî 2 è 3 ïàðàëëåëüíî, â íåñêîëüêèõ ìåòðàõ äðóã îò äðóãà) â 14 ðàéîíàõ ðåñïóáëèêè: Åëàáóæñêîì, Òóêàåâñêîì, Íèæíåêàìñêîì,

Ïòèöåîïàñíûå ËÝÏ íà ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ îðëà-ìîãèëüíèêà (Aquila heliaca), â òîì ÷èñëå íåïîñðåäñòâåííî ïîä ãí¸çäàìè îðëîâ (âíèçó). Ôîòî Ð. Áåêìàíñóðîâà. PLs dangerous to birds cross the breeding territories of the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), some electric poles are located directly beneath the nests of eagles (bottom). Photos by R. Bekmansurov.


46

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé Ðèñ. 1. Îñìîòðåííûå ËÝÏ. Fig. 1. Surveyed power lines.

×èñòîïîëüñêîì, Çàèíñêîì, Àëüìåòüåâñêîì, Àçíàêàåâñêîì, Ìàìàäûøñêîì, Ïåñòðå÷èíñêîì, Àëåêñååâñêîì, Àëüêååâñêîì, ÐûáíîÑëîáîäñêîì, Íóðëàòñêîì, Òþëÿ÷èíñêîì. Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü îáñëåäîâàííûõ ËÝÏ ñîñòàâèëà îêîëî 122 êì (ðèñ. 1).

Ðåçóëüòàòû è îáñóæäåíèå Ïîä îïîðàìè 49 ËÝÏ íàéäåíû ïîãèáøèå ïòèöû. Âñåãî íàéäåíî 191 òðóïîâ è îñòàíêîâ ïòèö, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ê 13 âèäàì: ìåëêèå âîðîáüåîáðàçíûå (Passeriformes) – 12 îñîáåé, âðàíîâûå (Corvidae) – 144 îñîáè, äíåâíûå õèùíûå ïòèöû (Falconiformes) – 35 îñîáåé (òàáë. 1, 2). Îáùèé óùåðá îò ãèáåëè ïòèö ñîñòàâèë 331000 ðóáëåé. Óùåðá áûë ðàññ÷èòàí ïî «Ìåòîäèêå èñ÷èñëåíèÿ ðàçìåðà âðåäà, ïðè÷èí¸ííîãî îáúåêòàì æèâîòíîãî ìèðà, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ, à òàêæå èíûì îáúåêòàì æèâîòíîãî ìèðà, íå îòíîñÿùèìñÿ ê îáúåêòàì îõîòû è ðûáîëîâñòâà è ñðåäå èõ îáèòàíèÿ» (Âûäåðæêè…, 2008). Ñðåäíèé óðîâåíü ãèáåëè ïòèö ñîñòàâèë îêîëî 15 îñîáåé íà 10 êì ËÝÏ, ïðè ýòîì 47 èç 143 îïîð, ïîä êîòîðûìè îáíàðóæåíû ïîãèáøèå ïòèöû, – àíêåðíûå. Íàèáîëüøàÿ êîíöåíòðàöèÿ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö îòìå÷å-

Òàáë. 1. Óðîâåíü ãèáåëè ïòèö íà îñìîòðåííûõ ó÷àñòêàõ ÏÎ ËÝÏ â ïåðèîä ñ 3.09.2011 ã. ïî 18.10.2011 ã. Table 1. Rate of bird mortality on the areas of PL dangerous to birds surveyed since 3/09/2011 to 18/10/2011.

¹ 1 2 3 4 5–6 7 8–16

17 18–20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27–30 31 32 33

Ó÷àñòîê ËÝÏ (íàçâàíèå áëèæàéøåãî íàñåë¸ííîãî ïóíêòà) Äëèíà (ì) Area of PL (name of nearest settlement) Length (m) Àëåêñàíäðîâñêàÿ ñëîáîäà-1 396 (ÂË-10 Ô11 ÏÑ Îçåðîâêà) Àëêèíî 1600 Àõìåòüåâî-Êàäûðîâî 3400 Àõìåòüåâî-Êàäûðîâî-2 3500 Áàñêàí, Áèêàñàç (Äæàëèëüñêèé ÝÝÖ) 341+267 Áîëãàð 1400 Áîëüøàÿ Òàðëîâêà-1, Áîëüøàÿ Òàðëîâêà-2 (òðîéíàÿ 253+1200+2700+6 ëèíèÿ), Áîëüøèå Íûðñè, Áîðîâåöêèé ëåñ, Áóòëåðîâêà-1, 16+704+548+1000 Áóòëåðîâêà-2, Áóòëåðîâêà-3, Áóõàðàé, Áóõàðàé-2 +515+1200 Âåðõíèå ×åëíû 872 Âåðõíèé Êàðàí (ÂË-6 ËÝÝÖ), Åëàáóãà, Çàèíñê (ÂË 6-10) 352+1700+548 Çàèíñê-2 470 Çóçååâêà 797 Èðíÿ-1 1200 Èðíÿ-2 (ÂË-10 Ô5 Çàèíñêàÿ ÐÝÑ ÏÑ Íîâîñïàññêàÿ) 2000 Êàäûðîâî 771 Êàçûëè 1900 Êàìûøëû-êóëü (Àçíàêàåâñêèé ÐÂÏ), Êàðàáàø, 1500+598 Êàðãîïîëü, Êîñòåíååâî +1800+989 Êðàñíàÿ Êàäêà 1800 Êðàñíàÿ Êàäêà-2 868 Êðàñíàÿ Êàäêà-3 863

Êîë-âî Ïëîòíîñòü ïîãèáøèõ (îñîáåé/êì ïòèö ËÝÏ) Number of Density electrocuted birds (ind./1 km PL) 2 5.05 1 5 4 0 2 0

0.63 1.47 1.14 0 1.43 0

1 0 3 2 5 6 0 3 0

1.15 0 6.38 2.51 4.17 2 0 1.58 0

27 3 3

15 3.46 3.48


Proceedings of Conferences 34 35 36 37 38 39 40–41 42 43 44 45 46–50

Êðàñíàÿ Êàäêà-4 Êðàñíàÿ Êàäêà-5 Êðàñíàÿ Êàäêà-6 Êðàñíûé ÿð (ÖÄÍÃ-4 6Ñ) Êðåù¸íûå Êàçûëè Êóëüáàåâî-Ìàðàñà Êóðíàëè-Àìçÿ, Ëåâàøåâî Ëÿêè (ïñ Êóê-Òàó Ñàðìàíîâñêèé ÐÝÑ) Ìàëîðå÷èíñêèé Ìàëüöåâî Ìàìàäûøñêèé Ìàìûêîâî (4 ïàðàëëåëüíûå ëèíèè), Ìàñÿãóòîâî-1 (ÂË-6 Àçíàêàåâñêèé ÐÂÏ è ÝÑ ßêøè-áàé), Ìàñÿãóòîâî-2, Ìîêðûå Êóðíàëè-1, Ìîêðûå Êóðíàëè-2 51 Ìîðòû-1 52 Ìîðòû-2 53–54 Ìóñàáàé-çàâîä (Òóêàåâñêèé ÐÝÖ, ÂË-10), Ìóñòàôèíî 55 Íåïòóí 56–61 Íèæíèå ßêè, Íèêîëàåâêà, Íîâàÿ Ìèõàéëîâêà-1 (ÂË10), Íîâàÿ Ìèõàéëîâêà-2 (ÂË-6 Äæàëèëüñêàÿ ÝÝÖ), Íîâàÿ Ìèõàéëîâêà-3, Íîâîíèêîëüñê-1 62 Íîâîíèêîëüñê-2 63–66 Íîâîíèêîëüñê-3, Íîâîñïàññêîå, Íîâûå Óðãàãàðû, Ïåòðîâñêèé çàâîä 67 Ïîêðîâñêîå 68 Ïîêðîâñêîå-2 69 Ïîñïåëîâî 70 Ïðîáóæäåíèå 71 Ïÿòèëåòêà 72 Ðóññêèå Êèðìåíè 73 Ðóññêèé Àêòàø (ÂË-10) 74 Ñàëêûí-×èøìà (ÂË-10) 75 Ñîðî÷üè ãîðû 76 Ñîðî÷üè ãîðû-2 77 Ñðåäíèå Êèðìåíè 78 Ñðåäíèå Êèðìåíè-2 79 Ñðåäíèé Áàãðÿæ 80 Ñðåäíèé Áàãðÿæ-2 81–83 Ñòàðûé Ìåíçåëÿáàø Äæàëèëüñêèé ÝÝÖ), Ñòàðîå Ñóìàðîêîâî-1 (Áóãóëüìèíñêèé ÐÝÑ ÏÑ Õóòîðñêàÿ), Ñòàðîå Ñóìàðîêîâî-2 84 Ñòàðîå Ñóìàðîêîâî-3 85 Ñòàðûå Àðìàëû 86 Òàâëàðîâî 87–88 Òàíàéêà, Òàðëîâêà (ÂË-6 ¹ 9-02 Ïðèêàìñêèé ÝÝÖ) 89 Òîíãóçèíî (ÂË-10) 90 Òðóäîâîé 91–92 Óðíÿê, Óðñàëàáàø (Äæàëèëüñêèé ÝÝÖ) 93 Ôåäîòîâî 94 Õëûñòîâî 95–96 ×èðøè, ×èðøè-2 97 Øàðøàëà 98 Øåðåìåòüåâêà (Íèæíåêàìñêèé ÐÝÑ) 99 Øèãàåâî 100–101 ßêòû-þë (ÂË-6), ßëêûí Âñåãî / Total

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

47

816 823 1300 1700 932 811 2100+1500 2100 2300 5100 2000 1300+916+1100 +1400+664

1 3 5 1 3 7 0 3 6 4 7 0

1.23 3.65 3.85 0.59 3.22 8.63 0 1.43 2.61 0.78 3.50 0

3200 3200 1100+163 2400 802+520+611 +1400+846+395

9 3 0 4 0

2.81 0.94 0 1.67 0

885 585+2900 +931+461 868 630 957 174 2200 574 1100 1000 812 2500 423 1500 740 1100 1000+1300+843

1 0

1.13 0

5 1 0 1 24 1 3 0 3 2 0 3 0 1 0

5.76 1.59 0 5.75 10.91 1.74 2.73 0 3.69 0.80 0 2 0 0.91 0

418 1500 1000 509+2400 4100 722 544+673 240 1300 652+557 446 1200 288 1200+489 121897

1 0 1 0 9 1 0 1 6 0 1 2 1 0 191

2.39 0 1 0 2.19 1.38 0 4.17 4.62 0 2.24 1.67 3.47 0 1.57


48

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

Òàáë. 2. Âèäîâîé ñîñòàâ, êîëè÷åñòâî è ïëîòíîñòü ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö íà îñìîòðåííûõ ó÷àñòêàõ ÏÎ ËÝÏ â ïåðèîä ñ 3.09.2011 ã. ïî 18.10.2011 ã. Table 2. Species, numbers and density of birds killed by electrocution on the areas of PL dangerous to birds surveyed since 3/09/2011 to 18/10/2011.

Âèä / Species Îáûêíîâåííûé ñêâîðåö (Sturnus vulgaris) Áåëàÿ òðÿñîãóçêà (Motacilla alba) Äðîçä-ðÿáèííèê (Turdus pilaris) Ñîðîêà (Pica pica) Ñåðàÿ âîðîíà (Corvus cornix) Âîðîí (Corvus corax) Ãàëêà (Corvus monedula) Ãðà÷ (Corvus frugilegus) Âðàíîâûå (Corvus sp.) ßñòðåá-òåòåðåâÿòíèê (Accipiter gentilis) ׸ðíûé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans) Îáûêíîâåííûé êàíþê (Buteo buteo) Îáûêíîâåííàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) Êîá÷èê (Falco vespertinus)

Êîëè÷åñòâî Äîëÿ (%) Number Portion (%) 10 5.23

Ïëîòíîñòü (îñ./êì ËÝÏ) Density (ind/1 km PL) 0.08

1

0.53

0.01

1

0.53

0.01

7 18

3.66 9.42

0.06 0.15

15 31 66 7

7.85 16.23 34.55 3.66

0.12 0.25 0.54 0.06

1

0.53

0.01

1

0.53

0.01

13

6.81

0.11

19

9.95

0.16

1

0.52

0.01

íà â Åëàáóæñêîì è Çàèíñêîì ðàéîíàõ. Ñòåïåíü äàâíîñòè ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö, öåëîñòíîñòü êîòîðûõ íå áûëà íàðóøåíà õèùíèêàìè: äî 1 íåäåëè – 18 ïòèö, äî 1 ìåñÿöà – 49 ïòèö, îò 1 ìåñÿöà è áîëåå – 90 ïòèö. Óòèëèçèðîâàííûå äî ïåðüåâûõ îñòàíêîâ – 34 ïòèöû. Íåñìîòðÿ íà òî, ÷òî â îñåííåå âðåìÿ ìîæíî îòñëåäèòü áîëüøóþ ÷àñòü ïîãèáøèõ íà ËÝÏ ïòèö, ýòî âðåìÿ ãîäà íå äà¸ò ïîëíîãî ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿ î ãèáåëè ïòèö îò ýëåêòðîòî-

êà. Ýòî ñâÿçàíî êàê ñ áûñòðîé óòèëèçàöèåé ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö, òàê è ñ äðóãèìè ïðè÷èíàìè. Òàê, îñíîâíàÿ ÷àñòü òåððèòîðèè Ðåñïóáëèêè Òàòàðñòàí ïðåäñòàâëåíà çåìëÿìè ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííîãî íàçíà÷åíèÿ – 68,7%, â òîì ÷èñëå íà äîëþ ïàøíè ïðèõîäèòñÿ 51,1%. Áîëüøèíñòâî ËÝÏ ðàñïîëîæåíî â ïîëÿõ, ãäå îñåíüþ óæå ëèáî ïðîèçðàñòàþò îçèìûå, ëèáî ïðîâåäåíà çÿáëåâàÿ âñïàøêà. Ïîýòîìó íàìè ïðàêòè÷åñêè íå îáñëåäîâàëèñü ËÝÏ â ïîëÿõ, ãäå óæå áûëè âñõîäû îçèìûõ è ëèøü íåçíà÷èòåëüíî îáñëåäîâàëèñü ëèíèè, ïðîõîäÿùèå ïî çÿáëåâîé âñïàøêå. Íàáëþäåíèÿ çà ïîâåäåíèåì ïòèö ïîêàçàëè, ÷òî ïðîâåäåíèå ìåõàíè÷åñêîé îáðàáîòêè ïî÷â â ïîëÿõ ïðèâëåêàåò ìàññó ïòèö, íàõîäÿùèõ çäåñü ïèùó. Ãëàâíûì îáðàçîì âðàíîâûõ è õèùíûõ ïòèö, â òîì ÷èñëå è îðëîâ-ìîãèëüíèêîâ.  ýòî âðåìÿ ïòèöû òàêæå ìîãóò ïîãèáàòü íà áëèæàéøèõ îïîðàõ ËÝÏ è, âåðîÿòíî, ïîñëå ïðîâåäåíèÿ âñïàøêè ïîëÿ ÷àñòü ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö áóäåò íåó÷òåíà. Íà òàêèõ ó÷àñòêàõ áûëî âûÿâëåíî, ÷òî ïîãèáøèå ïòèöû â ëåòíåå âðåìÿ îêàçûâàëèñü çàïàõàííûìè.  òàêèõ ìåñòàõ èìååò ñìûñë îñìàòðèâàòü òîëüêî óãëîâûå è àíêåðíûå îïîðû ñ íåáîëüøèì íåâñïàõàííûì êëèíîì âáëèçè ñòîëáîâ. Ñðàâíèâàÿ áèîòîïè÷åñêîå ðàñïîëîæåíèå ËÝÏ â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2009) è Ðåñïóáëèêå Òàòàðñòàí, íàáëþäàåì îïðåäåë¸ííóþ ðàçíèöó. Íàïðèìåð, â Ðåñïóáëèêå Àëòàé îáñëåäîâàëèñü ËÝÏ, ðàñïîëîæåííûå â ïàñòáèùíûõ ñòåïÿõ ñ íèçêîé òðàâîé, ñ áîãàòûì êîðìîâûì ðåñóðñîì â âèäå ãðûçóíîâ. Òàì îïîðû ËÝÏ – åäèíñòâåííî âîçìîæíûå ïðèñàäû äëÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö. Âñ¸ ýòî ïðèâëåêàåò èõ ñþäà.  óñëîâèÿõ Òàòàðñòàíà íèçêàÿ ðàñòèòåëüíîñòü â ïîëÿõ áûâàåò îãðàíè÷åííîå âðåìÿ. Èçó÷èâ îñòàíêè ïòèö è ñðîêè äàâíîñòè èõ ãèáåëè, ìû ïðåäïîëîæèëè, ÷òî, âåðîÿòíî, îñíîâíîå êîëè÷åñòâî ïåðíàòûõ â ïîëÿõ ãèáíåò, êîãäà êóëüòóðû íàáèðàþò ðîñò, à òàêæå âî âðåìÿ óáîðî÷íûõ ðàáîò è ïîñëå èõ ïðîâåäåíèÿ, êîãäà íèçêîå æíèâü¸ èëè âñõîäû îçèìûõ ñíîâà ïðèâëåêàþò ê ñåáå ïòèö. Ýòî, ãëàâíûì îáðàçîì, âðàíîâûå è ïòèöû-ìèîôàãè: îáûêíîâåííûé êàíþê (Buteo buteo) è îáûêíîâåííàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus). Ïîä îïîðàìè ËÝÏ â ïîëÿõ, ïîä êîòîðûìè ðîñëà ëèáî âûñîêàÿ òðàâà, ëèáî íåóáðàííûå ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûå êóëüòóðû, ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö â îñåííåå âðåìÿ

Ïòèöåîïàñíûå ËÝÏ, èäóùèå â íåñêîëüêèõ ìåòðàõ ïàðàëëåëüíî äðóã äðóãó. Ôîòî Ð. Áåêìàíñóðîâà. PL dangerous to birds, going parallel to each other at the distance of several meters. Photo by R. Bekmansurov.


Proceedings of Conferences ìû ïðàêòè÷åñêè íå îáíàðóæèëè è ïîýòîìó âïîñëåäñòâèè ñòàëè èñêëþ÷àòü òàêèå ó÷àñòêè èç îñåííåãî îáñëåäîâàíèÿ. Ïîýòîìó íàìè áûëè îñìîòðåíû, â îñíîâíîì, ýëåêòðîëèíèè â ïîëÿõ, ãäå ïîñëå óáîðêè êóëüòóð íå ïðîâîäèëàñü ìåõàíè÷åñêàÿ îáðàáîòêà ïî÷âû è ËÝÏ íà óçêèõ îñòåïí¸ííûõ ó÷àñòêàõ âäîëü äîðîã. Çäåñü åñòü âîçìîæíîñòü ïðîâîäèòü îáñëåäîâàíèå íà ìàëîé ñêîðîñòè àâòîìîáèëÿ, ÷òî ñóùåñòâåííî ïîâûøàåò ñêîðîñòü ïðîâåäåíèÿ ðàáîò. Âî âðåìÿ ïðåäâàðèòåëüíîãî îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ïîä îïîðàìè ËÝÏ, ðàñïîëîæåííûõ â íåñêîëüêèõ ìåòðàõ îò îïóøêè ëåñà, ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö íàìè òàêæå íå áûëî îáíàðóæåíî. Ïîýòîìó â äàëüíåéøåì ìû òàêèå ËÝÏ ñòàðàëèñü èñêëþ÷àòü èç ñâîèõ èññëåäîâàíèé (õîòÿ ãèáåëü ïòèö íà òàêèõ ó÷àñòêàõ âåðîÿòíà). Íà äîñòàòî÷íîì óäàëåíèè îò îïóøåê ëåñîâ ó ïòèö íå îñòà¸òñÿ àëüòåðíàòèâíîãî ËÝÏ âûáîðà äëÿ ïðèñàäû. Íî â ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ íà òàêèõ ëèíèÿõ áûëî çíà÷èòåëüíîå êîëè÷åñòâî ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö, à â ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö âîîáùå îáíàðóæåíî íå áûëî. Õîòÿ íàì íå áûëî èçâåñòíî, áûëè ëè ýòè ËÝÏ ïîä íàïðÿæåíèåì. Íåçíà÷èòåëüíîå êîëè÷åñòâî ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö áûëî îáíàðóæåíî ñðåäè îòêðûòûõ ïðîñòðàíñòâ ïîä ïòèöåîïàñíûìè ËÝÏ, ïèòàþùèìè îáúåêòû íåôòåäîáû÷è. Çäåñü íå èñêëþ÷åíà âîçìîæíîñòü ïîäáîðà òðóïîâ ïòèö íåôòÿíèêàìè ñ öåëüþ ñîêðûòèÿ ôàêòîâ èõ ãèáåëè. Ëèáî èìåþòñÿ äðóãèå ïðè÷èíû îòñóòñòâèÿ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö. Åñòü âåðîÿòíîñòü óòèëèçàöèè òðóïîâ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö õèùíûìè ïòèöàìè, íàïðèìåð, ìîãèëüíèêîì, ò.ê. ïòèöåîïàñíûå ËÝÏ 6–10 êÂ, íàõîäÿùèåñÿ â âåäåíèè ÎÀÎ «Òàòíåôòü», ïðîâåðÿëèñü â îñíîâíîì â ðàéîíàõ, ãäå ñêîíöåíòðèðîâàíû ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè îðëîâ-ìîãèëüíèêîâ. Âåðîÿòíî, ýòè ïðè÷èíû, à òàêæå êîðîòêèé ñðîê ïîëåâûõ ðàáîò è, âîçìîæíî, ìíîãîëåòíèé ïðîöåññ ýëèìèíèðîâàíèÿ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, ïîâëèÿëè íà íåîáíàðóæåíèå ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö íà ðÿäå ó÷àñòêîâ ËÝÏ. Èç 101 îáñëåäîâàííûõ ËÝÏ, áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü êîòîðûõ ðàñïîëîæåíà íà îòêðûòûõ ïðîñòðàíñòâàõ, òîëüêî íà 49 áûëè íàéäåíû ïîãèáøèå ïòèöû. Çà ýòîò êîðîòêèé ïåðèîä èññëåäîâàíèé íàìè íå îáíàðóæåíû ôàêòû ãèáåëè êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö, òàêèõ êàê îðëàíáåëîõâîñò, îð¸ë-ìîãèëüíèê, áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê. Ìû óïóñòèëè ñðîêè ïðîë¸òà êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö, à òàêæå íå îòñëåäèëè ó÷àñòêè âîçìîæíûõ ìèãðàöèîííûõ ïóòåé. Õîòÿ â ðàíåå ïðîâåä¸ííûõ èññëåäîâàíèÿõ (Ñàëòûêîâ, 1999) ïîä÷¸ðêíóòî, ÷òî â óñëîâèÿõ Òàòàðñòàíà ãèáåëü ïòèö âî âðåìÿ èõ

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

49

Ïóñòåëüãà, ñèäÿùàÿ íà ïòèöåîïàñíîé îïîðå ËÝÏ (ââåðõó) è êîá÷èê (Falco vespertinus) è ñåðàÿ âîðîíà (Corvus cornix), ïîãèáøèå íà îïîðå àíàëîãè÷íîé êîíñòðóêöèè (âíèçó). Ôîòî Ð. Áåêìàíñóðîâà è Ä. Æóêîâà. Kestrel, perching on an dangerous electric pole (upper), Red-Footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus) and Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix), killed on the pole of similar design (bottom). Photos by R. Bekmansurov and D. Zhukov.

ïðîë¸òà íå ñòîëü âûðàæåíà, â îòëè÷èå îò äðóãèõ ðåãèîíîâ ñòðàíû. Îñíîâíàÿ ìàññà ïòèö ãèáíåò â ïåðèîä ìàññîâîãî âûëåòà ïòåíöîâ è âî âðåìÿ èõ äîêàðìëèâàíèÿ. Ýòî îòíîñèòñÿ è ê êðóïíûì õèùíûì ïòèöàì. Èçâåñòíûå íàì ôàêòû ãèáåëè îðëîâ â Òàòàðñòàíå, â îñíîâíîì, îòíîñÿòñÿ ê ñë¸òêàì. Ê òîìó æå, ìíîãèå âûÿâëåííûå çà ýòîò îñåííèé ïåðèîä ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè îðëîâ íàõîäÿòñÿ â áëèçîñòè îò ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ, ÷òî äåëàåò èõ óÿçâèìûìè, îñîáåííî ìîëîäûõ ïòèö. Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî ýòè êðóïíûå õèùíûå ïòèöû èñïîëüçóþò îïîðû ËÝÏ â êà÷åñòâå ïðèñàä è ìîãóò ãèáíóòü íà íèõ.


50

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

Âðàíîâûå ïîñëå âûëåòà â ìàññå êîíöåíòðèðóþòñÿ íà îïîðàõ è ïðîâîäàõ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ, ãäå è ïîãèáàþò. Ôîòî Ð. Áåêìàíñóðîâà è Ä. Æóêîâà. Crows after fledging are accumulated on electric poles and wires of PL that pose a risk to birds, where many of them are killed. Photos by R. Bekmansurov and D. Zhukov.

 õîäå èññëåäîâàíèé áûëè òàêæå îòìå÷åíû èíòåðåñíûå ñëó÷àè ïîâåäåí÷åñêèõ îñîáåííîñòåé ó âçðîñëûõ îðëîâ, âûðàæåííûå â ïðåäíàìåðåííîì èçáåãàíèè ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ. Âåðîÿòíî, ó ñòàðûõ ïòèö âûðàáîòàëñÿ óñëîâíûé ðåôëåêñ â âûáîðå áåçîïàñíûõ îïîð. Òàê, íàáëþäàëèñü ÷åòûðå ñëó÷àÿ, êîãäà îðëû-ìîãèëüíèêè èçáåãàëè îïîðû ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ, à èçáèðàòåëüíî ñàäèëèñü íà áîëåå âûñîêèå îïîðû ËÝÏ áîëüøåé ìîùíîñòè. ×àñòî â óñëîâèÿõ Òàòàðñòàíà ËÝÏ 6–10 ê ðàñïîëîæåíû ïàðàëëåëüíî ËÝÏ 110 ê è áîëüøå, êîòîðûå ÿâëÿþòñÿ ìåíåå îïàñíûìè äëÿ ïòèö. Ïðè âñïóãèâàíèè îðëîâ äëÿ ôîòîãðàôèðîâàíèÿ áûëî çàìå÷åíî, ÷òî ïòèöà ïåðåëåòàëà íà äðóãóþ îïîðó ËÝÏ, íî îïÿòü íà áåçîïàñíóþ. Ñâÿçàíî ëè ýòî ñ áîëåå âûñîêèì ðàñïîëîæåíèåì îïîðû-ïðèñàäû íàä çåìë¸é èëè íåêèì âûðàáîòàííûì ïîâåäåí÷åñêèì ïðèñïîñîáëåíèåì èçáåãàòü ïòèöåîïàñíûå ËÝÏ, îñòàëîñü äî êîíöà íå âûÿñíåííûì. Òåì íå ìåíåå, âëèÿíèå ËÝÏ 6–10 ê íà êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö î÷åâèäíî. Ïðè ðàçðàáîòêå ðåãèîíàëüíîãî ïîýòàïíîãî ïëàíà ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé ìû áóäåì Îðëû-ìîãèëüíèêè (Aquila heliaca), ñèäÿùèå íà áåçîïàñíûõ îïîðàõ ËÝÏ. Ôîòî Ð. Áåêìàíñóðîâ��. Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca), perching on safe power poles. Photos by R. Bekmansurov.

ðåêîìåíäîâàòü â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü ìîäåðíèçèðîâàòü ËÝÏ âáëèçè ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ îðëàíà-áåëîõâîñòà, ìîãèëüíèêà è áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà.  õîäå îáúåçäîâ òåððèòîðèè Òàòàðñòàíà âûÿñíèëîñü, ÷òî äîëÿ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ ìîùíîñòüþ 6–10 êÂ, ãäå èñïîëüçîâàíû øòûðåâûå èçîëÿòîðû, âûñîêà.  ðÿäå ìåñò ïàðàëëåëüíî ðàñïîëîæåíû 2, 3, 4 òàêèõ ËÝÏ. Ìåòàëëè÷åñêèå êîíñòðóêöèè òðàâåðñîâ èìåþò ðàçëè÷íóþ ôîðìó. Íà íåêîòîðûõ ó÷àñòêàõ íàáëþäàëàñü íåîäíîðîäíîñòü èñïîëüçîâàííûõ êîíñòðóêöèé. Èíîãäà íà îäíîé è òîé æå ëèíèè áûëè îòìå÷åíû ðàçíûå âàðèàíòû êîíñòðóêöèé è ïðèìåí¸ííûõ èçîëÿòîðîâ. Òàêàÿ íåîäíîðîäíîñòü, âîçìîæíî, îñëîæíèò çàäà÷ó ïî ïðèìåíåíèþ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ.  Òþëÿ÷èíñêîì ðàéîíå íàìè îáñëåäîâàëñÿ ó÷àñòîê ËÝÏ, ãäå ïðèìåíåíû ÷àñòè÷íî äåðåâÿííûå òðàâåðñû. Òåì íå ìåíåå, ïîä íåêîòîðûìè ïðîìåæóòî÷íûìè îïîðàìè ñ òàêîé êîíñòðóêöèåé áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ïîãèáøèå ïòèöû.  Àëåêñååâñêîì ðàéîíå îòìå÷åíû ËÝÏ, ãäå íà îòäåëüíûõ îïîðàõ èìåþòñÿ çàïðåù¸í-


Proceedings of Conferences íûå ìåòàëëè÷åñêèå óñòðîéñòâà äëÿ ïðèñàäû ïòèö è äîïîëíèòåëüíûå øòûðè.  òî æå âðåìÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè âî âñåõ ðàéîíàõ Òàòàðñòàíà èìåþòñÿ ËÝÏ òîé æå ìîùíîñòè, íî ñ ïîäâåñíûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè. Îòìå÷åíî, ÷òî ÷àñòè÷íî ïðîèçîøëà çàìåíà êîíñòðóêöèé ñî øòûðåâûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè íà ïîäâåñíûå â íåôòåãàçîäîáûâàþùèõ ðàéîíàõ. Òàêàÿ ïîëîæèòåëüíàÿ ìîäåðíèçàöèÿ ñâÿçàíà íå ñ ãèáåëüþ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, à ñ òåì, ÷òî òàêàÿ êîíñòðóêöèÿ îêàçàëàñü áîëåå ïðàêòè÷íîé â ýêñïëóàòàöèè. Ýëåêòðîëèíèè, ãäå â êîíñòðóêöèè èñïîëüçîâàíû ïîäâåñíûå èçîëÿòîðû, âñ¸ æå ìåíåå îïàñíû äëÿ ïòèö, òàê êàê íà ïðîìåæóòî÷íûõ îïîðàõ çà ñ÷¸ò áîëåå óäàë¸ííûõ îò òðàâåðñû ïðîâîäîâ, ïòèöû íàõîäÿòñÿ â áîëüøåé áåçîïàñíîñòè. Íà òàêèõ ËÝÏ îïàñíûìè îñòàþòñÿ óãëîâûå è àíêåðíûå îïîðû. Íåîáõîäèìî òàêæå îòìåòèòü ïîëîæèòåëüíûé îïûò ÍÃÄÓ «Ïðèêàìíåôòü» ïî ìîäåðíèçàöèè ËÝÏ 6 è 10 êÂ. Òàê, â 2011 ãîäó íà òåððèòîðèè íàöèîíàëüíîãî ïàðêà «Íèæíÿÿ Êàìà» 30 êì èç çàïëàíèðîâàííûõ 50 êì ËÝÏ ñ êîíñòðóêöèÿìè ñî øòûðåâûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè è íåèçîëèðîâàííûìè ïðîâîäàìè áûëè çàìåíåíû êîíñòðóêöèÿìè ñ ñàìîíåñóùèìè èçîëèðîâàííûìè ïðîâîäàìè (ÑÈÏ-3). ËÝÏ ñ êîíñòðóêöèåé ÑÈÏ-3 ÿâëÿþòñÿ ñàìûìè áåçîïàñíûìè äëÿ ïòèö. Òàêàÿ ìîäåðíèçàöèÿ ïðîâîäèòñÿ íåôòÿíèêàìè ãëàâíûì îáðàçîì ñ öåëüþ èñêëþ÷åíèÿ àâàðèéíûõ îòêëþ÷åíèé â óñëîâèÿõ ýêñïëóàòàöèè ËÝÏ â ëåñó, îíà òàêæå áóäåò ñïîñîáñòâîâàòü ñîõðàíåíèþ ïòèö. Ìû î÷åíü íàäååìñÿ, ÷òî äàííûé îïûò áóäåò òèðàæèðîâàí ïî âñåì îáúåêòàì ÎÀÎ «Òàòíåôòü».  Ðûáíîñëîáîäñêîì ðàéîíå âûÿâëåíà íîâàÿ ËÝÏ ñ êîíñòðóêöèåé ÑÈÏ-3. Íî ïîêà â Òàòàðñòàíå äîëÿ áåçîïàñíûõ äëÿ ïòèö ËÝÏ íåçíà÷èòåëüíà. Èñïîëüçîâàíèå ïëàñòèêîâûõ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ â Òàòàðñòàíå îòìå÷åíî íàìè òîëüêî íà îäíîì ó÷àñòêå ËÝÏ áëèç ñåëà Øàëè. Çàêëþ÷åíèå Ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ 6–10 ê â Ðåñïóáëèêå Òàòàðñòàí íå òîëüêî îñòà¸òñÿ àêòóàëüíîé, íî è ñ ó÷¸òîì óâåëè÷åíèÿ êîëè÷åñòâà ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ, òîëüêî îáîñòðèëàñü. Ýêñòðàïîëèðóÿ äàííûå ïî ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ íà òåððèòîðèè Ðåñïóáëèêè Òàòàðñòàí, ïîëó÷åííûå åù¸ â íà÷àëå 1980-õ ãîäîâ (Ñàëòûêîâ, 1999), ñ ó÷¸òîì îáùåé ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòè ËÝÏ 6–10 êÂ, êîëè÷åñòâî ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö çà ýòè ãîäû ñîñòàâëÿåò óæå ìèëëèîíû îñîáåé.  ïðåäåëàõ ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ íàõîäÿòñÿ ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ïòèö, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ: îðëàíà-áåëîõâîñòà, ìîãèëüíèêà,

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

51

áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà, ÷òî äëÿ íèõ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ëèìèòèðóþùèì ôàêòîðîì. Êðîìå òîãî, íà ËÝÏ ïîãèáàþò è äðóãèå âèäû ïòèö, çàíåñ¸ííûå â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÒ: îáûêíîâåííàÿ ïóñòåëüãà è êîá÷èê (Falco vespertinus). Âñ¸ ýòî òðåáóåò áåçîòëàãàòåëüíûõ ìåð ïî ïðîâåäåíèþ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé â Ðåñïóáëèêå Òàòàðñòàí è íåäîïóùåíèÿ ñòðîèòåëüñòâà íîâûõ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ. Ïîíèìàÿ, ÷òî íåâîçìîæíî åäèíîâðåìåííî ýòèìè ìåðîïðèÿòèÿìè îõâàòèòü âñå ïòèöåîïàñíûå ËÝÏ â Òàòàðñòàíå, íåîáõîäèìî ðàçðàáîòàòü ïîýòàïíóþ ðåãèîíàëüíóþ ïðîãðàììó ïî ìîäåðíèçàöèè ËÝÏ 6–10 ê ñ öåëüþ äàëüíåéøåãî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèÿ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà íèõ. È, â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü, ýòè ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ äîëæíû áûòü íàïðàâëåíû íà ñîõðàíåíèå íàèáîëåå ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ïòèö, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ íà òåððèòîðèè ðåñïóáëèêè. Ëèòåðàòóðà Àòëàñ Ðåñïóáëèêè Òàòàðñòàí. Ìîñêâà, 2005. 211 ñ. Àñüêååâ È.Â., Àñüêååâ Î.Â. Îðíèòîôàóíà Ðåñïóáëèêè Òàòàðñòàí (êîíñïåêò ñîâðåìåííîãî ñîñòîÿíèÿ). Êàçàíü, 1999. 124 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Íèêîëåíêî Ý.Ã., Âàæîâ Ñ.Â., Áåêìàíñóðîâ Ð.Õ. Ãèáåëü ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íà ËÝÏ íà Àëòàå: ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé 2009 ãîäà. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2009. ¹16. Ñ. 45–64. Ìàöûíà À.È., Çàìàçêèí À.Å. Ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî îáåñïå÷åíèþ áåçîïàñíîñòè îáúåêòîâ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ñâÿçè è ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è íà òåððèòîðèè Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä, 2011. 60 ñ. Ñàëòûêîâ À.Â. Ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè ïòèö îò ýëåêòðè÷åñêîãî òîêà íà ËÝÏ â Ñðåäíåì Ïîâîëæüå è îáîñíîâàíèå ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé. Àâòîðåôåðàò äèññåðòàöèè íà ñîèñêàíèå ó÷¸íîé ñòåïåíè êàíäèäàòà áèîëîãè÷åñêèõ íàóê. Òîëüÿòòè, 2003. <http://www.birdprotect.ru/ static/files/publ/18.pdf> Ñàëòûêîâ À.Â. Âîçäóøíûå ëèíèè ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è 6–10 ê êàê ôàêòîð àíòðîïîãåííîé ýëèìèíàöèè ïòèö (èòîãè ïåðâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé â Âîëæñêî-Êàìñêîì êðàå). – Òðóäû Óëüÿíîâñêîãî íàó÷íîãî öåíòðà «Íîîñôåðíûå òåõíîëîãèè». Òîì 2, âûïóñê 2. Óëüÿíîâñê, 1999. Ñ. 80–97. Ñàëòûêîâ À.Â. Î íåîáõîäèìîñòè çàùèòû ïòèö íà ýëåêòðîñåòåâûõ îáúåêòàõ Ðåñïóáëèêè Òàòàðñòàí. – Àêòóàëüíûå ýêîëîãè÷åñêèå ïðîáëåìû Ðåñïóáëèêè Òàòàðñòàí: Ìàòåðèàëû IV ðåñïóáëèêàíñêîé íàó÷íîé êîíôåðåíöèè. Êàçàíü, 2000. Ñ. 76–77. Âûäåðæêè èç ìåòîäèêè èñ÷èñëåíèÿ ðàçìåðà âðåäà, ïðè÷èí¸ííîãî îáúåêòàì æèâîòíîãî ìèðà, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ, à òàêæå èíûì îáúåêòàì æèâîòíîãî ìèðà, íå îòíîñÿùèìñÿ ê îáúåêòàì îõîòû è ðûáîëîâñòâà è ñðåäå èõ îáèòàíèÿ (Óòâåðæäåíà Ïðèêàçîì ÌÏÐ Ðîññèè îò 28.04.2008 ¹107). – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2008. ¹14. Ñ. 12–14.


52

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

TheImpactofPowerLinesonBirdMortalityinCentralKazakhstan ВЛИЯНИЕ РАЗЛИЧНЫХ ТИПОВ ЛИНИЙ ЭЛЕКТРОПЕРЕДАЧИ НА ГИБЕЛЬ ПТИЦ В ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОМ КАЗАХСТАНЕ VoronovaV.V.(KaragandaEcologicalMuseum,Karaganda,Kazakhstan) PulikovaG.I.(AcademicianE.A.BuketovKaragandaStateUniversity, Karaganda,Kazakhstan) KimK.K.(LLP“Projectservice”,Karaganda,Kazakhstan) AndreevaE.V.(A.BaitursynovKostanayStateUniversity,Kostanay,Kazakhstan) BekkerV.R.(KostanaiStatePedagogicalInstitute,Kostanay,Kazakhstan) AitbaevT.(AcademicianE.A.BuketovKaragandaStateUniversity,Karaganda,Kazakhstan) Воронова В.В. (Карагандинский областной экологический музей, Караганда, Казахстан) Пуликова Г.И. (Государственный университет им. Е.А. Букетова, Караганда, Казахстан) Ким К.К. (ТОО «Проектсервис», Караганда, Казахстан) Андреева Е.В. (Государственный университет им. А. Байтурсынова, Костанай, Казахстан) Беккер В.Р. (Государственный педагогический институт, Костанай, Казахстан) Айтбаев Т. (Государственный университет им. Е.А. Букетова, Караганда, Казахстан)

Êîíòàêò: Âåðà Âîðîíîâà ÎÎ «Êàðàãàíäèíñêèé îáëàñòíîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé ìóçåé» 100000, Êàçàõñòàí, Êàðàãàíäà, ïð. Áóõàð-Æûðàó, 47 òåë.: +7 701 266 32 53 vera.voronova.v@\ gmail.com Ãåíðèåòòà Ïóëèêîâà Ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò èì. Å.À. Áóêåòîâà 100000, Êàçàõñòàí, Êàðàãàíäà, óë. Óíèâåðñèòåòñêàÿ, 28 òåë.: +7 702 768 40 00 princessa_lola@inbox.ru Êîíñòàíòèí Êèì ÒÎÎ «Ïðîåêòñåðâèñ» 100000, Êàçàõñòàí, Êàðàãàíäà, óë. Àëèõàíîâà, 5, îô. 415 òåë.: +7 701 673 21 37 mdwkim@gmail.com Åëåíà Àíäðååâà Ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò èì. À. Áàéòóðñûíîâà 110000, Êàçàõñòàí, Êîñòàíàé, óë. Áàéòóðñûíîâà, 47 òåë.: +7 701 151 77 17 birdwatcher7@mail.ru

Ðåçþìå Äàííàÿ ñòàòüÿ ïîñâÿùåíà ðåçóëüòàòàì èññëåäîâàíèé â Öåíòðàëüíîì Êàçàõñòàíå â 2011 ã., öåëü êîòîðûõ – îöåíêà âëèÿíèÿ ðàçëè÷íûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è (ËÝÏ) íà ãèáåëü ïòèö. Âñåãî áûëî îáñëåäîâàíî 5 òèïîâ ËÝÏ îáùåé ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòüþ 680 êì. Ó÷¸òû âåëèñü äâà ñåçîíà – âåñíà è ëåòî-îñåíü 2011 ã. Âñåãî áûëî íàéäåíî 1113 îñòàíêîâ ïòèö áîëåå 37 âèäîâ. Áîëüøóþ ÷àñòü èç íèõ ñîñòàâèëè äíåâíûå õèùíûå ïòèöû – 45% è âðàíîâûå – 43,5%. Îñíîâíîå êîëè÷åñòâî ïòèö (92,7%), ïîãèáøèõ ïî ïðè÷èíå ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì, áûëî çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíî íà ËÝÏ ñðåäíåãî íàïðÿæåíèÿ 6–10 êÂ. Ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ îò ïðÿìîãî ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ñ ïðîâîäàìè, áûëî ó÷òåíî 46 îñîáåé – ýòó ãðóïïó ñîñòàâëÿþò âîäîïëàâàþùèå è îêîëîâîäíûå âèäû, à òàêæå ìåëêèå âîðîáüèíûå. Óãðîçó ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ñ ïðîâîäàìè ïðåäñòàâëÿþò â îñíîâíîì âûñîêîâîëüòíûå ËÝÏ 110 êÂ. Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: Öåíòðàëüíûé Êàçàõñòàí, ËÝÏ, ïîðàæåíèå ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì, ñòîëêíîâåíèå, ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè, õèùíûå ïòèöû, óãðîæàåìûé âèä. Ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ: 28.02.2012 ã. Ïðèíÿòà ê ïóáëèêàöèè: 14.03.2012 ã. Abstract This article presents the results of surveys, which was carried out in Central Kazakhstan in 2011. The goal of the surveys was to estimate the impact of different types of power lines (PL) on bird mortality. There were investigated 5 types of PL with a total length of 680 km. Surveys was conducted during two periods – spring and summerautumn of 2011. A total of 1113 remains of birds of more than 37 species were found. Most of them are birds of prey – 45% and Crows – 43.5%. The most of electrocuted birds (92.7%) was registered along PL 6–10 kV. A total of 46 bird deaths registered were caused by collision; there are waterfowl, and small passerines in this group. High-voltage PL 110 kV are the main threat of bird collision. Keywords: Central Kazakhstan, electric power lines, electrocution, collision, birds of prey, raptors, threatened species. Received: 28/02/2012. Accepted: 14/03/2012.

Ââåäåíèå Öåíòðàëüíûé Êàçàõñòàí – ýòî îáøèðíûå òåððèòîðèè óíèêàëüíûõ ñòåïíûõ ýêîñèñòåì, êîòîðûå ïåðåñåêàþò îñíîâíûå ìèãðàöèîííûå ïóòè ïòèö. Çäåñü ðàñïîëîæåíî áîëåå 20 êëþ÷åâûõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ òåððèòîðèé, íà êîòîðûõ â ïåðèîä ìèãðàöèé ñîáèðàþòñÿ òûñÿ÷è âîäîïëàâàþùèõ è îêîëîâîäíûõ ïòèö. Ñòåïè Öåíòðàëüíîãî Êàçàõñòàíà ÿâëÿþòñÿ âàæíåéøèìè ðåôóãèóìàìè äëÿ ñîõðàíåíèÿ ìíîãèõ ðåäêèõ

Introduction Central Kazakhstan is a vast area of unique steppe ecosystems. There are several main bird flyways crosses this area. There are more than 20 IBA’s in this area, and thousands of waterfowl are located here during their migrations. Some threatened species of the birds of prey such as the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug), Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) inhabit the


Proceedings of Conferences Âàëåíòèíà Áåêêåð Ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé ïåäàãîãè÷åñêèé èíñòèòóò 110000, Êàçàõñòàí, Êîñòàíàé, óë. Òàðàíà, 118 òåë.: +7 701 115 44 26 valyaduos@mail.ru Òèìóð Àéòáàåâ Ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò èì. Å.À. Áóêåòîâà 110000, Êàçàõñòàí, Êàðàãàíäà, óë. Óíèâåðñèòåòñêàÿ, 28 òåë.: +7 701 289 29 57 tsuki_no_ookami@ mail.ru

Ðèñ. 1. Îáñëåäîâàííûå ËÝÏ. Fig. 1. Surveyed power lines.

âèäîâ ïòèö â ìàñøòàáàõ Åâðàçèè (Ñêëÿðåíêî è äð., 2008). Èç ãëîáàëüíî óãðîæàåìûõ âèäîâ äíåâíûõ õèùíèêîâ çäåñü ãíåçäÿòñÿ è âñòðå÷àþòñÿ â ñåçîí ìèãðàöèé ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca), áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) è áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga). Îíè ÿâëÿþòñÿ ïîòåíöèàëüíûìè æåðòâàìè âîçäóøíûõ ËÝÏ, íà êîòîðûõ ãèáíóò îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì. Îñîáåííîñòüþ Öåíòðàëüíîãî Êàçàõñòàíà ÿâëÿåòñÿ îòñóòñòâèå äðåâåñíîé ðàñòèòåëüíîñòè, ÷òî óâåëè÷èâàåò èñïîëüçîâàíèå ïòèöàìè ËÝÏ äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ è â êà÷åñòâå ïðèñàä âî âðåìÿ îòäûõà è îõîòû è, ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, ðèñê èõ ãèáåëè. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, Öåíòðàëüíûé Êàçàõñòàí ÿâëÿåòñÿ êðàéíå èíòåðåñíîé òåððèòîðèåé äëÿ èçó÷åíèÿ âîïðîñà âëèÿíèÿ ËÝÏ íà ïòèö. Èññëåäîâàíèÿ, îïèñàííûå â äàííîé ñòàòüå, íàïðàâëåíû íà îöåíêó âëèÿíèÿ ËÝÏ íà âñå âèäû ïòèö, ñ ôîêóñîì íà ðåäêèå è ãëîáàëüíî-óãðîæàåìûå âèäû. Ìàòåðèàëû è ìåòîäû èññëåäîâàíèé Èññëåäîâàíèÿ âåëèñü â äâóõ ðåãèîíàõ Öåíòðàëüíîãî Êàçàõñòàíà: ñåâåðíàÿ ÷àñòü Êàðàãàíäèíñêîé îáëàñòè (26 òûñ. êì2) è Òóðãàéñêèé ðåãèîí â Êîñòàíàéñêîé îáëàñòè (20 òûñ. êì2) (ðèñ. 1). Îáùàÿ äëèíà èññëåäîâàííûõ ËÝÏ ðàçëè÷íîãî òèïà ñîñòàâèëà 680 êì. Êàæäûé ó÷àñòîê ËÝÏ, ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòüþ 10 êì, áûë âûáðàí ìåòîäîì ñëó÷àéíîé âûáîðêè. Íà÷àëî è êîíåö êàæäîãî ó÷àñòêà, à òàêæå óãëû ïîâîðîòà ëèíèé, ïðèâÿçûâàëèñü ê ñèñòåìå êîîðäèíàò ñ ïîìîùüþ GPS-íàâèãàòîðà. Èññëåäîâàíèÿ âåëèñü â äâà ïåðèîäà íà îáîèõ ó÷àñòêàõ:

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

53

Ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis), ïîãèáøèé îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì è ïîìå÷åííûé êðàñêîé äëÿ èäåíòèôèêàöèè ïðè ïîâòîðíîì îñìîòðå. Ôîòî Â. Âîðîíîâîé. Electrocuted Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) of color marked for future identify. Photo by V. Voronova.

study area. All these threatened species are potential victims of electrocution. One more specific character is lack of tree vegetation and in this case birds use electric poles for nesting, roosting, hunting etc. that increases the risk of bird mortality. Thus, Central Kazakhstan is interesting to research the bird mortality on the overhead power lines. The surveys carried out are targeted to estimate the impact of power lines on all species of birds with focusing on threatened species. Material and methods The territories of surveys were located in the north part of the Karaganda district (26,000 km2) and in the Torgai region of the Kostanai district (20,000 km2) (fig. 1). The total length of observed PL was 680 km. Each transect with length of 10 km was selected by random sampling. A start, a finish and angles of each transect were recorded with use of GPS-navigator. The surveys were carried out in the Karaganda district on 7–11, 21–30, May and on 6–20, September 2011; in the Torgai region since 20 June to 4 July and since 20 August to 4 September 2011. Surveys of PL were carried out during pedestrian and vehicle routes by a team consisting of two-three persons. Following data was recorded during survey: type of electric pole design, habitat, species of founded birds (or genus if species identification is impossible), level of the carcass decomposition, reason of bird deaths (electrocution,


54

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Contact: Vera Voronova NGO “Karaganda Ecological Museum” Buhar Zhyrau ave., 47, Karaganda, Kazakhstan, 110000 mob.: +7 701 266 32 53 vera.voronova.v@ gmail.com Genrietta Pulikova Academician E.A. Buketov Karaganda State University Universitetskaya str., 28 Karaganda, Kazakhstan, 110000, mob.: +7 702 768 40 00 princessa_lola@inbox.ru Konstantin Kim LLP “Projectservice” Alihanova str., 5, of. 415 Karaganda, Kazakhstan, 100000, mob.: +7 701 673 21 37 mdwkim@gmail.com Elena Andreeva A. Baitursynov Kostanay State University Baitursynova str., 47 Kostanay, Kazakhstan, 110000 mob.: +7 701 151 77 17 birdwatcher7@mail.ru Valentina Beker Kostanai State Pedagogical Institute Tarana str., 118, Kostanay, Kazakhstan, 110000 mob.: +7 701 115 44 26 valyaduos@mail.ru Timur Aitbaev Academician E.A. Buketov Karaganda State University Universitetskaya str., 28 Karaganda, Kazakhstan, 110000 mob.: +7 701 289 29 57 tsuki_no_ookami@ mail.ru

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé Ñòåïíàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco naumanni), ïîãèáøàÿ â ðåçóëüòàòå ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì. Ôîòî Ê. Êèìà. Electrocuted Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni). Photo by K. Kim.

Êàðàãàíäèíñêàÿ îáëàñòü – 7–11, 21–30 ìàÿ è 6–20 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2011 ã., Òóðãàé – 20 èþíÿ – 4 èþëÿ è 20 àâãóñòà – 4 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2011 ã. Ó÷¸òû ïðîâîäèëèñü â õîäå ïåøèõ è àâòîìîáèëüíûõ ìàðøðóòîâ ñ ó÷àñòèåì äâóõ-òð¸õ ÷åëîâåê. Íà ìàðøðóòàõ ðåãèñòðèðîâàëèñü ñëåäóþùèå äàííûå: áèîòîï, ÷åðåç êîòîðûé ïðîõîäèò ëèíèÿ; âèä íàéäåííîé ïîãèáøåé ïòèöû (èëè ðîä ïðè íåâîçìîæíîñòè îïðåäåëåíèÿ äî âèäà); ïðè÷èíà å¸ ãèáåëè (ïîðàæåíèå ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì óäàðîì, ñòîëêíîâåíèå èëè äð.); ñòåïåíü óòèëèçàöèè òóøêè ïî: Ñàëòûêîâ, 1999; òèï îïîðû; êîíñòðóêöèÿ îïîðû (íåñóùàÿ, àíêåðíàÿ è ò.ä.), ïîä êîòîðîé ïòèöà áûëà íàéäåíà; ôèêñèðîâàëèñü âñå æèâûå ïòèöû, èñïîëüçóþùèå ËÝÏ äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ èëè â êà÷åñòâå ïðèñàä, à òàêæå îáèëèå ñëåäîâ ïòè÷üåãî ïîì¸òà íà îïîðàõ. Ñâåæèå òðóïû ïòèö ïîìå÷àëèñü àýðîçîëüíîé êðàñêîé äëÿ èñêëþ÷åíèÿ ïîâòîðíîé ðåãèñòðàöèè ïðè ëåòíå-îñåííèõ ó÷¸òàõ. Ñëåäû îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì, êàê ïðàâèëî, íå âñåãäà çàìåòíû è òðóäíî ðàñïîçíàþòñÿ, æåðòâû ÷àñòî âûãëÿäÿò âíåøíå íåïîâðåæä¸ííûìè (Õààñ è äð., 2003).  òàêèõ ñëó÷àÿõ ïðè÷èíà ñìåðòè óñòàíàâëèâàëàñü ïî òàêèì ïðèçíàêàì, êàê ìåñòî ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ïòèöû (ïîä îïîðîé èëè ïîä ïðîâîäàìè), å¸ ðàçìåðû è áèîëîãè÷åñêèå îñîáåííîñòè. Ðåçóëüòàòû è èõ îáñóæäåíèå Çà ïîëíûé ïåðèîä èññëåäîâàíèé ñðåäè æåðòâ ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì è ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ñ ïðîâîäàìè áûëî îïðåäåëåííî è çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíî 37 âèäîâ ïòèö (òàáë. 1). Êàê âèäíî èç òàáëèöû, æåðòâàìè ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ñòàíîâÿòñÿ âîäîïëàâàþùèå è îêîëîâîäíûå ïòèöû ñ òÿæ¸ëîé ìàññîé òåëà è íèçêîé ñïîñîáíîñòüþ ê ìàíåâðèðîâàíèþ, ìåëêèå âîðîáüèíûå, âèäèìî íà íî÷íûõ ìèãðàöèÿõ. Ïî êîëè÷åñòâó ñëó÷àåâ ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ñ ïðîâîäàìè ñðåäè âñåõ çàðåãèñòðèðîâàííûõ ïòèö íà ïåðâîì ìåñòå íàõîäèòñÿ ñòðåïåò (Tetrax tetrax), ìåæäóíàðîäíûé ïðèðîäîîõðàííûé ñòàòóñ êîòîðîãî –

collision etc.), all alive birds which used PL for roosting or nesting, prints of bird’s dropping. Dead bird were colored with aerosol paint to avoid the records repeating. Sings of electrocution are not always visible and usually difficult recognized (Haas et al., 2003). In such cases the reason of death was established by localization of the bird founded (under the pole or wires), its sizes and biological characteristics. Results and Discussion A total of 37 bird species died through electrocution and collision were observed over the period of surveys. The list of bird species including the reasons of deaths and numbers of carcasses is presented in the table 1. The table shows that all victims of collision are waterfowl, which has heavy body mass and limited maneuverability, and small birds killed during night migrations. The Little Bustard (Tetrax tetrax) takes the first place as a victim of collision with wires. This species is included in the IUCN Red List as Near Threatened (BirdLife International, 2008). Collision with PL is one of serious threats to the species population. Accipitridae, Falconidae and Corvidae families are most vulnerable to electrocution. The birds of prey make up 45% of a total number, Crows – 43.5%. The most of eagle species were not identified, because of bad conditions of remains. However among raptors the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) predominated. Also the Imperial Eagle, a threatened species, was recorded. A total of 5 types of electric poles design were revealed (fig. 2) A total of 260 km of medium-voltage (6–10 kV) PL suspended by concrete poles with metal crossarms and upright insulators are observed (fig. 2–4). The chart (fig. 3) shows the correlation between numbers of dead birds and electric pole design. According to data obtained the most of birds were killed through collision with wires on the high-voltage power lines 110 kV (fig. 2–1). All waterfowl that were found under electric poles were registered along the power lines going near small lakes or swamps. There were 46 bird collisions that were 4.1%


Proceedings of Conferences

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

55

Òàáë. 1. Êîëè÷åñòâî âèäîâ ïòèö, îáíàðóæåííûõ ïîä ËÝÏ, ñ óêàçàíèåì ïðè÷èíû ñìåðòè. Table 1. Numbers of bird species detected under electric poles and reasons of their deaths.

Êîëè÷åñòâî ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ îò Number of birds died of ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì electrocution

ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ñ ïðîâîäàìè collision

¹

Âèä / Species

1

Öàïëÿ ñåðàÿ (Ardea cinerea)

2

2

Ëåáåäü, âèä íå îïð. (Cygnus sp.)

1

3

Óòêà ñåðàÿ (Anas strepera)

1

4

×èðîê-ñâèñòóíîê (Anas crecca)

1

5

Øèðîêîíîñêà (Anas clypeata)

1

6

Ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca)

7

Ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis)

8

Áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos)

9

Îð¸ë, âèä íå îïð. (Aquila sp.)

4 36 1 273

10 Çìååÿä (Circaetus gallicus)

2

11 ׸ðíûé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans)

4

12 Ëóíü ïîëåâîé (Circus cyaneus)

1

13 Êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus)

33

14 Êàíþê (Buteo buteo)

21

15 Êàíþê, âèä íå îïð. (Buteo sp.)

18

16 Òåòåðåâÿòíèê (Accipiter gentilis)

1

17 Îáûêíîâåííàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) 18 Ñòåïíàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco naumanni) 19 Ñîêîë, âèä íå îïð. (Falco sp.)

2

52 3 48

20 Ìàëûé ïîãîíûø (Porzana parva)

1

21 Ïåðåïåë (Coturnix coturnix)

1

22 Ñòðåïåò (Tetrax tetrax)

5

23 Ñðåäíèé êðîíøíåï (Numenius phaeopus)

1

24 Îç¸ðíàÿ ÷àéêà (Larus ridibundus) 25 Ñèçàÿ ÷àéêà (Larus canus)

1 1

26 Ñèçûé ãîëóáü (Columba livia)

4

27 Áîëüøàÿ ãîðëèöà (Streptopelia orientalis) 1

29 Óäîä (Upupa epops)

2

1

30 Ïîëåâîé æàâîðîíîê (Alauda arvensis)

1

31 Áåëîêðûëûé æàâîðîíîê (Melanocorypha leucoptera)

2

32 Æàâîðîíîê, âèä íå îïð. (Alaudidae sp.)

3

33 Âàðàêóøêà (Luscinia svecica)

1

34 Êàìåíêà (Oenanthe oenanthe)

1

35 Ñëàâêà-çàâèðóøêà (Sylvia curruca)

1

36 Ñîðîêà (Pica pica)

27

37 Ãàëêà (Corvus monedula)

36

38 Ãðà÷ (Corvus frugilegus)

303 56

40 Ñêâîðåö (Sturnus vulgaris) 41 Âðàíîâûå (Corvus sp.)

Âñåãî / Total

3 1

2

1 56

42 Ìåëêèå âîðîáüèíûå / Small passerines 43 Âèä íå îïðåäåë¸í / Species is not identified

1

2

28 Ôèëèí (Bubo bubo)

39 Ñåðàÿ âîðîíà (Corvus cornix)

íåèçâåñòíîé ïðè÷èíû reason is unknown

11

1

66

3

12

1043

46

24


56

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ñòåïíîé îð¸ë, ïîãèáøèé îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì. Ôîòî Ê. Êèìà. Electrocuted Steppe Eagle. Photo by K. Kim.

Ðèñ. 2. Ïÿòü òèïîâ îáñëåäîâàííûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è (Í – íåñóùàÿ îïîðà, À – àíêåðíàÿ îïîðà). Fig. 2. Five types of observed electric poles (A – anchor H – other poles).

áëèçîê ê óÿçâèìîìó ïîëîæåíèþ (BirdLife International, 2008).  ñïèñêå îñíîâíûõ óãðîç, âëèÿþùèõ íà ñíèæåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ïîïóëÿöèé ñòðåïåòà, íå ïîñëåäíåå ìåñòî çàíèìàåò ãèáåëü ïî ïðè÷èíå ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ñ ïðîâîäàìè ËÝÏ. Ñðåäè ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì, äîìèíèðóþò ïòèöû ñåìåéñòâ ÿñòðåáèíûå Accipitridae, ñîêîëèíûå Falconidae è âðàíîâûå Corvidae. Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè ñîñòàâëÿþò 45% îò îáùåãî ÷èñëà ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö, âðàíîâûå – 43,5%. Èç-çà ïëîõîé ñîõðàííîñòè îñòàíêîâ ìíîãèå âèäû îðëîâ íå áûëè îïðåäåëåííû. Òåì íå ìåíåå, âèäíî, ÷òî ñðåäè îðëîâ äîìèíèðóåò ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis). Èç ãëîáàëüíî óãðîæàåìûõ – îäèí âèä äíåâíûõ õèùíèêîâ – ìîãèëüíèê.

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé of the total number of birds found. The medium voltage PL 6–10 kV are the most dangerous to birds (fig 2–4). A total number of 1032 dead birds were recorded at this type of PL and it is 92.7% of the total number of dead birds found. Medium-voltage PL on wood poles without crossarms were also investigated (fig. 2–5). These PL appear as most safety, only anchor poles of it are hazardous to birds. Ground short circuit could happen when raining or bird’s dropping (Haas et al., 2003). And in this case type of pole design doesn’t matter. Ranking of raptor mortality on the dates of deaths is shown at the fig. 4. Data on other bird species are presented at the table 2. The most part of birds of prey in the Karaganda district seemed to die from electrocution in 2009–2010. Considering the conditions of remains (safety of skulls) the main part of birds seemed to be killed during autumn of 2010. Data analysis shows that bird mortality during spring period is considerably larger than in autumn. In the Torgai region, the birds of prey mostly were killed in July– August of 2011, when young birds were flying away from nests and more threatened by electrocution. (Janss, Ferrer, 2001). Conclusion Surveys of bird mortality on different types of PL show that not all the PL caused a haz-


Proceedings of Conferences

Ðèñ. 3. Ñîîòíîøåíèå ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö è ïðè÷èí ãèáåëè îòíîñèòåëüíî òèïîâ ËÝÏ. Fig. 3. Correlation between numbers of dead birds and electric pole design.

 õîäå èññëåäîâàíèé áûëî âûäåëåíî 5 òèïîâ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è (ðèñ. 2). Ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ ñðåäíåãî íàïðÿæåíèÿ 6–10 ê íà æåëåçîáåòîííûõ îïîðàõ ñ ìåòàëëè÷åñêîé êîíñòðóêöèåé òðàâåðñà è øòûðåâûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè áûëî îáñëåäîâàíî 260 êì (ðèñ. 2–4). Âûøå ïðåäñòàâëåí ãðàôèê, äåìîíñòðèðóþùèé ñîîòíîøåíèå ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö è ïðè÷èí èõ ãèáåëè îòíîñèòåëüíî òèïîâ ËÝÏ (ðèñ. 3). Êàê âèäíî èç ãðàôèêà, ïî ïðè÷èíå ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ áîëüøå âñåãî ïîãèáëî ïòèö íà âûñîêîâîëüòíûõ ËÝÏ 100 ê (ðèñ. 2–1). Âñå çàðåãèñòðèðîâàííûå âîäîïëàâàþùèå è îêîëîâîäíûå ïòèöû ïîãèáëè îò ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ íà ËÝÏ, ðàñïîëàãàþùèõñÿ â íåïîñðåäñòâåííîé áëèçîñòè îò îçåðà èëè íåáîëüøîãî áîëîòà. Îáùåå êîëè÷åñòâî ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ îò ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ, ñîñòàâëÿåò 46 îñîáåé è ýòî 4,1% îò îáùåãî êîëè÷åñòâà íàéäåííûõ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö. Ïî êîëè÷åñòâó ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì, ëèäèðóåò ËÝÏ ñðåäíåãî íàïðÿæåíèÿ 6–10 ê (ðèñ. 2–4). Îáùåå êîëè÷åñòâî ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö, çàðåãèñòðèðîâàííûõ íà äàííûõ ËÝÏ, ñîñòàâèëî 1032 îñîáè è ýòî 92,7% îò îáùåãî ÷èñëà íàéäåííûõ. Íàìè òàêæå áûëè îáñëåäîâàíû ëèíèè ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷ ñðåäíåãî íàïðÿæåíèÿ 6–10 ê íà äåðåâÿííûõ îïîðàõ ñ îòñóòñòâèåì òðàâåðñ (ðèñ. 2–5). Äàííûå ëèíèè ÿâëÿþòñÿ íàèáîëåå áåçîïàñíûìè, èñêëþ÷åíèå ñîñòàâëÿþò óãëîâûå

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

57

ard to birds. A hazard depends on the electric pole design. Medium-voltage PL 6–10 kV with concrete poles with metal crossarms and upright insulators are the most dangerous. These types of PL cause a hazard to the birds of prey and other birds of medium size like crows and pigeons. These PL are wide spread and predominate over other medium-voltage PL, which have a safe design. Main victims of these PL are the birds of prey and most of them are included in national and international red lists. Electrocution combining with other negative factors such as habitat destruction can be a reason of population declining (LopezLopez et al., 2011). Electrocution seems to cause severe losses to populations of some bird species as the Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti) in Europe (Lopez-Lopez et al., 2011), Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in USA (Harness, Wilson 2001) and Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres) in South Africa (Ledger, Hobbs 1999). Electrocution is one of the main reasons of decline in numbers of the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) population (Karyakin, 2011). High-voltage polyphase PL are a threat to waterfowl if they go along water bodies. Risk of collision exists for all types of poles. It should be noted that a number of bird collisions as less than a number of bird electrocutions. The results of our surveys presented in the article have proved the existence of the problem of bird electrocution and collision in Kazakhstan and the need to address it. There are developed and approved mitigation practices over the world and which could be adapted to Kazakhstan. Basing on the experience of Russian colleagues it is hoped to run the process of bird protection against electrocution and collision in Kazakhstan. Acknowledgement The project “Assessing the impact of power lines on birds in Central Kazakhstan steppes” is funded within the Conservation Leadership Programmå26. This programme is a partnership of four international conservation organizations and working to promote the development of future biodiversity conservation leaders. The authors are grateful to the Association for the Conservation of Biodiversity of Kazakhstan27 and the Karaganda Ecological Museum28 for consultations and technical support. Special thanks to Todd Katzner, S.L. Sklyarenko and M.A. Koshkin for their help with survey design.


58

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

Òàáë. 2. Ðàíæèðîâàíèå íàéäåííûõ ïòèö ïî ñðîêàì ãèáåëè. Table 2. Ranking of bird mortality according to the dates of deaths.

Âèä / Species Öàïëÿ ñåðàÿ (Ardea cinerea) Ëåáåäü, âèä íå îïð. (Cygnus sp.) Óòêà ñåðàÿ (Anas strepera) ×èðîê-ñâèñòóíîê (Anas crecca) Øèðîêîíîñêà (Anas clypeata) Ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca) Ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis) Áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos) Îð¸ë, âèä íå îïð. (Aquila sp) Çìååÿä (Circaetus gallicus) ׸ðíûé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans) Ëóíü ïîëåâîé (Circus cyaneus) Êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) Êàíþê (Buteo buteo) Êàíþê, âèä íå îïð. (Buteo sp.) Òåòåðåâÿòíèê (Accipiter gentiles) Îáûêíîâåííàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) Ñòåïíàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco naumanni) Ñîêîë, âèä íå îïð. (Falco sp.) Ìàëûé ïîãîíûø (Porzana parva) Ïåðåïåë (Coturnix coturnix) Ñòðåïåò (Tetrax tetrax) Ñðåäíèé êðîíøíåï (Numenius phaeopus) Îç¸ðíàÿ ÷àéêà (Larus ridibundus) Ñèçàÿ ÷àéêà (Larus canus) Ñèçûé ãîëóáü (Columba livia) Áîëüøàÿ ãîðëèöà (Streptopelia orientalis) Ôèëèí (Bubo bubo) Óäîä (Upupa epops) Ïîëåâîé æàâîðîíîê (Alauda arvensis) Áåëîêðûëûé æàâîðîíîê (Melanocorypha leucoptera) Æàâîðîíîê, âèä íå îïð. (Alaudidae sp.) Âàðàêóøêà (Luscinia svecica) Êàìåíêà (Oenanthe oenanthe) Ñëàâêà-çàâèðóøêà (Sylvia curruca) Ñîðîêà (Pica pica) Ãàëêà (Corvus monedula) Ãðà÷ (Ñorvus frugilegus) Ñåðàÿ âîðîíà (Corvus cornix) Ñêâîðåö (Sturnus vulgaris) Âðàíîâûå (Corvus sp.) Ìåëêèå âîðîáüèíûå / Small passerines Âèä íå îïðåäåë¸í / Species is not identified Èòîãî / Total

Êîëè÷åñòâî ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö / Number of dead birds Êàðàãàíäèíñêàÿ îáëàñòü Karaganda district Òóðãàé / Torgai region Êîíåö Êîíåö 2009 ã. 2009 ã. – âåñíà Èþíü – – âåñíà Âåñíà Èþëü – 2011 ã. àâãóñò 2011 ã. – èþíü àâãóñò End Âåñíà 2011 ã. End 2011 ã. 2011 ã. 2009 – 2011 ã. June – 2009 – Spring– July – spring Spring August spring June August 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 17 6 10 3 1 142 3 63 25 40 1 1 1 2 1 1 4 16 2 11 2 5 5 11 5 2 2 4 2 3 1 3 23 12 14 1 2 9 4 2 13 21 1 1 5 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 3 7 5 8 4 7 22 5 2 16 30 30 96 131 8 22 15 4 10 1 54 5 10 2 46 14 8 10 2 264 121 146 111 194 277


Proceedings of Conferences

Ðèñ. 4. Äîëÿ ïîãèáøèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö ñ ðàíæèðîâàíèåì ïî ñðîêàì ãèáåëè. Fig. 4. Rate of raptor deaths with ranking on the dates of their deaths.

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

59

Çàêëþ÷åíèå Èññëåäîâàíèå ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ðàçëè÷íûõ ËÝÏ ïîêàçàëî, ÷òî íå âñå ëèíèè îïàñíû äëÿ ïòèö è èõ îïàñíîñòü çàêëþ÷àåòñÿ â îñîáåííîñòÿõ êîíñòðóêöèè. Ñðåäè ËÝÏ ñðåäíåãî íàïðÿæåíèÿ ñàìûìè îïàñíûìè ÿâëÿþòñÿ ëèíèè ñðåäíåãî íàïðÿæåíèÿ 6–10 êÂ, â êîíñòðóêöèè êîòîðûõ èñïîëüçóþò æåëåçíîáåòîííûå îïîðû, à â êà÷åñòâå çàçåìëÿþùèõ ýëåìåíòîâ – æåëåçíûå òðàâåðñû ñî øòûðåâûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè. Äàííûå ëèíèè ïðåäñòàâëÿþò â îñíîâíîì îïàñíîñòü äëÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, à òàêæå äëÿ äðóãèõ ïòèö ñðåäíåãî ðàçìåðà, òàêèõ, êàê âðàíîâûå. Ýòè ëèíèè øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàíåíû è ïðåâàëèðóþò íàä äðóãèìè ËÝÏ ñðåäíåãî íàïðÿæåíèÿ, êîòîðûå èìåþò áåçîïàñíóþ êîíñòðóêöèþ òðàâåðñ. Îñíîâíûìè æåðòâàìè äàííûõ ëèíèé ÿâëÿþòñÿ äíåâíûå õèùíûå ïòèöû, ïî÷òè âñå èç íèõ íàõîäÿòñÿ â ìåæäóíàðîäíîì Êðàñíîì ñïèñêå ÌÑÎÏ (IUCN, 2011) èëè Êðàñíîé êíèãå Êàçàõñòàíà (2010). Ãèáåëü íà ËÝÏ â ñî÷åòàíèè ñ äðóãèìè ôàêòîðàìè, íàïðèìåð, òàêèìè, êàê ðàçðóøåíèå ìåñò îáèòàíèÿ, ìîãóò ñòàòü ïðè÷èíàìè ñíèæåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ïîïóëÿöèè (Lopez-Lopez et al., 2011). Ïîðàæåíèå ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðè÷èíîé ñíèæåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè òàêèõ ðåäêèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö, êàê èñïàíñêèé ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila adalberti) â Åâðîïå (Lopez-Lopez et al., 2011), áåëîãîëîâûé îðëàí (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) â Àìåðèêå (Harness, Wilson 2001), êàïñêèé ñèï (Gyps coprotheres) â Þæíîé Àôðèêå (Ledger, Hobbs 1999). Ïîðàæåíèå ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì ÿâëÿåòñÿ îäíîé èç îñíîâíûõ ïðè÷èí ñíèæåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ïîïóëÿöèé ñòåïíîãî îðëà (Aquila nipalensis) (Êàðÿêèí, 2011).

îïîðû äàííûõ ëèíèé, êîíñòðóêöèè êîòîðûõ èìåþò ðèñê çàìûêàíèÿ íà çåìëþ ïðè ïîñàäêå ïòèöû íà òðàâåðñ. Çàìûêàíèå íà çåìëþ ìîæåò ïðîèçîéòè âî âðåìÿ äîæäÿ, ñòðóÿ ôåêàëèé òàêæå ìîæåò âûçâàòü òàêîå çàìûêàíèå (Õààñ è äð., 2003).  òàêèõ ñëó÷àÿõ êîíñòðóêöèÿ ËÝÏ íå èìååò çíà÷åíèÿ è ãèáåëü ïòèöû ìîæåò ïðîèçîéòè íà ëþáûõ òèïàõ ËÝÏ. Ðàíæèðîâàíèå ãèáåëè ïòèö ïî ñðîêàì ãèáåëè (ðèñ. 4., òàáë. 2) ïîêàçàëî ñëåäóþùóþ êàðòèíó: â Êàðàãàíäèíñêîé îáëàñòè áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü ïîãèáøèõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ïî ñðîêàì ãèáåëè îòíîñÿòñÿ ê 2009–2010 ãã. Ó÷èòûâàÿ ñîñòîÿíèå îñòàíêîâ (ñîõðàííîñòü ÷åðåïîâ) ìîæíî ñóäèòü, ÷òî îñíîâíîå êîëè÷åñòâî ïòèö ïîãèáëî îñåíüþ 2010 ã. Àíàëèç ãèáåëè ïòèö çà 2011 ã. ïîêàçûâàåò, ÷òî â âåñåííèé ïåðèîä ãèáåëü ïòèö çíà÷èòåëüíî áîëüøå, ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ ëåòíèì ïåðèîäîì; â ðàéîíå Òóðãàÿ íàáëþäàåòñÿ îáðàòíàÿ ñèòóàöèÿ – ìàññîâàÿ ãèáåëü ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ïðèøëàñü íà ïåðèîä èþëü-àâãóñò 2011 ã. – â ïåðèîä âûëåòà èç ãí¸çä ìîëîäûõ îñîáåé, êîòîðûå áîëåå ïîäâåðæåíû ãèÒåòåðåâÿòíèê (Accipiter gentilis), ïîãèáøèé â ðåçóëüòàòå ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì. Ôîòî Ã. Ïóëèêîâîé. áåëè îò ýëåêòðè÷åñêîãî òîêà Electrocuted Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). Photo by G. Pulikova. (Janss, Ferrer 2001).


60

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé Íà ëîêàëüíîì óðîâíå ïðîåêò ðàáîòàí ïðè òåõíè÷åñêîé è êîíñóëüòàòèâíîé ïîääåðæêå Êàçàõñòàíñêîé Àññîöèàöèè Ñîõðàíåíèÿ Áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ27 è Êàðàãàíäèíñêîãî îáëàñòíîãî Ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî Ìóçåÿ28. Îòäåëüíàÿ áëàãîäàðíîñòü Òîäó Êàòöíåðó, Ñêëÿðåíêî Ñ.Ë. è Êîøêèíó Ì.À. çà ïîìîùü â ïëàíèðîâàíèè äèçàéíà èññëåäîâàíèé. Ëèòåðàòóðà

׸ðíûé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans), ïîãèáøèé â ðåçóëüòàòå ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì. Ôîòî Ã. Ïóëèêîâîé. Electrocuted Black Kite (Milvus migrans). Photo by G. Pulikova.

Âûñîêîâîëüòíûå ìíîãîôàçíûå ËÝÏ ïðåäñòàâëÿþò óãðîçó äëÿ âîäíûõ è îêîëîâîäíûõ ïòèö â îñíîâíîì â òåõ ñëó÷àÿõ, êîãäà îíè ïðîõîäÿò ïîáëèçîñòè îò âîäíûõ îáúåêòîâ. Ðèñê ãèáåëè ïòèö îò ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ïðèñóòñòâóåò íà âñåõ ËÝÏ, îäíàêî ñòîèò çàìåòèòü, ÷òî äîëÿ ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ îò ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ, çíà÷èòåëüíî ìåíüøå äîëè ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì. Èññëåäîâàíèÿ, îïèñàííûå â äàííîé ñòàòüå, ÿâëÿþòñÿ î÷åðåäíûì äîêàçàòåëüñòâîì ñóùåñòâîâàíèÿ äàííîé ïðîáëåìû â Êàçàõñòàíå è ïîäòâåðæäàþò íåîáõîäèìîñòü å¸ ðåøåíèÿ. Íà ñåãîäíÿøíèé äåíü â ìèðå ñóùåñòâóþò óæå ðàçðàáîòàííûå è àïðîáèðîâàííûå ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî ñíèæåíèþ ðèñêà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è, êîòîðûå ñ óñïåõîì ìîãóò áûòü àäàïòèðîâàíû â óñëîâèÿõ Êàçàõñòàíà. Îïèðàÿñü íà óñïåøíûé îïûò áëèæàéøèõ ðîññèéñêèõ êîëëåã (Áåêìàíñóðîâ, 2011), åñòü íàäåæäà çàïóñòèòü ïðîöåññ îõðàíû ïòèö îò ìàññîâîé ãèáåëè ïî ïðè÷èíå ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è è â Êàçàõñòàíå. Áëàãîäàðíîñòè Ïðîåêò ïî èññëåäîâàíèþ âëèÿíèÿ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è íà ïòèö â ñòåïÿõ Öåíòðàëüíîãî Êàçàõñòàíà ñîçäàí ïðè ôèíàíñîâîé ïîääåðæêå ïðîãðàììû Ñonservation Leadership Programmå26. Äàííàÿ ïðîãðàììà ñîçäàíà â ïàðòí¸ðñòâå ÷åòûð¸õ ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ îðãàíèçàöèé BirdLife International, Conservation International, Fauna & Flora International è Wildlife Conservation Society è íàöåëåíà íà âîñïèòàíèå ëèäåðîâ â ïðèðîäîîõðàííîé ñôåðå.

