Issuu on Google+

www.urdudost.com

1

-g ** 8 P8ÍËZ e gzZ $h e +] .ˆâ 7Œ Û g©

Ñ **

*` òŠ » Z! Š Zgzu

UrduDost Library


www.urdudost.com

UrduDost Library

2

pô7ÛŒg© et £]

Dr. Gopi Chand Narang Aur Maa Bad Jadidiat By: Haider Qureshi Year of First Edition 2009 Price Rs. 150/=

$h e +] .ˆâgzZ8 -g ** P8 ÍËZ e

:[Âx **

7Œ Û g©

:³ñz'

"Õ@· l

:tgzu

Y 2009 m

:® ) á Z

ì6, $h # +zY gƒÑ-ö6,

:-

1µæ… MQL VkÛnÎ

Sarwar Adabi Akadmi Haider Qureshi Rossertstr.6, Okriftel, 65795 Hattersheim, Germany. E-Mail: haider_qureshi2000@yahoo.com


www.urdudost.com

3

UrduDost Library

[^ OZ

−{”g Z m, ³§c* x ** ÆŠ !* WxsZDÚZk?k , æ Hx ZŠZ: Zq]Z` »ä™ù  á 8 -g ** P8 ÍËZ e äT gzZ

x ** Æg–@ á yZ/ à *ŠzŠg Z™É}pLZaÆ[Š Zh +] .äVM X H{ Ç WÐV¸udÆ8 -g** P8ÍËZ e


www.urdudost.com

4

W x Y » -  á ì à xÓ Vƒ: Ì[Š Z"g ezŠ ƒHäY: D‡]†Ê ‚Ûu]E

UrduDost Library


www.urdudost.com

5

UrduDost Library

†Ói ô…^`¾]

Vƒg Z ¦ / ]~ »‹ŠÑZg ø)** izg {g ZŠ Z

Z÷~ä™ù á Ã}p! Z }÷~cdkZäT X ‰ {g™ƒy.6, gzZ[Z Ñ5#ÆRd) c* ŠB‚Ð~g ëg!âZ

Vƒg Z ¦ / ]~ »‹ŠöÝ Zy*zy)** izg {g ZŠ Z Hù  á ™áÐ]mZÊ ZŠzgÅ~È0* 6, 12{gÑÆ[Š Zh +] .äT ÆkZ ˆðZÏ~È0* 6, ) ® á ZÅy*ó Šó ZŠzgÅV.~ m, z6, L LZ # gzZ Å~È0* ,Y** ^ gzZ Hù á B‚Æx ÈZgzZ‰ Ü z', ÌÃy*kZ~³ .c* ŠB‚ » h~äh ÂÃVzîi


www.urdudost.com

UrduDost Library

6

gni†i 7

×Z’Z

12

^ â Cg ZŠ Z 㠹Š12{g ÑÆ[Š Zh +] .

14 21

8 -g ** P8 ÍËZ e »DÚZk?

23

( 7ÛŒg©BI]¾)?k6zZq -Z6,, MÚZ

32

?ðZzg »È/µc* µ· ZÔîÅ q ÊÆV¸u [ Z »x Z²Z6 q -ZÆr # ™8 -g **

43 47

[ Z »nZ ‹Zq -ZÆò ‚m, z6, aò qÆ8 ¡ -g ** ËZ e

49

Qg !* -ZI]¾ q

50

~È0* 6, ñZgg ÖZQg !* -Z q Š ZŠz¥ÅV.~ m, z6,

51 55

â** Z6, -ZÐá ZjÆ] (‚ q

56

( Ðá ZjÆ$ e+ h. ]ˆâ ) aÎ~÷

57

(tg ZŠ Z »[Š Z+ h. ]) wgß@¬gzZe $h +] .ˆâ

58

( 7ÛŒg©Ô.k„Ü* *Ô ¸W, kizËZ e )¿› g6 ,bg ZŠ Z

63

5!~ Z!ßñ ] Z W, @* PÐ~æEÎG

87

( [NZÐ}pÆyZ/ ) ¡ ÅV ¸uÆ8 -g ** P8 ÍËZ e

( Ð+ $YN !* -Å] ,)~ö6, 8 ~ m, ôZ 1Ά‰ 1Ò -Þ…^Þ ‚ß2 oµç+ †9Ò]J 97

S. Singh & Jagdish Parkash

Comments

101

C. M. Naim The Emperor's New Clothes

102

C. M. Naim

Plagiarise and prosper 7


www.urdudost.com

7

UrduDost Library

×Z’Z $ gzZ](‚ ** ™~iÎ r â Šà{aÆK7Zì ]!* E¸ñW~·_}÷Z #t # IÆ](‚ øL F ËZ eZ # ~qzÑX ¬ŠÐVzÃðƒðAÐZ „:gzZ Å¿#Y" ÅkZ Â: ä~6, gîÆ»e ~W6 q -Zë @* X ¶C7, ÆT åtzg ãÎ 0* òÀ{z~‚f}÷A $X Zƒk\ZÐ]!* kZ ÅyZ=Âc* Šg Z Œ Û li ‚ÅV-Š·ÐZ är # ™wYÕ $ gzZ](‚kZ‰‰ë@* ,zÔ‰ Dƒ¢¹} hðg ZuZÆ](‚ øL F X D Wá ~g¹Ùi ‚~nçC Ù ë¯ ) !* ~WkZ~ V‡5 CZ fÐ r # ™ ¸Wk , iz ËZ e~ yÎ 0* ä ~X Š H@* ƒ kCyiz ~ ]!* År # ™wY ÕËZ e=, z X Z 7, 7A¼ÔZ 7, A¼X ÅÒÃÅK~p ÖZy‚WaÆKûe E 4hÃ$ »e kZ=)g fÆyZ ÂNƒ'‡5Ð r gzZ 5§ñ» + Y6,gî4 éMG 5E # ™uZg0 + -ŠZ # yZgzŠÆx ª~ ‹Š kZ ñƒ D™]!* 6,}g 0* ®Ë åƒ  oUt »kZX å ™{ »e $h +] .** ™ uÃ'Ð ~ ðX ¯ 7W, @* YZ¼ »kZ Æ]ñ{°‡!* ¶„g™7uÃ'e $h +] .ˆâ pXnƒ: ZgZ—Y)·_gzZXƒ: i Z0 +Z W, Zû%gzZw CZ f Å'Æ +] h .ˆâ ÝZgŠ Ã~g ‡Š .x ** kZ ¶„g Y~Š ÌZgzZ å;g Y¹ë Z)ÌÃQB‚Æy´ZÆ]ñÅ'X ¶„gg @* Z^v ÏZ ä~X å;g { e** Zߊg Z Œ Û D¬ƒŠ Z „Ã]ZŠñ Û LZÆ™− Â"Ã]&gzZVzg»ð{zåÝ!* Ðp Ò!Šp Š Õ(ZX åŠ Õ X Å¿#h +”ÅbzgkZ Ì~oèá Zzà Ÿ ~b‚ggzZ Ì~}pzŠq -Z LZ~äâ i :ì YYŒJ -uËÃaÎ~÷gzZ·_}÷ÐmÆe $h +] .ˆâ Ð]‚½ZäZ6, zŠyZ}÷Ðá ZjkZ 4 {Š c* i Â,™7ä%ÆWi¤ /Z ñO Å ä™yÒ ~ i Z0 +Z {6zjgzZ ÚÔÂûe kZ +Š** C(‚L LX 1 -ZXì:%gZ0 q + á »WiC(‚ó ó³7, :ùÃ;L Ly*»yZXì HÝqi Z ³Z »qzZ~ekZ är # ™8 -g ** Xì ;g Y H~g Y)** $Z@ Š** e ¨s§~uzŠXì ~gz¢ ** g @* Z^vÆ]ñÃ'ì h +” ÚZ kˆZ » ~Š Zi WÅ ~g ‡s§ X ³7, :ùgzZ³7, ùÃ;ì


www.urdudost.com

8

UrduDost Library

Vzg›ZŠ O%Z‰6,R@¬gzZì weq -Z Å䃙6,[Š Z ÅVzŠ ÕÝ!* Ð p Ò!~h WÅ~g‡t6,R!Š ZX s çqø ó Xó úC;Å~²µ ˆZÆ

( 237Ô 236™X Y 1994cŠ @* ðÑ Ô 3{g ÑÔ { hƒÔj‰„â&·,â)

äZ™gz!* $s‚Šp~ Vzk e , ’p" ÔÑ äƒdl ÆW( Œ| # ‚gzZ ) C(‚VŒ }g ø „‰L LX 2 ~g¬Ð ¢ A &! +Š** , Z}g øpVƒ&ðC~zb q -Z ÌûŠ ~W6 kZ~X ðW0űg  á gzZ +Š** á Zz f e™ Za } 8 -gœÆãç~k , ’Æ" Ô p" ËëZ #  eÎäVrZX ÎäWkZg „ {Š c* i¼ »e ~Wt7Z¸ b§kZÐ ðÃg»ðä +Š** Ý!* Ð p Ò!™á h WÅ ~g ‡çO___!Hg »ðgzZ Hð X Zƒ CZ Zgø Âw¾ Zg ‚Q  LXì ~gYÌZ˜ÓötX Š Hc* Š™xzøÌÐhÆäƒ~g ‡Æð„ KZÃg »ð ____w!* Ð~æ‰HC Ù !* wï kˆZ7Z ÂÐVƒrg ÃÐÚÓvßg c* X ìgƒæW',F, ½Ð~wâ zg LgzZìg Yñ3Š™wïlÍy  Ð8 IÅ[Š Z ó Xó ì @* ™ì‡yi Z Âq -ZÎâÆ~g ‡gzZðÔg »ðÂ[Š Z ǃ [Š ZzŠg Z@¬X Y 1995ag â ~gz Û : {g ÑÔgƒÑt ZgzZ)xâ·,X k½Z »y*‰‘6,ЛßÆ0Òp « z** ÆuZg0 + -Š ) ( uZg0 + -ŠY 1995:{g ÑX ‹Š G G¢ IèyZ~³Æ ö-šz"ÅVâzŠðgzZ'._Æ]Zg¦h +] .ˆâ åt{z;g¯ ) !* »÷¡a}÷ NgzZq -Z G-šG ¢ yZÉ ¶Cƒ ö z"c* ÔÅQÆV1Âò AZsÜ:ÔïŠzgŠ klá Zz+ âÆyZÃX¶Cƒd $†ÌÅV1 ã W ƒw„zÅ»e kZa}÷ˆÆh e™ÃN~Š ã CkZÆe $h +] .ˆâ X ¶CƒÔÌÅ Z} .á Zz ä™wi ** ( ' )Æ X¸`™yÒr # ™wYÕËZ e¬¹ ˆ X¸ìg^~} ], ZŠ ! Š Zzdq -Zt # I}g ‚tŠ z!* Ƽƒ  kZ X åJ - RÅ[Š ZzDt · ZgzZ s %Z Zg ‚J -VŒXì YYH?kÌÐVzg›ZŠh +] .ˆâ Âì Yƒ?kÐV-C Ù ŠZ # $ Ô](‚L L ó ó" L LÅr ˆâ ]!* ÂñWt ‚ ºuÆó ó]c* ĹægzZ](‚ øL F # ™8 -g** P8ÍËZ eZ #p

»g–@ á yZ/~( Y 2007cŠ @* ðÑ ) 9{g ÑÆ[Š Zh +] .~ŸkZX ˆ W6,NÆ¥gzZ c* ‘u™? Ø ÐXÆe $h +] . :H `gŠ^âtä~ñƒD™ù á y*

»y*kZX ìg™~ e ÝZ8 6,qçñÆPostmodern Literary TheoryÐ;gE- Ñ', g–@ á yZ/ L L Y &.)xâ y*tX Çìgg OZ »[Z ÆyZXce bŠŠpÃr ì [ ¾~Y 2006)Ü‚Æwì ëL E # ™8 -g ** P 8Í[Z

ì ;g YHù á ~[Š Z+ h. ]y*é e\ZtÎXì Š Hƒk HzŠÐ¬y*tgzZK±ŸZh +' × ~kZ ä@ á yZ/[Zë@* ó ótX bX ðûyZär # ™8 -g ** P8ÍËZ ep‰Kù  á }p&á Zz䙄0 +¶ KÅV¸u~11gzZ 10Ô 9{g ÑÆ[Š Z+ h. ]


www.urdudost.com

9

UrduDost Library

ä VrZpX å7ï á y*ðÃÑZz 䙄Š y¶ KÅV¸uÆr # ™8 -g ** ~ kZ Âå ;g¾Z # 12{g ÑX c* Š 7[Z

ˆ~Š ñZg6, V¸uÆyZ¹Z hð 6,],Æoè H Ÿ»gzZ c* ŠwZ e ƒ !* Š6,â  Û x™D}÷ñƒD™C Ù ª¿›gh +”7 -eZ ± 5 ó óã¹Å 12{gÑÆ [Š Zh +] .L Ly*Z÷ `gŠ6, 20™Æ [ ÏZaÆŠ ZŠzg ÅrkZ )X ñY Hsv .ÌÐZì (X â Û ,z y*ðà (Z~[Š Z+ h. ] ÂD™:Z +¬’  ¦Æ™C Ù ª¿›g ~gz¢)6,oèÆ12{g Ñr # ™8 -g ** P8 Í KZ r # ™8 -g ** ËZ epX å1™ñä~ˆÆŠ ZŠzgkZX ~ 7,rŠ ZŠzg ÅkZ=ˆÆ’  ¦ÅyZë@* X å** ƒ7ù  áÌ gzZ†e $.q -Z s Ü}÷Њ Õga Ïg Ãq -ZÆyßä VrZ~[Z ÆkZX ñƒnZg ** JÌ6,à Ÿ Š ZŠzg Å’ ¦ yZ:gzZ ¶wzðÃÅy*kZ:èY H7g ÖZ »¿›gËäVÍßëÌ6, ) ® á Z, zÅy*kZX c* Zy*: Ö#»n?f X åŠ HHù  á ÐZÐV˜Å' × g¯ B‚ Z÷b§~g7 ä V2zŠ}÷Q Š HH ù á ~ i ‚[Š Z!‚g ! Š ZÆr # ™I]¾Ãy*{Šƒ" ð•Z kZ Z # ë @* wkZ År • # ™8 -g ** tX c* 3Š™ù  á ~g £q -Z~3²¿¹É Hù  á sÜ:8 -g ** P8 Í »k?ä−{”g ZX c* Š I]¾ ǃ:û"™ftVŒX ¶Å~]gßÅäZ™ù á ~i ‚[Š ZÃy*{Šƒ"{gÃèäVrZ å[Z dgzZÜæ» ¹7aÆ® ) á Z ÅkZ 7Z ä r # ™8 -g ** Š H57Z y*Zƒ Z¤ /ð•ZÐ R! Š Z {z Z #  Bt s§q -Z r #™ :p ÖZ LZÆyZ 6X ǃ;gD»ƒ  kZÃr # ™8 -g * *D™gz!* Ìt{zë@* ~ ¹Ìt+ háä~X Vƒ&¸ Ì~¹ä~XìB;»# r™8g * *úÆy*kZ å¹Ðíä\W L L ó óX Vƒ}Y »® ) á Z Å8 -g ** Æk?Špä VrZ Âc* ZV~ i ‚[Š ZgzZ c* Zy*t ä r # ™8 -g ** /Zì I ÚZ sÜ= VŒ ¤ XceNÃr # ™I]¾[Z N»8 -g ** Æk?QÂì 74Š¿ðÃ~kZ »r # ™8 -g** /ZX 1â  ¤ Û nzÈ ** ™q Ê »r # ™8 -g ** äVÍßPÆ2 Ì §ZÆ]ZŠ ¢X ðƒðZk , +ÅkZ~*Š ~g7ˆÆ® 5 ) á Z Å8 -g ** Æk? X e™:7[Z ÜægzZdðûVÂok^Æ]‚½Z}g‚ƒeÆV¸uÌ¿q -Z ðÃp;e Xce** Yc* ŠÃ„r # ™8 -g ** P8 ÍËZ e Ì^i +™ »® ) á ZÅ[ÂkZ á Zz ä™s ÏZ »V¸uär # ™8 -g ** ˆÆkZpX ÇñYHxlí»kZ ÇñWÌZ # [Z dðû8 -g ** Æk? à ÇñOÅ?Š ËäVz0 + g »ÆyZX 1Äg6, Ši{Š c* i=~¨ £ÆyZgzZÃk?k , æ−{”g Z~¨ £Æg–@ á yZ/„  zŠ ~³Æð î~g ‚kZXì „g Y Å ~i ‚ÒðÃLÔì ;g Y c* Îx Z²Z {Šƒ" ðÃLX ~Š™ qzÑî~y!* iÅÙZ F, x Z²ZgzZ ]ZŠg Zz T §»„  (! Š Z År # ™8 -g **  Z 7,** ™g DWgîkZÃ|É ~ 7,bŠ ðÌKZsÜ:~ŸÆx Z²ZŸg !* Ù= C }÷Xì kÈuÆ r # ™8 -g ** P 8ÍËZ e ÌZ˜ » äZ}p~Š ã Cï á ~ [ kZ V-X Š H` @* Wt ‚™Á


www.urdudost.com

10

UrduDost Library

™6,í!Š WtZ # gzZX Š HH™6,íÔ H7ä~!Š Wtc* ÍX ‰ ‘6,gîÆ[Z ñƒD™wEZ h» q Ê}p B‚ƶŠ [Z Æ]â Z²ZX ÅB‚Æ)! Š Zz dgzZ@ZØ}g7Ô]ok^Ô?Š ~g7 ]!* Ù ~ÆckZ ä ~ Š C HH Æg Z Û Ð qçñÆV¸uÆr # ™8 -g ** ò qx ÓÆyZèYX H¾¯6,qçñÆV¸uÆr # ™8 -g ** Ãcg !* Ù ä~ C X¸ìg™V× Ò„a ÆkZ c* Z™ù  á ™ Zy*?f (Zq -ZQ~VâŠÆpÑypg~·Æ~Z är # ™8 -g ** Š z!* ƃ  kZ 7y*t ~ {h +` ˉi ‚[Š Z ÌZ ä r # ™8 -g ** g !* kZPC Ù X ˆƒk , /** ¦ ** ZV~ ]gß! Âc ~g ‚tQ~ [Z

+F, ?f ËÌLëX åŠ Hƒk , /** ¦ 8Fâ~g ¯[Z »• ¢ wkZ ÅyZˆÆh e™Ã]ZŠg Zz T §Æ„  (!Š Z ÅyZë @* c* ZV c* ŠÃr # ™8 -g **  Zg Ó Z',[Z » kZÔ XÝq]â } „ .ÅVÍß, Z ä r # ™8 -g ** ÌZ # pÐ ,F, Z 7J - RÅ¿ }÷{zVƒ @* ™{°zÐ r # ™8 -g** ~Xì [Z „ (z Ì[Ât ~÷[ZgzZ å[Z „ (Z Ì8 -g ** »k?X ÇñY ÏZ Ç!* 7Z ÐB # Ö } .Å% YZ «ÝÐ ¿wfg Z ËÌZ # Ôs ÜÆËÐ ~ V¹‚}÷~í§» kZ c* sÜ ;g Y H~ ]gßÅ [ kZ ~÷[Z 6gzZ ì [ Y H~ ]gßÅ8 -g ** Æ k? 6 Ç ñY H7d• Zy b§ Xì YyYyÃ{Š c* iÐr # ™8 -g** ]!* tÔì ‰ Ü ¤XÅðC~bÑŠ}gøgzZ-ñ}g øXì $ Ô](‚L L ó ó" L LÅr ÄËtXì ‘u Z (,Ð ƒ  » õg @* Å[Š ZzŠgZ ó ó]c* ĹægzZ](‚ øL F # ™8 -g ** dÎ} (, tX 7Ì]gßÜVß Zz äƒ[»Ð k½Z ~ »Š » Z ËX 7]!* ÅäYï}pÆÄc* wçËÔŠg Z ÂÆ -g * 8 *akZq -ZXì Z # ñ»ª f ~C Ù ŠaÆ*ŠzŠg Z Xì Z e !Š ZzdZ (, ¹Š HHB‚Æ~¤ /~g» ~(, gzZ~i Z0 +ZŒ Æ46, Š ¢gzZª ˜ÅVß ZzzŠg Z7ZakZª f ~uzŠX H7~y!* izŠgZ‘uZg ‚taÆäèu JŠdKZär #™ f ~Šp‰ˆÅ «Ð s§År ª # ™8 -g ** —f zŠtXÐÃY 7} ñÌLºuÆyZ åyEZ Zg7 ¯ ) !* Åî6,³ËQgzZp6,™Ägt ‚t WÃ]‚½Z}g ‚ÆV¸u ìg Î6,¸â ÆzŠg Zá ZzzŠg Z {z§ZÆ]ZŠ ¢Šp X ìg YKgZ Œ Û Z »ª ˜KZÆ™e $×År # ™8 -g ** ®Š J0 +Z ñO ,k , ’ãZ6,PKZ~ŸÆe $h +] .ˆâ ä ~ {z´Æ}pá Zz!Š Wá Zz äUzÂÐ V¸uÆr # ™8 -g ** ~i Z áÆXì c* Š™ ŠÃ]‚½ZyZï á ~}pg eÆg–@ á yZ/~y WgzZXì 1™ï á ~[ÂkZ ÌÃ?kq -ZgzZ ^ÑgzZ s)g fÆV1ÂÝZ {zgzZ ÏñYƒã‚W~ð‚gJ -|ÃMg ‡g Z—Y)b§kZX `gŠ k½ZÆV1ÂÝZ XÐÃÄ6, à ä}pzŠÆ~ m, ôZÆr # ™h·~OŠa ~ŸkZX âÌJ -ö6,~ m, ôZgzZ ~y,¸Å ðZgWckZ Å *ŠzŠg Z X Vƒ;g™ï á ~[ÂkZ Ì[NZ ‚¿q -Z »¿›gá ZzäW6, yZgzZ}pVâzŠÆyZ~Xì H ZŠ Zg ZŠ™ë Z B Å sgzZ h äëì ¢Ìt=ë@* k X ! Z¹„  zŠg ezŠ}÷gzZ~ÌZ~ckZì x¥=


www.urdudost.com

UrduDost Library

11

YEIÒG 54h &gêŽÏ0 ~OŠ Å~OŠ ëE + iÅr # ™8 -g ** P8ÍËZ eXì „  gŠ‚Î-ñZg øŠ z!* Æãâ ‚zu" ~kZì ~± X ǃç»# Ö ‡zŠdÆr # ™8 -g ** 6, Šã CÅÏZÉ ÇìgpôsÜ:~õg @* Å[Š ZzŠg Z-ñtZg øgzZ ÏñY{g È ~÷Ô Å ðZ ‚ Û Z,j~÷Æ™yz¬B‚}÷gîË: Ëä VM»V2zŠx ÓyZ Vƒ Le ** ™ ZŠ Zt]~y W Ô »@W@£ZgzZ Ï„lz»ÔÝ°Z hÔl£ZÔyZúZ£Zg¼ËZ eÐ yÎ 0* 6,gîm{X c* ŠB‚ Z÷J -uÂä VMX ðJÈ H 4] - G Y 7Ô4ÒÐ c* Z”Ô »½/·gzZ h·~OŠa ÐM%ZÔ » m, ³Ý°Z .gzZ ~g7 Ó ËÔ”Zg ®zÔh +zY ZÔ ö ?l»6,÷å»E +Z & i‚o−{Ð *` Ô » ~g¨± šÐ OZÔ»GwÐ ÷Z Û Ô »ò ÂÜ** gzZ >yˆZÐ C;Ô » *0 + æggzZh +zYvZ†Ð ZŠ Zt]àS» ðZ ‚ Û ZÈ Åh +âwD ZgzZÔ´ÔŠ- : ³Ô ~çg¥{qÔÝ°ZÕÔ ¹zg ù‚ÐÖZgzZ »Š- ·zZggzZ XÇglpà  Z} .X Vƒ@* ™

