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Ramola Helena Lewis November 2013

Re- architecture: Adaptive Reuse of buildings Focus on Interiors

Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the degree of Bachelors in Architecture

Faculty of Architecture, Manipal University


ABSTRACT Adaptation of existing buildings for new functions is not a new trend: the theoretical approach towards adaptive reuse was established and theoretically formulated as early as at the beginning of the 19th century.

This dissertation will explore an alternative strategy to a conservative adaptive reuse practice for different building typologies that not only complements but challenges and reveals the history through the unique character and the original intent of the design by preserving the spirit of place that is more than often lost in the process of adaptation by considering the meaning of place conveyed through its architectural expression. The adaptive reuse strategy will be formulated and tested through case study examples.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank my supervisors for their insight and guidance, for supporting me and giving me confidence during the undertaking of this dissertation. Their knowledge and patience added a great deal of value to my experience.

I would like to thank my family for their love and care throughout the entire process of the dissertation and beyond.

Last but not the least, I would like to thank the one above all of us, God, for answering my prayers and for giving me the strength throughout the process of this dissertation.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Key Terms/ Definitions ........................................................................................................................................... 5 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................ 6 Background Information ..................................................................................................................................... 6 Problem Statement............................................................................................................................................. 6 Relevance............................................................................................................................................................ 6 Aim ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Research Questions ............................................................................................................................................ 7 Objectives ........................................................................................................................................................... 7 Methodology ...................................................................................................................................................... 7 Limitations .......................................................................................................................................................... 8 Literature Study ...................................................................................................................................................... 8 Adaptive Reuse ................................................................................................................................................... 8 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................... 8 Principles Of Adaptive Reuse .......................................................................................................................... 9 Advantages of adaptive reuse ........................................................................................................................ 9 Benefits of adaptive reuse .............................................................................................................................. 9 Criteria for adaptive reuse ............................................................................................................................ 10 Impact of adaptive reuse on city development ............................................................................................ 11 Adaptive reuse as an approach for preservation ......................................................................................... 11 International Existing Building Code ............................................................................................................. 12 Interior Spaces .................................................................................................................................................. 13 Space............................................................................................................................................................. 13 Interior Design .............................................................................................................................................. 14 Structural Systems ........................................................................................................................................ 17 Classification Of buildings ................................................................................................................................. 25 Age criteria for a building to be listed as an old building ................................................................................. 25 Interior Design - Trending Techniques of the 21st century in India .................................................................. 26 Case Study 1 ......................................................................................................................................................... 28 Residential house converted into a confectionary outlet ................................................................................ 28 Case Study 2 ......................................................................................................................................................... 32 Auditorium converted to a theatre/ cinema .................................................................................................... 32 Case Study 3 ......................................................................................................................................................... 35 School Of Arts converted into Retail And Hotel Accomodation ....................................................................... 35 Case study 4 .......................................................................................................................................................... 37 Industrial Building converted to a Community centre ..................................................................................... 37 3


Case Study 5 ......................................................................................................................................................... 42 Church converted into a book store ................................................................................................................. 42 Analysis of adaptive reuse strategies through case study examples .................................................................... 44 Inferences and guidelines proposing possible reusability options ....................................................................... 46 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................ 48 References ............................................................................................................................................................ 50

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KEY TERMS/ DEFINITIO NS Adaptive Reuse – Adaptive reuse is 'conventionally defined as the process of adapting old structures for new purposes. [1] Sustainability – Of, relating to, or being a method of harvesting or using a resource so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damages. [2] Reusability – Capable of being used again or repeatedly. [3] Interior design – An area of study in the applied visual arts which prepares individuals to apply design principles to the professional planning, designing, equipping and furnishing of residential and commercial interior spaces. Includes instruction in computer applications drafting and graphics techniques; principles of interior lighting, acoustics, systems integration and colour coordination; furniture and furnishings; textiles and their finishing; the history of interior design and period styles; basic structural design; building codes and inspection regulations; and applications to office, hotel, factory, restaurant and housing design. [4] Integration – An act or instance of combining into an integral whole. [5] Within the context of this research project the word integration is used to reference the way in which the processes of adaptive reuse and interior design can work together to enhance and inform each other. Strategy – An adaptation or complex of adaptations (as of behaviour, metabolism, or structure) that serves or appears to serve an important function in achieving evolutionary success. [6] Preservation – The act or process of keeping in perfect or unaltered condition. [7]

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INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFORMATION Old buildings give neighbourhoods their distinct character and at the same time provide a tangible connection to the past. And sometimes buildings often outlive their original purposes. This results in the process of adaptive reuse of such buildings in order to make the existing structure and surroundings active once again. When the original use of a structure changes or is no longer required, architects have the opportunity to change the primary function of the structure, while retaining some of the existing architectural details that make the building unique. The sustainable development and conservation of buildings in the city provide social, economic, and environmental benefits to a community or area. The conservation of the built structures not only contributes to the economic and environmental composition of a community, but also to the social and cultural identity, which helps to create dynamic places, and defines the ‘character, spirit and sense of a place’.

PROBLEM STATEMENT As Modern architecture increasingly becomes part of the continuum of architectural history and its buildings experience threats that range from material to functional obsolescence, also demolition due to abandonment and lack of appreciation, concern for its preservation has grown. It is important to look at the development of the protection of the twentieth- Century built fabric in order to determine the most appropriate way to continue to approach conservation and reuse of these buildings. Adaptive reuse is a strategy that has been used increasingly for protecting the old buildings and sites; and while in most of the projects where adaptive reuse practice is being applied the ‘character, spirit and sense’ of place is often missed.

