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April 2013 |

Mechanical muscle behind materials handling

plus Shortline maintenance Assessing suspension rail bridges And also AREMA News p.38

Contents April 2013






Industry Today 5 Supplier News 10 People

Materials handling Just because the products moved are made of tough material doesn’t mean care isn’t taken with their handling.




Suspension bridge structural evaluation Advancing suspension bridge inspection requires incorporating more NDT methods.


Shortline m/w: Minnesota Prairie Line MPL has survived and now thrives despite a history that includes two years of inactivity, poor maintenance and near abandonment.

27 Departments 12 TTCI R&D 38 Arema News 43 Products 45 Advertisers Index 45 Sales Representatives

The Automated Tie Down Car from Herzog Railroad Services, Inc.


On Track  The regulation monster returns


NRC Chairman’s Column The rail industry goes to Washington

46 Calendar 47 Classified Advertising 48 Professional Directory

Story on page 18.

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Railway Track & Structures

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On Track


Vol. 109, No. 4 Print ISSN # 0033-9016, Digital ISSN # 2160-2514 EDITORIAL OFFICES 20 South Clark Street, Suite 1910 Chicago, Ill. 60603 Telephone (312) 683-0130 Fax (312) 683-0131 Website Mischa Wanek-Libman/Editor, Jennifer Nunez/Assistant Editor, CORPORATE OFFICES 55 Broad Street, 26th Floor New York, N.Y. 10004 Telephone (212) 620-7200 Fax (212) 633-1165 Arthur J. McGinnis, Jr./ President and Chairman Jonathan Chalon/Publisher George S. Sokulski/Associate Publisher Emeritus Mary Conyers/Production Director Maureen Cooney/Circulation Director Jane Poterala/Conference Director

Railway Track & Structures (Print ISSN 0033-9016, Digital ISSN 2160-2514), (USPS 860-560), (Canada Post Cust. #7204654), (Bluechip Int’l, Po Box 25542, London, ON N6C 6B2, Agreement # 41094515) is published monthly by Simmons-Boardman Publ. Corp, 55 Broad Street, 26th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10004. Printed in the U.S.A. Periodicals postage paid at New York, NY and Additional mailing offices. Pricing, Qualified individual in the railroad employees may request a free subscription. Non-qualified subscriptions printed or digital version: 1 year Railroad Employees (US/ Canada/Mexico) $16.00; all others $46.00; foreign $80.00; foreign, air mail $180.00. 2 years Railroad Employees US/Canada/Mexico $30.00; all others $85.00; foreign $140.00; foreign, air mail $340.00. BOTH Print & Digital Versions: 1 year Railroad Employees US/Canada/Mexico $24.00; all others $69.00; foreign $120.00; foreign, air mail $220.00. 2 years Railroad Employees US/Canada/Mexico $45.00; all others $128.00; foreign $209.00; foreign, air mail $409.00. Single Copies are $10.00 ea. Subscriptions must be paid for in U.S. funds only. COPYRIGHT © Simmons-Boardman Publishing Corporation 2013. All rights reserved. Contents may not be reproduced without permission. For reprint information contact: PARS International Corp., 102 W 38th St., 6th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10018 Phone (212) 221-9595 Fax (212) 221-9195. For Subscriptions & address changes, Please call (800) 895-4389, (402) 346-4740, Fax (402) 346-3670, e-mail or write to: Railway Track & Structures, Simmons-Boardman Publ. Corp, PO Box 10, Omaha, NE 68101-0010.POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Railway Track & Structures, PO Box 10, Omaha, NE 68101-0010.

The regulation monster returns


lease allow me to pass along a word of thanks to the organizers of the 2013 Railroad Day on Capitol Hill, which took place this past March. I had another great experience and hope my fellow 400 attendees, which is a record number, enjoyed the day, as well. The three familiar points that took the focus of this year’s effort included requesting support of the 45G shortline tax credit; opposing higher truck size and weights, or at least deferring consideration of the subject until the U.S. Department of Transportation has completed its study on the issue, and opposing any legislative effort that would adversely impact the economic and antitrust regulatory balance currently established by existing laws. There were no congressional votes taking place on March 14, so the chances of having the elected representative in the meeting with you were pretty high, as long as you caught them in between committee meetings. Out of the six meetings I attended, four elected officials were present, along with their staff. This offered a great opportunity to give a first-person account of the rail industry, as well as hear directly from the elected official any concerns he or she may have or, more of what I experienced, hear their praise for the industry. For example, Rep. Lynn Jenkins of Kansas, who has been a solid supporter of the 45G tax credit, said she was working hard to get more of her follow congressmen on the 45G bandwagon. Rep. Peter DeFazio of Oregon said he was “puzzled” as to why the truck lobby was pushing the size and weight issue. And, when it came to the subject of possible negative rail legislation, Rep. Markwayne Mullin of Oklahoma said it didn’t matter if we knew of a piece of legislation or even the rumor of one, he wanted to hear about it and what his constituents opinion was.

How sweet Rep. Mullin’s words resonated when close to a week after Railroad Day and across the hill in the Senate, Senators Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) and David Vitter (R-LA) introduced the Railroad Antitrust Enforcement Act. The senators say the legislation will address so-called “captive shipping” and promote competition in the industry. However, the Association of American Railroads says the bill unfairly targets the rail industry and threatens its self-sufficiency by singling out railroads “for policies that could undermine the industry’s ability to build, maintain and continuously upgrade the nation’s rail infrastructure without taxpayer assistance.” While Railroad Day on the Hill is a mammoth one-day show of force, the effort to keep the issues mentioned above in the spotlight is a year-round commitment. The industry has several dedicated associations and groups working on our behalf in Washington, D.C., but there is a personal responsibility element to this effort, as well. I’m not saying quit your day job, pick up a placard and go protest unfriendly rail legislation. What I would strongly suggest is taking five to 10 minutes to reach out to your local elected officials and let them know where you stand on these issues. In order to end this column on a good note, let me point out that prior to the industry’s visit to the hill on March 14, the 45G tax credit bill in the House of Representatives had 42 official co-sponsors to it, as of March 21, one week after Railroad Day, an additional 35 congressmen have been added as official co-sponsors. That is one heck of a bump.

Mischa Wanek-Libman, Editor

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AECOM Technical Services, Inc., is working on a $43.9-million contract from the Honolulu Authority for Rapid Transportation to provide design services for a portion of Hawaii’s Honolulu Rail Transit Project; the company was also given the go-ahead to begin designing the Port of New Orleans’ new Mississippi River Intermodal Project. Axion International Holdings, Inc., received an order worth more than $500,000 for its ECOTRAX composite crossties from Dallas Area Rapid Transit for use in the Trinity Railway Express; the

The Port of Prince Rupert in British Columbia, Canada, began construction on the CA$90-million (US$88-million) Road, Rail, and Utility Corridor. The project includes construction of five parallel rail tracks, a two-lane roadway and a port-owned power distribution system along an eight-kilometer (five-mile) corridor. This will provide shared-use infrastructure for proposed potash, liquefied natural gas and other ter minals on the island. The capital The Ridley Island Industrial Site (at right), at the Port of Prince costs of the terminal devel- Rupert, will be ringed by a road, rail and utility corridor that opments are currently esti- links proposed terminal developments to existing rail and mated in the billions of dol- port infrastructure. lars. The first phase of the project will be completed in December 2014. The corridor is being funded jointly by the governments of Canada and British Columbia, who have each contributed CA$15 million (US$14.6 million) and Canadian National and the port authority, who have each committed CA$30 million (US$29.1 million). The port authority’s Gateway 20/20 Plan foresees reaching an annual throughput capacity of 100 million tons of cargo as proposed terminal developments are completed. “This project will connect Canada’s proven capacity for resource production to growing markets in the Asia-Pacific region and is the largest in Prince Rupert since construction of the Fairview Container Terminal,” said Bud Smith, chairman of the board of the Prince Rupert Port Authority. “We are integrating the new terminals into the world-class service and security architecture at the Port of Prince Rupert. Through our increasingly diversified port complex, the Canadian resource sector will be linked to a world of opportunity.”

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CNW Group/Prince Rupert Port Authority

Acrow Bridge signed an agreement with Structal-Bridges where the companies will jointly market their solutions in temporary and permanent modular steel bridging.

Utility corridor construction begins at Port of Prince Rupert

INDUSTRY TODAY Supplier News company also received its third purchase order for ECOTRAX crossties for MiamiDade Transit, through a sale made by Eastern Rail Corporation, a distribution partner of Axion. Halmar International was awarded a $4.27million contract to perform repairs on the New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority’s MetroNorth Railroad bridge over the Croton River. Harsco Rail secured a new service order for a two-year track renewal project in North America.

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Feds distribute $554 million to agencies affected by Hurricane Sandy During the month of March, the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) allocated more than half a billion dollars reimburse expenses incurred to those agencies that suffered damage from Hurricane Sandy last fall. The funds are a portion provided by the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act, part of the FTA’s Public Transportation Emergency Relief Program. The New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) received approximately $193.8 million; the Port Authority Trans Hudson benefited from approximately $159.7 million; New Jersey Transit was given $144.4 million; Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority received approximately $1.2 million; the city of Long Beach received $518,364; Westchester County was given $317,200 and the Milford Transit District received $5,352. A total of $10.9 billion was appropriated for the program under the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act, which was signed into law by President Obama on

April 2013

January 29, 2013. However, this funding is now reduced by five percent, or $545 million, because of the mandatory budget cuts known as sequestration that took effect on March 1. “When Hurricane Sandy devastated public transportation systems in New York and New Jersey, President Obama pledged to act swiftly to help restore service for millions of riders and help the region’s transit agencies recover economically,” said Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood. “The funds allocated will offset the emergency expenditures these agencies incurred while taking heroic measures to protect people and equipment and return to normal operations.” “The sooner we reimburse transit systems for the measures taken to minimize the damage and re-establish service, the sooner they can focus on long-term plans to strengthen transit infrastructure and protect against future disasters,”said Federal Transit Administrator Peter Rogoff.