7Œ Û g©

Y 2009mB9 ( Ð*` )


www.urdudost.com

12

UrduDost Library

^â Cg ZŠ Z

?Wác* '8 -g ** P8 Í

$ Ô](‚ L L[ÂÅ8 Ðá ZjÆs ÏZÆ]Z~ .–ÝZÆó ó]c* ĹægzZ ](‚ øL F -g** P8 Í »g–@ á yZ/ »g–@ á yZ/~ {gѸ¦ / Æ[Š Zh +] .Xì [ƒ ù  á ~9{g Ñ ó[Š Zh +] .Ly*ªXì ;g Y c* Š y*( ! Z ) ZuzŠ VŒ @ á yZ/èYX ’ e bŠŠpÃr # ™8 -g ** P 8Í[Z »y*kZ å –B‚Æs # ZÜ~(,ä ~ ñƒ D™ù  á y* -g ** 8 P8ÍËZ e sÜ[Z ÝZ »y*pÇñY H ù  á ¿›g »Mg ‡gzZV'Š ZÔVz² á }uzŠ åZƒðB‚Æg– Ùñ{~[Z Ƥ2x ¬X ðâ  Û 7ØiŶŠ[Z wq @* är # ™8 -g ** X ÇñYHù  á „6, äWÐ s§År #™ Xì CYƒ: âêÉ 7„&pÙñ{~]gß+Z ƒZ 7, 6, ux Z²ZÜ滑u6, Rdpì $ Ë ƒY =ZÈ á »r # ™8 -g ** sÜ= ÆäMßZX c* Š™e $Áy*Zg76, {7ñZgÐs§~÷är # ™× g©h +zYm, ³§Š Z', yZgzŠ kZ LZÆä™ ( ‘u)ÀF, Æá Zj%Ð V1Â! fm{g{z~TÔVƒLe CYÃ[Z „ÆyZ Ì[Z ÿåCY[Z

# ™g–@ r á yZ/ Š HƒZ # Zz6, gîCZ f n}÷CY[Z »r # ™× g©h +zY[ZX þ N â  Ûs # Ÿz~}g !* Æ÷ X 7~# Ö } .ÅMg ‡¿›gVâzŠÎX ZƒxiÑ̉â [Z »kZÐ Ð Vzg ó[¯õ0* yZVŒXì Hï á ~],ÆoèÐZì c* Wt ‚¿›g¿ »[Š ZMg ‡6,y*Æ@ á yZ/ ù á oèõ0* {z ä ~X 1 ¯ s@Ã]Z f År # ™8 -g * *™C'!* 0)¼ ~¿›g¿ä VMì ~gz¢Ì* *™]gm šÃr # ™8 -g ** ä@ á yZ/ ÕäMuZX M hY¾ p ÖZ+F, x3, p ÖZÆó óà q$ +dÅá ZzˆÆà qL L~[¯q -Z,ZX G 7 Æ8 -g ** P8 ÍXì Ðäƒ]!* Å‘u„  Zg { Z',[Z~³Æq Ê ~gz¢)ÆyZpåHxFÐ p ÖZ+ á ÆÀF, !Zj »tÅr # ™8 -g**  ¯tq -Š 4, }÷W, @* ¦ù»y*Ær # ™× g©h +zYá Zz ä™ q Ê »yZ ñƒ D™g ïZÐ q Ê gzZ bzg Åy*ˆÆkZX c* Š ¯tg¢"™h Ðä0* }Š:8 -Å],gzZN h}Š:!Zj~~¢ÐZQÆ™g Z Œ Û Z‚− CZ fì m»iØZ}uzŠJ -V˜X ñY? Ø zÂБuBW Z F, !Zjš Ær # ™8 -g **  @* Ôc* Š {ZÃc~]¬zÛ™hgÃÝZ


www.urdudost.com

13

UrduDost Library

E$E Å ó‘ ó uBÀF, !Zjš L Ly*øL © ** ™iÃ%zÂ~g‚6,yZVŒpX Vƒd $Œ Û {Š c* iÐ× g©h +zY~¨ £Æ@ á yZ/~6,gî ‰ Š]‚½Z Æ# r™8g * * L L ˜¼ (Zr # ™× ¤ /ZXì bŠ {Z~t # I}uzŠ |gŠ™ UzÂÐ s§ ÝZ „Ð # sŸz Å7Z ~ŸkZXì H Šƒù (Z’ e ã™# sŸz ~}g * ! Æ yZ 7Z —" gzZ  ÁyZª {z yZ/nÆ[Z , Z ÂÔ ó óVƒLebŠzÂ, 6]Ygq}uzŠÆ@áyZ/ñƒD™ÃsÐy*kZ~ë * @X ǃãZznç × g©h +zYq -Š 4, }÷VzŠ™n²t Ì~ŸÆy*! Z Æ@ á yZ/X CW: 7]gz¢Åä™Ýq[Z Ð@ á g ½ Âì ZƒC Ù ª×¹Z hðs§VâzŠèaXì –ä@ á yZ/6ì 7nç (Z ðà »Vz»yZgzZòŠ W‘ñ 7,Šp MC+Gg D ‘uBWZ F, !ZjšÆr # ™8 -g ** gzZ σÁ éE +ÒÐs§VâzŠB‚Æ¢kZX # Ö } .7,k , ’VâzŠ nÆ% ï T[Z ct wq¾X ÇñY c* Š äWt ‚™ÁÃ|Æ™m, / ¤ Ð VâzŠ q Ê ~gz¢)gzZ ÙZ F, x Z²Z ~gz¢)~}g !* Æ X ¢q],Æ[Š Zh +] .h^Ì~8 -g ~ó óxû` †  » e Z', DÚZ L Ð L Ñ', ÔÖZwçs W;gE- ~Y 2004äVrZVg@* CVŒ~}g !* Æ@ á yZ/ yZ/X ÅÝq ~¤ /e ~uzŠ Å} Z * Z~ó óm, S~k , ß‹Z L Ð L ;gE-ÏZäVrZ~Y 2006ˆÆkZX ÅÝq~¤ /e Å} Z * Z yC äVrZ~T–6, WÏzgÅ~œ,!£FÃgzZ Hk , ’6, ]1),Æ. $»Lâ q…ð` !£¿CZ äg– H À h {gÑÆ[Š Zh +] .X ìg™x »6, á £Æ~ e ÝZ8 {z‰ Ü zkZX 1{ ^ ,Y© »Ð]c* ÃÆVzIˆ»[Š ZtÃÆ ö $ZR, 3{!! f±ŸZ}g ‚tXì ÖB‚ÆV¯ŸZÆ]‚½Zh 4¨EE +' h × Æ èEG +' × ~ 6{g ÑŠ !* WxsZ k?y*»yZ {”ù  á ~9 á Zz 6 k?gzZ 9 [Š Zh +] .{z  ï á ]‚½Z ~ {g ÑkZX  D™„0 +¶ KÅ (  q -Z VâzŠ ~ ÝZ ) ‘u c* WZ F, !Zjš Ô ;gá 7x ** »1g}Ÿ»Äc* gŠ Å]‚½Z,Z ÌZgzZ{z´Æ]‚½Z Â/™w+ $M K, FÅ~Z/ ¤ ZcqZPsÜÃ[ ~g ‚ž; ÷¢ä8g * *P8 Íì HòúŠtg !* kZ ä@ á yZ/ ÅP 8ÍËZ eXì wgßu ‹\Z Å Rd+, F dZ Å[Š ZzŠg ZÉ Ôì 7ÙZ , Fx Z²Z¡tXì * c Z™ ù á~zŠg ZÐ x * * LZ x ÓX σ** ™s # Ÿz„Šp7ZÅñZ™G LZÐá ZjÆ‘u c* ÀF, ˆÆäWt ‚¼ Ú ZpÔh', Ùñ{F F6, Y =ZÈ á &zŠÐ~[ž;÷¢¤ /ZX ’ eãâ  Û zÂ[ZÃr # ™8 -g ** Ðá ZjÆ[ž;÷¢B‚ÆV¸u{Š ñgzZ—‚ yZ ~Ô}™„0 +¶ KÅ~Z¤ /Zc yZ { ZpÍ ðà » yZ c* {z ƒ H:ÀF, ~ [ KZ ä r # ™8 -g ** ÎVƒ, Z s Z¤ /Zc -g ** 8 ËZ e {zgzZ ñYWy*ZŠ ~g ‚t ~DÆD´ÆÖZ}™: Z} .X ÇVz™]gmÐ yZ6,ä™: ï á Ã~Z¤ /Zc ( Y 2008y @* ~g†X 10:{g ÑX *`  h] ‚m‚q·,)

X}Š ŸFâ » ~igzs ÜÅl ZV $Zg8»Ãr #™


www.urdudost.com

14

UrduDost Library

ã¹Å 12{g ÑÆ [Š Z+ h. ] ã!* $gŠ ã!* $År # ™8 -g ** P8 ÍËZ e { â zŠÐõg@* îE 0Ò›!6, gîx ¬Ã[Š Zh +] .X ¶„gƒ~Y 2008', Æ Z® ) á ZÅY 2009cŠ @* ~g†" $!* 12{g ÑÆ[Š Zh +] . %yzÛÐ uZ e ~d @* yÎ 0* LÔVƒ © 8ZVÐ c* +Z L[Š Zh & +] .X N Y V‰ Ü z',÷ ÆRæLE Vƒ@* ™ÒÃÅäZV¬ óg’Ðp ÒÆ® ) á Z {zÔKù  á är # ™ á 0* w¾ ½Æ‹Š kƒ ;òåZ ( 11Ô10Ô 9Ô8)}g Ñge¸¦ / XÐ # ™ r á 0* =D¨Ôì Éz6,i Z0 +Z »ä™x » »yZX å;gµ YZ ** Z™x »t„=g fÆyZ=akZX¸ìgƒ+4 äƒ8 -ð!* pÔ Š H¾!‚g »],288„~', Æ ZX ,Š Ÿ7Z}ÃFÃä~Æ™µÅ 12{g ÑX ÑiZ¹ ~ gñZ  á Z {z ¶O ~g6 Å r # ™ á 0* X c* Š wZ e ƒ !* Š » ð {g e ãâ ‡6, Där # ™8 -g ** P 8 Í ËZ e ¬ Ð 1uzgÐ 8 -ð!* [Š Zh +] .Zƒ Ö ~³ÆkZÎX å: ÇaÆyZ úZ~} ×ãâ ‡Ëp¸ M h™x »Éz6, YZ  # ™8 r -g ** ËZ e~® ) á Z Å 12{g Ñ[Š Zh +] .pXƒù  á 7̼~[Š Zh +] .s ÜÆyZ 壻 »r # ™8 -g ** XŠ H X ByYzzÅèZg ** ÅyZ¬Ô~ˆŠ ZŠzgÅ ƒ !* Š^ ,Y** Ðs§Å

$ Ô](‚ L L"t ÃW{àÅ8 ~}g!* Æó ó]c* ĹægzZ ](‚ øL F -g** P 8 ÍËZ e~ 11gzZ 10Ô9 {gÑÆ[Š Zh +] .

Ð x Z²Z ™Æ‘ugzZ ]YgqÆg–@ á yZ/6,],Æ[Š Zh +] .ä ~X `ƒ ù á }p&Æg–@ á yZ/  ZgzÑŠpL ÃL ŠpV˜äVrZpX ÇñYHù „ á ùzðÐZÔÐK[Z Ì {zÅ¿7?Ãr # ™8 -g ** aÆe $', ñZgs %ZdXì c* Š™ëZ Û ]oîÌ» ó ó~gziBgzZ ~gaL Lä VrZ[Z V;z c* ¯ wV L Y …Å ó Šó g ZŠ r Z l ‹}ŠiŠ VQ{Z +ÃÐwÏ(zY KZy¨ KZQ Â} 7, :0[Z Z # pXì @* 7, 8x »Ð?ŠaÆkZgzZì YYHÌÐË ¢ Xì H¸[Zär # ™8 -g ** Xì êŠÐß[Z »?Š™ ZI ** h ÂÐß Ã ?Š V˜ ì ~yJZJVÑŠçLX=\I{z " H$ Ò5E 5_ ðZgÔ èE4ÓºG Ær # ™8 -g ** » V¸uA LZ yYÔy åHÓG Z ~¢Ôkgâ  Û :™Ô Û :™ 1 Ô ög G+uX å: [Z ðà k0*


www.urdudost.com

15

UrduDost Library

3{!! f‰Ôu7 4¨EE Å ¾; ÷¢Xì )f Æ r # ™8 -g ** [Z » h e™ ~ga ~Z¤ /Zc Æ ~Z¤ /Zc Ð V1 ŠèEG ó ó" L gL ‚ á KZ ~g7 Å ~g7 B‚Æ w$ +wŠ Z Ð à ©Æ ~Z¤ /Zc Structuralism and Semiotics [ $ Ô](‚ Contemporary Literary [  ŠSelden, RamanX à ™ ï á ~]* c Ä ¹ægzZ ](‚ øL F ™Æ11{gÑ[Š Zh +] .aÆ„0 +¶ KÅ‘uX Š HƒwõbŠ k½Z {”‘uB‚Æk½ZC Ù K~ga],ãZÐ Theory X VƒêŠ}Š!ZjÌVŒ»],{”‘u{gÃèX Z7, ** ™ rZ6, „0 +¶ KÅi],Æ[Âg‚ á År # ™8 -g** gzZ[ÂÝZ6, 80 5_ðZg ],{”‘uÆ[ÂÅ8g * *P8 Í ],Æ[ÂÅy åHÓG 106@* 79

42@* 27

329@* 288

70@* 49

240@* 234

158@* 149

267@* 243

103@* 86 :Vƒìg Ýp ÖZÆnkZ6, ã% OÅ[ÂT

ó óx »0Z„gzZ ¯zÐ ƒ~V1Â!Š ZzdÅJ[Z Å8g* *Wz, 6L L $ Ô](‚~g¹! Š Z5L L ótó ‹gzZsg ¬RgzZå»ú›ggzZ](‚ øL F ~® ) á ZÅ[Š Zh +] .Ô å** ™ H Âq Ê CZär # ™8 -g ** ˆÆkZÔñWát ‚™wÅÃV¸uu oÑGg â †  7d»TgzZ $ Ô](‚ce ¢ ! Š Zz dÅJ -[Z År # ™8 -g ** ]* c ĹægzZ ](‚ øL F 8yât VŒX ~Š™ qzÑli ‚Å% Z eêg HÅV1 ¹!* År # ™8 -g ** Âì c* Š™" $U* ‘u »V1Â!fäg–@ á yZ/Ã[ÂkZ¤ /ZXì [ÂëZЃ  ~V1 $ Ô](‚~g¹! Š Z5L LÂó ó" L gL ‚ Xì _ƒ" $U* ó‘ ó uå»ú›ggzZ](‚ øL F á tÅyZgzZ ?ì CY{gÌZ

}~óZ$‚kZ‰ wÈtgzZ`™‘u™á6, Òr Zl „8Š ãZ Âtg‚r # ™8 -g ** P8 ÍËZ e

9¼ Ì Xì Š HƒÝqi q Ð Z7Z Ì~kZgzZìg™Ì~gziBB‚Æ~ga{zpX Š H{g7Zƒ F é5ŸNF

Ð j§iZ} (,gzZK ù  á ä Vß Zz ‹ŠÔ kƒ ; ò åZƒ J - 11{g Ñ™á Ð 8{g ÑÆ[Š Zh +] .

H¹¬X ‰ 0^z»gr Š # ™8 -g ** ~ 䙄gÃkZpŠ Hƒ ù  á !‚gX Š H57ZaÆ® ) á Z ÌÔ 12{g ÑXK ù  á ÑZz 䙄0 +¶ KÅV¸uÆr # ™8 -g ** ~ {g ÑkZ c* Cä ~X ñY Hsv .â as ÜÆr # ™8 -g ** Ð ~ {g ÑkZ Å\W c* {ÒWX B™“  ZŠ',ÐZg!* kZ}Ð r # ™8 -g ** Xì c* Š ¿›g ° 5 CZ ä Mg ‡‰%Zì 7ï á y*ðà Æoè=çOX ñYHsv .Ì¢ a(Z ;gg ZÜZÐs§År # ™ á 0* pX ÇVß& + ðeDgzZ ðÃQ c* ÇVÅgwì» ~g6 | l, e~³ÆkZX ¶~ŠŠ ZŠ ÅV¸uÆr # ™8 -g ** ä [Š Z Mg ‡~X} 7,** ™sv .{ {zÐ ~oèx Óï á 6,], c* Š}Š^âtä~6, (ðƒ`Å™X ˆ$(à {Á¼Ð],


www.urdudost.com

16

UrduDost Library

¹Ì~oèvŠX Z 7, )zgЮ ) á Zâ»/™~çg¥{q)HÐ~],Æoè~³%~y W VHç³Þ p…憳³• QX X X Vƒ Yƒ . Þ ‡Æ ä™ ù  á „Ð *` !‚g [Z,™ ¬Š x Z™Mg ‡Xì ë** ÌZX X XzzX} 7,** ™sv .{ Ð { i @* zŠ KZ6,kZ  Š H$ à {™q -Z » {g ÑkZ ¯ ) !* Æ’  ¦Å³% ~y WX X X X !vZ Y ¶ KZX ǃ: 7gŠX ðà »g ÖZ „Š Zi W X Vƒ;g™ï á Bç om†Î …‚nu :åti»wç«~Vß çyZX ,Š™ï á Bç{ i @* zŠ KZ6, ™q -ZgzZ ‰ƒ lzŠ3,¸ g »{ ( æ ‰ƒlñ{ÐxÑÆquë Ìà ikZÆwçr # ™8 -g **  c* WwìÐzz Å ikZ~ˆÂ~Š ŸÃr # ™ á 0* Æ™FÃbãyZ Å],!Î~y W ÌwçtÐzzkZ c* ŠÉÌÃr # ™ á 0* gzZX ~Š™ï á wçgzZq -ZÆ™sv .ÃwçkZŠpi ZQä~çOX B™wú:6, Šp –‚ ä− ¼~ }g !* Ær # ™8 -g ** }~ 12{g Ѥ /Z[Z ¹Ð r # ™ á 0* ä ~Š z!* Æo ôZ âZX Vƒ ;g™sv . ~È¢Å!‚gX ðƒk , +® 5 ) á Z {g !* zŠ 8 »Å],!ÎÆbÃÅ],ÆoèçOX B™“  ZŠ', ÐZí 7Z ƒŠ H{g Zƒ # ™h r +zYZÆ;gE-‹Š~kZ c* Š™gŠ ™ê»’  ¦KZä8 -g ** P8ÍËZ eg ZŠbÆógó ÖZ „Š Zi W LQ L g !* -ZgzZ ˆƒ q ¬ izg q -ZÉ Š Hƒ èZg ÌaÆ kZ sÜ: ~ p¶’  ¦{Š 1 ð•Zt X ñY c* Z™sv .ÌÐZÔì ï á â » X c* Š Ÿ6, gîÆwŠ k½Z »âq -ZÆl]: Û ¸WÐá ZzäƒwßñÃ', Æ ZB27 :ì 7VŒ{zZ 7, ** ™ï á Æ™sv .ÃâÆh +zYZ â{Š™†ŸZ » ¸WÐ ~}g Ñ{gÃèÃzÄs 0ZŠ¼Å[Š ZzŠg Zì * @Yƒ{ i Z0 +Z! lÐ]јÆ}g Ñ{ i @* X Zƒi ZâÃ11{g Ñ»[Š Zh +] . à ¶ KZÐá ZjkZÔìg˜ÐÏ°‡!* ¶ KZ ~g £ÌŠp\WX c* ÑŠ kˆZ »mäÏŠ ñx°Å׶ KZë @* ì ˆ~Š( Ái Z Á ì H¤ /YZÃVØÍ,Z‰ä¬_Cc* ‹{Š™k , ’6, óB ó g J‡L Æ L \WX X X ’ eS(~}g Ñ{ i @* Ù Æó ó[Š Zh C +] .L L X â Û wJŠ ·gIÐ+ $Y~÷6, ä™7·_Cc* ‹{gŠkZX 6 Ç!* a}÷ ( JŠÍuX ^Ãk , iz) ^fÖˆÎô ^Æ Ün׉ ¸WÐ(ÅkZÔÆ™sv .â »h +zY Z ˆÅ ù  á B‚ÆçF, kZg !* ~Šbà Å],!ÎÅ],ÆoèçO Zƒ Ö ~[Š Zh +] .pn pg7È Å1zg ÂÃh +zY ZñƒÆ~ ‹Š r # ™8 -g ** Ð kZÃsX Š HHï á â »l]: Û


