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Unit 2 Process Integration with SAP NetWeaver Unit Overview The three lessons in this unit deal with the different possibilities of process control within and between systems. The first lesson describes the interfaces for integration, as delivered by SAP, and presents the various uses of the SAP Exchange Infrastructure as a means of communication and data exchange between systems. The second lesson deals with the architecture of the SAP Exchange Infrastructure. The goal is to convey which components make up the SAP Exchange Infrastructure (SAP XI) and how these components cooperate. The lesson thus provides a simple entry point into the subject of SAP XI. In the third lesson, you will learn more about the SAP NetWeaver components for process control. This includes the Business Workflow, with which you can control processes locally and user-oriented in your application system. As of SAP XI 3.0, this also includes the component cc-BPM in SAP XI, which enables process-to-process communication between systems and applications.

Unit Objectives After completing this unit, you will be able to: ·

Name the integration options within and between systems with and without SAP Exchange Infrastructure (SAP XI)

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Explain the goals of SAP XI

·

Describe the advantages for customers of using SAP XI

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List where SAP XI is used in solutions

·

Understand and work through an example scenario for flight bookings using SAP XI

·

Name the components of SAP XI

·

Explain the functions of the various components

·

Describe how messages are processed in SAP XI

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·

Tell the difference between integration technology that uses adaptors and that which uses proxies

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Call the System Landscape Directory (SLD) and the Integration Builder

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Describe the structure and possible applications of Business Workflow

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Name the Wf-XML interface for communication between workflow systems

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Describe the possible applications of ccBPM

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Explain the work method of ccBPM

Unit Contents Lesson: Process Integration in SAP NetWeaver - General Overview .... 47 Exercise 2: Process Integration in SAP NetWeaver - General Overview...................................................................... 57 Lesson: Process Integration with SAP Exchange Infrastructure Architecture ....................................................................... 63 Exercise 3: SAP Exchange Infrastructure................................ 79 Lesson: Business Process Management with Business Workflow and ccBPM ............................................................................. 84 Exercise 4: Calling a ccBPM Process in the Integration Repository.. 95

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Lesson: Process Integration in SAP NetWeaver - General Overview

Lesson: Process Integration in SAP NetWeaver - General Overview Lesson Overview This lesson presents the options for general communication between systems (Integration Broker) and for controlling processes (Business Process Management) in SAP NetWeaver. The lesson introduces the course scenario “Making a travel request and booking the corresponding flights,” which you will work through yourself.

Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: ·

Name the integration options within and between systems with and without SAP Exchange Infrastructure (SAP XI)

·

Explain the goals of SAP XI

·

Describe the advantages for customers of using SAP XI

·

List where SAP XI is used in solutions

·

Understand and work through an example scenario for flight bookings using SAP XI

Business Example Your company uses numerous global processes involving both SAP and non-SAP systems. Since a standard ERP system was not available previously, you developed much of your software in house, which is integrated via point-to-point interfaces. One of your major customers frequently asks you to modify processes, which means making changes to the interfaces in the applications of the relevant systems. Furthermore, your own company is growing and you need to integrate acquired companies into your system landscape. As a result, you face ever-increasing costs for lengthy integration projects involving complex interface programing. Each component upgrade results in costs that cannot be controlled. Your employees often act as “human integrators” in your company processes, which requires them to know the processes and execute the correct actions at the correct time. You even had to ask one of your former employees, who had already taken retirement, to return and, in return for a high consultant salary, document some of your ongoing processes, since no information about these was stored anywhere. Therefore, you want a basic overview of the data and process integration options that SAP NetWeaver can offer you.

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Integration Options Prior to SAP NetWeaver and Reasons for Using SAP Exchange Infrastructure Of course, the problem of integrating different applications and systems is not a new one and SAP did provide solutions to this problem before SAP NetWeaver. A wide range of integration interfaces were and still are available, as shown in the following figure.

Figure 27: Integration Approaches Prior to SAP Exchange Infrastructure

Since integration processes in a heterogeneous system landscape usually span several systems, the external interfaces for connecting systems were implemented individually. Which of the above-mentioned technologies was used depended on the options available at the time of implementation. This resulted in a large number of point-to-point connections and a complicated network of relationships. Software components each have an inbound and an outbound interface, but often differ in their data structure and the protocol that they support. To establish a connection, you must use a connector that supports both protocols and can convert a message from one protocol to another. If the document structures are different, you must use a mapping program to map the fields of the source document to the fields of the target document. Some connectors offer graphical tools to help you do this. If processes change or new systems are added, you must change the individual interfaces in the applications accordingly, which can require a significant amount of time and effort.

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Lesson: Process Integration in SAP NetWeaver - General Overview

The challenges regarding integration in companies can be summarized in the following points: ·

Individual point-to-point integration that uses “any” technology

·

Patchwork of integration solutions

·

No centralized knowledge about interfaces and no way of building this knowledge

·

A "homegrown" infrastructure that cannot be adapted, or can only be adapted with great difficulty, and is very costly to maintain

·

High costs for upgrading components

As a solution, SAP Exchange Infrastructure provides you with a platform, as part of SAP NetWeaver, that enables different interfaces to interact using standard technology.

The SAP Exchange Infrastructure Integration Platform SAP XI is an integration technology containing the following partners and scenarios: ·

SAP and non-SAP applications

·

Integration scenarios within the company intranet (A2A)

·

Integration scenarios between business partners (B2B)

·

Cross-component Business Process Management (ccBPM)

As an integral part of SAP NetWeaver, SAP XI is based on an open architecture and uses open standards (in particular, from the XML and Java environments).

Figure 28: Diagram of an Integrated IT Landscape

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The services provided by SAP XI are indispensable in a heterogeneous and complex system landscape: ·

Options for centrally defining interfaces

·

Configuration options for controlling message flow

·

Options for transforming message content between the sender and receiver

·

A runtime infrastructure for exchanging messages

·

Options for modeling and executing processes (as of SAP XI 3.0)

The focus of SAP XI is message-based communication using HTTP. Application-specific content is transferred from the sender to the receiver using messages in a freely-definable XML schema using the Integration Engine. Message processing on the Integration Server is stateless: that is, a message arrives, the receiver or receivers are determined, and the message is forwarded immediately. The structure of a message in SAP XI is depicted in the following figure.

