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Answer these 10 questions to reveal what kind of Artist you are!

Be Inspired! In this iss ue of AIG A E ye on De sig n we b ri n g t o y o u a n i n t e r a c t i v e p r i n t e d i t i o n o f t h e b e l o v e d B u z z F e e d web sit e. Bas ed o ff of Buz z Fe e d’s in fa mous quiz z e s , t h i s e d i t i o n w i l l e v a l u a t e y o u r p e r s o n a l i t y b a s e d o n a s e r i es o f 10 que st ion s a n d t h e n de t e r min e w h i c h h i s t o r i c a l A r t M o v e m e n t y o u w e r e m e a n t t o c r e a t e f o r !


s t n e t n Co

Quiz 6

4

Questions

3

2

1

Romanticism 8 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 21

Over view Timeline J . M . Tu r n e r William Blake Jean Auguste Ingres F r a n c i s c o G oy a Theodore Gericult Casper David Friedric h Ruc kenf igur John Constable Eugene Delacroix

S u r r e alism 22 24 26 27 28 30 31 32 33 34 35

Over view Timeline Salvador Dali Yv e s Ta n g u y Free Association Max Ernst Joan Miro Marcel Duc hamp Rene Magr itte Man Ray Jean Arp


5

4

De Stijl

Realism

36 38 40 41 42 43 44 48 49 50 51

Over view Timeline Gustave Courbet Jean-Francois Millet Edouard Manet James Whistler Get to Know Realism Ar t John Singer Sargent Thomas Eakins Honore Daumier Rosa Bonheur

6

52 54 56 57 58 60 61 62 63 64 65

Over view Timeline Jan Tschichold Herber t Bayer B a y e r Ty p e f a c e H i g h l i g h t T h e o Va n D o e s b u r g Laszlo Moholy-Nagy Josef Albers Ku r t S c h w i t t e r s William Addison Dwiggins Piet Zwar t

Credits 66 67

Credits Sources

Section 5


B. Sci-fi

C. Documentary

D. Drama

C. peppermints

D. Lifesavers

C. Watch Netflix

D. Make plans with friends

4

B. Nap

36

What’s your favorite thing to do?

B. Bean boozled jelly beans

C:

A. Go hiking

D. Fish

3

A. Box of chocolates

C. Cat

22

What is your favorite type of candy?

B. Monkey

2

What is your ideal pet?

D. Travel? Who has time for that?

B:

A. Dog

C. Europe

1

B. Outer Space

08

A. a resort with your boo

A:

If you could travel anywhere, where would you go?

A. Rom-coms

What is your go-to genre on Netflix?

Ta l l y u p yo u r a n s we r s t h e n t u r n t o t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p a g e # o f t h e a n s we r yo u h a ve t h e m o s t o f !

D: 52

5


A. A teacher

D. Minimal and short

C. fashion designer

D. Business owner

What is your dream job?

C. Sharp and life-like

B. A scientist

B. Vivid and frightening

D. Pay off college loans (barely lol)

C. Thanksgiving

D. New Year’s

A. K-Pop

B. EDM

C. Rap

D. Classical

9

What is your favorite type of music?

B. Halloween

What is your favorite holiday?

C. Shopping spree

8

A. Valentine’s Day

B. Travel

7

A. Give to charity

6

If you won a million dollars, what would you spend it on?

A. Peaceful

When you dream, your dreams are usually…

QU

10

IZ


! t s i c i t n a m o R

1

You are an individual who stands up for what you believe in.

2

You enjoy being present in the moment and reflecting upon fun memories.

3

You tend to be empathetic and feel emotions deeper than others.

sple

nd id

Key Characteristics of the movement • Theme of social justice • Personal experience • Emotional intensity • Pyramid composition • Orientalism/exoticism • Loose brushstrokes • Individuality • The sublime

The Raft of The Medusa Théodore Géricault 1818–1819


Romanticism is precisely situated neither in choice of subject nor in exact truth, but in a way of feeling. –Ch a r l e s Baud e l ai re

At the end of the 18th centur y and well into the 19th, Romanticism quickly spread thro ugho ut Europe an d t h e U n it e d St a t e s to challenge the rational ideal held so tightly during t h e E n l ig h t e n me n t . T h e ar t ist s emphasized that sense and emotions were equally impor t a n t t o re ason a n d orde r a s a means o f und e rst an din g a n d e xp e rie n c in g the world. Romanticism celebrated the individual imagination and intuition in the enduring se arc h for in divid ual rig h t s and liber ty. In many countries, Romantic painters turned their attentio n t o n a t ure an d pl e in air pain t i n g , o r painting o ut of doors. Work s b a se d on c l o s e o bser vatio n of t h e l a n d sc ape as we l l a s t h e s k y and atmosphere elevated landscape painting t o a n e w, m o r e r e s p e c t f u l l e v e l . W h i l e s o m e ar tis ts empha siz e d h uma n s at on e wit h a n d a par t o f natur e , ot h e rs por t raye d n at ure ’s p o w e r and unpredic t abl y, e vok in g a fe e l in g of t h e s ublime, awe mixe d wit h t e rror, in t h e vie w e r.

R o m a n t i c i s m w a s c l o s e l y b o u n d u p wit h t he e m e r g e n c e o f n e w l y f o u n d n a t i o n a lism t ha t s w e p t m a n y c o u n t r i e s a f t e r t h e A m er ica n Revolution. Emphasizing local folklore, t r a d i t i o n s , a n d l a n d s c a p e s , R o m a nt icist s p r o v i d e d t h e v i s u a l i m a g e r y t h a t f u r t her spurred national identity and pride. Romantic painters combined the ideal with t h e p a r t i c u l a r, i m b u i n g t h e i r p a i n t ing s wit h a c a l l t o s p i r i t u a l r e n e w a l t h a t w o u l d usher in a n a g e o f f r e e d o m a n d l i b e r t i e s n ot yet seen. Artists began exploring various emotional a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s a s w e l l a s mo o d s. The preoccupation with the hero and the g e n i u s t r a n s l a t e d t o n e w v i e w s o f t he a r t ist a s a b r i l l i a n t c r e a t o r w h o w a s u n b ur d ened b y academic dictate and tastes.

Tr u e o r f a l s e : B e a u t y e v o k e s t h e d e e p e s t e m o t i o n s .

A : A cco r d i n g t o R o m a n t i c a r t i s t s , t h i s i s f a l s e . T h e r e a r e m a n y w a y s t o e vok e de e p e mot ion a l fe e l in gs. Fear is o n e o f t h e s t r o n g e s t e m o t i o n s , a n d R o m a n t i c a r t i s t s u s e d t h e sub l ime t o e vok e e mot ion s. Romanticism 9


TIMELINE

Romanticism French Revolution 1789

1770

Napolean Invades Egypt, 1798

1785 1801 William Blake Newton

Jaques-Louis David Napolean Crossing the Alps


Antoine Jean Gros Napolean in the Plague House at Jaffa

Thomas Cole The Oxbow

1804 1836

1840 Romanticism 11


Tu r n e r t o o k c l a s s i c a l g e n r e s a n d s c e n e s a n d i n f u s e d them with a new dynamic in painting. He reflected on the increasing importance of individual experience in the era of the Enlightenment, where the perceptions of human beings led to exalted personal moments and sublime interactions with nature. Through this dedication to rendering heightened states of consciousness and being, he helped define the cross-disciplinary artistic movement of Romanticism, setting the stage for later developments in painting subjective experiences that would lead to Impressionism. In some of his later w o r k s e s p e c i a l l y, T u r n e r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e a r r i v a l of the modern era by making the contraptions o f h u m a n i n v e n t i o n p o w e r f u l l y, s o m e t i m e s threateningly present. Striving for greater subjective effects, he ignored and even exploded the precise rendering of details and static scenes that previous generations’ masters and his peers still pursued. Instead he developed

J.M.W. Turner

The S l a ve S hi p 1840

painterly effects to render perceptions from closely obser ved nature, resulting in swirling clouds of varied light and bold arrays of color dabbed in oil. Many of these techniques in paint to evoke sensations of the “Sublime� would become the substance and subject matter of the generation of painters working in Abstract Expressionism. The subjects chosen for many of his paintings e m p h a s i z e d t h e p o w e r o f n a t u r e i n a wa y t ha t ha d no t previously been depicted - making the human figure a n d a l l t h a t c i v i l i z a t i o n h a d b u i l t seem minuscule a nd fragile in comparison.


T he A nci e nt o f D a y s 17 9 4

W i l l i a m B l a ke Although he is still better-known as a poet, Blake provided the template for our contemporar y understanding of what a modern artist is and does. Overlooked by his peers, and sidelined by t h e a c a d e m i c i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i s d a y, h i s w o r k w a s champio ned b y a sma l l , z e a l ous g roup of s u p p o r t e r s . His lack o f c omme rc ial suc c e ss me an t t h at B l a k e l i v e d his lif e in rel a t ive pove r t y, a l ife in t h ral l t o a h i g h l y individual, some t ime s ic on oc l a st ic , imag in a t i v e v i s i o n . Through his prints, paintings, and poems, Blake co ns tru c t e d a myt h ic al un ive rse of a n i n t r i c a c y a n d d e p t h t o m a t c h D a n t e ’ s D i v i n e C o m e d y, b u t w h i c h , l i k e d D a n t e ’s , b o r e t h e i m p r i n t o f co ntempo rar y c ul t ure a n d p ol it ic s. Wh e n B l a k e d i e d , in a s mall house in L on d on in 1 8 2 7 , h e wa s p o o r a n d s o m e w h a t a n o n y m o u s ; t o d a y, w e c a n r e c o g n i z e h i m as a prototype for the avant-garde artists of the later nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

He scorned the contemporar y culture of Enlightenment and industrialization, which stood for a mechanization and intellectual reductivism which he deplored. He felt that imaginative insight was the only way to cast off the veil thrown over reality by rational thought.