www.urdudost.com

17

UrduDost Library

„ÅP 8ÍËZ eŠ z!* ÆäY ñ3Š E âZÐ s§~÷X  s Z e ƒ !* Š » b§C Ù 6,r # ™ á 0* aÆäZ™sv .â »yZ -Z k0* q }÷ˆÆkZX ~Š 3ŠÔ ¶** 3ŠE Î~]gßÅ~g6ä~X Š HH7„gÃ!‚gŠ z!* ÆkZçOX ðƒ7 P8ÍËZ e¼gzZÐ È År # ™ á 0* ¼pX Vz™‚ZgÐDgzZ Ëñƒ D™wì »V-g6År # ™ á 0*  å3 Zg „ ~y WÅÞ⬠РY 2009 ~g† 12{g Ñ »[Š Zh +] .[ZgzZ ˆ~Š }Š ]i YZ Š䙄g!‚gQÐ ã!* $År # ™8 -g ** Xì [V~*` gzZyÎ 0* ~„V:g @* ï¯P p‰ ™“  ZŠ',t‰ÂÃ}p-Æ11gzZ 10Ô 9 {g Ñ{zXì Π䃗¼ Ì6,ª q6f År # ™8 -g ** = ;g™ `gŠ VŒoè}g ‚{z6,gîÆeg kgX¸: u** ç,Z¼ oètX ‰ − D™¦g !* g !* ‰ Z< Í ãZ6,¿›g ~WÐ lp6,ÏZ {z Š Hc* Šg,z]¹!* gzZ Š Hc* Š™sv .x ** »r # ™8 -g ** sÜÐ ~oè‰X Š Hõi Z ³Z »ä™¦ÎVƒ {”¦ÆyZ%Z Vƒ ;g™ï á Ì7ZÔ‰ Š \Y¿¹!* gzZ Š HHsv .x ** »r # ™8 -g ** sÜÐ ~oèXÎX ‰ƒ ì c* Š™Vc* úÆ™Z ÃV” XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX ½ç_ì å‚& †Šß‰ 1Ò MN †fÛÞ å…^Û& 1Ò h#] ‚m‚q The article of Imran Shahid Bhender in Jadeedadab.com is indeed an eye opener. We are very well familiar with many other qualities of Narang sahib but this aspect is particulary interesting.Anyway, this is very unfortunate and plagiarism should be discouraged and condemned at every level. To achieve this goal I think wider publicity should be given to such cases.I am writing this letter to request you to allow us to reproduce the article in a new quarterly journal launched from Delhi. The journal 'Behs-o-Mubahisa' is started by a group of teachers and writers from Delhi. Asif Azmi is its editor and publisher. If you allow us, we would also like to have the matter as inpage file. I hope you would do this favour. However, if the permission is required from Imran shahid sahib, I would request you to send his email ID.

( ‹Š ) ‚mæ^q o×  gŠ „ {Š c* “ i¼6,}}L »'µšXì·_ëÑÐ p ÒC Ù k , ’ÜægzZ ×Å@ á yZ/0Ð 8g * *P 8 Í


www.urdudost.com

18

UrduDost Library

P8Íì ]ªX ÏnY”J -gzŠgzZk , Š~*ŠzŠgZ‚i !* ÅkZgzZ YYH7g ïZÐ( + M ›É )e $Š ÃZ Åk , ’ë@* Ôì Š Hƒ

är # ™8g * *ì 4 (Z ! Çìg „~ i Zg 8ånçt » ºu Š HWù~ÆðŠ kZŠ Õuk , igzZ {h +Š V˜ 68g * * ó»T)ìk , ’ÜægzZ ãZzÔ ôÜÅg–@ á yZ/s§q -Z X ‰ 3»ðŠgzZ 1™ Underestimate„ {Š c* i¼ÃVß ZzzŠg Z %NÐóY =Zy ~, Z[Z‰‰‰‰‰‰ÔÙñ{æF á LÅ8g * * ËZ e+ $Y~uzŠ  ( ì H~÷Z%LZ ä( Ñ', )Š- : ³)Hs Z ‹Z ¹=\',ÅkZì c* Î^â CgZŠ Z ä\WB‚Æ÷Z%ÆÏ„lz»~ekZ !ì YYHi Z0 +ZÃðYÃ]!* Å ºu zŠÔ  á ¸q -Z L[ ÅåP yŠ Hì ]!* Ŭ V⊼ ÌZXì ~ŠÄg iZ6,vg B bŠ ÅVß Zz zŠg Z ë ä \WÝZgŠ X ðWI x »Ð: Ãg ¬Iˆ)~A çkZ äV'Š Z9}g ø™hgÃq -ZPÂH—` îZ ñZœäkÜZx ZúzŠg Z6,ó[Š ZzŠÔ^z– LZ ä \W™f »X¸ „z [òZ ~Š ã CnZgzZ X ì $ Ë Y ”J - ` W ôÍÅkZ à ™g(Z ó óÙñ{g ZuZ6,L L+Z ( ñƒ f e ( ‹Š )Ù^ÛÒ ‚&…] Xì H~^â Cg ZŠ Z }g !* ƺuÆkZ~y*kZ äVrZX 5Ã"7,~}g!* Æ‘uÆ8g * *P8Íy*»g–@ á yZ/Qg !* -Z q ~]g ¸gzZyÎ 0*  ǃD»]!* kZÃr # ™yZ/h + á gzZX ¶ˆƒãZzB‚Æy*„¬Â]!* èÑqX G7@ZØh +' ×~ /ZX  … Y ÂÃ~k , $ÑzŠg Z ug IÅ\!* ÆkZgzZ ㌠/Z \WX ì ;gW` x »t Ð qzÑ ÂVŒX 7Ì]!* 5ðÃt næ ¾ nä™| # z Û yZ-Šq -Z CZ Ìr # ™~zg ** b â~kZX 9Yâ B‚Æó** li Zâx ** Æ\!* L Z äã Œ * c ™igzZgƒÑ;gE- [ºì x¥Ã\WXì ÅÌ4z] .NDq -Z ä \W Âs ÜÆ~i ‚%! Š Z Å b§kZX Æ G ( 4£Æ .nG Vay ~g »u™ Y~V”ÆC Ù !* äVrZ X †Æ~ga çE ~ e ÝZX 8 Æ( 7g Z¼) VzWz6,FÆyM;gEG йVƒ}Y6, gîCZ f Ìt~X „g^V×Zzg »s ÜÆFgzZ‰ƒs§', F~VzWz6, ,ZX¸G~ga6, gŠì ˆƒ D¼ ]!* X ³»]îÅÛŠ:~ e ÝZ 8 gzZ…X * ZX } ZX * ZÆyZ | x ** ÆyZ6,XÁ ÅVzW6, gzZ » {)z ]*—gzZ y* !izŠg Z, 6gîÆwVB{ , ^Y »[ÂgzZ ËÅ# r™8g * * [Z {zVƒLe It Ð # r™g–~ÝZ g7x YX p…ç¶Ö牅 Ü׉] Xì±5Þ.‡, 6gîm{[* !~ y WXì Hs ™B;, 6ÁÁä# r™8g* *BŠ~kZ gzZ ~i ZØg1 } , (¹ÆÇkZ Z+ hg egzZX ue ð;Xì Z Û‚Z]â ¥¹y*»@áy Z/Xì J , 77b§hZ ÌZX H Šï!‚g YÙCi ÔÆg °Z !fgzZX  } , ( ‚Šp éO$Àó Šó Õ } , (LÆ L Ç}g øì st Z , ( Ð kZ g »Ð!WÆœ£ ~g EZ ÆmZp7ÅòŠ Wx ¬\W/ ¤ Zìt]* !Å$ ef ZgzZÔ”äJ , 7™0]H%Œ?gî9Ã} ¤Z {æ7~kZÔÃœ£ ,Z$ eÒZ/ ¤ Z ?x » H Zg øÐ]à~W! fXì * @YHwZλnkZ Âe* *™¸* !¹ZgzZe bŠÝzìZ6 f Ì ›g Å~g ‡L Ly*qZ LZ}÷X ,™ H ÂF:WñZ. }]H‰# r™8g * * ÂVƒ|? pgñ hzZ ª˜ ƒÅVÍß


www.urdudost.com

19

UrduDost Library

&‰„ â&·,) ó ì ù cœ£ Ï( [Š Z ~ [f åÐ ]* ! kZ m» ( Y 2006cŠ * @, 'Æ Z {g ÑgƒÑX âåLG ó HW¿ ?»ìù ~/ šÅeÏZWÅ¿›gÆ~g ‡gzZXì * @ƒ wEZ

©$E w!qZ$ e+ h. ]ˆâ X ’ e * *ƒ7xÝ»áCg ZŠ ZgzZÔ ¶ÃVzg›ZŠì H{g á Z äGegz+ iZs ÜÆbzgÏZ Ãî09G ’ r™# 8g * *Æ@áyZ/X å rzÛ»$ eg EZ5Ñ»q’kZäY%Ô}g â yZy[pŠpêL , )äVzŠ ÕV; }g ø1å E -¢ .-G 7Å]* c Ã~W~ekZ å–y*qZ?h SÆxçEE gzZ Z+ hge w ‚¸/ ¦ä~Ì=Zì t · Z Zg7=Ð]ŸZ ‹Z? ÅRu# r ™8g * * * c C ä á Zz + Y RÛŒqZ=ì ÌgzZ ]* ! NŠ qZ Ôì { i * @~ r â Š {zgzZX ¶S, 7 õg * @~g ¶7~~, k$ÑÅ º´}g øÌ[ÂqZ ÅzŠgZ ðƒV- ]ª¹=X¸D™ –[ ðÃ?WzŠg Z™Ö~~, k$Ñ $ ÂX 'äY¿gÁÂÅzŠg ZPVŒÐ $ 4¨GG ~, môZ7ÅzŠg ZV⊠yQ {z éME 5G AgzZ å* c ZÏg ¶ Z B k™ïÐ 8 * Z ò £ä~ X¸ `V?t ÃWÓàÆÏKZ# r™8g * *¬¹ÐäWÁÂzŠg ZVŒgzZ¸ì™À, F[ÂÅ ~yÎ * 0* c+ & Zë * @ ìŠ ñVŒyâ ‡»$ V Zg8»p/ ¤ ZX ÏA 7~* c+ & Z ì Ë$YðZjnŠb ¼ Ì[ ðÃÅ~ , môZ V,Z1å Y7 ~ {g * ! ƺukZÐ # r™8g * * ä VÍß~ yÎ * 0 X Y™7¼ ðÃBZVÐ x * * LZ [ ~g7 \W X Y7h —¼ ïZ ðÃ~* c+ &Zì ¢ÃÚK ™8g * *, zXì Q$ e¾Ã]â Z²ZÆ# r™yZ/Ð TX * c Š 7[Z ðà -~ ~²ágzZ ñY ï/³ »VzuzŠ ñOÆ", J 7 „ ZgÓZ, 'ÃVÍß# Z Xì?x £‘zZ ¹ ~ yÎ * 0 Â$ "» ÏéZ Ø ÃËX 7{g * !ŠÃ]ÑìÆVzuzŠgzZD™$ fËZ e yŠ ñWvßXì e¼ ƒ ÂñXŠg Z ÛŒ[Š Z • Zc~È ( yß) pç•… ànÃÚ å‚nÛu

X ¸7

Cg ZŠ ZÆ\WX)u »}pÆg–@ á yZ/[»6,8 -g** P8 Í[» ~ ( 11) {g Š H{g ÑgzZ ( 10) kŠ {g Ñ ( 9)â{g Ñ[Š Zh +] . gzZ ]‚½ZÐi§Üæ} , (Ã]ÃÏZ LZ äg–@áyZ/[» X  ÆzÂàSƒ  t ¿Šg »r # ™× gzZ^â äŠ- : ³)H~ŸkZXì * c Š™$ "* U# |Ù! Š Z Å8g * * „úugzZ à ÕÅ+®!fñƒD™7B‚ÆVß Zj TXì @* ™7„ZÍë Zu" {gŠ H{g Ñâ-»)Hc* Š~y*LZ är # ™g–!Zj iÅÝq ð‚gJ -Ãx ÓyZ dz —ˆÆ -I „g Wç, 6 Ùñ{: âêÅ# r™8g * * Ü‰ß Z °Xì * c Š wÅ{ i ZzgŠ * ä c kZ [ZX Sg 7¹* ! öRðÃÅ õ?XE 7:%qZ »¿#ñZ, '¿#ñƒ D ¯ : K ¶Ã]»Z f™Ø?Ð y*Ñy*»# r™× g©+ hzY, 6gîÆ¿ŠgXì 'Hì @* ƒ¶ ŠÐWÐWXì * @™

( g7Ó) p…çµ ^Ûi ^`ßi XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

Æy*zy~V>» DôLZ ä ~Xì {Š c* ig ÖZ „Š Zi WV;z å¸/ŠgzZ W, @* Z÷J -ÌZ~}g !* Æy*zy

gzZ Ì~]gßÅÝ»Xì ;g J~„ c* +Z Zƒ–{zZ÷p‘p ÖZJá{~}g !* & ÆVƒ ÉgÆyZgzZVƒ zyI•Z


www.urdudost.com

UrduDost Library

20

aÆ Vzg ZŠ ZgzZ VáÓÅ c* +Z ~ wŠ}÷Ðzz ÏZX H7Za êg~g ÖZ „Š Zi WkZ Ìä ËpX Ì~ ]gß!  & # ™8 r -g ** P8 ÍËZ epì Š ñ~wŠ}÷ ì „z W, @* ¦ù» ~Š Zi WDô~c* +Zì kˆZ=Xì ;g/_ & .»x Z Z -Z6,Ä ‚ DôgzZ ! Š ZÔdÅy*zy{zì Hg (Z¿¯§ ñOŶŠ[Z »VÂoAÆV¸uA LZÐ[Š Z !fä q Xì r ZŠ ú$ + äTÔá Fâ »+kZ à Zz äYÅÐ + $YÅr # ™8 -g ** P8ÍËZ eVƒ@* ™„  ZpgŠÐy# Ö Ó~ $ Ô](‚[ÂÅyZ b§ÏZXì Å• ¹ægzZ](‚ øL F wà Zzc W˜† »g ÖZ „Š Zi Wá ZzäYKÐj§[v~c* +Z & x Z²Z Y"6,yZ c* K ºuu oÑ}g ‚t ªZz ä r # ™8 -g * *}™ï ñY ðèwdq -Z~ŸÆ]* cÄ V¸uÆ[ÂkZ~[Š Z+ h. ]~gzZX ñYc* Z™ù  á 6, gî~g »uÀF, ~ m, ôZ »[Â{gÃèÅyZ ÂVƒ" $U* s ™u 0* {z¤ /ZX  X ÇVƒgg »aÆ¿ZwC Ù Ùl._Æyâ ‡Æc* +ZaÆ¢ & a}g ‚á Zzà Ÿ Ðá ZjÆ {Š c* i~yZX D YK„gÐV;z™¾Ðy*zygzZyÎ 0*  ƃ ƒ  Ô ß Ÿ b‚gæÆzŠg Z~*Š ! f -ZgzZ ÂgzZX  D YK „gÐ \g- ™¾Ð c* q +Z ì Š ñ¨~g7 Å b‚g x Ó, Z k0* & }÷X  „ e!  F, -g ** 8 Xì @* ƒÐ [Š Zz Dm»Š Zñá Zzà Ÿ ~ b‚g ! Š ZXì _ W¸Å䙄g~½ *Š™¾Ð c* +Z Ì!‚g ãÎ 0* & [Wt ‚‹gZŠzud-Z »kZ „g C™i ** 6,Š ÕT *ŠzŠg ZXìnç! Š ZzduZu{z Š HH ù  á ¼ Ì~}g !* Ær #™ / ¦ Ù ** C ™lz»Ãäh ÂÃsWÆ Vß Zz ä3ŠsWñO Å ä™ o‚ » V¸u LZXì u ‹\Z ð•ZaÆ Vß Zz zŠg ZŠp{zì Xì 7? ?Ð,h ÂN WWÄ\W !r # ™8 -g **6 TgzZ¶ ŠÃ\WLZ

( Ð* `X Y 2008cŠB4: {Š™, k’) X 3{g ÑX ~Ôäål^f$] „â&·,) ( Y 2009~gz Û Ô ~g†@* Y 2008cŠ

‹Š‹m†¶ŠÓm] á^j‰æ‚ßa)** izg ) ( Y 2009#8 -g** P8ÍËZ eŠ !* WxsZ ØßnÞ†9Þ] Œ^Ó tX b !t]àS»]mZ, kædÄZaÆ) ®á Z܉z, 'Åy*kZ


www.urdudost.com

21

UrduDost Library

8 -g ** P8 Í »Š !* WxsZDÚZk? -Zy*q q -Z »g–@ á yZ/~}g!* Æó ó]c* ĹægzZ](‚:Ô](‚L L"g ‚ á Å8 -g ** P8 ÍËZ e ‚ZgÐgóy*ä~ ÂZƒD»y*kZ=X 17Fâ »kZ ä[Š Z ÿL X3Z~3²Æw‚zŠpÔ åÖ ~!‚gq -ZgzZg ¶Z =Æ™±ŸZh +' × ~y*äVrZgzZ Bq -’Ãg–@ á yZ/ÐkZX ÅC Ù ªéZpÅLY~[Š Zh +] .Ãy*kZÆ™ P 8 ÍËZ e å c* Ct äg–@ á yZ/~ y*kZX Š Hã ‚#~ *Š !Š Z „ ß Ÿ y*t ~9{g Ñ [Š Zh +] .X c* ŠŸ ä× g©h +zY~[Z ÆkZ~ 10{g ÑÆ[Š Zh +] .XìÀF, !Zjš Ð V1Â! fÉ 7"ÅyZ[Ât Å8 -g ** p ÖZÆ‘u„  Zg { Z',ñO Åx Z²ZÆÀF, !Zjš 6,r # ™8 -g** ˆÆT q Ê (ZpÅÒÃÅä™ q Ê »r # ™8 -g ** Æ8 -g** P 8ÍËZ eB‚ÆVß Zjh +' × ä yZ/~ 11{g ÑQX –[Z g7½»y*kZ ä@ á yZ/XÑ äYK wEZ Zƒx ¬ÚZ el »yZgzZ‰ñ 7, 6, R~(, ~u 0* z& +Z¯ ) !* Æà Ÿ ~[Š Zh +] .èa}pVÐÆ@ á yZ/X H[Õ"ÃV¸u Ðr # ™8 -g ** ~[Š Zh +] .B‚Æ® ) á Z Å}pyZá Zz䙄0 +¶ KÅ‘uX Å® ) á Zg(ÅyZ äb‚gz]Zg ¶Z F Å[Š Zh +] .ñO ŶŠ [Z Üæ ðÃaÆe $',Ð x Z²ZÆ‘uä r # ™8 -g ** pK[Z »yZŠp{z ˆÅ„  ZpgŠ P 8ÍËZ eX X ã¹Å 12{gÑÆ[Š Zh +] .L Ly*}÷Š ZŠzg -gzZ u ‹\Z e $.ÅkZX c* Š™ Za êg~ ® ) á ZÐ ‹Š q Ê »V¸uÆ8 -g ** ~ ó ó]mZ L Lä tg ¤ÒXì _¾~ 3{g ÑÆ~ó ó]mZ L LÐ yZÄÆó óã!* $gŠ ã!* $Å8 -g ** X c* Š}Š[Z Üæ»kZ~„]mZädÄZ ÂÅl»d)Åä™ DÚZ k?~ ]g ZŠ Z Åò ÂÜ** gzZ−{”g Z [Z~³ÆTÔì ÅyÒ aÆä™ ãZzé: kZŠ ZŠzg¿t yZXì Š Hc* Š™ ŠB‚Æ]Y!Zj}g7Ã}p}g ‚Ñ!* {gÃè~kZXì Zƒù  á 8 -g ** P8Íg9{g Ñ»Š !* WxsZ ËZ e ‰ Š ]‚½Z ãZÆV¸u~ }pyZXì Š HHï á Ì óD ó ø {à » ºuL Ly**»g–@ á yZ/{z´Æ ‰ Š Ì ½} (,&h +' × XŠ HH 7rZ 6,kZ sÜpX  °» „z a Æ ä™g Z¼ZŠ ÃwdÅ 8 -g ** P 8Í ðZgX 2X Vƒ:ÀF, ö »V1 ~ m, ôZ 7,Z Ì],äsÜJ -334™ÆÐ33™Æ[ÂÅ8 -g ** X 1X 


www.urdudost.com

22

UrduDost Library

5_ ž;÷¢X 3Xì Š Hƒ{Š c* iÌÐ],J‚{zì Š HH‘u ÐContemporary Literary Theory[ÂÅy åHÓG zŠXì à ™ï á ~[ KZ ~g7 Å ~g7 B‚Æw$ +wŠ Z à ©Æ~Z¤ /Zc Structuralism and Semiotics[Â