26 27 28

http://www.conservationleadershipprogramme.org http://www.acbk.kz http://www.ecomuseum.kz

Áåêìàíñóðîâ Ð.Õ. Íàó÷íî-ïðàêòè÷åñêèé ñåìèíàð «Ïðîáëåìû ãèáåëè ïòèö è îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêàÿ áåçîïàñíîñòü íà âîçäóøíûõ ËÝÏ ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòè: ñîâðåìåííûé íàó÷íûé è ïðàêòè÷åñêèé îïûò» – îáùèå âïå÷àòëåíèÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2011. ¹23. Ñ. 122–125. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. ×òî ïðîèñõîäèò ñî ñòåïíûì îðëîì? – Ñòåïíîé áþëëåòåíü. 2011. ¹33. Ñ. 30–34. Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàçàõñòàí. Ò. 1. Æèâîòíûå. ×. 1. Ïîçâîíî÷íûå. Èçä-å 4-å, ïåðåðàáîòàííîå è äîïîëíåííîå. Àëìàòû, 2010. 324 ñ. Ñàëòûêîâ À. Â. Ðóêîâîäñòâî ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è 6–10 êÂ. – Óëüÿíîâñê, 1999. 44 c. Ñêëÿðåíêî Ñ.Ë., Óýëø Ä.Ð., Áðîìáàõåð Ì. ðåä. Êëþ÷åâûå îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèå òåððèòîðèè Êàçàõñòàíà. Àëìàòû, 2008. 318 ñ. Õààñ Ä., Íèïêîó Ì., Ôèäëåð Ã., Õàíäøó Ì., Øíàéäåð-ßêîáè Ì., Øíàéäåð Ð. Îñòîðîæíî: âûñîêîå íàïðÿæåíèå! Ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî îõðàíå ïòèö ïðè ñòðîèòåëüñòâå âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è. NABU, 2003. 20 ñ. BirdLife International 2008. Tetrax tetrax. – IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist. org>. Downloaded on 14 March 2012. IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. <www.iucnredlist. org>. Downloaded on 12 September 2011. Janss G., Ferrer M. Avian electrocution mortality in relation to pole design and adjacent habitat in Spain. – Bird Conserv. Int. 2001. 11. P. 3–12. Harness R.E., Wilson K.R. Electric-utility structures associated with raptor electrocutions in rural areas. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 2001. 29. P. 612–623. Ledger J.A., Hobbs J.C.A. Raptor use and abuse of power lines in Southern Africa. Journal of Raptor Research. 1999. 33. P. 49–52. Lopez-Lopez P., Ferrer M., Madero A., Casado E., McGrady M. Solving Man-Induced Large-Scale Conservation Problems: The Spanish Imperial Eagle and Power Lines. PLoS ONE 6(3): e17196. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0017196. 2011. <http://www.plosone. org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal. pone.0017196 >


Proceedings of Conferences

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

61

OnBirdMortalityonPowerLinesofDifferentDesign intheRepublicofDagestanin2008–2011,Russia О ГИБЕЛИ ПТИЦ НА ЛИНИЯХ ЭЛЕКТРОПЕРЕДАЧИ РАЗНЫХ КОНСТРУКЦИЙ В РЕСПУБЛИКЕ ДАГЕСТАН В 2008–2011 ГГ., РОССИЯ GadzhievA.M.,MelnikovV.N.(IvanovoStateUniversity,Ivanovo,Russia) Гаджиев А.М., Мельников В.Н. (Ивановский государственный университет, Иваново, Россия)

Êîíòàêò: Àìèí Ãàäæèåâ Èâàíîâñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò êàôåäðà çîîëîãèè ÈâÃÓ 153002, Ðîññèÿ, Èâàíîâî, ïð-ò Ëåíèíà, 136 amin1@mail.ru Âëàäèìèð Ìåëüíèêîâ Èâàíîâñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò êàôåäðà çîîëîãèè ÈâÃÓ 153002, Ðîññèÿ, Èâàíîâî, ïð-ò Ëåíèíà, 136 òåë.: +7 906 514 92 36 ivanovobirds@mail.ru Contact: Amin Gadzhiev Ivanovo State University Zoological department Lenina ave., 136, Ivanovo, Russia, 153002 amin1@mail.ru Vladimir Melnikov Ivanovo State University Zoological department Lenina ave., 136, Ivanovo, Russia, 153002 tel.: +7 906 514 92 36 ivanovobirds@mail.ru

Ðåçþìå  ñòàòüå ïðèâîäÿòñÿ ïåðâûå ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïðîáëåìû ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Äàãåñòàíå â 2008– 2011 ãã. Äîêàçàí âûñîêèé óðîâåíü ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ-10 êÂ. Òîëüêî íàáëþäàåìûé ðàçìåð óùåðáà ñîñòàâèë îêîëî 3,5 ìëí. ðóá. Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: õèùíûå ïòèöû, ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè, ïîðàæåíèå ýëåêòðîòîêîì, ËÝÏ, Äàãåñòàí. Ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ: 30.03.2012 ã. Ïðèíÿòà ê ïóáëèêàöèè: 05.04.2012 ã. Abstract The article presents the first results of studies of bird mortality on power lines in Dagestan in 2008–2011. A high level of bird mortality on power lines in the middle voltage range (10 kV) has been proved. Only the observed damage was about 3.5 million rubles. Keywords: raptors, birds of prey, electrocution, power lines, Dagestan. Received: 30/03/2012. Accepted: 05/04/2012.

Ââåäåíèå  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è (ËÝÏ) â Äàãåñòàíå ñîñòàâëÿåò 33815 êì – ýòî äåñÿòêè òûñÿ÷ ìåòàëëè÷åñêèõ, æåëåçîáåòîííûõ è äåðåâÿííûõ îïîð (Îòêðûòîå àêöèîíåðíîå îáùåñòâî…, 2012). Ñ ðàçâèòèåì ñåòè ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è âñòàë âîïðîñ î ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ. Ïîìèìî íàíåñåíèÿ óùåðáà ôàóíå ïðè÷èíÿþòñÿ íåóäîáñòâà ýëåêòðîêîìïàíèÿì, òàê êàê îñòàíêè ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö èíîãäà îñòàþòñÿ íà ËÝÏ, îòêëþ÷àÿ îáîðóäîâàíèå, è èõ ïðèõîäèòñÿ ñíèìàòü. Êðîìå òîãî, â óñëîâèÿõ ëåòíåé çàñóõè ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ïòèö ñ ËÝÏ è êîðîòêîå çàìûêàíèå ìîæåò êîñâåííûì îáðàçîì ïðèâåñòè ê âîçãîðàíèþ ñóõîé òðàâû è ñòàòü ïðè÷èíîé ñòåïíûõ ïîæàðîâ. Ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé Èçó÷åíèå ñëó÷àåâ ãèáåëè ïòèö â Äàãåñòàíå íà÷àëî ïðîâîäèòüñÿ íàìè ñ 2008 ã. Òàáàñàðàíñêèé ðàéîí. Èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïðîâîäèëèñü ñ 2008 ïî 2011 ãã. Îáñëåäîâàíû ËÝÏ ñ äåðåâÿííûìè îïîðàìè, ïðîõîäÿùèå êàê ïî ïðåäãîðíîé, òàê è ïî ãîðíîé ÷àñòè ðàéîíà. Îáñëåäîâàíî 80 êì ËÝÏ ñ äåðåâÿííûìè îïîðàìè íàïðÿæåíèåì 6–10 ê (ðèñ. 1: 1). Çäåñü ïòèöåîïàñíûì îêàçàëñÿ ó÷àñòîê ËÝÏ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòüþ 2 êì, íà êîòîðîì çà ïåðèîä èññëåäîâàíèÿ äî 2011 ã. áûëî îáíàðóæå-

At the present time, the overall length of overhead power lines (PL) in Daghestan equals to 33,815 km, and with them 7,579 transformer posts and substations are commutated. In 2008, we started to research the problem of bird mortality on PL in Daghestan (fig. 1). The regions with different natural and geographical characteristics were selected: Tabasaranski district (foothills and mountainous areas) and Derbent district (coastal and lowland areas). Tabasaransky district. The studies were carried out from 2008 to 2011. There were investigated 80 km of PL 6–10 kV with wooden poles (fig. 1: 1, fig. 2) and revealed a dangerous for birds section, 2 km in length, where we discovered 113 electrocuted birds over the period 2008–2010. Dead birds were mainly found in the summer season (July-August) and represented by passerines. Among them the family of Alaudidae (the Skylark Alauda arvensis) predominated, the second was Emberizidae (the Black-Headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala) and the third – Sturnidae (the Starling Sturnus vulgaris). In 2011, no cases of bird deaths in this 2 km section were found. It is explained by the fact that before 2010 wooden poles of this site were dilapidated, damaged and perforated by hole-nesting birds (up to 20 holes in a pole, fig. 2). However, in 2010 all


62

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ðèñ. 1. Îáñëåäîâàííûå ó÷àñòêè ËÝÏ ñ íàèáîëüøåé ãèáåëüþ ïòèö (1 – ËÝÏ 6–10 ê ñ äåðåâÿííûìè îïîðàìè â Òàáàñàðàíñêîì ðàéîíå; 2 – ËÝÏ 500 ê â Äåðáåíòñêîì ðàéîíå; 3 – 2 ó÷àñòêà ËÝÏ 6–10 ê ñ æåëåçîáåòîííûìè îïîðàìè â Äåðáåíòñêîì ðàéîíå). Fig. 1. Investigated sections of power lines with the highest number of bird deaths (1 – PL 6–10 kV with wooden poles in the Tabasaransky district; 2 – the section of 500 kV high voltage PL in the Derbent district; 3 – two sections of PL 6–10 kV with reinforced concrete poles in the Derbent district).

íî 113 ïòèö, ïîðàæ¸ííûõ ýëåêòðîòîêîì. Ýòîò ó÷àñòîê ïðèâëåêàåò ïòèö îáèëüíîé êîðìîâîé áàçû è âîäîé. Ïîãèáøèå îñîáè â îñíîâíîì áûëè îáíàðóæåíû â ëåòíåå âðåìÿ (èþëü–àâãóñò) è ïðåäñòàâëåíû âîðîáüèíîîáðàçíûìè. Ñðåäè íèõ äîìèíèðóåò ïîëåâîé æàâîðîíîê (Alauda arvensis), ÷åðíîãîëîâàÿ îâñÿíêà (Emberiza melanocephala) è îáûêíîâåííûé ñêâîðåö (Sturnus vulgaris). Ïðè÷èíû, âûçûâàâøèå ìàññîâóþ ãèáåëü ïòèö íà ýòîé ëèíèè, íå óñòàíîâëåíû.  2011 ã. ïîñëå çàìåíû ñòàðûõ ïîëóðàçðóøåííûõ îïîð, áîëüøèíñòâî èç êîòîðûõ áûëè èñïîð÷åíû äÿòëàìè (íà îäíîì ñòîëáå ìîæíî áûëî íàéòè äî 20 äóïåë) (ðèñ. 2), ñëó÷àåâ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ýòîì äâóõêèëîìåòðîâîì ó÷àñòêå íå çàôèêñèðîâàíî.

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé damaged poles were replaced by new ones, also wooden but well-processed and resinimpregnated. After that, cases of bird deaths in this section were not discovered. Derbent district. In April 2010, it was investigated the section of only high voltage power lines (500 kV) suspended by reinforced concrete poles, 6 km in length (fig. 1: 2, fig. 3). Repeated surveys of this site revealed 40 electrocuted birds represented by 7 orders and 10 families. In summer of 2011 (August) there were found 20 electrocuted birds. Small individuals of passerines prevailed among dead birds (mainly, the Skylark). In the second section of PL with reinforced concrete poles in this district (6–10 kV voltage and 3 km in length) the studies were conducted in the autumn period of 2010 and the spring period of 2011 (fig. 1: 3). In the autumn of 2010, bird deaths were not revealed. In the spring of 2011, we found 35 Common Buzzards (Buteo buteo) died from electrocution. The third section of PL selected for examinations in the same district, 5 km in length and 6–10 kV voltage with reinforced concrete poles, was investigated in the autumn of 2011 (fig. 1: 3, fig. 4). There were discovered 53 electrocuted birds dominated by the Common Buzzard (31 ind.), also recorded the Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) (5), Red-Footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus) (4), Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus) (1) and other species. The extent of loss was measured according to the order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation of 28 April 2008 ¹107 “Guidelines for Calculating the Amount of Damage to Animal Species Listed in the Red Data Book of RF and to Other Non-Game Animal Species and Their Habitats” and comprised near 3.5 mln. rubles. However, the cost of bird protection devices to retrofit these most dangerous for bird sections (the second and third section of PL with reinforced concrete poles in the Derbent district, fig. 1: 3) will be approximately 300,000 rubles. It accounts for only 9% of annual loss; moreover, the operation life of bird protection devices is several tens of years.

Ðèñ. 2. ËÝÏ â Òàáàñàðàíñêîì ðàéîíå ñ äåðåâÿííûìè îïîðàìè (ñïðàâà – îïîðà ËÝÏ, ïîâðåæä¸ííàÿ äóïëîãí¸çäíèêàìè). Fig. 2. Power lines in Tabasaranski district with wooden poles. (right – electric pole, damaged by woodpeckers).


Proceedings of Conferences

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

63

Òàáë. 1. Ïòèöû, ïîãèáøèå íà êëþ÷åâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ ËÝÏ çà ïåðèîä 2008–2011 ãã. Table 1. Killed birds on the PL in the key areas for the period 2008–2011.

ËÝÏ 6–10 êÂ, äåðåâÿííûå îïîðû ËÝÏ 500 ê ËÝÏ 6–10 êÂ, æ-á îïîðû PL 6–10 kV, wooden poles PL 500 kV PL 6–10 kV, concrete poles Íóìåðàöèÿ îáñëåäîâàííûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ËÝÏ êàê íà ðèñ. 1 The numbering of surveyed sites of PLs are similar ones in the fig. 1 Âèä / Species Ëåáåäü (Cygnus sp.) Óòêà íûðêîâàÿ (Aythya sp.) Çìååÿä (Circaetus gallicus) Îáûêíîâåííûé êàíþê (Buteo buteo) Ñòåïíàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco naumanni) Îáûêíîâåííàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) Êîá÷èê (Falco vespertinus) Îð¸ë (Aquila sp.) Ïåðåïåë (Coturnix coturnix) Êóðîîáðàçíûå (Phasianidae sp.) Êàìûøíèöà (Gallinula chloropus) Ëûñóõà (Fulica atra) Ñåðûé æóðàâëü (Grus grus) Ñòðåïåò (Tetrax [Olis] tetrax) Àâäîòêà (Burhinus oedicnemus) Ñèçûé ãîëóáü (Columba livia) Îáûêíîâåííàÿ ãîðëèöà (Streptopelia turtur) Ôèëèí (Bubo bubo) Äîìîâûé ñû÷ (Athene noctua) Îáûêíîâåííûé êîçîäîé (Caprimulgus europaeus) Ñèçîâîðîíêà (Coracias garrulus) Óäîä (Upupa epops) Ñòåïíîé æàâîðîíîê (Melanocorupha calandra) Õîõëàòûé æàâîðîíîê (Galerida cristata) Ïîëåâîé æàâîðîíîê (Alauda arvensis) Îáûêíîâåííàÿ êàìåíêà (Oenanthe oenanthe) ׸ðíûé äðîçä (Turdus merula) Ïåâ÷èé äðîçä (Turdus philomelos) Ñåðàÿ ñëàâêà (Sylvia communis) Áîëüøàÿ ñèíèöà (Parus major) Ñåðûé ñîðîêîïóò (Lanius excubitor) Ñîéêà (Garrulus glandarius) Ñîðîêà (Pica pica) Ñåðàÿ âîðîíà (Corvus cornix) Îáûêíîâåííûé ñêâîðåö (Sturnus vulgaris) ×åðíîãîëîâàÿ îâñÿíêà (Emberiza melanocephala) Âñåãî / Total

1

2

3A

3B

5 5 3 4 6 1 3 4 23 1 3 5 2 2 5 3 3

3 2 1 4 2 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 14 6

7 14 99 (113)

46 (60)

35 9 1 1 46 (65)

2 31 3 2 4 1 1 1 6 2 -

Äåðáåíòñêèé ðàéîí. Èññëåäîâàíèÿ íà÷àëè ïðîâîäèòüñÿ ñ àïðåëÿ 2010 ã. è ïðîäîëæàþòñÿ ïî íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ. Ýòîò ðàéîí îòëè÷àåòñÿ áîãàòñòâîì ïòèö è, îäíîâðåìåííî, áîëüøîé ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòüþ îïàñíûõ äëÿ ïòèö ËÝÏ ñ æåëåçîáåòîííûìè îïîðàìè.  àïðåëå 2010 ã. áûë îáñëåäîâàí ó÷àñòîê ËÝÏ-500 ê ñ æ/á îïîðàìè, ïðîòÿæ¸ííî-

2 1

53

ñòüþ 6 êì (ðèñ. 1: 2, ðèñ. 3). Ïðè ìíîãîêðàòíûõ îáñëåäîâàíèÿõ ýòîé ëèíèè áûëî íàéäåíî 40 ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö, îòíîñÿùèõñÿ ê 7 îòðÿäàì è 10 ñåìåéñòâàì. Â àâãóñòå 2011 ã. çäåñü îáíàðóæåíî 20 ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö. Ñðåäè ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö ïðåîáëàäàþò âîðîáüèíîîáðàçíûå (â îñíîâíîì ïîëåâîé æàâîðîíîê). Ãèáåëü ïòèö íà âûñîêîâîëüòíûõ ËÝÏ


64

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

Ðèñ. 3. Âûñîêîâîëüòíûå ËÝÏ â Äåðáåíòñêîì ðàéîíå íàïðÿæåíèåì 500 êÂ. Fig. 3. High voltage power lines (500 kV) in the Derbent district.

Ðèñ. 4. ËÝÏ â Äåðáåíòñêîì ðàéîíå ñ æåëåçîáåòîííûìè îïîðàìè. Fig. 4. Power lines in the Derbent district suspended by reinforced concrete poles.

ìîæíî îáúÿñíèòü ñòîëêíîâåíèåì ñ ïðîâîäàìè è ïîðàæåíèåì ýëåêòðîòîêîì â ìåæôàçîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå. Íà âòîðîì ó÷àñòêå â ýòîì ðàéîíå (ðèñ. 1: 3) â îñåííèé ïåðèîä 2010 ã. è â âåñåííèé ïåðèîä 2011 ã. îáñëåäîâàíû ËÝÏ 6–10 ê ñ æ/á îïîðàìè ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòüþ 3 êì. Äåðåâüÿ è êóñòàðíèêè íà ýòîì ó÷àñòêå îòñóòñòâóþò, èç ðàñòèòåëüíîñòè âñòðå÷àþòñÿ ëèøü ìíîãîëåòíèå òðàâû. Îòêðûòîñòü òåððèòîðèè ïîâûøàåò ðèñê ýëåêòðîïîðàæåíèÿ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, òàê íà ìåñòíîñòè, ëèø¸ííîé äåðåâüåâ, ïòèöû ÷àñòî èñïîëüçóþò ËÝÏ â êà÷åñòâå ïðèñàä. Îñåíüþ 2010 ã. ãèáåëü ïòèö íå çàôèêñèðîâàíà. Âåñíîé 2011 ã. çäåñü îáíàðóæåíî 35 îáûêíîâåííûõ êàíþêîâ (Buteo buteo). Òðåòèé âûáðàííûé äëÿ íàáëþäåíèé ó÷àñòîê ËÝÏ 6–10 ê ñ æ/á îïîðàìè â ýòîì æå ðàéîíå, ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòüþ 5 êì, áûë îáñëåäîâàí îñåíüþ 2011 ã. (ðèñ. 1: 3, ðèñ. 4). Íà ýòîì ó÷àñòêå îáíàðóæåíî 53 ïîãèáøèõ ïòèöû, ñðåäè êîòîðûõ ïðåîáëàäàåò îáûêíîâåííûé êàíþê – 31 îñîáü, îòìå÷åíà îáûêíîâåííàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) – 5 îñîáåé, êîá÷èê (Falco vespertinus) – 4, çìååÿä (Circaetus gallicus) – 1 è äð. âèäû. Âûâîäû Èñõîäÿ èç êîëè÷åñòâà ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö, íàèáîëüøóþ îïàñíîñòü íåñóò ËÝÏ ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòè 6–10 ê íà æåëåçîáåòîííûõ îïîðàõ. Ýëåêòðîïîðàæåíèå ïòèö íà ËÝÏ ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòè 6–10 ê íàíîñèò çíà÷èòåëüíûé óùåðá îðíèòîôàóíå, è îñîáåííî ãóáèòåëåí äëÿ ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ïòèö, çàòðóäíÿÿ âîññòàíîâëåíèå èõ ïîïóëÿöèé. Ðàçìåð óùåðáà, èçìåðåííûé ñîãëàñíî Ìåòîäèêå èñ÷èñëåíèÿ ðàçìåðà âðåäà (Ïðèêàç…, 2008), ñîñòàâèë îêîëî 3,5 ìëí. ðóá. Íàäî ïðèíÿòü âî âíèìàíèå, ÷òî ýòà ñóììà çàíèæåíà, òàê êàê ïðîèñõîäèò

íåäîó÷¸ò ÷àñòè ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ íà ËÝÏ. ×àñòü îñîáåé ðàñòàñêèâàåòñÿ õèùíèêàìè è ïàäàëüùèêàìè, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî áðîäÿ÷èìè ñîáàêàìè è ëèñàìè. Ìåæäó òåì, ñîãëàñíî öåíàì ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл íà èþëü 2011 ã. ñòîèìîñòü îáîðóäîâàíèÿ ýòèõ íàèáîëåå îïàñíûõ äëÿ ïòèö ó÷àñòêîâ ËÝÏ (2 ó÷àñòêà ñ æ/á ËÝÏ â Äåðáåíòñêîì ðàéîíå: ðèñ. 1: 3) ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè êîíñòðóêöèÿìè ñîñòàâèò ïðèìåðíî 300 òûñ. ðóá. (Ïðàéñ-ëèñò…, 2011). Ýòî âñåãî ëèøü 9% îò íàíîñèìîãî óùåðáà. Îáîðóäîâàíèå ýòèõ ó÷àñòêîâ ÏÇÓ áóäåò ñïîñîáñòâîâàòü ñîõðàíåíèþ îðíèòîôàóíû. Ëèòåðàòóðà Îòêðûòîå àêöèîíåðíîå îáùåñòâî ýíåðãåòèêè è ýëåêòðèôèêàöèè Äàãåñòàíà «Äàãýíåðãî». – Îôèöèàëüíûé ñàéò Ïðåçèäåíòà Ðåñïóáëèêè Äàãåñòàí <http:// president.e-dag.ru/index.php?id=848&tx_ ttnews[tt_news]=0&print=1&no_cache=1>. Çàêà÷åíî 30.03.2012 ã. Ïðèêàç Ìèíèñòåðñòâà ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ ÐÔ îò 28 àïðåëÿ 2008 ã. ¹107 «Îá óòâåðæäåíèè Ìåòîäèêè èñ÷èñëåíèÿ ðàçìåðà âðåäà, ïðè÷èí¸ííîãî îáúåêòàì æèâîòíîãî ìèðà, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè, à òàêæå èíûì îáúåêòàì æèâîòíîãî ìèðà, íå îòíîñÿùèìñÿ ê îáúåêòàì îõîòû è ðûáîëîâñòâà è ñðåäå èõ îáèòàíèÿ». – Èíôîðìàöèîííî-ïðàâîâîé ïîðòàë «Ãàðàíò», 2008 <http://www.garant.ru/ products/ipo/prime/doc/12061284/>. Ïðàéñ-ëèñò äëÿ ÐÔ â word. – Îáùåñòâî ñ îãðàíè÷åííîé îòâåòñòâåííîñòüþ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл, 2011. <http://www.birdprotect.ru/static/files/ praice_15.07.11.doc>.


Proceedings of Conferences

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

65

JudicialOpiniononProtectingtheBirdsfromElectrocutioninthe UlyanovskDistrict,Russia СУДЕБНАЯ ПРАКТИКА ЗАЩИТЫ ПТИЦ ОТ УНИЧТОЖЕНИЯ НА ЛЭП В УЛЬЯНОВСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ, РОССИЯ IvanovV.B.(RussianBirdConservationUnion,Moscow,Russia) Иванов В.Б. (Союз охраны птиц России, Москва, Россия)

Êîíòàêò: Âèòàëèé Áîðèñîâè÷ Èâàíîâ Ñîþç îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè 111123, Ðîññèÿ, Ìîñêâà, øîññå Ýíòóçèàñòîâ, 60/1 advocat73@rambler.ru Contact: Vitaliy Ivanov Russian Bird Conservation Union Entusiastov highway, 60/1 Moscow, Russia, 111123 advocat73@rambler.ru

Ðåçþìå  ñòàòüå âêðàòöå îïèñàíà ñóäåáíàÿ ïðàêòèêà çàùèòû ïòèö îò óíè÷òîæåíèÿ íà ËÝÏ â Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè. Îïèñàíû îñíîâàíèÿ äëÿ îáðàùåíèÿ ñ èñêàìè â ñóä îá îáÿçàíèè ñîáñòâåííèêîâ ËÝÏ îáîðóäîâàòü èõ ñïåöèàëüíûìè ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè, äîêàçàòåëüñòâà íåçàêîííîé ýêñïëóàòàöèè ËÝÏ è àðãóìåíòû âëàäåëüöåâ ËÝÏ, íàðóøàþùèõ ïðèðîäîîõðàííîå çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâî. Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: ãèáåëü ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, âçûñêàíèå óùåðáà, ïðåöåäåíò, ñóäåáíîå ðàññìîòðåíèå, ñóäåáíàÿ ïðàêòèêà, îòâåò÷èê, ïòèöåçàùèòíûå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ. Ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ: 03.02.2012 ã. Ïðèíÿòà ê ïóáëèêàöèè: 20.03.2012 ã. Abstract The article briefly describes the judicial opinion on protecting the birds from electrocution in the Ulyanovsk district. Also it presents the reasons for bringing in an action against owners of power lines for obliging them to retrofit power lines with special bird protection devices and arguments of owners that violate environmental laws. Keywords: bird electrocution, recovery of damages, precedent, judicial review, judicial opinion, defendant, mitigation measures. Received: 03/02/2012. Accepted: 20/03/2012.

Èñòîðèÿ ñóäåáíîé çàùèòû ïòèö îò ãèáåëè íà ËÝÏ â Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè áåð¸ò ñâî¸ íà÷àëî ñ ðàññìîòðåíèÿ Àðáèòðàæíûì ñóäîì Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè äåëà ¹À72– 2699/2000–Ñê ïî èñêó Âîëæñêîãî ìåæðåãèîíàëüíîãî ïðèðîäîîõðàííîãî ïðîêóðîðà ê ÎÀÎ «Óëüÿíîâñêýíåðãî» â èíòåðåñàõ Ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî ôîíäà Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè î âçûñêàíèè óùåðáà, ïðè÷èí¸ííîãî æèâîòíîìó ìèðó âñëåäñòâèå óíè÷òîæåíèÿ ïòèö ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè ËÝÏ. Óäîâëåòâîðèâ èñê, ñóä ñâîèì ðåøåíèåì îò 21 èþëÿ 2000 ã. ñîçäàë âàæíûé ïðåöåäåíò ðåøåíèÿ ïðîáëåìû «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ» ïîñðåäñòâîì ìåõàíèçìà ñóäåáíûõ ïðîöåäóð, êîòîðûé ïîñëóæèë ïðèíÿòèþ â Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè ïåðâîé âåäîìñòâåííîé ïðîãðàììû ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé íà ýëåêòðîñåòåâûõ îáúåêòàõ. Ê íàñòîÿùåìó âðåìåíè â Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè ñëîæèëàñü çíà÷èòåëüíàÿ ïðàêòèêà èíèöèèðîâàíèÿ êàê ãîñóäàðñòâåííûìè, òàê è îáùåñòâåííûìè îðãàíèçàöèÿìè, ñóäåáíîãî ðàññìîòðåíèÿ äåë ñ öåëüþ ïðèíóæäåíèÿ âëàäåëüöåâ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ ê ïðèíÿòèþ ìåð ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö. Ïðàâîì íà îáðàùåíèå ñ ïîäîáíûìè èñêàìè â ñóä, ñîãëàñíî ñò. 46 ÃÏÊ ÐÔ, ÷. 1 ñò. 12 ÔÇ ¹7 îò 10.01.2002 ã., îáëàäàþò îáùåñòâåííûå è èíûå íåêîììåð÷åñêèå îáúåäèíåíèÿ, îñóùåñòâëÿþùèå äåÿòåëü-

Since 2000, in the Ulyanovsk district a significant practice of initiation, both governmental organizations and NGOs, judicial review to force the owners of power lines (PL) dangerous to birds to take measures to prevent bird deaths has developed. The reasons for bringing in an action against owners of power lines for obliging them to retrofit power lines with special bird protection devices (BPD) are as follows: - established a violation of environmental legislation; - inaction, procrastination of supervisory authorities, runarounds of responsible persons on their prescriptions. As evidence proving the lack of BPD on electric poles you can use: - the act establishing the lack of BPD on electric poles, with the obligatory participation of a representative of the owner of PL or other person, which is responsible for operation of a particular PL (this is not an easy task); - the requirements of the Prosecutor's Office and conservation organizations, with adequate powers; - photo and video material, which should allow to reliably determine the location of PL and its relation to the defendant; - agreements on the delimitation with acts of balance and operational responsibilities, as well as the founding documents of


66

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Âñå ËÝÏ, íå èìåþùèå ýôôåêòèâíûõ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ (ÏÇÓ) (A–D), ýêñïëóàòèðóþòñÿ íåçàêîííî è ïîäëåæàò ðåêîíñòðóêöèè ëèáî îñíàùåíèþ ÏÇÓ (E). Îòñóòñòâèå ÏÇÓ ÿâëÿåòñÿ äîñòàòî÷íûì ôàêòîì äëÿ ïîäà÷è èñêà, ïðè ýòîì óñòàíàâëèâàòü ôàêò ãèáåëè ïòèö íà äàííîé ËÝÏ íå îáÿçàòåëüíî – îíà ïîäðàçóìåâàåòñÿ è çàêðåïëåíà ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèìè çàêîíîäàòåëüíûìè àêòàìè. Ôîòî À. Ñàëòûêîâà. All power lines without bird protection devices (BPD) (A–D) are operated illegally and should be retrofitted (E). Lack of BPD is enough to bring in an action, while the evidence of bird deaths on this power line is not required – it is implied and confirmed with relevant legislative acts. Photos by A. Saltykov.

íîñòü â îáëàñòè îõðàíû îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû, à òàêæå, â ñëó÷àÿõ, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûõ çàêîíîì, îðãàíû ãîñóäàðñòâåííîé âëàñòè, îðãàíû ìåñòíîãî ñàìîóïðàâëåíèÿ, îðãàíèçàöèè èëè ãðàæäàíå. Èñêè î çàùèòå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû â èíòåðåñàõ íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî êðóãà ëèö ïîäâåäîìñòâåííû ðàéîííûì ñóäàì îáùåé þðèñäèêöèè (ñò. 24 ÃÏÊ ÐÔ). Ïðè ýòîì ïðèìåíÿþòñÿ îáùèå ïðàâèëà ïðåäúÿâëåíèÿ èñêà ïî ìåñòó íàõîæäåíèÿ îòâåò÷èêà, ïðåäóñìîòðåííûå ñò. 28 ÃÏÊ ÐÔ. Îñíîâàíèÿìè äëÿ îáðàùåíèÿ ñ èñêàìè â ñóä îá îáÿçàíèè ñîáñòâåííèêîâ ËÝÏ îáîðóäîâàòü èõ ñïåöèàëüíûìè ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè (ÏÇÓ) ÿâëÿþòñÿ: - óñòàíîâëåííûé ôàêò íàðóøåíèÿ ïðèðîäîîõðàííîãî çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâà; - áåçäåéñòâèå, âîëîêèòà íàäçîðíûõ îðãàíîâ, îòïèñêè îòâåòñòâåííûõ ëèö íà èõ ïðåäïèñàíèÿ.

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé the organization and (or) its structural units may be used as evidences that the defendant owns or is responsible for the PL of your interest. The main arguments of opponents (owners of PL dangerous for birds) in an attempt to defend from the requirements of ornithologists are as follows: 1. The defendant mistakenly believed that the public in the face of Russian Bird Conservation Union (RBCU) has no right to take the matter to court for protecting the rights and interests of an indefinite number of persons. 2. The defendant wrongly believes that the plaintiff chose the wrong court, because a dispute involving legal persons alleged to be considered by the Arbitration Court, and not in the courts of another jurisdiction. 3. Defendant considers the action to be unlawful, mistakenly believing that the “Requirements to prevent the loss of wildlife ...”, approved by Government on August 13, 1996 ¹ 997, apply only to newly designed or constructed PL, and in this case we are talking about the lines erected before the adoption of these requirements. 4. The defendant, being a leaseholder of PL, mistakenly believes that the owner of the lines have to be responsible for the bird deaths and, accordingly, make the PL safe. 5. The defendant initially did not recognize the fact that his PL poses a risk to birds. In such cases you have to take in your mind that criterions of danger of PL for birds are described in a special design documents, published by the Ministry of Energy of the USSR. Demonstration of these documents can easily dispel doubts of the court about validity and legality of the claims of the plaintiff. 6. Having been defeated on key positions, the defendant, as a rule, tends to minimize its costs and efforts to implement the mitigation measures. However the judicial opinion on this issue is not favorable for defendants. In the resolution of the decision the court without specifying the period requires the defendants to retrofit PL with BPD, while explaining to them the right to appeal at the stage of execution, a statement to the court for a stay or installment of execution of the sentence. We should also note that failure to comply the requirements of environmental legisla-


Proceedings of Conferences  êà÷åñòâå äîêàçàòåëüñòâ, ïîäòâåðæäàþùèõ îòñóòñòâèå ÏÇÓ íà îïîðå, ìîæíî èñïîëüçîâàòü: - àêò ôèêñàöèè îòñóòñòâèÿ ÏÇÓ íà ËÝÏ, ñ îáÿçàòåëüíûì ó÷àñòèåì ïðåäñòàâèòåëÿ ñîáñòâåííèêà ËÝÏ èëè äðóãîãî ëèöà, â ýêñïëóàòàöèîííîé îòâåòñòâåííîñòè êîòîðîãî íàõîäèòñÿ êîíêðåòíàÿ ËÝÏ (ýòà çàäà÷à íå èç ë¸ãêèõ); - ïðåäïèñàíèÿ îðãàíîâ ïðîêóðàòóðû è ïðèðîäîîõðàííûõ îðãàíèçàöèé, íàäåë¸ííûõ ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèìè ïîëíîìî÷èÿìè; - ôîòî-, âèäåîñú¸ìêó ñ ìåñòà, êîòîðàÿ äîëæíà ïîçâîëèòü äîñòîâåðíî îïðåäåëèòü ìåñòîíàõîæäåíèå ËÝÏ è å¸ îòíîøåíèå ê îòâåò÷èêó.  êà÷åñòâå äîêàçàòåëüñòâ òîãî, ÷òî èíòåðåñóþùàÿ âàñ ËÝÏ íàõîäèòñÿ íà áàëàíñå è â ýêñïëóàòàöèîííîé îòâåòñòâåííîñòè îòâåò÷èêà ïî äåëó, ìîãóò ñëóæèòü äîãîâîðû ñ àêòàìè î ðàçãðàíè÷åíèè áàëàíñîâîé è ýêñïëóàòàöèîííîé îòâåòñòâåííîñòè, à òàêæå ó÷ðåäèòåëüíûå äîêóìåíòû îðãàíèçàöèè è (èëè) å¸ ñòðóêòóðíûõ ïîäðàçäåëåíèé. Êàê ïîêàçûâàåò ïðàêòèêà, îñíîâíûìè àðãóìåíòàìè îïïîíåíòîâ (âëàäåëüöåâ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ) â ïîïûòêàõ çàùèòû îò «íåîáîñíîâàííûõ» òðåáîâàíèé «îðíèòîëîãîâ» ÿâëÿþòñÿ ñëåäóþùèå óòâåðæäåíèÿ: 1. Îòâåò÷èê îøèáî÷íî ïîëàãàåò, ÷òî îáùåñòâåííîñòü â ëèöå Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè (ÑÎÏÐ) íå èìååò ïðàâà îáðàùàòüñÿ â ñóäåáíûå îðãàíû â çàùèòó ïðàâ è èíòåðåñîâ íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî êðóãà ëèö. Òàêîå ïðàâî, ÿêîáû, ïðèíàäëåæèò ïðîêóðàòóðå è èíûì êîìïåòåíòíûì ãîñîðãàíàì, íî íå îáùåñòâåííûì îðãàíèçàöèÿì. 2. Îòâåò÷èê íåîáîñíîâàííî ïîëàãàåò, ÷òî èñòåö íåïðàâèëüíî âûáðàë ñóäåáíóþ èíñòàíöèþ, èáî ñïîð ñ ó÷àñòèåì þðèäè÷åñêèõ ëèö, ÿêîáû, ïîäëåæèò ðàññìîòðåíèþ â Àðáèòðàæíîì ñóäå, à íå â ñóäàõ èíîé êîìïåòåíöèè. 3. Îòâåò÷èê ñ÷èòàåò èñê íåïðàâîìåðíûì, îøèáî÷íî ïîëàãàÿ, ÷òî «Òðåáîâàíèÿ ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè îáúåêòîâ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà ïðè îñóùåñòâëåíèè ïðîèçâîäñòâåííûõ ïðîöåññîâ, à òàêæå ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè òðàíñïîðòíûõ ìàãèñòðàëåé, òðóáîïðîâîäîâ, ëèíèé ñâÿçè è ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è», óòâåðæä¸ííûå Ïîñòàíîâëåíèåì Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà ÐÔ îò 13 àâãóñòà 1996 ã. ¹997, ðàñïðîñòðàíÿþòñÿ ëèøü íà âíîâü ïðîåêòèðóåìûå èëè ïîñòðîåííûå ËÝÏ, à â äàííîì ñëó÷àå ðå÷ü èä¸ò î ëèíèÿõ, ïîñòðîåííûõ äî ïðèíÿòèÿ óêàçàííûõ òðåáîâàíèé. 4. Îòâåò÷èê, áóäó÷è àðåíäàòîðîì ËÝÏ,

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

67

tion, according to Art. 80 of the Federal Law “On Environmental Protection” is a basis for suspension of activity of the owner of dangerous PL. The requirements on restriction, suspension or termination of activity of legal persons, which is conducted in violation of the laws on environmental protection, are considered by the court. To date Russia has accumulated a lot of case law, making it possible to achieve a success in protection of birds from electrocution.

Àëåêñåé Ãåííàäüåâè÷ Ñàâåëüåâ, ñòàðøèé ïîìîùíèê ïðîêóðîðà Óëüÿíîâñêîé ìåæðàéîííîé ïðèðîäîîõðàííîé ïðîêóðàòóðû Âîëæñêîé ìåæðåãèîíàëüíîé ïðèðîäîîõðàííîé ïðîêóðàòóðû, äîêëàäûâàåò îá óñïåõàõ ñóäåáíîé ïðàêòèêè â îòíîøåíèè íåäîáðîñîâåñòíûõ âëàäåëüöåâ ËÝÏ íà ñåìèíàðå â Óëüÿíîâñêå. Ôîòî Î. Ñàëòûêîâîé. Alexey Saveljev, Senior Assistant of Prosecutor of the Ulyanovsk interregional environmental prosecutor's office of the Volga interregional environmental prosecutor's office, reports about the progress in jurisprudence with respect to mala fide owners of power lines at a seminar in Ulyanovsk. Photo by O. Saltykova.

îøèáî÷íî ïîëàãàåò, ÷òî áðåìÿ îòâåòñòâåííîñòè çà ãèáåëü ïòèö è, ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, îáÿçàííîñòè ïî íåéòðàëèçàöèè ËÝÏ äîëæåí íåñòè ñîáñòâåííèê ëèíèé.  äåéñòâèòåëüíîñòè èìååò ìåñòî íåçíàíèå îòâåò÷èêîì çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâà, êîòîðîå ïîçâîëÿåò îäíîçíà÷íî ïðèçíàòü âèíó ëèö, íà áàëàíñå è (èëè) â ýêñïëóàòàöèîííîé îòâåòñòâåííîñòè êîòîðûõ íàõîäèòñÿ îáúåêò, ñòàâøèé èñòî÷íèêîì ïðàâîíàðóøåíèÿ.  äàííîì ñëó÷àå ñóä îáû÷íî ïðèíèìàåò ðåøåíèå, îáÿçûâàþùåå àðåíäàòîðà ïðîâåñòè ïòèöåçàùèòíûå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ, çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì ñëó÷àÿ, êîãäà òàêàÿ îòâåòñòâåííîñòü çàêðåïëåíà äîãîâîðîì àðåíäû çà ñîáñòâåííèêîì ËÝÏ.


68

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24 5. Îòâåò÷èê èçíà÷àëüíî íå ïðèçíà¸ò ôàêòà êîíñòðóêöèîííîé îïàñíîñòè ñâîèõ ëèíèé, ïîëàãàÿ, ÷òî ïðîåêòèðîâùèêè ÂË 6–10 ê íå ìîãëè, â ïðèíöèïå, ñïðîåêòèðîâàòü îïàñíóþ ËÝÏ. Íà ýòîì îñíîâàíèè îòâåò÷èê òðåáóåò îò èñòöà ïðåäúÿâèòü äîêàçàòåëüñòâà îïàñíîñòè ýëåêòðîëèíèé äëÿ ïòèö, èíîãäà äàæå ïðè íàëè÷èè ôàêòà îáíàðóæåíèÿ îñòàíêîâ ïòèö ïîä îïîðàìè ËÝÏ.  ïîäîáíûõ ñëó÷àÿõ ñëåäóåò èìåòü â âèäó, ÷òî «ïòèöåîïàñíîñòü» ËÝÏ îïèñàíà â ñïåöèàëüíîé òèïîâîé ïðîåêòíîé äîêóìåíòàöèè, èçäàííîé â ñèñòåìå Ìèíýíåðãî ÑÑÑÐ («Çàùèòà ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì íà îïîðàõ ÂË 6–35 ê ñî øòûðåâîé èçîëÿöèåé». Ðàáî÷àÿ äîêóìåíòàöèÿ, àðõ. ¹5.0716. Ìîñêâà, 1985). Äåìîíñòðàöèÿ óêàçàííîé äîêóìåíòàöèè áåç òðóäà ðàññåèâàåò ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèå ñîìíåíèÿ ñóäà â ïðàâîìåðíîñòè ïðåòåíçèé èñòöà. 6. Ïîòåðïåâ ïîðàæåíèå ïî ïðèíöèïèàëüíûì ïîçèöèÿì, îòâåò÷èê, êàê ïðàâèëî, ñòðåìèòñÿ ñâåñòè ê ìèíèìóìó ñâîè èçäåðæêè è óñèëèÿ ïî âûïîëíåíèþ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé. Îí îáû÷íî ïûòàåòñÿ óáåäèòü ñóä â òîì, ÷òî ñæàòûå ñðîêè, â òå÷åíèå êîòîðûõ èñòåö òðåáóåò îñíàñòèòü ËÝÏ çàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè, íå ðåàëüíû, à òðåáîâàíèÿ ýêîíîìè÷åñêè íå îáîñíîâàííû. Íî ñóäåáíàÿ ïðàêòèêà ïî ýòîìó âîïðîñó äîñòàòî÷íî áûñòðî ñëîæèëàñü íå â ïîëüçó îòâåò÷èêîâ. Ñóäû, êàê ïðàâèëî, íå ñòðåìÿòñÿ âíèêàòü â ôèíàíñîâûå ïðîáëå-

Îïîðû ËÝÏ ñî øòûðåâûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè (ââåðõó) ÿâëÿþòñÿ îïàñíûìè äëÿ ïòèö, ÷òî çàêðåïëåíî ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèìè çàêîíîäàòåëüíûìè àêòàìè. Ëþáûå ìåòàëëîêîíñòðóêöèè íà òðàâåðñàõ îïîð ËÝÏ 6–10 ê çàïðåùåíû çàêîíîì è äîëæíû áûòü äåìîíòèðîâàíû. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà, Ð. Áåêìàíñóðîâà, Ì. Ïåñòîâà. Electric poles with upright insulators (upper) pose a risk to birds, that is stipulated by relevant legislative acts. Any metal constructions erected on crossarms of poles of PL 6–10 kV (bottom) are prohibited by law and have to be removed. Photos by I. Karyakin, R. Bekmansurov, M. Pestov.

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé ìû îòâåò÷èêîâ, à òàêæå â äîâîäû îá ýêîíîìè÷åñêèõ ïîòåðÿõ, ñâÿçàííûõ ñ èñïîëíåíèåì ñóäåáíûõ ðåøåíèé.  ðåçîëþòèâíîé ÷àñòè ðåøåíèÿ ñóä áåç óêàçàíèÿ ñðîêà îáÿçûâàåò íàäëåæàùèõ îòâåò÷èêîâ îñíàñòèòü ËÝÏ ñïåöèàëüíûìè ÏÇÓ, ðàçúÿñíÿÿ ïðè ýòîì èì ïðàâî íà îáðàùåíèå íà ñòàäèè èñïîëíåíèÿ ðåøåíèÿ ñ çàÿâëåíèåì â ñóä îá îòñðî÷êå ëèáî ðàññðî÷êå èñïîëíåíèÿ ðåøåíèÿ ñóäà. Îòäåëüíî ñëåäóåò îáðàòèòü âíèìàíèå íà òî, ÷òî íåâûïîëíåíèå òðåáîâàíèé ïðèðîäîîõðàííîãî çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâà (â äàííîì ñëó÷àå – â ÷àñòè îñíàùåíèÿ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè), ñîãëàñíî ñò. 80 Ôåäåðàëüíîãî çàêîíà «Îá îõðàíå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû» ÿâëÿåòñÿ îñíîâàíèåì äëÿ ïðèîñòàíîâëåíèÿ äåÿòåëüíîñòè âëàäåëüöà ïòèöåîïàñíîé ËÝÏ. Òðåáîâàíèÿ îá îãðàíè÷åíèè, î ïðèîñòàíîâëåíèè èëè ïðåêðàùåíèè äåÿòåëüíîñòè þðèäè÷åñêèõ ëèö, îñóùåñòâëÿåìîé ñ íàðóøåíèåì çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâà â îáëàñòè îõðàíû îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû, ðàññìàòðèâàþòñÿ ñóäîì.  Ðîññèè ê íàñòîÿùåìó âðåìåíè íàêîïèëîñü äîñòàòî÷íî ìíîãî ñóäåáíûõ ïðåöåäåíòîâ, äàþùèõ âîçìîæíîñòü óñïåøíî çàùèùàòü ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñòâîì íà ËÝÏ. Ñàì ôàêò íàëè÷èÿ òàêîé ïðàêòèêè ïîíóæäàåò ìíîãèõ âëàäåëüöåâ ËÝÏ âûïîëíÿòü ïòèöåçàùèòíûå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ, íå äîæèäàÿñü ïðåäúÿâëåíèÿ èñêîâ ñî ñòîðîíû çàùèòíèêîâ ïòèö.


Proceedings of Conferences

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

69

BirdsofPreyandPowerLinesinNorthernEurasia:Whatarethe ProspectsforSurvival? ПЕРНАТЫЕ ХИЩНИКИ В ЭЛЕКТРОСЕТЕВОЙ СРЕДЕ СЕВЕРНОЙ ЕВРАЗИИ: КАКОВЫ ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ ВЫЖИВАНИЯ? KaryakinI.V.(CenterofFieldStudies,N.Novgorod,Russia) Карякин И.В. (Центр полевых исследований, Н. Новгород, Россия)

Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000, Ðîññèÿ, Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä, óë. Êîðîëåíêî, 17a–17 òåë.: +7 831 433 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Contact: Igor Karyakin Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a–17 Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia, 603000 tel.: +7 831 433 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru

Ðåçþìå Ñòàòüÿ îáîáùàåò äàííûå àâòîðà ïî èçó÷åíèþ ïðîáëåìû ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ (ÏÎ ËÝÏ) è èõ âëèÿíèÿ íà ïîïóëÿöèè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ â Ðîññèè, Êàçàõñòàíå è Ìîíãîëèè, à òàêæå ëèòåðàòóðíûé ìàòåðèàë. Ñ ó÷¸òîì ëèòåðàòóðíûõ èñòî÷íèêîâ àíàëèç îñíîâàí íà ðåçóëüòàòàõ îñìîòðà áîëåå ÷åì 3 òûñ. êì ËÝÏ è áîëåå ÷åì 2 òûñ. ïîãèáøèõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Ñðåäíèå ïîêàçàòåëè ÷àñòîòû ãèáåëè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ (â îñ./10 êì) ïî èññëåäîâàíèÿì â Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíå ñîñòàâëÿþò: â ðàâíèííîé ïîëóïóñòûíå – 9,66, â ðàâíèííîé ñòåïè – 9,55, â ðàâíèííîé ëåñîñòåïè – 3,23, â îòêðûòûõ è ïîëóîòêðûòûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿõ ãîðíûõ ðàéîíîâ – 5,09. Íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ ãèáíåò ïðàêòè÷åñêè âåñü âèäîâîé ñîñòàâ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è ñîâîîáðàçíûõ Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè, à ïîðîã â 3% îò îáùåãî ÷èñëà ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö âî âñåõ ïðèðîäíûõ çîíàõ ïðåîäîëåâàþò êîðøóíû (Milvus migrans) (31,48%), ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis) (14,19%), êàíþêè (Buteo buteo) (13,59%), ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) (12,77%), êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) (8,39%), áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) (3,51%). Íàèáîëåå óãðîæàåìûå âèäû: ñòåïíîé îð¸ë, áàëîáàí è êóðãàííèê. Ìàññîâàÿ ãèáåëü ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ (93,3%) ïðîèñõîäèò â òåõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿõ, ãäå ñêîíöåíòðèðîâàíû êîðìà, ìàêñèìàëüíî äîñòóïíûå äëÿ äîáû÷è: ñòåïíûå è ïîëóïóñòûííûå ñîîáùåñòâà ñ êîëîíèÿìè ðîþùèõ ãðûçóíîâ è çàéöåîáðàçíûõ (35,3%), îêðàèíû ñâàëîê è æèâîòíîâîä÷åñêèõ êîìïëåêñîâ (22,2%), îïóøêè ëåñîâ è ëåñîïîëîñ (18,5%), ïîáåðåæüÿ âîäî¸ìîâ (17,3%). Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: õèùíûå ïòèöû, ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè, ãèáåëü ïòèö íà ËÝÏ. Ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ: 01.12.2011 ã. Ïðèíÿòà ê ïóáëèêàöèè: 01.02.2012 ã. Abstract This article summarizes the author’s data on the study of bird deaths on power lines dangerous to birds and their impact on populations of the birds of prey in Russia, Kazakhstan and Mongolia, as well as includes the published data. Considering the published data, the analysis is based on the results of surveys of more than 300 km of power lines and more than two thousand dead raptors. The average frequency of raptor deaths on power lines dangerous to birds (ind./10 km) according to research in Russia and Kazakhstan is as follows: in the semi-desert plains – 9.66, in the flat steppe – 9.55, in the flat forest steppe – 3.23, and in open and semi-open mountainous regions – 5.09. Nearly every type of Falconiformes and Strigiformes in Northern Eurasia has been killed on power lines dangerous to birds, and Kites (Milvus migrans) (31.48%), Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) (14.19%), Buzzards (Buteo buteo) (13.59%), Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) (12.77%), Long-Legged Buzzards (Buteo rufinus) (8.39%) and Saker (Falco cherrug) (3.51%) have all crossed the 3% threshold of the total number of dead birds in all natural zones. The most endangered species are the Steppe Eagle, Saker Falcon and the Long-Legged Buzzard. Many birds of prey (93.3%) die in habitats where food is concentrated, i.e. where there is most prey, for example, in steppe and semi-desert communities with colonies of rodents and hares (35.3%), in suburbs of landfills and livestock farms (22.2%), edges of forests and forest belts (18.5%) and coastal waters (17.3%). Keywords: birds of prey, raptors, electrocution. Received: 01/12/2011. Accepted: 01/02/2012.

Ââåäåíèå Äëèòåëüíîå âðåìÿ ïòèöû àäàïòèðîâàëèñü ê ��ñëîâèÿì îáèòàíèÿ, ñôîðìèðîâàâøèìñÿ íà íàøåé ïëàíåòå. Îäíàêî, ñ íåêîòîðûõ ïîð ÷åëîâåê áûñòðî ñòàë âíîñèòü êîððåêòèâû â ýòîò ïðîöåññ, ñóùåñòâåííî ìåíÿÿ óñëîâèÿ îáèòàíèÿ ïòèö. Îäèí èç ìîùíûõ ôàêòîðîâ, äàâøèé òîë÷îê ê îñâîåíèþ ïòèöàìè íîâûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé, è, â òî æå âðåìÿ, ïîâëåêøèé çà ñîáîé óãðîæàþùèå ìàñøòàáû ãèáåëè, – ðàçâèòèå èíôðàñòðóêòóðû âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è (ËÝÏ). Ìíîãèå ãóñòîíàñåë¸ííûå ëþäüìè ðàéîíû ñòåïíîé è ëåñîñòåïíîé çîíû îïóòàëà ïëîòíàÿ ñåòü ìíîãî÷èñëåííûõ ËÝÏ 6–10 êÂ, æåëåçîáåòîííûå îïîðû êîòîðûõ, îñíàù¸ííûå øòûðåâûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè, ÿâëÿþòñÿ íàñòîÿùèìè óáèéöàìè ïòèö. Ðàçâè-

Introduction The development of infrastructure of overhead power lines (PL) is one of the most powerful factors giving impetus to birds of prey to occupy new habitats, and, at the same time, bringing about alarming proportions of bird deaths. Birds of prey simply did not have time to adjust to the rapidly changing conditions of the developing grid of PL. At present, many species of raptors of completely vanished in areas with a developed infrastructure of PL dangerous to birds. Some are gradually adapting to these habitat conditions, but in different populations these adaptive processes occur at different intensities. The purpose of the article is to assess the survival prospects of different species of raptors in the modern grid of


70

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ïàðà ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ (Aquila nipalensis) íà ÷àñòè÷íî èçîëèðîâàííîé ïðèñàäå, óñòàíîâëåííîé íà ïòèöåîïàñíîé ËÝÏ 10 êÂ. Ýòîò âèä – îäèí èç ñàìûõ ñòðàäàþùèõ îò ãèáåëè íà ËÝÏ. Ôîòî È. Ñìåëÿíñêîãî. Pair of the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) on the partly insulated perch installed on an electric pole of PL–10 kV dangerous for birds. This species is one of raptors that are the most suffered from electrocution. Photo by I. Smelyanskiy.

òèå ñåòè ïîäîáíûõ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ (ÏÎ ËÝÏ) ñòàëî ôàêòîðîì, óãðîæàþùèì âûæèâàíèþ ìíîãèõ âèäîâ, â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü – ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Èìåÿ áèîëîãè÷åñêè îáóñëîâëåííûé íèçêèé óñïåõ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ è áîëüøóþ ïðîäîëæèòåëüíîñòü æèçíè, õèùíûå ïòèöû ïðîñòî íå ñòàëè óñïåâàòü àäàïòèðîâàòüñÿ ê áûñòðî ìåíÿþùèìñÿ óñëîâèÿì ðàçâèâàþùåéñÿ ýëåêòðîñåòåâîé ñðåäû îáèòàíèÿ.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ìîæíî êîíñòàòèðîâàòü òîò ôàêò, ÷òî ìíîãèå âèäû ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ïîëíîñòüþ âûìåðëè íà òåððèòîðèÿõ ñ õîðîøî ðàçâèòîé èíôðàñòðóêòóðîé ÏÎ ËÝÏ, íåêîòîðûå ïîñòåïåííî àäàïòèðóþòñÿ ê ýòèì óñëîâèÿì îáèòàíèÿ, îäíàêî â ðàçíûõ ïîïóëÿöèÿõ ýòè àäàïòàöèîííûå ïðîöåññû èäóò ñ ðàçíîé èíòåíñèâíîñòüþ. Öåëü äàííîé ñòàòüè – îöåíèòü ïåðñïåêòèâû âûæèâàíèÿ ðàçíûõ âèäîâ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ â ñîâðåìåííîé ýëåêòðîñåòåâîé ñðåäå íà ïîñò-ñîâåòñêîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå è âûÿâèòü íàèáîëåå óÿçâèìûå âèäû. Ìàòåðèàë è ìåòîäèêà Ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ èçó÷àëàñü àâòîðîì â Ðîññèè (â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé, Ïåðìñêîé, Ñàìàðñêîé, ×åëÿáèíñêîé îáëàñòÿõ, ðåñïóáëèêàõ Àëòàé, Áàøêîðòîñòàí, Òûâà, Õàêàñèÿ, Àëòàéñêîì, Êðàñíîÿðñêîì è Çàáàéêàëüñêîì êðàÿõ), â Êàçàõñòàíå (â Àêòþáèíñêîé, Àòûðàóñêîé, Âîñòî÷íî-Êàçàõñòàíñêîé, Çàïàäíî-Êàçàõñòàíñêîé, Êàðàãàíäèíñêîé, Êîñòàíàéñêîé, Êûçûëîðäèíñêîé, Ìàíãèñòàóñêîé è Þæíî-Êàçàõñòàíñêîé îáëàñòÿõ), à òàêæå â íåêîòîðûõ àéìàêàõ Ìîíãîëèè.  îáùåé ñëîæíîñòè îñìîòðåíî áîëåå 1 òûñ. êì ÏÎ ËÝÏ è ñîáðàíî áîëåå 600 îñòàíêîâ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö. Îñìîòð ËÝÏ è ôèêñàöèÿ íàáëþäåíèé îñóùåñòâëÿëèñü â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ îïóáëèêîâàííûìè ðåêîìåíäàöèÿìè (Ìàöûíà, Çàìàçêèí, 2010). Ïàðàëëåëüíî ó÷¸òó ïîãèáøèõ íà ËÝÏ ïòèö íà ìîäåëüíûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ îñóùåñòâëÿëñÿ ó÷¸ò îáèòàþùèõ â çîíå âëèÿíèÿ ËÝÏ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, îðèåíòèðîâàííûé íà âûÿâëåíèå ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð. Âûÿâëåíèå è ó÷¸ò ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ îñóùåñòâëÿëèñü â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ îïóáëèêîâàííûìè ðåêîìåíäàöèÿìè (Êàðÿêèí, 2004). Îöåíêà óðîâíÿ ãèáåëè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ è âëèÿíèÿ ýòèõ ëèíèé íà ðàçëè÷íûå âèäû ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ è ïðîë¸òíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé PL in the countries of the former USSR and to identify the most vulnerable species. Materials and Methods The problem of bird mortality from electrocution has been studied by the author in Russia (in Nizhny Novgorod, Perm, Samara, Chelyabinsk districts, Republics of Altai, Bashkortostan, Tyva, Khakassia, Altai, Krasnoyarsk, and Trans-Baikal Krays), in Kazakhstan (Aktobe, Atyrau, East Kazakhstan, West Kazakhstan, Karaganda, Kostanay, Kyzylorda, Mangystau and the South Kazakhstan districts), as well as in some aimags of Mongolia. In total, more than 1,000 km of PL have been examined and more than 600 bird carcasses have been collected using the technique offered by Matsyna and Zamazkin (2011). Parallel to this, census of birds living in a zone, where PL have an impact on raptors, that focused on the identification of breeding pairs, was conducted using the methods of Karyakin (2004). The results were processed with use of GISsoftware (ArcView 3.3 ESRI). Taking into account the published data, this analysis is based on the results of the examination of more than 3,000 km of PL and more than 2,000 dead birds of prey (fig. 1). Results and Discussion The list of species of the birds of prey died from electrocution, along with the level of mortality for each species over the past 20 years in Russia and Kazakhstan, compiled by the results of author’s surveys and analysis of published data, is presented in table 1. There are almost all species of raptors breeding in Northern Eurasia. A similar situation is observed in Mongolia; the rate of bird deaths from electrocution is up to 7.32 ind./km (Boldbaatar, 2006; Zvonov et al., 2009; Harness, Gombobaatar, 2008; Amartuvshin et al., 2010; Dixon, 2011). The species with the highest rate of deaths include the BlackEared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus), with an average of 3.89 ind./10 km in all natural zones of the species’ habitat; the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis), 1.49 ind./10 km; the Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo vulpinus), 0.97 ind./10 km; Kestrel (Falco tinnuculus), 0.91 ind./10 km, Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus), 0.88 ind./10 km, and the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug), 0.43 ind./10 km (fig. 2). From the listed group, the kite, buzzard and kestrel are becoming the most common species of birds of prey, both in breeding grounds and migration, whilst the Steppe Eagle and Saker Falcon are rare, and, in recent


Proceedings of Conferences

Ðèñ. 1. Òî÷êè ñáîðà èíôîðìàöèè î ïòèöàõ, ïîãèáøèõ íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ, äàííûå ïî êîòîðûì îáîáùåíû â òàáëèöå 1. Fig. 1. Locations of areas, where the census of bird deaths through electrocution was carried out, the results of which are summarized in table 1.

îñóùåñòâëÿëàñü â ÃÈÑ ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì ïðîãðàììíîãî ïðîäóêòà ArcView 3.3 ESRI â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ ìåòîäèêîé, àïðîáèðîâàííîé íà ïðèìåðå Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2008; 2009à). Äëÿ áîëåå ãëóáîêîãî àíàëèçà ïåðñïåêòèâ âûæèâàíèÿ ðàçíûõ âèäîâ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ â ýëåêòðîñåòåâîé ñðåäå ïðèâëåêàëèñü äîñòóïíûå ëèòåðàòóðíûå äàííûå äðóãèõ èññëåäîâàòåëåé è êîëëåã.  èòîãå â àíàëèç âêëþ÷åíû äàííûå ïî ðåçóëüòàòàì îñìîòðà áîëåå ÷åì 3 òûñ. êì ËÝÏ è áîëåå ÷åì 2 òûñ. ïîãèáøèõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ (ðèñ. 1). Ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé è èõ îáñóæäåíèå  õîäå ðàáîòû âûÿâëåí âèäîâîé ñîñòàâ õèùíûõ ïòèö, ãèáíóùèõ íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ, è îïðåäåë¸í óðîâåíü ãèáåëè äëÿ êàæäîãî âèäà. Ðåçóëüòàòû ñîáñòâåííûõ èññëåäîâàíèé è àíàëèçà ïóáëèêàöèé çà ïîñëåäíèå 20 ëåò ïî Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíó ïðåäñòàâëåíû â òàáëèöå 1. Êàê âèäíî èç òàáëèöû, â Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíå â ðåçóëüòàòå ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì ãèáíóò ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñå âèäû ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, ãíåçäÿùèåñÿ íà òåððèòîðèè Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè. Àíàëîãè÷íûì îáðàçîì âûãëÿäèò ñèòóàöèÿ ñ ãèáåëüþ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ â Ìîíãîëèè, ãäå ñðàâíèìûì ÿâëÿåòñÿ êàê âèäîâîé ñîñòàâ, òàê è ÷àñòîòà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ – äî 7,32 îñ./10 êì ïî ó÷¸òó ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ â òå÷åíèå íåäåëè â êîíöå ìèãðàöèîííîãî ïåðèîäà â ñåðåäèíå ìàÿ (Áîëäáààòàð, 2006; Çâîíîâ è äð., 2009; Harness, Gombobaatar, 2008; Amartuvshin et al., 2010; Dixon, 2011).

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

71

years, the numbers of both species have been rapidly decreasing. All of the above figures on bird mortality are, for the most part, based on the single or double examinations of PL during the snowless period. Quite a substantial proportion of dead birds is disposed of by predators and scavengers as well, resulting in some carcasses not being covered in the surveys, so the actual level of bird mortality is much higher. Average coefficients of utilisation have been calculated for different regions of Russia, and range from 2.5 in the Nizhny Novgorod district (Matsyna, Zamazkin, 2010) to 3.1 in the Altai (Karyakin et al., 2009b). However the figures for different species and different regions require further investigation. Breeding and migratory species are the most affected in the semi-desert and steppe zones of Northern Eurasia and the steppe depressions in mountainous areas, where there is intensive development of power line infrastructure. In the forest areas birds are less killed through electrocution, as the abundance of trees provide a wide selection of convenient perches, and, given the choice, the birds prefer to sit in the trees, rather than on electric poles. In tundra zones, the raptor mortality is minimal due to the lack of power line infrastructure, although in recent years, due to the intensification of oil extraction, this factor is definitely growing. The results of the analysis of raptor mortality in different habitats in Russia and Kazakhstan show that mass death occurs primarily where food is concentrated, i.e. where there is most prey, for example, in steppe and semi-desert communities with colonies of rodents and hares (35.3%), in suburbs of landfills and livestock farms (22.2%), edges of forests and artificial forest lines (18.5%) and coastal waters (17.3%). Thus 93.3% of raptors are killed through electrocution in those habitats. According to Matsyna (2005) in the Nizhny Novogorod region, with the density of power lines at 30 km/100 km2, the most vulnerable species are the Common Buzzard and the Kestrel, for which the scale of mortality on power lines is comparable with the species numbers at the beginning of the breeding season: the expected annual number of deaths of Buzzards is 7360 individuals when there are 3800–4100 breeding pairs; Kestrel deaths are around 3680 individuals when the number of breeding pair is 1200–1600, so while the number of


Ñòåïíîé ëóíü C. macrourus 8 Ëóãîâîé ëóíü C. pygargus 9 Áîëîòíûé ëóíü C. aeruginosus 10 Âîñòî÷íûé áîëîòíûé ëóíü C. spilonotus

Ïîëåâîé ëóíü Circus cyaneus

6

7

×åðíîóõèé êîðøóí M. m. lineatus

5

Ñòåïíàÿ, ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ Steppe, semidesert

Ëåñîñòåïíàÿ Forest-steppe Ëåñíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ Forest, forest-steppe Ëåñíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ Forest, forest-steppe

Ñòåïíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ Steppe, forest-steppe Ñòåïíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ Steppe, forest-steppe Ñòåïíàÿ / Steppe

Ëåñíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ, Ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ, ãîðû ãîðû Semidesert, mountains Forest, forest-steppe, mountains Ëåñíàÿ / Forest Ñòåïíàÿ, ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ Steppe, semidesert Ñòåïíàÿ / Steppe Ñòåïíàÿ / Steppe

Âèä ¹ Species A B 1 Ñêîïà Pandion haliaetus 2 Îñîåä Pernis apivorus 3 Õîõëàòûé îñîåä P. ptilorhyncus 4 ׸ðíûé êîðøóí Ëåñíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ Milvus migrans migrans Forest, forest-steppe

Ãíåçäîâàíèå Breeding season Ìèãðàöèè Migrations Ìèãðàöèè Migrations Ìèãðàöèè Migrations

Ïîëóïóñòûíÿ Semidesert (1277.0 km) 601 (4.71)

24 (0.19)

F 7 (0.05) 15 (0.12)

Ñòåïü Steppe (526.8 km) 1 (0.02)

12 (0.23) 8 (0.15) õ

8 (0.15)

G 1 (0.02)

Ãîðû Mountains (279.0 km) 47 (1.68)

H

Ëåñîñòåïü Forest-steppe (873.0 km) 1 (0.01) õ

7 (0.08)

7 (0.08)

1 (0.01)

I

Ëåñíàÿ çîíà Forest (116.3 km) 1 (0.003)

12 (0.039) 9 (0.029)

1 8 (0.09) (0.026)

3 651 (0.26) (2.119)

J K 1 9 (0.09) (0.029) 16 (0.052) 1 1 (0.09) (0.003) 39 (0.127)

0.05

õ

0.41

0.55

0.36

29.70

1.78

0.05

0.73

Äîëÿ ñðåäè ãèáíóùèõ íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ õèùíûõ ïòèö (%) Portion of species deaths from electrocution per total number of all raptors (%) L 0.41

Table 1. The list of raptor species died from electrocution and the level of mortality for each species in Russia in Kazakhstan in 1990–2010. (according to the author’s unpublished data, Starikov, 1996/1997; Karyakin, 1998; 2008; Karyakin et al., 2008; 2009b; Matsyna, Grishutkin, 2009; Barbazyuk et al., 2010; Lash et al., 2010; Goroshko, 2011; Matsyna, Zamazkin, 2010; Matsyna et al., 2011; Mejidov et al., 2005à; Nikolenko, 2011; Saraev, Pestov, 2011; Spiridonov, Aryanov, 2011).

Ïåðèîä, â êîòîðûé ïðîèñõîäèò ìàññîâàÿ ãèáåëü âèäà íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ Season of the highest mortality of the species caused by electrocution E Ìèãðàöèè Migrations Ìèãðàöèè Migrations Ãíåçäîâàíèå Breeding season Ìèãðàöèè è ãíåçäîâàíèå Migration and breeding seasons Ìèãðàöèè è ãíåçäîâàíèå Migration and breeding seasons Ìèãðàöèè Migrations

Òàáë. 1. Âèäîâîé ñîñòàâ è óðîâåíü ãèáåëè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íà ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è â Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíå â 1990–2010 ãã. (íåîïóáëèêîâàííûå äàííûå àâòîðà, à òàêæå: Ñòàðèêîâ, 1996/1997; Êàðÿêèí, 1998; 2008; Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2008; 2009á; Ìàöûíà, Ãðèøóòêèí, 2009; Áàðáàçþê è äð., 2010; Ëàø è äð., 2010; Ãîðîøêî, 2011; Ìàöûíà, Çàìàçêèí, 2010; Ìàöûíà è äð., 2011; Ìåäæèäîâ è äð., 2005à; Íèêîëåíêî, 2011; Ñàðàåâ, Ïåñòîâ, 2011; Ñïèðèäîíîâ, Àðÿíîâ, 2011).

ÂÑÅÃÎ / TOTAL (3049.2 km)

×àñòîòà ãèáåëè, îñîáè (îñ./10 êì) Frequency of bird deaths, individuals (ind./10 km)

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ïðèðîäíàÿ çîíà / Nature zone â êîòîðîé â êîòîðîé ïðîèñõîäèò ìàññîâàÿ ñîñðåäîòî÷åí ãèáåëü âèäà íà ÏÎ íà ãíåçäîâàíèè ËÝÏ îñíîâíîé ðåñóðñ were the highest morâèäà were the main part of tality of the species breeding population caused by electrocution is observed is located C D Ëåñíàÿ / Forest Ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ Semidesert Ëåñíàÿ / Forest Ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ Semidesert Ëåñíàÿ / Forest Ëåñíàÿ / Forest

72 Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé


Ëåñíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ Forest, forest-steppe

Ëåñîñòåïíàÿ Forest-steppe

Ñòåïíàÿ, ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ, ãîðû Steppe, semidesert, mountains

19 Çìååÿä Circaetus gallicus

20 Îð¸ë-êàðëèê Hieraaetus pennatus

21 Ñòåïíîé îð¸ë Aquila nipalensis

Ìèãðàöèè Migrations Ãíåçäîâàíèå è ìèãðàöèè Breeding and migration seasons

Ñòåïíàÿ, ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ, ãîðû Steppe, semidesert, mountains

Ìèãðàöèè Migrations

Ñòåïíàÿ, ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ Steppe, semidesert

Ñòåïíàÿ, ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ Steppe, semidesert

Ëåñíàÿ / Forest

193 (1.51)

103 (1.96)

õ

1 (0.02)

Ëåñíàÿ / Forest

18 ßïîíñêèé êàíþê B. b. japonicus

8 (0.06)

28 (0.53)

77 (0.60)

Ãíåçäîâàíèå è ìèãðàöèè Breeding and migration seasons

Ëåñíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ Forest, forest-steppe

17 Êàíþê B. buteo vulpinus

Ãíåçäîâàíèå Breeding season

109 (2.07)

74 (0.58)

Ãíåçäîâàíèå è ìèãðàöèè Breeding and migration seasons

Ñòåïíàÿ, ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ, ãîðû Steppe, semidesert, mountains

Ñòåïíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ, ïîëó-ïóñòûííàÿ Steppe, forest-steppe, semidesert

16 Êóðãàííèê B. rufinus

Âñå çîíû, êðîìå òóíäðîâîé All zones excluding tundra

10 (0.19)

15 (0.12)

4 (0.08)

7 (0.05)

Ìèãðàöèè Migrations

Ñòåïíàÿ, ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ Steppe, semidesert Ìèãðàöèè è ãíåçäîâàíèå Migration and breeding seasons

Òóíäðîâàÿ, ëåñîòóíäðîâàÿ Tundra, forest-tundra

14 Çèìíÿê Buteo lagopus

1 (0.02)

x

Ãíåçäîâàíèå è ìèãðàöèè Breeding and migration seasons Ìèãðàöèè è ãíåçäîâàíèå Migration and breeding seasons

1 (0.02)

Ñòåïíàÿ, ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ Steppe, semidesert

G

F 7 (0.05)

Ãíåçäîâàíèå è ìèãðàöèè Breeding and migration seasons

E

Ñòåïíàÿ, ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ, ãîðû Steppe, semidesert, mountains

Ëåñîñòåïíàÿ Forest-steppe

13 Åâðîïåéñêèé òþâèê A. brevipes

Âñå çîíû, êðîìå òóíäðîâîé All zones excluding tundra

Âñå çîíû, êðîìå òóíäðîâîé All zones excluding tundra

D

15 Ìîõíîíîãèé êóðãàííèê Ãîðû, ñòåïíàÿ B. hemilasius Mountains, steppe

Ëåñíàÿ / Forest

12 Ïåðåïåëÿòíèê A. nisus

C

Ëåñíàÿ, ãîðû Forest, mountains

B

11 Òåòåðåâÿòíèê Accipiter gentilis

A

H

15 (0.54)

13 (0.47)

1 (0.04)

1 (0.04)

2 (0.07)

18 (0.65)

I

173 (1.98)

2 (0.02)

õ

2 (0.02)

13 (0.15)

J

K

311 (1.012)

9 (0.029)

1 1 (0.09) (0.003)

6 297 (0.52) (0.967)

184 (0.599)

26 (0.085)

13 (0.042)

2 7 (0.17) (0.023)

6 45 (0.52) (0.146)

L

14.19

õ

0.41

0.05

13.55

8.39

1.19

0.59

õ

0.32

2.05

Proceedings of Conferences Raptors Conservation 2012, 24 73


33 ×åãëîê F. subbuteo

Ëåñíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ Forest, forest-steppe

Ëåñíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ, ñòåïíàÿ Forest, forest-steppe, steppe

Ãíåçäîâàíèå è ìèãðàöèè Breeding and migration seasons Ìèãðàöèè è ãíåçäîâàíèå Migration and breeding seasons

Ãíåçäîâàíèå è ìèãðàöèè Breeding and migration seasons

Ìèãðàöèè Migrations Ìèãðàöèè Migrations Ìèãðàöèè Migrations

Ìèãðàöèè Migrations

Ìèãðàöèè Migrations

Ãíåçäîâàíèå è ìèãðàöèè Breeding and migration seasons Ìèãðàöèè è ãíåçäîâàíèå Migration and breeding seasons Ìèãðàöèè Migrations

E Ìèãðàöèè è ãíåçäîâàíèå Migration and breeding seasons

69 (0.54)

6 (0.05) 1 (0.01)

8 (0.06)

4 (0.03)

59 (0.46)

8 (0.06)

F 3 (0.02)

1 (0.02)

8 (0.15)

1 (0.02)

1 (0.02)

1 (0.02)

5 (0.09)

G 1 (0.02)

18 (0.059)

K 6 (0.020)

1 3 (0.09) (0.010)

1 (0.003)

1 (0.04)

6 (0.020) 1 (0.003)

9 (0.029)

5 (0.016)

1 61 (0.09) (0.199)

J

77 (0.251)

1 (0.01)

õ

õ

õ

I õ

õ

õ

õ

5 (0.18)

H 2 (0.07)

0.14

0.05

3.51

õ

0.05

0.27

0.41

0.23

õ

2.78

0.82

L 0.27

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

32

31

30

29

28

27

26

25

24

23

C Ëåñíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ Forest, forest-steppe

D Ñòåïíàÿ, ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ, ãîðû, ëåñîñòåïíàÿ Steppe, semidesert, mountains, forest-steppe Ìîãèëüíèê Ëåñîñòåïíàÿ, ñòåïíàÿ, Ëåñîñòåïíàÿ, ñòåïíàÿ, A. heliaca ãîðû ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ, ãîðû Forest-steppe, steppe, Forest-steppe, steppe, mountains semidesert, mountains Áåðêóò Ëåñíàÿ, ãîðû Ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ, ãîðû, A. chrysaetos Forest, mountains ñòåïíàÿ, ëåñíàÿ Semidesert, mountains, steppe, forest Îðëàí-äîëãîõâîñò Ñòåïíàÿ, Haliaeetus leucoryphus ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ Steppe, semidesert Îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò Ëåñíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ Ñòåïíàÿ, H. albicilla Forest, forest-steppe ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ Steppe, semidesert ׸ðíûé ãðèô Ãîðû / Mountains Ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ, Aegypius monachus ñòåïíàÿ Semidesert, steppe Áåëîãîëîâûé ñèï Ãîðû / Mountains Ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ Gyps fulvus Semidesert Ñòåðâÿòíèê Ãîðû / Mountains Ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ Neophron percnopterus Semidesert Ãîðû / Mountins Êðå÷åò Òóíäðîâàÿ, Falco rusticolus ëåñîòóíäðîâàÿ Tundra, forest-tundra Ñòåïíàÿ, Áàëîáàí Ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ, ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ, ãîðû F. cherrug ñòåïíàÿ, Steppe, semidesert, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ, ãîðû mountains Semidesert, steppe, forest-steppe, mountains Ñàïñàí Ëåñíàÿ, ãîðû Ãîðû / Mountains F. peregrinus Forest, mountains

A B 22 Áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê Aquila clanga

74 Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé


Ñòåïíàÿ, ãîðû Steppe, mountains

36 Àìóðñêèé êîá÷èê F. amurensis

37 Ñòåïíàÿ ïóñòåëüãà F. naumanni

Ñòåïíàÿ, ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ Steppe, semidesert 38 Ïóñòåëüãà Ñòåïíàÿ, ëåñîÑòåïíàÿ, ëåñîñòåïíàÿ, F. tinnunculus ñòåïíàÿ, ãîðû ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ, ãîðû Steppe, forest-steppe, Steppe, forest-steppe, mountains semidesert, mountains 39 Áåëàÿ ñîâà Òóíäðîâàÿ / Tundra Ñòåïíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ Nyctea scandiaca Steppe, forest-steppe 40 Ôèëèí Âñå çîíû, êðîìå Âñå çîíû, êðîìå Bubo bubo òóíäðîâîé / All zones òóíäðîâîé / All zones excluding tundra excluding tundra 41 Óøàñòàÿ ñîâà Ëåñîñòåïíàÿ, ñòåïíàÿ Âñå çîíû, êðîìå Asio otus Forest-steppe, steppe òóíäðîâîé / All zones excluding tundra Ñòåïíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ 42 Áîëîòíàÿ ñîâà Òóíäðîâàÿ, A. flammeus ëåñîñòåïíàÿ, ñòåïíàÿ Steppe, forest-steppe Tundra, forest-steppe, steppe 43 Äîìîâûé ñû÷ Ñòåïíàÿ, ãîðû Ñòåïíàÿ / Steppe Athene noctua Steppe, mountains 44 ßñòðåáèíàÿ ñîâà Ëåñîòóíäðîâàÿ, ãîðû Ëåñîñòåïíàÿ Surnia ulula Forest-tundra, moun- Forest-steppe tains 45 Ñåðàÿ íåÿñûòü Ëåñîñòåïíàÿ Ëåñîñòåïíàÿ Strix aluco Forest-steppe Forest-steppe 46 Äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü Ëåñíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ Ëåñíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ S. uralensis Forest, forest-steppe Forest, forest-steppe 47 Áîðîäàòàÿ íåÿñûòü Ëåñíàÿ / Forest Ëåñíàÿ / Forest S. nebulosa ÂÑÅÃÎ / TOTAL

35 Êîá÷èê F. vespertinus

C Ëåñîòóíäðîâàÿ, ëåñíàÿ, ñòåïíàÿ, ãîðû Forest-tundra, forest, steppe, mountains Ñòåïíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ Steppe, forest-steppe

D Ëåñíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ, ñòåïíàÿ Forest, forest-steppe, steppe Ñòåïíàÿ, ëåñîñòåïíàÿ, ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ Steppe, forest-steppe, semidesert Ñòåïíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ Ñòåïíàÿ, ëåñî-ñòåïíàÿ Steppe, forest-steppe Steppe, forest-steppe

A B 34 Äåðáíèê F. columbarius

Ãíåçäîâàíèå Breeding season Ãíåçäîâàíèå Breeding season Ãíåçäîâàíèå Breeding season

E Ìèãðàöèè è ãíåçäîâàíèå Migration and breeding seasons Ãíåçäîâàíèå è ìèãðàöèè Breeding and migration seasons Ãíåçäîâàíèå è ìèãðàöèè / Breeding and migration seasons Ãíåçäîâàíèå è ìèãðàöèè / Breeding and migration seasons Ãíåçäîâàíèå è ìèãðàöèè Breeding and migration seasons Ìèãðàöèè Migrations Ãíåçäîâàíèå è ìèãðàöèè / Breeding and migration seasons Ãíåçäîâàíèå è ìèãðàöèè / Breeding and migration seasons Ìèãðàöèè è ãíåçäîâàíèå Migration and breeding seasonsì Ãíåçäîâàíèå Breeding season Ìèãðàöèè Migrations 152 (2.89)

31 (0.24)

1234 (9.66)

1 (0.02)

1 (0.01)

503 (9.55)

õ

õ

4 (0.08)

11 (0.09)

õ

20 (0.38)

6 (0.11)

14 (0.27)

G 1 (0.02)

2 (0.02)

3 (0.02)

F

142 (5.09)

1 (0.04)

2 (0.07)

34 (1.22)

H

1 (0.003)

4 (0.013)

18 (0.059)

100

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

282 (3.23)

0.09

0.46

4 10 (0.34) (0.033) 2 2 (0.17) (0.007) 31 2192 (2.67) (7.135)

6 (0.07)

0.05

õ

0.05

0.18

0.82

õ

12.77

1.00

0.27

0.91

L 0.09

õ

1 1 (0.09) (0.003)

x

x

280 (0.911)

22 (0.072)

6 (0.020)

20 (0.065)

J K 1 2 (0.09) (0.007)

õ

1 (0.01)

1 (0.01)

1 (0.01)

õ

63 (0.72)

õ

3 (0.03)

I õ

Proceedings of Conferences 75


76

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24 ×àñòîòà ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ âàðüèðóåò îò 1,3 îñ./10 êì (ëåñíàÿ çîíà Ñðåäíåãî Óðàëà, Ïåðìñêàÿ îáëàñòü, Ðîññèÿ) äî 108,4 îñ./10 êì (ïîëóïóñòûíÿ Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîãî ìåæäóðå÷üÿ, Çàïàäíûé Êàçàõñòàí) è ìàêñèìàëüíà â àðèäíûõ çîíàõ. Åñëè ñðàâíèâàòü ïîêàçàòåëè ãèáåëè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ â öåëîì ïî çîíàì, òî àáñîëþòíî ëèäèðóþò ïîëóïóñòûííàÿ – 9,66 îñ./10 êì, ñòåïíàÿ – 9,55 îñ./10 êì è ãîðíûå ðàéîíû – 5,09 îñ./10 êì (òàáë. 1), ãäå ãèáíóò íå òîëüêî ãíåçäÿùèåñÿ ïòèöû, íî è ìàññà ìèãðàíòîâ. Ìàêñèìàëüíûå ïîêàçàòåëè ÷àñòîòû ãèáåëè íà ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ÏÎ ËÝÏ èìåþò òàêèå âèäû, êàê ÷åðíîóõèé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans lineatus) – â ñðåäíåì 3,89 îñ./10 êì ïî âñåì ïðèðîäíûì çîíàì â àðåàëå âèäà (â ñðåäíåì 4,71 îñ./10 êì – â ïîëóïóñòûíÿõ, ãäå âèä âîîáùå íå ãíåçäèòñÿ, à ëèøü ìèãðèðóåò; ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â ïîëóïóñòûíÿõ Âîñòî÷íîãî Êàçàõñòàíà – äî 12,14 îñ./10 êì ïî: Ñòàðèêîâ, 1996/97), ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis) – â ñðåäíåì 1,49 îñ./10 êì ïî âñåì ïðèðîäíûì çîíàì â àðåàëå âèäà (â ñðåäíåì 1,96 îñ./10 êì â ñòåïíîé è 1,51 îñ./10 êì â ïîëóïóñòûííîé çîíàõ Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíà), êàíþê (Buteo buteo vulpinus) – â ñðåäíåì 0,97 îñ./10 êì ïî âñåì ïðèðîäíûì çîíàì â àðåàëå âèäà, îáûêíîâåííàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) – â ñðåäíåì 0,91 îñ./10 êì ïî âñåì ïðèðîäíûì çîíàì â àðåàëå âèäà, êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) – â ñðåäíåì 0,88 îñ./10 êì ïî âñåì ïðèðîäíûì çîíàì â àðåàëå âèäà, áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) – â ñðåäíåì 0,43 îñ./10 êì ïî âñåì ïðèðîäíûì çîíàì â àðåàëå âèäà (ðèñ. 2). Èç ïåðå÷èñëåííîé ãðóïïû âèäîâ êîðøóí, êàíþê è ïóñòåëüãà ÿâëÿþòñÿ íàèáîëåå îáû÷íûìè âèäàìè õèùíûõ ïòèö êàê íà ìåñòàõ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ, òàê è íà ìèãðàöèÿõ,

Ðèñ. 2. ×àñòîòà ãèáåëè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ â Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíå. Fig. 2. Frequency of raptor deaths from electrocution in Russia and Kazakhstan.