Figure 29: Structure of Messages in SAP Exchange Infrastructure

The properties of the message itself are contained in the message header,. For example, the header would contain the sender, which is later used to determine the receiver. The actual business data is contained in the payload. You can also add any number of attachments (for example, pictures, text documents, and so on) to the message. The message header and the payload are in XML format. XML is the standard exchange format on the Internet. Before this standard was established, mainly proprietary exchange formats were used, which complicated communication in heterogeneous system landscapes. There are standards and tools that make it easier to use XML. You can use them to define mappings that are necessary because of different structures in messages; the tools enable you to evaluate conditions, for example, to determine the messages receivers.

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Lesson: Process Integration in SAP NetWeaver - General Overview

Connecting Different Systems to SAP XI Before we look at the Shared Collaboration Knowledge, that is, how you define objects in the Integration Repository and configure them in the Integration Directory, we must first look at how you can integrate the different systems in your system landscape using SAP XI.

As you already know, you can use SAP XI to integrate any non-SAP and SAP systems. If the system in question is a non-SAP system or if you want to use existing interfaces from an SAP system with Basis Release 4.6 or lower with SAP XI, you need adapters to connect to the Integration Server. SAP ships a variety of adapters for this purpose (IDoc, File, RFC, database, Mail, SOAP, RosettaNet, and so on).

Figure 30: Connecting Different Systems to SAP XI

The sender system provides data in a document format, for example, IDoc, and sends it to the adapter by means of a protocol. The adapter transforms the document to the SAP XI format and forwards it to the Integration Server by using HTTP(S). The configuration determines which adapter is to be used to receive the message at the receiver. The Integration Server sends the message to the relevant adapter, which in turn converts it to the protocol of the receiver and finally sends it to the receiver. If you want to use SAP XI to realize a cross-system integration process and provided the systems involved are based on SAP Web AS 6.20 or higher, you can use the new SAP XI programming model. You define your platform-independent interface descriptions in the Integration Repository and then, using this description, you can generate proxies in the various application systems for Java applications or SAP systems. In the application system, the proxy is a representative of the interface in the Integration Repository.

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From a technical perspective, proxy objects are classes and methods in a programming language (ABAP or Java), which create and process messages for a message format that is defined in the Integration Repository.

The Principle and Advantages of Shared Collaboration Knowledge The structure of a message is determined by the data structures of an interface. The central concept of SAP XI is that you develop all required interfaces at design time, independently of the platform, and save them in the Integration Repository. SAP XI thus applies the principle of shared collaboration knowledge. The advantages of shared collaboration knowledge and SAP XI are as follows: ·

The gradual transition to SAP XI safeguards existing investments.

·

Using shared collaboration knowledge reduces the costs of maintaining and developing interfaces.

·

Shipment of a range of adapters for connecting systems, as standard.

·

Option of implementing customer-specific adapters for integration using the Adapter Framework

·

Option of using SAP XI to integrate Web services in processes

·

Option for customers to use the Partner Connectivity Kit to create messages in SAP XI format without having to install the entire SAP XI solution.

·

Option of modeling, executing, and monitoring cross-system processes (ccBPM)

·

Additional advantages when using SAP systems –

Integration of SAP solutions “out of the box”

Easier upgrade of SAP solutions

You no longer have to search out information about a distributed process from all the involved systems (point-to-point) because you can now call this information centrally. This reduces the costs of development and maintenance of distributed applications. Another advantage for the customer of using SAP XI is that SAP ships predefined interfaces. SAP applications (CRM, SRM, SCM, xRPM) can thus contribute their integration knowledge to the Integration Repository. If the application is enhanced, the content in the Integration Repository is also enhanced. This enables you to integrate SAP solutions “out-of-the-box” and simplifies solution upgrades. SAP Web AS 6.40 provides customers with a Web service framework. You can also integrate Web services in systems with a technological basis prior to Release 6.40 if you use SAP XI. In other words, SAP XI acts as the virtual interface that you require.

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Lesson: Process Integration in SAP NetWeaver - General Overview

SAP XI provides a range of adapters that enable you to connect systems to the SAP Exchange Infrastructure. Customers can also use the Adapter Framework to create their own adapters. If a customer uses SAP XI and wants to use it to communicate with a “smaller” customer, SAP provides the Partner Connectivity Kit (PCK). This enables a connection using SAP XI. The smaller customer does not need to have the entire SAP XI solution installed, neither must it be an SAP customer. As of SAP Exchange Infrastructure 3.0, you can use ccBPM to model and execute processes. This is described in more detail in the lesson “Business Process Management with Business Workflow and ccBPM)” in course SAPNW. SAP Exchange Infrastructure in SAP Solutions - A Selection SAP XI is becoming an ever more important component of SAP solutions. The following solutions already work together with SAP XI and numerous other projects are in progress. ·

Master data management with SAP Master Data Management 2.0

·

Master data management in CRM 3.1 and 4.0

· ·

SRM 3.0: Direct and indirect procurement, catalog management, supplier self-service SCM 4.0: Supplier-managed inventory, vendor-managed inventory

·

SAP Financials: Credit management

·

SAP xApps (for example, xRPM)

·

SAP Business One

·

...

Basically, if cross-system processes are a feature of your landscape, then SAP XI is a possible solution. Let us look at a project of the Carl Zeiss group as an example: Using SAP XI to create an interface cost 50% less than using a point-to-point solution. It took one month rather than two to connect a new B2B partner. The costs for making changes to interfaces were also reduced by approximately 50%. Overall, the customer can expect a return on investment of 362% over a 5-year period.

Business Process Management in SAP NetWeaver After the Integration Broker described above, Business Process Management (BPM) is the second process integration element of SAP NetWeaver. Business Process Management in SAP NetWeaver is based on three components located in different areas of the NetWeaver block: Business Workflow, ccBPM, and ad-hoc workflow.

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Figure 31: BPM Areas in SAP NetWeaver

The essentials of these components can be described as follows: 路

Business Workflow Business Workflow supports the modeling and execution of processes locally within a system. During the execution of a process, users are assigned and perform tasks.

Cross-component BPM (ccBPM) ccBPM enables you to control complex processes beyond system, application, and even company boundaries. It entails stateful processing of messages without user dialogs.

Ad-hoc workflow This is suited to group-related processes for enabling collaboration between people involved in a process within the Enterprise Portal framework. Ad-hoc workflow is based on a work item of a business workflow.