”ŠÃD}÷ H Ú Z'XnÈ7̼™Á~}g !* ÆV¸uLZJ -ÌZ r # ™8 -g ** pì `ƒ3²Z +ZiÐ w‚ ™ ŠB‚ÆVß Zjå@ZØ}g ‚t ~ k?ä−{”g ZX c* Š uzgÐ LY¼ Ì~â Ës ÜÆ8 -g ** ~[Š Zh +] .™ Xì ˆƒg DWb§~g7|ÅV¸uÆr # ™8 -g ** ÐTÔŠ ·e õZz .‚Æ ‹ŠðsZ¯eY ~ kZXì 0Ð ,gzZ®Ær # ™8 -g ** zª »8 -g ** P 8Í

z]Z W, @* Æ~g Zz!£Z·gzZ ~g7ÓËÔ~çgÛiÔg ¾yzg ZÔ£Zg\Ô‹g Ztzg ÃÔ9Zwg¾Ôðf®zÔzZpÀÔV{@Š&Wz6, ÆkLgD¨ ¤q -Z År # ™8 -g **

ì ™f »_+Zq -Z Å6ZgzŠ‚|Š W~k , ’ÅV{@Š&Wz6, X ï á ]ÃÏZ =g fÆi$Z e ƒ Ñ~‹Š¯eY~ˆ_tX ¶ˆÅwEZy!* i~C Ù i ð•Zs ÜÆVâ ›~TgzZ ¶Œ6, WB‚ -g ** 8 ì Hs ÏZ ä Vß Zz + YÆc* +ZXì c* & ŠgZ Œ ÛC Ù â Ì»](‚Šp7» „ ](‚7Z äzZpÀX „g CY Åí òsZgzZ Hg(Z x ** (@* ÕÔ HwJxsZ ._Æg» & §szcÆ Vß Zz ~7& +Z ™›aÆ ~Š  á ~uzŠ KZ ä r #™ ~g »uÆ rz Û Æ zŠg Z ñVZ wZÎ~ y!* i ÅgÑzŠ Z°Z ä [xZ ‰X à™Ýq ª œÅ ~Š  á ~uzŠ ._Æ & § ?Zƒ>H »y!* izŠgZ~VâŠÆg ZM ZÆr # ™8 -g ** ~Vzg ZŠ Z ”gZÔI]¾{z´ÆkZXì Š HHï á ~kZ Ìzë Zq -Z » ó óe $h +] .ˆâ gzZ ~i +e¤ / ØO%Z L Ly*Æ~Qj kZX  ñƒ ¶ “ M i ÅkZ Ì]‚½Z 0Z„gzZ NŠÔH',‰Æ ð¸ ëgzZ l£ZÔëZæg ËZ eÔ̇{  á g^Ô−{ [Š ZzŠg Z L Lä Üg 2 +ËZ eìgwìXì Š HHï ák , æ y¶g7ZgzZì Š Hc* ZÐ Üg 2 +ËZ eÆyÎ 0* tg ZŠ Z »m{ k?6,gî¦ùXì @* ™©qZ »©}g7 Æ‘uÆ8 -g * *tgZŠ Z »yZXì Å ~ e ÝZ 8 6,qçñÆó óe $Zzg Å ~i ~gzZ‘u~ )6,r # ™8 -** Xì ˆƒÝqw~ m, z*ŠÃkZÐzz ŶŠ™ Š¢ aZg ‚0Ð V¸uÆyZ~8 -g ** P8ÍÆ Xì ï á z¹Z hðÌZ÷~x »! Š Zzd(kZì Ùp=XÐg D™{Š .ZÐkZá Zzä™x »: Zg Z—Y ( Y 2009ðÑ B2 yß-ßq ~e·,) Xì YYHe ƒ Z eЄkZaÆ"7, íÑyWÃ8 -g ** P8 ÍËZ eÆk? http://www.urdudost.com/library/index_mutafarriqat.php


www.urdudost.com

23

UrduDost Library

?k6zZq -Z6, MÚZ , 7Œ Û g©X XI]¾

:^â k½Z »yZ~8g * *P8ÍÆDÚZk?~wìÆyZ¶âZsÜ]* !ÝZÐs§Å# r™I]¾ ¿g:ŠzöJðÌKZ]* !äVrZ „B‚ÆkZpXì ˆÅ~i ~b§kZgzZì H Š* c Š™^ »Ðt òzt ({zì H Š* cŠ # ™I]¾zÂ~g7ë * r @Ô ~Š™# sŸz¹~hð~ŸÆVÂ* !0)‰ä~X ‰ − D VZ'* !0)Š¼gzZ »VÓt9gzZVÂ* !0)ϹX ¿giÃ%, 6V¸uÆ8g * *P8 ÍËZ egzZx Z²ZÆä™~i ~™^»Ðó ót òzt (LÆ L ä# r™I]¾ $ "Âzâ~g ‚tX CYòÙC* !Ðg ZæÆqçñÆXÝZcÐkZ H, m/ ¤Ð¶Š[Z ä~ ( tX b )X Vƒ;g™pô, 6gîÆeg kgԶŠqzÑ~]gßÅ?k6zZŠp XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX ]zŠÇÄy B 29gzZ ðƒ„g, 64æ™ #â._Æì* Nð `ÃY 2009y B29é~ Z«Å# r™I]¾ 5!VâzŠX H Xì Ö#. }7Q»æEÎG Š* c Š™„g[Z Z÷, 64æ™ #{g H ŠˆÆ

1X 7Œ Û g©x ¯I]¾ [ZŠ W =gu^‘ om†Î …‚nu ݆jvÚ E G 4 ¢ 4 5 G O 8 i ÐZ Z÷[Z „:gzZVƒe| 7,7Zg7J -ÌZ L L k 鹓³#8 -g ** ó óZƒ5»\Wn kZðƒS(,w©ïE L èGz^~÷

DZg7 »X)6,¯ Å { z ‰Ær # ™8 -g ** \W å }Y~ ÂtXì 7k0* }÷ ‰ Ü z w‰ Ú ZèYì {Š Zg Z »"7,h +' × ~J -[Zì nkZ/Š{Š1 ™{gzZ *n}÷tÔM h™Ì„c* Š$ +ÅnkZ\WpÔ³#h +”( ǃÄ\Wh + á ~]Ñì LZì 4=[ZpX Vƒ[ ™Ìs Z ‹Z~Vzk , ’‰KZ »kZgzZVƒ ;gs 2™{ »†zcÅ\WgzZ »\W X Ï} 7, ã™çF, ¼


www.urdudost.com

24

UrduDost Library

,k , ’t c* Í H ù á ~ L ókZ™ÄgB‚Ð i Z0 +Z kZÃ]‚½ZÆy*OZ' ×q -Z}÷ä \W~ ¿#S0 +Z År # ™8 -g ** $â Ã\W~ kZ X å9 ‚ {Š ‚6,wq ‹gßòÀÅ[Š Z {zèÑqX  s ÜÆ r -g ** 8 úÆ e $h +] .åL›E # ™8 -g ** P 8Í µ¼6,„¯ Z0 +Z èzcÆ\WX ðW7Ã]»'," ‹Z f År # ™¹zg ÃÝ°Z ÒúÆ8 -ðeÆe $h +] .Ô‰ WÃÂr #™ s Z¤ /Zc0Ð nZ ‹Z‰ G6,LV WçLa¸0 +e F Ð ó â LZá Zzà Ÿ ~ó** ¸Æyp‘  \WZ # å Zƒ‰ Ü z kZ= wÅr # ™¹zg à Åä™sv . »]ªn}÷t Š H{gg # VY6,kZ ¿touchy„6\WX¸ ‰ ™g(Z Ùñ{6,• Xì x £ pÔŠ Hƒ¢É 7µ» ‘u6,äY ñŠ:á ZjÆ]‚½Z ‰ Uœ~ [ År # ™8 -g** Ãr # ™g–yZ/gzZÃ\W ºu ì ~i ‚%?tèÑq ǃ Zƒ7kCß̼Ã\W „¸~ ä™7 b§kZ mg ZÑ~ t òz t (ßÃy*}÷ Xì CƒLaZzF, ', ó zgŠ ÌÐ ~ ÀO& Â~ ]!* Iè [r~ yÎ 0* Æ\W~ y*q -Zá Zzà Ÿ ~Li ‚[Š Z óäg óy*q -Z ˆ WÃ46,‘ Û öF kZÃ\W -g ** 8 ~ L ókZá Zzà Ÿ Ð$zçz ]g ZŠ Z Å\WŠpp¶ÅÒÃÅ ä;] Û oIè s ÜÆ \WÆ™™f » Ý xÑ: ~Š ð3Š °»Z ** Å b§ËÃ\W: ~ kZ  ‰ ñ Î%Æ ]oËx Z²ZAÆ + M Z*igzZ 46,‘ Û ((6,r #™ [vgzZ: dÑq -Z nÆ\W „¸ Ì** ™úbeltthebelow6,yZÐ mÆ~Š  á ~uzŠ År # ™8 -g * *J -VŒX ðW µ¥!É Ô¥Ã\W,k , ’~C Ù iÅ Lk?p ó ( ̶{z|gŠgzZ ) Ð: ÷Ã\W• wÅg óy*á ZzLi ‚[Š Z óXì • w ~Ô £Š 3Š Ì¿zŠÆ#ŠzŠg Z c* ƒIè= \W~k , ½c* , k ’ËÅr # ™8 -g **  å ¹Ð \W̬ä~X  „g X ÇVzYƒxÝ»\W -g ** 8 ä VrZ Ç ñY HŠ c* nÆ ]!* kZ Ï0 + i @* [ZÃr # ™g–yZ/ì –„  gŠ ä k , æÆ k?h + á c* ä \Wt ÌäY nÆLx » óq -Z ÏZ sÜr # ™yZ/ ÇVz™†ŸZt sÜ~ kZ~X å –y*q -Z ñƒ ïŠg Z Œ Û tg ‚Ãr #™ G ! 5©iXÐN Y XƒÝq„h + á ]Š XÅä™x » »àe ðÃ7Z~ ÿE X Vƒ;g ŸÐé~ Z Ì[Z CZ~ÃXyZnkZì 5Lk?tó ~½*ŠB‚Æy*}÷ä\W XÐVƒíìyZ †n`¾ l†’Þ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


www.urdudost.com

UrduDost Library

25

1XI]¾x ¯7Œ Û g© y%xs gu^‘ †n`¾ l†’Þ Ý…]†e Xì ;gµ ~gz¢** ™¬ » ŸzP~[Z ÆkZ=Xt]X à| 7, é~ ZÅ\W ~ Z «X åƒ: *6,‘ Û ~kZ åHù  á y*† s Ü}÷ä\W Hs Z ‹Ztä\Wt]»\W ¬

5!  åY7 g!* +ZiÐ q Z -ZÐ \Wär # ™8 -g** 6,LY˜Í Z÷ åc* CŠpä\WÌ~WÅy¯8gzZ Ì)g fÆæEÎG á ZjÆ]&~÷… Y! l\WÔÇVƒ ZC Ù Š 7~{z c* Š [Z

ä\W ?H ù  á ˜Í »kZ ¶w! Š Z HÅ¿kZ

\W{z å c* Š äk , æÆi ‚[Š Z6,Š ã C¾t ŸZt 7ZgzZ ¶Å é[Z a ¾Ð \Wä r # ™8 -g ** Xì W, @* H »\WÐ

Hï á ù™\Y4ÐZ~i ‚[Š ZÆJ -Y 2008cŠ {zZƒwßñ~Y 2009~gz Û Ã\W y*†{zXìnç3W»VâzŠ

?Š HHï á 6, ìƾŠ z!* ÆYÐí@* ÔD™s Z ‹Z Ì\W»äƒ: *6, ‘ Û ÆTy*q -ZX Š H ~Z # 6,gîÆÆZ Å¿kZX Z 7,** ™ï á ÐZ ÌÆ™4 ¹zŠ!‚gÃ\WÐzz ÅT¶]!* +Z ´Ã~y*kZy W ÐÏg Ãä¿kZV; ** â Špä\W Â51³n¶nãÒ 1³³Ò h]y*ÑZzà Ÿ ~Y 2002s6, Z {g ÑÆyßi Zz6, Ã\Wä Šp å Zƒ –»¿,ZgzZ åÌ: *6,‘ Û gzZ† H ù á y*(Z ä \W~ q ÊÆr # ™8 -g **!r # ™ÂX  ÅVc* ga yWÌVc* gaÅXgzZ`™Vc* gaŠp ìg}Š {z ðÌÅV-gaÅr # ™8 -g** c* ÍX å´¯Š ÕÆ™Vc* gaÐÏg à !vZy4¼ƒ  X egkg ~[Z N c* {k HÆkZ~‰ Ü zá Zz äW @* åï á yz¬ Zg7 Z÷~® ) á Z ÅkZVƒ @* ™s Z ‹Z™ÁVŒ~ YEI4Ó& 54hGGg ê ‰ ! Š Zz dºuÆ8 -g ** ËZ eì |t pñY ~Š 3Š ~¤ /~g »Î6,. Þ Æ ëE Ü z kZX ñY3gï á Zg7 = ÌVŒ@ZØÆV¸u+F, ë Z&‰K7~8 -g ** Æk?ñƒ D™i Z0 +ZÃÃ]‚½Zx ¬Š¼X `ƒgDW6,gî X VƒêŠ ZC ÙŠ :À, Fö  » V1 ~ , môZ  7, Z Ì],äsÜJ 334™ÆÐ 33™Æ [ Å# r ™8g * *X 1 5_ ðZgX 2X Vƒ Šƒ {Š * H c i ÌÐ ],J‚ {zì H Š H‘u ÐContemporary Literary Theory [ Åy åHÓG KZ ~g7 Å ~g7 B‚Æ w+ $ wŠ Z à ©Æ ~Z/ ¤ Zc Structuralism and Semiotics[ ž; ÷¢X 3Xì


www.urdudost.com

26

UrduDost Library

nÈ7̼™Á~}g * !ÆV¸uLZJÌZ# r™8g * *pì `ƒ3²+ ZZiÐw‚zŠXì à™ïá~[ ™Ýqe $',Ð x Z²Z™ ) ÷ðŠÐ yz¬ÆVzg ZŠ', íq LZ 1™gzZa™ ºu: Ñ} .Z Û ãZÆ+®! fŠ¼ )g fÆVÍßá ZzpghZz ]ZŠ ¢Ð yZXÐ,™ê »w!Š Z z dÅr # ™8 -g ** [Z ºut ! r # ™7XÐB ðÃ[ZXì ;g ‹ê»V¸uÆyZ‰ Ü z ÂH g™ƒ—Ð RÅ]ZŠ ¢ CZ f LZgzZ Ç} ™gŠ ™ês ÜÆyZ‰ Ü zÉ 7Ð XìŠ ñ6, (KZ|Ô}HïW g ¬ƒ  tX YðŠ7Ä(ÅV¸uÆyZ Ìi Z ³Z Z (, Ð} (, ðÃÔeg Z-Z Z (, Ð} (, ìg { e bŠÃ *Š \W ìðŠgzZ^ÑuZutÔì m» ð;Š Åä™ï á ™^»Ð t òz t (Ãk½ZÆ\WJ -V˜ X Vƒ;g™7~k½Z »\WXì s§Å¾Kñzg »kZì @* ™C Ù ªð ™k½Z »\WX  CQ ¹{zŠ Z%~g øÐ V©VŒX σ Å7Ìä ËÐ wì}g øâZì Åä V©! Š Z Ö#. }ÎÅ[Š Zz y* !izŠgZ L L $ z ](‚gzZ $ øL F e+ h. ]ˆâ Ô$ e+ h. ]ä VMgzZì Lg Z  a§Ñ »ËZ e * c Wz, 6 B‚Æx * *ÆX 7/ ¦ÙC í Çx H pggzŠÐ ]ÃZ n yFÌgzZÃVß Zz zŠg Z« !Š Z ~ äâ i k QX X X Xì ÑZ e ¯ÄqZÃ[Š Z zŠg ZŠp™wZ e ~6Æ ](‚ ⸠D , 7 ~ c kZ {z: gzZ ì Zi ZâÐ egZ-Z Ã$ dŠ Z )¾û%kZ ä òŠ » Z zŠg Z ¾ ¶Sg„Å kZ 7Z:X¸ $ z](‚gzZ$ CÄZˆ H Âì ðW$ e+ h. ]ˆâ ˆÆ$ e+ h. ]t2X ñYJ+ 0* !uƾ{˜»Ä* c gŠ AÍ Z Å](‚ øL F e+ h åE

YS, 7$ e+ h. ]ˆâ â â â â â â ~[Š ZzŠgZ D WD WJY 2155ÍHgzZ ?ÏñW$ e+ h. ]ˆâ â ˆÆ$ e+ h. ]ˆâ 'ÆwßZ kZ

ó ó ?σ„g ( k½ZÐ 1ÛÃÚ oe] 1Ò æ…] t9Æ †n`¾ l†’Þ) ìg Îx Z²Z\W»äÎÐZ™^»Ãt òz t (TÆkZ%ZX M h™{ i Z0 +ZŠpMg ‡ì s§¾Kñzg »k½Z kZ Ù Ãk½ZÆ\WX ÇñYƒã0* C » ã0* gzZ|ŠzŠ »|ŠzŠ ,Š™„g b§ÏZ™5Ãt òzt (Æk½Z kZŠp\WXì ßuZutÔ X ìg { e** Z™e $', KZ™ÉaÆvÐ[‰Æ8 -g ** ËZ e\Wh + á tX Š HH77™^»Ðt òzt (˦ / Ù¦ C / Ðzz kZX å;g¾6,x ** ÆzŠg Z åc* Š Z™È!‚g ~y{z äVrZ ¸‰ ~±ÃzŠgZr # ™¹zg ÃÝ°ZÒ Z # ~ë @* Ôå: ?h + á ÂÜï!‚g ~y6,x ** ÆzŠg ZX åZƒÄŠ H » ~g Çizg" Å\W=ì x¥Ã\WX Z 7, ** ƒg Çizg"Ã\W = {Š c* iÐ kZX Vƒ &CŠ c* i År # ™¹zg ÃÐZ~X åce ** Y c* ŠDZg7 ÃVái 5 Å+W, Ox ÓÉ\WVƒ & á ZjÆe $h +] .I•Z ÅyZ ä~Vƒ@* ™ãZzÚ Z Âì ÅÒÃŶŠ › ä\WpI7¼6, nçÆr # ™¹zg à ŠpˆÆ äƒ sv .Æ VÓP Æ y*LZ ñƒ‘6,wz** Æ yZ= V;X Vƒ ì‡Ì[Z6,kZ å Hg (Z -ñ Ð kZ ä ~çOX åhZ÷»h e™g¨h +' × 6,‘ LZt ÎXì 4„ ** Y c* Š™sv .»{ kZ ñƒ ˜6,wz** ÆyZ Zƒ kˆZ 4]}÷}ƒ‘6,wz** y*ÑZzà Ÿ ~Y 2008ðÑ Ô 11{g Ñ[Š Zh +] .~¨£Æy*á ZzzŠg Z þLE X H̆ŸZh +' × ~y* tQˆÆ−y*=gzZˆÆ™~}g !* }÷ä\W‰ì ‚PMc* ¼ „(ztXì {”ãU* ÃgzZsî{Š c* iЬ


www.urdudost.com

UrduDost Library

27

X åH: nZ ‹Z ðÃÔåŒh»\WÐZÐwÅgóy*ä~gzZT e** ™sp¿zŠq -Z å;e Ýq6,& +ƒ !* ~gär # ™8 -g ** ÐZÔì m»äÑt ‚ÃVØ͉Ðá ZjÆÏ0 + i CZ f År # ™8 -g ** -V˜ J /ZÎX 'W: Ì'!* ¤ CZ ftÔ@* W7Ì8 -g ** »k? Â@* ƒH: ù á y*†{z6,x ** Æq ÊÆr # ™8 -g ** ä\WXì H äWXì ï á Ì[Z N »\W~ ® ) á Z Å8 -g ** kZÆk?  å H7ù á 6,}g  á ZÆr # ™8 -g ** y*{z ä \W XÐVƒlp6, ]!* kZ ÌŠp\Wh + á ~‰ Ü zá Zz »\Wä ~Xì Š ã C"uZux Z²Zt ÎXì Š HH7™^»Ð t òz t ( k½Z »\Wìt ÝqÝZ »âÆ\W H Za ä\W ì ;gƒZa W, @* „zÐk½Z kZXÙ " $U* ðCKZÆ™7t òzt ( »kZXì c* Š™7t ‚ƃ  k½Z Åy*d»VÂoÜæÆV¸uÆyZ ñƒ D™Ã½ÜÐ c~gz¢)à Zz äY ñUzÂÐ V¸uÆr # ™8 -g** Xå # ™8 r -g ** Ð VCÇÅy!* i$ +Ëc* VÓPÆqi * ËX Ç}™ ãZzÃwgß„ [Z »r # ™8 -g** [»Šp~ ]gß Xì 7ee $', ÅV¸uÆ ¹ÌÄŠ ä\WÔm, ³¹=\WX Vƒ© 8K]gm6, kZ ƒŠ H–JÚÅ\WÂðÃ}ÔVƒ;gÉ~³[Z t gzZ‘u~ [Š Z zŠg Z ëpX Vƒ &ÌÃV-g6Å\W~Ô m, ³= Ì[ZXì ¹a}÷Ìg \ ª»\Wpì c* Š \WXÇg lpÃ\WvZXce6g7öRÅt]g @* ËVŒÔìgg¦ / ÐgzŠÁêgzZ ]g @* -ZÐá ZjÆ~i ~ q XÚgŠ c* ~Vƒ ¬Š KZ ÌÃg ÕíX }WX ñâ  Û «]1Ã\WÐyZÔ~V-g6gzZVE.6, X ð¸»\W o8m†Î …‚nu XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX I]¾gzZ X H „g, 6 4:ÓÍ ™ #J WÃ]Zg ._Æ Ü‰z ð `Ãy 30yŠ Œ Z ä # r™I]¾[Z » ékZ X ~Š™„géKZ, 64{Ša™ #kŠg+ 0ZÆ]zŠ ä~~[Z Æ# r™

