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THESIS REPORT


DECLARATION BY CANDIDATE The research work embodied in the thesis titled “MARINE RESORT HOTEL” has been carried out by the undersigned as part of the undergraduate program in the Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, NewDelhi –110002, India under the supervision of Prof. Dr.ARUNA RAMANI GROVER and Prof. SHIREESH MALPANI. The undersigned hereby declares that this is his original work and The information embodied in this thesis is original and it has not been submitted in this or any other institution for the award of any degree or diploma.

RAJESH KUPPILI A/2105/2009 B. Arch V School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi


CERTIFICATE This thesis was carried out during the January – May 2014, the tenth semester in the Department of Architecture. Thereafter, based on the declaration by the candidate herein above, the thesis was placed in front of the External Jury held on 21st and 22nd May 2014. For this work the candidate was awarded the following marks:

On successful completion of the Bachelor of Architecture Course by the Candidate the undersigned hereby accepts the Thesis Report on behalf of the Department, so that it may be placed in the Architecture Library.

_________________________ (Dr. Aruna Ramani Grover) Studio Director, Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi - 110002


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Many people contributed to this work in large and small ways. Foremost, I am grateful to my Guides: Prof. Aruna Ramani Grover and Prof. Shiriesh Malpani for having faith in my ideas but also the vision to steer me away from distractions and toward my strengths. They taught me how to use and refine my skills. I often did not see where they were guiding me until I realized I had taken my own steps forward. The insights and support of Prof.Swaroop and Prof Wason were invaluable. It was a pleasure to spend time with such rich and expansive thinkers. I am also extremely grateful for information and support provided by the NIDM and CRZ members.

I would like to thank my Dad Mr.K.Suryanarayana Patnaik , Mom Rama Kumari and Brother Rakesh for their support in all the possible ways’ am particularly indebted to my friends, who helped me in the study. I am, of course, in deepest debt to the people who I interviewed and surveyed. Their honesty and willingness to share their experiences are what made this work Possible. Finally, I would like to thank my family and friends for making this not only possible, but fun as well. I feel this is a great opportunity to contribute myself for a research like this.

Thanking You, Rajesh Kuppili.


CONTENT SYNOPSIS ……………………………………………..…………………………………….i-iii HINDI …………………………………………….…………..…………………………………….i ENGLISH ………………………………………………..…………………………………….ii-iii CHAPTER-1 ………………………………………………….1-6 THESIS INVESTIGATION 1.1. INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………….2 1.2. NEED ………………………………………………………………………………….3-4 1.3. THESIS PROPOSITION ………………………………………………….5 1.4. SITE SELECTION ………………………………………………………….6 CHAPTER-2 RESEARCH & CASE STUDIES ………………………………………………….7-73 2.1. RESEARCH AREAS …………………………………………………………….8-38 2.1.1. AERODYNAMIC DESIGN …………………………………………….8-19 2.1.2. PARAMETRIC DESIGN ……………………………………….20-26 2.1.3. SUSTAINABLE STRATIGIES ……………………………………….27-33 2.1.4. CYCLONE RESISTANT ARCHITECTURE ……………………34-38 2.2. CASESTUDIES ………………………………………………………………………………….39-73 2.2.1. PRIMARY …………………………………………………………………….39-52 2.2.2. SECONDARY …………………………………….…………………………53-68 2.2.3. CONCEPTUAL ………………………………….………………………….69-73 CHAPTER-3 THE PROGRAMME …………………………………………….………………….74-84 3.1. INTRODUCTION TO THE PROGRAMME …………………………75 3.2. AREA PROGRAMME ……………………………………………………….76-77 3.3. OBSERVATIONS & UNDERSTANDINGS ……………………….78-80 3.4. INFERANCES ……………………………………………………………………81-84

CHAPTER-4 THE SITE …………………………………………………85-98 4.1. CITY HISTORY ……………………………………………86-87 4.2. SITE STUDY ..……………………………………………….88-93 4.3. SITE PHOTOGRAPHS & DRAWINGS ………94-98 CHAPTER-5 INFERANCES …………………………………………………99-126 5.1. SWOT ANALYSIS- DETERMINANTS ……100-101 5.2. DESIGN DEVOLOPMENT ..…………………….102-105 5.3. FINAL SHEETS …………………………………………106-123 5.4. LIST OF FIGURES ..…………………………………………124 5.5. REFERANCES AND BIBILOGRAPHY………125-126

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सारांश

समुद्र और प्रकृति का अनुभव प्रदान स्थायी और चक्रवाि प्रतिरोधी ररसॉर्ट होर्ल की इमारि. राज्य तेलंगाना से अलग हो गए हैं तटीय आंध्र में पययटन विकास के ललए एक बड़ी जरूरत है और गंजाइश है और ब़ीच में चक्रिात प्रततरोध़ी और ककस़ी भ़ी बाधाओं के बबना सागर के पूरे अनभि प्रदान कर रहा है जो समद्र तट पर एक होटल में एक बड़ी जरूरत है मााँ प्रकृतत के अनरूप प्रदशयन के साथ लोगों और सागर. अनसंधान के क्षेत्रों में विलभन्न विषयों से लमलकर. बंगाल की खाड़ी के ककनारे पहाड़ी पर स्थथत साइट के रूप में चक्रिात का एक महत्िपर् ू य रालश आंध्र प्रदे श तो भिन की टटंग ईथट कोथट मारो िहााँ िायगततकी चक्रिात गततविधध के ललए प्रततरोध़ी हो डिजाइन ककया जाना चाटहए. प्रततरोध विकास के ललए चक्रिात के ललए पैराम़ीटिक मखौटा प्रर्ाली. मखौटा उपचार, फोटो िोल्टे इक की और भिन शून्य ऊजाय भिन, हरे और टटकाऊ बनाने विंि लमल के रूप में जैि फोटो पैनलों. चाल्सय कोररया और थथाऩीय भाषा सान्या पस्चचम ररज़ॉटय द्िारा के रूप में िाथतकला थटूडियो द्िारा कोिलम ब़ीच ररस़ॉटय और भाग्य ररज़ॉटय द्िारा प़ीछा प्रकरर् अध्ययन. ये एक समोच्चरे खखत साइट और समद्र के संयक्त राष्ट्ि बाधधत दे खें के साथ ब्ल़ॉक के ब़ीच थथातनक ललंकेज पर भिनों आयोजन में मददगार थे.

साइट प्राकृततक बंदरगाह के बगल में एक चक्रिात प्रिर् क्षेत्र आंध्र प्रदे श में सागर तट पर एक झकाना भूतल पर स्थथत है . साइट का थथान शहर IE के त़ीन भागों के ललए एक सलभ दरू ी पर है मख्य शहर, इथपात संयंत्र और नौसेना बेस. CRZ तनयमों के अनसार जोन 3 में तनलमयत ऊंचाई प्रततबंध 80 लाख टन और क्रमशः तट से दरू 250 लाख टन और 50 म़ीटर होऩी चाटहए कक 10 लाख टन है . CRZ तनयमों के अनसार साइट 80 लाख टन की तलना में कम बाररश उठाएाँ बनाने के ललए दरू समद्र तट से 250 लाख टन चयन ककया जाना चाटहए. साइट एंिी प्िाइंट CRZ के सभ़ी तनयमों का पालन करने के बाद मौजद ू ा सडक से पहं च बहत आसान हो जाएगा टहल ट़ॉप इतने पर मख्य होटल खंि के ललए चना. और इमारत के अलभविन्यास इमारत कम चक्रिातों के समय में पिन िेग से प्रभावित हो सकता है कक इस तरह से गठबंधन ककया है . एक उच्च भूलम पर भिन तनमायर् के सरक्षक्षत और अधधकांश मामलों में सरक्षक्षत है और िह भ़ी इमारत में सभ़ी बबंदओं से सागर का दृचय थपष्ट्ट में मदद करता होगा. विजन बबस्ल्िंग के अनसार चक्रिात प्रततरोध़ी थथाय़ी और शन् ू य ऊजाय का तनमायर् होना चाटहए. ितयमान में मौजद ू होटल सागर की िाथतविक अनभि प्रदान करते हैं परन्त इस बाहर वितनयम से अधधक के साथ लोगों द्िारा समद्र के साथ अधधक कशलता इंटरे क्शन बनाएगा. और सविधाओं के ललए आ रहा है यह सब शानदार सूट संगठनों और बैंक्िेट ह़ॉल से लमलकर इंटरनेशनल होटल मानकों करने के ललए ककस़ी से कम नहीं है . डिजाइन झकाना साइट पर बनाया मास का आयोजन करके विलभन्न बदलाि आया है . हिा प्रततरोध की गर्ना फामय और बहाना विकास में मदद लमली. MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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CHAPTER – 1 THESIS INVESTIGATION 1.1. INTRODUCTION 1.2. NEED 1.3. THESIS PROPOSITION 1.4. SITE SELECTION

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1.1. INTRODUCTION Every tourist going to a resort hotel is out for a holiday. It is the duty of the designer to cater to this basic requirement. The difference between a normal city hotel and a resort hotel should be clearly understood. A resort hotel is not a transit stop but a DESTINATION. What does a tourist want at a resort? A release from his everyday chores for some time of regeneration, escape and refreshment. May be a sense of adventure, travel, fun, and games. May be a sense of seclusion. Whatever may be the tourist’s particular requirement, the atmosphere should be one of relaxation and change. ATMOSPHERE is the most fundamental necessity for a resort hotel to be successful. It must have a sense of specialness, excitement and mood.The essence of the tourism is the experience of being transported in a new world. An environment which is completely different from everyday life but with modern conveniences. Nature is the chief contributor to the atmosphere and hence a good picturesque site is of utmost importance. No manmade environment can match nature, at the most it supplements or compliments it. The architecture of tourism poses a number of stubborn problems, not least among which is the far too frequent fact that to build is to destroy that which the tourist has come to enjoy. This so often happens because the mere act of building may violate the landscape or because in attempting to placate a foreign visitor , an alien architecture is made to intrude . The architect should be aware of this problem.

People come to the beach for different reasons. Some come just for a swim , some to get tan. Water sports , deep sea diving, fishing or may be the smell , breeze and sound of sea attracts others. The most beautiful sunrises are at the sea. Be it any one , or all of these , the two pre-requisites of the site are a lovely beach and an expanse of the blue green ocean.

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1.2. NEED

THESIS

TOURISM IN INDIA International tourist industry in 1978 yielded CUSIness worth of Rs. 30,000 million and this figure IS accelerating at a rate of 15% per annum. India's share of this sum was only 0.2% - a dismal share for a country uncalled in diversity and richness of its natural and cultural resources. India possesses some of the finest beaches in world along its long coast lime. In the north, the Himalayas offer some of the best hiking traits and ski slopes and have always been an attraction to the mountain Others tourist interests Life tours, historic and archeological monument's, even pilgrim centers, Even t:nough India possesses • -e most* varied tourism material she has not been able develop, exploit and sell it Some of the problems are outlined below . POOR STANDARDS OF ACCOMODATION Besides a few five star hotels the other hotels leave much to be desired most of the hotels in india ., lack even the basic needs such as cleanliness and even the supportinginfracture.

TRANSPORTATION NETWORKS. It is impossible to travel in India with a tight schedule, as all journeys have to be booked in advance Thus it is very difficult to plan a short holiday in India. PLANNING. Due to short term planning, tourist facilities have been developed in isolated pockets. This has resulted in inadequate infrastructure in the other areas. PUBLICITY, Very poor publicity has resulted in gross miss concepts of India. It is about time more publicity is given to the tourist facilities to create a favorable image of the country Tourism and recreation facilities have to be integrated into comprehensive planning at national, regional and local levels covering all activities particularly those involving housing, environmental conservation, transport systems and infrastructure, BASIC FACILITIES FOR TOURISM When planning for tourism is necessary to have knowledge of the potential uses and capacities of

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Resources and the types of facilities required, Facilities provided for tourism fall in two main categories, 1. Those which are common to all resorts, wherever they may be located, such as accommodation, catering, leisure and basic technical infrastructure,

Those which are identified with particular localities, that is utilizing the resources existing at site. These characterize the nature of the result. Some of these are mountain, seaside and rural resorts,

FACILITES FOR MOUNTAIN RESORTS

THESIS

Most mountain resorts are generally high altitude summering places is hot countries. They should therefore aim to provide low cost holidays. It is very important that the resort has a good environment and creates a relaxing atmosphere, Attraction to the hill resorts often rest on the diversity and quality of its recreational and cultural facilities. The evening falls early and bad weather is not frequent. Provision for the facilities in the built environment must be made, Recreation facilities must be properly developed and easily accessible.