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé Buzzards remains fairly stable for several years, the number of Kestrels seems to decrease (Bakka, Kiseleva, 2007). In Western Kazakhstan, with a density of power lines at 12 km/100 km2, the number of expected annual mortality of Steppe Eagles is 1635 breeding pairs, or 8% of the species population in Western Kazakhstan. Due to this, deaths of 1–2 year old birds, which do not yet have their own breeding territories, significantly exceed death rates of birds, having already bred. Thus, in Western Kazakhstan it turns out that at least 10% of the Steppe Eagle population is killed through electrocution just in the spring period with annual loss of 25–30% (Karyakin, Novikova, 2006). Under the conditions of a density of power lines of 11.5 km/100 km2 in the steppe and forest-steppe habitats of the Altai, there is an expected annual mortality of Steppe Eagles of approximately 997 individuals, or 45% of the Altai breeding population, 452 Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca) or 25%, and 89 Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) or 8% (Karyakin et al., 2009b). The resulting figures clearly illustrate that a density of PL of more than 10 km/100 km2 gives birds of prey breeding in open habitats and at the edge of forested areas a low chance of survival. At worst, ‘population holes’ are being formed in such habitats through regular and an almost complete loss of birds that are beginning to explore breeding. This is clearly illustrated in the data obtained in the Betpak-Dala desert (Kazakhstan) (Karyakin, Barabashin, 2005) and in the Altai mountains (Russia) (Karyakin et al., 2009b). PL dangerous to birds located close to nesting sites transform them into ‘environmental traps’. In this situation, the


Proceedings of Conferences à ñòåïíîé îð¸ë è áàëîáàí ðåäêè, ïðè÷¸ì ÷èñëåííîñòü îáîèõ âèäîâ â ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ ñòðåìèòåëüíî ñîêðàùàåòñÿ. Ñëåäóåò çàìåòèòü, ÷òî âñå âûøåïðèâåä¸ííûå ïîêàçàòåëè ãèáåëè ïòèö îñíîâûâàþòñÿ áîëüøåé ÷àñòüþ íà îäíîêðàòíûõ èëè äâóêðàòíûõ îñìîòðàõ ËÝÏ â òå÷åíèå áåññíåæíîãî ïåðèîäà. Äîâîëüíî ñóùåñòâåííóþ äîëþ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö óòèëèçèðóþò õèùíûå ìëåêîïèòàþùèå è ïòèöû-ïàäàëüùèêè, â ðåçóëüòàòå ÷åãî ÷àñòü òðóïîâ íå ïîïàäàåò â ó÷¸òû, ïîýòîìó ðåàëüíûé óðîâåíü ãèáåëè ïòèö ñóùåñòâåííî âûøå. Äëÿ îöåíêè êîýôôèöèåíòà óòèëèçàöèè ïîãèáøèõ íà ËÝÏ ïòèö Ôåððåð è äð. (Ferrer et al., 1991) èñïîëüçîâàëè òðóïû êðîëèêîâ (Oryctolagus cuniculus) è îïðåäåëèëè, ÷òî ïàäàëüùèêè óòèëèçèðîâàëè 63% òðóïîâ, êîãäà ó÷¸òû ïðîâîäèëèñü åæåìåñÿ÷íî, è 78% – êîãäà ó÷¸òû ïðîâîäèëèñü êàæäûå äâà ìåñÿöà. Ñîãëàñíî ýòèì îöåíêàì, ðåàëüíàÿ ñìåðòíîñòü äîëæíà áûòü âûøå â 2,7 èëè 4,5 ðàçà, ñîîòâåòñòâåííî. Îäíàêî ýêñïåðèìåíò, ïîñòàâëåííûé íà êðîëèêàõ, íåñêîëüêî íå ïîêàçàòåëåí èç-çà áîëüøåé âåëè÷èíû òðóïîâ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ.  ÷àñòíîñòè, íîðìà óòèëèçàöèè ïàäàëüùèêàìè òðóïîâ îðëîâ (ïðèáëèçèòåëüíî 3 êã) çíà÷èòåëüíî ìåíüøå, ÷åì òðóïîâ êðîëèêîâ (0,85 êã) (Ferrer et al., 1991; Bevanger et al., 1994). Óñðåäí¸ííûå êîýôôèöèåíòû óòèëèçàöèè âû÷èñëåíû äëÿ ðàçíûõ ðåãèîíîâ Ðîññèè è âàðüèðóþò îò 2,5 â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè (Ìàöûíà, Çàìàçêèí, 2010) äî 3,1 – íà Àëòàå (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2009á). Íî î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî òðóïû ïòèö ðàçëè÷íûõ ðàçìåðíûõ êëàññîâ óòèëèçèðóþòñÿ ñ ðàçíîé ñêîðîñòüþ (ñì. âûøå), ïîýòîìó äëÿ êàæäîãî ðàçìåðíîãî êëàññà íàäî ââîäèòü ñâîé êîýôôèöèåíò óòèëèçàöèè, ÷òîáû êîððåêòíî îöåíèâàòü óðîâåíü åãî èçúÿòèÿ èç ïîïóëÿöèè, ÷åãî äî ñèõ ïîð íå ñäåëàíî äàæå â ìîäåëüíûõ ðåãèîíàõ. Íàèáîëüøèé óðîí ãíåçäÿùèìñÿ è ìèãðèðóþùèì ïîïóëÿöèÿì ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ðàçâèâàþùåéñÿ èíôðàñòðóêòóðîé ÏÎ ËÝÏ íàíåñ¸í â àðèäíûõ çîíàõ Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â ïîëóïóñòûííîé è ñòåïíîé çîíàõ, à òàêæå â ñòåïíûõ êîòëîâèíàõ ãîðíûõ ðàéîíîâ. Çäåñü ñóùåñòâóåò ëèìèò ìåñò, ïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ïðèñàä (â ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ – ãí¸çä), à õèùíèêè, êàê èçâåñòíî, äëÿ îõîòû èëè îòäûõà ñòàðàþòñÿ âûáèðàòü âîçâûøåííûå ýëåìåíòû ìåñòíîñòè.  ýòîé ñâÿçè èõ ïðèâëåêàþò îïîðû ËÝÏ, ðàñïîëàãàþùèåñÿ ñðåäè îòêðûòîãî ëàíäøàôòà.  ëåñíîé çîíå ïòèöû ðåæå ãèáíóò íà ËÝÏ, òàê êàê îáèëèå äåðåâüåâ îáåñïå÷èâàþò áîãàòûé âûáîð óäîáíûõ ïðèñàä, è, ïðè ðàâíûõ âîçìîæíîñòÿõ, ïòèöû ïðåäïî÷èòàþò ñèäåòü íà äåðåâüÿõ, à íå íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ.  òóíäðîâîé çîíå ãèáåëü

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

77

population numbers of species are supported almost entirely by the breeding territories located away from the PL (Matsyna, Zamazkin, 2010). Conclusions I. In Northern Eurasia, in the territories where there is an active development of infrastructure of overhead power lines 6–10 kV, deaths of raptors are occurring on a mass scale. The average frequency of raptor deaths on power lines dangerous to birds (ind./10 km) according to research in Russia and Kazakhstan is as follows: in the semi-desert plains – 9.66, in the flat steppe – 9.55, in the flat forest steppe – 3.23, and in open and semi-open mountainous regions – 5.09. II. Almost all species of Falconiformes and Strigiformes of Northern Eurasia are killed through electrocution, and Kites (31.48%), Steppe Eagle (14.19%), Common Buzzard (13.59%), Kestrel (12.77%), Long-Legged Buzzard (8.39%) and Saker (3.51%) have exceeded the 3% threshold of the total number of dead birds in all natural zones. However, the following are among the most threatened species: 1. Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) – The highest level of mortality with moderate population numbers, but rapid rates of decrease; low level of adaptation. 2. Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) – A high level of bird mortality with extremely low population numbers and a sharp rate of decline; low level of adaptation. 3. Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) – A high level of bird mortality (the population numbers are still quite high); adaptation occurs in some populations. The level of the removal of individuals from the populations of these three bird species, caused by electrocution, is so high that their survival becomes problematic (fig.3). The Steppe Eagle, considering the limit of food supply in the steppe zone, is unable to survive in habitats with a density of PL higher than 12 km/100 km2 (Karyakin, Novikova, 2006). Death from electrocution has become the most important factor, along with the scarcity of food supply and springtime grass and forest fires (Belik, 2004; Karyakin et al., 2010; Mejidov et al., 2010). Prospects for survival of the species are low without the implementation of mitigation activities, at least for half of its breeding range. The Saker Falcon remains now almost exclusively in areas where there is no de-


78

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

Õèùíûå ïòèöû, ïðèñàæèâàþùèåñÿ íà íåçàùèù¸ííûå îïîðû ËÝÏ 10 êÂ, âûæèâàþò äîñòàòî÷íî ðåäêî. Ôîòî Ñ. Áàêêè. Birds of prey perching on the non-insulated crossarms of electric poles of PL–10 kV stay alive very rare. Photo by S. Bakka.

ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì ìèíèìàëüíà èç-çà îòñóòñòâèÿ ðàçâèòîé èíôðàñòðóêòóðû ÏÎ ËÝÏ, õîòÿ â ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû, â ñâÿçè ñ àêòèâèçàöèåé íåôòåäîáû÷è, ýòîò ôàêòîð îïðåäåë¸ííî ðàñò¸ò.  ðàçëè÷íûõ ïðèðîäíûõ çîíàõ óðîâåíü ãèáåëè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ðàçëè÷åí è èçìåíÿåòñÿ íå òîëüêî â ïðîñòðàíñòâå, íî è âî âðåìåíè, ïðè÷¸ì è â òå÷åíèå îäíîãî ñåçîíà. Íà ýòî âëèÿåò öåëûé ðÿä îñîáåííîñòåé áèîëîãèè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ è â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü èõ ñâÿçü ñ ëàíäøàôòîì è êîðìîâîé áàçîé êàê íà ìåñòàõ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ, òàê è íà ïóòÿõ ìèãðàöèé. Âëèÿíèå òèïîâ ëàíäøàôòà è ïëîòíîñòè âèäîâ-æåðòâ íà óðîâåíü ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö îáñóæäàëèñü íåîäíîêðàòíî â ïóáëèêàöèÿõ çàðóáåæíûõ èññëåäîâàòåëåé (Benson, 1981; Kochert, 1980; Ferrer et al., 1991).  ÷àñòíîñòè, â ÑØÀ ìàêñèìàëüíàÿ ãèáåëü áåëîãîëîâûõ îðëàíîâ (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) ïðèõîäèëàñü íà ËÝÏ, ðàñïîëîæåííûõ â êèëîìåòðîâîé çîíå ïîáåðåæèé íà áåçëåñíûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ, ãäå îðëàíû óñïåøíî îõîòèëèñü, íî ñòàëêèâàëèñü ñ íåäîñòàòêîì åñòåñòâåííûõ ïðèñàä (Bayle, 1999; Mojica et al., 2009); â Èñïàíèè 57,9% îò îæèäàåìîé ãèáåëè èñïàíñêèõ ìîãèëüíèêîâ (Aquila adalberti) ïðèõîäèëîñü íà ËÝÏ, ïðîõîäÿùèõ ÷åðåç åñòåñòâåííûå ïàñòáèùà (Janss, Ferrer, 2001), â òî æå âðåìÿ â Ìåêñèêå ìàêñèìàëüíûé óðîâåíü ãèáåëè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íàáëþäàëñÿ íà ËÝÏ, ïðîõîäÿùèõ ÷åðåç òåððèòîðèè, ëåæàùèå â óäàëåíèè îò êîëîíèé ëóãîâûõ ñîáà÷åê (Cynomys ludovicianus), íî ñ íèçêîðîñëûìè çàðîñëÿìè ýôåäðû, ãäå õèùíèêè èìåëè áîëüøóþ âîçìîæíîñòü óñïåøíî îõîòèòüñÿ, íåñìîòðÿ íà íèçêóþ ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäîâ-æåðòâ (Êàðòðîí è äð., 2006). Ðåçóëüòàòû àíàëèçà ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö â ðàçíûõ òèïàõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíà ïîêàçûâàþò, ÷òî ìàññîâàÿ ãèáåëü ïðîèñõîäèò â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü òàì, ãäå ñêîíöåíòðèðîâàíû êîðìà, ìàêñèìàëüíî äîñòóïíûå äëÿ äîáû÷è: ñòåïíûå è ïîëóïóñòûííûå ñîîáùåñòâà ñ êîëîíèÿìè ðîþùèõ ãðûçóíîâ è çàéöåîáðàçíûõ (35,3%), îêðàèíû ñâàëîê è æèâîòíîâîä÷åñêèõ êîìïëåêñîâ (22,2%), îïóøêè ëåñîâ è ëåñîïîëîñ (18,5%), ïîáåðåæüÿ âîäî¸ìîâ (17,3%). Íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ â ýòèõ ãðóïïàõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé ñîñðåäîòî÷åíà ãèáåëü 93,3% ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ.

veloped infrastructure of PL. Deaths from electrocution is the second most important factor in the decline in the species population, after the removal of birds from the wild for falconry (Karyakin, Nikolenko, 2011). Prospects for survival of the species are low without the implementation of mitigation measures in all main areas of the breeding range (Ustyurt, Altai-Sayan region, Dauria, Mongolia). III. The most important types of habitats, in which the PL cause the most damage to birds of prey, should be promptly and completely retrofitted: 1. Undisturbed semi-desert and steppe habitats with moderate grazing in uplands and intermountain depressions (width from 3 to 20 km). 2. Undisturbed semi-desert and steppe habitats in the 5 km zone of cliff-faces, table mountains and plateaus. 3. Open (more than 1 km to the nearest forests) shore waters and wetlands, mainly in the steppe, forest steppe and desert zones. 4. One kilometre zone along the edges of mosaic or belt forests in steppe and forest steppe zones. IV. The scale of mortality of raptors in Northern Eurasia cannot be accurately assessed. The Russian Caucasus and the Far East are ‘white spots’, along with some Asian countries of the former Soviet Union. It is necessary to expand the target studies and to implement he mitigation activities in all countries of the former USSR, as well as in Mongolia and China.


Proceedings of Conferences Íà òåððèòîðèÿõ ñ âûñîêîé ÷èñëåííîñòüþ âèäîâ-æåðòâ, íî ñ ïëîõèìè óñëîâèÿìè äëÿ èõ äîáû÷è (íàïðèìåð, âûñîêîòðàâíûå ëóãà ñ ïîñåëåíèÿìè äëèííîõâîñòîãî ñóñëèêà Spermophilus undulatus èëè îáøèðíûå ñîìêíóòûå çàðîñëè êàðàãàíû ñ êîëîíèÿìè äàóðñêîé ïèùóõè Ochotona daurica), óðîâåíü ãèáåëè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íà ËÝÏ ñíèæàåòñÿ îòíîñèòåëüíî òåððèòîðèé, íà êîòîðûõ âèäû-æåðòâû äîñòóïíû äëÿ äîáû÷è (íàïðèìåð, íèçêîòðàâíûå âûïàñíûå ëóãà ñ ïîñåëåíèÿìè äëèííîõâîñòîãî ñóñëèêà è ðàçðåæåííûå ñêîòîì çàðîñëè êàðàãàíû ñ êîëîíèÿìè äàóðñêîé ïèùóõè). Òàêèì îáðàçîì, àíòðîïîãåííûé ïðåññ íà îäíè è òå æå òèïû ìåñòîîáèòàíèé, â ÷àñòíîñòè, ïàñòáèùíàÿ íàãðóçêà, ñóùåñòâåííî âëèÿåò íà óðîâåíü ãèáåëè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íà ËÝÏ, ïðîõîäÿùèõ ÷åðåç ýòè ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ. Åñëè îöåíèâàòü òîëüêî òàêîé ôàêòîð êàê âûïàñ, òî ìîæíî óòâåðæäàòü, ÷òî íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ, ïðîõîäÿùèõ ÷åðåç òåððèòîðèè ñ âåäóùèìñÿ âûïàñîì (ñòåïíûå è ïîëóïóñòûííûå ñîîáùåñòâà, îêðàèíû ñâàëîê è æèâîòíîâîä÷åñêèõ êîìïëåêñîâ, îïóøêè ëåñîâ è ëåñîïîëîñ, ïîáåðåæüÿ âîäî¸ìîâ), â óñëîâèÿõ ïîëóïóñòûííîé, ñòåïíîé è ëåñîñòåïíîé çîí Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíà ãèáíåò 88% ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Íà ðàçëè÷íûõ ìîäåëüíûõ ïëîùàäÿõ íàáëþäàåòñÿ î÷åíü âûñîêèé óðîâåíü ãèáåëè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íåêîòîðûõ âèäîâ îòíîñèòåëüíî ÷èñëåííîñòè ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ èëè ìèãðèðóþùèõ ïîïóëÿöèé, êîòîðûé ñòàâèò ïîä óãðîçó ñóùåñòâîâàíèå ýòèõ ïîïóëÿöèé. Òàê, ãèáåëü íà ËÝÏ áûëà îñíîâíîé ïðè÷èíîé ñîêðàùåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ôèëèíà (Bubo bubo), ãíåçäÿùåãîñÿ â ãîðàõ Èòàëèè (Penteriani, Pinchera, 1990; Marchesi et al., 2001; Rubolini et al., 2001; Sergio et al., 2004) è ñêîïû (Pandion haliaetus), ìèãðèðóþùåé ÷åðåç Èòàëèþ, íî ãíåçäÿùåéñÿ â Ñêàíäèíàâèè (Rubolini et al., 2005); ìå÷åíèå èñïàíñêèõ ìîãèëüíèêîâ ðàäèîïåðåäàò÷èêàìè ïîêàçàëî, ÷òî 42,1% ïîìå÷åííûõ ïòèö ïîãèáëè íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ (Ferrer, 2001); ãèáåëü îò ýëåêòðîòîêà ÿâëÿåòñÿ ãëàâíîé óãðîçîé äëÿ íàèáîëåå ïðîöâåòàþùåé âåíãåðñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè áàëîáàíîâ, ÷òî ïîäòâåðæäåíî êàê äàííûìè êîëüöåâàíèÿ, òàê è ìå÷åíèÿ ñïóòíèêîâûìè ïåðåäàò÷èêàìè (Prommer, Bagyura, 2010).  Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíå ñèòóàöèÿ âûãëÿäèò àíàëîãè÷íûì îáðàçîì, ñ òîé ëèøü ðàçíèöåé, ÷òî èññëåäîâàíèé ïî âëèÿíèþ òàêîãî ôàêòîðà, êàê ãèáåëü ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, íà ïîïóëÿöèè ïòèö êðàéíå ìàëî.  Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè ïðè ïëîòíîñòè ÏÎ ËÝÏ 30 êì/100 êì2, ïî îöåíêå

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

79

À.È. Ìàöûíû (2005), íàèáîëåå óÿçâèìûìè âèäàìè îêàçàëèñü êàíþê è ïóñòåëüãà, äëÿ êîòîðûõ ìàñøòàáû ãèáåëè íà ËÝÏ âïîëíå ñîïîñòàâèìû ñ ÷èñëåííîñòüþ ýòèõ âèäîâ â íà÷àëå ñåçîíà ãíåçäîâàíèÿ: îæèäàåìàÿ åæåãîäíàÿ ãèáåëü êàíþêà ñîñòàâëÿåò 7360 îñîáåé ïðè ÷èñëåííîñòè íà ãíåçäîâàíèè 3800–4100 ïàð (îêîëî 44% îò ÷èñëåííîñòè ãíåçäÿùåéñÿ ïîïóëÿöèè ��ðè ñðåäíåì ÷èñëå ñë¸òêîâ â âûâîäêå 2,2), ïóñòåëüãè – 3680 îñîáåé ïðè ÷èñëåííîñòè íà ãíåçäîâàíèè 1200–1600 ïàð (îêîëî 94% îò ÷èñëåííîñòè ãíåçäÿùåéñÿ ïîïóëÿöèè ïðè ñðåäíåì ÷èñëå ñë¸òêîâ â âûâîäêå 3,6), ïðè ýòîì ÷èñëåííîñòü êàíþêà îñòà¸òñÿ äîñòàòî÷íî ñòàáèëüíîé â òå÷åíèå ðÿäà ëåò, à ÷èñëåííîñòü ïóñòåëüãè, âåðîÿòíî, ñîêðàùàåòñÿ (Áàêêà, Êèñåë¸âà, 2007). Ñ ó÷¸òîì ìèãðàíòîâ è íåãíåçäÿùèõñÿ îñîáåé ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü, ÷òî åæåãîäíî íà òåððèòîðèè Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè ãèáåëü êàíþêà è ïóñòåëüãè íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ ñîñòàâëÿåò, ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, 25% è 40% îò ïîñëåãíåçäîâîé ÷èñëåííîñòè ýòèõ âèäîâ â ðåãèîíå (Ìàöûíà, Çàìàçêèí, 2010).  Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå, ïðè ïëîòíîñòè ÏÎ ËÝÏ 12 êì/100 êì2, îæèäàåìàÿ åæåãîäíàÿ ãèáåëü ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ ñîñòàâëÿåò 1635 ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð èëè 8% îò ãíåçäÿùåéñÿ çàïàäíîêàçàõñòàíñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè âèäà; ïðè ýòîì ãèáåëü ïòèö 1–2-ãî ãîäîâ æèçíè, êîòîðûå åù¸ íå èìåþò ñâîèõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ, ñóùåñòâåííî ïðåâûøàåò ïîêàçàòåëè ãèáåëè ïðèñòóïèâøèõ ê ðàçìíîæåíèþ ïòèö. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, äëÿ Çà-

Ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca), ñèäÿùèé íà íåèçîëèðîâàííîé ïðèñàäå ïòèöåîïàñíîé ËÝÏ 10 êÂ. Ôîòî À. Áàðàøêîâîé. Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) on the non-insulated perch installed on an electric pole of PL-10 kV dangerous for birds. Photo by A. Barashkova.


80

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) – îäèí èç ñàìûõ ËÝÏ-óÿçâèìûõ âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà. Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) is one of raptor species that are the most vulnerable regarding to electrocution. Photo by I. Karyakin.

ïàäíîãî Êàçàõñòàíà ìîæíî ãîâîðèòü î åæåãîäíîé ãèáåëè ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ â ðàçìåðå, êàê ìèíèìóì 10% îò ìåñòíîé ïîïóëÿöèè òîëüêî â âåñåííèé ïåðèîä è 25–30% â òå÷åíèå ñåçîíà (Êàðÿêèí, Íîâèêîâà, 2006).  ñòåïíûõ è ëåñîñòåïíûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿõ Àëòàÿ, ïðè ïëîòíîñòè ÏÎ ËÝÏ 11,5 êì/100 êì2, îæèäàåìàÿ åæåãîäíàÿ ãèáåëü ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ ñîñòàâèëà â ñðåäíåì 997 îñîáåé èëè 45% îò ÷èñëåííîñòè ãíåçäÿùåéñÿ àëòàéñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè, ìîãèëüíèêîâ (Aquila heliaca) – 452 îñîáè èëè 25%, ñàïñàíîâ (Falco peregrinus) – 89 îñîáåé èëè 8% (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2009á). Îäíàêî, â âèäó íåñîâåðøåíñòâà îöåíîê ÷èñëåííîñòè, ìíîãèå ïîêàçàòåëè ïîïóëÿöèîííîãî îòõîäà â ðåçóëüòàòå ãèáåëè íà ËÝÏ îïðåäåë¸ííî çàâûøåíû. Ïðè ïðîïóñêå ãí¸çä è íàëè÷èè íà òåõ æå òåððèòîðèÿõ íåãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïòèö, êîòîðûå ðåãóëÿðíî ïåðåìåùàþòñÿ ïî äîñòàòî÷íî îáøèðíîé òåððèòîðèè, î÷åíü ñëîæíî óñòàíîâèòü ðåàëüíóþ ÷èñëåííîñòü òîãî èëè èíîãî âèäà â îñîáÿõ â õîäå ïðîñòûõ âèçóàëüíûõ ó÷¸òîâ. Ýòî íàãëÿäíî ïîêàçàíî íà ïðèìåðå Íàóðçóìà â Êîñòàíàéñêîé îáëàñòè Êàçàõñòàíà ãåíåòè÷åñêèìè èññëåäîâàíèÿìè ëèííûõ ïåðüåâ îðëîâ-ìîãèëüíèêîâ, ñîáðàííûõ íà ìåñòàõ ñêîïëåíèé íåïîëîâîçðåëûõ ïòèö (Áðàãèí è äð., 2010).  òî æå âðåìÿ îãðàíè÷åííûé âî âðåìåíè ó÷¸ò ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä, ñ ïàðàëëåëüíûì ó÷¸òîì ïòèö, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ â çîíå âëèÿíèÿ ýòèõ ÏÎ ËÝÏ, íåñêîëüêî çàíèæàåò îöåíêè ãèáåëè. Òàê, â Êèíåëüñêîì ðàéîíå Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè, ïðè ïëîòíîñòè ÏÎ ËÝÏ 20,61 êì/100 êì2, îêîëî 80% ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ êàíþêà è äëèííîõâîñòîé íåÿñûòè ïðîãíîçèðîâàëîñü â çîíå ìàêñèìàëüíîãî âëèÿíèÿ ÏÎ ËÝÏ (0,5 êì), ïðè ýòîì îæèäàåìàÿ åæåãîäíàÿ ãèáåëü ýòèõ âèäîâ òîëüêî â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä, áåç ó÷¸òà ìèãðàíòîâ, ñîñòàâèëà 10,65% è 5,41% îò

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé èõ îáùåé ÷èñëåííîñòè â ðàéîíå (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2008). Çàíèæåíèå óðîâíÿ ãèáåëè ñâÿçàíî ñ òåì, ÷òî íå íà âñåõ ïðåäïîëàãàåìûõ ó÷àñòêàõ íàáëþäàåòñÿ óñïåøíîå ðàçìíîæåíèå – íà ìíîãèõ âçðîñëûå ïòèöû ãèáíóò â òå÷åíèå ëåòà è íå ïðîèçâîäÿò ïîòîìñòâà, õîòÿ â ðàñ÷¸òàõ èõ ïîòåíöèàëüíîå ïîòîìñòâî ó÷èòûâàåòñÿ. Ïî ñóòè, óðîâåíü ãèáåëè êàíþêà è äëèííîõâîñòîé íåÿñûòè â óñëîâèÿõ Êèíåëüñêîãî ðàéîíà ëåæèò âíóòðè äèàïàçîíà îò 16% (îöåíèâàåìûé óðîâåíü ãèáåëè ïî ïðÿìûì íàáëþäåíèÿì) äî 80% (âîçìîæíûé óðîâåíü ãèáåëè ïî äîëå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ â çîíå âëèÿíèÿ ÏÎ ËÝÏ) îò èõ îáùåé ÷èñëåííîñòè íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â ðàéîíå è, ñêîðåå âñåãî, ïðèáëèæàåòñÿ ê 25–45%. Òåì íå ìåíåå, íåñìîòðÿ íà òàêóþ ñåðü¸çíóþ ðàçíèöó â îöåíêàõ óðîâíÿ îòõîäà ïòèö èç ïîïóëÿöèé â ðåçóëüòàòå èõ ãèáåëè íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ, îíè ìîãóò áûòü íåêèìè ñòàðòîâûìè ïîêàçàòåëÿìè â èññëåäîâàíèÿõ, åñëè åñòü êðàéíå íåãàòèâíàÿ ñèòóàöèÿ ñ òåì èëè èíûì âèäîì íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè. Óæå ñåé÷àñ, ïðè âñåõ ñâîèõ íåäî÷¸òàõ, ýòè ïîêàçàòåëè äîñòàòî÷íî ÷¸òêî èëëþñòðèðóþò òî, ÷òî â óñëîâèÿõ ðàçâèòîé èíôðàñòðóêòóðû ÏÎ ËÝÏ (ïëîòíîñòü ÏÎ ËÝÏ áîëåå 10 êì/100 êì2) ãíåçäÿùèåñÿ ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè îòêðûòûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé è îïóøå÷íîé çîíû ëåñîâ èìåþò íèçêèå øàíñû íà âûæèâàíèå. Äàæå äëÿ îáû÷íûõ âèäîâ, òàêèõ, êàê êàíþê è ïóñòåëüãà, èìåþùèõ äîñòàòî÷íî âûñîêèé óðîâåíü ðàçìíîæåíèÿ, îïòèìàëüíûå ïî ãíåçäîâûì è êîðìîâûì óñëîâèÿì ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ, ÷åðåç êîòîðûå ïðîõîäÿò ÏÎ ËÝÏ, ñòàíîâÿòñÿ óïàäî÷íûìè, äàæå ïðè àäàïòàöèè âçðîñëûõ ïòèö ê óñëîâèÿì ñóùåñòâîâàíèÿ â ýëåêòðîñåòåâîé ñðåäå. È ñòàíîâÿòñÿ îíè óïàäî÷íûìè â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü çà ñ÷¸ò åæåãîäíîé ïîëíîé èëè ïðàêòè÷åñêè ïîëíîé ãèáåëè ïîòîìñòâà íà ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ â çîíàõ âëèÿíèÿ ÏÎ ËÝÏ (Ferrer, 2001; Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2009á, Ìàöûíà, 2005; Ìàöûíà, Çàìàçêèí, 2011).  õóäøåì ñëó÷àå â òàêèõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿõ ôîðìèðóþòñÿ «ïîïóëÿöèîííûå äûðû» çà ñ÷¸ò ðåãóëÿðíîé è ïðàêòè÷åñêè ïîëíîé ãèáåëè ïòèö, êîòîðûå èõ íà÷èíàþò îñâàèâàòü äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ, ÷òî äîñòàòî÷íî ÷¸òêî ïðîèëëþñòðèðîâàíî íà ìàòåðèàëå â Áåòïàê-Äàëå (Êàçàõñòàí) (Êàðÿêèí, Áàðàáàøèí, 2005) è â ãîðàõ Àëòàÿ (Ðîññèÿ) (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2009á). Ó÷èòûâàÿ òî, ÷òî ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ìíîãèõ âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö õàðàêòåðèçóþòñÿ âûñîêèì ïîñòîÿíñòâîì (ãí¸çäà èñïîëüçóþòñÿ â òå÷åíèå ìíîãèõ ëåò), íàõîäÿùèåñÿ ðÿäîì ÏÎ ËÝÏ ïðåâðàùàþò èõ â äîëãîâðåìåííûå «ýêîëîãè÷åñêèå ëîâóøêè».  òàêîé ñèòóàöèè ïî-


Proceedings of Conferences ïóëÿöèîííàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäîâ ïîääåðæèâàåòñÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî çà ñ÷¸ò ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ, ðàñïîëîæåííûõ âäàëè îò ÏÎ ËÝÏ (Ìàöûíà, Çàìàçêèí, 2010). Âûâîäû I.  Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè â çîíå àêòèâíîãî ðàçâèòèÿ èíôðàñòðóêòóðû âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è 6–10 ê ïðîèñõîäèò ìàññîâàÿ ãèáåëü ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Ñðåäíèå ïîêàçàòåëè ÷àñòîòû ãèáåëè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ (â îñ./10 êì), ïî èññëåäîâàíèÿì â Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíå, ñîñòàâëÿþò: â ðàâíèííîé ïîëóïóñòûíå – 9,66, â ðàâíèííîé ñòåïè – 9,55, â ðàâíèííîé ëåñîñòåïè – 3,23, â îòêðûòûõ è ïîëóîòêðûòûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿõ ãîðíûõ ðàéîíîâ – 5,09. Ìíîãèå âèäû ãèáíóò êàê íà ìåñòàõ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ, òàê è íà ïðîë¸òå, ÷òî ñîçäàåò ðåàëüíûå ïðîáëåìû äëÿ óñòîé÷èâîãî ñóùåñòâîâàíèÿ èõ ïîïóëÿöèé. II. Ñðåäè æåðòâ ýëåêòðîñåòåâîé ñðåäû ÷èñëèòñÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè âåñü âèäîâîé ñîñòàâ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è ñîâîîáðàçíûõ, à ïîðîã â 3% îò îáùåãî ÷èñëà ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö âî âñåõ ïðèðîäíûõ çîíàõ ïðåîäîëåâàþò êîðøóíû (31,48%), ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (14,19%), êàíþêè (13,59%), ïóñòåëüãà (12,77%), êóðãàííèê (8,39%), áàëîáàí (3,51%). Îäíàêî, ñðåäè íàèáîëåå óãðîæàåìûõ âèäîâ ìîæíî âûäåëèòü ñëåäóþùèå: 1. Ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis) – ìàêñèìàëüíûé óðîâåíü ãèáåëè ïòèö íà âñ¸ì ïðîñòðàíñòâå àðåàëà ïðè óìåðåííîé ÷èñëåííîñòè, íî âûñîêèõ òåìïàõ å¸ ñîêðàùåíèÿ; íèçêèé óðîâåíü àäàïòàöèè. 2. Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) – âûñîêèé óðîâåíü ãèáåëè ïòèö íà âñ¸ì ïðîñòðàíñòâå àðåàëà ïðè êðàéíå íèçêîé ÷èñëåííîñòè è âûñîêèõ òåìïàõ å¸ ñîêðàùåíèÿ; íèçêèé Ðèñ. 3. Óðîâåíü èçúÿòèÿ íàèáîëåå ÷àñòî ãèáíóùèõ íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ îòíîñèòåëüíî ïðåäïîëàãàåìîé ÷èñëåííîñòè èõ ïîïóëÿöèé â Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíå. Fig. 3. Portion of raptors that the most frequently died through electrocution of the projected numbers of their populations in Russia and Kazakhstan.

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

81

óðîâåíü àäàïòàöèè. 3. Êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) – âûñîêèé óðîâåíü ãèáåëè ïòèö íà âñ¸ì ïðîñòðàíñòâå àðåàëà (÷èñëåííîñòü ïîêà åù¸ äîñòàòî÷íî âûñîêà); â íåêîòîðûõ ïîïóëÿöèÿõ ïðîèñõîäèò àäàïòàöèÿ. Óðîâåíü èçúÿòèÿ îñîáåé èç ãíåçäîâûõ ïîïóëÿöèé ýòèõ òð¸õ âèäîâ ïòèö â ðåçóëüòàòå ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì íàñòîëüêî âûñîê, ÷òî èõ âûæèâàíèå ñòàíîâèòñÿ ïðîáëåìàòè÷íûì (ðèñ. 3). Ñòåïíîé îð¸ë, â óñëîâèÿõ ëèìèòà êîðìîâîé áàçû â ñòåïíîé çîíå, íå â ñîñòîÿíèè âûæèâàòü â ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿõ ñ ïëîòíîñòüþ ÏÎ ËÝÏ âûøå 12 êì/100 êì2 (Êàðÿêèí, Íîâèêîâà, 2006). Ñîêðàùåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ñòåïíîãî îðëà â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ïðîèñõîäèò ïðàêòè÷åñêè íà âñ¸ì þãå Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè, âêëþ÷àÿ òåððèòîðèè, ãäå âïëîòü äî êîíöà ÕÕ ñòîëåòèÿ ñîõðàíÿëèñü êðóïíåéøèå ïîïóëÿöèè ýòîãî âèäà – Êàëìûêèÿ, Àñòðàõàíñêàÿ, Âîëãîãðàäñêàÿ, Ñàðàòîâñêàÿ è Îðåíáóðãñêàÿ îáëàñòè (Áåëèê, 2004; Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2010; Ìåäæèäîâ è äð., 2010). Ãèáåëü íà ËÝÏ ÿâëÿåòñÿ âàæíåéøèì ïî çíà÷èìîñòè ôàêòîðîì, íàðÿäó ñ îñêóäåíèåì êîðìîâîé áàçû è âåñåííèìè ïàëàìè òðàâû (Áåëèê, 2004; Êàðÿêèí, Íîâèêîâà, 2006; Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2010; Ìåäæèäîâ è äð., 2010). Ïåðñïåêòèâû âûæèâàíèÿ âèäà íèçêè áåç ðåàëèçàöèè ìåð ïî ñìÿã÷åíèþ âëèÿíèÿ íà åãî ïîïóëÿöèè ÏÎ ËÝÏ õîòÿ áû íà ïîëîâèíå ãíåçäîâîãî àðåàëà. Áàëîáàí â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ñîõðàíÿåòñÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî íà òåððèòîðèÿõ, íà êîòîðûõ îòñóòñòâóåò ðàçâèòàÿ èíôðàñòðóêòóðà ÏÎ ËÝÏ, è, ïðè ïðîäîëæàþùåìñÿ èçúÿòèè îñîáåé èç äèêîé ïðèðîäû äëÿ íóæä ñîêîëèíîé îõîòû, ãèáåëü íà


82

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Àííà Áàðàøêîâà ñ ñàìêîé ñòåïíîãî îðëà, ïîãèáøåé íà ËÝÏ, ïðîõîäÿùåé ñðåäè ïàñòáèùà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà. Anna Barashkova with a female Steppe Eagle killed by electrocution on the PL crossing a pasture. Photo by I. Karyakin.

ËÝÏ ÿâëÿåòñÿ âòîðûì ïî çíà÷èìîñòè ôàêòîðîì, âëèÿþùèì íà ñîêðàùåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà (Êàðÿêèí, Íèêîëåíêî, 2011), îñîáåííî â âîñòî÷íîé ÷àñòè àðåàëà (Ãîðîøêî, 2011; Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2011). Ïåðñïåêòèâû âûæèâàíèÿ âèäà íèçêè áåç ðåàëèçàöèè ìåð ïî ñìÿã÷åíèþ âëèÿíèÿ íà åãî ïîïóëÿöèè ÏÎ ËÝÏ âî âñåõ êëþ÷åâûõ ðåãèîíàõ îáèòàíèÿ (Óñòþðò, Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêèé ðåãèîí, Äàóðèÿ, Ìîíãîëèÿ). III. Íà âñ¸ì ïðîñòðàíñòâå Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè ìîæíî âûäåëèòü íåñêîëüêî òèïîâ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé, â êîòîðûõ ÏÎ ËÝÏ íàíîñÿò íàèáîëüøèé óùåðá ïåðíàòûì õèùíèêàì è äîëæíû áûòü íåçàìåäëèòåëüíî è ïîëíîñòüþ ðåêîíñòðóèðîâàíû: 1. Íåíàðóøåííûå ïîëóïóñòûííûå è ñòåïíûå ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ ñ óìåðåííûì âûïàñîì â ìåëêîñîïî÷íèêàõ è ìåæãîðíûõ êîòëîâèíàõ (øèðèíîé îò 3 äî 20 êì). 2. Íåíàðóøåííûå ïîëóïóñòûííûå è ñòåïíûå ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ â 5-êèëîìåòðîâîé çîíå ÷èíêîâ ñòîëîâûõ ãîð è ïëàòî. 3. Îòêðûòûå (áîëåå 1 êì äî áëèæàéøèõ ëåñîíàñàæäåíèé) áåðåãà âîäî¸ìîâ è áîëîò, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â ñòåïíîé, ëåñîñòåïíîé è ïóñòûííîé çîíàõ. 4. Êèëîìåòðîâàÿ çîíà âäîëü îïóøåê ìîçàè÷íûõ èëè ëåíòî÷íûõ ëåñîâ â ñòåïíîé è ëåñîñòåïíîé çîíàõ. IV. Ìàñøòàáû ãèáåëè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ â Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè íå ïîääàþòñÿ òî÷íîé îöåíêå. «Áåëûìè ïÿòíàìè» ÿâëÿþòñÿ Ðîññèéñêèé Êàâêàç è Äàëüíèé Âîñòîê, à òàêæå ðÿä àçèàòñêèõ ñòðàí áûâøåãî ÑÑÑÐ. Íåîáõîäèìî ðàñøèðåíèå öåëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé ïðîáëåìû è ðåàëèçàöèè ìåðîïðèÿòèé ïî å¸ ðåøåíèþ âî âñåõ ðåãèîíàõ íà ïîñò-ñîâåòñêîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå, à òàêæå â Ìîíãîëèè è Êèòàå. Çàêëþ÷åíèå Ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì ñòàëà àêòóàëüíîé â êîíöå XIX âåêà, ñ òåõ ïîð, êàê ïîÿâèëèñü ËÝÏ.

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé Îäíàêî, ñàìûå ðàííèå ïóáëèêàöèè î ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ ïîÿâèëèñü, ïîæàëóé, ëèøü â 20-õ ãã. ÕÕ âåêà â ÑØÀ, à ïîçæå è â Çàïàäíîé Åâðîïå, è ìàñøòàáû ýòîé ïðîáëåìû íå ïðèçíàâàëèñü âïëîòü äî 70-õ ãã. (Bevanger, 1994; 1998; Bayle, 1999; Ferrer, Janss, 1999; Manville, 2005). Èìåííî â ýòîò ïåðèîä Ñîâåòñêèì Ñîþçîì áûëè èìïîðòèðîâàíû èç ÑØÀ è ïîñòàâëåíû íà âîîðóæåíèå ýëåêòðîñåòåâîãî êîìïëåêñà íàèáîëåå îïàñíûå äëÿ ïòèö êîíñòðóêöèè áåòîííûõ îïîð ñ ìåòàëëè÷åñêèìè òðàâåðñàìè, îñíàù¸ííûìè øòûðåâûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè, ïðèøåäøèå íà ñìåíó äåðåâÿííûì, ïðàêòè÷åñêè áåçîïàñíûì äëÿ ïòèö. È ñïóñòÿ äåñÿòèëåòèå (ò.å. áîëåå ÷åì 30 ëåò íàçàä) ïðîáëåìà áûëà ïîäíÿòà è â ÑÑÑÐ (Ãðàæäàíêèí, Ïåðåðâà, 1982; Çâîíîâ, Êðèâîíîñîâ, 1981; Ïåðåðâà, Áëîõèí, 1981).  80-õ ãã. ÕÕ ñòîëåòèÿ áûë âíåäð¸í ðÿä íåýôôåêòèâíûõ ðàçðàáîòîê ÏÇÓ, êîòîðûå â äàëüíåéøåì íà÷àëè äåìîíòèðîâàòüñÿ (Ìàöûíà, 2008; Ñàëòûêîâ, 1999), íî â îñíîâíîì â Ðîññèè, à â Êàçàõñòàíå ïðîäîëæàþò íå òîëüêî îñòàâàòüñÿ íà ñòàðûõ ËÝÏ, íî è óñòàíàâëèâàþòñÿ ïðè ñòðîèòåëüñòâå íîâûõ (Êàðÿêèí, Áàðàáàøèí, 2005; Êàðÿêèí, 2008). Âî ìíîãîì ðÿä íåóäà÷íûõ ïðîåêòîâ ïî íåéòðàëèçàöèè ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ ïðèâ¸ë ê òîìó, ÷òî ýòà òåìà áûëà çàêðûòà íà äåñÿòèëåòèå. Ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â ñîâðåìåííîé Ðîññèè âíîâü ñòàëà îçâó÷èâàòüñÿ ñ êîíöà 90-õ ãã. ÕÕ ñòîëåòèÿ, ñ ðàçâèòèåì îáùåñòâåííîãî ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî äâèæåíèÿ ïðè ïàðàëëåëüíîì ðîñòå ïëîòíîñòè ÏÎ ËÝÏ â ðåçóëüòàòå ðàçâèòèÿ íåôòåãàçîäîáûâàþùåãî êîìïëåêñà è ñîòîâîé ñâÿçè.  Êàçàõñòàíå è Ìîíãîëèè ïîäîáíûå ïðîöåññû òîëüêî íà÷èíàþòñÿ. Ïðè ýòîì, â Ðîññèè âïëîòü äî êîíöà 90-õ ãã. ÕÕ ñòîëåòèÿ îòñóòñòâîâàëà ñóäåáíàÿ ïðàêòèêà ïðèâëå÷åíèÿ âëàäåëüöåâ ÏÎ ËÝÏ ê îòâåòñòâåííîñòè çà ãèáåëü ïòèö, à â Êàçàõñòàíå è Ìîíãîëèè îíà îòñóòñòâóåò ïî ñåé äåíü. Ïðèìå÷àòåëüíî òî, ÷òî â ÑØÀ, ãäå ïðîáëåìà áûëà èçâåñòíà äëèòåëüíîå âðåìÿ, ïåðâûå ïîëíîöåííûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ïî ìåòîäàì çàùèòû õèùíûõ ïòèö îò ãèáåëè íà ËÝÏ, ïîääåðæàííûå íà ãîñóäàðñòâåííîì óðîâíå, áûëè âûïóùåíû â 1996 ã., à äî 1999 ã. ïî ôàêòó ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ íà ýëåêòðè÷åñêèå ñåðâèñíûå êîìïàíèè áûëè íàëîæåíû òîëüêî äâà øòðàôà (îäèí â 1993 ã. è äðóãîé â 1998 ã.), ñîãëàñíî Çàêîíó î ìèãðèðóþùèõ ïòèöàõ (Migratory Bird Treaty Act; 16 U.S.C. 703–712) è Çàêîíó î çàùèòå áåëîãîëîâîãî îðëàíà è áåðêóòà (Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act; 16 U.S.C. 668-668C) (Manville, 2005).


Proceedings of Conferences Ñòîèò îòìåòèòü, ÷òî àêòóàëüíîñòü ïðîáëåìû ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ è, â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü, ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, à òàêæå íåîáõîäèìîñòü å¸ íåçàìåäëèòåëüíîãî ðåøåíèÿ, â 2002 ã. áûëà âïåðâûå çàìå÷åíà íà ìåæäóíàðîäíîì ïðàâèòåëüñòâåííîì óðîâíå íà êîíôåðåíöèè ñòîðîí Áîííñêîé êîíâåíöèè ïî ìèãðèðóþùèì âèäàì (CMS) è îòðàæåíà â ðåçîëþöèè 7.4. Electrocution of migratory birds (2002).  àïðåëå 2011 ã. íà åâðîïåéñêîé êîíôåðåíöèè «ËÝÏ è ãèáåëü ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì â Åâðîïå» áûëà ïðèíÿòà «Áóäàïåøòñêàÿ äåêëàðàöèÿ ïî çàùèòå ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è» (2011), â êîòîðîé ïðåäóñìàòðèâàåòñÿ â ñðîê äî 2012 ã. ñîçäàòü ãðóïïó ýêñïåðòîâ ïî áåçîïàñíîñòè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, çàïóñòèòü ñòàðòîâóþ ïðîãðàììó ðåøåíèÿ ïðîáëåìû, ïîääåðæàòü îáìåí îïûòîì ìåæäó ñòðàíàìè ÅÑ ïî ðåøåíèþ ïðîáëåìû ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, äî 2015 ã. âûäåëèòü ïðèîðèòåòíûå ËÝÏ è ñîçäàòü ïîäðîáíóþ ñðåäíåñðî÷íóþ ñòðàòåãèþ ïî îñóùåñòâëåíèþ ñìÿã÷àþùèõ ìåð, ðàçðàáîòàòü è óòâåðäèòü íàöèîíàëüíûå òåõíè÷åñêèå ñòàíäàðòû è ïåðå÷åíü áåçîïàñíûõ äëÿ ïòèö êîíñòðóêöèé îïîð ËÝÏ, ìåðû ïî ïåðåîáîðóäîâàíèþ ñóùåñòâóþùèõ ËÝÏ, à ê 2020 ã. – ðåêîíñòðóèðîâàòü èëè çàìåíèòü âñå ÏÎ ËÝÏ íà áåçîïàñíûå äëÿ ïòèö.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ â Ðîññèè, à îò÷àñòè è â Êàçàõñòàíå, èìååòñÿ èíòåðåñ ê ðåøåíèþ ïðîáëåìû ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ êàê â ñðåäå ó÷¸íûõ è îáùåñòâåííûõ äåÿòåëåé, òàê è â ñðåäå âëàäåëüöåâ è ïîëüçîâàòåëåé ÏÎ ËÝÏ; íà ðûíêå ïðåäëàãàþòñÿ ðîññèéñêèå ðàçðàáîòêè ýôôåêòèâíûõ ÏÇÓ, ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèå äàâíî ïðèìåíÿåìûì çà ðóáåæîì êîíñòðóêöèÿì è ìèðîâûì ñòàíäàðòàì (Ìàöûíà, 2008; Ìàöûíà è äð., 2008; Ñàëòûêîâ, 2009); øèðîêî ñòàë ïðèìåíÿòüñÿ èçîëèðîâàííûé ïðîâîä (ÑÈÏ-3, ÑÈÏ-4); à çà ïîñëåäíèå 5 ëåò íàðàáîòàíà ïðàêòèêà ðåàëèçàöèè ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé â ðàçíûõ ðåãèîíàõ Ïîâîëæüÿ, Óðàëà, Ñèáèðè è Çàïàäíîãî Êàçàõñòàíà (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2009á; Ìàöûíà è äð., 2008; 2010; Ìàöûíà, Ãðèøóòêèí, 2009; Ìåäæèäîâ è äð., 2005à; 2005á; Ñàëòûêîâ, 2009; Ñèäåíêî, Ðàãîíñêèé, 2009). Òåì íå ìåíåå, òåõ ïîçèòèâíûõ ïîäâèæåê, êîòîðûå ïðîèçîøëè â ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ íà áûâøåì ïîñò-ñîâåòñêîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå â ðåøåíèè ïðîáëåìû ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ÏÎ ËÝÏ, ÿâíî íåäîñòàòî÷íî äëÿ ñòàáèëèçàöèè ðÿäà óãàñàþùèõ ïîïóëÿöèé ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Äëÿ ñòåïíîãî îðëà è áàëîáàíà óæå ñóùåñòâóþùàÿ èíôðàñòðóêòóðà ÏÎ ËÝÏ îáîðà÷èâàåòñÿ êàòàñòðîôîé. Íà ìíîãèõ òåððèòîðèÿõ, ãäå ðàçâèòèå ñåòè

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

83

ÏÎ ËÝÏ íà÷àëîñü íåäàâíî, îáðàçîâàëèñü íàñòîÿùèå «÷¸ðíûå äûðû» â ïîïóëÿöèÿõ ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñåõ âèäîâ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Îïðåäåë¸ííî, äëÿ ðåøåíèÿ ïðîáëåìû íåîáõîäèìû ãîðàçäî áîëüøèå óñèëèÿ, ÷åì ïðèíèìàþòñÿ ñåé÷àñ, è ïîíèìàíèå å¸ îñòðîòû íà óðîâíå ïðàâèòåëüñòâ. Íåîáõîäèìî â êàæäîé ñòðàíå íà íàöèîíàëüíîì óðîâíå ðàçðàáîòàòü è ïðèíÿòü ñòðàòåãèþ îïòèìèçàöèè ýëåêòðîñåòåâîé ñðåäû, â êîòîðîé áûëè áû ÷¸òêî ïðîïèñàíû: à) ïðàâèëà è òåìïû ðåêîíñòðóêöèè ñòàðûõ ëèíèé, á) ïðàâèëà ñòðîèòåëüñòâà íîâûõ îáúåêòîâ ýëåêòðîñåòåâîãî êîìïëåêñà, ó÷èòûâàþùèå áåçîïàñíîñòü äëÿ ïòèö, â) êîíêðåòíûå îáÿçàííîñòè è ïîëíîìî÷èÿ îðãàíîâ êîíòðîëÿ è íàäçîðà (â Ðîññèè ýòî Ðîñòåõíàäçîð, Ðîñïðèðîäíàäçîð è ïð.) â ðàìêàõ ðåàëèçàöèè ñòðàòåãèè. Ëèòåðàòóðà Áàêêà Ñ.Â., Êèñåëåâà Í.Þ. Îðíèòîôàóíà Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè: äèíàìèêà, àíòðîïîãåííàÿ òðàíñôîðìàöèÿ, ïóòè ñîõðàíåíèÿ. – Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä, 2007. 124 ñ. Áàðáàçþê Å.Â., Áàêêà Ñ.Â., Áàðàøêîâà À.Í., Ñåì¸íîâ À.Ð., Ñìåëÿíñêèé È.Ý. Èòîãè ïðåäâàðèòåëüíîãî ìîíèòîðèíãà ãèáåëè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ è äðóãèõ âèäîâ ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ òîêîì íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è â Âîñòî÷íîì Îðåíáóðæüå, Ðîññèÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2010. ¹20. C. 40–47. Áåëèê Â.Ï. Äèíàìèêà Ïðèêàñïèéñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè ñòåïíîãî îðëà è îöåíêà ëèìèòèðóþùèõ ôàêòîðîâ. – Ñòðåïåò. 2004. Ò. 2, âûï. 2. Ñ. 116–133. Áîëäáààòàð Ø. Ïðîáëåìû îõðàíû ïòèö Ìîíãîëèè è â ñîïðåäåëüíûõ ñòðàíàõ. – Òåç. äîêë. êîíôåðåíöèè «Ñîâðåìåííûå ïðîáëåìû îðíèòîëîãèè Ñèáèðè è öåíòðàëüíîé Àçèè». Âûï. 3. ×. I. Óëàí-Óäý, 2006. Ñ. 22–27. Áðàãèí Å.À., Êàòöíåð Ò., Áðàãèí À.Å. Ëåòíèå ñêîïëåíèÿ êðóïíûõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ è ïðîáëåìà îöåíêè èõ ÷èñëåííîñòè. Ïðåçåíòàöèÿ äîêëàäà íà XIII Ìåæäóíàðîäíîé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé êîíôåðåíöèè Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè. Îðåíáóðã, 2010. <http://raptors.org.ua/ru/wp-content/files/ Orenb2010-Bragin-Katcner-Bragin.pps> Áóäàïåøòñêàÿ äåêëàðàöèÿ ïî çàùèòå ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2011. ¹22. C. 12–15. Ãîðîøêî Î.À. Ãèáåëü ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Äàóðñêîé ñòåïè (Þãî-Âîñòî÷íîå Çàáàéêàëüå), Ðîññèÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2011. ¹21. C. 84–99. Ãðàæäàíêèí À.Â., Ïåðåðâà Â.È. Ïðè÷èíû ãèáåëè ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ íà îïîðàõ âûñîêîâîëüòíûõ ëèíèé è ïóòè èõ óñòðàíåíèÿ. – Íàó÷íûå îñíîâû îõðàíû è ðàöèîíàëüíîãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà. Ì., 1982. Ñ. 3–9. Çâîíîâ Á.Ì., Ø. Áîëäáààòàð, Ïîÿðêîâ Í.Ä., Áóêðååâ Ñ.À., Äåìåíòüåâ Ì.Í. Âçàèìîäåéñòâèå ïòèö ñ ëèíèÿìè ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è è ñâÿçè â


84

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24 Ìîíãîëèè. – Ýêîëîãèÿ, ýâîëþöèÿ è ñèñòåìàòèêà æèâîòíûõ: Ìàòåðèàëû Âñåðîññèéñêîé íàó÷íîïðàêòè÷åñêîé êîíôåðåíöèè ñ ìåæäóíàðîäíûì ó÷àñòèåì. Ðÿçàíü, 2009. Ñ. 364–365. Çâîíîâ Á.Ì., Êðèâîíîñîâ Ã.À. Ãèáåëü õèùíûõ ïòèö íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ â Êàëìûêèè. – Áèîïîâðåæäåíèÿ: Òåçèñû äîêëàäîâ 2-é Âñåñîþçíîé êîíôåðåíöèè ïî áèîïîâðåæäåíèÿì. Ãîðüêèé, 1981. Ñ. 206–207. Êàðòðîí Æ.-Ë.Å., Êîðîíà Ð.Ñ., Ãåâàðà Ý.Ï., Õàðíåññ Ð.Ý., Ìàíñàíî-Ôèøåð Ï., ÐîäðèãåñÝñòðåëüÿ Ð., Óýðòà Ã. Ãèáåëü ïòèö îò ýëåêòðè÷åñêîãî òîêà íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è â ÑåâåðîÇàïàäíîé Ìåêñèêå: êðàòêèé îáçîð. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2006. ¹7. C. 4–14. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè (ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî èçó÷åíèþ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è ñîâîîáðàçíûõ). Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä, 2004. 351 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè Óðàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà. Ñîêîëîîáðàçíûå (Falconiformes), Ñîâîîáðàçíûå (Strigiformes). Ïåðìü, 1998. 483 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ëèíèè ñìåðòè ïðîäîëæàþò ñîáèðàòü ñâîé «÷¸ðíûé» óðîæàé â Êàçàõñòàíå. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2008. ¹11. C. 14–21. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Áàêêà Ñ.Â., Áàðàøêîâà À.Í., Áàðáàçþê Å.Â., Ãîðîøêî Î.Â., Ëàïøèí Ð.Ä., Íèêîëåíêî Ý.Ã., Ñåì¸íîâ À.Ð., Ãóáèí Ñ.Â. Îêîí÷àòåëüíûé òåõíè÷åñêèé îò÷¸ò ïî Êîíòðàêòó 104/2010 ñ ÏÐÎÎÍ «Îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè è îñíîâíûõ ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ ôàêòîðîâ, âëèÿþùèõ íà ñîñòîÿíèå ïîïóëÿöèé ñòåïíîãî îðëà â ïèëîòíûõ ñòåïíûõ ðåãèîíàõ Ðîññèè (Îðåíáóðãñêàÿ îáëàñòü, Çàáàéêàëüñêèé êðàé)». Íîâîñèáèðñê, 2010. 29 ñ. <http://www.savesteppe. org/project/docs/report_steppeEagle.pdf> Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Áàðàáàøèí Ò.Î. ׸ðíûå äûðû â ïîïóëÿöèÿõ õèùíûõ ïòèö (ãèáåëü õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Çàïàäíîé Áåòïàê-Äàëå), Êàçàõñòàí. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2005. ¹4. C. 29–32. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Ãëûáèíà Ì.À., Ëåâàøêèí À.Ï., Ïèòåðîâà Å.Í. Îïûò îöåíêè óðîâíÿ ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è c ðàñ÷¸òîì óùåðáà. – ArcReview. 2009à. ¹4 (51). Ñ. 18–19. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Ëåâàøêèí À.Ï., Ãëûáèíà Ì.À., Ïèòåðîâà Å.Í. Îöåíêà óðîâíÿ ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è 6–10 ê â Êèíåëüñêîì ðàéîíå Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè ÃÈÑìåòîäàìè. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2008. ¹14. C. 50–58. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Íèêîëåíêî Ý.Ã. Îõðàíà áàëîáàíà â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ýêîðåãèîíå: ÷òî ñäåëàíî è ÷òî òðåáóåòñÿ? – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2011. ¹22. C. 24–59. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Íèêîëåíêî Ý.Ã., Áàðàøêîâà À.Í. Áàëîáàí â Äàóðèè, Ðîññèÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2011. ¹23. C. 168–181. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Íèêîëåíêî Ý.Ã., Âàæîâ Ñ.Â., Áåêìàíñóðîâ Ð.Õ. Ãèáåëü ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íà ËÝÏ íà Àëòàå: ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé 2009 ãîäà, Ðîññèÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2009á. ¹16. C. 45–64. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Íîâèêîâà Ë.Ì. Ñòåïíîé îð¸ë è èíôðàñòðóêòóðà ËÝÏ â Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå.

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé Åñòü ëè ïåðñïåêòèâà ñîñóùåñòâîâàíèÿ? – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2006. ¹6. C. 48–57. Ëàø Ó., Çåðáå Ø., Ëåíê Ì. Ãèáåëü ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è â Öåíòðàëüíîì Êàçàõñòàíå. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2010. ¹18. C. 35–45. Ìàöûíà À.È. Îöåíêà è ïðîãíîçèðîâàíèå ìàñøòàáîâ ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè (ëåñíàÿ è ëåñîñòåïíàÿ çîíà Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè). – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2005. ¹2. C. 33–41. Ìàöûíà À.È. Êðàòêèé îáçîð ìåòîäîâ çàùèòû ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2008. ¹11. C. 10–13. Ìàöûíà À.È., Ãðèøóòêèí Ã.Ô. Çàùèòà ïòèö íà âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è 6–10 ê â ãîñóäàðñòâåííîì Íàöèîíàëüíîì ïàðêå «Ñìîëüíûé», Ðîññèÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2009. ¹17. Ñ. 22–23. Ìàöûíà À.È., Çàìàçêèí À.Å. Ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî îáåñïå÷åíèþ áåçîïàñíîñòè îáúåêòîâ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ñâÿçè è ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è íà òåððèòîðèè Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä, 2010. 60 ñ. Ìàöûíà À.È., Ìàöûíà Å.Ë., Ìàöûíà À.À., Ãðèøóòêèí Ã.Ô., Ñïèðèäîíîâ Ñ.Í. Îöåíêà ýôôåêòèâíîñòè ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé íà ÂË 6–10 ê â íàöèîíàëüíîì ïàðêå «Ñìîëüíûé», Ðîññèÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2010. ¹20. Ñ. 35–39. Ìàöûíà À.È., Ìàöûíà Å.Ë., Êîðîëüêîâ Ì.À. Ïåðâûå èòîãè ïðèìåíåíèÿ è îöåíêà ýôôåêòèâíîñòè ñîâðåìåííûõ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è 6–10 ê â Ðîññèè. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2008. ¹14. C. 59–62. Ìàöûíà À.È., Ìàöûíà Å.Ë., Ïåñòîâ Ì.Â., Èâàíåíêî À.Ì., Êîðîëüêîâ Ì.À. Íîâûå äàííûå î ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è 6–10 ê â Êàëìûêèè, Ðîññèÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2011. ¹21. C. 100–105. Ìåäæèäîâ Ð.À., Ìóçàåâ Â.Ì., Óáóøàåâ Á.Ñ., Áàäìàåâ Â.Á., Ýðäíåíîâ Ã.È. Òåõíè÷åñêèé îò÷¸ò î ðåçóëüòàòàõ âûïîëíåíèÿ ðàáîò «Ïî îöåíêå ÷èñëåííîñòè è îñíîâíûõ ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ ôàêòîðîâ, âëèÿþùèõ íà ñîñòîÿíèå ïîïóëÿöèé ñòåïíîãî îðëà â ïèëîòíîì ñòåïíîì ðåãèîíå Ðîññèè (Ðåñïóáëèêà Êàëìûêèÿ)». Ýëèñòà, 2010. 60 ñ. <http://www.savesteppe.org/project/docs/ report_steppeEagle_kalmykia_sm.pdf> Ìåäæèäîâ Ð.À., Ïåñòîâ Ì.Â., Ñàëòûêîâ À.Â. Õèùíûå ïòèöû è ËÝÏ – èòîãè ïðîåêòà â Êàëìûêèè. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2005à. ¹2. Ñ. 25–30. Ìåäæèäîâ Ð.À., Ïåñòîâ Ì.Â., Ñàëòûêîâ À.Â. Îõðàíà õèùíûõ ïòèö ñåìèàðèäíûõ ëàíäøàôòîâ – èòîãè ïðîåêòà â Êàëìûêèè. – Ñòåïíîé áþëëåòåíü. 2005á. ¹17. Ñ. 22–25. Íèêîëåíêî Ý.Ã. Ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Õàêàñèè: íåãàòèâíûé âêëàä èíôðàñòðóêòóðû ñîòîâîé ñâÿçè. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2011. ¹22. Ñ. 60–71. Ïåðåðâà Â.È., Áëîõèí À.Î. Îöåíêà ãèáåëè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðî-


Proceedings of Conferences ïåðåäà÷. – Áèîëîãè÷åñêèå àñïåêòû îõðàíû ðåäêèõ æèâîòíûõ. Ì., 1981. Ñ. 36–39. Ñàëòûêîâ À.Â. Ðóêîâîäñòâî ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è 6–10 êÂ. Ìåòîäè÷åñêîå ïîñîáèå. Óëüÿíîâñê. 1999. 43 ñ. Ñàëòûêîâ À.Â. Îïûò âíåäðåíèÿ ïòèöåçàùèòíîãî óñòðîéñòâà «ÏÇÓ 6–10 ê» â Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè, Ðîññèÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2009. ¹16. C. 65–67. Ñàðàåâ Ô.À., Ïåñòîâ Ì.Â. Ðåçóëüòàòû äâóêðàòíûõ ó÷¸òîâ ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è â þæíîé ÷àñòè Óðàëî-Ýìáèíñêîãî ìåæäóðå÷üÿ âåñíîé è îñåíüþ 2010 ãîäà, Êàçàõñòàí. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2011. ¹21. C. 106–110. Ñèäåíêî Ì.Â., Ðàãîíñêèé Ã.Â. Èç îïûòà ðåøåíèÿ ïðîáëåìû ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è â íàöèîíàëüíîì ïàðêå «Ñìîëåíñêîå Ïîîç¸ðüå». – Ñàìàðñêàÿ Ëóêà: ïðîáëåìû ðåãèîíàëüíîé è ãëîáàëüíîé ýêîëîãèè. Ñàìàðñêàÿ Ëóêà. 2009. Ò. 18, ¹4. Ñ. 229–233. Ñïèðèäîíîâ Ñ.Í., Àðÿíîâ Ê.À. Ãèáåëü ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è â Êðàñíîñëîáîäñêîì ðàéîíå Ðåñïóáëèêè Ìîðäîâèÿ, Ðîññèÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2011. ¹22. C. 72–75. Ñòàðèêîâ Ñ.Â. Ìàññîâàÿ ãèáåëü õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷ â Çàéñàíñêîé êîòëîâèíå (Âîñòî÷íûé Êàçàõñòàí). – Selevinia. 1996/1997. Ñ. 233–234. Amartuvshin P., Gombobaatar S., Harness R. The assessment of high risk utility lines and conservation of globally threatened pole-nesting steppe raptors in Mongolia. – Asian Raptors: Science and Conservation for Present and Future. Proc. 6th Int. Conf. on Asian Raptors. Eds. S. Gombobaatar, R. Watson, M. Curti, R. Yosef, E. Potapov and M. Gilbert. Ulaanbaatar, 2010. P. 58. Bayle P. Preventing birds of prey problems at transmission lines in western Europe. – J. Raptor Res. 1999. ¹33. P. 43–48. Benson P.C. Large raptor electrocution and power pole utilization: a study in six western states. Ph.D. dissertation. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 1981. Bevanger K. Bird interactions with utility structures: collisions and electrocution, causes and mitigating measures. – Ibis 1994. ¹136. P. 412–425. Bevanger K. Biological and conservation aspects of bird mortality caused by electricity power lines: a review. – Biol. Conserv. 1998. ¹86. P. 67–76. Bevanger K., Bakke F.L., Engen S. Corpse removal experiments with the Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) in power-line corridors. – Kol. Gel. 1994. ¹16. P. 597–607. Dixon A. The problem of raptor electrocution at electricity distribution lines. – Falco. 2011. ¹37. P. 10–13. Ferrer M. The Spanish Imperial Eagle. Lynx Edicions, 2001. 224 p. Ferrer M., De La Riva M., Castroviejo J. Electrocution of raptors on power lines in southern Spain. – J. Field Ornithol. 1991. ¹62 (2). P. 54–69. Ferrer M., Janss G. eds. Birds and power lines:

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

85

Collision, Electrocution and Breeding. Madrid: Quercus, 1999. 239 p. Janss G.F.E., Ferrer M. Avian electrocution mortality in relation to pole design and adjacent habitat in Spain. – Bird Conservation International. 2001. ¹11. P. 3–12. Harness R., Gombobaatar S. Raptor electrocutions in the Mongolia steppe. – Winging It. 2008. ¹20 (6). P. 1, 4–6. Kochert M.N. Golden Eagle reproduction and population changes in relation to jackrabbit cycles: implications for eagle electrocutions. – Proceedings of the workshop on raptors and energy developments. R.P. Howard and J.F. Gore, eds. Boise: Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Fish and WildLife Service, Idaho Power Committee, 1980. P. 71–86. Manville A.M. Bird Strikes and Electrocutions at Power Lines, Communication Towers, and Wind Turbines: State of the Art and State of the Science – Next Steps Toward Mitigation. – USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-191. 2005. P. 1051–1064. Marchesi L., Pedrini P., Sergio F., Garavaglia R. Impatto delle linee elettriche su una popolazione di Gufo reale Bubo bubo. – Avocetta. 2001. ¹25. P. 130. Mojica E.K., Watts B.D., Paul J.T., Voss S.T., Pottie J. Factors contributing to Bald Eagle electrocutions and line collisions on Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. – J. Raptor Res. 2009. ¹43 (1). P. 57–61. Penteriani V., Pinchera F. Declino del Gufo reale Bubo bubo in tre aree montane dell’Appennino abruzzese dal 1960 al 1989. – Suppl. Ric. Biol. Selvaggina. 1990. XVII. P. 351–356. Prommer M., Bagyura J. Satellite-tracking Sakers (Falco cherrug) – evaluating Sakers’ postfledging dispersal, migration, roaming and habitat use from conservation point of view. – The proceedings of the International Conference “Conservation of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in Europe: Sharing the results of the LIFE06 NAT/ H/000096 “Conservation of the Falco cherrug in the Carpathian Basin” Project”. Bükk National Park Directorate, Eger, Hungary, 16–18 September 2010. P. 12–13. Resolution 7.4. Electrocution of migratory birds. Adopted by the Conference of the Parties «Convention on Migratory Species» at its Seventh Meeting (Bonn, 18–24 September 2002) <http://www.cms.int/bodies/COP/cop7/ proceedings/pdf/en/part_I/Res_Rec/RES_7_04_ Electrocution.pdf> Rubolini D., Bassi E., Bogliani G., Galeotti P., Garavaglia R. Eagle Owl Bubo bubo and power line interactions in the Italian Alps. – Bird Conservation International. 2001. ¹11. P. 319–324. Rubolini D., Gustin M., Bogliani G., Garavaglia R. Birds and powerlines in Italy: an assessment. – Bird Conservation International. 2005. ¹15. P. 131–145. Sergio F., Marchesi L., Pedrini P., Ferrer M., Penteriani V. Electrocution alters the distribution and density of a top predator, the Eagle Owl Bubo bubo. – J. Appl. Ecol. 2004. ¹41. P. 836–845.


86

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

FirstResultsofSurveysofBirdElectrocutionintheIvanovo District,Russia ПЕРВЫЕ РЕЗУЛЬТАТЫ ИЗУЧЕНИЯ ГИБЕЛИ ПТИЦ НА ЛЭП В ИВАНОВСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ, РОССИЯ MelnikovV.N.,MelnikovaA.V.(IvanovoStateUniversity,IvanovoBranchoftheRussian BirdConservationUnion,Ivanovo,Russia) Мельников В.Н., Мельникова А.В. (Ивановский государственный университет, Ивановское отделение Союза охраны птиц России, Иваново, Россия)

Êîíòàêò: Âëàäèìèð Íèêîëàåâè÷ Ìåëüíèêîâ Èâàíîâñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò 153002, Ðîññèÿ, Èâàíîâî, ïð-ò Ëåíèíà, 136 êàôåäðà çîîëîãèè ÈâÃÓ òåë.: +7 906 514 92 36 ivanovobirds@mail.ru Contact: Vladimir Melnikov Ivanovo State University Zoological department Lenina ave., 136 Ivanovo, Russia, 153002 tel.: +7 906 514 92 36 ivanovobirds@mail.ru

Ðåçþìå  ñòàòüå êðàòêî îïèñàíû ïåðâûå ðåçóëüòàòû èçó÷åíèÿ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è â Èâàíîâñêîé îáëàñòè. Íà òåððèòîðèè Èâàíîâñêîé îáëàñòè íà äàííûé ìîìåíò çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíû ñëó÷àè ãèáåëè 76 îñîáåé 16 âèäîâ ïòèö èç ïÿòè îòðÿäîâ. Ñðåäíèé ïîêàçàòåëü ÷àñòîòû ãèáåëè ñîñòàâèë 7,7 îñ./êì, óùåðáà – 12,7 òûñ. ðóá./êì. Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: ãèáåëü ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, õèùíûå ïòèöû. Ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ: 15.03.2012 ã. Ïðèíÿòà ê ïóáëèêàöèè: 25.03.2012 ã. Abstract There is short review of the first results of surveys of bird electrocution in the Ivanovo district. Today 76 deaths of 16 bird species from 5 orders are registered in the territory of the Ivanovo district. The average rate of mortality is 7.7 ind./km, damage – 12,700 rubles/km. Keywords: bird electrocution, birds of prey. Received: 15/03/2012. Accepted: 25/03/2012.

Ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è (ËÝÏ) ÿâëÿåòñÿ êëþ÷åâîé äëÿ èõ ñîõðàíåíèÿ â îáæèòûõ ÷åëîâåêîì ðåãèîíàõ. Âûñîêèå ïîêàçàòåëè ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ èçâåñòíû äëÿ ñòåïíîé è ëåñîñòåïíîé çîíû, îäíàêî â ëåñíîé çîíå ýòà ïðîáëåìà òàêæå ÿâëÿåòñÿ àêòóàëüíîé.  2011 ã. ìû ïðîâîäèëè ïèëîòíîå îáñëåäîâàíèå ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è 10 ê íà òåððèòîðèè Èâàíîâñêîé îáëàñòè – â Âè÷óãñêîì è Ñàâèíñêîì ðàéîíàõ, â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ñ. Âàñèëüåâñêîå Øóéñêîãî ðàéîíà, â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ã. Èâàíîâî. Íà ïÿòè ��÷àñòêàõ â îáùåé ñëîæíîñòè áûëî îáñëåäîâàíî äåâÿòü êèëîìåòðîâ ËÝÏ 10 êÂ, 178 æåëåçîáåòîííûõ îïîð, îáíàðóæåíî 69 ýêçåìïëÿðîâ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö 13 âèäîâ (òàáë. 1). Ìû òàêæå ðàñïîëàãàåì äàííûìè, ïîëó÷åííûìè â ýòîì ðåãèîíå â õîäå ýïèçîäè÷åñêèõ íàáëþäåíèé ïðåäûäóùèõ ëåò. Íà òåððèòîðèè Èâàíîâñêîé îáëàñòè íà äàííûé ìîìåíò çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíû ñëó÷àè ãèáåëè 76 îñîáåé 16 âèäîâ ïòèö èç ïÿòè îòðÿäîâ: òåòåðåâÿòíèê (Accipiter gentilis), êàíþê (Buteo buteo), îðëàíáåëîõâîñò (Haliaeetus albicilla), îáûêíîâåííàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus), ñèçàÿ ÷àéêà (Larus canus), áåëàÿ ñîâà (Nyctea scandiaca), ñåðàÿ íåÿñûòü (Strix aluco), äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü (Strix uralensis), áîëüøîé ï¸ñòðûé äÿòåë (Den-

In 2011, we conducted a pilot survey of power lines (PL) 10 kV in the Ivanovo district. In total we surveyed 9 km of PL at five sites: there were 178 concrete electric poles, 69 deaths of 14 bird species were registered (table 1). According to the rate applicable at five sites of PL with length of 9 km damage amounted to 114,500 rubles. The average rate of mortality was 7.7 ind./km, damage – 12,700 rubles/km. The majority of deaths in the areas of PL surveyed in the 2011 are Crows (75.7%), with the Jackdaw (40%) predominating. Birds of prey are more than 11.4% of dead birds. In the Ivanovo district a total of 76 deaths of 16 bird species from five orders: Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo), White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), Common Gull (Larus canus), Snow Owl (Nyctea scandiaca), Tawny Owl (Strix aluco), Ural Owl (Strix uralensis), Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Magpie (Pica pica), Jackdaw (Corvus monedula), Rook (Corvus frugilegus), Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix), Raven (Corvus corax), Fieldfare (Turdus pilaris) were registered. Thus, in the forest zone the bird mortality on the PL 6–10 kV is significant, caus-


Proceedings of Conferences

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

drocopos major), îáûêíîâåííûé ñêâîðåö (Sturnus vulgaris), ñîðîêà (Pica pica), ãàëêà (Corvus monedula), ãðà÷ (Corvus frugilegus), ñåðàÿ âîðîíà (Corvus cornix), âîðîí (Corvus corax), ðÿáèííèê (Turdus pilaris). Ïî äåéñòâóþùèì òàêñàì ïðîèçâåäåíà îöåíêà óùåðáà æèâîòíîìó ìèðó â ðåçóëüòàòå ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ (òàáë. 1). Íà ïÿòè ó÷àñòêàõ îáùåé ïðîòÿæåííîñòüþ 9 êì ñóììà óùåðáà ñîñòàâèëà 114,5 òûñ. ðóá. Ñðåäíèé ïîêàçàòåëü ÷àñòîòû ãèáåëè ñîñòàâèë 7,7 îñ./êì, óùåðáà – 12,7 òûñ. ðóá./êì. Ñ ó÷åòîì ïðåäûäóùèõ ýïèçîäè÷åñêèõ íàáëþäåíèé ñóììà óùåðáà ñîñòàâèëà 229,5 òûñ. ðóá. Îñíîâíóþ ìàññó ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö íà îáñëåäîâàííûõ â 2011 ã. ó÷àñòêàõ ËÝÏ (áåç ó÷åòà ïðåäûäóùèõ ýïèçîäè÷åñêèõ íàáëþäåíèé) ñîñòàâëÿþò âðàíîâûå (75,7%), ñðåäè êîòîðûõ äîìèíèðóåò ãàëêà (40%). Äíåâíûå õèùíûå ïòèöû ñîñòàâëÿþò áîëåå 11,4% ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, â ëåñíîé çîíå ãèáåëü ïòèö íà ËÝÏ 6–10 ê èìååò çíà÷èòåëüíûå ïîêàçàòåëè, íàíîñèò îãðîìíûé óùåðá ïîïóëÿöèÿì ïòèö, òðåáóåò òùàòåëüíîãî èçó÷åíèÿ è ñïåöèàëüíûõ óñèëèé äëÿ ðåøåíèÿ ïðîáëåìû.

87

ing huge damage to bird populations, and requiring careful study and special efforts to solve the problem.

Ïîãèáøèå íà ËÝÏ-10 ê ãàëêà è òåòåðåâÿòíèê. Ôîòî Â. Ìåëüíèêîâà. PL-10 kV and electrocuted Jackdaw and Goshawk. Photos by V. Melnikov.

Òàáë. 1. Îöåíêà óùåðáà îêðóæàþùåé ïðèðîäíîé ñðåäå â ðåçóëüòàòå ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ. Table 1. Damage caused to the environment by bird electrocution.

Âèä / Species Òåòåðåâÿòíèê (Accipiter gentilis) Îáûêíîâåííûé êàíþê (Buteo buteo) Îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò (Haliaeetus albicilla)

Êîëè÷åñòâî Individuals

Òàêñà (òûñ. ðóá) Fee (thousand rubles)

Óùåðá (òûñ. ðóá) Damage (thousand rubles)

1 (4)*

5

5 (20)

3

5

15

0 (1)

100

0 (100)

Ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus)

4

5

20

Ñèçàÿ ÷àéêà (Larus canus)

1

1

1

Áåëàÿ ñîâà (Nyctea scandiaca)

0 (1)

5

0 (5)

Ñåðàÿ íåÿñûòü (Strix aluco)

0 (1)

5

0 (5)

Äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü (Strix uralensis)

2

5

10

Áîëüøîé ï¸ñòðûé äÿòåë (Dendrocopos major)

1

3,5

3,5

Îáûêíîâåííûé ñêâîðåö (Sturnus vulgaris)

3

1

3

Ñîðîêà (Pica pica)

11

1

11

Ãðà÷ (Corvus frugilegus)

13

1

13

Ãàëêà (Corvus monedula)

28

1

28

Ñåðàÿ âîðîíà (Corvus cornix)

1

1

1

Âîðîí (Corvus corax)

2

1

2

Ðÿáèííèê (Turdus pilaris)

2

1

2

Âñåãî / Total

76

*  ñêîáêàõ – äàííûå ñ ó÷åòîì ïðåäûäóùèõ ýïèçîäè÷åñêèõ íàáëþäåíèé. * In brackets – data including previous accident observations.

114.5 (229.5)


88

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

BirdsandPowerLinesintheAltai-SayanRegion: TheScaleoftheProblemandWaystoAddressit ПТИЦЫ И ЛЭП В АЛТАЕ-САЯНСКОМ РЕГИОНЕ: МАСШТАБ ПРОБЛЕМЫ И ПУТИ РЕШЕНИЯ NikolenkoE.G.(SiberianEnvironmentalCenter,Novosibirsk,Russia) KaryakinI.V.(CenterofFieldStudies,N.Novgorod,Russia) Николенко Э.Г. (МБОО «Сибирский экологический центр», Новосибирск, Россия) Карякин И.В. (Центр полевых исследований, Н. Новгород, Россия)

Êîíòàêò: Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî ÌÁÎÎ «Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð» 630090, Ðîññèÿ Íîâîñèáèðñê, à/ÿ 547 òåë. +7 923 150 12 79 elvira_nikolenko@mail.ru Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000, Ðîññèÿ, Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä, óë. Êîðîëåíêî, 17a–17 òåë.: +7 831 433 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Contact: Elvira Nikolenko NGO Siberian Environmental Center P.O. Box 547, Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090 tel. +7 923 150 12 79 elvira_nikolenko@mail.ru Igor Karyakin Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a–17, Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia, 603000 tel.: +7 831 433 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru

Ðåçþìå Ãèáåëü ïòèö íà ËÝÏ 6–10 ê â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñàìûì âàæíûì íåãàòèâíûì ôàêòîðîì, óãðîæàþùèì ïîïóëÿöèÿì ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Åæåãîäíàÿ ãèáåëü ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Àëòàéñêîì êðàå è Ðåñïóáëèêå Àëòàé îöåíåíà â 40–50 òûñ. ïòèö, 10–15 òûñ. èç êîòîðûõ – õèùíèêè, ÷òî ñîîòâåòñòâóåò óùåðáó â 150 ìëí. ðóáëåé. Õèùíèêè ñîñòàâëÿþò òðåòü âñåõ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö (28%). Ñðåäè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ íàèáîëüøàÿ äîëÿ ãèáåëè ïðèõîäèòñÿ íà ñòåïíîãî îðëà (Aquila nipalensis) è îðëà-ìîãèëüíèêà (Aquila heliaca). Åæåãîäíàÿ ãèáåëü ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Õàêàñèè îöåíåíà â 3400 ïòèö, 700 èç êîòîðûõ – õèùíèêè, åæåãîäíûé óùåðá – îêîëî 10,8 ìëí. ðóá. Ïîêàçàíî, ÷òî ËÝÏ, ïðîõîäÿùèå ÷åðåç ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûå äëÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö áèîòîïû, àêêóìóëèðóþò ãèáåëü ïòèö çà ñ÷¸ò òîãî, ÷òî ïóñòóþùèå ãíåçäîâûå ïîñòðîéêè ïîñòîÿííî ïðèâëåêàþò ñâîáîäíûõ îñîáåé. Íà ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ, âåäóùèõ ê âûøêàì ñîòîâîé ñâÿçè, ïëîòíîñòü ãèáåëè âûøå, à âèäîâîé ñîñòàâ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö áîãà÷å.  Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå ÷àñòîòà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà «ñîòîâûõ» ËÝÏ â 1,94 ðàçà âûøå, ÷åì íà «ôîíîâûõ» ËÝÏ, à íà ëèíèè, ïðîõîäÿùåé ÷åðåç ñâàëêó – â 3,63 ðàçà.  Àëòàéñêîì êðàå «ñîòîâûå» ËÝÏ óáèâàþò ïòèö â 2,6 ðàçà ÷àùå, ÷åì «ôîíîâûå». Ñ 2010 ã. ÎÀÎ «ÌÐÑÊ Ñèáèðè» ðåàëèçóåòñÿ ïðîãðàììà ïî îñíàùåíèþ ËÝÏ ÏÇÓ â 6 ðåãèîíàõ Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî îêðóãà.  2010 ã. «Àëòàéýíåðãî» îñíàñòèë ïåðâûå 10 êì ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ëèíèé.  2011 ã. áûëî çàêóïëåíî 5772 ÏÇÓ «Àëòàéýíåðãî», 521 ÏÇÓ «Êðàñíîÿðñêýíåðãî», 290 ÏÇÓ «Õàêàñýíåðãî», 360 ÏÇÓ «Ãîðíî-Àëòàéñêèìè ýëåêòðîñåòÿìè», 41 ÏÇÓ «Êóçáàññýíåðãî», 717 ÏÇÓ «×èòàýíåðãî». Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêèé ðåãèîí, Àëòàé, õèùíûå ïòèöû, ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè, ËÝÏ, ñòåïíîé îð¸ë, Aquila nipalensis, îð¸ë-ìîãèëüíèê, Aquila heliaca. Ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ: 15.01.2012 ã. Ïðèíÿòà ê ïóáëèêàöèè: 01.02.2012 ã. Abstract Bird deaths at 6–10 kV power lines in the Altai-Sayan region is becoming the most significant negative factor threatening raptor populations. Annual bird deaths on power lines in the Altai Kray and the Republic of Altai is estimated to be 40–50 thousands, with 10–15 thousands of them being raptors. The damage was estimated to be 150 million rubles (c. $5 mln). Raptors make up one third of all reported bird deaths (28%). Amongst the rare species, the Speppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) and Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) have the largest proportion of deaths. Annual bird deaths on power lines in Khakassia are estimated at 3400 birds, 700 of which are raptors, with annual damages of around 10.8 million rubles (c. $360,000). It has been shown that power lines going through nesting habitats of birds have high share of bird deaths, due to the fact that abandoned nesting places are constantly attracting floaters. Also higher is the death rate at the power lines (PL); the latter also returned higher diversity of the dead birds. In the Minusinsk depression, the frequency of bird deaths on ‘cellular’ power lines was 1.94 times higher than on ‘background’ power lines, and 3.63 times higher than on the line passing through a landfill site. In the Altai Kray, the ‘cellular’ power lines are killing birds 2.6 times more frequently than the ‘background’ lines. Since 2010 the Joint Stock Company ‘IDGC of Siberia’ (Interregional Distribution Grid Company of Siberia) has been implementing a program to equip power lines with bird protection devices in 6 regions of the Siberian Federal District. In 2010, ‘Altaienergo’ energy distribution company equipped the first 10 km of lines that are dangerous to birds. In 2011, ‘Altaienergo’ purchased 5772 devices for bird protection, ‘Krasnoyarskenergo’ bought 521 devices, ‘Khakassenergo’ purchased 290, ‘Gorno-Altaisk Power Grid’ bought 360, ‘Kusbassenergo’ bought 41 and ‘Chitaenergo’ bought 717. Keywords: Altai-Sayan region, raptors, birds of prey, power lines, electrocutions, Speppe Eagle, Aquila nipalensis, Imperial Eagle, Aquila heliaca. Received: 15/01/2012. Accepted: 01/02/2012.

Ââåäåíèå Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêèé ðåãèîí äî ñèõ ïîð îñòà¸òñÿ óíèêàëüíîé òåððèòîðèåé, åäèíñòâåííîé â ñâî¸ì ðîäå îò Óðàëà äî Äàëüíåãî Âîñòîêà, ãäå ñîõðàíÿþòñÿ íàòèâíûå ïîïóëÿöèè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, ïëîòíîñòü è ÷èñëåííîñòü áîëüøèíñòâà èç êîòîðûõ îãðàíè÷èâàþòñÿ â áîëüøåé ìåðå ëèøü åñòåñòâåííûìè ïðè÷èíàìè, òàêèìè, êàê äîñòóïíîñòü êîðìîâîé áàçû è ìåñò äëÿ

Introduction The Altai-Sayan region still remains a unique area where natural populations of rare species of birds of prey are still being limited only through natural factors such as the availability of prey and places for building nests. Next to the factor of illegal trapping, which is only destroying one form of Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in the region, the next most important negative impact is contributed by


Proceedings of Conferences óñòðîéñòâà ãí¸çä. Òàê, â Ñåâåðî-Çàïàäíîì Àëòàå â òåñíîì ñîñåäñòâå ñ ÷åëîâåêîì äîñòàòî÷íî áëàãîïîëó÷íî ñåáÿ ÷óâñòâóåò îãðîìíàÿ ãíåçäîâàÿ ãðóïïèðîâêà îðëà-ìîãèëüíèêà (Aquila heliaca), ÷èñëåííîñòü êîòîðîé îöåíèâàåòñÿ îêîëî 750 ðàçìíîæàþùèõñÿ ïàð (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2009a). Îáøèðíûå ñëàáîîñâîåííûå ïðîñòðàíñòâà Òóâû è Ãîðíîãî Àëòàÿ âìåùàþò ìíîãî÷èñëåííûå ïîïóëÿöèè áåðêóòà, ôèëèíà, ñàïñàíà, ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà è ïîñëåäíèé áîëåå-ìåíåå óñòîé÷èâûé ðîññèéñêèé àíêëàâ ñîêîëà-áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug), äàâëåíèå íà ïîïóëÿöèè êîòîðîãî íåëåãàëüíûì îòëîâîì äëÿ íóæä ñîêîëèíîé îõîòû ïðàêòè÷åñêè óíè÷òîæèëî ýòîò âèä íà âñåé òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèè îò Ïîâîëæüÿ äî Çàáàéêàëüÿ (Êàðÿêèí, 2008; Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2010a, 2010b). Ïîñëå ôàêòîðà íåëåãàëüíîãî îòëîâà, óíè÷òîæàþùåãî â ðåãèîíå ëèøü îäèí âèä ñîêîëà-áàëîáàíà, ñëåäóþùèì ïî âàæíîñòè èä¸ò ãèáåëü ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è 6–10 ê (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2009b). Ñ 2009 ã. â ðåãèîíå âåä¸òñÿ ðàáîòà ïî ðåøåíèþ ïðîáëåìû ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, ðåçóëüòàòîì êîòîðîé, íà ñåãîäíÿøíèé äåíü, ñòàëî íà÷àëî îñíàùåíèÿ ôèëèàëàìè ÎÀÎ «ÌÐÑÊ Ñèáèðè» ËÝÏ ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè ñîîðóæåíèÿìè â 6-òè ñóáúåêòàõ ÐÔ â ðåãèîíå. Äàííàÿ ñòàòüÿ îáîáùàåò ðåçóëüòàòû ïðîâåä¸ííîé ðàáîòû, ïîêàçûâàåò ìàñøòàá ïðîáëåìû â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå è ïðèìåíÿåìûå íà ïðàêòèêå ïóòè å¸ ðåøåíèÿ. Ìåòîäèêà Ìåòîäèêà ðàáîòû ñîñòîÿëà â ïðîâåäåíèè ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé ïîïóëÿöèé ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ äëÿ îöåíêè èõ ÷èñëåííîñòè â ðåãèîíå, âûÿâëåíèè ñóùåñòâóþùèõ óãðîç èõ áëàãîïîëó÷èþ, ïðîâåäåíèè ó÷¸òà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ìîäåëüíûõ ó÷àñòêàõ ËÝÏ â ðàçíûõ ÷��ñòÿõ ðåãèîíà, ðàñ÷¸òå ôàêòè÷åñêîãî óùåðáà æèâîòíîìó ìèðó, à òàêæå îöåíêå óùåðáà, íàíîñèìîãî åæåãîäíî ãèáåëüþ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ âî âñ¸ì ðåãèîíå.  îñíîâå ðàáîòû ëåæèò ìíîãîëåòíèé ìîíèòîðèíã ðåäêèõ âèäîâ, ïðîâîäèìûé ñ 1999 ã. â ðàìêàõ ðàçëè÷íûõ ïðîåêòîâ Öåíòðà ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé ñîâìåñòíî ñ Ñèáýêîöåíòðîì, íà îñíîâàíèè êîòîðîãî âåä¸òñÿ áàçà äàííûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ðåäêèõ âèäîâ (ðèñ. 1). Çà áîëåå ÷åì 10 ëåò ìàñøòàáíûõ èññëåäîâàíèé ñîáðàíà îáøèðíàÿ áàçà äàííûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ òàêèõ âèäîâ, âêëþ÷¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ è Ïðèëîæåíèÿ ÑÈÒÅÑ, êàê çìååÿä (Circaetus gallicus), îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò (Haliaeetus albicilla), áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos), ìî-

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

89

the death of birds on power lines 6–10 kV (Karyakin et al., 2009b). Since 2009, the region has been working to address the problem of bird deaths on power lines, the result of which to date has been the start of equipping power lines with devices designed to protect birds in 6 constituent administrative territories in the region. Methods This paper summarizes the information collected over many years of work, details of which have been published before (Karyakin et al., 2009b; 2010a, 2010b; Nikolenko, 2011). The methods are described in detail in the cited publications. The basis of the work is long-term monitoring of rare species, which has been conducted since 1999 by Center of Field Studies and Sibecocenter NGOs. The Center maintains a database of nesting sites of rare species (fig. 1). Field study methods for population monitoring are given in detail by I. Karyakin (2004). Damage to wildlife that has been caused to the owners of these bird-endangering transmission lines, is estimated by guidelines given by ‘The methodology of calculating the damages caused to wildlife and listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation, as well as damage to other wildlife that is not related to hunting, fishing and their habitat’ (Excerpts…,2008). The assessment of the length of these power lines in different administrative regions was based on information received from the branches of the ‘IDGC of Siberia’. Results The influence of power lines on the population of rare species in different parts of the region The analysis of the density maps of the average power lines shows that the core populations of rare species do not overlap with areas with a high concentration of power lines (fig. 2). Thus we conclude that – the weak development of the territory, and, as a consequence, a poor network of power lines, rare species are still able to prosper. In 2009 in the Altai kray and the Republic of Altai, 44 sections of 6–10 kV transmission lines with a total length of 136.5 km have been examined (fig. 3) (Karyakin et al., 2009b). The deaths of 446 birds have been determined, with an average density of 3.27 carcasses/km. Assuming that the the nesting period in these areas is 4 months we can extrapolate that at least 40–50 thou-


90

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ðèñ. 1. Ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå – èç áàçû äàííûõ Ðîññèéñêîé ñåòè èçó÷åíèÿ è îõðàíû ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Fig. 1. Nesting sites of rare species of raptors in the AltaiSayan region. From the database of the Russian Raptors Research and Conservation Network (RRRCN).

ãèëüíèê, ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis), áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga), îð¸ëêàðëèê (Hieraaetus pennatus), ìîõíîíîãèé êóðãàííèê (Buteo hemilasius), áîðîäà÷ (Gypaetus barbatus) è ÷¸ðíûé ãðèô (Aegypius monachus), ñîêîëû áàëîáàí è ñàïñàí (Falco peregrinus), ôèëèí (Bubo bubo). Êàê ïðàâèëî, ïîïóëÿöèè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå ïðèóðî÷åíû ê ñòåïíîé è ëåñî-ñòåïíîé çîíå êàê íà ðàâíèíàõ è â ìåæãîðíûõ êîòëîâèíàõ, òàê è â ãîðàõ, íåêîòîðûå âèäû îáèòàþò èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî â àëüïèéñêîé çîíå âûñîêîãîðèé. Ðàçíîîáðàçèå âèäîâ â òà¸æíîé è ãîðíî-òà¸æíîé çîíàõ çíà÷èòåëüíî íèæå. Ìåòîäèêà ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé ïîïóëÿöèé ïîäðîáíî èçëîæåíà â ìåòîäè÷åñêèõ ðåêîìåíäàöèÿõ ïî èçó÷åíèþ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è ñîâîîáðàçíûõ (Êàðÿêèí, 2004). Óùåðá æèâîòíîìó ìèðó, ïðè÷èíÿåìûé âëàäåëüöàìè ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ, ðàññ÷èòàí ïî «Ìåòîäèêå èñ÷èñëåíèÿ ðàçìåðà âðåäà, ïðè÷èí¸ííîãî îáúåêòàì æèâîòíîãî ìèðà, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ, à òàêæå èíûì îáúåêòàì æèâîòíîãî ìèðà, íå îòíîñÿùèìñÿ ê îáúåêòàì îõîòû è ðûáîëîâñòâà è ñðåäå èõ îáèòàíèÿ» (Âûäåðæêè…, 2008). Îöåíêà ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòè ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ â ðàçíûõ ñóáúåêòàõ ðàññìàòðèâàåìîãî ðåãèîíà ïðîâîäèëàñü íà îñíîâàíèè ñâåäåíèé, ïîëó÷åííûõ îò ôèëèàëîâ ÎÀÎ «ÌÐÑÊ Ñèáèðè». Ïî Õàêàñèè îöåíêà ñäåëàíà ñ ïðèâëå÷åíèåì ñâåäåíèé î ÷èñëåííîñòè ñåëüñêîãî íàñåëåíèÿ è êîëè÷åñòâå ñåëüñêèõ íàñåë¸ííûõ ïóíêòîâ.  ýòîé ñòàòüå îáîáùåíû ñâåäåíèÿ, ïîëó÷åííûå çà ìíîãèå ãîäû ðàáîòû â ðåãèîíå, ïîäðîáíûå äàííûå î êîòîðîé îïóáëèêîâàíû (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2009b; 2010a, 2010b; Íèêîëåíêî, 2011). Ïîäðîáíûå

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé sands birds die on these power lines every year, with 10–15 thousands of these being raptors. The annual damage is estimated to be minimum of 150 million rubles. It has been determined that the composition of the species of dead birds is clearly dominated by Corvidae (71%, n=446), while the birds of prey make up a third of the dead birds (28%). The spectrum of bird of prey species that are dying on power lines in the Altai is quite diverse. Among the rare species, the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) (9%, 11 ind.) and the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) (4%, 5 ind.) have the largest share of deaths. In the Ust-Kansky depression in the Altai Republic, there are only 3 bird-threatening power lines running through the outside build up areas, on 2 of which of a total length of 20.8 km, 65 corpses were found, including 13 eagles (fig. 4): 2 Imperial Eagles and 11 Steppe Eagles, making the density of the dead eagles of 0.63 ind./ km. The example of these 2 lines shows that power lines going through nesting habitats for birds of prey are accumulating deaths of local birds due to the fact that the empty nesting places constantly attract floaters (Karyakin et al., 2009b). Around the bird-endangering power lines leading to cellular communication towers, there was a higher concentration of deaths and a more varied composition of species of dead birds. This is explained by the fact that these power lines have appeared recently, and unlike the old ones existed to connect settlements on developed territories, the transmission lines to cellular towers pass through unspoiled habitats on elevated areas, that are more attractive to birds. In 2010, studies of bird deaths in the Minusinsk depression; one region of the Krasnoyarsk kray and in two districts of Khakassia. A total of 14.2 km of lines were examined in 3 days, including 4.9 km of ‘cellular’ power lines, 7.9 km of power lines running between the settlements, ‘background’ lines and 1.6 km of power lines running along a municipal solid waste landfill (MSW). For comparison, similar lines were identified from the study done in 2009 in the Altai Kray; 8 km of ‘background’ power lines and 3 km of ‘cellular’ lines (Nikolenko, 2011). Data obtained on the deaths of birds in the 2 parts of the region was almost identical. The total amount of remains of birds found are as follows: 90 in the Altai Kray and 99 in the Minusinsk depression. The proportion of birds of prey among the dead


Proceedings of Conferences ìåòîäèêè ðàáîòû ñîäåðæàòñÿ â óêàçàííûõ ïóáëèêàöèÿõ. Ðåçóëüòàòû Âëèÿíèå ËÝÏ íà ïîïóëÿöèè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ â ðàçíûõ ÷àñòÿõ ðåãèîíà Óùåðá, íàíîñèìûé ËÝÏ ïîïóëÿöèÿì, ñèëüíî çàâèñèò îò ïëîòíîñòè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè. Òàê, îäíà ëèíèÿ â ñòåïè ìîæåò îêàçûâàòü òàêîå æå íåãàòèâíîå âëèÿíèå íà ïòèö, êàê 10 òàêèõ æå – â ëåñó (ïî êîëè÷åñòâó óáèòûõ ïòèö, âèäîâîé ñîñòàâ òàêæå áóäåò ñèëüíî îòëè÷àòüñÿ) (Ìàöûíà, 2005). Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêèé ðåãèîí – òåððèòîðèÿ, áîãàòàÿ ñòåïíûìè è ëåñîñòåïíûìè ëàíäøàôòàìè è ãèáåëü íà ËÝÏ çäåñü íàèáîëåå îùóòèìî âëèÿåò íà õèùíûõ ïòèö. Àíàëèç êàðòû ïëîòíîñòè ËÝÏ ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòè ïîêàçûâàåò, ÷òî ÿäðà ïîïóëÿöèé ðåäêèõ âèäîâ íå ïåðåñåêàþòñÿ ñ çîíàìè âûñîêîé ïëîòíîñòè ËÝÏ (ðèñ. 2). Èç ÷åãî ïðèõîäèòñÿ ñäåëàòü âûâîä, ÷òî ïðè îòñóòñòâèè äðóãèõ íåãàòèâíûõ ôàêòîðîâ èìåííî ñëàáîå ðàçâèòèå òåððèòîðèè, è, êàê ñëåäñòâèå, ñëàáîðàçâèòàÿ ñåòü ËÝÏ è ïîçâîëÿåò äî ñèõ ïîð ðåäêèì âèäàì áëà-

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

91

birds was 19% and 21% respectively. The diagram in figure 6 shows the ratio of dead birds over 1 km for different types of power lines in the two regions. In Minusinsk depression, the bird death rate on the ‘cellular’ power lines is 1.94 times the rate of deaths on ‘background’ power lines and 3.63 times the rate of deaths on the line passing through the landfill. In the Altai Kray, ‘cellular’ power lines are killing birds 2.6 times more frequently than ‘background’ lines. The highest loss of Steppe Eagles was noted on the power line going through the landfill of municipal waste. On 1.6 km of the line, the remains of 4 Steppe Eagles were found (2.5 ind./km). In Minusinsk depression, the remains of the 99 dead birds found corresponds to damages of 408,000 rubles. This is equivalent to 27,000 rubles per 1 km of line or approximately 1800 rubles for every birdthreatening utility pole. Bird deaths on power lines in Khakassia (taking into account the utilization coefficient of 3.1) were estimated at 3400 birds per annum, 700 of which are raptors, with annual damages of around 10.8 million rubles. At the same number of birds may could still die in the landfills of MSW. That means that the calculated damage must be multiplied by at least 2. The results of the cooperation between the Sibecocenter NGO and ‘IDGC of Siberia’ PLC According to the results of the research done in 2009, the problem brought to attention of the Joint Stock Company ‘IDGC of Siberia’, which combines the grid companies of almost all the administrative territories of the Siberian Federal District (SFD). In Spring 2010, a framework agreement between the two organisations was finalised. The agreement focuses on solving the problem of mitigation of death rates at the powerlines. It was suggested to equip power lines with bird protection devices in six regions of the SFD, between 2010–2012. The first purchase of bird protection devices was made by the JSC ‘Altaienergo’, which, in November 2010, equipped the first 10 km of

Ðèñ. 2. Ïëîòíîñòü ËÝÏ (B) è ðåäêèõ âèäîâ (A) â Àëòàéñêîé ÷àñòè ðåãèîíà. Fig. 2. The density of power lines (B) and rare species (A) in the Altai part of the region.


92

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé Ðèñ. 3. Îáñëåäîâàííûå ó÷àñòêè ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ â 2009 ã. â Àëòàéñêîì êðàå è Ðåñïóáëèêå Àëòàé (èç ïóáëèêàöèè Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2009b). Fig. 3. Results of 2009 survey of sites of hazardous to birds PL in the Altai Krai and the Republic of Altai (from the publication Karyakin et al., 2009b).

Ðèñ. 4. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ñòåïíîãî îðëà (Aquila nipalensis) â ÓñòüÊàíñêîé ñòåïè è îñòàíêîâ ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ íà ËÝÏ â 2009 ã. (èç ïóáëèêàöèè Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2009b). Fig. 4. Distribution breeding territories of the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) in the Ust-Kanskaya steppe and remains of birds electrocuted in 2009.

ãîïîëó÷íî ñóùåñòâîâàòü. Îñîáåííî ýòî çàìåòíî â ðåñïóáëèêàõ Àëòàé, Òûâà è Õàêàñèÿ, ãäå ñîõðàíÿåòñÿ òðàäèöèîííîå æèâîòíîâîäñòâî, òàêæå ñïîñîáñòâóþùåå ïðîöâåòàíèþ õèùíèêîâ. Åñëè òåððèòîðèÿ ñèëüíî îñâîåíà ÷åëîâåêîì è ïòèöåîïàñíûå ëèíèè áûëè óñòàíîâëåíû ìíîãî ëåò íàçàä, òî â õîäå èññëåäîâàíèé ìû íàáëþäàåì íèçêóþ ïëîòíîñòü õèùíèêîâ è, êàê ñëåäñòâèå, íèçêèé óðîâåíü èõ ãèáåëè íà ËÝÏ. Ïîýòîìó, ðàáîòàÿ òîëüêî íà îñâîåííûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ (äëÿ íàøåãî ðåãèîíà ê òàêèì ìîæíî îòíåñòè Àëòàéñêèé êðàé), ìû íå ìîæåì îöåíèòü ðåàëüíîãî âêëàäà ËÝÏ-óáèéö â äîëãîâðåìåííîå ñîêðàùåíèå ïîïóëÿöèé. Îäíàêî, ñðàâíèâàÿ ñèòóàöèþ â òàêîì ðåãèîíå ñ ñîñåäíèìè, ñëàáî îñâîåííûìè ÷åëîâåêîì, ìû âèäèì íåñêîëüêî èíóþ êàðòèíó. Ðàáîòà ïî ïðîáëåìå ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ áûëà íà÷àòà â 2009 ã. â Àëòàéñêîì êðàå è

the lines in the region under question. In 2011, the ‘Altaienergo’ branch purchased 5772 devices to equip 120 km of lines, ‘Krasnoyarskenergo’ installed 521, ‘Gorno-Altaisk Power’ bought 360 and ‘Kuzbassenergo’ set up 41 devices. One of the priorities put to ‘IDGC of Siberia’ was the equipping the power lines going through the territories of federal protected areas in the steppe and forest steppe regions. Work began in the Daurian steppe (Transbaikal region), where, in 2010, the staff of the Daurian Strict Nature Reserve sponsored by the UNDP/GEF funds to the, found dead birds including rare species (Goroshko, 2011). In 2011, in order to equip the power lines in the territory, ‘Chitaenergo’ purchased 717 bird protection devices. Conclusion As the work carried out shows the problem regarding deaths of rare species of birds at power lines in the Altai-Sayan region is urgent and requires immediate action. If further development of the infrastructure of bird-endangering power lines does not stop, a unique population of rare species of raptors that live in the mountainous areas of Altai, Tuva and Khakassia will be in jeopardy. Further developmentsare as follows: 1. Continue cooperation with ‘IDGC of Siberia’. 2. Begin working with Russia’s leading mobile companies. 3. Working with other companies, that own transmission lines (JSC ‘RZD’, mining companies) in the area. 4. Involvement of interested third party in the work, primarily in protected areas with, bird-threatening power lines. Acknowledgements We would like to thank the UNDP/GEF project, ‘Conservation of biodiversity in the Altai-Sayan Ecoregion’ and ‘Improvement of the system of governance and protected areas’, for supporting the research of the problem. We also want to thank the ecologists of ‘IDGC of Siberia’ and its affiliates, who are responsible for implementing the received recommendations in the field.


Proceedings of Conferences Ðåñïóáëèêå Àëòàé, òîãäà â ýòèõ äâóõ ñóáúåêòàõ áûëî îñìîòðåíî 44 ó÷àñòêà ËÝÏ 6–10 ê îáùåé ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòüþ 136,5 êì (ðèñ. 3) (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2009b). Óñòàíîâëåíà ãèáåëü 446 ïòèö, â ñðåäíåì ñ ïëîòíîñòüþ 3,27 òðóïîâ/êì. Ïî ñîîòíîøåíèþ ñâåæèõ òðóïîâ è òðóïîâ íà ðàçíûõ ñòàäèÿõ ðàçëîæåíèÿ ðàññ÷èòàí êîýôôèöèåíò óòèëèçàöèè, íà îñíîâàíèè êîòîðîãî ìîæíî óòâåðæäàòü, ÷òî íàáëþäàåìàÿ ãèáåëü â 3 ðàçà ìåíüøå ôàêòè÷åñêîé. Íà îñíîâàíèè èññëåäîâàíèÿ îöåíåíî, ÷òî òîëüêî â ãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä íà òåððèòîðèè ðåñïóáëèêè Àëòàé è Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ (4 ìåñÿöà) íà ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ, ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü êîòîðûõ ñîñòàâëÿåò îêîëî 2,5 òûñ. êì, îïèðàÿñü íà óñðåäí¸ííûå äàííûå ïî ïëîòíîñòè ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö íà îáñëåäîâàííûõ ó÷àñòêàõ ÏÎ ËÝÏ (32,68 òðóïîâ / 10 êì), ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü ãèáåëü, êàê ìèíèìóì, 40–50 òûñ. ïòèö åæåãîäíî, 10–15 òûñ. èç êîòîðûõ – õèùíèêè. Ãîäîâîé óùåðá, ðàññ÷èòàííûé ïî òàêñàì, óòâåðæä¸ííûì ÌÏÐ Ðîññèè â 2008 ã., òîëüêî äëÿ Àëòàÿ è Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ îöåí¸í, êàê ìèíèìóì, â 150 ìëí. ðóáëåé, â îñíîâíîì èç-çà ãèáåëè ðåäêèõ õèùíèêîâ â ñòåïíûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿõ. Óñòàíîâëåí âèäîâîé ñîñòàâ ãèáíóùèõ ïòèö, èç êîòîðûõ ÿâíî äîìèíèðóþò âðàíîâûå (71%, n=446), ïðè ýòîì õèùíèêè ñîñòàâëÿþò òðåòü âñåõ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö (28%). Ñïåêòð âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö, ãèáíóùèõ íà Ðèñ. 5. Äâå ñîòîâûå âûøêè â 130 ì äðóã îò äðóãà è äâå ïòèöåîïàñíûå ËÝÏ ê íèì. Ôîòî Ý. Íèêîëåíêî. Fig. 5. Two cell phone towers at the distance 130 m from each others and two power line hazardous to birds, going to them. Photos by E. Nikolenko.

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

93

ËÝÏ, íà Àëòàå äîñòàòî÷íî ðàçíîîáðàçåí, ñðåäè íèõ äîìèíèðóþò îáû÷íûå âèäû – êîðøóí (33%, n=446), ïóñòåëüãà (20%), òåòåðåâÿòíèê (12%) è êàíþê (9%), íàèáîëüøàÿ äîëÿ ãèáåëè ñðåäè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ïðèõîäèòñÿ íà ñòåïíîãî îðëà (9%, 11 îñ.), íà âòîðîì ìåñòå íàõîäèòñÿ ìîãèëüíèê (4%, 5 îñ.).  Ðåñïóáëèêå Àëòàé â Óñòü-Êàíñêîé êîòëîâèíå âíå íàñåë¸ííûõ ïóíêòîâ ïðîõîäèò âñåãî 3 ïòèöåîïàñíûå ëèíèè, íà äâóõ èç êîòîðûõ, îáùåé ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòüþ 20,8 êì, áûëî íàéäåíî 65 òðóïîâ, â ò.÷. 13 îðëîâ (ðèñ. 4): 2 ìîãèëüíèêà è 11 ñòåïíûõ, ò.å., ïëîòíîñòü ïîãèáøèõ îðëîâ ñîñòàâèëà 0,63 îñ./êì. Îáðàùàåò íà ñåáÿ âíèìàíèå âûñîêàÿ ñìåðòíîñòü ñòåïíîãî îðëà – îäíîãî èç íàèáîëåå ðåäêèõ îðëîâ ðåãèîíà, êîòîðûé, â ñèëó ñòåðåîòèïîâ ïîâåäåíèÿ, ÷àùå äðóãèõ ïîãèáàåò íà ËÝÏ. Íà ïðèìåðå ýòèõ äâóõ ëèíèé ìû íàáëþäàåì, ÷òî ËÝÏ, ïðîõîäÿùèå ÷åðåç ãí¸çäîïðèãîäíûå äëÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö áèîòîïû, àêêóìóëèðóþò ãèáåëü ìåñòíûõ ïòèö çà ñ÷¸ò òîãî, ÷òî ïóñòóþùèå ãíåçäîâûå ïîñòðîéêè ïîñòîÿííî ïðèâëåêàþò ñâîáîäíûõ îñîáåé (Êàðÿêèí è äð., 2009b). Óæå â 2009 ã. ìû îáðàòèëè âíèìàíèå íà ãèáåëü ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, âåäóùèõ ê âûøêàì ñîòîâîé ñâÿçè (ðèñ. 5). Ïðè òîì, ÷òî, êàê ïðàâèëî, ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü òàêèõ ëèíèé íåâåëèêà – íå áîëåå íåñêîëüêèõ êèëîìåòðîâ îò áëèæàéøèõ ËÝÏ ìåæäó íàñåë¸ííû-


94

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ðèñ. 6. ×àñòîòà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ðàçíûõ òèïàõ ËÝÏ, îñ./êì: À – Ìèíóñèíñêàÿ êîòëîâèíà, B – Àëòàéñêèé êðàé. Fig. 6. The frequency of death of birds on different types of PL, ind./km: A – Minusinsk depression, B – Altai Kray.

ìè ïóíêòàìè – ïëîòíîñòü ãèáåëè íà íèõ âûøå, âèäîâîé ñîñòàâ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö áîãà÷å. Ýòî îáúÿñíÿåòñÿ òåì, ÷òî ýòè ËÝÏ ïîÿâèëèñü ñîâñåì íåäàâíî è, â îòëè÷èå îò ñòàðûõ, èäóùèõ ìåæäó íàñåë¸ííûìè ïóíêòàìè âäîëü äîðîã èëè ê ïîëåâûì ñòàíàì, ò.å., ïî îñâîåííîé ÷åëîâåêîì òåððèòîðèè, ïðîõîäÿò ÷åðåç íåòðîíóòûå áèîòîïû íà âîçâûøåííûå ó÷àñòêè, ò.ê. âûáîð ìåñòà ðàñïîëîæåíèå âûøåê îïðåäåëÿåòñÿ èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî ïëîùàäüþ ïîêðûòèÿ ñåòè ñîòîâîé ñâÿçè.  ïåðñïåêòèâàõ ñîòîâûõ êîìïàíèé – ïîêðûòü ñâÿçüþ ñàìûå óäàë¸ííûå òåððèòîðèè ðåãèîíà, â êîòîðûõ íà ìíîãèå êèëîìåòðû îòñóòñòâóþò è äîðîãè, è íàñåë¸ííûå ïóíêòû, ïðèâëåêàòåëüíûå èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî äëÿ ïóòåøåñòâåííèêîâ. Êàê èçâåñòíî, ñîòîâûå êîìïàíèè íå êîîïåðèðóþòñÿ ìåæäó ñîáîé, ïîýòîìó ðåãóëÿðíî ìîæíî âèäåòü äâå, à òî è òðè âûøêè, ñòîÿùèå íà îäíîé ãîðå íà ðàññòîÿíèè íåñêîëüêèõ ñîò ìåòðîâ äðóã îò äðóãà èëè íà ñîñåäíèõ ñîïêàõ, ê êîòîðûì òÿíóòñÿ íåçàâèñèìûå ýëåêòðîëèíèè (ðèñ. 5).  2010 ã. áûëè ïðîâåäåíû èññëåäîâàíèÿ ãèáåëè ïòèö â Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå – â îäíîì ðàéîíå Êðàñíîÿðñêîãî êðàÿ è â

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé äâóõ ðàéîíàõ Õàêàñèè. Çà òðè äíÿ áûëî îñìîòðåíî 14,2 êì ëèíèé, â ò.÷. 4,9 êì «ñîòîâûõ» ËÝÏ, 7,9 êì ËÝÏ, èäóùèõ ìåæäó íàñåë¸ííûìè ïóíêòàìè, «ôîíîâûõ» è äîïîëíèòåëüíî âûäåëåí åù¸ îäèí òèï ËÝÏ, èäóùèõ âäîëü ñâàëîê áûòîâîãî ìóñîðà – «ñâàëêà». Òàêàÿ ëèíèÿ áûëà îñìîòðåíà îäíà, ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòüþ 1,6 êì. Äëÿ îáîáùåíèÿ äàííûõ äëÿ âñåãî ðåãèîíà ìû âûäåëèëè ïîäîáíûå ëèíèè èç èññëåäîâàíèÿ 2009 ã. â Àëòàéñêîì êðàå – 8,0 êì «ôîíîâûõ» ËÝÏ è 3,0 êì «ñîòîâûõ» (Íèêîëåíêî, 2011). Ïîëó÷èëèñü ñðàâíèìûå äàííûå ïî äâóì ÷àñòÿì Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà, óäàë¸ííûõ äðóã îò äðóãà – è ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü, è ÷èñëî ëèíèé, è äàæå îáùåå êîëè÷åñòâî íàéäåííûõ îñòàíêîâ ïòèö – 90 â Àëòàéñêîì êðàå è 99 â Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå – îêàçàëèñü áëèçêè ìåæäó ñîáîé. Äîëÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ñðåäè îáùåé ãèáåëè ïòèö â îáîèõ ðåãèîíàõ òàêæå îêàçàëàñü áëèçêà è ñîñòàâèëà 19% â ñòåïíîì Àëòàå è 21% â Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå. Äèàãðàììà íà ðèñóíêå 6 ïîêàçûâàåò ñîîòíîøåíèå ÷èñëà ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö íà 1 êì ëèíèè ïî ðàçíûì òèïàì ëèíèé â äâóõ ðåãèîíàõ. Âûäåëåí âêëàä ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ.  Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå ÷àñòîòà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà «ñîòîâûõ» ËÝÏ â 1,94 ðàçà ïðåâûøàåò ÷àñòîòó ãèáåëè íà «ôîíîâûõ» ËÝÏ, íà ëèíèè, ïðîõîäÿùåé ÷åðåç ñâàëêó, ýòî ñîîòíîøåíèå ñîñòàâèëî 3,63.  Àëòàéñêîì êðàå «ñîòîâûå» ËÝÏ óáèâàþò ïòèö â 2,6 ðàçà ÷àùå, ÷åì «ôîíîâûå». Íàäî îòìåòèòü, ÷òî íà ËÝÏ, èäóùåé ÷åðåç ñâàëêó áûòîâûõ îòõîäîâ, áûëà îòìå÷åíà ñàìàÿ âûñîêàÿ ãèáåëü ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ – íà 1,6 êì ýòîé ëèíèè áûëè íàéäåíû îñòàíêè ÷åòûð¸õ ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ (ïëîòíîñòü ñîñòàâèëà 2,5 îñ./êì). Âî âðåìÿ îñìîòðà ýòîé ëèíèè 3 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2010 ã. íàä ñâàëêîé êðóæèëîñü ñêîïëåíèå èç êîðøóíîâ, âîðîíîâ è âîñüìè ìîëîäûõ ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ. È, õîòÿ íè îäíîãî ñâåæåãî òðóïà îðëà èëè êîðøóíà íå áûëî îáíàðóæåíî, íàéäåííûå êîñòíî-ïåðüåâûå îñòàíêè (âåñåííèå è ïðîøëîãîäíèå) ãîâîðèëè î òîì, ÷òî ñêîïëåíèå õèùíûõ ïòèö íàä ýòîé ñâàëêîé â Õàêàñèè – îáû÷íîå ÿâëåíèå (ðèñ. 7).  Ìèíóñèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå 99 íàéäåííûõ îñòàíêîâ ïòèö ñîîòâåòñòâóþò óùåðáó â 408 òûñ. ðóá.: 27 òûñ. ðóá. íà 1 êì ëèíèè èëè îêîëî 1800 ðóá. íà îäíó ïòèöåîïàñíóþ îïîðó.  2010 ã. îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ëèíèé, íàõîäÿùèõñÿ â ïîä÷èíåíèè ÎÀÎ «Õàêàñýíåðãî», áûëà îöåíåíà â 130 êì, à ìàñøòàá ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Õàêàñèè (ñ ó÷¸òîì êîýôôèöèåíòà óòèëèçàöèè


Proceedings of Conferences 3,1) – îêîëî 3400 ïòèö â ãîä, 700 èç êîòîðûõ – õèùíèêè, åæåãîäíûé óùåðá ñîñòàâëÿåò ïðèìåðíî 10,8 ìëí. ðóá. Ïðè ýòîì, åù¸ òàêîå æå êîëè÷åñòâî ïòèö ìîæåò ãèáíóòü íà ñâàëêàõ ÒÁÎ ó ïîñ¸ëêîâ è äåðåâåíü Õàêàñèè – ò.å., ðàññ÷èòàííûé óùåðá íàäî óìíîæàòü êàê ìèíèìóì íà 2. Ðåçóëüòàòû âçàèìîäåéñòâèÿ Ñèáýêîöåíòðà ñ ÎÀÎ «ÌÐÑÊ Ñèáèðè» Åù¸ â 2009 ã., ïî ðåçóëüòàòàì èññëåäîâàíèé, ïðîáëåìà áûëà ïîñòàâëåíà ïåðåä ÎÀÎ «ÌÐÑÊ Ñèáèðè», îáúåäèíÿþùåì ñåòåâûå êîìïàíèè ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñåõ ñóáúåêòîâ Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî îêðóãà – â êîìïàíèþ áûëî îòïðàâëåíî îôèöèàëüíîå ïèñüìî ñ îïèñàíèåì ïðîáëåìû è ïðåäëîæåíèåì ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâà, ñ ïðèëîæåíèåì îáçîðà çàêîíîäàòåëüíîé áàçû è òåõíè÷åñêèõ õàðàêòåðèñòèê ñîâðåìåííûõ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ.  îòâåò êîìïàíèÿ âûðàçèëà ãîòîâíîñòü ê ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâó – â ëèöå ãëàâíîãî ñïåöèàëèñòà îòäåëà áåçîïàñíîñòè ïðîèçâîäñòâà Äåïàðòàìåíòà ïðîèçâîäñòâåííîãî êîíòðîëÿ è îõðàíû òðóäà. Ïîñëå ïðåçåíòàöèè â êîìïàíèè ìàñøòàáîâ ãèáåëè ïòèö â Àëòàéñêîì êðàå è Ðåñïóáëèêå Àëòàé áûëî ïðèíÿòî ðåøåíèå çàêëþ÷èòü ìåæäó íàøèìè îðãàíèçàöèÿìè ðàìî÷íûé äîãîâîð î ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâå äëÿ ðåøåíèÿ äàííîé ïðîáëåìû.  ïåðâîî÷åðåäíûå çàäà÷è âõîäèëî âûÿñíèòü ïîòðåáíîñòü ôèëèàÐèñ. 7. Ñêîïëåíèå õèùíûõ ïòèö íàä ñâàëêîé ÒÁÎ (ââåðõó ñëåâà) è êîñòíî-ïåðüåâûå îñòàíêè îðëîâ (âíèçó ñëåâà), íàéäåííûå ïîä ËÝÏ (ñïðàâà), èäóùåé ÷åðåç íå¸. Ôîòî Ý. Íèêîëåíêî. Fig. 7. Congragation of birds of prey over the solid waste dump, and bone and feather remains of eagles found near PL going through it. Photos by E. Nikolenko.

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

95

ëîâ ÎÀÎ «ÌÐÑÊ Ñèáèðè» â ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâàõ (ÏÇÓ) è ñîñòàâèòü íà íåñêîëüêî ëåò âïåð¸ä ïðîãðàììó ïî îñíàùåíèþ ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ëèíèé ÏÇÓ. Îò Ñèáýêîöåíòðà òðåáîâàëîñü âûäàâàòü ðåêîìåíäàöèè ôèëèàëàì, â êîòîðûõ, êðîìå íåîáõîäèìûõ ñâåäåíèé, áûë áû óêàçàí ïðèîðèòåò îñíàùåíèÿ ðàéîíîâ è êîíêðåòíûõ ëèíèé âíóòðè ðàéîíîâ, èñõîäÿ èç óðîâíÿ èõ îïàñíîñòè äëÿ ïîïóëÿöèé ðåäêèõ âèäîâ. Íà òîì ïåðâîì ýòàïå ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâà ñ ÎÀÎ «ÌÐÑÊ Ñèáèðè» âîçíèêëî íåñêîëüêî ñëîæíîñòåé. Âî-ïåðâûõ, íåñìîòðÿ íà ïîäðîáíî ðàñïèñàííóþ ïðîáëåìó, íà ïîíèìàíèå ýòîé ïðîáëåìû íà óðîâíå íà÷àëüñòâà Äåïàðòàìåíòà ïðîèçâîäñòâåííîãî êîíòðîëÿ è îõðàíû òðóäà, äîãîâîð î ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâå íå áûë ïîäïèñàí â íàçíà÷åííûå ñðîêè, ÷òî ñîçäàâàëî ïðîáëåìû äëÿ äàëüíåéøåãî ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâà. Ðåøåíèþ ïðîáëåìû ïîìîãëè îáðàùåíèÿ â ãîñîðãàíû îõðàíû ïðèðîäû îò äðóæåñòâåííûõ îáùåñòâåííûõ îðãàíèçàöèé íà îñíîâàíèè íàøåé æå ïóáëèêàöèè â æóðíàëå «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà» î ìàñøòàáå ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ. Âåñíîé 2010 ã. äîãîâîð áûë ïîäïèñàí è ðàçðàáîòàíà ïðîãðàììà îñíàùåíèÿ ËÝÏ ÏÇÓ íà 2010–2012 ãã., â êîòîðóþ, ñîãëàñíî íàøè�� ðåêîìåíäàöèÿì, âîøëè Àëòàéñêèé è Êðàñíîÿðñêèé êðàÿ, Êåìåðîâñêàÿ îáëàñòü, ðåñïóáëèêè Àëòàé è Õàêàñèÿ. Âòîðîé ñëîæíîñòüþ â íàøåé ðàáîòå ñòà-


96

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ðèñ. 8. Òåððèòîðèÿ ôåäåðàëüíûõ ÎÎÏÒ Äàóðèè è çîíû ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâà Äàóðñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà, ðåêîìåíäîâàííûå ê îñíàùåíèþ ÎÀÎ «×èòàýíåðãî» â 2011–12 ãã. Fig. 8. The territory of of federal protected areas of Dauria and easement areas of Daurian Natural Reserve where BPD were recommended to be used by the owner, the‘Chitaenergo’ in 2011–2012.

ëî îòñóòñòâèå â ôèëèàëàõ ýëåêòðîííûõ ñõåì ëèíèé. Òàê, â «Àëòàéýíåðãî» ïîîïîðíûå ñõåìû ìîæíî íàéòè òîëüêî â ðàéîííûõ ñåòÿõ, ãäå îíè ïî-ñòàðèíêå âû÷åð÷åíû íà îãðîìíûõ ëèñòàõ, è, êàê ïðàâèëî, áåç óêàçàíèÿ òèïà îïîð è èçîëÿòîðîâ. Íàøè ðåêîìåíäàöèè íà ìíîãèå òåððèòîðèè ìû ìîãëè áû äàâàòü, îñíîâûâàÿñü íà íàøåé áàçå ãíåçäîâûõ òåððèòîðèé, äëÿ ÷åãî òðåáóþòñÿ ñõåìû ëèíèé, ïîëîæåííûå íà ãåîãðàôè÷åñêóþ êàðòó, èäåàëüíî – â ñðåäå ÃÈÑ. Îäíàêî, äàæå â áîëåå ïðîäâèíóòûõ ôèëèàëàõ, êîòîðûå èìåþò ýëåêòðîííûå âàðèàíòû ñõåì â ñïåöèàëüíîé ïðîãðàììå (íàì èõ ñìîãëè ïðåäîñòàâèòü â âèäå ñêàíîâ) – ýòî ïîîïîðíûå ñõåìû, íå ïðèâÿçàííûå íà ìåñòíîñòè, ïî êîòîðûì ìîæíî ëèøü óñòàíîâèòü íà÷àëüíûé è êîíå÷íûé ïóíêòû ëèíèè è ðàññ÷èòàòü ÷èñëî æåëåçîáåòîííûõ ñòîëáîâ. Ïîýòîìó, äàæå èìåÿ òàêèå ñõåìû, íàì ïðèõîäèëîñü îáñëåäîâàòü òåððèòîðèþ, âûÿñíÿÿ, êàê èìåííî ïðîõîäÿò ËÝÏ è íàñêîëüêî âåëèêî èõ âëèÿíèå íà ãíåçäîâûå ãðóïïèðîâêè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ. Ïåðâàÿ çàêóïêà ÏÇÓ áûëà ñäåëàíà ÎÀÎ «Àëòàéýíåðãî», êîòîðîå â íîÿáðå 2010 ã. îñíàñòèëî ïåðâûå 10 êì óêàçàííûõ íàìè ëèíèé.  2011 ã. ðàáîòà ïðîäîëæèëàñü. Êàê íàì ñîîáùèëè ýêîëîãè «ÌÐÑÊ Ñèáèðè», â 2011 ã. ôèëèàë «Àëòàéýíåðãî» çàêóïèë 5772 ÏÇÓ äëÿ îñíàùåíèÿ 120 êì ëèíèé, «Êðàñíîÿðñêýíåðãî» óñòàíîâèë 521 ÏÇÓ, «Õàêàñýíåð-

Óñòàíîâêà ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ íà ËÝÏ â Àëòàéñêîì êðàå. 23.11.2010. Ôîòî À. Ãðèáêîâà. Installation of bird protection devices on power lines in the Altai Kray. 23/11/2010. Photo by A. Gribkov.

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé ãî» – 290 ÏÇÓ, Ãîðíî-Àëòàéñêèå ýëåêòðîñåòè – 360 ÏÇÓ, «Êóçáàññýíåðãî» – 41 ÏÇÓ. À Ñèáýêîöåíòð ïî çàêàçó ÎÀÎ «ÌÐÑÊ Ñèáèðè» ïðîâîäèë îáñëåäîâàíèå ñòåïíûõ êîòëîâèí Õàêàñèè è Êðàñíîÿðñêîãî êðàÿ è äîîáñëåäîâàíèå ÷åòûð¸õ ðàéîíîâ Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ, ðàçðàáîòêó ïîäðîáíûõ ðåêîìåíäàöèé äëÿ ýòèõ ôèëèàëîâ, à òàêæå äëÿ «×èòàýíåðãî» ïî ïðèîðèòåòíûì òåððèòîðèÿì ÎÎÏÒ â ñòåïíîé Äàóðèè (ðèñ. 8). Îäíîé èç ïåðâîî÷åðåäíûõ çàäà÷ ïåðåä ÌÐÑÊ áûëî ïîñòàâëåíî îñíàùåíèå ËÝÏ, èäóùèõ ïî òåððèòîðèÿì ôåäåðàëüíûõ ÎÎÏÒ â ñòåïíûõ è ëåñîñòåïíûõ ðåãèîíàõ. Ðàáîòà áûëà íà÷àòà â ñòåïíîé Äàóðèè (Çàáàéêàëüñêèé êðàé), ãäå â 2010 ã., ïðè ïîääåðæêå ïðîåêòà ÏÐÎÎÍ/ÃÝÔ, ñîòðóäíèêàìè Äàóðñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà áûëà âûÿâëåíà ãèáåëü ïòèö, â ò.÷. ðåäêèõ, â îõðàííîé çîíå çàïîâåäíèêà, à òàêæå â çîíå ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâà (Ãîðîøêî, 2011).  2011 ã. äëÿ îñíàùåíèÿ ËÝÏ íà óêàçàííîé òåððèòîðèè ôèëèàëîì «×èòàýíåðãî» áûëî çàêóïëåíî 717 êîìïëåêòîâ ÏÇÓ. Çàêëþ÷åíèå Êàê ïîêàçûâàåò ïðîâåä¸ííàÿ ðàáîòà, ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå î÷åíü àêòóàëüíà è òðåáóåò áåçîòëàãàòåëüíûõ äåéñòâèé. Åñëè íå îñòàíîâèòü äàëüíåéøåå ðàçâèòèå èíôðàñòðóêòóðû ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ, ïîä óäàð ïîïàäóò óíèêàëüíûå ïîïóëÿöèè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ õèùíèêîâ, îáèòàþùèõ â ãîðíûõ ðàéîíàõ Àëòàÿ, Òûâû, Õàêàñèè. Íà ñåãîäíÿøíèé äåíü â íàøåì ðåãèîíå óäàëîñü ðåàëèçîâàòü ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâî ñ ÎÀÎ «ÌÐÑÊ Ñèáèðè» áåç êàêèõ-ëèáî êîíôëèêòíûõ ñèòóàöèé – ìû íè ðàçó íå ïîäàâàëè â ïðîêóðàòóðó íà âûÿâëåííûå íàðóøåíèÿ. Òóò ìû ïðèäåðæèâàåìñÿ ìíåíèÿ, ÷òî ïóñòü ñðåäñòâà êîìïàíèè


Proceedings of Conferences áóäóò íàïðàâëåíû öåëåâûì îáðàçîì íà îñíàùåíèå ëèíèé, ÷åì íà ñóäû è âûïëàòó øòðàôîâ è êîìïåíñàöèé. Îäíàêî íàäî ñêàçàòü, ÷òî êàæäûé ðàç ðóêîâîäñòâó ôèëèàëîâ, äà è ðóêîâîäñòâó ÌÐÑÊ, ïðèõîäèòñÿ ïîÿñíÿòü âàæíîñòü âëîæåíèÿ ñðåäñòâ â ïåðåîñíàùåíèå ëèíèé. Âîçìîæíî, ÷òî ïðè îáíàðóæåíèè íàðóøåíèé âçÿòûõ îáÿçàòåëüñòâ ñî ñòîðîíû ôèëèàëîâ, íàì ïðèä¸òñÿ ïåðåõîäèòü ê æ¸ñòêèì ìåòîäàì è âñ¸-òàêè ïèñàòü æàëîáû â ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå îðãàíû îõðàíû ïðèðîäû è ïðîêóðàòóðó. Äàëüíåéøèå ïåðñïåêòèâû ðàçâèòèÿ äåÿòåëüíîñòè: 1. Ïðîäîëæåíèå ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâà ñ «ÌÐÑÊ Ñèáèðè» ñ ðàñøèðåíèåì ïëàíîâ îñíàùåíèÿ ËÝÏ íà äðóãèå ñòåïíûå è ëåñîñòåïíûå ðåãèîíû. 2. Íà÷àëî ðàáîòû ñ âåäóùèìè ðîññèéñêèìè ñîòîâûìè êîìïàíèÿìè, ñåòü âûøåê êîòîðûõ ñåé÷àñ àêòèâíî ðàçâèâàåòñÿ ïî âñåìó ðåãèîíó. 3. Ðàáîòà ñ äðóãèìè êîìïàíèÿìè, â ñîáñòâåííîñòè êîòîðûõ íàõîäÿòñÿ ËÝÏ, êàê ñ ñóùåñòâóþùèìè äàâíî (ÎÀÎ «ÐÆÄ»), òàê è ðàçâîðà÷èâàþùèìè ñâîþ äåÿòåëüíîñòü â ðåãèîíå è ïðîêëàäûâàþùèìè ËÝÏ ê íîâûì îáúåêòàì (ãîðíîäîáûâàþùèå êîìïàíèè). 4. Ïðèâëå÷åíèå ê ðàáîòå íàä ïðîáëåìîé çàèíòåðåñîâàííûõ ëèö è îðãàíèçàöèé – â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü ÎÎÏÒ, ÷åðåç òåððèòîðèþ êîòîðûõ ïðîõîäÿò ïòèöåîïàñíûå ËÝÏ. Áëàãîäàðíîñòè Ìû áëàãîäàðèì ïðîåêòû ÏÐÎÎÍ/ÃÝÔ «Ñîõðàíåíèå áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ ÀëòàåÑàÿíñêîãî ýêîðåãèîíà» è «Ñîâåðøåíñòâîâàíèå ñèñòåìû è ìåõàíèçìîâ óïðàâëåíèÿ ÎÎÏÒ» çà ïîääåðæêó èññëåäîâàíèé äàííîé ïðîáëåìû, à òàêæå ýêîëîãîâ «ÌÐÑÊ Ñèáèðè» è å¸ ôèëèàëîâ, êîòîðûå íà ìå-

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

97

ñòàõ îòâå÷àþò çà ðåàëèçàöèþ ïîëó÷åííûõ ðåêîìåíäàöèé è êîòîðûì ïðèõîäèòñÿ ïîñòîÿííî îáîñíîâûâàòü àêòóàëüíîñòü äàííîé òåìû ïåðåä íà÷àëüñòâîì. Îñîáî õî÷åòñÿ îòìåòèòü ðàáîòó âåäóùåãî ñïåöèàëèñòà îòäåëà áåçîïàñíîñòè ïðîèçâîäñòâà «ÌÐÑÊ Ñèáèðè» Õàðàíæåâè÷ Åëåíû Íèêîëàåâíû, êîòîðàÿ êóðèðóåò äàííóþ òåìó ïî âñåì ôèëèàëàì «ÌÐÑÊ Ñèáèðè». Ëèòåðàòóðà Âûäåðæêè èç ìåòîäèêè èñ÷èñëåíèÿ ðàçìåðà âðåäà, ïðè÷èí¸ííîãî îáúåêòàì æèâîòíîãî ìèðà, çàíåñ¸ííûì â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ, à òàêæå èíûì îáúåêòàì æèâîòíîãî ìèðà, íå îòíîñÿùèìñÿ ê îáúåêòàì îõîòû è ðûáîëîâñòâà è ñðåäå èõ îáèòàíèÿ (Óòâåðæäåíà Ïðèêàçîì ÌÏÐ Ðîññèè îò 28.04.2008 ¹107). – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2008. ¹ 14. Ñ. 12–14. Ãîðîøêî Î.À. Ãèáåëü ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Äàóðñêîé ñòåïè (Þãî-Âîñòî÷íîå Çàáàéêàëüå), Ðîññèÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2011. ¹21. Ñ. 84–99. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè (ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî èçó÷åíèþ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è ñîâîîáðàçíûõ). Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä: Èçäâî «Ïîâîëæüå». 2004. 351 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Áàëîáàí â Ðîññèè. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2008. ¹12. Ñ. 28–47. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Íèêîëåíêî Ý.Ã., Áåêìàíñóðîâ Ð.Õ. Ìîãèëüíèê â ãîðàõ Àëòàÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2009a. ¹15. Ñ. 66–79. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Íèêîëåíêî Ý.Ã., Âàæîâ Ñ.Â., Áåêìàíñóðîâ Ð.Õ. Ãèáåëü ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íà ËÝÏ íà Àëòàå: ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé 2009 ãîäà, Ðîññèÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2009b. ¹16. Ñ. 45–64. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Íèêîëåíêî Ý.Ã., Áàðàøêîâà À.Í., Ñìåëÿíñêèé È.Ý., Êîíîâàëîâ Ë.È., Ãðàáîâñêèé Ì.À., Âàæîâ Ñ.Â., Áåêìàíñóðîâ Ð.Õ. Áåðêóò â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå, Ðîññèÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2010a. ¹18. Ñ. 82–152. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Íèêîëåíêî Ý.Ã., Âàæîâ Ñ.Â., Ìèòðîôàíîâ Î.Á. Ðåçóëüòàòû ìîíèòîðèíãà ñîñòîÿíèÿ ïîïóëÿöèè áàëîáàíà â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå â 2009–2010 ãã. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2010b. ¹19. Ñ. 136–151. Ìàöûíà À.È. Îöåíêà è ïðîãíîçèðîâàíèå ìàñøòàáîâ ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè (ëåñíàÿ è ëåñîñòåïíàÿ çîíà åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè). – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2005. ¹2. Ñ. 33–41. Íèêîëåíêî Ý.Ã. Ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Õàêàñèè: íåãàòèâíûé âêëàä èíôðàñòðóêòóðû ñîòîâîé ñâÿçè. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2011. ¹22. Ñ. 60–71.

Ïåðâàÿ â Ñèáèðè îñíàù¸ííàÿ ÏÇÓ ëèíèÿ. 23.11.2010. Ôîòî À. Ãðèáêîâà. The first power line in Siberia being equipped with bird protection devices. 23/11/2010. Photo by A. Gribkov.


98

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

ComparingtheRateofBirdMortalityCousedbyElectrocutionin theAstrakhanandtheAtyrauDistricts,Russia–Kazakhstan СРАВНЕНИЕ УРОВНЯ ГИБЕЛИ ПТИЦ НА ЛЭП В АСТРАХАНСКОЙ И АТЫРАУСКОЙ ОБЛАСТЯХ, РОССИЯ – КАЗАХСТАН PestovM.V.(EcologicalCenter“Dront”,NizhnyNovgorod,Russia) SadykulinR.F.(ServiceforNatureManagementandProtectionoftheAstrakhan District,Astrakhan,Russia) Пестов М.В. (Общество охраны амфибий и рептилий при НРОО Экологический центр «Дронт», Нижний Новгород, Россия) Садыкулин Р.Ф. (Служба природопользования и охраны окружающей среды Астраханской области, Астрахань, Россия)

Êîíòàêò: Ìàðê Ïåñòîâ Ýêîöåíòð «Äðîíò» 603000, Ðîññèÿ, Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä, à/ÿ 631 òåë.: +7 831 433 77 89 vipera@dront.ru Contact: Mark Pestov Ecological Center “Dront” P.O. Box 631 Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia, 603000 tel.: +7 831 433 77 89 vipera@dront.ru

Ðåçþìå  ñòàòüå ïðèâîäÿòñÿ äàííûå îäíîêðàòíîãî ó÷¸òà ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ÂË 10 ê êàòîäíîé çàùèòû äâóõ òðàíñãðàíè÷íûõ òðóáîïðîâîäîâ íà òåððèòîðèè Àñòðàõàíñêîé îáëàñòè â îêòÿáðå 2011 ã. Íà îñìîòðåííûõ ÂË óñòàíîâëåíà ãèáåëü 3 ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ (Aquila nipalensis), 1 çìååÿäà (Circaetus gallicus) è 1 êóðãàííèêà (Buteo rufinus). Ïðèâîäÿòñÿ ñðàâíèòåëüíûå äàííûå ïî ÂË òåõ æå òðóáîïðîâîäîâ â Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàçàõñòàí. Ïîä÷¸ðêèâàåòñÿ íåýôôåêòèâíîñòü èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ õîëîñòûõ èçîëÿòîðîâ â êà÷åñòâå ÏÇÓ. Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: õèùíûå ïòèöû, ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè, ïîðàæåíèå ýëåêòðîòîêîì, ËÝÏ, Àñòðàõàíñêàÿ îáëàñòü. Ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ: 03.02.2012 ã. Ïðèíÿòà ê ïóáëèêàöèè: 19.02.2012 ã. Abstract The article presents data from a single count of the mortality of birds of prey on 10 kV overhead power lines of the cathodic protection of two cross-border pipelines in the Astrakhan district in 2011. Three Steppe Eagles (Aquila nipalensis), a Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus) and a Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) were identified as having died on the examined power lines. Comparative data on the same kind of power lines in the Atyrau district of Kazakhstan has also been provided. This emphasizes the ineffectiveness of using false insulators as bird protection devices. Keywords: birds of prey, electrocution, power lines, Astrakhan district. Received: 03/02/2012. Accepted: 19/02/2012.

Ââåäåíèå Ïðîáëåìà ìàññîâîé ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö íà âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòè (ÂË 6–10 êÂ) â ñåâåðíîì Ïðèêàñïèè èçó÷åíà äîñòàòî÷íî õîðîøî íà ïðèìåðå Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàëìûêèÿ è Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàçàõñòàí (Çâîíîâ, Êðèâîíîñîâ, 1981, 1984; Áåëèê, 2004; Ìåäæèäîâ è äð., 2005; Êàðÿêèí, Íîâèêîâà, 2006; Ìàöûíà è äð., 2011; Ñà��àåâ, Ïåñòîâ, 2011; Ïåñòîâ è äð., íàñò. ñá.).  òî æå âðåìÿ, íàì íå èçâåñòíû ïóáëèêàöèè ïî äàííîé òåìå ïî Àñòðàõàíñêîé îáëàñòè.  2011 ãîäó, ïî çàäàíèþ Óïðàâëåíèÿ ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ è ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèÿ Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè íàìè áûëà ïðîâåäåíà ðàáîòà ïî îöåíêå âëèÿíèÿ ÂË íà îðíèòîôàóíó Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàçàõñòàí, â õîäå êîòîðîé, â òîì ÷èñëå, áûëè îáñëåäîâàíû ó÷àñòêè ÂË êàòîäíîé çàùèòû òðàíñãðàíè÷íûõ òðóáîïðîâîäîâ Êàñïèéñêîãî Òðóáîïðîâîäíîãî êîíñîðöèóìà (ÀÎ ÊÒÊ-Ê: Òåíãèç – Íîâîðîññèéñê) è òðóáîïðîâîäà «Ìàêàò – ñåâåðíûé Êàâêàç», ïðèíàäëåæà-

Introduction In 2011, under the orders of the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management of the Atyrau district, we carried out our work to assess the impact of overhead power lines (PL) on the avifauna in the Atyrau district of Kazakhstan, during which sections of PL of the cathodic protection of cross-border pipelines, belonging to the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (JSC CPC-K: Tengiz – Novorossiysk) and the pipeline ‘Makat-North Caucasus’, owned by JSC “Intergas Central Asia” (Pestov et al., this issue). The survey results of these two PL in Kazakhstan were fundamentally different. It was found the PL running along the ‘MakatNorth Caucasus’ pipeline, is mounted on reinforced concrete poles with metal crossarms, upright insulators and metal “whiskers” above these insulators (fig. 1–B). This design is undoubtedly dangerous for birds. During a single inspection of 60 km of PL, the remains of 20 birds of prey, killed by electrocution in 2011, were found (Pestov et al., this issue).


Proceedings of Conferences ùåãî ÀÎ «Èíòåðãàç Öåíòðàëüíàÿ Àçèÿ» (Ïåñòîâ è äð., íàñò. ñá.). Ðåçóëüòàòû îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ýòèõ äâóõ ÂË â Êàçàõñòàíå îêàçàëèñü ïðèíöèïèàëüíî ðàçëè÷íû. Áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî, ÷òî ÂË, èäóùàÿ âäîëü òðóáîïðîâîäà «Ìàêàò – ñåâåðíûé Êàâêàç» ñìîíòèðîâàíà íà æåëåçîáåòîííûõ îïîðàõ ñ ìåòàëëè÷åñêèìè òðàâåðñàìè ñî øòûðåâûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè è ìåòàëëè÷åñêèìè «óñàìè» íàä ýòèìè èçîëÿòîðàìè (ðèñ. 1–B). Äàííàÿ êîíñòðóêöèÿ áåçóñëîâíî îïàñíà äëÿ ïòèö: ïðè îäíîðàçîâîì îñìîòðå 60 êì ÂË îáíàðóæåíû îñòàíêè 20 õèùíûõ ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì â 2011 ãîäó (Ïåñòîâ è äð., íàñò. ñá.). Èíàÿ ñèòóàöèÿ íà ÂË ÀÎ ÊÒÊ-Ê. ×àñòè÷íî äàííàÿ ÂË îáîðóäîâàíà èçîëèðîâàí-

Ðèñ. 1. A – ãíåçäî ñåðîãî ñîðîêîïóòà (Lanius excubitor) íà îãîëîâêå îïîðû ÂË ÊÒÊ-Ê, îáîðóäîâàííîé èçîëèðîâàííûì ñàìîíåñóùèì ïðîâîäîì ÑÈÏ-3, 05.05.2011, B – ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis), ïîãèáøèé íà ÂË «Èíòåðãàç Öåíòðàëüíàÿ Àçèÿ» (òðóáîïðîâîä Ìàêàò-Ñåâåðíûé Êàâêàç), 28.09.2011, Ñ – îïîðû ÂË ÊÒÊ-Ê, îáîðóäîâàííûå ïîäâåñíûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè, 04.05.2011. Àòûðàóñêàÿ îáëàñòü, ÐÊ. Ôîòî Ì. Ïåñòîâà è Ô. Ñàðàåâà. Fig. 1. A – nest of the Great Grey Shrike (Lanius excubitor) on the top of the CPC PL pole, equipped with LV aerial bundled cable, 05/05/2011, B – Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis), died from electrocution on PL of “Intergas Central Asia” (line “Makat-North Caucasus), 28/09/2011, C – electric poles of CPC’ PL, equipped with suspended insulators, 04/05/2011. Atyrau district, Kazakhstan. Photos by M. Pestov and F. Saraev.

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

99

The situation is different on PL of the JSC CPC-K. Partially, because this PL is equipped with LV aerial bundled cable on upright insulators (fig. 1–A), and a part of poles are with suspended insulators with rather large gaps between the crossarms and wires (fig. 1–C). The first version of the design virtually eliminates the likelihood of bird deaths from electrocution, and the second reduces it very much. During the examination of 40 km of PL of CPC-K, no dead birds were found. The positive experience of CPC in retrofitting of power lines for the bird safety means that it should be carefully studied and recommended for widespread use by other environmentally responsible companies (Pestov et al., this issue). Through the support of the Service for Nature Management and Protection of the Astrakhan district on 11.10.2011 (immediately after the surveys conducted in Kazakhstan), we carried out a one-off count of the bird mortality in the sections of PL of the cathodic protection for these two pipelines, as in Kazakhstan, in the Narimanovskiy and Limansky regions of the Astrakhan district (fig. 2). These pipelines from the intersection on the “Astrakhan – Volgograd” highway to the intersection with the “Astrakhan – Elista” highway run parallel to each other for a distance from several hundred metres to several kilometres, whilst crossing the same habitats and landscapes. Materials, Methods, and Results An inspection of PL was carried out by express method from the window of a vehicle, moving parallel to the lines for a distance of 5–30 m at a speed of 40 km/h (Sarayev, Pestov, 2011). The task was simplified by the fact, that, in both cases, the parallel lines go along a dirt road. During the inspection of 80 km of PL the cathodic protection of the pipelines “Makat – North Caucasus” (owner – “Gazprom Transgaz Stavropol” company, the Zenzelinsk Department of Pipelines), it was discovered that the line is suspended on concrete poles with metal crossarms and upright insulators. Additional false insulators are being used as bird protection devices (BPD) (fig. 3–A). In this section, bone and feather remains of three Steppe Eagles (Aquila nipalensis) (fig. 4–C) and a Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) were found, as well as a dead Short-Toed Eagle (Cicaetus gallicus), which probably died in September 2011 (fig. 4–A, B). It is worth noting that this is only the second registration of the Short-Toed Eagle


100

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ðèñ. 2. Ðàñïîëîæåíèå îáñëåäîâàííûõ ËÝÏ. Fig. 2. Location of the surveyed power lines.