IMAGINATION IS THE REAL AND ETERNAL WORLD… Romanticism 13


Wi t h a d a r i n g b l e n d o f t r a d i t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l s e n s u a l i t y, I n g r e s r e - i m a g i n e d C l a s s i c a l and Renaissance sources for 19th centur y tastes. Known for his serpentine line and impeccably rendered illusionistic textures, he experimented with abstracting the body and introducing more exotic and emotionally complex subjects which resulted in harsh criticism. A student in the studio of Jacques Louis David, Ingres found early success winning the coveted Prix de Rome on only his second attempt. While Ingres would always reflect the classical style associated w i t h D a v i d , h e c o m p l i c a t e d h i s m a s t e r ’s l e g a c y b y distorting his figures and in choosing narratives that b r o k e w i t h t h e m o r a l e x e m p l a r s o f h i s t e a c h e r. In pursuit of more beautiful forms and harmonious line, Ingres pushed the abstraction of the body beyond the idealism of the Neoclassical. He abstracted his figures depar ting from plausible construction of t h e body (ex: The Grande Odalisque) to emphasize

Jean-AugusteDominique Ingres

G r a nd e Od a l i sq u e 1814

g r a c e fu l contours and a pleasant visual effect. T h i s n e w level of freedom would encourage other ar tists to take liber ties with the human form, from Renoir (who was reportedly infatuated with Ingres) to the 20th century Surrealists.

YOU CAN ONLY BECOME A GOOD ARTIST BY COPYING THE MASTERS.


T he S l e e p o f R e a so n Pro d u c e s M o nst e r s 17 9 7 – 1 7 9 9

Francisco Goya Goya occupies a unique position within the histor y o f We s t e r n a r t , a n d i s o f t e n c i t e d a s b o t h a n O l d Master and the first truly modern artist. His art e m b o d i e s R o m a n t i c i s m ’s e m p h a s i s o n s u b j e c t i v i t y, imagination, and emotion, characteristics reflected most notably in his prints and later private paintings. At the same time, Goya was an astute observer of the world around him, and his art responded d i r e c t l y t o t h e t u m u l t u o u s e v e n t s o f h i s d a y, f r o m t h e liberations of the Enlightenment, to the suppressions of the Inquisition, to the horrors of war following the Napoleonic invasion.

as contemporar y artists have also drawn inspiration f r o m t h e a r t i s t ’s g r o t e s q u e i m a g e r y a n d s e a r i n g s o c i a l c o m m e n t a r y. G o y a ’s f o r m a l p o r t r a i t s o f t h e S p a n i s h C o u r t a r e painted in a lavish virtuoso style, and highlight the wealth and power of the royal household. On the other hand, the works have been seen to contain v e i l e d , e v e n s l y, c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e i n e f f e c t u a l r u l e r s and their circle.

Both for its inventiveness and its political engagement, G o y a ’s a r t h a d a n e n o r m o u s i m p a c t o n l a t e r modern artists. His unflinching scenes from the Penins ular Wa r pre sag e d t h e work s of P ab l o P i c a s s o in the 20th ce n t ur y, wh il e h is e xpl orat ion o f b i z a r r e and dreamlike subjects in the Caprichos laid the foundation for Surrealists like Salvador Dalí. G o y a ’s i n f l u e n c e e x t e n d s t o t h e 2 1 s t c e n t u r y Romanticism 15


G é r i c a u l t ’s s h o r t c a r e e r h a d a h u g e i m p a c t o n t h e history of modern art and the evolution of French 1 9 t h c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r. H i s r a d i c a l c h o i c e of subjects taken from contemporar y life, his fusion of classical forms with an atmospheric, painterly style, his passion for horses, his attraction to sublime and horrific subjects, and his compassion for the weak and vulnerable in society make him a singularly complex artist, but one who helped set the path for R o m a n t i c i s m ’s e m p h a s i s o n e m o t i o n a n d s u b j e c t i v i t y. His most famous work, The Raft of the Medusa was a watershed moment in the history of modern art, as it married the immediacy of current events and an eyewitness sensibility with the traditional, mo numental for ma t of a g ran d Sal on p a in t i n g . M u c h o f G e r i c a u l t ’s w o r k r e l i e d o n k e e n o b s e r v a t i o n , social awareness and at times a politically engaged view of the world around him. Indeed, a unique combination of realism and raw emotion can be seen in many of his works.

Théodore Géricault

T he C ha r g i ng C ha sse u r 18 1 2

G e r i c a u l t ’s a r t w a s u t t e r l y c o n t e m p o r a r y i n i t s attention to current events and the realities of the human condition. He depicted dramatic scenes from r e a l l i f e o n a m o n u m e n t a l s c a l e a nd fo und insp ir a t io n as a draftsman in the most humble subjects. Though he absorbed the lessons of the Old M a s t e r s , M i c h e l a n g e l o b e i n g p a r t i cula r ly imp o r t a nt , G é r i c a u l t ’s u s e o f b r i s k , e n e r g e t i c b r u s h s t r o k e s a n d contrasting light effects created atmospheric scenes which broke free from the refined Neoclassical style of painting.


Wa nd e r e r a b o ve t he S e a o f Fo g 1818

Caspar David Friedrich Seeking to capture an experience of the infinite, Caspar David Friedrich composed works that directly confronted the viewer with the awesome. Friedrich took the genre of landscape painting, traditionally considered unimportant, and infused it w i t h deep religious a n d spirit ua l sig n ific a n c e . H e b e l i e v e d that the maje st y of t h e n at ura l worl d c oul d o n l y r e f l e c t the magnificence of God. F r i e d r i c h ’s m o o d y l a n d s c a p e s c r e a t e a n e m o t i o n a l connection with the viewer and thrusts them into the wilds of nature. This integration of spiritual significance with landscape painting made him a popular success. He stated his work never simply r e p l i c a t e d a v i e w, b u t r a t h e r p r o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o n t e m p l a t e G o d ’s p r e s e n c e i n t h e w o r l d . U s i n g d r a m a t i c p e r s p e c t i v e s a n d m i s t y, u n t a m e d e x p a n s e s that dwar f ed an y fig ure s, Frie dric h e n c our a g e d t h e viewer to accept the awesome power of nature as evidence of a divine spirit.

The term “Rückenfigur,” which describes paintings where a figure is facing a w a y f r o m t h e v i e w e r, were popularized by Romantic ar tists such as Friedrich.

More about Rückenfigurs

Romanticism 17


Monk by t he S e a

1809

W h e n y o u v i e w a Rückenfigur w h i c h d o y o u n o t i c e / enjoy more: the scenery or the person? Look over this page and ponder it for a second… If you had trouble choosing, you are not alone! The p r e m i s e o f t h e Rückenfigur is to make you, t h e v i e w e r, contemplate not only the awesome sublime power of n a t u r e , b u t a l s o h u m a n i t y ’s r o l e a n d p l a c e i n r e l a t i o n t o n a t u r e . Yo u s h o u l d b e d r a w n t o b e p l a c e d p h y s i c a l l y a n d e m o t i o n a l l y i n t h e s h o e s o f t h e f i g u r e . What are they feeling? What are they thinking? The viewer gets the unique experience of enjoying the scener y through the figure’s eyes, exploring their personal perspective and experience; a ver y Romantic way of experiencing ar t and ultimately the world.

Yo u r f r i e n d s o n I n s t a g r a m , a n d m o r e t h a n l i k e l y y o u y o u r s e l f h a v e s o m e t h i n g t o o w e t o F r i e d r i c h a n d t h e R ü c k e n f i g u r. W h i l e F r e d r i c h was not the first person to utilize this composition, he did help to popularize it through his works such as Monk by the Sea (below), Wo m a n a t a Wi n d o w , M a n a n d Wo m a n C o n t e m p l a t i n g t h e M o o n , and Moonrise over the Sea. This composition now appears on book c o v e r s , m o v i e p o s t e r s , I n s t a g r a m f e e d s , T. V. c o m m e r c i a l s , t h e l i s t goes on; what makes it so appealing and successful?


I have to stay alone in order to fully contemplate and feel nature. The painter should paint not only what he has in front of him, but also what he sees inside himself. –Cas p ar Da v i d Fr i e d r i c h

Romanticism 19


Constable revolutionized landscape painting of t h e 19th centur y and his paintings had a profound and far-reaching effect on European art. He moved away from the highly idealized landscapes that were the expected norm of the period, and is most clearly remembered for his bucolic images painted in and a r o u n d t h e S t o u r Va l l e y b u t h e a l s o p r o d u c e d o v e r 1 0 0 portraits and a huge number of preparator y sketches often completed in oil. Although his sketches are considerably more impressionistic and less detailed than his disp l a y c a n vase s h is ove ral l aim r e m a i n e d t h e same regardless of medium and technique - to depict the scenery that he saw in a truthful and realistic m a n n e r. H e w a s f a s c i n a t e d b y c h a n g i n g p a t t e r n s of clouds, weather and light and sought to capture these moments. A pioneering advocate of realistic depictions of the natural world, Constable worked with large, lo o se brushs t rok e s t o c re a t e e xpre ssive re p r e s e n t a t i o n s which depicted an overall sense of what he saw rather

John Constable

Th e H a y Wa i n 1821

20

than fine details. His sketches can be seen as an early precursor to the work of the Impressionists t h i r t y y e a r s l a t e r.

PAINTING IS BUT ANOTHER WORD FOR FEELING.


L i b e r t y Le a d i ng t he Pe o p l e 18 1 8

Eugène Delacroix Delacroix is widely regarded as the leader of the Romantic movement in 19th-century French art. H i s l i f e a n d w o r k e m b o d i e d t h e m o v e m e n t ’s c o n c e r n for emotion, exoticism, and the sublime, and his painting style was in direct contrast to the cool and controlled delineations of his peer and rival Ingres. Delacroix eschewed academic conventions in his cho ice o f s ub je c t s, fa vorin g sc e n e s from c o n t e m p o r a r y histo r y rende re d on a l arg e sc al e in t h e mo s t d r a m a t i c of fashions, with visibly energized brushwork and d y n a m i c f i g u r a l c o m p o s i t i o n s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y, m a n y o f his works were based on direct obser vation of nature, which he then combined with a narrative imagination, not surprising given his intimacy with many of the most f a m o u s w r i t e r s o f h i s d a y.

such as Death of Sardanapalus and Massacre a t Chios. These works signaled a new direction in modern art, one that emphasized emotional content a b o v e o r d e r a n d r a t i o n a l i t y. D e l a c r o i x ’ s a n i m a l p a i n t i n g s e m b o d y R o m a n t i c i s m ’s l o v e o f a ll t hing s wild and untamed. He based these works on studies he m a d e i n P a r i s ’s J a r d i n d e s P l a n t e s , a n d d r a w i n g s h e made of domestic house cats.

