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Unit 1 SAP NetWeaver – Motivation and Strategy Unit Overview This unit explains SAP’s motivation for developing the SAP NetWeaver integration platform. It clarifies central terms in the context of SAP NetWeaver, such as Enterprise Services Architecture and SAP Collaborative Cross Applications (SAP xApps). Using a business scenario, this unit also introduces the basic elements of SAP NetWeaver, which are presented in more detail during the course. These include the SAP Web Application Server, SAP Exchange Infrastructure, SAP Business Intelligence, SAP Enterprise Portal, and the SAP Mobile Infrastructure. The first lesson in the unit outlines the history of the technological platform of SAP systems and its development up to SAP NetWeaver ’04.

Unit Objectives After completing this unit, you will be able to: ·

Describe the development of the technological basis of SAP systems

·

Describe the components of the SAP Web Application Server

·

Explain the development activities that were necessary to implement a platform such as SAP NetWeaver

·

Describe the different SAP NetWeaver components

·

Recognize the benefits of using these components in different situations

·

Explain the aims and objectives of SAP NetWeaver

·

Explain what is meant by Enterprise Services Architecture (ESA)

·

Explain the principle of composite applications (SAP xApps)

Unit Contents Lesson: SAP Web Application Server 6.40 and SAP NetWeaver...........2 Exercise 1: Checking the ICM Settings................................... 11 Lesson: SAP NetWeaver Components ....................................... 14 Lesson: SAP NetWeaver – Motivation and Strategy........................ 25

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© 2005 SAP AG. All rights reserved.

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Unit 1: SAP NetWeaver – Motivation and Strategy

SAPNW

Lesson: SAP Web Application Server 6.40 and SAP NetWeaver Lesson Overview This lesson provides an overview of the development of the technological basis of SAP systems.

Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: ·

Describe the development of the technological basis of SAP systems

·

Describe the components of the SAP Web Application Server

·

Explain the development activities that were necessary to implement a platform such as SAP NetWeaver

Business Example You are using SAP Basis Release 4.6C and are planning to upgrade to mySAP ERP. You want to learn about the differences between Release 4.6C and SAP Web Application Server 6.40. You have also discovered that the SAP NetWeaver platform is available with mySAP ERP. You want to find out more general information about this platform.

Purpose The SAP Web Application Server is an open, scalable and highly available infrastructure for the development of dynamic and cross-enterprise business applications. It offers the necessary infrastructure to join business applications with Internet. All internet technology to carry out this task is integrated into the Web AS ABAP. SAP Web Application Server supports established standards such as HTTP(S), SMTP, HTML, SOAP, and XML. Without additional web servers, you can implement professional enterprise applications for Internet using the ABAP development environment (ABAP Workbench).

Additional Java support via Web AS Java - completely integrated into the SAP Web Application Server - extends the scope of opportunities for modern Internet applications and the necessary connection to components that do not belong to the world of SAP. In addition, the SAP Web Application Server acts as development platform for Web services. Web services are seen as the future interface technology for integration within an enterprise, as well as for integration between enterprises. They constitute modular functionalities that can be released on the basis of open standards, searched, and made available via the Internet.

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Lesson: SAP Web Application Server 6.40 and SAP NetWeaver

Evolution of SAP Basis to NetWeaver Web Application Server If you look at the development of the technology platform across the last releases, the trend towards open standards and more flexible system architectures and away from monolithic applications with proprietary protocols and programming languages is clearly discernible. In the days of Basis Release 4.6, the Internet-capability of the platform for user interfaces (HTML) was merely implemented through the Internet Transaction Server (SAP ITS), and for the process interfaces (XML) through the Business Connector (SAP BC).

Figure 1: Basis release 4.6 -> SAP Web AS 6.40

SAP ITS was delivered for the first time in release 3.1G. SAP ITS is a software component that acts as gateway between a Web Server and an SAP System. SAP ITS mediates between the protocols and formats of the Internet (HTTP(S), HTML) and the protocols of the SAP system (DIAG, RFC, and Dynpros). Web applications that were developed especially for the SAP ITS are called Internet Application Components (IAC). They include the Employee Self Services (ESS) or the Online Store. With SAP Web AS 6.40, SAP ITS has become an integral constituent of the Kernel. Still, SAP ITS as own component is necessary for many of the existing “old” Web applications. An exception to this, is, for example, the application SAP GUI for HTML, which can be run independently without own SAP ITS since SAP Web AS 6.40. On SAP Service Marketplace at service.sap.com/sap-its, you can find all further information concerning this topic.

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Based on the highly-scaleable infrastructure, new technologies are implemented as of SAP Web Application Server (SAP Web AS) 6.10 to process HTTP requests (for example, from a browser) from the Internet directly, or to send them as HTTP client requests into the Internet. To achieve this, the SAP kernel has been enhanced to include the Internet Communication Manager (ICM). The ICM makes the classic SAP Application Server to the SAP Web Application Server. Via the ICM, the kernel can “talk http” directly. Thus, the SAP Web AS constitutes the technical platform for new applications at SAP, customers, and partners. A programming model for such applications is the Business Server Pages (BSPs). A Business Server Page application is – similar to a transaction in the classic R/3 sense – an application that is functionally closed in itself. However, this application is not executed in the SAP GUI, but in a Web browser or another mobile device browser, for example WAP cellular phones. The access via network is carried out through the HTTP- resp. HTTPS protocol, whereby other standard products, such as firewalls or proxy servers, can be applied.

