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redesigning the educational experience transforming the learning environment for secondary education rachel botten1


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“there are three teachers of children: adults, other children, and their physical environment� -loris malaguzzi the third teacher

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interior architecture & product design college of architecture, planning & design , kansas state university spring 2015

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thesis advisors: vibhavari jani kendra ordia peer reviewers: aaron bisch daniel carter rudy date professional reviewers: abbey cwiek-garrett joel hudson madi martley

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table of contents introduction

1 problem goals+objectives evidence-based design

theories

2 small schools movement the changing classroom design theories

context

3 wichita west high school user needs spatial requirements

precedent studies

4 metea valley high school camino nuevo high school augustus f. hawkins high school marysville gretchell high school

considerations

5 color psychology lighting wayfinding benefits of nature building codes

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conceptual design generative intent design drivers

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schematic design building schemes combined scheme

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design development development process building development commons learning communities

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design proposal site identity community learning

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bibliography sources image index

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introduction

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problem mission statement School design and the physical learning environment has remained largely untouched since the early 20th century. Changing the pedagogy of higher education in the United States is key in addressing the new ways students are learning, especially in the ever growing disadvantaged school districts. executive statement Many high schools in America are becoming larger and larger while dropout rates are on the rise and college attendance rates are decreasing. Funding for education seems to be decreasing, and lower-income districts in need of this funding the most, suffer and are left unsupported. Without the proper funds, these schools are unable to hire new teachers, maintain school grounds and provide extra-curricular activities to students. As a result, students at these schools often risk “falling through the cracks” and are prone to engage in risky behavior. In such a large school environment, students can often get lost among the masses, feeling alienated, alone and undervalued 10

(Strike, 2008). Teachers are overwhelmed and unable to devote as much time and attention to each individual student.

“students often risk ‘falling through the cracks’” With this feeling of being just another face in the crowd, creates a lack of focus and therefore a lack of trust between students, teachers, and the education system. Despite this epidemic facing many urban schools across the United

States, little is actually being done to combat it. These outdated and overcrowded schools are not only creating an impossible learning environment, but conveying a message that these students are not a priority. The way current generations of students learn in the school system today are not the same as the students who these schools were designed for over fifty years ago. The Small Schools Initiative is a movement trying to overcome many negative consequences affecting students attending a large school. To be considered a ‘Small School,’ the student body must not exceed 400 students, and ideally have around 200 students (McQuillan, 2008). The benefits


of attending a Small School are innumerable for not only students, but teachers as well. Dropout rates have lowered while graduation rates and college going rates rise among small school attendees. Smaller class sizes allow teachers to be more attentive to each student and create a greater sense of community (Strike, 2008).

“create a greater sense of community� This project will explore new ways of organizing educational spaces and implementing alternative learning

environments through design. This will not only increase the retention and graduation rates of students, but will improve the learning experiences as a whole, teaching them to be more productive and effective in all aspects of life. Wichita West High School is facing many of the issues large urban schools across the country while also matching the profile of schools that have seen success with a small schools restructuring. This redesigned educational facility will provide an effective and safe learning environment that will serve students, teachers and the community during and after school hours. The critical issues facing the education system in United States continues to be a heated topic

of debate and affects not only students today, but the future of the nation. The Small Schools Movement seeks to answer the changing educational demands and learning behavior in a large school with research-informed design to meet the needs of students and teachers. Design can serve as a catalyst and play a large role in the success of a school, the learning environment, and the community.

fig 1

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the state of education in the U.S. today

From 2006 to 2015, K-12 enrollment is projected to:

+6.2% in the West

-.3% in the MidWest

-3.8% in the NE

to 10.7 million

to 7.9 million

to 12.7 million

+10.3% in the South to 19.9 million

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, around 14 percent of schools exceed their capacity by up to 25%. With enrollment trends only expected to increase, many schools are facing a crisis.

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At the end of WWII, the United States ranked #1 in the world for high school graduation rates. Today that number has dropped to #22 out of the 27 industrialized nations (OECD, 2012).

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nd

Less than half (46%) of American students finish college. Yet according to the U.S. Department of Labor, to earn a decent wage in today’s economy, students need at least some postsecondary education (OECD, 2010).

1.1m i

ll

i o n

About 1.1 million American students drop out of school each year. Dropout rates are almost 40% for African-American and Hispanic students (compared to the national average of 27%) (EPE, 2012).

*Statistics from The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation

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goals+objectives Design for the changing classroom to enhance the learning environment. Implement the latest design psychology research regarding color, stimuli, hierarchy, etc. Incorporate progressing technology trends.

Create a sense of community. Provide multi-functional spaces available for use by the surrounding community as well. Increase sense of school and community pride among students and faculty.

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Give teachers and students autonomy and growth at varying scales. Include a variety of spaces which cater to and enhance different types of learning, lounging or teaching. Create flexible spaces that can be transformed by students and teachers.

Implement sustainable principles. Incorporate learning courtyards and native landscapes. Utilize sustainable materials and finishes.

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project scope This project addresses the need for a pedagogical change in secondary education learning environments, specifically in underprivileged schools. The existing school, Wichita West High School, has been selected to serve as the site and shell with realistic parameters for this hypothetical project. To move forward with this project and narrow the scope, a set of assumptions must be made. District-wide reform and curriculum change must take place in order for redesign to have a lasting impact and be used as intended. An appropriate amount of funding and grants would be required to make this change possible. This project assumes these funds are available. A generic master plan will be proposed. Detailed planning of a learning community and the commons area with an emphasis in changing learning strategies will also be proposed.

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evidence based design Evidence-Based Design (EBD) is the process of basing decisions about the built environment on credible research to achieve the best possible outcomes. Included in this process are the following eight steps: Define evidence-based goals and objectives. Find sources for relevant evidence. Critically interpret relevant evidence. Create and innovate evidence-based design concepts. Develop a hypothesis. Collect baseline performance measures. Monitor implementation of design and construction. Measure post-occupancy performance results. The research comprised in this document establishes a framework and proves the necessity of this project and the design of learning environments. The hypothetical nature of this project only allows the first five steps in the Evidence-Based Design process to be achieved.

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theories

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the small schools movement The Small Schools Movement is sweeping the country, gaining nationwide attention. This education reform comes after the realization that large comprehensive high schools are not promoting students to reach their full potential, evidenced by increasing drop-out rates, decreasing test scores, and fewer students moving on to higher education. Small high schools on the other hand, seem to have reverse affects, with better teacher-student interactions and accountability creating a sense of community and belonging. Additionally, there are several types of small school establishments within the movement. These include schools-within-schools, CES high schools (Coalition of Essential Schools) and Small Learning Schools. Although in theory this reform has shown to be primarily beneficial, specifically with struggling school districts, there are still conflicts regarding implementation and follow through. These different views and studies will be compared to create an unbiased foundation to redesign a struggling high school under the Small Schools Movement umbrella. community Small Schools are exactly what 20

they sound like, schools that are small, usually enrolling between 300 to 450 students from grades 9-12 (McQuillan, 2008). At these schools, teachers usually have 20 students or less in a class and will have no more than 60 students total to oversee (McQuillan, 2008). However, size is not the only factor differentiating a typical small high school from a school within the small schools movement. Some argue besides size, a successful small school is united by a common theme or shared set of values while having autonomy to make its own decisions (Strike, 2008). When students, teachers and the community are all working toward a common goal, the school is more likely to flourish. Transparency and democracy leads to a sense of community within the school where all parties have an interest in seeing that it succeeds (Strike, 2008). Teachers with fewer students are able to spend more time getting to know each student as an individual and vise versa. As this relationship builds, students feel cared for and place trust in the school and its ability to support them throughout their high school careers (Strike, 2008). Conversely, in a comprehensive high school, students tend to fall through the cracks and don’t feel valued. Teachers become so

overwhelmed with mass amounts of students, the education system tends to feel impersonal and unresponsive. There is a lack of focus and therefore a lack of trust with resistance felt on not only the students side, but from the teachers as well (McQuillan, 2008). Although having a more personalized school experience can be highly attributed to size alone, the sense of community comes from the common goals or themes shared by members of the organization (Strike, 2008).

“the small schools movement is not just about size� autonomy Similarly, these small schools require a certain sense of autonomy, not only between the school and the overall district, but also with teachers and administrators (Strike, 2008). Schools not allowed to grow and evolve on their own after the initial


small school restructuring, have shown to be very unsuccessful as seen in the study of several small schools in an article by Patrick McQuillan (2008). Schools such as the Street Academy in Oakland proved how to overcome their opposition by remaining primarily autonomous in terms of localized decision-making and curriculum structure. In fact, because of the school’s bottom-up approach to education, teachers could be flexible according to the students needs (Epstein, 2004). The attitude that opinions mattered from teachers and students allows schools to be more supportive of the students while creating a better working environment for the teachers (McQuillan, 2008). Again, democracy leads to a feeling of unity and personal interest within an organization. schools-within-schools One common trend under the umbrella of the Small Schools Movement is the restructure of large comprehensive high schools into schools-withinschools. These subunits within the larger school act as their own small school and usually have a theme or emphasis around which their curriculum centers (Ready, 2008). These can be referred to as academies, sub-schools or small learning communities but essentially all describe a smaller organizational group within the

large-scale school. According to the article, “Choice, Equity, and the Schools-Within-Schools Reform” by Douglas Ready, these subunits allow for educational choice seen beneficial by students (2008). When a student chooses what they study, they feel in control of their educational experience (Ready, 2008).