íûì ñàìîíåñóùèì ïðîâîäîì ÑÈÏ-3 íà øòûðåâûõ èçîëÿòîðàõ (ðèñ. 1–A), ÷àñòè÷íî – ïîäâåñíûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè ñ äîñòàòî÷íî áîëüøèìè çàçîðàìè ìåæäó òðàâåðñàìè è òîêîíåñóùèìè ïðîâîäàìè (ðèñ. 1–C). Ïåðâûé âàðèàíò êîíñòðóêöèè ïðàêòè÷åñêè èñêëþ÷àåò âåðîÿòíîñòü ãèáåëè ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì, âòîðîé – ñíèæàåò å¸ ìíîãîêðàòíî. Ïðè îñìîòðå 40 êì ÂË ÊÒÊ ïîãèáøèå ïòèöû íå îáíàðóæåíû. Ïîçèòèâíûé îïûò ÀÎ ÊÒÊ-Ê ïî áåçîïàñíîìó äëÿ ïòèö îñíàùåíèþ ÂË äîëæåí áûòü âíèìàòåëüíî èçó÷åí è ðåêîìåíäîâàí ê øèðîêîìó ïðèìåíåíèþ äðóãèìè ýêîëîãè÷åñêè îòâåòñòâåííûìè êîìïàíèÿìè (Ïåñòîâ è äð., íàñò. ñá.). Ïðè ïîääåðæêå Ñëóæáû ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèÿ è îõðàíû îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû Àñòðàõàíñêîé îáëàñòè 11.10.2011 ã. (ñðàçó æå ïîñëå ðàáîò â Êàçàõñòàíå) íàìè áûë ïðîâåä¸í ðàçîâûé ó÷¸ò ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ó÷àñòêàõ ÂË êàòîäíîé çàùèòû ýòèõ æå äâóõ òðóáîïðîâîäîâ, ÷òî è â Êàçàõñòàíå, íà òåððèòîðèè Íàðèìàíîâñêîãî è Ëèìàíñêîãî ðàéîíîâ Àñòðàõàíñêîé îáëàñòè (ðèñ. 2). Äàííûå òðóáîïðîâîäû îò ìåñòà ïåðåñå÷åíèÿ èìè àâòîòðàññû Àñòðàõàíü – Âîëãîãðàä äî ïåðåñå÷åíèÿ ñ àâòîòðàññîé Àñòðàõàíü – Ýëèñòà èäóò ïàðàëëåëüíî äðóã äðóãó íà ðàññòîÿíèè îò íåñêîëüêèõ ñîòåí ìåòðîâ äî íåñêîëüêèõ êèëîìåòðîâ, ïåðåñåêàÿ îäíè è òå æå áèîòîïû è óðî÷èùà. Öåëü ðàáîòû – ñðàâíåíèå ñèòóàöèè íà êàçàõñòàíñêîì è ðîññèéñêîì ó÷àñòêå òðàíñãðàíè÷íûõ òðóáîïðîâîäîâ. Ìåòîäèêà, îáú¸ì ðàáîòû è ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé Îñìîòð ÂË ïðîâîäèëñÿ ïî ýêñïðåññìåòîäó èç îêíà àâòîìîáèëÿ, äâèæóùåãîñÿ ïàðàëëåëüíî ÂË íà ðàññòîÿíèè 5–30 ì íà ñêîðîñòè äî 40 êì/÷àñ (Ñàðàåâ, Ïåñòîâ,

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé in the Astrakhan region over the past 100 years. The first specimen was discovered on 16/04/2000, in approximately the same area as the killed by electrocution on a PL of CPC (Rusanov, 2011). The distribution of the remains of birds that were killed on this line has been very uneven. Out of the 5 remains of birds of prey found, three, the most “fresh” and clearly visible ones (Short-Toed Eagle, Steppe Eagle and Long-Legged Buzzard), were discovered in the section of PL a length of only about 300 m. It is significant that this site was located a considerable distance from the dirt road and had not been seen from it. In this case, as an exception, we turned off and drove alongside the PL on almost impassable roads. Such distribution of bird remains allows to reasonably assume that there is a focused collection of remains of dead birds by employees, which serving and guarding the pipeline. Consequently, the actual damage caused by the bird mortality on PL may be several orders of magnitude more than we had established. During the inspection of CPC’s pipelines, it was found that this line was also mounted on concrete poles with metal crossarms and upright insulators. As the BPDs use additional false insulators, also many poles were equipped with the T-shaped perches as a distraction to birds (fig. 3–B). The base of electric poles are often covered with crushed stone; the dirt road, on which vehicles belonging to the CPC security staff regularly travel, is next to the PL. Dead birds and their remnants were not found during the inspection. At the same time, it should be stated that the design of PL is certainly dangerous for large birds of prey, and cannot be safe but be the cause of their death. It is likely that the absence of bird remains during the inspection was due to the regular inspection of the PL by CPC staff, who, according to unofficial information, are given oral instructions to collect and remove the corpses of dead birds from under the poles. Our own observations in the Chernozemelsky region of Kalmykia, adjacent to the Astrakhan region, serve as further confirmation of this suggestion. In 2003 and 2004, we found large numbers of dead birds of prey killed by electrocution on the CPC’s PL, which have the same design features that the CTC’s PL have in the Astrakhan region. The detection of bird remains on the PL of the pipeline “Makat – North Caucasus”, located only a few hundred metres from CPC’s PL gives the same evidence, as the design


Proceedings of Conferences 2011). Çàäà÷à óïðîùàëàñü òåì, ÷òî â îáîèõ ñëó÷àÿõ ïàðàëëåëüíî ÂË ïðîõîäèò ãðóíòîâàÿ äîðîãà.  õîäå îñìîòðà 80 êì ÂË êàòîäíîé çàùèòû òðóáîïðîâîäà «Ìàêàò – ñåâåðíûé Êàâêàç» (âëàäåëåö – ÎÎÎ «Ãàçïðîì òðàíñãàç Ñòàâðîïîëü»; Çåíçåëèíñêîå ËÏÓÌÃ) óñòàíîâëåíî, ÷òî äàííàÿ ëèíèÿ ñìîíòèðîâàíà íà æåëåçîáåòîííûõ îïîðàõ ñ ìåòàëëè÷åñêèìè òðàâåðñàìè ñî øòûðåâûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè.  êà÷åñòâå ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ (ÏÇÓ) èñïîëüçóþòñÿ äîïîëíèòåëüíûå «õîëîñòûå» èçîëÿòîðû (ðèñ. 3–A). Íà äàííîì ó÷àñòêå îáíàðóæåíû êîñòíîïåðüåâûå îñòàíêè 3 ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ (Aquila nipalensis) (ðèñ. 4–C) è 1 êóðãàííèêà (Buteo rufinus), à òàêæå 1 òðóï çìååÿäà (Circaetus gallicus), âåðîÿòíî ïîãèáøåãî â ñåíòÿáðå 2011 ã. (ðèñ. 4–A, B). Ïðèìå÷àòåëüíî, ÷òî ýòî ëèøü âòîðîé ýêçåìïëÿð çìååÿäà, îòìå÷åííûé ñïåöèàëèñòàìè íà òåððèòîðèè Àñòðàõàíñêîé îáëàñòè çà ïîñëåäíèå 100 ëåò. Ïåðâûé ýêçåìïëÿð áûë îáíàðóæåí, ïîãèáøèì íà îïîðå ÂË ÊÒÊ, 16 àïðåëÿ 2000 ã. ïðèìåðíî â òîì æå ðàéîíå (Ðóñàíîâ, 2011). Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå îñòàíêîâ ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ íà äàííîé ÂË, îêàçàëîñü âåñüìà íåîäíîðîäíûì. Òàê, èç 5 îáíàðóæåííûõ îñòàíêîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö, òðîå, ïðè÷åì íàèáîëåå «ñâåæèõ» è õîðîøî çàìåòíûõ (çìååÿä, ñòåïíîé îð¸ë, êóðãàííèê), áûëè îáíàðóæåíû íà ó÷àñòêå ÂË ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòüþ âñåãî ëèøü îêîëî 300 ì. Ïîêàçàòåëüíî, ÷òî ýòîò ó÷àñòîê ðàñïîëàãàëñÿ íà çíà÷èòåëüíîì óäàëåíèè îò ãðóíòîâîé äîðîãè è íå ïðîñìàòðèâàëñÿ ñ íå¸; â äàííîì ñëó÷àå â âèäå èñêëþ÷åíèÿ ìû ñâåðíóëè ñ äîðîãè è åõàëè âäîëü ÂË ïî áåçäîðîæüþ. Ïîäîáíàÿ êîíöåíòðàöèÿ îñòàíêîâ ïòèö èìåííî íà íå ïðîñìàòðèâàåìîì ñ äîðîãè ó÷àñòêå ÂË ïîçâîëÿåò îáîñíîâàííî ïðåäïîëîæèòü öåëåíàïðàâëåííûé ñáîð îñòàíêîâ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö ñîòðóäíèêàìè, îáñëóæèâàþùèìè è îõðàíÿþùèìè òðóáîïðîâîä. Ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, ðåàëüíûé óùåðá îò ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ÂË

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

101

of this line is similar, as, in both cases, ineffective false insulators are used as BPD. Conclusion Studies conducted on pipelines of the companies “Gazprom Transgas Stavropol” and JSC CPC, reaffirmed the relevance of addressing the problem of bird electrocution. PL of the cathodic protection for the crossborder pipeline “Makat-North Caucasus” is definitely dangerous for birds in the Atyrau region of Kazakhstan, as well as in the Astrakhan region of Russian and does great damage to the avifauna of these regions. Regarding CPC’s activity, their policy is clearly seen as having “double standards” in relation to addressing the bird mortality caused by electrocution. In Kazakhstan, the problem has successfully been solved, and the PLs of CPC are of minimal threat to birds. Therefore their experience in solving problems can and should be replicated. At the same time, in Russia (or, at least, in the Astrakhan region and Kalmykia), the situation has not changed over the past 10 years, and CPC’s lines in these regions constantly remain deadly traps for birds, which is a violation of ¹52–FL “On Wildlife”. We consider this to be an unacceptable approach to environmental issues in Russia and we appeal to the leadership of CPC with the requirement to solve the problem. An official letter was sent to CPC on this issue in February 2012. In general we can say that the problem of mortality from electrocution in the Astrakhan region is just as important as in other regions of the Caspian Sea and requires an immediate solution. Once again, it was confirmed that false insulators are not effective as bird protection devices and must be replaced with effective caps made of plastic, or the lines should be retrofitted by using LV aerial bundled cable or suspended insulators. At the same time the T-shaped perches, designed to distract birds, can be a positive addition to any of these variants.

Ðèñ. 3. A – îãîëîâîê îïîðû ÂË «Ãàçïðîì òðàíñãàç Ñòàâðîïîëü» (òðóáîïðîâîä Ìàêàò-Ñåâåðíûé Êàâêàç), B – ÂË êàòîäíîé çàùèòû òðóáîïðîâîäà ÀÎ ÊÒÊ. Àñòðàõàíñêàÿ îáëàñòü, ÐÔ, 11.10.2011. Ôîòî Ì. Ïåñòîâà. Fig. 3. A – the top of an electric pole of the ‘Gazprom Transgas Stravropol’ PL (line Makat-North Caucasus), B – Power line of the cathodic protection of CPC’s pipeline. Astrakhan district, Russia. 11/10/2011. Photos by M. Pestov.


102

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

Ðèñ. 4. A, Â – çìååÿä (Cicaetus gallicus), ïîãèáøèé íà ÂË «Ãàçïðîì òðàíñãàç Ñòàâðîïîëü» (òðóáîïðîâîä Ìàêàò-Ñåâåðíûé Êàâêàç), 11.10.2011, Ñ – êîñòíî-ïåðüåâûå îñòàíêè ñòåïíîãî îðëà, ïîãèáøåãî íà ÂË «Ãàçïðîì òðàíñãàç Ñòàâðîïîëü» (òðóáîïðîâîä Ìàêàò-Ñåâåðíûé Êàâêàç), 11.10.2011. Àñòðàõàíñêàÿ îáëàñòü, ÐÔ. Ôîòî Ì. Ïåñòîâà. Fig. 4. A, B – ShortToed Eagle (Cicaetus gallicus) died on the PL of ‘Gazprom Transgas Stavropol’ (line MakatNorth Caucasus), 11/10/2011, Ñ – bone and feather remains of a Steppe Eagle, died on the PL of ‘Gazprom Transgas Stavropol’ (line Makat-North Caucasus), 11/10/2011. Astrakhan district, Russia. Photos by M. Pestov.

â äàííîì ñëó÷àå ìîæåò áûòü íà ïîðÿäêè áîëüøå òîãî, ÷òî áûë óñòàíîâëåí íàìè.  õîäå îñìîòðà 40 êì ÂË êàòîäíîé çàùèòû òðóáîïðîâîäà ÀÎ ÊÒÊ áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî, ÷òî äàííàÿ ëèíèÿ òàêæå ñìîíòèðîâàíà íà æåëåçîáåòîííûõ îïîðàõ ñ ìåòàëëè÷åñêèìè òðàâåðñàìè ñî øòûðåâûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè.  êà÷åñòâå ÏÇÓ èñïîëüçóþòñÿ äîïîëíèòåëüíûå «õîëîñòûå» èçîëÿòîðû, íà ìíîãèõ îïîðàõ óñòàíîâëåíû îòâëåêàþùèå Ò-îáðàçíûå ïðèñàäû (ðèñ. 3–B). Îñíîâàíèÿ îïîð çà÷àñòóþ çàñûïàíû ùåáíåì, ðÿäîì ñ ÂË ðàñïîëîæåíà ãðóíòîâàÿ äîðîãà, ïî êîòîðîé ðåãóëÿðíî ïåðåìåùàþòñÿ àâòîìîáèëè ñîòðóäíèêîâ îõðàíû ÊÒÊ. ̸ðòâûå ïòèöû è èõ îñòàíêè â õîäå îñìîòðà íå îáíàðóæåíû.  òî æå âðåìÿ, íåîáõîäèìî êîíñòàòèðîâàòü, ÷òî äàííàÿ êîíñòðóêöèÿ ÂË ÿâëÿåòñÿ áåçóñëîâíî îïàñíîé äëÿ êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö è íå ìîæåò íå ñëóæèòü ïðè÷èíîé èõ ãèáåëè. Âåñüìà âåðîÿòíî, ÷òî îòñóòñòâèå îñòàíêîâ ïòèö ïðè îáñëåäîâàíèè ñâÿçàíî ñ ðåãóëÿðíûì îñìîòðîì äàííîé ÂË ñîòðóäíèêàìè îõðàíû ÊÒÊ, êîòîðûì, ïî íåîôèöèàëüíûì ñâåäåíèÿì, äàíî óñòíîå óêàçàíèå ñîáèðàòü è ëèêâèäèðîâàòü òðóïû ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö èç-ïîä îïîð ÂË. Äîïîëíèòåëüíûì ïîäòâåðæäåíèåì ýòîãî òåçèñà ñëóæàò íàøè ñîáñòâåííûå íàáëþäåíèÿ íà òåððèòîðèè ×åðíîçåìåëüñêîãî ðàéîíà Êàëìûêèè, ñîïðåäåëüíîãî ñ Àñòðàõàíñêîé îáëàñòüþ (Ìåäæèäîâ è äð., 2005).  2003–2004 ãã. ìû îáíàðóæèëè òàì áîëüøîå êîëè÷åñòâî òðóïîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì íà îïîðàõ ÂË ÊÒÊ, èìåþùèõ òå æå

êîíñòðóêòèâíûå îñîáåííîñòè, ÷òî è îïîðû ÂË ÊÒÊ íà òåððèòîðèè Àñòðàõàíñêîé îáëàñòè. Î òîì æå ñâèäåòåëüñòâóåò è ôàêò îáíàðóæåíèÿ îñòàíêîâ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö íà ÂË òðóáîïðîâîäà «Ìàêàò – Ñåâåðíûé Êàâêàç», ðàñïîëîæåííîé ëèøü â íåñêîëüêèõ ñîòíÿõ ìåòðîâ îò ÂË ÊÒÊ; êîíñòðóêöèÿ äàííûõ ÂË àíàëîãè÷íà – â îáîèõ ñëó÷àÿõ â êà÷åñòâå ÏÇÓ èñïîëüçîâàíû íåýôôåêòèâíûå «õîëîñòûå» èçîëÿòîðû. Çàêëþ÷åíèå Èññëåäîâàíèÿ, ïðîâåä¸ííûå íà òðóáîïðîâîäàõ êîìïàíèé ÎÎÎ «Ãàçïðîì òðàíñãàç Ñòàâðîïîëü» è ÀÎ ÊÒÊ, åù¸ ðàç ïîäòâåðäèëè àêòóàëüíîñòü ðåøåíèÿ ïðîáëåìû ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ÂË. ÂË êàòîäíîé çàùèòû òðàíñãðàíè÷íîãî òðóáîïðîâîäà «Ìàêàò – Ñåâåðíûé Êàâêàç» ÿâëÿåòñÿ áåçóñëîâíî îïàñíîé äëÿ ïòèö êàê â Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè ÐÊ, òàê è â Àñòðàõàíñêîé îáëàñòè ÐÔ è íàíîñèò áîëüøîé óùåðá îðíèòîôàóíå ýòèõ ðåãèîíîâ.  äåÿòåëüíîñòè ÀÎ ÊÒÊ îò÷åòëèâî ïðîñëåæèâàåòñÿ ïîëèòèêà «äâîéíûõ ñòàíäàðòîâ» â îòíîøåíèè ðåøåíèÿ ïðîáëåìû ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ÂË. Íà òåððèòîðèè Êàçàõñòàíà ïðîáëåìà óñïåøíî ðåøàåòñÿ, ÂË ÀÎ ÊÒÊ-Ê ïðåäñòàâëÿþò ìèíèìàëüíóþ óãðîçó äëÿ ïòèö, èõ îïûò ðåøåíèÿ ïðîáëåìû ìîæåò è äîëæåí áûòü òèðàæèðîâàí.  òî æå âðåìÿ, íà òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèè (Àñòðàõàíñêîé îáëàñòè è Êàëìûêèè, êàê ìèíèìóì), ñèòóàöèÿ íå ìåíÿåòñÿ çà ïîñëåäíèå 10 ëåò è ÂË ÊÒÊ â ýòèõ ðåãèîíàõ ïî-ïðåæíåìó îñòàþòñÿ ïîñòîÿííî äåéñòâóþùèìè ñìåðòåëüíûìè


Proceedings of Conferences ëîâóøêàìè äëÿ ïòèö, ÷òî ÿâëÿåòñÿ íàðóøåíèåì ôåäåðàëüíîãî çàêîíà ¹52-ÔÇ «Î æèâîòíîì ìèðå». Ñ÷èòàåì íåäîïóñòèìûì ïîäîáíûé ïîäõîä ê âîïðîñàì îõðàíû ïðèðîäû íà òåððèòîðèè ÐÔ è îáðàùàåìñÿ ê ðóêîâîäñòâó ÀÎ ÊÒÊ ñ òðåáîâàíèåì ðåøèòü äàííóþ ïðîáëåìó. Îôèöèàëüíîå ïèñüìî ðóêîâîäñòâó ÀÎ ÊÒÊ ïî ýòîìó ïîâîäó îòïðàâëåíî â ôåâðàëå 2012 ã.  öåëîì ìîæíî êîíñòàòèðîâàòü, ÷òî ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì ïðè êîíòàêòàõ ñ ÂË íà òåððèòîðèè Àñòðàõàíñêîé îáëàñòè íå ìåíåå àêòóàëüíà, ÷åì â äðóãèõ ïðèêàñïèéñêèõ ðåãèîíàõ è òðåáóåò ñâîåãî íåçàìåäëèòåëüíîãî ðåøåíèÿ.  î÷åðåäíîé ðàç áûëî ïîäòâåðæäåíî, ÷òî «õîëîñòûå» èçîëÿòîðû è îòâëåêàþùèå Ò-îáðàçíûå ïðèñàäû íå ÿâëÿþòñÿ ýôôåêòèâíûìè ÏÇÓ è äîëæíû áûòü çàìåíåíû ýôôåêòèâíûìè êîæóõàìè èç ïîëèìåðíûõ ìàòåðèàëîâ, ëèáî ëèíèè äîëæíû áûòü ðåêîíñòðóèðîâàíû ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì ÑÈÏ-3 èëè ïîäâåñíûõ èçîëÿòîðîâ. Ëèòåðàòóðà Áåëèê Â.Ï. Äèíàìèêà Ïðèêàñïèéñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè ñòåïíîãî îðëà è îöåíêà ëèìèòèðóþùèõ ôàêòîðîâ. – Ñòðåïåò. 2004. Ò. 2, âûï. 1. Ñ. 116–133. ÂË êàòîäíîé çàùèòû òðóáîïðîâîäà ÀÎ ÊÒÊ (ââåðõó ñëåâà è âíèçó) è îñòàíêè ñòåïíîãî îðëà, ïîãèáøåãî îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì (ââåðõó ñïðàâà). Àñòðàõàíñêàÿ îáëàñòü, ÐÔ, 11.10.2011. Ôîòî Ì. Ïåñòîâà Power line of the cathodic protection of CPC’s pipeline (upper at the left) and remains of a Steppe Eagle, died on the PL (upper at the right). Astrakhan district, Russia, 11/10/2011. Photos by M. Pestov.

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

103

Çâîíîâ Á.Ì., Êðèâîíîñîâ Ã.À. Ãèáåëü õèùíûõ ïòèö íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ â Êàëìûêèè. – Áèîïîâðåæäåíèÿ: Òåçèñû äîêëàäîâ 2-é Âñåñîþçíîé êîíôåðåíöèè ïî áèîïîâðåæäåíèÿì. Ãîðüêèé, 1981. Ñ. 206–207. Çâîíîâ Á.Ì., Êðèâîíîñîâ Ã.À. Ãèáåëü õèùíûõ ïòèö íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ â Êàëìûêèè è ìåðû åå ïðåäîòâðàùåíèÿ. – Çàùèòà ìàòåðèàëîâ è òåõíè÷åñêèõ ñðåäñòâ îò ïòèö. Ì., 1984. Ñ. 88–92. Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Íîâèêîâà Ë.Ì. Ñòåïíîé îð¸ë è èíôðàñòðóêòóðà ËÝÏ â Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2006. ¹6. Ñ. 48–57. Ìàöûíà À.È., Ìàöûíà Å.Ë., Ïåñòîâ Ì.Â., Èâàíåíêî À.Ì., Êîðîëüêîâ Ì.À. Íîâûå äàííûå î ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ÂË 6–10 ê â Êàëìûêèè, Ðîññèÿ. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2011. ¹21. Ñ. 100–105. Ìåäæèäîâ Ð.À., Ïåñòîâ Ì.Â., Ñàëòûêîâ À.Â. Õèùíûå ïòèöû è ËÝÏ – èòîãè ïðîåêòà â Êàëìûêèè. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2005. ¹2. Ñ. 25–30. Ðóñàíîâ Ã.Ì. Ïòèöû Íèæíåé Âîëãè. Àñòðàõàíü: ÃÏ ÀÎ ÈÏÊ «Âîëãà», 2011. Ñ. 124. Ñàðàåâ Ô.À., Ïåñòîâ Ì.Â. Ðåçóëüòàòû äâóêðàòíûõ ó÷¸òîâ ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è â þæíîé ÷àñòè Óðàëî-Ýìáèíñêîãî ìåæäóðå÷üÿ âåñíîé è îñåíüþ 2010 ãîäà, Êàçàõñòàí. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. Íîâîñèáèðñê. 2011. ¹21. Ñ. 90-94. Ôåäåðàëüíûé çàêîí îò 24 àïðåëÿ 1995 ã. ¹52-ÔÇ «Î æèâîòíîì ìèðå».


104

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

AssessingtheImpactofPowerLinesintheMediumVoltageRange onBirdsoftheAtyrauDistrictinKazakhstan ОЦЕНКА ВЛИЯНИЯ ВОЗДУШНЫХ ЛИНИЙ ЭЛЕКТРОПЕРЕДАЧИ СРЕДНЕЙ МОЩНОСТИ НА ОРНИТОФАУНУ АТЫРАУСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ, КАЗАХСТАН PestovM.V.(EcologicalCenter“Dront”,NizhnyNovgorod,Russia) SaraevF.A.(AtyrauAnti-plagueStation,Atyrau,Kazakhstan) ShalharovM.K.(AtyrauTerritorialInspectorateforForestryandHunting,Atyrau, Kazakhstan) Пестов М.В. (Нижегородская региональная общественная организация Экологический центр «Дронт», Нижний Новгород, Россия) Сараев Ф.А. (ГУ «Атырауская противочумная станция» Комитета санитарноэпидемиологического надзора Министерства здравоохранения Республики Казахстан, Атырау, Казахстан) Шалхаров М.К. (Атырауская областная территориальная инспекция лесного и охотничьего хозяйства, Атырау, Казахстан)

Êîíòàêò: Ìàðê Ïåñòîâ Ýêîöåíòð «Äðîíò» 603000, Ðîññèÿ, Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä, à/ÿ 631 òåë.: +7 831 433 77 89 vipera@dront.ru Ô¸äîð Ñàðàåâ Àòûðàóñêàÿ ïðîòèâî÷óìíàÿ ñòàíöèÿ 060011, Êàçàõñòàí, Àòûðàó, óë. Çàáîëîòíîãî, 1 òåë.: +7 7122 254271 fas_2@rambler.ru Contact: Mark Pestov Ecological Center “Dront” P.O. Box 631, Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia, 603000 tel.: +7 831 433 77 89 vipera@dront.ru Fedor Saraev Atyrau Anti-plague Station Zabolotnogo str., 1 Atyrau, Kazakhstan, 060011 tel.: +7 7122 254271 fas_2@rambler.ru

Ðåçþìå  ñòàòüå ïðèâîäÿòñÿ ðåçóëüòàòû ðåàëèçàöèè äîãîâîðà ñ Óïðàâëåíèåì ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ è ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèÿ Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè ïî òåìå «Îöåíêà âëèÿíèÿ âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòè íà îðíèòîôàóíó Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè è ðàçðàáîòêà ðåêîìåíäàöèé ïî çàùèòå è îõðàíå ïòèö, â òîì ÷èñëå âèäîâ, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÊ». Ïðèâåä¸í êðàòêèé îáçîð íîðìàòèâíîé áàçû ÐÊ ïî äàííîé ïðîáëåìå. Ïðè äâóêðàòíîì îñìîòðå 410 êì ÂË íà òåððèòîðèè 5 àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ ðàéîíîâ Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè óñòàíîâëåí ôàêò ãèáåëè 136 ïòèö, îòíîñÿùèõñÿ ê 18 âèäàì. Ïîêàçàíà çàâèñèìîñòü êîëè÷åñòâà ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö îò êîíñòðóêòèâíûõ îñîáåííîñòåé ÂË. Ïðèâîäÿòñÿ ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî ðåøåíèþ ïðîáëåìû ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ÂË ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòè íà òåððèòîðèè ÐÊ. Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: õèùíûå ïòèöû, ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè, ïîðàæåíèå ýëåêòðîòîêîì, ËÝÏ, Êàçàõñòàí. Ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ: 03.02.2012 ã. Ïðèíÿòà ê ïóáëèêàöèè: 20.03.2012 ã. Abstract This article presents the results of implementation of the agreement with the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management of the Atyrau district on the “Assessing the impact of overhead power lines in the medium voltage range on birds of the Atyrau district and developing recommendations for the protection and conservation of birds, including species listed in the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan”. A brief review of the legal regulation in Kazakhstan has been given in the article. During the two inspections of 410 km of power lines in five administrative regions of the Atyrau district, 136 cases of dead birds, belonging to 18 species, were established. It was shown, that the bird mortality depends on the design of power poles. Recommendations are being provided to address the problem of bird mortality on power lines in medium voltage range in Kazakhstan. Keywords: raptors, birds of prey, electrocution, power lines, Kazakhstan. Received: 03/02/2012. Accepted: 20/03/2012.

Ââåäåíèå Èíèöèàòèâíàÿ ðàáîòà ïî îöåíêå ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòè (ÂË 6–10 êÂ) â Êàçàõñòàíå áûëà íà÷àòà íàìè â 2010 ãîäó (Ñàðàåâ, Ïåñòîâ, 2010). Ðåçóëüòàòû íàøèõ ó÷¸òîâ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ÂË â àïðåëå è ñåíòÿáðå 2010 ã. áûëè äîëîæåíû ðóêîâîäñòâó Óïðàâëåíèÿ ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ è ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèÿ Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè, ïîñëå ÷åãî òåìà îõðàíû ïòèö ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè ÂË áûëà âêëþ÷åíà â Ñòðàòåãè÷åñêèé ïëàí Óïðàâëåíèÿ íà 2011–2015 ãîäû, óòâåðæä¸ííûé îáëàñòíûì àêèìàòîì.  2011 ãîäó, â ðàìêàõ ðåàëèçàöèè äàííîãî

Introduction Action on the assessment of bird mortality caused by electrocution on power lines in the medium voltage range (6–10 kV PL) in Kazakhstan was launched by us in 2010 (Saraev, Pestov, 2010). The results of our census of bird deaths from electrocution in April and September 2010 were presented to the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management of the Atyrau district, after which the topic of bird protection during maintenance was included in the Strategic Plan of the Department for 2011– 2015, and was approved by the regional government (akimat). In 2011, as part of this


Proceedings of Conferences ïëàíà, íàìè áûë óñïåøíî âûïîëíåí äîãîâîð ïî òåìå «Îöåíêà âëèÿíèÿ âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòè íà îðíèòîôàóíó Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè è ðàçðàáîòêà ðåêîìåíäàöèé ïî çàùèòå è îõðàíå ïòèö, â òîì ÷èñëå âèäîâ, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÊ».  õîäå ðåàëèçàöèè äàííîãî äîãîâîðà áûëè ïîëó÷åíû ñëåäóþùèå ðåçóëüòàòû: 1. Ïîäãîòîâëåí êðàòêèé îáçîð íîðìàòèâíîé áàçû ÐÊ ïî îõðàíå æèâîòíîãî ìèðà ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è. 2. Ïðîâåäåíî âûáîðî÷íîå äâóêðàòíîå (âåñíîé è îñåíüþ) îáñëåäîâàíèå ðàçëè÷íûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ÂË 6–10 ê ñ öåëüþ âûÿâëåíèÿ ôàêòîâ ãèáåëè ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì è îöåíêè ñòåïåíè îïàñíîñòè ðàçëè÷íûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ÂË äëÿ ïòèö. 3. Ïðîâåä¸í àíàëèç äàííûõ, ïîëó÷åííûõ â õîäå îáñëåäîâàíèÿ; äàíà îáúåêòèâíàÿ îöåíêà óùåðáà îò ãèáåëè ïòèö ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè ÂË ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòè íà òåððèòîðèè Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè. 4. Ñ öåëüþ ñîçäàíèÿ øèðîêîé îáùåñòâåííîé ïîääåðæêè è ôîðìèðîâàíèÿ ïîçèòèâíîãî îáùåñòâåííîãî ìíåíèÿ ïî ðåøåíèþ ïðîáëåìû ìàññîâîé ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ÂË îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì â Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè è Êàçàõñòàíå â öåëîì, ïîäãîòîâëåí è òèðàæèðîâàí ïîëíîöâåòíûé ïëàêàò «Ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè ïòèö ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è», ôîðìàòà À2, òèðàæîì 1000 ýêçåìïëÿðîâ. Ñîâìåñòíî ñî ñú¸ìî÷íîé ãðóïïîé ïðîãðàììû «Ýêîëîãè÷åñêàÿ ýêñïåäèöèÿ «Ýêî – Àòûðàó» áûë ïîäãîòîâëåí è îñóùåñòâë¸í âûåçä íà îäíó èç ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ÂË â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ãîðîäà Àòûðàó. ÒÂ-ñþæåò «Ïðîáëåìà îõðàíû ïòèö ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è» òðàíñëèðîâàëñÿ íà êàíàëå «Êàçàõñòàí – Àòûðàó» 20 îêòÿáðÿ 2011 ãîäà. Êðîìå òîãî, áûëà îïóáëèêîâàíà ñòàòüÿ â ïðèëîæåíèè «Ãîðîäñêîé ïàðê» ê ãàçåòå «Àê æàéûê»29. Ìåòîäèêà  õîäå ðàáîòû íàä ïðîåêòîì îñóùåñòâëÿëèñü ïîëåâûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ, êàìåðàëüíàÿ îáðàáîòêà ïîëó÷åííûõ äàííûõ, àíàëèç çàêîíîäàòåëüíîé áàçû, ðåãóëèðóþùåé âîïðîñû îõðàíû ïòèö ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè ÂË. Îñìîòð ÂË ïðîâîäèëñÿ èññëåäîâàòåëüñêîé ãðóïïîé èç äâóõ ÷åëîâåê èç îêíà àâòîìîáèëÿ ÓÀÇ, äâèæóùåãîñÿ âäîëü ÂË íà 29

http://azh.kz/news/view/7482

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

105

Ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis), ñèäÿùèé íà îòâëåêàþùåé Ò-îáðàçíîé ïðèñàäå, íå ïîãèáàåò. Îäíàêî, ïîä àíàëîãè÷íûìè îïîðàìè íàéäåíû îñòàíêè ìíîæåñòâà ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö. Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî ïòèöû íå âñåãäà èñïîëüçóþò ïðèñàäó è ãèáíóò ïðè ïîïûòêå ñåñòü íà ñàìó çàçåìë¸ííóþ òðàâåðñó. Ôîòî Ì. Ïåñòîâà. Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis), sitting on the T-shaped perch is not killed by electrocution. However there were many bird remains found beneath similar poles. Obviously birds not always use the perch and die trying to sit down on the grounded crossarm. Photo by M. Pestov.

plan, we successfully made an agreement, entitled, “Assessing the impact of overhead power lines in the medium voltage range on birds of the Atyrau district and developing recommendations for the protection and conservation of birds, including species listed in the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan”. During the implementation of the agreement, the following results were achieved: 1. A concise overview of the legal regulation in Kazakhstan on the protection of wildlife when servicing PL. 2. Two (spring and autumn) sample surveys of various sections of 6–10 kV PL were conducted, with the aim of detecting bird deaths from electrocution, and assessing a risk for birds of various PL. 3. Analysis of data obtained during the survey was conducted, and there is an objective estimation of damage caused by the bird mortality caused by electrocution and collision on PL in the medium voltage range in the Atyrau district.


106

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé Ðàçëè÷íûå âàðèàíòû îïîð ÂË 10 êÂ: À – òèïè÷íàÿ äëÿ Êàçàõñòàíà ÂË 10 êÂ, íå îáîðóäîâàííàÿ ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè,  – ÂË 10 ê êàòîäíîé çàùèòû òðóáîïðîâîäà «Ñðåäíÿÿ Àçèÿ – Öåíòð» êîìïàíèè «ÊàçÒðàíñÃàç», íà ó÷àñòêå îò ïîñ. Êóëüñàðû äî ïîñ. Ìàêàò, Ñ – îïîðà êàòîäíîé çàùèòû òðóáîïðîâîäà, ïðèíàäëåæàùåãî êîìïàíèè «ÊàçÒðàíñÎéë», íà ó÷àñòêå îò ã. Àòûðàó â ñòîðîíó ïîñ. Èíäåáîðãñêèé, îáîðóäîâàíà òðàâåðñîé «ëàñòî÷êèí õâîñò» ñ ïîäâåñíûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè; ðàññòîÿíèå îò âåðõíåãî òîêîíåñóùåãî ïðîâîäà äî íèæíåé ãîðèçîíòàëüíîé ïåðåêëàäèíû òðàâåðñû íå ïðåâûøàåò 60 ñì, ÷òî íåäîñòàòî÷íî äëÿ îáåñïå÷åíèÿ áåçîïàñíîñòè êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö, D – îïîðà êàòîäíîé çàùèòû òðóáîïðîâîäà «Òåíãèç – Íîâîðîññèéñê», ïðèíàäëåæàùåãî êîìïàíèè «Êàñïèéñêèé òðóáîïðîâîäíûé êîíñîðöèóì», â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ã. Àòûðàó, îáîðóäîâàíà ïîäâåñíûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè; ðàññòîÿíèÿ îò çàçåìë¸ííûõ ýëåìåíòîâ òðàâåðñ äî òîêîíåñóùèõ ïðîâîäîâ äîñòàòî÷íî âåëèêè, ÷òî äåëàåò äàííóþ êîíñòðóêöèþ çíà÷èòåëüíî ìåíåå îïàñíîé äëÿ ïòèö, õîòÿ è íå èñêëþ÷àåò ïîëíîñòüþ âåðîÿòíîñòü èõ ãèáåëè îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì. Ôîòî Ì. Ïåñòîâà. Different design of electric poles of PL 10 kV: À – typical for Kazakhstan PL 10 kV without bird protection devices,  – PL 10 kV of the cathode protection of the “Middle Asia – Centre” pipeline of the “KazTransGas” company, at the area between the Kulsary and Makat settlements, Ñ – electric pole of PL of the cathodic protection of a pipeline that is owned by the “KazTransOil” company going from Atyrau, to the Indeborsky settlement, it is with suspended insulators; but the gap between the upper energized wire and lower horizontal part of the crossarm is less than 60 cm, that is a hazard to large birds of prey, D – electric pole of PL of the cathodic protection of the “Tengiz – Novorossiysk” pipeline that is owned by the “Caspian Pipeline Consortium” in the vicinity of Atyrau. It is with suspended insulators, and the gap between grounded crossarms and energized wires is rather large, that makes it safer, but not excludes a possibility of electrocution. Photos by M. Pestov.

ðàññòîÿíèè 5–30 ìåòðîâ ñî ñêîðîñòüþ äî 40 êì/÷àñ.  ñëó÷àå íåâîçìîæíîñòè ïðîåçäà îòäåëüíûå ó÷àñòêè ÂË îñìàòðèâàëèñü íà ïåøåì ìàðøðóòå. Ïîäîáíûé ýêñïðåññìåòîä ó÷¸òà ïîçâîëÿåò çà îòíîñèòåëüíî êîðîòêèé ïðîìåæóòîê âðåìåíè îñìîòðåòü çíà÷èòåëüíûå ïî ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòè ó÷àñòêè ÂË è â óñëîâèÿõ íåâûñîêîãî è çà÷àñòóþ ðàçðåæåííîãî òðàâÿíèñòîãî ïîêðîâà ïîä îïîðàìè ÂË îáåñïå÷èâàåò îáíàðóæåíèå ïîäàâëÿþùåãî áîëüøèíñòâà îñòàíêîâ ñðåäíèõ è êðóïíûõ ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ â òåêóùåì ãîäó. Îñòàíêè ìåëêèõ ïòèö è îñòàíêè ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ â ïðåäûäóùèå ãîäû, âûÿâëÿþòñÿ ÷àñòè÷íî.  õîäå îñìîòðà îïèñûâàëèñü è ôîòîãðàôèðîâàëèñü êîíñòðóêòèâíûå îñîáåííîñòè îïîð, òðàâåðñ, èçîëÿòîðîâ è ïðîâîäîâ, èñïîëüçóåìûõ íà äàííîé ÂË. Òàêæå ôîòîãðàôèðîâàëèñü ðàçëè÷íûå èíôîðìàöèîííûå òàáëè÷êè è íàäïèñè íà îïîðàõ è òðàíñ-

4. In order to gain broad public support and to create a positive public opinion on the problem of mass bird deaths by electrocution in the Atyrau district, and Kazakhstan as a whole, we have prepared and printed a poster, went onto several television shows on the subject, and published an article. Methods During implementation of the project we carried out surveys, processed the data obtained, analyzed the legal regulation, regarding the bird protection during the operating of PL. The field team of two people conducted an inspection from the window of a vehicle UAZ moving parallel to the PL at a distance of 5–30 m at a speed of 40 km/h. In case it being impossible to drive, some areas of PL were examined on a pedestrian route. Such an express-method of count allows for a relatively short period of time of examine large


Proceedings of Conferences ôîðìàòîðàõ ÂË, ïîçâîëÿþùèå îïðåäåëèòü ïðèíàäëåæíîñòü äàííîé ÂË êîíêðåòíîé îðãàíèçàöèè.  ñëó÷àå îáíàðóæåíèÿ îñòàíêîâ ïòèö ïîä îïîðàìè è ïðîâîäàìè ÂË îïðåäåëÿëèñü ïðèìåðíîå âðåìÿ ãèáåëè ïòèöû (ïî ñòåïåíè ñîõðàííîñòè îñòàíêîâ) è âèäîâàÿ ïðèíàäëåæíîñòü îñòàíêîâ, ïðîâîäèëîñü èõ ôîòîãðàôèðîâàíèå ñ íàâèãàòîðîì Garmin, íà êîòîðîì îòìå÷àëèñü êîîðäèíàòû îáíàðóæåíèÿ äàííûõ îñòàíêîâ, è ôîòîãðàôèðîâàíèå íà ôîíå ÂË, íà êîòîðîé ïîãèáëà ïòèöà. Âñå äàííûå çàíîñèëèñü â ïîëåâîé äíåâíèê. Ñ 4 ïî 7 ìàÿ 2011 ãîäà áûëî ïðîâåäåíî âûáîðî÷íîå îáñëåäîâàíèå ÂË 6–10 ê íà òåððèòîðèè Ìàêàòñêîãî, Æîëûîéñêîãî, Êûçûëêóãèíñêîãî, Ìàõàìáåòñêîãî è Èíäåðñêîãî ðàéîíîâ Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè ïî ìàðøðóòó: Àòûðàó – Êîðñàê – íèçîâüÿ ð. Ýìáà – Êóëüñàðû – Ìàêàò – Èíäåáîðãñêèé – Àòûðàó. Îñìîòðåíû ÂË, ïðèíàäëåæàùèå êîìïàíèÿì ÊàçÒðàíñÎéë, ÊàçÒðàíñÃàç, Êàñïèéñêèé òðóáîïðîâîäíûé êîíñîðöèóì (ÊÒÊ-Ê) è ÀÄÆÈÏ. Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü îñìîòðåííûõ ÂË – îêîëî 300 êì. Òåððèòîðèàëüíàÿ ïðèâÿçêà îáñëåäîâàííûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ÂË îòðàæåíà íà ðèñ. 1.  ñîñòàâ èññëåäîâàòåëüñêîé ãðóïïû âîøëè Ìàðê Ïåñòîâ (ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð «Äðîíò», ã. Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä, ÐÔ) è Ìåðåêå Øàëõàðîâ – ãëàâíûé ñïåöèàëèñò Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòíîé òåððèòîðèàëüíîé èíñïåêöèè ëåñíîãî è îõîòíè÷üåãî õîçÿéñòâà. Ñ 28 ñåíòÿáðÿ ïî 7 îêòÿáðÿ 2011 ãîäà áûëî ïðîâåäåíî ïîâòîðíîå îáñëåäîâàíèå ÂË ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòè ïðèìåðíî ïî òîìó æå ìàðøðóòó. Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü îñìîòðåííûõ ÂË ñîñòàâèëà îêîëî 350 êì. Îáñëåäîâàíèå ïðîâåäåíî ãðóïïîé â ñîñòàâå Ìàðêà Ïåñòîâà è Ô¸äîðà Ñàðàåâà

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

107

sectors of PL by length, and conditions of low and often sparse grass under the power poles, provide a chance of discovery of the remains of the vast majority of medium and large birds that died this year. The remains of small birds, and the remains of birds killed in previous year have been partially identified. During the inspection, design of poles, crossarms, insulators and wires used in this power line were described and photographed. A variety of information boards and signs on poles and transformers of the PL were also photographed, in order to determine which company owns the line. In detecting the remains of birds underneath the power poles, the approximate time of death of the birds was determined (by the degree of preservation of the remains), and identification of the species of the corpse was carried out by taking photographs with the “Garmin” GPS-navigator, on which the co-ordinates of the discovery of these remains were marked, as well as photographs against the backdrop of the PL, on which the bird was killed. All the data was entered in a field diary. From 4 to 7 May 2011, a sample survey was conducted of 6–10 kV PL in the Makat, Zhylyoi, Kyzylkoga, Makhambet and Inder regions of the Atyrau district, along the route: Atyrau – Korsak – the lower reaches of the Emba river – Kulsary – Makat – Indeborgsky – Atyrau. PL owned by KazTransOil, KazTransGas, the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC-K) and Agip KCO were examined. The total length of the examined lines was approximately 300 km. The location of the PL surveyed is shown in figure 1. The field team included Mark Pestov PhD (Environmental Center “Dront”, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) and Mereke Shalhorov, chief specialist of the Atyrau Territorial Inspectorate for Forestry and Hunting. A re-examination of PL was held along roughly the same route from 28 September to 7 October, 2011. The total length of the PL examined was about 350 km. The survey was conducted by a team of Mark Pestov and Fedor Saraev, the head of the Zooparasite Laboratory at the Atyrau Anti-Plague Station. Information on the extent and location of the surveyed PL, as well as the number of dead birds found underneath the poles is shown in the table 1.

Ðèñ. 1. Ðàéîí ðàáîò è òî÷êè ñáîðîâ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö. Fig. 1. Location of the surveyed region and points where dead birds were collected.


108

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24 – çàâåäóþùåãî çîîïàðàçèòîëîãè÷åñêîé ëàáîðàòîðèåé Àòûðàóñêîé ïðîòèâî÷óìíîé ñòàíöèè. Èíôîðìàöèÿ î ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòè è ëîêàëèçàöèè îáñëåäîâàííûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ÂË, à òàêæå î êîëè÷åñòâå îáíàðóæåííûõ ïîä íèìè ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö, ïðèâåäåíà â òàáë. 1. Ðåçóëüòàòû Êðàòêèé îáçîð íîðìàòèâíîé áàçû ÐÊ ïî îõðàíå æèâîòíîãî ìèðà ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è  õîäå êîíñóëüòàöèé ñ þðèñòàìè ðàçëè÷íûõ ãîñóäàðñòâåííûõ ïðèðîäîîõðàííûõ è êðóïíûõ êîììåð÷åñêèõ îðãàíèçàöèé ÐÊ, à òàêæå çíàêîìñòâà ñ ïðèðîäîîõðàííûì çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâîì ÐÊ â Èíòåðíåòå, óñòàíîâëåíî, ÷òî ïðîáëåìà îõðàíû æèâîòíîãî ìèðà ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è çàòðàãèâàåòñÿ â 2 âàæíåéøèõ íîðìàòèâíûõ àêòàõ ÐÊ. Çàêîí Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàçàõñòàí îò 9 èþëÿ 2004 ãîäà ¹593-II «Îá îõðàíå, âîñïðîèçâîäñòâå è èñïîëüçîâàíèè æèâîòíîãî ìèðà»: ñòàòüÿ 17.2. «Ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè, ðàçìåùåíèè, ïðîåêòèðîâàíèè è ñòðîèòåëüñòâå

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé Results A brief overview of legal regulation of Kazakhstan on wildlife protection during maintenance of overhead power lines During consultation with various state environmental lawyers and large commercial organizations of Kazakhstan, as well as being familiar with the environmental legislation of Kazakhstan, it was established, that the issue of wildlife protection during maintenance of power lines is addressed in the two most important regulations of Kazakhstan: The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan of July 9th, 2004 ¹593-II “On the Protection, Reproduction and Use of Animals”. The Environmental Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan (with amendments as of 21/01/2010). From the texts of the articles of the Law “On the Protection, Reproduction and Use of Animals”, and the Environmental Code, it is made clear that organizations involved in the maintenance, design and construction of power lines are required to implement effective measures to prevent bird deaths from electrocution. In addition to this, the Government Decree

Òàáë. 1. Ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ó÷àñòêîâ ÂË (6–10 êÂ), îáñëåäîâàííûõ íà òåððèòîðèè Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè â 2011 ã. Table 1. Lengths of PL (6–10 kV), examined in the territory of the Atyrau district in 2011.

Íàèìåíîâàíèå îðãàíèçàöèè-âëàäåëüöà ÂË Company – owner of the PL ÊàçÒðàíñÎéë / KazTransOil ÊàçÒðàíñÎéë / KazTransOil ÊÒÊ-Ê / CPC-K ÀÄÆÈÏ-ÊÊÎ / Agip KCO ÊàçÒðàíñÃàç / KazTransGas ÊàçÒðàíñÃàç / KazTransGas ÊàçÒðàíñÃàç / KazTransGas Âñåãî / Total

Ëîêàëèçàöèÿ îáñëåäîâàííîãî ó÷àñòêà ÂË Location of the examined PL Àòûðàó – Êîðñàê Atyrau – Korsak Èíäåáîðãñêèé – Àòûðàó Indeborgsky – Atyrau Àòûðàó – íèçîâüÿ Ýìáû Atyray – lower reaches of the Emba river Êàðàáàòàí Karabatan Êóëüñàðû – Ìàêàò Kulsary – Makat Ìàêàò – Èíäåáîðãñêèé Makat – Indeborgsky Äîññîð – Ðåäóòü Dossor – Redut

Ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü Êîëè÷åñòâî îáñëåäîâàííûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö: ÂË, êì îáùåå / ñðåäíåå íà Length of the examined 10 êì ÂË PL, km Number of dead birds: total / average âñåãî* per 10 km of PL 05.2011 10.2011 total* 6/1,5 30 40 40 0/0

50

50

0/0

40

40

40

0/0

10

10

14/1.9

60

75

75

96/14.1

110

135

135

20/3.3

60

60

136/3.3

300

350

410

* Ïðèìå÷àíèå: ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ó÷àñòêîâ, îáñëåäîâàííûõ âåñíîé è îñåíüþ íà îäíîì è òîì æå ó÷àñòêå ÂË (ãîðèçîíòàëüíûå ñòðîêè òàáëèöû), íå ñóììèðóåòñÿ, òàê êàê áîëüøèíñòâî «âåñåííèõ» ó÷àñòêîâ ïîëíîñòüþ ïîâòîðíî îáñëåäîâàëèñü îñåíüþ; ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, çà ãîä áåð¸òñÿ íàèáîëüøèé – «îñåííèé» ïîêàçàòåëü. * Notes: lengths of sections, examined during spring and autumn at the same area of PL (rows of the table), are not sum up, because the majority of “spring” areas completely re-examined in the autumn; thus, the largest – “autumn” values are taken for the year.


Proceedings of Conferences æåëåçíîäîðîæíûõ, øîññåéíûõ, òðóáîïðîâîäíûõ è äðóãèõ òðàíñïîðòíûõ ìàãèñòðàëåé, ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è è ñâÿçè, êàíàëîâ, ïëîòèí è èíûõ âîäîõîçÿéñòâåííûõ ñîîðóæåíèé äîëæíû ðàçðàáàòûâàòüñÿ è îñóùåñòâëÿòüñÿ ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ, îáåñïå÷èâàþùèå ñîõðàíåíèå ñðåäû îáèòàíèÿ, óñëîâèé ðàçìíîæåíèÿ, ïóòåé ìèãðàöèè è ìåñò êîíöåíòðàöèè æèâîòíûõ». Ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé êîäåêñ Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàçàõñòàí (ñ èçìåíåíèÿìè è äîïîëíåíèÿìè ïî ñîñòîÿíèþ íà 21.01.2010 ã.): ñòàòüè 237.2. «Çàïðåùàþòñÿ ââåäåíèå â ýêñïëóàòàöèþ îáúåêòîâ è ïðèìåíåíèå òåõíîëîãèé áåç îáåñïå÷åíèÿ èõ ñðåäñòâàìè çàùèòû æèâîòíûõ è ñðåäû èõ îáèòàíèÿ» è 237.5. Ôèçè÷åñêèå è þðèäè÷åñêèå ëèöà ïðè îñóùåñòâëåíèè ëþáîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè, êîòîðàÿ âëèÿåò èëè ìîæåò ïîâëèÿòü íà ñîñòîÿíèå æèâîòíîãî ìèðà, îáÿçàíû îáåñïå÷èâàòü îõðàíó ñðåäû îáèòàíèÿ, óñëîâèé ðàçìíîæåíèÿ è ïóòåé ìèãðàöèè æèâîòíûõ, à òàêæå îñóùåñòâëÿòü ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ äëÿ ïðåäîòâðàùåíèÿ ãèáåëè æèâîòíûõ âî âðåìÿ îñóùåñòâëåíèÿ ïðîèçâîäñòâåííûõ ïðîöåññîâ, â òîì ÷èñëå ïðè … ýêñïëóàòàöèè ýëåêòðè÷åñêîé ñåòè …» Òàêèì îáðàçîì, èç òåêñòà äàííûõ ñòàòåé Çàêîíà ÐÊ «Îá îõðàíå, âîñïðîèçâîäñòâå è èñïîëüçîâàíèè æèâîòíîãî ìèðà» è Ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî êîäåêñà ÐÊ îäíîçíà÷íî ñëåäóåò, ÷òî îðãàíèçàöèè, çàíèìàþùèåñÿ ýêñïëóàòàöèåé, ïðîåêòèðîâàíèåì è ñòðîèòåëüñòâîì âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è, îáÿçàíû îñóùåñòâëÿòü ýôôåêòèâíûå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ äëÿ ïðåäîòâðàùåíèÿ ãèáåëè ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì. Êðîìå òîãî, äåéñòâóåò ïîñòàíîâëåíèå Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàçàõñòàí îò 4 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2001 ãîäà ¹1140 «Îá óòâåðæäåíèè ðàçìåðîâ âîçìåùåíèÿ âðåäà, ïðè÷èí¸ííîãî íàðóøåíèåì çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâà îá îõðàíå, âîñïðîèçâîäñòâå è èñïîëüçîâàíèè æèâîòíîãî ìèðà» (ñ èçìåíåíèÿìè, âíåñ¸ííûìè ïîñòàíîâëåíèÿìè Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà ÐÊ îò 08.01.04 ã. ¹18; îò 05.03.04 ã. ¹282).  ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ ýòèì ïîñòàíîâëåíèåì ðàçìåð óùåðáà (âîçìåùåíèÿ âðåäà) îò ãèáåëè (óíè÷òîæåíèÿ) õèùíûõ ïòèö, êîòîðûå íàèáîëåå ÷àñòî ñòðàäàþò ïðè êîíòàêòàõ ñ ÂË, ñîñòàâëÿåò îò 5 (ìåëêèå ñîêîëà) äî 700 (ñîêîë-áàëîáàí) ìåñÿ÷íûõ ðàñ÷¸òíûõ ïîêàçàòåëåé (MPÏ) çà îäèí ýêçåìïëÿð (â 2011 ãîäó 1 ÌÐÏ â Êàçàõñòàíå óñòàíîâëåí â 1512 òåíãå èëè îêîëî 10 äîëëàðîâ ÑØÀ). Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî äàííûé íîðìàòèâíûé àêò ïîçâîëÿåò ðàññ÷èòàòü ñóììó óùåðáà îò ãèáåëè ïòèö ïðè êîíòàêòàõ ñ ÂË è ïðåäúÿâèòü èñê î âîçìåùåíèè ýòîãî óùåðáà îðãàíèçàöèÿì – âëàäåëüöàì ÂË.

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

109

of the Republic of Kazakhstan on September 4th, 2001 ¹1140 “On the Approval of the Size of Compensation of Harm caused by the Violation of Legislation on the Protection, Reproduction and Use of Animals” (as amended by the decrees of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan on 08/01/04, ¹18, and on 05/03/04, ¹282) comes to the fore. In accordance with this decree the amount of damage (reparation) from deaths (destruction) of birds of prey, which are most often affected by contact with power lines, ranges from 5 (small falcons) to 700 (Saker Falcons) Monthly Calculated Indices (MCI) for one bird (in 2011, 1 MCI was established in Kazakhstan as 1512 tenge, or about 10 USD). It is clear that this legislative act allows to calculate the amount of damage caused by the death of birds in contact with PL and to sue the owners of PL for damage. Unfortunately, the legislation of Kazakhstan lacks a legal act specifying these important provisions and prescribing specific rules for the maintenance of PL to ensure the safety of birds. In the Russian legal regulation, such a document does exist. This is a Government Resolution dated August 13, 1996 ¹997 “On the Approval of Requirements to prevent loss of wildlife during the implementation of manufacturing processes, as well as during the operating of highways, pipelines, communication lines and power lines”. These requirements form a realistic and necessary basis for addressing the death of birds on PL, but they are in serious need of revision in light of world experience in the solving the problem of preventing mass deaths of birds during maintenance of PL in the last 15 years. Obviously, the development and adoption of a similar regulation in the Republic of Kazakhstan is a priority for the near future. Assessment of damage from bird deaths caused by electrocution on the medium voltage PL in the Atyrau district As a result of the survey, bird deaths were established at the following sites: 1. The power line of the cathodic protection that runs along the gas pipeline “Central Asia – Center” and is owned by KazTransGas, in the area spanning from the regional center of Kulsary to the regional center of Makat, and the area from the regional center of Makat to the regional center of Indeborgsky; 2. The PL of cathodic protection running alongside the gas pipeline “Makat-Grozny”, which is owned by KazTransGas, and is in the area from the Doccor village to the Redut village;


110

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

Ñòåïíûå îðëû, ïîãèáøèå îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì íà ÂË 10 êÂ: ñëåâà è â öåíòðå âíèçó – ìîëîäàÿ ïòèöà, ïîãèáøàÿ íà ëèíèè êàòîäíîé çàùèòû íåôòåïðîâîäà «Óçåíü – Àòûðàó – Ñàìàðà», ïðèíàäëåæàùåé êîìïàíèè «ÊàçÒðàíñÎéë», íà ó÷àñòêå îò ã. Àòûðàó â ñòîðîíó ïîñ. Êîðñàê (05.10.2011), â öåíòðå ââåðõó – âçðîñëàÿ ïòèöà, ïîãèáøàÿ íà ëèíèè êàòîäíîé çàùèòû òðóáîïðîâîäà «Ìàêàò – Ñåâåðíûé Êàâêàç», ïðèíàäëåæàùåé êîìïàíèè «ÊàçÒðàíñÃàç», íà ó÷àñòêå Äîññîð – Ðåäóòü (28.09.2011), ñïðàâà – âçðîñëàÿ ïòèöà, ïîãèáøàÿ íà ëèíèè êàòîäíîé çàùèòû òðóáîïðîâîäà «Ñðåäíÿÿ Àçèÿ – Öåíòð», ïðèíàäëåæàùåé êîìïàíèè «ÊàçÒðàíñÃàç», íà ó÷àñòêå îò ïîñ. Ìàêàò äî ïîñ. Èíäåáîðãñêèé (06.10.2011); îæîã íà êðûëå ñòåïíîãî îðëà îäíîçíà÷íî ñâèäåòåëüñòâóåò î åãî ãèáåëè îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì. Ôîòî Ì. Ïåñòîâà. Steppe Eagle killed by electrocution on PL 10 kV: left and center at the bottom – young bird, died at the PL of the cathodic protection of the “Uzen – Atyrau – Samara” pipeline, that is owned by the “KazTransOil” company, at the area from Atyrau to the Korsak settlement (05/10/2011), center at the top – adult, killed by electrocution at the PL of the cathodic protection of the “Makat – Northern Caucasus” pipeline, that is owned by “KazTransGas” company at the area Dossor – Redut (28/09/2011), right – adult, killed by electrocution at the PL of the cathodic protection of the “Middle Asia – Center” pipeline, that is owned by “KazTransGas” company at the area from the Makat settlement to Indeborsky settlement (06/10/2011); burn on the wing of the Steppe Eagle clearly indicated it’s death from electrocution. Photos by M. Pestov.

Ê ñîæàëåíèþ, â çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâå ÐÊ îòñóòñòâóåò íîðìàòèâíûé àêò, êîíêðåòèçèðóþùèé äàííûå âàæíûå ïîëîæåíèÿ è ïðåäïèñûâàþùèé êîíêðåòíûå ïðàâèëà ýêñïëóàòàöèè ÂË, îáåñïå÷èâàþùèå áåçîïàñíîñòü ïòèö.  ðîññèéñêîé íîðìàòèâíîé áàçå ïîäîáíûé äîêóìåíò èìååòñÿ. Ýòî Ïîñòàíîâëåíèå Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà ÐÔ îò 13 àâãóñòà 1996 ã. ¹997 «Îá óòâåðæäåíèè Òðåáîâàíèé ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè îáúåêòîâ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà ïðè îñóùåñòâëåíèè ïðîèçâîäñòâåííûõ ïðîöåññîâ, à òàêæå ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè òðàíñïîðòíûõ ìàãèñòðàëåé, òðóáîïðîâîäîâ, ëèíèé ñâÿçè è ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è». Äàííûå Òðåáîâàíèÿ ÿâëÿþòñÿ ðåàëüíûì è íåîáõîäèìûì îñíîâàíèåì äëÿ ðåøåíèÿ ïðîáëåìû ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ÂË, îäíàêî íóæäàþòñÿ â ñåðü¸çíîé äîðàáîòêå ñ ó÷¸òîì ìèðîâîãî îïûòà ðåøåíèÿ ïðîáëåìû ïðåäîòâðàùåíèÿ ìàññîâîé ãèáåëè ïòèö ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè ÂË çà ïîñëåäíèå 15 ëåò. Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî ðàçðàáîòêà è ïðèíÿòèå àíàëîãè÷íîãî íîðìàòèâíîãî àêòà â Ðåñïóáëèêå Êàçàõñòàí ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðèîðèòåòíîé çàäà÷åé áëèæàéøåãî áóäóùåãî.

3. The PL line of the cathodic protection that runs along the pipeline “Uzen–Atyrau– Samara”, which is owned by KazTransOil, and is in the area from Atyrau, in the direction of the Korsak village. Generalized results of the survey are presented in table 2. On the PL owned by Agip and CPC-K, actual bird deaths have not been established. However, it should be emphasized that the Agip’s PL are, in their design, clearly hazardous to birds and can cause deaths from electrocution. The absence of dead birds in these areas may be due, either to insufficient sampling, low numbers of birds in this area in this season, or the possible practice of elimination of dead bird corpses from PL by the company which, according to unconfirmed polling data, can take place. Among the PL we examined, the safest lines for birds were owned by CPC-K, as they are partially mounted with suspended insulators with rather large gaps between the energized wires and crossarms, and are partially retrofitted with LV-aerial bundled cable. The latest design of PL is the safest


Proceedings of Conferences Îöåíêà óùåðáà îò ãèáåëè ïòèö ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè ÂË ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòè íà òåððèòîðèè Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè  ðåçóëüòàòå ïðîâåä¸ííîãî îáñëåäîâàíèÿ óñòàíîâëåíû ôàêòû ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ñëåäóþùèõ ó÷àñòêàõ: 1. ÂË êàòîäíîé çàùèòû, èäóùåé âäîëü ãàçîïðîâîäà «Ñðåäíÿÿ Àçèÿ – Öåíòð», ïðèíàäëåæàùåé êîìïàíèè ÊàçÒðàíñÃàç, íà ó÷àñòêå îò ðàéîííîãî öåíòðà Êóëüñàðû äî ðàéîííîãî öåíòðà Ìàêàò è íà ó÷àñòêå îò ðàéîííîãî öåíòðà Ìàêàò äî ðàéîííîãî öåíòðà Èíäåáîðãñêèé; 2. ÂË êàòîäíîé çàùèòû, èäóùåé âäîëü ãàçîïðîâîäà «Ìàêàò – Ãðîçíûé», ïðèíàäëåæàùåé êîìïàíèè ÊàçÒðàíñÃàç, íà ó÷àñòêå îò ïîñ. Äîññîð äî ïîñ. Ðåäóòü; 3. ÂË êàòîäíîé çàùèòû, èäóùåé âäîëü íåôòåïðîâîäà «Óçåíü – Àòûðàó – Ñàìàðà», ïðèíàäëåæàùåé êîìïàíèè ÊÀçÒðàíñÎéë íà ó÷àñòêå îò ã. Àòûðàó â ñòîðîíó ïîñ. Êîðñàê. Îáîáù¸ííûå ðåçóëüòàòû îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ïðåäñòàâëåíû â òàáë. 2. Íà ÂË, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ êîìïàíèÿì Àäæèï è ÊÒÊ-Ê, ôàêòû ãèáåëè ïòèö íå óñòàíîâëåíû. Îäíàêî, ñëåäóåò ïîä÷åðêíóòü, ÷òî ëèíèè ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è êîìïàíèé Àäæèï ïî ñâîåé êîíñòðóêöèè áåçóñëîâíî ÿâëÿþòñÿ îïàñíûìè äëÿ ïòèö è íå ìîãóò íå ñòàíîâèòüñÿ ïðè÷èíîé èõ ãèáåëè îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì. Îòñóòñòâèå ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö íà îñìîòðåííîì ó÷àñòêå

Îïîðà ÂË 10 ê êàòîäíîé çàùèòû òðóáîïðîâîäà «Òåíãèç – Íîâîðîññèéñê», ïðèíàäëåæàùåé êîìïàíèè «Êàñïèéñêèé òðóáîïðîâîäíûé êîíñîðöèóì», â íèçîâüÿõ ð. Ýìáà, îáîðóäîâàíà ñàìîíåñóùèì èçîëèðîâàííûì ïðîâîäîì (ÑÈÏ-3) íà øòûðåâûõ èçîëÿòîðàõ. Äàííàÿ êîíñòðóêöèÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè èñêëþ÷àåò âîçìîæíîñòü ãèáåëè ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì è ÿâëÿåòñÿ îïòèìàëüíîé. Ôîòî Ì. Ïåñòîâà. Electric pole of PL 10 kV of the cathodic protection of the “Tengizç – Novorossiysk” pipeline, that is owned by the “Caspian Pipeline Consortium” company, located in the lower reaches of the Emba river, is equipped with LVaerial bundled cable, suspended by upright insulators. Such design of the safest for birds. Photo by M. Pestov.

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

111

for birds. The positive experience CPC-K’s PL retrofitting, that is safe for birds, should be carefully studied and recommended for widespread use by other environmentally responsible companies. Thus, the two-fold (spring and autumn) survey of 410 km of PL 6–10 kV identified the deaths of 136 birds, belonging to 18 species. At the same time, only the birds that died during the last year, beginning in winter 2010–2011, were taken into account. In addition to this, during a PL survey we conducted, we found numerous bones of large birds of prey killed by electrocution before 2010. However, since it is possible to establish their species and time of death, they are not included in the survey. The majority of dead birds were Steppe Eagles (Aquila nipalensis), which made up 46.3% of the total number of birds, followed by the Long-Legged Buzzards (Buteo rufinus), 30.1% and Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), 6.6%. The remaining 7 raptor species (taking into account the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo)) make up 8.8%. Birds other than birds of prey made up no more than 8.1% of the dead. Therefore, over 90% of birds dying due to contact with PL, are raptors. It is obvious that even conducting two surveys for one year gives substantially understated values, as many of the dead birds are disposed of by predators and scavengers. For example, during spring the surveys of the area of the PL of the cathodic protection along the “Central Asia – Center” pipeline (KazTransGas), with regards to fresh remains (primarily – whole carcasses), 21 carcasses of medium and large birds of prey (from the Common Buzzard to the White-Tailed Eagle) were noted. During the autumn survey of the same electric poles, beneath which in the spring these remains were found, we discovered bone and feather remains of only 8 birds, and in 13 cases we failed to find even feathers. Thus, for the period from May to September (5 months), about 60% of medium and large birds of prey have been completely disposed of. It is obvious that the disposal percentage of small birds (crows and smaller) is even higher, so they are rarely detected. At the same time, in the autumn, in this area of PL, 48 “new” remains of birds of prey were found that died after our spring survey. Therefore, in total, 69 (21+48) remains of medium and large birds of prey were found at the site in spring and autumn. The “coefficient of undercount” in the autumn survey was at least 20%. In reality, this figure is probably much higher and could be up to 40 or


112

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

Òàáë. 2. Ðåçóëüòàòû îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ÂË 6–10 ê íà òåððèòîðèè Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè â ìàå è ñåíòÿáðå 2011 ãîäà. Table 2. The Results of examination of PL 6–10 kV in the territory of the Atyrau district in May and September 2011.

Âèäû ïòèö / Species Ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis) Ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca) Áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos) Îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò (Haliaeetus albicilla) Êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) Êàíþê (Buteo buteo) ׸ðíûé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans) Áîëîòíûé ëóíü (Circus aeruginosus) Ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) Ôèëèí (Bubo bubo) Ëåáåäü-øèïóí (Cygnus olor)* Ñåðûé æóðàâëü (Grus grus)* Ñòðåïåò (Tetrax tetrax)* Ñðåäíèé êðîíøíåï (Numenius phaeopus)* ×àéêà õîõîòóíüÿ (Larus cacchinans)* Ñåðàÿ âîðîíà (Corvus cornix) Ãðà÷ (Corvus frugilegus) Ìàëûé æàâîðîíîê (Calandrella brachydactyla)* Âñåãî / Total

Êîëè÷åñòâî îáíàðóæåííûõ ïîãèáøèõ Ñðåäíåå êîëè÷åñòâî ýêçåìïëÿðîâ ýêçåìïëÿðîâ íà 10 êì ÂË Ðàçìåð óùåðáà Number of found carAverage number of car(ÌÐÏ) casses casses per 10 km of PL Damage (MCI) âñåãî âñåãî çà 1 ýêç. âñåãî 05.2011 10.2011** total 05.2011 10.2011 total per 1 ind. total 17 46 63 0.57 1.31 1.54 20 1260 1 1 0.03 0.02 100 100 1 1 0.03 0.02 400 400 1 1 0.03 0.02 400 400 4 37 41 0.13 1.06 1.0 10 410 1 3 4 0.03 0.09 0.1 10 40 1 1 0.03 0.02 5 5 1 1 0.03 0.02 5 5 5 4 9 0.17 0.11 0.22 5 45 3 3 200 600 1 1 0.03 0.02 50 50 1 1 0.03 0.02 200 200 1 1 0.03 0.02 100 100 1 1 0.03 0.02 5 5 1 1 0.03 0.02 5 5 1 1 0.03 0.02 5 5 1 3 4 0.03 0.09 0.1 5 20 1 1 0.03 0.02 5 5 39

97

136

1.30

2.77

3.32

3655

* Ïòèöû, ïîãèáøèå îò ïîâðåæäåíèé ïðè ìåõàíè÷åñêîì óäàðå î ïðîâîäà. **  äàííîé ãðàôå óêàçàíû ëèøü ïòèöû, ïîãèáøèå ïîñëå ïðîâåäåíèÿ âåñåííåãî ó÷¸òà, ÷òî äà¸ò âîçìîæíîñòü ñóììèðîâàòü äàííûå ïî ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ÂË çà âåñíó è îñåíü. * Bird deaths, caused by collision with wires. ** There are only birds died after the spring examination that allows us to summarize data on bird deaths on PL during the spring and autumn.

ìîæåò áûòü ñâÿçàíî ëèáî ñ íåäîñòàòî÷íîé âûáîðêîé, ëèáî ñ íèçêîé ÷èñëåííîñòüþ ïòèö â äàííîì ðàéîíå â äàííûé ñåçîí, ëèáî ñ âîçìîæíîé ïðàêòèêîé ëèêâèäàöèè òðóïîâ ïòèö èç-ïîä îïîð ÂË ñîòðóäíèêàìè êîìïàíèè, êîòîðàÿ, ïî íåïðîâåðåííûì îïðîñíûì äàííûì, ìîæåò èìåòü ìåñòî. Ñðåäè îñìîòðåííûõ íàìè ÂË íàèáîëåå áåçîïàñíû äëÿ ïòèö ÂË, ïðèíàäëåæàùèå êîìïàíèè ÊÒÊ-Ê, êîòîðûå ÷àñòè÷íî îñíàùåíû ïîäâåñíûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè ñ äîñòàòî÷íî áîëüøèìè çàçîðàìè ìåæäó òðàâåðñàìè è òîêîíåñóùèìè ïðîâîäàìè, ÷àñòè÷íî îñíàùåíû ñàìîíåñóùèì èçîëèðîâàííûì ïðîâîäîì (ÑÈÏ-3). Ïîñëåäíÿÿ êîíñòðóêöèÿ ÂË íàèáîëåå áåçîïàñíà äëÿ ïòèö. Ïîçèòèâíûé îïûò ÊÒÊ-Ê ïî áåçîïàñíîìó äëÿ ïòèö îñíàùåíèþ ÂË äîëæåí áûòü âíèìàòåëüíî èçó÷åí è ðåêîìåíäîâàí ê øèðîêîìó ïðèìåíåíèþ äðóãèìè ýêîëîãè÷åñêè îòâåòñòâåííûìè êîìïàíèÿìè. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ïðè äâóêðàòíîì (âåñíîé

50%, as, among the birds killed in the period from May to October, the disposal percentage could be quite high, and many of them were not detected in our autumn count. Thus, in the counts of dead birds, we have significantly underestimated (at least by double) our data. Obviously, to clarify the “coefficient of undercount”, multiple registrations at model sites for a year are required. Of the 18 species of birds found dead underneath the PL, 6 species are in the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan: the Steppe Eagle, the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), the Eagle Owl, the Little Bustard (Tetrax tetrax) and the Common Crane (Grus grus). The Little Bustard, the Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), the Common Crane, the Mute Swan (Cygnus olor), Yellow-Legged Gull (Larus cacchinans) and the Short-Toed Lark (Calandrella brachydactyla) did not die from electrocution, but from collision with wires.


Proceedings of Conferences è îñåíüþ) îáñëåäîâàíèè 410 êì ÂË 6–10 ê óñòàíîâëåíà ãèáåëü 136 ýêçåìïëÿðîâ ïòèö, îòíîñÿùèõñÿ ê 18 âèäàì. Ïðè ýòîì, ó÷èòûâàëèñü òîëüêî ïòèöû, ïîãèáøèå â òå÷åíèå ïîñëåäíåãî êàëåíäàðíîãî ãîäà, íà÷èíàÿ ñ çèìû 2010–2011 ãã. Êðîìå òîãî, â õîäå îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ÂË íàìè áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ìíîãî÷èñëåííûå êîñòíûå îñòàíêè êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì ðàíåå 2010 ãîäà. Îäíàêî, òàê êàê óñòàíîâèòü èõ âèäîâóþ ïðèíàäëåæíîñòü è âðåìÿ ãèáåëè íå ïðåäñòàâëÿåòñÿ âîçìîæíûì, ïîýòîìó îíè íå ó÷èòûâàëèñü â õîäå îáñëåäîâàíèÿ. Ñðåäè ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö ïðåîáëàäàþò ñòåïíûå îðëû (Aquila nipalensis) – 46,3% îò îáùåãî êîëè÷åñòâà ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö; êóðãàííèêè (Buteo rufinus) – 30,1% è îáûêíîâåííûå ïóñòåëüãè (Falco tinnunculus) – 6,6%. Íà äîëþ îñòàëüíûõ 7 âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö (ñ ó÷¸òîì ôèëèíà Bubo bubo) ïðèõîäèòñÿ 8,8%. Íåõèùíûå ïòèöû ñðåäè ïîãèáøèõ ñîñòàâëÿþò ëèøü 8,1%. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ñâûøå 90% ïòèö, ãèáíóùèõ ïðè êîíòàêòå ñ ÂË, ñîñòàâëÿþò õèùíûå ïòèöû. Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî äàæå äâóêðàòíûé ó÷¸ò â òå÷åíèè îäíîãî ãîäà äà¸ò ñóùåñòâåííî çàíèæåííûå ïîêàçàòåëè, òàê êàê çíà÷èòåëüíàÿ ÷àñòü òðóïîâ óòèëèçèðóåòñÿ õèùíèêàìè è ïàäàëüùèêàìè. Òàê, íàïðèìåð, ïðè

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

113

Our count suggests that 4.4% of the total number of birds were killed in this way. In accordance with the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated September 4th, 2011 ¹1140 “On Approval of the size of compensation for harm caused by the violation of legislation on protection, reproduction and use of animals” (as amended by the decrees of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan on 08/01/04, ¹18; on 05/03/04, ¹282), the total damage from bird deaths on PL in the surveyed area in 2011, amount to 3655 MÑI over 410 km. Given that, according to the Department of Natural Resources of the Atyrau district, the total length of 6–10 kV PL in the district is no less than 8200 km, we can roughly estimate the total damage caused by bird electrocutions and collisions in the Atyrau district throughout the year at about 73,258 MÑI, or about 111 million tenge. Given that the method of rapid counting of bird mortality we used provided some low results, as well as a significant disposal rate of dead birds as a result of animal predators and scavengers, one can assume that the actual damage caused to the nature of the Atyrau district will be more than double or treble that, and could reach over 300 million tenge annually. The distribution of dead birds in various

Õèùíûå ïòèöû, ïîãèáøèå íà ÂË 10 êÂ: ââåðõó ñëåâà – âçðîñëûé ñòåïíîé îð¸ë, ïîãèáøèé íà ëèíèè êàòîäíîé çàùèòû òðóáîïðîâîäà «Ñðåäíÿÿ Àçèÿ – Öåíòð», ïðèíàäëåæàùåé êîìïàíèè «ÊàçÒðàíñÃàç», íà ó÷àñòêå îò ïîñ. Êóëüñàðû äî ïîñ. Ìàêàò (07.05.2011), ââåðõó ñïðàâà – ïîëóâçðîñëûé ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca), ïîãèáøèé íà ëèíèè êàòîäíîé çàùèòû òðóáîïðîâîäà «Ñðåäíÿÿ Àçèÿ – Öåíòð», ïðèíàäëåæàùåé êîìïàíèè «ÊàçÒðàíñÃàç», íà ó÷àñòêå îò ïîñ. Êóëüñàðû äî ïîñ. Ìàêàò (06.05.2011), âíèçó – 4 ïóñòåëüãè (Falco tinnunculus), ïîãèáøèå íà îäíîé îïîðå ëèíèè êàòîäíîé çàùèòû òðóáîïðîâîäà «Ñðåäíÿÿ Àçèÿ – Öåíòð» íà ó÷àñòêå îò ïîñ. Ìàêàò äî ïîñ. Èíäåáîðãñêèé (06.05.2011). Ôîòî Ì. Ïåñòîâà. Birds of prey, killed by electrocution: upper at the left –adult Steppe Eagle, electrocuted at the PL of the cathodic protection of the “Middle Asia – Center” pipeline, that is owned by “KazTransGas” company at the area from the Kulsary settlement to the Makat settlement (07/05/2011),upper at the right – subadult Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), electrocuted at the PL of the cathodic protection of the “Middle Asia – Center” pipeline, that is owned by “KazTransGas” company at the area from the Kulsary settlement to the Makat settlement (06/05/2011), bottom – 4 Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), electrocuted at the PL of the cathodic protection of the “Middle Asia – Center” pipeline, that is owned by “KazTransGas” company at the area from the Makat settlement to Indeborsky settlement (06/05/2011). Photos by M. Pestov.


