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0 Ies Alta Axarquia, Periana, Malaga, Spain

Year II· Number 2· May 2014 - Nelson MANDELA

- Unemployment falls - RICOS y POBRES _________________________ - Charity Race.

- Proyecto CUYUNI.

-Creative Posts for equality

_________________________ - Holidays in NEW YORK - Top 3 Must-visit in ASIA. - We love TRAVELLING!

_________________________ -Pablo Alborán

-The Hip Hop Culture _________________________ - Real Madrid Basket team

- Michael Schumacher. - TAEKWONDO.

_________________________ - GAMES OF THRONES.

-Fast and Furious.

_________________________ - Optical Illusions

- Un Nuevo Planeta..

In this second number, we keep on learning about the advantages of Bilingual Teaching. The students that are involved in the bilingual project of IES ALTA 1 AXARQUÍA have created this magazine to improve the linguistic competence. Enjoy with our magazine!

-Rubic’s Cube.

_________________________ - Mediterranean Diet.

- Teenage drug use. -Transplantes.


STAFF >> EDITOR: (Coordination) Rafael Alcolea Rodríguez >> EDITORIAL TEAM: Maribel Barranquero (English) Mariola Mantas (Social Sciences) Emma Díez (Science) Carmen Gloria Peláez (English) Antonio Clavero (English) Yolanda García-verdugo (P.E.) Valentin Fdez. Camacho (Social Sciences) Miguel Ángel Ranea. (Maths) >> Design: Grupo de trabajo: Bilingual Digital Magazine. (BDM) >> Contributions: Students Ies Alta Axarquia 1ESO 2ESO 3ESO 4ESO >> Thanks to: All the people who helped us with this project, CEP. AXARQUÍA, IES. ALTA AXARQUÍA, JUNTA DE ANDALUCÍA, Plataforma Colabor@.

CONTENTS CONTENIDOS TRAVELLING AND TOURISM: - Holidays in New York. - Top 3 Must-visit in ASIA. - We love TRAVELLING! NEWS AROUND THE WORLD: - Nelson Mandela - Unemployment falls in 2014 - Ricos y Pobres - Los pitufos 2 en Júzcar. -Hielo antártico, imprevisible. OUR HIGH SCHOOL AND SURROUNDINGS: - Charity Race - Cuyuni Project. -Creative Posts for equality. -Ski Trip. MUSIC: -Pablo Alborán -The Hip Hop Culture. SPORTS: - Real Madrid basketball team - Michael Schumacher. - Taekwondo. - Contador and Purito. -Nadal’s back problems. TV and MOVIES: - Games of thrones - Fast and Furious SCIENCE: -Optical Illusions. - A new Planet. - Rubic’s cube. HEALTH: - Mediterranean Diet. - Teenage drug use. - Transplants. READING: -Fear of Flying.

All rights reserved

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WELCOME TO BILINGUAL DIGITAL MAGAZINE (BDM) This magazine has been developed by students at IES ALTA AXARQUIA, Periana, Mälaga, SPAIN and their teachers within a project to promote the use of the languages used in our school: ENGLISH AND SPANISH. The students have created, looked for information they have decided the contents of the magazine. On the other hand, the teachers who have participated in this magazine have supervised their works, have created the different sections and they have also contributed with their effort to make this project a reality. Thank you. This magazine has been created to be used by anybody: teachers, students of other high schools and countries all over the world; their families and anyone who wants to improve both English and Spanish. Bilingual Digital Magazine is also downloadable so teachers all over the world can print and use in class. We hope you enjoy it! Esta revista ha sido desarrollada por los estudiantes de ESO del Instituto de Enseñanza Secundaria: IES ALTA AXARQUÍA, Periana, Málaga. SPAIN; y el profesorado participante en un grupo de trabajo para promocionar la competencia lingüística en ESPAÑOL e INGLÉS. Nuestros estudiantes han creado, buscado información y han decidido los contenidos de esta revista . El profesorado ha supervisado sus artículos, han creado las secciones y maquetado la revista, con su esfuerzo han hecho este proyecto una realidad. ¡GRACIAS! La finalidad de esta revista es que pueda ser utilizada por cualquiera con fines académicos: desde profesores, estudiantes de otros institutos de nuestro país o del mundo, así como sus familias. Bilingual Digital Magazine puede ser descargada por profesores de otros países y usarla en clase. ¡Esperamos que disfrutéis con ella! Rafael Alcolea Rodríguez, Coordinador .

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Central Park New York

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HOLIDAYS IN NEW YORK New York is the most populated city the U.U.S.S of America. The city has many neighborhoods and buildings recognized worldwide. New York is considered a global city, given its global influences in media, in politics, in education, in entertainment and fashion. You can’t go to New York and didn’t enjoy places like:

Times Square With thousands of lights and huge advertising posters, Times Square has become the most famous image of New York. It is the heart of the city and the center of the theater district. There are a number of restaurants, shops, street performers, and of course, the theaters of Broadway.

Statue of Liberty "Liberty illuminating the world", known as the Statue of Liberty is one of the most famous monuments in New York, the United States and from around the world. It is a monument to more than 90 meters high, was inaugurated in 1886. It is located on Liberty Island to the south of the island of Manhattan. It was a gift from the French to the Americans, as a sign of friendship between the two nations. The Statue of Liberty became a symbol in the United States and represents, on a more general level, freedom.

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Central Park The Central Park is a public urban park located in the metropolitan district of Manhattan. The park has large tracts of grass covered areas, squares, a mini zoo, a skating rink, a theater outdoors, trails for running, biking, skating, horseback riding, and numerous water sources and sculptures.

Brooklyn Bridge Bridge is a favorite New York and was the first steel suspension bridge in the world. You can walk across it in about 30 minutes. The view is amazing. It was built between 1870 and 1883 and, at the time of its opening, it was the world's largest suspension bridge, measuring 1825 meters long.

Authors: Mª Carmen Bernal Pascual & Mª José Guerrero Sánchez. 4º A

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VACACIONES EN NUEVA YORK Nueva York es la ciudad más poblada de los EEUU de América. La ciudad tiene muchos barrios y edificios reconocidos por todo el mundo. Nueva York está considerada como una ciudad global, dadas sus influencias a nivel mundial en los medios de comunicación, en la política, en la educación, en el entretenimiento y la moda. No se puede ir a Nueva York y no disfrutar de lugares como:

Times Square Con sus miles de luces y enormes carteles publicitarios, Times Square se ha convertido en la imagen más conocida de Nueva York. Es el corazón de la ciudad y el centro del distrito teatral. Hay un gran número de restaurantes, negocios, artistas callejeros, y obviamente, los teatros de Broadway.

Estatua de la Libertad «La libertad iluminando el mundo», conocida como la Estatua de la Libertad, es uno de los monumentos más famosos de Nueva York, de los Estados Unidos y de todo el mundo. Es un monumento con más de 90 metros de altura, inaugurado en 1886. Se encuentra en la isla de la Libertad al sur de la isla de Manhattan. Fue un regalo de los franceses a los estadounidenses, como un signo de amistad entre las dos naciones. La Estatua de la Libertad se convirtió en un símbolo en Estados Unidos y representa, en un plano más general, la libertad.

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Central Park El Central Park es un parque urbano público situado en el distrito metropolitano de Manhattan. El parque tiene grandes extensiones de zonas cubiertas por césped, plazas, un mini zoológico, una pista de patinaje sobre hielo, un teatro al aire libre, senderos para correr, andar en bicicleta, patinar, andar a caballo, y numerosas fuentes de agua y esculturas.

Puente de Brooklyn Es el puente favorito de Nueva York y fue primer puente de suspensión de acero en el mundo. Puedes cruzarlo caminando en unos 30 minutos. La vista es increíble. Fue construido entre 1870 y 1883 y, en el momento de su inauguración, era el puente colgante más grande del mundo, mide 1825 metros de largo.

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India I thought I’d start with India, as it’s such an intriguing country. Everyone has there own experiences and opinions about India but you can’t judge before you’ve been there, it’s impossible, you need to have felt it, smelled it and seen the colours to be able to say something about it. I like to say India isn’t really a country. It’s a different planet, every region has it’s own characteristics and mysteries. I’d be lying if I’d say I know all of them, but although it’s long ago I do remember some things, mostly because this country gave me such a shock, so much to think about, for someone who was used to a western civilization. Lot’s of people say this and there quite right -you either love India or you hate it-. You have to be able to ajust to there customs, to the way they stare at you on a train the whole day without once looking away until you start staring back at them, the way they try and sell you things all day, everyday, everywhere, the way the traffic is caused by holy cows walking along, the way the indians won’t stop smiling and waggling their heads while they make you feel uncomfortable. You have to take this all with it, wether you like it or not. Once you’ve adapted too all the madness you start too appreciate it (this does take a while). This is the part where a lot of people get stuck because not everyone can see the logic in a rat temple and cow shit all over the street. One thing you do have to know is that Indians are one of the most friendly people in the world, they’ll always try and help you, there are exceptions everywhere but the only thing that got stolen in a six months travel through madland were two pairs of sandals (my dad’s), left outside a temple, but we got a fast replacement, someone on the corner of the street was making shoes out of old car tyres, we bought a pair there. It’s difficult to tell you the best place to go in India because it’s so huge and I haven’t even seen near half of it, but out of the places I have been I would say Rajasthan and the north of India Ladakh in the Himalayas. Rajasthan because I had amazing experiences there in the desert and at the Pushkar fair which is the biggest camel/horse fair organized every year. I was lucky to be able to go on a horse riding track through the Thar desert and to visit little places such as Bundi where monkeys just broke into houses and would eat all the left overs.

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We went to the North of India in the Himalayas because that was as close as we could get to Tibet in that time, there was a war going on. We crossed the Himalayas from Manali to Leh, a road that only is open for traffic during summer there, otherwise it’s covered in several feet of snow, when they open the road the army takes care of cleaning all the snow away so that the trucks can pass to deliver things to the otherwise only accessible by plane, Leh. A precious little gem between India and Tibet, also sometimes used as a residence for the Dalai Lama. For a tourists there are only a few possibilities to get there, or by plane or by bus, and well... if you’re inventive or insane with three people on a 30 year old Enfield. We had been on a Indian bus before and it wasn’t such a jolly ride, the chauffeurs in India drive like maniacs, I don’t know wether they like to be on time or if they just believe in a second and better life after death. We didn’t want to have another ride from hell so we decided instead to cross the great Himalayas with three on an old and almost broken Enfield, it did succeed, although we replaced a some tyres on the way. The crossing took three days, in between we slept in tentcamps were we could drink some chai tea and rest for the very cold night. One of those days we saw wild horses galloping next to us, they looked like przewalski horses, these are only a few of the treasures you can find in India and I hope that you can discover some yourself one day!

Thailand Thailand is a welcoming country, that’s why most people go there on holiday, because it’s an easy travelling destination for

families with kids. The people are very friendly and while we were travelling through Asia we used Thailand as our hub. We’d travelled through Thailand quite a bit all ready and it’s nice to have some place to start that you know all ready in a part of the world which is unknown to you. Thailand is definitely the place to go for a long relaxing holiday with children, you barely ever hear bad things about Thailand, of course there is no need to go looking for trouble among shabby neighborhoods in Bangkok. A real nice city that has been imprinted in my mind is Chiang Mai in the North of Thailand, this is were I as a nine year old ate baked worms for the first time (a challenge!). They bake larvae and put them in big bags to sell on the local markets just like crisps,you know, it might be better than the actual crisps we eat these days, god knows what they put in them! Another thing that you can eat (while were on the topic) is a lovely and salted rat on a stick, that one I didn’t try! The best Bed and breakfast in Chiang Mai is the CM Bluehouse, so if you ever go do make sure to stay there. One of the most interesting tribes in Thailand are the longnecks, also in the North, around Mae Salong, years ago they fled from Burma or officially the Republic of Myanmar and settled in the North of Thailand. There are a lot of Myths that say that when they take their rings off their necks would brake, which is a lie, one of the longneck women named Mali told us how the rings only visually make the neck longer but really they push down the shoulders so that they become smaller. All together the rings weigh 5 kilo, fortunately for the youth they aren’t obliged to put them on. 10


On the border of Laos and Thailand we got dragged in to a party of Vespa dealers, the really old vintage type. The parking that led up to the big barn where the party was held was full of multicoloured, two toned and sweet little motorcycles all of the Italian make. There I was inmediately shown around and danced with by Thai girls. One of the activities you won’t regret doing is having a ride on an elephant, be sure that they are well treated though. Another activity which you’ll find you can do in any of these countries is go to a nature park or the Tiger Temple in Thailand situated in Kanchanaburi, a real MUST! It’s amazing how these monks take care and live together with the tigers, I was lucky enough to have two cubs trying to rip out my hair!

Bhutan Bhutan is a very small but nevertheless interesting country because of it’s way in approaching tourism and industry. I must admit I need to do some research on Bhutan because I’d like to explain the political situation and as a nine year old I wasn’t really into that sort of stuff. Rapid modernization has brought vast improvements in the living standard of the Bhutanese people. They also have grown a lot in tourism, they are trying to subdue the negative impacts on their culture and environment commonly associated with mass tourism. By establishing a policy of ―High Value, Low Impact‖ tourism, Bhutan seeks to ensure that its attracts only the most discerning visitors with a deep respect for cultural values, traditions and the natural environment, they explain on their website. As a result of the recent economic development, Bhutan has one of the highest per capita incomes in South Asia. Efforts stringent retaliations have been enacted in order to protect Bhutan’s natural environment. What does this mean, well it means that Bhutan as for keeping mass tourism out of the question also doesn’t let big companies such as Coca-Cola enter in their economic system, they create it all themselves, their local McDonalds (probably without GMO), their local Nike store. The Tiger’s nest is another must see if you go to Bhutan, The Taktsang Monastry commonly known as the Tiger’s nest is situated on a dangerous place as you can see on the photo. I remember how difficult it was six years ago to try and get a visa for Bhutan because it was so protected, the borders were heavily armed especially against the riots they were holding in India. Apart from their successful way of industry and preserving their cultural habits it’s a beautiful country rich in high mountains, the way you fly out of Bhutan is remarkable, the ability of the pilots is stunning, because when you’ve just taken of in these tiny little airplanes they need to make very quick and agile movements with the plane so you don’t hit a mountain, it’s an extraordinary experience as well when a pilot just tells you to look out of the window on your right side and witness the Mount Everest.

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India Pensé empezar con India poque es un país tan fascinante. Mucha gente tien sus propias experiencias y opiniones a cerca de la India pero no se puede juzgar antes de haber estado allí, es imposible, tienes que haber sentido, olido y visto para ser capaz de decir algo sobre el tema. Me gusta decir que la India no es un país sino un planeta diferente, cada región tiene sus características y misterios. Estaría mintiendo si te diría que sé todo de él, pero a pesar de que fue hace mucho tiempo me acuerdo de algunas cosas, sobre todo porque este país me dio un choque , especialmente para alguine que estaba acostumbrado a una civilización occidental.