INDUSTRY TODAY Tunnel boring machines grab attention for SFMTA, TTC The Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) began the next stage of tunnel construction for the Toronto-York Spadina Subway Extension (TYSSE) in Ontario, Canada. This stage of construction will see two tunnel boring machines (TBMs) “Yorkie” and “Torkie” create twin tunnels linking the site of the future Highway 407 Station to the Steeles West Station site. The TBMs will bore a little more than one kilometer (.62 miles) of twin subway tunnels at a rate of approximately 15 meters (49.21 feet) a day, southeast from this launch location to an extraction site. The TYSSE project is an 8.6-kilometer (5.34-mile) extension of the TTC’s YongeUniversity-Spadina subway line from its present terminus at Downsview Station to the Vaughan Metropolitan Centre at Highway 7. It will have six new subway stations, including one at York University and three new commuter parking lots. The subway expansion will bring the line into York Region. “The TYSSE will provide an important

transit connection into York Region and the Vaughan Metropolitan Centre and help create a seamless transit network across the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area,” said Bill Fisch, chairman and CEO of The Regional Municipality of York. In other tunnel boring news, the San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency (SFMTA) revealed the names of two tunnel boring machines (TBMs) that will excavate and construct the Central Subway tunnels. The two tunneling machines will be named Big Alma, after “Big Alma” de Bretteville Spreckels, and Mom Chung, after Dr. Margaret “Mom” Chung. The first of the machines, Mom Chung, is expected to arrive in San Francisco in April. The 300-foot-long machine will be assembled within an excavation on 4th Street between Harrison and Bryant streets and will start building the tunnel for southbound trains about two months later. Big Alma will arrive soon after Mom Chung to construct the northbound tunnel.

Supplier News Invensys Rail will serve as a subcontractor to Five Star Electric Corp. in a $167-million project that will replace two New York City Transit rail interlockings located at 71st Continental Ave. and Van Wyck Blvd. on the Queens line. Sperry Rail Service committed to a fiveyear contract to supply the Montana Rail Link with its ultrasonic/ induction test platform. Webcor Builders was awarded a $48.7-million contract for the Metro Gold Line Foothill Extension.

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INDUSTRY TODAY FRA Track Safety Standards to change in July by Louis Cerny, railroad consultant O n July 11, 2013, extensive changes are scheduled to take effect in the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Track Safety Standards, but only a few will affect most track professionals. For most track people, the important changes are what constitutes curved track (new 213.14) and relating actual curvature and superelevation to the maximum allowable train speeds on curves (new 213.57 Footnote 2 and new Vmax definition). The changes are based on a unanimous January 2012 agreement of FRA’s Rail Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC), on which all major railroads were represented, and were published in the March 13, 2013, Federal Register.

Changes: Class 6-9 track regulations

Most of the changes are in the FRA high-speed track standards (49CFR213 Part G) for Class 6-9 track with speeds more than 80 mph for freight and more than 90 mph for passenger. Except for a stretch of track over which Amtrak operates on Union Pacific in Illinois, the only railroad presently responsible for track operated at these speeds is Amtrak, which is thoroughly familiar with the changes and so I will not go into detail here. It should be noted that some provisions related to

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vehicle testing will also affect Maryland Transit Administration MARC, New Jersey Transit and Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority commuter operations, which use Amtrak-owned track. The item that will probably receive the most press coverage outside of professional publications is that the maximum speed allowed in Class 9 is raised from 200 to 220 mph, but most of the changes involve requiring detailed prior testing of the combinations of track and equipment to operate at Class 6-9 speeds.

Changes: Class 1-5 track regulations

While there are also extensive changes to the Track Safety Standards in Class 1-5 track, these are mostly concerned with locations where high qualified cant deficiencies (more than five inches) are used so that passenger trains can maintain higher speeds around curves. Such operations only occur on Amtrakowned lines at present. The following changes to FRA Class 1-5 are discussed in order of their appearance in the FRA Track Safety Standards. Because of the complications added by the new provisions, 213.7(a)(2)(i) and 213.7(b)(2)(i) have been modified so that inspectors and supervisors need only know the parts of the Track Safety Standards that apply to the track for which they are responsible. Thus, there is no need for such persons to know the provisions relating to high cant deficiency if there is no such operation on their territory. The first of two significant changes that will affect all railroads is that a new 213.14 has been added stating that requirements specified for curved track will apply only to track having a curvature greater than 0.25 degrees (0 degrees, 15 minutes). This will affect 213.55 requirements for alignment and 213.234(c) provisions of the concrete tie inspection regulations. A new section has been added to 213.55 (alignment) for use only when cant deficiency is more than five inches, so this will not affect the great majority of track. The new wording of the second sentence of 213.57(a) is meant for clarification and not to change the meaning of the existing rule. Two examples of where a track may be intentionally designed with reverse superelevation are on the diverging side of turnouts to the outside of superelevated curves and in locations such as sharp curves on grades in industrial parks, where reverse superelevation may be used to inhibit stringlining derailments. While the Vmax equation in 213.57(b)(1) is changed, this equation will not be different for existing freight railroad operations, because “Eu” in the new Vmax formula will remain at three, this being no change from the present formula. Where more than three inches unbalance (cant deficiency) is used for passenger operations on freight roads, that figure will be used as a value for “Eu.” All vehicles having qualified cant deficiencies greater than three inches must be approved or have been previously allowed by FRA for such operation. The second significant change that will affect all railroads is a new Footnote 2 in 213.57(b), which, along with a change

INDUSTRY TODAY in the Vmax definition, allows the actual cant deficiency in track (as measured per Footnotes 1 and new 3 [present Footnote 2]) to exceed the qualified (FRA authorized cant deficiency for the equipment) cant deficiency by up to one inch, thus allowing a track maintenance tolerance without having to reduce train speed on the curve. Since, as indicated in new 213.57(c), all equipment is consider by FRA as authorized for at least three inches cant deficiency, this will allow an actual cant deficiency of four inches based on the 155-foot superelevation and degree of curvature measurements before FRA regulations would require a curve speed reduction due to 213.57. To accommodate this, the Vmax formula will be defined as “the maximum posted timetable operating speed” rather than the “maximum allowable operating speed” shown in the present regulation. Another effect of Footnote 2 and the changed Vmax definition in 213.57 is that it will allow actual cant deficiencies of up to six inches without invoking the rules that come into play when qualified cant deficiencies are more than five inches. One effect of this will be to continue to allow for a maintenance tolerance where Talgo-style passenger equipment is used in Oregon and Washington. A minor change affecting all railroads is that Footnote 1 in 213.57 has been changed by requiring the elevation to be averaged over 11 points instead of 10. Thus, the points at both ends

of the 155-foot section are included. For most track inspection professionals, this change conforms the regulations to actual practices in measuring average elevation and curvature, so will not involve an actual change in procedure. Wording in 213.59(a) has been revised to be compatible with the revisions to the Vmax definition in 213.57. A new 213.65 is added setting limits on combined surface and alignment defects, but this only applies to where a qualified cant deficiency more than five inches is used. The last change in Classes 1-5 is in the 213.110 regulations, which allow using Gauge Restraint Measurement Systems (GRMS) as an alternate to the detailed tie standards in 213.109, have been changed, with the existing Gauge Widening Ratio (GWR) replaced by a differently-calculated Gauge Widening Projection (GWP) in several formulas. The changes were intended primarily to allow the use of hi-rail equipment for GRMS measurements. The present Class 1-5 use of 213.110 is confined to a few line segments, so that the vast majority of track professionals, per the changes in 213.7 mentioned earlier, will not be required by the FRA to be familiar with these 213.110 changes. The changes to 213.110 do not affect GRMS operations on railroads that have not elected to use 213.110 instead of 213/109. They can use whatever GRMS parameters and equations they wish.

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PEOPLE Amtrak Board of Directors elected Anthony Coscia to chairman and Jeffrey Moreland to vice chairman. Arup hired Joseph Edge, P.E., and Christopher Taylor, P.E., both associate principals, to its regional transit division. Dennis Glenn Boll, retired assistant vice president-signals, BNSF, died March 20, 2013. Ca l i f o r n i a H i g h - S p e e d Ra i l Authority appointed Russell Fong as its chief financial officer. Canadian National named John Orr vice president, Eastern Region; Michael Farkouh vice president, safety and sustainability and Gerry Weber vice president, supply, fleet and fuel management. Florida East Coast Industries, Inc. appointed Donald Robinson as president and chief operating officer for All Aboard Florida; Michael Reininger has been promoted to president and chief development officer. Florida East Coast Railway appointed Melissa Westerman to vice president and corporate controller. James McHugh Construction Co. hired Karl Bechtoldt and Randy Perdue to head up the firm’s Railroad Division. Kansas City Southern’s U.S. Transportation Group named Rick Pennington assistant vice president transportation for the Southeast Division; David Carroll vice president transportation for the Southwest Division; Mike Curry vice president transportation for the Midwest Division; Chad Devenney vice president transportation of the Network Operations Center and Steve Truitt superintendent of the Shreveport Terminal. Pe t e r D e n i t z r e j o i n e d Parsons Brinckerhoff as manager of special projects in its Transit and Rail Technical Excellence Center. Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority promoted Andrew Gillespie to chief engineer, in the Engineering, Maintenance & Construction Division. 10 Railway Track & Structures

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The rail industry goes to Washington

The National Railroad Construction & Maintenance Association, Inc. 500 New Jersey Ave., N. W. Suite 400 Washington D. C. 20009 Tel: 202-715-2920 Fax: 202-318-0867

I would like to thank all those who attended Railroad Day on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., on March 14. Our attendance and interactions with our representatives and senators and their staff members is the best way to get our viewpoints across and make sure our voices are heard. Congress is more focused on rail issues than ever before and it’s our responsibility to make sure they hear the right messages from those of us out in the field doing the work. We need to continue communicating the importance of the shortline railroad rehabilitation tax credit, the dangers of longer and heavier trucks and the need to preserve a balanced regulatory str ucture. Our trade association staffer s and gover nment aff air s specialists in Washington do a great job of telling this story every day, but there’s nothing like a real live voter to drive home the message. This year’s Railroad Day on the Hill featured more than 400 rail industr y par ticipants conducting more than 350 meetings on the hill. That was a record crowd and we hope to have an even stronger force next year. The NRC works closely with the American Short Line and Regional Railroad Association, the Association of American Railroads, the Railway Engineering-Maintenance Suppliers Association, the Railway Signal Supply Institute, the Railway Supply Institute and the Railway Tie Association, to organize and sponsor the event and it is truly an industrywide success story. The next NRC Rail Construction

and Maintenance Equipment Auction kicks off at 9a.m. on Tuesday, April 16, 2013 at the Blackmon Auctions Yard in Little Rock, Ark. Equipment inspection will be available from 8a.m. to 5p.m. April 15 and 7a.m. to 9a.m. Apr il 16. If you have equipment you would like to consign (or donate) to the auction, contact Thomas Blackmon, Jr., at 501-6644526 or thomas@blackmonauctions. com or fill out the auction interest form at auction. A portion of the proceeds from the consigned equipment and 100 percent of the proceeds of the donated equipment, will go the NRC Safety, Training and Education Fund. Among other activities, the safety fund supports the ongoing production of the series of NRC Safety DVDs. Your company will receive the tax deduction benefits. Speaking of safety, the NRC is proud to repeat the Federal Railroad Administration’s exciting repor t that 2012 was the safest year in the recorded history of railroading. Let’s all keep up the good work and make 2013 even safer. Finally, don’t forget to save the date: The 2014 NRC conference will be held at J.W. Marriott in Palm Deser t, Calif ., from Sunday Jan. 5, 2014 through Wednesday Jan. 8, 2014. Updated information will eventually be posted on www.nrcma. org/go/conference. Work safe and keep those around you working safe. by Terry Benton, NRC Chairman Railway Track & Structures