Business Server Pages (BSPs) are dynamic HTML pages that contain presentation logic. BSPs define the Web surface and determine the elements of the user interactions. You can create HTML pages or Business Server Pages (BSPs) using server-side scripting in ABAP. You define the application logic in the event handler of a Business Server Page. BSP applications allow direct access to all elements on the application server (for example function modules, database tables, and ABAP objects). You can quickly obtain an overview of which application servers are running with the ICM in the SAP system, using the server overview (transaction SM51). In transaction SMICM, you can find the ICM monitor and the ICM profile parameters by choosing Goto →Parameter). Another important profile parameter to be found there is the port, through which HTTP calls are processed. With SAP Web AS 6.20, Java as a complete programming language, has become an equal partner to ABAP. With Web AS Java, SAP has a complete J2EE-compatible application server in the product portfolio, which offers developers a development and runtime environment for new applications that are based on Java. Examples for software components of SAP that use the J2EE engine are SAP CRM 3.1, SAP Enterprise Portal, as well as SAP Exchange Infrastructure.

Components of the SAP Web Application Server Basically, an SAP system consists of a database and one or more instances. An instance of an SAP system is an administrative unit in which the components of an SAP system, which provide one or more services, are combined.

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Lesson: SAP Web Application Server 6.40 and SAP NetWeaver

An instance always has exactly one dispatcher. The start of an instance begins with the start of the dispatcher. An instance needs at least two work processes. An instance is also called the application server in the software-oriented view of the client-server model. The following figure shows you the components of the SAP Web Application Server. The components are to be briefly shown with their functions.

Hint: For more information about the ABAP stack, see courses SAPTEC, ADM100, ADM102. Course ADM200 provides detailed information about the Java stack.

Figure 2: Components of the SAP Web Application Server

As was mentioned before, the Internet Communication Manager (ICM) establishes contact to the internet. As early as a request arrives from the internet with a URL that contains the correct server-/port combination for the ICM, the ICM analyzes the URL and calls the corresponding local handler. The ICM decides with the URL, whether the request is to be processed by Web AS ABAP or Web AS Java. If the request is directed to Web AS ABAP, the dispatcher process searches for a free work process and hands over the request for processing. If all ABAP work processes are busy, the requests are stored in the dispatcher queue. The work process processes the request - with access to the database, if necessary - and returns the result to the dispatcher who forwards it to the caller.

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The SAP Gateway provides the RFC interface between the different SAP instances (within an SAP system and beyond system borders). The message server is used for exchanging messages and for the load balancing between the different instances (application servers) of an SAP system. There is always one message server per system. Web AS Java, features the components Java dispatcher and Java server process, which are roughly equivalent to the ABAP dispatchers and work processes. The Software Deployment Manager distributes the Java applications to the file system or database according to the release level of the Web AS. As of release 6.40, the database of the SAP Web Application Server contains two schemes, one for ABAP- and one for Java files. Thus, the data for Java-, resp. ABAP applications are clearly separated and mutual access almost impossible. To make this sort of access possible, the component Java Connector (JCo) was created to enable access of ABAP applications to Java data and vice versa. SAP Web Application Server 6.40 is the technological basis of SAP NetWeaver. SAP NetWeaver is an open integration and application platform for all SAP solutions and specific SAP partner solutions. It is a Web-based platform that enables the enterprise-wide and technologically-independent integration and coordination of employees, information, and business processes. Thanks to open standards, information and applications from practically any source and based on practically any technology can be integrated. SAP NetWeaver is fully compatible with key technology standards such as Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE), and Microsoft .NET. The platform provides maximum reliability, security, and scalability to ensure that mission-critical business processes run smoothly. In addition to a Web Application Server, SAP NetWeaver comprises functions for business intelligence, enterprise portals, SAP Exchange Infrastructure, SAP Master Data Management, and SAP Mobile Infrastructure. In the figure below, you can see which of these features and functions require an SAP Web AS ABAP or SAP Web AS Java, or both.

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Lesson: SAP Web Application Server 6.40 and SAP NetWeaver

Figure 3: SAP NetWeaver Components and Stacks on the SAP Web Application Server

A Roadmap for SAP NetWeaver SAP NetWeaver is now available with its individual components. How can you start to use SAP NetWeaver in your company? You can start from SAP R/3 Release 4.6C, or SAP R/3 Enterprise.

Figure 4: SAP R/3 Enterprise

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How do you become an SAP NetWeaver customer? You can update your SAP R/3 4.6C or SAP R/3 Enterprise system to mySAP ERP or mySAP Business Suite. As of this point, the SAP NetWeaver platform, with its capabilities for integrating employees, customers, and partners, as well as systems and applications, and knowledge, is available in addition to SAP ECC 5.0 (formerly “SAP R/3”). The same applies when you upgrade your mySAP solution to the current version. The latest versions are increasingly using the capabilities of the SAP NetWeaver integration platform. You can, however, also use SAP Collaborative Cross Applications (SAP xApps). SAP xAPPs are packaged composite applications that use SAP NetWeaver for integration with SAP and non-SAP systems. The following figure shows the solutions provided as part of the mySAP Business Suite, including the mySAP ERP components.