Mucha gente dicen esto, y llevan la razón -O te encanta la India o lo odias.- Tienes que acostumbrarte a las tradiciones, a la manera de mirarte en el tren todo el día sin descanso, ni mirar a algún otro lado hasta que tú empiezas a mirar hacia ellos, la manera en el que quieren vender sus productos todo el día, en cualquier sitio, cualquier hora, la manera en el que el tráfico está causado por una vaca sagrada que ande por ahí, la manera en la que los indios no dejan de sonreír y ladeando la cabeza de un lado a otro mientras te hacen sentir incómodo. Todo es parte de India, si te gusta o no. Después de que te has adaptado a toda la locura, puedes empezar a apreciarlo. Esa es la parte donde 12


muchas personas se atascan porque no todo el mundo puede ver la lógica en un templo dedicada a las ratas y el estiércol de vaca por las calles. Una cosa que de verdad necesitais saber es que los indios son unas de las personas más amables en el mundo, siempre van a intentar ayudarte, hay expeciones en todas partes, pero la única cosa que nos robaron en los seis meses que viajamos en Localand, fueron dos pares de chanclas, dejados enfrente de un templo, pero encontremos un reemplazo rápido, en la esquina alguién estaba haciendo zapatos de neumáticos viejos, compremos un para allí. Es difícil decir cual es el mejor lugar de ir en la India, porque es tan enorme, y ni siquiera he visto cerca de la mitad de ella, pero dentro de los lgares donde he ido yo te diría Rajasthan y el norte de India, Ladakh en las Himalayas. Rajasthan porque tuve experiencias increíbles en el desierto y en la feria de Pushkar, la cual es la mayor feria de camello/caballo que se organiza cada año. Tuve la suerte de poder ir en caballo a través del desierto de Thar y para visitar lugares preciosos como Bundi, donde los monos entran en tu casa y roban los restos de comida. Fuimos al Norte de India en las Himalayas porque esto era lo más cerca que pudimos llegar a Tíbet en ese momento, había una guerra. Cruzamos la Himalaya de Manali a Leh, por un camino que solo está abierto para público durante, sino está cubierta de varios metros de nieve, cuando abren el camino el ejército se encarga de limpiar toda la nieve para que los camiones puedan pasar para comerciar, la única otra vía es através de avión. Leh es una pequeña joya preciosa entre India y Tíbet, también se utiliza a veces como residencia para la Dalai Lama. Para un turista solo hay un par de posibilidades para llegar ahí o en avión o en autobús...o bueno, si eres loco en un Enfield de 30 años. Habíamos estado en un autobús indio antes y no fue un paseo alegre, los choferes indios conducen como locos, no sé si le gusta llegar a tiempo o si simplemente creen en el más allá. No queríamos tener otro viaje infernal, así que decidimos de cruzar una parte de la Himalayas con trese en una vieja y casi rota Enfield. Tuvo éxito a pesar de que teníamos que reemplazar algunos neumáticos en el camino. La travesía duró tres días y medio, en el camino durmimos en campamentos donde pudimos tomar un té chai y descansar por la noche. Uno de esos días vimos caballos salvajes galopando con nosotros, parecían a caballos Przewalski. Estos son algunos de los tesoros que se pueden encontrar en la India, espero que podeís descubrir muchas más!

Tailandia Tailandia es un país acogedor, por eso mucha gente va allí de vacaciones. Es un destino lejos pero fácil para las familias con hijos. Las personas son muy amables y cuando mis padres y yo viajemos por Asia hemos utilizado Tailandia siempre como punto de partida, salida y referencia. Ya habíamos viajado por Tailandia y es bueno empezar en algun país que conozcas ya un poco en un parte del mundo que desconoces totalmente. Tailandia defenitivamente es una destinación para unas vacaciones largas y relajantes con la familia, casi nunca se escucha cosas malas sobre Tailandia, claro, no tenemos que ir buscando problemas por los barrios oscuros de Bangkok. Una ciudad bonita es Chiang Mai en el Norte de Tailandia, esto es donde cuendo tenía nueve años comí gusanos al horno. Los tailandeses freían las larvas, los ponían en paquetes para vender en el mercado como patatas fritas, sabes, esto probablemente es mejor que los patatas fritas que comemos hoy en día. Otra cosa que se puede comer ( mientras estámos en el tema) es un pinchito de rata salada, este no lo probé! La mejor hostal en Chiang Mai es CM Bluehouse, si alguna vez quieres ir, procura de dormir ahí. 13


Uno de los tribus más interesantes son los longnecks (cuello largo), también están en el norte cerca de Mae Salong, hace años huyeron de Birmania, oficialmente la República de Myanmar, y se establecieron en el norte de Tailandia. Hay muchos mitos que dicen que si quitan sus anillos sus cuellos se rompen, es una mentira, una mujer longneck llamada Mali nos contó como los anillos solo hacen visualmente el cuello más largo, pero realmente se empuja hacia abajo los hombros, y los hace aparecer más pequeños. Todos juntos los anillos pesan 5 kilos, afortunadamente las jóvenes no están obligadas a ponérselas.

En la frontera de Tailandia con Laos fuimos invitados a una fiesta de comerciantes de Vespa, los de tipo vintage. El aparcamiento que llevó a la granja donde se celebró la fiesta estaba lleno de motos de multicolores como lacasitos, todas de la marca italiana. Ahí fue rodeada inmediatamente por un grupo de jóvenes tailandesas. Una de las actividades que no vas a arrepentirte es hacer un paseo en elefante, sin embargo, asegúrate de que están bien cuidados. Otra cosa que podrás hacer en cualquiera de estos países es ir a un parque natural o el templo de tigres en Tailandia en Kanchanaburi, eso es un verdadero encanto! Es increíble como los monjes cuidan y conviven con los tigres. Tuve la suerte de tener dos cachorros arrancandome el pelo!

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Bután Bután es un país muy pequeño pero muy interesante debido a la forma en el que se encargan del turismo y su industria. Debo admitir que he tenido que buscar e investigar sobre Bután porque quería explicar la situación política, y como un niño de nueve años, yo no me interesaba en cosas así. La rápida modernización ha traído grandes mejoras en el nivel de vida en Bután. Han crecido mucho en turismo, están tratando de someter a los impactos negativos sobre la cultura y el medioambiente, asociados con el turismo de masas. mediante el establecimiento de una plítica de ‖alto valor y bajo impacto‖, Bután busca a los turistas más exigentes, con un profundo respeto por los valores culturales, las tradiciones y el entorno natural. Como el resultado de su reciente revolución económica, Bután tiene uno de los ingresos más altos per capita del sur de Asia. Esfuerzos estrictos se han promulgado de conservar la naturaleza. ¿Qué significa esto? Significa que Bután al igual que no deja entrar masa turismo, tampoco deja entrar compañías como Coca-cola en su sistema económico. Ellos mismos crean sus Mc Donalds (probablemente sin OGM), su tienda local de Nike, probablemente no importan nada de China o cualquier otro país. El nido del tigre es otra visita que debereís de hacer cuando se va a Bután, el monasterio Takstang comúnmente conocido como el nido del tigre se encuentra en un lugar espectacular como se puede ver en la foto. Recuerdo lo difícil que era hace seis años para obtener un visa para Bután ya que estaba tán protegida, las fronteras estaban fuertemente armadas especialmente contra disturbios en la India. Aparte de su éxito en la industria y en la protección de sus costumbres es un país hermoso, rico en montañas gigantes. La forma en la que sales de Bután es notable porque la habilidad de los pilotos es impresionante. Cuando estás en estos miniavioncitos tienen que mover de una manera tán rápida y ágil para no chocar contra un avión, es una experiencia extraordinaria, especialmente cuando te dicen que mires por la ventana para ver el Everest.

By Julia Groaters. 4º A. 15


Travelling Are you bored from ordinary cities? Are they always the same? We are going to talk about some different cities all over the world. These cities are from different continents and aren´t very famous. We want that these cities become more famous, to get it we will talk about some interesting things that can produce passion in the tourists. And then, you can travel and visit new cities and not boring cities. First, we travel to Oceania:

- Sidney:

Sidney is the capital of Australia. Sidney has warm summer and mild winters. -Activities: Sport is an important part of Sidney´s culture, you can visit: Australia Stadium, in this stadium took place the Olympics Games of the year 2000 and the Sydney Motorsport Park. Sidney Opera House is a famous building become a UNESCO World Heritage Site on 28 June 2007. In this Opera House there are a lot of plays. -Wildlife: there are koalas, kangaroos and duck-billed platypus. -Monuments: Sydney Opera House. And now we are going to travel to Asia:

-Singapore:

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Singapore is the capital of Singapore. Singapore has a tropical rainforest climate. -Activities: Singapore has a national orchestra. Singapore has a lot of sport activities like football, basketball, cricket, swimming, sailing, table tennis and badminton. And it also has a National Stadium. -Wildlife: there are crocodiles, elephants, snakes, tigers. -Monuments: Clarke Quay and Boat Quay are beautiful zones for drink and go out. Then we are going to travel to Europe:

-Prague:

is the capital of Czech Republic. Prague has an oceanic climate and humid continental climate. -Activities: the most important sport is football because there are a lot of clubs of football. It has the second-largest stadium in the world (Strahov Stadium). -Wildlife: it is similar to Spanish one because it has the same climate (continental). -Monuments: Strahov Stadium, it has an ancient European culture and architecture and some buildings show it. Later we are going to travel to Africa:

-Kinshasa:

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is the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kinshasa has a tropical wet and dry climate. -Activities: you can visit different buildings, the main sport is the football, this country participates in the Olympic Games of summer since 1968. -Wildlife: it has a lot of monkeys, elephants, zebras, giraffes, lions... -Monuments: you can visit the national parks and the jungles, the palace of the president, a lot of hotels of five stars.

Finally, we are going to travel to South-America:

Spanish town:

is one of the main cities of Jamaica. It has a tropical climate. -Activities: sport is one of the most important activities in Spanish Town, the most popular local sport are cricket, horse racing, football and rugby. -Wildlife: snakes like boas, Jamaican Hutia, bats, crocodile, anoles, iguanas and beautiful and exotic birds. -Monuments: Built on the West Bank of the Rio Cobre, the streets are called with famous names and has one of the oldest Anglican churches.

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¿Estás aburrido de las ciudades normales? ¿Son siempre las mismas? Vamos a hablar de diferentes ciudades de todo el mundo. Estas ciudades son de diferentes continentes y no son muy famosas. Queremos que estas ciudades sean más famosas, para eso vamos a hablar de cosas interesantes que pueden provocar pasión en los turistas. Y luego podrás viajar y visitar nuevas y no aburridas ciudades. Primero, viajamos a Oceanía:

-Sidney:

es la capital de Australia. Sidney tiene veranos calurosos e inviernos suaves. -Actividades: el deporte es una parte importante de la cultura de Sidney, puedes visitar: el estadio de Australia, en este estadio se hicieron los juegos olímpicos del año 2000 y ―the Sidney Motorsport Park‖. La ópera de Sidney es un edificio que se convirtió en Patrimonio de la Humanidad el 28 de junio de 2007. En esta ópera hay muchas obras. -Fauna: hay koalas, canguros y ornitorrincos. -Monumentos: la ópera de Sidney. Y ahora vamos a viajar a Asia:

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Singapur:

es la capital de Singapur. Singapur tiene un clima de selva tropical. -Actividades: tiene una orquesta nacional. Singapur tiene muchas actividades deportivas como fútbol, baloncesto, cricket, natación, navegación, pin pon y bádminton. También tiene un estadio nacional. -Fauna: hay cocodrilos, elefantes, serpientes, tigres… -Monumentos: Clake Quay y Boat Quay son zonas bonitas para beber y salir. Luego, vamos a viajar a Europa:

-Praga:

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es la capital de la República Checa. Tiene un clima oceánico y húmedo continental. -Actividades: la más importante es el fútbol porque hay muchos clubs. Tiene el segundo estadio más grande del mundo (Strahov Stadium) -Fauna: es similar a la española porque tiene el mismo clima (continental) -Monumentos: Strahov Stadium, tiene una cultura y una arquitectura europea antigua y algunos edificios lo muestran. Después vamos a viajar a África:

Kinshasa:

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es la capital de la República Democrática del Congo. Kinshasa tiene un clima tropical húmedo y seco. -Actividades: puedes visitar diferentes edificios, el deporte principal es el fútbol, este país participa en los juegos olímpicos de verano desde 1968. -Fauna: tiene muchos monos, elefantes, jirafas, cebras, leones… -Monumentos: podemos visitar los parques nacionales y las junglas, el palacio del presidente y muchos hoteles de 5 estrellas. Finalmente vamos a viajar a América del sur:

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-Spanish Town:

es una de las ciudades principales de Jamaica. Su clima es tropical. -Actividades: el deporte es la actividad más importante en Spanish Town, los deportes más populares son cricket, carreras de caballo, fútbol y rugby. -Fauna: serpientes como boas, hutías jamaicanas, murciélagos, cocodrilos, lagartijas, iguanas y hermosos y exóticos pájaros. -Monumentos: Built on the West Bank del Río Cobre, las calles son nombradas con nombres famosos tanto de personajes como de acontecimientos y tiene una de las iglesias anglicanas más antiguas. Autores: Ismael Martín Oviedo. Nerea Ferrer Gutiérrez. 4ºA.

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Nelson Mandela was born in 1918, 18 of July (Mvezo). Belonged to clan of the xhosa ethnicity. After finishing his studies of secundary, he began to study in the University of Fort Hare for get the degree of Baccalaureate in Ar. He moved to Johannesburgo, where he finish his studies of Baccalaureate of Witwatersrand in 1943.

After the foundation of Sudafrican National Pouty in 1948, with his segregation policy, Mandela is more important in the African National Congress, especially in the Campaign Challenge in 1952 and the congress of village of 1955, ―the letter from the village‖ against the ―apartheid‖. In 1953 Mandela and Oliver Tambo opened his pffice in Johannesburgo, the first led for black in the country. 24


He's arrested the 5th of August of 1962 and sentenced to jail until your released in 1990. In 1952 and 1959, came a new class of black activists, the African. In 1959 the African National Congress lost his militant support while the african separate to create the Bread-African Congress (PAC). In 1960, after slaughter of Sharpeville of the activists of the (PAC) and the exclusion of the SACP and the ANC, both united to the African Resistence of Movement and the PAC, began the armed resistance. Mandela was involved in the activities of armedd resistance and was considerated a terrorist. 5 of August of 1962, the police stopped to Mandela and Cecil Williams, this was closed in Johannesburgo due to created strike and left without permission. Mandela was punished to 27 years in different jails.

Madela was a symbol of the fight against the ―apartheid‖, and a legendary figure that represented the freedom for all sudafrican black men. While he was in jail he get the degree of right. In February of 1985 the president Botha gave the conditional free of Mandela exchange to left the armed fight. Mandela didn't like. In 1989 the president botha was changed for Frederik Willem of Klerk, this call the free of Mandela in February of 1990. United to this won the Nobel award of the peace in 1993. The elections of 1994 was winner to Mandela for and became the first black president of Sudafric. He finished his term of office in 1999 and left his politic and public life. On 5th of December of 2013 died in Johannesburgo. By Claudia Millón 4ºA

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NELSON MANDELA Nelson Mandela nació el 18 de Julio de 1918 (Mvezo). Perteneció al clan Mandiba de la etnia xhosa. Después de finalizar la enseñanza secundaria, comenzó a estudiar en la Universidad de

Fort Hare para conseguir el grado de Bachillerato en Arte. Él se trasladó a Johannesburgo, dónde el terminó sus estudios de Licenciatura de Witwatersrand en 1943. Después de la fundación del Partido Nacional Sudafricano en 1948, con su política segregacionista, Mandela es el más importante en el Congreso Nacional Africano, especialmente en la Campaña de desafío en 1952 y el Congreso del Pueblo de 26


1955, ― la carta del pueblo ― contra el apartheid. En 1953 Mandela y Oliver Tambo abrieron su bufete en Johannesburgo, el primero dirigido por negros en todo el país. Él es arrestado el 5 de Agosto de 1962 y sentenciado a cárcel hasta ser liberado en 1990. En 1952 y 1959 surgió una nueva clase de activistas negros, los africanistas. En 1959 el Congreso Nacional Africano perdió su soporte mientras los africanos se separan para crear el Congreso Pan- Africano (PAC) En 1960, después de la Masacre de Sharpeville de los activistas de la (PAC) y la exclusión de la SCAP y la ANC, ambos unidos al Movimiento de Resistencia Africano y la PAC, comenzaron la resitencia armada. Mandela estaba involucrado en las actividades de resistencia armada y estaba considerado un terrorista. El 5 de Agosto de 1962, la policía detuvo a Mandela y Cecil Williams, estuvo encerrado en Johannesburgo debido a que creó una huelga y dejó el país sin permiso. Mandela fue sancionado 27 años en diferentes cárceles. Mandela fue un símbolo de la lucha contra el ― apartheid‖, y una figura legendaria que representó la libertad del hombre negro sudafricano. Mientras él estuvo en la cárcel, él consiguió el grado de Derecho. En Febrero de 1985 el presidente Botha le dio la condicional libre de Mandela a cambio de dejar la lucha armada. Mandala rechazó esto. En 1989 el presidente Botha fue sustituido por Frederik Willem de Klerk, éste anunció la liberación de Mandela en Febrero de 1990. Unido a éste, ganaron el premio Nobel de la Paz en 1993. Las elecciones de 1994 las ganó Mandela y se convirtió en el primer presidente negro de Sudáfrica. Él termino su mandato en 1999 y dejó su vida pública y política. El 5 de Diciembre de 2013 murió en Johannesburgo. 27


The battle between residents of Burgos and the police alter two days doesn’t give in it continues with violent protests against the remodeling of the street. The protesters decided to meet on Sunday to express their opposition to the project. About 40 people were arrested after throwing stones at the police, burn dumpsters and break glass booths, bus shelters and benches. Gamonal’s neigbours prevented the resumption works in Victoria’street for two days.