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TTCI R&D Evaluation of:

Switch point and stock rail profiles for heavy-axle-loads by David Davis, senior scientist, Muhammad Akhtar, senior engineer II and Huimin Wu, principal investigator II

TTCI researchers explore methods to reduce switch point chipping and RCF.


ransportation Technology Center, Inc., conducted a series of tests to evaluate methods to reduce stock rail metal flow and switch point fatigue in turnouts. Preliminary results suggest that it is

possible to reduce both switch point chipping and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) with running surface profile changes to the stock rail and switch point, respectively. Testing conducted at the Facility for Accelerated Service Testing and in revenue service showed that significant improvements in switch point wear and RCF were achieved. At this time, the effects of the profile changes on switch point chipping have not been seen. However, the profile changes did positively affect stock rail metal flow

Figure 1: Standard and proposed gauge corner radius on a test stock rail.

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(the actual cause of switch point chipping).


Performance records of existing switch designs were reviewed and show the following top six switch-related accident causes:1 1. Gapped switch points 2. Chipped switch points 3. Dragging equipment derailments 4. Track surface and alignment defects 5. Worn switch points 6. Split switches Derailments caused by dragging equipment are largely independent of switch design. However, the other five failure modes are related to the split switch configuration and the tapered-end switch points it utilizes, although, item number one can also be caused when switches are left by operating personnel in a position not fully closed for either side. The thin section of the switch point is susceptible to breakage from vertical loading and torsional bending. The removal of the foot of the switch point makes it less stable under load. This is compensated for by lateral support provided by the stock rail, which keeps the point from rotating. Metal flow from the stock rail can make contact with the switch point problematic, because a narrow band of wheel contact is likely located near the top of the switch point. Differential movement of the two components under loading makes the design of the contact surfaces more difficult. These conditions result in the switch point and stock rail overloading in the same locations, which can result in (1) cracked and broken switch points, (2) track surface defects near the point of the switch, (3) switches that do not close properly and (4)

worn switch points that raise the likelihood of a wheel climb. In theory, extending the life of the stock rail may not have an effect on the service life of switch points, since both are often replaced together to avoid fitting problems. However, chipping or breakout is the most common failure mode of switch points. Stock rail metal flow and lack of timely maintenance grinding are contributing factors. Consequently, any design feature that can reduce stock rail metal flow also has the potential to increase switch point service life. The current switch point running surface design tends to experience a relatively high rate of wear and early onset of RCF, resulting from high contact stress and concentrated contact at the rail gauge corner.2 The current design worked better when rails were much softer than those currently being used today. The softer property of the rails enabled the switch point to wear into a conformal shape. The nonconformal shape was a result of planing a point slope into the switch point. The new design switch point running surface profiles can improve wheel and rail interface conditions by producing larger contact areas with new and worn wheel profile shapes, which lead to lower contact stresses. The new profile is much closer to the shape of a canted rail, the shape wheels encounter on the rest of the track.

Stock rail development

The TTCI-developed stock rail prototype differs from the standard undercut stock rail by modifying the gauge corner. The intent is to protect the gauge corner from wheel contact and to provide some allowance for metal flow before adverse contact with the back of switch point occurs. This design attempts to compensate for the rotation of the stock rail that happens, due to the flat plate work currently used in switches. Figure 1 shows the current and proposed stock rail profiles. Two 39-foot-long stock rails were machined with an undercut. Half of the length of the 136RE rail, with undercut, had AREMA standard radii (0.3740 inch and 0.5625 inch) at the corner. The other half had a one-inch radius, as Figure 2 shows. This arrangement provided direct comparison of the effects of standard radii and suggested radius (one inch) on metal flow.

Stock rail results

Figure 2 shows that the difference in metal flow with both types of corner radii is not significant. The location of stock rails was close to a six-degree curve where the train runs at overbalanced speed. The train operates at 40 mph on a curve set up for 34 mph balance speed, producing about 1.7 inches of cant deficiency. This speed may have the tendency to reduce wheel flange root and rail gauge corner contact on the test stock rails. The tests of the prototype stock rail running surface profile and plate cant will continue with some modifications. The results-to-date are encouraging, but inconclusive. There is evidence to suggest that the prototype profile will protect switch points from adverse contact due to stock rail

Figure 2 (Top) illustrates the effects of gauge corner radius - stock rail on canted plates (top) and flat plates (bottom). Figure 3 shows the comparison of the current switch point design and the new switch point profile design.

flow. The prototype has accumulated about 200 mgt with very little metal flow. However, more tonnage is needed to reach a definitive answer, as the base case profile is also performing well.

Switch point development

The TTCI prototype differs from the standard switch point running surface profile by replicating the railhead shape through the switch point tip. Current switch points have a Railway Track & Structures

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TTCI R&D 4 shows. This profile has a one-inch radius at the switch point gauge corner.3 It maintains the 78-degree gauge side cut and has a flat top (or 1:20 slope) cut that is tangential to the one-inch radius arc. Because the one-inch radius arc is not tangential to the 78-degree line, it creates a visible intersection of the curved and flat surfaces that can be smoothed during production. This switch point should quickly wear into a conformal shape with the commonly worn wheel profiles. The new profile is intended to approximate the gauge corner of a canted rail. This running surface profile is similar to what the wheel encounters on the rest of the track outside of turnouts. Figure 4 shows a comparison of the current design and the new design. To increase the size of the wheel and rail contact area, the switch point top of the new design is slightly higher than the current design in the load-carrying zone from nine to 19 feet from the switch point tip. The new switch point maintained the slope for the two side cuts. It adjusted the slopes for the first and second top cuts and the length of the second cut to accommodate the new profile and to keep the switch point tip elevation the same as in the current design. The prototype switch points were tested by comparing to AREMA style switch points in the same crossovers on high tonnage rate mainline track.2 The prototypes are located at East Marceline, Mo., and at Bonner Springs and Linn, Kan.

Switch point performance

Figure 4 (Top) illustrates the new switch point profile design. Figure 5: Standard switch point wear pattern. Marceline, straight-left, diverging-right, standard (top). Bonner Springs, Main 1-mostly empty trains, straight-left, diverging, standard (bottom).

relatively squared gauge corner, resulting from flat tops and side cuts. These cuts concentrate wheel contacts on the remainder of the gauge corner. Figure 3 shows a comparison of the current design and the new design. In order to simplify the machining process and use an existing cutting tool, a simplified design was built, as Figure

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TTCI quantified the performance of the switch points by measuring the running surface cross section over time at the test locations. By overlaying the profiles, the amount of wear and metal flow was determined. In addition, qualitative assessment of the surface condition by visual inspection and records of running surface maintenance grinding were used to determine the effect of the profiles on RCF occurrence.

Wear patterns

Standard switch points: The standard switch points from two switch suppliers at the two test sites produced similar wear patterns as in the previous survey.3 Figure 5 shows the switch point profiles overlaid with the new profiles (blue lines in plots) at the two test sites, measured at 14 feet from the point of switch, after approximately seven and 18 months after the switch points were installed. The actual Marceline points

were measured before installation, whereas representative new profiles were used for the Bonner Springs turnouts. Two main observations are: (1) high rates of wear occurred in the first seven months and (2) the wear was concentrated at the rail gauge corner. Figure 6 shows the standard switch point taken seven months after the installation at Marceline, showing the surface damage at the rail gauge corner. Rail grinding (using a hand grinder) had been conducted a few days before to remove the plastic flow at the gauge corner. Prototype switch points: Figure 7 shows the wear patterns for two variations of the prototype switch point profile at a similar distance from the point of switch as shown in Figure 5 for the standard points. Compared to the standard switch point profile, performance results from the prototype profiles show the following features: • Both versions of the prototype profile did not show the concentrated wear at the rail gauge corner as seen on the standard profile. The wear was mainly spread at the rail top, indicating a larger wheel/rail contact area. • The wear at this location during the same service period was lower than that on the standard profile. Figure 8 shows the prototype switch point taken seven months after the installation at Marceline. Compared to Figure 5, the rail surface condition was much better and the contact band was located on the top of the rail, which

Figure 6 shows the standard switch point, straight, about 14 feet from point of switch, April 2011, Marceline.

agreed with the measured profiles. Local forces that maintain the switches also noted less RCF occurred and less grinding was needed on the prototypes.

Cross section area loss

The straight prototype and standard switch points are

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Figure 7 (Top) illustrates wear patters for prototypes 1 and 2. Marceline, straightleft, diverging-right, prototype 1 (a, top). Bonner Springs, Main 2-mostly loaded trains, straight-left, diverging-right, prototype 2 (b, bottom). Figure 8 (Middle) shows the prototype, straight, 15 feet from the point of switchApril 2011, Marceline. Figure 9 illustrates the wear comparison of prototypes, diverging route, 13 feet from the point of switch. 16 Railway Track & Structures

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separately installed on Main 1 and Main 2 at both revenue service test sites. Main 1 (with the standard switch point) has mostly empty coal trains and Main 2 (with the prototype switch point) has mostly loaded coal trains. At Marceline, the loaded trains run on both lines. The actual traffic distribution between two lines is unknown, making it difficult to make a direct comparison of wear between the straight prototype and the standard switch points. The diverging switch points likely exper ience similar traffic, but the distributions of facing and trailing traffic are unknown. F i g u r e 9 c o m p a r e s t h e we a r in terms of rail cross section area loss for the prototype and standard diverging switch point profiles at 13 feet from the switch point after 18 months of wear. Compared to the standard switch, the prototype at Bonner Springs showed about 50 percent less area loss, but at Marceline, the prototype had slightly more area loss.4 The prototype switch point profiles at Bonner Springs were made closer to the recommended design. However, the profiles at Marceline varied from the intended design, w h i c h c a u s e d s t r o n g t wo - p o i n t contact that has a negative effect on curving (diverging route). This resulted in more gauge-face wear, negating the beneficial effects of lower top-of-rail wear.