Course Scenario Process Integration 'Making a Travel Request and Booking Flights' The course scenario for process integration demonstrates the structure of SAP XI and BPM with Business Workflow. The scenario is as follows: An employee of company X makes a travel request. To do this, he uses a Business Server Page application (BSP application ZSAPNW), that is, he can make the request using an Internet browser.

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Lesson: Process Integration in SAP NetWeaver - General Overview

The request triggers a business workflow in the company's SAP system, which sends the request to the employee's supervisor for approval. The approval process also uses a BSP application. In this case, the BSP page is started directly from the workflow process and a WebFlow service is used.

Figure 32: Course Scenario: Making a Travel Request and Booking Flights

Once the request is approved, you can book the relevant flights. The requester receives a Business Workflow work item, which calls a BSP application of the Travel_Agency_Summer travel agency, which is closely linked to the company. The employee books an outbound and a return flight in the SingleFlightBooking scenario in the BSP application ZSAPNW_XIAGENT. The SingleFlightBooking service books a single flight in each case, that is, it must be called twice. The flights are booked asynchronously with the airline AA (American Airlines) or LH (Lufthansa) using SAP XI. To keep things simple, the various systems (company, travel agency, SAP XI, airlines) are different clients of the same system in the training system. You can see in the figure of the integration process that the SAP XI server takes over the control of the process, thus removing the point-to-point connections and enabling the process to be controlled beyond system boundaries. SAP XI controls communication between processes, whereas Business Workflow controls communication between users within processes. The lessons “Process Integration with SAP Exchange Infrastructure - Architecture” and “Process Integration with Business Workflow, WebFlow Services, and ccBPM” look at the architecture of these components using the course scenario.

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Lesson: Process Integration in SAP NetWeaver - General Overview

Exercise 2: Process Integration in SAP NetWeaver - General Overview Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: 路

Work through the course scenario

Name the different forms of integration scenarios

Business Example Create a travel request in a BSP application and use it to start the integration technology scenario.

Task: Create a travel request for user SAPNW-## (## is your group number), have it approved by user SAPNWMGR-## in Business Workflow, and use user SAPNW-## to book an outbound and return flight in SAP XI. You can create the travel request directly in the XI training system. To do this, log on to the training system in client 821. Client 821 represents your company. 1.

Using user SAPNW-## (## is your group number), create a travel request from Frankfurt to New York. You want to travel tomorrow and return in 3 days (outbound flight: today's date + 1, return flight: today's date + 3). Using user SAPNWMGR-##, approve the travel request.

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2.

Use user SAPNW-## to book an outbound and a return flight using the standard SAP XI scenario. Wait for confirmation of the flight booking.

3.

Display the flight data in the system.

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Solution 2: Process Integration in SAP NetWeaver - General Overview Task: Create a travel request for user SAPNW-## (## is your group number), have it approved by user SAPNWMGR-## in Business Workflow, and use user SAPNW-## to book an outbound and return flight in SAP XI. You can create the travel request directly in the XI training system. To do this, log on to the training system in client 821. Client 821 represents your company. 1.

Using user SAPNW-## (## is your group number), create a travel request from Frankfurt to New York. You want to travel tomorrow and return in 3 days (outbound flight: today's date + 1, return flight: today's date + 3).

Continued on next page

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Lesson: Process Integration in SAP NetWeaver - General Overview

Using user SAPNWMGR-##, approve the travel request. a)

Make the travel request Log on to the training system in client 821 (= company XY) with user SAPNW-## (employee). ## is your group number. Call transaction SE80 and display the BSP application ZSAPNW. Under Pages with Flow Logic, double-click the request.htm page to display it, and choose Test/Execute.

b)

Log on to the BSP application with your user and password. A form is displayed in which you can enter the travel data.

c)

Enter the following data in the form: Departure Location: Frankfurt Destination: New York Date Outbound Flight: Today's date + 1 Date Return Flight: Today's date +3

d)

Save the travel request and close the browser. A business workflow for approval is started.

e)

The requester's supervisor SAPNWMGR-## (## is your group number) receives a work item which he or she uses to approve or reject the request.

f)

Approve the travel request Log on to the system with the user SAPNWMGR-##.

g)

Call the inbox containing the work items either by using transaction SBWP or by choosing Office - Workplace in the SAP Easy Access menu.

h)

Open the Inbox node and click Workflow. You will find a work item for approving the travel request of employee SAPNW-##.

i)

Execute the work item by double-clicking it. The system calls a service from the workflow and starts the BSP page approve.htm of the application ZSAPNW.

j)

Approve the request.

Continued on next page

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Use user SAPNW-## to book an outbound and a return flight using the standard SAP XI scenario. Wait for confirmation of the flight booking. a)

Return to the Business Workplace as an employee. You have received a new work item. This work item enables you to book your outbound and return flight with the travel agency Travel_Agency_Summer.

b)

Execute the work item to book the flights. Log on to the BSP application with your user. The selection menu of the application ZSAPNWXI_AGENT is displayed. A popup containing a callback dialog box is also displayed. You can choose Complete Work Item to complete the work item for the flight booking service in your Business Workplace once you have booked your flights. Select Book Single Flight and choose Start.

c)

Change the date to today's date + 1. Select Lufthansa as the airline for the flight, specify 5001 as the flight number, and enter your personal details as the passenger data.

d)

Choose Create Booking Order.

e)

The screen displays the message Flight booking order sent. Awaiting confirmation and a yellow traffic light.

f)

Refresh the display by choosing Refresh. After a short time the traffic light should change to green and the message Flight booking successful is displayed. Make a note of the booking number that is displayed.

g)

Return to the selection menu page by choosing Back to Start Page and repeat the procedure for the return flight.

h)

Change the date to today's date + 3. Select American Airlines as the airline for the flight, specify 6002 as the flight number, and enter your personal details as the passenger data. Repeat the procedure as for the outbound flight.

Continued on next page

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Lesson: Process Integration in SAP NetWeaver - General Overview

3.

Display the flight data in the system. a)

Display the flight booking in the airline system. Log on in client 812. The client represents the airline Lufthansa. Call transaction SXIDEMO2 (Airline: Display Flight Data).

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b)

Choose Display Booking Data → Execute.

c)

Enter today's date in ORDER_DATE and the first name and last name that you used to book the flight in PASSNAME. The system displays the record from the database.