M a n y o f D e l a c r o i x ’s S a l o n p a i n t i n g s d e p i c t e d d r a m a t i c scenes drawn from contemporary history as well as literature. S o me of t h e subje c t s we re sh oc k i n g f o r t h e i r v io lence and un a b a sh e d por t ra ya l of h uma n s u f f e r i n g , Romanticism 21


a e r r Su

1 2 3

Your best ideas come to you in your dreams.

! t lis Key Characteristics of the movement • Exploration of the unconscious mind • Intrest in Psychology • Importance of dreams • Reliance on chance • Love for the bizarre • Free association • Metamorphosis

You believe there is no such thing as a mistake.

You are extremely imaginative. The Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory Salvador Dali 1954


Surrealism is destructive, but it destroys only what it considers to be shackles limiting our vision. – A nd re Bre t o n

The Surrealists sought to channel the unconscious as a means to unlock the power of the imagination. Disdaining rationalism and literary realism, and powerfully influenced by psychoanalysis, the Surrealists believed the rational mind repressed the power of the imagination, weighing it down with taboos. Influenced also by Karl Mar x, they hoped that the psyche had the power to reveal the contradictions in the ever yday world and spur on revolution. Their emphasis on the power of personal imagination puts them in the tradition of Romanticism, but unlike their forebears, they believed that revelations could be found on the street and in ever yday life. The Surrealist impulse to tap the unconscious mind, and their interests in myth and primitivism, went on to shape many later movements, and the style remains i n f l u e n t i a l t o t h i s t o d a y.

André Breton defined Surrealism as “psychic automatism in its pure state, by which one proposes to express the actual functioning of thought.” What Breton is proposing is that artists bypass reason and rationality by accessing their unconscious mind. In practice, these techniques became known as automatism or automatic writing, which allowed artists to forgo conscious thought and embrace chance when creating art. The work of Sigmund Freud was profoundly influential for Surrealists, particularly his book, The Interpretation of Dreams (1899). Freud legitimized the importance of dreams and the unconscious as valid revelations of human emotion and desires; his exposure of the complex and repressed inner worlds of s e x u a l i t y, d e s i r e , a n d v i o l e n c e p r o v i d e d a theoretical basis for much of Surrealism.

Tr u e o r f a l s e : Yo u c a n a c c e s s y o u r u n c o n s c i o u s m i n d .

A : A cco r d i n g t o S u r r e a l i s t a r t i s t , S a l v a d o r D a l i , t h i s s t a t e m e n t i s t r u e . Da l i b e l ie ve d h e c oul d t a p into his unco nscio us u s i n g a t e c h n i q u e c a l l e d f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n . T h i s i s t h e m e n t a l p roc e ss by wh ic h on e word or image may s p o n t a n e o u s l y s u g g e s t a n o t h e r w i t h o u t a n y a p p a re n t c on n e c t ion . Surrealism 23


TIMELINE

Surrealism

1920

The Great Depression 1929

1928 1930

RenĂŠ Magritte The False Mirror

Jean Arp Not Far From the Sun


Max Ernst The Entire City

Salvador Dali The Elephants

1935 1948

World War II 1945

1950 Surrealism 25


Salvador Dalí is among the most versatile and prolific artists of the 20th century and the most famous Surrealist. Though chiefly remembered for his painterly output, in the course of his long career he successfully turned to sculpture, printmaking, fashion, advertising, w r i t i n g , a n d , p e r h a p s m o s t f a m o u s l y, f i l m m a k i n g i n h i s collaborations with Luis Buñuel and Alfred Hitchcock. Dalí was ren own e d for h is fl amb oya n t pe r s o n a l i t y a n d role of mischievous provocateur as much as for his u n d e n i a b l e t e c h n i c a l v i r t u o s i t y. I n h i s e a r l y u s e o f o rganic morph ol og y, h is work be ars t h e s t a m p of fellow Spaniards Pablo Picasso and Joan Miró. His paintings also evince a fascination for Classical and Renaissance art. Freudian theor y underpins Dalí’s a t t e m p t s a t f o r g i n g a v i s u a l l a n g u a g e capable of rendering his dreams and hallucinations. These account for some of the iconic and now ubiquitous images through which Dalí achieved tremendous fame during his lifetime and beyond.

Salvador Dalí

Sleep 1937

26

I DON’T DO DRUGS. I AM DRUGS.


D e ux f o i s d u n o i r 1941

Yves Tanguy Yv e s Ta n g u y w a s i n m a n y r e s p e c t s t h e q u i n t e s s e n t i a l Surrealist. A sociable eccentric who ate spiders as a party trick, and a close friend of Andre Breton, Tanguy was b e st - k n own for h is missh a p e n r o c k s a n d mo lten s ur fa c e s t h at l e n t d e fin it ion t o t h e S u r r e a l i s t aesthetic. Self-taught but enormously skilled, Ta n g u y p a i n t e d a h y p e r - r e a l w o r l d w i t h e x a c t i n g precision. His landscapes, a high-octane blend of fact and fiction, captured the attention of important artists and thinkers from Salvador Dalí to Mark Rothko who admitted their debt to the older artist. And even Carl Gustav Jung used a canvas by Ta n g u y t o i l l u s t r a t e h i s t h e o r y o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e u n c o n s c i o u s . Ta n g u y ’s s y m b o l i s m i s p e r s o n a l , r e f l e c t i n g h i s o b s e s s i o n w i t h c h i l d h o o d m e m o r y, dreams, hallucinations and psychotic episodes. It def ies ex p l ic it in t e rpre t at ion , an d e vok e s a r a n g e o f ass o ciatio n s t h a t e n g ag e t h e vie we r’s im a g i n a t i o n and emotions.

Ta n g u y ’s l a n d s c a p e s s t r i k e a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n r e a l i s m a n d f a n t a s y. N a t u r a l i s t i c a l l y - d e p i c t e d o b j e c t s h o v e r i n g m i d a i r, o r d r i f t t o w a r d t h e s k y. Masterful manipulations of scale and perspective, a n d k e e n o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e n a t u ra l wo r ld co nt r ib ut e to the hallucinator y effect of his scenes. His bizarre rock formations were most likely inspired by the t e r r a i n o f B r i t t a n y, w h e r e h i s m o t h e r l i v e d .

Section 27


Freud & Free Association Without the invention of Psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud, Surrealism never w o u l d h a v e h a p p e n e d . F r e u d ’s t h e r a p e u t i c t e c h n i q u e c a l l e d F r e e A s s o c i a t i o n was used by the surrealist artists to access their unconscious minds and extract the images they would paint. Andre Breton, founder of the Movement, defines Surrealism as expression of thought without the control of reason. Free association is the uncensored flow of thought from one thing to the next. Surrealism began as a movement that sought to project its members’ “free associations” into the realm of art.


Y R T ! IT

Play the Game The Surrealists would play a free association game t hey called “Exq uisite Cor pse.” Eac h par ticipant takes t u r n s w r i t i n g o r d r a w i n g o n a s h e e t o f p a p e r, f o l d s i t to conceal his or her contribution, then passes it to t he next player f or a fur t her contr ibution.

The mind is like an iceberg, i t f loa ts wi t h one - sevent h of i ts bulk above wa ter. –Sigmund Freud

Surrealism 29


G e r m a n - b o r n M a x E r n s t w a s a p r o v o c a t e u r, a shocking and innovative artist who mined his unconscious for dreamlike imagery that mocked s o c i a l c o n v e n t i o n s . A s o l d i e r i n Wo r l d Wa r I , Ernst emerged deeply traumatized and highly critical of western culture. These charged sentiments directly fed into his vision of the modern world as irrational, an idea that became the basis of his artwork. E r n s t ’s a r t i s t i c v i s i o n , a l o n g w i t h h i s h u m o r a n d verve come through strongly in his Dada and Surrealists works; two movements in which Ernst w a s a p i o n e e r. S p e n d i n g t h e m a j o r i t y o f h i s l i f e i n France, during WWII Ernst was categorized as an “enemy alien”; the United States government affixed the same label when Ernst arrived as a refugee. In later life, in addition to his prolific outpouring o f p a i n t i n g s , s c u l p t u r e , a n d w o r k s - o n - p a p e r, Ernst devoted much of his time to playing and studying chess which he revered as an art form. His work with the unconscious, his social c o m m e n t a r y, a n d b r o a d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n b o t h

Max Ernst

M o n u m e n t a ux o i s e a ux 19 27

subject and technique remain influential. Max Ernst attacked the conventions and traditions of art, all the w h i l e p o s s e s s i n g a t h o r o u g h k n o w led g e o f Eur o p ea n a r t h i s t o r y. H e q u e s t i o n e d t h e s a n c t i t y o f a r t b y c r e a t i n g n o n - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l w o r k s w i t h o u t c l e a r narratives, by making sport of religious icons, and by formulating new means of creating artworks to express the modern condition. Ernst was profoundly interested in the art of the mentally ill as a means to access primal emotion a n d u n f e t t e r e d c r e a t i v i t y.


Winds of the Night 194 0

Joan Miró E a r l y i n h i s c a r e e r, M i r ó p r i m a r i l y p a i n t e d s t i l l - l i f e s , landscapes, and genre scenes. Influences ranging from the folk art and Romanesque church frescoes of his native Catalan region in Spain to 17thcentury Dutch realism were eventually superseded by more contemporary ones: Fauvism, Cubism, and Surrealism captivated the young artist, who had relocated to Paris in 1921. His exposure t o t h e i d e a s o f A n d r é B r e t o n a n d B r e t o n ’s S u r r e a l i s t circle prompted Miró to make radical changes to his style, although the artist cannot be said to have identified consistently with a single school. R a t h e r, h i s a r t i s t i c c a r e e r m a y b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d as one of persistent experimentation and a l i f e l o n g f l i r t a t i o n w i t h n o n - o b j e c t i v i t y. M i r ó ’ s signature biomorphic forms, geometric shapes, and semi-abstracted objects are expressed in multiple media, f r o m c e r a m i c s a n d e n g r a v i n g s to large bronze installations.