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1.3. THESIS PROPOSITION: In Visakhapatnam there are many hotels along the sea shore but none of them could give a clear view of sea as there is a limitation of road and the structural systems . By the site location both the problems could be avoided and it could a full experience of sea for the customer. Coming to the connectivity the naval quarters don’t have proper entertainment complex and they have to travel approximately 15 kms to come into city for some shopping or watching a movie. In this proposal I am reducing the distance and merging the isolated naval quarters into present city without disturbing its privacy. About the re development : Visakhapatnam is the natural harbor which got created by its own tidal movement so there is a need to preserve that and rectify the existing problems to give a better living for port people. By developing the harbor the life standards of port are could become much better also with the implementation of Hotel. Here by the programme follows by designing Beach HOTEL and RESORT study. Research Area: Different types of Hotels , Resorts, Spa, Gym, Public Spaces, Theatres, restaurants , harbors, ports, docks, cargo storage , loading and unloading units, small scale housing which can be resistant to cyclone.

THESIS

PROGRAMME COMPONENTS

-Types of hotels -Types of resorts -Public Areas -Beach Hotel Requirements -Elevation Design -Form Design on Beach -Façade treatment -Multi Usage of Spaces -Common Spaces -Materials

-Restaurants, Coffee Shops -Rooms/Suites , Restrooms and Personal space -Cottage Design -View development -Entertainment Zone -Auditorium -Conference Halls -SPA, GYM and BAR -Swimming pools -Landscaping

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1.4. SITE SELECTION Site : The Selected Site Is A Famous Hill Top The Minor Port Is Not Well Devoloped The Harbour Is Not Properly Connectes To The City The Three Religious Centers And The Beach Shore Make A Good Location For A High Raise Hotel Which Enriches The Quality Of Surroundings And Connectivity.

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CHAPTER – 2 RESEARCH & CASE STUDIES 2.1. RESEARCH AREAS 2.1.1. AERODYNAMIC DESIGN 2.1.2. PARAMETRIC DESIGN 2.1.3. SUSTAINABLE STRATIGIES 2.1.4. CYCLONE RESISTANT ARCHITECTURE

2.2. CASESTUDIES 2.2.1. PRIMARY 2.2.2. SECONDARY 2.2.3. CONCEPTUAL

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2.1. RESEARCH AREAS 2.1.1. AERODYNAMIC DESIGN NEED FOR DESIGN GUIDANCE In the wake of wind disasters such as recent hurricanes, and the multitude of tornadoes and wind storms experienced throughout the SOUTH States, it has become obvious that the design and construction of many buildings contributed to their poor performance. Inherent in the information presented in this are the assumptions that architects can play a greater role in improving the quality of design and construction, and that disaster losses can be mitigated. This book was written to help architects perform this role. Part of the architect's role is to ensure that the project's needs are met in the design for a functional and safe new or renovated building. In areas subject to high winds, a building owner may not have considered the damaging effects of wind—to either the building proper, its contents, or (by extension) the life of a business. This level of due diligence may require more attention particularly to the design of roofing, cladding, and openings. It also increases the value of site observation as a way to ensure that the design intent is achieved.

Fig:2.1

Fig:2.2

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Damage Mechanisms The four primary damage mechanisms associated with severe windstorms involve: (1) aerodynamic pressures created by flow of air around a structure; (2) induced internal pressure fluctuations due to a breach in the building envelope; (3) impact forces created by wind-borne debris; and (4) pressures created by rapid atmospheric pressure fluctuations (associated primarily with tornadoes). AERODYNAMIC PRESSURE IMPACTS Impacts on Walls Figure 1.3 presents a plan view of a simple rectangular building that is submerged in a wind flow as shown. Each wall of the structure is identified as a windward, side, or leeward wall depending upon its location with respect to the direction of wind flow. The windward wall is the wall facing the wind; the leeward wall is on the side opposite to the windward wall; and the side walls are parallel to the wind flow.10 Because the windward wall is perpendicular to the wind flow, the wind impinges directly on the windward wall producing positive pressures (Figure 3.6). As the wind flows around the windward corners, the local wind speed increases and the flow lines have a tendency to separate from the corner of the building. This causes the side walls to be subjected to negative pressures as shown. In addition, the turbulence and flow separations that occur at the windward corners of the building induce high negative pressures for short distances along the side walls.

Fig:2.3

Impacts on Roofs Wind creates a greater load on the roof covering than on any other element of a building. When a FEMA team investigated wind damage to buildings in Florida in the wake of Hurricane Andrew, their field observations concluded that the loss of roof covering was the most pervasive type of damage to buildings in southern Dade County. To varying degrees, all of the different roof types observed suffered damage due to the failure of the method of attachment and/or material, inadequate design, inadequate workmanship, or debris impact. Similar damage has been observed in the aftermath of other windstorms

The leeward wall is also subjected to negative wind pressures that tend to be relatively uniformly distributed.

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The primary building structure (the main wind force resisting system) must be designed to resist the forces transferred to it. Most importantly, the members must be connected so that the entire building is stable and acts as a system. The roof rafters, beams, and girders must be adequately connected to each other and to the walls or columns that support them; the walls or columns must be continuously connected Until they reach the foundation to which they are connected; and the foundation must be capable of resisting the forces and transferring them to the ground. Similarly, the structure for each floor must be connected to the walls and columns. It must be remembered that floors and roofs frequently provide lateral support to bearing and nonbearing walls throughout the building. Thus, the connections between the various structural and nonstructural components of the building are critical. Building Configuration Building configuration can aggravate detrimental wind effects. For example, a tall building that sits on a low-pedestal building of two to four stories can create problems on the roof surface of the pedestal building. Such forces can be as high as the negative pressures at the top of the building, or higher. Wind breaking up over the roof of the pedestal building is magnified and combined with high winds coming down from the top of the tower. These combined wind forces can tear Commercial Low, Mid, and High-Rise Buildings Many of the guidelines presented in the residential buildings chapter are applicable to structures of greater height: the critical areas of concern are roof covering, cladding, load-path connections, windows, and doors. Where recommendations are the same, they are referenced. Issues and recommendations particularly relevant to commercial buildings are discussed in detail. This chapter also includes a discussion of essential facilities (which demand special design attention), the performance of metal building systems in high winds, and wind design issues related to high-rise structures. Fig:2.5 Fig:2.4

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1. INTRODUCTION The advancements in the development of high strength materials, better understanding of structural behavior coupled with more advanced analytical tools and structural design procedures have led to a new generation of tall buildings which are slender and light as compared to their predecessors. This types of buildings, in addition to gravity loads, are subjected to time-varying loads arising from winds, earthquake etc. These loads are dominant over a certain frequency ranges. These types of tall flexible buildings are very sensitive to the wind excitation, which could be the important design criteria determining the structural system of tall buildings [1]. The design of such buildings is often governed by the need to limit the wind-induced accelerations and drifts to acceptable levels for human comfort and integrity of non-structural components respectively. The part of the research on flexible tall buildings has been devoted towards the reduction of wind-induced responses by means of global design modifications to the building aerodynamics or structural systems and the incorporation of auxiliary damping devices such as active, passive and hybrid devices. (Kareem, [2]; Kwok, [3-4]; Kwok et al. [5]; Banavalkar [6]; Banavalkar and Isyumov [7]; Housner et al. [8]). The momentum to study the effects of aerodynamic modification to the basic plan shape of the buildings to mitigate the wind induced responses occurred in the early eighties. The addition of helical strake to chimney stacks is one of the very familiar examples of an aerodynamic device used to suppress the resonant vibrations caused due to the vortex shedding phenomenon. Zdrakovich [9] presented the detailed review of various aerodynamic treatments to a structure of circular cross section. An early example of an aerodynamic form can be found from Buckminster Fuller’s Dymaxion project, in which the aerodynamic shield rotates about an axis according to the direction of the wind to minimize the impact of the wind force (Abalos and Herreros [10]). The shape of the buildings significantly affects the wind forces on it and the resulting motion. A careful coordination of the structural components and shape of tall buildings minimizes the wind excitation and offers a considerable saving in resources. The passive aerodynamic modifications in the form of building shape are one of the efficient and effective design approaches to significantly reduce/modify the effects of time varying wind forces and thus building motion as compared to nonmodified building shape by changing/altering the flow pattern around the buildings. This review paper comprises the entire spectrum of aerodynamic techniques geared specifically toward reducing the wind induced motions of tall buildings, particularly those which affect the serviceability requirement and occupant comforts and their applications in some of the tall buildings across the world to reduce the wind excitation.

Fig:2.6

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2. AERODYNAMIC FORCES ON BUILDINGS A structure immersed in a given flow field is subjected to aerodynamic forces. For typical tall buildings, aerodynamic forces includes are drag (along-wind) forces, lift (across-wind) forces and torsional moments. The alongwind forces act in the direction of the mean flow. The alongwind motion primarily result from pressure fluctuations on windward and leeward faces and generally follows fluctuations in the approaching flow. The crosswind forces act perpendicular to the direction of mean wind flow. The common source of crosswind motion is associated with ‘vortex shedding’. Tall buildings are bluff as opposed to streamlined bodies that cause the flow to separate from the surface of structure, rather than follow the body contours. For a particular building, the shed vortices have a dominant periodicity defined by the Strouhal number. Hence, the building is subjected to periodic cross pressure loading which results in an alternating crosswind forces. The wind tunnel test on the model of 420 m high Jin Mao Building, Shangai showed that its maximum acceleration in acrosswind direction at its design wind speed is about 1.2 times of that in alongwind direction. (Gu and Quan [11]) The torsional motion is developed due to imbalance in the instantaneous pressure distribution on each face of the building. In other words, if the distance between elastic center of the structure and aerodynamic center is large, the structure is subjected to torsional moments that may significantly affect the structural design. It has been recognized that for many high-rise buildings, the crosswind and torsional responses may exceed the alongwind response in terms of both limit state and serviceability designs (Holmes [12]). 3. SERVICEABILITY REQUIREMENTS The design of typical structure requires the engineering of system that efficiently and effectively carries the anticipated lifetime loads. The increase in height, often accompanied with increased flexibility and even low damping, caused the structure becomes even more susceptible to the action of the wind, which governs the design of the lateral system. While a given design may satisfactorily carry all the loads, the structure may still suffer from levels of motion causing significant discomfort to its occupants. Wind-induced serviceability issues are of concern in two areas; (1) building envelope performance under wind-induced deformations, and (2) occupant discomfort due to building motion. Thus many design modifications are explicitly incorporated, be they aerodynamic or structural, to improve the performance of structure to meet the serviceability or perception requirements. Before discussing the various aerodynamic techniques to reduce the wind-induced responses, serviceability requirements are briefly discussed in subsequent paragraph. For the performance of the building envelope to be adequate, the peak interstorey drift must not exceed 1/300 to 1/500 of the storey height under unfactored loads, although this criterion may vary depending on type of cladding or glazing and cladding attachment details. In absolute terms, interstory drift should not exceed 10 mm unless special details allow nonstructural partitions, cladding, or glazing to accommodate larger drift. However this criterion must also be qualified, depending on specific building features (Simiu and Miyata [13]). Occupant comfort is affected by the visual perception of building oscillations. Windinduced motions have various categories like the sway motion of the first two bending modes termed along and acrosswind motions, a higher mode of torsional motion about the vertical axis, or for buildings with stiffness and mass irregularities, complex bending and torsion in the lower modes. Any of these motions can be quite unnerving and unsettling to the occupants and symptoms may range from concern, anxiety, fear to headaches. MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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It is hypothesized that occupant comfort is affected by rapid changes of acceleration, but unfortunately, no criteria based on such changes have been developed so far. The occupant perception of accelerations is highly uncertain and complex, therefore criteria on acceptable accelerations vary among codes and practioners. For example, in typical North American practice the allowable peak ground acceleration with 10-year MRIs is taken as 10-15 milli-g (0.1-0.15 m/s2) at the top floor for residential buildings and 20-25 milli-g (0.2-0.25 m/s2) for office buildings. However, it has been determined that acceptable acceleration levels decrease as the oscillation frequency increases, so it has been suggested that these limits be reduced for higher frequencies of vibration, from the values stated above, which are assumed to be valid for frequencies of 0.1 Hz, to about half of those values for frequencies of 1 Hz (Simiu and Miyata [13]). British standard defines the comfort criterion as complaint by more than 2% of people in the upper floors of the building during the worst 10 minutes of a storm with a return period of 1 in 5 years.