“democracy leads to a feeling of unity” By choosing an area of study, students usually share a common interest in the subject furthering the argument that creating a common goal and sense of community is at the center of the small schools idea (McQuillan, 2008). One study, which followed five high schools sharing a similar organizational structure, documented many unforeseen consequences. Although the idea behind “academies” is to create commonalities between students with similar interests, can in some cases cause unintentional stratification. Like the real world with classes and racial and economical segregation, funneling students into specified subunits may in fact create a

chasm in the school where some subunits are seen as elite and others as a dumping ground for struggling students (Ready, 2008). Regardless of these findings, the benefits of choice, personalization, and community seem to out weigh the negative, unintentional outcomes (Ready, 2008). Evidenced within the studies and articles are many examples that show not only the achievements of converted small schools, but also failures. Small schools are not just a cure-all that can fix any struggling high school. It takes a certain attitude and follow through to ensure a successful restructure. When done right, small schools-within-schools provide a community of learning and shared values among students and teachers. In researching the small schools movement, there was a gap in research regarding the physical design of the building and building function and how that affects the learning environment. In spite of minor discrepancies within the larger body of research, one thing has proved true: large comprehensive high schools as a whole are not educating students to their full potential and leave room for students to “fall through the cracks.” The Small Schools Movement is trying to combat that statistic and through further research and study, will be able to pinpoint the solution. 21


small learning communities Small Learning Communities have created a new school standard of personalization, flexibility and customization within a large-scale school setting (Nair, 2009).

theory:

commons

classroom small group

social space

outdoor connection 22


implementation: Marysville Gretchell High School located in WA is an example of how the small learning communities can be implemented on a campus-wide scale. Each of the learning communities are located in a separate building which has many amenities needed to remain somewhat autonomous from the rest of the site. However, all of the shared common spaces, such as the cafeteria, are housed within a central, public building (“Marysville Gretchell,” 2011). fig 2.1

In the case of Metea Valley High School, the learning communities are housed all within the same building shell. The cafeteria, library, performing arts and athletic areas are centrally located within the school so each learning community wing can have direct access. Despite each learning community being only a separate wing on a building, they each have their own identity within the overall scheme (“Metea Valley,” 2010) fig 2.2

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design theories ford model independent classrooms long corridors

The traditional model can be equated to the factory model or assembly line of the Model-T that inspired it. Although intended to be efficient, it assumes learning is passive, teachers are in control and every student learns the same way (Nair, 2009).

crow school breakout space

seminar+collaboration storage+threshold

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The L-shaped classroom of the Crow Island School designed by Eero Saarinen, Perkins, Wheeler & Will has the ability to function as a learning studio with multiple activity centers (Nair, 2009)


learning suites Learning studios become flexible and can be combined to create one large learning suite where teachers can collaborate. This irregular plan provides opportunities to support a significant number of learning modalities and flexible spaces (Nair, 2009).

join classrooms

autonomous spaces

primordial learning modalities Campfires are a way to learn from storytelling or experts. Caves are spaces for individual study and reflection and creative flow. Watering holes are areas to socialize and create a democratic learning space (Nair, 2009)

campfire

cave

watering hole

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the changing classroom STEAM education Science studies the physical and natural world through observation & experience with chemistry, physics, earth sciences and life sciences.

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Technology connects people, making faster and more efficient forms of communication

Engineering solves real world problems making things from structures to products better and cheaper.

Mathematics uses numerical, spacial and logistical relationships to study and solve problems and is the foundation for science, engineering, and technology, finding patterns in data or abstract logic.

Art + Design expresses or applies creative skill, critical thinking and imagination.


technology in the classroom how students use technology: solve problems, analyze data, calculate practice basic skills writing research multimedia presentations ipod/mp3 player correspond with others experiements create art, music, etc. develop models or simulations contribute to a blog or wiki use social networking site

20,000+ educational apps for iphone

benefits of technology as a teaching tool: future oriented communication collaboration

building teams

problem solving challenges social

global awareness

self direction engages

interactive mobile learning

presentations

graphs adapted from: http://www.visualinformation.info/how-technology-is-facilitating-education-infographic/ http://www.elearninginfographics.com

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dynamic learning environments

Although advances in technology and teaching strategies have continued to evolve, classroom design has essentially remained the same. Rows of students facing a teacher who must serve as lecturer, ruler, mentor, expert and caregiver. Classroom layouts such as those displayed in the Ford Model are very inflexible and promote essentially only one type of learning. Teachers are not given any control over the environment they want to teach in while students are not given a choice in how they want to learn. learning Dynamic learning environments encourages all learning types and provide an activity rich environment. Active learning engages students to participate in class, collaborate and reflect on the material. Instead of listening, memorizing and regurgitating, students demonstrate processes, analyze and apply to realworld scenarios. Independent, critical and creative thinking can be expressed through lectures, small groups and class debates. Effective collaboration can become one of the most effective teaching strategies. Breakout sessions, group discussions and peer-to-peer presentations improve understanding (Grunert, 1997). 28

Teaching students how to learn and think critically rather than overloading them with information has many advantages. Research has shown that students who engage in active learning environments such as cooperative, interdisciplinary, project-based and multi-age learning retain and understand information longer (Nair, 2009). teaching Traditionally, one teacher is ruler of 20-30 students day after day. One theory from the Small Learning Community model suggests four or five teachers work collaboratively. Sharing spaces or varying sizes and characteristics give teachers the opportunity to use different teaching styles and resources as each lesson dictates. Similarly, students have greater accessibility to more mentors and learning environments (Nair, 2009).

transparency Breaking down boundaries and having a strong connection to the outdoors when possible is another way to enhance this changing learning environment. Having views on both the interior and exterior are beneficial for concentration and eye strain. It is well established that views to nature provides improvements in both learning and physical health. Sight-lines of at least 50 feet away reduces eye strain and provides relief to tired eyes looking at notebooks and computer screens. This type of relief exercises the eyes and keeps them healthy (Nair, 2009). Creating transparency in the classroom environments additionally promotes interdisciplinary learning and collaboration.


traditional learning new learning environments vs environments teacher-centered instruction

student-centered learning

single-sense stimulation

multisensory stimulation

single-path progression

multipath progression

single media

multimedia

isollated work

collaboration

information delivery

information exchange

passive learning

active learning

factual learning

critical thinking

reactive response artificial context

proactive real-world context

20 learning modalities schools should support: independent study peer tutoring team collaboration one-on-one learning lecture format project-based learning technology

distance learning internet-based research student presentation performance seminar-style instruction interdisciplinary learning naturalist learning

social or emotional learning art-based learning storytelling design team teaching play (Nair, 2009)

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context

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wichita high school west Location: Wichita, KS

Student/Teacher Ratio:

Setting: Large City Grades: 9-12

18:1

School Type: Comprehensive Public School

Demographics: 40% White 1% Asian 16% Black 32% Hispanic

$ 87%

economically disadvantaged

Average testing proficiency: math 2.5 / 5 reading 3 / 5

WEST USD 259 STATE OF KS

Enrollment: 1,281 Students

*data retrieved from U.S. News & World Report

fig 3.1

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context

gg ave

entrance

1

3

2

wm

cc

4

orm

ick

5

arkansa s river

w kello

st

1 auditorium 2 classrooms 3 football field 4 parking 5 practice athletic fields fig 3.2

Wichita West is a high school in Wichita, KS that serves the area west of the Arkansas River. It is one of 17 high schools in Wichita’s only school district, USD 259. Not only is this high school serving an economically disadvantaged population, with nearly 77% of students on the free lunch program (87% total economically disadvantaged), but the majority of students are of minority descent. West, as it is known locally, routinely scores below state and district test scores for both math and reading proficiency (“West High School,� 2012). The site is located between a predominately residential area to the North and industrial area to the South. The building was originally intended to house four different academies in each of the different wings of the school, however within three years of completion, the school already felt the effects of overcrowding. Since then, multiple other additions have been completed, leaving the school a hodge-podge of wings and classrooms that creates confusion and traffic jams. With all these disadvantages, Wichita West High School is a prime candidate for success under the small schools movement umbrella. *data retrieved from U.S. News & World Report

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west high school campus

fig 3.3

vehicular circulation

fig 3.5

pedestrian circulation 34

fig 3.4

parking

fig 3.6

athletic fields


WEST major roadways

residential zone

industrial zone

commercial zone

fig 3.7

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west history: 1925 West Wichita Community Council started campaign for a high school west of the Arkansas River 1953 Wichita High School West opens

‘Academies’ were implemented to prepare students directly entering the workforce after high school

1959 Enrollment reaches 1,971

Original plan to house each Academy in its own wing is abandoned to make room for more classrooms

1971 Building was surrounded by 24 portable classroom units

1976 Library media center was added and existing library was renovated

1988 Ninth graders were moved to the high schools

2014 Gym & pool addition and athletics renovation

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*information from west.usd259.org


Most classrooms have a stand-anddeliver set up. The chairs and desks all face the front of the classroom where the teacher stands and lectures. Pull down projector screens and whiteboards seem to be the only teaching tools. Storage is scarce as well which is a common complaint of the teachers (J. Hudson, personal communication, February 2015).

fig 3.8

Corridors are fully packed during passing periods. Traffic jams are a common problem which can lead to behavioral and disciplinary issues. The nature of the corridors make for supervision and monitoring difficulties. Many of the academy principals have moved out of the administration wing into empty classrooms adn closets to be closer to the teachers and students (J. Hudson, personal communication, February 2015). fig 3.9

Most corridors are lined with lockers which are underutilized and impede the flow of traffic. Long hallways and dispersed classrooms create traffic jams when students enter the main corridor while the smaller halls are overcrowded with lockers (J. Hudson, personal communication, February 2015).

fig 3.10

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existing conditions

Circulation

Classrooms

The main entry of the school is located in the NW corner of the school, however, students only enter from the southern athletic entrance nearest to the parking lot. The circulation paths and multitude of exit doors additionally create a safety and supervision hazard.

Although the intent of the school’s curriculum is to have specialized academies, classroom wings are scattered throughout the building. These wings are monotonous with classrooms lining each side of a long corridor. Corridors are used only for during passing periods between classes for circulation and locker access. There are no visual connections between learning spaces.

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Common Spaces

Public Spaces

Social areas are dispersed and only connected to the rest of the school through singular entries. These spaces are solitary and only allowed to be used by students during designated times. The positioning of the library and cafeteria amongst the classroom wings create pinch points and crowding.

The performing arts and athletic facilities are the spaces most accessible to the public. The performing arts area however, is not adjacent to any parking. The athletic facilities are located near the parking lots, but not near the main entry which becomes an issue during school hours. In either situation, inconvenience is the primary problem.