2X 7Œ Û g©x ¯I]¾ ! [ZŠ W (gu^‘ …‚nu ݆jvÚ :k™oÅyZÔãZz)gzZ„  gŠ)'!* F~[Z Æ\W

¹„zä~~[Z Ѓ  ?VY˜Í6, yZ¶h7]!* ¸ ÌäVÍßFgzZ {z´Ær # ™8 -g ** 6, ÚÍÆi ‚[Š ZX 1 ! nkZ 劰ÜïÚÍ6, ( \WgzZ #Ww0* ù )V'Š Z ã*zyë ZzŠá Zzäg Z ¦ /Ï0 + iC Ù !* ÐR',  å–~i ‚[Š Z


www.urdudost.com

28

UrduDost Library

X ,™é[Z Ð Ë Bi W » kZÊp {z: Å é[Z Ðí L: ä VrZX  „  zŠ vg ) ,}÷r # ™8 -g ** X2 XÐ,™L:gzZ Å7ìZæðÃLÌ ~i ‚[Š ZäVrZ åHy¯äg óy*¬X ¶_ƒí@* °»„¬ ~® ) á Z Åá ‚gZ # åZƒwßñA ${zìgȆ\WÃy*TX 3 Xì [ ƒ4 ¹!‚gèY} Y¾{zh + á Â,Š Ÿ~]gßðƒ ÅiìÐ é~ Z y*CZ {z¤ /Z å Š H c* C 7Z A $Ô ~Š\YÌñZg KZ6,kZgzZ Å. $Y^»à{~y*kZX 5y*{g !* zŠ äVrZA $X 7?h + á {zÈbà äVrZ ~ kZgzZ X  ñƒ"ze b§~g7 ~º YC Ù iÆ#Š 8 -g **ÝZgŠ \WX :¸ }: ~ Ö @kZ r # ™8 -g ** X¶  Ã\W H4Ðzz Åy*kZ {gÑ{z:X ñYƒZ gzZ¹»\WÐ T gzZT e 9 Š\W ì ;g}Š ð3Š „ (z¼ƒ X åi Z ðÃ»ä™ (Z: Š H M Âä \WèY ÏñW 7L~™Å\Wì C + Ù ª `™ãZz „¬ci7 KZ r # ™8 -g ** ~A çƺuX 4 X Åä™Zg7Ã} ¤Z: ÷CZ fÆr # ™¹zg ÃÝ°ZÒgzZÔ¿# ÅyZì ¿g|0 +!* ~÷gzZ å~}g !* ÆLÅzŠg Z óðƒ~ a ÐkZgzZV©! Š Z á Zzà Ÿ ~äâ iË~b‚gzŠg ZvŠgzZ Óy*OZ' × Z÷X 5 E §3rÂä r öG # ™8 -g ** ~}g !* }÷6, gà àÆ TgzZì ~Š\Yä…í´ ì ï á Ì~ LßZŠ &ó[Â+F, { i @* ]!* täËL1Ôì c* W Ì6,-i +gÔì [YJ 7,~V<FÔì [¾(F̬РkZy*tXì Zi ZâÌÐ ]Ü çOX ìg }Š\W7~à *Š »ðŠX ~ ¦+X åH™f »Vo7» ,Ëä ~X à aÎä \W c Î7 Ã~&5Å¿kZ Ì\Wh + á Xì]&5Ð ƒ  » âÆ\WÔ ]!* Å\Wà Zz ÒÃÅvÐ [‰Ær # ™8 -g ** X Vƒìg ™kC "gzZ å^ ,Ã6,}ÇÆR, g7g rÆi ZzWò ¸~ A $ å c* Z™È Ðzz Å#Š 8 -g ** sÜ L6gŠzŠgZ óZ # är # ™ ¹zg ÃX 6 , k æ~i Z ³Z »á ‚gkZ~X ǃZƒÄŠ6, ]!* gzZ ËÃ\W<Š c* X åZƒ7g Çizg" Ìxi 5gzZ ðÃX å7„ wZÎðû ~g Çizg C&gÇŠ c*q )œgŠkZ= »äƒÈÆá ‚g n kZ å[™ involveJ -u C!* .Êp~ÒÃÅä¯ îÏOE _ -ZÐZèa gzZ å

( HyY b§hZ~ t ¿2~ƒã—gzZ Î$ Š +gŠ¾r # ™¹zgÃX Š H7Ì íŠÆi ZzWò ¸J -izgzŠ  ™ ðAXF Z Ìg ~yÐ}g ZŠ Z ËÆzŠg Z åòúŠ »yZX ñƒáÅf õs ÜÆ 6gŠzŠg ZÐá²{zgzZ å{0 + iyp‘  »yZA $X å òiÑ$q -Z nÆä2zŠg ZÃVß Zz~y~á ‚gèÑqXì SeÜ$ +ZÌg »zŠg Z# Ö ÓìtÈ»% ï!‚g ðÃ~ @* ƒ~}g ÑC Ù Ôì ~gz¢ −7,~Z ÌgÆkZÐZ nÆ ™BZ f » ´èÅy!* izŠg ZÌg 3ZtgzZ å @* Y 0* YÐgî {z ¶CY Ålg \ Å äh +y  ÃV1ÂXűà zŠg Z Ô à Zz ä2zŠg ZÐ ~ m, ôZ z ~y ~g3ZgzZ ${zÐ ¬ $ +1X å »±Ãär # ™¹zg ÃÐ,™7¢ Ì»]!* kZ nkZ2~#Š8 -g ** S0 +Zèa\WX ‰ðƒèÅr # ™8 -g ** .J28FõZz Yƒ èKZŠpä VrZ(Å kZXn ï: ¦Zg ÅkZÃr # ™8 -g **  @* ~Š Z™È Ì| # z Û ÅV1ÂyZˆÆ“ W } çG


www.urdudost.com

UrduDost Library

29

JVƒ ;g C x ¬ çLag !* « ` WÔíX}™57Z¦Zg[Z @* Ô c* Š wZ e wze »äZ™ òZgÐ s§Å±ÃÁ Åä2zŠg Z ó tq -ZX¸GÇzŠ ä~A $X åc* ¯yö » Z` ZÆLi ‚[Š Z óä~„~VâŠyZÆc6, e Ë{“» äƒÈÆL6gŠzŠg Z z` @gzZ™ÆVr # ™ ¹zg à ÇVƒ 3Š™ ¯ ~g £gŠkZà Li ‚ [Š Z ó t ZuzŠgzZX 7ÌÐ r # ™ ¹zg ÃX ÇVz™7Ð wEZ » ÕZzÜk , Š KZÐ c* z ÂLe~X ;g[x»~ì yEZ=gzZ åi§ CZ »h e x ÙZ Z÷t X N Y {g™ 3[@* -’à{ hZ~ ]Zg ¶ Z s ÜÆyZ ñƒ D™ ðƒ A $uD Ù ¹ÜZ «Ãr # ™ ¹zg à X H7(Z ä ~1X å Y` q  c* Cä~?Ç|¼ Ì»8 -g **~kZ H Y7äVrZX Ålg Z ¦ /Å™¼ n}g ѬÆi ‚ [Š ZÐyZä~Z # $ 4¨GG $X Ç| éSE 5G ¾~Ltgz*r ó Zg‚ »ˆnZXƒù á ¼ Ì»8 -g ** ~TT eH7~á ‚g Ë, Z {z ¹äVrZA Ær # ™8 -g ** < ¢gzZX ZƒZ` »kZVð;Ær # ™8 -g ** gzZ c* Wt ‚{g Ѫ» Li ‚ [Š Z óZ # ZƒZg7A $x ÙZ Z÷Xì [ ~Z # Zƒ izgkZ ÌD»® ) á Z Åá ‚g7ZXì Š HÑïÐzz¾!‚ggzZì Ö H~}g ÑkZ å7x¥tÌÃV¤ Û X Zƒx¥ÐLtgz*ó7Z ÌrtZƒh —n¾6, ]!* ¾Ðr # ™¹zg ÃJ -VŒX Å„  ZpgŠ Å Z` ZÐyZ ä òŠ W}', Ð}', gzZì Cƒgz¢ðZ',ðÃ: ðÃ~òŠ WiZ ÐiZì ¢å6,]!* kZ Z÷X ]!* Åg ZŠ™ 㨠KZ ˆ{g[ZX 7 hZ ðÃ: ðÃÌ~r # ™¹zg ÃgzZ σgz¢ò { ðÃ: ðÃÌ~r # ™8 -g ** çOX ì CYïgz¢]!* hZ ðÃ: ðà Ì~ X ÏñYïgz¢]!* ;gƒ7ð„ [Š Z  ÌZèY @7¼ {Š c* iÐ hø0q -Z= ]!* ÅŠ ˜Æ\Ws ÜÆ~i ‚%gzZ ºu~[Š ZX 8 XnYc* Ñ~¿Ô%* c ‘uðà °ǃð[Š ZXì XÉí6,äƒÈ i ZzWò ¸w‚¸¦ / XÃä™ì ¹ x » k0* }÷ n kZ sÜV*.6,~÷ìt n²V; gzZX 9 X Vƒ~# Ö i 5ÅM m iEzŠg Z Zg–~À` WgzZ å5 VRS+4q -ZÃ}i 5 †n`¾ l†’Þ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

2XI]¾x ¯7Œ Û g©

y%xs gu^‘ †n`¾ l†’Þ Ý…]†e ¼}}~V0 Ÿz{Š ñÅ\WX ñƒx3, ¼a}÷\Wg !* kZ~¨ £Æé~ Z «KZ ðƒÅ]!* kZ Ùp ¬ 6,eg kg¼ƒ  t @* X Vƒ ;g™7[Z CZÐ K M F, ÏZ ._ÆiñƒŠÆ\WÎX ìg}Š ð3Š ¨Ðï¯


www.urdudost.com

30

UrduDost Library

Xìg |ÝZ ¸gzZ ` É~ ( Y 2009 ~gz Û B2)é~ Z q -Z KZ \W]!* ZJ -u °»Ð s # Ÿz {Š ñÅ\W~N¬X 1 Xì ìg\YVY åY77ÐíŠ z!* ÆäƒD»kZ är # ™8 -g** $Âå;g¾{zZ A # ìt]!* ŘÍÆ\W L L ˜Í »yZ Š H0„  zŠ,Z ZgvÐ V¹7Œ Û g©ƒ C Ât Y7 ä VrZ yŠ q -Zˆ { â g e &ÌÆ kZ Â[ ¾Z # Xƒ CYÚÍ6,V'Š ZzŠá ZzgC Ù !* ÐyÎ 0* Ô c* +Z~ÌtgzZ,Š C'!* & s ä~?Zg vZƒ“ mZ ÚZÐyZX c* Š\ Y ó óD™^Î{Š c* i 7Œ Û g©=. Þ £Æ#Ww0* ùÔ åLe X å¹¼ ä\WB‚Æ›{Š c* iÌÐkZ ã!* i:¤ / zì ]!* ~k , ’Å\WsÜt Xì [Z »kZ „k½Z ÑZz6, zZÎXì YYH{ i Z0 +Z ¼Ðk½Z {gÃèÔ7c* Åé[Z är # ™8 -g ** X2 X `Ét\W„~é~ Z à Zz~gz Û B 2)ìg™gïZ8\WÐg ZŠ™Ær # ™8 -g ** ~® ) á Z Åy*†TX 3 }Y~ ¹Ìt h + á ä ~X Vƒ &¸ Ì~ ¹ä ~XìB; »r # ™8 -g ** úÆy*kZ å ¹Ðí ä \W L L ó Xó Vƒ

{g * !{g ÑÆ[Š Z+ h. ]Â~X J7Ì8g * * »k?Â* @ƒH: ù áä\Wy*tVƒHQ~X ,™g¨, 6 ‘ L Z „\ W

ÃV2zŠ}÷gzZ= ä \W ÂtX å [ hg„ÃqçñkZ™Ñ, 6eg kgy*ZŠ KZÔ) ¯* ! Æ ’¦gŠ99 Å# r™8g * *, 6 X* c Š™g6, 6ä™x »(tÆ™uÃ

57Z [Z » éà Zz ÀÅ\W ` WsÜ)X ;g 7‚Zg » ÎâËÐ r # ™ ¹zg ÃÐ3²q -Z Z÷ Vƒ H¢~X 4 ** Ñ~}Â! Š ZÐZ Âì H‘uä Ëì ]!* ÏS¦Ïs§~÷X 7n¾ðÃ=Ð } ¤Z ËÆr # ™ ¹zg ÃX ( ì ïE /~ Ôì 7aÆr # ™8 -g ** sÜtXce L i8gzZX Vƒ ;g™[Õ"½o ÎÃVzg ZŠ™, ZÆ*Š ! fÐ VÎ',kŠ¸¦ ÅyZX ñY c* Ñt ‚B‚Æ bÑŠ }g7 ÐZ Âì ~Š™s # Ÿz ðÃÅV¸u LZ ä r # ™8 -g ** /ZX Vƒ ;g 3V1Ç = ¤ ?ì ðƒ¿g™ ÖV¹s # Ÿz t òt (ÝZÐZ~ŠÄgt ‚k , ’Å\W ä~Xì H7™^»Ð t òz t (Ãk , ’Å\Wä ~ å–¬ä \WX 5 ~ŠÈ]!* Å b§C Ù ~ Vzk , ’OZ' × XØŠ hg6,~g ‡tÔì á CW, @* HÐ kZX H7x »t J -ÌZ ä \WpXÙ 7B‚Æ °» ~g ‡XØŠ îJ -x|ËÐ è%KZÃ~g ‡Ôcgt6,x|LZ\WÎX ì CY àÄg öRÅ b§C Ù ÌQgzZì CY X `ƒ)f ™| (,Ð \W~Âìnç» {)z ºu c* ~i ~! Š Z}~kZX X X Å#Š HB‚ÆËc* B‚Æ\Wär # ™¹zg ÃX 6 [Z%ZX 3Y r # ™8 -g ** gzZ 3Y r # ™ ¹zg ÃX 3Y \W Âì »VÛg ÅÎâ CZ f¼nç¤ /ZpVƒg »ÃäVQi ZzW


www.urdudost.com

UrduDost Library

31

» ó ó¹zg ‚ L ÃL r # ™8 -g ** ) !* ¯ ÆV¸u{ C" LZì ÓÎ]!* à Zzb Z' × z94- Ðá Zj CßÆx ** Ær # ™¹zg Ã= Vƒ{fgÐb Z' × kZ\WÌñƒDƒg ó b Z' × ë @* Xì 7bŠ ¢ 8¼=йzg ‚z¹zg ÃUi ZñkZpXce ** Yc* Ši Z ³Z X Vƒ© 8:Zzó ó¹zg ‚L Lp ÖZ LZ  °»ÌÚ Z ñYƒ~g ¸Z ÷»Vçp~ËX ·ù»Vñ{gzZVçpy¨ KZƒ  ëX Vƒ@* ™t · Zå~Ð]!* kZ Å\WX7 Xì Dâ Û „r # ™8 -g ** 46, uÅŠ Z®~(,ÅVß Zz™ PgzZ ÷R, o yzÛ)ì ;g¾÷R, g Ñ" ~zŠg Z7—~kZX 8 ;gƒ7ð[Š Z YZ w–Æ\W¤ /ZpXì ;gƒðÌ[Š Z YZp ( Vƒ Y™ qzÑ ** Zrx ** Ð}uq -Z~ Â}X  p;gƒ7ð[Š Z YZì ]!* Åk\Zh +' × Ât X ` }Šx 1ZuVc* úñ;g »VâzŠ‘ugzZ %Âr # ™8 -g ** ÌA $ X ìg YK‘uÌQr # ™8 -g ** !ì H ¬Š Å÷zgŠgzZX}™wâ Ñâ h +' × Ã\WgzZ}Š• ', ~tigÆ\WvZX 9 ð¸»\W o8m†Î …‚nu XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX zŠ]zŠ ä~gzZ H„g, 64:ÓÍ™ #J W]ZgÃðÑ J._Æì* Nð `yŠŒ ZQä# r™I]¾[Z »ékZ X* c Š™~g YÌ[Z »kZˆÆ4

3X 7Œ Û g©x ¯I]¾ ![ZŠ W gu^‘ …‚nu XÐg D & + ðe „¨ÆVzuzŠ½Ï0 + i\Wì 4 (Z k½ZgzZì g "Z~ s # ŸzÆt Û kZ ñZÎÔì s %Z H~ k½ZÆé~ Z}÷{Š™ÜÆ\WgzZ s # Ÿz ~÷X 1 £zG»\W7»r # ™8 -g ** ¥•¯ Z0 +Zt L ...Š H0„  zŠ Zg vÐ V¹7Œ Û g© ó%Z ?ì ˆ W,Ï~hðÅ]!* ÏZ~ ä™Ëq ~Šg^n LZsÜX c* Š w$ +ÐZ~ k½Z ä\W1Ô å–„, z ä ~gzZ åY7 ~i Z0 +Z[väVrZXì !Ðn¾Å X Ç}Š ËvZ ...’g ÇXì Myj6f »nËÃ\Wh + á Ð̃» Lé[Z Xó 2 –Ìt™^ÐW LX 57=y*tä( r # ™8 -g ** )VrZì s Ìt1 ó ÌtˆÆkZgzZ å–¸ ä~V;YX 3


www.urdudost.com

32

UrduDost Library

„ {ì»yZ ** ƒi Z0 +Z 4Š~ domain Åk , æìt Âs X ¹7nÆLY y*»Ëc* ât LÐíä r # ™8 -g * * œ»\WÐZ Ì[Z~X <ð„Šp\WX „Š d $ Û c* Ôì %Ôì ^ÑtX ‰ ™wÍ Up~[ZœZ[Z \Wt1Xì 7 " Ã+ â XìC Ù !* Й~÷]!* à Zz’  ¦År # ™8 -g ** 6,{g !* {g ÑX Vƒg G é5OG

g ZÜZ6,VÂ!* ‰gzZÐ yÒ¯ Z0 +ZÆ\W=X Vƒ @* ™¢Ì6,VzuzŠ n kZ VƒòŠ W éF CO\Šp~Ô7]gz¢ÅäVZÕX 4

»ä™ defameÃr # ™8 -g ** ìt sÜÀ` WZ ¤ZzZ7 yz »X ~ W, ZÆr # ™ ¹zg Ãh + á \W å ;gƒµÐ X ìg™Zg7Z ¤Z »„yZÀ` W\W26, gî·ZŠ ** ë@* Xì ¢»]!* Å\W=X ’ ebŠå 37ÐB;µñðÃ