RELEVANCE It is a common and significant trend to create the specific character of spaces for human use and enjoyment. As societies continue to re-examine their stock of existing buildings, rearchitecture becomes increasingly important to users seeking building conservation, preservation, and adaptive re-use.

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AIM To research on the various parameters of re-architecture in buildings with focus on interiors. RESEARCH QUESTIONS Why preserve? How can an existing building be adaptively reused in an environmentally, socially and economical manner to achieve a viable development alternative to demolition and replacement? What is the quantity of the defining elements that can be altered? OBJECTIVES 

To investigate the relationship between new and old in the adapted and reused buildings as applied to the surrounding society.

To demonstrate that understanding of the original function, formal organization of site, use of materials and sustainability of old buildings of various typologies.

Exploring aspects of the trending techniques in 21st century architecture.

To demonstrate the potential of adaptive reuse as a sustainable development option and alternative to demolition and replacement.

METHODOLOGY

Exploring re- architecture in the past, present and future through case studies, articles, books and web.

Cultural development

Technical development

Demographic and sustainable development

Research on the thoughts of society and trending techniques in context with rearchitecture

Detailed analysis of the different building typologies and its reuse suitability options.

Inferences and guidelines regarding the transformation from old to new uses within the interior spaces of the building.

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LIMITATIONS •

Availability of limited number of possible case studies. By using only a limited quantity of case studies it is possible that the characteristics established from the literature review, may not have been relevant in each particular case.

This may result in characteristics appearing to be insignificant in site selection, while they actually may be quite important to other projects.

Also associated with the use of a limited number of case studies is the chance that there may not be a proper representation of the types of building uses for adaptive reuse projects in the market, which could result in characteristics of a certain nature appearing more important.

The research is also limited to the focus of development of interior spaces in adaptive reuse of buildings.

LITERATURE STUDY ADAPTIVE REUSE INTRODUCTION Adaptive reuse usually refers to the reuse of sites or buildings for purpose other than they were originally built or designed for. These new uses can offer economic, social and cultural benefits to their environments. As well, reuse is one approach to sustainability since it conserves original durable building materials. Adaptive reuse deals with issues of conservation and preservation of built form as well as strategies and policies. Once old structures become unsuitable for their functional and programmatic requirements or has remained unused, adaptive reuse becomes a sustainable option for reclamation of sites. Adaptive reuse is defined as a revitalization strategy which employs a series of linked procedures to plan for, inventory, acquire, manage and reuse surplus or abandoned real estate. [8] An imperative aspect of adaptive reuse projects is that the land or building which is being considered for had a previous use that is no longer suitable or the use remains unused in that type of building location, and therefore the potential value of the property will be maximized by adapting the space. The adaptive reuse of buildings can include modifications that are purely aesthetic, and are made to the building while retaining its structure and character.

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PRINCIPLES OF ADAPTI VE REUSE [9] The challenge comes in finding the desired balance between change, adaptation and restoration to appease the stakeholders. In finding the right balance, adaptive reuse projects should integrate five principles into the design as stated by:

• Perform the functions well for which they are redesigned • Be long lasting and adaptable to new uses • Respond well to their surroundings and enhance their context • Have a visual coherence and create ‘delight’ for users and passers-by • Be sustainable – non-polluting, energy efficient, easily accessible and have a minimal environmental impact

ADVANTAGES OF ADAPTI VE REUSE [10] 

The ability to reuse the materials is mainly due to the fact that older buildings are often constructed with materials of a higher grade and quality that therefore have a longer lifespan than those used in current construction.

Moreover, with the envelope of older buildings generally consisting of stronger materials and containing numerous windows, the energy efficiency of the heating and cooling can be improved.

The social benefits of reuse projects include rejuvenating the historical and cultural values of a building.

During the time period when the building was originally in use, it served a specific purpose in the neighbourhood to which people, in one way or another, were connected. Older buildings have the ability to provide character to an area and create a ‘sense of place’.

BENEFITS OF ADAPTIVE REUSE [11] ENVIRONMENTAL Adaptive reuse of buildings has a major role to play in the sustainable development. Environmental benefits are more significant, as these buildings offer so much to the landscape, identity and amenity of the communities they belong to. One of the main environmental benefits of reusing buildings is the preservation of the original building's "embodied energy". That is, the energy consumed by all of the processes associated with the production of a building, from the attainment of natural resources to product delivery, including mining, manufacturing of materials and equipment, transport and 9


administrative functions. By reusing buildings, their embodied energy is retained, making the project much more environmentally sustainable than entirely new construction. SOCIAL Keeping and reusing buildings has long-term benefits for the communities that value them. Adaptive reuse can restore and maintain the significance of a building and help to ensure its survival. ECONOMIC There are several financial savings and returns to be made from adaptive reuse of buildings. Embodied energy savings from not demolishing a building will only increase with the predicted rise of energy costs in the future. While there is no definitive research on the market appeal of reused buildings, they have been popular because of their originality and historic authenticity. PROMOTING INNOVATION The adaptation of buildings presents a genuine challenge to architects and designers to find innovative solutions. As development pressures increase in our cities, more buildings are being reused, producing some excellent examples of creative designs that retain its significance.

CRITERIA FOR ADAPTIVE REUSE 

The societal value of a given site and building; that is, the importance to the community of the use of a site by its members or visitors.

The potential for the reuse of a particular site and building; the physical damage sustained to the site and its support of future use, the character of the existing form in terms of the proposed reuse.

The historical importance of the site and building; in terms of both the physicality of the street-scape and the area, as well as of the role of the site in the community’s understanding of the past.

The natural ecological conditions of the site and building; whether it is suitable climatically or can support the proposed environmental work.