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users+needs students freshman sophomores j u n i o r s seniors

safety+security technology storage social spaces study spaces

teachers flexible spaces teaching options technology planning collaboration

community gathering spaces multi-functional spaces recreation

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spatial requirements building: 160-200 sf per student classroom + movement

general classroom: 600-900 sf art: 1800 sf music: 1500-1800 sf science: 900-1000 sf computer lab: 1000 sf biology/chemistry lab: 1200 sf special education: 600 sf

traditional model

administrative: 100 sf - private offices conference rooms: 200 sf nurse: 600 sf - (with bathroom) 1 bed per 200 students

central hub

auditorium: 4000 sf - stage, storage, lobby gymnasium: 6000 sf - regulation basketball court 84’x50’ library: 5500-8000 sf - plus 3 sf for each student >500 media center: 4800-5000 sf cafeteria: 11-14 sf per student - serving area 20-25% cooridoor: 8-10 ft wide shared space between rooms

*In accordance with the Georgia Department of Education Facilities Services Unit and the Virginia Department of Education

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a day in the life... admin:

teacher:

alarm goes off wake up shower eat breakfast

arrive before students drive & park check emails faculty meetings

alarm goes off wake up shower eat breakfast gather supplies

drive & park check emails put stuff away turn on equipment write on whiteboard grading faculty meetings

get ready for school 6:30

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arrive 7:30

student:

alarm goes off wake up get dressed shower eat breakfast

get dropped off take bus drive & park last minute hw talk with friends put stuff away

parent:

alarm wake up student shower make breakfast

drop off student meet with teacher drive to work or home


meetings email school operations event planning meet with students

lecture assignments monitor groups class management planning period

class time 8:30

supervise halls meet with students & teachers

monitor lunch bring lunch eat in lounge planning teaming

sponsor clubs meetings

supervise halls prepare for class

monitor lunch bring lunch eat in lounge planning teaming

load up bags grading turn off equipment sponsor clubs meetings

passing period 10:30

lunch time 12:30

put stuff away sit down get out supplies listen to teacher take notes group work take tests audio/visual multi-media

change classes go to the bathroom talk with friends store items homework use library

call school pick up student for emergency

parent-teacher meetings

get food sit down talk with friends relax

after school 3:30

gather belongings extra curricular club meetings homework take bus drive home get picked up go to gym

attend extra curricular help with hw pick up student drive home 43


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precedents

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metea valley high school Architect: DLR Group

School Type: Small Learning Communities

Year: 2009-2010

Student/Teacher Ratio:

Location: Aurora, IL Setting: Large Suburb Scope: 464,200 sq ft Grades: 9-12 Enrollment: 3,000 Students

17:1 Demographics: 54% White 16% Asian 14% Black 12% Hispanic 20% Economically Disadvantaged *data retrieved from U.S. News & World Report

fig 4.1

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context

1 arts and technology 2 classrooms and media center 3 athletics and servery

2 1

3 2

fig 4.2

daylighting Natural daylighting provides students with ambient light beyond the typical overhead fluorescents. Daylighting can improve mood, behavior and well-being while creating a brighter and more open interior environment. fig 4.3

When planning out the Metea Valley HS, design was dictated by spaces that would help students not become lost among the masses. The flexibility of the design solution supports many teaching and learning ideals. Inner courtyards give natural light to the building core and provides freedom for students to move outdoors. Lounge areas and think tanks provide a variety of gathering spaces encouraging collaboration amongst students and teachers. Specialized rooms are located in four core areas so the school can be organized in multiple ways. The high school was awarded by the Illinois Clean Energy Community Foundation for their effort in energy efficiency and sustainable building features. Between think tanks, lounges, interactive gathering spots and outdoor educational opportunities, the designers hope that learning environments are enhanced (“Metea Valley,� 2010).

*Images and information from ArchDaily.com

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camino nuevo high school Architect: Daly Genik Architects

School Type: Charter School

Year: 2004

Student/Teacher Ratio:

Location: Los Angeles, CA Setting: Large City Scope: 30,000 sq ft Grades: 9-12 Enrollment: 500 Students

23:1 Demographics: 3% Asian 97% Hispanic 92% Economically Disadvantaged *data retrieved from U.S. News & World Report

fig 5.1

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context

1 2 3 4 5

admin science lab classroom arts classroom courtyard

fig 5.2

courtyard Inner courtyards give students the opportunity to get fresh-air and natural light throughout the day. This allows students to flow in and out of the building while keeping them safe within the school property. fig 5.3

Camino Nuevo High School is surrounded by busy streets in an intense urban area with a strong multi-cultural community. Because of this context, it is important that the school functions as an oasis while remaining transparent to the community. On one side of the complex, a winding classroom building separates social spaces from the busy boulevard while administrative offices are positioned near the primary, pedestrian entrance. By creating direct visual connections into the courtyard from the classrooms, natural light flows in supporting social and sustainable functions. The inner courtyard becomes a social hub for informal class meetings or large-scale project production. Corrugated metal dampens sound while providing sun control (“Camino Nuevo,� 2011).

*Images and information from ArchDaily.com

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augustus f. hawkins high school Architect: CSDA Design Group

School Type: Small Learning Communities

Year: 2012

Student/Teacher Ratio:

Location: Los Angeles, CA Setting: Large City Scope: 351,070 sq ft Grades: 9-12 Enrollment: 2,000 Students

23:1 Demographics: 23% Black 77% Hispanic 72% Economically Disadvantaged *data retrieved from U.S. News & World Report

fig 6.1

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context 1 4

1 classrooms 2 auditorium 3 gym 4 parking/ basketball courts 6 amphitheater 7 quadrangle 9 multi-purpose field

6 7 1 2

9 3

fig 6.2

wayfinding Larger school campuses can become confusing to navigate for students, teachers and visitors. Providing color-coded wayfinding from parking lots to building interiors keeps the size of the campus from becoming overwhelming.

fig 6.3

In the midst of highly urbanized Southern Los Angeles, this school consists of three buildings each with administrative offices, classrooms and science labs. Augustus F. Hawkins HS was designed to meet the first green building rating program in the US for K-12 schools. The Collaborative for High Performance Schools supports the design of environmentally responsible and high performing spaces for learning through energy and water efficiency, site planning and materials. Some examples used include low-emitting materials in classrooms, operable windows, a “cool roof” and irrigation systems. The tight urban site challenged designers to build vertically and used exposed stairways to promote interactions. Additional amenities include turf fields, an outdoor amphitheater, and gym, library and performing arts facilities open to the community. Color-coding highlights routes and nodes aiding visitors (“Augustus F Hawkins,” 2011).

*Images and information from ArchDaily.com

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marysville gretchell high school School Type: Small Learning Communities

Year: 2010

Graduation Rates:

Grades: 9-12 Enrollment: 1,295 Students

89%

Scope: 195,919 sq ft

77%

Setting: Suburban

Prior Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3

57%

Location: Marysville, WA

50%

Architect: DLR Group

*data retrieved from DLR Group

fig 7.1

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context A campus commons B school for the entrepreneur C bio-med academy D academy of construction & engineering E international school of communications 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

bus drop off visitor entry social flat parking wetlands protected trees fields tennis courts

fig 7.2

The Marysville school district had been struggling with overcrowding and low graduation rates for years. The decision to build a new school with small learning communities was a welcomed change. Each learning community focuses on a particular subject matter, such as Bio-Med or Communications, and are located in individual buildings. Each building is very flexible and has many academy-specific amenities making it autonomous to the rest of the school. A central commons building houses the gym, dinning center and other public spaces. The school campus is set against a wooded background where students and the community are free to roam around the natural wetlands. Interior views as well as outdoor learning areas take full advantage of the benefits nature can provide. Between the interaction of spaces and overall independence of the campus layout, students are invited to become more involved. Since Marysville Gretchell opened, graduation rates have nearly doubled. Even when students dont receive their first pick academy, they tend to stay because of the accountability or a small school and the teachers know them by name (“Marysville Gretchell,� 2011). *Images and information from ArchDaily.com & dlrgroup.com

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universal learning spaces core learning: instructional space (A) specialized learning: curriculum-specific space (M) applied learning: real world application of learning (I) project learning: interdisciplinary, interactive projects (L) science: labs and grounds as powerful learning tools that promote inquiry-based learning (J,K) learning commons: resource/research area, and interactive/interdisciplinary support spaces to Core Learning (C) social commons: informal gathering space (N) admin & student services: administration (B) information resources: (D) living room: encourage student and community interaction (G) outdoor learning: (F)

fig 7.3

guiding principles:

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1 2

Relationships at the Center Focused Learning

fig 7.4

fig 7.5

3 4 5

Identity & Purpose Community Accountability


sustainability Students are more likely to participate in discussions and lessons in a “soft classroom” which conveys a warm, home-like atmosphere achieved through natural materials balancing warm and cool shades. Low-key color schemes are best for spaces where people spend long periods of time. Color reduces boredom and monotony, but should be controlled to a few color variances to reduce visual strain (“Marysville Gretchell,” 2011). fig 7.6

community The school is designed to encourage community on a variety of scales. The building can function as a community center for the surrounding neighborhoods while building arrangements create in-between, outdoor communal spaces. The site is unrestricted to serve community members after school hours and visitors are welcomed to tour the wetlands and forest (“Marysville Gretchell,” 2011).

fig 7.7

interior environment Each learning community has an identity while common spaces utilize brightl colors where students spend less time. Color can serve as a means of organization and orientation marking different functional areas. Classroom spaces accomodate about 75% of the student enrollment while the rest of the students utilize the commons, breakout spaces or outdoor learning areas (“Marysville Gretchell,” 2011).

fig 7.7

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findings of precedent analysis: metea valley student enrollment type

layout

amenities

sustainable features

connection to community

56

3,000

Small Learning Community 1 building; 2 stories; 2 protected courtyards

technology labs, media center, “think tanks,� collaborative lounges, gym, auditorium

daylight harvesting, daylighting, control ventilation, rain gardens, rooftop greenhouse/irrigation low


camino nuevo

augustus marysville f. hawkins gretchell

500

2,000

1,300

Charter

Small Learning Community

Small Learning Community

2 linear buildings; 2 stories; inner courtyard

1 main building; 2 support buildings; 4 stories; outdoor parks

4 buildings; 1 shared building; 3 stories; outdoor learning spaces; forest

outdoor amphitheater, art rooms, science labs

library, gym, auditorium, amphitheater, athletic fields, parking structure, outdoor classroom

library, gym, auditorium, amphitheater, athletic fields, parking structure, outdoor classroom

daylighting, exterior sun control, sound buffer

limit turf areas, native plants, operable windows, low-emitting materials, “cool roof,� efficient HVAC

natural materials, native forests & wetlands, building orientation, water conservation, daylighting,

low

high

high

57


elements considered for new design from precedent analysis common core Although learning wings have many amenities, it is also important to have a school core or commons. A large library, cafeteria, amphitheater, lounge space and large lecture halls can be housed within the overall commons area. This is a good opportunity to reflect school spirit and culture while using space efficiently.

fig 8.1

wayfinding & color Large-scale buildings can be difficult to navigate through. Wayfinding techniques are essential to minimize confusion and differentiate parts of the building. Color can serve as a means of organization and orientation marking differences functional areas. Using color psychology, spaces are not only distinguishable, but can evoke emotional or cognitive responses based on function.

fig 8.2

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outdoor connections Interior and exterior vistas and courtyards are essential to students productivity and wellbeing. Courtyards allow students to flow in and out while remaining within the school perimeters. Plentiful access to daylighting and views keep students energized while also relieving eye strain. Amphitheaters and courtyards provide alternative learning and study environments as well.

fig 8.3

learning communities Small learning communities create a sense of personalization and belonging within a large school environment. These communities each have amenities specific to their academy such as science labs, art studios or more computer labs. Additional media labs, group meeting space and cafes allow the SLC’s to operate independently while using the school commons for largescale needs. Each community also has its own personality that differentiates itself from the others. fig 8.4

59


60


considerations

5

61


color psychology Color has many effects on humans from a neurological and psychological standpoint. Different colors carry different meanings and emotions associated with them based on many factors including instinct, culture, trends and personal experiences carrying with them both conscious symbolism and subconscious physiological reactions. Light and color can affect the inter-brain resulting in biological reactions, such as increased heart rate, in response to certain stimuli. How a person aesthetically perceives a space can not only alter how they might feel about it, but change their orientation, energy levels, concentration, breathing and mood. The influence of color can affect the nervous system and control attention and awareness (Markus, 2014).