Digest TD-12-011. Association of American Railroads, Transportation Technology Center, Inc., Pueblo, Colo. 2. Xinggao, S. and Davis, D. May 2010. “Mainline Switch Design to Improve Vehicle Steering.” Technology Digest TD-10-013. Association of American Railroads, Transportation Technology Center, Inc., Pueblo, Colo. 3. Wu, H., Madr ill, B. and Davis, D. March 2010. “New Rail Profile Designs

f o r S w i t c h Po i n t s.” Te c h n o l og y D i ge s t TD-10-011. Association of American Railroads/Transportation Technology Center, Inc., Pueblo, Colo. 4. Wu, H. and Davis, D. December 2012. “Evaluation of Prototype Switch Point Running Surface Profiles for Heavy Axle Loads.” Technology Digest TD-12-028. Association of American Railroads, Transportation Technology Center, Inc., Pueblo, Colo.


The TTCI switch point profile design has proven to be effective in revenue service. It provides significant benefit in lower wear and RCF formation rates. Western railroads are planning to implement the profile as a standard design this year. The stock rail profile design requires further development and testing before implementation. The prototypes show promise in being able to affect the location and amount of metal flow on stock rails. After design refinement, this should lead to a longer switch point fatigue life.

References 1. Muhammad, A. and Davis, D. June 2012. “Evaluation of Switch Point and Stock Rail Profiles for Heavy Axle Loads.” Technology

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Everything in its


Suppliers manufacture and provide the most sophisticated tools for materials handling to-date.

Vaia Car’s Rail Lobster.

by Jennifer Nunez, assistant editor


ith so many materials of various sizes and weights needed to build and maintain the railroads, multifunctional machines are in demand and suppliers across North America are delivering just that.


Dymax Inc. offers its 360-degree Grip N Ditch bucket, which is designed for 12-to 30-ton excavators. The 360-degree rotation to manipulate material from any position and the power clamp jaw features chromium carbide armor on the lead edge. “It is ideal for cleanup work, avalanche removal, working inside tunnels or any type of maintenance or site improvement,” noted Allen Switzer, general sales manager. “For those with 30-ton excavators and pin grabber couplers, a tilt option is available in widths from 42-inch to 48-inch to 60-inch.” Additionally, the Dymax Telescopic Rail Handler is available for 20-to 30-ton excavators. It is designed to grab and position 40-and 80-foot rails from piles and place them in position for flash-butt welding. Dymax notes that it is ideal for loading rails onto transport trailers/railcarts. Features include 30-degree rotation, high-tensile steel rail grabs using cylinders with lock valves, 24 V diverter valve and its manual telescopic arms extend up to 30 feet and has a storage stand, standard.


Georgetown Rail Equipment Company’s (GREX) DumpTrain 18 Railway Track & Structures

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has a 1,500-ton capacity and according to the company, provides pin-point delivery of aggregate. Capable of unloading at speeds up to 2,000 tons-perhour, the DumpTrain eliminates the need for additional equipment, manpower and time associated with material re-handling, noted GREX. It can handle several different sizes of aggregate, from walkway fines up to ballast of three-inch diameter. The boom of the DumpTrain has a rotation of 180-degrees and allows for material to be delivered anywhere from directly in front of the train to a distance of at least 35 feet from the center of track. “As railroads continue to operate at maximum capacity, the need for efficient aggregate delivery has never been more important,” explained Lynn Turner, vice president of marketing and sales. “Work windows continue to shrink and our customers expect this trend to continue for years to come. Because of this, GREX is continually exploring ways to maximize efficiency, while observing the highest safety standards for our employees and customers.” Because of the speed at which it unloads and the ability to pin-point delivery, GREX says railroads rely on the DumpTrain to get tracks back in service. “Its capability to unload aggregate directly in front of itself allows the track to be repaired and put back into service much faster than by traditional means of material delivery,” explained Turner. “The sheer volume of aggregate that can be delivered allows our customers to operate day and night to get tracks back in service.”

materials handling


“There seems to be two commonalities among our railroad industry customers,” said Timothy Francis, vice president of marketing at Herzog Railroad Services, Inc. “The two subjects we discuss most often are safety and cost.” The Herzog Automated Tie Down Car, in conjunction with its Rail Unloading Machine (R.U.M.) is the company’s answer to both of those concerns. Every railroad allocates resources towards the labor-intensive task of unloading rail trains. In most cases, section gangs are taken away from their daily jobs in order to unload rail trains, Francis notes and says the Herzog R.U.M. eliminates that need. Herzog provides two operators and, under the direction of a railroad provided foreman, the rail train can be unloaded. The R.U.M. can unload single or dual rails at up to 10 sticks per hour. The company says there isn’t a need to fish plate the rail when unloading or remove plates once the rail is on the ground. “There is also no need to tie the first stick of rail off when first starting to unload the train,” Francis explained. “When utilizing the R.U.M. the need for the railroad to maintain and coordinate winch car movements from train to train is no longer a concern. The R.U.M. eliminates those needs and at the end of the day, it cuts away from the train and drives down the interstate to the next work location.” The Herzog Automated Tie Down Car is operated by remote control. With the turn of a knob and flip of a switch, the pocket to unload is unclamped. The rail is then pulled and the process starts all over again. Herzog Railroad Services, Inc., says the need for a tie down crew has been eliminated and the slip, trip and fall concern is removed and the time spent unclamping is cut down from a three and a half minute average to six seconds. “The Automated Tie Down Car and R.U.M. reduce exposure and, therefore, reduce the opportunity for injury,” noted Francis. “Of course, along with safety, there are quantifiable productivity improvements that can lead to reduction of rail train cycle

times, reduction of curfews and increased time to run revenue freight.”


“The current North American rail train fleet is utilizing antiquated technologies that do not provide the productivity or safety that railroads are starting to

demand,” noted Bradley Willems, director of marketing and business development at Loram Maintenance of Way, Inc. “As railroads look to renew rail train fleets in the coming years, there will be an opportunity for firms to increase the productivity and safety of rail train operations. Productivity

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materials handling trains at 3,000 feet-per-hour and provides a product that is relay rail ready. Loram’s Rail Handling System was designed to diminish the risk of injury by reducing the human interaction with the rail. “One of the key advantages of Loram’s equipment is that it retains total control of the rail while loading and unloading,” Willems said. “The equipment also provides a very stable and ergonomic work station that locks the rail in place mechanically when there is a need for an operator to come in to physical contact with the rail.”

Mitchell Equipment

GREX DumpTrain provides flood remediation near Galena, Ill., in 2012.

and process improvements will lower the overall cost of rail logistics through increased handling capacity and the ability to pick up and transport rail in a state that allows it to easily be relayed or scrapped.” With safety and productivity being key factors, Loram offers customers its Rail Handling System, which it notes has double the loading productivity of traditional rail

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Mitchell Equipment has developed a friction drive hi-rail package for a 55-ton rough terrain crane. The company says the Terex RT 555-1 is the largest friction drive hi-rail crane ever made and is far more economical than using a permanent rail-bound crane. Additionally, it has the ability to get off track and can be used on both the rail and on the ground. Mitchell has developed an alarm system to be used with friction drive hi-rail, whereby, if for any reason, any of the four friction drive hubs should loose contact with the tire, an alarm sounds, alerting the operator to stop the crane. “This feature prevents possible free-wheeling of the crane on rail,” explained Estel Lovitt, Jr., president. “This is a huge safety feature that Mitchell installs on all friction drive hi-rail systems it produces and in our opinion, it

materials handling sales manager. “I feel that the railroads are looking for innovative ideas and processes to get their track maintenance projects completed.”


Loram’s Rail Handling System.

should be a mandatory system for all friction drive hi-rail systems for all manufactured machines that operate on the railroads.”


Rail Construction Equipment Company (RCE) has expanded its line of material handling carts by introducing

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the Rail Dump Cart. The cart has the capability of delivering OTM, ballast and can be used for removal of material during ditching. This product can be used with RCE hi-rail excavators and hi-rail swing loaders. “I believe that budgets are still tighter than past years, but 2013 looks promising from the amount of cur rent interest for product quotations,” noted Dennis Hanke,

Bridge and track budgets are always tight in both time and cost. Rcrane is designed to build bridges fast and replace track with longer/heavier bridge and track panels. “The Rcrane system keeps the work on track, maximizing safety and productivity for bridge and track construction,” said Paul Markelz, president and founder of Rcrane, LLC. “Performing all lift operations with dual hoists straddling the work area guarantees safety of the workforce and reliable, on-time completion of the work.” The system completes delivery, removal, disposal and installation all in one trip and the company notes that it has achieved new levels of construction speed. Rcrane has added several

materials handling features, such as on-board fall arrest systems and new levels of performance and ease of use, as well as adding new failsafe features to the rugged hoist support systems. Additionally, a second set of Rmule material transfer dollies to simultaneously transfer both old removed materials and new delivered materials on Rflat material delivery flat cars have been added. “When all aspects of downtime and reliability of work completion are considered,” noted Markelz. “Rcrane delivers new levels of time and cost value that helps our customers run more trains on time at full speed. Features that decrease cost and time to complete mission-critical operations so track can reopen for rail traffic are important to our customers and makes it much easier to keep rail shipping customers satisfied.”

R. J. Corman

R. J. Corman Railroad Company/ Material Sales provides full-service

material management and distribution out of its 10 maintenance-of-way material yards. The yards span from Albany, N.Y., to Starke, Fla., and provide 24/7 service. “Switch points and stock rails don’t wait until 8:00 a.m. to fail,” s a i d a c o m p a ny r e p r e s e n t at i ve . “We’re there when that happens. Our grapple trucks’ maneuverability increases opportunities for delivering maintenance-of-way mater ial to exact locations, whether it is switch components, frogs, ties, etc. This

Rcrane helping to perform bridge work.

enables our customers’ achievement of two main objectives: improved labor and cost efficiencies.” R. J. Corman notes safety is its top priority. The company is constantly searching for safer, more advanced equipment, such as its remotecontrolled grapple trucks. A material sales spokesperson said, “We are determined to bring innovative improvements to maintain our high operating standards, the standards

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materials handling

which have earned our reputation as the company our customers trust to get the job done.”