Fig:1.7

Fig:2.8

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SHAPE EFFECTS ON THE WIND-INDUCED RESPONSE OF HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS This RESEARCH explored the effect of building shape on the wind-induced response of a structure through a comprehensive investigation of wind tunnel studies performed at Rowan Williams Davies and Irwin, Inc. (RWDI). The study focused on buildings with foot prints of square, circular, triangular, rectangular and elliptical shapes. Seed buildings were selected from an inventory of structures previously tested in a low-speed boundary layer wind tunnel (BLWT). The measured wind tunnel data for each of the sample seeds were factored to match a representative building shape at full scale for comparison purposes. Load patterns attributed to the cross-sectional shape of the structure were observed in the results. To provide a baseline value for the wind loads, the computed responses for the seeds were compared against the values given by the 2005 National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) and the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 7-05 Standard. The base load comparisons illustrated how certain building shapes perform in wind events. Key words: shape effects, bluff bodies, base loads, tall buildings, wind performance, boundary layer wind tunnel

INTRODUCTION Bluff body aerodynamics plays a critical role in the determination of the principal response of a high-rise building. Tall buildings can be susceptible to excessive motion during wind events that can cause occupant discomfort and reduce the overall appeal of the structure (Kareem, 1992). Furthermore, these excessive motions can create high base loads, which can increase the cost of the structure. Structural engineers generally opt for optimizing the structural system or increasing modal mass to reduce wind-induced motion, as discussed by Kareem (1983). Building motions can also be mitigated by supplemental damping systems, as explained by Brazil et al. (2006) and Breukelman and Haskett (2001). However, consideration of building shape can also lead to improved wind performance (Irwin 2008, and Irwin et al. 1998). This study looked to identify general wind loading patterns for common building shapes, with the objective of encouraging designers to consider bluff body aerodynamics early in the design process. Shape effects, from a wind engineering perspective, have been investigated by Davenport (1971), via aerodynamic model tests. Hayashida and Iwasa (1990) also examined shape effects on super tall building using rigid models. Corner modifications and their impact on aerodynamic forces were studied in detail by Dutton and Isyumov (1990), Kawai (1998) and Tamura and Miyagi (1999). The present study looks to expand on and support past research, by examining the wind loading patterns on various shapes on a direction by direction basis. The computed wind loads are also benchmarked against two international building standards, the NBCC 2005 and the ASCE 7-2005. Fig:2.9

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The present study further strengthens this approach by utilizing aerodynamic model studies for actual buildings using high-frequency force balance (HFFB) method conducted by the RWDI group of companies. The HFFB method is a commonly used technique in determining the wind-induced response of tall building. The method, also referred to as the high-frequency base balance, was originally developed by Tschanz and Davenport (1983), and has been in practice for many years as a cost effective way of measuring wind induced loads. The HFFB methodology includes collecting a time history of the base loads (shear forces, bending moments and torsion) on a scaled aerodynamic model in a boundary layer wind tunnel. The rigid aerodynamic model is mounted on a special six degree-offreedom load cell to measure the base loads, while the inertial loads are evaluated analytically. The dynamic loads and computed inertial loads are then combined to provide the peak design loads. The basic assumption in HFFB tests is that feedback due to aeroelastic effects (i.e. building motions) is negligible compared to the aerodynamic and inertial forces. As such, reasonable windinduced responses can be obtained by testing a rigid model in a boundary layer wind tunnel. The scaled aerodynamic model, while replicating the shape of the study building, should be light and rigid to avoid any resonance effects due to model vibration and have a flat spectral response due to high damping. For the present study, aerodynamic models with a resonant frequency in the order of approximately 100 Hz were used. While the time histories of the base loads are scaled appropriately to provide the mean and background loads for the test building at full scale, the resonant components are obtained analytically by solving the equation of motion (Tschanz and Davenport (1983), Boggs and Peterka (1989), Xie and Irwin (1998)). The equation of motion governing the fundamental mode of vibration of a tall structure using generalized coordinates is given by Eq. (1),

Fig:2.10

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where H and M are the height and base moment of the building, respectively. Since the wind induced Generalized force is known via wind tunnel testing, we can use the structural dynamic properties of the full scale building and assumed damping ratios to solve for the unknowns on the left hand side of Eq. (1).This process is usually carried out in the frequency domain. The power spectral density, Sp * ( f ) Sp * ( f ) ,for the base moment is computed first using Eq. (3). The generalized response load for each mode can be obtained by integrating the area under the spectral density function (Eq. 3), as shown in Eq. (4). The contributions from each mode will be combined by using square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) method to obtain the total generalized response 2 2 T T s s . S(ÂŚ)S(ÂŚ) represents the mean square spectral density,, commonly referred to as the power spectral density (PSD).

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SHAPE SELECTION Common building shapes were selected for inclusion in this study. Figure 1 presents a photo of a seed building for each the shapes studied. Sample seeds were sought to have open surroundings to avoid unique project specific wind effects caused by adjacent structures. From the database, four buildings for each of the five basic building footprints considered were identified. Details of the sample seeds, including shape, width, height, aspect ratio and slenderness ratio, are presented in Appendix A (dimensions shown in full scale meters). The study also considered seeds for various Reynold's numbers (Re), which should be acknowledged when considering the results. The variation of Re for the various experiments was limited to ±150,000.

EXPERIMENT PARAMETERS The cross-section of each of the seed buildings matched one of the five study shapes, however, the height and width of the seed was varied. The previous section outlined the methodology to normalize the wind loading data collected from the seed buildings to correspond to a representative cylinder of nominal dimensions. The full scale dimensions and coordinate origins for each of the representative cylinders are shown in Figure. The height of the representative cylinders were taken to be 150 m at full scale.

Fig:2.11

Definition of representative cylinders shapes.

where R R g g is the resonant peak factor (Tschanz and Davenport, 1983); T is the observation time 1 1 f f is the natural frequency; and, 1 1 z z is critical damping ratio. The peak response of the building, RˆRˆ , can then be determined by summing the mean loading with the root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the background and resonant components, as shown in Eq. (10).

Following this methodology, the resulting wind loads, derived from the seed buildings, correspond to a common geometry and can be compared on a direction by direction basis to identify general wind loads trends on common building shapes.

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Fig:2.12 Figure illustrates that the wind loads experienced by the elliptical cylinder in the Xdirection (Fx, My) are significantly less than the code wind loads. The drag coefficient for an ellipse in the X-direction gives an indication that the wind load experienced by the elliptical cylinder will be considerably less than that calculated for a rectangle. Since the code provisions assume a rectangular section, it seems logical that the X-direction loads on an ellipse would be less than the code predictions. Again, this presents an opportunity for savings through the utilization of BLWT testing. The Y-direction loads (Fy, Mx) fall in line with thecode values. High dynamic loads caused by vortex induced oscillation were not apparent in any of the plots. MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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Shape Effects on the Wind-Induced Response of High-Rise Buildings Seed Building Information

Fig:2.13

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2.1.2. PARAMETRIC DESIGN What is parametric design ? There is no precise definition and there are other related terms and synonyms: generative, computational, digital, computer aided, associative. Basically it's far more sophisticated than using computer instead of drawing board. Often when You draw/model your concept, You follow certain operations which are monotone and repetitive, they are algorithms and what's for sure computers are best at algorithms, so why should You do it manually ? For example, think of an elevation with windows, each window must have an area equal to 1/8 of room's floor area. It's simple, but when next day You'll decide that 1/7 will do better, and there are 1000 windows ? Let the computer handle this algorithm! Another example: You've designed a bench with organic form and wish it'll be made of wood horizontal slices. You need slices' plans and numbers for fabrication and assembly. Easy!

What is it for ?

Fig:2.14

Everyday objects, data mapping and visualization, elevations, structures, floor plans, urban plans. In my opinion floor plans and urban plans should be done in very limited amount, because they are synthetic and context-aware. Such algorithms are extremely hard to figure out. Parametric design is another tool for designers, architects, as any tool You have to learn it to make benefits of it, and benefits are impressive.

Visual code It's quite easy to distinguish something designed using parameters and algorithms from the rest, so it gives us a message "I'm contemporary, I was rethinked:)"

Parametricism - A New Global Style for Architecture and Urban Design Patrik Schumacher, London 2008 Abstract: Though parametricism has its roots in the digital animation techniques of the mid-1990s, it has only fully emerged in recent years with the development of advanced parametric design systems. Parametricism has become the dominant, single style for avantgarde practice today. It is particularly suited to large-scale urbanism as exemplified by a series of competition-winning master-plans by Zaha Hadid Architects.

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There is a global convergence in recent avant-garde architecture that justifies the enunciation of a new style: Parametricism. The style is rooted in digital animation techniques. Its latest refinements are based on advanced parametric design systems and scripting techniques. This style has been developed over the last 15 years and is now claiming hegemony within avant-garde architecture. It succeeds modernism as a new long wave of systematic innovation. The style finally closes the transitional period of uncertainty that was engendered by the crisis of modernism and that was marked by a series of short lived episodes including Postmodernism, Deconstructivism, and Minimalism. Parametricism is the great new style after modernism. The new style claims relevance on all scales from architecture and interior design to large scale urban design. The larger the scale of the project the more pronounced is parametricism’s superior capacity to articulate programmatic complexity. The urbanist potential of parametricism has been explored in a three year research agenda at the AADRL - Parametric Urbanism – and demonstrated by a series of competition winning masterplans by Zaha Hadid Architects.

Zaha Hadid Archiects, Kartal-Pendik Masterplan, Istanbul, Turkey, 2006 Fabric study. The urban fabric comprises both cross towers and perimeter blocks. The image shows the morphological range of the perimeter block type. Blocks are split into four quadrants allowing for a secondary, pedestrian path system.

Fig:2.15 At certain network crossing points the block system is assimilated to the tower system: each block sponsors one of the quadrants to form a pseudo tower around a network crossing point. Recently we witnessed an accelerated, cumulative build up of virtuosity, resolution and refinement, facilitated by the attendant development of parametric design tools and scripts that allow the precise formulation and execution of intricate correlations between elements and subsystems. The shared concepts, computational techniques, formal repertoires, and tectonic logics that characterize this work are crystallizing into a solid new hegemonic paradigm for architecture. MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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I.

Parametricism as Style

Avant-garde architecture and urbanism are going through a cycle of innovative adaptation – retooling and adapting the discipline to the demands of the socio-economic era of post-fordism. The mass society that was characterized by a universal consumption standard has evolved into the heterogenous society of the multitude, marked by a proliferating life-style and career differentiation. Architecture and urbanism are called upon to organize and articulate the increased complexity of post-fordist society. Contemporary avant-garde architecture and urbanism is addressing this societal demand via a rich panoply of parametric design techniques. However, we are confronted with a new style rather than just with a new set of techniques. The techniques in questions – the employment of animation, simulation and form-finding tools, as well as parametric modelling and scripting - have inspired a new collective movement with radically new ambitions and values. This has lead to many new, systematically connected design problems that are being worked on competitively within a global network of design researchers.1 Over and above aesthetic recognisability, it is this wide-spread, long-term consistency of shared design ambitions/problems that justifies the enunciation of a style in the sense of an epochal phenomenon.2 We propose to call this style: Parametricism. Parametricism is a mature style. There has been talk about “continuous differentiation”3, versioning, iteration and mass customization etc. for quite a while within the architectural avant-garde discourse.