About 300 people participated in a meeting convened at noon, residents continue defending arise if that works don’t go ahead and that would have serious consequences. Neighbours who live on that street are in favor of the demonstrations but against the violent reactions that are tearing he street. Associated federation opposes the project completely Boulevard due to cuts and an economic failure, believe it would be better to spend Money an upgrades. Finally, the mayor has decided to stop the work, but it doesn’t mean to abandon the project.

By Carolina Martín Cazorla, 4th A. 28


La batalla campal entre los residentes de Burgos y los antidisturbios después de dos días no cede, siguen con violentas protestas por la remodelación de la calle. Los manifestantes decidieron reunirse el domingo para expresar su oposición al proyecto. Unas 40 personas fueron detenidas tras lanzar piedras a los antidisturbios, quemar contenedores de basura y romper cristales de cabinas, paradas de autobuses y bancos. Los vecinos de Gamonal han impedido durante dos días que se reanuden las obras en la calle Victoria. Unas 300 personas han participado en una asamblea convocada al mediodía, los vecinos se plantean si seguir defendiendo que las obras no sigan adelante ya que traería graves consecuencias. Los vecinos que viven en esa calle están a favor de las manifestaciones pero en contra de las reacciones violentas que están destrozando esa calle. La federación de asociados se opone por completo al proyecto del Boulevard debido a los recortes y a una falta económica, creen que sería mejor invertir el dinero en mejoras. Finalmente, el alcalde ha decidido para las obras, aunque no quiere decir que abandone el proyecto.

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The 20 richest Spaniards are worth 77 billion euros, equivalent to the joint salaries of the poorest 20 per cent. Spain has the second highest level of inequality between its richest and poorest citizens in Europe, only beaten the first place by Latvia. Oxfam Intermón believes that dissatisfaction in Spain ―is patent and growing. Disillusionment with politics has extended, which risks causing future socio-political conflict‖. A professor of political sciences from Barcelona University, Joan Subirats, say. A very few, the most powerful, have a big voice. Many others are never heard.‖ Carlos Cruzado, from the state tax authorities, claims that , ―90 per cent of the Spanish population thinks that the tax system is unfair‖.

By Pablo Joel Núñez Campos, 3 ESO A

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Los 20 españoles más ricos valen 77 mil millones equivalente a los salarios del 20 por ciento de los más pobres. España tiene el segundo nivel más alto de desigualdad entre sus ciudadanos más ricos y los más pobres de Europa, solo superado en el primer lugar por Letonia. Oxfam Intermón cree que la insatisfacción en España es ―patente y creciente‖. La desilusión con la política se ha ampliado, lo que corre el riesgo de provocar un futuro conflicto socio-político. Un profesor de ciencias políticas de la Universidad de Barcelona, Joan Subirats, dice: a muy pocos, los más poderosos, tienen una gran voz. Muchos otros nunca son escuchados. Carlos Cruzado, de las autoridades fiscales del Estado, afirma que ―el 90 por ciento de la población española cree que el sistema fiscal es injusto‖.

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For the next academic year, the Ministry of Education will no longer top up the Erasmus European Exchange program grants provided by Brussels, but rather will offer 10000 students its own grants, which will have more stringent academic requirements.

To qualify, students will need and exceptional academic record – the exact level has not yet been announced – and also be able to demonstrate upper intermediate level (B2) knowledge of the language of the country in which they will be taking classes. Students are supposed to have acquired an intermediate (B1) level by the end of high school, meaning that the government is talking as given that they will have improved since then.

In Exchange for meeting these requirements, students will receive a 350€ monthly grant – 100€ more than the average Brussels grant. Those unable to obtain a ministry grant – the lower-achieving students – will automatically be able to opt an European grant of either 200 or 300 (depending on the destination country)

By Inma Luque 3A 32


Para el próximo año académico, el Ministerio de Educación ya no repondrá el programa de intercambio Erasmus Europa. Donaciones otorgadas por Bruselas, sino que ofrecerá a 10000 estudiantes sus propias subvenciones, y tendrán requisitos académicos más estrictos.

Para calificar, los estudiantes deberán tener un expediente académico excepcional – El grado exacto aún no se ha anunciado – y también ser capaz de demostrar un nivel intermedio alto de (B2), el conocimiento en el idioma en el país donde se va a tomar clases. Se supone que los estudiantes han adquirido un nivel intermedio (B1) para el final de la escuela secundaria; lo que significa que el gobierno está tomando como dato que se han mejorado desde entonces.

A cambio de cumplir estos requisitos, los estudiantes recibirán una beca mensual de 350€ - 100€ más que la subvención media Bruselas. Los que no pueden obtener una beca del ministro – los estudiantes con rendimientos más bajos – automáticamente serán capaz de optar de 200 o 300€ (dependiendo del país de destino)

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En la antártica, el hielo siempre se mueve, la rotura, la fusión, la congelación, la corriente. Los glaciales pueden cortar unos miles de metros de roca. El hielo actúa recíprocamente con el viento y el agua al rededor del continente, quiere decir que está en el corazón de todo lo que pasa aquí, algo que encontramos a nuestro coste. Aurora Australis ha estado yendo en barco por el océano del sur desde mediados de la semana pasada, y en algún punto durante el fin de semana olvidamos el últimos del hielo. Esta a sido la parte del paisaje diario de nuestra expedición durante más de un mes, después de que nos cruzamos en Círculo Antártico.

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In Antarctic, ice is always moving, breaking, melting, re-freezing, flowing. Glaciers can cut thought thousands of metres of rock. The way ice interacts with wind and water around the continent means that it is at the heart of everything that happens here-something we found to our cost. Ocean since the middle of last week and, at some point over the weekend, we left behind the last of the ice. It has been part of the daily scenery of our expedition for more than a month, ever since we crossed into the Antarctic Circle.

By Mari Carmen Núñez y Cristina Frías 4ºD. 35


European bat numbers are recovering after years of decline, according to a major new study. Scientists surveyed 16 European bat species in nine countries and found that the total number increased by more than 40% between 1993 and 2011. Conservation measures including legislation and managing habitat have helped to reserve the decline, but bats should ―still be considered vulnerable‖. In the most comprehensive study of European bat population trends to date, surveyors counted and catalogued bats hibernating at 6000 sites in Austria, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, The Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and the United Kingdom. Most of the species studied appear to be increasing or stable in number. Eight bat species increasing moderately. Three were stable, two species were uncertain and only the grey long eared bat declined, although moderately.

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De acuerdo al nuevo estudio, el número de murciélagos europeos se está recobrando después de años de bajada. Los científicos encuestaron a 16 especies de murciélagos europeos en nueve países y encontraron que el número total se incrementó en más de un 40% entre 1993 y 2011. Las medidas de conservación incluyendo la legislación y la gestión de hábitat han contribuido en la bajada, pero los murciélagos deberían ―seguir siendo considerados como vulnerables‖. En el estudio más completo de las tendencias europeas de población hasta la fecha los topógrafos cuentan los murciélagos que hibernan en 6000 sitios: en Austria, Alemania, Hungría, Letonia, los Países Bajos, Portugal, Eslovenia, Eslovaquia y Reino Unido. La mayoría de las especies estudiadas parecen estar aumentando moderadamente. Ocho especies de murciélagos aumentaron moderadamente. Tres eran estables, dos especies eran inciertas y el murciélago orejudo gris disminuyó, aunque moderadamente.

By Pablo Moreno Moreno and Manuel Molina Pareja 3ºA Source: www.theguardian.com

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Los pitufos trajeron de nuevo su revolución azul a Júzcar. Un martes, dos años después de que se posara en este pueblo. Sony Pictures regresa al Valle del Genal que ha sido pintado azul pitufo desde que la primera película fue estrenada en 2011. Ahora los 250 habitantes, votan para que se quede de azul. En este último año, han sido elegidos de nuevo para el mundo pitufo. Esta semana se lanza `Los pitufos 2´ que trajeron buenas noticias además de dos caras conocidas al pueblo. El internacional español y jugador del Barcelona Andrés Iniesta que hizo una visita rápida a Júzcar, y la presentadora televisiva Eva González que posaron en una foto junto a los personajes de la película.

El futbolista tomó parte en una simbólica plantación de árboles, que forma parte del plan de reforestación de una hectárea de tierra en Los Riscos. En Octubre, alrededor de 600 árboles, serán plantados, anuncia la WWF España, el proyecto será llevado a cabo pos Sony Pictures España, Junta de Andalucía y el ayuntamiento. El diario SUR también tenía un árbol en la ceremonia, plantado por el periodista y crítico de cine, Francisco Griñan. Source: Sur in English.

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The smurfs brought their blue revolution back to Júzcar on Tuesday, two years after they first adopted the place as their own. Sony Pictures have returned to the Valle del Genal village that has been painted smurf blue since the first film was promoted there in 2011. Now the 250 inhabitants, who voted to stay blue at the end of that year, have been taken over again this time used to being the World’s Fists Smurf Village. This week’s launch of `The Smurfs 2´brought two well-known faces to the village. Spain International and Barcelona footballer Andrés Iniesta made a flying visit to Júzcar to join TV presenter Eva González for the photo calls alongside characters from the film. The footballer took part in a symbolic tree-planting, the first step in a reforestation project on a hectare of land in the area known as Los Riscos. In October, around 600 trees of a number of native species will be planted, announced WWF Spain, who will be carrying out the project along with Sony Pictures Spain, The Junta de Andalucía and the Town hall. SUR also had a tree at the ceremony, planted by journalist and film critic, Francisco Griñan.

by Jaime Fortes Hijano and Salvador Ortiz Bazaga. 3ºA.

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Por primera vez en nueve años el número de parados en la provincia de Málaga ha bajado un 3,87% registrando ahora un total de 202.712 desempleados. Los analistas y los políticos se mostraron optimistas por estos resultados. La imagen general está incompleta hasta que no se sepa el número de personas registradas en la seguridad social, porque los que han salido del desempleo puede ser que hayan encontrado trabajo o bien por otras razones. Por eso los expertos piden cautela al hablar de la recuperación. Según un experto de la UMA el crecimiento de contratos en último año es positivo porque al menos no estamos peor. También apunta que hay menos registrados en el SEPE por cansancio y no seguir buscando empleo.

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For the first time in nine years, the number of unemployment people in the province of Malaga has fallen 3'87%, registering a total of 202.712 unemployment people. Analyst and politic are optimist about this result. The overall picture is incomplete, until we know the number of people registered in the social security system, because people that has left the unemployment can have found a work or for other reasons. So, experts ask for changing it or talk about recovery. According to an EMU expert, the contract's growth in the last year is positive because at least, we are not worse. He also says that there is less registered people in the SEPE because they are tired and they don't keep on looking for.

By José Manuel Toledo Betancor y Juan Manuel Jiménez Jiménez 4º D

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After the success of the first edition, littlemusic and spring sound they organize for second year consecutive the 'littlemusic day', that will be the next 6 April in the creacio's factory in Barcelona.A festival created for family public. Templeton, will interperted the sond band of the popular series of animation 'Hora de Aventuras', the Sant Andreu Jazz Band directed for Joan Chamarro and The Pinker Tones with his show'Rolf and Flor' are the needs of the more little public. In addiction of the concerts divided in two scenes, the ―littlemusic day‖ will be full of activities for enjoy in family such as workshops, zones of game, restoration and by care area. The tickets already are to the sale with the price of 12€ offering the possibility of time are family credit that give access to two adults and two minors of 18 years for the price of 40€. The children from 0 to 3 years have free access. The minors should go with his parents or legal tutors. By Noemí Rey Cabrera. 4ºD.

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Tras el éxito de la primera Edición, minimúsica y primavera sound organizan por segundo año consecutivo ―el día de la música‖, que tendrá lugar el próximo 6 de abril en la Fábrica de creació de Barcelona. Un festival creado expresamente para público familiar, basándose en los preceptos musicales de diversidad y modernidad y sumando toda la vertiente educativa marca de la casa minimúsica.

Templeton, interpretando la banda sonora de la popular serie de animación 'Hora de aventuras', la Sant Andreu Jazz Band dirigida por Joan Chamorro (acompañados por la actuación de Swing Maniacs) y The Pinker Tones con su espectáculo 'Rolf y Flor' son los primeros confirmados de un festival adaptado a las necesidades del público más mini. Además de los conciertos repartidos en dos escenarios, ―el día minimúsica‖ estará plagado de actividades para disfrutar en familia como talleres, zonas de juego y área babycare. La entradas ya están a la venta con el pecio de 12 €, ofreciendo la posibilidad de obtener un abono familiar que da acceso a dos adultos y dos menores de 18 años al pecio de 40 €. Los niños de 0 a 3 años tienen acceso gratuito. Los menores deben ir acompañados de sus padres o tutores legales. 43


According to a survey by MumsNet and the independent thinktank, the Resolution Foundation, the survey of 2,000 mothers found that 67% of those in work and 64% of those not in work say the high cost of childcare is a barrier to taking on more employment. The findings underline the likelihood that politicians will make greater help with childcare a big part of their manifesto pledges at the next election. There are growing signs that Labour has decided to make a long-term commitment to universal free childcare one of its two or three most important proposals. The commitment might take more than two parliaments to meet.

By Silvia Sรกnchez Ortiz.

Source: www.theguardian.com

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Según una encuesta realizada por el centro de estudios y Mumsnet independiente la Fundación Resolución. La encuesta realizada a 2.000 madres encontró que el 67% de los ocupados y el 64% de los que no están en el trabajo dicen que el alto costo del cuidado de los hijos es un obstáculo para asumir más empleo.

Los resultados ponen de manifiesto la probabilidad de que los políticos hagan un mayor ayuda con el cuidado de niños una gran parte de sus promesas de manifiesto en la siguiente elección. Hay cada vez más indicios de que Labour ha decidido hacer un compromiso a largo plazo para el cuidado de niños gratuito y universal a uno de sus dos o tres propuestas más importantes. El compromiso puede tardar más de dos parlamentos para cumplir.