R. J. Corman grapple truck working in its material yard.

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V&H Inc., Tr ucks, uses AR450 (abrasion resistant) steel on its material handler and rotary dump truck bodies. This abrasion-resistant steel is intended to haul abrasive and high-impact materials, such as rip-rap, crossties, spikes and other material that can destroy a bed after a few years of service. “We have tested the AR450 steel for about five years and you cannot see dents, tears and wavy surfaces that you would see with mild steel,” said Tim Minor, railroad specialist, Kansas Division. The proportional hydraulic control on V&H’s rotary dump truck allows the operator the ability to feather the bed in any direction through a joystick

materials handling

control in the cab or with the hydraulic valve outside of the truck. The company says customers like the positive control that it gives them when dumping a load or even a simple task, such as stowing the bed, while never having to take their eyes off of the load. “The market for material handlers and rotary dump trucks is softer than it was a year ago at this time,” Minor noted. “We think this is due to the fact that we actually had a winter this year. Last year’s winter was extremely mild, which allowed the year’s work window to move up significantly and of course the rental, leasing and sales market followed suit.”

Vaia Car

Vaia Car’s TCR-V Rail Crane (Lobster) is designed for safe and efficient delivery of rail to the jobsite and the pickup of rail removed from the track. The Lobster, working in conjunction with special rail cars, can handle continuous welded rail and was made for tight work windows and restrained budgets. Operating from track-mounted special cars, the Lobster is capable of handling rail up to 1,640 feet in length. The rails are handled two at a time by one Lobster operator, plus a small support crew. “Powered by a 177 hp diesel engine coupled to double

V&H rotary dump truck.

hydraulic pumps, provide power to all four wheels for traction with variable speeds in either direction,” noted Cal Coy, Bridgewater Inc. consultant for Vaia Car. “The unit is equipped with hydraulically-operated brakes, acting on all four wheels and the driving cab is rear-access with wide visibility. It is sound dampened, air conditioned and heated for operator comfort. All controls and instrumentation are purposely located for ease of operation.”

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Suspension Bridges: Concepts and Various Innovative Techniques of

Structural Evaluation A greater utilization of advanced NDT methods can help spot potential problems in suspension bridges.

by Avinash Prasad, P.E., L.S., PhD. (C), Metropolitan Transit Authority – New York City Transit

A typical configuration of a suspension bridge.9


uring the past 200 years, suspension bridges have been at the forefront in all aspects of structural engineering. Their spans have grown from 50 to 2,000 meters (164 to 6,561 feet) with designs for 3,000 meters (9,842 feet) under consideration.1 A suspension bridge is a special type of bridge in which loads from the bridge deck are carried by vertical suspenders that are supported by suspension cables suspended between towers and anchored at both ends of the bridge. The anchorage should be strong enough to take the high-tensile forces of suspension cables. The main suspension cable of modern bridge cables are made from multiple strands of wire. This contributes greater redundancy in case of structural failure. Suspension bridges are showing signs of distress due to aging, improper repair or rehabilitation or lack of proper maintenance. Normally, visual inspections (including 100 percent hands-on inspection of fracture-critical fatigue prone details) are done for structural evaluation of critical components of a suspension bridge. Extending the service life of aging suspension bridges is important for the transportation industry. Proper nondestructive testing (NDT) can identify most of the structural problems. Thereafter, necessary repair/rehabilitation can be executed with minimum funding. Additional research is required on this topic, which would be beneficial to the industry. As it pertains to structural evaluation of suspension bridges carrying railroad traffic and/or vehicular traffic, it is important to include in the design of a suspension bridge that the

centerline of the railroad tracks and associated structures are symmetrical with respect to the transverse centerline of the suspension bridge to avoid unnecessary and/or additional torsional forces. Additionally, the dead load of the suspension bridge should be significant compared to other types of load.2

Why suspension bridges fail

The Silver Bridge over the Ohio River at Point Pleasant collapsed in 1967 due to a brittle fracture of an eye-bar of the suspension system. Some of the suspected reasons were poor quality control during construction, inability to inspect, ignorance of fatigue behavior and lack of redundancy, among other factors.3 After this incident, the Federal Highway Administration made it mandatory for biennial inspection of all bridges. An additional outcome was the National Bridge Inventory (NBI), which currently contains data on more than 600,000 vehicular bridges, 200,000 railroad bridges and more than 100,000 culverts. Fracture-critical details became an important part of the inventory and special provisions were designed for their inspections.4 Structural failure of a suspension bridge may be a combination of poor design, construction, maintenance, failure to inspect fracture-critical and fatigue prone details thoroughly, severe weather conditions or a combination of all these factors. Normally, suspension bridges are visually inspected along with checking of interior wires through a wedging process for selected critical locations biannually. There are limitations in current visual inspection of suspension cables, Railway Track & Structures

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Suspension bridge inspection

Small perforations in the cable wrap surface. These are potential locations for water infiltration.9

years, has suffered damage and had to be retrofitted with a torsion tube to increase its resistance to torsional forces. This special arrangement is not proving effective year after year and serves as one of example of additional stress caused to a suspension bridge due to poor design, carrying railroad and vehicular traffic together.6

Advancement of NDT methods

as visual inspection reports vary when compared with NDT method results. Taking the above points into consideration, it is imperative to develop various NDT techniques to evaluate the structural condition of suspension bridges to avoid catastrophic failures.

Structural evaluation of suspension bridges

Suspension bridges are more susceptible to vibration due to flexibility compared to other rigid bridges. In design, there are variations in the type of vehicular and railroad live load. The dynamic effect by railroad traffic is more significant than vehicular traffic on a suspension bridge. Railroad live load, in a train length of approximately 600 feet, can be uniformly distributed as the load crosses over the bridge. In the case of vehicular loading, live load is a series of point loads as vehicle wheels cross over the bridge. Railroad traffic can be allowed on a suspension bridge under specific circumstances and the following considerations are required: 1. The dead load of suspension bridge should be higher compared to other types of load on the bridge. 2. A provision should be made for increased stiffness of the bridge (by providing inclined cable stays, etc.). 3. It is important to make consideration in design that the railroad centerline of track and associated structures are symmetrical with respect to the transverse centerline of suspension bridge to avoid unnecessary and/or additional torsional forces. In New York City, Manhattan Bridge and Williamsburg Bridge are examples of suspension bridges, which carry both highway and railroad traffic. The Williamsburg suspension bridge is an example where the railroad centerline of track and associated structures are symmetrical with respect to transverse centerline of the bridge, which avoids unnecessary and/or additional torsional forces.6 However, in the Manhattan suspension bridge, the railroad centerline of track and associated structures are unsymmetrical with respect to the transverse centerline of the bridge causing unnecessary additional torsional forces. As a result of this positioning, the Manhattan Bridge, over the 28 Railway Track & Structures

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Current NDT methods can be used to check the material properties of a structure and to verify the structural condition without damaging the infrastructure. The numerous NDT methods used on suspension bridges are based on the bridge structures inherent material properties, various types of electromagnetic radiation, etc. When electromagnetic radiation passes through suspension bridge structural elements, it shows distinct characteristics on account of material flaw. Dye penetrant testing for nonmagnetic materials and a magnetic particle test for magnetic materials can be performed to discover new cracks and/or any discontinuity in material properties.7, 8 Alternative NDT methods include electromagnetic testing, infrared and thermal testing, radiographic testing, C-scan, laser technology testing, ultrasonic testing, hardness testing, vibration analysis and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Even with these options, advancement of NDT methods for structural evaluation is needed. One reason is that the current practice of visual inspections and subjective observations are not sufficient enough for precise structural evaluation of suspension bridges. Additionally, even the current practice of visual inspection of suspension bridges is not done properly, sometimes due to fear factor, as well as improper access to bridge inspectors. Apart from regular visual inspection, wedging of cables is performed to check the condition of cable strands, but this method covers only a portion of cable surface area as most of the cable area remains inaccessible. Inspecting a 20-foot length cable with wedging at eight points exposes less than 0.1 percent of the wire for a typical suspension bridge (4,000 foot main cable with 15,000 wires).4 The factor of ignorance in cable inspection is high due to the current wedging technique, as mentioned above. This process of wedging is tedious and can be preferably performed for the smaller size of cable strands. In structural evaluation of suspension cables, visual inspection cannot detect the actual deterioration (corrosion, breakage of wires, etc.) of cable strands due to the protective cable wrap over the actual load bearing cable. Hence, we are limited to visual inspection (that includes free climbing on suspension cables) and limited wedging of cable strands. This situation forces us to think about various innovative NDT methods to check the actual condition of the suspension cable. It is highly disappointing that not many NDT methods are commonly used for structural evaluation of suspension bridges. Catastrophic failures have occurred for various reasons on a few suspension bridges. This could have been avoided had

Suspension bridge inspection

The author performing a structural evaluation of Throgs Neck Bridge in New York City.

ated down the road to promote the use of NDT methods of suspension bridges in the transportation industry. The author is continuing his research on this topic to explore additional facts, which will be published in the future when available.


The author acknowledges the help of Ms. Indira Prasad, PMP, in peer reviewing this article. The author sincerely thanks his professors at NYU-POLY, as well as his colleagues at Metropolitan Transportation Authority-New York City Transit (MTA-NYCT) for their help and encouragement.

Disclaimer, about the author

various advanced NDT methods been put to use. Saving aging suspension bridges is important for the transportation industry. It is highly recommended to use various advanced NDT testing for structural evaluation of aging suspension bridges. Since every NDT method is unique, it is imperative to select particular methods based on the suitability for a successful inspection. Some of the NDT methods, such as MRI, are costly and need specialized training for effective structure evaluation. Normally, most of the high technology NDT tests are not performed on account of higher cost and effort in developing and using these methods for structural evaluation of suspension bridges. It is better to spend time and resources to use newly-developed NDT techniques to find a hidden structural defect. The transportation industry has to gear up to make use of these NDT methods. By following these norms, there will be higher chances of avoiding catastrophic failures of suspension bridges in the future. There are not enough NDT methods that are practiced in structural evaluation of suspension bridges. It is the author’s opinion that visual inspection cannot cover many areas of suspension bridges. Many inspectors are not able to pay close attention during inspection due to the height factor and poor access. The current structure evaluation is based on the visual observation and its subjective interpretation. Based on the limitations of visual structural evaluation, there is an urgent need of sophisticated NDT technology, which can extend the structure evaluation coverage. To further solidify the use of NDT technology, the author suggests that federal and state transportation agencies consider mandating the use of additional NDT methods of suspension bridges as part of the existing biennial inspection.