Fig:2.16 Parametricism emerges from the creative exploitation of parametric design systems in view of articulating increasingly complex social processes and institutions. The parametric design tools themselves cannot account for this profound shift in style from modernism to parametricism. This is evidenced by the fact that late modernist architects are employing parametric tools in ways which result in the maintenance of a modernist aesthetics, i.e. using parametric modelling to inconspicuously absorb complexity. The parametricist sensibility pushes in the opposite direction and aims for a maximal emphasis on conspicuous differentiation and the visual amplification differentiating logics. Aesthetically it is the elegance4 of ordered complexity and the sense of seamless fluidity, akin to natural systems, that is the hallmark of parametricism. MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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II. Styles as Design Research Programmes Avant-garde styles might be interpreted and evaluated in analogy to new scientific paradigms, affording a new conceptual framework, and formulating new aims, methods and values. Thus a new direction for concerted research work is established.5 My thesis is therefore: Styles are design research programmes.6 Innovation in architecture proceeds via the progression of styles so understood. This implies the alternation between periods of cumulative advancement within a style and revolutionary periods of transition between styles. Styles represent cycles of innovation, gathering the design research efforts into a collective endeavor. Stable self-identity is here as much a necessary precondition of evolution as it is in the case of organic life. To hold on to the new principles in the face of difficulties is crucial for the chance of eventual success. This is incompatible with an understanding of styles as transient fashions. Basic principles and methodologies need to be preserved and defended with tenacity in the face of initial difficulties and setbacks. Each style has its hard core of principles and a characteristic way of tackling design problems/tasks. The programme/style consists of methodological rules: some tell us what paths of research to avoid (negative heuristics), and others what paths to pursue (positive heuristics). The negative heuristics formulates strictures that prevent the relapse into old patterns that are not fully consistent with the core, and thepositive heuristics offers guiding principles and preferred techniques that allow the work to fast-forward in one direction. III. Defining Heuristics and Pertinent Agendas The defining heuristics of parametricism are fully reflected in the taboos and dogmas of contemporary avant-gared design culture: Negative heuristics (taboos): avoid rigid geometric primitives like squares, triangles and circles, avoid simple repetition of elements, avoid juxtaposition of unrelated elements or systems. Positive heuristics (dogmas): consider all forms to be parametrically malleable, differentiate gradually (at variant rates), inflect and correlate systematically. The current stage of advancement within parametricism relates as much to the continuous advancement of the attendant computational design processes as it is due to the designer’s realization of the unique formal and organizational opportunities that are afforded by these processes. Parametricism can only exist via the continuous advancement and sophisticated appropriation of computational geometry. Finally, computationally advanced design techniques like scripting (in Mel-script or Rhino-script) and parametric modeling (with tools like GC or DP) are becoming a pervasive reality. Today it is impossible to compete within the contemporary avant-garde scene without mastering and advancing these techniques. However, the advancement of techniques should go hand in hand with the formulation of further ambitions and agendas. The following 5 agendas are to inject new aspects into the parametric paradigm and to push parametricism further: 1.Parametric Inter-articulation of Sub-systems: The ambition is to move from single system differentiation – e.g. a swarm of façade components - to the scripted association of multiple subsystems – envelope, structure, internal subdivision, navigation void. The differentiation in any one systems is correlated with differentions in the other systems. MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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2.Parametric Accentuation: The ambition is to enhance the overall sense of organic integration through correlations that favour deviation amplification rather than compensatory adaptations. The associated system should accentuate the initial differentiation. Thus a far richer articulation can be achieved and more orienting visual information can be made available. 3.Parametric Figuration7: We propose that complex configurations that are latent with multiple readings can be constructed as a parametric model with extremely figuration-sensitive variables. Parametric variations trigger “gestalt-catastrophes”, i.e. the quantitative modification of these parameters trigger qualitative shifts in the perceived configuration. Beyond object parameters, ambient parameters and observer parameters have to be integrated into the parametric system. 4.Parametric Responsiveness8: Urban and architectural environments receive an inbuilt kinetic capacity that allows those environments to reconfigure and adapt themselves in response to prevalent occupation patterns. The real time registration of use-patterns drives the real time kinetic adaptation. The built environment thus acquires responsive agency at different time scales. 5.Parametric Urbanism9 - Deep Relationality: The assumption is that the urban massing describes a swarm-formation of many buildings whereby lawful continuities cohere this manifold of buildings. The systematic modulation of morphologies produces powerful urban effects and facilitates field orientation. Our ambition is deep relationality, i.e. to integrate the building morphology - all the way to the detailed tectonic articulation and the interior organisation. Parametric Urbanism might involve parametric accentuation, parametric figuration, and parametric responsiveness as registers to fulfill its ambition of deep relationality. Frei Otto, Apparatus for computing minimal path systems, Institute for Lightweight Structures (ILEK), Stuttgart, 1988 The analogue model finds the minimal path system, that is, the system connects a distributed set of given points, thus the overall length of the path system is minimised. Each point is reached but there is a considerable imposition of detours between some pairs of points. The system is a tree (branching system) without any redundant connections. Marek Kolodziejczyk, Wool-thread model to compute optimised detour path networks, Fig:2.17 Institute for Lightweight Structures (ILEK), Stuttgart, 1991 Depending on the adjustable parameter of the thread’s sur-length, the apparatus – through the fusion of threads – computes a solution that significantly reduces the overall length of the path system while maintaining a low average detour factor. MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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The result is an elegant, coherently differentiated city-scape that facilitates navigation through its lawful constitution and through the architectural accentuation of both global and local field properties. This much might be possible to institute with the imposition of strict planning guidelines using building lines and height regulation. Political and private buy-in is required. All constituencies need to be convinced that the individual restrictions placed upon all sites really deliver a worth-while collective value: the unique character and coherent order of the urban field that all players benefit from if adherence can be enforced. Ordered complexity here replaces the monotony of older planned developments and the disorienting visual chaos that marks virtually all unregulated contemporary city expansions. To go further yet, in terms of our concept of deep relationality, we have to extend our involvement from urbanism to architecture. Only then we can further intensify the accentuating correlations, involving the systematic modulation of tectonic features. For instance, in terms of the calligraphy blocks - a third perimeter block variation that has been designed to both open up the interior of parcels and to cross parcels – we use a continuous facade differentiation that leads from the street-side to the courtyard on the basis of an initial distinction of external and internal facades. Another moment of deep articulation is the coordination of landscape and public spaces, and the correlation of the secondary path-system with the disposition of internal navigation systems.

Calligraphy blocks – tectonic detail. The articulation of the facades is a function of the location within the urban field. The exterior of the blocks is given a heavier relief than the interior. Where a block opens up and the public space flows into the private courtyard, a semiprivate zone is articulated via the gradient transformation between the outer and inner articulation.

Fig:2.18 Doubts might be felt when confronted with the possibility of designing an urban field of up to 6 million squaremeter gross area with a single design team. Are we overstretching our capacity here? The more we are confronted with large scale development of this kind the more confident we grow that the tools and strategies we are deploying under the banner of parametricism can indeed deliver something that produces a decisive surplus value if compared with the usual alternative of uncoordinated, arbitrary juxtapositions. The contemporary choice of typologies, construction options and styles is simply too large to expect the underlying pragmatic logics to become legible. The result is a cacophony of pure difference. Parametricism is able to further coordinate pragmatic concerns and articulate them with all their rich differentiations and relevant associations. The danger of overriding real-life richness is minimized because variety and adaptiveness are written into the very genetic make-up of parametricism. MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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2.1.3. SUSTAINABLE STRATIGIES BIPV FACADE Bio Photovoltaic Panel Produces Energy From Bacteria In Soil. The Bio-photovoltaic Panel Consists Of A Battery In Which Energy Is Harvested From Bacteria Inside The Soil To Release Electrons. Installed At The Valldaura Campus Of The Institute For Advanced Architecture Of Catalonia, The System Has Sensors That Display Its Status, As Well As Make It Self Sufficient. The Bacteria Is Fed Through By-products From The Photosynthesis Of Plants, And By Introducing An Anode And Cathode (Battery) Into The Soil, The Free Electrons Can Be Extracted And Put Into The Circuit. Bacteria Living In The Soil Takes These Plant Nutrients And Metabolizes Them, Releasing Hydrogen Protons And Electrons – The Introduction Of A Microbial Fuel Cell, Anode And Cathode Means A Redox Process Occurs, Transferring The Free Electons In The Soil From Anode To Cathode. By Connecting A Circuit With A Capacitor Or Step-down Converter Into The Fuel Cell, It Is Possible To Use This Source Of Flow To Power Appliances Or Any Other Electrical Device.

Fig:2.19

How It Works ? Each of the components that form the BPV have certain parameters that may be changed to control the processes and efficiency of the output – the type of plant that grows, whether its edible or decorative, the soil characterístics that enable microbial growth, the type of soil that makes the electron transfer, and the battery’s materials and composition all help to determine the efficiency for the way the electrons are gathered and transferred.

Fig:1.2

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Based on the results of the experiment, the following relationships where found: 1. 100% saturated soil produces the best results since the water in the medium promotes electrolysis within the soil. 2. the closer the anode and cathode are placed the more efficient the electron transfer is. 3. the relationship between the soil volume and the cathode’s area does not grow as volume grows. 4. a triangle container is more efficient. 5. the coil cathode maximizes the surface for the bacteria to gather around, hence it is the most efficient electron collector. 6. all soil types yield similar results, hence have similar bacteria count.

DESIGN STRATEGY, VORONOI TESSELLATION Voltage and amperage were measured in all the experiments, and even though voltage was always present, no amperes were observed. the containers were connected in series to increase the voltage and still there was no amperage. to get amperage, the batteries must be connected to a capacitor or step down converter. The maximum voltage had to be conserved, while at the same time allowing enough space for the plant’s roots to grow. to achieve both results, a voronoi tessellation was applied, which allowed for the cells to contain the batteries and keep the triangular proportion, while giving the plant more volume to spread it’s roots.

The irrigation system incorporates a voronoi tessellation, making it possible to reach more plant cells (batteries) with only once cell of water. to ensure that all of these were kept at a 100% saturation, a water base was created to connect the plant cells with the water cells via a tube, and also keep the water bed height constant throughout. MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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Materials And Fabrication

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FINAL PRODUCT Having tested the different components and networks in previous prototypes, the final one incorporates an automation system that controls the irrigation and a data logger to monitor the variables that affect the plant’s growth. a customized design was also developed where the user can create his/her own panel design and send it to be fabricated to the fablab. the fabrication procedure consists of milling the panel in polysteryne and applying coats of ruber and epoxy resin to stiffen and waterproof it. afterwards, the wiring and electronics are assembled and the soil and moss placed. finally, the finishing is laser cut and glued to the exposed surfaces.

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The prototype incorporates the voronoi pattern in three different levels of the leaf – each vary in size, the first one is big and gives rigidity to the piece, the second subdivides the different battery clusters, and the third, the smallest, contains the battery cells. an arduino is powered by the batteries and controls the sensors for the data and water pump of the irrigation. each panel is 2x1m and 10cm thick made of polystyrene coated in epoxy resin. a wood finishing is applied to give coherence and rigidity to the whole. The fabrication process starts with the design of the panel and 3D model, which is sent to the milling machine to turn it into a polysteryne panel of 2x1m and 10cm thick – a process that takes 9 hours. when the polysteryne is milled, it can move along to be coated in latex, firstly close to the pores so that less epoxy resin is needed.

After the resin is applied, the circuit is connected with each of the small voronoi cells, containing a galvanized steel wire coil as anode and a copper wire coil as cathode. these are joined in a series with the surrounding the cells. after the irrigation system is applied, the wires and plumbing are sealed on the bottom with a layer of fiber and two epoxy resin coats – adding rigidity to the base, while holding the wires and cables in place. once everything is sealed and water proofed, the saturated soil is placed to make contact with the anode and cathode. once the soil is in place, the moss is then planted into it in the different individual cells.

Detail Of The Irrigation System

Milling Process

Fig:2.20

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2.1.4. CYCLONE RESISTANT ARCHITECTURE RESEARCH ON CYCLONE RESISTANT ARCHITECTURE Design of the House We do have control over the shape of new buildings and shape is the most important single factor in determining the performance of buildings in cyclones. Simple, compact, symmetrical shapes are best. The square plan is better than the rectangle since it allows high winds to go around them. The rectangle is better than the L-shaped plan. This is not to say that all buildings must be square. But it is to say that one must be aware of the implications of design decisions and take appropriate action to counter negative features. The best shape to resist high winds is a square.