114

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24 âåñåííåì îáñëåäîâàíèè ó÷àñòêà ÂË êàòîäíîé çàùèòû âäîëü òðóáîïðîâîäà «Ñðåäíÿÿ Àçèÿ – Öåíòð» (ÊàçÒðàíñÃàç) áûëè îòìå÷åíû îòíîñèòåëüíî ñâåæèå îñòàíêè (ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî – öåëûå òðóïû) 21 ýêçåìïëÿðà ñðåäíèõ è êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö (îò îáûêíîâåííîãî êàíþêà Buteo buteo äî îðëàíàáåëîõâîñòà Haliaeetus albicilla). Ïðè ïîâòîðíîì îñåííåì îáñëåäîâàíèè òåõ æå îïîð ÂË, ïîä êîòîðûìè âåñíîé áûëè íàéäåíû äàííûå òðóïû, íàìè áûëè îáíàðóæåíû êîñòíî-ïåðüåâûå îñòàíêè ëèøü 8 ïòèö, â 13 ñëó÷àÿõ íàì íå óäàëîñü îáíàðóæèòü äàæå ïåðüåâ. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, çà ïåðèîä ñ ìàÿ ïî ñåíòÿáðü (5 ìåñÿöåâ) áûëè ïîëíîñòüþ óòèëèçèðîâàíû îêîëî 60% òðóïîâ ñðåäíèõ è êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö. Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî ïðîöåíò óòèëèçàöèè ìåëêèõ ïòèö (ðàçìåðîì îò âîðîíû è ìåëü÷å) åù¸ âûøå, ïîýòîìó è îáíàðóæèòü èõ óäà¸òñÿ ñðàâíèòåëüíî ðåäêî.  òî æå âðåìÿ, íà äàííîì ó÷àñòêå ÂË îñåíüþ áûëè îáíàðóæåíû «íîâûå» îñòàíêè õèùíûõ ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ óæå ïîñëå ïðîâåäåíèÿ íàìè âåñåííåãî ó÷¸òà, â êîëè÷åñòâå 48 ýêçåìïëÿðîâ. Ñëåäîâàòåëüíî, ñóììàðíî, âåñíîé è îñåíüþ, íà äàííîì ó÷àñòêå áûëè ó÷òåíû îñòàíêè 69 (21+48) ñðåäíèõ è êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö. «Êîýôôèöèåíò íåäîó÷¸òà» ïðè îñåííåì îáñëåäîâàíèè ñîñòàâèë, êàê ìèíèìóì, 20%. Ðåàëüíî ýòîò ïîêàçàòåëü, âåðîÿòíî, çíà÷èòåëüíî âûøå è ìîæåò äîñòèãàòü 40–50%, òàê êàê è ñðåäè ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ ñ ìàÿ ïî îêòÿáðü, ïðîöåíò óòèëèçàöèè ìîã áûòü äîñòàòî÷íî âûñîê è ìíîãèõ èç íèõ ìû íå îáíàðóæèëè ïðè îñåííåì ó÷¸òå. Ò.î., â õîäå ðàçîâûõ ó÷¸òîâ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö ìû ïîëó÷àåì ñóùåñòâåííî çàíèæåííûå (êàê ìèíèìóì – âäâîå) äàííûå. Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî äëÿ óòî÷íåíèÿ «êîýôôèöèåíòà íåäîó÷¸òà» íåîáõîäèìû ìíîãîêðàòíûå ó÷¸òû â òå÷åíèå îäíîãî ãîäà íà ìîäåëüíûõ ó÷àñòêàõ. Èç 18 âèäîâ ïòèö, îáíàðóæåííûõ ïîãèáøèìè ïîä ÂË, 6 âèäîâ çàíåñåíû â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàçàõñòàí: ñòåïíîé îð¸ë, îð¸ë-ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca), áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos), ôèëèí, ñòðåïåò (Tetrax tetrax) è ñåðûé æóðàâëü (Grus grus). Ñòðåïåò, ñðåäíèé êðîíøíåï (Numenius phaeopus), ñåðûé æóðàâëü, ëåáåäü-øèïóí (Cygnus olor), õîõîòóíüÿ (Larus cochinnans) è ìàëûé æàâîðîíîê (Calandrella brachydactyla) ïîãèáëè íå îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì, à îò ìåõàíè÷åñêèõ ïîâðåæäåíèé ïðè óäàðå î ïðîâîäà. Äîëÿ ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ ïî ýòîé ïðè÷èíå, â íàøèõ ó÷¸òàõ ñîñòàâèëà 4,4% îò îáùåãî ÷èñëà ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö.

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé areas of PL is extremely uneven. It depends on many factors, most important of which are the design electric poles, crossarms, insulators and wires used in the PL equipment. The distribution of dead birds also depends on the territorial and biocoenotic localization of specific areas of PL, the season of year in which the record is dated, the orientation of PL on the migratory ways of different bird species, and the activity and abundance of predators and scavengers that dispose of the remains of birds. Among the surveyed areas of PL, the most dangerous for birds were the PL of the cathodic protection of pipelines owned by KazTransGas, on the sites Makat – Indeborgsky (14.1 ind./10 km), and Redut – Dossor (3.3 ind./10 km). The distribution of dead birds within individual sites is also uneven (fig. 1). For example, in some fragments of the area Makat – Indeborgsky on a 1 km route, up to 5–6 remains of large birds of prey were found which is probably due to birds of prey passing through the territory on their traditional migratory ways. A similar pattern of uneven distribution of dead birds allows us to rank the various sections of PL by the degree of their danger and, therefore, it is reasonable to prioritize activities to protect birds during PL operating. During the survey of PL, the detection of dead birds was conducted at the same time as making records of the number of live birds on the same routes. The total annual ratio of live and dead birds on the recorded routes is shown in table 3. Thus, amongst the live birds encountered (of relative abundance), the same three species dominate as amongst the birds killed by electrocution: the Steppe Eagle, Long-Legged Buzzard and Common Kestrel. However, among the living birds, the Common Kestrel predominates, and amongst the dead, the Steppe Eagle. This fact once again confirms the well-known pattern that it is mainly larger birds that are killed by electrocution. Conclusion The results of the assessment of the impact of PL on birds, along with recommendations for the protection of birds during PL operating, will be presented at the final meeting at the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management of the Atyrau district, during which representatives from environmental and scientific organizations, as well as owners of PL shall be attending. The meeting will be conducted in early 2012. We believe that, in order to solve the


Proceedings of Conferences

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

115

Êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) – ñëåâà, êàíþê îáûêíîâåííûé (Buteo buteo) – â öåíòðå, è îáûêíîâåííàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) – ñïðàâà, ïîãèáøèå íà ÂË 10 ê êàòîäíîé çàùèòû òðóáîïðîâîäîâ. Ôîòî Ì. Ïåñòîâà è Ô. Ñàðàåâà. Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) – left, Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) – center, and Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) – right, killed by electrocution on PL kV of the cathodic protection of pipelines. Photos by M. Pestov and F. Saraev.

 ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ ïîñòàíîâëåíèåì Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàçàõñòàí îò 4 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2001 ãîäà ¹1140 «Îá óòâåðæäåíèè ðàçìåðîâ âîçìåùåíèÿ âðåäà, ïðè÷èí¸ííîãî íàðóøåíèåì çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâà îá îõðàíå, âîñïðîèçâîäñòâå è èñïîëüçîâàíèè æèâîòíîãî ìèðà» (ñ èçìåíåíèÿìè, âíåñ¸ííûìè ïîñòàíîâëåíèÿìè Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà ÐÊ îò 08.01.04 ã. ¹18; îò 05.03.04 ã. ¹282) îáùèé óùåðá îò ãèáåëè ïòèö íà îáñëåäîâàííûõ íàìè ó÷àñòêàõ ÂË çà 2011 ãîä ñîñòàâèë 3655 ÌÐÏ íà 410 êì. Ó÷èòûâàÿ, ÷òî, ïî äàííûì Óïðàâëåíèÿ ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè, îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ÂË 6–10 ê íà òåððèòîðèè ðåãèîíà ñîñòàâëÿåò íå ìåíåå 8200 êì, ìîæíî îðèåíòèðîâî÷íî îöåíèòü îáùèé óùåðá îò ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ÂË â Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè â òå÷åíèå ãîäà ïðèìåðíî â 73258 ÌÐÏ èëè îêîëî 111 ìëí. òåíãå. Ó÷èòûâàÿ, ÷òî èñïîëüçîâàííûé íàìè ìåòîä ýêñïðåññó÷¸òà ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö äà¸ò íåñêîëüêî çàíèæåííûå ðåçóëüòàòû, à òàêæå çíà÷èòåëüíûé êîýôôèöèåíò óòèëèçàöèè ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö â ðåçóëüòàòå äåÿòåëüíîñòè õèùíèêîâ è ïàäàëüùèêîâ, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî ðåàëüíûé óùåðá, íàíîñèìûé ïðèðîäå Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè, áóäåò áîëüøå â 2–3 ðàçà è ìîæåò äîñòèãàòü áîëåå 300 ìëí. òåíãå åæåãîäíî. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö ïî ðàçëè÷íûì ó÷àñòêàì ÂË êðàéíå íåðàâíîìåðíî. Îíî çàâèñèò îò ìíîãèõ ôàêòîðîâ, âàæíåéøèìè èç êîòîðûõ ÿâëÿþòñÿ êîíñòðóêòèâíûå îñîáåííîñòè è õàðàêòåðèñòèêè îïîð, òðàâåðñ, èçîëÿòîðîâ è ïðîâîäîâ, èñïîëüçóåìûõ ïðè îáîðóäîâàíèè ÂË. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö òàêæå çàâèñèò îò òåððèòîðèàëüíîé è áèîöåíîòè÷åñêîé ëîêàëèçàöèè êîíêðåòíûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ÂË; ñåçîíà ãîäà, ê êîòîðîìó ïðèóðî÷åí ó÷¸ò; îðèåíòàöèè ÂË îòíîñèòåëüíî ïóòåé

problem of mass bird deaths from electrocution on PL in Kazakhstan, we need to: 1. Ensure effective monitoring of the situation regarding the bird mortality from electrocution, with the assistance of specialists. 2. Ensure effective enforcement of environmental legislation by national and regional regulatory bodies. Obviously, the recovery of damages from companies that violate the environmental laws of Kazakhstan will be a strong incentive for a speedy solution to the problem. 3. Ensure effective dialogue and engagement with organizations that own PL, in order to disseminate and replicate the best practice to prevent bird mortality from electrocution and collision. 4. Improve the legal regulation, including the development and lobbying for the adoption of national regulation, similar to the resolution of the Russian Government of August 13th, 1996 ¹997, “On approval of requirements to prevent loss of wildlife during the implementation of production processes, as well as during the operating of highways, pipelines, communication lines and power lines”. This legislative act should contain clear requirements for the design of the planning, constructing and maintaining PL in the medium voltage range to make them safe for birds. Analysis of the current experience in dealing with this problem in Kazakhstan and elsewhere makes it possible to prepare a draft of this document in the near future, with the help of specialists from Kazakhstan and Russia. 5. Create regular public awareness about the problems of mass bird deaths from electrocution on PL and about the question of how to solve this problem by using the media to create broad public support and shaping public opinion.


116

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24 ìàññîâûõ ñåçîííûõ ìèãðàöèé ïòèö ðàçëè÷íûõ âèäîâ; àêòèâíîñòè è ÷èñëåííîñòè õèùíèêîâ è ïàäàëüùèêîâ, óòèëèçèðóþùèõ îñòàíêè ïòèö. Ñðåäè îáñëåäîâàííûõ íàìè ó÷àñòêîâ ÂË íàèáîëåå îïàñíûìè äëÿ ïòèö îêàçàëèñü ÂË êàòîäíîé çàùèòû òðóáîïðîâîäîâ, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ êîìïàíèè ÊàçÒðàíñÃàç, íà ó÷àñòêàõ Ìàêàò – Èíäåáîðãñêèé (14,1 ýêç./10 êì) è Ðåäóòü – Äîññîð (3,3 ýêç./10 êì). Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö âíóòðè îòäåëüíûõ ó÷àñòêîâ òàêæå íåðàâíîìåðíî (ðèñ.1). Òàê, íàïðèìåð, íà íåêîòîðûõ ôðàãìåíòàõ ó÷àñòêà Ìàêàò – Èíäåáîðãñêèé íà 1 êì ìàðøðóòà áûëî îáíàðóæåíî äî 5–6 îñòàíêîâ êðóïíûõ õèùíèêîâ, ÷òî, âåðîÿòíî, îáóñëîâëåíî ïðîõîæäåíèåì ïî äàííîé òåððèòîðèè òðàäèöèîííûõ ïóòåé

Êàíþê – ââåðõó è êîðøóí (Milvus migrans) – âíèçó, ïîãèáøèå íà ÂË 10 ê êàòîäíîé çàùèòû òðóáîïðîâîäîâ. Ôîòî Ì. Ïåñòîâà. Common Buzzard – upper, and Black Kite (Milvus migrans) – bottom, killed by electrocution on PL 10 kV of the cathodic protection of pipelines. Photos by M. Pestov.

ñåçîííûõ ìèãðàöèé õèùíûõ ïòèö. Ïîäîáíàÿ êàðòèíà íåðàâíîìåðíîãî ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö ïîçâîëÿåò ðàíæèðîâàòü ðàçëè÷íûå ó÷àñòêè ÂË ïî ñòåïåíè èõ îïàñíîñòè äëÿ ïòèö è, ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, îáîñíîâàííî îïðåäåëèòü î÷åðåäíîñòü ïðîâåäåíèÿ ìåðîïðèÿòèé ïî çàùèòå ïòèö ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè êîíêðåòíûõ ÂË.  õîäå ïðîâåäåíèÿ îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ÂË íà ïðåäìåò îáíàðóæåíèÿ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö, ïîïóòíî ïðîâîäèëñÿ è ó÷¸ò âñòðå÷àåìîñòè æèâûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö íà òåõ æå ìàðøðóòàõ. Ñóììàðíîå çà ãîä ñîîòíîøåíèå æèâûõ è ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö íà ó÷¸íûõ ìàðøðóòàõ ïðåäñòàâëåíî â òàáë. 3. Ò.î., ñðåäè æèâûõ ïòèö ïî âñòðå÷àåìîñòè

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé (îòíîñèòåëüíîé ÷èñëåííîñòè) ïðåîáëàäàþò òå æå òðè âèäà, ÷òî è ñðåäè ïîãèáøèõ íà ÂË: ñòåïíîé îð¸ë, êóðãàííèê è îáûêíîâåííàÿ ïóñòåëüãà. Îäíàêî, ñðåäè æèâûõ ïòèö çíà÷èòåëüíî ïðåîáëàäàåò îáûêíîâåííàÿ ïóñòåëüãà, à ñðåäè ïîãèáøèõ – ñòåïíîé îð¸ë. Äàííûé ôàêò â î÷åðåäíîé ðàç ïîäòâåðæäàåò èçâåñòíóþ çàêîíîìåðíîñòü: â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü íà îïîðàõ ÂË îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì ãèáíóò íàèáîëåå êðóïíûå ïòèöû. Çàêëþ÷åíèå Ðåçóëüòàòû ðàáîòû ïî îöåíêå âëèÿíèÿ âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è íà îðíèòîôàóíó è ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî îõðàíå ïòèö ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè ÂË áûëè ïðåäñòàâëåíû íà èòîãîâîì ñîâåùàíèè ïî îõðàíå ïòèö íà áàçå Óïðàâëåíèÿ ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ è ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèÿ Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè ñ ó÷àñòèåì ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé ïðèðîäîîõðàííûõ è íàó÷íûõ îðãàíèçàöèé, à òàêæå îðãàíèçàöèé – âëàäåëüöåâ ÂË, â íà÷àëå 2012 ãîäà. Ìû ñ÷èòàåì, ÷òî äëÿ ðåøåíèÿ â Êàçàõñòàíå ïðîáëåìû ìàññîâîé ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ÂË îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì íåîáõîäèìî: 1. Îáåñïå÷åíèå ýôôåêòèâíîãî ìîíèòîðèíãà ñèòóàöèè ñ ãèáåëüþ ïòèö ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè ÂË îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì ñ ïðèâëå÷åíèåì êâàëèôèöèðîâàííûõ ñïåöèàëèñòîâ. 2. Îáåñïå÷åíèå ýôôåêòèâíîãî êîíòðîëÿ çà ñîáëþäåíèåì ïðèðîäîîõðàííîãî çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâà ñî ñòîðîíû ðåñïóáëèêàíñêèõ è ðåãèîíàëüíûõ êîíòðîëèðóþùèõ îðãàíîâ. Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî âçûñêàíèå óùåðáà ñ îðãàíèçàöèé, íàðóøàþùèõ ïðèðîäîîõðàííîå çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâî ÐÊ, ñòàíåò ñåðü¸çíûì ñòèìóëîì äëÿ ñêîðåéøåãî ðåøåíèÿ ïðîáëåìû. 3. Îáåñïå÷åíèå ýôôåêòèâíîãî äèàëîãà è âçàèìîäåéñòâèÿ ñ îðãàíèçàöèÿìè, ÿâëÿþùèìèñÿ âëàäåëüöàìè ÂË, ñ öåëüþ ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ è òèðàæèðîâàíèÿ ïåðåäîâîãî îïûòà ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè ÂË. 4. Ñîâåðøåíñòâîâàíèå íîðìàòèâíîé áàçû, â òîì ÷èñëå ðàçðàáîòêà è ëîááèðîâàíèå ïðèíÿòèÿ ðåñïóáëèêàíñêîãî íîðìàòèâíîãî àêòà, àíàëîãè÷íîãî Ïîñòàíîâëåíèþ Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà ÐÔ îò 13 àâãóñòà 1996 ã. ¹997 «Îá óòâåðæäåíèè Òðåáîâàíèé ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè îáúåêòîâ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà ïðè îñóùåñòâëåíèè ïðîèçâîäñòâåííûõ ïðîöåññîâ, à òàêæå ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè òðàíñïîðòíûõ ìàãèñòðàëåé, òðóáîïðîâîäîâ, ëèíèé ñâÿçè è ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è». Äàííûé íîðìàòèâíûé àêò äîëæåí ñîäåðæàòü â ñåáå ÷¸òêèå òðåáîâàíèÿ ê êîíñòðóêòèâíûì


Proceedings of Conferences Òàáë. 3. Ñîîòíîøåíèå âñòðå÷àåìîñòè æèâûõ è ïîãèáøèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö. Òàáë. 3. The ratio of occurrence of live and dead birds of prey.

Âèäû ïòèö / Species Ñêîïà (Pandion haliaetus) Ñòåïíîé îð¸ë (Aquila nipalensis) Ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca) Áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos) Îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò (Haliaeetus albicilla) Êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) Êàíþê (Buteo buteo) ׸ðíûé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans) Ëóíè (Circus sp.) (3 âèäà / species) Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) Ôèëèí (Bubo bubo) Âñåãî / Total

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

Êîëè÷åñòâî ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö ýêç. (%) Number of dead birds ind. (%)

îñîáåííîñòÿì ïðîåêòèðóåìûõ, ñòðîÿùèõñÿ è ýêñïëóàòèðóåìûõ ÂË ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòè ñ ïîçèöèé îáåñïå÷åíèÿ èõ áåçîïàñíîñòè äëÿ ïòèö. Àíàëèç ñîâðåìåííîãî îïûòà ðåøåíèÿ äàííîé ïðîáëåìû â Êàçàõñòàíå è çà åãî ïðåäåëàìè âïîëíå ïîçâîëÿåò ïîäãîòîâèòü ïðîåêò ïîäîáíîãî äîêóìåíòà óæå â ñàìîì áëèæàéøåì áóäóùåì ïðè ó÷àñòèè âåäóùèõ ñïåöèàëèñòîâ èç Êàçàõñòàíà è Ðîññèè. 5. Ðåãóëÿðíîå èíôîðìèðîâàíèå îáùåñòâåííîñòè î ïðîáëåìå ìàññîâîé ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ÂË îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì è ïóòÿõ ðåøåíèÿ äàííîé ïðîáëåìû ñ ïîìîùüþ ñðåäñòâ ìàññîâîé èíôîðìàöèè ñ öåëüþ ñîçäàíèÿ øèðîêîé îáùåñòâåííîé ïîääåðæêè è ôîðìèðîâàíèÿ îáùåñòâåííîãî ìíåíèÿ. Áëàãîäàðíîñòè Ìû èñêðåííå áëàãîäàðèì êîëëåêòèâ Óïðàâëåíèÿ ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ è ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèÿ Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè â ëèöå åãî íà÷àëüíèêà Êóàíîâà Åðáîëà Áèñåíîâè÷à çà ïîääåðæêó è ôèíàíñèðîâàíèå íàøåé ðàáîòû; ñîòðóäíèêîâ ÃÓ «Àòûðàóñêàÿ ïðîòèâî÷óìíàÿ ñòàíöèÿ» Âûåçä íà îäíó èç ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ÂË â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ãîðîäà Àòûðàó cîâìåñòíî ñî ñú¸ìî÷íîé ãðóïïîé ïðîãðàììû «Ýêîëîãè÷åñêàÿ ýêñïåäèöèÿ «Ýêî – Àòûðàó». Ôîòî Ô. Ñàðàåâà. Examination of one of hazardous power lines near Atyrau with the TV crew of the “Ecological expedition “Eco – Atyrau” program. Photo by F. Saraev.

63 (46) 1 1 1 41 (30) 4 1 1 3 136 (100)

117

Êîëè÷åñòâî æèâûõ ïòèö ýêç. (%) Number of live birds ind. (%) 1 25 (16) 1 – 1 22 (14) 3 – 7 1 – 156 (100)

Êîìèòåòà ñàíèòàðíî-ýïèäåìèîëîãè÷åñêîãî íàäçîðà Ìèíèñòåðñòâà çäðàâîîõðàíåíèÿ Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàçàõñòàí è íà÷àëüíèêà ñòàíöèè Ñêëÿðåíêî Ãðèãîðèÿ Ïåòðîâè÷à, ñîòðóäíèêîâ Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòíîé òåððèòîðèàëüíîé èíñïåêöèè ëåñíîãî è îõîòíè÷üåãî õîçÿéñòâà è íà÷àëüíèêà èíñïåêöèè Àáäðàõìàíà Ìàðàòà Ãèíàÿòîâè÷à – çà ïîìîùü â îðãàíèçàöèè è ïðîâåäåíèè îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ÂË íà òåððèòîðèè Àòûðàóñêîé îáëàñòè; ñîòðóäíèêîâ ÒÎÎ «Êàçýêîïðîåêò» è äèðåêòîðà Áàéçàêîâà Òëåóêàíà Áàéçàêîâè÷à çà ñîäåéñòâèå â ðåàëèçàöèè äàííîãî ïðîåêòà. Ìû òàêæå áëàãîäàðèì Óõîâà Ñåðãåÿ Âèêòîðîâè÷à – îðíèòîëîãà îòäåëà íàóêè è ìîíèòîðèíãà ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî ïðèðîäíîãî ðåçåðâàòà «Àêæàéûê» – çà ó÷àñòèå â ýêñïåäèöèîííûõ èññëåäîâàíèÿõ. Ëèòåðàòóðà Ñàðàåâ Ô.À., Ïåñòîâ Ì.Â. Ðåçóëüòàòû äâóêðàòíûõ ó÷¸òîâ ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è â þæíîé ÷àñòè Óðàëî-Ýìáèíñêîãî ìåæäóðå÷üÿ âåñíîé è îñåíüþ 2010 ãîäà, Êàçàõñòàí. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2011. ¹21. Ñ. 90–94.


118

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

TheProblemofBirdMortalityonPowerLinesinBelarus: PreliminaryResultsofStudies ПРОБЛЕМА ГИБЕЛИ ПТИЦ НА ЛЭП В БЕЛАРУСИ: ПЕРВЫЕ РЕЗУЛЬТАТЫ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЙ SamusenkoI.E.,NovitskyR.V.,PakulP.A.(TheStateScientificandProduction Amalgamation“ScientificandPracticalCenteroftheNationalAcademyofSciences ofBelarusforBiologicalResources”–InstituteofZoology,NASofBelarus,Minsk, Belarus) Самусенко И.Э., Новицкий Р.В., Пакуль П.А. (Государственное научнопроизводственное объединение «Научно-практический центр НАН Беларуси по биоресурсам» – Институт зоологии НАН Беларуси, Минск, Республика Беларусь)

Êîíòàêò: Èðèíà Ýäóàðäîâíà Ñàìóñåíêî Ãîñóäàðñòâåííîå íàó÷íîïðîèçâîäñòâåííîå îáúåäèíåíèå «Íàó÷íî-ïðàêòè÷åñêèé öåíòð ÍÀÍ Áåëàðóñè ïî áèîðåñóðñàì» (Èíñòèòóò çîîëîãèè ÍÀÍ Áåëàðóñè) 220072, Áåëàðóñü, Ìèíñê, óë. Àêàäåìè÷åñêàÿ, 27 òåë.: +375 17 284 25 04 s.irina66@mail.ru Ðóñëàí Âèêòîðîâè÷ Íîâèöêèé ÃÍÏÎ «ÍÏÖ ÍÀÍ Áåëàðóñè ïî áèîðåñóðñàì» (Èíñòèòóò çîîëîãèè ÍÀÍ Áåëàðóñè) 220072, Áåëàðóñü, Ìèíñê, óë. Àêàäåìè÷åñêàÿ, 27 òåë.: +375 17 332 16 39 nramphi@mail.ru Ïàâåë Àëåêñàíäðîâè÷ Ïàêóëü ÃÍÏÎ «ÍÏÖ ÍÀÍ Áåëàðóñè ïî áèîðåñóðñàì» (Èíñòèòóò çîîëîãèè ÍÀÍ Áåëàðóñè) 220072, Áåëàðóñü, Ìèíñê, óë. Àêàäåìè÷åñêàÿ, 27 òåë.: +375 17 284 25 04 anderer@tut.by

Ðåçþìå  Áåëàðóñè ñïåöèàëüíûõ èññëåäîâàíèé ïî îöåíêå ñòåïåíè è ìàñøòàáîâ âîçäåéñòâèÿ ËÝÏ íà ïòèö äî íàñòîÿùåãî âðåìåíè íå ïðîâîäèëîñü.  ñòàòüå ïðåäñòàâëåíû ðåçóëüòàòû ïåðâîãî ýòàïà (2011 ã.) òð¸õëåòíåãî ïðîåêòà, íàïðàâëåííîãî íà ìàñøòàáíîå èçó÷åíèå äàííîé ïðîáëåìû. Ïîëåâûå ðàáîòû â 2011 ã. îñóùåñòâëÿëèñü íà òåððèòîðèè 16 àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ ðàéîíîâ Áðåñòñêîé è Ìèíñêîé îáëàñòåé. Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ïåøèõ ó÷¸òíûõ ìàðøðóòîâ ïî ÂË-10–220 ê â 2011 ã. ñîñòàâèëà 1101,2 êì, íà êîòîðûõ áûëî çàôèêñèðîâàíî 346 ñëó÷àåâ ãèáåëè ïòèö.  ñðåäíåì ÷àñòîòà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â 2011 ã. ñîñòàâèëà 3,1 îñ./10 êì ìàðøðóòà, íàèâûñøèå çíà÷åíèÿ çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíû íà ÂË-10 ê (9,1 îñ./10 êì ìàðøðóòà). Îáùèé ñïèñîê ïòèö, äëÿ êîòîðûõ óñòàíîâëåíà ãèáåëü íà ËÝÏ íà òåððèòîðèè Áåëàðóñè, âêëþ÷àåò 46 âèäîâ, èç êîòîðûõ 12 âêëþ÷åíû â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÁ. Íàèáîëåå ÷àñòî íà ÂË-10 ê ïòèöû ãèáëè îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì, áîëüøèíñòâî èç íèõ âðàíîâûå (Corvidae) è îáûêíîâåííûé ñêâîðåö (Sturnus vulgaris). Íà ÂË-35, 110 è 220 ê ïòèöû ãèáëè áîëüøåé ÷àñòüþ îò óäàðîâ î ïðîâîäà, íàèáîëåå âûñîêèé óðîâåíü ñìåðòíîñòè çàðåãèñòðèðîâàí äëÿ ïòèö ñðåäíèõ è êðóïíûõ ðàçìåðîâ. Íàèáîëåå îïàñíûìè äëÿ ïòèö íà òåððèòîðèè Áåëàðóñè ÿâëÿþòñÿ øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííûå æåëåçîáåòîííûå îïîðû ÂË-10 ê ñ ìåòàëëè÷åñêîé òðàâåðñîé è øòûðåâûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè, îñîáåííî óãëîâûå è àíêåðíûå. Áîëüøèíñòâî ðåãèñòðàöèé ïîãèáøèõ íà ËÝÏ ïðèõîäèòñÿ íà îòêðûòûå ëàíäøàôòû. ×àñòîòà îòêëþ÷åíèé ëèíèé ñ ó÷àñòèåì ïòèö è ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ ïîñòåïåííî óâåëè÷èâàåòñÿ ñ íà÷àëà âåñíû, äîñòèãàåò ïèêà â àâãóñòå, ïîñëå ÷åãî âíîâü ñíèæàåòñÿ. Ñåçîííàÿ äèíàìèêà ñìåðòíîñòè çàâèñèò êàê îò ìèãðàöèîííîé àêòèâíîñòè, ïëîòíîñòè è âîçðàñòíîé ñòðóêòóðû íàñåëåíèÿ ïòèö, òàê è îò êîðìîâûõ óñëîâèé ìåñòíîñòè â çîíå ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ËÝÏ. Äàëüíåéøåå èññëåäîâàíèå ìàñøòàáîâ è çàêîíîìåðíîñòåé ïðîáëåìû «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ» áóäåò ñïîñîáñòâîâàòü ðàçðàáîòêå ìåðîïðèÿòèé äëÿ ñíèæåíèÿ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ íà òåððèòîðèè Áåëàðóñè. Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: ãèáåëü ïòèö, ËÝÏ, ïîðàæåíèå ýëåêòðîòîêîì, ñòîëêíîâåíèå ñ ïðîâîäàìè, Áåëàðóñü. Ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ: 15.03.2012 ã. Ïðèíÿòà ê ïóáëèêàöèè: 28.03.2012 ã. Abstract The special studies to estimate a degree and scales of the power lines (PL) impact on different bird species in Belarus have been not carried out till now. The paper presents the results of the first stage (2011) of a three-year project aimed at the large-scale study of the problem. The results of field surveys of bird mortality on PL-10–220 kV carried out in 16 administrative regions of Brest and Minsk districts in 2011. The total length of routes of surveys in 2011 was 1101.2 km, 346 dead birds were found. The average rate of bird mortality on PL in 2011 was 3.1 ind./10 km of route, the highest value was recorded on PL 10 kV (9.1 ind./10 km). The total list of birds suffered from PL in Belarus consists of 46 species including 12 listed in the national Red Data Book. Dead Crows (Corvidae) and Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were registered most often on PL 10 kV mainly because of electrocution. The highest mortality rate on the high voltage PL was registered because of collision and mainly for medium-sized and large birds. The most of dangerous for birds are widespread concrete poles of PL-10 kV with metal crossarms and upright insulators, especially, angular and anchor ones. The majority of bird deaths was registered in open habitats. The frequency of bird-caused disconnections on PL and bird mortality increases gradually from the beginning of spring, reaches peak in August and then decreases again. The seasonal trend depends on migratory activity, density and age structure of bird populations and feeding conditions in area around the PL. The further research of the problem will assist to elaboration of mitigation measures to prevent of bird mortality on PL in Belarus. Keywords: bird mortality, power lines, electrocution, collisions, Belarus. Received: 15/03/2012. Accepted: 28/03/2012.

Ââåäåíèå Ãèáåëü ìèëëèîíîâ ïòèö â ðåçóëüòàòå ñòîëêíîâåíèé ñ ïðîâîäàìè âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è (ËÝÏ, ÂË) è ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ñòàíîâèòñÿ îäíîé èç íàèáîëåå îñòðûõ ïðîáëåì îõðàíû æèâîòíîãî ìèðà âî ìíîãèõ

Introduction Now the death of millions of birds from collisions with wires of overhead power lines (PL) and electrocution is one of the most severe problems of wildlife conservation in many parts of the world. Unfortunately the special studies to assess the degree and


Proceedings of Conferences Contact: Irina Samusenko State Scientific and Production Amalgamation “Scientific and Practical Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus for Biological Resources” Academicheskaya str., 27, Minsk, Belarus, 220072 tel.: +375 17 284 25 04 s.irina66@mail.ru Ruslan Novitsky Centre for Biological Resources of NASB Academicheskaya str., 27, Minsk, Belarus, 220072 tel.: +375 17 332 16 39 nramphi@mail.ru Pavel Pakul Centre for Biological Resources of NASB Academicheskaya str., 27 Minsk, Belarus, 220072 tel. +375 17 284 25 04 anderer@tut.by

ðåãèîíàõ ïëàíåòû, îñîáåííî îùóòèìûå ïîòåðè ïðèõîäÿòñÿ íà ïåðèîä ñåçîííûõ ìèãðàöèé.  Áåëàðóñè ñïåöèàëüíûõ èññëåäîâàíèé ïî îöåíêå ñòåïåíè è ìàñøòàáîâ âîçäåéñòâèÿ ËÝÏ íà ðàçëè÷íûå âèäû ïòèö äî íàñòîÿùåãî âðåìåíè íå ïðîâîäèëîñü. Ñòàöèîíàðû ïî èññëåäîâàíèþ ìèãðàöèé ïòèö «Íàó÷íî-ïðàêòè÷åñêîãî öåíòðà ÍÀÍ Áåëàðóñè ïî áèîðåñóðñàì» (áûâøèé Èíñòèòóò çîîëîãèè ÍÀÍ Áåëàðóñè) ðàñïîëîæåíû ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî íà ìàëîòðàíñôîðìèðîâàííûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ, èìåþùèõ íàèáîëüøåå çíà÷åíèå âî âðåìÿ ìàññîâûõ ñåçîííûõ ïåðåìåùåíèé. Ìèãðàöèè ïòèö íà òåððèòîðèÿõ ñ âûñîêîé ñòåïåíüþ îñâîåííîñòè, ïëîòíîñòüþ ëþäñêîãî íàñåëåíèÿ è ãóñòîé ñåòüþ ËÝÏ ïðàêòè÷åñêè íå èçó÷åíû. Âîïðîñ î âîçäåéñòâèè âîçäóøíûõ ËÝÏ íà ïòèö äî íàñòîÿùåãî âðåìåíè íå ïîäíèìàëñÿ íà óðîâåíü çàêîí÷åííîãî ìàñøòàáíîãî èññëåäîâàíèÿ: íå áûëî èçâåñòíî, êàêèå âèäû ïòèö íàèáîëåå óÿçâèìû ïðè êîíòàêòàõ ñ ËÝÏ, êàêèå ïåðèîäû ãîäà, ðåãèîíû è òèïû ËÝÏ ÿâëÿþòñÿ ñàìûìè îïàñíûìè äëÿ ïòèö íà òåððèòîðèè Áåëàðóñè â öåëîì è â îòäåëüíûõ å¸ ðåãèîíàõ.  2011 ã. â Öåíòðå ïî áèîðåñóðñàì íà÷àòû èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñ öåëüþ ðàçðàáîòêè

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

119

extent of the impact of PL on different bird species have not been conducted in Belarus till now. In 2011, the Center for Biological Resources initiated a study on the “Birds and Power Lines” issue in the territory of Belarus. The ultimate goal of the three-year project is to develop approaches to reduce the bird mortality on PL and the breakdown rate of electrical facilities. Materials and Methods Departmental information on cases of disconnection (damages) of electrical facilities associated with high activity of birds at different times of the year by regions and districts, as well as on the use of bird protection devices (BPD) for the period 2001– 2010 was collected through the requests to the Ministry of Energy of Belarus, the “Belenergo” Concern and its regional brunches. We obtain data about 2329 cases of disconnections in 100 out of 118 administrative regions of Belarus. For the primary assessment of the impact of PL on different bird species we analyzed information about recovers of rings of the Belarusian Ringing Center in the period from the mid-1990s to 2010, also conducted a questionnaire of ornithologists about their records of bird deaths on PL. Field studies were carried out in 16 districts of the Brest and Minsk regions from April to October 2011 (fig. 1). Counts were conducted on 125 routes from 1 to 14.9 km. Each route included a section of PL in the different voltage range: the middle (PL 10 kV and 35 kV) and high (PL-110 kV and 220 kV). In some cases, the rout included two parallel lines. Examined PL along the routes set up were characterized by different frequencies of damages caused by birds, they crossed different habitats, as well as some of them were retrofitted with different BPD. The length of routes of surveys was 453.7 km. On the territory of several regions PL were examined 3–4 times (monitoring routes), resulting in a total length of the surveyed sites of PL amounted to 1101.2 km in

Áåëûå àèñòû (Ciconia ciconia) ÷àñòî ïîãèáàþò íà ÂË-10 ê è 110 ê â ïåðèîä âûëåòà èç ãí¸çä ìîëîäûõ ïòèö è âî âðåìÿ ìèãðàöèè. Ôîòî È. Ñàìóñåíêî. White Storks (Ciconia ciconia) are often killed on PL 10 kV and 110 kV in the period of fledging and during migrations. Photos by I. Samusenko.


120

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24 êîìïëåêñà ìåðîïðèÿòèé ïî ìèíèìèçàöèè âîçäåéñòâèÿ äîðîæíî-òðàíñïîðòíîé èíôðàñòðóêòóðû è ñåòè âîçäóøíûõ ËÝÏ íà ìîäåëüíûå ãðóïïû æèâîòíûõ, ôèíàíñèðóåìûå èç ðåñïóáëèêàíñêîãî áþäæåòà â ðàìêàõ Ãîñóäàðñòâåííîé íàó÷íî-òåõíè÷åñêîé ïðîãðàììû «Ïðèðîäíûå ðåñóðñû è îêðóæàþùàÿ ñðåäà». Îäíî èç íàïðàâëåíèé ïðîåêòà ïðåäóñìàòðèâàåò âñåñòîðîííåå èçó÷åíèå ïðîáëåìû «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ» íà òåððèòîðèè Áåëàðóñè. Êîíå÷íîé öåëüþ òð¸õëåòíåãî ïðîåêòà ÿâëÿåòñÿ âûðàáîòêà ïîäõîäîâ ê ñíèæåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ è àâàðèéíîñòè ýëåêòðîñåòåé. Ìàòåðèàë è ìåòîäû èññëåäîâàíèé Âåäîìñòâåííàÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ î ñëó÷àÿõ îòêëþ÷åíèé (àâàðèé) ýëåêòðîñåòåé, ñâÿçàííûõ ñ âûñîêîé àêòèâíîñòüþ ïòèö â ðàçëè÷íûå ïåðèîäû ãîäà, â ðàçðåçå îáëàñòåé è ðàéîíîâ, à òàêæå îá èñïîëüçîâàíèè ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ çà ïåðèîä 2001–2010 ãã., ñîáèðàëàñü ÷åðåç çàïðîñû â Ìèíèñòåðñòâî ýíåðãåòèêè ÐÁ, ÃÏÎ «Áåëýíåðãî» è åãî ðåãèîíàëüíûå ñòðóêòóðû. Ïîëó÷åíû ñâåäåíèÿ î 2329 ñëó÷àÿõ îòêëþ÷åíèé ýëåêòðîñåòåé â 100 èç 118 àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ ðàéîíîâ Áåëàðóñè. Äëÿ ïåðâè÷íîé îöåíêè ñòåïåíè âîçäåéñòâèÿ ËÝÏ íà ðàçíûå âèäû ïðîàíàëèçèðîâàíà èíôîðìàöèÿ î âîçâðàòàõ êîëåö Áåëîðóññêîãî öåíòðà êîëüöåâàíèÿ ïðè Öåíòðå ïî áèîðåñóðñàì çà ïåðèîä ñ ñåðåäèíû 1990-õ ïî 2010 ã. Òàêæå ïðîâåäåíû îïðîñ è àíêåòèðîâàíèå ñðåäè îðíèòîëîãîâ, ÷ëåíîâ Îáùåñòâåííîé îðãàíèçàöèè «Àõîâà ïòóøàê Áàöüêàóø÷ûíû» (Ïàðòíåð BirdLife International â Áåëàðóñè) î ñëó÷àÿõ ðåãèñòðàöèè èìè ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ. Ïîëåâûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ îñóùåñòâëÿëèñü ñ àïðåëÿ ïî îêòÿáðü 2011 ã. íà òåððèòîðèè 16 ðàéîíîâ Áðåñòñêîé è Ìèíñêîé îáëàñòåé (ðèñ. 1). Ó÷¸òû ïðîâåäåíû íà 125 ìàðøðóòàõ äëèíîé îò 1 äî 14,9 êì. Êàæäûé ìàðøðóò âêëþ÷àë ó÷àñòîê îïðåäåë¸ííîé ËÝÏ ðàçíîãî êëàññà íàïðÿæåíèÿ: ñðåäíåãî (ÂË-10 ê è 35 êÂ) è âûñîêîãî (ÂË-110 ê è 220 êÂ).  ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ îäèí ìàðøðóò âêëþ÷àë äâå ïàðàëëåëüíûå ëèíèè. Ìàðøðóòû áûëè çàëîæåíû íà ó÷àñòêàõ ËÝÏ ñ ðàçíîé ÷àñòîòîé àâàðèé ñ ó÷àñòèåì ïòèö, â ðàçíûõ òèïàõ áèîòîïîâ, à òàêæå ñ ó÷¸òîì íàëè÷èÿ èëè îòñóòñòâèÿ íà ËÝÏ ðàçëè÷íûõ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ. Ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ó÷¸òíûõ ìàðøðóòîâ ñîñòàâèëà 453,7 êì. Íà òåððèòîðèè ðÿäà ðàéîíîâ ïðîâîäèëîñü 3–4-êðàòíîå îáñëåäîâàíèå ó÷àñòêîâ ËÝÏ (ìîíèòîðèíãî-

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé 2011. During surveys 346 bird deaths were registered. On the monitoring route surveys were carried out seasonally: spring-early summer (April-mid June), summer (mid June-August), autumn (September-October). The additional routes were examined mainly in summer. Coordinates of all the bird carcasses or remains found were recorded with use a GPSnavigator, also we noted the location of the dead bird relative to the electric pole, the nature of visible damage, the stage of the corpse decomposition, as far as possible – cause of death. Departmental Data The frequency of disconnections caused by birds has almost doubled over the past five years, despite the fact that more than half of the electric poles were equipped with protection devices (table 1). It is proved strengthening the severity of the problem “Birds and Power Lines” in Belarus. Now the most of used devices is designed to scaring birds away and preventing them to sit down on the crossarm of poles, insulators, or the top of poles. Despite the fact that the data on the frequency of disconnections of PL 10 kV were not obtained from all administrative regions and even districts (for example, they are completely absent for the Vitebsk, Gomel and Mogilev districts), the largest number of bird-caused disconnections in 2001–2010 were registered for exactly this type of lines (51.3%). The second highest frequency of disconnections is recorded for PL 110 kV (41.4%), a small number of accidents – for PL 35 kV and 330 kV. In general, for all lines at least 36% of the disconnections accompanied bird deaths. The largest number of bird-caused disconnections of PL was recorded during the summer (fig. 2). The share of disconnections in August was more than 45% of all cases registered in 2001–2010. Data on Bird Mortality on PL since the mid 1990-s to 2010 The analysis of data obtained earlier, including the information of the Belarusian Ringing Center and unpublished data about records of bird deaths made by ornithologists (table 2), shows that, since the mid 1990-s to 2010, on the territory of Belarus the group of birds most suffered from PL is the birds of prey (Falconiiformes: 30 individuals, 9 species), storks (Ciconiidae: 19 ind., 2 species), crows (Corvidae: 12


Proceedings of Conferences

Ðèñ. 1. Ñõåìà ðàçìåùåíèÿ ó÷àñòêîâ äëÿ èçó÷åíèÿ ñìåðòíîñòè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â 2011 ã. Fig. 1. Distribution of surveyed areas in 2011: 1 – monitoring routes, 2 – additional routes of surveys.

âûå ìàðøðóòû), â ðåçóëüòàòå ÷åãî îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü îáñëåäîâàííûõ â 2011 ã. ó÷àñòêîâ ËÝÏ ñîñòàâèëà 1101,2 êì, íà êîòîðûõ áûëî çàôèêñèðîâàíî 346 ñëó÷àåâ ãèáåëè ïòèö. Íà ìîíèòîðèíãîâûõ ìàðøðóòàõ ó÷¸òû âûïîëíÿëèñü ïîñåçîííî: âåñíà-íà÷àëî ëåòà (àïðåëü–ñåðåäèíà èþíÿ); ëåòî (ñåðåäèíà èþíÿ–àâãóñò); îñåíü (ñåíòÿáðü–îêòÿáðü). Íà äîïîëíèòåëüíûõ ìàðøðóòàõ ñâåäåíèÿ ñîáèðàëèñü ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ëåòîì. Ïðè ïåðâè÷íîì îáñëåäîâàíèè òåððèòîðèè, ïàðàëëåëüíî ñ îñìîòðîì ëèíèé, ïðîâîäèëàñü èíâåíòàðèçàöèè âñåõ êîíñòðóêöèé ËÝÏ è â ïîëåâûå äíåâíèêè çàíîñèëàñü èõ ïîäðîáíàÿ õàðàêòåðèñòèêà (íàçâàíèå ëèíèè, íîìåðà, ìàòåðèàë è òèï îïîð, ìàòåðèàë è òèï èçîëÿòîðîâ, íàëè÷èå ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ, èõ ðàñïîëîæåíèå è êîëè÷åñòâî). Ïîäðîáíî îïèñûâàëñÿ ìàðøðóò, îöåíèâàëñÿ òèï áèîòîïà, ïðè íåîáõîäèìîñòè âûïîëíÿëèñü ñõåìàòè÷åñêèå ðèñóíêè, ôîòîñú¸ìêà, ôèêñèðîâàëèñü êîîðäèíàòû âñåõ êëþ÷åâûõ òî÷åê ìàðøðóòà.

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

121

ind., 5 species), shorebirds (Charadriiformes: 9 ind., 4 species), swans (Cygnus: 8 ind., 1 species) and owls (Strigidae: 5 ind., 2 species). The most number of bird deaths on PL was recorded for the White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) – 18.4%, Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) – 9.2%, Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) – 6.9%, Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo), Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) – 5.7% per each, Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo), Rook (Corvus frugilegus) and Raven (Corvus corax) – 4.6% per each. Among 27 bird species, which were recorded killed by electrocution, 8 species (30%) are listed in the Red Data Book of RB: Black Stork (Ciconia nigra), Osprey, Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Kestrel, Great Snipe (Gallinago media), Ruff (Philomachus pugnax) and Eagle Owl. Results and Discussion According to results of surveys the average frequency of bird deaths on PL in 2011 was 3.14 ind./10 km of route (table 3). The largest number of deaths was recorded for PL 10 kV, the smallest – for PL 35 kV and 220 kV. The main reason of bird deaths on PL 10 kV was electrocution, while on other types of PL generally birds were killed through collision with wires. About half of the examined poles of PL 10 kV, where the bird deaths were recorded, were intermediate poles with “standard” three upright insulators. The others were in the anchor, angle, or end two- or three-post poles, reinforced with additional upright and/or horizontal insulators and/or switchers with upright structures. These poles pose the largest risk to birds, taking into account the fact that the portion of such poles

Ñâèäåòåëüñòâà ãèáåëè ïòèö îò ýëåêòðîòîêà: îïàë¸ííûå ïåðüÿ, îæîãè íà êëþâå è ëàïàõ. Ôîòî È. Ñàìóñåíêî. Signs of electrocution: singed feathers, burns on the bill and legs. Photos by I. Samusenko.


122

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

Ìîíèòîðèíãîâûå ìàðøðóòû ÂË-10 ê – Ñîëèãîðñêèé (A), Áàðàíîâè÷ñêèé (B), Ñòîëáöîâñêèé (C), Ñëóöêèé (D) ðàéîíû, ÂË-35 – Ëîãîéñêèé ð-í (E), ÂË-110 ê – Ñëóöêèé ð-í (J), ÂË-220 ê – Áàðàíîâè÷ñêèé ð-í (K). Monitoring routes along PL 10 kV – Soligorsky (A), Baranovichsky (B), Stolbtsovsky (C), Slutsky (D) regions, PL 35kV – Logoysky region (E), PL 110 kV – Slutsky region (J), PL 220 kV – Baranovichsky region (K).

Ó÷¸ò÷èêè ïðîõîäèëè ïî ìàðøðóòó ïîä ëèíèåé, îñìàòðèâàÿ ïîâåðõíîñòü çåìëè, îñîáåííî òùàòåëüíî – â ðàéîíå êàæäîé îïîðû. Äëÿ ó÷¸òà íàñåëåíèÿ ïòèö è íàáëþäåíèÿ çà èõ ïîâåäåíèåì èñïîëüçîâàíû áèíîêëè è çðèòåëüíûå òðóáû. Òàêæå îòìå÷àëîñü íàëè÷èå ñëåäîâ æèçíåäåÿòåëüíîñòè õèùíûõ æèâîòíûõ (ëèñüè íîðû, ïîãàäêè õèùíûõ ïòèö è ò. ï.). Ïðè îáíàðóæåíèè òóøåê èëè îñòàíêîâ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö ôèêñèðîâàëè êîîðäèíàòû ìåñòà ñ ïîìîùüþ ïðèáîðîâ GPS, îïðåäåëÿëè ðàñïîëîæåíèå ïòèöû îòíîñèòåëüíî îïîðû, õàðàêòåð âèäèìûõ ïîâðåæäåíèé, ñòàäèþ óòèëèçàöèè òðóïà, ïî âîçìîæíîñòè – ïðè÷èíó ñìåðòè.

out of a total number of poles of PL 10 kV is only 10–20%. The most poles of high-voltage PL, where the bird mortality was registered, were fitted with BPD, while the PL 10 kV were not retrofitted at all. PL 35 kV were retrofitted in rare cases under specific conditions, for example, large birds (White Stork) regular nesting on poles, etc. During surveys conducted along PL 10– 220 kV we recorded the death of 346 birds of 29 species (table 4). Among them we registered 6 species listed in the Red Data Book: Kestrel, Little Owl (Athene noctua), Common Gull (Larus canus), Ruff, Black-


Proceedings of Conferences

123

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

Âåäîìñòâåííûå äàííûå Îá óñèëåíèè îñòðîòû ïðîáëåìû «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ» íà òåððèòîðèè Áåëàðóñè ãîâîðèò òîò ôàêò, ÷òî çà ïîñëåäíèå ïÿòü ëåò ÷àñòîòà îòêëþ÷åíèé ñ ó÷àñòèåì ïòèö âûðîñëà ïî÷òè âäâîå, íåñìîòðÿ íà òî, ÷òî áîëüøå ïîëîâèíû îïîð îòêëþ÷àâøèõñÿ ëèíèé áûëè ñíàáæåíû çàùèòíûìè ïðèñïîñîáëåíèÿìè (òàáë. 1).  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ïðèìåíÿåìûå óñòðîéñòâà ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî îñíîâàíû íà ñîçäàíèè ïîìåõ ïòèöàì, ò. å., ïðåäîòâðàùåíèè èõ ïîñàäêè íà òðàâåðñó îïîðû, íàä ïîäâåñíûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè èëè íà âåðøèíó îïîðû. Íàèáîëåå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíû ðàçëè÷íûå êîíñòðóêöèè «åðøåé», «ãðåá¸íîê» è âåðòóøåê, èçãîòîâëåííûå èç ìåòàëëà.  ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû ðàçðàáîòàíû íîâûå òèïû çàùèòû ËÝÏ èç äèýëåêòðè÷åñêèõ ìàòåðèàëîâ: óñòðîéñòâî òèïà «ãðåá¸íêà» (ÓÎÏ-Ò) ðàçðàáîòêè ÐÓÏ «Ãîìåëüýíåðãî» äëÿ çàùèòû âîçäóøíîãî ïðîìåæóòêà «ïðîâîä âåðõíåé ôàçû – òÿãà íèæíåé òðàâåðñû» íà æåëåçîáåòîííûõ îïîðàõ ÂË-110 ê âñåõ òèïîâ; èçîëÿöèÿ òîêîíåñóùåãî ïðîâîäà è òðàâåðñû îïîðû ËÝÏ ñ ïîìîùüþ «èçîëèðóþùèõ íàêëàäîê» èç ïîëèìåðíûõ ìàòåðèàëîâ ïðîèçâîäñòâà ÏÎÎÎ «Êîíòàêò-Ýëåêòðî» (ã. Ãðîäíî) äëÿ çàùèòû âîçäóøíîãî ïðîìåæóòêà «ïðîâîä âåðõíåé ôàçû – òÿãà íèæíåé òðàâåðñû» íà æåëåçîáåòîííûõ îïîðàõ ÂË110.  ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü èìè íà÷àëè îáîðóäîâàòüñÿ íàèáîëåå ïðîáëåìíûå äëÿ ýíåðãåòèêîâ ó÷àñòêè ëèíèé. Îöåíèòü ðåàëüíóþ ýôôåêòèâíîñòü íîâîââåäåíèé ïîêà íå ïðåäñòàâëÿåòñÿ âîçìîæíûì èç-çà êðàéíå îãðàíè÷åííîãî ïðèìåíåíèÿ äàííûõ ñïîñîáîâ çàùèòû è ìàëîãî îáú¸ìà íàêîïëåííûõ äàííûõ ïî ñìåðòíîñòè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ.

Tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa), Corncrake (Crex crex). Considering the information obtained previously (data of ringing and records of bird deaths until 2010) the list of birds that were recorded being killed on PL in the territory of Belarus, may be added and consists of 46 species, 12 of which are in the Red Data Book of the Republic of Belarus. Analysis of seasonal trend of bird mortality on PL was made on the basis of the results of survey on the monitoring routes, where examinations were carried out several times during the season (fig. 3). The death of birds on PL was negligible in April 2011. The mortality of birds was gradually increasing from May to August, and, on the contrary, reduced in the autumn. The dynamics of bird-caused disconnections of PL (see fig. 2) seems to be similar to the trend of the bird mortality on PL. The list of bird species killed on PL was changing significantly during the season of surveys: 5 species predominated in different months by mortality rate. The highest mortality was noted for the Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) in June (23.5%), July (58.8%), August (60%) and October (30.4%); for the Rook – in May (26.1%), June (35.3%), July (15.7%) and September (18.4%); for the Jackdaw (Corvus monedula) – in May (13.0%), September (18.4%) and October (17.4%); for the White Stork – in August (20%); for the Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) – in October (21.7%). It is clear that increasing the number of bird deaths on PL at the end of May and June is caused by the fledging of young,

Òàáë. 1. Îáùàÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ îá îòêëþ÷åíèÿõ ñ ó÷àñòèåì ïòèö íà ÂË-10–330 ê è óñòàíîâëåííûõ íà íèõ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâàõ (2001–2010 ãã., ïî äàííûì ÃÏÎ «Áåëýíåðãî»). Table 1. General information about bird-caused disconnections on PL 10–330 kV and bird protection devices (2001–2010, data of the “Belenergo” Concern).

Âñåãî îòêëþ÷åíèé â 2001–2010 ãã. Total disconnections in 2001– 2010

Îòêëþ÷åíèé â 2001–2005 ãã. Disconnections in 2001–2005

Îòêëþ÷åíèé â 2006–2010 ãã. Disconnections in 2006–2010

Áðåñòñêàÿ / Brest

451

175

276

192

220

Âèòåáñêàÿ / Vitebsk

525

203

322

298

127

Ãîìåëüñêàÿ / Gomel

214

64

150

104

15

Ãðîäíåíñêàÿ / Grodno

705

260

445

198

331

Ìèíñêàÿ / Minsk

240

60

180

107

82

Ìîãèë¸âñêàÿ / Mogilev

194

56

138

79

2

2329

818

1511

978

777

Îáëàñòü / Region

Âñåãî / Total

Åñòü çàùèòà Íåò çàùèòû With bird pro- Without bird protection devices tection devices


124

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24 Íåñìîòðÿ íà òî, ÷òî äàííûå î ÷àñòîòå îòêëþ÷åíèé ÂË-10 ê áûëè ïðåäñòàâëåíû íå ïî âñåì ðàéîíàì è äàæå îáëàñòÿì (íàïðèìåð, ïîëíîñòüþ îòñóòñòâóþò îíè äëÿ Âèòåáñêîé, Ãîìåëüñêîé è Ìîãèë¸âñêîé îáë.), íàèáîëüøåå êîëè÷åñòâî àâàðèéíûõ îòêëþ÷åíèé ñ ó÷àñòèåì ïòèö â 2001–2010 ãã. ïðèõîäèëîñü èìåííî íà ýòîò òèï ëèíèé (51,3%). Íà âòîðîì ìåñòå ïî ÷àñòîòå îòêëþ÷åíèé ðàñïîëàãàþòñÿ ÂË-110 ê (41,4%), íåçíà÷èòåëüíîå êîëè÷åñòâî àâàðèé ïðèõîäèòñÿ íà ÂË-35 è ÂË-330 êÂ.  öåëîì äëÿ âñåõ ëèíèé íå ìåíåå 36% ñëó÷àåâ îòêëþ÷åíèé ñîïðîâîæäàëîñü ãèáåëüþ ïòèö. Íà ëåòíèå ìåñÿöû ïðèõîäèëîñü íàèáîëüøåå ÷èñëî îòêëþ÷åíèé ËÝÏ ñ ó÷àñòèåì ïòèö (ðèñ. 2). Ïðè ýòîì, äîëÿ îòêëþ÷åíèé â àâãóñòå ïðåâûøàåò 45% îò âñåõ çàðåãèñòðèðîâàííûõ â 2001–2010 ãã. ñëó÷àåâ. Ñâåäåíèÿ î ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ ñ ñåðåäèíû 1990-õ ïî 2010 ã. Àíàëèç ðàíåå ïîëó÷åííûõ äàííûõ, âêëþ÷àþùèé èíôîðìàöèþ Áåëîðóññêîãî öåíòðà êîëüöåâàíèÿ è íåîïóáëèêîâàííûõ ñâåäåíèé î ðåãèñòðàöèè ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö ñïåöèàëèñòàìè-îðíèòîëîãàìè (òàáë. 2), ãîâîðèò î òîì, ÷òî íà òåððèòîðèè Áåëàðóñè çà ïåðèîä ñ ñåðåäèíû 1990-õ ãîäîâ ïî 2010 ã. íàèáîëåå ÷àñòî íà ËÝÏ ïîãèáàëè äíåâíûå õèùíûå ïòèöû (Falconiiformes: 30 îñîáåé, 9 âèäîâ), àèñòû (Ciconiidae: 19 îñîáåé, 2 âèäà), âðàíîâûå (Corvidae: 12 îñîáåé, 5 âèäîâ), êóëèêè (Charadriiformes: 9 îñîáåé, 4 âèäà), ëåáåäè (Cygnus: 8 îñîáåé, 1 âèä) è ñîâû (Strigidae: 5 îñîáåé, 2 âèäà). Áîëüøå âñåãî çàðåãèñòðèðîâàííûõ ñëó÷à-

Ðèñ. 2. Ñåçîííàÿ äèíàìèêà àâàðèéíûõ îòêëþ÷åíèé ñ ó÷àñòèåì ïòèö íà ËÝÏ 10, 35, 110, 220, 330 ê íà òåððèòîðèè Áåëàðóñè çà ïåðèîä 2001–2010 ãã., ïî äàííûì ÃÏÎ «Áåëýíåðãî» (n=2165). Fig. 2. Seasonal dynamics of bird-caused disconnections on PL 10-330 kV in Belarus in 2001–2010, data of the “Belenergo” Concern (n=2165).

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé mostly crows. The growth of the mortality of birds on PL in July–August is due to a sharp increase in numbers not only the local populations of birds, but also due to increased migration of birds from other regions. The majority of bird deaths on PL are confined to the open habitats (fig. 4). The death of the birds most frequently observed during the period of harvesting, mowing, plowing, when the fields and hay meadows have an increased number of birds. A certain dependence in the increasing of bird mortality can be noted, when PL locate near the large agricultural complexes, as well as near the water bodies, where, as a rule, the birds are concentrated because of the abundance of food Conclusions Despite the use of various BPD a number of disconnections on PL in the medium and high voltage ranges on the territory of Belarus has almost doubled for the past five years in comparison with the previous fiveyear period. This indicates a lack of effectiveness of existing techniques for protection and the need to review approaches to the prevention of bird deaths on PL. In Belarus, as well as in Russia (Saltykov, 2003; Matsyna, 2008) and Kazakhstan (Karyakin, 2006), the largest number of bird deaths from electrocution are observed at PL 10 kV. Electric poles that pose the greatest risk to birds are widespread concrete poles of PL 10 kV with a metal crossarm and upright insulators, especially the angle and anchor poles. A significant number of birds of medium and large sizes die at PL-110 kV due to collisions with wires. The total list of birds which deaths from electrocution or collision were registered on the territory of Belarus (including previously obtained data) includes 46 species, 12 of which are listed in the Red Data Book of RB. Basing data of surveys in 2011 at least about 200 thousand birds die on PL every year, including at least 185 thousand are killed on PL 10 kV. Considering these facts, we would like to mention the significant negative impact pf PL on certain species of large birds, for example, the Golden Eagle and the White Stork. If, until recently, the Golden Eagle population in Belarus was assessed as stable with a number being 25–35 breeding pairs (Red Data Book of Belarus, 2004), but today, according to experts, it is 5–7 pairs (V. Dombrowsky, pers. comm.). In


Proceedings of Conferences

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

125

Òàáë. 2. Êîëè÷åñòâî ïòèö, äëÿ êîòîðûõ îòìå÷åíà ãèáåëü â ðåçóëüòàòå ïîâðåæäåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì èëè ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ñ ïðîâîäàìè è îïîðàìè ËÝÏ íà òåððèòîðèè Áåëàðóñè çà ïåðèîä ñ ñåðåäèíû 1990-õ ãîäîâ ïî 2010 ã. Table 2. Number of bird deaths from electrocution or collision on PL in Belarus from the middle 1990-s to 2010.

Äàííûå Öåíòðà Ïîëåâûå ðåãèñòðàöèè êîëüöåâàíèÿ ãèáåëè ïòèö Data of the Ringing Center Field registrations

Âèä / Species

Âñåãî / Total

Áåëîëîáûé ãóñü (Anser albifrons)

-

1

1

Ëåáåäü-øèïóí (Cygnus olor)

6

2

8

׸ðíûé àèñò (Ciconia nigra)

3

-

3

Áåëûé àèñò (Ciconia ciconia)

6

10

16

Ñêîïà (Pandion haliaetus)

5

-

5

Ëóãîâîé ëóíü (Circus pygargus)

1

-

1

Áîëîòíûé ëóíü (Circus aeruginosus)

-

1

1

Òåòåðåâÿòíèê (Accipiter gentilis)

1

5

6

Îáûêíîâåííûé êàíþê (Buteo buteo)

1

4

5

Çèìíÿê (Buteo lagopus)

1

-

1

Ìàëûé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila pomarina)

-

1

1

Áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos)

5

-

5

Îáûêíîâåííàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus)

1

4

5

Ñåðàÿ êóðîïàòêà (Perdix perdix)

-

1

1

Âàëüäøíåï (Scolopax rusticola)

-

5

5

Äóïåëü (Gallinago media)

-

1

1

Òóðóõòàí (Philomachus pugnax)

-

2

2

×èáèñ (Vanellus vanellus)

-

1

1

Ôèëèí (Bubo bubo)

-

4

4

Óøàñòàÿ ñîâà (Asio otus)

1

-

1

Ñîéêà (Garrulus glandarius)

-

1

1

Ãàëêà (Corvus monedula)

-

2

2

Ãðà÷ (Corvus frugilegus)

2

2

4

Cåðàÿ âîðîíà (Corvus corone)

-

1

1

Âîðîí (Corvus corax)

-

4

4

׸ðíûé äðîçä (Turdus merula)

-

1

1

Ïðîñÿíêà (Emberiza calandra) Âñåãî / Total

åâ ãèáåëè íà ËÝÏ ïðèõîäèëîñü íà áåëîãî àèñòà (Ciconia ciconia) – 18,4%, ëåáåäÿ-øèïóíà (Cygnus olor) – 9,2%, òåòåðåâÿòíèêà (Accipiter gentilis) – 6,9%, ñêîïó (Pandion haliaetus), îáûêíîâåííîãî êàíþêà (Buteo buteo), îáûêíîâåííóþ ïóñòåëüãó (Falco tinnunculus), âàëüäøíåïà (Scolopax rusticola) – ïî 5,7%, ôèëèíà (Bubo bubo), ãðà÷à (Corvus frugilegus) è âîðîíà (Corvus corax) – ïî 4,6%. Ñðåäè 27 âèäîâ ïòèö, äëÿ êîòîðûõ îòìå÷åíà ãèáåëü íà ËÝÏ, 8 âèäîâ (30%) çàíåñåíû â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÁ: ÷¸ðíûé àèñò (Ciconia nigra), ñêîïà, ìàëûé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila pomarina), áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos), îáûêíîâåííàÿ ïóñòåëüãà, äóïåëü (Gallinago media), òóðóõòàí (Philomachus pugnax), ôèëèí.

-

1

1

33

54

87

the north, where the main part of the population breeds, a total of four pairs are registered in recent years (Dombrovsky, Ivanovsky, 2009). The Golden Eagle population in Belarus is close to extinction, and the impact of PL could be critical to the population due to the high mortality from electrocution that is noted according to the analysis of ring recovers in the territory of the country. Electrocution is one of main reasons for the death of White Storks (Riegel, Winkel, 1971; Oatley, Rammesmayer, 1988; Fiedler, 1999 et al.). The problem of mortality of storks on PL is worsened by the fact that the birds throughout the range be-


126

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

Ðåçóëüòàòû ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé â 2011 ã. è èõ îáñóæäåíèå Ïî ðåçóëüòàòàì ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé ÷àñòîòà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â 2011 ã. ñîñòàâèëà â ñðåäíåì 3,14 îñ./10 êì ìàðøðóòà (òàáë. 3). Íàèáîëüøåå ÷èñëî ñëó÷àåâ îòìå÷åíî íà ÂË-10 êÂ, íàèìåíüøåå – íà ÂË-35 ê è 220 êÂ. Ñëåäóåò îòìåòèòü, ÷òî ðåàëüíûå ïîêàçàòåëè ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ ìîãóò çíà÷èòåëüíî ïðåâûøàòü çàôèêñèðîâàííûå ïîêàçàòåëè âñëåäñòâèå âîçìîæíîé áûñòðîé óòèëèçàöèè òðóïîâ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö íàçåìíûìè è ïåðíàòûìè õèùíèêàìè (Ñàëòûêîâ, 2003). Òàê, íà íåêîòîðûõ ó÷àñòêàõ ìàðøðóòîâ ñ âûñîêîé ïëîòíîñòüþ îáèòàíèÿ ëèñû (Vulpes vulpes), äîìàøíèõ ñîáàê (Canis familiaris) è äðóãèõ õèùíèêîâ ñëó÷àè ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ âîîáùå íå áûëè îòìå÷åíû. Ïðè ýòîì, òàêîâûå ðåãèñòðèðîâàëèñü íà ñîñåäíèõ, èçîëèðîâàííûõ ìåëèîðàòèâíûìè êàíàëàìè ó÷àñòêàõ. Íà ÂË-10 ê îñíîâíîé ïðè÷èíîé ãèáåëè ïòèö ÿâëÿëîñü ïîðàæåíèå ýëåêòðîòîêîì, íà îñòàëüíûõ òèïàõ ëèíèé áîëüøèíñòâî ïòèö ãèáëî â ðåçóëüòàòå ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ñ ïðîâîäàìè ËÝÏ. Îêîëî ïîëîâèíû îñìîòðåííûõ îïîð ÂË10 êÂ, ãäå çàôèêñèðîâàíà ãèáåëü ïòèö, ÿâëÿþòñÿ ïðîìåæóòî÷íûìè îïîðàìè ñî «ñòàíäàðòíûì íàáîðîì» èç òðåõ, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ôàðôîðîâûõ, èçîëÿòîðîâ. Îñòàâøàÿñÿ ÷àñòü ñëó÷àåâ ïðèõîäèòñÿ íà àíêåðíûå, óãëîâûå ëèáî êîíöåâûå îïîðû, èìåþùèå â îñíîâàíèè äâà èëè òðè æåëåçîáåòîííûõ ñòîëáà, óñèëåííûå äîïîëíèòåëüíûìè øòûðåâûìè è/èëè ãîðèçîíòàëüíûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè è/èëè ñ îòïàéêîé. Èìåííî òàêèå îïîðû ïðåäñòàâëÿþò íàèáîëüøóþ îïàñíîñòü äëÿ ïòèö ñ ó÷¸òîì òîãî, ÷òî èõ äîëÿ ñðåäè âñåõ îïîð ÂË-10 ê ñîñòàâëÿåò ëèøü 10–20%. Òàáë. 3. Ïîêàçàòåëè ñìåðòíîñòè ïòèö íà ó÷¸òíûõ ìàðøðóòàõ â 2011 ã. Table 3. Data of bird mortality on surveyed routes in 2011.

Ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòü ó÷¸òíûõ ìàðøðóòîâ, êì Length of surveyed routes, km

Êîë-âî ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö, îñ. Number of dead birds, ind.

×àñòîòà ñëó÷àåâ ãèáåëè ïòèö, îñ./10 êì Rate of bird mortality, ind./10 km

10 êÂ

326.8

296

9.06

35 êÂ

106.8

3

0.28

110 êÂ

603.4

45

0.75

220 êÂ

64.2

2

0.31

1101.2

346

3.14

Íàïðÿæåíèå ËÝÏ Voltage of PL

Âñåãî / Total

Ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus), ïîãèáøàÿ íà ÂË-10 êÂ. Ôîòî È. Ñàìóñåíêî. Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), killed by electrocution on PL 10 kV. Photo by I. Samusenko.

come to use electric poles for nesting. If in Belarus the White Stork nested almost exclusively on trees, roofs of houses or sheds at the end of 1960-s, a quarter of all nests were located at the electric poles by 2004 (Samusenko, 2007). In recent years, this tendency is heightened: the number of nests on poles in the monitoring territory, which is located in the floodplain of the Pripyat river, reached 61% in 2011. The lack of nesting places preferred in the past (trees and roofs) is especially actual in the face of increasing the species population in recent years. As a result, more and more mass nesting of storks on electric poles becomes one of the most urgent aspects of the problem “Birds and Power Lines”. It manifests itself in the mass death of birds on PL and in the reducing of reproductive potential due to non-alternative destruction of nests, as well as in the largescale biological damage inflicted by storks (shorting and damage of wires, premature wear of poles, etc.) (Samusenko, 2011). The surveys carried out by us have allowed assessing roughly the importance of the problem “Birds and Power Lines” in the territory of Belarus. In the future, we are going to continue the research to develop approaches to reduce the bird mortality and minimize accidents on PL.


Proceedings of Conferences

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

127

Óãëîâûå îïîðû ëèáî îïîðû ñ îòïàéêîé ËÝÏ 10 ê ñî øòûðåâûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè ïðåäñòàâëÿþò íàèáîëüøóþ îïàñíîñòü äëÿ ïòèö. Angle poles or poles with switchers and upright insulators pose the greatest risk to birds.

Áîëüøèíñòâî îïîð ËÝÏ âûñîêîãî íàïðÿæåíèÿ, ãäå áûëà çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíà ãèáåëü ïòèö, áûëè ñíàáæåíû ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè, â òî âðåìÿ êàê ÂË-10 ê âîîáùå íå èìåëè çàùèòû, à íà ÂË-35 ê óñòðîéñòâà çàùèòû ïðèìåíÿëèñü â ðåäêèõ ñëó÷àÿõ, íàïðèìåð, ïðè ðåãóëÿðíîì ãíåçäîâàíèè êðóïíûõ ïòèö (áåëîãî àèñòà) íà îïîðàõ è ò. ï. Âñåãî çà âðåìÿ ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé íà ó÷¸òíûõ ìàðøðóòàõ âäîëü ÂË-10–220 ê îòìå÷åíà ãèáåëü 346 îñîáåé ïòèö, îòíîñÿùèõñÿ ê 29 âèäàì (òàáë. 4). Ñðåäè íèõ øåñòü âèäîâ-«êðàñíîêíèæíèêîâ»: îáûêíîâåííàÿ ïóñòåëüãà, äîìîâûé ñû÷ (Athene noctua), ñèçàÿ ÷àéêà (Larus canus), òóðóõòàí, áîëüøîé âåðåòåííèê (Limosa limosa), êîðîñòåëü (Crex crex). Íåñêîëüêî îñîáåé ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö óäàëîñü îïðåäåëèòü äî ðîäà èëè îòðÿäà, äëÿ îñòàòêîâ ñåìè ïòèö ñèñòåìàòè÷åñêàÿ ïðèíàäëåæíîñòü íå âûÿâëåíà. Ñ ó÷¸òîì ðàíåå ïîëó÷åííîé èíôîðìàöèè (äàííûå êîëüöåâàíèÿ è ðåãèñòðàöèè ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö äî 2010 ã.) ñïèñîê ïòèö, äëÿ êîòîðûõ óñòàíîâëåíà ãèáåëü íà ËÝÏ íà òåððèòîðèè Áåëàðóñè, ìîæåò áûòü äîïîëíåí è ñîñòàâëÿåò 46 âèäîâ, èç êîòîðûõ 12 çàíåñåíû â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Ðåñïóáëèêè Áåëàðóñü.  öåëîì îêàçàëîñü, ÷òî áîëåå ïîäâåðæåíû ãèáåëè îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì èëè óäàðîâ î ïðîâîäà âðàíîâûå (ñîðîêà Pica pica, ãàëêà Corvus monedula, âîðîí, ñåðàÿ âîðîíà Corvus cornix, ãðà÷) è îáûêíîâåííûå ñêâîðöû (Sturnus vulgaris). Èõ äîëÿ îò âñåõ çàðåãèñòðèðîâàííûõ ñëó÷àåâ ñîñòàâè-

ëà 44% è 35%, ñîîòâåòñòâåííî. Äîëÿ äðóãèõ âîðîáüèíûõ, àèñòîîáðàçíûõ (áåëûé àèñò) è ðæàíêîîáðàçíûõ (êóëèêè, ÷àéêè) ñîñòàâèëà îêîëî 5% îáùåãî ÷èñëà îòìå÷åííûõ ñëó÷àåâ ãèáåëè, äî 2% ïðèõîäèëîñü íà ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è ãîëóáåîáðàçíûõ. Ïðåäñòàâëåííîñòü ïòèö ðàçëè÷íûõ ñèñòåìàòè÷åñêèõ ãðóïï â ñïèñêå âèäîâ-æåðòâ íà ÂË-10–35 ê íå èìååò çíà÷èòåëüíûõ îòëè÷èé îò îáùåé êàðòèíû ñìåðòíîñòè, ÷òî ñâÿçàíî ñ òåì, ÷òî èìåííî íà äàííûõ ëèíèÿõ îòìå÷åíà îñíîâíàÿ ìàññà ïîãèáøèõ íà ËÝÏ ïòèö. Áîëüøîå êîëè÷åñòâî âðàíîâûõ ïòèö â ñïèñêå æåðòâ ËÝÏ îáúÿñíÿåòñÿ ýêîëîãè÷åñêèìè îñîáåííîñòÿìè äàííûõ âèäîâ: ñêëîííîñòüþ ê àãðåãàöèè â êðóïíûõ ãíåçäîâûõ è êî÷¸âî÷íûõ ñêîïëåíèÿõ (îñîáåííî äëÿ ãàëêè è ãðà÷à); âûñîêîé ïëîòíîñòüþ íàñåëåíèÿ â îòêðûòûõ áèîòîïàõ â çîíå ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ËÝÏ; ïðåäðàñïîëîæåííîñòüþ ê ìàññîâûì, ðåãóëÿðíûì ïîñëåãíåçäîâûì êî÷¸âêàì; ïðåäïî÷òåíèåì îòêðûòûõ êîðìîâûõ áèîòîïîâ; àêòèâíûì èñïîëüçîâàíèåì îïîð ËÝÏ â êà÷åñòâå ãðóïïîâûõ ïðèñàä è äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ (ãàëêà, âîðîí, ñêâîðåö).  ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ ïîä îäíîé îïîðîé ôèêñèðîâàëàñü ãèáåëü íåñêîëüêèõ ïòèö îäíîãî âèäà. Îäíîâðåìåííàÿ èõ ãèáåëü ïðîèñõîäèëà, êàê ïðàâèëî, ïðè ñèíõðîííîì âçë¸òå ãðóïïû. Ìàêñèìàëüíîå êîëè÷åñòâî ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö, çàðåãèñòðèðîâàííûõ ïîä îäíîé îïîðîé, äîñòèãàëî 16 îñîáåé. Ïðè ýòîì, ïî ðåçóëüòàòàì âèçóàëüíîãî îñìîòðà òðóïîâ, ïåðèîä ñ ìîìåíòà ãèáåëè ïòèö â


128

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

Òàáë. 4. Êîëè÷åñòâî è äîëÿ ñëó÷àåâ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ó÷¸òíûõ ìàðøðóòàõ (àïðåëü–îêòÿáðü 2011 ã.). Table 4. Number and rate of observation of dead bird on surveyed routes (April–October 2011).

10–35 ê 10–35 kV

110–220 ê 110–220 kV

Âñåãî Total

Âèä / Species

n

%

n

%

n

%

Êðÿêâà (Anas platyrhynchos)

1

0.3

2

4.3

3

0.9

Áåëûé àèñò (Ciconia ciconia)

11

3.7

6

12.8

17

4.9

3

1.0

0.0

3

0.9

1

2.1

1

0.3

0.0

3

0.9

0.0

1

2.1

1

0.3

0.0

1

2.1

1

0.3

0.0

1

0.3

Îáûêíîâåííûé êàíþê (Buteo buteo) Ëóãîâîé ëóíü (Circus pygargus) Îáûêíîâåííàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus)

0.0 3

Êîðîñòåëü (Crex crex) Áîëüøîé âåðåòåííèê (Limosa limosa) Òðàâíèê (Tringa totanus)

1

1.0

0.3

Òóðóõòàí (Philomachus pugnax)

0.0

3

6.4

3

0.9

×èáèñ (Vanellus vanellus)

0.0

8

17.0

8

2.3

0.0

1

0.3

Ñèçàÿ ÷àéêà (Larus canus)

1

Îç¸ðíàÿ ÷àéêà (Larus ridibundus)

2

Êðà÷êà (Chlidonias sp.)

0.3 0.7

1

2.1

3

0.9

0.0

1

2.1

1

0.3

Âÿõèðü (Columba palumbus)

1

0.3

2

4.3

3

0.9

Ãîëóáü (Columba sp.)