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Project Cuyuni School began in 2007 at IES Alta Axarquía in Periana. It helps everybody with special education needs of the community Santa Rosalía in Caicara del Orinoco so they can receive a specific education. The project trains teachers to do this activity. The director of this project in Venezuela is the priest Juan de Jesús Báez Torres, an old religion teacher in our school. In this effort the entire educational community of IES Alta Axarquía in order to raise funds to meet the annual needs of the school.

The activities they do include:  Peace day: There is a raffle of audiovisual material donated by AMPA. All proceds go to school in Cuyuni.  Solidarity recycling workshop: Every day, in the solidarity workshops that happen during recess, the students transform Nespresso capsules, custard 47


containers, paper rolls, soda cans, oil, etc. into soups and papers and jewelry products. These products are sold in solidarity markets at the school and in cultural celebrations of the region.

 Solidarity Marathon: Coinciding with Cultural Week, all students participate in a run. The only requisite is to have sponsors. The money raised by every runner goes to support the project.

Made by: - Aura Florina Florea 1º A - Alyssa Natalie Pearson 1º A - Estela Benítez Fernández 1ºA - Elena Silva Luque 1º A

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El Proyecto Escuela Cuyuni comenzó en el curso 2007-2008 en el IES Alta Axarquía de Periana. Pretende ayudar al alumnado con necesidades educativas especiales de la Comunidad Santa Rosalía en Caicara del Orinoco (Venezuela) para que pudiera recibir una formación específica, así como formar a profesores para realizar esa actividad.

El responsable de este proyecto en Venezuela es el sacerdote Juan de Jesús Báez Torres, antiguo profesor de religión de nuestro centro.

En este proyecto, colabora toda la comunidad educativa del IES Alta Axarquía con el fin de recaudar fondos para cubrir las necesidades anuales del colegio. Las actividades que se realizan son:  Día de la Paz: se sortea material audiovisual donado por el AMPA. Toda la recaudación se destina a la escuela Cuyuni. 49


 Taller de reciclado solidario: Todos los días, en los talleres solidarios que se realizan en la hora del recreo, se transforman cápsulas Nespresso, recipientes de natillas, rollos de papel, latas de refresco, aceite, etc en jabones y objetos de papelería y bisutería. Estos objetos se venden en mercadillos solidarios en el centro y en fiestas de interés cultural de la comarca.

 Maratón solidario: Coincidiendo con la Semana Cultural, todo el alumnado participa en una carrera popular. El único requisito es tener patrocinadores. El dinero recaudado por cada corredor se entrega al proyecto.

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El pasado trimestre se celebró en nuestro centro la carrera solidaria a favor de la aldea cuyuni. Esta aldea es un poblado con el que colaboramos todos los años a traves de actividades solidarias como la venta de productos fabricados con material reciclado y el maratón solidario. El maraton es una actividad en la que intervienen todos los miembros de la comunidad educativa, unos organizando, otros como jueces y otros corriendo la carrera. Este año han participado muchos alumnos que mediante el patrocionio de sus familiares y conocidos han recaudado una gran cantidad de dinero para secundar el proyecto. La actividad se vivió en medio de un ambiente festivo ya que era la semana cultural de nuestro centro y depués de correr pudimos realizar un buen avituallamiento con los dulces que nuestro compañeros de lenguas extranjeras habían preparado para el concurso de postres. ¡¡¡Un gran día solidario y de convivencia!!! Last term we celebrated the charity race at our center to support the village Cuyuni. We cooperate each year with Cuyuni, through charitable activities such as the sale of products made from recycled material and a solidarity marathon. The marathon is an activity in which all members of the educational community are involved, some organizing, others are the judges and others run the marathon. This year a lot of students participated sponsored by their family and friends, being able to raised a lot of money to finance the project. The activity took place in the midst of a festive atmosphere as it was the cultural week of our center. After the race we could taste the cakes and cookies baked for the dessert contest that our fellow friends of the language department had organized. A great charitable and coexisting Day! By Julia Grootaers 4ºA

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El castillo de Zalia es una fortaleza situada en el municipio de Alcaucín, en la provincia de Málaga. El castillo, hoy en ruinas, se levanta frente al casco urbano de Alcaucín, al otro lado del río, sobre una colina. Se trata de una fortifiación muy antigua. Se cree que pudiera haber sido construido por los fenicios, y posteriormente fue reconstruido por los árabes. Los árabes construyeron el actual castillo con su doble anillo de murallas, alcanzando cierto apogeo gracias a la crianza de ganado y al cultivo del cereal. Más tarde fue conquistado por los Reyes Católicos en septiembre de 1485, sirviendo esta fortificación como "prisión. Esta conquista se logró por la traición de un árabe de ascendencia cristiana residente en Zalia. La leyenda de la conquista Un día, Manuel se encaminó hacia Alhama de Granada con el propósito de ver a Gutiérrez de Padilla, capitán de la villa. Éste junto con su hermano formaba parte del personal del castillo, y como personas renegadas estaban dispuestos a prestar ayuda al capitán de Alhama de Granada en su intento de tomar la fortaleza. El capitán se fió de ellos y preparó lo más rápidamente a un grupo de caballeros y peones que salieron de Alhama y llegaron al pie de la muralla ya caída la noche. Una vez allí, el traidor dio la contraseña e hizo que los caballeros pudieran entrar al castillo. Desafortunadamente éste fue maniatado y arrojado desde una de las almenas, y los caballeros asaltaron el castillo. La leyenda de la Reina Zalia El castillo recibe el nombre de Zalia, ya que se decía que la reina Zalia bajaba diariamente al río para bañarse. Una noche, un joven nazarí se acercó hacia la alberca, contemplando el baño de aquella mítica mujer. Mientras la veía sumergirse entre pétalos y nenúfares dentro del agua, fue sorprendido por un guardia y posteriormente fue conducido a La Cerca, donde vivió el resto de sus días recordando aquella mujer, con la piel luminosa, tersa y delicada. Según viejas tradiciones orales, La Cerca sería un antiguo penal, dependiente del castillo de Zalía, donde los musulmanes encerraban a sus enemigos.

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The Castle of Zalia is a fortress located in the municipal area of Alcaucin, in the province of Malaga. The Castle, which is now in ruins, is built in front of the village of Alcaucin, on the other side of the river, on top of a hill. It is a very ancient fortification. It is thought that it might have been built by the Phoenicians, and later it was rebuilt by the Arabs. The Arabs built the present castle and its double ring of walls. Then it reached its apogee thanks to the farming of cattle and growing of cereals. Later, it was conquered by the Catholic Monarchs in September 1485 and then it was used as a prison. This conquest was possible due to the treason of a Muslim of Christian origins who lived in Zalia. The Legend of the conquest One day, Manuel headed to Alhama de Granada to see Gutierrez de Padilla, captain of the village. Manuel with his brother was part of the staff of the castle, and as renegade Manuel was willing to help the captain of Alhama de Granada in his attempt to take over the fortress . The captain trusted the brothers and prepared as quickly as possible a group of knights and pawns. The army reached the main wall of the castle at nightfall . Once there , the brothers gave the knights and pawns the password and they were able to enter the fortress. Unfortunately the brothers were handcuffed and thrown from one of the battlements , and the Knights conquered the castle. The legend of Queen Zalia The castle is called Zalia because it was said that Queen Zalia went down to the river to bathe daily . One night, a young Nazari went to the pool , and watched the lady bathe. As he watched her dive between petals and lilies in the water ,he was caught by a guard and later led to the prison, where he lived the rest of his life remembering the woman with the lovely body, smooth and delicate skin. According to oral traditions , the castle was used as a prison where Muslims kept their enemies. By Gemma Santiago and Aran Talboys 3ยบ ESO B.

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Los díaS 7, 10 y 11 de marzo se han celebrado en el IES Alta Axarquía de Periana las II Jornadas de emprendedores y emprendedoras. Fomentando la igualdad y el espíritu empresarial. Las Jornadas que ha organizado el Departamento de Geografía e Historia junto con el Departamento de Administrativo,

ha contado así mismo, con la

inestimable ayuda del Centro de Apoyo al Desarrollo Empresarial (Cade), el equipo Directivo y Claustro de profesores y profesoras del IES Alta Axarquía y el Ayuntamiento de Periana. El objetivo principal de estas jornadas es que sirvan como complemento a la formación académica que se trata de transmitir diariamente al alumnado desde todos los Departamentos para que los alumnos y alumnas, tengan la posibilidad en un futuro de crear empresas en nuestra comarca, y quien sabe de nuestro país, y ayudar con su esfuerzo y valía a crear puestos de trabajo tan necesarios en estos días, sabiendo que no es una tarea fácil pero entendiendo que el resultado es lo que importa y que todo proyecto conlleva un riesgo.

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Como el año anterior, estas jornadas se han dividido en 3 días, y aunque los 3 estuvieron dedicados al mundo de la empresa, tratan temáticas distintas: jóvenes empresarios antiguos alumnos y alumnas del Centro, empresas axárquicas de proyección nacional e internacional y mujeres empresarias. La primera sesión de estas jornadas, y coincidiendo con la celebración del día internacional de la mujer trabajadora, estuvo dedicada a mujeres que dirigen empresas o negocios en la Axarquía malagueña, hecho muy meritorio, ya que en nuestra sociedad ha habido y en algunos casos sigue habiendo un componente machista y discriminatorio hacia la mujer. Todas las invitadas nos explicaron como con esfuerzo y persistencia, es posible sobrevivir en un mundo empresarial de hombres. El segundo día, estuvo dedicado a empresas de la Axarquía que trabajan fuera de la provincia y en muchos casos de la provincia, e incluso se han consolidado a nivel internacional. Para finalizar, y como cierre a este evento, el martes 11 de marzo, lo dedicamos a jóvenes empresarios y empresarias. Entendemos que su presencia es imprescindible porque son el ejemplo más cercano de que si se quiere se puede.

Realizado por: Paola Ortigosa Martín, Mercedes Rodríguez Jiménez, Claudia Pareja Caro, Carolina Arrebola Mostazo, Marina Pérez Moreno, Saray Palma Molina 2º B

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On the 7, 10 and 11 of March, in the IES Alta Axarquía of Periana, the Second Congress of entrepreneurs was celebrated. The Congress that the Department of Geography and History along with Department of Administration organized, had the esteemed help of the CADE, the directive team and teachers of IES Alta Axarquía of Periana and the town hall of Periana. The main objective of this conference was to serve as a complement to the academic training that is given daily to students from all departments so that students have the possibility in the future to create businesses in our region and maybe in our country. It will motivate the students to create much needed jobs specially necessary today, even given that it isn’t easy to start a company because the result is what is important and each project carries a risk. Like last year, the conference was divided into three days, and although the three days were dedicated to the business word, they dealt with three distinct themes: young entrepreneurs that are old students of the IES Alta Axarquía; companies from the Axarquía with national and international relevance; and female entrepenaurs.

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The first session of this conference, coinciding with the International Day of Female Workers, was dedicated to companies or businesses in Axarquía. This is very commendable, because in our society there has existed chauvinism and in some cases there is still a sexist component towards women. All the guests explained to us how with effort and persistence it’s possible to survive in a business word. The second day was dedicated to companies from the Axarquía that work outside of the province, and in many cases outside of the autonomous region, and even internationally. To wrap up, on Tuesday the 11 of March, we dedicated the day to young entrepreneurs. We know that their presence is essential because they are an example of the saying, ―where there is a will, there is a way‖.

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IES Alta Axarquia and IES Maria Zambrano went to Sierra Nevada for three days in January. We stayed at a nice hotel, but the bad thing was that it was high up and we had to go up a ski lift to get there and I'm scared of heights. But all in all it was grate! We learnt how to ski, we saw lovely scenery a cute little fox... The best bit was falling over and not hurting yourself! I found that bit amazing! The ski monitors were really nice and helpful, especially as it was my first time. To be honest I think our monitor was the nicest, he was always having a laugh and pushing us over! VIAJE DE ESQUÍ Los IES Alta Axarquí y Maria Zambrano fueron durante tres días en enero de viaje de esquí. Nos alojamos en un buen hotel aunque lo malo era que estaba en lo más alto de la estación y teníamos que coger un telesilla para bajar y subir a las pistas y a mi me dan miedo las alturas. ¡Pero en general todo fue genial! Aprendimos como esquiar y tuvimos la oportunidad de ver un bonito y pequeño zorro... Lo que más me gustaba era caerte y no hacerte daño, ¡era genial! Los monitores nos ayudaban mucho y eran muy simpáticos, lo que me gustó mucho porque era mi primera vez. En realidad creo que mi monitor era el mejor siempre con una sonrisa y animándonos en la actividad. By Sequoia Ford. 4A

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In order to celebrate the day of the working woman, there was programmed a toor of education at IES Alta Axarquía of Periana. The activity was done on Wednesday 12 of March the first few hours of the morning. The participants of the activity were 3º and 4º ESO and some of the mothers that collaborate in the AMPA; with members from the association ―Pincels‖ and health staff. For an hour approximately, the students went through seven creative post some students do housework (facial hygiene, sewing and cooking), another ones were more and first aid). The objective from the different test is to achieve the student to get the idea on how life is out of school, show interest and that you can all the tasks and that you don’t think it matters what you sex you are to do the job. The day was carried out in a happy atmosphere and the collaboration of all the students. Description of the creative posts: Creative post 1: Make up and facial care Explanation on how to treat acne and facial care.

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Creative post 2: Kitchen Preparation of crepes with fruit and cream. Creative post 3: Sew and crafts Sew a button, do a sew and sew on an ornament.

Creative post 4: DIY (Do it yourself!) Make up a shelf.

Creative post 5: Electric circuit Make up a lamp, and make it work. Creative post 6: Punchure repair How to find a punchure and how to fix it on a bike wheel. Creative post 7: First aid Basics on first aid. Made by: Daniel Lee Barton 4ยบC 60


Con motivo de la celebración del día de la mujer trabajadora, en el IES Alta Axarquía de Periana, se programó un circuito coeducativo. La actividad se realizó el miércoles 12 de marzo durante las primeras horas de la mañana, teniendo como participantes a alumnado de 3º ESO y 4º ESO, contó además, con la colaboración de algunas madres que forman parte del AMPA; con miembros de la Asociación de mujeres ―Pinceles‖, y personal sanitario. Durante una hora aproximadamente, el alumnado fue recorriendo siete talleres: unos en los que realizaban tareas puramente domésticas (higiene facial, costura y cocina), otra, de carácter más profesional (mecánica, bricolaje y electrónica y primeros auxilios). El objetivo de las distintas pruebas es fomentar entre el alumnado la idea del reparto de tareas, demostrarles que, con empeño e interés, todas se pueden realizar y que no hay ninguna que tenga que estar identificada con un sexo u otro. La jornada se desarrolló en un ambiente de complicidad y colaboración entre todos los participantes. Descripción de los talleres: Taller 1: Maquillaje y cuidado facial Explicación práctica de cómo se trata el acné y cuidado facial. Taller 2: Cocina Preparación de crepes con fruta y nata.

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Taller 3: Costura y manualidades Coser un botón, hacer un dobladillo o pegar un adorno. Taller 4: Bricolaje Montaje de un mueble con estanterías.

Taller 5: Circuito eléctrico Montaje de una lámpara y encendido de la misma. Taller 6: Reparación de ruedas. Consejos prácticos para detectar y reparar el pinchazo de la rueda de una bicicleta

Taller 7: Primeros auxilios Nociones básicas sobre primeros auxilios.

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Today we want to present you to Pablo Moreno de Alborán Ferrándiz a songwriter from Malaga.

He was born on May 31, 1989 in Malaga. His father is Spanish, his name is Salvador Moreno de Alborán Peralta and his mother is French, her name is Elena Ferrándiz Martínez. He is great-grandson of Francisco Moreno Fernández, first Marquis of Alborán and he has two brothers: Casilda and Salvador. He began to make himself known through YouTube.