Understimulation occurs when there is a lack of contrast and hierarchy within a space. Extreme monotony and sensory deficiency can have detrimental effects both psychologically and physiologically. These spaces have no identity and are disorienting, evoking feelings of restlessness, irritability and inability to concentrate (Markus, 2014).

fig 9.1 creates feeling of taller space

Overstimulation is caused when there is an extreme surplus of stimuli. Chaotic patterns, unharmonious color schemes and intensely colorful or complex designs can have adverse psychological and physiological effects on humans. This can manifest itself through stress, visual fatigue and even breathing difficulties (Markus, 2014).

fig 9.2 creates feeling of wider space

Architecturally speaking, color can evoke different reactions about a space with color choice and placement. Color can enhance visual interest, create focal points, and accent paths and entrances for identity and safety. Certain colors can give ques as to the function of spaces, dictating what activities ‘should’ be taking place and send signals directing the actions of the users, and establish individuality, aiding in wayfinding. Colors change the atmosphere using impressions and associations of color to link the users to the architectural space, triggering emotions or affecting well-being (Meerwein, 2007). 62


cheerful, radiant, exciting Warm tones convey safety and trust and evoke feelings of excitement, comfort, and brightness. They can be used to reduce scale and make spaces feel more intimate.

provocative, fiery, lively

dignified, solemn, sublime

High Schoolers tend to prefer darker toned colors as opposed to elementary aged students who prefer bright, primary colors.

deep, concentrated, relaxing

refreshing, cool, hygienic

Cool tones can encourage relaxation and evoke feelings of freshness, calm, and openness. They can be used to visually enlarge spaces to feel less confining.

balancing, natural, calming

settled, fine, still, reserved 63


classrooms Students are more likely to participate in discussions and lessons in a “soft classroom� which conveys a warm, home-like atmosphere achieved through natural materials balancing warm and cool shades. Low-key color schemes are best for spaces where people spend long periods of time. Color reduces boredom and monotony, but should be controlled to a few color variances to reduce visual strain (Meerwein, 2007). fig 9.3

common areas Common areas should be distinguishable from one another and convey an inviting environment. Color selection should dictate the function of the space whether it should promote activity, rest or dignity. This is a good opportunity to reflect school spirit and culture.

fig 9.4

corridors Color can serve as a means of organization and orientation marking different functional areas. Intense contrasts and highly saturated color stimulation are only advised for spaces where people spend short periods (Markus, 2014).

64

fig 9.5


color recommendations | international center for leadership in education art: creativity - green, violet, red, peach, pink, light yellow biology: nature - blue, green, teal, brown, beige chemistry: logic - blue, green, indigo foreign language: friendship - yellow history: age - amber, blue, yellow, sea green language arts: communication - sea green, blue, green; no avocado, yellow green, purple, chartreuse math: logic - indigo, blue physics: energy - blue, yellow, green, indigo

auditorium: dignity - violet, black, dark green, navy, warm neutrals, purple, burgundy athletic facilities: vitality - red, orange, bold colors; no turquoise cafeteria: nutritious - orange, red, green, lime, dark brown; no blue, no yellow-green, no magenta gymnasium: activity - red, red-orange, light orange, warm yellow, apricot, orange, lime, medium green; no turquoise media center: restful - light green, peach, rose, light green, aqua, cream; no white, no dark colors, no bold colors study hall: stasis - green, blue, brown, earth tones; no red, no orange

entrances: inviting - school colors hallway: refreshing - green, blue, magenta, school colors

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lighting Lighting has a tremendous effect on the learning environment and well-being as a whole. Improper lighting can cause visual fatigue, stress, irritability and even more serious health problems. Glare, overstimulation and low light levels are just a few examples of how improper lighting can effect a space. When a classroom is affected by adverse lighting techniques, students may have trouble concentrating or remaining on task. Implementing natural light has proven to have positive results on students not only in mood and behavior, but test scores and information retention. Using as much natural light as possible is also a way to sustainably light classrooms, thus reducing the need for artificial lighting. Not only is it essential to supply classrooms with adequate lighting, but it is also important for teachers to have control of the lighting from both artificial and sunlight. Depending on the task at hand, some situations require different lighting levels (So, 2013).

diffused downlighting

operable shades

natural daylighting low gloss surfaces

fig 10

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performance

efficiency

comfort

techniques

spaces

class rooms

common areas corridors

combination of ambient, task and accent lighting; lighting controls

both direct and indirect or direct and highlighting

glare-free; attention to changes in levels and areas of potential danger; emergency lighting

lighting controls with daylight sensing; occupancy sensors

daylight linking, central switching and time clock

presence detection; lighting controls with daylight sensing; easy maintenance

light ceiling and walls; light ceilings and combine upward walls; diffuse light and downward light; lighting at task level

brightly lit ceilings, walls and floors

avoid tightly controlled down lights; place whiteboards to reduce glare; luminaries shouldn’t impede with projector image

wall mounted luminaries for high ceilings; display lighting; suspended luminaries with up/down lighting components

mounted uplighters, suspended luminaries with up/down lighting components; recessed or surface mounted wall washing luminaries for displays and art

classroom: 300 lux science lab: 500 lux music room: 300 lux art & design: 500 lux

assembly: 300 lux cafeteria:175-250 lux gymnasium: 300 lux media center: 300 lux study hall: 300 lux

entrances: 250 lux hallway: 80-120 lux social: 175-250 lux

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materials In a school setting, durability and maintenance is key. Life-cycle costs may make higher quality products more efficient in the long run. Standard school materials seem to fit a factory setting rather than an educational setting. A large emphasis on the acoustics of a space need to be considered in many spaces within a school. Similarly, bacteria resistant surfaces make a space easier to be maintained while also eliminating potential health hazards. All material selections should create a healthy and sustainable environment. Products with typically high VOCs found in pain, carpet, adhesives and treated wood should be replaced with low or non VOC materials. Fire rating requirements should also be considered when making material decisions (Perkins, 2001).

acoustic ceiling

hard walls

durable work surfaces carpeting fig 11

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material recommendations | building type basics, elementary & secondary schools

classrooms classroom: easily cleaned flooring, reduces glare, water resistant work surfaces, hard flooring, acoustic carpeting art: cleanable walls, ceilings & floors, hard & smooth flooring, water resistant work surfaces science: chemical & acid resistant, hard & cleanable floor finish, water resistant work surfaces

common areas auditorium: ease of cleaning, soft flooring, hard & soft walls, flame resistant finishes, dark stage walls cafeteria: hard & nonporous flooring, smooth surfaces, finishes cleanable with disinfectants, hard & smooth walls gymnasium: resilient flooring allowing spring, hard & durable walls, durability of all products library: nonreflective surfaces, acoustic flooring & ceilings, controlled moisture

corridors hallway: ease of cleaning, nonporous flooring, hard & durable walls

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wayfinding Wayfinding alludes to the way people orient themselves and find their destination in a given environment. Visual cues, memory, knowledge of place and the ability to reason are all ways people orient themselves. “Cognitive mapping� refers to the ability for one to understand and organize space. In large-scale buildings, proper placement of architectural elements, signage, color, lighting and materials becomes key in navigating between spaces (Perkins, 2001). Kevin Lynch, author of Image of the City (1960), studied the identity and structure of spaces and identified five categories people use to map an environment:

1 2 3 4 5

paths

channels of movement

edges

boundaries that break, contain or run parallel to forms

districts

areas of recognizable identity

nodes

places of intense activity

landmarks

points of reference that are visually distinguishable

wayfinding techniques color coding to identify district areas or paths of travel signage designed and placed consistently throughout facility legible signs placed at decision-making areas change of wall color, type or texture change in flooring or ceiling treatment functional organization of space 70


benefits of nature The positive effects of nature has been well researched and documented by many scientific studies and publications. Nature is important in many developmental domains physically, socially, intellectually, and emotionally. Views and exposure to natural settings increases focus and cognitive abilities while improving eyesight. These vistas and access to green plants have shown to reduce stress and increase self-discipline. Researchers have found links between nature, human health, psychological functioning and even the reduction of ADD symptoms. Interior spaces can benefit from both active and scenic courtyards. Classrooms and spaces requiring concentration should look onto scenic courtyards to minimize distractions. Higher windows in these spaces can also decrease distractions. Coming in contact with green environments such as parks and forests benefits humans and increases health overall (Kuo and Taylor, 2004).

vitamin d

views to nature

native plants

seating elements fig 12

71


proxemics+ anthropometrics “proxemics is what brings us together� It can be described as the study of non-verbal communication.

Intimate 1.5 ft Personal 4 ft Social 9 ft

72


18”

30”

53”

19”

44”

60”

24”

11”

36”

72”

78”

fig 13

73


international building code 2012 Chapter 3 SECTION 303 ASSEMBLY GROUP A 303.1 Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for the gathering of persons for purposes such as civic, social or religious functions; recreation, food or drink consumption or awaiting transportation. Exceptions: 4. Assembly areas that are accessory to Group E occupancies are not considered separate occupancies except when applying the assembly occupancy requirements of Chapter 11. SECTION 305 EDUCATIONAL GROUP E 305.1 Educational Group E. Educational Group E occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, by six or more persons at any one time for educational purposes through the 12th grade. Religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums, which are accessory to places of religious worship in accordance with Section 303.1 and have occupant loads of less than 100, shall be classified as Group A-3 occupancies. Chapter 10 SECTION 1001 ADMINISTRATION 1001.1 General. Buildings or portions thereof shall be provided with a means of egress system as required by this chapter. The provisions of this chapter shall control the design, construction and arrangement of means of egress components required to provide an approved means of egress from structures and portions thereof. 1001.2 Minimum requirements. It shall be unlawful to alter a building or structure in a manner that will reduce the number of exits or the capacity of the means of egress to less than required by this code. 1001.3 Maintenance. Means of egress shall be maintained in accordance with the International Fire Code. [F] SECTION 1003 GENERAL MEANS OF EGRESS 1003.1 Applicability. The general requirements specified in Sections 1003 through 1013 shall apply to all three elements of the means of egress system, in addition to those specific requirements for the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge detailed elsewhere in this chapter. 1003.2 Ceiling height. The means of egress shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). Exceptions: 1. Sloped ceilings in accordance with Section 1208.2. 3. Allowable projections in accordance with Section 1003.3. 74