{zgzZ  _7,y*OZ' × }÷‹C Ù gz¢á ZzzŠgZ VzgZD Ù Â7VÅÑ~ n²z wîÆoXì [ ¾g !* ¹ y*Z÷X 5 [ZX å HI Ìä r # ™8 -g** &åŠ H–y*6,ÅÅV©! Š Z Vƒ [ C„¬ ~ t òz t (X  )f °» Ì X −k , ’³ #8 -g ** ÐZvß @* ™\Y~³ #8 -g ** ÐZì Ñ$ +ä\W»kZt òzt ( ( X i !* ñƒD™ Zg7 Z ¤Z »} Z ðWÏäVrG é5Ò<XF ÆðŠ {z pX Å7#Š CZ f Ån˜ðÃB‚}÷är # ™¹zg ÃX 6 `q -’F F6, ^ÑÆ%$ +ZÌg~A çÆ6gŠzŠg ZX H{ ZegzZ c* Š »ðŠÃV'Š ZzŠg Z™ ZØZ}»e $h +] .s ÜÆ~I¹F, 7xñè»ä™„6,Š ã _Áw7 ÅT c* ` æ¾OF CÅ< Ø èà ` zŠg Z™ÉW†§q -6,[ÂÅåPyŠ HÔ ~Š ZƒÃƒã—™ YÀE_ 5 à z ä Tì }ZŠ¤ /„  6,‘ Û ö XŠ Õã]¤t Ã8 -g ** P 8 Ík TX ¶Åä™ ZÎgÃr # ™8 -g ** n¾~Š ã CÌ~ kZì Å0Š à zV;zÆ™wbÃg Z' × kZ~g Çq -ZÆòŠ » Z‚‚~gzŠ „Æ} Z ~ e+ZgzZ ðVZi ZzWs ÜÆä™g UÃg Z' × Æ0Š CÎugzZ o Z• ÑØt »[Š ZzŠg Z ÑZz} ZØ Z}òsZ s ÜÆ[ ÅåP yŠ H‰ Ü z kZX ¶ðZ™ gàŠ ZŠg Z Œ Û Åä™ì‡g ÇŠ c* À YE _5 Æ~çÅkZ @* å;g}ŠgZ Œ Û g›ZŠ Z (, Ѓ  ˆÆŠ Zi WxæZ1Z ** ÑñÃÙ C Ù ëà%½k , iz ö X{z?å;g™ H ¹zg Ãy é)O\ ðÃVŒÆr # ™¹zg ÃV; XÐN VZ i ZzWV¹s ÜƬkZgzZ d $ Û kZ Ô[˜kZ \W1X ñYïŠ ZæZ à â ÏhZÃwjZ CZ f ðÃÐíÃr # ™¹zg ÃXÐ,Š™q -Z y W}i\W ÂÃÈ‘u! Š Z~ªZŠ KZ \W&ñYïÃ\W„ @* à c* œ(Z zK Z· Z pluralism gzZ ~gZŠ Zzg R*gzZ ã—Ô Iè Ô {zVƒ ‚ rg n kZ l{6,CZ fÐ yZ~%ZX }Y 7~tσl{6, ÌÐV5ñ‰* Z8 ÏgzZ ðW8 ÏX Y™7MõÐË~VŒX Vƒ&lgŠ W CZ~ÎÔŠÆVzgŠÅ ]Zz) Xì t Û ™{~VâzŠXB‚Æ\W Å\WB‚}÷]ùF, ~÷X ’ e7ŠæÐ\W=X 7 gzZ VoÅVÍßÃ\W  XÐ 0ƒØWkZÃgÅÑzgÅLZì {gt: ÀZ÷~y WX  7Ôs # Ÿz '!* ¹!* I èE L jÒ¯kZX q pg:iÃ%ÃzÂ~g ‚6, ]Z f KZsÜX < Za i Z¢ziÎ~wŠ LZXì ;guzgÐ+ T8 -g„  gŠÆVzg ZŠ™ X VƒZ (, k', | l, eq -ZÐ\W~/Vƒ;g™ÌnkZstX  VZ¯»kZXìŠ ñ>YZ¼¹~ †n`¾ l†’Þ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


www.urdudost.com

33

UrduDost Library

3XI]¾x ¯7Œ Û g© =gu^‘ †n`¾ l†’Þ Ý…#]†e y%xs »r # ™8 -g** Xì –¼Ð s§KZ ä ~:Ôì£zGt:Vƒ @* ™s # Ÿz ~ŸÆb q -Z sÜÆé~ Z Å\W zŠg Zðzg é~ Z à Zz~gz Û 2Å\WX ¶èb§ÏZ]!* t0ÐyZ=ä\Wp… Y4\WÔ7c* ì (Z¥•i Z0 +Z :tp ÖZùzðÆkZ ¶~ Aap ke goshe ki baat ye he ke jab wo chhap raha tha tab Narang sb ne iska ilm honay ke bawajood mujh se nahi poochha ke kyun chhaap rahe ho. Jab chhap chuka to us ke bhi 3-4 maah baad ek din unhon ne poochha ke ye to batao Haider Qureshi kahaan se tumhaare ese dost ban gae ke un ka gosha chhaap diya. Un se itna gehra talluq kab hua tumhara. Maen ne sach baaten bata deen. Aur ye jawaaz bhi ke maen India Pakistan se baahar rehne waale do adeebon par goshe chhaapna chahta tha. S P Anand Sb ke muqabil mujhe HaiderQureshi ziyada suit karte they.

:ì –V-~2 $hZzŠg Zä~Ã]!* ÏZ ?M h(ùБ LZpM h™wñwÍÃ]!* ÂÐVÂ!* ½ã!* i\W ìg\YVY åY77ÐíŠ z* !ÆäƒD»kZ ä# r™8g* *$ A Âå;g¾{z# Zìt]* !ŘÍÆ\W L L ˜Í »yZ H Š0 „zŠ,Z ZgvÐ V¹7ÛŒg©ƒ C Ât Y7 ä VrZ yŠ qZˆ { â g e &ÌÆ kZ Â[ ¾# ZXƒ CYÚÍ, 6V'Š ZzŠá ZzgÙC* !Ð yÎ * 0 Ô* c+ & Z~ÌtgzZ,Š C'* !s ä~?Zg vZƒ “mZ ÚZÐyZX * c Š\ Y ó óD™^Î{Š * c i 7ÛŒg©=Þ.£Æ#Ww* 0 ùÔ åLe ?ÐN ÖùgzZÐN ÖJ -V¹ÐZ[ZÔ ðƒé[Z b§~g7Ð\WX Š HH77£zGðÃÐs§~÷ !xgŠ Z', H7Æ™µ ZÐ t òz t (Ãk½ZOZ' × Æ\WÐá ZjÆe $h +] .ˆâ¶]!* ~Š ã CgzZÝZÔ ëZq -ZÐ s§Å\W @* ™7Qk½Z {zX ìgx » ** ~kZ\WX  Ñt ‚B‚Æt òt (ÝZÆkZÐZ c* Š™7k½Z »\Wä~X Š H X Vƒ


www.urdudost.com

34

UrduDost Library

CQ ¹{zŠ Z%~g øÐ V©VŒX σ Å7Ìä ËÐ wì}g ø âZì Åä V©! Š Z Ö#. } ÎÅ[Š Zz y* !izŠgZ L L $ z ](‚gzZ $ øL F e+ h. ]ˆâ Ô$ e+ h. ]ä VMgzZì Lg Z  a§Ñ »ËZ e * c Wz, 6 B‚Æx * *ÆX 7/ ¦ÙC í Çx H pggzŠÐ ]ÃZ n yFÌgzZÃVß Zz zŠg Z« !Š Z ~ äâ i k QX X X Xì ÑZ e ¯ÄqZÃ[Š Z zŠg ZŠp™wZ e ~6Æ ](‚ ¸ D , 7 ~ c kZ {z: gzZì Zi ZâÐ eg Z-Z Ã$ dŠ Z )¾û%kZ ä òŠ » Z zŠg Z ¾ ¶Sg„Å kZ 7Z:X¸ $ z ](‚gzZ $ CÄZˆâ Âì ðW$ e+ h. ]ˆâ ˆÆ$ e+ h. ]t 2X ñY J+ 0* !uƾ{˜»Ä* c gŠ AÍZ Å](‚ øL F e+ h åE S7, e+ $ h. ]ˆâ â â â â â â ~[Š ZzŠg Z D WD WJY 2155ÍHgzZ ?ÏñW$ e+ h. ]ˆâ â ˆÆ$ e+ h. ]ˆâ 'ÆwßZkZ H ó ó ?σ„g Y ( k½ZÐ 1ÛÃÚ oe] 1Ò æ…] t9Æ †n`¾ l†’Þ) XìC Ù ªÌ6, # ™8 r -g * * ©ÔìC Ù ª6,  | :gzì ~gZŠ)f Å\W** ƒ ™" $U* ** ƒµ ZÐt òzt (»kZ -g * 8 *ì ÒÃÚÅ\W[ZX c* Š™Z # ZzCY8 -g** »k?~Š™Za wgß+Z6, gîÆk , æg ZŠ)f)ä\W¬ »„r # ™8 -g ** ÌÐ ÒÃkZ Å\WpX ñY ~Š™wÍ]!* Å ºu~ VÂ!* 0) ~uzŠ™ UzÂÐ V¸uÆr #™ »yZVƒ [ uzgÃ\W6,V¸u} (,&sÜ™hgÃ]‚½ZƒeVzƒeÆV¸uÆr # ™8 -g ** ~Xì ;g0˜Óh +' × X  ÑŠ[Z

:À, F ö  » V1 ~ , môZ  7, Z Ì],äsÜJ 334™á Ð 33™Æ [ Š# r™ 8g * *X 1 5_ ðZgX 2X Vƒ Šƒ {Š * H c i ÌÐ ],J‚ {zì H Š H‘u ÐContemporary Literary Theory [ Åy åHÓG KZ ~g7 Å ~g7 B‚Æ w+ $ wŠ Z à ©Æ ~Z/ ¤ Zc Structuralism and Semiotics[ ž; ÷¢X 3Xì Xì à™ïá~[ [Z d»x Z²Z kZ \WXnÈ7̼™Á~}g* ! Æ V¸uLZ JÌZ # r™8g * * pì `ƒ3²+ ZZiÐ w‚zŠ X Ñ Æ# r™8g * *:gzZn™$ "* Ux Z²Z ÑZzk½Z LZ Â:\Wk\ZgzZì ˆ0z» eg kg! Š Z[Z$ "Âzâ{Š ñB‚Æ\W ™ð ]5çzŠt ¬[ZXì „g™, 6 gî4 *Š ! Š ZÃë›}g ‚¹Xn Ñ?Š dðÃaÆ$ e, 'Ð V¸u‰Dø {à XÐás§gzZ ËQB o8m†Î …‚nu ð¸»\W XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX ÆVÂ* ! ÷ ^ ZP gzZ H~g Y, 6 4ûZ™ #â ]ZgÃY 2009 ðÑ B2izgŒ Z ä # r™I]¾.‚ ïE L i8Ì[Z »kZ

ä ~ 7Z~[Z ÆkZX ÈÌÐ µ Z, 6gî CZ f=gzZ Å ~g Y Ì, 6 gî6zZ ä VrZ étX * c Š™g ïZÐ c+ h×'B‚


www.urdudost.com

UrduDost Library

35

X ~Š™„gÌé6zZ, 6429™ #10gzZX Èé, 64J W™ #10Æ]Zg, 6gîCZ f XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

4X 7Œ Û g©x ¯I]¾ gu^‘ …‚nu [ZŠ W

=V- 6,=KZXì ;g W** zg 6, àeÆWÎÆ\WgzZ6,=KZ[ZgzZX ðWçQX åc* W×gŠË™| 7,'!* Å\W¬ # ™8 -g ** Ðá²ãZ å’ e ¢ 8™ „¬ ËÃr # ™8 -g ** XÐ−7¬]!* ~÷ \WˆÆ pg l{6,Ð r äWkF, 6,ûÅ\WX ’ e bŠ hg6,wqÆ\WÃ\W[ZçOì [0obsessiongzZn%6f » \W[Z ** 3Š —b§Ì Ð V ¹ 7Œ Û g© ó]g „Å\W ìg0* ™7ÌÆ™Ük½ZÆé~ Z ~÷gzZ KZ~ é~ Z kZ \Wìtzz Å Haider Qureshi kahaan se tumhaare ese dost ban

{Š™k , ’}÷gzZ L ...Š H0 „  zŠ (Z Zg v

é[Z t8 -N* -Z Å©%„zQ6,kZ ?ìg ZŠ)f yÃnÆkZìŠ ñt q Û ~- á Å¥•gzZ| # ‚Å¿~gae ?lp\W[ZX¸³Z Ìy»X ¶Åé[Z äVrZV;YX 1yâ ¾!ì 7 m H[Z r ~g¹gzZ ~i ‚tÃ! Š Z 7Ãr # ™8 -g ** ~ y* kZV¼™ ÕäOF # ™ ð¸ Xg Zƒ6,y*}÷QˆÆkZ ÐZ ä \WgzZ å ;g™ÅV©! Š Z ]!* ~ Xì 4äƒ kCÄq -ZŠpñO [Š ZÐ Xå Š Hc* ¯:¶ K» b Z' × z9Ã~i !* X VƒY™ H~Âì ;g W7~™Å\W [ZX Vƒ[C„¬~t òzt (CZX „c* Š$ +Å\WìtX c* Š ˜6, # ™8 r -g ** ì „g Y ñ3„Åí@* à Zz äƒ~}g Ñ{Š ñÆ i ‚[Š Z= X <È ãZUgzZ Ït [ZX Zƒ¹ [Z [»t ~y W Y /J4»É ~x »Æàe ËÌŠpnÆZ} ðÃ~ÂÐKX K:â ðÃ~e kZ=\W{ÒWX õG .gzZX £Š h e™ Zg7ÐZ o8FwŠ ðÃÐ} ¤Z Æ\W=X ÇVzŠ 7[Z

Æ\W ~}g !* }÷ gzZÔ N â  Û s ç= ~ekZ Z®Xì 7ö-F Xƒq Z} .X g D wŠ CZ™ aÎ{zñW~Y X ¹!* Ä{0 + igc* †n`¾ l†’Þ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


www.urdudost.com

36

UrduDost Library

4XI]¾x ¯7Œ Û g© ØnÚ oi]ƒ =gu^‘ oñ^ãe !Zj~oèLZ ä~X 4VY˜ÓÚZ ÂCƒà ™l], Z eÐíg !* -Z ñOÅä™™ Y~ê~qzÑä\W]!* q ¸ ² E H4) ã‚W6,êËvß„6,kZÔì _ƒv Z% :¤ / zÔì p ÒÌÌZ »]Z f Å\W=akZX K Á ø45GÔŠ ]Y Ö {ûZ÷„ ` W~yßk B X ÇVƒg Z ¦ / ]X ,Š™ë Z Û ~£yZoèVzg eLZ=X X ,ŠgAq -Z[ZáX M hVÐ X `ƒyÒ~v Z%Ð\W-Zz„¬ÐV”‰ÆkZ\WgzZì OS kZ:gzZìg ZŠ™ðÃ: »r OS á ZzºuX B™s ™~‚f]!* Xì mðÃйzg Ãz8 -g ** î0¶c» ð^I # ™¹zg Ã~ ð^I -Z q ?Vz™g OZ »}ãyZ ð¸** Z6, »\W om†Î …‚nu XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX X ˆÅ~g Y ØnÚ àµæ] t)g fÆM ,ÚZ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX yW¼ X ðƒ »c à Zz r # ™I]¾[ZÎì ~Š Ÿé~ Z6,gî CZ f 7Z ä ~Xì ~Š™ »c ä r # ™I]¾ ð!ZÆctgzZì ݘZ F,»g¶ ZXì Zƒù  á {ûZ÷6, ™!Š ZÆyßk B )** izg ` WXì K6, Z6,ê[Z {zì egkg om†Î …‚nuXì6, gîÆ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX ( ìŠ ñ, 629™Æ[ÂÏZ {ûtÑZzŸ à~yßB k)


www.urdudost.com

37

UrduDost Library

îÅ q ÊÆV¸uÆ8 -g ** ËZ e

?ðZzg »È/µc* µ· Z -[Z™á ЈÆäƒ ù J á Æ8 -g ** P 8 ÍËZ eÆŠ !* WxsZ DÚZ k?Ÿ! Â! Š ZÆ−{”g Z -Z »V¸uÆyZˆÆ® q ) á Z Å8 -g ** %ZX Å7s # Ÿz ðÃÔ c* Š 7[Z ðÃÐá ZjÆV¸uLZ ä r # ™8 -g ** :¶ KÃ−{”g ZgzZ=‰ Ü z à ~‰ Ü z „q -Z äV2zŠ ‰Ær # ™8 -g ** aÆä™bZiÃW, Z kZ Âì ZƒVc* ú W, @* ¦ù t ¬X ~ˆ ,Å kZÔˆà ™g (Z Ùñ{ xŠ q -‰QgzZ ˆÅ ðZzg » Å/ZÑgØd)gzZ ~gz¢)X Å lz» Å ä¯ V¸uÆyZ™}Š W, @* zŠ Ìeg kg ~Š s WgzZ ÌegkgyWò q}g ‚ÆyZÐ!ZjÆV¸uÆ r # ™8 -g ** VzŠ™s # Ÿz { "z6,Á{ Zeð•ZtXìzqZ » „} ×¹zg Ãz8g * *ÝZgŠMtì ;g Y * c Št, W* @qZX ìg™x » »äUzÂÐ $ Ô](‚L L[ År ¸a ™á Ð y*¬ á Zz 䙄Š y¶ KÅV¸uÆó ó]c* ĹægzZ ](‚ øL F # ™8 -g ** Xì Æ£zGƒ  o** -ZÐZX 7Ì}r q # ™¹zg ÃÔ( ‰ Š™ Š~8 -g ** }pVzg et)J -® ) á Z Åy* Ãr # ™8 -g ** är # ™ ¹zg ÃÝ°Z ÒHì @* ƒ Za t wZÎ ÂÔ Š ñ}~ kZ r # ™ ¹zgÃñY 1 ¯ qçñ6,gî ~nçÆ V¸uÅ8 -g ** ËZ eX Bg â Z e ! Š Z z dZ (,ÚZaÆä™ ZŠ Zg ZŠ™! zZ ~ *Š Å ~g¹ˆÆ à"q {z å c* ‚Z Âì Š HWt ‚¼ Zg ‚t Z # [Z V;X å7bŠ ¢ 8¼ Ì}»r # ™¹zgÃÝ°ZÒ~ kZXì _0ó óÙñ{: âêL LÙñ{ Xce** ™wì§ÖZ6, V¸uyZ™Á[ZÃDÿL X3Z}g ‚Ér # ™¹zg ÃX Çá wq¾ÂpŠ~kZ { ZpÍC Ù »[Š ZzŠg Z ·i Ú›zy™ ¯f õs ÜÆV'Š ZzyÆzŠgZ ì 4, 6‘ÛÅVâ ›ÝZgŠtì ;g Y* c Št, W* @ZuzŠ C ì V-„, znç»g ÕíÐkZÃsX ìg™Za ** Y Û »= ä Ã ß åXL3Zi ~Vƒy›ì &t Û »gzZ

{oIèÌðûË~nçkZX Vƒ}â ÃÌZ Åx »! Š Z ñOÅx ** ~Xì x HðC! Š ZsÜq -Š 4, }÷ w0* gn q -Š 4, }÷X Vƒ b Zæ Z (,q -Z »yZÉ Vƒs 2sÜ: » Y w0* gn ~X Y07uzg~ s Z ‹ZÆðC! Š Z yZ} (,ãZ6,R!w0* gn Š z!* ÆkZpì Hi Z0 +ZÃg !* Š¼7Z ä8 -g ** P8 ÍËZ eX x ** Z (,¹»6zŠg Z ÎX åH ù  á ~ Y 1985w‚w0* gn »gz{[Š Zh +] .ä ~Xì 7ƒ  oÌ¢ 8x ** »r # ™8 -g ** P 8Í~¨ £Æ


www.urdudost.com

38

UrduDost Library

Y âÑñZgÈ~¨ £Æ] "‹Œr Zl ~cÅcâ zŠg ZZ # b§ÏZXì ë Zx »! Š Zzd»kZ7{o»Ëa}÷ ™ù  á ó óâÑñZgÈ ã!* Æcâ zŠgZ L L[ÂKZ~Y 1999%Æ^Ëä~‰ƒ[ø 7Š@ZØzë›k^gzZ c* Wt ‚x ** » ~pXì li ‚ÅVz Û »ctÅcâ,7,ú 7V1Ç+Z=6,¶ŠE¯Ã âÑñZgÈ~¨ £Æ]‹Œr Zl X ~Š ZÅ®Æw0* gn gzZ âÑñZgÈ~ kZ ÂZƒ ù  á ó· ó _ÿLuq L· L ù»}p}÷X Å7{ Zz6,ÅVÂ!* {Šƒ" +Z ä Æ8 -g ** P8 ÍËZ eÎX ï á ]Z W, @* }÷6,·ù~â YZq -ZgzZ« z** -ZÆuZg0 q + -ŠX  ï á }pJ W}÷6,]˜ ²XìX »¥gzZgzZ tg ‚sÜgzZsÜ~ y!* idtXì p" Ç!* XÑZz›zyt ‚Æg Õí~ q ÊÆV¸u Xì Š H7, N* gaÆyZ Ì»tg ‚ì Zg â Z e Z (, Ú Z Âär # ™8 -g **

3r §E 5!~ Z à ZzðZ ‚ ~ m, ôZ éMuSX „gïæEÎG Û ZÈ c* öG Â6, „0 +¶ KÅV¸uÆ8 -g ** ËZ e ÌÐs§ÅV2zŠzyŠ¼=