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February 1, 2011 he released his first Album Pablo Alborán, November 15 of the same year he published his second Album: En Acústico and November 6, 2013 his third album Tanto. Three albums in less than two years. In 2011 he gave 60 concerts. The album Pablo Alborán spent 70 weeks at number 1 on the charts of Spain and Portugal with 20 Platinum discs by adding the two countries and the song ―Solamente Tú‖ the best selling of the year. He has won awards such as Revelation 40 Principales Awards 2011, Award for Best Artist and Best Song ―Te he echado de menos‖ in the Top 40 Awards 2012, nominated for three Latin Grammy Awards 2011 (Best New Artist, Best Male Pop Vocal Album and Best Song), nominated for a Latin Grammy in 2012 with En Acústico (Best Contemporary Pop Vocal Album), Dial Chain Award 2011 and 2012, Record of the Year in RTVE, Spain iTunes Rewind 2011 best New Artist, iTunes Rewind 2011 best New Mexico artist Pop, Cosmopolitan 2011 Award for Best Male artist of the Year...

His album Tanto debuted at number 1 on the list of best seller in Spain, achieving three Platinum recors in the first week. In early April 2013, Tanto had won seven Platinum records in Spain and on Platinum disc in Portugal.

Tanto was the best selling, album in Spain in 2012. In 2011 and 2012, Pablo Alborán had made tours in clubs, theaters and auditoriums with stocks tickets in all concert. He was nominated for the MTV EMA 2013. He has song with Malú and Jessy & Joy. He had sold over a million copies of their three albums with 32 Platinum discs in total.

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Hoy os presento a Pablo Moreno de Alborán Ferrándiz, un cantautor malagueño.

Nació el 31 de Mayo de 1989 en Málaga, de padre malagueño, Salvador Moreno de Alborán Peralta y madre francesa, Elena Ferrándiz Martínez. Es bisnieto de Francisco Moreno Fernández, primer Marqués de Alborán y tiene dos hermanos: Casilda y Salvador. Comenzó a darse a conocer a través de YouTube.

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El 1 de febrero de 2011 publicó su primer álbum: Pablo Alborán, el 15 de Noviembre del mismo año publicó su segundo álbum: En Acústico y el 6 de Noviembre de 2012 su tercer disco Tanto. Tres discos en menos de dos años. En 2011 dio más de 60 conciertos. El disco Pablo Alborán estuvo 70 semanas en el número 1 de las listas de España y Portugal con 20 discos de Platino sumando los dos países y la canción ―Solamente Tú‖ la más vendida del año. Ha conseguido reconocimientos como el Premio Revelación 40 Principales 2011, Premio al Mejor Artista y a la Mejor Canción ―Te he echado de menos‖ en los Premios 40 Principales 2012, tres nominaciones a los Grammy Latinos 2011 (Mejor Artista Revelación, Mejor Álbum Pop Masculino y Mejor Canción), una nominación a los Grammy Latinos 2012 con En Acústico (Mejor Álbum Pop Vocal Contemporáneo), Premio Cadena Dial 2011 y 2012, Disco del Año en RTVE, iTunes Rewind Spain 2011 como Mejor Nuevo Artista, iTunes Rewind México 2011 Mejor Nuevo Artista de Pop Latino, Premio Cosmopolitan 2011 al Mejor Artista Masculino del Año... Su álbum Tanto entró directamente al número 1 en la lista de los más vendidos en España, consiguiendo tres Discos de Platino la primera semana. A principios de abril de 2013, Tanto había conseguido siete Discos de Platino en España y un Disco de Platino en Portugal. Tanto ha sido el álbum más vendido en España en 2012. En 2011 y 2012, Pablo Alborán ha realizado giras en clubes, teatros y grandes auditorios con las entradas agotadas en todos los conciertos. Estuvo nominado para los MTV EMA 2013. Ha cantado con Malú y Jessy & Joy. Ha vendido más de un millón de ejemplares de sus tres discos con 32 discos de Platino en total.

By Gema y Thalía 4A.

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RAP: Rapping refers to "spoken or chanted rhyming lyrics" Rapping is often associated with a primary ingredient of hip hop music, but the origins of the phenomenon can be said to predate hip hop culture by centuries. It can also be found in alternative rock such as that of Cake and the Red Hot Chili Peppers. Rapping is also used in Kwaito music, a genre that originated in Johannesburg, South Africa and is composed of hip hop elements. Since the early 21st century, it has been possible to hear rap in every major language of the world.

Stylistically, rap occupies a gray area between speech, prose, poetry, and singing. The word (meaning originally "to hit") as used to describe quick speech or repartee predates the musical form .The word had been used in British English since the 16th century, and specifically meaning "to say" since the 18th. It was part of the African American dialect of English in the 1960s meaning "to converse", and very soon after that in its present usage as a term denoting the musical style. Today, the terms "rap" and "rapping" are so closely associated with hip hop music that many use the terms interchangeably.

The audio portion produces the term called MC and DJ, the MC, acronyms mean MC comes from the religious entity, the parent is the Master of Ceremonies and is "speaking" in the culture of Hip hop is in charge of rapping, he was often called "black music" as it was in America where workers unhappy Color rapped their problems and try to overcome it.

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BREAK DANCE: We continue with the Hip hop culture, all music has its dance movements in this dance culture that accompanies Rap music is named Breakdance.

It is a dance that combines a series of aerobic and rhythmic movements, influenced from aboriginal dances, martial arts, gymnastics, and funk. The list of movements is enormous and requires dedication and discipline to be carried out. The movements of B-boying can be classified into four branches: style or Top Rock (dancing above), footwork (footwork), power moves (power moves) and freeze (you freeze in a pose)

This type of acrobatic dance was developed by James Brown in 1969 at that time the Breakdance was not the same today, there were many movements of soil, but it seemed impossible speed that could acquire the legs of a breaker of that era and complex movements that could be developed, it was called Rock Floor.

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GRAFFITI: Hip hop culture is almost complete, music and dancing, but we need to talk about art in this culture the term Graffiti.

This communication is used later as a protest against political or any other entity with which the people do not fully agree embers, the phenomenon of protest using the visual pathway and painted on the walls begins during the period of 1965-1970 . Just then, the graffiti in Philadelphia today know all nicknames and names with different shapes and colors making a sad wall a work of art with trying to draw attention being shown.

By Cristina RamĂ­rez. 4A.

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Rafael Nadal, the world number one, suffered a bone edema during the Australia’s Open Final. He lost to Stanislas Wawrinka. That's the conclusion of medical tests that had in Barcelona. Then he will decide whether to participate in the tour clay, which should start on the 10th of February in Buenos Aires, to follow later in Rio de Janeiro. Nadal is now treated with intensive physiotherapy and anti-inflammatory. The recommendation of Dr. Cotorro, his doctor, is he should not train. He recommended complete rest. In the Crown Hotel, Rafael Nadal was woken up late the day after losing the final of the Australia’s Open. During the morning, Rafael Maymó , his physical therapist , begins working on his back taking advantage of the muscles. He already feels the effects of ibuprofen and muscle relaxants taken from the day before. The number one speaks of a ―muscle spasm ―. He says that on his return to Spain, he will have tests to identify the source of a problem that attacked him in Monte Carlo and Montreal 2013.

By Francisco Mostazo Gámez Adrián Mostazo Godoy 3ºA

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Rafael Nadal, número uno del mundo, sufrió un edema óseo durante la final del Abierto de Australia, que perdió contra Stanislas Wawrinka. Esa es la conclusión de las pruebas médicas que tuvo en Barcelona. Entonces se decidirá si participa en la gira de tierra batida, que debería arrancar en el día 10 de febrero en Buenos Aires, para seguir luego en Rio de Janeiro. Nadal se trata ahora con antiinflamatorios y fisioterapia intensiva. Por recomendación del doctor Cotorro, su médico, no entrena. Se le ha recomendado reposo total. En el hotel Crown, Rafael Nadal se levanta tarde el día después de perder la final del Abierto de Australia. Durante la mañana, Rafael Maymò, su fisioterapeuta, empieza a trabajar sobre su espalda aprovechando que sobre la musculatura ya se sienten los efectos del ibuprofeno y los relajantes musculares tomados desde la víspera. El número uno habla de un ―espasmo muscular‖. Él dijo que a su vuelta a España tendrá pruebas para identificar el origen de un problema que ya le atacó en Montecarlo y Montreal 2013.

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Michael Schumacher is a German racing driver that is actually retired. He was born on third January 1969. Michael has won the formula One World Championship seven times in tis career as driver. He is regarded as one of the greatest F1 drivers of all time and he holds many driver records, including most championships, race victories and other great records. But not all his career is that nice, he had reveral accidents in his life. Indeed, he recently had an accident while he vas skiing with his son Mike. Michael was coign downhill when he tripped with a stone and fell on a rock with his head. He´s been moved to a hospital where he is being treated. Leaving this issue aside, Michael had a great career with lots of wins. His last race was the Brazilian Grand Prix in 2012.

By Nicola Dillon. 4A.

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Michael Schumacher es un piloto alemán de Fórmula 1 actualmente retirado. Michael nació el 3 de Enero de 1969.

Michael ha ganado el Campeonato Mundial de F1 siete veces en su carrera como piloto. Es reconocido como uno de los mejores pilotos de F1 de todos los tiempos y posee varios títulos y récords como por ejemplo el mayor número de campeonatos, de victorias y otros logros.

Pero no toda su carrera es así de agradable, ha tenido varios accidentes en su vida. De hecho, recientemente tuvo un accidente mientras esquiaba con su hijo Mike. Michael iba cuesta abajo cuando tropezó con una piedra y cayó de cabeza sobre una roca. Fue transladado a un hospital donde está siendo tratado.

Dejando esto a un lado, Michael ha tenido una gran carrera con un montón de victorias. Su última carrera fue el Grand Prix de Brazil en 2012.

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Real Madrid: Un equipo de leyenda El Real Madrid se ha convertido en un grande del baloncesto mundial gracias,a las victorias que ha encadenado, que le ha hecho batir el récord de Paco Ferrándiz, que logró 23 victorias consecutivas. Además el Real Madrid se ha proclamado campeón de la Copa del Rey, ya que consiguió vencer al Barcelona en la final con un triple de Sergio Llull en el último segundo. En la liga ACB todavía en lo lleva de temporada no ha sido batido por ningún equipo, en la Euroliga el equipo marcha líder de su grupo por delante de grandes equipos como el CSKA y el Partizán. En esta competición es donde el equipo ha perdido sus dos únicos partidos en lo que llevamos de temporada ante el CSKA en Rusia y el Bayern Munich en Alemania. El Palacio de los Deportes se ha convertido en un auténtico fortín puesto que lleva más de un año sin encajar ninguna derrota. El Real Madrid acabó su racha de imbatibilidad frente al CSKA tras llevas un total de 31 victorias seguidas, sin perder ni un solo partido, el resultado de este partido acabó 85CSKA – 71RM. El reto del equipo para este año es poder conseguir con las tres grandes títulos (ACB, Euroliga y Copa del Rey) algo que nunca ha podido conseguir este equipo. Pablo Laso técnico del Real Madrid y sus jugadores son muy ambiciosos respecto el hecho de poder lograr el triplete

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Real Madrid: A Legendary Team Real Madrid has become big in the basketball world thanks to victories that it chained together, breaking the record of Paco Ferrandiz (who had 23 wins). Real Madrid also won the championship of the Copa del Rey, as they managed to beat Barcelona in the final thanks to a three-pointer by Sergio Llull at the last second. In the ACB league, the team still leads the season and has not been beaten by any team in the Euroleague. The team leads its group, including over big teams like CSKA and Partizan. It is within this grouping that team has lost its only two games. The Sports Palace has become a veritable fortress for Madrid as it has been more than a year since Madrid lost a homecourt game. Real Madrid ended their winning streak when they lost to CSKA, after winning 31 games in a row. The final score of the game was 85CSKA - 71RM. The team’s challenge this year is to win the three major titles (ACB, Cup and Euroleague) something that this team has never been able to achieve. Coach Pablo Laso and his players are very ambitious in attempting to achieve the triplet.

By Antonio Gómez y Diego Molina 4ºB

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Un arte marcial convertido en deporte olímpico Orígenes El maestro reconocido como creador y difusor del Taekwondo fue el General Choi Hong Hi, quien estudió karate estilo shotokan en Japón, además del arte marcial coreano del taekkyon. Fue el 11 de abril de 1955 cuando se propuso el nombre Taekwondo para designar al arte marcial que se había desarrollado. El Taekwondo es un deporte de combate, que, inicialmente, fue desarrollado como un arte marcial para el ejército coreano. Se caracteriza por su amplio uso de las técnicas de pierna y patada, que son mucho más variadas y tienen mayor protagonismo que en la mayoría de las artes marciales. Asimismo, estas técnicas destacan por su gran rapidez y precisión. Deporte olímpico Originalmente un arte marcial, se ha convertido actualmente en deporte olímpico de combate desde el año 1984, cuando fue introducido como deporte de demostración en los juegos olímpicos realizados en la ciudad de Los Ángeles en los Estados Unidos. Un campeón español Joel González Bonilla nació el 30 de Septiembre de 1989 en Figueras ,Gerona. Es un deportista español de taekwondo, campeón olímpico, triple campeón mundial, doble campeón de Europa y número uno del ranking, que compite en la categoría de 58 kg. Por Luis Ángel Atencia Moreno y Roberto Carlos Larrubia Trujillo 3º ESO B 79


A martial art that has become an Olympic sport Origins The teacher recognized as the creator and diffusor of Taekwondo was General Choi Hong Hi , who studied shotokan-style karate in Japan, in addition to the Korean martial art of taekkyon . It was on April 11th, 1955 when the name Taekwondo was proposed to describe the martial art that had developed . Taekwondo is a combat sport , which was initially developed as a martial arts for the Korean army. It is characterized by its extensive use of kicks and leg techniques , which are much more varied and have greater prominence than in most martial arts. Also, these techniques stand out for their great speed and accuracy. An olympic sport Originally a martial art , it has now become an Olympic combat sport since 1984 , when it was introduced as a demonstration sport in the Olympic Games held in the city of Los Angeles in the United States. A Spanish champion Joel Gonzalez Bonilla was born on September 30th, 1989 in Figueras , Gerona . It is a Spanish taekwondo athlete , Olympic champion , three-time world champion, double European champion and number one ranking , who competes in the 58 kg category .

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CONTADOR AND PURITO CONFIRM THEIR PARTICIPATION Alberto Contador and Joaquin ―Purito‖ were not present at the presentation of the Tour 2014 held in Cadiz, but both riders gave their views on the course of the next edition from the Canary Islands and Argentina respectively through a recorded video. Contador, who announced his participation in the Spanish round, agreed with the profile of the race which was won twice. ―Purito‖ Rodríguez on the verge of starting the Tour of San Luis in Argentina, said he expects to be on the starting line

CONTADOR Y PURITO CONFIRMAN SU PARTICIPACION Alberto Contador y Joaquin ―Purito‖ no estuvieron presentes en el acto de presentación de la Vuelta 2014 que tuvo lugar en Cadiz, pero ambos corredores dieron su opinión sobre el recorrido de la próxima edición desde Canarias y Argentina respectivamente a través de un video grabado. Contador, que ya anunció su participación en la ronda española, se mostró conforme con el perfil de la carretera que ha ganado en dos ocasiones. ―Purito‖ Rodríguez, a punto de tomar la salida en el Tour de San Luis de Argentina, señaló que espera estar en la línea de salida.