Future work

With the increasing pace of changes in the technology and the current economic downturn, organizations around the world are focused more on cost-effective and value-added technology to develop new NDT methods to pinpoint the critical defects of the different components of suspension bridges. A broad level of research with adequate funding could be initi30 Railway Track & Structures

April 2013

Even though the author works for MTA-NYCT, any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material does not reflect the views or policies of MTA-NYCT nor does mention of trade names, commercial product or organizations imply endorsement by MTA-NYCT. MTA-NYCT assumes no liability for the content or the use of the materials contained in this document. The author makes no warranties and/or representation regarding the correctness, accuracy and or reliability of the content and/or other material in this paper. The contents of this file are provided on an “as is” basis and without warranties of any kind, either express or implied. Avinash Prasad works for MTA-NYCT as a civil engineerlevel III and has more than 25 years of professional experience. He is a registered professional engineer and land surveyor in multiples states and is a structural evaluator as a professional engineer of high-rise structures (suspension bridges, towers, etc.) in the United States and abroad.

References 1. Yanev. B. 2009. “Suspension Bridge Cables: 200 Years of Empiricism, Analysis and Management.” PDF document. Retrieved from http:// 2. “Cable-Suspended Bridges for Rail Loading Definition Structural Steel Civil Engineering Lectures, Books, Notes.” N.p., n.d. Retreived from; Web. 06 Mar. 2013. 3. Dubin, Earl E.; Yanev, Bojidar S. August 2001. “Managing the East River Bridges in New York City.” Proc. SPIE Vol. 4337, p. 60-74. 4. Sreenivas A. November 2009. “National and New York State Highway Bridge Inspections.” MCEER/SUNY@Buffalo, Buffalo, N.Y. 5. State of New York Department of Transportation. Bridge Inspection Manuel. 1997, with latest revisions/circulars. 6. 2010 Biennial Inspection of Manhattan Bridge, Volume 1, summery report, by Haks Engineering, Inc., for NYSDOT. Contract no. D030696, PIN X760.81.121. 7. Charles Hellier. 2003. Handbook of Nondestructive Evaluation. McGraw-Hill. Pp. 1.1. ISBN 0-07-028121-0. 8. Cartz, L. 1995. Nondestructive Testing. ASM International. ISBN 9780-87170-517-4. 9. U.S. Department of Transportation. Primer for the. Rep. no. FHWAIF-11-045. Federal Highway Administration. May 2012. Web. 05 Mar. 2013. Retrieved from

A steady road to shortline success by Mischa Wanek-Libman, editor

Minnesota Prairie Line proves it takes more than a history of challenges, an end in service and the threat of abandonment to keep a dedicated shortline down. An MPL train with a locomotive from sister company Red River Valley & Western Railroad, near Arlington, Minn. Photo by Steve Glischinski.


94-mile rail line between Norwood and Hanley Falls, Minn., with a diverse service portfolio, wellmaintained infrastructure and the support of the local community, sounds like a healthy railroad and it is. But this wasn’t always the case. The line, now operated by Minnesota Prairie Line (MPL), a subsidiary of the Twin Cities & Western Railroad Company (TC&W), dates back to the 1880s when it was built by the Minneapolis & St. Louis Railway and then sold

to the Chicago & North Western Railway (C&NW) in 1960. By 1982, the track structure and traffic had declined to a point that C&NW began abandonment proceedings. Several counties served by the line recognized its importance and formed the Minnesota Valley Regional Rail Authority (MVRRA) to purchase and save the line in 1983. MVRRA hired a series of railroad operators over the next two decades, during which the line fell into further disrepair. A previous operator had placed zero liability

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Shortline maintenance: MPL Just a taste of what MPL found waiting prior to commencing rehabilitation efforts along the 94-mile line. Photo courtesy of MPL

the route. By this time, MVRRA had developed a plan to ready the infrastructure for a return in service. Once known as the line of the standing derailment, the infrastructure and service has turned around with good planning and a group of stakeholders who have shown fierce commitment toward the route’s success. Reflecting on the line’s condition when MPL first took over operations, Mark Wegner, president of TC&W, said, “It was a tough case and it took a lot of believers.”

Initial rehab program into the freight rates for derailments and it was not uncommon for a train to derail four times while traveling along a 60-mile route and in 2000,

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operations ceased. The line had poor ties and surface conditions, as well as a lack of ballast when MPL was chosed to operate

MVRRA developed a three-phase rehabilitation plan: Phase 1 would reopen the railroad; Phase 2 would upgrade the line to 25 mph and Phase 3 would upgrade the rail in order to handle 286k gross weight. MPL was

Shortline maintenance: MPL A contractor working to replace a section of rail. Photo courtesy of MPL

chosen as the operator in 2000 and by 2002, work to prepare the line’s return to service was underway. Approximately 80,000 new wood crossties were installed, 81,500 tons of ballast was used and additional rail inventory was acquired to replace the worst of the vertical split head rails, which included a four-mile stretch of

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70-pound rail. Additionally, there were 39 crossings ranging from 24-feet to 36-feet in length that were replaced to enable 10 mph operations across the entire 94-mile route. Wegner described the notoriously harsh Minnesota winter lending a hand to the rehab effort when there was a need to move ballast more than

half way over the line on track that had been out of service for two years. Doing so in winter, when the track was frozen, allowed the ballast transport to be a success and reduced any potential derailment concerns. As rail operator, MPL was responsible for performing a lot of prep work before the main contractor reached a portion of track to rehab. Wegner said part of this challenge was making sure the track structure held together so the contractor’s machines would not derail as they traveled along, but MPL also had to make sure all material was ready for the contractor. “The last thing you want is the contractor sitting,” said Wegner. “That was the biggest challenge, making sure that the contractor was working at all times and to have the material and track ready for them.” Going back to those Minnesota

Shortline maintenance: MPL winters, Wegner mentions that the rehab project did have a seasonal time limit and by October 2002, the line’s first freight train ran on the eastern edge of the route, as the contractors were finishing up work along the western end. Funding for the initial rehabilitation, which cost approximately $7.5 million, came from several sources

including $4.8 million from the state of Minnesota, $600,000 from the MVRRA, $600,000 from a shippers group, along with contributions from the TC&W and federal funds.

Ongoing work

Freight traffic returning to the line wasn’t the end of rehab efforts. Since 2002, rehabilitation work has been

ongoing. The first four miles of the line are jointed 115-pound rail, but the next 25 miles have been replaced with 115-pound continuous welded rail, which replaced 80-pound rail. The rail upgrade has allowed train speeds to increase from 10 mph to 25 mph between Norwood and Winthrop, Minn. MVRRA protected its rehabbed asset within the operation agreement, which contractually obligates MPL to maintain the line to the condition in which it is rehabilitated. MPL submits a work plan to the Minnesota Department of Transportation for review on an annual basis. “It’s kind of a neat deal. Whatever work has been done to-date, we have to maintain it to those conditions,” said Wegner. “Basically, the public investment in this public rail line is protected because we have to maintain it so it won’t go back to disrepair.” While Wegner says the initial rehab project took care of tie and surface conditions, rail and the 18 bridges along the line are the current focus of the work effort. “The three-phase maintenance plan has been modified to a degree in that the bridges under the heavier rail are being rehabbed to allow a 286k standard before the entire 94 miles of rail has been replaced. The first 29 miles now have heavy rail and the four bridges in the first 29 miles will be rehabbed to 286k before rail is upgraded going west of the 29 miles,” said Wegner.

Key to success

Being a public rail line, collaboration with the various stakeholders is key to the line’s continued success. In addition to the monthly meetings MPL has with MVRRA to keep the lines of communication open, Wegner says paying attention to the small details also helps. He uses vegetation as an example, “A private railroad might look at weeds and then at a busy schedule and get around to taking care of them within a month, but we can’t do that. Here, a weed is a local official’s visibility, so it’s incumbent upon us to address any issues, big or small, that can been seen on the rail line.” Additionally, Wegner likes to tell a story from 2005 when MPL experienced a derailment right by a state highway about a week before Christmas. A contractor would not be able to clean up 36 Railway Track & Structures

April 2013

the derailment for a week due to a Class 1 derailment that occurred in the Twin Cities at the same time. Anticipating holiday travelers driving past the MPL derailment and thinking the railroad had wasted tax-payer money, Wegner called a local newspaper and explained what had happened, which led to a state representative contacting Wegner wanting to know more about the situation and the railroad. “[The elected official] fired it up and really got things going at a state level and it’s one example of how an unfortunate incident can be turned around to positive action,” said Wegner. The collaborative effort from all stakeholders has not only preserved the line, but also enhanced rail service. “From what was once dormant and dilapidated track, the line has risen from the ashes, so to speak, and for more than 10 years, MPL customers have been able to safely and reliably make and receive shipments to and from markets throughout Nor th America,” said Wegner.

Railway Track & Structures

April 2012 37

AREMA NEWS Professional Development Upcoming seminars

AREMA online seminar Ethical decision making for professional engineers April 25, 2013 1:00-2:00 p.m. Eastern

Message from the President

Industry events that do not disappoint By Jim Carter

Please visit for more information.

introduction to practical railway engineering June 17-19, 2013 Calgary, AB, Canada

Please visit for more information and to register.

Jim Carter AREMA President 2012-2013

FRA 213: Track Safety Standards April 30-May 2, 2013 Atlanta, GA and October 2-4, 2013 Indianapolis, IN

In conjunction with AREMA 2013 Annual Conference and Railway Interchange 2013.

track alignment design seminar June 11-12, 2013 Denver, CO

Please visit for more information and to register online.