Figure 5: mySAP ERP Components

mySAP ERP uses SAP XI, portal technology, Business Intelligence, and Knowledge Management, depending on the scenario. mySAP ERP allows your company to capitalize on existing investments and be open to new flexible and integrative approaches to its business processes.

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Lesson: SAP Web Application Server 6.40 and SAP NetWeaver

Figure 6: mySAP Business Suite

The mySAP Business Suite is a package of proven solutions that can handle your key business processes, regardless of the size of your company. The advantages of the individual solutions include the fact that they are fully integrated and provide industry-specific functions. They are also fully scalable and Internet-enabled. The complete mySAP Business Suite package is based on SAP NetWeaver. This means that SAP NetWeaver allows you to integrate applications and services from third-party providers. To conclude, the SAP NetWeaver roadmap is shown in the following figure.

Figure 7: SAP NetWeaver Roadmap

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For information about SAP NetWeaver, see www.service.sap.com/netweaver.

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Lesson: SAP Web Application Server 6.40 and SAP NetWeaver

Exercise 1: Checking the ICM Settings Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: 路

Ascertain the port through which HTTP calls are processed

Ascertain the application server(s) with ICM process

Business Example You call a Business Server Page application from the browser and cannot access it. To analyze the error, you need to know whether the ICM process is running correctly on the system you are addressing. Furthermore, you want to identify the port through which HTTP calls are processed so you can compare it with the port in the URL with which you called the application.

Task: Check the ICM process and its parameters in the training system, client 821.

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1.

How many servers and ICM processes are there in the training environment of course SAPNW?

2.

Determine the port through which requests in the HTTP protocol are processed for the application server you are logged on to.

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Solution 1: Checking the ICM Settings Task: Check the ICM process and its parameters in the training system, client 821. 1.

How many servers and ICM processes are there in the training environment of course SAPNW? a)

Log on to client 821 of the training system with your user SAPNW-##.

b)

Call transaction SM51. The system displays a list of existing servers and the processes running on the servers.

2.

Determine the port through which requests in the HTTP protocol are processed for the application server you are logged on to. a)

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Call transaction SMICM , choose Goto →Services, and check the profile parameter icm/server_port_0.

© 2005 SAP AG. All rights reserved.

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Lesson: SAP Web Application Server 6.40 and SAP NetWeaver

Lesson Summary You should now be able to:

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Describe the development of the technological basis of SAP systems

Describe the components of the SAP Web Application Server

Explain the development activities that were necessary to implement a platform such as SAP NetWeaver

漏 2005 SAP AG. All rights reserved.

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Lesson: SAP NetWeaver Components Lesson Overview This lesson provides an overview of SAP NetWeaver components.

Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: ·

Describe the different SAP NetWeaver components

·

Recognize the benefits of using these components in different situations

Business Example From an SAP perspective, the company EnergyForAll – a purchasing and sales company for natural gas, with several subsidiaries – can be described as follows:

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·

Uses SAP software for purchasing, sales, material master maintenance, and HR

·

For historical reasons, its financial software is supplied by a third-party provider

·

The software used in the individual subsidiaries, which are connected by means of interfaces implemented by the customer, is not identical.

·

Uses special customer-specific applications programmed in Java

·

Uses a matching tool to manage duplicates in SAP Master Data Management

·

Uses around 100 processes, including some cross-system processes, with some 500 point-to-point interfaces

·

Fast-expanding company that “integrates” new purchasing companies on a frequent basis, and therefore also has to integrate their IT systems

·

A large number of service and sales employees deployed on site at the customer

© 2005 SAP AG. All rights reserved.

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Lesson: SAP NetWeaver Components

The customer's wish list is as follows: ·

Reduced costs and simplified interface maintenance

·

Increased flexibility with implementation of new processes or modification of existing processes

·

Increased flexibility with the creation of customer-specific applications, which are to be integrated into the SAP system landscape

·

Increased flexibility using services

·

Modern Web presence using the services offered, based on meaningful key figures

·

Global evaluations from SAP and third-party systems (in particular FI) with remote access

·

Intelligent handling of master data

·

Central display of local work items from workflow-controlled processes from various systems in one tool

·

Central portal for sales employees with information about innovations or critical processes, figures, and so on.

·

Service employees should be informed ad hoc about new, additional orders or changes to their daily work.

·

Sales employees want to be able to enter customer data remotely or carry this data with them.

·

System administrators are finding it difficult to manage the many different systems and monitoring tools.

Levels of Integration in SAP NetWeaver SAP NetWeaver replaces the mySAP Technology application platform and provides a basis for Enterprise Services Architecture to meet the requirements for flexibility and integration between systems, interfaces, users, and processes. This is because integration requirements not only pose technological questions but also questions regarding business processes, the integration of employees and partners, and so on. A sound solution must be flexible and take into account the relevant processes, people, information, technical infrastructures, and heterogeneous system landscapes within the company and beyond. The following figure therefore shows the three levels of integration covered by SAP NetWeaver and the relevant application platform.