By Christian Rios Mostazo 3ºA

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An optical illusion (also called a visual illusion) is characterized by visually perceived images that differ from objective reality. The information gathered by the eye is processed in the brain to give a perception that does not tally with a physical measurement of the stimulus source. There are three main types: literal optical illusions that create images that are different from the objects that make them, physiological ones that are the effects on the eyes and brain of excessive stimulation of a specific type (brightness, colour, size, position, tilt, movement), and cognitive illusions, the result of unconscious inferences.

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Una ilusión óptica (también llamado una ilusión visual) se caracteriza por las imágenes percibidas visualmente que difieren de la realidad objetiva. La información recopilada por el ojo es procesada en el cerebro para dar una percepción que no concuerda con una medida física de la fuente de estímulo. Hay tres tipos principales: ilusiones ópticas literales que crean imágenes que son diferentes de los objetos que las componen, las fisiológicas que son los efectos sobre los ojos y el cerebro de la estimulación excesiva de un tipo específico (brillo, color, tamaño, posición, inclinación , movimiento), y las ilusiones cognitivas, el resultado de inferencias inconscientes.

Alba Cazorla Guerrero Jonathan Cabrillana Villodres Inma Luque Mostazo 3ºA

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Muchos artistas han aprovechado las ilusiones ópticas para dar a sus obras un aspecto mágico, de profundidad, de ambigüedad y contrastes. Las ilusiones ópticas fisiológicamente ocurren durante la conexión del hemisferio derecho y el izquierdo, gracias a esto tenemos la capacidad de percepción.

Many artists have taken advantage of optical illusions to give his works a magical aspect, depth, ambiguity and contrasts. Optical illusions occur physiologically during connection of the right hemisphere and the left, thanks to this we have the ability of perception.

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-¿Qué ocurre cuando vemos una ilusión óptica? Según parece, el cerebro, programado para esperar ciertas cosas de la realidad, compara todo lo que ve con ese conocimiento innato y luego saca sus conclusiones. Además, continuamente van adquiriéndose otros conocimientos que, junto con el innato, el cerebro utiliza para analizar lo que percibe y lograr una lenta comprensión de la realidad. En la mayoría de los casos, el cerebro procesa bien los datos visuales, pero a veces se equivoca. -¿Pueden ciertas formas provocar más confusión visual que otras? Al cerebro parece costarle trabajo formarse una imagen exacta de ciertas figuras geométricas: cuando ve un círculo, lo considera menor de lo que es, e incluso al ver una forma aparentemente tan sencilla como la de un cuadrado, puede parecerle más alta que ancha. Y si resulta que el cuadrado está de lado o no puede verse de frente, su forma se vuelve todavía más difícil de reconocer. Espejismo Un espejismo es una ilusión óptica en la que los objetos lejanos aparecen reflejados en una superficie lisa como si se estuviera contemplando una superficie líquida que, en realidad, no existe. El aire en contacto con el suelo tórrido se calienta y su densidad varía de tal manera que, contrario a lo usual, el aire más frío se mantiene encima del más caliente. Esto crea una densidad desigual en el aire que le otorga varios índices de refracción. - What happens when we see an optical illusion? It appears that the brain is programmed to expect certain things from reality, comparing it to everything you see with our innate knowledge and then it draws conclusions. In addition, they are continually being acquired other knowledge, along with the innate, the brain uses to analyze, what you perceive and achieve a gradual understanding of reality . In most cases, the brain processes visual data properly, but sometimes incorrectly. - Can some illusions be moreconfusing than others? The brain seems struggle to process an accurate picture of certain geometric figures: when you see a circle, you consider it smaller than what it actually is, and even if you see a simple shape like a square, may seem taller than wide. And if it turns out that the square is on its side, its shape becomes even more difficult to recognize. Mirage A mirage is an optical illusion in which distant objects are reflected on a smooth surface like if we were contemplating a liquid surface that actually does not exist. The air in contact with the hot soil is heated and its density varies in such a way that, contrary to the usual, cooler air is maintained above warmer. This creates an uneven density in the air that gives various refractive indices. By Aran Talboys and Miguel Ruíz García. 87


A possible twin of the Earth has been an overdraft in orbit of a star similar to the Sun to 600 years - lights of us, and the new planet can unite the characteristics to be inhabitable, as he has said the FISHNET on Monday. Discovered by the spatial mission Kepler, the new nicknamed planet Keppler 22b, it is smaller than Neptune and is the inhabitable first one who has been in this system.

Un posible gemelo de la Tierra ha sido descubierto en órbita de una estrella similar al sol a 600 años-luz de nosotros, y el nuevo planeta puede aunar las características para ser habitable, según ha dicho la NASA el lunes. Descubierto por la misión espacial Kepler, el nuevo planeta apodado Keppler22b, es más pequeño que Neptuno y es el primero habitable que se ha encontrado en ese sistema. 88


El planeta Kepler-186f es ligeramente mayor que la Tierra y está en lo que se denomina zona de habitabilidad, es decir, a una distancia del astro a la que el agua ni se evaporaría ni se congelaría. Los científicos señalan que, teóricamente, allí podría haber agua en estado líquido en la superficie.

The planet Kepler-186f is lightly bigger than the Earth and it is in what is named a zone of habitability, that is to say, to a distance of the star to which it would evaporate it would not even freeze. The scientists indicate that, theoretically, there might be water in liquid condition in the surface. -Kepler-186f es un exoplaneta que orbita la estrella enana roja Kepler-186. Es el primer planeta del tamaño de la Tierra que ha sido descubierto en la zona habitable de una estrella. -Es el planeta más pequeño encontrado dentro de la zona habitable de una estrella y se cree que pueda albergar agua en forma líquida. -Se encuentra a unos 492,3 años luz de la tierra y su más grande que el de la Tierra.

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radio es solo 11%


-Kepler-186f orbits a star with about 4% of the Sun's luminosity with an orbital period of 129.9 days. -Its temperature is from - 46 ° C on average, assuming an atmosphere like the Earth. -Being a planet similar in size to the Earth, be rocky and oceans, its gravity is expected to be similar to the Earth.

By: Andrea Ortigosa y DesirĂŠ JimĂŠnez, Elena y Cipri

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El cubo de Rubik es un rompecabezas mecánico tridimensional inventado por el escultor y profesor de arquitectura húngaro Ernő Rubik en 1974. Ernő Rubik estaba interesado en la Geometría y el estudio de las formas tridimensionales, ansioso de crear un objeto artístico pero fuertemente ligado a la geometría descriptiva. Hasta enero de 2009 se han vendido 350 millones de cubos en todo el mundo. El cubo de rubik(3x3x3) consta de 26 piezas que a la vez se dividen en 3 grupos: Centros: Hay 6 centros con un color cada uno, los centros no se mueven uno respecto a los otros. Vertices: Hay 8 vertices. Cada vértice tiene 3 colores y son las esquinas del cubo. Aristas: Hay 12 aristas. Cada arista tiene 2 colores y están entre los vértices. Métodos para resolver el cubo de rubik(3x3x3): -

Método de principiantes: www.cuboderubik.com

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Método Fridrich: Este método es para hacerlo mas rápido.

Hoy en día existen muchos tipos de cubos deferentes: -

2x2x2

-Dodecaedro

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3x3x3

-Forma piramidal

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4x4x4

-Cubo mirror

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5x5x5

-1x3x3

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6x6x6

-Square

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7x7x7

-Gygaminx

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8x8x8

-Teraminx

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9x9x9

-Petaminx

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10x10x10

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11x11x11

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17x17x17

Realizado por: Alejandro Mechiné, Jose Enrique Jiménez, Marcos Palma. 4B 91


Rubik's cube The Rubik's cube is a mechanical, three-dimensional puzzle that the Hungarian sculptor and architecture teacher Erno Rubik invented in 1974. Erno Rubik was interested in the Geometry and the study of three-dimentional shapes: He wanted to create an artistic artistic strongly tied to descriptive geometry. Before January of 2009, 350 million Rubik's cubes have been sold in the whole world. The Rubik's cube (3x3x3) consists of 26 pieces that simultaneously are divided in 3 groups: Centers: There are 6 centers that each have their own color. The centers do not move themselves with respect to the other pieces. Vertex: There are 8 vertices. Every vertex has 3 colors and they are the corners of the cube. Edges: There are 12 edges. Every edge has 2 colors and they are between the vertexes. Methods to solve the Rubik's cube (3x3x3): - Beginners' Method: www.cuboderubik.com - Method Fridrich: This method is used to solve the cube in the fastest way possible. Http: // www.youtube.com/watch? V=jXa9P6MZyqw Nowadays there exist many types of different 3D puzzles.

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Es una patraña del autoengaño, pero que al menos ni hacen daño a nadie, ni las hemos de pagar todos con cargo a la Seguridad social. Aseguran que la mayoría de sus usuarios experimentan en su vida aumento de equilibrio, fuerza, flexibilidad, resistencia, coordinación o ritmo. Nada que no pueda conseguirse durmiendo lo necesario, bebiendo menos alcohol o llevando una vida más ordenada. Pero que alguien piense que poniéndose una pulsera pueden desaparecer casi todos los males pasados, presentes y venideros, parecido al de quien lleva encima una estampa de la Virgen del moco. Las copias piratas han comenzado a brotar como hongos, aunque los importadores de las pulseras originales dicen que no son lo mismo porque sus hologramas "no han sido activados". Nadie sabe como "se activan" los hologramas. Es un secreto mejor guardado que la fórmula de la Coca Cola. Según las webs que venden esta ―tecnología‖, la base de las pulseras consiste en un ―holograma que funciona a través de frecuencias que se encuentran en nuestro ambiente natural de las cuales ya conocemos de sus efectos positivos en el campo de energía del cuerpo―.

Por Gema Zamora Campos y Elena Bazaga Campos 3ºA

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Self-deception is a hoax, but at least nor hurt anyone, nor have paid all under Social Security. Ensure that most users experience in their life increased balance, strength, flexibility, endurance, coordination or rhythm. Nothing that can not be achieved the necessary sleeping, drinking less alcohol or taking a more orderly life. But someone thinks that putting a bracelet can disappear almost all past, present and future evils, like who takes up a picture of the―Virgen del moco‖. Pirated copies have started to sprout like mushrooms, although the original bracelets importers say they are not the same because their holograms "have not been activated." Nobody knows how holograms "activated". It is a best kept to the formula of Coca Cola secret. According to the websites that sell this "technology", the basis of bracelets is a "hologram that works across frequencies found in our natural environment which we know of its positive effects on the body's energy field" .

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Technology is used as much to satisfy our needs as to make our life's easier, technological activity affects the social and economic progress of each country, but its fully commercial character makes it focused more on satisfying the desires of the wealthy , which leads to consumerism .

Technology can also be used to protect the environment and to prevent the growing necessities from provoking a depletion or degradation , it makes it easier to communicate with others who live in other parts of the world that we don't have frequent contact with , technology keeps us informed at all times on news and current affairs ... Technology has saved many lives , the medical advances we have today are not those what we had 70 years ago, within a short time the world has become a large social network that unites us all through internet , television and video games, a world that revolves around technology and consumerism. New technologies which are made for leisure ( mobile phones, playstation .. ), have a negative impact on our lives , young children only want to be playing with video games and on computers and teenagers only want to stay at home and be on their mobiles and social networks , they get into their virtual world and no matter who they are, they will pay more attention to a WhatsApp that they just got sent rather then their friends or parents... Another downside to technology is the danger of internet , we don't wh is behind a facebook profile, not knowing who you talk to , who visits your profile or who sees your photos, social networking is one of the most common type of harassment, it has even caused suicides and blackmail, exchanging is the most common reason . By George South & Maria Jose Martin, 4B 95


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AIDA Aida is a series of Spanish television, based on humor and produced by Globomedia for the chain Telecinco. It has 10 seasons (237 chapters), and is on Sunday nights at 22:00 and lasts for about one hour. The series started on 16 January 2005 and will end on 1 June 2014. It originally starred Carmen Machi as the role of Aída García.      

Carmen Machi as Aída García García: Protagonist of the series. Ana Maria Polvorosa as "Lore": Aida’s daughter. Paco León as "Luisma": Aida’s brother. Mariano Peña as Mauricio Colmenero: The Reinols Bar owner. Pepe Viyuela as "Chema" shopkeeper: father of Fidel. Eduardo Casanova as Fidel: Chema’s son.

VELVET Velvet is a Spanish television program produced by Bambú for Antena 3. Is is made by Ramón Campos y Gema R. Neira. It was first released on the 17 of February, 2014. This program is about Alberto, heir to the velvet galleries, and Ana, the dressmaker that works in the galleries. Both knew each other when they were children and they had a relationship. But, their social differences make them grow apart. However, they eveventually come to know each other again. The main protagonists are Miguel Ángel Silvestre, actor of “Sin tetas no hay paraíso,” and Paula Echevarría, actress of “Gran Reserva.” The first episode had 1 276 000 spectator. It is broadcasted on Mondays at 10:30.

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B&B B&B, of mouth in mouth it is a comical series on Spanish television (created by Daniel Écija and produced by Mediaset España Communication in collaboration with Globomedia). It is broadcasted on Telecinco. This program is about a fashion magazine and and the situations that develop. The main characters are Candela (Belén Rueda), Juan (Dani Rovira), Caye (Sara Sálamo), Sonia (Macarena García), Pablo (Gonzalo de Castro). This program has an audience of 2.861.000.

LA QUE SE AVECINA La que se avecina is a Spanish comedy created by Alberto Caballero, Laura Caballero and Daniel Deorador. The TV series focuses on the inhabitants of Mirador de Montepinar, a fictional building located on the outskirts of a big city. Both its storylines and cast are heavily based on Aquí no hay quien viva, which ended when Telecinco bought Miramón Mendi, the series production company. The main characters are Enrique Pastor, Antonio Recio, Berta, Judith, Maite, Amador, etc. This program has an audience of 4 108 000, this program is broadcast on Telecinco or FDF.

SUPERVIVIENTES 2014 Supervivientes is a program about survival, where a group of competitors is abandoned on an island. The "survivors" must survive the conditions on the program, taking advantage of the food that nature can give them and devising methods of adaptation, such as making a fire, a hut, kitchen utensils, etc. The competition is divided into two tribes, each one of them in a campsite. Each week, they compete in one test for immunity in which those who lose are subjected to nominations and public voting. There are 10 competitors in a team, but they compete individually to get immunity, prizes, above all to be the last one standing. This year's competitors are: Anabel Pantoja, Antonio Tejado, Yong Li y Bibiana Fernández, Aran Aznar, Rafael Lomana, Nacho Montes y Katia Aveiro and in the Isla Bonita: Oriana, Santa, Suhaila, Pascual, Abraham, También están Diego Matamoros, 'La Pelopony' y Viviana Figueredo.

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Laura’s Mysteries Laura’s Mysteries it is a Spanish television program produced by Boonerang TV. Initially, the program was named ―Mother and detectives.‖ It was released on Monday 27th of July 2009. It is based on the novels of Agatha Christie. Laura, a police detective, tries to solve different murder cases that happen in each chapter. María Pujalte is Laura Lebrel del Bosque, the protagonist. A total of 1.400.000 people watch this program.

THE PRINCE

The Prince is drama and suspense series of Spanish television created by Aitor Gabilondo and César Benítez to Telecinco. The series, produced by Mediaset Spain in collaboration with Plano to Plano, is for a fairly young age, and is characterized by the a story of love arising between a Christian police agent and a young Muslim girl. This girl has a brother who is a drug trafficker. Most of its plots are set in the troubled Ceutí neighborhood of The Prince Alfonso, near the border Morocco. The series debuted on February 4, 2014 in Spain with a multichannel broadcast. It had a record audience for prime time shows. At its launch, it had 21.9% of all tv-watchers and it continued to lead in viewership during the first season of episodes.