1

0.3

2

4.3

3

0.9

Óøàñòàÿ ñîâà (Asio otus)

1

0.3

0.0

1

0.3

Äîìîâûé ñû÷ (Athene noctua)

1

0.3

0.0

1

0.3

Ñîðîêà (Pica pica)

7

2.3

0.0

7

2.0

Ãàëêà (Corvus monedula)

52

17.4

0.0

52

15.0

Ãðà÷ (Corvus frugilegus)

57

19.1

2.1

58

16.8

0.0

5

1.4

6.4

27

7.8

Cåðàÿ âîðîíà (Corvus corone) Âîðîí (Corvus corax) Îáûêíîâåííûé ñêâîðåö (Sturnus vulgaris)

1

5

1.7

24

8.0

3 1

118

39.5

2.1

119

34.4

Áîëüøàÿ ñèíèöà (Parus major)

1

0.3

0.0

1

0.3

׸ðíûé äðîçä (Turdus merula)

1

0.3

0.0

2

0.6

Ðÿáèííèê (Turdus pilaris)

2

0.7

1

2.1

3

0.9

Ïåâ÷èé äðîçä (Turdus philomelos)

1

0.3

5

10.6

5

1.4

Çàðÿíêà (Erithacus rubecula)

0.0

2

4.3

2

0.6

×åðíîãîëîâàÿ ñëàâêà (Sylvia atricapilla)

0.0

1

2.1

1

0.3

Ìóõîëîâêà-ïåñòðóøêà (Ficedula hypoleuca)

1

0.3

0.0

1

0.3

Ïîëåâîé âîðîáåé (Passer montanus)

1

0.3

0.0

1

0.3

Ìåëêèå âîðîáüèíûå (Passeriformes sp.)

1

0.3

0.0

1

0.3

Íåîïðåäåë¸ííûå sp. Âñåãî / Total

2

0.7

5

10.6

7

2.0

299

100.0

47

100.0

346

100.0

òàêîé ãðóïïå ìîã âàðüèðîâàòü îò 1–2 äíåé äî 1–1,5 è áîëåå ìåñÿöåâ. Ñîîòíîøåíèå âèäîâ ïòèö, ÷üÿ ãèáåëü îòìå÷åíà íà ÂË-110–220 êÂ, êàðäèíàëüíî îòëè÷àåòñÿ îò êàðòèíû ñìåðòíîñòè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ ñðåäíåãî íàïðÿæåíèÿ. Äîëÿ âðàíîâûõ è îáûêíîâåííîãî ñêâîðöà îòíîñèòåëüíî íåâåëèêà – 9% è 5%, ñîîòâåòñòâåííî. Ñðåäè äîìèíàíòîâ, ÷üÿ äîëÿ ïðåâûøàëà 10% çàðåãèñòðèðîâàííûõ ñëó÷àåâ, ïðèñóòñòâóþò â îñíîâíîì ïòèöû ñðåäíèõ è êðóïíûõ

ðàçìåðîâ: ðæàíêîîáðàçíûå (33%), ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ñðåäíèõ ðàçìåðîâ âîðîáüèíûå (21%, èñêëþ÷àÿ âðàíîâûõ è ñêâîðöà), àèñòîîáðàçíûå (14%). Àíàëèç ñåçîííîé äèíàìèêè ñìåðòíîñòè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ ïðîâåä¸í íà îñíîâàíèè ðåçóëüòàòîâ îáñëåäîâàíèé íà ìîíèòîðèíãîâûõ ìàðøðóòàõ, ãäå ó÷¸òíûå ðàáîòû ïðîâîäèëèñü íåñêîëüêî ðàç çà ñåçîí (ðèñ. 3). Ãèáåëü ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â àïðåëå 2011 ã. áûëà íåçíà÷èòåëüíà. Ñ ìàÿ ïî àâãóñò íàáëþäàëñÿ ïîñòå-


Proceedings of Conferences

Ðèñ. 3. Ñåçîííàÿ äèíàìèêà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ìîíèòîðèíãîâûõ ìàðøðóòàõ â 2011 ã. (n=216). Fig. 3. Seasonal trend of bird mortality at the surveyed routes in 2011 (n=216).

Ðèñ. 4. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ñëó÷àåâ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ ïî òèïàì áèîòîïîâ â 2011 ã. (n=346). Fig. 4. Distribution of bird deaths on PL according to habitats in 2011 (n=346).

ïåííûé ïîäú¸ì óðîâíÿ ñìåðòíîñòè ïòèö, à â îñåííèå ìåñÿöû, íàîáîðîò, ñîêðàùåíèå. Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî äèíàìèêà îòêëþ÷åíèé ËÝÏ ñ ó÷àñòèåì ïòèö è ñìåðòíîñòè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ èìåþò ñõîäíûé õàðàêòåð (ñì. ðèñ. 2). Âèäîâîé ñîñòàâ ïîãèáøèõ íà ËÝÏ ïòèö ñóùåñòâåííî èçìåíÿëñÿ íà ïðîòÿæåíèè ñåçîíà îáñëåäîâàíèÿ: â ðàçíûå ìåñÿöû ïî ñìåðòíîñòè äîìèíèðîâàëè ïÿòü âèäîâ. Îáûêíîâåííûé ñêâîðåö äîìèíèðîâàë ïî êîëè÷åñòâó ðåãèñòðàöèé ãèáåëè â èþíå (23,5%), èþëå (58,8%), àâãóñòå (60%) è îêòÿáðå (30,4%); ãðà÷ – â ìàå (26,1%), èþíå (35,3%), èþëå (15,7%) è ñåíòÿáðå (18,4%); ãàëêà – â ìàå (13,0%), ñåíòÿáðå (18,4%) è îêòÿáðå (17,4%); áåëûé àèñò – â àâãóñòå (20%); ÷èáèñ (Vanellus vanellus) – â îêòÿáðå (21,7%). Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî óâåëè÷åíèå ÷èñëà ïîãèáøèõ íà ËÝÏ ïòèö â êîíöå ìàÿ–èþíå ñâÿçàíî ñ íà÷àëîì âûëåòà èç ãí¸çä ìîëîäíÿêà, â îñíîâíîì ðàííåãíåçäÿùèõñÿ âðàíîâûõ. Ïëîõî óìåþùèå ëåòàòü ìîëîäûå ïòèöû â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü ñòàíîâÿòñÿ æåðòâàìè ËÝÏ. Àíàëîãè÷íûì îáðàçîì,

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

129

ðîñò ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â èþëå–àâãóñòå ïðîèñõîäèò çà ñ÷¸ò ðåçêîãî óâåëè÷åíèÿ êîëè÷åñòâà íå òîëüêî ìåñòíûõ ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïòèö, íî è çà ñ÷¸ò óñèëåíèÿ ìèãðàöèè èç äðóãèõ ðåãèîíîâ. Èìåííî íà êîíåö èþëÿ–àâãóñò ïðèõîäèòñÿ âûëåò èç ãí¸çä è îñíîâíîé ïåðèîä îñåííåé ìèãðàöèè áåëîãî àèñòà è ðÿäà äðóãèõ êðóïíûõ ïòèö.  ñåíòÿáðå èíòåíñèâíîñòü êî÷¸âîê è ìèãðàöèè ìíîãèõ ïòèö èä¸ò íà ñïàä, â ÷àñòíîñòè, îíà çàêàí÷èâàåòñÿ ó àèñòîâ, íåêîòîðûõ âîðîáüèíûõ è äð. Òåì íå ìåíåå, â îñåííèå ìåñÿöû ìîæåò íàáëþäàòüñÿ âñïëåñê ìèãðàöèîííîé àêòèâíîñòè ðÿäà äàëüíèõ ìèãðàíòîâ, òàêèõ, êàê êóëèêè. Ïîäàâëÿþùåå áîëüøèíñòâî ñëó÷àåâ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ ïðèóðî÷åíû ê îòêðûòûì òèïàì áèîòîïîâ (ðèñ. 4). Ãèáåëü ïòèö íàèáîëåå ÷àñòî îòìå÷àëàñü â ïåðèîä óáîðêè çåðíîâûõ, ñåíîêîøåíèÿ, ïàõîòû, êîãäà íà ïîëÿõ è ñåíîêîñíûõ ëóãàõ îòìå÷àåòñÿ ïîâûøåííàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ïåðíàòûõ. Îïðåäåë¸ííàÿ çàâèñèìîñòü óâåëè÷åíèÿ ñìåðòíîñòè ïòèö ïðîñëåæèâàåòñÿ è â ñâÿçè ñ ðàñïîëîæåíèåì ËÝÏ âáëèçè êðóïíûõ ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûõ îáúåêòîâ, à òàêæå ïî ñîñåäñòâó ñ âîäî¸ìàìè, ãäå, êàê ïðàâèëî, ïòèöû êîíöåíòðèðóþòñÿ ââèäó îáèëèÿ êîðìà. Çàêëþ÷åíèå Íåñìîòðÿ íà èñïîëüçîâàíèå ðàçëè÷íûõ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ, êîëè÷åñòâî àâàðèéíûõ îòêëþ÷åíèé íà ËÝÏ ñðåäíåãî è âûñîêîãî íàïðÿæåíèÿ íà òåððèòîðèè Áåëàðóñè çà ïîñëåäíèå ïÿòü ëåò óâåëè÷èëîñü ïî÷òè âäâîå ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ ïðåäûäóùèì ïÿòèëåòíèì ïåðèîäîì. Ýòî ñâèäåòåëüñòâóåò î íåäîñòàòî÷íîé ýôôåêòèâíîñòè ñóùåñòâóþùèõ â ñòðàíå ìåòîäîâ çàùèòû è íåîáõîäèìîñòè ïåðåñìîòðà ïîäõîäîâ ïî çàùèòå ïòèö íà ËÝÏ. Íà òåððèòîðèè Áåëàðóñè, òàêæå, êàê â Ðîññèè (Ñàëòûêîâ, 2003, Ìûöûíà, 2008) èëè Êàçàõñòàíå (Êàðÿêèí, 2006), íàèáîëüøåå ÷èñëî ñëó÷àåâ ãèáåëè ïòèö âñëåäñòâèå ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì îòìå÷åíî íà ÂË-10 êÂ. Íàèáîëåå îïàñíûìè äëÿ ïòèö ÿâëÿþòñÿ øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííûå æåëåçîáåòîííûå îïîðû ÂË-10 ê ñ ìåòàëëè÷åñêîé òðàâåðñîé è øòûðåâûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè, îñîáåííî óãëîâûå è àíêåðíûå. Çíà÷èòåëüíîå êîëè÷åñòâî ïòèö ñðåäíèõ è êðóïíûõ ðàçìåðîâ ïîãèáàåò òàêæå íà ÂË-110 ê â ðåçóëüòàòå ñòîëêíîâåíèé ñ ïðîâîäàìè. Îáùèé ñïèñîê ïòèö, äëÿ êîòîðûõ óñòàíîâëåíà ãèáåëü îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì èëè óäàðîâ î ïðîâîäà, íà òåððèòîðèè


130

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

Çàùèòíûå óñòðîéñòâà íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ: «åðøè» ìÿãêîé (A) êîíñòðóêöèè, «ãðåá¸íêè» èç òîêîïðîâîäÿùèõ (B) è äèýëåêòðè÷åñêèõ ìàòåðèàëîâ (Ñ), âåðòóøêè (D). Ôîòî È. Ñàìóñåíêî. Perch detectors of different design on electric poles: upright “whisk brooms” made of conducting (A, B) and dielectric (Ñ) materials; rotating device for the scaring of birds (D). Photos by I. Samusenko.

Áåëàðóñè (ñ ó÷¸òîì ðàíåå íàêîïëåííûõ äàííûõ) âêëþ÷àåò 46 âèäîâ, èç êîòîðûõ 12 çàíåñåíû â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÁ. Ïî ìèíèìàëüíîé îöåíêå, îïèðàÿñü íà äàííûå ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 2011 ã., åæåãîäíî íà ËÝÏ ðåñïóáëèêè ìîæåò ãèáíóòü îêîëî 200 òûñ. ïòèö, èç êîòîðûõ íå ìåíåå 185 òûñ. ïðèõîäèòñÿ íà ÂË-10 êÂ. Óñòàíîâëåíî, ÷òî íàèáîëåå ÷àñòî ïîãèáàþò íà ËÝÏ âðàíîâûå è îáûêíîâåííûå ñêâîðöû. Îäíàêî, ýëåêòðîëèíèè ìîãóò ïðåäñòàâëÿòü çíà÷èòåëüíóþ óãðîçó äëÿ ðÿäà äðóãèõ âèäîâ ïòèö â ñèëó íåáîëüøîé ÷èñëåííîñòè èõ ïîïóëÿöèé èëè îòíîñèòåëüíî âûñîêîé ÷àñòîòû ãèáåëè: õèùíûõ ïòèö, áåëîãî àèñòà, ëåáåäÿøèïóíà, êóëèêîâ.  ýòîé ñâÿçè õîòåëîñü áû óïîìÿíóòü î ñóùåñòâåííîì îòðèöàòåëüíîì âîçäåéñòâèè ËÝÏ íà îòäåëüíûå âèäû êðóïíûõ ïòèö íà ïðèìåðå áåðêóòà è áåëîãî àèñòà. Åñëè äî íåäàâíåãî âðåìåíè ïîïóëÿöèÿ áåðêóòà â Áåëàðóñè îöåíèâàëàñü êàê ñòàáèëüíàÿ ñ ÷èñëåííîñòüþ 25–35 ãíåçäÿùèõ-

ñÿ ïàð (Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà ÐÁ, 2004), òî â ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû, ïî îöåíêàì ñïåöèàëèñòîâ, îíà ñîñòàâëÿåò 5–7 ïàð (Â. Äîìáðîâñêèé, ëè÷íîå ñîîáùåíèå). Íà ñåâåðå ñòðàíû, ãäå ñîñðåäîòî÷åíà îñíîâíàÿ ÷àñòü ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêè âèäà, â ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíî âñåãî ÷åòûðå ïàðû (Äîìáðîâñêèé, Èâàíîâñêèé, 2009). Ãíåçäÿùèéñÿ â Áåëàðóñè áåðêóò ïðàêòè÷åñêè îêàçàëñÿ íà ãðàíè èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ, è âëèÿíèå ËÝÏ ìîæåò ñòàòü êðèòè÷åñêèì äëÿ ïîïóëÿöèè ââèäó âûñîêîãî óðîâíÿ ñìåðòíîñòè îò ýëåêòðîïîâðåæäåíèé, îòìå÷åííîãî ïî ðåçóëüòàòàì àíàëèçà âîçâðàòîâ êîëåö íà òåððèòîðèè ñòðàíû. Ñîâðåìåííàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü áåëîãî àèñòà íà òåððèòîðèè Áåëàðóñè ñîñòàâëÿåò 21,5 òûñ. ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð, ïðè ýòîì áåëîðóññêàÿ ãíåçäîâàÿ ãðóïïèðîâêà, âõîäÿùàÿ â ñîñòàâ âîñòî÷íîåâðîïåéñêîãî ÿäðà ìèðîâîé ïîïóëÿöèè, õàðàêòåðèçóåòñÿ îäíèìè èç íàèáîëåå âûñîêèõ â ïðåäåëàõ àðåàëà ÷èñëåííîñòüþ è ïëîòíîñòüþ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ


Proceedings of Conferences (Ñàìóñåíêî, 2007). Äëÿ áåëîãî àèñòà íåñ÷àñòíûå ñëó÷àè íà ËÝÏ ÿâëÿþòñÿ îäíîé èç îñíîâíûõ ïðè÷èí ãèáåëè (Riegel, Winkel, 1971; Oatley, Rammesmayer, 1988; Fiedler, 1999 è äð.). Ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè àèñòîâ íà ËÝÏ óñóãóáëÿåòñÿ åù¸ è òåì, ÷òî ïòèöû ïî âñåìó àðåàëó îñâàèâàþò îïîðû ëèíèé â êà÷åñòâå ãíåçäîâîãî ñóáñòðàòà. Åñëè â êîíöå 1960-õ ãîäîâ â Áåëàðóñè áåëûå àèñòû ãíåçäèëèñü ïî÷òè èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî íà äåðåâüÿõ, êðûøàõ äîìîâ èëè ñàðàåâ, òî ê 2004 ã. ÷åòâåðòü âñåõ ãí¸çä ðàñïîëàãàëàñü óæå íà ñòîëáàõ (Ñàìóñåíêî, 2007).  ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû òåìïû óâåëè÷åíèÿ êîëè÷åñòâà ãí¸çä íà ñòîëáàõ åù¸ áîëåå óñêîðèëèñü: ê 2011 ã. èõ äîëÿ íà ìîíèòîðèíãîâîé ïëîùàäêå â ïîéìå ð. Ïðèïÿòü äîñòèãëà 61%. Ïðè äåôèöèòå ïîäõîäÿùèõ äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ òðàäèöèîííûõ îïîð (äåðåâüåâ ïðåäïî÷èòàåìîé àðõèòåêòîíèêè êðîíû è ïîñòðîåê ñ ìÿãêèì ïîêðûòèåì êðûø) è â ñâÿçè ñ óâåëè÷åíèåì ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòè è ãóñòîòû ËÝÏ, ñòîëáû ÿâëÿþòñÿ äëÿ àèñòîâ î÷åíü ïðèâëåêàòåëüíûìè è óäîáíûìè îáúåêòàìè äëÿ ñòðîèòåëüñòâà ãí¸çä: ïîäë¸ò ê ãíåçäó âñåãäà ñâîáîäåí, à ïðîâîäà ñîçäàþò äëÿ ãíåçäîâîé ïîñòðîéêè äîïîëíèòåëüíóþ îïîðó. Íåõâàòêà òðàäèöèîííûõ îïîð îñîáåííî îñòðî îùóùàåòñÿ â óñëîâèÿõ ðîñòà ïîïóëÿöèè âèäà â ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû è ïðè âûñîêîé ïëîòíîñòè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ.  ñâÿçè ñ ýòèì âñ¸ áîëåå ìàññîâîå ãíåçäîâàíèå àèñòîâ íà îïîðàõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è ñòàíîâèòñÿ îäíîé èç àêòóàëüíåéøèõ ñòîðîí ïðîáëåìû «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ». Îíà ïðîÿâëÿåòñÿ â ìàññîâîé ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ è ñíèæåíèè ðåïðîäóêòèâíîãî ïîòåíöèàëà â ðåçóëüòàòå áåçàëüòåðíàòèâíîãî ðàçðóøåíèÿ ãí¸çä, à òàêæå â ìàñøòàáíûõ áèîïîâðåæäåíèÿõ, íàíîñèìûõ àèñòàìè (çàìûêàíèå è ïîâðåæäåíèå ïðîâîäîâ, ïðåæäåâðåìåííûé èçíîñ îïîð è ò. ï.) (Ñàìóñåíêî, 2011). Âûïîëíåíèå âûøåîïèñàííûõ ðàáîò âïåðâûå ïîçâîëèëî â ïåðâîì ïðèáëèæåíèè îöåíèòü ñîñòîÿíèå ïðîáëåìû «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ» íà òåððèòîðèè Áåëàðóñè.  äàëüíåéøåì ïëàíèðóåòñÿ ïðîäîëæåíèå èññëåäîâàíèé äëÿ ðàçðàáîòêè ïîäõîäîâ ê ñíèæåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ è ìèíèìèçàöèè àâàðèéíîñòè ýëåêòðîñåòåé. Áëàãîäàðíîñòè Àâòîðû âûðàæàþò áëàãîäàðíîñòü âñåì ïðèíèìàâøèì ó÷àñòèå â ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèÿõ 2011 ã., îñîáåííî Þ. Òðåòüÿê, Î. Ïàðåéêî, Ä. Ëóíäûøåâó, Ä. Æóðàâë¸âó, Ì. Êîëîñêîâó, Ä. Õàðêîâè÷ó, Ä. Òàáóíîâó è

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

131

Ä. Êèòåëþ. Îñîáî õîòåëîñü ïîáëàãîäàðèòü Ò. Ïàâëþùèê çà å¸ ìíîãîëåòíèé òðóä ïî âåäåíèþ áàçû äàííûõ Áåëîðóññêîãî öåíòðà êîëüöåâàíèÿ ïòèö è îêàçàííóþ ïîìîùü â ïåðåâîäå ñòàòüè. Àâòîðû ïðèçíàòåëüíû ìíîãèì èññëåäîâàòåëÿì, ïðåäîñòàâèâøèì ñâåäåíèÿ î ñâîèõ áîëåå ðàííèõ ðåãèñòðàöèÿõ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, ïðèíÿâøèõ ó÷àñòèå â àíêåòèðîâàíèè, îðãàíèçîâàííîì ñ ïîääåðæêîé ÎÎ «Àõîâà ïòóøàê Áàöüêàóø÷ûíû». Òàêæå áëàãîäàðèì ñîòðóäíèêîâ Áåëîðóññêîãî ýíåðãåòè÷åñêîãî êîíöåðíà ÃÏÎ «Áåëýíåðãî» è åãî ðåãèîíàëüíûõ ñòðóêòóð çà ïðåäîñòàâëåííûå äàííûå îá àâàðèéíûõ îòêëþ÷åíèÿõ ËÝÏ è èíôîðìàöèîííóþ ïîääåðæêó ïðè îðãàíèçàöèè ðàáîò. Ëèòåðàòóðà Äîìáðîâñêèé Â.×., Èâàíîâñêèé Â.Â. Ðåçóëüòàòû ó÷¸òîâ áåðêóòà Aquila chrysaetos â Âèòåáñêîé îáëàñòè â 2007–2008 ãîäàõ. – Îõðàíÿåìûå ïðèðîäíûå òåððèòîðèè è îáúåêòû Áåëîðóññêîãî Ïîîçåðüÿ: ñîâðåìåííîå ñîñòîÿíèå, ïåðñïåêòèâû ðàçâèòèÿ. Ìàò. III Ìåæäóíàð. êîíô. Âèòåáñê, 2009. Ñ. 109–111. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ëèíèè ñìåðòè ïðîäîëæàþò ñîáèðàòü ñâîé «÷¸ðíûé» óðîæàé â Êàçàõñòàíå. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2008. ¹11. Ñ. 14–21. Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà Ðåñïóáëèêè Áåëàðóñü: Ðåäêèå è íàõîäÿùèåñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ âèäû äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ. Ìèíñê, 2004. 320 ñ. Ñàëòûêîâ À.Â. Ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè ïòèö îò ýëåêòðè÷åñêîãî òîêà íà ËÝÏ â Ñðåäíåì Ïîâîëæüå è îáîñíîâàíèå ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé: Äèñ. ... êàíä. áèîë. íàóê. Òîëüÿòòè, 2003. 136 c. Càìóñåíêî È.Ý. Ñîâðåìåííîå ñîñòîÿíèå ïîïóëÿöèè áåëîãî àèñòà (Ciconia ciconia L.) â Áåëàðóñè. – Ïðèðîäíûå ðåñóðñû. 2007. ¹4. Ñ. 55–62. Ñàìóñåíêî È.Ý. Ôàêòîðû, âëèÿþùèå íà óñïåõ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ áåëîãî àèñòà Ciconia ciconia â ïîéìå ðåêè Ïðèïÿòü. – Âåñö³ ÍÀÍ Áåëàðóñ³. Ñåð. á³ÿë. íàâóê. 2011. ¹4. Ñ. 99–102. Ìàöûíà À.È. Çàùèòà õèùíûõ ïòèö íà âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷. – Èçó÷åíèå è îõðàíà õèùíûõ ïòèö Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè. Ìàò. V ìåæäóíàð. êîíô. ïî õèùíûì ïòèöàì Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè. Èâàíîâî, 2008. Ñ. 34–35. Fiedler G. Zur Gef ährdung des Wei ßstorchs (Ciconia ciconia) durch Freileitungen in euripäischen Staaten. Weissstorch im Aufwind? – White Storks on the up? Bonn, 1999. P. 505–511. Oatley T. B., Rammesmayer M. A. M. Review of recoveries of ringed white storks Ciconia ciconia in Southern Africa. – Ostrich. 1988. Vol. 59. P. 97–104. Riegel M., Winkel W. Über Todesursachen beim Weißstorch (C. ciconia) an Hand von Rinfundangaben. – Die Vogelwarte. 1971. Vol. 26. S. 128–135.


132

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

FeaturesofProtectionofOpenSwitchingCentersfromthe DamagesCausedbyBirds(OntheExampleofNuclearPower Station):ExperienceofApplicationofRepellentTechnique,Russia ОСОБЕННОСТИ ЗАЩИТЫ ОТКРЫТЫХ РАСПРЕДЕЛИТЕЛЬНЫХ УСТРОЙСТВ ОТ ПОВРЕЖДЕНИЙ, ВЫЗЫВАЕМЫХ ПТИЦАМИ (НА ПРИМЕРЕ АЭС): ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ КОМПЛЕКСНОГО РЕПЕЛЛЕНТНОГО МЕТОДА, РОССИЯ SapunkovaN.,ZolotarevS.(A.N.SevertsovInstituteofEcologyandEvolution, Moscow,Russia) Сапункова Н. Ю., Золотарёв С. С. (Институт проблем экологии и эволюции имени А.Н. Северцова РАН, Москва, Россия)

Êîíòàêò: Íàäåæäà Þðüåâíà Ñàïóíêîâà Ó÷ðåæäåíèå Ðîññèéñêîé Àêàäåìèè íàóê «Èíñòèòóò ïðîáëåì ýêîëîãèè è ýâîëþöèè èì. À.Í. Ñåâåðöîâà», Ëàáîðàòîðèÿ ýêîëîãèè è óïðàâëåíèÿ ïîâåäåíèåì ïòèö 119071, Ðîññèÿ, Ìîñêâà, Ëåíèíñêèé ïð-ò, 33 òåë.: +7 926 111 34 11 bird-net@mail.ru Ñåðãåé Ñåðãååâè÷ Çîëîòàð¸â Ó÷ðåæäåíèå Ðîññèéñêîé Àêàäåìèè íàóê «Èíñòèòóò ïðîáëåì ýêîëîãèè è ýâîëþöèè èì. À.Í. Ñåâåðöîâà», Ëàáîðàòîðèÿ ýêîëîãèè è óïðàâëåíèÿ ïîâåäåíèåì ïòèö 119071, Ðîññèÿ, Ìîñêâà, Ëåíèíñêèé ïð-ò, 33 òåë.: +7 926 365 54 90 bird-net@mail.ru

Ðåçþìå Îïèñûâàåòñÿ ïðîáëåìà áèîïîâðåæäåíèé, âûçûâàåìûõ æèçíåäåÿòåëüíîñòüþ ïòèö, íà òàêèõ ñòðàòåãè÷åñêè âàæíûõ îáúåêòàõ, êàê àòîìíûå ýëåêòðîñòàíöèè (ÀÝÑ). Äëÿ îðãàíèçàöèè ñèñòåìû îòïóãèâàíèÿ ïòèö èñïîëüçóåòñÿ êîìïëåêñíûé ïîäõîä, ñî÷åòàþùèé ïðèìåíåíèå ðàçíûõ ãðóïï ðåïåëëåíòîâ. Íàèáîëåå ïåðñïåêòèâíûå – áèîàêóñòè÷åñêèå, îáëàäàþùèå ðÿäîì ïðåèìóùåñòâ. Ýôôåêòèâíîñòü âîçäåéñòâèÿ ðåïåëëåíòîâ çíà÷èòåëüíî ñíèæàåòñÿ ïðè íàëè÷èè ëåãêîäîñòóïíîé êîðìîâîé áàçû âáëèçè çàùèùàåìîãî îáúåêòà. Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: áèîïîâðåæäåíèÿ, ðåïåëëåíòíûå ��ñòðîéñòâà, îòïóãèâàíèå ïòèö. Ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ: 20.03.2012 ã. Ïðèíÿòà ê ïóáëèêàöèè: 30.03.2012 ã. Abstract The article describes the problem of the biodamages, caused by birds on such strategically important objects, as nuclear power stations. For the bird scaring effect it is need to use the complex approach combining application of different groups of repellents. Application of the bioacoustic repellents possessing nearby of advantages is most perspective. Efficiency of influence of any repellents considerably decreases in the presence of a readily available forage reserve near to protected object. Keywords: biodamages, bird scare equipment, scaring birds away. Received: 20/03/2012. Accepted: 30/03/2012.

Ââåäåíèå Âûñîêîâîëüòíûå îòêðûòûå ðàñïðåäåëèòåëüíûå óñòðîéñòâà (ÎÐÓ) êðóïíûõ ýíåðãåòè÷åñêèõ îáúåêòîâ çàíèìàþò çíà÷èòåëüíûå ïëîùàäè, è ìåòàëëè÷åñêèå êîíñòðóêöèè ýòèõ ÎÐÓ – ôåðìû, îïîðû, ïîðòàëû, êîòîðûå íåîáõîäèìû äëÿ êðåïëåíèÿ âûñîêîâîëüòíûõ ïðîâîäîâ, ïðèâëåêàþò ïòèö. Ýòè êîíñòðóêöèè èñïîëüçóþòñÿ ïòèöàìè â êà÷åñòâå ïðèñàä è ìåñò ãíåçäîâàíèÿ. Òàê êàê ýòè îáúåêòû ÿâëÿþòñÿ ðåæèìíûìè, ãäå äåÿòåëüíîñòü ÷åëîâåêà îãðàíè÷åíà è ôàêòîð áåñïîêîéñòâà ñâåä¸í ê ìèíèìóìó, ýòî òàêæå óâåëè÷èâàåò ïðèâëåêàòåëüíîñòü îáúåêòîâ äëÿ ïòèö.  ÷àñòè ýëåêòðîîáîðóäîâàíèÿ íà ÀÝÑ îñíîâíîìó íåãàòèâíîìó âîçäåéñòâèþ â ñâÿçè ñ æèçíåäåÿòåëüíîñòüþ ïòèö ïîäâåðãàåòñÿ îáîðóäîâàíèå îòêðûòûõ ðàñïðåäóñòðîéñòâ (ÎÐÓ) è âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé (ÂË). Ïðèñóòñòâèå ïòèö íà òàêèõ îáúåêòàõ ïðèâîäèò, âî-ïåðâûõ, ê êîðîòêèì çàìûêàíèÿì â ðåçóëüòàòå íàáðîñà ðàçëè÷íûõ ïðåäìåòîâ íà òîêîíåñóùèå êîíñòðóêöèè, âî-âòîðûõ, ïðîèñõîäèò ãèáåëü ïòèö â ðåçóëüòàòå ïîðà-

Introduction On the nuclear power plants (NPP) birds have a negative impact on the open switching centers (OSC) and overhead power lines (PL). The presence of birds at these sites leads to short-circuit. We know quite a number of events, when the open switching centers failure led to the discharging, and even to stoppages of nuclear power units. Considering these facts, the development of relevant techniques, instruments and devices used to protect nuclear power facilities from damage by birds is very important. Results According to the results of surveys we revealed that the peak of bird activity and biodamage caused by them at NPP is registered for the period of March-May. The design features of high-voltage facilities of OSC and PL inside the NPP surveyed by us are very attractive to crows. A colony of Rooks (Corvus frugilegus) and Jackdaws (C. monedula) was found on the territory


Proceedings of Conferences Contact: Nadezhda Sapunkova A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution Leninskiy av., 33, Moscow, Russia, 119071 tel.: +7 926 111 34 11 bird-net@mail.ru Sergey Zolotarev A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution Leninskiy av., 33, Moscow, Russia, 119071 tel.: +7 926 365 54 90 bird-net@mail.ru

æåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì ïî ïðè÷èíàì, ñõîæèì ñ òàêîâûìè íà ËÝÏ. Èçâåñòíî äîñòàòî÷íî áîëüøîå êîëè÷åñòâî ñîáûòèé, êîãäà îòêàçû îáîðóäîâàíèÿ îòêðûòûõ ðàñïðåäóñòðîéñòâ ïðèâîäèëè ê ðàçãðóçêàì è äàæå îñòàíîâêàì ýíåðãîáëîêîâ ÀÝÑ. Òàêèå ñîáûòèÿ â ðàáîòå ÀÝÑ êðàéíå íåæåëàòåëüíû. Íàïðèìåð, «Ðåãëàìåíò ïî áåçîïàñíîé ýêñïëóàòàöèè» äëÿ ýíåðãîáëîêîâ ñ ÐÓ ÂÂÐ-440 äîïóñêàåò ïðè ðàáîòå íà íîìèíàëüíîé ìîùíîñòè âñåãî 200 ñëó÷àåâ àâàðèéíûõ (áûñòðûõ) îñòàíîâîê ýíåðãîáëîêà çà âåñü ñðîê ýêñïëóàòàöèè! Ñòîëü îãðàíè÷åííûé ðåñóðñ ïî êîëè÷åñòâó îñòàíîâîê îáÿçûâàåò ïðèíÿòü âñåâîçìîæíûå ìåðû ïî èñêëþ÷åíèþ òàêîãî ðîäà âîçäåéñòâèé. Íàïðèìåð, â 2008 ã., âïåðâûå çà 40 ëåò, íà òåððèòîðèè îäíîé èç ÀÝÑ öåíòðàëüíî-÷åðíîç¸ìíîãî ðàéîíà, ïàðà àèñòîâ (Ciconia ciconia) ïûòàëàñü óñòðîèòü ãíåçäî íà îïîðå òðàíñôîðìàòîðà ýíåðãîáëîêà. Îáðîí¸ííûé ñòåáåëü, èñïîëüçîâàâøèéñÿ ïðè ñòðîèòåëüñòâå ãíåçäà, âûçâàë çàìûêàíèå ïðîâîäíèêà íà îïîðó, ÷òî ïîâëåêëî îòêëþ÷åíèå òðàíñôîðìàòîðà äåéñòâèåì çàùèò è, êàê ñëåäñòâèå, ðàçãðóçêó ýíåðãîáëîêà áîëåå ÷åì íà 50%. Áûëè ñëó÷àè áèîïîâðåæäåíèé è â çèìíåå âðåìÿ. Òàê, íà îäíîé èç îáñëåäîâàííûõ ÀÝÑ â ñèëüíûé ìîðîç, ñîïðîâîæäàåìûé âüþãîé, ñòàÿ ìåëêèõ âîðîáüèíûõ çàëåòåëà â òðàíñôîðìàòîð, ïðèâëå÷¸ííàÿ èçëó÷àåìûì èì òåïëîì.  ðåçóëüòàòå ïðîèçîøëî âîçãîðàíèå òðàíñôîðìàòîðà, à ïòèöû ïîãèáëè. Ïðîáëåìà áèîïîâðåæäåíèé, âûçûâàåìûõ ïòèöàìè, â ýëåêòðîýíåðãåòèêå íå íîâà. Äîñòàòî÷íî äàâíî èçâåñòíû ñëó÷àè îòêëþ÷åíèÿ âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé 110–220 êÂ. Îäíàêî, â ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû íàìåòèëñÿ ðîñò êîëè÷åñòâà îòêàçîâ ýëåêòðîîáîðóäîâàíèÿ òàêîãî ðîäà. Äëÿ ïðîãíîçèðîâàíèÿ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé ñèòóàöèè íà îáñëåäóåìîé òåððèòîðèè î÷åíü âàæåí àíàëèç ñóòî÷íîãî è ñåçîííîãî ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ïòè÷üåãî íàñåëåíèÿ. Ñ ýòîé öåëüþ íà èññëåäóåìûõ ÀÝÑ ïðîâîäÿòñÿ ýêîëîãî-îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèå îáñëåäîâàíèÿ. Íà îñíîâàíèè ïîëó÷åííûõ äàííûõ îïðåäåëÿþòñÿ íàèáîëåå ýôôåêòèâíûå ìåòîäû, ïðèáîðû è óñòðîéñòâà, ïðèìåíÿåìûå äëÿ çàùèòû îáúåêòà îò áèîïîâðåæäåíèé. Ðåçóëüòàòû Ïî ðåçóëüòàòàì îáñëåäîâàíèé âûÿâëåíî, ÷òî ïèê áèîïîâðåæäàþùåé äåÿòåëüíîñòè íà ÀÝÑ ïðèõîäèòñÿ íà ïåðèîä ãíåçäîñòðîåíèÿ (ìàðò–ìàé). Êîíñòðóêòèâíûå îñîáåííîñòè âûñîêîâîëüòíîãî îáîðóäîâàíèÿ ÎÐÓ è âíóòðèñòàíöèîííûõ ËÝÏ îáñëåäîâàííîé íàìè ÀÝÑ îáëàäàþò ïîâûøåííîé ïðèâëåêàòåëüíîñòüþ äëÿ âðàíîâûõ. Íà òåððèòî-

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

133

of OSC-330. A total number of birds in the colony was more than 500 individuals. We found 270 nests, 80% of which were occupied by Rooks, and 20% – Jackdaws (fig. 1). According to the results of surveys one of the major reasons for the colony surviving is the presence of available food supply in the form of municipal waste landfill (fig. 1). To eliminate the impact of birds on the NPP operating the complex approach is required. Therefore, we considered a number of repellent techniques and selected the most appropriate one. Under conditions of the NPP operating the most effective repellents are as follows: 1. Bioacoustic equipment. 2. Ultrasound equipment. 3. Optical repellents. After reviewing all the existing ways of preventing the biodamage, we can state that bioacoustic and optical repellents are the most effective. Practical application In the spring of 2009, the bioacoustic plant placed on one of the lighting poles of OSC, running in test mode, showed good repellent effect. However, it does not cover the area throughout the OSC, and the birds from the colony moved to the area where the signal fades down. In 2010, the entire territory of OSC-330 kV of NPP was equipped with bioacoustic plants. The complex consisted of eight plants and 32 remote radiators. The plants were placed on the lighting poles at the height that is suitable for the service, and the radiators were at a height of 30 m. The entire complex is powered by 220 V. In March 2010, the bioacoustic plants were put into operation, but a sufficient repellent effect was not achieved – the birds tried to occupy their old nests and begin to lay and incubate eggs. After analyzing the situation it was decided to use additional reinforcing repellents. As an instrument of the reinforcing affect the laser radiators, that belonging to the group of optical repellents, were selected. As a result, Rooks and Jackdaws left their nests. Thus, application of the complex was effective, but demanded certain amount of staff time. Conclusions and Recommendations 1. Each site has an individual set of factors that attract birds; as a result the list of bird species is specific. Basing on these factors the optimal set of repellents and techniques are selected.


134

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ðèñ. 1. Êîëîíèÿ ãðà÷åé (Corvus frugilegus) è ãàëîê (C. monedula) íà ýëåêòðîñåòåâîì êîìïëåêñå ÀÝÑ (ñëåâà) è ìóíèöèïàëüíûé ïîëèãîí òâ¸ðäûõ áûòîâûõ îòõîäîâ – ìåñòî êîðì¸æêè âðàíîâûõ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ íà ýëåêòðîñåòåâûõ îáúåêòàõ ÀÝÑ (ñïðàâà). Ôîòî Í. Ñàïóíêîâîé. Fig. 1. Colony of Rooks (Corvus frugilegus) and Jackdaws (C. monedula) on the switching center of NPP (left) and municipal waste landfill – the area of feeding for crows, nesting on electrical facilities of NPP (right). Photos by N. Sapunkova.

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

ðèè ÎÐÓ-330 áûëà îáíàðóæåíà êîëîíèÿ, ñîñòîÿùàÿ èç ãðà÷åé (Corvus frugilegus) è ãàëîê (C. monedula), îáùåé ÷èñëåííîñòüþ áîëåå 500 îñîáåé, îáíàðóæåíî 270 ãí¸çä, 80% èç êîòîðûõ çàíèìàëè ãðà÷è è 20% – ãàëêè (ðèñ. 1). Ïî íàáëþäåíèÿì ïåðñîíàëà ÎÐÓ-330, êîëîíèÿ ñóùåñòâóåò áîëåå 10 ëåò, ÷èñëåííîñòü ãí¸çä â êîëîíèè åæåãîäíî âîçðàñòàåò. Áîðüáà ñ òàêèìè ñêîïëåíèÿìè óñëîæíÿåòñÿ ãíåçäîâûì êîíñåðâàòèçìîì å¸ îáèòàòåëåé. Ïî ðåçóëüòàòàì îáñëåäîâàíèÿ áûëî âûÿâëåíî, ÷òî îäíèì èç îñíîâíûõ ôàêòîðîâ ñóùåñòâîâàíèÿ äàííîé êîëîíèè ÿâëÿåòñÿ íàëè÷èå ëåãêîäîñòóïíîé êîðìîâîé áàçû â âèäå ìóíèöèïàëüíîãî ïîëèãîíà òâ¸ðäûõ áûòîâûõ îòõîäîâ (ÒÁÎ), ïðè÷¸ì ñêëàäèðîâàíèå îòõîäîâ ïðîèçâîäèòñÿ îòêðûòûì ñïîñîáîì (ðèñ. 1). Îñíîâíûå ïóòè ìèãðàöèé ÷ëåíîâ êîëîíèè íàïðàâëåíû îò ìåñò ãíåçäîâàíèÿ íà ÎÐÓ-330 äî ïîëèãîíà

2. Despite the existence of the most modern tools, an integrated approach is required to eliminate the bird-caused damage of protected sites. 3. The combined use of optical and acoustic / acoustic and mechanical repellents (for each site a set of these tools is different) has the greatest effect. 4. For sites where the number of birds visiting the protected area and the number of nesting attempts is insignificant, we recommend to have a bioacoustic mobile plant and a powerful laser radiator in the arsenal of duty shift. 5. The effectiveness of any repellent is greatly reduced in the presence of available food supply in the vicinity of the protected site, so the priority is to ensure the measures for eliminating that which attracts birds at the area.

è îáðàòíî, ðàññòîÿíèå äî ïîëèãîíà ñîñòàâëÿåò 2 êì. Ïðèìåðíî ñ ñåðåäèíû àâãóñòà íî÷¸âêà ñìåøàííîé ñòàè âðàíîâûõ ïåðåìåùàåòñÿ ñ ÎÐÓ-330 íà äåðåâüÿ â ãîðîäñïóòíèê. Óäàë¸ííîñòü ìåñòà íî÷¸âîê îò ïîëèãîíà ÒÁÎ – îêîëî 7,2 êèëîìåòðîâ, ïî ïóòè ïòèöû ïðèñàæèâàþòñÿ íà ïîðòàëû ÎÐÓ-330. Ïî ðåçóëüòàòàì îáñëåäîâàíèÿ áûëî ðåêîìåíäîâàíî, â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü, ïåðåíåñòè ïîëèãîí ÒÁÎ èëè, ïî êðàéíåé ìåðå, èçìåíèòü òåõíîëîãèþ ñêëàäèðîâàíèÿ îòõîäîâ íà ïîëèãîíå. Äëÿ èñêëþ÷åíèÿ âëèÿíèÿ áèîïîâðåæäàþùåé äåÿòåëüíîñòè ïòèö íà ðàáîòó ÀÝÑ òðåáóåòñÿ êîìïëåêñíûé ïîäõîä.  èäåàëå çàùèòíûå ìåðû ñëåäóåò çàêëàäûâàòü åù¸ íà ñòàäèè ïðîåêòèðîâàíèÿ îáîðóäîâàíèÿ, ÷òî â óñëîâèÿõ ñóùåñòâóþùèõ ÀÝÑ íåâûïîëíèìî. Ïîýòîìó íàìè áûë ðàññìîòðåí ðÿä ðåïåëëåíòíûõ ñðåäñòâ è âûáðàíû íàèáîëåå ïðèåìëåìûå.  óñëîâèÿõ ÀÝÑ îïòèìàëüíî ïðèìåíÿòü ðåïåëëåíòû ñëåäóþùèõ ãðóïï:

1. Áèîàêóñòè÷åñêîå îáîðóäîâàíèå.  îñíîâå äåéñòâèÿ ïðèáîðîâ çàëîæåí áèîàêóñòè÷åñêèé ìåòîä âîçäåéñòâèÿ íà ïòèö. Ýëåêòðîííûå óñòðîéñòâà ýòîé ãðóïïû ñ óñèëåíèåì âîñïðîèçâîäÿò êðèêè «áåäñòâèÿ» è «òðåâîãè» ïòèö, íàõîäÿùèõñÿ â êðàéíå ýêñòðåìàëüíîì, íåêîìôîðòíîì ïîëîæåíèè èëè âíåçàïíî îáíàðóæèâøèõ èñòî÷íèê ñåðü¸çíîé îïàñíîñòè ïîáëèçîñòè îò ñåáÿ, à òàêæå ÷åðåäóþùèåñÿ ñ ýòèìè êðèêàìè ñèíòåçèðîâàííûå ðåïåëëåíòíûå ñèãíàëû. 2. Óëüòðàçâóêîâîå îáîðóäîâàíèå.  îñíîâó åãî ðàáîòû ïîëîæåíà ãåíåðàöèÿ ïåðåìåííûõ óëüòðàçâóêîâûõ ñèãíàëîâ â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ çàäàâàåìîé ïðîãðàììîé. Ïðèáîðû ýòîé ãðóïïû öåëåñîîáðàçíî ïðèìåíÿòü äëÿ çàùèòû îáúåêòîâ íåáîëüøîé ïëîùàäè. 3. Îïòè÷åñêèå ðåïåëëåíòû. Ïðèìåíÿþòñÿ â âèäå ÿðêîãî ñâåòà è ñâåòîâûõ âñïûøåê, ïðîáëåñêîâûõ ìàÿ÷êîâ, âðàùàþùèõñÿ çåðêàëüíûõ è ïëàñòèêîâûõ øàðîâ. Ê âûñîêîýôôåêòèâíûì ñðåäñòâàì çàùèòû îáúåêòîâ â ò¸ìíîå âðåìÿ ñóòîê îòíîñÿòñÿ óñòðîéñòâà


Proceedings of Conferences íà îñíîâå ëàçåðíîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ. Ìîùíîñòü èçëó÷åíèÿ (50 ìÂò) íå íàíîñèò âðåäà ïòèöàì, íî âûçûâàåò ïàíè÷åñêèé ñòðàõ è îùóùåíèå äèñêîì��îðòà, âñëåäñòâèå ÷åãî îíè ñòðåìÿòñÿ ïîêèíóòü ìåñòî äåéñòâèÿ ëàçåðà. Ýòè óñòðîéñòâà ïðèìåíÿþòñÿ äëÿ óäàëåíèÿ ïòèö ñ ìåñò îòäûõà, íî÷¸âîê è ãíåçäîâàíèÿ. Èçó÷èâ âñå ñóùåñòâóþùèå ñïîñîáû áîðüáû ñ áèîïîâðåæäåíèÿìè, ìîæíî çàêëþ÷èòü, ÷òî äëÿ ïðèìåíåíèÿ â óñëîâèÿõ ÀÝÑ áîëüøå âñåãî ïîäõîäÿò áèîàêóñòè÷åñêèå è îïòè÷åñêèå ðåïåëëåíòû. Ïîñëå ïðîâåä¸ííîãî â 2008–2009 ãã. ýêîëîãîîðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîãî îáñëåäîâàíèÿ îäíîé èç ÀÝÑ, áûë ðàçðàáîòàí ïëàí ïî âíåäðåíèþ ðåïåëëåíòíîãî êîìïëåêñà, ñîñòîÿùåãî èç áèîàêóñòè÷åñêèõ è îïòè÷åñêèõ ðåïåëëåíòîâ, íà òåððèòîðèè îòêðûòûõ ðàñïðåäåëèòåëüíûõ óñòðîéñòâ ýòîé ÀÝÑ. Èç áèîàêóñòèêè âûáðàëè óñòàíîâêó, ðàçðàáîòàííóþ ñîòðóäíèêàìè Ëàáîðàòîðèè ýêîëîãèè è óïðàâëåíèÿ ïîâåäåíèåì ïòèö Èíñòèòóòà ïðîáëåì ýêîëîãèè è ýâîëþöèè èìåíè À.Í. Ñåâåðöîâà Ðîññèéñêîé àêàäåìèè íàóê ñîâìåñòíî ñî ñïåöèàëèñòàìè Îòðàñëåâîé ãðóïïû àâèàöèîííîé îðíèòîëîãèè Ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî öåíòðà «Áåçîïàñíîñòü ïîë¸òîâ íà âîçäóøíîì òðàíñïîðòå» ÔÑÍÑÒ Ìèíèñòåðñòâà òðàíñïîðòà ÐÔ. Òðåáîâàíèÿ ê óñòàíîâêå çàêëþ÷àëèñü â îáåñïå÷åíèè ïîâûøåííîé âûõîäíîé ìîùíîñòè, âûñîêîé âåðíîñòè âîñïðîèçâåäåíèÿ ñèãíàëîâ è äîïîëíèòåëüíîé çàùèòå äëÿ èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ åå â óñëîâèÿõ ñèëüíûõ ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûõ ïîëåé, à òàêæå ýôôåêòèâíîñòè ñîâìåñòíîãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ áèîàêóñòè÷åñêîé óñòàíîâêè è ëàçåðíûõ èçëó÷àòåëåé â îïðåäåë¸ííîå âðåìÿ ñóòîê (íà÷àëî òðàíñëÿöèé ðåïåëëåíòíûõ ñèãíàëîâ íåîáõîäèìî áûëî ñèíõðîíèçèðîâàòü ñ ðåàëüíûì âðåìåíåì ñóòîê). Ïî öåëîìó ðÿäó ýêñïëóàòàöèîííûõ õàðàêòåðèñòèê óñòàíîâêà ïðåâîñõîäèò âñå èçâåñòíûå àíàëîãè. Âûñîêàÿ ìîùíîñòü, óíèêàëüíàÿ ïðîãðåññèâíàÿ ñèñòåìà ïðîãðàììèðîâàíèÿ ðåæèìîâ ðàáîòû è øèðîêèé ñïåêòð âîñïðîèçâîäèìûõ ñèãíàëîâ ÿâëÿþòñÿ ãëàâíûìè îòëè÷èòåëüíûìè îñîáåííîñòÿìè óñòàíîâêè.  áàçó äàííûõ äëÿ âîñïðîèçâåäåíèÿ çàíîñÿòñÿ ñèãíàëû òåõ âèäîâ ïòèö, êîòîðûå áûëè âñòðå÷åíû ïðè ýêîëîãî-îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîì îáñëåäîâàíèè çàùèùàåìîé òåððèòîðèè, à òàêæå ñèãíàëû èõ åñòåñòâåííûõ âðàãîâ. Óñòàíîâêà ôóíêöèîíèðóåò â àâòîìàòè÷åñêîì ðåæèìå, êîòîðûé îïðåäåëÿåòñÿ ìèêðîïðîöåññîðíûì ìîäóëåì ñ óñòàíîâëåííûì ïðîãðàììíûì îáåñïå÷åíèåì. Ìèêðîïðîöåññîðíûé ìîäóëü îáåñïå÷èâàåò

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

135

õðàíåíèå â öèôðîâîì âèäå è âîñïðîèçâåäåíèå àêóñòè÷åñêèõ ñèãíàëîâ, ôîðìèðîâàíèå âðåìåííûõ èíòåðâàëîâ è âîçìîæíîñòü âíåñåíèÿ ïðîãðàììíûõ èçìåíåíèé. Ìèêðîïðîöåññîðíûé ìîäóëü ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé îäíîïëàòíûé êîìïüþòåð ñ ïðîöåññîðîì, ïàìÿòüþ, òâåðäîòåëüíûì ýëåêòðîííûì äèñêîì, çâóêîâîé êàðòîé è ðàçú¸ìîì äëÿ ïîäêëþ÷åíèÿ ñú¸ìíîãî USB-íàêîïèòåëÿ. Ñèãíàë ñ âûõîäà çâóêîâîé êàðòû ìèêðîïðîöåññîðíîãî ìîäóëÿ ïîäà¸òñÿ íà âõîä óñèëèòåëÿ ìîùíîñòè, ê âûõîäó êîòîðîãî ïîäêëþ÷àåòñÿ àêóñòè÷åñêàÿ ñèñòåìà. Àêóñòè÷åñêàÿ ñèñòåìà ñîñòîèò èç øèðîêîïîëîñíûõ èçëó÷àòåëåé. Äèàïàçîí ðàáîòû àêóñòè÷åñêîé ñèñòåìû ñîîòâåòñòâóåò ÷àñòîòíîìó äèàïàçîíó çâóêîâîé êîììóíèêàöèè áîëüøèíñòâà âèäîâ ïòèö, âêëþ÷àÿ: âðàíîâûõ, äíåâíûõ õèùíûõ, ñîâ, âîäîïëàâàþùèõ, ÷àåê, êóëèêîâ, ìåëêèõ âîðîáüèíûõ è äðóãèõ. Òðàíñëÿöèÿ ðåïåëëåíòíûõ àêóñòè÷åñêèõ ñèãíàëîâ îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ ïåðèîäè÷åñêè, â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ çàäàííîé ïðîãðàììîé. Êàæäàÿ òðàíñëÿöèÿ ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòü íåñêîëüêèõ ðåïåëëåíòíûõ ñèãíàëîâ. Òðàíñëÿöèè îñóùåñòâëÿþòñÿ â àâòîìàòè÷åñêîì ðåæèìå ñ îïðåäåë¸ííûìè ïàóçàìè ìåæäó íèìè.  òå÷åíèå ñóòîê èìååòñÿ âîçìîæíîñòü èçìåíÿòü ðåæèìû òðàíñëÿöèè: íàáîð ñèãíàëîâ, âðåìÿ òðàíñëÿöèè, ïàóçû ìåæäó íèìè. Ýòî äîñòèãàåòñÿ òåì, ÷òî âñå âðåìåííûå èíòåðâàëû ñèíõðîíèçèðîâàíû ñ ðåàëüíûì âðåìåíåì. Âðåìåííûå èíòåðâàëû îáðàçóþò âðåìåííûå öèêëû äâóõ òèïîâ – ñóòî÷íûå è ãëîáàëüíûå. Ñóòî÷íûé 24-÷àñîâîé öèêë ðàçäåë¸í íà íåñêîëüêî ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíûõ ïåðèîäîâ. Ïðè ýòîì, ñóùåñòâóåò âîçìîæíîñòü îòäåëüíî äëÿ êàæäîãî ïåðèîäà îïðåäåëÿòü åãî íà÷àëî è îêîí÷àíèå, êîëè÷åñòâî ñèãíàëîâ, èõ âèäîâóþ ïðèíàäëåæíîñòü è ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòü â òðàíñëÿöèè, à òàêæå èíòåðâàë èçìåíåíèé ïàóçû ìåæäó òðàíñëÿöèÿìè. Ýòî çàìåäëÿåò ôîðìèðîâàíèå òàê íàçûâàåìîãî «ýôôåêòà ïðèâûêàíèÿ», ò.å., èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ îáîðîíèòåëüíîé ðåàêöèè ïòèö â âèäå áåãñòâà íà äåéñòâèå ðåïåëëåíòíîãî ðàçäðàæèòåëÿ. Èñïîëüçóåìîå â ìèêðîïðîöåññîðíîì ìîäóëå ïðîãðàììíîå îáåñïå÷åíèå ïîçâîëÿåò ïîëüçîâàòåëþ ìåíÿòü ðåæèì ðàáîòû óñòàíîâêè, ïîïîëíÿòü áèáëèîòåêó àêóñòè÷åñêèõ îòïóãèâàþùèõ ñèãíàëîâ, õðàíÿùóþñÿ íà ýëåêòðîííîì äèñêå ìèêðîïðîöåññîðíîãî ìîäóëÿ, à òàêæå çàãðóæàòü îáíîâëåíèÿ äëÿ èñïîëüçóåìîãî ïðîãðàììíîãî îáåñïå÷åíèÿ.


136

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24 Ïîëüçîâàòåëü âíîñèò èçìåíåíèÿ â ðåæèì ðàáîòû óñòàíîâêè ñ ïîìîùüþ ñïåöèàëüíîé ïðîãðàììû-ïëàíèðîâùèêà, çàïèñàííîé íà ñú¸ìíîì USB-íàêîïèòåëå. Ïîäâîäÿ èòîã, ñëåäóåò ñêàçàòü, ÷òî äàííàÿ óñòàíîâêà ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ýëåêòðîííîå îáîðóäîâàíèå íîâîãî ïîêîëåíèÿ, â êîòîðîì ó÷ò¸í ìíîãîëåòíèé íàöèîíàëüíûé è ìèðîâîé îïûò ïî ïðèìåíåíèþ áèîàêóñòè÷åñêîãî ìåòîäà îòïóãèâàíèÿ ïòèö. Ïðàêòè÷åñêîå ïðèìåíåíèå Âåñíîé 2009 ã. íà îäíîé èç îñâåòèòåëüíûõ ìà÷ò ÎÐÓ áûëà ïîìåùåíà áèîàêóñòè÷åñêàÿ óñòàíîâêà, çàïóùåííàÿ â òåñòîâîì ðåæèìå, êîòîðàÿ ïîêàçàëà õîðîøèé ðåïåëëåíòíûé ýôôåêò. Îäíàêî óñòàíîâêà íå îõâàòûâàëà ïëîùàäè âñåé òåððèòîðèè ÎÐÓ, è ÷ëåíû êîëîíèè ïåðåìåñòèëèñü â çîíó, ãäå ñèãíàë çàòóõàåò. Äëÿ ðåàëèçàöèè âñåãî êîìïëåêñà íà ñëåäóþùèé ãîä áèîàêóñòè÷åñêèìè óñòàíîâêàìè îñíàñòèëè âñþ òåððèòîðèþ ÎÐÓ-330 ê ÀÝÑ. Íà îñâåòèòåëüíûõ ìà÷òàõ ïî âñåé ïëîùàäè ÎÐÓ-330, êîòîðàÿ ñîñòàâëÿåò 600 ì2, áûëè ðàçìåùåíû âîñåìü óñòàíîâîê. Êîìïëåêñ ñîñòîÿë èç âîñüìè óñòàíîâîê è 32 âûíîñíûõ èçëó÷àòåëåé. Óñòàíîâêè íàõîäèëèñü íà îñâåòèòåëüíûõ ìà÷òàõ âíèçó – íà âûñîòå, äîñòóïíîé äëÿ îáñëóæèâàíèÿ, à èçëó÷àòåëè íà âûñîòå îêîëî 30 ì. Ïèòàíèå îñóùåñòâëÿëîñü îò ñåòè 220 âîëüò.  ìàðòå 2010 ã. áèîàêóñòè÷åñêèå óñòàíîâêè áûëè ââåäåíû â ýêñïëóàòàöèþ, îäíàêî äîñòàòî÷íîãî ðåïåëëåíòíîãî ýôôåêòà äîñòèãíóòî íå áûëî – ïòèöû ïîïûòàëèñü çàíÿòü ñâîè ñòàðûå ãí¸çäà è íà÷àòü ãîòîâèòüñÿ ê âûâåäåíèþ ïòåíöîâ. Ïîñëå àíàëèçà îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé ñèòóàöèè áûëî ïðèíÿòî ðåøåíèå îá èñïîëüçîâàíèè ïîäêðåïëÿþùèõ äîïîëíèòåëüíûõ ðåïåëëåíòîâ.  ñâÿçè ñ òðåáîâàíèÿìè ïî áåçîïàñíîñòè íà îáúåêòàõ ýëåêòðîýíåðãåòèêè çàïðåùåíî èñïîëüçîâàíèå ïèðîòåõíèêè, à òàêæå ïîòåíöèàëüíî ïîæàðîîïàñíûõ ðåïåëëåíòîâ, ê êîòîðûì ìîæíî îòíåñòè ïðîïàíîâûå ïóøêè, óñïåøíî ïðèìåíÿåìûå â àýðîïîðòàõ. Ïîýòîìó â êà÷åñòâå ïðèáîðîâ ïîäêðåïëÿþùåãî äåéñòâèÿ áûëè âûáðàíû ëàçåðíûå èçëó÷àòåëè, îòíîñÿùèåñÿ ê ãðóïïå îïòè÷åñêèõ ðåïåëëåíòîâ.  òåìíîå âðåìÿ ñóòîê è âî âðåìÿ çâóêîâûõ òðàíñëÿöèé áèîàêóñòè÷åñêîé óñòàíîâêè áûëà ïðîâåäåíà àêòèâíàÿ îáðàáîòêà òåððèòîðèè ÎÐÓ330 ñ ïîìîùüþ ëàçåðíûõ èçëó÷àòåëåé, äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû ïîäíèìàòü ïòèö ñ êëàäîê è ïðåïÿòñòâîâàòü âîçâðàùåíèþ èõ íà ãí¸çäà, ïî âîçìîæíîñòè, ìàêñèìàëüíî äëèòåëüíîå âðåìÿ.  òàêîì ðåæèìå ðàáîòà ïðîäîë-

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé æàëàñü â òå÷åíèå ïÿòè äíåé.  ðåçóëüòàòå ãðà÷è è ãàëêè ïîêèíóëè ñâîè ãí¸çäà è ïåðåìåñòèëèñü íà íî÷¸âêó â ëåñîïîëîñó îêîëî ãîðîäà-ñïóòíèêà, â äíåâíîå âðåìÿ ïòèöû ïåðèîäè÷åñêè ïðèñàæèâàëèñü íà ïîðòàëû ÎÐÓ-330 âî âðåìÿ ïåðåë¸òà íà ïîëèãîí ÒÁÎ. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ïðèìåí¸ííûé êîìïëåêñ îêàçàëñÿ ýôôåêòèâíûì, íî ïîòðåáîâàë îïðåäåë¸ííûõ çàòðàò âðåìåíè ïåðñîíàëà. Ìåòîäû è òåõíè÷åñêèå ñðåäñòâà, íåîáõîäèìûå äëÿ çàùèòû âûñîêîâîëüòíûõ ÎÐÓ, îäèíàêîâû äëÿ âñåõ õîçÿéñòâåííûõ îáúåêòîâ. Òàê, àíàëîãè÷íûìè áèîàêóñòè÷åñêèìè óñòàíîâêàìè áûëî îñíàùåíî ë¸òíîå ïîëå àýðîïîðòà «Äîìîäåäîâî». Âûâîäû è ðåêîìåíäàöèè 1. Êàæäûé îáúåêò îáëàäàåò èíäèâèäóàëüíûì íàáîðîì ôàêòîðîâ, ïðèâëåêàþùèõ ïòèö, à òàêæå õàðàêòåðíûì âèäîâûì ñîñòàâîì ïòèö. Èñõîäÿ èç ýòîãî, íà îñíîâå ïðîâåä¸ííîãî ýêîëîãîîðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîãî îáñëåäîâàíèÿ ïîäáèðàåòñÿ îïòèìàëüíûé íàáîð ðåïåëëåíòîâ è ìåòîäèêà èõ èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ. 2. Íåñìîòðÿ íà ñóùåñòâîâàíèå ñàìûõ ñîâðåìåííûõ ðåïåëëåíòîâ, äëÿ èñêëþ÷åíèÿ âëèÿíèÿ áèîïîâðåæäàþùåé äåÿòåëüíîñòè ïòèö íà ðàáîòó çàùèùàåìûõ îáúåêòîâ, òðåáóåòñÿ êîìïëåêñíûé ïîäõîä. Çàùèòíûå ìåðû ñëåäóåò çàêëàäûâàòü åù¸ íà ñòàäèè ïðîåêòèðîâàíèÿ. 3. Êîíñòðóêòèâíûå îñîáåííîñòè îáîðóäîâàíèÿ ðàçëè÷íîãî òèïà ÿâëÿþòñÿ â ðàçíîé ñòåïåíè ïðèâëåêàòåëüíûìè äëÿ ïòèö, ïîýòîìó äëÿ êàæäîãî âèäà îáîðóäîâàíèÿ íåîáõîäèìî ïðèìåíåíèå êîìáèíèðîâàííûõ ðåïåëëåíòîâ. Ïðè ýòîì, îäèí èç ðåïåëëåíòîâ îáëàäàåò ïîâûøåííîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé çíà÷èìîñòüþ äëÿ ïòèö è èãðàåò ðîëü ïîäêðåïëÿþùåãî ôàêòîðà. Ýôôåêòèâíî ñîâìåñòíîå ïðèìåíåíèå îïòè÷åñêèõ è àêóñòè÷åñêèõ ñðåäñòâ, àêóñòè÷åñêèõ è ìåõàíè÷åñêèõ – äëÿ êàæäîãî îáúåêòà íàáîð ýòèõ ñðåäñòâ áóäåò îòëè÷àòüñÿ. 4. Äëÿ îáúåêòîâ, ãäå êîëè÷åñòâî ïòèö, ïîñåùàþùèõ çàùèùàåìóþ òåððèòîðèþ è ÷èñëî ïîïûòîê ãíåçäîâàíèÿ íåçíà÷èòåëüíû, ìû ðåêîìåíäóåì èìåòü â àðñåíàëå äåæóðíîé ñìåíû ìîáèëüíóþ áèîàêóñòè÷åñêóþ óñòàíîâêó è ìîùíûé ëàçåðíûé èçëó÷àòåëü. 5. Ýôôåêòèâíîñòü ëþáûõ ðåïåëëåíòîâ çíà÷èòåëüíî ñíèæàåòñÿ ïðè íàëè÷èè ëåãêîäîñòóïíîé êîðìîâîé áàçû â íåïîñðåäñòâåííîé áëèçîñòè îò çàùèùàåìîãî îáúåêòà, ïîýòîìó ïåðâîî÷åðåäíîé çàäà÷åé ÿâëÿåòñÿ îáåñïå÷åíèå ìåð ïî ëèêâèäàöèè êîðìîâîé ïðèâëåêàòåëüíîñòè òåððèòîðèè.


Proceedings of Conferences

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

137

BirdProtectionDevicesforPowerLinesintheMiddleVoltage RangeMadebyLLC“Eco-NIOKR” ПТИЦЕЗАЩИТНЫЕ УСТРОЙСТВА ДЛЯ ЛЭП СРЕДНЕЙ МОЩНОСТИ ПРОИЗВОДСТВА ООО «ЭКО-НИОКР» TetnevS.G.(LLC“Eco-NIOKR”,Ulyanovsk,Russia) Тетнёв С.Г. (ООО «Эко-НИОКР», Ульяновск, Россия)

Êîíòàêò: Ñåðãåé Ãåííàäüåâè÷ Òåòí¸â ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл 432071, Ðîññèÿ, Óëüÿíîâñê, óë. Âàòóòèíà, 16 òåë.: +7 927 270 24 47 ôàêñ: +7 8422 43 49 63 stetnev@yandex.ru Contact: Sergey Tetnev LLC “Eco-NIOKR” Vatutina str., 16, Ulyanovsk, Russia, 432071 tel.: +7 927 270 24 47 fax: +7 8422 43 49 63 stetnev@yandex.ru

Ðåçþìå  ñòàòüå èçëàãàåòñÿ îïèñàíèå ìîäåëüíîãî ðÿäà ñîâðåìåííûõ îòå÷åñòâåííûõ ÏÇÓ, ðàçðàáîòàííûõ è ïðîèçâîäèìûõ â Óëüÿíîâñêå ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл. Çà ïÿòü ëåò ñîçäàíî âîñåìü ìîäåëåé ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ, ïðåäíàçíà÷åííûõ äëÿ ðàçëè÷íûõ òèïîâ îïîð è ñïîñîáîâ êðåïëåíèÿ ïðîâîäà íà èçîëÿòîðàõ ÂË 6–10 êÂ. Àâòîð òàêæå ðàññìàòðèâàåò ñëó÷àè íåïðàâèëüíîãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ ÏÇÓ â ñâÿçè ñ îøèáêàìè, äîïóñêàåìûìè ýíåðãåòèêàìè ïðè âûáîðå è ìîíòàæå óñòðîéñòâ. Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: âîçäóøíàÿ ëèíèÿ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è, ÂË 6–10 êÂ, ïòèöåçàùèòíîå óñòðîéñòâî, ÏÇÓ, òðàâåðñà, æåëåçîáåòîííûå îïîðû, ËÝÏ, ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл. Ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ: 17.03.2012 ã. Ïðèíÿòà ê ïóáëèêàöèè: 30.03.2012 ã. Abstract The article describes the model range of modern bird protection devices (BPD), developed and made by the LLC “Eco-NIOKR” in Ulyanovsk. For five years, eight models of BPD have been designed for various types of electric poles and techniques of attaching wires to insulators that suspend the overhead power lines 6–10 kV. The author also examines the cases of incorrect use of BPD due to errors made by power engineers in the selection and mounting of devices Keywords: power lines, PL 6–10 kV, bird protection devices, BPD, crossarms, concrete poles, LLC “Eco-NIOKR”. Received: 17/03/2012. Accepted: 30/03/2012.

Ââåäåíèå. Èñòîðèÿ ñîçäàíèÿ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ Ïåðâûå óïîìèíàíèÿ î ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèÿõ íà ËÝÏ îòíîñÿòñÿ ê íà÷àëó ïðîøëîãî âåêà. Òàê, àâòîðû íåìåöêîãî ïîñîáèÿ «Ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî îõðàíå ïòèö ïðè ñòðîèòåëüñòâå âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé» (Õààñ è äð., 2003) ñîîáùàþò: «Èíæåíåð Ãåðìàí Õåíëå óæå â 1913 ã. âûñòóïèë íà III Ãåðìàíñêîì îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîì êîíãðåññå â Ãàìáóðãå ñ äîêëàäîì íà òåìó «Ýëåêòðè÷åñòâî è îõðàíà ïòèö», â êîòîðîì îí óáåäèòåëüíî îïèñàë ïðîáëåìó ãèáåëè ïòèö îò óäàðà òîêîì. Ã. Õåíëå ðåêîìåíäîâàë èçäàòü ñïåöèàëüíûå òðåáîâàíèÿ, îáÿçûâàþùèå âëàäåëüöåâ ËÝÏ îáåñïå÷èâàòü äîñòàòî÷íóþ çàùèòó ïòèö îò ýëåêòðîïîðàæåíèé.  èòîãå, âïåðâûå áûëî âûïóùåíî ïðåäïèñàíèå ïî ïðåäóïðåæäåíèþ îïàñíîñòè äëÿ ïòèö, êîòîðîå ïðèâåäåíî â «Ïðàâèëàõ ñòðîèòåëüñòâà âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è». Óæå òîãäà ïîä÷åðêèâàëîñü, ÷òî òàêîå ðåøåíèå îòâå÷àåò èíòåðåñàì ïðîìûøëåííîñòè, ïîñêîëüêó îíî ïîçâîëèò ïðåäîòâðàòèòü àâàðèè è ïîâðåæäåíèå îáîðóäîâàíèÿ. Ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâî ìåæäó çàùèòíèêàìè ïòèö è ýëåêòðè÷åñêèìè êîìïàíèÿìè âïîñëåäñòâèè ïîçâîëèëî ðàçðàáîòàòü êîíñòðóêöèè ËÝÏ, êîòîðûå ëó÷øå çàùèùàëè ïòèö îò óäàðà òîêîì.  òî âðåìÿ äëÿ

Introduction. History of creation of the bird protection devices In the USSR in 1937, A. Formozov (1981) drew attention to the widespread events of bird mortality from electrocution on power lines. The fundamentally new PL in the medium voltage range have begun to construct everywhere in Russia since 1960-s. Power lines were suspended by reinforced concrete poles with upright insulators, mounted on the metal grounded crossarm. All attempts to create effective bird protection devices (BPD) in the XX century in our country have been unsuccessful. LLC “Eco-NIOKR” is a developer and manufacturer of BPD in Russia LLC “Eco-NIOKR” was founded in Ulyanovsk in 2006. The basis of its activities is design, development, testing and production of BPD. Our BPDs have a success in prevention of bird electrocution in different parts of Russia from the Primorsky Kray to its western border. Collaborations with foreign countries are also developed. The range of bird protection devices of LLC “Eco-NIOKR” Eight models of BPD have been designed for five years. They are intended to mitigate


138

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24 ËÝÏ ñðåäíåãî íàïðÿæåíèÿ ïðèìåíÿëèñü ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî îïîðû èç äåðåâà, êîòîðîå, â îòëè÷èå îò ïðåäâàðèòåëüíî íàïðÿæ¸ííîãî æåëåçîáåòîíà, ÿâëÿåòñÿ õîðîøåé èçîëÿöèåé, ïî êðàéíåé ìåðå, â ñóõóþ ïîãîäó.  ÑÑÑÐ åù¸ â 1937 ã. èçâåñòíûé ðóññêèé íàòóðàëèñò À.Í. Ôîðìîçîâ (1981) ïèñàë: «Ñëåäóåò óïîìÿíóòü î ëèíèÿõ âûñîêîâîëüòíûõ ïåðåäà÷, íà ïðîâîäàõ êîòîðûõ ïòèöû ïîãèáàþò, âûçûâàÿ êîðîòêèå çàìûêàíèÿ. Ýòî ÿâëåíèå íàñòîëüêî ðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííîå, ÷òî âûçâàëî íåêîòîðûå èçìåíåíèÿ â óñòðîéñòâå ïåðåäà÷, èìåþùèå öåëüþ ñäåëàòü èõ áåçîïàñíûìè è îò ïòèö, è äëÿ ïòèö». Íåñìîòðÿ íà ïîëîæèòåëüíîå ðåøåíèå ïðîáëåìû, ïðååìñòâåííîñòü îïûòà íå áûëà îáåñïå÷åíà è âïîñëåäñòâèè ñèòóàöèÿ ïîâòîðèëàñü â çíà÷èòåëüíî áîëüøèõ ìàñøòàáàõ. Ñ 60-õ ãîäîâ XX âåêà íà÷àòî ìàññîâîå âíåäðåíèå æåëåçîáåòîííûõ îïîð äëÿ ðàñïðåäåëèòåëüíûõ âîçäóøíûõ ýëåêòðîëèíèé (ÂË 6–10 êÂ), ãäå â êà÷åñòâå çàçåìëÿþùèõ ýëåìåíòîâ èñïîëüçóåòñÿ ïðîäîëüíàÿ àðìàòóðà ñòîåê, à çàçåìë¸ííûå òðàâåðñû èçãîòàâëèâàþòñÿ èç óãëîâîé ñòàëè. Íàèáîëüøåå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå ïîëó÷èëè ñòîéêè òèïà ÑÍÂ-2,7 èç âèáðèðîâàííîãî æåëåçîáåòîíà ïðÿìîóãîëüíîãî ñå÷åíèÿ ñ ïðåäâàðèòåëüíî íàïðÿæ¸ííîé àðìàòóðîé, ðàçðàáîòàííûå èíñòèòóòîì «Ñåëüýíåðãîïðîåêò». Ìåòàëëè÷åñêóþ òðàâåðñó îáðàçóþò ñâàðåííûå ìåæäó ñîáîé ãîðèçîíòàëüíûé è âåðòèêàëüíûé óãîëêè ñ ïðèâàðåííûìè ê íèì êðþêàìè è øòûðÿìè (Àðàéñ, Ñòàëòìàòèñ, 1977). Èìåííî ýòîò âèä êîíñòðóêöèé îïîð (ñ îãîëîâêîì òèïà Ì-I è åãî ìîäèôèêàöèÿìè) îêàçàëñÿ íàèáîëåå îïàñíûì äëÿ æèçíè ïòèö. ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл – ðàçðàáîò÷èê è ïðîèçâîäèòåëü îòå÷åñòâåííûõ ÏÇÓ Îáùåñòâî ñ îãðàíè÷åííîé îòâåòñòâåííîñòüþ «Ýêîëîãè÷åñêèå Íàó÷íî-Èññëåäîâàòåëüñêèå Îïûòíî-Êîíñòðóêòîðñêèå Ðàáîòû» (ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл) áûëî îáðàçîâàíî â 2006 ã. Îñíîâó äåÿòåëüíîñòè îáùåñòâà ñîñòàâëÿåò êîíñòðóêòîðñêàÿ ðàçðàáîòêà, èñïûòàíèå è îðãàíèçàöèÿ ïðîèçâîäñòâà ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ (ÏÇÓ). Ìû íå òîëüêî ïðîèçâîäèì íàøè çàùèòíûå óñòðîéñòâà, íî è ïîñòîÿííî ñîâåðøåíñòâóåì èõ, ôîðìèðóåì ìîäåëüíûé ðÿä êîíñòðóêöèé, ÷òî ïîçâîëÿåò ïî æåëàíèþ çàêàç÷èêà ïðîèçâåñòè ïîäáîð çàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ ïî èíäèâèäóàëüíûì òåõíè÷åñêèì ïàðàìåòðàì êîíêðåòíîé ýëåêòðîóñòàíîâ-

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé various types of pole and techniques of wires mounting to insulators on PL 6–10 kV. The first model made in Ulyanovsk – BPD-6-10kV (ðèñ. 1) was designed and was launched in 2007. The model showed good performance; according to opinion of electricians, “the device is ideal to install.” During four years of operating the power lines, retrofitted with this BPD, the bird mortality from electrocution has not been noted. After the developing of better (more plastic in their construction) devices in 2009 and 2010, BPD-6-10kV has not been manufactured since 2011. The more modern and unified models BPD-6-10kV-K and BPD-610kV-M have replaced it. BPD-6-10kV-U (fig. 2) is designed for mounting on upright insulators of anchorangle poles, which crossarms are with six insulators. BPD-6-10kV-D (fig. 3) is designed for mounting on upright insulators of intermediate poles with dual fastening of the wire. BPD-6-10kV-K (fig. 4) is designed for mounting on upright insulators of terminal and intermediate poles. BPD-6-10kV-C (fig. 5) is designed for mounting on upright insulators of intermediate poles with fastening of the wire with anti-vibration clamps CAH-10-1. BPD-6-10kV-G (fig. 6) is designed for mounting on upright insulators of intermediate poles with wires that are fastened to the center of insulator. BPD-6-10kV-M (fig. 7) is a unified model of BPD with increased length of the wire covering (1430 mm). BPD-6-10kV-MG (fig. 8) is a corrugated plastic tube that is designed to insulate bare wires, as well as for use with BPD-610kV-M. All the above BPDs have undergone the necessary bench and field tests (fig.9), approved for use by the Department of Rostechnadzor (Federal Service for Supervision of Environment, Technology and Nuclear Management) and by experts from Russian Bird Conservation Union. The advantages and features of bird protection devices of LLC “Eco-NIOKR” Maximum speed and ease of mounting Most models of BPDs made by “EcoNIOKR” are one-piece and do not require assembly for mounting on a pole. As a result there is a significant saving of time during the mounting.