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Lesson Summary You should now be able to:

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·

Name the integration options within and between systems with and without SAP Exchange Infrastructure (SAP XI)

·

Explain the goals of SAP XI

·

Describe the advantages for customers of using SAP XI

·

List where SAP XI is used in solutions

·

Understand and work through an example scenario for flight bookings using SAP XI

© 2005 SAP AG. All rights reserved.

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Lesson: Process Integration with SAP Exchange Infrastructure - Architecture

Lesson: Process Integration with SAP Exchange Infrastructure - Architecture Lesson Overview The following lesson introduces the work method of SAP Exchange Infrastructure (SAP XI). Using the course scenario from the lesson “Process Integration in SAP NetWeaver - General Overview,” you will get to know the various components in SAP XI.

Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: ·

Name the components of SAP XI

·

Explain the functions of the various components

·

Describe how messages are processed in SAP XI

·

Tell the difference between integration technology that uses adaptors and that which uses proxies

·

Call the System Landscape Directory (SLD) and the Integration Builder

Business Example You want to use SAP XI to integrate cross-system integration processes in your company. Furthermore, you want to replace your point-to-point interfaces in the long term and switch to SAP XI to satisfy your integration requirements. You already know the basic concepts of SAP XI and now want to learn about the work method of SAP XI and how these concepts are realized in the system.

Architecture of SAP XI Within SAP NetWeaver, SAP XI has the task of connecting different versions of different vendor systems (both SAP and non-SAP systems) implemented on different platforms (ABAP, Java, and so on).

SAP XI comprises the following components:

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Figure 33: SAP XI Components

·

You define the systems in your system landscape in the SLD.

·

Enter a platform-independent description of all the required interfaces in your company in the Integration Repository at design time. If the data to be transferred is not all in the same format, you must use this description in the Integration Repository to also define mappings. This does not yet affect any of your systems or processes.

·

At configuration time, you select the components, interfaces, and mappings defined in the Integration Repository that are required for the integration processes in your system landscape and assign them to each other (logical routing). The result is stored in the Integration Directory.

·

Application-specific content is transferred from the sender to the receiver using messages in a freely-definable XML schema. The structure of a message is determined by the data structures in the interface used (IDoc, file, database, and so on). The Integration Engine on the Integration Server evaluates the configuration in the Integration Directory when an inbound message is received at runtime. It uses the configuration data to determine the receiver or receivers of the message, maps the inbound message to the interface structure of the receiver, and then forwards it for further processing. The Integration Server is the central communication and distribution machine for XML messages.

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Lesson: Process Integration with SAP Exchange Infrastructure - Architecture

Both the Integration Repository and the Integration Directory are written in Java and must be managed with the appropriate Java administration tools. From a technical point of view, SAP XI 3.0 is based on SAP Web AS 6.40 with Web AS Java; you must install the SAP Web AS in addition to SAP XI, however. A detailed SAP installation guide is available for this purpose.

Entering the System Landscape in the SLD You enter all the technical systems in your system landscape in the SLD. Besides the host name and other technical attributes, you must also enter which software component is installed on which server. Each technical system is assigned one or more business system names. You require the business system name to configure the sender and receiver system scenarios. There can be one business system per client for each SAP system that is a technical system in the system landscape. In the future, it will be possible for a system to register itself automatically with the SLD when it is set up; no manual maintenance will then be required in the SLD. You access the SLD by calling transaction SXMB_IFR, SLDCHECK, or SLDHTMLGUI. You can also use transaction SLDCHECK to check whether the SLD is available and whether it is working correctly with your systems. The technical systems are saved under Technical Landscape, while the business systems are saved under Business Landscape. In the course scenario, Travel_Agency_Summer in client 811 corresponds to the travel agency that the employees book flights from, Airline_Group_One is the airline Lufthansa in client 812, and Airline_Group_Two corresponds to the airline American Airlines in client 813.

Figure 34: System Landscape Directory

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A product in the SLD corresponds to a technical SAP component in the SAP world. It comprises one or more software components and can be displayed, installed, and upgraded by customers. A product is shipped by means of a product version, which in turn contains software component versions. The software component version is important for developers who edit objects in the Integration Repository because development takes place in the software component version. When development begins, a namespace is created in the Integration Repository for objects that belong together semantically (similar to an ABAP or Java package). Objects can therefore be uniquely identified by their name and namespace.

Interfaces and Mapping Programs in the Integration Repository The Integration Repository contains objects that are used later in integration scenarios. In the Integration Repository, the objects are accessible centrally and are saved independently of a specific system landscape. The objects are linked to software component versions that belong to a product that is to be shipped. The following figure shows the complete integration scenario of the course scenario:

Figure 35: Flight Booking Scenario - Process View

On the left of the figure is a system with an outbound interface for booking a flight, while on the right is the system with the inbound interface for booking a flight and confirming the flight booking. Both functions are shown within one interface. The caller process accepts the confirmation in the second step.

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Lesson: Process Integration with SAP Exchange Infrastructure - Architecture

In the scenario above, the outbound interface and the inbound interface are defined centrally in the Integration Repository. Any mapping functions that are required (because the data to be transferred has a different structure) are also defined centrally. You need to define the following in the Integration Repository: ·

Details of the interfaces

·

The interface description includes the following:

·

Message interfaces (complete outbound and inbound interfaces)

Message types (outbound and inbound messages)

Data types (structure of the exchanged messages)

Details of mappings

Message interfaces represent complete interfaces in a process. A message interface can have inbound and outbound interfaces. Message types reference data types, which describe the structure of the interface. A message mapping is required if the data types involved are not identical. You can use a message mapping for the inbound, outbound, and fault message types. The reference is the individual message type. To access the Integration Repository, call transaction SXMB_IFR and in the browser window that is displayed, click the link under Integration Builder: Design. We will now look at the various different XI objects in the Integration Repository by using the course scenario. To display the objects for the scenario, on the Objects tab page, expand the software component node SAP Basis, followed by the software component version node SAP Basis 6.40 and finally the namespace node http://sap.com/xi/XI/Demo/Agency. Finally, choose Integration Scenarios & Integration Processes →Integration Scenarios. First expand the Integration Scenarios & Integration Processes node followed by the Integration Scenarios node. Double-click SingleFlightBooking. Two versions of the scenario are shown, one using the IDoc interface and one using proxies. Click ABAP_Proxy_2_ABAP_PROXY. The two business systems Agency and Airline, as well as the actions to be executed are now displayed in the frame on the right.