ƒyZª™| 7,ƒ  t~~ m, ôZgzZ … Y7zŠg Z ìg™‚Zg Ì„  zŠzy,Z FˆÆäWt ‚Š ZŠzg¼ ÅkZ~ö6, Y 7à ZzYà õg @* ~ Z Ål»6,÷å»E Å„Y 2009~ZJ ` WsÜ6,gîÆ]oÆðZk , +à ZzYÐ s§ÅV2zŠzyX ìg 5 X Vƒ;g™7VŒé jagdishpin@yahoo.com Dear Mr. Qureshi, Thanks for drawing attention to this thought provoking article by Prof.Naeem. I never knew that an eminent Urdu scholar of the repute(??) of Dr. Narang should be indulging in this kind of reprehensible act of plagairism and getting an award for the same. I remember a case when Mr.Narayanan, once an editor of daily " Hindustan Times" who lifted pasages from another author's artilces and published as his own was summarily dismissed from the editorship and has since receded into oblivion. Knowledge is any one person's monopoly but if you rely on someone else's views of opinion, you must gracefully acknowledge it and never pass on as your own original work. Jagdish Prakash

-g ** 8 X 7ôZz ðÃÐ xOŠ ËÔÝËÔ< Ø èÔË»kZgzZìnç »‘u! Š Zz d éMG 5{Å{tì ;g™C Ù ª¿›g » b§kZ óí ó §» L L» 46,‘ Û aÆDÆó ó46,‘uL LKZ²X ìg { e ¢ 8h WÅ46,‘ Û aÆäÖ Ã~ga ÅyZ [xZÆr #™ ÑZz y!* i ðƒ~¤ / Ðd $*gzZ t ÜZ ~ ó ói ‚[Š Z L LLZ är # ™I]¾Xì Š HH„Ð s§ÅIÆr # ™8 -g ** Ì @ á yZ/ÃsÐq Ê?Š"gzZ«ÝÅy!* i~y*kZX Š HHù  á ¢âZ8 -g ** »k?~³ÆTÔ åHù á y* V¸uÆr # ™8 -g ** ÌA $Dƒ ~£Z {z¤ /ZX å7¼ ZÎÆ~0Z w9Z IègzZ^ÑCq -ZŠpñO bŠg Z Œ Û ~£ZÃg–


www.urdudost.com

39

UrduDost Library

XìŠ ñ~yŠ¤ /ÅFÏZ Ìtî»46, ‘ Û ÎX @* ƒ/wS Qe $./wt» q ÃŠÆ =gzZÃr # ™−{”g Zk , æÆk?gîÆîm{q -ZJ -Y 2009ðÑ 2™áÐY 2009y B 26VƒLe ** Ct~[Z 6,z', Z Òg  á ZÆr # ™8 -g ** ¼ƒ  t7— ðÃ~ kZ=gzZ ˆÅ]g ZÑÅä{Z~VÂ!* ~gz¢)B‚Æéw@* }g7 ¶Šá ZjÆyZJ -uq -Z äVrZë @* Ôì ~Š™ë Z Û ä−{”g ZxgŠ Z'," $Âzâ ~g ‚KZ ˆÅ)g fÆé~ Z=X Š HH Æuðƒ~Š ÅyZ~ÎX T e** ™ï á ~k?[Z CZgzZŠ ZŠzgÅ" $Âzâ~g ‚kZŠp{zì I»yZXì ~Š]i YZ Å E E $ 5!~ ZyZVŒ._ X Vƒ© 8~g ZŠ)få~ÅkZ ǃLy*øL ©gzZt òzt (»ƒ  ë @* X ÇVz™™f »æEÎG †á Zzpg]àÅÌó ó„n„ZzL gLzZá Zz“ WŠ ÕÆ™Vc* ga Ð ÏgÃÆyß)g fÆé~ ZÃ−{”g ZÃy B26 −{”g Z Â?bÃÅé5Ãy B28X ˆÈ{g !* zŠ bÃX ?7é{zX 5y*CZÐ ~ eX ðWÅx ** Æ]gúzyq -Z ä¿ X Èé~ Zt6, gî~g ¯7Z ä Æ8 -g ** ËZ e~c* +ZÐZÆ™spÌyZÄgzZÆ™sv & .{{Šƒ"{Š c* i‰Ð~y*kZX 1ÌNŠgzZ Š Hïy*L L ˜~?ì Hë Z ª Û ]oc* ?Š Ìq -Z ðÃä\WaÆ䙊g »x Z²ZÆV¸u6,8 -g ** ~kZ HX ` \Y„  zŠq -Z ä \WX * @Yƒ7Šg »V¸uÐ ä™ ã!* i$ +gzZ ¶Š V1ÇX  Ñ?Š ðÃ~ŠgÆV¸uX Y}Š 7B‚ »\W~ rz ÛÆ ðÌKZ™É[Z d» ó ó 1³n¶nãÒ 1³³Ò h#]L Ly*á Zzà Ÿ ~Y 2002s6, Zyßó ói Zz6, L L\W¬Xì ** ™q Ê H »8 -g ** ‰\W}g‚ÆyZgzZgaÌr # ™8 -g ** ì CƒC Ù ª]!* „q -Z:gzX ÇVzŠ\YB‚Æ[Z Æ\Wy*{z~X ,Š í »\WX Ç Cgz¢?ì È H »x ** Æ]gúzyËñO Åx ** Æ\W~ ~ eX ðWé~ ZÆ\WtV; gzZXga ̶‚ ó ó ‚Ö^ì ‚=…]

{ Zp

~g‚ÅnçkZX c* Š Ÿâ ‚8 -î ^zZq -ZÐ s§Å]gúzykZÉ c* Š 7Ð x ** LZ äga Ïg ÃkZ[Z »kZ ÅY 2009 y B28 Å−{”g ZX Vƒ ‚ rg „J - qçñÝZzÂKZ~akZÔ T e rŠp−{”g Z ë›NŠh +' × gzZ, -ZsÜ" q $Âzâ7 -Z ´Z ~g ‚tX Bé~ ZÁyZªq -ZÐ+ $YÅr # ™#Ww0* ù7Zq - kˆyŠ&Æé~ Z {gÃè ŠpMg ‡X W~nçkZùˆÆyŠ &# Ww0* ùX ¶yxgŠÆ−{”g ZgzZŠ Õga Æyß~ h WÅ ~ e ðWÅyÂ{zy -g ** 8 P 8ÍËZ e6,gîòiÑX¸ M h™7‰ Ü ×~(,âZ L{z6,ìÆŠ Õga á ZzÌó ó„ n„ZzL LÆyßX  M h™{ i Z0 +Z XÆ™[‚g Z »tkZ~›Å8 -g ** {zgzZ ¹aƶŠ4Š~nçkZ6, gîCZ fÐyZ ä \WB‚Æv Z%~g ‚ÅŠ ÕgaÆyß~ –7Z är # ™−{”g Z~[Z Æé~ Z «År # ™#Ww0* ù X ˆ Wé~ ZÅr # ™# Ww0* ùx ** Æ−{”g ZÃðÑ J6, kZX Vƒ;g™ï á ~{gÑŒ ZÆk?Ìâ» :® ) á Zï á [Z CZgzZÏZ% Z÷ñƒ D™~i !* ¢X VjVJ -µÅA çkZ~ !yY ð¸,Š‰ Ü z¼=L L yZÊpJ - ` Wä ~Xì 7Û»WZz Z} .ðÃÐ \W=X ,ŠÉ,SzŠ sÜ=\W ÂñWIÃ\W¤ /Z ñZg ~÷X ,™


www.urdudost.com

40

UrduDost Library

ó Xó ‚ßÞB Ù^µ änj‰ ÷0 +Zí»\WX ,™:g Ñ~V7Š LZ=X VƒLe´gÌ[ZgzZXì 3ggzŠÐVz2 :–gzZ ðÑŠzÂQÃr # ™# Ww0* ùär # ™−{”gZÃðÑ &ˆÆg OZÆyŠzŠ âZ˜Z F,»g ¶Z q -ZgzZ bà £yZ q -ZX Vƒ³ » é~ Z Å\WXÐ Vƒ ‰ VJ -µÅnçJ -[Z ì yZ ! r # ™#W L L ó ‚ó Ö^ì ‚=…]Xì X ðWé~ Z!Z tÐ+ $YÅr # ™# Ww0* ù„ÃðÑ &~[Z ÆkZ Bhai jaan: aadab. This is only in my personal context please. I have no quarrel with you. So, let's forget and forgive. Nothing is to appear in press. 79 years old that I am, I have always been an uncontroversial literary figure and want to remain so, a friend to all, till my last breath. Satyapal Anand

-g ** 8 }pX  B!lÃ|Ås ÏZÆV¸uÆ8 -g ** P 8 ÍËZ e r # ™# Ww0* ùìt | #™ ¹',q -ZÆY 2009~g†B30‰ ‘x ** }÷Ær # ™# Ww0* ùVŒX Æ™ out of the way¼~›År ~ y*q -ZÆ yZX ǃ: pŠ i Z à {™f »r # ™8 -g ** ~( ì Y Y c* ` x »Ð p ÖZÆ [¯ ¹',aÆ é~ Z )[¯ :–äVrZ6, g §Z}÷Ô å™f »[Š Zh +] .Æ~gO cgÍ]ª 6, (à ZzRadiation therapyXì ** Yá wh=äd W}÷ÌZX Vƒ;g Ÿé~ Zt~~¢ [ZŠ W ! yYð¸L L H4] Æ ]YgqÆ y*ÌË~ TÔì Cƒ ~], Ze q -Z k0* }÷X} 7,** ƒ 4ZŠ ÿ5F ;h + á Xì ˆƒcomplication¼ Â[Š Zh +] .» ~gO cgÍ]ªä ~X Vƒ © 8É (bibliography)]ÒÂgzZ (references) ]Y!ZjgzZ FâLZ~}g!* ~™âJ -{ â 14X 13~kZ äxj%• ØX ;g Jk', ¼ÐÏ°‡!* gzZ å„ â zŠtXìŠ ñ!Zj »kZ~~], Z e ~÷pÔ7¬Š

Æ~gO cgÍ]ªX }Y 7Ã[Š Zh +] .gzZ Ë Â~ å~ p°Å[Š Zh +] .Æ\W{z å–~ é~ ZÃ\Wä ~] X Å ðÃ} Tg o Zu" ~A çkZÔ D™Ìï{z´ÆWgzZ Wz6,Æ ~ m, ôZ vßëX å7Ð á Zj ™7tÜr # ™8 -g ** ~X Vƒ ;g J 7,~ ]çY Å [fÐ VÎ',25 Â~X ñYƒ: "referential mistake" ó ó‚ßÞB Ù^µ änj‰XÇglpÃ\WvZX OgyEZX Y )Zg e ~g‚kZ à ZzäƒJ -ðÑ 3Ðy 26ÃsÐ[¯kZÆY#Ww0* ùá ZzvÐtÜr # ™8 -g ** qzÑЋŠ~]gßÅé~ Z6zZär # ™I]¾„  zŠ m, ³„¹}÷)Zg egzZq -Zg0 +ZÆ6ZgzŠ ÏZU/UÆ~i !* 5!~ Z 6zZt ÅyZX å3g™ är # ™I]¾X Vƒ ;g™pô~]gßÅ?kÃv Z%à Zz äƒB‚ÆyZX ‰x ** }÷æEÎG ä VrZ~é~ Z kZX Å ~gY6,4{g!* ™ #â]ZgÃY 2009 ðÑ B2é~ Z ~y Wz ¶a gzZ Å ~g YÃY 2009 y B29 é~ Z « 5!~ Z 6zZ År Æk? åtN~Š ã C»æEÎG # ™I]¾xgŠ Z', X N C ]5z^ë Z KZzzgzZ c* Š™g ïZÐpg ~g Y?kh +' × ÌБu Â~i ~gzZXì ~i ~ ì Š HH7Æ™µ ZÐ t òz t ( {zì Š Hc* Š k½Z »r # ™I]¾~8 -g **


www.urdudost.com

UrduDost Library

41

5!~ Z! Z KZä~Xì x` ~i ~Æ™7t òzt (ÝZ {z ¹7Zg !* g !* gzZ H7Æ™×zg b§~g7k½Z »yZ~æEÎG Z (, sÜ7Z ä ~pìg D™zŠzK -Åä{Z~]¬çñ}uzŠ FÃc{zQXn™7(ZJ -x šy W{zp,™ ãZzà ‘uäI]¾xgŠ Z', Vƒ;g aÎ[Z%ZX 3gŠzö„J -]ïÆV¸uÆr # ™8 -g ** gzZ t òz t (ÝZÆk½ZÆyZ ñ]Z/)vß9á Zz äZ™]â½~i Z ³ZÆr # ™8 -g ** ~*Š ! fì ]!* ÐÂì c* ŠgZ Œ Û Ã~i ‚%x` Z (, ÌÐ G G yWЬ~}g !* ÆVz² á Pc* V¸g ‚, ZÆM%ZgzZÖZÔ*` X ñƒ¶² á Pc* tg ‚ c* éMG 5©G3©8( vß9P F, {Š c* i Ì!\ ëz!ZâëÆ*Š !fÆyZÉ 7g Z2Z6,~i ~gzZ‘u„ x » CZ »r # ™8 -g** [» ÂXì Š ñŠ Zñegkg tíX VƒY™ëZ Û 7Z¢ aZg‚ ZƒÖ Ьƒ]gz¢Åë›yZÃ!‚g!Š Z ËX i Zz6,½ë !* ½ë+X vßPztg ‚ KZ äVrZC Ù „ X ~Š™ »cB‚Æé~ Z ¶aÃðÑ B2är # ™I]¾¶„gƒ]!* Xì qçñZuzŠp´q -Z ™ #9ðÃY 2009ðÑ B2X c* Š™7©„gzZq -Z » ð î~g ‚kZäé~ Zq -Z Å[³GxgŠ Z', OŠ ZpH7i Z »]5z^ X ¶Èó ó â  Û g¨h +' × L LyZÄ/é~ ZtÃ8 -g ** P8ÍËZ e är # ™[³G6, 4& # ™8 r -g** ËZ e[»ò HL L À& Š ËZ e »k?ì Å& ¤6,gîLZ ä~X ìg Z´˜Óh +' × b§¾Ã\W„  zŠÆ\W6,x ** Æe $×Å\Wõ/GŸG [ZŠ W

å ÑZz ä™^g7Ã\Wy*{zX å H ù  á y*{Šƒ" ðà » ðSS Ëä I]¾ì Ö Ð zz kZ sÜ8 -g ** ** ™ q Ê » \WgzZ† ¶Š ðÌKZ b§Tr # ™I]¾[Z b§ÏZ Ç!* X GÎÐ b§hZ ?ÑZz ä™ damagec* LZ:gzì Ç lp6,wgßkZ \WXì ;g µ »\W ˜ÓÝZpì ;gƒÎì ;gƒ B‚ÆyZ~ kZÔ H qzÑ ÎÅkZgzZXì Š HƒqzÑÌx » » ï6, ó ó]c* ĹæL L[Z~³ÆðZzg »{Š ñÅr # ™I]¾X xÐ V2zŠyZŠ ** "Æ\Wwq¾pX ÇVzŠÃ\Wgz¢{g  á Z »kZ ÂðW~D}÷]!* k^ðÃXì u ‹\Z à{Ôì mïJ -ÌZ ]â ¥ G 4&×{Šƒ X Vƒ{fg6, wgßkZXì bŠ Z´˜ÓÌÐá ZjÆó ó]c* ĹæL ÃL \W[ZäV ðG3G ó ó[³G b Zæ»\W

$ Ô](‚L LÌx » Zg ‚ »r ¹ægzZ ](‚ øL F # ™8 -g** 6,]*—Ô„g7J -]c* ĹæsÜ]!* yZgzŠ kZ

+' h × ~ŸkZXì ;g » ó ó" L gL ‚ á à Zz ](‚ ì „z ]ZŠgZz T § »‘uÆyZ ÌV;zXì c* Wò„ 6ó ó]c* Ä X ÏáNŠŠp *ŠzŠgZ ÂÐVƒ[Õ"ºu{zZ # Ôì 7ƒ  oI¼ yZÃr # ™8 -g ** nµÆW 9 ðä VrZì ;gƒC Ù ªÐ [¯ ¹',{Š™w‚g ZÆðÑ B2Ñ!* {gÃèÆ[³G

G 4&×Æ KZ {zgzZ I| (,q - k ]5z^År # ™I]¾nµÆW âÃ]Zg izg ÏZgzZ H{ Ç WÐ ò}ÆVñ¤ / uÅV ðG3G X ‰™]gmÌr # ™#Ww0* ù6, `â [Z izgŒ ZgzZX ‰ƒµ ZÐcðƒ~C od~ s Z§Z VÐgzZ Š Z Hc* Z™ qzÑÐM%ZgzZ ‹ŠÔÖZ s Z§Z &6,ìÆr # ™8 -g ** /ZÑgØZg ‚tì wì CZ f Z÷


www.urdudost.com

42

UrduDost Library

»r # ™8 -g** gzZƒ Š Hƒ qzÑB‚q -Z éMG ¡ · Zƒ  tì Yƒë @* XŠ Hc* Š Z™È xÜ ÐZ ñƒ n pgpÅÃ[¯Æ[³GˆÆ Xƒ: 4Š¿¼~kZ X M há x »Ð‚f LZ LZ[Š ZMg ‡aÆîJ -³4ËŠ™7@ZØ]ä~ ( Y 2009~ZB7ÔY 2009~ZB 6~VÇzŠX ‹Š‚’ÏÚ ]…^Ûa )** izg·,)


www.urdudost.com

43

UrduDost Library

[Z »x Z²Z6 q -ZÆr # ™8 -g ** $ Ô](‚L L[ÂÅr ÐA $ñƒ[Õ" ºuÆó ó]c* ĹægzZ](‚ øL F # ™8 -g ** P8ÍËZ eÐ Z # ñY ` s§gzZ Ë™? Ø Ð V¸uÆy Q c ¥ »cì Å ÂÒÃÅäÑŠ [Z ,ZÐ Vâ · V.Zä r # ™8 -g ** dÌq -Z ðÃÐá ZjkZ ÑZz ä™q Ê ðûyZ „:gzZìg}Š ðÌðÊp{z:~}g !* ÆV¸uLZ ªXÝZp ÃnçÆ‘ux Z²Z q -ZÐ ~ yZX Vƒ [ ™Šg Üæ »]â Z²ZzŠ ~ó ó?ðZzg »È/µc* µ· Z L Ly*LZ~Xì e}Š ?Š ÐZ ñƒD™Š »u|~i q Ð ZB‚ÆV'Š ZzyÆzŠg Zx Z²Z ZuzŠ Âìg‡** ö0™^Åä™7~øÚÆs %Z ¹zg Ãz8 -g ** X Vƒ[™~y*Ñ!* {gÃèLZŠg »]â Z²ZVâzŠyZX ¶lz»Å¶Šg Z ÛŒtzg: *6, ‘ Û 6,í Zƒx¥ Â5˜Z F, ~g ¶Zq -Z ä r # ™ò ‚¡ aÆZ”X Vƒ Le ** ™] á gZ ¦ / P Ðá ZjÆx Z²Z 6 q -Z [Z c_tX Hc_»]], Z ä~X åHúæ~‹Š~ŸÆd $½Å~œIŠ =är # ™8 -g ** ËZ e=ì Š HHZ +¬x Z²Z Xì ;g YH el »V¸uyZÐzzÏZX Š Hƒ³ #»r # ™8 -g ** ~Š HH7Zg7 /ZXìga~Âs ™ñ¦{zÂñYZñVð;fgÉ‘zäÁâ ¿q ¤ -Zì ]!* ÏS¦gzZ àßZ „ ~(,q -Z ¬ G 4&×LZ ñO Åäƒ {qÑ6,kZgzZ + â Ã~ga KZ {z ³ #ÆkZá Zz äñÐZèa}Š™ qzÑ It)g fÆV ðG3G ìg 7, ²akZ 7, 0* }g ‚tÃr # ™8 -g ** Xì ßx Z²ZtakZì ZuzŠ< Ø èZ÷èaXì „ Z÷wâtgzZì ßx Z²ZakZ &Æ &g ê KZ ñO Åä™g ÖZ »# M ëYE 4hIÒG 5E Ö Z0 + 6,kZÆ™ o‚ »V-ga KZ {z ìg { e ** ™" $U* wâ CZzi !* gz) ,7Z6,ÿE X ;g7e„Ç!* Â[R Ô H7úæ=Ðá ZjÆ~œIŠ =VrZX s§Åx Z²Zá Zz ]], Z‰ ñÎÐ s§År # ™8 -g** D W[Z úæ~g Çá Zz V¸5ÆòO Z‚‚är # ™8 -g ** %ZX Húæ äIgâ~Š Zñ™År # ™IŠ ==Ðá ZjkZX å Ð s§År # ™8 -g ** ~ŸkZX Y™7eg ¯Z ]], ZaÆäY Ì}~à ™]gm„~³%¬ä~X åH ·,~( Y 2009y @* ~g†) 12{g ÑÆ[Š Zh +] .Xì Š ñŠg »kZ~k , ’q -Z ŬРx Z²Z {Šƒ" kZá Zz äYñZÏ ]â½~uzŠ Åi Z0 +Z kZ7„÷лÅr # ™8 -g ** sÜÐkZXì 7k½Zq -Z » ó ó,Š c* ãZ6,gzZ5PL L[!* ÆVzŠ c* KZ Xì YYH{ i Z0 +Z »¿¯§}÷Ì~}g !* Æ ÅzŠg ZÐVz²xyZ ! ð¸Ås # Ÿzä~Â^Ÿ»VÂ!* QX N CVc* g6KZ ÅÌ6, Ð ~i !* {²xä~L L E 4]{', 4hmIX$ ]˜Ð¹6, 5G 5G {Š c* iÐ åE Ô0 + ŠgpÔ åE ò}ÇÆig ÇgzZV²Ð»@¬[Z Â=Ôì l +Îì l +èZ ¸ÑZÎ

Š =X à ™]gmÐ • Ñä ~pŠ HHúæ= ~XÑ äWŠ c* ig ÇgzZcл {z=QX ñY c* Cƒ c* Wt ‚³ðÃ


www.urdudost.com

44

UrduDost Library

Æd $½!‚œÅy zŠg Z ¹F, ³Z ä ÜZÜËZ eÔ HúæŠp‹Z & +äIgâ~Š Zñ™ÅyZÐá ZjÆ]â½Å ~œI tî2ËZ eÔ Húæ~g Çá Zzäƒ6,qçñÆVà5ÅzŠgZx ÈZk , iÆòŠ » Z‚‚ä8 -g ** P8ÍËZ eÔ Húæ~K E ! J-45ÒG 5  yZ ä~X X X Húæ~÷лňÆ÷лkZäáÆ÷л ê GÅyßÔ Húæ~g ÇÆ;gE-w¾Zäg P ƒ à ó óV'Š Z ò Z ¸ÑZ ÎL L]»i ˜ ðZƒp¶CY à ~g ZŠ)f ÅgñZ {)zx Ízx ª~ Vñ** ]úŠx ÓX X X ?zzX ¶Å]gmÐ kZgzZX Vƒ© 8™]gmЕ ÑB‚Æ[Š ZakZ ‚ rg7® ) ,Z Åäh +y  ]»i ˜ðZƒèa~X å** +y h  ÐÙ A KZ G 7ó ód $Š Z ò Z ¸ÑZ ÎL L~Vsszc~Vƒlp6,]!* kZgzZVƒd $Š ZgzZ² á ò £Zg7 »}g7 Ì™Ö~\g- ïE L Ò¡a ( 234™X 12{g Ñ[Š Zh +] .)