Fig:2.21 IMAGES SOURCE: CYCLONE RESISTANT ARCHITECTURE BY ANKUSH AGRAWAL If other shapes are desired, efforts should be made to strengthen the corners. If longer shapes are used, they must be designed to withstand the forces of the wind. Most houses are rectangular and the best layout is when the length is not more than three (3) times the width. In case of construction of group of buildings, a cluster arrangement can be followed in preference to row type.(Agrawal, 2007)

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Roofs Lightweight flat roofs are easily blown off in high winds. In order to lessen the effect of the uplifting forces on the roof, the roof Pitch should not be less than 22º. Hip roofs are best, they have been found to be more cyclone resistant than gable roofs. General Design Considerations 2. Avoid a low pitched roof, use a hip roof or a high pitched gable roof. 3. Avoid overhanging roofs. If overhangs or canopies are desired, they should be braced by ties held to the main structures. 4. Avoid openings which cannot be securely closed during a cyclone. Where openings are already in existence, cyclone shutters should be provided. Overhangs, patios and verandahs experience high wind pressures and should be kept short and Small • Avoid large overhangs as high wind force build up under them. • Overhangs should not be more than 18 inches at verges or eaves. • Build verandah and patio roofs as separate structures rather than extensions of the main building. • They may blow off without damaging the rest of the house. Securing the Ridge If the rafters are not secure, the ridge can fall apart when strong wind passes over the roof. The ridge can be secured by using:(i) COLLAR TIES - Timbers connecting the rafters. Nail them to the side of the rafters. (ii) GUSSETS - Usually made of steel/plywood. This is used at the ridge. (iii) METAL STRAPS over the top of the rafters. Securing the corrugated galvanized sheets The sheets are gauged by numbers. The Higher the number the thinner the material. Example 24 gauge galvanized sheet is superior to 28 gauge. (i) How does roof sheeting fail in cyclones? (ii) Failure in roofs If the sheeting is too thin or there are too few fittings, the nails or screws may tear through the sheet. (iii) If galvanized sheets are used, 24 gauge is recommended. (iv) How to secure sheeting to the roof structure, use • Fixings every two (2) corrugation at ridges, eaves and overhangs. • Fixings every three (3) corrugation. Maximum spacing at all other locations or use galvanised iron flats under the fixings. MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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(v) Fixings for sheetings Use fittings with a broad washer or dome head (zinc nail). To use more fixings for each sheet, put in the laths at closer centres and nail closer together. Screws • Use proper drive crews for corrugated galvanized roof sheets. • Be sure that the screws go into the purlins at least fifty (50) mm. • use large washers under the screw heads to prevent the roof sheets from tearing when pulled upward by high winds. Nails • Nails do not hold as well as screws. • Use nails with wide heads and long enough to bend over below the lath. • Galvanized coated nails are better than ordinary wire nails. Laths spacing and fixing • Spacing for laths and number of fixings will vary with the gauge of sheeting used. • Screws hold better than nails so fewer screws can be used. But the sheeting must be thick or they will tear through. • Laths should be placed closer together for thin sheets to provide space for extra fixings. • A guide to the number of fixings and spacing of laths is shown below.

Clay tile roofs:- Because of lower dead weight, these may be unable to resist the uplifting force and thus experience heavy damage, particularly during cyclones. Anchoring of roof tiles in R.C. strap beams is recommended for improved cyclone resistance. As alternative to the bands, a cement mortar screed, reinforced with galvanized chicken mesh, may be laid over the high suction areas of the tiled roof. Note:- Covering the entire tile roof with concrete or ferro-cement will prevent natural breathing through the tiles and will make them thermally uncomfortable. Thatch roof: - Thatched roof should be properly tied down to wooden framing underneath by using organic or nylon ropes in diagonal pattern. The spacing of rope should be kept 450 mm or less so as to hold down the thatch length. For connecting the wooden members, use of non corrodible fixtures should be made. If non-metallic elements are used, these may need frequent replacement. After a cyclone warning is received, all the lighter roofs should be held down by a rope net and properly anchored to ground. (i) Sheeted roofs:- A reduced spacing of bolts, ¾ of that admissible as per IS:800, recommended. For normal connections, J bolts may be used but for cyclone resistant connections U – bolts are recommended. Alternatively a strap may be used at least along MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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edges to fix cladding with the purlins to avoid punching through the sheet. Properly connected M.S. flat can be used as reinforcing band in high suction zones. The corrugated sheeting should be properly overlapped (at least 2 1/2 corrugation) to prevent water from blowing under the seam. Spaces between the sheeting and the wall plate should be closed up to prevent the wind from getting under the sheeting and lifting it. This can be done by nailing a fascia board to the wall plate and rafters. (ii) Clay tile roofs:- Because of lower dead weight, these may be unable to resist the uplifting force and thus experience heavy damage, particularly during cyclones. Anchoring of roof tiles in R.C. strap beams is recommended for improved cyclone resistance. As alternative to the bands, a cement mortar screed, reinforced with galvanized chicken mesh, may be laid over the high suction areas of the tiled roof. Note:- Covering the entire tile roof with concrete or ferro-cement will prevent natural breathing through the tiles and will make them thermally uncomfortable. (iii)Thatch roof: - Thatched roof should be properly tied down to wooden framing underneath by using organic or nylon ropes in diagonal pattern. The spacing of rope should be kept 450 mm or less so as to hold down the thatch length. For connecting the wooden members, use of non corrodible fixtures should be made. If non-metallic elements are used, these may need frequent replacement. After a cyclone warning is received, all the lighter roofs should be held down by a rope net and properly anchored to ground. (iv)Anchoring of roof framing to wall/posts:- The connection of roof framing to the vertical load resisting elements i.e. wall or post, by providing properly designed anchor bolts and base plates is equally important for overall stability of the roof. The anchoring of roof framing to masonry wall should be accomplished through anchor belts embedded in concrete cores. The weight Connection of roof framing to wall traming (Agrawal, 2007) Anchoring of roof framing in masonry Bracing the raftered roofs of participating masonry at an angle of half horizontal to 1 vertical should be more that the total uplift at the support. In case of large forces, the anchoring bars can be taken down to the foundation level with a structural layout that could ensure the participation of filler and cross walls in resisting the uplift. (v) Bracing:- Adequate diagonal or knee bracing should be provided both at the rafter level and the eaves level in a pitched roof. The purlins should be properly anchored at the gable end. It is desirable that at least two bays, one at each end, be braced both in horizontal and vertical plane to provide adequate wind resistance. Where number of bays is more than 5, use additional bracing in every fourth bay.

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Wall Openings Openings in general are areas of weakness and stress concentration, but needed essentially for light and ventilation. The following are recommended in respect of openings. (i) Openings in load bearing walls should not be within a distance of h/6 from inner corner for the purpose of providing lateral support to cross walls, where ‘h’ is the storey height upto eave level. (ii) Openings just below roof level be avoided except that two small vents without shutter should be provided in opposite walls to prevent suffocation in case room gets filled with water and people may try to climb up on lofts or pegs. (iii) Since the failure of any door or window on the wind-ward side may lead to adverse uplift pressures under roof, the openings should have strong holdfasts as well as closing/locking arrangement.

CONCLUSION/ADVICES THE TEN KEY PRINCIPLES OF CYCLONE RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION

Choose the location carefully to avoid the full force of the wind or flooD. Use building layout with a simple regular shape, to avoid concentration of pressure. Build the roof at an angle of 30° to 45° to prevent it being lifted off by the wind. Avoid wide roof overhangs; separate the veranda structure from the house. Make sure the foundations, walls, and roof structure are all firmly fixed together. Reinforce the bracing in the structure; strengthen walls and joints/ junctions to increase stiffness. Make sure the roof covering is firmly attached to the roof structure to prevent it from lifting. If doors & shutters cannot be shut, make sure there are opposing openings to reduce pressure build up.

Use doors and shutters that can be closed. Plant trees around the house as wind breaks and reduce flow of water, but not too close.

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2.2. CASE STUDIES 2.2.1. PRIMARY STUDY

Kovalam Beach Resort, KERALA Architect-Charles Correa

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Kovalam, one Of India's most spectacular beaches, is just north Of Kanyakumari along the Arabian Sea. With this project the client intended to initiate Kovalam's development as a major resort without disturbing the beauty Of the surroundings. The site is adjacent to the Old Kovalam Palace. The project design commenced in 1969 and the first phase Of construction completed in 1974. This phase involved establishing a number Of & cities acting as a catalyst for future The current resort provides 300 beds as well as specialized facilities such as centrcs for yoga and ayurvedic and water sports. The master plan scatters the facilities over the site, rather than concentrating them in one area, thus creating a number Of potential growth points and allowing for a flexible to future demands. In order to pre— serve the site's natural beauty the buildings follow the hill slope: this also means that each room gets its own private terrace for sun— bathing and relaxing. There are also a number Of detached units and independent units Although the Egn is contemporary and is not directly derived from local forms, except for the Beach Centre pavilions which are lightweight bamboo chatris, the buildings refer to the vernacular With the plastered white walls, red tiled roofs and sundecks. The interiors utilise light furnishings, matting on the floors and Simple Indian crafted finishes.

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Concern for architecture With a capital "A" — good design which adds to the joy of living — is embedded in Correa's being. His eye for beauty in form and content characterizes many of his works: most notably private houses and hotels. His holiday Resort Hotels perhaps best illustrate his experiments with ideas related to the visual aspects of architecture. (Correa has so far not tackled the Businessmen's or Central City Hotel types, but concentrates on buildings for recreation.) He sees no contradiction between serving the rich and the poor and, within the Indian context, sees them as two ends of a spectrum that both complement and contradict each other. He borrows aspects of design normally associated with the rich and includes them in buildings for the poor, such as the provision of individual house plots, a concern for exterior spaces, the tiled roof dwelling, climatically responsive buildings, and so on. And conversely borrows ideas from the poor and more traditional people to use in dwellings for the rich, such as his use of decoration/ painting of buildings, forms, materials, etc. This goes beyond mere image-making: it is the transfer and transformation of ideas from one context to another. Cidade de Goa, reality and illusion through pamnng and colour. The hotels with which Correa's office has been involved have been small to mid-sized structures situated in locations that call for a definite attitude to view, atmosphere and climate. The sizes and sittings were signifi- cant as they gave the architect a greater freedom in which to realise his ideas. Additionally, he was dealing with the upper economic brackets and could cater to more re— fined tastes and indulge himself in some play— fullness. In Correa's Early Works his dedication to expressing form, materials, climate and one major concept per building in general led him to use concrete, brick, and other materials in their unadorned state. As time went on, he began to work with colour and Kasturba Samadhi, platforms and views creating texture; and in this he was significantly influenced by his wife Monika, an artist in her own right, who is a textile designer and weaver. As Correa remembers: She helped with the interiors of some of the work, in particular the KuNdils at the Kovalam Beach development. And also of course Cicada de Goa and Bay Island Hotel. She also helped me in the use Of colour. I had always felt Le Corbusier's primary palette (red, blue, green, yellow, etc.) a bit too simplistic and crude — especially in contrast to what I could see all around me in India — but I didn't know how to bring these other values into architecture. Understanding Monika's interest in textiles and weaving helped a great deal in making a breakthrough' '.1 And it was Indeed a

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ROOMS AND SUITES Soothing dĂŠcor, warm aesthetics, and graceful elegance. Natural richness in every amenity, every detail. Spoil yourself in Indian opulence found only at The Leela Kovalam. Choose from a variety of suites and rooms. Each offers exquisite amenities with inspiring views. THE CLUB Exclusive facilities and services including personalised butlers, private lounge and dining access and stunning sea views. PRESIDENTIAL SUITE A two bedroom suite (king sized beds) with separate living cum dining area. Dramatically sited on a rocky ledge with private sun decks - just a short walk from the beach. A blend of local tropical architecture and contemporary modern makes these fully equipped rooms both relaxing and functional. Size: 1506 square feet Location: The Club View: Ocean

DUPLEX SUITE Perhaps the ultimate in ocean-front luxury, this two-level suite features a living room and private balcony on one level with an opulent bedroom upstairs looking out over the Arabian Sea. The suite comes with exclusive access to fine dining, spa and fitness centre, ocean rim infinity pool and library with cigar room. Each suite is part of The Leela Kovalam Club, an exclusive hotel-within-a-hoteland use of the gym and ocean rim infinity pool. Size: 1,291 square feet Location: The Club View: Ocean