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Figure 36: Integration Builder: Design - Integration Scenario

Double-click Send Single Flight Booking Order in the agency to display the content of the action that references the outbound interface with the BookingOrderRequest_Out message interface. Double-click message interface to display the message type used, namely the output message BookingOrderRequest. Double-click the message type to display the attributes of the output message (outbound, asynchronous) and the data type used, in other words the definition of the data structure used (BookingOrderRequest).

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Lesson: Process Integration with SAP Exchange Infrastructure - Architecture

Figure 37: Integration Builder: Design - Message Type with Data Type

Double-click the data type to display the structure saved. If the structure of the data that you want to exchange between two interfaces is not identical, you must enter mapping information in the Mapping Objects node in the Integration Builder. Using the interface mapping, specify for the source and target interfaces which mapping programs are to be executed for which message. To map the structure of one message to another message, use a message mapping.

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Figure 38: Integration Builder: Design - Message Mapping

There is no restriction regarding the complexity of a data mapping. You can either create a mapping directly in the graphical editor of the Integration Builder, or use a mapping program. The information relating to the development objects is contained in the Integration Repository. You cannot see from the objects where they are actually used, however. As you have already heard, there are entries for this in the third SAP XI definition component, namely the Integration Directory. At design time, you have the option of defining which objects will belong to which integration processes later on by creating an integration scenario in the Integration Repository and entering the inbound and outbound interfaces there. At design time, you usually perform the following steps: ·

Import the software component version in which the objects concerned are to be developed from the SLD

·

Create an integration scenario to document the integration process

·

Define the content of a message and the type of communication

·

Enter mapping information (if applicable)

The following figure gives you a summary of the objects used in the course scenario and how they relate to each other.

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Figure 39: Example Objects from the “SingleFlightBooking” Scenario

In the next section we will look for these objects in actual configuration scenarios in the Integration Directory.

Configuring Scenarios in the Integration Directory At design time, the integration scenario merely describes how communication will take place and which messages will be used. It does not describe which systems are involved. You do not define an integration process for your system landscape until configuration time. The relevant objects are structured and organized in the form of configuration objects and are saved in the Integration Directory. In the Integration Directory, you define which business system and outbound interface sends messages to which business system and inbound interface by using the Integration Server.

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Figure 40: Integration Directory: Sender and Receiver Systems

Unlike the figure showing design time, the figure for configuration time not only shows the inbound and outbound interfaces, but also the systems that send a message to, or receive a message from the Integration Server. You use the Integration Builder to make these settings in the Integration Directory for each individual customer according to their specific system landscape. To access the Integration Directory, call transaction SXMB_IFR and in the browser window that is displayed, click the link under Integration Builder: Configuration. You perform the following steps at configuration time, among others: 路

Details about the communication profile To address the sender and receiver of messages, define services. To define the adapter that will be used for inbound and outbound processing and that will actually address the system, define a communication channel.

Define receiver determinations and interface determinations for the message receivers. A receiver determination represents an assignment from the sender and the outbound interface to one or more receivers (service) on a logical level. Interface determinations define which inbound interfaces belong to which outbound interfaces. You must also define a mapping here.

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To display the systems that are to exchange messages, on the Objects tab page, expand the Service Without Party node followed by the Business System node; information about how they are to be addressed is also displayed.

Figure 41: Addressing Using Communication Channels

The communication channel determines how the system is to be reached and how to log on. These details are only stored in the Integration Directory. Expand the Receiver Determination node to display the senders and their outbound interfaces. In the course scenario, the business system Travel_Agency_Summer sends a message by using the outbound interface BookingOrderRequest_Out. This interface and all its components have been defined in the Integration Repository.

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Figure 42: Receiver/Interface Determination

In the figure you can see that there are different receivers for the outbound message of a flight booking, depending on the airline ID. By using a condition you can send a message to different receivers, as required. The lower screen area contains the inbound interfaces, the required mapping programs, and the communication channels used. The information in the system is based on the entries you made under the Interface Determination node at configuration time. The Interface Determination node contains an entry for each receiver from the receiver determination for the outbound interface BookingOrderRequest_Out; the required receiver interface has also been assigned to the relevant sender interface. Any mapping programs that must be executed from the Integration Repository for this interface pair are listed here. Then, in the collaboration agreement, define which communication channel is to be used for processing the message for a particular sender-receiver combination. Finally, you can group all the configuration objects according to the scenario that you require. You can also use integration scenarios from the Integration Directory. Once you have made the required definitions, you can send the message to the Integration Server.

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Work Method of SAP XI - Pipeline SAP XI runtime comprises a series of components: ·

Integration Engine Executes the integration logic of the Integration Server.

·

Proxy Runtime Required to use proxies to exchange messages with the Integration Server. Proxies are based on a special programming model.

·

Adapter Engine Required to use the RFC adapter and third-party adapters to exchange messages with the Integration Server.

·

Aapters This includes those adapters that are connected directly to the Adapter Engine or that are run independently, for example the IDoc adapter or the plain HTTP adapter.

·

Mnitoring Central monitoring enables you to monitor the SAP XI runtime components, the message flow, and system performance.

·

Business Process Engine The Business Process Engine (BPE) executes ccBPM processes.

In the example, a proxy is used to send a message to the airline Lufthansa. The message will book a seat on a Lufthansa flight. As a runtime component of SAP XI, the Integration Engine has the task of receiving, processing, and forwarding XML messages. As soon as a message reaches the Integration Server in SAP XI format, it is processed in the Integration Server pipeline. Note: The term pipeline refers to all steps that are performed when an XML message is processed, in other words, a defined series of services to which a message is subjected. The task of the Integration Engine is to process the pipelines correctly and consistently. The route that the message takes through the pipeline once it reaches the Integration Server is always the same. First of all, the message receiver or receivers and the relevant inbound interface are determined from the configuration data in the receiver determination and interface determination. This step is known as logical routing. You saw both definitions in the configuration data in the previous section.

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Next, the pipeline determines how the receiver is reached in technical routing. You can find this information in the configuration data under Receiver Agreement and Communication Channels. If applicable, the specified mapping program, which maps the outbound interface to the inbound interface, is executed. Finally, the Integration Server sends the message to the target system.