4. Stair headroom in accordance with Section 1009.2. 5. Door height in accordance with Section 1008.1.1. 6. Ramp headroom in accordance with Section 1010.5.2. 1003.3 Protruding objects. Protruding objects shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1003.3.1 through 1003.3.4. 1003.3.1 Headroom. Protruding objects are permitted to extend below the minimum ceiling height required by Section 1003.2 provided a minimum headroom of 80 inches (2032 mm) shall be provided for any walking surface, including walks, corridors, aisles and passageways. Not more than 50 percent of the ceiling area of a means of egress shall be reduced in height by protruding objects. Exception: Door closers and stops shall not reduce headroom to less than 78 inches (1981 mm). A barrier shall be provided where the vertical clearance is less than 80 inches (2032 mm) high. The leading edge of such a barrier shall be located 27 inches (686 mm) maximum above the floor. Exception: These requirements shall not apply to sloping portions of handrails between the top and bottom riser of stairs and above the ramp run. 1003.3.3 Horizontal projections. Structural elements, fixtures or furnishings shall not project horizontally from either side more than 4 inches (102 mm) over any walking surface between the heights of 27 inches (686 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface. Exception: Handrails are permitted to protrude 41/2 inches (114 mm) from the wall. 1003.3.4 Clear width. Protruding objects shall not reduce the minimum clear width of accessible routes. 1003.4 Floor surface. Walking surfaces of the means of egress shall have a slip-resistant surface and be securely attached. 1003.5 Elevation change. Where changes in elevation of less than 12 inches (305 mm) exist in the means of egress, sloped surfaces shall be used. Where the slope is greater than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope), ramps complying with Section 1010 shall be used. Where the difference in elevation is 6 inches (152 mm) or less, the ramp shall be equipped with either handrails or floor finish materials that contrast with adjacent floor finish materials. Exceptions: 2. A stair with a single riser or with two risers and a tread is permitted at locations not required to be accessible by Chapter 11, provided that the risers and treads comply with Section 1009.4, the minimum depth of the tread is 13 inches (330 mm) and at least one handrail complying with Section 1012 is provided within 30 inches (762 mm) of the centerline of the normal path of egress travel on the stair. 3. A step is permitted in aisles serving seating that has a difference in elevation less than 12 inches (305 mm) at locations not required to be accessible by Chapter 11, provided that the risers and treads comply with Section 1028.11 and the aisle is provided with a handrail complying with Section 1028.13. Throughout a story in a Group I-2 occupancy, any change in elevation in portions of the exit access that serve nonambulatory persons shall be by means of a ramp or sloped walkway. 1003.6 Means of egress continuity. The path of egress travel along a means of egress shall not be interrupted by any building element other than a means of egress component as specified in this chapter. Obstructions shall not be placed in the required width of a means of egress except projections permitted by this chapter. The required capacity of a means of egress system shall not be diminished along the path of 75


egress travel. Exception: Elevators used as an accessible means of egress in accordance with Section 1007.4. SECTION 1004 OCCUPANT LOAD 1004.1 Design occupant load. In determining means of egress requirements, the number of occupants for whom means of egress facilities shall be provided shall be determined in accordance with this section. Where occupants from accessory areas egress through a primary space, the calculated occupant load for the primary space shall include the total occupant load of the primary space plus the number of occupants egressing through it from the accessory area. 1004.1.1 Areas without fixed seating. The number of occupants shall be computed at the rate of one occupant per unit of area as prescribed in Table 1004.1.1. For areas without fixed seating, the occupant load shall not be less than that number determined by dividing the floor area under consideration by the occupant per unit of area factor assigned to the occupancy as set forth in Table 1004.1.1. Where an intended use is not listed in Table 1004.1.1, the building official shall establish a use based on a listed use that most nearly resembles the intended use. Exception: Where approved by the building official, the actual number of occupants for whom each occupied space, floor or building is designed, although less than those determined by calculation, shall be permitted to be used in the determination of the design occupant load. TABLE 1004.1.1 MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA ALLOWANCES PER OCCUPANT Assmebly with fixed seats See 1004.4 Assembly without fixed seats Concentrated (chairs only) 7 net Standing space 5 net Unconcentrated (tables and chairs) 15 net Educational Classroom area 20 net Shops and vocational rooms 50 net Library Reading rooms 50 net Stack area 100 gross 1004.2 Increased occupant load. The occupant load permitted in any building, or portion thereof, is permitted to be increased from that number established for the occupancies in Table 1004.1.1, provided that all other requirements of the code are also met based on such modified number and the occupant load does not exceed one occupant per 7 square feet (0.65 m2) of occupiable floor space. Where required by the building official, an approved aisle, seating or fixed equipment diagram substantiating any increase in occupant load shall be submitted. Where required by the building official, such diagram shall be posted. 1004.3 Posting of occupant load. Every room or space that is an assembly occupancy shall have the occupant load of the room or space posted in a conspicuous place, near the main exit or exit access doorway from the room or space. Posted signs shall be of an approved legible permanent design and shall be maintained by the owner or authorized agent. 76


1004.4 Exiting from multiple levels. Where exits serve more than one floor, only the occupant load of each floor considered individually shall be used in computing the required capacity of the exits at that floor, provided that the exit capacity shall not decrease in the direction of egress travel. 1004.5 Egress convergence. Where means of egress from floors above and below converge at an intermediate level, the capacity of the means of egress from the point of convergence shall not be less than the sum of the two floors. 1004.7 Fixed seating. For areas having fixed seats and aisles, the occupant load shall be determined by the number of fixed seats installed therein. The occupant load for areas in which fixed seating is not installed, such as waiting spaces and wheelchair spaces, shall be determined in accordance with Section 1004.1.1 and added to the number of fixed seats. For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches (457 mm) of seating length. The occupant load of seating booths shall be based on one person for each 24 inches (610 mm) of booth seat length measured at the backrest of the seating booth. 1004.8 Outdoor areas. Yards, patios, courts and similar outdoor areas accessible to and usable by the building occupants shall be provided with means of egress as required by this chapter. The occupant load of such outdoor areas shall be assigned by the building official in accordance with the anticipated use. Where outdoor areas are to be used by persons in addition to the occupants of the building, and the path of egress travel from the outdoor areas passes through the building, means of egress requirements for the building shall be based on the sum of the occupant loads of the building plus the outdoor areas. Exceptions: 1. Outdoor areas used exclusively for service of the building need only have one means of egress. 1004.9 Multiple occupancies. Where a building contains two or more occupancies, the means of egress requirements shall apply to each portion of the building based on the occupancy of that space. Where two or more occupancies utilize portions of the same means of egress system, those egress components shall meet the more stringent requirements of all occupancies that are served. SECTION 1005 EGRESS WIDTH 1005.1 Minimum required egress width. The means of egress width shall not be less than required by this section. The total width of means of egress in inches (mm) shall not be less than the total occupant load served by the means of egress multiplied by 0.3 inch (7.62 mm) per occupant for stairways and by 0.2 inch (5.08 mm) per occupant for other egress components. The width shall not be less than specified elsewhere in this code. Multiple means of egress shall be sized such that the loss of any one means of egress shall not reduce the available capacity to less than 50 percent of the required capacity. The maximum capacity required from any story of a building shall be maintained to the termination of the means of egress. 1005.2 Door encroachment. Doors, when fully opened, and handrails shall not reduce the required means of egress width by more than 7 inches (178 mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the required width by more than one-half. Other nonstructural projections such as trim and similar decorative features shall be permitted to project into the required width a maximum of 11/2 inches (38 mm) on each side. Exception: The restrictions on a door swing shall not apply to doors within individual dwelling units and

77


sleeping units of Group R-2 and dwelling units of Group R-3. 1005.3 Door hardware encroachment. Surface-mounted latch release hardware shall be exempt from inclusion in the 7-inch (178 mm) maximum projection requirement of Section 1005.2 when: 1. The hardware is mounted to the side of the door facing the corridor width when the door is in the open position; and 2. The hardware is mounted not less than 34 inches (865 mm) or more than 48 inches (1220 mm) above the finished floor. SECTION 1007 ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS 1007.1 Accessible means of egress required. Accessible means of egress shall comply with this section. Accessible spaces shall be provided with not less than one accessible means of egress. Where more than one means of egress are required by Section 1015.1 or 1021.1 from any accessible space, each accessible portion of the space shall be served by not less than two accessible means of egress. Exceptions: 1. Accessible means of egress are not required in alterations to existing buildings. 1007.2 Continuity and components. Each required accessible means of egress shall be continuous to a public way and shall consist of one or more of the following components: 1. Accessible routes complying with Section 1104. 6. Horizontal exits complying with Section 1025. 7. Ramps complying with Section 1010. 8. Areas of refuge complying with Section 1007.6. Exceptions: 1. Where the exit discharge is not accessible, an exterior area for assisted rescue must be provided in accordance with Section 1007.7. Exceptions: 1. In buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator shall not be required on floors provided with a horizontal exit and located at or above the levels of exit discharge. Exception: Areas of refuge located within an exit enclosure. 1007.6.3 Two-way communication. Areas of refuge shall be provided with a two-way communication system complying with Sections 1007.8.1 and 1007.8.2. 1007.7 Exterior area for assisted rescue. The exterior area for assisted rescue must be open to the outside air and meet the requirements of Section 1007.6.1. Separation walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 705 for exterior walls. Where walls or openings are between the area for assisted rescue and the interior of the building, the building exterior walls within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of a nonrated wall or unprotected opening shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour. This construction shall extend vertically from the ground to a point 10 feet (3048 mm) above the floor level of the area for assisted rescue or to the roof line, whichever is lower. 78


1007.7.1 Openness. The exterior area for assisted rescue shall be at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the guards shall be so distributed as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases. 1007.9 Signage. Signage indicating special accessibility provisions shall be provided as shown: 1. Each door providing access to an area of refuge from an adjacent floor area shall be identified by a sign stating: AREA OF REFUGE. 2. Each door providing access to an exterior area for assisted rescue shall be identified by a sign stating: EXTERIOR AREA FOR ASSISTED RESCUE. Signage shall comply with the ICC A117.1 requirements for visual characters and include the International Symbol of Accessibility. Where exit sign illumination is required by Section 1011.2, the signs shall be illuminated. Additionally, tactile signage complying with ICC A117.1 shall be located at each door to an area of refuge and exterior area for assisted rescue in accordance with Section 1011.3. 1007.10 Directional signage. Direction signage indicating the location of the other means of egress and which are accessible means of egress shall be provided at the following: 1. At exits serving a required accessible space but not providing an approved accessible means of egress. 2. At elevator landings. 3. Within areas of refuge. SECTION 1008 DOORS, GATES AND TURNSTILES 1008.1 Doors. Means of egress doors shall meet the requirements of this section. Doors serving a means of egress system shall meet the requirements of this section and Section 1020.2. Doors provided for egress purposes in numbers greater than required by this code shall meet the requirements of this section. Means of egress doors shall be readily distinguishable from the adjacent construction and finishes such that the doors are easily recognizable as doors. Mirrors or similar reflecting materials shall not be used on means of egress doors. Means of egress doors shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decorations or similar materials. 1008.1.1 Size of doors. The minimum width of each door opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall provide a clear width of 32 inches (813 mm). Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees (1.57 rad). Where this section requires a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 32 inches (813 mm). The maximum width of a swinging door leaf shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. Means of egress doors in a Group I-2 occupancy used for the movement of beds shall provide a clear width not less than 411/2 inches (1054 mm). The height of door openings shall not be less than 80 inches (2032 mm). 1008.1.1.1 Projections into clear width. There shall not be projections into the required clear width lower than 34 inches (864 mm) above the floor or ground. Projections into the clear opening width between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) above the floor or ground shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm). Exception: Door closers and door stops shall be permitted to be 78 inches (1980 mm) minimum above the floor. 1008.1.2 Door swing. Egress doors shall be of the pivoted or side-hinged swinging type.