CLUB SUITE A Club Suite is nearly twice the size of a Club Room. The extra space is taken up with expanded work spaces, five-feature daylight bathrooms and private decks with sun beds. The suites are spacious, luxurious and offer contemporary luxury in a spacious, open setting. Each suite is part of The Leela Kovalam Club, an exclusive hotel-within-a-hotel., and use of the gym and ocean rim infinity pool. •Complementary use of gym and ocean rim infinity pool Room size: 840 square feet Location: The Club View: Ocean

CLUB ROOM The Club Rooms offer a superior level of comfort and service. Each room is equipped with a stocked private bar, plasma TV, DVD and Wi-Fi among a list of extras. The views of the Arabian Sea are stunning, while the rooms offer a relaxing, stylish environment. Highly functional work stations and daylight bathrooms are just part of the package. Each Club Room is part of The Leela Kovalam Club, an exclusive hotel-within-a-hotel. Room size: 386 square feet Location: The Club View: Ocean

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THE ROYAL CLUB Presidential Suite

140 sq m

The Club

Ocean

Duplex Suite

120 sq m

The Club

Ocean

Club Suite

72 sq m

The Club

Ocean

Club Room

36 sq m

The Club

Ocean

Garden View

44 sq m

Near beach

Garden

Beach View

46 sq m

Main Block

Beach

GUEST ROOMS

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ROOMS BEACH VIEW Get away from it all in a cliff-top room with private balcony overlooking the Arabian sea. Inside the tradition Kerala décor is complimented by modern furnishings and a high level of equipment including Wi-Fi. Size: 495 square feet Location: Main Block View: Beach GARDEN VIEW The ultimate in privacy and relaxation. These rooms are located on the beach level and are separate from the main block. Private sun decks open to manicured lawns leading to a short walk to the beach. Each room is equipped with a stocked private bar, Wi-Fi and a list of extras. Size: 474 square feet Location: Near the beach View: Garden

THE BAR The view here is out over the pool to the beach and beyond making the light filled bar a natural meeting place. Ask the barman to create a cocktail just for you. Then you’ll be famous.

SPA/ SALON The Divya Spa is an extraordinary building occupying 8000 square feet right on the cliff top. Divya itself means “light” and it light that defines and inspires everything here from the rooftop yoga pavilion to the views from the treatment rooms. The primary focus of the spa is on Ayurveda treatments with 3 doctors and 20 therapists. The experience is personal and unique. Medicinal plants come fresh from the spa greenhouse. Amenities are world class and the range of treatments extensive.

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Dining THE TERRACE The Terrace sits between sea and sky opposite the infinity pool. It offers a 24-hour buffet service. Fill your plate with the best of Asian, European, Indian and authentic Kerala specialties. Dine indoors or out. Savour the experience.

THE SKYBAR The aptly name Sky Bar is perched on the cliff top, making it one the great locations along the coast to watch the sun set. International tapas and an exhaustive drinks lists will set the tone for your evening.

THE TIDES The open air, a thatched roof and a fresh seafood grill make eating by the beach a breeze. The food is pan-Asian and the setting is unique. Ask about the catch of the day.

THE CAFE AT THE CLUB This exclusive all-day restaurant is where residents of The Club at The Leela Kovalam, can take in a host of Oriental, Continental and Indian delights while also sampling authentic Kerala cuisine. And if the modern interiors aren’t your cup of tea, you can always dine al fresco in one of the intimate gazebos perched on the cliffface.

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FORTUNE RESORT - The Bay Island hotel Port Blair, Andaman Islands Architect-Charles Correa Port Blair, with its deep-blue water harbour is the main town of the Andaman Islands which lie to the south-west of Rangoon in the Bay of Bengal. The islands are inhabited by a number of different tribes, many of whom have had little contact with the out- side world. The Andamans are a world of primordial beauty, of whales and robber crabs; a throwback to the time and voyages of Charles Darwin. The site for the hotel slopes down to the sea from which there is a prevailing breeze. In many parts of India one finds structures which are extraordinarily inventive in their response to prevailing breezes and light. For instance, in the onethousand year old Pad- manabhapuram Palace, built in the hot humid climate of Southern India, the royal pavilion floor is built as a stepped pyramid covered by a tiled pitched roof. This con- figuration has two advantages; it does not need any enclosing walls to keep out the sun and rain, and from within the pavilion the line of vision is both unobstructed and deflected downwards to the cool grass around the building This principle helped generate the design of the Bay Island Hotel. Built up of a series of spaces which overlook grassy land and the sea, the buildings are arranged around court- yards connected by covered corridors. The public areas form a series of decks, cascading down the hill, protected from sun and rain by the large overhanging roofs — a major feature of the scheme. The roofs are constructed of a local redwood known as padauk. The guest rooms are in clusters oftwelve arranged in an L-shape on two levels, giving each room a view of the waters. The lightweight furnishings with their playful imagery were designed by the architects. The murals were executed by Bhiandkar, the film-poster painter who was also responsible for the paintings in the Cidade de Goa project. The hotel can accommodate a total of 100 guests in 50 rooms with space for expansion. The project was commissioned by Mr. Caseem Jadwet and the Indian Tourism Corporation (ITC) in 1979 and construction completed in 1982. MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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2.2.2. SECONDARY STUDY

Bahamas Resort “Honeycomb”

Architects: BIG, HKS, Michael Diggiss Architects Executive Architect: Michael Diggiss Architects (MDA) Client: Tavistock Group / New Valley LLC Developer: Howard M. Lorber, Tavistock Group Area: 175000.0 ft2 Reference: BIG, The New York Times BIG has released plans, alongside collaborators HKS and Michael Diggiss Architects, of a luxury, mid-rise condominium at the Albany Bahamas resort. Located on the south coast of New Providence Island, “The Honeycomb” will offer 34, 3,000 to 8,000 square foot apartments, each complete with a private outdoor pool and summer kitchen integrated into the structure’s hexagonal-shaped facade.

“Our design is driven by an effort to maximize the enjoyment of the abundant natural qualities of Albany in The Bahamas: the landscape, the sea and the sun,” described Bjarke Ingels. “A honeycomb façade functionally supports the pools making them sink into the terrace floor and provides spectacular sight lines while maintaining privacy for each residence. Drawing inspiration from its coastal setting, the hexagonal design evokes the natural geometries you find in certain coral formations or honeycombs.”

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The 175,000 square foot structure will join a triad of condominiums overlooking the resort’s marina. On the ground level, high-end retail is expected to activate a public plaza, whose subtle topography will be informed by the Honeycomb’s geometric facade. Raised hexagons will be transformed into green mounds and integrated seating, while various fountains, located between pathways of hexagonal pavers, supply a network of creeks which feed a shallow pond at the plaza’s center.

The façade’s hexagonal pattern frames views across the island, while balconies not only offer external recreational space, but also provide summer kitchens and pools overlooking the marina. at ground level the patterned elevation merges into the square, establishing a continuous and subtle topography. the hexagonal forms are continued throughout the landscaping which includes green mounds, palm trees and seating. a shallow pond is formed at the center of the plaza and is fed by fountains and creeks scattered across the open expanse.

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The residences in the building offer a variety of floor plans that will suit the diverse lifestyles of its tenants. The residential lobby and high-end retail will activate the public plaza. A golf cart parking and storage units are oriented towards the parking lot on the north, in close proximity to Albany’s championship golf course. MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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On the ground level, the faรงade pattern melts into the pavement of the plaza, creating a subtle topography on the square. Along the edge, various hexagons transform into green mounds with plants, palm trees, and integrated seating. The center of the square is formed by a shallow pond, which is fed by fountains scattered around the plaza, and a network of small creeks between the hexagonal pavers.

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Iuris Relax Hotel Resort Firms

LOVE architecture and urbanism

Location

The Slovak Republic

Area

45,000 m2

SURROUNDING AREA from the project area on the hill it is easy to view the most important spots in the area of Piest`any. the lake view in the south and the view to the mountains in the west give the project area a very valuable orientation. for the relaxation part there is a direct visibility to the old core of Piest`any as well as to the spa island. the location and orientation of every building in this project is intended to support the visible connection to the mentioned spots.

Urbanism: The Green Islands in our opinion the site of the “Iuris Relax Hotel & Resort� should become a strongly recognizable urban pattern of various, interconnected identities with an intensive focus on landscape and recreational qualities. in order to realize this intention, green islands with various characters will be scattered all over the site. altogether the islands (and their spaces in between) are creating a vibrant pattern of interrelated qualities. the scale of the pattern expresses perfectly the location of the site between a city and the surrounding environment. each island defines a building area with a certain program, utilization and density. orientation and navigation throughout the area makes traffic flow effortless. further our urban pattern is a remarkable eye catcher which supports the marketing of the development. MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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Site plan

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2. the AquaDome Access Road (PUBLIC). this road leads directly to the parking lot of the aqua dome. so the daily visitors never touch the resort area. the location of the parking lot and the ADAR allows an easy connection of the traffic with the future access from the planned bypass. MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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Entrance level plan car traffic & parking there are three different road types leading through the island pattern: 1. the new main road (PUBLIC) which connects Piest`any with the new residential area in the west. it passes the resort at its borders. MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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3. the resort road (PRIVATE). this road leads to all parts of the resort. It’s private and secure/quiet. the hotel has a parking garage, parking lots for the cottages are located on the edges of the lodge islands.

Flexible Building Phases The pattern is characterized by an extraordinary flexibility concerning building phases and realization steps. so the islands can be built all at once or in several flexible steps. these phases – and their content – can be established as the development demands at a certain moment. each phase performs perfectly on its own (regarding urbanism, traffic and infrastructure) and each upcoming island can easily be attached to the existing pattern

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Project Info: Name: Sanya West Islet Club Med Resort Status: Competition Client: Sanya West Island Tourism Company Operator: Club Med China Location: Sanya West Islet, Hainan, China Duration: 2012-2013 350 Guest Rooms: 23408 Sqm 88 Villas: 18900 Sqm Public Areas: 102579 Sqm Supporting Facilities: 2390 Sqm

Vernacular Sanya West Resort

framed by a set of artificial lagoons, the ‘sanya west islet club med resort’ by international firm, AS architecture-studio orientates its spaces around the surrounding water system. reinterpreting local fishermen villages, the holiday destination is located on sanya west islet, hainan, china, where it forms a continuum between the seafront and its ‘hinterland’. connecting the guest rooms and villas to the village center, their different elements are fused together, forming a hybrid area that consists of mixing lagoons, swimming pools, pedestrian spaces and public facility ‘shells’. the maze of guest rooms is structured by a network of curved walls, producing a sense of both density and intimacy. their layout helps to guide the circulation paths, frame views, foster mystery and surprise, while shaping several intermediary collective spaces dedicated to community life.

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social interaction is also encouraged as the accommodation units are clustered into tight groups of five to eight, with each of the villas containing circular courtyards that enclose their own natural pool. the internal living spaces make a thick border that surrounds a private ecosystem, with the envelope made of thousands of thin aluminum scales to modulate light, views and privacy. an in-between pedestrian maze is created by the dense accumulation of villas, avoiding any obvious perspective or hierarchy.

The Village Center

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Section: Cluster Of Guest Rooms

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2.2.3. CONCEPTUAL STUDY

AERODYNAMIC ARCHITECTURE - Case study

CHENGDU-CONTEMPORARY-ART-CENTRE

CHENGDU CONTEMPORARY ART CENTRE [CHENGDU, CHINA] FIRM: Zaha Hadid Architects

Zaha Hadid Architects have unveiled their design for the largest cultural building in China, to be located in Chengdu in Sichuan Province.

The Chengdu Contemporary Art Centre will comprise three auditoria, an art museum, exhibition space and conference centre, plus restaurants, bars and shops. The facade will be covered in criss-crossing louvres to provide shade from the sun. The result of an international design competition in 2007, Chengdu Contemporary Art Centre will be a new cultural destination for Sichuan Province and will provide Chengdu with an unprecedented collection of world-class arts, performance, leisure, and congress venues.

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The architectural concept has been developed in response to articulate the client’s programme and the urban parameters. CCAC thereby forms a graceful, iconic landmark for the city of Chengdu. Our proposal for the 140,000m2 landscape area complements the exhibition building and creates a welcoming public realm within a diffuse and peripheral surrounding. Our proposal for the new Chengdu Contemporary Art Centre is a unique structure with a strong sense of identity and character. From afar, it is highly identifiable and offers a strong image and orientation. The concept for CCAC is to use the most advanced architectural and engineering technologies in response to the brief, to create a visually striking new landmark that will act as a gateway to the city. With its informal atmosphere and unrivalled views out across the landscaping, CCAC should become one of the city’s great social spaces as well as a regional cultural centre of international standing.