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Figure 8: SAP NetWeaver - Overview of Components

Integration Level: Employees, Customers, Partners - Using an Enterprise Portal An enterprise portal ensures a central point of access to information, applications, and services in the company. All your SAP and non-SAP systems, your data warehouse, desktop documents, Web contents, and Web services are brought together in a single user interface. With Single Sign-On, you benefit from the simplified process of authentication and communication between different IT systems. Knowledge Management in the portal converts unstructured data into important company information, Collaboration facilitates cooperation between people within the company and beyond, and Personalization adapts the portal structure to suit the requirements of the individual users.

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Lesson: SAP NetWeaver Components

Figure 9: The SAP EP Central User Interface

Integration Level: Process Integration Process integration comprises the various options for setting up communication between systems and thereby enabling a seamless exchange of information between applications in the company and between the company and its various partners. Rather than programming numerous bidirectional interfaces (between all of the sending and recipient systems), you can use a central, message-based approach with the Integration Broker of the SAP Exchange Infrastructure. ·

SAP Exchange Infrastructure - Integration Broker: Data exchange via messages

·

Approaches to process control: –

Business Workflow You can use the proven Workflow tool for local, user-oriented control of processes in a system.

Cross-Component BPM (cc-BPM) in SAP Exchange Infrastructure 3.0 (XI 3.0) This tool allows you to control business processes that are distributed across several systems or applications. The systems use messages to communicate with each other.

Ad Hoc Workflow or Collaborative Tasks The ad hoc workflow runs in the SAP Portal and allows you to set up ad hoc workflows based on a work order within a Business Workflow-controlled process. These are ideally suited to facilitating cooperation between colleagues (making requests, and so on).

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Information Integration Level: Business Intelligence (SAP Business Warehouse, SAP Master Data Management, and Knowledge Management) SAP Business Warehouse (SAP BW) supports you in collecting and evaluating key figures. It allows you to define objectives and monitor their realization. Analyzing processes in your company can help you to make them more efficient, thereby reducing costs and increasing customer satisfaction. SAP BW tools can easily process large quantities of data and, with Web reporting, users receive Web-based reports quickly and conveniently. With NetWeaver '04, you can transfer BW analyses to the portal, where you can execute Knowledge Management functions, such as rating, feedback, notes, subscriptions, and so on.

Figure 10: Capitalizing on the Advantages of SAP BW

Is master data simultaneously stored in various locations and systems in your company? This multiple storage can lead to redundant data and discrepancies, which may interfere with your business process. Master data management (MDM) allows you to create cross-company, unified master data and distribute this across various, dependent systems. MDM uses the technological foundation of the Exchange Infrastructure (SAP XI) to distribute the data. However, MDM does not only distribute the data. It also checks new master data to determine whether identical master data objects already exist, and identifies all duplicates, which can be transferred to SAP BW and used in analyses. This reduces the costs of data management and eliminates data errors. As part of SAP ERP, Knowledge Management delivers functions that enable corporate information to be managed in a structured manner. These Knowledge Management functions support you in structuring information (= knowledge) and providing this information to the relevant target groups. These functions

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Lesson: SAP NetWeaver Components

include search, classification, and subscription functions. Depending on the technical conditions, you can use these functions for all aspects of the integrated data sources.

Figure 11: Integrated Master Data Management with SAP MDM

Integration Level: SAP Mobile Infrastructure The SAP Mobile Infrastructure (SAP MI) is a technological solution in SAP NetWeaver, which provides a basis for “SAP Solutions for Mobile Business.” As the following figure shows, these usually represent an enhancement of an existing SAP application. For example, an enhancement of SAP Human Resources Management allows you to enter mobile travel data and working times. Service employees can also be informed about new orders directly on their mobile device and they can confirm data directly while they are on-site, rather than taking written notes and entering the details in the back-end system later. Mobile Business increases flexibility and facilitates the provision of information to field employees. For example, sales employees can access customer and order data dynamically, without having to load and store data from the back-end system before the visit to the customer. Moreover, they do not need to take written “notes” on paper and then enter the information in the system after the event. This means that they can do their job quicker and are less likely to make mistakes, since they enter the data ad hoc as soon as they receive it.

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Figure 12: SAP Applications and Mobile Business

You can now also use SAP MI to make non-SAP applications mobile. SAP MI is installed locally on a mobile device and is equipped with a Web server, a database layer, and its own business logic. This means that employees who are working remotely have online access, rather than having to wait for a network connection to complete time-critical business transactions. To ensure data consistency between mobile devices and the back-end system, SAP MI provides tools for synchronization and data replication. SAP MI has a Java Virtual Machine and an open programming module, which developers can use to develop mobile applications. This type of open system architecture allows both mobile devices and networks to be platform-independent, and supports a range of mobile devices, such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), laptops, and Smartphones. A Technological Basis for Integration: SAP Web Application Server The SAP Web Application Server provides the technological basis for the SAP NetWeaver integration platform. It supports J2EE and ABAP in a shared environment. You can create Web services in a development environment that supports all of the key standards, such as Simple Object Access Protocol SOAP, Web Services Description Language (WSDL), and Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI). You can create new applications based on Internet standards, such as HTTP, HTTPS, HTML, XML, and JavaScript. SAP NetWeaver is also fully compatible with Microsoft.NET and IBM WebSphere, which increases the potential reusability of software. With SAP Web AS 6.40, a Web Services Framework is also provided, which allows customers to create and publish Web services and to access applications and enterprise services.