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1008.1.3 Door opening force. The force for pushing or pulling open interior swinging egress doors, other than fire doors, shall not exceed 5 pounds (22 N). For other swinging doors, as well as sliding and folding doors, the door latch shall release when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) force. The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a 30-pound (133 N) force. The door shall swing to a full-open position when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) force. 1008.1.3.1 Location of applied forces. Forces shall be applied to the latch side of the door. 1008.1.4 Special doors. Special doors and security grilles shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1008.1.4.1 through 1008.1.4.5. 1008.1.4.4 Access-controlled egress doors. The entrance doors in a means of egress in buildings with an occupancy in Group A, B, E, I-2, M, R-1 or R-2 and entrance doors to tenant spaces in occupancies in Groups A, B, E, I-2, M, R-1 and R-2 are permitted to be equipped with an approved entrance and egress access control system which shall be installed in accordance with all of the following criteria: 1. A sensor shall be provided on the egress side arranged to detect an occupant approaching the doors. The doors shall be arranged to unlock by a signal from or loss of power to the sensor. 2. Loss of power to that part of the access control system which locks the doors shall automatically unlock the doors. 3. The doors shall be arranged to unlock from a manual unlocking device located 40 inches to 48 inches (1016 mm to 1219 mm) vertically above the floor and within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the secured doors. Ready access shall be provided to the manual unlocking device and the device shall be clearly identified by a sign that reads “PUSH TO EXIT.� When operated, the manual unlocking device shall result in direct interruption of power to the lock-independent of the access control system electronics-and the doors shall remain unlocked for a minimum of 30 seconds. 4. Activation of the building fire alarm system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the doors, and the doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset. 5. Activation of the building automatic sprinkler or fire detection system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the doors. The doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset. 6. Entrance doors in buildings with an occupancy in Group A, B, E or M shall not be secured from the egress side during periods that the building is open to the general public. 1008.1.4.5 Security grilles. In Groups B, F, M and S, horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles are permitted at the main exit and shall be openable from the inside without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort during periods that the space is occupied. The grilles shall remain secured in the full-open position during the period of occupancy by the general public. Where two or more means of egress are required, not more than one-half of the exits or exit access doorways shall be equipped with horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles. 1008.1.5 Floor elevation. There shall be a floor or landing on each side of a door. Such floor or landing shall be at the same elevation on each side of the door. Landings shall be level except for exterior landings, which are permitted to have a slope not to exceed 0.25 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope). Exceptions: 4. Variations in elevation due to differences in finish materials, but not more than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm). 5. Exterior decks, patios or balconies that are part of Type B dwelling units, have impervious surfaces and that are not more than 4 inches (102 mm) below the finished floor level of the adjacent interior space of the dwelling unit. 1008.1.6 Landings at doors. Landings shall have a width not less than the width of the stairway or the door, whichever is greater. Doors in the fully open position shall not reduce a required dimension by more than 7 inches (178 mm). When a landing serves an occupant load of 50 or more, doors in any position shall not reduce the landing to less than one-half its required width. Landings shall have a length measured in the 80


direction of travel of not less than 44 inches (1118 mm). Exceptions: 1. The minimum distance between horizontal sliding power-operated doors in a series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm). 1008.1.9 Door operations. Except as specifically permitted by this section egress doors shall be readily openable from the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort. 1008.1.9.1 Hardware. Door handles, pulls, latches, locks and other operating devices on doors required to be accessible by Chapter 11 shall not require tight grasping, tight pinching or twisting of the wrist to operate. 1008.1.9.2 Hardware height. Door handles, pulls, latches, locks and other operating devices shall be installed 34 inches (864 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1219 mm) maximum above the finished floor. Locks used only for security purposes and not used for normal operation are permitted at any height. SECTION 1009 STAIRWAYS 1009.1 Stairway width. The width of stairways shall be determined as specified in Section 1005.1, but such width shall not be less than 44 inches (1118 mm). See Section 1007.3 for accessible means of egress stairways. Exceptions: 1. Stairways serving an occupant load of less than 50 shall have a width of not less than 36 inches (914 mm). SECTION 1012 HANDRAILS 1012.1 Where required. Handrails for stairways and ramps shall be adequate in strength and attachment in accordance with Section 1607.7. Handrails required for stairways by Section 1009.12 shall comply with Sections 1012.2 through 1012.9. Handrails required for ramps by Section 1010.8 shall comply with Sections 1012.2 through 1012.8. 1012.3 Handrail graspability. All required handrails shall comply with Section 1012.3.1 or shall provide equivalent graspability. 1012.3.1 Type I. Handrails with a circular cross section shall have an outside diameter of at least 11/4 inches (32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (51 mm). If the handrail is not circular, it shall have a perimeter dimension of at least 4 inches (102 mm) and not greater than 61/4 inches (160 mm) with a maximum crosssection dimension of 21/4 inches (57 mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm). 1012.3.2 Type II. Handrails with a perimeter greater than 61/4 inches (160 mm) shall provide a graspable finger recess area on both sides of the profile. The finger recess shall begin within a distance of 3/4 inch (19 mm) measured vertically from the tallest portion of the profile and achieve a depth of at least 5/16 inch (8 mm) within 7/8 inch (22 mm) below the widest portion of the profile. This required depth shall continue for at least 3/8 inch (10 mm) to a level that is not less than 13/4 inches (45 mm) below the tallest portion of the profile. The minimum width of the handrail above the recess shall be 11/4 inches (32 mm) to a maximum of 23/4 inches (70 mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm). 1012.4 Continuity. Handrail gripping surfaces shall be continuous, without interruption by newel posts or other obstructions. Exceptions: 81


3. Handrail brackets or balusters attached to the bottom surface of the handrail that do not project horizontally beyond the sides of the handrail within 11/2 inches (38 mm) of the bottom of the handrail shall not be considered obstructions. For each 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of additional handrail perimeter dimension above 4 inches (102 mm), the vertical clearance dimension of 11/2 inches (38 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced by 1/8 inch (3 mm). 4. Where handrails are provided along walking surfaces with slopes not steeper than 1:20, the bottoms of the handrail gripping surfaces shall be permitted to be obstructed along their entire length where they are integral to crash rails or bumper guards. 1012.5 Fittings. Handrails shall not rotate within their fittings. 1012.6 Handrail extensions. Handrails shall return to a wall, guard or the walking surface or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent stair flight or ramp run. Where handrails are not continuous between flights, the handrails shall extend horizontally at least 12 inches (305 mm) beyond the top riser and continue to slope for the depth of one tread beyond the bottom riser. At ramps where handrails are not continuous between runs, the handrails shall extend horizontally above the landing 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the top and bottom of ramp runs. The extensions of handrails shall be in the same direction of the stair flights at stairways and the ramp runs at ramps. Exceptions: 3. Handrails for alternating tread devices and ship ladders are permitted to terminate at a location vertically above the top and bottom risers. Handrails for alternating tread devices and ship ladders are not required to be continuous between flights or to extend beyond the top or bottom risers. 1012.7 Clearance. Clear space between a handrail and a wall or other surface shall be a minimum of 11/2 inches (38 mm). A handrail and a wall or other surface adjacent to the handrail shall be free of any sharp or abrasive elements. 1012.8 Projections. On ramps, the clear width between handrails shall be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum. Projections into the required width of stairways and ramps at each handrail shall not exceed 41/2 inches (114 mm) at or below the handrail height. Projections into the required width shall not be limited above the minimum headroom height required in Section 1009.2.

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concept

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generative intent

between earth and sky The earth is rigid and ignorant. Conversly, the sky is a place of enlightenment and knowledge. When these two forces meet, the connection and transformation is both electric and ambiguous. This meeting can be used as a metaphor for the educational system. Ignorance is educated and becomes enlightened making this transformation between the two the key in today’s society. This metaphor was used in the initial concept phase. From it, three design drivers were formed which dictate architectural form and zoning.

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transformation [a change in form or appearance] current state of classrooms: all classrooms the same students learn the same use outdated design models opportunities: spaces for all learning styles adaptable and flexible options transitional organization of spaces administration is decentralized

connectivity [a state of being interconnected] current state of classrooms: classrooms are isolated designated uses in designated areas spaces are segmented opportunities: open circulation open and comfortable spaces unifying commons space

interlocking [to engage with each other by overlapping or fitting together] current state of classrooms: segmented classrooms no variety of adjacent spaces opportunities: physical and visual adjacencies indoor-outdoor connections engagement between spaces

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schematics

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existing conditions

Circulation

Classrooms

The main entry of the school is located in the NW corner of the school, however, students only enter from the southern athletic entrance nearest to the parking lot. Long hallways and dispersed classrooms create traffic jams when students enter the main corridor while the smaller halls are overcrowded with lockers.

Although the intent of the school’s curriculum is to have specialized academies, classroom wings are scattered throughout the building. These wings are monotonous with classrooms lining each side of a long corridor. Corridors are used only for during passing periods between classes for circulation and locker access. There are no visual connections between learning spaces.

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Common Spaces

Public Spaces

Social areas are dispersed and only connected to the rest of the school through singular entries. These spaces are solitary and only allowed to be used by students during designated times. The positioning of the library and cafeteria amongst the classroom wings create pinch points and crowding.

The performing arts and athletic facilities are the spaces most accessible to the public. The performing arts area however, is not adjacent to any parking. The athletic facilities are located near the parking lots, but not near the main entry which becomes an issue during school hours. In either situation, inconvenience is the primary problem.