Conducting his own Surrealism-inspired exploration, Miró invented a new kind of pictorial space in w h i c h c a r e f u l l y r e n d e r e d o b j e c t s i s suing st r ict ly fr o m t h e a r t i s t ’s i m a g i n a t i o n a r e j u x t a p o s e d w i t h b a s i c , recognizable forms - a sickle moon, a simplified dog, a l a d d e r. T h e r e i s t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e y h a v e a l w a y s coexisted both in the material realm and in the s h a l l o w p i c t o r i a l s p a c e o f M i r ó ’s ar t . Mir ó ’s a r t nev er became fully non-objective. Rather than resorting to complete abstraction, the artist devoted his career to exploring various means by which to dismantle t r a d i t i o n a l p r e c e p t s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . M i r ó ’s r a d i c a l , inventive style was a critical contributor in the early20th-centur y avant-garde journey toward increasing and then complete abstraction.

Surrealism 31


D u c h a m p ’s o n g o i n g p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e mechanisms of desire and human sexuality as well as his f o ndnes s for word p l ay al ig n s h is work w i t h t h a t o f S urrealist s, a l t h oug h h e st e adfa st l y re fus e d t o b e aff iliated wit h an y sp e c ific ar t ist ic move me n t . I n h i s insistence that art should be driven by ideas above all, Duchamp is g e n e ral l y c on side re d t o be t h e f a t h e r of Conceptual art. His refusal to follow a conventional artistic path, matched o nly by a h orror of re p e t it ion wh i c h a c c o u n t s for the relatively small number of works Duchamp pro duced in t h e sp a n of h is sh or t c a re e r, u l t i m a t e l y l e d to his withdrawal from the art world. In later years, Duchamp famously spent his time playing chess, even as he labored away in secret at his last enigmatic ma st e rpie c e , wh ic h was on l y un v e i l e d a f t e r his death. Coined by Duchamp, the term “ready-made” came to designate mass-produced ever yday objects taken out of their usual context and promoted to the status of artworks by the mere choice of the artist.

Marcel Duchamp

L . H . O. O. Q . 1919

The ready-made had far-reaching implications for what can legitimately be considered an object of art being as it was as much a per formative act a s i t w a s a s t y l i s t i c c a t e g o r y. D u c h a m p r e j e c t e d t h e p u r e l y v i s u a l , o r w h a t h e d u b b e d a s “retinal p l e a s u r e , ” d e e m i n g i t t o b e f a c i l e , a nd r ep la ced it with more intellectual, concept-driven approaches to art-making and viewing. He remained committed to the study of perspective and optics which underpins his experiments with kinetic devices, reflecting an ongoing concern with the representation of motion and machines common to Futurist and Surrealist artists of the time.

T h e t i t l e o f t h e p a i n t i n g b e l o w, L.H.O.O.Q., sounds out the French sentence: “She has a hot a r s e . ” T h i s i s D u c h a m p ’s s a t i r i c a l criticism on the mass-produced tourist icon the Mona Lisa.


Winds of the Night 194 0

Rene Magritte Surely the most celebrated Belgian artist of the 20th c e n t u r y, R e n ĂŠ M a g r i t t e h a s a c h i e v e d g r e a t p o p u l a r acclaim for his idiosyncratic approach to Surrealism. To s u p p o r t h i m s e l f h e s p e n t m a n y y e a r s w o r k i n g a s a commercial artist, producing advertising and book designs, and this most likely shaped his fine art which often has the abbreviated impact of an advertisement. While some French Surrealists led ostentatious lives, Magritte preferred the quiet anonymity of a middle-class existence, a life symbolized by the bowler-hatted men that often po pulate his p ic t ure s. In l a t e r ye a rs, h e wa s c a s t i g a t e d by his peers for some of his strategies, such as his tendency to produce multiple copies of images, h o w e v e r, s i n c e h i s d e a t h h i s r e p u t a t i o n h a s b e e n o n the rise. Conceptual ar tists have admired his use of text in images, and painters in the 1980s admired t h e provocative kitsch of some of his later work. Magritte wished to cultivate an approach that avoided the stylistic distractions of most modern painting.

While some French Surrealists experimented with new techniques, Magritte settled on a deadpan, illustrative technique that clearly articulated the c o n t e n t o f h i s p i c t u r e s . R e p e t i t i o n wa s a n imp o r t a nt strategy for Magritte, informing not only his h a n d l i n g o f m o t i f s w i t h i n i n d i v i d u al p ict ur es, b ut a lso e n c o u r a g i n g h i m t o p r o d u c e m u l t i p le co p ies o f so me of his greatest works. His interest in the idea may have come in part from Freudian psychoanalysis, f o r w h i c h r e p e t i t i o n i s a s i g n o f t r a uma . B ut his wo r k in commercial art may have also played a role in p r o m p t i n g h i m t o q u e s t i o n t h e c o n v ent io na l mo d er nist belief in the unique, original work of art.

Surrealism 33


M a n R a y ’s c a r e e r i s d i s t i n c t i v e a b o v e a l l f o r t h e success he achieved in both the United States and Europe. First maturing in the center of American modernism in the 1910s, he made Paris his home in the 1920s and 1930s, and in the 1940s he crossed the Atlantic on c e a g a in , sp e n d in g pe riods i n Ne w Yo r k and Hollywood. His art spanned painting, sculpture, f i l m , p r i n t s a n d p o e t r y, a n d i n h i s l o n g c a r e e r h e wo rked in s tyl e s in fl ue n c e d by C ub ism, Fut u r i s m , D a d a and Surrealism. He also successfully navigated the worlds of commercial and fine art, and came to be a s o u g h t - a f t e r f a s h i o n p h o t o g r a p h e r. H e i s p e r h a p s most remembered for his photographs of the inter-war years, in particular the camera-less pictures he called ‘Rayographs’, but he always regarded himself first a n d f o r e m o s t a s a p a i n t e r.

Man Ray

G l a ss Te a rs 1932

ALL CRITICS SHOULD BE ASSASSINATED.


G r ow t h 1938

Jean Arp Regarded as one of the most versatile artists o f t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y, J e a n A r p was associated with both Dada and Surrealism. He expressed himself in sculptures, paintings, drawings, collages and poems. He is best known for his sculptures characterized by wavy lines that he often referred to as the organic abstraction. Aiming to mi n imiz e t h e in t e r ve n t ion of t h e c o n s c i o u s mind, he embraced a chance and spontaneity as integral components of the artistic process. Although his work was non-representational, it was firmly rooted in nature. As a co-founder of the Dada movement, his organically-inspired sculptures in the first Surrealist exhibition in 1925, played an integral role in linking the two movements, at the same time shaping the future of Surrealism. Something of a oneman movement, Jean Arp could make anything into art. His approach to form, often referred to as organic abstraction, was remarkably consistent: his wavy lines suggested plants, body parts and other natural

motifs, while remaining entirely abstract. Like an extraterrestrial on earth for the very first time, A r p ’s g e n i u s w a s i n p r e s e n t i n g v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n a s i f h e i s f i r s t s e e i n g i t . Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n , g r o w t h , f e c u n d i t y, a n d m e t a m o r p h o s i s a r e a mo ng t he d o mina nt t h e m e s i n h i s w o r k . A r p ’s w o r k i s no n- r ep r esent a t io na l, yet firmly rooted in nature. This keeps the viewer curious, and provides a consistent framework for satisfying the eye. One of the first artists to make randomness and chance part of the work, Arp saw chance as a collaborator in his process. This was a game-changer in the visual arts. Until then, We s t e r n a r t i s t s h a d s t r i v e n f o r a s k i l l e d l e v e l of control.

Surrealism 35


omg

! t s i l a e R

1

You do not take crap from anyone, no matter what.

2 3

Key Characteristics of the movement • Wo r k i n g e n p l e i n a i r • Brutal reality in place of the heroic and ideal • Depictions of ever yday people and mundane tasks • Wa r m e r c o l o r a n d h u e s • “ A r t f o r a r t ’s s a k e ”

You are very straight forward in all aspects of your life.

You do not mind doing everyday tasks. The Stone Breakers Gustave Corbet 1849


True realism consists in revealing the surprising things which habit keeps covered and prevents us from seeing. – J e an C oc t e a u

Tho ugh nev er a c oh e re n t g roup, Re a l ism is reco gnized a s t h e first mod e r n move me n t in art, which rejected traditional forms of art, literature, and soc ia l org a n iz at ion as out m o d e d in the wake of the Enlightenment and the Industrial Rev ol ut ion . Be g in n in g in Fra n c e i n the 1840s , Re al ism re vol ut ion iz e d p a in t in g , ex panding co n c e pt ion s of wh at c on st it ut e d a r t . Wo rking in a c h aot ic e ra mark e d b y re vol u t i o n and widespre ad soc ial c h a n g e , Re al ist pain t e r s replaced the idealistic images and literar y co nceits o f tr adit ion a l ar t wit h re al - l ife e ve n t s , giving the margins of society similar weight to grand history paintings and allegories. Their cho ice t o b rin g e ve r yd a y l ife in t o t h e i r canvases was an early manifestation of t h e av ant-garde de sire t o me rg e ar t a n d l if e , and their rejection of pictorial techniques, like perspect ive , pre fig ure d t h e ma n y 2 0 t h century definitions and redefinitions o f mo der nis m. Realism is broa d l y c on side re d t h e be g in n ing o f mo der n ar t. L it e ra l l y, t h is is due t o it s c on v i c t i o n that ever yday life and the modern world were suitable s ubje c t s for ar t . P h il osoph ic a l l y Re a l i s m