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Lesson: SAP NetWeaver Components

Figure 13: SAP NetWeaver and Compatibility

For many customers, the integration effort largely consists in connecting SAP solutions with solutions from third-party providers. SAP NetWeaver's high level of compatibility makes integration easier. The previous figure shows an overview of the possible connections. SAP NetWeaver is geared towards compatibility with IBM and Microsoft at all levels (technological basis, integration of processes, information, and people).

Life Cycle Management with SAP NetWeaver Solution Lifecycle Management (SLCM) is one of the key areas of SAP NetWeaver. It provides you with the technology you need to manage your solution's entire life cycle, from its implementation, through production operation, to continuous modifications and upgrades.

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SLCM contains the following individual functions: ·

Installation and upgrade services

·

Tools that enable you to manage SAP licenses

·

Services for monitoring IT landscapes and processes distributed across different systems

·

Statistics functions that provide you with an overview of the performance of your system(s)

·

Management functions that enable you to control and configure your systems

·

Information about network integration

·

Tools for ensuring high availability of SAP systems

·

Software distribution and maintenance using Software Change Management

·

Customizing functions

·

Test functions

·

Data archiving

·

SAP NetWeaver Problem Analysis Guide

·

SAP Solution Manager

In addition to these functions, the SAP Solution Manager provides central access to tools, methods, and preconfigured content that you can use to evaluate and implement your solutions.

Figure 14: Life Cycle Management with the SAP Solution Manager

During production operation, you can use the SAP Solution Manager systems and business processes to manage and monitor your solution landscape and to set up and operate your own solution support concept.

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Lesson: SAP NetWeaver Components

The final section in this unit looks at the business scenario. Would SAP NetWeaver be beneficial to the customer in this scenario? The answer is most definitely "yes." With the SAP Exchange Infrastructure (SAP XI), you can connect all systems in a company and manage the interfaces more conveniently. Integration of new companies and concentration on core competencies by means of “outsourcing” is also facilitated by SAP XI and an ESA-based business platform. The SAP Business Information Warehouse (SAP BW) allows you to execute evaluations from SAP and non-SAP systems and make them immediately available on the central user interface of the SAP Enterprise Portal. SAP Master Data Management (SAP MDM) solves the problem of the same master data being stored in different systems and having to be identified for correct evaluations. SAP MDM is, in turn, connected to SAP BW. SAP MI allows service employees to be connected remotely. Instead of numerous interfaces that can be built in accordance with customer-specific requirements, SAP NetWeaver provides customers with a single unified platform. Which SAP NetWeaver capabilities are of interest to which customers depends on the customer's current situation and the future requirements of its ecosystem. This question must be answered individually by each customer.

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Lesson Summary You should now be able to:

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·

Describe the different SAP NetWeaver components

·

Recognize the benefits of using these components in different situations

© 2005 SAP AG. All rights reserved.

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Lesson: SAP NetWeaver – Motivation and Strategy

Lesson: SAP NetWeaver – Motivation and Strategy Lesson Overview This lesson provides an overview of the scope and conceptual background of SAP NetWeaver.

Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: ·

Explain the aims and objectives of SAP NetWeaver

·

Explain what is meant by Enterprise Services Architecture (ESA)

·

Explain the principle of composite applications (SAP xApps)

Business Example From an SAP perspective, the company EnergyForAll – a purchasing and sales company for natural gas, with several subsidiaries – can be described as follows:

2005/Q4

·

Uses SAP software for purchasing, sales, material master maintenance, and HR

·

For historical reasons, its financial software is supplied by a third-party provider

·

The software used in the individual subsidiaries, which are connected by means of interfaces implemented by the customer, is not identical.

·

Uses special customer-specific applications programmed in Java

·

Uses a matching tool to manage duplicates in SAP Master Data Management

·

Uses around 100 processes, including some cross-system processes, with some 500 point-to-point interfaces

·

Fast-expanding company that “integrates” new purchasing companies on a frequent basis, and therefore also has to integrate their IT systems

·

A large number of service and sales employees deployed on site at the customer

© 2005 SAP AG. All rights reserved.

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The customer’s wish list is as follows: ·

Reduced costs and simplified interface maintenance

·

Increased flexibility with implementation of new processes or modification of existing processes

·

Increased flexibility with the creation of customer-specific applications, which are to be integrated into the SAP system landscape

·

Increased flexibility using services

·

Modern Web presence using the services offered, based on meaningful key figures

·

Global evaluations from SAP and third-party systems (in particular FI) with remote access

·

Intelligent handling of master data

·

Central display of local work items from workflow-controlled processes from various systems in one tool

·

Central portal for sales employees with information about innovations or critical processes, figures, and so on.

·

Service employees should be informed ad hoc about new, additional orders or changes to their daily work.

·

System administrators are finding it difficult to manage the many different software and monitoring tools, and want a single point of access for their administration tasks.

You have heard and read about SAP NetWeaver, SAP’s new integration platform. You want to know what exactly SAP NetWeaver is and how it could be usefully employed in your company.