AREMA goes to Australia with Bridge Inspection and Streambed Erosion Hazard Recognition & Countermeasures for Railroad Embankments and Bridges (SCOUR) Seminar

Brisbane and Melbourne, Australia This event has been postponed - TBD Fall 2013

38 Railway Track & Structures

April 2013

Last month, I told you that I had heard nothing but good things about Indianapolis, Ind., the venue for the AREMA Conference to be held as part of Railway Interchange, September 29-October 2. I had the opportunity to go there in February, see some of the city, spend a test night at the JW Marriott, the AREMA host hotel, sample some of the food we’ll be having and tour the facilities at the convention center. I must say that everything is first class; the facilities at the convention center are just wonderful. There are plenty of great restaurants nearby and the city is remarkable. If you haven’t made plans to attend, I urge you to do so and again, I urge you to bring your spouse (or significant other). My wife, Lynn, toured Indianapolis Motor Speedway, where there will be a spouse’s event and she absolutely had a ball. Sorry none of you attendees can skip out of the conference for this event. In March, I attended the 18th AAR Annual Research Review and Track Walk in Pueblo, Colo. This is another event that I look forward to each year and once again, I wasn’t disappointed. I was excited to hear about and see the important new and ongoing research developments both at the Facility for Accelerated Service Testing and out on the railroads. Thanks to Lisa Stabler, Semih Kalay and everyone at Transportation Technology Center, Inc., (TTCI) for putting on a great event that has become so important to all of us in the railroad engineering and mechanical communities. Once again, I was able to interact with students from the AAR affiliated labs at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Texas A&M and Virginia Tech–Go Hokies! (I have to get that in). I was impressed by their research posters and the thought and effort that obviously went in to them. The research and other contributions by all of the people of TTCI are essential to those of us involved in AREMA as we strive to keep our manuals updated and backed by solid research. Without their help and the help of our supplier friends from REMSA, NRC and RSSI, we would not be able to complete our mission and keep our manuals, portfolios, seminars and other publications the best in railroad engineering. But I cannot comment on that without thanking all of you committee members who do that essential work. You can never be thanked enough. Your board of governors met in March. I am pleased to report to you that AREMA continues to be strong, both in membership numbers and financially. Never forget that AREMA is your organization. If you have ideas about how we can make it better for you, e-mail me at Be careful and have fun out there.

2013 Upcoming Committee Meetings April 18-19 April 23-24 May 9-10 May 14-16 May 20-21

Committee 16 - Economics of Railway Engineering and Operations Los Angeles, CA Committee 2 - Track Measuring Systems San Bernadino, CA Committee 8 - Concrete Structures & Foundations Omaha, NE Committee 5 - Track Dallas/Ft. Worth, TX Committee 18 - Light Density & Short Line Railways Manly, IA

May 21-22 June 14-15 June 19-20 August 7-8 Sept. 12-13 Sept. 28-29

Committee 15 - Steel Structures Greensboro, NC Committee 24 - Education & Training Calgary, AB, Canada Seattle, WA Committee 9 - Seismic Design for Railway Structures Committee 7 - Timber Structures Denver, CO Committee 8 - Concrete Structures & Foundations Kansas City, MO Committee 24 - Education & Training Indianapolis, IN

Negotiated airline discount information for AREMA Committee Meetings can be found online at


Check your mail For the AREMA 2013 Annual Conference Registration Book. This will include the entire conference program and highlight keynote speakers.

Railway Interchange 2013, September 29-October 2 in Indianapolis, IN . Registration i s n o w o p e n . To register for the AREMA 2013 Annual Conference, please visit All AREMA badges will be honored for full access into the exhibition halls during operating hours.

Advertise in the LAST PRINT 2013 AREMA Membership Directory & REMSA Buyer’s Guide. 2013 will be the last year for the print directory before it goes digital in 2014. Your advertisement will hold its value indefinitely. The advertising cut-off-date is May 10, 2013. Please Contact Lisa Hall at +1.301.459.3200, ext. 705 or for additional information including advertising rates.

Interested in sponsorship for the AREMA 2013 Annual Conference being held as part of Railway Interchange 2013? Please visit the NEW AREMA sponsorship website at or contact Lisa Hall at for more information.

Put your career on the right track with AREMA’s Railway

Careers Network. Services are free and include confidential resume posting, job search and e-mail notification when jobs match your criteria.

Call for entries for the 2013 AREMA Student Architectural Design Competition. Please visit for more information. The deadline for all entries is May 1, 2013. Call for entries for the 2013 Dr. William W. Hay Award for Excellence. The selection process for the 15th W. W. Hay Award is underway. Entries must be submitted by May 31, 2013. Please visit for more information. AREMA 2014 Annual Conference & Exposition will be held in Chicago, IL, September 28-October 1, 2014. Exhibit booth sales will begin in May 2013. Receive a 10% discount off your booth purchase between May 1 and October 11, 2013. Please contact Christy Thomas at if you are interested in receiving more information. AREMA’s Official Facebook Page Become a fan of the official AREMA Facebook Page and stay up-to-date on the most recent AREMA information. The Official AREMA LinkedIn Group

Join the official AREMA LinkedIn Group by visiting and searching groups for “American Railway Engineering and Maintenanceof-Way Association.”

American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association 10003 Derekwood Lane, Suite 210, Lanham, MD 20706-4362 Phone: +1.301.459.3200 / Fax: +1.301.459.8077 Railway Track & Structures

April 2013 39


Getting to know Christopher Rand Each month, AREMA features one of our committee chairmen. We are pleased to announce that the April featured chairman is Christopher Rand, chair of Committee 6 - Buildings & Support Facilities. AREMA: Why did you decide to choose a career in railway engineering? Rand: I love the fact that you always encounter something new and unique on the railroad. No project is ever exactly the same. The historical perspective of building everything from scratch has evolved over time and railroads continue to pave the way for innovation across their systems. I’m constantly amazed at how the industry continues to grow at the intersection of history and innovation. AREMA: How did you get started? Rand: Ironically enough, I got laid off from a consulting firm in Dallas and got hired on as a contract employee in the Facilities Group at Burlington Northern in Fort Worth, Texas. I had some great mentors there and got immersed very quickly into a lot of different aspects of the railroad. The few years that I spent at BN really set the foundation for what became my career. AREMA: How did you get involved in AREMA and your committee? Rand: My supervisor at the time really encouraged me to get involved in Committees 6 (Buildings & Facilities) and 14 (Yards & Terminals). I’m still a member of both committees but, as a facilities person, found myself more involved on Committee 6, becoming vice chairman a while back, and now, chairman. AREMA: Outside of your job and the hard work you put into AREMA, what are your hobbies? Rand: Outside of work, I spend my time playing golf, bicycling and tinkering with my 1971 MGB roadster. One thing that I spend a lot of time on, but is not exactly a hobby, is working on houses. We’ve moved a lot and I’ve enjoyed tinkering with each home and learning and tweaking the best ways to make a house work. From painting to closets to decks to major remodels, I’ve done just about everything and my wife always has her eye on the next project. AREMA: Tell us about your family. Rand: Kathy and I have been married for 27 years. We have two great daughters. Erin is a junior at Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas, and Allison is a freshman at Emerson College in Boston, Mass. Our extended family is still mostly in Texas, so we have two or three trips a year down there to catch up on things. They all keep us very busy. AREMA: What is your biggest achievement? Rand: I think that the network of friends and associates 40 Railway Track & Structures

April 2013

Christopher Rand Chair, Committee 6 - Buildings & Support Facilities Program Manager, Rail Facilities HDR Engineering, Inc.

that we’ve developed over the years is pretty incredible, both personal and professional. We’ve lived in a lot of different places and had more than a couple of jobs. At each stop along the way, we make new friends and learn new things. From a professional level, it is gratifying to have good mentors in the industry but to also see the younger staff that I’ve worked with throughout the years that go on to prominent careers in the industry. AREMA: What advice would you give to someone who is trying to pursue a career in the railway industry? Rand: There are a ton of opportunities in the railroad industry for anyone pursuing a career in railroading. From an engineering perspective, there are amazing new ideas being researched and developed by all of the railroads. I would encourage anyone looking at a career in this industry to attend some of the great conferences and trade shows that the industry offers. AREMA has a great conference, tradeshow and lots of seminars to learn more about specific topics. RSI, REMSA and NRC also put on great shows. These are good venues to see lots of different aspects of railroading and meet some great people.

Student Chapter

AREMA Publications Reflections on a Half Century of Railway Engineering and Some Related Subjects©

Railway Memoirs by William G. Byers, PE

2013 Manual for Railway Engineering© There have been numerous updates to more than 5,000 pages of the Manual for Railway Engineering. The chapters are grouped into four general categories, each in a separate volume: • Track • Structures • Infrastructure & Passenger • Systems Management. The Manual is an annual publication, released every April. It is available in four-volume loose-leaf format, CD-ROM, revision set (loose-leaf only) and individual chapters (hard copy and downloadable formats). *NEW* Downloadable Chapters Now Avilable Online.

AREMA Bridge Inspection Handbook© The AREMA Bridge Inspection Handbook provides a comprehensive source of information and criteria for bridge inspections for engineers engaged in the assessment of railway bridges. This handbook is published as a guide to establishing policies and practices relative to bridge inspection. It covers such topics as confined spaces, site conditions, loads & forces, nomenclature, bridge decks, timber, concrete & steel bridges, movable bridges, tunnel and culvert inspections, and emergency & postearthquake inspections. Also included are many color photographed examples in several chapters, as well as a glossary in the back of the book. To order any of the AREMA publications, please visit or contact Beth Caruso at +1.301.459.3200, ext. 701, or

2013 Communications & Signals Manual of Recommended Practices© The Communications & Signals Manual is a manual of recommended practices written by AREMA technical committees in the interest of establishing uniformity, promoting safety or efficiency and economy. The Communications & Signals Manual of Recommended Practices is an annual publication released every October. *NEW* Downloadable Sections Avilable Online - Coming Soon!

Practical Guide to Railway Engineering© This guide provides a comprehensive overview and understanding of the railway system. Whether you are new to the rail industry or a long-time contributor wanting to learn more, this bound book and CD-ROM offer in-depth coverage of railway fundamentals and serve as an excellent reference. (Also available in a CD-ROM version only.)

2012 Portfolio of Trackwork Plans© The Portfolio of Trackwork Plans consists of plans and specifications that relate to the design, details, materials and workmanship for switches, frogs, turnouts and crossovers, crossings, rails and other special trackwork. This is a companion volume to the Manual for Railway Engineering.