e m b r a c e d t h e p r o g r e s s i v e a i m s o f mo d er nism, s e e k i n g n e w t r u t h s t h r o u g h t h e r e e x a mina t io n a n d o v e r t u r n i n g o f t r a d i t i o n a l s y s t ems o f v a lues a n d b e l i e f s . R e a l i s m c o n c e r n e d i t s elf wit h ho w l i f e w a s s t r u c t u r e d s o c i a l l y, e c o n o m i c a l l y, p o l i t i c a l l y, a n d c u l t u r a l l y i n t h e m i d - 1 9 t h centur y. This led to unflinching sometimes “ugly” p o r t r a y a l s o f l i f e ’s u n p l e a s a n t m o m ent s a nd t he u s e o f d a r k , e a r t h y p a l e t t e s t h a t c o nfr o nt ed hig h a r t ’s u l t i m a t e i d e a l s o f b e a u t y. R e a lism wa s t he f i r s t e x p l i c i t l y a n t i - i n s t i t u t i o n a l , n o nco nfo r mist a r t m o v e m e n t . R e a l i s t p a i n t e r s t o o k a im a t t he s o c i a l m o r e s a n d v a l u e s o f t h e b o u r g eo isie a nd m o n a r c h y u p o n w h o p a t r o n i z e d t h e a r t ma r ket . T h o u g h t h e y c o n t i n u e d s u b m i t t i n g wo r ks t o t he S a l o n s o f t h e o f f i c i a l A c a d e m y o f A r t , t hey wer e n o t a b o v e m o u n t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t e xhib it io ns t o d e f i a n t l y s h o w t h e i r w o r k . F o l l o wing t he e x p l o s i o n o f n e w s p a p e r p r i n t i n g a nd ma ss m e d i a i n t h e w a k e o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l Rev o lut io n, R e a l i s m b r o u g h t i n a n e w c o n c e p t i o n o f t he a r t i s t a s s e l f - p u b l i c i s t . G u s t a v e C o u r b et , É d o u a r d M a n e t , a n d o t h e r s p u r p o s efully co ur t ed c o n t r o v e r s y a n d u s e d t h e m e d i a t o enha nce t h e i r c e l e b r i t y i n a m a n n e r t h a t c o nt inues a mo ng a r t i s t s t o t h i s d a y.

Tr u e o r f a l s e : The most famous art from the Realism movement was in the form of sculpture and architecture.

A : F a lse. T h e m o s t f a m o u s w o r k s t h a t c a m e f r o m t h e R e a l i s m a r t m o v e me n t a re t h ose in t h e for m of p aintings. Co nt inue t h r o u g h t h e R e a l i s m s e c t i o n t o l e a r n m o r e a b o u t s o m e o f t h e s e p a in t in g s a n d t h e ar t ist s b e h ind them! Realism 37


TIMELINE Realism

1840

Second Napoleonic Empire begins 1852

1849 1863

Gustave Corbet A Burial at Ornans

Edouard Manet Olympia


Gustave Corbet The Source of the Loue

Edouard Manet Portrait of Emile Zola

1864 1868

American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals 1861

1880 Realism 39


Gustave Courbet was central to the emergence o f R e a l i s m i n t h e m i d - 1 9 t h c e n t u r y. R e j e c t i n g t h e c l a s s i c a l a n d t h e a t r i c a l s t y l e s o f t h e F r e n c h A c a d e m y, his art insisted on the physical reality of the objects he observed - even if that reality was plain and blemished. A committed Republican, he also saw his Realism as a means to champion the peasants and countr y folk from his home town. He has long been famous for his response to the political upheavals which gripped France in his lifetime, and he would die in exile in Switzerland when he was found responsible f o r t h e c o s t o f r e b u i l d i n g o f P a r i s ’ Ve n d o m e C o l u m n . M o r e r e c e n t l y, h o w e v e r, h i s t o r i a n s h a v e a l s o s e e n h i s work as an important prelude to other artists of early modernism such as Édouard Manet and Claude Monet. C o u r b e t ’s R e a l i s m c a n b e u n d e r s t o o d a s p a r t o f t h e wider inquir y into the physical world that occupied s c i e n c e i n t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y. B u t i n h i s o w n r e a l m o f art, he was most inspired by his distaste for strictures o f t h e F r e n c h A c a d e m y. H e r e j e c t e d C l a s s i c a l a n d

Gustave Courbet

Th e B a t h e rs 1853

Romantic treatments and instead took humble scenes of countr y life - subjects usually considered the stuff of minor genre painting - and made them material for great histor y painting. For this he gained huge n o t o r i e t y. I n t h e p r o c e s s o f c l e a r i n g a w a y t h e rhetoric of Academy painting, Courbet often settled on compositions that seemed assembled and crude to prevailing sensibilities. At times he also abandoned careful modeling in favor of applying paint thickly in broken flecks and slabs. Such stylistic innovations made him greatly admired by later modernists that promoted liberated compositions and amplified surface texture.


T h e G l e a n e rs 1857

Jean-François Millet French painter Jean-François Millet, whose humble manner of living stands in stark contrast to the impact his work had on many artists, saw Godliness a n d v i r t u e i n p h y s i c a l l a b o r. B e s t k n o w n f o r h i s paintings of peasants toiling in rural landscapes and the religious sub-texts that often accompanied them, turned his back on the academic style of his early artistic education and cofounded the Barbizon school n e a r F o n t a i n e b l e a u i n N o r m a n d y, F r a n c e w i t h f e l l o w artist Théodore Rousseau. Millet saw his share of successes and failures with both critics and the public. People were deeply class c o n s c i o u s a m i d F r a n c e ’s p o l i t i c a l l y v o l a t i l e c l i m a t e and perceived with suspicion anyone celebrating the ‘nobility’ of the peasant-class. Regardless of his personal convictions, his use of Naturalism, and his un-romanticized imagery he laid a foundation for later modern movements in art, and he was later highly regarded within the art world. His practice impacted markedly the methods of many later painters,

photographers, and writers who saw Millet as an i n s p i r a t i o n , m e n t o r, a n d f r i e n d . While most artists of the Barbizon school concentrated o n l a n d s c a p e s p a i n t e d e n p l e i n a i r, M i l l e t p r e f e r r e d to depict the life of ceaseless toil required of the peasant class, a social stratum for which he had great respect. He saw himself as being thoroughly of the peasant class, stating his discomfort in the drawing rooms of the upper classes, and thus resolved to paint o n l y t h a t w h i c h h e k n e w b e s t . M i l l e t ’s l a t e r w o r k s e x h i b i t i n g l o o s e r, m o r e g e s t u r a l b r u s h w o r k , s h o w a freer exchange with non-academic painters such as Impressionists Claude Monet and Andres de Santa Maria also inspiring Georges Seurat, Vincent van G o g h , a n d S a l v a d o r D a l í . Va n G o g h , i n p a r t i c u l a r f o u n d a g r e a t d e a l o f i n s p i r a t i o n i n M i l l e t ’s s t y l e a n d s u b j e c t m a t t e r, b e i n g d r a w n t o h i s i m a g e s o f s i m p l i c i t y in the rural life of farmers.

Realism 41


Édouard Manet was the most important and influential a r t i s t t o h a v e h e e d e d p o e t C h a r l e s B a u d e l a i r e ’s c a l l t o artists to become painters of modern life. Manet had an upper-class upbringing, but also led a bohemian life, and was driven to scandalize the French Salon public with his disregard for academic conventions and his strikingly modern images of urban life. He has long been associated with the Impressionists as he was an important influence on them and he l e a r n e d m u c h f r o m t h e m h i m s e l f . H o w e v e r, i n r e c e n t y ears critics h a ve ac k n owl e d g e d t h at h e a l s o l e a r n e d from the Realism and Naturalism of his French co ntempo rarie s, a n d e ve n from 1 7 t h c e n t u r y S p a n i s h painting. This twin interest in Old Masters and contemporary Realism gave him the crucial foundation for his revolutionar y approach. He is credited with popularizing the technique of alla prima painting. Rather than build up colors in layers, Manet would immediately lay down the

Édouard Manet

L u n c h e o n o n t h e G r a ss 18 62- 6 3

hue that most closely matched the final effect he sought. The approach came to be used widely by the Impressionists, who found it perfectly suited to the pressures of capturing effects of light and atmosphere whilst painting outdoors. His loose handling of paint and schematic rendering of volumes, moved toward a r e a s o f “ f l a t n e s s ” i n h i s p i c t u r e s . I n t h e a r t i s t ’s d a y the flatness may have suggested popular posters or the artifice of painting, as opposed to its realism. To d a y, c r i t i c s s e e t h i s q u a l i t y a s t h e f i r s t e x a m p l e o f “flatness” in modern art.


W h i s t l e r ’s M o t h e r 1871

James Whistler One of the most significant figures in American art and a forerunner of the Post-Impressionist movement, James Abbott McNeill Whistler is celebrated for his i n n o v a t i v e p a i n t i n g s t y l e a n d e c c e n t r i c p e r s o n a l i t y. He was bold and self-assured, and quickly developed a reputation for his verbal and legal retaliations against art critics, dealers, and artists who insulted his work. His paintings, etchings, and pastels epitomize the modern penchant for creating “art f o r a r t ’s s a k e , ” a n a x i o m c e l e b r a t e d b y W h i s t l e r and others in the Aesthetic movement. They also represent one of the earliest shifts from traditional representational art to abstraction that is at the heart of much of modern art. W h i s t l e r a b a n d o n e d C o u r b e t ’s r e a l i s m a n d d e v e l o p e d his own signature style in which, much like Édouard Manet at the time, he began exploring the possibilities and limitations of paint. Whistler showcased a new compositional approach that emphasized the flat, abstract quality of the painting by limiting his color

palette and tonal contrast while skewing perspective. He titled (or re-titled) his works using terms such a s “ s y m p h o n y, ” “ a r r a n g e m e n t , ” a n d “ n o c t u r n e ” t o suggest a correlation between musical notes and variations in color tone. These more abstract titles s e r v e d t o f o c u s t h e v i e w e r ’s a t t e n t i o n o n t h e a r t i s t ’s manipulation of paint, rather than the actual subject matter depicted.