Current Challenges in Companies with Expanding IT Landscapes In today’s climate, reducing costs, finding new ways to increase revenue and profitability, and being able to react flexibly to all kinds of changes are all items at the top of a typical company’s wish list. In this context, companies must pay special attention to the question of how to adjust and integrate new and existing applications and implement new applications flexibly. Optimal use should be made of existing investments, while, at the same time, faster and more intelligent support is required for new business processes.

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Lesson: SAP NetWeaver – Motivation and Strategy

Figure 15: Change as a Basic Principle for Business Today

Use the example of a company like Cisco Systems, which has experienced more than 60 company mergers. It needs to be able to provide all its customers with consistent information about order statuses across all product lines and structures of its business units. The relevant information is stored in various old and new software applications. If business structures and customer requirements change, a huge amount of time and money could be spent maintaining this service. Another challenge is posed by the legal requirements that increasingly demand traceability of business processes and force companies to adapt their processes for legal reasons. Studies of the time required to change existing business processes or implement new business processes indicate that this still takes between several months and several years for each process. An inflexible IT landscape was cited as the reason for this in approximately one third of cases.

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Figure 16: Integrated System Landscape

SAP NetWeaver allows you to meet the challenges listed above. For example, it reduces the complexity of system landscapes in the following ways: ·

SAP NetWeaver is a complete package of components that work in harmony to provide solutions for customers’ integration requirements.

·

A single platform is used to integrate information and systems

·

SAP NetWeaver provides functions that eliminate the need for time-consuming and costly integration projects.

·

Compatibility with .NET and J2EE is guaranteed.

·

Enterprise Services Architecture can make business processes more flexible. Caution: SAP NetWeaver comprises a range of modules that can be examined individually. Essentially, however, the solution as a whole is more than the sum of its parts. SAP NetWeaver allows you to develop business processes flexibly with synchronized components, without abandoning existing investments.

Enterprise Services Architecture - New Options for Integration Switching from a client-server architecture to Enterprise Services Architecture (ESA) increases the flexibility of your company’s IT department. What is meant by SAP’s Enterprise Services Architecture and how can this new infrastructure allow IT to be viewed not only as a cost factor, but also as playing a lasting, positive role in integrating processes and making them more flexible?

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ESA is not a product. Rather, it is an SAP concept for converting a services-based solution architecture. In the future, Enterprise Services Architecture will form the basis for all SAP solutions, which are fully integrated processes that are based on Web services and incorporate existing applications. In conventional client-server architecture, the business process data is contained in the system database, the application processes run on application servers, and retrieval is based on a specific, predefined interface. Business processes that are not part of the standard SAP environment can be connected using interfaces. The work involved varies and may be considerable in some cases. Processes are very often integrated by “human integrators” because the company employees know when they need to access which systems to maintain data in the company business processes.

Figure 17: Integration Situation from an Employee Perspective

Enterprise Services Architecture (ESA) has role-based user interfaces, which serve as a central point of access for all company employees to a variety of applications in different systems. You can use general standards to integrate new process steps that exist as Enterprise Services, whose data can be stored in various databases into your company’s process environment. Using cross-system process definitions and process control with a workflow, you can reduce the amount of work that has to be completed by your “human integrators.”

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Figure 18: Improved Integration and Flexibility with Enterprise Services Architecture

An enterprise service does not focus on detailed functions, but rather on a complete, industry-specific process. For example, you could use an enterprise service to process an ordering transaction. From a business perspective, an enterprise service may represent various actions in various systems. For example, to: ·

Check the financial status of the customer

·

Send a confirmation to the customer

·

Check material requirements

·

Order material, if required

·

Schedule an order in production

·

...

The enterprise service comprises all of the individual actions and therefore provides context-based business process logic. The contextual nature of an enterprise service is crucial because the individual functions in a purchase order handling service in the automotive industry will differ from those in a similar service in the media sector, for example. However, if you have decided on a context-specific definition of the “purchase order handling” service, all providers of the service can implement the service in their system, which means the systems will ultimately become interchangeable, as long as the process does not change at company level. The individual steps within an enterprise service can then be processed using Web services. How does a Web service differ from an enterprise service?

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Lesson: SAP NetWeaver – Motivation and Strategy

Enterprise services describe the broader business process logic. Web services are small, modular applications that use Internet technologies and are usually accessed as detailed functions in applications or enterprise services. There are agreed standards for describing and accessing Web services. (Web Service Description Language (WSDL), Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), and Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI).

Hint: For more information about Web services, see http://www.w3c.org/2002/ws. At the core of ESA is the idea that data and application functions can be merged to form reusable enterprise services. To achieve this, ESA is modeled on the Lean Manufacturing model used in the automobile industry. In Lean Manufacturing, automobile subsystems (brakes, drive shafts, engine, and steering mechanism) are standardized to such an extent that they can be used and combined by various manufacturers. In other words, the components of a car are no longer exclusively provided by the relevant manufacturers. Lean Manufacturing is not only used in the automobile industry but that industry has developed it to an advanced level. Enterprise Services Architecture should place a company in a similar position to an automobile manufacturer. The intricate web of applications that have been implemented corresponds to the thousands of components in conventional automobile production, while the components of an ESA platform mirror the standardized components in the automobile industry. The IT industry is only starting to develop this model. Components that fit this model roughly (because they have not yet been fully standardized) are largely used for basic technologies, for example, relational databases or Web server and Web browser technology. Before a company can even begin to consider components and enterprise services, it must understand its own business processes and applications, that is, an analysis of the existing process landscape is crucial. Since increasing numbers of interfaces are used between different companies and different components in a company, the question of standards is now more important than ever before. SAP NetWeaver takes this into account by supporting the use of industry standards.