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IMPACT OF ADAPTIVE REUSE ON CITY DEVELOPMENT Today, one controversial concern in urban expansion is the adaptive reuse of aged urban industrial sites or structures. These sites are known as brownfields instead of Greenfields due to the fact that they may contain chemical contamination; it is necessary to deal with this problem before the structures can be put to residential or commercial use. A successful adaptive reuse project can offer growth and also bring historical tourism to its city and new life to its neighbourhood.

ADAPTIVE REUSE AS AN APPROACH FOR PRESERVATION After review and evaluation of literature on the adaptive reuse of buildings, we can identify three main strategies for conservation: typological, technical and strategic. TYPOLOGICAL APPROACH ‘A new use for old buildings’ by Cantacuzino was the first publication on adaptive reuse. Its introductory essay discusses the history of adaptive reuse and its role within current conservation practice. It goes on to give a variety of examples from all over the world; these examples are presented according to building type before adaptation. In contrast, many publications only deal with reuse of one specific building type, e.g. religious buildings or industrial buildings. TECHNICAL APPROACH Several sources have considered building adaptation as mainly a technical matter and also, regarding how to decide on a new function for adapted buildings. ‘The rehabilitation and reuse of old buildings’ by Highfield (1987) is a booklet in which the author first explains the benefits of rehabilitation. He differentiates domestic and nondomestic buildings and in a technical chapter he discusses the upgrading of fire resistance, thermal function, and acoustic performance, elimination of damp infiltration, condensation and timber decay. Also, a main portion of the work of Douglas is about technical characteristics of reuse. Highfield and Douglas have discussed building protection but they approach the space only as a shell instead of giving consideration to aspects of preservation and significance. STRATEGIC APPROACH The strategic approach concentrates on the processes and strategies used for adapting important structures. (1) building within (2) building over (3) building around 11


(4) building alongside (5) recycling materials (6) adapting to a new function (7) building in the style of. Three strategies for conversions: (1) intervention, (2) insertion and (3) installation.

INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE

Category

Description

Repairs

Restoration to good or sound condition of any part of an existing building for the purpose of its maintenance.

Alterations

Level 1 similar to a repair except newer materials, elements, equipment, or fixtures replace the previous ones. Level 2 includes reconfiguration of space, additions or elimination of doors or windows, building system updates. Level 3 where the work area, including al reconfigured spaces, exceeds 50% of the total building area.

Change of use

Applies when new occupancy of an existing building is different from the previously approved occupancy.

Additions

Applies if the building is increased in area, number of stories, or height.

Historic buildings

Covers buildings that are listed in either a state or national register of historic places, designated by local or state agencies, certified as a contributing resource within a historic district, or eligible for official historic designation.

Relocated buildings

Applies if a building is moved from one site to another, regardless of distance.

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INTERIOR SPACES [12] SPACE Space is a prime and ideal element in interior design. Through the volume of space we not only move; we see forms, hear, feel, smell, etc. Space inherits the physical and aesthetic characteristics of the elements in its field. Space is not a material substance. It is characteristically formless and turgid. Universal space has no defining borders. Once an element is placed in its field, however, a visual relationship is established. As other elements are introduced into the field, multiple relationships are established between the space and the elements, as well as among the elements themselves. Space is formed by our perception of these relationships. The geometric elements point, line, plane, and volume can be arranged to articulate and define space. In architecture, these fundamental elements become linear columns and beams, planar walls, floors, and roofs. TWO COLUMNS DEFINE A SPATIAL MEMBRANE THROUGH WHICH WE CAN PASS.

A COLUMN MARKS A POINT IN SPACE AND MAKES IT VISIBLE IN THREE DIMENSIONS.

WHEN SUPPORTING A BEAM, THE COLUMNS DEFINE THE EDGES OF A TRANSPARENT PLANE.

A WALL, AN OPAQUE PLANE, MARKS OFF A PORTION OF AMORPHOUS SPACE AND SEPARATES HERE FROM THERE.

A ROOF PROVIDES SHELTER FOR THE VOLUME OF SPACE BENEATH IT.

A FLOOR DEFINES A FIELD OF SPACE WITH TERRITORIAL BOUNDARIES.

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Upon entering a building, we sense shelter and enclosure. This perception is due to the bounding floor, wall, and ceiling planes of interior space. These are the architectural elements that define the physical limits of rooms. They enclose space, clear its boundaries, and separate it from adjoining interior spaces and the outside.

INTERIOR DESIGN The interior is bound to its situation; it is enclosed within a building. The particular location of the interior has an influence upon the design that often far outweighs other considerations. It is an interdisciplinary practice that is concerned with the creation of a range of interior environments that articulate identity and atmosphere through the manipulation of spatial volume, placement of specific elements and furniture, and treatment of surfaces. The reuse of existing buildings is a subject that is central to the evolution of the urban environment and issues of conservation and sustainability have become vital to the development of cities. As the approach to the design and the use of the urban environment has changed, so the prevailing attitude towards building reuse has also altered. Interior decoration is the art of decorating interior spaces or rooms to impart a particular character that functions well with the existing architecture. Interior decoration is concerned with such issues such as surface pattern, ornament, furniture, soft furnishings, lighting and materials. It generally deals with minor structural changes to the existing building.

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CRITERIA CONCERNED 1. Function and purpose: it should satisfy the function thus meeting the purpose. 2. Utility, Economy and Sustainability: this is required during selection and appropriate use of material. 3. Form and style: design should be aesthetic and proportional. 4. Image and meaning: character of design should be defined once the users utilise the space.