AN ARTIST IS NOT PAID FOR HIS LABOR BUT FOR HIS VISION. Realism 43


The woman crawling through the tawny grass was the artist's neighbor in Maine, who, crippled by polio, "was limited physically but by no means s p i r i t u a l l y. " W y e t h f u r t h e r e x p l a i n e d , " T h e c h a l l e n g e t o m e w a s t o d o j u s t i c e to her extraordinary conquest of a life which most people would consider hopeless." He recorded the arid landscape, rural house, and shacks with great detail, painting minute blades of grass, individual strands of hair a n d n u a n c e s o f l i g h t a n d s h a d o w. I n t h i s s t y l e o f p a i n t i n g , k n o w n a s m a g i c r e a l i s m , e v e r y d a y s c e n e s a r e i m b u e d w i t h p o e t i c m y s t e r y.

194 8

A n d r ew W ye t h

C h r i s t i n a ’s Wo r l d

WOW

Get to know Realism Art!


Realism 45

The Nighthawks diner is based on a real place. The diner has never been named but Hopper has said, “Nighthawks was suggested b y a r e s t a u r a n t o n N e w Yo r k ’s Greensich Avenue where two streets meet”

Nighthawks 1942

E d wa r d H o p p e r

Edward Hopper said that Nighthawks was inspired by “a restaurant o n N e w Yo r k ’s G r e e n w i c h Av e n u e w h e r e t w o s t r e e t s m e e t , ” b u t t h e image—with its carefully constructed composition and lack of narrative —has a timeless, universal quality that transcends its particular locale. One of the best-known images of twentieth-century art, the painting depicts an all-night diner in which three customers, all lost in their own t h o u g h t s , h a v e c o n g r e g a t e d . H o p p e r ’s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e x p r e s s i v e possibilities of light playing on simplified shapes gives the painting its b e a u t y. F l u o r e s c e n t l i g h t s h a d j u s t c o m e i n t o u s e i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 4 0 s , a n d t h e a l l - n i g h t d i n e r e m i t s a n e e r i e g l o w, l i k e a b e a c o n o n t h e d a r k s t r e e t c o r n e r. H o p p e r e l i m i n a t e d a n y r e f e r e n c e t o a n e n t r a n c e , a n d t h e v i e w e r, d r a w n t o t h e l i g h t , i s s h ut o ut fr o m t h e sce n e b y a sea mless wed g e of glass. The four anonymous and uncommunicative night owls seem as s e p a r a t e a n d r e m o t e f r o m t h e v i e w e r a s t h e y a r e f r o m o n e a n o t h e r. ( T h e r e d - h a i r e d w o m a n w a s a c t u a l l y m o d e l e d b y t h e a r t i s t ’s w i f e , J o . ) Hopper denied that he purposefully infused this or any other of his paintings with symbols of human isolation and urban emptiness, but he a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t i n N i g h t h a w k s “ u n c o n s c i o u s l y, p r o b a b l y, I w a s p a i n t i n g t h e l o n e l i n e s s o f a l a r g e c i t y. ”


The theme of physical labor had already made its entr y into the pictorial w o r l d o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w i t h G u s t a v e C o u r b e t ’s S t o n e b r e a k e r s o f 1851. In 1872 Menzel travelled to Königshütte in Upper Silesia in order to familiarize himself with factor y conditions there, and spent weeks making hundreds of preparator y sketches. Drawing on the creative powers he had gained from his rich experience of painting large group scenes, here Menzel creates a composition positively filled with figures demonstrating the force of modern industrial work. In the steam-filled gloom, flickering lights and bizarre shadows merge to become a demonic drama depicting the struggle between men and machines. The animated, tonally dynamic central section of the picture is set against the calmer upper third of the composition with its diffuse daylight. The apparent chaos of the complicated iron rolling equipment emphasizes the dependence of the workers, who must submit to the unbending workings o f t h e m a c h i n e r y. Ye t M e n z e l ’s m a i n c o n c e r n w a s n o t t h e s o c i a l l y c r i t i c a l aspect of this scene, but the artistic challenge of portraying the production process and the groups of people involved in it. He was interested in ever yday life, not in representing the existential threat to humanity p o s e d b y t h e a g e o f t h e m a c h i n e . I n T h e I r o n R o l l i n g M i l l , M e n z e l ’s artistic skills have reached their greatest heights.

1872 –75

Adolph Menzel

I r o n Ro l l i n g M i l l

A M

A

Z

IN

G


Realism 47

–W i ns low Ho me r

continuous work in the right way.

talent is nothing but the capacity for doing

There is no such thing as talent. What they call

189 9

W i ns l ow H o m e r

The Gulf Stream

Back in Prout ’s Neck, Maine, after one of his winter visits to the Bahamas, H o m e r p a i n t e d t h i s d r a m a t i c s c e n e o f i m m i n e n t d i s a s t e r. A m a n f a c e s h i s demise on a dismasted, rudderless fishing boat, sustained by only a few stalks of sugarcane and threatened by sharks and a distant waterspout. He is oblivious to the schooner on the left horizon, which Homer later added to the canvas as a sign of hopeful rescue. Some art historians have read The Gulf Stream as symbolic, connecting it with the period’s heightened racial tensions. The painting has also been interpreted as an expression of Homer ’s presumed sense of mortality and vulnerability f o l l o w i n g t h e d e a t h o f h i s f a t h e r.


John Singer Sargent was the premiere portraitist of his generation, well-known for his depictions of high society f i g u r e s i n P a r i s , L o n d o n , a n d N e w Yo r k . H e u p d a t e d a centuries-old tradition by using vibrant Impressionistic brushstrokes and untraditional compositional solutions in order to capture his sitters’ character and even r e p u t a t i o n . S a r g e n t ’s p u r s u i t s w e r e n o t l i m i t e d t o portraiture and also included impressionistic landscapes executed en plein air alongside his friend Claude Monet. He also painted official murals commissioned by governmental officials both in the United States and the United Kingdom as well as a good number of nude sketches probably meant as personal works. Sargent took the ver y best of formal compositional development, as learned through his study of Old Masters i n c l u d i n g A n t h o n y Va n D y c k a n d D i e g o Ve l a z q u e z a n d updated it with a pseudo-Impressionist style learned from an anti-Academic instructor which resulted in a more vibrant type of portraiture albeit elevated by its g r o u n d i n g i n t h e b e s t t h e t r a d i t i o n h a d t o o f f e r.

John Singer Sargent

Po r t r a i t o f M a d a m e X 1883 -188 4

AN ARTIST PAINTING A PICTURE SHOULD HAVE AT HIS SIDE A MAN WITH A CLUB TO HIT HIM OVER THE HEAD WHEN THE PICTURE IS FINISHED.


Po r t r a i t o f D r. S a m u e l D. G r o ss ( Th e G r o ss C l i n i c) 1875

Thomas Eakins Wo r k i n g p r i m a r i l y i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y, T h o m a s E a k i n s p a i n t e d p o r t r a i t s a n d sporting scenes with resolute Realism. His style renounced idealized and romantic depictions and advocated instead for precise investigation of the human form and the natural world. He embraced pho to graphy from it s be g in n in g as a t ool t o p r e p a r e his co mpo s it ion s an d h is bol d a n d re sol ut e p a i n t i n g s would greatly influence the next generation of American Realists known as the Ashcan School.

obser ving the nude figure. Eakins’ depictions of men and women were markedly different. His choice of men were usually middle-class professionals often portrayed at work or pursuing leisure activities such as rowing and swimming. They embodied a virile masculinity with calm and repose. His women on the other hand, were always shown in interior settings where he emphasized their inner world and showed them in contemplation.

Eakins was committed to scientific inquir y of natural laws to the point that he took anatomy lessons and obser ved dissections and surgeries. His uncompromising realism based on his astute obser vations brought a scientific rigor to his painting practice. Since he felt that professional artists needed to have complete knowledge of the human body and its workings, Eakins insisted on working from nude models. Controversially eschewing Victorian propriety both his male and female students learned to draw Realism 49


The witty caricatures of Honoré Daumier made him one of the most widely recognized social and political commentators of his day and even landed him in jail for insulting the reigning monarch. D a u m i e r ’s c a r i c a t u r e s s t a n d o u t a s h i s m o s t success ful work s, ye t h e re ma in s un re c og n i z e d f o r the impressive diversity of his art as he produced not only the lithographs for which he is famous but also drawings, oil, watercolor paintings and sculpture. Daumier pioneered a style of Realism that focused on people of all echelons of society and s p a r e d f e w, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s a n d t h e p o o r, f r o m h i s s h a r p w i t a n d s c r u t i n i z i n g e y e . He lived in Paris during a period of political and social unrest, which included two revolutions as well a s f r e q u e n t r e g i m e c h a n g e s , a w a r, a n d a s i e g e . Many of his works confronted and depicted the co mplex so cial , pol it ic al , a n d e c on omic c o n s e q u e n c e s of the turmoil. Perhaps his greatest contribution to mo der n ar t wa s h is abil it y t o c a p t ure e ve n t h e s i m p l e s t moments in life and infuse them with emotion.

Honoré Daumier

Rue Transnonain 15 April 1834 183 4

F o r a n a r t i s t s o r e v e r e d a n d i n f l u e n t i a l , D a u m i e r ’s l i f e was characterized by struggle - with his increasing b l i n d n e s s , i l l n e s s , a n d p o v e r t y. H e r e c e i v e d a s m a l l pension from the government starting in 1877 so he was able to survive. Thanks to the intervention of and patronage of another esteemed friend, Victor H u g o , a n e x h i b i t i o n o f D a u m i e r ’s w o r k w a s h e l d a t the Galerie Durand-Ruel and he received proceeds from the sales.

Lithography: The process of printing from a flat surface treated so as to repel the ink except where it is required for printing.