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Figure 19: Using Standards

Today, the challenge lies in creating an IT environment where standardized components can work in synchronization, without giving rise once again to rigid, extremely complex structures. What is the disadvantage of rigid constructions? Tight coupling means that it is difficult and expensive to make changes. Everyone knows the rule “Never change a running system.” However, this hinders creative and innovative thinking about ways of restructuring business processes. This is where SAP NetWeaver comes in, with its coordinated integration package and modified approach to architecture in the form of Enterprise Services Architecture. ESA implies the conversion of a rigid architecture into a loosely coupled architecture based on services and components.

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To achieve this, the following basic components of the architecture must be adjusted: ·

User interface Displays information and communicates with the user

·

Process level Coordinates tasks: Which service does what? Where and when?

·

Services level Program code used to process tasks and work steps

·

Object level Collecting data and closely related services

·

Persistence level Details of how data is stored

In accordance with these components, the first step in implementing an Enterprise Services Architecture involves analyzing and documenting the most important data, objects, services, and processes in your company. The next step is to define read and write access to objects in a way that ensures the consistency of an application and permits changes. The user interface should be autonomous to the extent that services can be used as components in a variety of contexts and can be accessed by external systems. Services and objects are grouped together in components that can be loosely integrated. Finally, you make the process logic clear and configurable. Of course, SAP applications and third-party applications currently fulfill these criteria to varying degrees. At the present time, SAP is developing an Enterprise Services Infrastructure that will be able to handle the technological and developmental requirements of the components listed above. This infrastructure includes an Enterprise Services Framework for creating user interfaces, Web Services and enterprise services, as well as the development of a global repository for ESA objects.

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At one of SAP’s SAPPHIRE conferences, Henning Kagermann presented the roadmap for ESA as follows: ·

2004 Review and prioritization of enterprise services in SAP applications Initial scenarios based on services are developed. The focus is on collaboration.

·

2005 Review is completed. The planning phase for business process in applications begins. The scenarios focus on the central role of users and maximum flexibility of processes. An Enterprise Service Repository is developed.

·

2006 The ESA Repository is available. Large-scale cross-industry scenarios are now service-based.

·

2007 The mySAP Business Suite conforms to ESA.

Unlike the change from mainframe technology to client-server architecture, the change to Enterprise Services Architecture is not a difficult step to take. You can use your existing investments as a basis for gradually introducing the new technology.

xApps as an Example of Integration and Flexibility In SAPNetWeaver, SAP Collaborative Cross Applications (xApps) are already based on this type of architecture. xApps are component-based, which means that they tend to dissolve the boundaries between the underlying applications. SAP xApps are streamlined applications provided by SAP and its partners. They are used in conjunction with existing systems to map completely new business processes to fulfill new business objectives quickly and efficiently. SAP xApps composite applications connect existing, heterogeneous systems in a cross-functional, integrated process, thereby guaranteeing increased flexibility in the company. Since SAP xAPPs are based on SAP NetWeaver components, they guarantee synchronization of people, information, and processes.

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Lesson: SAP NetWeaver – Motivation and Strategy

Examples of SAP composite applications include: ·

SAP xRPM (Resource and Program Management)

·

SAP xPD (Product Definition)

·

SAP xEM (Emissions Management)

·

SAP xIEP (Integrated Exploration and Production - Oil Industry)

·

SAP xCQM (Cost and Quotation Management)

In the next section, the xApps SAP xCQM and SAP xRPM will be examined in more detail as examples of composite applications.

The objective of xApps Cost and Quotation Management is to improve the quote assembly business scenario in companies that either receive and satisfy a large number of quotation requests (high-tech industry, automotive) or whose quotation requests result in long-term internal projects (automotive). Some examples of customer queries in connection with quote assembly are: ·

How high is the success rate of the quotation department?

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How much money does the company waste processing futile quotations?

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How can the company make sure that the orders won meet the strategic objectives?

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How can the company assess whether the query is worth the amount of effort required for the quotation?

·

What is the percent difference between stored and estimated costs?

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What is the lead time of the quotations?

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How much revenue is lost when quotations are delayed?

Figure 20: Function “Silos” as the Starting Point for xCQM

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As-is analyses often conclude that the areas in the company involved in quote assembly generally perform well but that information is distributed across different function silos and therefore often cannot be called as required. Since there is no common interaction platform, more time is required to perform the tasks involved. There is no overview of the key quotations and no integrated system landscape to provide efficient support for quotation management. All too often, this results in lost revenue and high costs for quote assembly. SAP xApp Cost and Quotation Management closes the gap between sales, costing, and procurement in a heterogeneous environment. It supports teamwork, cuts costs for quote assembly, and reduces cycle times. It promotes collaboration between customers and vendors, and improves the quality of the quotation by integrating departments that were previously separated.