LA VOZ KIDS The Voice Kids is a Spanish talent contest produced by Boomerang TV in partnership with Talpa Media and was broadcasted on Telecinco on 6 February 2014. The show consists of choosing the best singers among a group of children who demonstrate their vocal qualities without their image influencing the jury's decision. This TV show had 5.174.000 viewers. BY: Marta Ortigosa Carnero,Noelia Oviedo Benítez, Vanesa Moreno Pérez, Rocío Sánchez Sánchez. 4ºB.

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Game Of Thrones Game Of Thrones (GOT) is a saga written by George R. R. Martin about a place in an strange world where the magic hasn’t disappeared yet. The story is placed in a time similar to our Middle Age, when the knights and the ladies with power fought for a place in the throne. In the beginning of the story there are four noble families: The Starks, lords of the north area of the place, winterfell. The Targaryens, the lords of the south and the seven free towns until the Baratheons and the Lannisters steal the throne. The Baratheons and the Lannisters are united with the marriage of the king Robert and the queen Cersei. The intrigue of the families made the Starks try to avenge a fail assassination made by the Lannisters. Daenerys Targaryen was the last Targaryen and she’s married with a dothraki lord, and with her dragon eggs she tries to recover her throne. This amazing story, with adventure, danger and intrigue is perfect for people with a dreamer spirit, persons who believe in magic and in the ambition of men. You can read the complete story with the book : A Song Of Ice And Fire, or if you don’t like reading you could see the TV serie called Game Of Thrones, it’s very famous in USA and in Europe is awaking crowds. By Isabel Pascual Robledo 4th A

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JUEGo DE TronOs Juego de tronos (JDT) es una saga de libros escrita por George R. R. Martin sobre un lugar en un extraño mundo donde la magia no ha desaparecido todavía. La historia toma lugar en un tiempo similar a nuestra Edad Media, donde los caballeros y las damas con poder luchaban por un lugar en el trono. En el comienzo de la historia se presentan cuatro familias nobles: los Starks, señores del área norte llamada Invernalia. Los Trgaryen, señores del sur y de las siete ciudades libres hasta que lo Baratheon y los Lannister le robaran el trono. Los Baratheon y los Lannister están unidos con el matrimonio del rey Robert y la reina Cersei. Las intrigas de las familias hacen que los Stark intenten vengar un asesinato fallido hecho por los Lannister. Daenerys Targaryen era la última Targaryen y se casa con un señor dothraki, y con sus huevos de dragón intenta recuperar su trono. Esta increíble historia, llena de aventura, peligro e intriga es perfecta para personas con un espíritu soñador, personas que creen en la magia y en la ambición del hombre. Puedes leer la historia completa con el libro: Canción de Hielo y Fuego, o si no te gusta leer podrías ver la serie de televisión Juego de Tronos, es muy famosa en Estados Unidos y en Europa está despertando multitudes.

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The saga of the fast and the furious, published by Universal Studios and directed by Rob Cohen, is one of the series of movies of more incredible cars in the history, based mainly on the world of the tunning. These movies Tyrese Gibson has possessed actors like Vin Diesel, Paul Walker, Michelle Rodr铆guez, Jordanian Brewster, Lucas Black, between others. They started by being a group of pilots of street illegal careers very hated by the police. The police on having discovered this raw material to hand on the steering wheel and the pedals, they were infiltrating to these corridors in his most difficult tasks to manage to stop and to destroy everything of the major dealers of drug and men more rash and looked of the moment. This saga could have possessed the participation of some of the best singers of the world and of his moment as Tego Clader贸n, Don Omar, Ludacris, Ja Rule, Bow Wow, between others. They wanted to do an alone movie with which to leave fingerprint in the history, they threw It to all the cinemas but seeing the granes benefits that they obtained decided to continue the saga. They are different movies but them seeing all from the first one to the last one you can discover the magnificent history that you join they form.

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The first delivery was " The fast and the furious " led by Vin Diesel and Paul Walker and thrown to all the cinemas in 2001.

The second delivery was " 2 fast 2 furious " led by Paul Walker y Tyrese Gibson and saw the light in 2003.

The third delivery changed protagonist and The Fast was titled and the furious: Tokyo Drift; led by Lucas Black and thrown to the cinemas in 2006.

The fourth delivery was Fast and Furious 4, led by Vin Diesel, Paul Walker, Michelle RodrĂ­guez and Jordanian Brewster and lance-thrust in 2009.

The fifth delivery is "Fast Five" led by Vin Diesel and Paul Walker. Released in the cinemas in 2011.

The sixth delivery is Fast and Furious 6, led by Vin Diesel and Paul Walker. In her all the actors of the saga take part up to the moment. Released in cinemas in 2013.

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It was becoming " Fast and Furious 7 " and there was foreseen that might be thrown to the cinemas on July 11, 2014, but after the lamentable death of the actor Paul Walker, it is thought to continue or not the filming of the movie. The tragedy took place last November 30, 2013 in Saint Clarita, California, when it was going as co-pilot with the pilot Roger Rhodes when they were from way to an event of charity realized by Reach Out Worldwide for the victims of the typhoon Haiyan in The Philippines. This one is the last photo that is heard of the alive actor, 30 minutes before the accident, riding in the car that he lost his life:

There has become famous the phrase that he said some time ago: “If one day speed kills me, do not cry because I was smiling”

by: Álvaro Antonio Torrubia Martín and Manuel Montosa Sánchez

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La saga ―The Fast & The Furious‖, publicada por Universal Studios y dirigida por Rob Cohen, es una de las series de coches más increíbles de la historia, basada mayormente en el mundo del tunning. Estas películas cuentan con actores como Tyrese Gibson, Vin Diesel, Paul Walker, Michelle Rodríguez, Jordanian Brewster, Lucas Black, entre otros. Comenzaron siendo un grupo de pilotos de carreras callejeras ilegales muy odiados por la policía. La policía al descubrir esta materia prima al volante y los pedales los fueron infiltrando para parar y destruir todo de los mayores traficantes de droga y hombres más buscados del momento. Esta saga ha contado con la participación de algunos de los mejores cantantes del mundo y de su momento como Tego Claderón, Don Omar, Ludacris, Ja Rule, Bow Wow, entre otros. Querían hacer una única película con la que dejar huella para la historia, la lanzaron a todos los cines pero viendo los grandes beneficios que obtuvieron decidieron continuar la saga. Hay diferentes películas pero viéndolas todas desde la primera a la última, puedes descubrir la gran historia que entre todas ellas forman.

La primera entrega fue ―The fast and the furious‖ protagonizada por Vin Diesel y Paul Walker y lanzada a todos los cines en 2001.

La segunda entrega fue ―2 fast 2 furious‖ protagonizada por Paul Walker y Tyrese Gibson y vio la luz en 2003.

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La tercera entrega cambió de protagonista y se tituló The Fast and the furious: Tokyo Drift; protagonizada por Lucas Black y lanzada a los cines en 2006.

La cuarta entrega fue Fast & Furious 4, protagonizada por Vin Diesel, Paul Walker, Michelle Rodríguez y Jordana Brewster y lanzada en 2009.

La quinta entrega es ―Fast Five‖, protagonizada por Vin Diesel y Paul Walker. Lanzada a los cines en 2011.

La sexta entrega es Fast and Furious 6, protagonizada por Vin Diesel y Paul Walker. En ella aparecen todos los actores que han pasado por la saga hasta el momento. Lanzada a los cines en 2013. Se estaba haciendo ―Fast & Furious 7‖ y se preveía que podría ser lanzada a los cines el 11 de julio de 2014, pero tras la lamentable muerte del actor Paul Walker, se está pensando continuar o no el rodaje de la película. La tragedia tuvo lugar el pasado 30 de noviembre de 2013 en Santa Clarita, California, cuando iba como copiloto con el piloto Roger Rodas cuando se encontraban de camino a un evento de caridad realizado por Reach Out Worldwide para las víctimas del tifón Haiyan en Filipinas.

Se ha hecho famosa la frase que el dijo hace tiempo: “Si alguna vez la velocidad me mata, no lloréis porque estuve sonriendo”

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La dieta mediterránea es un tipo de dieta saludable, equilibrada y variada en la cual predominan los alimentos obtenidos de cultivos tradicionales de la zona mediterránea. Los alimentos que constituyen esta dieta son: - Pan y pasta (hidratos de carbono). - Aceite de oliva (grasa). - Vino en pequeñas cantidades durante las comidas. - Las hortalizas, las frutas, los frutos secos y las legumbres aportan a esta dieta fibra y antioxidantes. - El pescado, las aves de corral, los productos lácteos y los huevos como principal fuente de proteínas. La dieta mediterránea como una dieta saludable se descubrió gracias a los estudios realizados a partir de estudios nutricionales en Grecia donde se detectó una incidencia de arteriosclerosis, enfermedades cardiovasculares y enfermedades degenerativas inferior a la media, por lo que la esperanza de vida era mayor. Posteriormente, Ancel Keys realizó un extenso estudio para investigar los hábitos dietéticos de siete países entre los que se encontraban cuatro países no mediterráneos: Estados Unidos, Japón, Finlandia y Holanda, y tres países mediterráneos: Yugoslavia, Italia y Grecia. Con este estudio se observó que los países mediterráneos tenían una dieta con unas características comunes que todos ellos poseían. Debido a la necesidad de esquematizar y de conocer la proporción de cada alimento dentro de una dieta equilibrada surgió la pirámide alimentaria, que nos es muy útil a la hora de seguir esta dieta.. La conclusión que podemos obtener sobre la dieta mediterránea es que es una dieta saludable y equilibrada, y que si la complementamos con paseos al aire libre y actividad física puede ser muy beneficiosa para nuestro propio organismo y también da lugar a unos hábitos de vida saludables. 109


The Mediterranean diet is a type of healthy, balanced and varied diet in which predominate the food got from traditional crops in the mediterranean area. The food that constitute this diet are: - Bread and pasta (carbohydrates). - Olive oil (fat). - Wine in small amounts for the meals. - Vegetables, fruits, dried fruits and legumes provide to this diet fiber and antioxidants. - Fish, poultry, dairy products and eggs as a main source of protein.

The Mediterranean diet as a healthy diet was discovered thank to the studies realized from the nutritional studies in Greece where was detected a incidence of arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and degenerative diseases below the average, so that life expectancy was higher. por debajo de la media. Subsequently, Ancel Keys performed a extense study to investigate the dietetic habits of seven countries including four countries not mediterraneans: United States, Japan, Finland and Holland, and three mediterraneans: Yugoslavia, Italy and Greece. With this study was observed that the Mediterranean countries had a diet with common characteristics they all had. Due to the need to outline and to know the proportion of each food within a balanced diet was the food pyramid, which is very useful to follow a diet. The conclusion we can obtain of the mediterranean diet is that it is an healthy and balanced diet, and that if we complement it with walks in the open air and physical activity can be very beneficial for our own body, and also leads to healthy life habits.

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DROGAS. La verdad sobre las drogas Gracias a investigaciones clínicas y farmacológicas, existen miles de fármacos y drogas que ayudan a las personas. Los antibióticos y las vacunas revolucionaron el tratamiento de las infecciones. Los medicamentos permiten bajar la presión, tratar la diabetes y reducir el rechazo de los órganos trasplantados por parte de nuestro organismo. Los medicamentos pueden curar una enfermedad, hacerla más lenta o prevenirla, lo cual nos ayuda a disfrutar de vidas más sanas y felices. Pero también existen muchas drogas ilegales y nocivas que las personas consumen porque creen que las ayudan a sentirse mejor o pasarla bien. ¿Cómo actúan las drogas? Las drogas son sustancias químicas que modifican el funcionamiento de nuestro organismo. Cuando las introduces dentro del cuerpo (por ingestión, inhalación o inyección), las drogas llegan al torrente sanguíneo y son transportadas a distintas partes del cuerpo, como el cerebro. En el cerebro, las drogas pueden intensificar o adormecer tus sentidos, alterar tu estado de alerta y, en algunos casos, reducir el dolor físico. Las drogas pueden ser útiles o nocivas. Los efectos de las drogas pueden variar según el tipo de droga, la cantidad que se toma, la frecuencia con la que se la usa y la rapidez con la que llega al cerebro; también varían según qué otras drogas, alimentos o sustancias se tomen al mismo tiempo. Los efectos también pueden ser diferentes según la química, la forma y el tamaño del organismo. Si bien las drogas pueden hacerte sentir bien en un primer momento, a la larga pueden provocar un gran daño al organismo y al cerebro. Beber alcohol, fumar tabaco, consumir drogas ilegales e inhalar pegamento son actividades que pueden provocar grave daño al cuerpo humano. Algunas drogas afectan seriamente la capacidad de una persona para tomar decisiones acertadas. Los adolescentes que beben, por ejemplo, tienen más probabilidades de involucrarse en situaciones peligrosas, como conducir bajo los efectos del alcohol o tener relaciones sexuales sin protección.

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El alcohol Efectos y peligros: El alcohol actúa primero como un estimulante y, después, hace que las personas se sientan relajadas y un poco adormecidas. Las dosis elevadas de alcohol afectan seriamente la cordura y la coordinación. Los bebedores pueden arrastrar las palabras al hablar, presentar confusión, depresión, pérdida de la memoria de corto plazo y tiempos de reacción más lentos. Si se beben grandes cantidades de alcohol en un breve período de tiempo, se puede producir una intoxicación etílica.

Medicamentos para la tos y el resfriado Efectos y peligros: 

Las dosis pequeñas ayudan a suprimir la tos, pero si las dosis son mayores, pueden provocar fiebre, confusión, imposibilidad de razonamiento, visión borrosa, mareos, paranoia, exceso de transpiración, dificultad para hablar, náuseas, vómitos, dolor abdominal, frecuencia cardíaca irregular, presión arterial elevada, cefaleas, letargia, adormecimiento de los dedos, enrojecimiento de la cara, sequedad y picazón en la piel, pérdida del conocimiento, convulsiones, daño cerebral e, incluso, la muerte.

A veces, los consumidores toman por error jarabes que, además de dextrometorfano, contienen otros medicamentos. Las dosis elevadas de estos otros medicamentos pueden provocar lesiones graves, como daño hepático, daños u otros efectos negativos en el corazón e incluso la muerte.

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DRUGS. The truth on drugs Thanks to clinical and pharmacological investigations, there exist thousands of medicaments and drugs that help the persons. The antibiotics and the vaccines revolutionized the treatment of the infections. The medicines allow to lower the pressure, to treat the diabetes and to reduce the rejection of the organs transplanted on the part of our organism. The medicines can treat a disease, make her slower or prepare her, which helps us to enjoy healthier and happy lives. But also there exist many illegal and harmful drugs that the persons consume because they believe that they help themselves feel them better or to spend it well.

How do they operate the drugs? The drugs are chemical substances that modify the functioning of our organism. When you introduce them inside the body (for ingestion, inhalation or injection), the drugs come to the blood torrent and are transported to different parts of the body, as the brain. In the brain, the drugs can intensify or lull your senses, to alter your state of alert and, in some cases, to reduce the physical pain.

The drugs can be useful or harmful. The effects of the drugs can change according to the type of drug, the quantity that takes, the frequency with which she is used and the rapidity with the one that comes to the brain; also they change according to what other drugs, food or substances take at the same time. The effects also can be different according to the chemistry, the form and the size of the organism.

Though the drugs can make you feel well in the first moment, eventually they can provoke a great hurt the organism and the brain. To drink alcohol, to smoke tobacco, to consume illegal drugs and to inhale glue are activities that can provoke serious hurt the human body. Some drugs affect seriously the capacity of a person to take guessed right decisions. The teenagers who drink, for example, have more probabilities of interfering in dangerous situations, as driving under the effects of the alcohol or having sexual relations without protection.