Th e H o rs e Fa i r 1852-55

Rosa Bonheur From early childhood Rosa Bonheur had a liberal o u t l o o k a n d d e f i a n t p e r s o n a l i t y, a t t r i b u t e d i n p a r t t o h e r f a t h e r ’s b e l i e f i n a f o r m o f s o c i a l i s m w h e r e b y clas s and ge n d e r dist in c t ion s we re ra d ic al l y d i s s o l v e d . As such, even though born at a time when women were not admitted to art school and most typically became abso rbe d in t o a l ife of dome st ic d e p e n d e n c y w h i c h w a s n o t B o n h e u r ’s f a t e . W i t h h e r f a t h e r ’s support she began to paint prolifically from her early teenage years, by mid career she had been awarded many prestigious accolades previously only achiev ed by me n , an d in l at e r l ife sh e was f a m o u s a n d i n d e p e n d e n t l y w e a l t h y. A l o n g s i d e E d w i n L a n d s e e r, R o s a B o n h e u r w a s t h e foremost French “animalier” (animal painter) of her a g e , a n d a r g u a b l y o f a l l t i m e . B o n h e u r ’s w o r k w a s linked to landscape painting as well as the Realist tradition which also spoke of a connection between nature, art, and society that ran deeper than the obser vational platform from which the canvases

initially sprang. As the influential theorist John Ruskin articulated in 1847, by painting surrounding nature, “by rejecting nothing; believing nothing” that then, effortlessly and organically “the truth” emerges. In this ‘truth’ there is a subtle moral lesson of equality to be learnt, that even animals have a soul, and that all (and this applies to humans now too), no matter how big, small, dark or light, deser ve attention, care, a n d v i s i b i l i t y. R o s a B o n h e u r s a i d h e r s e l f t h a t s h e w a s ‘wed to her art’. As such, her pictures become her c h i l d r e n painted with unfailing dedication and exquisite tenderness. She was a pioneer for an alternate f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e d u e t o s p e n d i n g h e r life in a sa me se x p a r tn e rsh ip d e v o t e d t o t h e c r e a t i o n a n d c a r e o f animals and art works.

Realism 51


S e D

1

52

! t s i l j ti

You tend to be a ver y busy individual, but when you have free time, you like to spend it with friends.

2

You are a very determined, hard worker who has their eye on the prize.

3

You tend to be minimalistic and straight to the point with everything.

hur

rah

Key Characteristics of the movement • Unity • Simplicity • Primar y shapes and colors • Economic and geometric • Neo-plasticism • Spiritual harmony • Asymmetr y

T h e B a u h a u s t e ac h i n g c u rriculum m a de b y G ro pi o u s , F o u n der of the Bauhaus.


Let us together create the new building of the future, which will be everything in one form: architecture and sculpture and painting. – Wa l t e r Grop i us

Dutch for The Style, Die Stijl was founded in 1917. The artists most recognized with the movement were the painters Theo van Doesburg, who was also a writer and a critic, and Piet Mondrian, along with the architect Gerrit Rietveld. The movement pro po s ed ult imat e simpl ic it y va n d a b st rac t i o n thro ugh which t h e y c oul d e xp re ss a U t opia n i d e a o f h a r m o n y a n d o r d e r. The harmony and order was established through a reduction of elements to pure geometric forms and primary colors. Die Stijl was also the name of a publication discussing the groups theories which was published by van Doesburg. The publication Die Stijl represents the most significant work of graphic design from the movement, but the ideas of reduction of form and color are major influences on the development of graphic design as well. The Bauhaus was a school whose approach t o design and the combination of fine art and arts and crafts proved to be a major influence

on the development of graphic design as w e l l a s m u c h o f 2 0 t h c e n t u r y m o d er n a r t . F o u n d e d b y Wa l t e r G r o p i u s i n We i m a r, G e r m a n y i n 1 9 1 9 , t h e s c h o o l mo v ed t o Dessau in 1924 a n d t h e n w a s f o r c e d t o close its doors, under pressure from t h e N a z i p o l i t i c a l p a r t y, i n 1 9 3 3 . T h e s c h o o l f a v o r e d simplified forms, r a t i o n a l i t y, f u n c t i o n a l i t y a n d t h e i d e a that mass production could live in harmony w i t h t h e a r t i s t i c s p i r i t o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y. Along with Gropius, and many other a r t i s t s a n d t e a c h e r s , b o t h L a s z l o Mo ho lyNa g y a n d H e r b e r t B a y e r m a d e sig nifica nt contributions to the development of graphic design. Among its many contributions to the development of design, the Bauhaus t a u g h t t y p o g r a p h y a s p a r t o f i t s cur r iculum and was instrumental in the development of sans-serif typography, which they favored for its simplified geometric forms and as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e h e a v i l y o r n a t e G er ma n s t a n d a r d o f b l a c k l e t t e r t y p o g r a phy.

Tr u e o r f a l s e : The De Stijl movement took its name from an ar t magazine. and continue d to prom ote the ir work through van D oesb urg’s p ub lic a tio n. Wa r I , who colle ctive ly worke d within m ode r n abstract ar t. Soon afte r, the se lik e- mind ed figures united und er the ti t l e d e S ti j l d e S t i j l Ma gaz ine . This jour nal containe d work from se ve ral inte r national ar tists tha t va n Do esb urg ha d b efriend ed a fte r Wo r l d A: Ac c o rd i ng to D e Stijl ar tists, this is true . In 1917, D utch painte r and publisher T heo va n Do esb urg issued the fir st e d i ti o n o f

De Stijl 53


TIMELINE De Stijl

1917

Women allowed to enroll in the Bauhaus 1921

1919 1923

Walter Gropius Opening of Bauhaus

Fritz Schleifer Bauhaus Ausstellung


Herbert Bayer Bauhaus Journal

Herbert Bayer Universal Alphabet

1928 1930

The Great Depression 1929

1932 De Stijl 55


Ts c h i c h o l d c l a i m e d t h a t h e w a s o n e o f t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e s o n 2 0 t h c e n t u r y t y p o g r a p h y. There are few who would attempt to deny that statement. The son of a sign painter and trained i n c a l l i g r a p h y, Ts c h i c h o l d b e g a n w o r k i n g w i t h typography at a very early age. Raised in G e r m a n y, h e w o r k e d c l o s e l y w i t h P a u l R e n n e r (who designed Futura) and fled to Switzerland d u r i n g t h e r i s e o f t h e N a z i p a r t y. H i s e m p h a s i s on new typography and sans-serif typefaces was deemed a threat to the cultural heritage of G e r m a n y, w h i c h t r a d i t i o n a l l y u s e d B l a c k l e t t e r Ty p o g r a p h y a n d t h e N a z i s s e i z e d m u c h o f h i s w o r k b e f o r e h e w a s a b l e t o f l e e t h e c o u n t r y. W h e n Ts c h i c h o l d w r o t e D i e N e u e Ty p o g r a p h i e h e s e t forth rules for standardization of practices relating to modern type usage. He condemned all typefaces except for sans-serif types, advocated standardized

Jan Tschichold

Pho e b u s Pa l a st p o st e r Or i e nt Ex p r e ss 1927

sizes of paper and set forth guidelines for establishing a typographic hierarchy when using type in design. W h i l e t h e t e x t s t i l l h a s m a n y r e l a t i v e u s e s t o d a y, Ts c h i c h o l d e v e n t u a l l y r e t u r n e d t o a c l a s s i c i s t t h e o r y in which centered designs and roman typefaces were f a v o r e d f o r b l o c k s o f c o p y. He spent part of his career with Penguin Books a n d while he was there he developed a standardized practice for creating the covers for all of the books produced by Penguin. He personally oversaw the development of more than 500 books between the years 1947-49. Ever y period of his career has left a lasting impression on how designers think about and u s e t y p o g r a p h y, a n d i t w i l l c o n t i n u e t o a f f e c t t h e m into the future.


C h r o m a t i c A m a ss m e n t 1971

Herbert Bayer Bayer was both a student and a teacher at the

-ed, -ion, -or y and -ing. He is one of the most

Bauhaus and worked in a wide range of fields

recognized designers to come from the Bauhaus

i n c l u d i n g p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , t y p o g r a p h y, a d v e r t i s i n g

institution and his theories of design are still taught in

and architecture. In his early years as a student he

m a n y s c h o o l s t o d a y.

s t u d i e d p a i n t i n g w i t h K a n d i n s k y, b u t i n j u s t a s h o r t while he was teaching one of the Bauhaus’ first c l a s s e s o n t y p o g r a p h y. T h e a m o u n t o f w o r k t h a t h e created before he was 28 was more notable than most designers entire careers of work. He spent time teaching at the Bauhaus, working as an Art Director for the Container Corporation and as an architect in both Germany and America. In 1946 Bayer moved to Aspen, Colorado where he spent much of his time designing local architecture a n d p o s t e r s f o r t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y. I n 1 9 5 9 h e

More about Bayer the Bauhaus slayer a n d t h e typeface "Universal"

designed another sans-serif typeface. Again it was all in lower case, but he called it “fonetik alfabet� and it contained special characters for the endings De Stijl 57


In between his t ime at t h e Bauh a us a n d h is c a r e e r i n A m e r i c a h e s p e n t t i m e as the Ar t Dire c t or of Vog ue mag az in e ’s Be r l i n o f f i c e . H i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e f i e l d s o f g r a p h i c d e s i g n , t y p o g r a p h y a n d a d v e r t i s i n g w e r e m a n y. O n e t h a t s h o u l d b e n o t e d w a s h i s d e si g n fo r a t y p e f a c e t h a t c o n s i s t e d o f e n t i r e l y l o w e r c a s e l e t t e r s . T h e G e r ma n b l a c k l e t t e r t y p e s w e r e o v e r l y ornate for his taste and their use of capital letter for ever y proper noun was annoying. Logically, Bayer developed a sans-sans-serif alphabet of lowercase letters titled “Universal”.