Figure 43: Integration Server Pipeline

If no receiver is determined, an error occurs and processing is terminated. If logical routing finds exactly one receiver, the message is placed in an outbound queue for outbound processing. If more than one receiver is determined, then in the case of asynchronous processing, a new message with its own message ID is created for each interface/receiver pair found. To monitor processing of the message in the pipeline, call transaction SXMB_MONI. Monitoring comprises a monitor for processed XML messages. The monitor determines and evaluates all XML messages processed by the Integration Engine and creates processing statistics for them. You can select the processed XML messages according to particular criteria and display them for evaluation purposes. You have the option of accessing XML messages that are still in the tables of the online database as well as messages that have already been archived. To display archived messages, you either require the message ID or must perform a search in the archive. The authorizations for the individual functions are tailored to requirements and are assigned as derivations of the role SAP_XI_MONITOR. They are all based on the S_XMB_AUTH authorization object. The S_XMB_DSP authorization

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object controls which message contents are displayed. Unless the user has the authorization S_XMB_ADM (administrator), the system only displays XML messages for the current client.

Hint: To learn more about integrating systems using SAP XI, attend the courses BIT400 (Configuration), BIT430 (BPM), BIT450 (Programming), and BIT460 (Adaptors).

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Exercise 3: SAP Exchange Infrastructure Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: ·

Answer questions about the architecture of SAP XI

Business Example You have listened to the introduction to SAP XI and are now going to answer questions from colleagues.

Task: Answer the following questions about the architecture of SAP XI. 1.

The three components of SAP XI that contain the definition and configuration data for your system landscape are the , the , and the . At runtime, the processes inbound XML messages. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence.

2.

A new system is added to your system landscape. Where do you enter this information? Choose the correct answer(s).

3.

A

Integration Builder

B

System Landscape Directory

C

Integration Repository

D

Integration Server Configuration

You do not have to define your integration scenarios in the Integration Repository. Determine whether this statement is true or false.

□ □

True False

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4.

An interface definition in the Integration Repository includes , and, if applicable

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, .

Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence.

5.

A message interface can include an input and an output message type. Determine whether this statement is true or false.

□ □ 6.

True False

What happens in the Integration Server during logical routing? Choose the correct answer(s).

7.

A

The receiver system of an inbound message is determined

B

Data types are mapped

C

The receiver and its inbound interface are determined for an inbound message

D

The message is sent to the receiver system

In the Integration Server, the technical processing of an inbound message is always the same. Determine whether this statement is true or false.

□ □ 8.

True False

You can always use the proxy interface to send messages. Determine whether this statement is true or false.

□ □ 9.

True False

You can display the Integration Server pipeline, in other words, the processing of the XML messages, in the system. Determine whether this statement is true or false.

□ □

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Solution 3: SAP Exchange Infrastructure Task: Answer the following questions about the architecture of SAP XI. 1.

The three components of SAP XI that contain the definition and configuration data for your system landscape are the Integration Repository, the Integration Directory, and theSystem Landscape Directory. At runtime, the Integration Server processes inbound XML messages. Answer: Integration Repository, Integration Directory, System Landscape Directory, Integration Server

2.

A new system is added to your system landscape. Where do you enter this information? Answer: B You define your system landscape in the System Landscape Directory.

3.

You do not have to define your integration scenarios in the Integration Repository. Answer: True You have the option of defining integration scenarios in the Integration Repository, but this is not mandatory.

4.

An interface definition in the Integration Repository includes message interfaces, message types, data types and, if applicable mappings. Answer: message interfaces, message types, data types, mappings

5.

A message interface can include an input and an output message type. Answer: True Synchronous processing may involve inbound and outbound data, which is described in output and input message types.

6.

What happens in the Integration Server during logical routing? Answer: C Using the configuration data, logical routing determines the receiver and its inbound interface for the message.

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7.

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In the Integration Server, the technical processing of an inbound message is always the same. Answer: True In the Integration Server pipeline, logical routing is performed first, following by technical routing, and finally, if required, the data is mapped.

8.

You can always use the proxy interface to send messages. Answer: False You can only use the proxy interface to send messages if the SAP system is based on the SAP Web Application Server 6.20 or higher. The proxy interface can be used for applications written in ABAP or Java.

9.

You can display the Integration Server pipeline, in other words, the processing of the XML messages, in the system. Answer: True SAP XI has monitoring functions that enable you to monitor the processing of XML messages.

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Lesson Summary You should now be able to:

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·

Name the components of SAP XI

·

Explain the functions of the various components

·

Describe how messages are processed in SAP XI

·

Tell the difference between integration technology that uses adaptors and that which uses proxies

·

Call the System Landscape Directory (SLD) and the Integration Builder

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Lesson: Business Process Management with Business Workflow and ccBPM Lesson Overview SAP XI enables systems to communicate and exchange data with each other by means of XML messages. The messages are processed statelessly on the Integration Server. In SAP NetWeaver, this communication is represented by the Integration Broker in the Process Integration section. The following lesson introduces two components of Business Process Management in SAP NetWeaver: Business Workflow and ccBPM. Business Workflow enables you to control integration processes locally in SAP systems (for example, approval of an order, of a request for new master data, of a holiday or business trip). ccBPM on the other hand enables you to create process definitions that include multiple systems in your system landscape (both SAP and non-SAP systems) and which can exchange data between the systems. The data is again exchanged by means of XML messages in SAP XI, however it is processed statefully with ccBPM. Business Workflow is part of the SAP Web Application Server (SAP Web AS) and is therefore available in every SAP system; ccBPM is an integral part of SAP XI 3.0, however.

Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: ·

Describe the structure and possible applications of Business Workflow

·

Name the Wf-XML interface for communication between workflow systems

·

Describe the possible applications of ccBPM

·

Explain the work method of ccBPM

Business Example Your colleagues would like to have direct support when handling processes within the applications they use. For example, they always want to be informed when a work order is awaiting processing by them and they expect support when handling the process step. In particular, this applies to steps in the process that they seldom have to perform. Furthermore, some steps in the process are regularly not completed on time and therefore require automatic monitoring. In other processes, files are sent by internal post and temporarily cannot be accounted for. Business Workflow helps you to overcome these difficulties.

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Business trips for your company often involve flights that are not direct and which therefore result in connecting flights. Of course, when you book your business trip, you want to book all connecting flights for the entire trip and not each connecting flight individually. Controlling the process with ccBPM means that you guarantee that the flights will only be confirmed once all connections have been successfully booked.