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CHAPTER – 3 THE PROGRAMME 3.1. INTRODUCTION TO THE PROGRAMME 3.2. AREA PROGRAMME 3.3. OBSERVATIONS & UNDERSTANDINGS 3.4. INFERANCES

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3.1. INTRODUCTION TO THE PROGRAMME SCOPE,OBJECTIVES AND NEED IDENTIFICATION

SCOPE: The research deals with the case studies and the construction principles and the design techniques involved in the construction industry which can be adoptable to indian context.

OBJECTIVES: In this research the main concept and conclusion is to derive the basic and sufficient principles that can be executed into the construction industry where several strategies and methods are available but there is a severe lag of enforcement.

NEED IDENTIFICATION: 

About 5700 Km. of the country’s coast of 7516 Km exposed to severe cyclones. Area prone to cyclones is 8.5% of the total area of the country.

Average no. of cyclones forming in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea is 5-6 of which 2-3 cross the Indian Coast every year.

East Coast is more prone than West Coast, the ratio being 4:1.

Super Cyclone of Orissa Oct., 1999 was severe followed by several instances of cyclones including Cyclone Aila in 2009 and

THESIS

Cyclone Laila 2011"

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3.2. AREA PROGRAMME

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ADMINISTRATION

LINKAGE DIAGRAM FOR KITCHEN ENTRY FOR RAW MATERIAL

GUEST ENTRANCE

GROUND FLOOR :Reception + back office

S

RECEIVING DECK

E R

BASEMENT(-1) : CEO, CFO, marketing, sales, banquet operations STAFF ENTRANCE

BASEMENT(-2) : HR department, accounts, security, training, telephone exchange

V

C E

O

R

MATERIAL PURCHASE OFFICE

LIQUOR STORE

C

E

BASEMENT(-3): Engineering department, workshop

RECEIVING OFFICE

I

DRY STORE SERVICE LIFT SERVICE LIFT 1 (integrated with kitchen) SERVICE LIFT 2 (integrated with kitchen) GARBAGE TAKE AWAY

EGG AND FISH STORE

DAIRY STORE

MAIN KITCHEN GARBAGE DISPOSAL ROOM

•This flowchart explains the horizontal linkage between the receiving of food material till the main kitchen •The service lifts are used for horizontal circulation

RAJESH KUPPILI

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5TH YEAR B. ARCH


LINKAGE DIAGRAM FOR HOPUSEKEEPING

LINKAGE DIAGRAM FOR KITCHEN

SERVICE ENTRY ENTRY FOR RAW MATERIAL RECEIVING COUNTER

BUFFER AREA

GOODS STORE

RECEIVING COUNTER WORKSHOP

SERVICE CIRCULATION DRY STORE LIQUOR STORE

SATELLITE KITCHENS

EGG AND FISH STORE

MAIN KITCHEN

SPECIALITY RESTAURANTS

THESIS

GARBAGE TAKE AWAY

DAIRY STORE

LAUNDRY CHUTE SERVICE CIRCULATION

ROOM SERVICE

BANQUET HALLS

HOUSEKEEPING ROOM

LAUNDRY GUEST ROOMS

GARBAGE DISPOSAL ROOM

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AREA PROGRAM of services

AREA PROGRAM of halls SPACE

AREA

(IN SQ

METRES)

CONVENTION CENTER BANQUET HALL 1 NOS 500P BANQUET HALL 2 NOS 100P

SPACE

AREA

KITCHENS

(IN SQ METRES)

1000

( 60 % OF HALL

AREA)

1100 ( 2.2 PP) 220 ( 2.2 PP)

BUSINESS CENTRE 2 NOS 50P

200 ( 2 PP)

PARTY ROOMS 2 NOS 50P

100 ( 2 PP)

KITCHEN STORES

500

( 50 % OF

170

(10% OF HALL

KITCHEN)

PANTRIES AREA)

SERVICES RECEPTION AND LOBBY (includes lounge area, circulation)

640 ( 30 % of hall

area)

ADMINISTRATION

SHOPPING ARCADES ( shops 10 in no. and includes loading and unloading area)

100 ( 2 % OF GR)

WASHROOMS (for convention center and administration)

250 ( 10 %)

AREA)

 MANAGER (GENERAL, RESIDENT, FRONT

OFFICE, PRO, RECEIVING, PURCHASE, SALES, FINANCIAL CONTROLLER, CHIEF ACCOUNTS, PERSONNEL, F & B MANAGER ) CONFERENCE ROOM, RECORD ROOM, ACCOUNTS, SECURITY OFFICE, OTHER OFFICES, STORE, FAX ROOM, MESSAGE ROOM, SALES DEPT*, F & B DEPT*, NIGHT AUDIT, SAFE AND TOILETS

TOTAL AREA

THESIS

900 (35% OF HALL

 OFFICE RECEPTION

6500

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THESIS

LINKAGE

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Project Title: Beach resort (Hotel) and Commercial complex with port area development.

Site Area: Plot Area for Hotel

= 205800sq Mt

Major Programme component = Beach resort Current Far = 1.5

Total built up area = FAR x Site Area Hotel built up area

= 1.5 X 205800 =308700 SQ.MTS

HOTEL SINGLE

:

normal

suite

DOUBLE

:

normal

suite

FAMILY (2+):

normal

suite

Cottages :

normal

suite

Common Areas

Gym, reception, admin, lobby, parking, restaurants, toilets, bar, dining, exhibition area (gallery), Swimming pool common, also separate pools at intermediate levels

THESIS

Back of house, kitchen, service quarters etc. MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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1. BACKGROUND DISASTER: A disaster is the impact of natural or man-made hazards that negatively affects society or environment. The word disaster's root is from astrology: this implies that when the stars are in a bad position, a bad event will happen. Disasters occur when hazards strike in vulnerable areas. Hazards that occur in areas with low vulnerability do not result in a disaster; as is the case in uninhabited regions. It is often argued that all disasters are man-made, because human actions before the strike of the hazard can prevent it developing into a disaster. Hazards are routinely divided into natural or manmade, although complex disasters, where there is no single root cause, are more common in developing countries. A specific disaster may spawn a secondary disaster that increases the impact. A classic example is an earthquake that causes a tsunami, resulting in coastal flooding.

What is Disaster? Disaster is a sudden, calamitous event bringing great damage, loss, destruction and devastation to life and property. The damage caused by disasters is immeasurable and varies with the geographical location, climate and the type of the earth surface/degree of vulnerability. This influences the mental, socio-economic, political and cultural state of the affected area. Generally, disaster has the following effects in the concerned areas: 1. It completely disrupts the normal day to day life. 2. It negatively influences the emergency systems. 3. Normal needs and processes like food, shelter, health, etc. are affected and deteriorate depending on the intensity and severity of the disaster. Cyclones have a major detrimental impact on the economy of the coastal region of INDIA especially shorelines adjacent to the Bay of Bengal. Cyclones are endemic to the regions of Northern Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Bengal and certain regions of Tamil Nadu. The impact of cyclones is directly felt by the building and a number of deaths which occur during cyclone occur due to building failure.

THESIS

This study stems from a personal experience invading a firsthand exposure to the wrath of cyclones which involved a dramatic scene where in my own out house which was a temporary structure got completely damaged and led to a huge economic loss. The incident mentioned raised a concern regarding the architecture measure which could be in-corporated in order to reduce the impact of cyclones on buildings. MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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In Visakhapatnam there are many hotels along the sea shore but none of them could give a clear view of sea as there is a limitation of road and the structural systems . By the site location both the problems could be avoided and it could a full experience of sea for the customer. Coming to the connectivity the naval quarters don’t have proper entertainment complex and they have to travel approximately 15 kms to come into city for some shopping or watching a movie. In this proposal I am reducing the distance and merging the isolated naval quarters into present city without disturbing its privacy. As The Location And Neeeds Are Considered The Research Continues With Beach Resorts,hotels,types Of Hotels,rooms,activities. And Apart From All These The Hotel Should Be Sustainable And Cyclone Resistant. For Achieveing These Factors The Study Should Contain Different Types Of Construction And Structure Principles Materials Used. Techniques Used Old(traditional Methods)/New(modern Methods). About the re development : Visakhapatnam is the natural harbor which got created by its own tidal movement so there is a need to preserve that and rectify the existing problems to give a better living for port people. By developing the harbor the life standards of port are could become much better also with the implementation of Hotel. Here by the programme follows by designing Beach HOTEL and RESORT study. Research Area:

THESIS

PROGRAMME COMPONENTS

-Types of hotels -Types of resorts -Public Areas -Beach Hotel Requirements -Elevation Design -Form Design on Beach -Façade treatment -Multi Usage of Spaces -Common Spaces -Materials

-Restaurants, Coffee Shops -Rooms/Suites , Restrooms and Personal space -Cottage Design -View development -Entertainment Zone -Auditorium -Conference Halls -SPA, GYM and BAR -Swimming pools -Landscaping MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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CHAPTER – 4 THE SITE 4.1. CITY HISTORY 4.2. SITE STUDY 4.3. SITE PHOTOGRAPHS & DRAWINGS

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4.1. CITY HISTORY

State

Andhra Pradesh

Region

Coastal Andhra

District

Visakhapatnam

Named for

Viśakha

Area 2

• Total

681.96 km (263.31 s q mi)

Elevation

5 m (16 ft)

Population (2013)

Demographics: Visakhapatnam is a cosmopolitan mix of people from various parts of India. From a population of a few thousand during the 18th and early 19th centuries, the population grew steadily. The city doubled its population from 1990–2000, due to a large migrant population from surrounding areas and other parts of the country coming to work in its factories.

• Total

20,91,811 (census 2,013)

• Rank

17th

• Density

2,537.28/km

Demonym

Vizagite

2

Languages • Official

Telugu

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HISTORY VISAKHAPATNAM

is a port city on the southeast coast of India and often called "The Jewel of the East Coast". With a population of 21,90,000 and occupying 681.96 square kilometres. It is the administrative headquarters of Visakhapatnam District and is also home of the Eastern Naval Command of the Indian Navy. Visakhapatnam is located 625 kilometres east of the state capital, Hyderabad. It is primarily an industrial city, apart from being a port city. It is also home to the Eastern Naval Command. According to the history, the city was named after the god of ValorVishakha. It was a part of the Kalinga Kingdom, under Ashoka's rule in 260 B.C. It passed on later to the Andhra Kings of Vengi. After this Pallava, Chola and Ganga dynasties ruled the city.In the 15th century, Vishakhapatnam became a part of the Vijayanagar Empire. The city is home to several state-owned heavy industries and a steel plant; it is one of India's largest seaports and has the country's oldest shipyard. Visakhapatnam has the only natural harbour on the east coast of India. It is nestled among the hills of the Eastern Ghats and faces the Bay of Bengal on the east. Visakhapatnam is the administrative headquarters of Visakhapatnam district and headquarters of the Eastern Naval Command of the Indian Navy.

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THESIS

4.2. SITE STUDY

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LAND USE

RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL VEGETATION

THESIS

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LOCATION: VISAKHAPATNAM ANDHRA PRADESH

SITE INFORMATION: MAIN TRAFFIC DERTINATION POINTS

Bus complex (8 km)

Railway station(7 km)

Harbour(.15 km)

THESIS

Airport (18.3 km)

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INTRODUCTION: AS VISAKHAPATNAM (VIZAG) IS WELL KNOWN FOR ITS STEEL PLANT AND HARBOR WHICH MAKES IT A GOOD LOCATION FOR IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. AND COMING TO PRESENT SCENARIO OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS THERE IS A HUGE SCOPE FOR DEVELOPING IT INTO A NEXT FUTURE METROPOLITAN CITY.

SITE : THE SELECTED SITE IS A FAMOUS HILL TOP THE MINOR PORT IS NOT WELL DEVOLOPED THE HABBOUR IS NOT PROPERLY CONNECTES TO THE CITY THE THREE RELIGIOUS CENTERS AND THE BEACH SHORE MAKE A GOOD LOCATION FOR A HIGH RAISE HOTEL WITH ENTERTAINMENT ,COMMERCIAL COMPLEX WHICH ENRICHES THE QUALITY OF SURROUNDINGS AND CONNECTIVITY.