F n

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Fu

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He

rt be

Why should we write and print with t wo alphab e t s? B o t h a l a r g e a nd a s m al l sign are not necessary to indicate one s i n g l e w o r d . We d o n o t s p e a k a c a p i t a l ‘A’ and a sma l l ‘ a . ’ We ne e d o nl y a single alphabet. – He rb e r t B a ye r

De Stijl 59


Va n D o e s b u r g w a s a n a r t i s t w i t h a w i d e r a n g e o f talents that spanned between painting, architecture, d e s i g n a n d p o e t r y. H i g h l y i n f l u e n c e d b y Wa s s i l y K a n d i n s k y, Va n D o e s b u r g s h i f t e d h i s s t y l e o f p a i n t i n g from one that emphasized less of a direct reflection of ever yday life and one that placed more importance on a conceptual style that favored a simplistic geometric style. A Dutch artist, van Doesburg led the artistic style movement “De Stijl� into popularity and influenced graphic designers for many years to come w i t h h i s t h e o r i e s , w h i c h c o n v e y e d t h e i d e a th a t th e re was a co llec t ive e xp e rie n c e of re a l it y t h a t c o u l d b e tapped as a me dium of c ommun ic at ion . Va n D o e s b u r g m o v e d t o We i m a r, G e r m a n y i n h o p e s o f i m p r e s s i n g t h e d i r e c t o r o f t h e B a u h a u s , Wa l t e r Gropius. Gropius did not directly oppose his ideas, but did not accept him onto the faculty of the Bauhaus. I n r e a c t i o n t o t h i s , Va n D o e s b u r g p o s i t i o n e d h i s s t u d i o directly next to the Bauhaus and attracted many students with the ideas he promoted, most of which

Theo Van Doesburg

C o mp o si t i o n V III ( The C o w ) 19 1 8

were developed out of the ideas of Constructivism, Dadaism and De Stijl. It was during these times t h a t Va n D o e s b u r g f o r m e d a t i g h t b o n d w i t h t h e a r t i s t P i e t M o n d r i a n . A n d , i n 1 9 2 3 , Va n D o e s b u r g moved to Paris so that he could communicate directly w i t h M o n d r i a n . H o w e v e r, t h e t w o w e r e v e r y m u c h polar opposites in character and it resulted in the dissolution of their friendship. It has been speculated that the breakdown came as a result of a disagreement a b o u t t h e d i r e c t i o n s o f l i n e s i n t h e i r p a i n t i n g s . Va n Doesburg moved to Switzerland in 1931, due to his declining health, and it was there that he died, on March 7th.


Q 1 Suprematistic 19 2 3

Laszlo Moholy-Nagy Known for his versatility and the fundamentals of design which he taught his students, Laszlo replaced Johannes Itten as director of the Bauhaus in 1923. He experimented in many different fields including p h o t o g r a p h y, t y p o g r a p h y, s c u l p t u r e , p a i n t i n g , industrial de sig n a n d p rin t ma k in g . H is e xp e r i m e n t a t i o n across multiple mediums led to graphic design work characterize d by bol d t ypog ra p h y in c omb i n a t i o n w i t h s t r i k i n g p h o t o g r a p h y. After he res ig n e d from h is posit ion at t h e B a u h a u s i n 1928 he spe n t t ime work in g in Be rl in a s a f i l m a n d s t a g e designer. In 1 9 3 7 h e move d t o C h ic ag o and f o r m e d the New Bau h aus, wh ic h is n ow t h e Il l in ois I n s t i t u t e o f Techno lo gy. T h e sc h ool sh are d t h e sa me phi l o s o p h y as the o riginal Ba uh aus an d c aug h t on qui c k l y. H e chro nicled his e ffor t s t o e st abl ish t h e c urricu l u m o f t h e scho o l in his book Vision in Mot ion .

THE SALVATION OF PHOTOGRAPHY COMES FROM T H E E X P E R I M E N T.

De Stijl 61


Albers was a student of the Bauhaus in Dessau, Germany and was a practicing artist in the fields of design, ty po g raph y, ph ot og raph e r, pain t e r, p r i n t m a k e r and poet. His most influential work was created in the field of abstract painting and it showed an influence of both the Bauhaus and the Constructivists with its s i m p l i f i e d g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s . H o w e v e r, h e a l s o p r o v e d to be ver y influential to many other graphic designers and artists as a teacher at the Black Mountain College in No r th Carol in a from 1 9 3 3 - 4 9 a n d a t Ya l e Un i v e r s i t y in Connecticut from 1950-58. His series Homage to the Square is an example of his disciplined approach to composition and color t h e o r y. To w a r d s t h e e n d o f h i s c a r e e r h e a n d h i s w i f e established the Josef and Anni Albers foundation in an effort to continue sharing and promoting the theor y t h a t h e h a d e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g h i s c a r e e r. H i s s t y l e and work represent a bridge between the European art of the Bauhaus and Constructivists and the new

Josef Albers

S t u d y fo r a Va r i a nt / A d o b e ( I) 1947

American Art that emerged in the 1950s and 60s. H e w a s a t e a c h e r a n d a n a r t i s t h i s e n t i r e c a r e e r, until his death in 1976 at the age of 88.

‌ W E P R AC T I C E FIRST AND MAINLY A S T U DY O F O U R S E LV E S .


Two U n d e r d r a we rs 19 21

Kurt Schwitters Kurt Schwitters is most commonly associated with the Dada movement, but also was an integral participant in the Constructivist and Surrealist movements. He worked in many mediums including painting, p o e t r y, i n s t a l l a t i o n a r t , s c u l p t u r e , g r a p h i c d e s i g n a n d t y p o g r a p h y. H i s i n f l u e n c e i n t h e a r t w o r l d a n d the popularity of his collage style of artwork were f a r r e a c h i n g b o t h i n E u r o p e a n d t h e U S . A f t e r Wo r l d Wa r I s o c i e t y i n G e r m a n y b e g a n t o b e c o m e s o m e w h a t more stable and Schwitters became less active in the Constructivist and Surrealist movements and joined the German Dada group. During this time he published a periodical titled Merz, which was perhaps his most influential graphic design work.

Merz. It was like a revolution within me, not as it was, but as it should have been”. The periodical featured a new topic for each issue including, artist features, c h i l d r e n s t o r i e s a n d p o e t r y. C o l l a b o r a t o r s i n c l u d e d E l L i s s i t z k y, v a n D o e s b u r g a n d J a n Ts c h i c h o l d .

Merz was a term that Schwitters often used in his w o r k , d e s c r i b i n g i t a s ” I n t h e w a r, t h i n g s w e r e i n terrible turmoil. What I had learned at the academy was of no use to me and the useful new ideas were still unready…Ever ything had broken down and new things had to b e made out of t h e frag me n t s ; a n d t h i s i s De Stijl 63


Dwiggins wa s on e of t h e most in fl ue n t ia l b o o k d e s i g n e r s o f the 1920s an d 3 0 s, a n d h is work re - k ind l e d p u b l i c interes t in bo ok de sig n . D w i g g i n s i s p r o b a b l y m o s t noted for coining the term ‘Graphic Designer’ in 1922 which he used in reference to himself. His work encompassed book design, lettering, t y p o g r a p h y a n d c a l l i g r a p h y. H e c r e a t e d s e v e r a l typefaces including two that are still used often today for the Linotype corporation Electra and Caledonia. Dwiggins was a man of many skills and did not limit himself to one trade, although he said that he would like to most be remembered for his type design. In 1928 he wrote and published the book ‘Layout in Advertising’ which, at the time, was considered to be the reference text for the field. He used his time away f ro m work t o c on st ruc t a se t of 1 2 ” m a r i o n e t t e s and a marionette theater, all car ved by hand out of wood.

William Addison Dwiggins

Te nt h Le t t e r o f t he A l p ha b e t 19 8 6

The company with which he spent the most time was Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., which was acquired by Random House in 1960. There he designed a total of 329 books, seventeen of which were chosen as AIGA selections. He worked up until the last two years of his life. Always a man who took lightly of himself, he remained jovial until his death on Christmas day in 1956.

W. A . D w i g g i n s i s c o m m o n l y known for coining the term “Graphic Design” from his stenciled ornaments in books.


E e n K l e i n e Ke u z e U i t O n z e Lettercollectie 1932

Piet Zwart A p i o n e e r o f m o d e r n t y p o g r a p h y, d e s i g n e r P i e t Zwart was influenced by Constructivism and De Stijl. His influence shows in his work and in this quote: “…to make beautiful creations for the sake of their aesthetic value will have no social significance tomorrow…”. Zwart worked as a d e s i g n e r, t y p o g r a p h e r, p h o t o g r a p h e r a n d i n d u s t r i a l designer in the Netherlands in the 1920s and 30s. P r i m a r i l y w o r k i n g f o r t h e N K F C o m p a n y, h e c r e a t e d many works of graphic design before retiring from the company to spend the rest of his days as an i n t e r i o r a n d f u r n i t u r e d e s i g n e r. A l s o i n f l u e n c e d b y the Arts and Crafts movement, Zwart began his education at the School of Applied Arts in 1902. He spent most of his career moonlighting as an a r c h i t e c t a n d p h o t o g r a p h e r, a s w e l l a s a d e s i g n e r and for several years he was very successful. His design career came to a halt when he was arrested by German soldiers in 1942. He was e v e n t u a l l y r e l e a s e d a f t e r t h e w a r, b u t t h e

e x p e r i e n c e a f f e c t e d h i m d r a s t i c a l l y. H e s p e n t t h e rest of his life primarily working in interior design. H i s e x c e l l e n t u s e o f c o l o r, t y p o g r a p h y, c o m p o s i t i o n and photography are reminiscent of the Bauhaus and his influence on the future generations of graphic designers lives on through the Piet Zwart Institute at t h e Wi l l i a m d e K o o n i n g A c a d e m y. The work that Zwart did for the NKF Company can be spotted by his use of primar y colors, clean sansserif typography and photo-montage. Formally trained as an architect Zwart referred to himself as a hybrid between a typographer and an architect. P o s s i b l y t h e h e i g h t o f h i s g r a p h i c d e s i g n c a r e e r, t h e NKF Catalog he designed in 1927-28 was printed in full-color and was 80 pages long.

De Stijl 65


Credits Morgan

Brianna

L AY O U T D E S I G N : • Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s • Ti m e l i n e P a g e s • Freud and Free Association (page 28-29)

L AY O U T D E S I G N : • Biography Pages • Bayer Page (page 58-59)

C O N T E N T: • Introduction (page 02) • pages 22-35

C O N T E N T: • pages 52-65

Rachel

Kelsie

L AY O U T D E S I G N : • Cover • Section Landing Page • Ruckenfigur (page 18-19)

L AY O U T D E S I G N : • Get to Know Realism Art (pages 44-47)

C O N T E N T: • pages 08-21

C O N T E N T: • pages 36-51 • Sources (page 67)


Sources d e s i g n i s h i s t o r y. c o m t h e a r t s t o r y. c o m azquotes.com mentalfloss.com metmuseum.org artic.edu artsandculture.google.com moma.org

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Profile for Rachel Greene

AIGA Eye on Design Buzzfeed edition  

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