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scheme a day of a student

building study

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master plan In this scheme, the unofficial student entry becomes the primary entry located near existing parking. All classroom wings remain the same, however the commons becomes a center core of the school. Vehicular circulation and bus drop off were a primary concern regarding this proposal.

performing arts constructionengineering arts-comm bio-med business

commons

athletics

entry

gym+ pool

parking

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scheme b commons adjacencies

organization iterations

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master plan Moving the entry to the east side of the building adjacent to the athletic fields and new parking allowed much of the shell to remain untouched. This new entry position allowed for a better flow of through traffic. A central commons is located around an outdoor courtyard upon entering the school. As a result of altering the shell as little as possible, circulation became confusing and not all the academies had direct access to the commons which was the original intent.

performing arts constructionengineering

arts-comm business

commons

entry

bio-med gym+ pool athletics

parking

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scheme c commons adjacencies

learning community iterations

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master plan In order to create a feeling of school pride and culture, the commons was increased to take up most of the building. With this scheme the thought was that the commons could serve all the larger group gatherings while the learning communities housed classrooms and small groups. The decision was reached that this hindered the idea of the learning communities.

performing arts constructionengineering arts-comm commons

bio-med entry

business gym+ pool athletics

parking

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exterior

sinking moitf entrance

terraced seating

entry

exterior courtyard

reception & security

learning community

small group collaboration

break-out space 98


learning community The idea of transformation is represented by the gradient from the inner courtyard to the learning studios on the interior. The learning studios are ganged together in such a way that movable walls allow for cross collaboration between classrooms. Adjacent to the learning studios are small group meeting and break-out areas. This scheme allows for the classrooms to have views to nature while the inner courtyard is accessible from multiple sides and brings daylight into the small groups spaces and corridors.

outdoor

outdoor

break-out small groups learning studios

1

lecture

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www.autodesk.com/revit

faculty

Description

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flex zone

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scheme d learning community adjacencies

learning community iterations

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master plan The classroom layout and circulation patterns are chaotic and maze-like. Although the main entrance is located on the NW corner of the building, almost all students enter from the southern athletic entrance due to its proximity to the parking lot. This creates confusion for parents and visitors as those doors are locked during school hours. The circulation paths and multitude of exit doors additionally create a safety and supervision hazard.

performing arts commons arts-comm

constructionengineering

entry bio-med

business gym+ pool athletics

parking

101


exterior

rising moitf entrance

outdoor seating

entry

student display & lounge

reception & security

learning community small group collaboration

break-out space 102


learning community scheme d In this final scheme the learning community has a maximum amount of learning studios with immediately adjacent small group and break-out spaces. The learning studios follow the classroom shape from the Crow Island School design. Each of the learning studios has direct views to outdoor courtyards and plentiful daylighting. The long corridors are broken up by small group and break-out spaces. Lecture and large flexible spaces are located in the farthest end of the learning community so students in these learning communities can feel the most ownership over these spaces and use them as a social meeting zone. These spaces would need high acoustic properties. With this scheme circulation becomes confusing and access to courtyards is minimal.

break-out outdoor

learning studios

small groups

learning studios

break-out lecture faculty outdoor

flex zone

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Author Checker


combined scheme Developing scheme b further and moving the performing arts center allowed all public spaces to be adjacent to the main entry and the center commons to be accessible directly by the learning communities.

constructionengineering arts-comm

performing arts

business entry

bio-med

commons gym+ pool athletics

104

parking


next steps | design development choose master plan synthesize interior schemes choose materials & finishes create learning space typicals enhance thresholds develope wayfinding & graphics apply sustainable programs

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development

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development process building sequence & procession

building organization & zoning

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iterations of commons space organization

learning community & section study

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building development

master plan 1 2

3 4

5 8

6 9 10

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1 arts+comm academy 2 engineering academy 3 performing arts 4 library+media 5 business academy 6 outdoor amphitheater 7 entrance+reception 8 bio-med academy 9 cafeteria 10 athletics


zoning public+service zone semi-private+social zone private+learning zone

circulation primary circulation secondary circulation building shell

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small learning communities

1

2

3

4 5

6

7 8

section study

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

learning studio study node learning lab lecture+flex space teacher teaming tech lab outdoor courtyard breakout space


business academy: teacher offices team planning

study concentrated work individual, small group

learning labs <10 students autonomy activity, breakout

learning studios 20-30 students teacher facilitation storage, activity, breakout

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entry+social commons 1

2

3

4

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9

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explanatory text...

1 2 3 4 5 6

elective classrooms library stacks media center library help desk academy principals outdoor amphitheater

7 reception+security 8 main entrance 9 cafeteria 10 food service 11 nurse+counselor 12 special education

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entry+social commons

learning studio

breakout space

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cafeteria

library

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proposal

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site The key move to relocate the entry was made to ensure that the school has a clear indentity and entrance. Students, parents and visitors all use the same entrance as opposed to multiple entries in the current condition of the school. Relocating the entry accross from the athletic fields additionally gave that area a strong sense of school pride and indentity.

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7

main entry faculty parking athletic field pick up-drop off bus drop off parking tennis courts


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4

entry

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3

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identity The performing arts area was moved to the East side of the school allowing it to have access to the main parking lot and main entry. As stated previously, relocating the entrance provides the first approach into West with a sense of identity and school pride. By sandwiching it between the performing arts and athletics, it further establishes this as the primary threshold between the school and the public. Through this design decision, security is also addressed by ensuring all public access is limited to this side of the school. performing arts

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entry

athletics

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entrance+admin

Upon the initial entry into the school, the students or visitors are met with the reception and security. The head principal and additional administrative offices are located just north of the primary path moving into the school. It is important to keep the head principal near the front and provide the initial face of the school. The academy principals are located closer to their respective learning communities and not in the main administrative wing. In the southern portion of this corridor, the counselor and nurse enjoy a close proximity to the entrance as well as the athletics facilities in case of injuries.

1 2 3 4 5

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administration head principal reception+security student display+lounge counselor+nurse


1

2

3

4

5 125


entry

[connectivity] relocating entry gives school an identity and connection to site

materiality inpired by surrounding industrial zone connecting the school to the site and its history breadth motif gives school exterior a distinct visual presence and guide to entrance

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community Housing all the social and gathering spaces in a central commons allows the school to come together and have an enhanced sense of community. With the new learning communities, it is important to still have a place where all students can come together and have interdisciplinary contact. These spaces are also key to grow â&#x20AC;&#x153;soft skillsâ&#x20AC;? that come from social interaction.

library+media center

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outdoor courtyard

dining center

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library+media center

The library and media center is a place to stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration and learning. Large group meeting spaces are enclosed to provide acoustic privacy within the library. The position of the library help desk allows the library attendant to maintain visual supervision of technology. The core of the library has a mix of informal small group spaces and individual work space. The stack are housed in the private side of the library.

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1

2

5 3

4

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academy principles elective classrooms stacks media center flex-lecture space help desk activity space

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library+media center

[connectivity] learning spaces allow for interdisciplinary collaboration

informal learning spaces

interdisciplinary meeting space

technology bar and help desk

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library+media center

[transformation] individual & group work spaces vary with learning & teaching preferences

informal learning space

common color psychology principles claim peach & green evoke feelings of stasis & conctration

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outdoor courtyard

The central outdoor courtyard provides the dining center, library and primary corridors with plentiful daylight. On nice days, the courtyard can be opened up to let fresh air flow through the school. The courtyard can be utilized for a variety of school functions, classes and study habbits.

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1 2 3

varied seating native plantings amphitheatre

1 2

3

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outdoor courtyard

[interlocking] courtyards allow students to flow inside & outside while remaining protected

amphitheatre and outdoor learning area seating

varied seating & views

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dining center

The dining center is a multi-purpose space which fosters community and socializing. The food service is located on the most public side of the dining center. In the center, a large stage and movable tables and chairs allow the space to become used for a variety of functions. In the more private area of the dining center, a mix of cafe, lounge and booth seating creates more intimate or individual eating spaces.

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3

4 5

6

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cafe seating lg group seating food service stage academy principals elective classrooms special education

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dining center

[transformation] agile furniture allows space to be flexible & multi-use

red & yellow, the schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s colors, promote community and school pride

movable furniture lets the space remain multi-purpose

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143


growth+learning The learning communities are positioned along the perimeter of the school surrounding the commons. This becomes the private zone of the school as one progresses from the entrance, through the commons and finally to the learning communities. Although there are four distict learning communities in this proposal, the business academy became the focus as the project moved from macro to micro.

small learning communities

144


learning courtyards

business academy focus

145


learning community

Each community has a learning courtyard at its core providing students with access to nature on a smaller scale. Additionally it allows daylight to penetrate the corridors. Learning studios are positioned along the perimeter with plentiful access to daylighting and natural views as well. Break-out spaces adjacent to the learning studios let teachers and students utilize these spaces for different class activities or learning styles. The centrally located learning lab provides a common area for the learning community with academy-specific spaces.

1 2 3 4

146

learning studio study node learning lab teacher teaming

5 6 7 8

flex-lecture space tech lab outdoor courtyard breakout space


1

4 5

2

3

7 8

147


learning community teacher offices teaming planning

148


study individual, small group concentrated work

break-out spaces <10 students autonomy activity, breakout

learning studios 20-30 students teacher facilitation storage, activity, breakout

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learning community

connection to nature

150

common spaces


interlocking spaces

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break-out space

[interlocking] informal transitions link active space with formal learning spaces

active courtyards create places where students can spend time outside whether its for learning or hang out while still being protected within the school common color psychology principles claim blue conveys logic & communication

varied learning locations for group meetings or alternate class settings â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;watering holeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; modality enriches studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; soft skills and serves as a node within the primary paths

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learning studio

[transformation] varied spaces & furniture within classroom adapt to learning & teaching styles

scenic courtyards provide students with views to nature without becoming a distraction

break-out space with soft seating and storage create a flexible work zone

agile furniture allows this active work zone to transform as teachers and students dictate

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155


learning lab

[connectivity] specialized labs create a common space to connect each academy

academy-specific learning labs provide space for the learning community to come together and use common amenities a mix of soft seating and task areas allow the learning lab to serve many functions as needed by the learning community

informal â&#x20AC;&#x153;living roomsâ&#x20AC;? provide comfortable places for students to work on school work instead of going home

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furniture specifications commons