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4.3. SITE PHOTOGRAPHS & DRAWINGS

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SITE AREA

THESIS

2,05,800 SQ.MT 20.58 HECTARES 50.8 ACRES

Ground cover :27.5% F.A.R = 0.4 TOTAL PERMISSIBLE BUILTUP AREA = 2,95,783.5 Sq.Mt MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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CHAPTER – 5 INFERANCES 5.1. SWOT ANALYSIS- DETERMINANTS 5.2. DESIGN DEVOLOPMENT 5.3. FINAL SHEETS 5.4. LIST OF FIGURES 5.5. REFERANCES AND BIBILOGRAPHY

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5.1. SWOT ANALYSIS- DETERMINANTS STRENGTHS High Altitude

Sea shore Plenty vegetation

5.1.1.SWOT ANALYSIS OF SITE WEAKNESSES Too high to reach

OPPURTUNITIES

Contours

Not permitted to go above 50 mts

Can give complete experience of beach

Ventilation

Sloped site

Stable ground

Difficult to deal with contours

Possibility of creation new trend in tourism

Secured location Peaceful environment

Un interrupted view of beach

Accessibility need to be developed

THREATS Greatly in need as the new state formed

Cyclone prone area

Can merge the naval area with city retaining the privacy

Costal regulations apply

High tide zone

Reduce the travelling distance from naval area

TOTAL BUILT UP AREA=80000 SQM approx

THESIS

27.5% OF GROUND COVER RAJESH KUPPILI

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5.1.2. DETERMINANTS OBJECTIVES l) To meet the individual requirements of the tourists i.e. Tranquility, contact with nature, seclusion and privacy. 2) To provide a different experience for city and town dwellers for whom, holidays essentially mean an escape from the urban conditions, high densities, pollution and routine lives, This can be achieved by pro- viding a refreshing experience of contrasts by way of:- Quietness, change of pace, relaxation Change in activities - sports and recreation Human scale Contact with people outside working or do- mestic circle, 3) To create an attractive tourist image by way of.ENVIRONMENTAL INTEGRATION: With a scenic value, that the place has, the scale and character of the buildings is to be dued rather than strongly profiled, dominating buildings that tend to contradict the surroundings so as to merge with the scale of the surroundings and landscapes, and there- fore, provide maximum contact nature - visual, in the form of views of the surroundings, as well as physical, in the form of trees, flowers, natural landscapes etc, GROUPING OF ACTIVITIES: Recreational activities are not to be segregated into isolated pockets but are to be assembled in a way that allows some degree of contact between related zones of recreation - a spill- over of excitement and interest from one zone to the other. However, the overall recreational area is not to be monotonous and conflict between different interest zones is to be avoided. Hence, the overall image is intended to be that of Sheltered Domesticity - along with exposed natural materials in a garden setting so as to have comfortable, homelike quarters for longer stays.

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5.2. DESIGN DEVOLOPMENT

CONCEPT Hotel Block Catering to casual visitors To attract the tourists towards the restaurant and the hotel this block has been placed at the center of the site on a flat contour and is three storey high so that it is unmistakably seen A conference hall catering to high level meetings of USP govt. or the Army or for functions of the defense officers (Rambhat being an army town) has an independent access from outside to avoid penetration within the complex and avoid conflict with the private areas. A coffee shop accessible from outside will cater to outsiders. The dining hall a more private space has been provided on the lower floor with a spill over The bed rooms are on the lower two floors all the rooms have north with orientation, They have a spill over space facing south and have views of both sides All the rooms have views of the north and south. Residential cottages They have boon placed to one side of the hotel on o lower level so as to have on unobstructed view of the valley and a private open space of their own 'They are north south oriented. Cottages are such which can get combine for larger families. RECREATIONS AREAS To be used only tv the guests. Provided on the too most floor along with dormitories so as to combine the noisy area SERVICE BLOCK Separate entrance is provided for the service the hotel bock where the servicing whole complex is done . MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM

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5.3. FINAL SHEETS

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CONTEXT PLAN SCALE 1:2000

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CONCLUSIONS FROM JURY After jury the conclusions were different in different perspective. Hotels like this can be done but should think of the need in the location. We should observe the impact it creates in the precinct . The project was good for the experimental basis and for the locations like Las Vegas. But the traditions and culture should be taken in details while design. My idea of this project is to give the foreigners and as well as Indians a whole experience of international standards resort hotel within Indian traditions and sustainability.so that to prove that great hotels can be built in India with enough money which are equivalent or may be better than the existing great hotels. I believe I have Succeeded In mart of the design.

THANK YOU RAJESH KUPPILI rajeshkuppili999@gmail.com

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LIST OF FIGURES: Figure 2.1 , Zha hadid Architects………………………………………………………………………….……………8 Figure 2.2 , CRBA ,Ankush Agarwal……………………………………………………………………….…………..8 Figure 2.3 , CRBA ,Ankush Agarwal………………………………………………………………………….………..9 Figure 2.4 , CRBA ,Ankush Agarwal………………………………………………………………………..………..10 Figure 2.5 , CRBA ,Ankush Agarwal………………………………………………………………………..………..11 Figure 2.6 , CRBA ,Ankush Agarwal…………………………………………………………………………..……..12 Figure 2.7 , CRBA ,Ankush Agarwal…………………………………………………………………………..……..13 Figure 2.8 , CRBA ,Ankush Agarwal……………………………………………………………………………..…..14 Figure 2.9 , CRBA ,Ankush Agarwal………………………………………………………………………………....15 Figure 2.10 , CRBA ,Ankush Agarwal………………………………………………………………………………..16 Figure 2.11 , CRBA ,Ankush Agarwal………………………………………………………………………………..17 Figure 2.12 , CRBA ,Ankush Agarwal………………………………………………………………………………..18 Figure 2.13 , CRBA ,Ankush Agarwal………………………………………………………………………………..19 Figure 2.14 , Parametric design ……………………………………………………………………………….……..20 Figure 2.15 , Parametric design ……………………………………………………………………….………..……21 Figure 2.16 , Parametric design ………………………………………………………………………………...…...22 Figure 2.17 , Parametric design ………………………………………………………………………………..…….24 Figure 2.18 , Parametric design …………………………………………………………………………….………..25 Figure 2.19 , Design boom………………………………………………………………………………………….…..27 Figure 2.20 , Design boom ………………………………………………………………………………………..…...32 Figure 2.21 , Design boom ………………………………………………………………………………………..……34 Figure 2.22 , Design boom …………….………………………………………………………………………….…….37

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5.3. REFERANCES AND BIBILOGRAPHY 1. American Society of Civil Engineers. 2005. "ASCE 7-05 Standard Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures". Reston, Virginia. 2. Boggs, D.W., and J.A. Peterka. 1989. "Aerodynamic model tests of tall buildings". Journal of Engineering Mechanics. 115 (3), 618-635. 3. Brazil, A., L.M. Joseph, D. Poon, and T. Scarangelo. 2006. "Designing High Rises for Wind Performance". ASCE: Structures Congress 2006. 4. Breukelman, B, and Haskett, T. (2001). "Good Vibrations". Civil Engineering. ASCE: Dec. 2001. 5. Browne, M. Suresh Kumar, K. 2005. "Effect of Corner Balconies on Wind-Induced Response of Tall Buildings". The 10th Americas Conference on Wind Engineering. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 6. Chan C.M., J.K.L Chu, and M.F. Huang. 2009. "Integrated Aerodynamic Load Determination and Stiffness Design Optimization of Tall Buildings". Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings. 18, 59-80. 7. Chen, X., and A. Kareem. (2005a). "Validity of Wind Load Distribution based on High Frequency Force Balance Measurements". Journal of Structural Engineering. June 2005, 984-987. 8. Chen, X., and A. Kareem. (2005b). "Dynamic Wind Effects of Buildings with 3D Coupled Modes: Application on High Frequency Force Balance Measurements". Journal of Engineering Mechanics. November 2005, 1115-1125. 9. Dutton, R., and N. Isyumov. 1990. "Reduction of Tall Building Motion by Aerodynamic Treatments". Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial 23. Tschanz, T., and A. G. Davenport. 1983. "The Base Balance Technique for the Determination of DynamicWind Loads". Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics. 13, 429-439. 10. Xie, J., and P.A. Irwin. 1998. "Application of Force Balance Technique to a Building Complex". Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics. 77&78, 579-590. 11. Zhou, Y., T. Kijewski, and A. Kareem. 2003. "Aerodynamic Loads on Tall Buildings: Interactive Data base". Journal of Structural Engineering. ASCE: March 2006, 394-404. Davenport, The response of super tall buildings to wind, second century of the skyscraper, council of tall buildings and urban habitat, 1988, pp. 705-725. 12. Karim A. Mitigation of Wind induced motion of tall building, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 11(1983) 27384. 13. Kwok KCS, Bailey PA. Aerodynamic devices for tall building and structures, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, No. 4, 111(1987)349-65. 14. Kwok KCS. Effects of building shape on wind-induced response of tall buildings, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 28(1988) 381-90. 15. Kwok KCS, Wilhelm PA, and Wilkie BG. Effect of edge configuration on windinduced response of tall buildings, Engineering Structure, 10(1988)

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16. Banavalkar P. Structural systems to improve wind induced dynamic performance of high rise buildings, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 36(1990) 213-24. 17. Banavalkar PV, N Isyumov. Tuned Mass Damping System to Control Wind-Induced Accelerations of Washington National Airport Air Traffic Control Tower, Proceedings of Structural Engineers World Congress, San Francisco, CD-ROM: T179-2, 1998. 18. Housner GW. et al. Structural control: past, present and future, special issue of journal of engineering mechanics, No. 9, 123(1997) 897–971. 19. Zdrakovich MM. Review and classification of various aerodynamic and hydrodynamic means of suppressing vortex shedding, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 7(1981) 145-89. http://en.51arch.com/2014/01/a0152-big-designs-centerpiece-for-a-new-resort-in-the-bahamas/ http://www.archdaily.com/471330/big-unveils-honeycomb-centerpiece-for-bahamas-resort/ http://en.51arch.com/2014/01/a0729-iuris-relax-hotel-resort/ http://www.dezeen.com/2010/11/15/chengdu-contemporary-art-centre-by-zaha-hadid-architects/ http://www.designboom.com/technology/bio-photovoltaic-panel/ Acadamy, F. h. (2010). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved october 2012, from National Weather Service: http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/aboutnames.shtml Agrawal, A. (2007). Cyclone Resistant Building Architecture. Authority, N. D. (2010). National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project . Retrieved August 2012, from National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP): http://ncrmp.gov.in/ncrmp/Cyclone_Impact.html Dr.N.M. Bhandri,Dr.Prem Krishna,Dr.Krishen Kumar. (2009). Wind Storms , Damage and Guidelines for Mitigative Measures. Roorkee: IITK-GSDMA. DW-cyclone. (1989-93). Promoting generic principles of safe construction. Retrieved october 2012, from DW- Devolopment Workshop: http://www.dwf.org/en/content/ten-key-principles-cyclone-resistant-construction SSI scale is based on three parameters - maximum sustained wind speed, minimum central pressure and level of storm surge. NOAA Technical Memorandum, the Deadliest Tropical Cyclones, 1995. Compiled from NOAA and other sources. “Wind Storms , Damage and Guidelines for Mitigative Measures”: Dr.NMBhandri , Dr.Prem Krishna , Dr.Krishen Kumar. http://www.aljazeer a.com/weather /2012/03/2012368928291888.html http://clickbankbussinesbankdatabisnis.blogspot.com/2012/03/deadly-cyclone-lashes-southeaster n.html SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: Deadly cyclone lashes southeaster n Africa http://www.fr eelists.or g/post/lifesavior s/The-Or issa-India-case-study-budgeting-Palaces The Orissa, India, casestudy http://www.ear thzine.org/2011/03/22/post-disaster -management-pover ty-and-food/ Post Disaster Management, http://cpr eec.or g/pubbook-costal.htm CPREECEnvironmental MARINE RESORT HOTEL - VISAKHAPATNAM Education Centre, Library

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Notes:

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Notes:

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