REAC members take a break from touring Proctor Yard to pose in front of a CN locomotive. Every other month, AREMA will feature one of our 14 student chapters. The month of April will feature the Railroad Engineering and Activities Club (REAC) Student Chapter at Michigan Tech University. AREMA: When was this AREMA student chapter established? REAC: REAC at Michigan Technological University was established in the year 2005. AREMA: How many members does this student chapter currently have? REAC: We have about 85 members. AREMA: Who is your chapter president? REAC: Dylan Anderson is the outgoing chapter president. Elections were held in March to elect officers for the next academic year. AREMA: Has this student chapter had any recent exciting events occur that you would like to share with the readers of RT&S? REAC: On February 19, REAC hosted the 8th Annual Railroad Night at the Shelden Grill in Houghton, Mich. This event brought together more than 150 people, including Michigan Tech faculty, industry representatives, community members and students.  The evening offered a social hour, hor d’oeuvres, Rail Transportation Program updates, door prizes and a headline speaker. This year, the crowd had the opportunity to hear from Robert C. VanderClute, who currently serves as the senior vice president of safety and operations for the Association of American Railroads. AREMA: Do you have any upcoming events? REAC: In early April, REAC plans to send a group of Michigan Tech students down to Escanaba, Mich., to visit two different railroads. The first stop will be at the facilities of the Escanaba & Lake Superior Railroad, which operates 235 miles of track in the upper peninsula of Michigan and Northern Wisconsin. The second stop will involve a tour of the Canadian National ore dock and yard in Escanaba. Together, these two tours should offer a real-world look at the rail industry.

Railway Track & Structures

April 2013 41

42 Railway Track & Structures

April 2013


Adjustable wrench

Channellock Inc., introduced its 30-inch 830 Adjustable Wrench, which is a full six inches longer than the company’s previous offering. The wrench provides power and leverage, as well as a jaw capacity of up to three inches and is forged from Chrome Vanadium Steel for durability and performance. The wrench provides users with a reinforced joint, with a 1.5-inch thickness and 6.3inch width, weighing 12 pounds. Phone: 1-800-724-3018.

Data distribution enclosure

Snake TrayÂŽ released Snake Box, an ultra thin enclosure for super-low profile access floors that delivers power and data directly to the workstation. Data and power receptacles are built-in to the 1.6-inch height enclosure. Enclosure can be customized to meet customer specifications. Phone: 1-800-308-6788.

General calalog

Auto Truck Group introduced a catalog featuring commonly quoted in-stock bodies. The general catalog features information, images and specifications on b o d i e s , w h i ch a r e r o u t i n e l y stocked, including: dump bodies, service bodies, platforms, mechanics trucks and snow plows. The catalog also offers a body selector guide and lists ship-through, drop ship and facilities codes for the company. Phone: 1-855-288-6875.

Railway Track & Structures

April 2013 43

Ad Index Company

Phone #

ARCADIS AREMA Marketing Department Balfour Beatty Rail, Inc. Boatright Companies Brandt Road Rail Corporation J.F. Brennan Co., Inc. CMI-Promex, Inc. Danella Rental Systems, Inc. Dixie PreCast Encore Rail Systems, Inc. Georgetown Rail Equipment Co. Herzog Railroad Services, Inc. Herzog Services, Inc. Hougen Manufacturing, Inc. Irwin Transportation Products JK-CO, LLC Koppers Inc. L.B. Foster Co. - Friction Management North American Rail Products Inc. Neel Company, The NMC速 Railway Systems Nordco Inc. Osmose Railroad Services, Inc. PortaCo, Inc. R. J. Corman Railroad Company RAILCET RailWorks Corporation Rcrane, LLC Railway Educational Bureau, The SIEB Sales & Engineering, Inc. SnakeTray速 Sperry Rail Service Stella-Jones Corporation Unitrac Railroad Materials, Inc. V&H Inc., Trucks Willamette Valley Company


720-344-3727 301-459-3200 888-250-5746 800-873-2020 306-791-7533 800-658-9027 ext.236 800-381-5808 610-828-6200 770-94401930 866-712-7622 512-869-1542 ext.228 816-233-9002 816-233-9002 866-245-3745 724-864-8900 800-247-3867 412-227-2739 412-928-3506 604-946-7272 703-913-7858 866-662-7799 414-766-2180 800-356-5952 218-236-0223 859-881-7521 866-724-5238 866-905-7245 630-258-1240 402-346-4300 219-924-3616 631-674-0004 203-791-4500 412-894-2865 412-298-0915 715-486-8800 541-484-9621

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720-344-3535 2 301-459-8077 Cover 3 904-378-7298 36 205-298-9483 33 306-525-1077 10 608-785-2090 5 856-351-1659 26 610-828-2260 22 770-944-9136 8 303-922-6178 35 512-863-0405 19 816-233-7757 20 816-233-7757 16 800-309-3299 9 724-864-0803 bspringer 17 419-422-5260 24 412-227-2841 37 412-928-3512 4 888-692-1150 24 703-913-7859 32 402-891-7745 31 414-766-2379 23 608-221-0618 29 218-233-5281 7 859-885-7804 21 217-522-6588 6 952-469-1926 34 630-818-2988 25 402-346-1783 43, 46 219-924-3617 37 631-674-0010 10 203-791-4512 Cover 2 412-325-0208 44 865-693-9162 15 714-387-0657 14 541-284-2096 Cover 4

Reader Referral Service This section has been created solely for the convenience of our readers to facilitate immediate contact with the RAILWAY TRACK & STRUCTURES advertisers in this issue. The Advertisers Index is an editorial feature maintained for the convenience of readers. It is not part of the advertiser contract and RT&S assumes no responsibility for the correctness.

Advertising Sales general sales OFFICE Jonathan Chalon Publisher (212) 620-7224 55 Broad St., 26th Fl. Fax: (212) 620-7224 New York, NY 10014 CT, DE, DC, FL, GA, ME, MD, MA, NH, NJ, NY, NC, PA, RI, SC, VT, VA, WV, Canada Quebec and East, Ontario Mark Connolly (212) 620-7260 55 Broad St., 26th Fl. Fax: (212) 633-1863 New York, NY 10014 AL, AR, IN, KY, LA, MI, MS, OH, OK, TN, TX Emily Guill (312) 683-5021 20 South Clark St. Fax: (312) 683-0131 Ste. 1910 Chicago, IL 60603

AK, AZ, CA, CO, IA, ID, IL, KS, MN, MO, MT, NE, NM, ND, NV, OR, SD, UT, WA, WI, WY, Canada -足AB, BC, MB, SK Heather Disabato (312) 683-5026 20 South Clark St. Fax: (312) 683-0131 Ste. 1910 Chicago, IL 60603 Australia, Austria, China, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Korea, Netherlands, New Zealand, Russia, Scandinavia, South Africa, Spain, Worldwide Recruitment Steven Barnes Suite K5 &K6 The Priory +44-1444-416375 Syresham Gardens Fax: +44-1444-458185 Haywards Heath, RH16 3LB United Kingdom

Africa, Britain, Eastern Europe, Far East, France, Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Switzerland, Middle East, South America, Rail Tenders, all others. Louise Cooper Suite K5 &K6 The Priory +44-1444-416917 Syresham Gardens Fax: +44-1444-458185 Haywards Heath, RH16 3LB United Kingdom Italy & Italian-speaking Switzerland

Japan Katsuhiro Ishii Ace Media Service, Inc. 12-6 4-Chome, +81-3-5691-3335 Nishiiko, Adachi-Ku Fax: +81-3-5691-3336 Tokyo 121-0824, Japan Classified, Professional & Employment Craig Wilson (212) 620-7211 55 Broad St., 26th Fl. Fax: (212) 633-1325 New York, NY 10014

Dr. Fabio Potesta Media Point & Communications SRL Corte Lambruschini Corso Buenos Aires 8 +39-10-570-4948 V Piano, Int 9 Fax: +39-10-553-0088 16129 Genoa, Italy

Railway Track & Structures

April 2013 45

CALENDAR APRIL 15-18. Joint Rail Conference 2013. Knoxville Convention Center. Knoxville, Tenn. Phone: 717-242-4972. E-mail: Website: http://www. 23-24. Understanding and Complying with FRA 237 Bridge Safety Standards. Des Plains, Ill. Contact: Dave Peterson. Phone: 800-462-0876. Website: http://epd.engr. 23-24. Transload Distribution Association Annual Conference. Hilton Rosemont/Chicago O’Hare. Rosemont, Ill. Contact: Gary Brown. Phone: 503-6564282. E-mail: Website: http:// 27-30. 2013 ASLRRA Annual Convention. Atlanta Marriott Marquis. Atlanta, Ga. Phone: 202-628-4500. Website: 29-May 3. Engineering Fundamentals of Rail Freight Yards, Terminals, and Intermodal Facilities. Univeristy of Wisconsin-Madison. Hilton Oak Lawn. Oak Lawn, Ill. Contact: Dave Peterson. Phone: 800-462-0876. Website: lasso?myCourseChoice=N387. MAY 22-24. Timber and Steel RailRoad Bridges. University of Tennessee. Knoxville, Tenn. Contact: Diana Webb. Phone: 865-974-5255. Fax: 865-974-3889. Website: http://www.ctr. JUNE 2-5. American Railway Development Association 2013 Annual Meeting. Marines’ Memorial Club and Hotel. San Francisco, Calif. Website: JULY 7-13. Rail and Intermodal Summer Youth Program. Michigan Technological University. Houghton, Mich. Contact: Pam Hannon. Phone: 906-487-3065. E-mail: Website: summer_youth2013.html. SEPTEMBER 29-Oct. 2. Railway Interchange 2013. Indianapolis, Ind. Website: 29-Oct. 2. APTA Rail Conference. Hilton Chicago. Chicago, Ill. Contact: Yvette Conley. Phone: 202-4964868. E-mail: Website: www. OCTOBER 6-11. International Railway Safety Conference (IRSC 2013). Vancouver, BC, Canada. E-mail: irsc2013@nrc-cnrc. Website: 9-11. 95th Annual Railway Tie Association Symposium and Technical Conference. Hyatt Regency Lake Tahoe. Incline Village, Nev. Phone: 770-460-5553. Fax: 770-4605573. Website: 46 Railway Track & Structures

April 2013

Professional Directory

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Road Crossing Site Safety Maintenance Re-cut & Herbicide Programs 800.822.9246


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RT&S 0413  
RT&S 0413  

The April 2013 issue of RT&S features a look at Materials Handling, Suspension Bridge Stuctural Evaluation and Shorline M/W: Minnesota Prair...