SHAPING THE INTERIOR SPACES Although a building’s structural system sets up the basic form and pattern of its interior spaces, these spaces are ultimately structured by the elements of interior design. The term “structure” refers to the selection and arrangement of interior elements such that their visual relationships define and organize the interior space of a room. Non-load-bearing partitions and suspended ceilings are often used to define or modify space within the structural framework or shell of a building. The colour, texture, and pattern of wall, floor, and ceiling surfaces affect our perception of their relative positions in space and our awareness of the room’s dimensions, scale, and proportion.

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Within a large space, the form and arrangement of furnishings can divide areas, provide a sense of enclosure, and define spatial patterns. Lighting, and the light and dark patterns it creates, can call our attention to one area of a room, and thereby create divisions of space. Even the acoustic nature of a room’s surfaces can affect the boundaries of a space. Finally, space is structured by the way we use it. The nature of our activities and the rituals we develop in performing them influence how we plan, arrange, and organize interior space.

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STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION

IT IS THE VERTICAL EXTENSION OF THE FOUNDATION SYSTEM AND CONSISTS OF THE COLUMNS, BEAMS, AND LOADBEARING WALLS THAT SUPPORT THE FLOOR AND ROOF STRUCTURES.

IT IS THE SUBSTRUCTURE THAT FORMS THE BASE OF A BUILDING, ANCHORS IT FIRMLY TO THE GROUND, AND SUPPORTS THE BUILDING ELEMENTS AND SPACES ABOVE

These systems must work together to support the following types of loads:

IS A STATIC VERTICAL LOAD IS COMPRISING THE WEIGHT OF ITS STRUCTURAL AND NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS, INCLUDING ANY EQUIPMENT PERMANENTLY ATTACHED TO THE STRUCTURE.

WHICH IS A MOVABLE OR MOVING LOAD COMPRISING THE WEIGHT OF ITS OCCUPANTS AND ANY MOBILE EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS.

DYNAMIC LOADS

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A building’s structural system is formed according to the geometry of its materials and the way they react to the forces applied to them. This structural form and geometry, in turn, influence the dimensions, proportion, and arrangement of the interior spaces within the building volume. The two basic linear structural elements are the column and the beam.

A BEAM IS A HORIZONTAL MEMBER THAT TRANSMITS FORCES PERPENDICULAR TO ITSELF ALONG ITS LENGTH TO ITS SUPPORTS. IT IS SUBJECT TO BENDING AND DEFLECTION, WHICH RESULT IN AN INTERNAL COMBINATION OF COMPRESSIVE AND TENSILE STRESSES. THESE STRESSES ARE PROPORTIONALLY GREATER ALONG THE UPPER AND LOWER REGION OF A BEAM’S CROSS SECTION. INCREASING DEPTH AND PLACING MATERIAL WHERE STRESSES ARE GREATEST OPTIMIZE A BEAM’S PERFORMANCE.

A

COLUMN

IS

A

VERTICAL

SUPPORT

THAT

TRANSMITS COMPRESSIVE FORCES DOWNWARD ALONG ITS SHAFT. THE THICKER A COLUMN IS IN RELATION TO ITS HEIGHT,

THE

GREATER

ITS

LOAD-BEARING

CAPACITY AND ITS ABILITY TO RESIST BUCKLING RESULTING

FROM

OFF-CENTRE

LOADING

OR

LATERAL FORCES.

LINEAR STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

BEAMS MAKE STRUCTURAL AND VISUAL CONNECTIONS

ACROSS

SPACE

BETWEEN THEIR SUPPORTS.

COLUMNS MARK POINTS IN SPACE AND PROVIDE

A

MEASURE

FOR

ITS

HORIZONTAL DIVISIONS.

A LINEAR STRUCTURAL SYSTEM MAY SUGGEST

A

GRID

LAYOUT

OF

REPETITIVE SPACES.

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A linear structural system may consist of a grid layout of repetitive spaces, but floor, wall, and ceiling planes are necessary for the support and enclosure of interior space. Floor and ceiling planes may consist of planar slabs or an arrangement of girders and beams and joists.

Walls and partitions need not always be load-bearing and do not have to be aligned with the columns of a structural frame.

Linear structural systems are extremely flexible. They allow for growth, change, and the adaptation of individual spaces to their specific uses.

PLANAR STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS The two principal types of planar structural elements are the load-bearing wall and the horizontal slab. A BEARING WALL ACTS AS A LONG, THIN COLUMN IN TRANSMITTING COMPRESSIVE FORCES TO ITS SUPPORT OR FOUNDATION. ANY OPENING MUST BE SPANNED BY AN ARCH OR A SHORT BEAM CALLED A LINTEL TO SUPPORT THE WALL LOAD ABOVE AND ALLOW COMPRESSIVE STRESSES TO FLOW AROUND THE OPENING TO ADJACENT SECTIONS OF THE WALL.

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Advantages of planar systems over linear systems: Linear structural elements only outline the edges of spatial volumes, whereas planar elements such as bearing walls define the physical limits of space. They provide a real sense of enclosure and privacy as well and serve as obstacles against the elements. A slab is a horizontal, rigid plate. It supports both concentrated and distributed loads because the resulting stresses that can fan out across the plane of the slab.

VOLUMETRIC STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

A VOLUMETRIC STRUCTURAL SYSTEM CONSISTS OF A THREE DIMENSIONAL MASS THAT OCCUPIES THE VOID OF SPACE.

INTERIOR SPACE

At a small scale, stone and clay masonry units can be seen to be volumetric structural elements. 20


SPATIAL FORM Interior spaces are defined by a building’s structural system, containing wall and ceiling planes, and related to other spaces by windows and doorways. Either the structure or the space can dominate this relationship. Whichever appears to dominate, we should be able to perceive the other as an equal partner in the relationship.