User-Oriented Process Editing with Business Workflow Locally in SAP Systems Business Workflow is part of the SAP Web AS and is therefore available in every SAP system. Business Workflow ensures that within processes that run locally in an SAP system, work steps are guaranteed to be sent in realtime to the responsible colleagues.

Workflows are often started by a workflow event, which in this case is the creation of a business trip request. A workflow-controlled process is started: In the first step, the supervisor of the requester must approve the request. The figure below is a simplified representation of the process description. Although not shown, there must also be an additional process step in another branch in case the supervisor does not approve the request.

Figure 44: Workflow and WebFlow Services as Instruments for Controlling the Process

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Depending on the request of the process, the workflow creates work items for different users or systems because process steps can also run in the background without user involvement. The description of how Business Workflow controls the process can be short and to-the-point: the right work at the right time to the right agent. You define who the “right” agents are when you design and model a workflow. In the example, you use a rule for agent determination to find the correct supervisor of the person who created the business trip request. When you model the workflow, you must ensure that it starts at the “right” time and that the process steps are modelled in the “right” order. In the example, this means that when you create a travel request, a workflow event will be triggered in the system and an approval workflow will be started. At workflow level, the “right” work in a process step stands for the execution of a method of an object type in the Business Object Repository or of an ABAP class (SAP Web AS 6.40 and higher). In the course example, we execute the APPROVE method of the TRAVELREQ object type.

Hint: For more information about modelling and starting workflows, finding the relevant agents (for example, the requester, supervisor of the requester, or the system), or defining work items (approving and displaying a travel request), attend the training courses BIT600, BIT601, and BIT610. SAP components ship standard workflows for pre-defined business scenarios. In human resources, this might include workflows for travel cost management and recruitment management, for example. In the area of finance, there is a workflow for editing pre-defined invoices, while in logistics, there are workflows for approving purchase requisitions. In fact, one of the most common applications of workflow is in approval procedures.

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Figure 45: Business Workflow in Use

Workflow can also be used to optimize the flow of information within an organization, because you can inform staff about all kinds of changes. Workflow also supports error handling and exception handling by enabling you to trigger subsequent processes when threshold values are reached, when errors occur (for example, during IDoc processing), or when normal values are deviated from. You can use deadline monitoring to monitor workflow-controlled processes, in other words, you determine a time and date by which a process step must be completed. When the deadline passes, subsequent actions are triggered automatically. Finally, Business Workflow provides you with high-performance reporting functions that enable you to identify and then analyze bottlenecks in the process, in other words, process steps that are regularly delayed. Let us look back at the business example in this lesson in which the staff of your company would like more support when handling processes. Business Workflow can help to make processes more user-friendly for those handling them and ensure that processes are controlled safely and comfortably within an application of an SAP system. So how are processes controlled between systems?

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Wf-XML Interface for Communication Between Workflow Systems As early as SAP Basis Release 4.6C was it possible to use the Wf-XML interface for a system X to communicate with the workflow system of a system Y. In this case, the systems could be SAP or non-SAP systems. Note: Workflow Management Coalition (WfMC) is a nonprofit organization founded in 1993 by workflow users and providers of workflow products (such as SAP). The aim of WfMC is to make workflow systems easier to use by determining standards for software terminology, interoperability, and connectivity. The Wf-XML interface is one such standard regarding the interoperability of workflow systems. For more information about WfMC, go to www.wfmc.org.

The Wf-XML interface was defined by Workflow Management Coalition and describes the structure and the content of the messages that two processes exchange to communicate with each other. The standardization of message exchange enables workflow engines from different vendors to communicate with each other effortlessly. The type of system that you want to connect is also irrelevant because the data is exchanged platform-independently by using XML documents.

Figure 46: Wf-XML Interface for Communication Between Workflow Systems

All processes with Wf-XML involve the sending of a message, which initiates an operation (for example, starting a workflow process in the other system) and the sending of a response message, which confirms the receipt. Wf-XML does not specify the message format. However, since XML messages are generally

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transferred using HTTP (or HTTPS), HTTP is also used as the standard protocol for Wf-XML messages. To send an XML message you use the Web activity step in Business Workflow. Hint: For more information about the structure of the Wf-XML interface and its functions, attend course BIT603. Wf-XML does not include any mapping or routing options. For more complex cross-system scenarios you must therefore use ccBPM.

Business Process Management with ccBPM Unlike the “classic” Business Workflow explained previously, you can use ccBPM to model cross-system processes. ccBPM is available in XI 3.0 and higher and is used to model, execute, and monitor automatic processes that extend beyond system and application boundaries. ccBPM comprises a graphical process editor for modeling purposes, and the Business Process Engine for runtime. Monitoring is done in SAP XI by the technical monitor. Modelling complies with the BPEL4WS 1.1 open standard. You can also use ccBPM to model processes that are built using the RosettaNet standard.

Figure 47: Overview of Cross-Component BPM (ccBPM)

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Unlike simply processing an inbound message by means of a receiver determination followed by a mapping to the target format, in ccBPM, the message is processed statefully. The status of the integration process is persisted on the Integration Server to await the arrival of further messages. This enables messages to be collected together and sent in a defined sequence. Messages that belong together are put in correlations so that messages that arrive later can be assigned to the same integration process. For example, you could correlate a purchase order and the corresponding invoice by means of the purchase order number. You have the option of collecting together multiple messages that belong together and bundling them into one message. An example would be a collection of different purchase order items that you bundle into one purchase order. Inversely, you can also divide up a message into multiple messages; for example, you could divide a purchase order into the various different purchase order items. You can then send the messages that you have created from all the actions to different receivers. Besides the send, receive, and transformation steps, you also have numerous ways of influencing the control flow of a process. For example, you can define loops, forks, deadlines for processing, and exception handlers, all of which enable you to define complex processes. Lastly, an integration process can trigger another integration process by means of a relevant message. This is a mechanism that enables you to join integration processes to process chains.