Figure 21: Integration of “Function Silos” with xApp Cost and Quotation Management

SAP xCQM supports quote assembly, price determination, and the creation of contracts. It functions across the company and includes customers, vendors, and manufacturers. In comparison to traditional applications, which process data from a system database, xCQM works with data from business applications, such as CRM, SRM, Sales and Distribution, and Materials Management, as well as SAP BW, Knowledge Management (KM), and Microsoft Excel. Loosely coupled, adjustable process flows and short response times for handling queries improve the quote assembly process. Quotations are processed using a role-based and personalized portal interface. The figure below again illustrates the difference between the “old world” with autonomous individual applications and the “new world”, in which individual applications are integrated on the basis of a composite application running on SAP NetWeaver.

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Figure 22: Individual Solutions Versus Composite Application (Based on SAP NetWeaver)

The Cost and Quotation Management xApp builds on the principles of the Enterprise Services Architecture and implements the new functions as enterprise services.

Figure 23: xCQM and Enterprise Services Architecture

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The SAP xApp Resource and Program Management (SAP xRPM) business package is a tool for multi-project management, that is, global management of diverse projects in diverse project systems. SAP xRPM integrates data from existing systems for project management, human resources, financial accounting, cost accounting, and time recording to provide company managers, project managers, resource managers, and project team members with an overview of the entire project portfolio. It also provides easy-to-use drilldown functions.

Figure 24: SAP xApp Resource and Program Management

It is important to remember that all xApps implement a new logic, which spans technical, organizational, and functional boundaries. In the figure above, the top section represents this new business process logic. For the xApp SAP xRPM, this means that you can use the product software to monitor and control all projects within a company at a global level. By using SAP xRPM for multiproject management, you can integrate diverse operational project systems, such as HR and financial accounting systems. These systems represent the operational foundation (the lowest level in the figure). Using an integrated SAP BW system, SAP xRPM allows you to use numerous predefined analyses across your complete project portfolio. As is already the case with SAP xCQM, the portal with its infrastructure is used as an interface for the xApp. Using Knowledge Management in this infrastructure, you can manage all written project documents for a project centrally so that they can be displayed by anyone who needs to access them. You can create and approve new projects in SAP xRPM. In any project, the project manager can use integrated resource management to request and select suitable project team members, for example.

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Lesson: SAP NetWeaver – Motivation and Strategy

As part of process integration, the relevant number of days can be entered for each employee in the HR system and the corresponding costs are calculated. The SAP Exchange Infrastructure (SAP XI) controls the exchange of data between the various systems. All SAP NetWeaver levels are fully integrated in this xApp. Let’s review the fundamental components of Enterprise Services Architecture: ·

Role-based user interfaces

·

Process level

·

Objects and their services (functions)

·

Objects and their data (data persistence)

You will also find this same view in planning for composite applications. The following two figures show design views for processes and objects. In the process view, you define which processes are to be executed and thus determine the roles of the relevant users. You use the process view to define which objects are needed by the application and the functions (services) for which these objects are required. The systems you are using indicate where objects and their data are to be found. These are maintained in defined user interfaces.

Figure 25: Design of Composite Applications: Process View

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Figure 26: Design of Composite Applications: Object View

You will be able to create an xApp application and enterprise service in a special development environment that unites processes, services, and objects. It will contain modeling and configuration tools, as well as generation mechanisms based on metadata. It will also provide standardized interfaces, user interfaces, and process templates. Since the focus is on roles, objects, and processes, you can minimize the effects of changes in business requirements. For example, you can make changes to the process view without interfering with the object view, and vice versa.

Each Customer Is Different: Roadmaps Through Enterprise Services Architecture Even if specific problems and challenges in companies within the same industry or in companies in general are similar, each customer has his or her own idea of operations, IT landscapes, IT departments, customers, vendors, partners, and so on. SAP responds to this fact with a service called the "ESA Adoption Program." This program provides services to help you determine the specific advantages of the Enterprise Services Architecture for your company, and plan and realize the transition to a service-oriented IT landscape using SAP NetWeaver. This involves the following steps:

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·

Ascertaining the advantages of ESA for your company

·

Defining ESA and SAP NetWeaver roadmaps and using them for your business transactions

·

Implementing enterprise services using SAP NetWeaver

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Lesson: SAP NetWeaver – Motivation and Strategy

For more information about the ESA Adoption Program, see www.sdn.sap.com and the quick link ESA. You can also contact SAP by e-mail at esa.ap@sap.com.

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Lesson Summary You should now be able to: ·

Explain the aims and objectives of SAP NetWeaver

·

Explain what is meant by Enterprise Services Architecture (ESA)

·

Explain the principle of composite applications (SAP xApps)

Related Information For more information about Enterprise Services Architecture and the ESA Adoption Program, see the SAP Developer Network (SDN), quick link ESA. For more information about xApps, see http://service.sap.com/xApps. For information about the individual applications themselves, refer to the relevant documentation under the xApps section at http://help.sap.com.

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Unit Summary

Unit Summary You should now be able to:

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Describe the development of the technological basis of SAP systems

·

Describe the components of the SAP Web Application Server

·

Explain the development activities that were necessary to implement a platform such as SAP NetWeaver

·

Describe the different SAP NetWeaver components

·

Recognize the benefits of using these components in different situations

·

Explain the aims and objectives of SAP NetWeaver

·

Explain what is meant by Enterprise Services Architecture (ESA)

·

Explain the principle of composite applications (SAP xApps)

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