IT NOT ONLY OCCUPIES SPACE, IT ALSO CREATES A SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ITSELF AND THE SURROUNDING ENCLOSURE

SPATIAL DIMENSIONS The dimensions of interior space, like spatial form, are directly related to the nature of a building’s structural system—the strength of its materials and the size and spacing of its members. Wood or steel beams and concrete slabs can span up to 30 feet (9 m). Wood or steel trusses can span even farther, up to 100 feet (30 m) or more. Longer roof spans are possible with space frames and a variety of curved structures, such as domes, suspension systems, and membranes supported by air pressure.

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HUMAN DIMENSIONS Our body dimensions, and the way we move through and perceive space, are prime determinants of architectural and interior design.

THE VERTICAL DIMENSION OF SPACE THE THIRD DIMENSION OF INTERIOR SPACE, ITS HEIGHT, IS ESTABLISHED BY THE CEILING PLANE.

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE HEIGHT OF A SPACE AND OUR OWN BODY HEIGHT CAN BE SENSED.

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SPATIAL TRANSITIONS

OPENINGS CREATED WITHIN THE WALL PLANE FOR WINDOWS AND DOORWAYS RE-ESTABLISH CONTACT WITH THE SURROUNDING SPACES FROM WHICH THE ROOM WAS ORIGINALLY CUT.

THE WALL PLANE, BEING PERPENDICULAR TO OUR NORMAL LINE OF SIGHT, HAS THE GREATEST EFFECT AS A SPATIAL BOUNDARY.

INDIVIDUAL PLACES ARE DESIGNED AND FORMED AS THEY ARE FUNCTIONALLY RELATED TO ONE ANOTHER WITH COMMON PEOPLE AND ACTIVITIES.

Interior spaces are related to one another is determined not only by their relative position in a building’s spatial pattern, but also by the nature of the spaces that connect them and the boundaries they have in common. MODIFYING SPACE The architectural planning and design for a new building take into account the nature of the activities to be housed; the spatial requirements for form, scale, and light; and the desired relationships among the various interior spaces. Whereas an existing building is to be used for activities other than those for which it was originally intended, however, activity requirements must be matched with the existing conditions. Where there is a mismatch, an alteration of the existing spaces is required. 23


Two major types of alteration can be considered: 1. It involves structural changes in the boundaries of interior space and is more permanent in nature than the second. 2. The second type of alteration involves non-structural modifications and enhancement accomplished through interior design.

A structural change may involve removing or adding walls to alter the shape and rearrange the pattern of existing spaces, or to add on new space. When doing so, it is vital to understand the distinction between load-bearing walls and non-loadbearing partitions. DOORWAY MAY BE MOVED OR ADDED FOR BETTER ACCESS TO A ROOM SPACE OR TO IMPROVE THE MOVEMENT PATHS WITHIN THE SPACE. A LARGE DOORWAY MAY BE CREATED TO MERGE TWO ADJACENT SPACES.

WINDOWS MAY BE ENLARGED OR ADDED FOR BETTER DAY LIGHTING OR TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF A VIEW.

WHEN ADDING A STAIRWAY, SKYLIGHT OR CREATING VERTICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEVELS, STRUCTURAL CHANGES NEED TO BE DONE.

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CLASSIFICATION OF BUILDINGS: [13] INDUSTRIAL

RELIGIOUS

SEMI-PUBLIC BUILDINGS

RESIDENTIAL

MILITARY COMMERCIAL

Factory Warehouse Barn Granary Mills Brewery Malting Mining site Railway station Church & Chapel Convent Beguinage Presbytery City Hall Museum School Hospital Observatory Court House Office Library Theatre Hotel & Hostel Post Office Castle Country house Farm Town house Fortress Barrack Gate Craft shop Department store Exchange Bank Market Boutique Passage

AGE CRITERIA FOR A BUILDING TO BE LIS TED AS AN OLD BUILDING [14] 

Age and rarity: most buildings built before 1700 which survive in anything like their original condition are listed, as are most of those built between 1700 and 1840

The criteria become tighter with time, so that buildings built within the last 30 years have to be exceptionally important to be listed, and under threat too. A building has to be over 10 years old to be eligible for listing

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Architectural interest: buildings which are nationally important for the interest of their architectural design, decoration and craftsmanship; also important examples of particular building types and techniques.

Historic interest: this includes buildings which illustrate important aspects of the nation's social, economic, cultural or military history.

Close historical association with nationally important people or events.

Group value, especially where buildings are part of an important architectural or historic group or are a fine example of planning (such as squares, terraces and model villages).

INTERIOR DESIGN - TRENDING TECHNIQUES OF THE 21 S T CENTURY IN INDIA

Residential trend 1: 

This latest trend is a definite shift from the Zen philosophy that ruled design trends in the past five years. Minimalism is out, Maxmalism is in. Gone are the days of Spartan furniture, muted tones and unembellished interiors. Today, people love showcasing their new stature in society, and opulence and luxury are the key words in residential design.

The classical opulent styles of the bygone eras have made a comeback with new contemporary modern overtones. The emphasis is on detailing, and accessories play a very important role in completing the look. Chandeliers, artwork along with the other embellishments such as inlay works and cutwork jali screens are popular.

Bold patterns with baroque influences are the newest rage, and are reflected in the printed wallpapers, upholstery, chandeliers, mouldings and mirrors.

Darker hues and English colour tones such as khaki and indigo as well as shades in greys, beiges and even blacks are juxtaposed with natural materials such as sandblasted stones and dark woods like walnuts and teaks.