158

node | steelcase

flat | ofs brands

re | ofs brands

collier | loewenstein


lagunitas | coalesse

range+applause | ofs brands 159


furniture specifications learning communities

160

node | steelcase

verb | steelcase

mediascape | steelcase

tangent | ofs brands


sw_1 | coalesse

basil | ofs brands 161


model study

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163


164


bibliography

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sources Color Psychology “Color Xperience.” JCT Coatings Tech, (2007): 44-45. Markus A. Maier. “Color Psychology: Effects of Perceiving Color on Psychological Functioning in Humans.” Annual Review of Psychology, 65 (2014): 95-120. Meerwein, G., B. Rodeck, F. H. Mahnke. Color – Communication in Architectural Space. Berlin: Birkhauser Verlag AG, 2007. Crisis in Education Chuck, Elizabeth. “US in a ‘real state of crisis,’ education secretary says.’ NBC News. October 2013. http://www.nbcnews.com/news/other/us-real-state-crisis-education secretary-says-f8C11354527 “The Education Crisis.” The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation. Accessed December 2014. http://www.broadeducation.org/about/crisis_stats.html Lighting Chou, Chinmei, Li-Chen Chen. “Effects on different age levels of distinct light environment design.” Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering, 30, no. 8 (2013): 488-494. So, Albert T.P., L.M. Leung. “Indoor Lighting Design Incorporating Human Psychology.” Architectural Science Review, 41 (2013): 113-124. Other Considerations “The Education Crisis.” The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation. Accessed December 2014. http://www.broadeducation.org/about/crisis_stats.html Kuo, F.E., & Faber Taylor, A. A potential natural treatment for Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence from a national study. American Journal of Public Health 94, no. 9 (2004): 1580-1586. Lynch, K. Image of the City. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1960. Nair, P., Fielding, R., Lackney, J. The Language of School Design: Design Patterns for 21st Century Schools. 2009. Perkins, B. Building Type Basics for Elementary and Secondary Schools. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2001. Precents “Augustus F. Hawkins High School/CSDA Design Group” Arch Daily. May 2013. http://www. archdaily.com/371349/augustus-f-hawkins-high-school-csda-design-group/ “Camino Nuevo High School.” US News & World Report. Accessed September 2014. 166


http://www.usnews.com/education/best-high-schools/california/districts/los-angeles unified-school-district/camino-nuevo-high-school-charter-2633 “Camino Nuevo High School/Daly Genik Architects.” Arch Daily. May 2011. http://www. archdaily.com/134218/camino-nuevo-high-school-daly-genik-architects/ “Marysville Gretchell Campus.” DLR Group. Accessed March 2015. http://www.dlrgroup. com/work/marysville-getchell-high-school/ “Marysville Gretchell High School/DLR Group.” Arch Daily. August 2011. http://www. archdaily.com/155917/marysville-getchell-high-school-dlr-group/ “Metea Valley High School.” US News & World Report. Accessed September 2014. http:// www.usnews.com/education/best-high-schools/illinois/districts/indian-prairie-school district/metea-valley-high-school-7069 “Metea Valley High School/DLR Group.” Arch Daily. May 2010. http://www.archdaily. com/61986/metea-valley-high-school-dlr-group/ School Facilities “Guidelines for School Facilities in Virginia’s Public Schools.” Virginia Department of Education (2013): 8-41 “Guideline for Square Footage Requirements in Educational Facilities.” Georgia Department of Education (2012): 2-12 “School Library Programs: Standards and Guidelines for Texas.” Texas State Library Archives Commission. March 2011. https://www.tsl.texas.gov/ld/schoollibs/sls/stand4. html “Square Footage Recommendations.” North Dakota Department of Public Instruction. Accessed December 2014. https://www.dpi.state.nd.us/finance/construct/sqfoot.pdf Small Schools Movement Lambert, Mary Beth, Catherine A. Wallach, and Brinton S. Ramsey. “The Other 3 R’s.” National Staff Development Council 28, no. 4 (2007): 36-40. Ravitz, Jason. “Beyond Changing Culture in Small High Schools: Reform Models and Changing Instruction With Project-Based Learning.” Peabody Journal of Education 85, no. 3 (2010): 290-312. Wyse, Adam E., Venessa Keesler, and Barbara Schneider. “Assessing the Effects of Small School Size on Mathematics Achievement: A Propensity Score-Matching Approach.” Teachers College Record 110, no. 9 (2008): 1879-900. Ayers, William, Michael Klonsky. “Chicago Renaissance 2010: The Small Schools Movement Meets The Ownership Society.” Phi Delta Kappan 87, no. 6 (2006): 453-457. Ready, Douglas D., Valerie E. Lee. “Choice, Equity, and the Schools-Within-Schools Reform.” Teachers College Record 110, no. 9 (2008): 1930-1958. Wallach, Catherine A. “The Complexities of Operating Multiple Small Schools in a High School Conversion.” Peabody Journal of Education 85, no. 3 (2010): 264-275. Devine, John. “The Discourse on Violence Prevention.” Annals New York Academy of Sciences 1036 (2004): 69-84. 167


Maroulis, Spiro, Louis M. Gomez. “Does ‘Connectedness’ Matter? Evidence From a Social Network Analysis Within a Small-School Reform.” Teachers College Record 110, no. 9 (2008): 1901-1929. Galletta, Anne, Jennifer Ayala. “Erasure and Survival: Creating a Future and Managing a Past in a Restructuring High School.” Teachers College Record 110, no. 9 (2008): 1959-1985. Ancess, Jacqueline, David Allen. “Implementing Small Theme High Schools in New York City: Great Intentions and Great Tensions.” Harvard Educational Review 76, no. 3 (2006): 401-416. Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia. “Measuring Funds of Knowledge: Contributions to Latina/o Students’ Academic and Nonacademic Outcomes.” Teachers College Record 112, no. 8 (2010): 2209-2257. Epstein, Kitty Kelly. “Miracle School: A Child of the Civil Rights Movement.” Phi Delta Kappan (2004): 773-776. Hammack, Floyd M. “Off the Record—Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed, Something Blue: Observations on the Small Schools Movement.” Teachers College Record 110, no. 9 (2008): 2067-2072. Feldman, Jay, Anne O’Dwyer. “Patters in Student Perceptions of Start-Up and Conversion Small High Schools.” Peabody Journal of Education 83, no. 3 (2010): 313-332. Strike, Kenneth A. “Small Schools: Size or Community?” American Journal of Education 114, no. 3 (2008): 169-190. Iatarola, Patrice, Amy Ellen Schwartz, Leanna Stiefel, Colin C. Chellman. “Small Schools, Large Districts: Small-School Reform and New York City’s Students.” Teachers College Record 110, no. 9 (2010): 1837-1878. McQuillan, Patrick J. “Small-School Reform Through the Lens of Complexity Theory: It’s “Good to Think With.”” Teachers College Record 110, no. 9 (2008): 1772-1801. Phillippo, Kate. “Teachers Providing Social and Emotional Support: A Study of Advisor Role Enactment in Small High Schools.” Teachers College Record 112, no. 8 (2010): 2258 2293. Semel, Susan F., Alan R. Sadovnik. “The Contemporary Small-School Movement: Lessons f from the History of Progressive Education.” Teachers College Record 110, no. 9 (2008): 1744-1771. Kafka, Judith. “Thinking Big About Getting Small: An Ideological Genealogy of Small-School Reform.” Teachers College Record 110, no. 9 (2008): 1802-1836. Sustainability Gelfand, Lisa, Eric Corey Freed. Sustainable School Architecture. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010. National Park Service. Principles of Sustainable Design. Denver: United States Department of the Interior, 1993.

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West High School “West High.” US News & World Report. Accessed September 2014. http://www.usnews. com/education/best-high-schools/kansas/districts/wichita-public-schools/west high-8204 “West High School.” Wichita Public Schools. http://west.usd259. org/?sessionid=dad68bc27d5a468041a332d32e0b97a1&t

Image Index Cover: Botten, Rachel. February 2015. Fig 1: D’Addario, Darren. “Students In The Nation’s Second-Largest School District Cracked The Tablets’ Security Settings.” Afflictor.com. October 2013. http://afflictor. com/2013/10/09/students-in-the-nations-second-largest-school-district-cracked-the tablets-security-settings/ Fig 2.1: “Marysville Gretchell Campus.” DLR Group. Accessed March 2015. http://www. dlrgroup.com/work/marysville-getchell-high-school/ Fig 2.2: “Metea Valley High School/DLR Group.” Arch Daily. May 2010. http://www. archdaily.com/61986/metea-valley-high-school-dlr-group/ Fig 3.1: “West High School improvements to begin.” Wichita Public Schools. June 2012. http://newsroom.usd259.org/modules/groups/group_pages. phtml?gid=1517498&nid=313441 Fig 3.2-3.7: Images adapted from Google maps, 2015. Fig 3.8-3.10: Botten, Rachel. February2015. Fig 4.1-4.3: “Metea Valley High School/DLR Group.” Arch Daily. May 2010. http://www. archdaily.com/61986/metea-valley-high-school-dlr-group/ Fig 5.1-5.3: “Camino Nuevo High School/Daly Genik Architects.” Arch Daily. May 2011. http://www.archdaily.com/134218/camino-nuevo-high-school-daly-genik-architects/ Fig 6.1-6.3: “Augustus F. Hawkins High School/CSDA Design Group.” Arch Daily. May 2013. http://www.archdaily.com/371349/augustus-f-hawkins-high-school-csda design-group/ Fig 7.1-7.10: “Marysville Gretchell Campus.” DLR Group. Accessed March 2015. http:// www.dlrgroup.com/work/marysville-getchell-high-school/ Fig 8.1: “Metea Valley High School/DLR Group.” Arch Daily. May 2010. http://www. archdaily.com/61986/metea-valley-high-school-dlr-group/ Fig 8.2: “Augustus F. Hawkins High School/CSDA Design Group.” Arch Daily. May 2013. http://www.archdaily.com/371349/augustus-f-hawkins-high-school-csda design-group/ Fig 8.3-8.4: “Marysville Gretchell Campus.” DLR Group. Accessed March 2015. http:// www.dlrgroup.com/work/marysville-getchell-high-school/ Fig 9.1-9.2: Meerwein, G., B. Rodeck, F. H. Mahnke. Color – Communication in Architectural Space. Berlin: Birkhauser Verlag AG, 2007. 169


Fig 9.3-9.5: Fig 10: “School Lighting can Change the Way Students Learn.” Relumination. October 2014. http://www.relumination.com/school-lighting-can-change-way-students-learn/ school-lighting-can-change-way-students-learn Fig 11: “New Classroom Block, Princethorpe College for The Princethorpe Foundation.” AT Architects. Accessed April 2015. http://www.atarchitects.co.uk/Portfolio/789# Fig 12: “Marysville Gretchell Campus.” DLR Group. Accessed March 2015. http://www. dlrgroup.com/work/marysville-getchell-high-school/ Fig 13: Adapted from “Dimensiones Del Cuerpo.“ https://niniadelunas.wordpress.com/t ipos-de-entramado/

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Graduate Thesis Project  

Interior Architecture, Transforming the Learning Environment for Secondary Education

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