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The alcohol Effects and dangers ·The alcohol acts first as a stimulant and, later, it does that the persons feel relaxed and a bit sleepy. ·The high doses of alcohol affect seriously the sanity and the coordination. The drinkers can drag the words on having spoken, having presented confusion, depression, loss of the memory of short term and slower times of reaction. ·If big quantities of alcohol are drunk in a brief period of time, it is possible to produce a poisoning etilica

Medicines for the cough and the cold Effects and dangers: ·The small doses help to suppress the cough, but if the doses are major, can provoke ·Fever, confusion, impossibility of reasoning, blurry vision, motion sicknesses, paranoia, excess of perspiration, difficulty to speak, nauseas, vomits, abdominal pain, cardiac irregular frequency, arterial high pressure, migraines, lethargy, drowsiness of the fingers, reddening of the face, dryness and itch in the skin, loss of the knowledge, convulsions, cerebral and, enclosed hurt, the death. ·Sometimes, the consumers take as a mistake syrups that, besides dextrometorfano, contain other medicines. The high doses of these other medicines can provoke serious injuries, as hepatic hurt, hurts or other negative effects in the heart and even the death.

By: Brenda Rios Plata and Lydia Muñoz Jiménez

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PEANUT ALLERGY TREATMENT “A SUCCESS” Doctors say a potencial treatment for a peanut allergy has transformed the lives of children taking part in a large clinical trial. The 85 children had to eat peanut protein every day initially in small doses, but ramped up during the study. The findings, published in the Lancet, suggest 84% of allergic children could eat the equivalent of five peanuts a day after six months. Experts have warned that the therapy is not yet ready for widespread use. Peanuts are the most common cause of fatal allergic reactions to food.

There is no treatment so the only option for patients is to avoid them completely, leading to a lifetime of checking every food label before a meal. The theory was that patients started at the extremely low dose, well below the threshold for an allergic response.

By Estefanía 3A. 115


TRATAMIENTO DE ALERGÍA DEL CACAHUETE “UN ÉXITO” Los médicos dicen que es un tratamiento potencial para la alergia de cacahuetes que transforma la vida de los niños que tienen que tomar parte en un experimento. El 85 de los niños tienen que comer proteínas de cacahuete todos los días en pequeñas dosis, pero es una rampa hacia arriba. Los hallazgos, publicados en Lancet, sugieren que el 84% de niños con alergia comen el equivalente a cinco cacahuetes al día después de seis meses. Los expertos advierten que la terapia no está extendida aún su uso. Los cacahuetes son la causa más común de las reacciones alérgicas en las comidas. No hay un tratamiento así que la opción sólo para los pacientes es evitarlo completamente. Lo principal es revisar todas las etiquetas de las comidas antes de comerlas.

La teoría de este paciente empieza sumamente bajo dosis buenas debajo del umbral por un alérgico en respuesta.

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Nosotros los adolescentes tendemos a no tener ningún tipo de control sobre cualquier tipo de sustancia, incluyendo el alcohol, tabaco, etc. como droga legal. Lo que en consecuencia hace que su consumo sea irresponsable, abusivo y dañino. Las restricciones legales con respecto al tabaco y al alcohol son positivas pero no evitan el acceso de los adolescentes a estas y a otras drogas peores como cocaína, marihuana, éxtasis, pastillas, etc. En drogas no legales existe un mayor consumo por parte de adolescentes, ya que, al no existir unas normas legales a la hora de acceder a ellas, las personas que las facilitan no tienen problema alguno en vender las cantidades que sea a un menor de la edad que sea. La marihuana, es una de las drogas que menos dependencia física genera, el consumo en un adulto puede ser más fácilmente controlado por el usuario de esta droga, cosa que un adolescente, tiende a no tenerla. Resumiendo, el poco autocontrol, la poca personalidad, conciencia social y personal de un adolescente con su mente aún por formar hace que sea el blanco perfecto para cualquier tipo de droga y que no sepa frenar a tiempo, dejarla o salir de ese mundo. Las drogas, también, cambian o destrozan las relaciones con quien te rodea, pero no todo el mundo se puede enfrentar a esa clase de cosas sin caer en algo peor o sin saber resolver sus problemas en la adolescencia.

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We tend to not have any control over any substance, including alcohol, tobacco, etc. as a legal drug. This consequently makes their consumption irresponsible, abusive and harmful. The legal restrictions on alcohol and tobacco are positive but they do not prevent teenagers from getting these and other drugs which are worse, such as cocaine, marihuana, ecstasy, pills, etc. The illegal drugs have a higher consumption by adolescents because of the absence of legal restraints so that the people who provide them are able to sell whatever amount to underage youths without any trouble.

Marihuana is a drug that generates less physical dependence, consumption in an adult can be controlled more easily by the user, however teenagers tend to lack this selfcontrol. So basically, the little self-control, the little personality, and the social and personal awareness of teenagers with their immature mind make them the perfect target for any drug and they are not able to stop in time or leave out of this world.

Drugs, too, change or destroy relationships that are around you, but not everyone can cope with that sort of thing without being worse without knowing or solve their problems in adolescence.

By Rano Arnold and Irene Ortiz 3ยบ ESO B

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-Effects on General Physical Health Within a few minutes after inhaling marijuana smoke, an individual's heart rate speeds up, the bronchial passages relax and become enlarged, and blood vessels in the eyes expand, making the eyes look red. The heart rate—normally 70 to 80 beats per minute—may increase by 20 to 50 beats per minute, or may even double in some cases. Taking other drugs with marijuana can amplify this effect. Limited evidence suggests that a person's risk of heart attack during the first hour after smoking marijuana is four times his or her usual risk. In addition, marijuana has the potential to promote cancer of the lungs and other parts of the respiratory tract.

-Effects on the Brain As THC ( a component of the marijuana) enters the brain, it causes the user to feel euphoric by acting on the brain's reward system. Along with euphoria, relaxation is another frequently reported effect in human studies. Other effects are heightened sensory perception (brighter colors), laughter, altered perception of time, and increased appetite. After a while, the euphoria subsides, and the user may feel sleepy or depressed. Occasionally, marijuana use may produce anxiety, fear, distrust, or panic. Marijuana use impairs a person's ability to form new memories and to shift focus. THC also disrupts coordination and balanceparts of the brain that regulate balance, posture, coordination, and reaction time. Therefore, learning, doing complicated tasks, participating in athletics, and driving are also affected. 119


-Consequences

of Marijuana Abuse

Acute (present during intoxication) Impairs short-term memory Impairs attention, judgment, and other cognitive functions Impairs coordination and balance Increases heart rate Psychotic episodes

Persistent (lasting longer than intoxication, but may not be permanent)  

Impairs memory and learning skills Sleep impairment

Long-term (cumulative effects of chronic abuse) Can lead to addiction Increases risk of chronic cough, bronchitis Increases risk of schizophrenia in vulnerable individuals May increase risk of anxiety, depression

BY: Pablo Núñez and Mario Román.

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¿Qué es? En medicina, el trasplante es un tratamiento médico complejo que consiste en trasladar órganos, tejidos o células de una persona a otra. El órgano trasplantado reemplaza y asume la función del órgano dañado del receptor, salvándole la vida o mejorando la calidad de vida. Una variedad de órganos macizos y tejidos pueden ser trasplantados, incluyendo riñones, pulmones y corazones. Hay algunos riesgos asociados con este procedimiento que dependen del tipo del trasplante, que frecuentemente incluyen infección y rechazo del injerto. El primer trasplante con éxito de nuestra época registrado fue de córnea en 1905, llevado a cabo por Eduard Zirm. El primero de riñón fue en el Peter Buke Brigham Hospital en 1951 y el primero de corazón se realizó el 3 de Diciembre de 1967.

What is it? In medicine, transplantation is a complex medical treatment that involves moving organs, tissues or cells from one person to another. The transplanted organ replaces and assumes the role of the receptor organ damage, saving his life or improving the quality of life. A variety of solid organs and tissues can be transplanted, including kidneys, lungs and hearts. There are some risks associated with this procedure depending on the type of transplant, which often include infection and graft rejection. The first successful transplantation of our era was stratum registered in 1905, conducted by Eduard Zirm. The first kidney was in the Peter Brigham Hospital Buke in 1951 and the first heart was held on December 3, 1967.

by: Jaime Fortes, Adrian Mostazo, Mostazo Francisco Ortiz and Salvador. 121


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FEAR OF FLYING 111 I was waiting resigned in the queue to enter the plane. I started to feel that terrible familiar oppression that always appeared when I was about to embark on a new trip. I hated having to fly due to work; I always tortured myself thinking that I would end my days crashing with a plane making money for others. They sat in their comfortable leather armchairs, rubbing their hands together each time I closed a new deal. It was no use travelling in first class, although the parades of feasts and flattery had always come in handy to distract me; a pillow over here, a blanket over there… But now, because of the cuts, nearly all flights were economic class. Anyway, I felt used. I knew the flight wouldn’t last more than an hour and a half, but that didn’t calm me down. I thought about the altitude, the wind, the state of the pilots, each and every one of the thousands of factors that could cause a fatality. The affable faces of the check-in staff didn’t calm me down at all. They would stay on the ground and would go to have breakfast as soon as we had taken off. ―What jealousy!‖ I thought. I looked at my ticket and discovered that my seat was 6F ―not bad‖ I thought. From my seat I could keep an eye on how the flight went by; if the faces of the stewardesses changed due to turbulence, if a strange passenger got up to go to the WC, I would control the crying babies that wouldn’t let me sleep even under the effects of sleeping pills; nothing would escape my supervision. As soon as I sat down, I checked the safety belt, went over the emergency measures; one had to be prepared, just in case. I switched off my mobile phone, and checked that the air conditioning vent was working to perfection. I arranged the load of magazines for later: Marie Claire, Vogue, Cosmopolitan, etc. I didn’t really know why I kept buying them when I seldom read them; I only browsed them; barely paying attention to them. Since I had my tablet, I rarely stopped the hammering of my fingers looking for information, looking over balance sheets or reading my favourite author. 124


All passengers went by slowly. I wished that all those people would finally take their seats, and that we would leave the airport as soon as possible. I was very restless. I remembered the short email that my boss had sent: Tomorrow to New York, you have to seal a new deal with the Orientals. Only you can do it, good luck precious. You know I’m counting on you. My mean boss knew I hated flying, and on top of that, the weather forecast showed some signs of a storm during the journey. That’s why he hadn’t even called me by phone. He was already enjoying his ―well earned‖ Christmas holidays; such a hypocritical man! He always repeated that we had to lift the business between everyone, and that in hard times we all had to work harder. But at this time of the year, with two days before New Year’s Eve, my boss was on holiday in his house of the Reunion Island; according to him, it was always summer over there. It wasn’t funny at all; I would freeze to death in snowy New York, inflating his wallet so that he could pay for his cravings. That’s how life was, although I earned my salary well, I couldn’t compare myself with the owner of the multinational. I felt passionate about my job and I nearly always I left with my way. It was something that drove me crazy, especially when my victims were distracted completely. Whenever they saw me coming, they thought I was the typical stupid and plugged blonde that the big boss sent as a last option. After fifteen minutes, they were sweating like pigs and didn’t know where to hide their fake reports and secret accounts; in the end, they would confess, and I managed to get hold of their company in less than two hours; having spare time to walk through the Fifth Avenue and buy some whims. Although because of the weather, I doubted I could do it this time. But inside the plane everything was different. I didn’t feel confident. The security that overflowed on all four sides in an office, evaporated until it consumed me. Then, I was reduced to a tiny and worse version of me: nervous, frantic, angry and scared. Some people called it aerophobia, I called it: a shitty luck! The flight was full to the brim. I had already asked a stewardess in check-in if she could leave the seat next to me empty. She looked at me with a satisfied face and informed that the flight was full. It was clear that this just wasn’t my day, I 125


was going to end the year the same way it had started: in a crowded flight to the big apple. Sat next to me was a couple that didn’t stop cuddling and caressing each other, and although I wasn’t much older than them, I thought that so much embracing was out of order; they were too old for that. I put my headphones on and turned the volume up on my Ipad. I tried to think of something other than the noise of the plane’s engines accelerating for taking off. Then, the documentary about Tibetan bowls used to cure the spirit and the illnesses I had seen on the Discovery Channel the night before while I tried to sleep came to my mind. There was no going back, I really felt like getting up from my seat and shouting at the stewardesses, telling them to stop the machine immediately. Eventually, I succumbed to the inevitable, and I thought about all the planes that would be taking off around the world in those precise moments, and the rare probabilities that it would be my turn…

I remained immobile in my seat for over fifteen minutes. The evening flight had left on time at six o’clock in the morning; so nearly everyone slept in their seats. I lifted to look at the hundreds of heads that jostled slightly to the side to which the plane veered. Nearly all of them were crouched their seats on the shoulders of their companions. I couldn’t see the moment in which the stewardesses passed giving out breakfast, another excuse to distract my attention, and my panic of flying.

I got up from my seat between grunts and hypocritical smiles of the lovers; I needed to go to the bathroom; nerves had stopped me from going to the toilet in the airport, and now, somewhat more relaxed I started to notice a certain pressure in my bladder. 126


When I reached the bathroom, the placard was showing occupied, so I had to wait. After a while, the youngest stewardess pointed out that it was broken. The door didn’t close properly, and I could get locked inside. She suggested me going to the toilet at the tail of the plane. I looked at the never-ending hallway of the Boeing, and I told the lady about my panic of flying. I begged her to let me go in that one, even if I would have to leave the door ajar so it would not close. She doubted for an instant, and before she could answer me, I was already there. The woman put a little bag with some plastic cutlery in the door that now had an ―out of order‖ sign, to avoid it closing and leaving me locked inside. I heard the hustle of breakfast on the adjacent wall, if I was lucky I could get out before the woman appeared with the breakfast tray. When I was about to leave, I remembered that apart from the claustrophobia of the place, there was a tiny sink in which to wash my hands. I was drying them when I heard the laughter of the stewardesses finishing their coffee. Then, like a gust of wind I heard them pass pushing the tray. Unfortunately for me, the narrowness of the path made the food tray drag the fragile plastic cutlery that held the door with it. I heard the light crunch, looked towards the door, and tried to extend my half wet hand, even though I knew it was too late to hold it. The door closed. Suddenly, a sensation of asphyxia seized me. I looked to one side and another trying to find a window that could help me escape that sensation of burden. I turned the door knob in all directions. I jostled it, I shook the door with violence, I pushed it, I pulled it inwards and outwards, but there was no way. Nobody heard me outside; the festive moment of breakfast was on board. I noticed that I was missing air, and that bit by bit everything around me was going fuzzy, —Was I going to faint?—. Finally, I fell sideways, the last thing I thought of, was the stewardess and I hoped she would remember I was still there. Thrown in a tiny washbasin at more than ten thousand metres of height, without medical crew that could attend to me, silence surrounded me. Then, everything went black. (TO BE CONTINUED…) Read more at: www.rafaelalcolea.blogspot.com.es 127


USE THIS MAGAZINE IN CLASS AND TO IMPROVE ENGLISH! ツ。USA ESTA REVISTA EN CLASE Y PARA MEJORAR EL ESPAテ前L!

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AGRADECIMIENTOS

IES ALTA AXARQUÍA CEP VÉLEZ-MÁLAGA CONSEJERÍA DE EDUCACIÓN PROFESORADO IES ALTA AXARQUÍA ALUMNADO IES ALTA AXARQUÍA AUXILIAR CONVERSACIÓN: ERIC

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