Residential trend 2: 

The use of wooden flooring creates a sense of warmth within the house. The dark woods used for the loose furniture and cabinets further add to creating a warm and cosy interior.

Crystal chandeliers hanging from the ceilings in focal positions such as over the dining table and in the living room are eye-catching and further emphasize the lavishness of the décor. 26


Comfortable and rich furnishings in bold patterned textiles and upholsteries add richness to the house.

Wallpaper in a bold print on a dark hue and colours such as blues in the furnishings and reds in the accessories further accentuate the space.

Retail Trend 1: 

To create a sense of “premium-ness” and edginess and build a sense of mystery.

The awareness of the brand’s heritage value or the sold goods should be used to create Interaction Design. This allows the customer to interact with the store and create experiences while being educated.

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CASE STUDY 1 RESIDENTIAL HOUSE CONVERTED INTO A CONFECTIONARY OUTLET Location: Arya Samaj Road, Mallikatte, Kadri, Mangalore, KA 575002, India Age: 150 years old Owned by: Mr. Eric Sequiera Area of plot: 53 cents Significance: This house was built around 150 years ago that belonged to a couple. It represented an age of stone and rich wooden furniture and carvings portraying traditional architecture of Mangalore. It contains an entrance porch, 2 bedrooms, living room, kitchen, bathroom and storage spaces. Original Use: Residence Current Use: Confectionary outlet – Cream Caramel

ZONING OF THE OLD AND NEW USE OF THE BUILDING Confectionery outlet

Residential Home

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ORIGINAL PLAN WITH FURNITURE LAYOUT

THE FURNITURE WAS CHANGED IN ALL SPACES IN ORDER TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE CONFECTIONERY OUTLET

CURRENT PLAN WITH FURNITURE LAYOUT THE BAKING AND MIXING AREA IS NOW CONVERTED INTO A LARGE ROOM AND ROOFED WITH ALUMINIUM SHEET CONTAINING HEAVY MACHINERY FOR THE PURPOSE

TO THE REAR SIDE OF THE BUILDING, THE BATHROOM WAS CONVERTED INTO STAFF QUARTERS AND AN ADDITIONAL TOILET WAS CONSTRUCTED ADJACENT TO IT

THE ENTRANCE TO THE BAKING AREA WAS MODIFIED BY CREATING A SET OF STAIRS INSTEAD OF THE PREVIOUS RAMP

THE LOFT WAS TRANSFORMED INTO A FALSE CEILING DUE TO EXCESSIVE HEIGHT.

THE WORKSPACE SLAP WAS RE-CONSTRUCTED TO A HEIGHT OF 1 METRE AS THE PREVIOUS ONE WAS TOO LOW TO WORK WITH.

THE WINDOW WAS ENLARGED IN ORDER TO LET IN MAXIMUM LIGHT AND VENTILATION.

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ROOF PLAN

TERRACOTTA TILES FLOORING

RED OXIDE FLOORING

ORIGINAL

CURRENT

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VIEW FROM ROAD

LEFT SIDE VIEW

REAR VIEW

ANALYSIS: Parameters covered: 

Adaptive Reuse - the new use is successfully functioning within the building utilising the same spaces for closely related functions of the previous use. It blends with the initial feel of the place being an auditorium providing entertainment to the users then and even now as a theatre.

Space - modification of space is done in terms of addition of spaces based on requirements of the new use. Lighting fixtures were retained as it was sufficient.

Structural Systems – insertion of vertical transportation and excavation to create spaces in the basement did not hinder the structural frame as it was just used as a continuation below ground level.

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CASE STUDY 2 AUDITORIUM CONVERTED TO A THEATRE/ CINEMA

Location: 8-10 Perkins Street, Newcastle. Date Built: 1890-1891 Architect: James Henderson Significance: 

The Victoria Theatre is a building of State importance. It is the oldest theatre building still standing in New South Wales.

It represents an age of silent pictures, vaudeville and early legitimate theatre that no other building can offer in this State - being over 100 years old.

It is virtually intact, except for vestibule/back stalls alterations.

The theatre represents an 1891 facade, an auditorium that is both 1891 and 1921, with extensive backstage facilities.

Original Use: Auditorium Current Use: Disused Adaptive reuse conversion: Theatre/Cinema

500-600 SEAT THEATRE USED FOR FILM SCREENINGS.

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THE TOP IS TERMINATED BY A RICH BALUSTRADED PARAPET, WHICH FEATURES A CENTRAL TABLET WITH THE BUILDING'S NAME IN MOULDED LETTERING.

FINISHED IN SMOOTH AND MODELLED STUCCO WITH SOME CLASSICAL DECORATIVE ELEMENTS. THE FAÇADE FORMS THE FRONT TO A PLAINLY FINISHED LARGE AUDITORIUM.

TWO LEVELS ABOVE THE AWNING ARE DEFINED BY DEEP STRING COURSES AND DIVIDED INTO BAYS BY PILASTERS.

AS PER THE REGULATIONS THE FOYER NEEEDS TO BE ENLARGED, ADDITIONAL AMENITIES AND BACK OF HOUSE FACILITIES WAS PROVIDED.

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EXCAVATING TO INCREASE THE AVAILABLE AREA FOR BACK OF HOUSE FACILITIES AND AMENITIES AND INSERTING A LIFT TO SERVICE THE MULTILEVEL FOYER.


ANALYSIS: Parameters covered:  Adaptive Reuse - the new use is successfully functioning within the building utilising the same spaces for closely related functions of the previous use. It blends with the initial feel of the place being an auditorium providing entertainment to the users then and even now as a theatre. 

Space - modification of space is done in terms of addition of spaces based on requirements of the new use. Lighting fixtures were retained as it was sufficient.