Figure 48: ccBPM: Architecture and XI Integration

ccBPM is integrated in all components of SAP XI: you define both integration processes and integration scenarios at design time in the Integration Repository. An integration scenario can contain an integration process. You configure the BPM parameters in the Integration Directory. At runtime, the Integration Engine

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determines whether the message needs to be saved so that the correlation can be used later to process the message further. On the Integration Server, the Business Process Engine processes the BPM messages; it uses the defined BPM process flow to bundle those messages that have the same correlation parameters into one message, for example. Note that the Business Process Engine only uses messages to communicate with applications that are located on back-end systems. It cannot access processes within applications, nor can it access user or organizational management functions on back-end systems. Note the following here: 路

The Business Process Engine does not control any processes within applications.

The Business Process Engine does not control any form of user interaction. You can only control user interaction in the relevant back-end systems, for example by starting a workflow using Business Workflow.

Business Process Management does not provide cross-component monitoring for any business documents that are processed as part of an integration process. However, you can display the log of an integration process and the corresponding messages in technical monitoring.

In the same way that it is possible to import external definitions of data structures, XML structures, and Web service description language files (WSDL files) to the Integration Repository, it is possible to import (and export) external definitions of integration processes. The only prerequisite is that the definitions comply with the BPEL4WS 1.1 or RosettaNet standards.

Figure 49: Business Process Management: Process Editor

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You define processes by using the Process Editor, which is a graphical editor in the Integration Builder for defining integration processes. You use this block-oriented tool to define and edit integration processes in the Integration Repository. The processes you define in the Integration Repository are used later in the Integration Directory as configurable objects. The Process Editor is an integral part of integration processes and of other objects and tools in the Integration Repository. The integration process is included in the integration scenario during modelling: In the same way that the vertical columns symbolize the systems involved in the scenario, a further vertical column represents the integration process that is being processed on the Integration Server, as well as the interfaces used (message interfaces), and, if applicable, any required mappings.

Example of an Integration Process: MultipleFlightBookingCoordination The example illustrates how a travel agency and various different airlines work together. A business trip is to be booked that involves various connecting flights run by different airlines. Only once all the connecting flights have been checked for availability will the bookings be made and a success message be sent to the travel agency. The scenario involves four systems: the travel agency, two airlines, and the Integration Server. The latter must save the response from the first airline until the second airline has responded.

Figure 50: Integration Process Example: MultipleFlightBookingCoordination

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Lesson: Business Process Management with Business Workflow and ccBPM

In an integration process you define which messages are processed and how. You perform the following steps when you define an integration process: 路

Design: Definition of message interfaces and mapping for the integration process messages in the Integration Repository

Design: Define the integration process in the graphical editor of the Integration Repository

Configuration: Define the receiver determination in the Integration Directory

At design time, first define the messages that are to be processed by an integration process. For this purpose, define the required message interfaces in the Integration Repository. If the integration process is to transform messages (for example, bundle multiple messages into one message), you also need to define the required multi-mapping. Next, define the integration process by using the graphical process editor in the Integration Builder of the Integration Repository. When defining an integration process, you define the individual processing steps. The process editor has step types for sending, receiving, and transforming messages, as well as control-relevant step types, for example, for defining a loop or a switch. The individual steps of an integration process can either supply or demand data. This data is managed in containers. A container comprises individual container elements (variables). Before you can use data in a step, you must first define the corresponding container elements. At runtime, multiple instances of an integration process can be active. To ensure that a message is assigned to the correct instance of the integration process at runtime, you must correlate messages that belong together. You can integrate an integration process in an integration scenario. An integration process is represented as a separate column in the component view of an integration scenario. At configuration time, you configure the receiver determination for the integration process in the Integration Builder for the Integration Directory. An integration process in the Integration Directory references the definition of the integration process in the Integration Repository. At runtime, an integration process is started when a message is received. You can monitor the integration process by using the technical monitoring functions.

Further Information/Tutorial For more information, see SAP Service Marketplace at service.sap.com/BPM. For an example of an integration process, in the Integration Repository, expand the SAP BASIS node, followed by SAP BASIS 6.40, then the namespace http://sap.com/xi/XI/Demo/Agency, and finally open MultipleFlightBookingCoordination.

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For a tutorial on defining integration processes, see the SAP XI area of SAP Service Marketplace at service.sap.com/XI under Media Library - Documentation - SAP XI 3.0 - BPM Tutorial.

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Lesson: Business Process Management with Business Workflow and ccBPM

Exercise 4: Calling a ccBPM Process in the Integration Repository Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: 路

Find and display existing integration processes in the Integration Repository

Business Example You know that there is a demo example shipped for BPM and you want to look at in the system

Task: Open the integration scenario MultipleFlightBooking in the Integration Repository

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1.

Log on to the Integration Repository.

2.

Navigate to the software component version SAP Basis 6.40 and open the integration scenario MultipleFlightBooking.

3.

Open the integration process MultipleFlightBookingCoordination.

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Solution 4: Calling a ccBPM Process in the Integration Repository Task: Open the integration scenario MultipleFlightBooking in the Integration Repository 1.

Log on to the Integration Repository. a)

2.

3.

Navigate to the software component version SAP Basis 6.40 and open the integration scenario MultipleFlightBooking. a)

In the Integration Repository navigation tree on the left of the screen, expand the SAP Basis 6.40 node.

b)

Expand the Integration Scenario node.

Open the integration process MultipleFlightBookingCoordination. a)

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Log on with your user and password.

Double-click the integration process MultipleFlightBookingCoordination.

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Lesson: Business Process Management with Business Workflow and ccBPM

Lesson Summary You should now be able to: ·

Describe the structure and possible applications of Business Workflow

·

Name the Wf-XML interface for communication between workflow systems

·

Describe the possible applications of ccBPM

·

Explain the work method of ccBPM

Related Information ·

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http://service.sap.com/bpms

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Unit Summary You should now be able to: ·

Name the integration options within and between systems with and without SAP Exchange Infrastructure (SAP XI)

·

Explain the goals of SAP XI

·

Describe the advantages for customers of using SAP XI

·

List where SAP XI is used in solutions

·

Understand and work through an example scenario for flight bookings using SAP XI

·

Name the components of SAP XI

·

Explain the functions of the various components

·

Describe how messages are processed in SAP XI

·

Tell the difference between integration technology that uses adaptors and that which uses proxies

·

Call the System Landscape Directory (SLD) and the Integration Builder

·

Describe the structure and possible applications of Business Workflow

·

Name the Wf-XML interface for communication between workflow systems

·

Describe the possible applications of ccBPM

·

Explain the work method of ccBPM


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/Unit2  

http://www.eeblink.com/documents/netware/Unit2.pdf

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