Proceedings of Conferences êè. Çà ïÿòü ëåò ïðîèçâîäñòâåííîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл ñîçäàíî âîñåìü ìîäåëåé ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ, ïðåäíàçíà÷åííûõ äëÿ ðàçëè÷íûõ òèïîâ îïîð è ñïîñîáîâ êðåïëåíèÿ ïðîâîäà íà èçîëÿòîðàõ ÂË 6–10 êÂ.  ñîñòàâ íàøåãî êîëëåêòèâà âõîäÿò ñïåöèàëèñòû òåõíè÷åñêîãî è åñòåñòâåííîíàó÷íîãî ïðîôèëåé. Ýòî ïîçâîëÿåò ðàçðàáîò÷èêàì óñòðîéñòâ ó÷èòûâàòü áèîëîãè÷åñêèå îñîáåííîñòè ïòèö è, òåì ñàìûì, íàõîäèòü íàèáîëåå îïòèìàëüíûå êîíñòðóêòèâíûå ðåøåíèÿ. Ãåîãðàôèÿ íàøèõ ðàáîò íå îãðàíè÷èâàåòñÿ ëèøü ðàìêàìè Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè. Íàøè ïòèöåçàùèòíûå óñòðîéñòâà óñïåøíî ñïàñàþò ïòèö â ðàçíûõ óãîëêàõ Ðîññèè îò Ïðèìîðñêîãî êðàÿ äî å¸ çàïàäíûõ ãðàíèö. Ðàçâèâàþòñÿ è çàðóáåæíûå ñâÿçè. Ñïåöèàëèñòû ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл ãîòîâû îêàçàòü ñîäåéñòâèå âëàäåëüöàì ËÝÏ, îðãàíàì âëàñòè è èíûì çàèíòåðåñîâàííûì ëèöàì â ðàçðàáîòêå âåäîìñòâåííûõ è òåððèòîðèàëüíûõ ïðîãðàìì ïî çàùèòå ïòèö îò ýëåêòðè÷åñòâà, äàòü êâàëèôèöèðîâàííóþ êîíñóëüòàöèþ ïî âîïðîñàì ïðîáëåìû «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ». Ìîäåëüíûé ðÿä ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл Ïåðâàÿ óëüÿíîâñêàÿ ìîäåëü ÏÇÓ-6-10ê (ðèñ. 1) áûëà ðàçðàáîòàíà è çàïóùåíà â ñåðèéíîå ïðîèçâîäñòâî â 2007 ã. Èìåííî îíà ïîñëóæèëà ïðîîáðàçîì äëÿ ñîçäàíèÿ ïîñëåäóþùåãî ìîäåëüíîãî ðÿäà ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ. Èçíà÷àëüíî ÏÇÓ-6-10ê ïðåäíàçíà÷àëîñü äëÿ óñòàíîâêè íà øòûðåâûå èçîëÿòîðû ïðîìåæóòî÷íûõ îïîð ñ áîêîâîé âÿçêîé ïðîâîäà. Ìîäåëü ïîêàçàëà õîðîøèå ýêñïëóàòàöèîííûå êà÷åñòâà, ïî îòçûâàì ýëåêòðîìîíòàæíèêîâ – «óñòðîéñòâî èäåàëüíî â ìîíòàæå». Çà ÷åòûðå ãîäà ýêñïëóàòàöèè ËÝÏ, îáîðóäîâàííûõ äàííûì ÏÇÓ, ñëó÷àåâ ãèáåëè ïòèö îò ýëåêòðîòîêà âûÿâëåíî íå áûëî. Íî äàííàÿ ìîäåëü, áóäó÷è èäåàëüíîé äëÿ òðàâåðñ ïðîìåæóòî÷íûõ îïîð, îáëàäàëà êîíñòðóêòèâíîé íåñîâìåñòèìîñòüþ ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê îñíàñòêå äðóãèõ âèäîâ îïîð (êîíöåâûõ, óãëîâûõ, ðàçâåòâèòåëüíûõ). Ïîýòîìó, ïî ìåðå ïîÿâëåíèÿ áîëåå ñîâåðøåííûõ (êîíñòðóêòèâíî ïëàñòè÷íûõ) óñòðîéñòâ, â 2011 ã. ÏÇÓ-6-10ê áûëî

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

139

Serviceability The design of the device allows to open the hood by turning the BPD along the longitudinal axis, allowing control of the insulator and the wire during the examination, without disassembly of the device. The main mistakes made during the BPD mounting Specialists of “Eco-NIOKR” make regular examinations of their BPDs mounted on the power lines of different owners. During the examinations they reveal events and the reasons for the deviation from the normal state of BPDs. Our experience shows that the main reasons for deviations are: wrong choice of the model of BPD, wrong mounting of BPD, the uppermost wire being not insulated with BPD, mounting the BPD on nonstandard knots of wire fastening. Wrong choice of the model of BPD The model of BPD should be selected in strict accordance with the type of pole and configuration of crossarm, as well as a way of fastening the wire to the insulator (fig. 10–11). Wrong mounting of BPD The “User Manual” clearly describes the places, where the BPD should be fixed, and the required number of bands for fixing the BPD on the wire and the insulator. Sometimes electricians ignore the requirements of “Manual”, which leads to malfunction of the BPD, the device “falling” down or its deformation (fig. 12). The uppermost wire is not insulated with BPD There is a misconception that the uppermost wire is not harmful to birds (fig. 13). Absence of BPD on the uppermost wire is a violation of “Manuals”. For this violation the regulatory authorities can file a reasonable claim to the owner of power lines. Mounting of BPD on nonstandard knots of wire fastening is shown in fig. 14.

Ðèñ. 1. Ïòèöåçàùèòíîå óñòðîéñòâî ÏÇÓ-6-10êÂ. Fig. 1. Bird Protection Device BPD-6-10kV.


140

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèê�� è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

Ðèñ. 2. Ïòèöåçàùèòíîå óñòðîéñòâî ÏÇÓ-6-10êÂ-Ó.

Ðèñ. 3. Ïòèöåçàùèòíîå óñòðîéñòâî ÏÇÓ-6-10êÂ-Ä.

Fig. 2. Bird Protection Device BPD-6-10kV-U.

Fig. 3. Bird Protection Device BPD-6-10kV-D.

âûâåäåíî èç ñåðèéíîãî ïðîèçâîäñòâà è îòíûíå íàõîäèòñÿ â ñîñòîÿíèè ðåçåðâíîãî èçäåëèÿ. Íà çàìåíó åìó ïðèøëè ñîâðåìåííûå è óíèôèöèðîâàííûå ìîäåëè ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ ÏÇÓ-6-10êÂ-Ê è ÏÇÓ-6-10êÂ-Ì. Ïòèöåçàùèòíîå óñòðîéñòâî ÏÇÓ-6-10êÂ-Ó (ðèñ. 2) ðàçðàáîòàíî è çàïóùåíî â ñåðèéíîå ïðîèçâîäñòâî â 2009 ã. Äàííàÿ ìîäåëü ïðåäíàçíà÷åíà äëÿ óñòàíîâêè íà øòûðåâûå èçîëÿòîðû àíêåðíî-óãëîâûõ îïîð, òðàâåðñû êîòîðûõ îñíàùàþòñÿ øåñòüþ èçîëÿòîðàìè. Ýòî óñòðîéñòâî ñîñòîèò èç äâóõ ñîñòàâíûõ ÷àñòåé è èìååò äâà êàïîòà (îãîëîâêà êîæóõà) – ïî îäíîìó íà êàæäûé èçîëÿòîð, ñîîòâåòñòâåííî. Ïðè ìîíòàæå èçäåëèÿ íå òðåáóåòñÿ åãî ïîäãîíêà (ïîäðåçêà ãîôð), ÷òî ïîçâîëÿåò ïðîèçâîäèòü óñêîðåííûé è

Ðèñ. 4. Ïòèöåçàùèòíîå óñòðîéñòâî ÏÇÓ-6-10êÂ-Ê. Fig. 4. Bird Protection Device BPD-6-10kV-K.

Ðèñ. 5. Ïòèöåçàùèòíîå óñòðîéñòâî ÏÇÓ-6-10êÂ-Ñ. Fig. 5. Bird Protection Device BPD-6-10kV-C.

ìåíåå òðóäî¸ìêèé ìîíòàæ. Ê òîìó æå, äàííàÿ ìîäåëü ýêîíîìè÷åñêè âûãîäíà: ñòîèìîñòü òð¸õ êîìïëåêòîâ (íà îäíó îïîðó) íèæå ñòîèìîñòè øåñòè ÏÇÓ äðóãèõ ìîäèôèêàöèé â ïîëòîðà ðàçà. Ïòèöåçàùèòíîå óñòðîéñòâî ÏÇÓ-6-10êÂ-Ä (ðèñ. 3) ðàçðàáîòàíî è çàïóùåíî â ñåðèéíîå ïðîèçâîäñòâî â 2009 ã. Äàííàÿ ìîäåëü ïðåäíàçíà÷åíà äëÿ óñòàíîâêè íà øòûðåâûå èçîëÿòîðû ïðîìåæóòî÷íûõ îïîð ñ äâîéíûì êðåïëåíèåì ïðîâîäà. Îòëè÷èòåëüíîé îñîáåííîñòüþ ìîäåëè ÿâëÿþòñÿ ðóêàâà, ïîâòîðÿþùèå èçãèá ïðîâîäà ïðè äâîéíîì êðåïëåíèè ê èçîëÿòîðó. Ìîíòàæíèêó íå ïðèõîäèòñÿ èçãèáàòü (äåôîðìèðîâàòü) ÏÇÓ, ÷òî ïîçâîëÿåò ïðîèçâîäèòü óñêîðåííûé è ìåíåå òðóäî¸ìêèé ìîíòàæ. Ïòèöåçàùèòíîå óñòðîéñòâî ÏÇÓ-610êÂ-Ê (ðèñ. 4) ðàçðàáîòàíî è çàïóùåíî â ñåðèéíîå ïðîèçâîäñòâî â 2009 ã. Äàííàÿ ìîäåëü ïðåäíàçíà÷åíà äëÿ óñòàíîâêè íà øòûðåâûå èçîëÿòîðû êîíöåâûõ è ïðîìåæóòî÷íûõ îïîð. Îòëè÷èòåëüíîé îñîáåííîñòüþ ìîäåëè, ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ ÏÇÓ6-10êÂ, ÿâëÿþòñÿ ãèáêèå ãîôð-ðóêàâà, ÷òî ïîçâîëÿåò îñóùåñòâëÿòü ìîíòàæ ÏÇÓ íà êîíöåâûõ îïîðàõ è, áëàãîäàðÿ ýòîìó, äåëàåò óñòðîéñòâî óíèâåðñàëüíûì. Ïòèöåçàùèòíîå óñòðîéñòâî ÏÇÓ-610êÂ-Ñ (ðèñ. 5) ðàçðàáîòàíî è çàïóùåíî â ñåðèéíîå ïðîèçâîäñòâî â 2010 ã. Äàííàÿ ìîäåëü ïðåäíàçíà÷åíà äëÿ óñòàíîâêè íà øòûðåâûå èçîëÿòîðû ïðîìåæóòî÷íûõ îïîð ñ êðåïëåíèåì ïðîâîäà íà àíòèâèáðàöèîííûõ çàæèìàõ ÇÀÊ-10-1. ÏÇÓ-6-10êÂ-Ñ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ýêñêëþçèâíîé ìîäåëüþ ïòèöåçàùèòíîãî óñòðîéñòâà, íà ñåãîäíÿøíèé äåíü àíàëîãîâ äàííîé ìîäåëè íà îòå÷åñòâåííîì è çàðóáåæíûõ ðûíêàõ íåò. Ïòèöåçàùèòíîå óñòðîéñòâî ÏÇÓ-610êÂ-à (ðèñ. 6) ðàçðàáîòàíî è çàïóùåíî â ñåðèéíîå ïðîèçâîäñòâî â 2010 ã. Äàí-


Proceedings of Conferences íàÿ ìîäåëü ïðåäíàçíà÷åíà äëÿ óñòàíîâêè íà øòûðåâûå èçîëÿòîðû ïðîìåæóòî÷íûõ îïîð ñ ãîëîâíîé âÿçêîé ïðîâîäà. Íà ñåãîäíÿøíèé äåíü àíàëîãîâ äàííîé ìîäåëè ó äðóãèõ ðîññèéñêèõ ïðîèçâîäèòåëåé íåò. Ïòèöåçàùèòíîå óñòðîéñòâî ÏÇÓ-610êÂ-Ì (ðèñ. 7) ðàçðàáîòàíî è çàïóùåíî â ñåðèéíîå ïðîèçâîäñòâî â 2010 ã. Äàííîå óñòðîéñòâî ÿâëÿåòñÿ óíèôèöèðîâàííîé ìîäåëüþ ïòèöåçàùèòíîãî óñòðîéñòâà ñ óâåëè÷åííîé äëèíîé çàêðûòèÿ ïðîâîäà (1430 ìì) è ïðåäíàçíà÷åíî äëÿ óñòàíîâêè íà øòûðåâûå èçîëÿòîðû ïðîìåæóòî÷íûõ, êîíöåâûõ è ðàçâåòâèòåëüíûõ îïîð. Óñòðîéñòâî ñîñòîèò èç òð¸õ ÷àñòåé: îäíîãî êàïîòà è äâóõ ãîôð-ðóêàâîâ. Ïðè íåîáõîäèìîñòè óñòðîéñòâî ìîæíî äîîñíàñòèòü

Ðèñ. 6. Ïòèöåçàùèòíîå óñòðîéñòâî ÏÇÓ-6-10êÂ-Ã. Fig. 6. Bird Protective Device BPD-6-10kV-G.

Ðèñ. 7. Ïòèöåçàùèòíîå óñòðîéñòâî ÏÇÓ-6-10êÂ-Ì. Fig. 7. Bird Protection Device BPD-6-10kV-M.

Ðèñ. 8. Ïòèöåçàùèòíîå óñòðîéñòâî ÏÇÓ-6-10êÂ-ÌÃ. Fig. 8. Bird Protection Device BPD-6-10kV-MG.

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

141

äîïîëíèòåëüíûìè ãîôð-ðóêàâàìè äëÿ óâåëè÷åíèÿ îáùåé äëèíû èçäåëèÿ ëèáî äëÿ çàêðûòèÿ äîïîëíèòåëüíûõ îòâîäîâ (ðàçâåòâèòåëüíàÿ îïîðà). Ïòèöåçàùèòíîå óñòðîéñòâî ÏÇÓ-6-10êÂÌà (ðèñ. 8) ðàçðàáîòàíî è çàïóùåíî â ñåðèéíîå ïðîèçâîäñòâî â 2010 ã. Óñòðîéñòâî ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ãîôð-ðóêàâ è ïðåäíàçíà÷åíî äëÿ èçîëÿöèè îãîë¸ííîãî ïðîâîäà, à òàêæå äëÿ äîîñíàùåíèÿ ïòèöåçàùèòíîãî óñòðîéñòâà ÏÇÓ-6-10êÂ-Ì. Âñå âûøåóêàçàííûå ÏÇÓ ïðîøëè âñå íåîáõîäèìûå ñòåíäîâûå, íàòóðíûå è ïîëåâûå èñïûòàíèÿ (ðèñ. 9) (ñåðòèôèêàò ñîîòâåòñòâèÿ ¹ÐÎÑÑ RU.Àß52.Í07983), ñîãëàñîâàíû äëÿ óñòàíîâêè Óïðàâëåíèåì Ðîñòåõíàäçîðà è îäîáðåíû ýêñïåðòàìè Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè. Ìèíèñòåðñòâî ðåãèîíàëüíîãî ðàçâèòèÿ ÐÔ (èñõ. ¹7034ÑÌ\08 îò 16.03.2009 ã.) ðåêîìåíäîâàëî ñâîèì òåððèòîðèàëüíûì îðãàíàì ãîñýêñïåðòèçû ó÷èòûâàòü äàííóþ ðàçðàáîòêó ïðè ðàññìîòðåíèè ïðîåêòíîé äîêóìåíòàöèè. Ðàçðàáîò÷èê è èçãîòîâèòåëü óñòðîéñòâà – ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл (ÐÔ, ã. Óëüÿíîâñê). Âñå ïðàâà çàùèùåíû ïàòåíòàìè: ¹86804; ¹103680; ¹103681; ¹103682. Ïðåèìóùåñòâà è îòëè÷èòåëüíûå îñîáåííîñòè ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл Ìàêñèìàëüíàÿ áûñòðîòà è óäîáñòâî ìîíòàæà Ýêîíîìè÷åñêèå çàòðàòû âëàäåëüöåâ ËÝÏ íà ïòèöåçàùèòíûå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ, â îñíîâíîì, ìîæíî óñëîâíî ðàçäåëèòü íà òðè êàòåãîðèè: 1. Çàòðàòû íà çàêóïêó ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ; 2. Ìîíòàæíûå ðàáîòû; 3. Óïóùåííàÿ âûãîäà êàê ñëåäñòâèå îòêëþ÷åíèÿ ËÝÏ. Äëÿ íåêîòîðûõ îðãàíèçàöèé, òàêèõ, êàê íåôòåäîáûâàþùèå è ãîðíîäîáûâàþùèå, óïóùåííàÿ âûãîäà ìîæåò áûòü ãîðàçäî áîëåå çíà÷èòåëüíîé ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ íåïîñðåäñòâåííûìè çàòðàòàìè íà ïòèöåçàùèòíûå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ. Çàòðàòû íà ìîíòàæíûå ðàáîòû – ýòî òîæå äàëåêî íå äåø¸âàÿ ñòàòüÿ ðàñõîäîâ. Èñõîäÿ èç âûøåñêàçàííîãî, ñîêðàòèòü ýòè çàòðàòû ìîæíî òîëüêî îäíèì ñïîñîáîì – ñîêðàòèòü âðåìÿ ìîíòàæà ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ. Áîëüøèíñòâî ìîäåëåé ïðîèçâîäñòâà ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл – öåëüíûå è íå òðåáóþò ñáîðêè ïðè ìîíòàæå íà îïîðå. Ýòî âàæíîå ïðåèìóùåñòâî äàííûõ ìîäåëåé, ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ ÏÇÓ äðóãèõ ðîññèéñêèõ ïðîèçâîäèòåëåé, èçäåëèÿ


142

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé êîòîðûõ ÿâëÿþòñÿ ñáîðíûìè è ñîñòîÿò ïîðîé èç ïÿòè ÷àñòåé. Îòñþäà è çíà÷èòåëüíàÿ ðàçíèöà âî âðåìåíè, çàòðà÷èâàåìîì íà ïðîèçâîäñòâî ìîíòàæíûõ ðàáîò. Ïðèìåíÿÿ ïòèöåçàùèòíûå óñòðîéñòâà ïðîèçâîäñòâà ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл, ìîæíî äîáèòüñÿ ñóùåñòâåííîé ýêîíîìèè ñðåäñòâ íà ìîíòàæíûå ðàáîòû è çíà÷èòåëüíî ñîêðàòèòü âðåìÿ îòêëþ÷åíèÿ ËÝÏ. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ïðè êîìïëåêñíîé îöåíêå çàòðàò íà âûïîëíåíèå ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé, îêàçûâàåòñÿ, ÷òî ïðèìåíåíèå ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ ïðîèçâîäñòâà ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл â öåëîì ýêîíîìè÷åñêè áîëåå âûãîäíî, ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ ÏÇÓ äðóãèõ ïðîèçâîäèòåëåé.

Ðèñ. 9. Íàòóðíî-ñòåíäîâûå èñïûòàíèÿ. Fig. 9. Field-bench tests.

Ðèñ. 10. Ïðèìåíåíèå ÏÇÓ-6-10ê âìåñòî ÏÇÓ6-10êÂ-Ä. Fig. 10. Applying BPD-6-10 kV instead BPD-6-10kV-D.

Óäîáñòâî ïîñëåäóþùåãî îáñëóæèâàíèÿ Óëüÿíîâñêèå ïòèöåçàùèòíûå óñòðîéñòâà èìåþò öåëûé ðÿä êîíñòðóêòèâíûõ îñîáåííîñòåé, äàþùèõ, ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ ÏÇÓ äðóãèõ ïðîèçâîäèòåëåé, ñóùåñòâåííûå ïðåèìóùåñòâà ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè èçäåëèé. Ïàðàìåòðû êàïîòà âûáðàíû òàêèì îáðàçîì, ÷òî ïðè åãî óñòàíîâêå þáêà èçîëÿòîðà îñòàåòñÿ ìàêñèìàëüíî îòêðûòîé, ÷òî, â ñâîþ î÷åðåäü ïîçâîëÿåò ïðîèçâîäèòü ïîëíîöåííûé íèçîâîé îñìîòð. Êîíñòðóêöèÿ óñòðîéñòâà è óïðóãîñòü ìàòåðèàëà ïîçâîëÿþò îòêðûâàòü êàïîò ïóò¸ì ïîâîðîòà óñòðîéñòâà âäîëü ïðîäîëüíîé îñè, ÷òî îáåñïå÷èâàåò âîçìîæíîñòü êîíòðîëÿ öåëîñòíîñòè èçîëÿòîðà è âÿçêè ïðîâîäà ïðè ïðîâåäåíèè âåðõîâîãî îñìîòðà, íå ïðèáåãàÿ ê äåìîíòàæó ñàìîãî óñòðîéñòâà. Îòäåëüíîãî óïîìèíàíèÿ çàñëóæèâàþò òàêèå îòëè÷èòåëüíûå ñâîéñòâà óëüÿíîâñêèõ ÏÇÓ, êàê îòñóòñòâèå ëîâóøåê ïûëè, ìóñîðà è âëàãè, à òàêæå îòñóòñòâèå íèø äëÿ óñòðîéñòâà ãí¸çä è óáåæèù æèâîòíûõ (ïòèö, îñ è äð.), ÷òî ïîçâîëÿåò èñêëþ÷èòü ðàçëè÷íûå íàðóøåíèÿ ðàáîòû ýëåêòðîóñòàíîâîê. Îñíîâíûå îøèáêè, äîïóñêàåìûå ïðè ìîíòàæå ÏÇÓ Ñïåöèàëèñòû ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл ïðîèçâîäÿò ðåãóëÿðíîå îáñëåäîâàíèå ñâîèõ ÏÇÓ, óñòàíîâëåííûõ íà ËÝÏ ðàçëè÷íûõ ïîòðåáèòåëåé, âûÿâëÿÿ âñå ñëó÷àè óòðàòû êîæóõîâ ëèáî èõ îòäåëüíûõ ÷àñòåé, êîìïëåêòíîñòü êðåï¸æíîãî áàíäàæà, à òàêæå ñëó÷àè äåôîðìàöèè óñòðîéñòâ. Ïðè ýòîì ïðîâîäèòñÿ âûÿâëåíèå ïðè÷èí îòêëîíåíèÿ ñîñòîÿíèÿ ÏÇÓ îò íîðìû. Êàê ïîêàçûâàåò îïûò, îñíîâíûìè ïðè÷èíàìè îòêëîíåíèé

Ðèñ. 11. Ïðèìåíåíèå ÏÇÓ-6-10ê âìåñòî ÏÇÓ6-10êÂ-Ñ. Fig. 11. Applying BPD-6-10kV instead BPD-6-10kV-Ñ.


Proceedings of Conferences

Ðèñ. 12. Íåêîìïëåêòíîñòü êðåï¸æíîãî áàíäàæà. Fig. 12. Deficient bands for BPD fixing.

Ðèñ. 13. Íåêîìïëåêòíîñòü ÏÇÓ íà îïîðå. Fig. 13. Deficient BPD on a pole.

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

143

ÿâëÿþòñÿ íåñîîòâåòñòâóþùèé âûáîð ìîäåëè ÏÇÓ, íåïðàâèëüíîå êðåïëåíèå èçäåëèÿ, íåîñíàùåíèå ïòèöåçàùèòíûì óñòðîéñòâîì âåðõíåãî ïðîâîäà, óñòàíîâêà ÏÇÓ íà íåñòàíäàðòíûå óçëû êðåïëåíèÿ ïðîâîäîâ. Íåñîîòâåòñòâóþùèé âûáîð ìîäåëè ÏÇÓ Âûáîð ìîäåëè ÏÇÓ äîëæåí ïðîèçâîäèòüñÿ â ñòðîãîì ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ âèäîì îïîðû è êîíôèãóðàöèè òðàâåðñû, à òàêæå ñïîñîáîì êðåïëåíèÿ ïðîâîäà ê èçîëÿòîðó (ðèñ. 10–11). Âñå óêàçàíèÿ ïî ïðèìåíåíèþ ñîäåðæàòñÿ â «Ðóêîâîäñòâå ïî ýêñïëóàòàöèè» (Ñïåöèàëüíûå ïòèöåçàùèòíûå óñòðîéñòâà…, 2010). Íåïðàâèëüíîå êðåïëåíèå ÏÇÓ Â «Ðóêîâîäñòâå ïî ýêñïëóàòàöèè» ÷¸òêî îïèñàíû ìåñòà êðåïëåíèÿ è íåîáõîäèìîå êîëè÷åñòâî áàíäàæà äëÿ êðåïëåíèÿ ÏÇÓ íà ïðîâîäå è èçîëÿòîðå. Èíîãäà ìîíòàæíèêè ïðåíåáðåãàþò òðåáîâàíèÿìè Ðóêîâîäñòâà, ÷òî ïðèâîäèò ê íåïðàâèëüíîé ðàáîòå ÏÇÓ, «ñâàëèâàíèþ» óñòðîéñòâà ëèáî åãî äåôîðìàöèè (ðèñ. 12). Íå îñíàùåíèå ÏÇÓ âåðõíåãî ïðîâîäà Ñóùåñòâóåò îøèáî÷íîå ìíåíèå, ÷òî âåðõíèé ïðîâîä íå ïðåäñòàâëÿåò îïàñíîñòè äëÿ ïòèö (ðèñ. 13). Íå îñíàùåíèå ÏÇÓ âåðõíåãî ïðîâîäà ÿâëÿåòñÿ íàðóøåíèåì «Ðóêîâîäñòâà ïî ýêñïëóàòàöèè»: «ËÝÏ (ÂË 6–10 êÂ) ñ÷èòàåòñÿ îáîðóäîâàííîé ÏÇÓ, åñëè ïòèöåçàùèòíûå óñòðîéñòâà óñòàíîâëåíû íà âñåõ ðàáî÷èõ èçîëÿòîðàõ, íåñóùèõ îãîë¸ííûå ïðîâîäà» (ï. 4.8.). Ïî äàííîìó íàðóøåíèþ ñî ñòîðîíû êîíòðîëèðóþùèõ îðãàíîâ ìîæåò ïîñòóïèòü îáîñíîâàííàÿ ïðåòåíçèÿ âëàäåëüöó ËÝÏ. Óñòàíîâêà ÏÇÓ íà íåñòàíäàðòíûå óçëû êðåïëåíèÿ ïðîâîäîâ Ïîêàçàíî íà ðèñóíêå 14. Ëèòåðàòóðà Õààñ Ä., Íèïêîó Ì., Ôèäëåð Ã., Õàíäøó Ì., Øíàéäåð-ßêîáè Ì., Øíàéäåð Ð. Îñòîðîæíî: âûñîêîå íàïðÿæåíèå! Ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî îõðàíå ïòèö ïðè ñòðîèòåëüñòâå âîçäóøíûõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è. NABU, 2003. 20 ñ. <http:// www.nabu.de/vogelschutz/electrocutionrussisch.pdf> Ôîðìîçîâ À.Í. Ïðîáëåìû ýêîëîãèè è ãåîãðàôèè æèâîòíûõ. Ì. Íàóêà, 1981. 352 c. Àðàéñ Ð.Ä., Ñòàëòìàíèñ È.Î. Ýêñïëóàòàöèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèõ ñåòåé ñåëüñêîé ìåñòíîñòè. Ì., 1977. 280 c. Ñïåöèàëüíûå ïòèöåçàùèòíûå óñòðîéñòâà: ÏÇÓ-6-10êÂ-Ó è äð. Ðóêîâîäñòâî ïî ýêñïëóàòàöèè. Óëüÿíîâñê, 2010. 15 ñ.

Ðèñ. 14. Íåâîçìîæíîñòü óñòàíîâêè ÏÇÓ íà îïîðå. Fig. 14. It is impossible to mount BPD on the pole.


144

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

ExperienceinUseofBirdProtectionDevicesonPowerLinesin CentralCiscaucasia,Russia ОПЫТ ВНЕДРЕНИЯ ПТИЦЕЗАЩИТНЫХ УСТРОЙСТВ НА ЛИНИЯХ ЭЛЕКТРОПЕРЕДАЧИ В ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОМ ПРЕДКАВКАЗЬЕ, РОССИЯ ShevtsovA.S.,KhokhlovA.N.,IlyukhM.P.,EliseenkoE.A.(StavropolStateUniversity, Stavropol,Russia) Шевцов А.С., Хохлов А.Н., Ильюх М.П., Елисеенко Е.А. (Ставропольский государственный университет, Ставрополь, Россия)

Êîíòàêò: Àëåêñàíäð Øåâöîâ Ñòàâðîïîëüñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò, Êàôåäðà çîîëîãèè, 355009, Ðîññèÿ, Ñòàâðîïîëü, óë. Ïóøêèíà, 1 òåë.: +7 909 760 81 81 velichaevskoe2007@ rambler.ru Àëåêñàíäð Õîõëîâ Ñòàâðîïîëüñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò, Êàôåäðà çîîëîãèè òåë.: +7 8652 55 56 69 nickbird@mail.ru Ìèõàèë Èëüþõ Ñòàâðîïîëüñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò Êàôåäðà çîîëîãèè òåë.: +7 8652 35 61 86 ilyukh@mail.ru Åâãåíèé Åëèñååíêî Ñòàâðîïîëüñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò Êàôåäðà çîîëîãèè òåë.: +7 86559 234 42, +7 918 802 97 12 Eliseenko_pfr@mail.ru

Ðåçþìå Ðàññìàòðèâàþòñÿ ðåçóëüòàòû ïîëåâûõ èñïûòàíèé ðàçëè÷íûõ ïòèöåîòïóãèâàþùèõ è ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ (çàãðàäèòåëüíûõ óñîâ, ïðèñàä, çàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ èç ÏÝÒ-áóòûëîê è äðóãèõ ïîëèìåðíûõ ìàòåðèàëîâ) íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è (ËÝÏ) â Öåíòðàëüíîì Ïðåäêàâêàçüå. Ïðåäëàãàþòñÿ ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî îáîðóäîâàíèþ ËÝÏ ðåãèîíà ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè. Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: ïòèöåçàùèòíûå óñòðîéñòâà, ËÝÏ, Öåíòðàëüíîå Ïðåäêàâêàçüå. Ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ 14.03.2012 ã. Ïðèíÿòà ê ïóáëèêàöèè 30.03.2012 ã. Abstract Results of field tests of various bird scaring and birds protection devices (protecting moustaches, perches, protection devices made of pet-bottles and other polymeric materials) on power lines in Central Ciscaucasia are considered. Recommendations about the power lines retrofitting with bird protection devices (BPD) in region are suggested. Keywords: birds-protection devices, power lines, Central Precaucasus. Received: 14/03/2012. Accepted: 30/03/2012.

Ââåäåíèå  òå÷åíèå 2007–2010 ãã. îðíèòîëîãàìè Ñòàâðîïîëüñêîãî ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà ïðè àêòèâíîì ñîäåéñòâèè ðóêîâîäñòâà ÎÀÎ Ñòàâðîïîëüýíåðãî «Ïðèêóìñêèå ýëåêòðè÷åñêèå ñåòè» ïðîâîäèëèñü ïîëåâûå èñïûòàíèÿ ðàçëè÷íûõ ïòèöåîòïóãèâàþùèõ è ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ (çàãðàäèòåëüíûõ óñîâ, ïðèñàä, çàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ èç ÏÝÒ-áóòûëîê è äðóãèõ ïîëèìåðíûõ ìàòåðèàëîâ).  õîäå èññëåäîâàíèé áûë îïðåäåë¸í íàèáîëåå ýôôåêòèâíûé ìàòåðèàë äëÿ çàùèòû ïòèö íà ËÝÏ – ñòåêëîñëþäèíèòîâàÿ ïðîïèòàííàÿ ëåíòà ìàðêè ËÑ-ÝÏ-9125-ÒÒ. Ìåòîäèêà  2010 ã. ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè (ÏÇÓ) áûëè îáîðóäîâàíû ó÷àñòêè ËÝÏ, îáùåé ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòüþ 11 êì (203 îïîðû) â ìåñòàõ ðåãóëÿðíîé ãèáåëè ïòèö îò óäàðà ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì.  êà÷åñòâå ÏÇÓ áûëà îïðîáîâàíà ëåíòà ñòåêëîñëþäèíèòîâàÿ ïðîïèòàííàÿ ìàðêè ËÑ-ÝÏ-9125-ÒÒ, êîòîðîé áûëè èçîëèðîâàíû ïðîâîäà íåïîñðåäñòâåííî íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ ïî 60 ñì â îáå ñòîðîíû îò èçîëÿòîðîâ. Ëåíòà íàìàòûâàëàñü íà ôàçíûé ïðîâîäíèê ñ íàõë¸ñòîì â ïîëîâèíó øèðèíû ëåíòû, à ïîâåðõ íå¸ íàìàòûâàëñÿ áàíäàæ äëÿ êðåïëåíèÿ ïðîâîäà ê èçîëÿòîðó (ðèñ. 1).

Introduction During 2007–2010, ornithologists of the Stavropol State University, with active assistance of the administration of the “Prikumskie electrical grids” – branch of the JSC Stavropolenergo, conducted field tests of various bird scaring and protection devices (protecting mustaches, perches, protection devices made of polymer materials). In the course of our research the most effective material was determined; it is Polyester Glass Filament Tape (electrical tape). Methods In 2010, several power lines (PL) were retrofitted with BPDs: the total length of PL was of 11 km (203 poles). The poles were mitigated in the area where bird deaths from electrocution were registered regularly. The electrical tape was tested as BPD, which insulated wires 60 cm in length on both sides of the insulators on the electric poles. The tape was wound on the wire with an overlap of half the width of the tape, after that bands were wound on the wire to attach it to the insulator (fig. 1). Approximate life of electrical tape when it is treated with enamel is 20–25 years. Results and Discussion Carrying out the experimental tests on


Proceedings of Conferences Contact: Alexander Shevtsov Zoological Department of the Stavropol State University Pushkina str., 1, Stavropol, Russia, 355009 tel.: +7 909 760 81 81 velichaevskoe2007@ rambler.ru Alexander Khokhlov Zoological Department of the Stavropol State University tel.: +7 8652 55 56 69 nickbird@mail.ru Mikhail Ilyukh Zoological Department of the Stavropol State University tel.: +7 8652 35 61 86 ilyukh@mail.ru Eugeny Eliseenko Zoological Department of the Stavropol State University tel.: +7 865 59 234 42, +7 918 802 97 12 Eliseenko_pfr@mail.ru

Ðèñ. 1. Ñõåìà âàðèàíòà èçîëÿöèè ïðîâîäîâ ó òðàâåðñû îïîðû ËÝÏ. Fig. 1. Scheme of mitigating of electric poles with electrical tape.

Ëåíòà ñòåêëîñëþäèíèòîâàÿ ïðîïèòàííàÿ ìàðêè ËÑ-ÝÏ-9125-ÒÒ (ÒÓ 16-503.19279) ïðîèçâîäèòñÿ ïðåäïðèÿòèåì ÇÀÎ «Ýëåêòðîèçîëèò» è ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé êîìïîçèöèþ, ñîñòîÿùóþ èç ñëþäèíèòîâîé áóìàãè, ïðîïèòàííîé è îêëååííîé ñ äâóõ ñòîðîí ñòåêëîòêàíüþ ñ ïîìîùüþ ýïîêñèäíî-ïîëèýôèðíîãî ëàêà. Ýòîò ìàòåðèàë ïðèìåíÿåòñÿ äëÿ êîðïóñíîé èçîëÿöèè ýëåêòðîäâèãàòåëåé è ýëåêòðîïðîâîäîâ íà íàïðÿæåíèå 10 ê ñ äëèòåëüíî äîïóñòèìîé ðàáî÷åé òåìïåðàòóðîé äî 130°Ñ. Ëåíòà ñîñòîèò èç ñëþäû (íå ìåíåå 33%), ñâÿçóþùåãî âåùåñòâà (40±5%) è ëåòó÷èõ âåùåñòâ (5±2%). Ñîäåðæàíèå ðàñòâîðèìîé ÷àñòè ñâÿçóþùåãî âåùåñòâà â èñõîäíîì ñîñòîÿíèè ñîñòàâëÿåò íå ìåíåå 97%, ïîñëå âûäåðæêè 1 ÷àñ ïðè 160°Ñ – íå ìåíåå 95%. Ñðåäíÿÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêàÿ ïðî÷íîñòü íå ìåíåå 20 ÌÂ/ì. Ïðîáèâíîå íàïðÿæåíèå â îòäåëüíûõ òî÷êàõ ñîñòàâëÿåò íå ìåíåå 1,5 êÂ. Ýìàëü ÊÎ-911 (ÒÓ 16-504.021-77), íàíîñèìàÿ ïîâåðõ ëåíòû, – êðåìíèéîðãàíè÷åñêàÿ, íàãðåâîñòîéêàÿ, ïîêðîâíàÿ, âîçäóøíîé ñóøêè – ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ñóñïåíçèþ ïèãìåíòîâ â ïîëèîðãàíîñèëîêñàíîâîì ëàêå Ê-65. Âûïóñêàþò ýìàëü äâóõ öâåòîâ: ðîçîâóþ è êðàñíî-êîðè÷íåâóþ. Ïðè ïðîâåäåíèè îïûòíûõ èñïûòàíèé ïðèìåíÿëàñü êðàñíî-êîðè÷íåâàÿ ýìàëü. Ðàçáàâèòåëåì è ðàñòâîðèòåëåì ÿâëÿëñÿ òîëóîë. Ýìàëè ïðèìåíÿþò ñ äîáàâëåíèåì îòâåðäèòåëÿ ïî-

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

145

insulation of wires we discovered that the most efficient electrical tape thickness is 0.18 mm and a width is 25 mm. A tape length in the reel is 62 m. The cost of the mitigation of three-phase conductors with electrical tape on one pole according to the prices of 05/08/2011 is about 100 rubles. After retrofitting the poles of PL 6–10 kV with these devices in the 2010 the cases the bird deaths from electrocution were not recorded. The proposed technique of mitigation of power lines has some advantages over other BPDs. Conclusions Legislative acts of RF that require the organization operating the PL to retrofit them with bird protection devices do not contain requirements regarding effectiveness of such devices. Often mitigation actions are of a formal nature without reducing the overall mortality of birds on PL. The necessity of development and implementation of a unified system of protection of terrestrial vertebrates from the negative impact of power line, retrofitting of existing power lines (wire, crossarms with polymer cover, etc.) and adoption of guidelines for carrying out the mitigating measures for the utility companies that operate the power lines throughout Russia has been already ripe.


146

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèé

ëèýòèëåíïîëèàìèíà. Ýìàëü îáëàäàåò âûñîêèìè ýëåêòðîèçîëÿöèîííûìè è êëåÿùèìè ñâîéñòâàìè. Ÿ ïðèìåíÿþò äëÿ îòäåëî÷íîãî ïîêðûòèÿ è ðåìîíòà ÿêîðåé, îáìîòêè è ýëåêòðîèçîëÿöèîííûõ ìàòåðèàëîâ, ëîáîâûõ ÷àñòåé ñåêöèé, êàòóøåê è äðóãèõ óçëîâ è äåòàëåé ýëåêòðè÷åñêèõ ìàøèí è àïïàðàòîâ ñ ðàáî÷åé òåìïåðàòóðîé äî 180°Ñ. Îðèåíòèðîâî÷íûé ñðîê ñëóæáû ëåíòû ñòåêëîñëþäèíèòîâîé ïðîïèòàííîé ìàðêè ËÑ-ÝÏ-9125-ÒÒ ïðè óñëîâèè îáðàáîòêè å¸ ýìàëüþ ÊÎ-911 ñîñòàâëÿåò 20–25 ëåò.

Äðóãîå ñåðòèôèöèðîâàííîå ïòèöåçàùèòíîå óñòðîéñòâî ÏÇÓ 6–10 êÂ, ïðîèçâîäèìîå ïðåäïðèÿòèåì ÎÎÎ «Ýêî-ÍÈÎÊл (Ñèäåíêî, Ðàãîíñêèé, 2009), áîëåå òùàòåëüíî ïðîäóìàíî ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ òåõíè÷åñêîãî èñïîëíåíèÿ, è ñîîòâåòñòâóåò âñåì íîðìàòèâíûì òðåáîâàíèÿì. Ïîæàëóé, åäèíñòâåííûì íåäîñòàòêîì äàííîãî óñòðîéñòâà ÿâëÿåòñÿ åãî âûñîêàÿ öåíà. Ñòîèìîñòü êîìïëåêòà ÏÇÓ 6–10 ê äëÿ îáîðóäîâàíèÿ îäíîé îïîðû ËÝÏ ñîñòàâëÿåò îêîëî 1200 ðóá. áåç ó÷¸òà çàòðàò íà èõ óñòàíîâêó.

Ðåçóëüòàòû è îáñóæäåíèå Ïðè ïðîâåäåíèè îïûòíûõ èñïûòàíèé ïî ýëåêòðîèçîëÿöèè ïðîâîäîâ óñòàíîâëåíî, ÷òî íàèáîëåå ýôôåêòèâíà ëåíòà òîëùèíîé 0,18 ìì è øèðèíîé 5 ìì. Äëèíà ëåíòû â êàòóøêå ñîñòàâëÿåò 62 ì. Çàòðàòû íà îáîðóäîâàíèå òð¸õôàçíûõ ïðîâîäíèêîâ íà îäíîé îïîðå äàííûì ïòèöåçàùèòíûì óñòðîéñòâîì â öåíàõ ïî ñîñòîÿíèþ íà 05.08.2011 ã. ñîñòàâëÿþò îêîëî 100 ðóá.: 1 êã ëåíòû ñòåêëîñëþäèíèòîâîé ñòîèò 941 ðóá. ñ ÍÄÑ (äëÿ îáîðóäîâàíèÿ òð¸õôàçíûõ ïðîâîäíèêîâ íà òð¸õ îïîðàõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è äîñòàòî÷íî îäíîé êàòóøêè ëåíòû âåñîì 200 ã, ñòîèìîñòüþ 188,2 ðóá.); ýìàëü, íàíîñèìàÿ ïîâåðõ ëåíòû, ñòîèò 45 ðóá./êã. Ðàáîòû ïî îáîðóäîâàíèþ ËÝÏ ñëåäóåò ïðîâîäèòü âî âðåìÿ ïëàíîâûõ ðåìîíòîâ, ïîýòîìó ïîòåðü, ñâÿçàííûõ ñ íåäîïîëó÷åíèåì ýëåêòðîýíåðãèè, íå ïðåäïîëàãàåòñÿ. Ïîñëå îñíàùåíèÿ äàííûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè â 2010 ã. îïîð ËÝÏ 6–10 ê ñëó÷àè çàìûêàíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêîé öåïè ïòèöàìè íå ôèêñèðîâàëèñü. Ïðåäëîæåííûé ñïîñîá çàùèòû ïòèö íà ËÝÏ èìååò ñâîè ïðåèìóùåñòâà ïåðåä äðóãèìè ÏÇÓ. Íàìè èçó÷àëñÿ îïûò ïðèìåíåíèÿ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ èç äðóãèõ ðåãèîíîâ. Òàê, íàïðèìåð, ÏÇÓ ÊÏ-1Á (Ìàöûíà, 2008), âûïóñêàåìîå ïðåäïðèÿòèåì ÎÎÎ «Èçîòåõíîñåðâèñ» (ã. Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä), ýôôåêòèâíî çàêðûâàåò òîêîâåäóùèå ÷àñòè ËÝÏ. Äàííîå óñòðîéñòâî èçãîòàâëèâàåòñÿ èç ïîëèìåðíûõ ìàòåðèàëîâ, ñîñòîèò èç ãèáêèõ êîæóõîâ íà ïðîâîäà è êîëïàêà ñôåðè÷åñêîé ôîðìû âûñîòîé 170 ìì, êðåïÿùåãîñÿ íà èçîëÿòîð, íî, ê ñîæàëåíèþ, ïîëíîñòüþ åãî ñîáîé çàêðûâàþùèé. Ïðèíÿòàÿ âûñîòà êîëïàêà ïðåïÿòñòâóåò ðåãóëÿðíîìó îñìîòðó è îöåíêå òåõíè÷åñêîãî ñîñòîÿíèÿ èçîëÿòîðà ñíèçó, êîòîðûé íåîáõîäèì ñîãëàñíî ïóíêòó 2.3.11 «Ïðàâèë òåõíè÷åñêîé ýêñïëóàòàöèè ýëåêòðîóñòàíîâîê ïîòðåáèòåëåé» (Ïðàâèëà…, 2003).

Çàêëþ÷åíèå Ôåäåðàëüíûé çàêîí «Î æèâîòíîì ìèðå» (ñò. 28) è äðóãèå íîðìàòèâíûå àêòû (Òðåáîâàíèÿ…, 1996), îáÿçûâàþùèå îðãàíèçàöèè, ýêñïëóàòèðóþùèå ëèíèè ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è, îñíàùà��ü èõ ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè, íå ñîäåðæàò òðåáîâàíèé ê ýôôåêòèâíîñòè òàêèõ óñòðîéñòâ. Çà÷àñòóþ, åñëè ýíåðãåòèêàìè è ïðîâîäÿòñÿ ïòèöåçàùèòíûå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ, òî îíè íîñÿò ôîðìàëüíûé õàðàêòåð, íå ñíèæàþùèé îáùèé óðîâåíü ñìåðòíîñòè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, à èíîãäà äàæå è óâåëè÷èâàþùèé ñìåðòíîñòü ïòèö (ìîíòàæ íåèçîëèðîâàíûõ çàãðàäèòåëüíûõ óñîâ íà òðàâåðñó). Äàâíî íàçðåëà íåîáõîäèìîñòü ðàçðàáîòêè è âíåäðåíèÿ åäèíîé ñèñòåìû çàùèòû íàçåìíûõ ïîçâîíî÷íûõ æèâîòíûõ îò íåãàòèâíîãî âîçäåéñòâèÿ îáúåêòîâ ýëåêòðè÷åñêîé ñðåäû, ïåðåîñíàùåíèÿ äåéñòâóþùèõ ËÝÏ (ïðîâîäà, òðàâåðñû ñ ïîëèìåðíûì ïîêðûòèåì è ò.ä.), óòâåðæäåíèÿ ìåòîäè÷åñêèõ ðåêîìåíäàöèé ïî ïðîâåäåíèþ çàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé äëÿ ýíåðãåòè÷åñêèõ êîìïàíèé, ýêñïëóàòèðóþùèõ ËÝÏ íà âñåé òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè. Ëèòåðàòóðà Ìàöûíà À.È. Êðàòêèé îáçîð ìåòîäîâ çàùèòû ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è. – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà. 2008. ¹11. Ñ. 10–13. Ïðàâèëà òåõíè÷åñêîé ýêñïëóàòàöèè ýëåêòðîóñòàíîâîê ïîòðåáèòåëåé. Óòâåðæäåíû ïðèêàçîì Ìèíèñòåðñòâà ýíåðãåòèêè ÐÔ îò 13.01.2003 ã. ¹6. Ñèäåíêî Ì.Â., Ðàãîíñêèé Ã.Â. Èç îïûòà ðåøåíèÿ ïðîáëåìû ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è â íàöèîíàëüíîì ïàðêå «Ñìîëåíñêîå Ïîîç¸ðüå». – Ñàìàðñêàÿ Ëóêà: ïðîáëåìû ðåãèîíàëüíîé è ãëîáàëüíîé ýêîëîãèè. Ñàìàðñêàÿ Ëóêà, 2009. Ò. 18, ¹4. Ñ. 229–233. Òðåáîâàíèÿ ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè îáúåêòîâ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà ïðè îñóùåñòâëåíèè ïðîèçâîäñòâåííûõ ïðîöåññîâ, à òàêæå ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè òðàíñïîðòíûõ ìàãèñòðàëåé, òðóáîïðîâîäîâ, ëèíèé ñâÿçè è ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è. Óòâåðæäåíû ïîñòàíîâëåíèåì Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà ÐÔ îò 13 àâãóñòà 1996 ã. ¹997.


Proceedings of Conferences

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

147

LocalitiesofSurveysoftheProblem“BirdsandPowerLines” MentionedintheArticlesofthe24thIssueof“RaptorsConservation” ГЕОГРАФИЯ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЙ ПРОБЛЕМЫ «ПТИЦЫ И ЛЭП», ПО РЕЗУЛЬТАТАМ КОТОРЫХ ОПУБЛИКОВАНЫ СТАТЬИ В №24 ЖУРНАЛА «ПЕРНАТЫЕ ХИЩНИКИ И ИХ ОХРАНА»

1. Àíäðþùåíêî Þ.À., Ïîïåíêî Â.Ì. Ñ. 34–41. 2. Áåêìàíñóðîâ Ð.Õ., Æóêîâ Ä.Â., Ãàëååâ À.Ø. Ñ. 42–51. 3. Âîðîíîâà Â.Â., Ïóëèêîâà Ã.È., Êèì Ê.Ê., Àíäðååâà Å.Â., Áåêêåð Â.Ð., Àéòáàåâ Ò. Ñ. 52–60. 4. Ãàäæèåâ À.Ì., Ìåëüíèêîâ Â.Í. C. 61–64. 5. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ñ. 69–85. 6. Ìåëüíèêîâ Â.Í., Ìåëüíèêîâà À.Â. Ñ. 86–87. 7. Íèêîëåíêî Ý.Ã., Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ñ. 88–97. 8. Ïåñòîâ Ì.Â., Ñàäûêóëèí Ð.Ô. Ñ. 98–103. 9. Ïåñòîâ Ì.Â., Ñàðàåâ Ô.À., Øàëõàðîâ Ì.Ê. Ñ. 104–117. 10. Ñàìóñåíêî È.Ý., Íîâèöêèé Ð.Â., Ïàêóëü Ï.À. Ñ. 118–131. 11. Ñàïóíêîâà Í.Þ., Çîëîòàðåâ Ñ.Ñ. Ñ. 132–136. 12. Òåòí¸â Ñ.Ã. Ñ. 137–143. 13. Øåâöîâ À.Ñ., Õîõëîâ À.Í., Èëüþõ Ì.Ï., Åëèñååíêî Å.À. Ñ. 144–147. 14. Ìàöûíà À.È., Ìàöûíà Å.Ë., Êîðîëüêîâ Ì.À., Áàäìàåâ Â.Ý., Áàäìàåâ Â.Á. Ñ. 178–185.

1. Andriushchenko Yu.A., Popenko V.M. P. 34–41. 2. Bekmansurov R.H., Zhukov D.V., Galeev A.Sh. P. 42–51. 3. Voronova V.V., Pulikova G.I., Kim K.K., Andreeva E.V., Bekker V.R., Aitbaev T. P. 52–60. 4. Gadzhiev A.M., Melnikov V.N. P. 61–64. 5. Karyakin I.V. P. 69–85. 6. Melnikov V.N., Melnikova A.V. P. 86–87. 7. Nikolenko E.G., Karyakin I.V. P. 88–97. 8. Pestov M.V., Sadykulin R.F. P. 98–103. 9. Pestov M.V., Saraev F.A., Shalharov M.K. P. 104–117. 10. Samusenko I.E., Novitsky R.V., Pakul P.A. P. 118–131. 11. Sapunkova N.Yu., Zolotarev S.S. P. 132–136. 12. Tetnev S.G. P. 137–143. 13. Shevtsov A.S., Khokhlov A.N., Ilyukh M.P., Eliseenko E.A. P. 144–147. 14. Matsyna A.I., Matsyna E.L., Korolkov M.A., Badmaev V.E., Badmaev V.V. P. 178–185.


148

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24

Îáçîðû è êîììåíòàðèè

ReviewsandComments ОБЗОРЫ И КОММЕНТАРИИ TheRoleofHybridisationinOriginofFormsintheHierofalcoComplex РОЛЬ ГИБРИДИЗАЦИИ В СТАНОВЛЕНИИ ФОРМ КРУПНЫХ СОКОЛОВ КОМПЛЕКСА HIEROFALCO PfefferR.G.(Greifvogelzoo“BayerischerJagdfalkenhof”,Schillingsfürst,Germany) Пфеффер Р.Г. (Зоопарк хищных птиц «Баварский соколиный двор», Шиллингсфюрст, Германия)

Contact: Ralf Pfeffer Otto-Stumpf-Weg 14, Leimen, Germany, 69181 tel.: +4 962 24 926 630 ralf.pfeffer@gmx.net

Ðåçþìå  ñòàòüå àíàëèçèðóþòñÿ è êðèòèêóþòñÿ âûñêàçàííûå ðàçíûìè èññëåäîâàòåëÿìè ãèïîòåçû î ãèáðèäîãåííîì ïðîèñõîæäåíèè âîñòî÷íûõ áàëîáàíîâ, òóðêåñòàíñêîãî áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug coatsi) è àëåóòñêîãî ñàïñàíà (Falco peregrinus pealei). Íà îñíîâàíèè ñîïîñòàâëåíèÿ ãåíåòè÷åñêèõ, ìîðôîëîãè÷åñêèõ, ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ è ïîâåäåí÷åñêèõ îñîáåííîñòåé ðàçíûõ âèäîâ êîìïëåêñà Hierofalco âûñêàçûâàåòñÿ ïðåäïîëîæåíèå î íåçàâèñèìîì äðóã îò äðóãà ïðîèñõîæäåíèè çàïàäíûõ è âîñòî÷íûõ áàëîáàíîâ, êîíâåðãåíòíîé ïðèðîäå èõ ìîðôîëîãè÷åñêîãî ñõîäñòâà è ïðåäëàãàåòñÿ ðàññìàòðèâàòü èõ â êà÷åñòâå íåçàâèñèìûõ òàêñîíîâ òîãî æå ðàíãà, ÷òî è äðóãèå ïðåäñòàâèòåëè êîìïëåêñà – ëàííåð (Falco biarmicus), êðå÷åò (Falco rusticolus), ëàããàð (Falco jugger) è àâñòðàëèéñêèé ÷¸ðíûé ñîêîë (Falco subniger). Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè, õèùíûå ïòèöû, ñîêîëû, áàëîáàí, Falco cherrug, ñàïñàí, Falco peregrinus, ëàííåð, Falco biarmicus, êðå÷åò, Falco rusticolus, ëàããàð, Falco jugger, Hierofalco, ïîëóâèä, ïîëèòèïè÷åñêèé âèä. Ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ: 29.01.2012 ã. Ïðèíÿòà ê ïóáëèêàöèè: 29.02.2012 ã. Abstract This article presents the analysis and the criticism of the hypotheses on hybrid origin of the Eastern Saker Falcon, Falco cherrug coatsi and Falco peregrinus pealei, expressed by different researchers. Based on comparing genetic, morphological, ecological and behavioural peculiarities of different species of the Hierofalco complex, the Eastern and Western Sakers are assumed to have independent origin from each other with their morphological similarity being convergent. Therefore, the suggestion is made to recognize them as independent taxons with the same status as other representatives of the complex (Lanner Falcon Falco biarmicus, Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus, Laggar Falcon Falco jugger, Black Falcon Falco subniger). Keywords: raptors, birds of prey, falcons, Saker Falcon, Falco cherrug, Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus, Lanner Falcon, Falco biarmicus, Gyrfalcon, Falco rusticolus, Laggar Falcon, Falco jugger, Hierofalco, semispecies, polytypical species. Received: 29/01/2012. Accepted: 29/02/2012.

Êîìïëåêñ âèäîâ êðóïíûõ ñîêîëîâ (Hierofalco) òðàäèöèîííî ïðèâëåêàë âíèìàíèå èññëåäîâàòåëåé. ×åãî ñòîÿò èìåíà òîëüêî ðîññèéñêèõ ó÷¸íûõ (Ì.À. Ìåíçáèð, Ï.Ï. Ñóøêèí, Á.Ê. Øòåãìàí, Ã.Ï. Äåìåíòüåâ, Å.Â. Êîçëîâà è äð.), ïûòàâøèõñÿ ðàçîáðàòüñÿ â ýòèõ çàãàäî÷íûõ ïòèöàõ! Èìåííî èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñèñòåìàòè÷åñêèõ âçàèìîîòíîøåíèé âèäîâ ýòîé ãðóïïû íàòîëêíóëè Î. Êëÿéíøìèäòà (1901) íà èäåþ î ñóùåñòâîâàíèè â ïðèðîäå «êðóãîâ ôîðì» (Collectio formarum, áîëåå èçâåñòíûå ïîä íåìåöêèì íàçâàíèåì Formenkreise), â êîòîðûõ íåñêîëüêî ìîëîäûõ âèäîâ (ïîëóâèäîâ) îáúåäèíåíû â îäèí íàäâèä èëè, êàê åãî ñåãîäíÿ ïðèíÿòî íàçûâàòü – ïîëèòèïè÷åñêèé âèä. Èäåÿ îêàçàëàñü ïëîäîòâîðíîé è çîîëîãàìè áûëî îáíàðóæåíî ìíîæåñòâî ïîäîáíûõ ïîëèòèïè÷åñêèõ âèäîâ, îáðàçîâàííûõ çà÷àñòóþ ðåçêî îòëè÷àþùèìèñÿ

The species of the Hierofalco complex have always attracted the researchers’ attention. Precisely the study of the taxonomic relations between the species of this group gave O. Kleinschmidt (1901) the idea of existence of “circles of forms” (collectio formarum, better known by the German name Formenkreise), in which several young species (semispecies) are put together into one superspecies, or how it is commonly called today, a polytypical species. The idea turned out to be fruitful and zoologists discovered a multitude of such polytypical species, partly represented by forms strongly differing morphologically and ecologically, which nevertheless are able to give fertile offspring. Genetic research of the last decades has confirmed existence of polytypical species as well, though in some cases the conclusions have not yet been adopted in


Reviews and Comments

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

149

Ìåêñèêàíñêèé ñîêîë (Falco mexicanus) – ââåðõó (ôîòî èç àðõèâà Ïëàíåòû ïòèö) è áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) – âíèçó (ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà). Ìåêñèêàíñêèé ñîêîë, ãåíåòè÷åñêè î÷åíü áëèçêèé ñàïñàíàì, ñâîåé âíåøíîñòüþ è îáðàçîì æèçíè ãîðàçäî áîëüøå ïîõîæ íà áàëîáàíà, ñ êîòîðûì åãî ñâÿçûâàåò ëèøü âåñüìà îòäàë¸ííîå ðîäñòâî. Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus) – upper (photo from Planet of Birds) and Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) – bottom (photo by I. Karyakin). The Prairie Falcon, which is genetically very close to the Peregrine Falcon, shows greater similarities to the Saker Falcon in terms of appearance and way of life, although they are only distant relatives.

äðóã îò äðóãà ìîðôîëîãè÷åñêè è ýêîëîãè÷åñêè ôîðìàìè, ñïîñîáíûìè, òåì íå ìåíåå, ñêðåùèâàòüñÿ è äàâàòü ïëîäîâèòîå ïîòîìñòâî. Äîñòàòî÷íî óïîìÿíóòü ìíîãî÷èñëåííûå «âèäû» áëàãîðîäíûõ îëåíåé èëè äèêèõ áàðàíîâ. Ãåíåòè÷åñêèå èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïîñëåäíèõ äåñÿòèëåòèé òàêæå ïîäòâåðäèëè íàëè÷èå ïîëèòèïè÷åñêèõ âèäîâ, õîòÿ â íåêîòîðûõ ñëó÷àÿõ èõ âûâîäû íå ïðîáèâàþòñÿ â ïðàêòèêó ñèñòåìàòèêîâ. Íàïðèìåð, â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîé íàìè ãðóïïå êðóïíûõ ñîêîëîâ (ëàííåðû Falco biarmicus, áàëîáàíû F. cherrug, àâñòðàëèéñêèå ñîêîëû F. subniger, êðå÷åòû F. rusticolus è ëàããàðû F. jugger), êîòîðûõ ïðèíÿòî ñ÷èòàòü âèäàìè, ãåíåòè÷åñêèå ðàçëè÷èÿ âûðàæåíû íå áîëüøå, ÷åì ìåæäó ìíîãèìè ôîðìàìè ñàïñàíîâ (Falco peregrinus), êîòîðûõ ïðèíÿòî ñ÷èòàòü ïîäâèäàìè (Wink et al., 2007). Ñâÿçàíî ýòî ñ òåì, ÷òî ãåíåòè÷åñêàÿ äèñòàíöèÿ äàëåêî íå âñåãäà àäåêâàòíî ïðîÿâëÿåòñÿ â îáëèêå è îñîáåííîñòÿõ ýêîëîãèè æèâîòíûõ. Íàïðèìåð, ìåêñèêàíñêèé ñîêîë (Falco mexicanus), ãåíåòè÷åñêè î÷åíü áëèçêèé ñàïñàíàì, ñâîåé âíåøíîñòüþ è îáðàçîì æèçíè ãîðàçäî áîëüøå ïîõîæ íà áàëîáàíà, ñ êîòîðûì åãî ñâÿçûâàåò ëèøü âåñüìà îòäàë¸ííîå ðîäñòâî.  ïîïûòêå ðàçðåøèòü ýòó ïðîáëåìó Â. Áàóìãàðò, íàïðèìåð, â ìíîãî÷èñëåííûõ ïóáëèêàöèÿõ (Baumgart, 1978, 1997, 2008, 2010) ïûòàåòñÿ ïðîäâèíóòü èäåþ î ââåäåíèè, íàðÿäó ñ òðàäèöèîííûì ëàòèíñêèì íàçâàíèåì, äîïîëíèòåëüíîãî êðèòåðèÿ, òàê íàçûâàåìîé ýêî-ôóíêöèîíàëüíîé ïîçèöèè (ÝÔÏ) òàêñîíà. Ýòî ïîíÿòèå, áëèçêîå ê ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé íèøå, íî áîëåå ñïåöèàëüíîå, ñìûñë êîòîðîãî ëåã÷å âñåãî îáúÿñíèòü íà êîíêðåòíûõ ïðèìåðàõ. Íàïðèìåð, íà þãî-âîñòîêå Êàçàõñòàíà áàëîáàíû çà÷àñòóþ æèâóò â òåõ æå áèîòîïàõ, ÷òî è êóðãàííèêè (Buteo rufinus), ïîñåëÿÿñü â ãí¸çäàõ ýòèõ êàíþêîâ, è íåðåäêî èìåþò èäåíòè÷íûé ñïåêòð ïèòàíèÿ, òî åñòü, çàíèìàþò îäíó è òó æå ýêîëîãè÷åñêóþ íèøó. Îäíàêî ñïîñîáû, êîòîðûìè îíè äîáûâàþò

the practice of systematics. For instance, in the Hierofalco complex being discussed in this publication (Lanner Falcon Falco biarmicus, Saker Falcon F. cherrug, Black Falcon F. subniger, Gyrfalcon F. rusticolus and Laggar Falcon F. jugger) and which representatives are commonly called species, genetic difference isn’t greater than between many forms of Peregrine Falcons which are considered as subspecies (Wink et al., 2007). This is due to the fact that the genetic distance isn’t always showed equally in the outward appearance and the ecological peculiarities of the animals. For example, the Prairie Falcon Falco mexicanus, which is genetically very close to the Peregrine Falcon, shows greater similarities to the Saker Falcon in terms of appearance and way of life, although they are only distant relatives. In numerous publications W. Baumgart (1978, 1997, 2008, 2010) tries to establish the idea of an additional criterion to go along with the traditional Latin name, the eco-functional position (EFP) of the taxon. Accordingly, the EFP of the Prairie Falcon is similar to those of the Saker Falcon. Considering two polytypical species aforementioned, Hierofalco and the Peregrine Falcon, having the genetic differences between their forms to be the same range, and operating with the term EFP, we can answer the question why ornithologists tend to consider Lanners, Gyrfalcons and Saker Falcons to be species, whereas F. peregri-


150

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24 îäíèõ è òåõ æå æèâîòíûõ, ðàçèòåëüíî îòëè÷àþòñÿ è îïðåäåëÿþòñÿ îñîáåííîñòÿìè ìîðôîëîãèè è ôèçèîëîãèè õèùíèêîâ. Ìíå ïðèõîäèëîñü â ìåñòàõ, ãäå ãíåçäÿòñÿ øàõèíû (Falco pelegrinoides), íàõîäèòü ïàðû áàëîáàíîâ, îõîòÿùèõñÿ èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî íà ïòèö, ÷òî, îäíàêî, íå äåëàåò èõ øàõèíàìè, õîòÿ îíè è çàíèìàþò èíîãäà èäåíòè÷íóþ ýêîëîãè÷åñêóþ íèøó. Êàê â ïåðâîì, òàê è âî âòîðîì ñëó÷àå áàëîáàíîâ îòëè÷àëà îò êóðãàííèêîâ è øàõèíîâ èõ ýêî-ôóíêöèîíàëüíàÿ ïîçèöèÿ. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ÝÔÏ ìåêñèêàíñêîãî ñîêîëà ïîäîáíà òàêîâîé áàëîáàíà. Èäåÿ ââåäåíèÿ ÝÔÏ, íà ìîé âçãëÿä, òðóäíî âîïëîòèìàÿ, ïîñêîëüêó íåâîçìîæíî îäíèì èëè íåñêîëüêèìè ñëîâàìè îïèñàòü íåâåðîÿòíîå ìíîæåñòâî ýêî-ôóíêöèîíàëüíûõ ïîçèöèé, ñóùåñòâóþùèõ â ïðèðîäå, îäíàêî ïîíÿòèåì ÝÔÏ ìíå õîòåëîñü áû âîñïîëüçîâàòüñÿ â äàëüíåéøèõ ðàññóæäåíèÿõ. Âîçâðàùàÿñü ê óïîìÿíóòûì âûøå äâóì ïîëèòèïè÷åñêèì âèäàì, êðóïíûì ñîêîëàì è ñàïñàíàì, ó êîòîðûõ ãåíåòè÷åñêèå ðàçëè÷èÿ ìåæäó îáðàçóþùèìè èõ ôîðìàìè ïðèìåðíî îäíîãî ïîðÿäêà, ìîæíî, îïåðèðóÿ ýòèì ïîíÿòèåì, îòûñêàòü îòâåò íà âîïðîñ, ïî÷åìó îðíèòîëîãè ñêëîííû â ëàííåðàõ, êðå÷åòàõ è áàëîáàíàõ âèäåòü âèäû, à àëåóòñêîãî (Falco p. pealei), òóíäðîâîãî (Falco p. calidus) èëè êàâêàçñêîãî (Falco p. brookei) ñàïñàíîâ ñ÷èòàþò ïîäâèäàìè: ÝÔÏ ëàííåðîâ, êðå÷åòîâ è áàëîáàíîâ ðàçëè÷àþòñÿ ãîðàçäî ñèëüíåå, ÷åì ÝÔÏ ðàçíûõ ôîðì ñàïñàíîâ. Îáøèðíûå ãåíåòè÷åñêèå èññëåäîâàíèÿ ðàçëè÷íûõ ôîðì êðóïíûõ ñîêîëîâ ïîñëåäíèõ ëåò, ñâåäåíèÿ, ïî-

Ïðåäñòàâèòåëè Hierofalcoêîìïëåêñà: àâñòðàëèéñêèé ñîêîë (F. subniger) – ââåðõó è àëòàéñêèé áàëîáàí ò¸ìíîé ìîðôû – âíèçó. Îíè ïîõîæè äðóã íà äðóãà, íî èõ àðåàëû ðàçäåëÿþò òûñÿ÷è êèëîìåòðîâ. Ôîòî Ä. Êëÿéíåðòà è Î. Áåëÿëîâà. Representatives of Hierofalco complex: Black Falcon (F. subniger) – upper and the dark morph of the Altai Saker Falcon – bottom. They are similar to each other, but their ranges are separated by thousands of kilometers Photos by D. Kleinert and O. Belyalov.

Îáçîðû è êîììåíòàðèè nus pealei, brookei, calidus are called subspecies: the EFP of Lanners, Gyrfalcons and Saker Falcons differ much more from each other than the EFP of the different forms of Peregrine Falcons. Extensive genetic studies of various forms of Hierofalco during the recent years, data obtained in the course of breeding and hybridisation of these birds in captivity, along with new data on their spreading and way of life, have once again initiated attempts to reconstruct the history of origin, the ways of spreading and the evolution of this polytypical species. I would like to discuss the role of hybridisation for origin of the Hierofalco complex – a topic on which there have been theories in some publications regarding this question. The first detailed description of the results of the research on the genetic structure of the Saker population and of the species’ position among the other representatives of the Hierofalco complex I encountered in F. Nittinger’s thesis (2004). Very interesting results have been obtained by comparing the distribution of nearly 90 haplotypes (haploid genotypes) on the cytochrome B taken from the mitochondrial DNA. They turned out to be separated into two large groups. Gyrfalcons and Laggars showed only haplotypes of group A, whereas Saker Falcons and Lanners were found to have both haplotypes of groups A and B. It wasn’t easy to interpret the chart showing the family relations between the haplotypes found (fig. 1). Concerning the Gyrfalcons, the results were more or less what one would have expected: all haplotypes of this species belong to one group, are closely related and, judging by the little variety they show (although the samples were collected virtually in all parts of the species’ distribution areas in the Palearctic, as well as the Nearctic), have had little time to mutate. That is to say, the Gyrfalcon is a young, genetically uniform species. The case of the Saker Falcons is much more complicated. Not only do they possess haplotypes of both groups – their central haplotypes of groups A and B are separated by six mutational steps, five of which were proven only in Lanner Falcons (on the picture it’s the pink circles found only in lanners). It gets even more complicated if you take into consideration where the samples with these haplotypes were collected. Given the fact that in the Western part of the species range nearly all Saker Falcons (94%) have haplotypes of group B (evidence suggests that 6% of the haplotypes belonging to group A are the result of “pollution” of


Reviews and Comments

Raptors Conservation 2012, 24

151

Àëòàéñêèé áàëîáàí (Falco [cherrug] altaicus) ÿâëÿåòñÿ óíèêàëüíîé ôîðìîé, ñïîðû âîêðóã òàêñîíîìè÷åñêîãî ñòàòóñà êîòîðîé ïðîäîëæàþòñÿ áîëåå 100 ëåò. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà. Altai Saker Falcon (Falco [cherrug] altaicus) is a unique form, taxonomic status of which is debated for over a hundred years. Photo by I. Karyakin.

ëó÷åííûå â õîäå ðàçâåäåíèÿ è ãèáðèäèçàöèè ýòèõ ïòèö â íåâîëå, íàðÿäó ñ íîâûìè äàííûìè ïî èõ ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèþ è îáðàçó æèçíè, âíîâü èíèöèèðîâàëè ïîïûòêè ðåêîíñòðóèðîâàòü èñòîðèþ âîçíèêíîâåíèÿ, ïóòè ðàññåëåíèÿ è ýâîëþöèè ýòîãî ïîëèòèïè÷åñêîãî âèäà. Ê ñîæàëåíèþ, ïîä÷àñ ëåãêîìûñëåííîå îòíîøåíèå ñïåöèàëèñòîâ ïî ìîëåêóëÿðíîé áèîëîãèè ê ñâåäåíèÿì ïî ïîäâèäîâîìó äåëåíèþ è ãåîãðàôè÷åñêîìó ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèþ ðàçíûõ ôîðì, ïîëó÷åííûì òðàäèöèîííûìè ìåòîäàìè îðíèòîëîãèè, ñ îäíîé ñòîðîíû (Nittinger, 2004; Nittinger et al., 2005; Nittinger et al., 2007; Wink et al., 2007), è èãíîðèðîâàíèå ðåçóëüòàòîâ ãåíåòè÷åñêèõ èññëåäîâàíèé èëè ïîâåðõíîñòíûé õàðàêòåð èõ èíòåðïðåòàöèè ñî ñòîðîíû îðíèòîëîãîâ (íàïðèìåð, Ïôàíäåð, 2012; Ïôåôôåð, 2010; Êàðÿêèí, 2011) – ñ äðóãîé, ïðèâåëè ê òîìó, ÷òî â èññëåäîâàíèè ôèëîãåíèè, ñèñòåìàòèêè è òàêñîíîìèè êðóïíûõ ñîêîëîâ âñ¸ åù¸ äîñòèãíóò î÷åíü ñêðîìíûé ïðîãðåññ â ñðàâíåíèè ñ ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿìè, ñôîðìèðîâàâøèìèñÿ áëàãîäàðÿ íàó÷íîé èíòóèöèè è íåîðäèíàðíîñòè ìûøëåíèÿ îðíèòîëîãîâ ñòàðîé øêîëû, ïîäîáíûõ Ï.Ï. Ñóøêèíó èëè Î. Êëÿéíøìèäòó. Ìíå õîòåëîñü áû êîñíóòüñÿ ðîëè ãèáðèäèçàöèè â ñòàíîâëåíèè ãðóïïû Hierofalco, ïðåäïîëîæåíèÿ î êîòîðîé âûñêàçûâàëèñü â íåêîòîðûõ èç ïåðå÷èñëåííûõ âûøå ïóáëèêàöèé. Âïåðâûå ñ äåòàëüíûì îïèñàíèåì èòîãîâ èññëåäîâàíèÿ ãåíåòè÷åñêîé ñòðóêòóðû ïîïóëÿöèé áàëîáàíîâ è ïîçèöèè ýòîãî âèäà ñðåäè äðóãèõ ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé êîìïëåêñà Hierofalco ìíå óäàëîñü ïîçíàêîìèòüñÿ â ðàáîòàõ Ô. Íèòòèíãåð, â òîì ÷èñëå â ðåôåðàòå å¸ äîêòîðñêîé äèññåðòàöèè (Nittinger, 2004). Ïîæàëóé, íàèáîëåå èíòåðåñíûå ðåçóëüòàòû áûëè ïîëó÷åíû â õîäå ñðàâíåíèÿ ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ïî÷òè 90 ãàïëîòèïîâ (ãàïëîèäíûõ ãåíîòèïîâ) ïî öèòîõðîìó Â, âûäåëåííûõ èç ìèòîõîíäðèàëüíîé ÄÍÊ. Îêàçàëîñü, ÷òî îíè ðàñïàäàþòñÿ íà äâå áîëüøèå ãðóïïû. Òîëüêî ãàïëîòèïû ãðóïïû À áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ó êðå÷åòîâ è ëàããàðîâ, â òî âðåìÿ êàê ó áàëîáàíîâ è ëàííåðîâ áûëè âûÿâëåíû êàê ãàïëîòèïû ãðóïïû À, òàê è ãðóïïû Â. Ëó÷øå âñåãî ïîëó÷èòü âïå÷àòëåíèå î ðàñïðåäåëåíèè ãàïëîòèïîâ

the regional gene pool by the offspring Eastern Saker Falcons which are bred in large numbers in Europe and “get lost” during flights, training or hunting), then you could tell at first glance that they occur along with the haplotypes of group A and roughly in the same proportion from the Volga to Eastern Mongolia. The central position of the majority of the Lanners’ haplotypes in the diagram connecting like a bridge both groups of the Sakers’ haplotypes, as well as their comparatively large range of variety, allowed F. Nittinger to suppose that they are the closest to the original form of large falcons and that the Hierofalco complex itself has got African origin. Attempting to explain the fact that Saker Falcons have two haplotype groups which are not connected by transitional forms, she discusses several hypotheses. According to one of these hypotheses, Central European Sakers might have “lost” all haplotypes of group A for an unknown reason. Even theoretically, this is difficult to imagine. In their publication on the phylogenetic relation between the Lanner Falcon and other species of the Hierofalco complex (Nittinger et al., 2005) the authors give preference to another scenario according to which, the ancient Lanners invaded Eurasia from Africa in three waves. One of them, starting from the Eastern Mediterranean region, led to the colonization of India, and as a result, served for the formation of the Laggar Falcon. Another wave from the Western Mediterranean to the Northern Palearctic resulted in developing the Gyrfalcon, and, finally, the third wave from East Africa to Central Asia formed the Saker Falcon with group B haplotypes. After that, the ranges of Gyrfalcons and Saker Falcons were overlapping at some time or another, and in the process of hybridisation Saker Falcons “took” group A haplotypes from Gyrfalcons. However, it is


152

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2012, 24 ñðåäè ðàçíûõ âèäîâ êðóïíûõ ñîêîëîâ ïî ðèñóíêó (ðèñ. 1) èç èíòåðåñíîé ïóáëèêàöèè íà ýòó òåìó (Nittinger et al., 2007). Ôèãóðàìè ðàçíîãî öâåòà îáîçíà÷åíû ãàïëîòèïû, îáíàðóæåííûå ó áàëîáàíîâ, êðå÷åòîâ, ëàííåðîâ è ëàããàðîâ. Öèôðàìè îáîçíà÷åíû ðàçíûå ðàçíîâèäíîñòè ãàïëîòèïîâ, à ðàçìåð çíàêà ñ òîé èëè èíîé öèôðîé ãîâîðèò îá îòíîñèòåëüíîé ÷àñòîòå èõ âñòðå÷àåìîñòè. Ïóíêòèðíàÿ ëèíèÿ íà ñõåìå îáîçíà÷àåò ãðàíèöó ìåæäó ãàïëîòèïàìè ãðóïï À è Â. Ìíå êàê ÷åëîâåêó, ìàëî ñâåäóùåìó â ìîëåêóëÿðíîé áèîëîãèè, òðóäíî ïîíÿòü, ïî÷åìó àâòîðû ñòàòüè ïðîâåëè ãðàíèöó ìåæäó îáåèìè ãðóïïàìè ãàïëîòèïîâ

Îáçîðû è êîììåíòàðèè not really clear how the Sakers managed to get more group A haplotypes (13 in total) from the Gyrfalcons than until now could be found in Gyrfalcons themselves (8), and how Gyrfalcons on the other hand could save themselves from Sakers’ group B haplotypes. The second problem was solved by I. Karyakin (2011), who is another supporter of this hypothesis, by making use of an idea of P. Pfander (1994) which proposes that the forest belt, which developed in the process of warming after the last ice age, split the breeding range of the Gyrfalcon into a main part located to the North of the forest belt and one or several isolated areas in the mountains at its Southern border. Expanding to the Northeast, Saker Falcons gradually assimilated the Southern Gyrfalcons, and, by this process, obtained the haplotypes of the assimilated species. However, I. Karyakin didn’t answer the question how the Saker Falcons, having swallowed the Southern Gyrfalcon and taken its group A haplotypes, were able to rid of group B haplotypes entirely (!). Due to the fact that the haplotypes of the mitochondrial DNA are inherited only through the maternal line, such a scenario theoretically would be possible, if all mixed pairs in the process of hybridisation would have consisted of male Saker Falcons and female Gyrfalcons. Something like that is hard to imagine. Can there be any solution to the problem of the Eastern Sakers’ origin, which would explain the distribution of haplotypes, the data on morphology and way of life, as well as the current geographical localization of Ðèñ. 1. Ñåòü èç 87 ìèòîõîíäðèàëüíûõ ãàïëîòèïîâ ÷åòûð¸õ âèäîâ Hierofalco. Êàæäûé çíàê ñîîòâåòñòâóåò îäíîìó ãàïëîòèïó, åãî ðàçìåð ïðîïîðöèîíàëåí ÷àñòîòå âñòðå÷ ýòîãî ãàïëîòèïà. Ìàëåíüêèìè ÷¸ðíûìè òî÷êàìè îáîçíà÷åíû åù¸ íå âûÿâëåííûå âèäû ãàïëîòèïîâ, à ñîåäèíèòåëüíûå ëèíèè