Structural Systems – insertion of vertical transportation and excavation to create spaces in the basement did not hinder the structural frame as it was just used as a continuation below ground level.

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CASE STUDY 3 SCHOOL OF ARTS CONVE RTED INTO RETAIL AND HOTEL ACCOMODATION Location: 182-8 Hunter Street, Newcastle. Owner: Newcastle City Council Date Architect: 1885 additions by Frederick Menkins. Significance: 

Forms part of the Hunter Street Mall Group. Historically important due to its civic association as the earliest remaining building constructed for Newcastle Borough Council.

Important townscape element in association with extensions by Menkens, in 1885. (Newcastle Urban Design and Heritage Study)

Original Use: School of Arts Current Use: Retail and Youth Community Centre known as The Loft Adaptive reuse investigated: Retail and Hotel Accommodation

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TWO STOREY RENDERED AND PAINTED BRICK BUILDING WITH SIMPLE FACADE

ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS INCLUDE ROUND ARCHED WINDOWS, BRICK PILASTERS, CORNICES, VENETIAN WINDOWS AND CORINTHIAN COLUMNS

HOTEL ACCOMMODATION ADDITION CONFERENCE FACILITIES

RETAIL, HOTEL RECEPTION, RESTAURANTS AND BACK OF HOUSE FACILITIES ARE LOCATED ON THE GROUND FLOOR

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CASE STUDY 4 INDUSTRIAL BUILDING CONVERTED TO A COMMUNITY CENTRE Significance: It was     

initially the American shredder corp. / steinle turret machine co. Period of historic significance 1903- 1920 Original building constructed 1903 Agricultural machinery – three years Metal milling machinery Business and building expansions

Original Use: Industrial Adaptive reuse investigated: Goodman Community centre

This figure shows the various constructions that occurred in the building.

KUPFER IRON WORKS 1974 1940 - 1985 STRUCTURAL STEEL FABRICATION  CONSTRUCTED GANTRY 1942  INSULCRETE SIDING 1980’S  BUILDING ABANDONED 2003  

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ELEVATIONS

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PRESENT ELEVATIONS

Strategies used: 

Secretary of Interior’s Standards

Formation of new windows

Eliminate infiltration

Insulate walls where it was feasible

Design Challenges: 

Structural abundance

HVAC crossovers and distribution

Column bases

Lighting

Expression of clerestory

Accommodate variety of users

Separation without segregation

Indirect, multi-level lighting

Waterless, dual-flush fixtures

Bio retention rain garden

Use of Renewable energy

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OLD

NEW

40


GREEN ELEMENTS USED

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CASE STUDY 5 CHURCH CONVERTED INT O A BOOK STORE Location: Maastricht, Netherlands, Europe Architect (book installation): Merkx + Girod Area: 750 sq. m Significance: 

Consecrated in 1294

The building was once part of a friary knocked about over the centuries by various invading armies.

It was being used by the citizens of Maastricht as an indoor bike pound.

Later, turned into a warehouse. 

Contained stone vaults and faded remains of ceiling paintings from around

1337; and others by the artist Jan Vessens, depicting saints and sinners and episodes from the Bible, dating from 1619. 2 1 [ G r a b y o u r r e a d e r ’ s a t t e n t i o n w i t h a g r e a

3 1 [ G r a1 b[ G yr oa ub r y ro eu ar d er re ’a sd e ar t’ ts e na tt it

1. Installation of a towering, three-storey black steel book stack in the long, high nave. 2. Installation of cafe in the choir area. The central feature of the cafe is a long, cruciform table lit by a lamp suspended from the stone vaults in the guise of a modern halo.

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3. Popular books are kept on lower shelves, while academic, esoteric and theological works are kept closer to heaven. These are reached by stairs within the sleek, wellmade book stack, although there is also a lift. Parameters covered: Adaptive Reuse - the church being a monument, needed to be kept as an open space as much as possible hence, introducing the two floors asymmetrically gave respect and emphasis to the structure. The new use blended well in the structure due to matching space requirements for both old and new uses. Space - The scale of the black steel book stack was necessary because a spread of shelves along and across the nave would have detracted from its character; and also Selexyz needed 1,200 sq. m of selling space to make the shop's finances add up. Another intervention was the lighting plan that was integrated with the furniture or the volume to avoid pollution in the interiors. Structural Systems – original structural frame was untouched; addition of the book stack to two floors above was done in order to have more horizontal free space on ground level.

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ANALYSIS OF ADAPTIVE REUSE STRATEGIES THROUGH CASE STUDY EXAMPLES •

For the typological approach, it presents building types that have received major attention (e.g. industrial buildings, residential buildings and churches) as well as those which have been researched to a more limited degree (e.g. religious buildings other than churches, military buildings and commercial buildings). Also, detailed research on parameters in adaptive reuse and interior spaces have been noted in the various cases.

For the technical approach, it was clear that there are many strategies to deal with specific technical issues. The available standard works on construction still have significance in relation to the adaptation of existing buildings.

In the case of the strategic approach, there is an overlap among the categories offered. Also, information on a theoretical strategy that would compare and evaluate various historic theories on architecture and preservation through consideration of adaptive use is scarce.

Studies that could be categorized as taking a strategic approach tend to deal more with ‘sense of place’ than ones that take a typological or technical approach.

In the case of buildings which are not protected because they lack status as monuments, the owners and developers are mainly concerned with their socioeconomic value.

Types of Buildings: (Based on existing case studies) Category

Typology

Industrial

Factory Multi-use Warehouse Large Industrial site

Religious

Church and chapel Convent

(Semi-)public buildings

City Hall Post Office Railway station Hotel 44

Possible Conversions done Apartments Religious Offices Commercial Residential Old age homes Offices Commercial Institutional Art & cultural activities Residential


Residential buildings

Castle Country house Farm Town house

Semi-public

Military buildings

Fortresses Barracks

Public

Buildings with initial retail functions

Ground floor shopping upper floors dwelling Passage Department store

Offices

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INFERENCES AND GUIDELINES PROPOSING POSSIBLE REUSABILITY OPTIONS INFERENCES: •

Redevelopment beyond the envelope of many buildings is possible without compromising the significance of the fabric through the judicious use of setbacks and skilful design of new contemporary facades and insertions to complement, but not mimic heritage and historical details.

The preservation of buildings enables the streetscape to retain its significance, character, history and scale whilst allowing the buildings to have a new life within the contemporary economic and social context.

The new uses that have been adapted to the buildings illustrated in the case studies have been well thought in terms of structural changes, interior design, suitability to society and environment

While changing the use of the building, there is no such percentage or maxima as to how much of the interiors can be altered. It depends on the specific use requirements, people, economy, and level of modification. GUIDELINES: (1) Reuse Strategy 

Typological: Before the reuse of the building, Literature study about the original and new use to be incorporated is a must.

Technical: Structural study and analysis of the building along with dimensions should be known and noted.

Strategical: The building along with its surroundings should be taken into context thus reusing the building while keeping in mind the ‘character, sense and spirit’ of the place.

(2) Use and function Choice of use and function depends on location, building typology, environmental factors, social factors, and economic factors. 

Environmental factors include site features, climatic conditions and embodied energy of existing building.

Social factors include the needs and wants of the society and preservation of the character, sense and spirit of the place.

Economic

factors

include

the

budget

for

reuse,

sustainable

construction and durability. (3) Quality of Design It should be suitable to the surroundings and the society, innovative designs, preservation of the historical and heritage elements should be carried out. It should also be structurally sound and strong to be durable. 46


(4) Materials and technology Use of old and new can be merged resulting in innovative techniques. The materials of the original structure should be ideally maintained and used unless it is a dilapidated structure. The new additions and preservation to be done can be a combination of old and new techniques and materials in the construction. (5) Flexibility and reversibility The building should be able to undergo future changes and adapt to other reusability options in case change of use needs to be done due to society demands or economic demands.

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CONCLUSION This research strives to offer possible strategies for the successful adaptive reuse of buildings. It demonstrates that it is not only important to retain and restore but also to adapt them so as to give them new uses that are similar to their original intents. Adaptations for contemporary use have resulted in new forms based on old forms but adapted for contemporary use. The research also focuses on preserving the spirit of existing form and space; it introduces additional spaces that are necessary for modern use. For instance, the original building envelope and window frame are preserved and upgraded by the addition of insulation in the walls and double glazing for the windows. This material preservation of elements maintains the original characteristics of a building. The contemporary material that has been used in the new addition may be an updated version of the old; it therefore preserves historical identity at the same time as it is the product of contemporary technology. Finally this process looks at long-term feasibility for a neighbourhood; specifically, it proposes the transformation of uses for different building typologies. Below listed are the possible options for change in use based on the building typology: Residential building conversions: 

Flats

Two - Three Storey Town Houses

Office block

Educational building

Retail units

Mixed use development containing offices/shops/flats.

Religious building conversions: 

Monumental preservation

Industrial use

Library

Residential

Community centre

Old aged homes

Museum

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Industrial building conversions: 

Monumental preservation

Museum

Residential use

Offices and hotels

Sports centre

Art galleries

Office building conversions: 

Retail shops

Residential

Sports centre

Commercial

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REFERENCES

[1] WordPress, “Adaptivereuse.net,” [Online]. Available: http://adaptivereuse.net/about‐adaptive‐reuse/. [2] T. Williamson, A. Radford and H. Bennetts, Understanding Sustainable Architecture, London: Spon Press, 2003. [3] M.-W. C. Dictionary, “Merriam-Webster.com,” [Online]. Available: http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/reusable. [4] M. J. Skene, M. L. Belding, P. I. Bunting and M. H. D. Beer, “Classification of Instructional Programs,” National Center for Education , USA, 2000. [5] “Dictionary.com,” [Online]. Available: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/integration. [6] M.-W. C. Dictionary, “Merriam-Webster.com,” [Online]. Available: http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/strategy. [7] Farlex, “TheFreeDictionary.com,” [Online]. Available: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/preservation. [8] Burchell, R.W. and Listokin, in The adaptive reuse handbook: procedures to inventory, control, manage, and reemploy surplus municipal properties, New Brunswick, N.J, Rutgers University, Center for Urban Policy Research., 1981. [9] Loures, L. and Panagopoulos, in Sustainable Development and Planning III, Southampton, UK, WIT Press, 2007. [10] Langston, C., Wong, F.K.W., Hui, E.C.M and Shen, in Strategic assessment of building adaptive reuse opportunities in Hong Kong. Building and Environment, 2007. [11] C. o. Australia, in Adaptive Reuse: Preserving our past, building our future, Australia, 2004. [12] C. B. Francis D. K. Ching, in Interior Design Illustrated, New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012. [13] S. Cantacuzino, in ReArchitecture: Old buildings/ New Uses, New York, Abbeville Press Publishers, 1989. [14] in Principles of Selection for Listing , 2010.

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Profile for Ramola Lewis

Re-architecture: Adaptive Reuse of buildings with focus on interiors  

Dissertation completed for Bachelors degree in Architecture

Re-architecture: Adaptive Reuse of buildings with focus on interiors  

Dissertation completed for Bachelors degree in Architecture

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