ó Xó Vƒ

»¶ŠtZ™ »s§q -Z~qzÑ ÂåŠ HHúæ~ŸÆ÷лzŠgZ Å_gâ Z # ~Y 2003w‚VzŠ™s # ŸzÌtVŒ =ðä /ZÎX ìg Ÿ]Ã\Wë ¹gzZ H‚ZgŠpäVÍßyZ~ˆX à ™]gmЕ Ñ„~³%¬ä~Š HH™f 7èZg** ÌÐË~÷ÐzzkZ ÂZƒ7q -Ñ~]â½~g‚Ñ!* {gÃè~X VƒêŠ C~iZ0 +Z[v~g6KZ~Âì @* ™úæ X ˆƒd $½X c* Š Ÿy*ä~X ,ŠŸy*CZ\Wá ¹är # ™8 -g** $à™]gmЕ A Ñä~Z # Xì ÌZÃV'Š ZÆnga gzZVz² á PF, {Š c* i6,x ** ÆV¸5ÅzŠg Z r # ™8 -g * * ågz¢k\Zt p¶7¦ / Ù èZg ** C 6, ®}÷q -ZX VzŠ™ë Z Û }pzŠ7Z~Åöâ  Û é~ Z=g & +ÃY 2005y ]‚är # ™8 -g ** ˆÆkZX¸ìg}Š YEEIÒG ë54h &gêKZ=X ¶¿7{~(, tX y*Z÷6, ®Æd $Š ZzŠg Z}~o !fËZuzŠX y*»d $Š ZiZ ËÆ[f -g ** 8 ~÷~ yŠ q -Z A $X H{ Ç WÐ |ÅV¸5ÅzŠg ZÃr # ™8 -g ** Ð ðÍs ™ ~(,ä ~pX ¶ce ã ™L EÀ }÷~Y 2005~ZÔ ðÑ {g ÑÆ ðJ34£ ɤ„ â zŠX ¶~Š™ù  á ä~Ì{z ¶ðƒv Z% )g fÆé~ ZB‚Ær #™ Xì ꊙãZzÃwgß~g ‚k½Zt»â·, c* Z™g ÇàS6,V¸ ÅzŠgZÐ + $Y År # ™8 -g ** P 8ÍËZ e ÝZgŠÔÐ + $Y ÅòO Z‚‚~ Y 2005 ag â L L ä ~X ( †Ð xðŠ Zg fì { i » »zŠg Z )‰ ñZ]Ñ£àS6,VÍßPFÉ Ô ñƒq -ÑvßPFsÜ: ~ kZX Š H é~ ZÐyZ ~÷~„wq[ZX åc* Š Ÿ™Éy*CZ6, öâ  Û År # ™8 -g** %ZÔ ¶à™]gmÐqË~d $½kZ { 1 ™í„  Ä Ì~œ °ä ¹!* )X Pd $Š ZgzZ² á œ °ÏZ ÂVŒ c* C7Z ä ~ Âðƒ’ A ]!* ¼)g fÆ ~g øà Zz äƒ~yŠ „q -Z ªÃY 2005y B7QgñVŒ( Xì qçñµ Zq -Z {zÔá Zz™ÆC½ ÄgzZá Zz :–~é~ Z KZ ä~X Vƒ;g™7~# Ö } .ÅMg ‡z´»" $Âzâ¹', &Æ M ª ñƒ¶ d $Š ZgzZ² á vßP%80 6,ÿE zŠ VŒX | ¥ / Æ~i~sÜtÔVƒ7b‡»V¸5ÅzŠgZ~L L :–=ä8 -g** P8ÍËZe~[Z ÆkZ .............ó óTe¸h + á v߉gzZσ" $U* Á{naÆzŠgZwgßtX  AZIZ-E-MAN ! I AGREE WITH YOU ENTIRELY THAT MOST OF THE PEOPLE CLAIMING TO BE WRITERS ARE NOT WRITERS AND ONLY 20% ARE GENUINE


www.urdudost.com

45

UrduDost Library

WRITERS. THAT EXACTLY IS WHAT I MEAN TO HAVE SOME ARTICLES ON THOSE GENUINE WRITERS.

:–7ZQä~à õg @* ÏZ~[Z Æé~ ZkZÅyZÔ Ht · ZÐ]!* ~÷äVrZì °ødZ Å8 -g ** P8ÍËZ et ÅyZ c* ¸:á Zz™ í„ Âc* vß F¸ ‰ ñZá £6,Xc* ÔÐ ~ Vß Zz äƒï á ÐC Ù !* ~g ÇÆ\W L L ó ó¶|ðƒ?~i ~gzZ ~ga ÌgÇÐá ZjÏZgzZTg D Y6,VzgzŠ ! Š ZÆ´ ˜yzÛÒZŠp{zVƒ ;g}ŠakZ!Zj »8 -g ** P8 ÍËZ e V¸yZ 'â »yZÎX … Y|dgzZ ! Š ZÝZ Å ó óV¸L LyZ {z {Š c* i}Ðd $Š Z ã*zyc* ãÎ 0* ÌËgzZ` Z™ L LXì ‚ rgzgŠ »>Ôvßí„œ°äsÜ~ EÀ X VƒêŠK7Ìk½Z »kZX Zƒù  á ~Y 2007s6, Z @* ~g†{g ÑÆ ðJ34£ ɤâgzZq -Z Z÷~øÚÆâÏZ kZ  D YÉ̼ ~³„  zŠ,ZgzZ  hZz ]ZŠ ¢ c* Vc* g6ÅV'Š Z}g ‚¹B‚Ær # ™8 -g ** èaL L å¹Ð r # ™8 -g ** ä ~Ô~Tì ZƒÖ â -q -Z Z÷~Y 2005~ZÔ ðÑ {g ÑƤVƒ ;g™s # Ÿz éMƒôZ n är # ™8 -g ** X ’ e ** ™7 z6,ÃVÍßPtgzZñƒ ¶ d $Š ZgzZ² á vßí„)gzZ Pœ °80 o yzÛ T å[Z »é~ Z kZ År # ™8 -g ** |gŠtVƒ;g C[ZÔ ( ì $ Ë Y@Š~{g Ñ{gÃè, ) åHt · ZÐ]!* ~÷ Ë~tZuzŠÔVzŠ™ë Z Û 7Zy*‚ YZ ðÃ~}g !* LZ »d $Š ZiZ Ë~tq -ZX¸ñâ  Û 2 »zŠÐíäVrZ~ é~ ZÝZ ÅyZ )X¸ T e ** ™ï á ~ó óVà 5ÅzŠg Z L L[ à Zz äWKZ {z ÎVÙ7Z™Éy*q -ZŠp6,d $Š Z í„ 7Z‰ˆ{gVx{là ~g Çá Zz V¸o yzÛÅyZìg™n kZ (Z {z å{ i Z0 +Z=X ( ì pôk0* }÷ ¿Zl zyaš6, TŠ z!* Æ£»k QnkZX ñYc* Š™', Z', ÃVzh˜ÔVð¢™|0 +!* } h˜PB‚ÆVð¢ÉX ñY1™g ðM± { Ç WÐ |ÝZ Ãr # ™8 -g** gzZ ~Š 7ÌZ Ê ¢ kZ ä ~Ô å Y 0* (~ ó óVà 5ÅzŠg Z L L[ 5Å yZ ~Æ™ ( X X X ÌQÔ{ Ç W! lÐ|ÝZ ÌŠp{z,z) H ó Xó ÇñY3gÃåL$Ãs # ŸzkZìyZX 2Q¹!* Ôì °»s # ŸzâZ„  ŠçLa c* Vz² á P{z Âås %Z ðä /Z Z÷ì Y™{ i Z0 +Z !l{z Âì Y™Ã ` Z' × }÷ðä /ZˆÆ)** ©}g ‚kZ ÂX » ]], ZX Š HH£» » }pzŠÐ s§ÅyZ Z # HA $ä ~ Ìg ÖZ ƒ  o » kZX å0Ð òz6,ÅV'Š Zga 4]Z:B‚Æ8 3G Æg Ptî2Æ;gE- w ðE -g** ËZ e:ÔB‚ÆÜZ Ü:ÔB‚ÆIgâ:Xì 7Ì}~øÚÆèZg ** Ñ~÷лËÐ)g f ËLä~yZgzŠÆVÎ', • {,Æx ª~*`  }Š Ct¿ÌðÃVƒ@* ™ ½~ÉXB‚ Æ ÚkZgzZXì ¿gj~i *" „ ~(, ~nçkZ äZ} .XƒÅhzŠv¸ðÃaÆqËc* ƒÅöâ  Û ÐËaÆ X Vƒg Z ¦ / ]„Z (, » Z} .6, äY $ Ô ](‚ .Š „ â &Xì ;g W` eg kg yWÐ Y 1994s %ZB‚Æ r # ™8 -g ** Ð á ZjÆ ](‚ øL F


www.urdudost.com

46

UrduDost Library

Æú1úÎKZ ä~6,y*q -ZÆr # ™8 -g ** ~ kZXì Š ñZƒ Ö âq -Z Z÷~Y 1994ðÑ {g ÑÆwX! fÔ { hƒ ñW7t ‚̺uu ‹\ZtÆyZ A $èÑqXì c* Šg Z Œ Û ó óÁ{ Ze L LÃ]ï{Š™7ÆyZgzZì Hwì§ÖZ -._ X ÇVß™ï á ~·ù6Æ}pLZ „,zQ* c ™ ¯z»y*ËÃâkZX¸ % i qçñpXÐVƒ,x~(,{zX ÏVƒ]â } äVrZìtcæLG .{ C"aÆzŠg Z År # ™8 -g** ËZ e $ Ô](‚L ó ó" L LKZ { C " L LÅyZ ÂK¤ /Z ?7c* K ºug Ñ" Ð V1 ! f~ó ó]c* ĹægzZ ](‚ øL F -Z ðÃÐ ~ yÇŠ Z−ŠÆÑÅyZ HXì * q @Yƒu oÑ{Š c* ik HFx` »V¸uÆyZ¯ ) !* Æó óÑÅ,L gLzZ ó ó]â } . ÆkZgzZ‘YÃ]â Z²ZyZÐ V1 ~ m, ôZÝZQÔñ 7,gNÃ}p}g ‚á Zz 䙄0 +¶ KÅV¸u¬ ì (ZwÑ» ðâ yZ ÂñYÅ]!* z$ +zŠB‚ÆyZÔì 3g™‡6, $×ÅY º!Š ZXäVrZìtk\ZX X X ?}Š™yÒ|ÝZ™Áˆ e % i ì 7(Z Ìq ce ¢ 8™¢Ãr # ™8 -g ** ÎX†. Þ ‡Æä™WÌJ -4õ0* ~}g !*Æ[ÂcæLG -ZÐ~ ÌжŠ¢s§gzZ Ë c ¥ »W™CÃb)}uzŠŠ¼gzZ M hƒ7~', Ðx Z²ZÆ~ga{zÌ™ Zr]â } .g Ñ" KZ _¾Š ZŠzg ~g7 ÅkZÔ åÑZ e ƒ !* Š »’  ¦b§Tä VrZ6,12{g ÑÆ[Š Zh +] .Xì 7e]1Ð x` ÆV¸uÅyZ } (, äVrZìtÂØZÝZXì 3g „J -uq -Z ÌÃØZ kZ ä~ë @* Xì _ïÌŠ ZŠ Å• wkZ KZÃr # ™8 -g ** gzZì % iÅyZ7Z ÂB™]gmB‚Æ# ]gß{Š ñ:gzXì YY** â Wá» ó ó" L LcæLG Ö Z0 +{z¤ /Z ?7c* Kºu6, äe Xì Zg â Z edZ (, Ѓ  » ~œkZäVrZÔ7ÌWá{z~wq CZ~Y 2009~g†J® ) á Z Ågz?` W)** izgär # ™yZúZ£Zg¼ËZ eWz6, ñƒD™{û6, 12{g ÑÆ[Š Zh +] . {g eXì H ù  á zVZv0* o »Ý» kZ~ 13{g Ñä ~X å Š HHB‚Æ›{Š c* i¹™f Z÷~ kZX å –Ý» Zg7 [Š Zh +] .Ã]kZ ä~X ó óDg —ÃkZ™ Y~g ?Åè7ÛŒg© L L:ì Ìt]q -Z~kZ H7ï á z XK7ï á Ðs§Å Z} .~ÐQì Zƒx » Ðí~ä™Vc* úÃV¸uÆr # ™8 -g** ËZ eX 1gz¢{' × »kZpH7ù  á ~13{g Ñ T”~äÎú}÷à ó q ó L L+Z ÅyßñOÅäWt ‚™0èr # ™8 -g** k\ZX Vƒ@* ™g Ñ=Âm{ ˆŒ Zg ZÍÌbŠ¦gÅkZÐZ ä~ÂÈÆ™. $m, 6,=[ÂKZ äTì ó q ó L LuZzÅ *Š !Š Z gzZX c* Š7[Z Lä~à "ÐOŠ QOŠ Z ÇVz™lZg ¦ / Єr # ™8 -g** ~X Vƒe„Ð qzÑÐg ZŠ™†6,x ** Æ[Š ZÆkZ~èYX H7 qçñgzZVâZ F, x Z²Z Æ",™]!* Ðá ZjkZŠpñƒD™ o‚ »V¸uLZgzZFè[Z ñOÅäZ™]ŸZ ‹ZÇ X ‰™7~', Ðx` ÆV¸uÆyZ7Z/z»à Zzä¢cg » ( Y 2009~ZB10X ‹Š‚’ÏÚ ]…^Ûa: Zizg·,)


www.urdudost.com

UrduDost Library

47

ò ‚m, z6, aò qÆ8 ¡ -g ** ËZ e

[Z »nZ ‹Zq -ZÆ u ‹\ZgzZNŠ ÅkZXì ÑÅf õ*[Z6,xg ¯i>Zg LZ6,}g  á ZÆr # ™8 -g ** ËZ e äò ‚ m, z6,¡ a°ôq -ZÆZ” ) yZ 7Z Vƒ ;g™7[Z »nZ ‹Zq -Zá Zz äYK „gÐ xg ¯ÆyZ„  Š çLaX Vƒ ;g™7~ y*q -ZÐ µ ZŠ ZŠzg ( tX b ! 7c* D™„g[Z {zÙ ŠXì 5aÆ䙄g6, xg ¯Æ XXXXXX <»äZ™[Zy  +' h × ñOÅäZ™~', Ðx Z²Zƺu7Zäx Z™yxqÆr # ™8 -g ** P8ÍËZ eì wìZ÷ ÐZgzZƒŠ HHòúŠt ~ Tì 7(Z y*¦ÃŠ q -Z~ kZì Š H–̼ aÆq ÊÆ8 -g ** ËZ e J -ÌZXì 1™ $ Ô](‚ L L"KZ ä 8 7ºuÐ V1 ! f~ó ó]c* Ä ¹ægzZ ](‚ øL F -g ** ËZ eƒ Š HH" $U* B‚Æ ?Š )—‚L LÅò ‚ m, z6,¡ aógó Z—Y)L LÆ Z”Xì „g Y ÅÒÃÅ ä {Z ~X CZ f Ë™ ƒÃ]!* g !* Ù ñO ÅkZXK C ì k\Z=Xì Š Hc* ¯ qçñÃqËÅx ** Æ8 -g ** P8 ÍËZ e~]gzx>Å[Š Zh +] .[ZÃsÐó óðZzg »: Zg Z—Y »nZ ‹ZÆyZ „~]‚ ½Z äZ6, É ;g 7, r7*¼=aÆ[Z ÆXìg™lˆ.,Zr # ™ò ‚ m, z6,¡ a }, ( ãZ ä # r™8g * *P 8 ÍËZ e Hì ¸ Ì[Z wZÎ~Š ã CÃsÐ [Z Æ]ŸZ ‹Z w‰,ZXì @* Y ï[Z

c* ì H o‚ » wZÎkZB‚Æ $ d*dÌä qZ ËÐ ~ VñqÆ yZ HgzZ ?7* c K ºuÐ V1 ! f, 6 äe X ÌÅVß Zzä™q Ê ‚"»V-gaÅyZgzZ ÌÅ# r™8g * *Xì 7e]1%Š[Z d{¤ÆVß ZÎyZ ?7 [ ÉÃs6, ZB8 k',¸¦ /[Z » nZ ‹Z ÌÐ á ZjÆ qËx° c* qË~ ]gzx >Å [Š Z h +] . 5š!X Vƒ zŠÆ-zÚZ kZX å 1-zÚZq -ZÐíaÆ7{g ÑÆó® ó gzzŠgZ L L+˜ GÆwww.urdudost.com ä ~æg åG X Vƒ;g™7VŒ[Z ÆVß ZÎ om†Î …‚nu XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

5š!V6nÚ …^’u 1Ò 7çÖ]ç‰ -zÚZÐ7Œ Û g© » ~æg åG $â ?ì C™ŠgÃ]”Å]¬çñ—‚LZwçtHXì ;g0{nH »wç~e $â V p‚n=… ‚nÃ³Ú +] h .åL›E $h +] .åL›E XaZ e Ýzg¼6, ] Zi q Ð ZÆkZ ?ì ZJ -u¾Ðwçh +] .Ôwç


www.urdudost.com

48

UrduDost Library

¡~è9gzZ ÏŠ ‚KZ {zìgȼ (Z" $!* ÅwçKZvß X X X ?wçÅe $h +] .ˆâ Ïyà ! ð¸ V om†Î …‚³nu [ ó óY Zg s ZãcL LKZ Â{zÔå c* VQ ZÚ » VÅe $h +] .ˆâ ä T~ y*zyX  ìgÈ (ZaÆ ä™lpÃË ~ga c* ~ðÌKZ 7ZgzZì _ƒ" $U* g ‚ á »‘uÆV1 ~ m, ôZ[ ~g7 ÅyZX ` VÃx 1Z LZÐ p ÒdÉ @ á yZ/~ 10gzZ 9: {g ÑÆ[Š Zh +] .X −7ÙZ F, x Z²Z¡ÐZX „gƒ7È Å™ ÌÂq -ZaÆe $',Ð x Z²ZÆ ÆkZÔì Zƒx 1Zdu Ú‡t » @* OŠ @* ™Æe $h +] .ˆâ T~ y*zyX  M h™& ¤Å]!* ~÷™| 7,}pÆg– Ð V1»ÆV-gE- Å´ ˜! fŠpVzŠ CÌt Ã\WVð; Ñ X X X ?ìg™]!* Åwçh +] .ˆâ ¾\WÐá Zj XÙg OZ » 11:{g ÑÆ[Š Zh +] .aÆ,h +' × Xì ;g YH `g {ÐZ[Z Ì XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX ?c* Š™µ ZVYä\WÃ8 -g ** P8 ÍÐ]gzx>ÅÔ[Š Zh +] .á ‚g LZ V p‚n=… ‚nÃÚ ä~A $X H qzÑŸ»kZ6, g ZÜZÆV2zŠzŠX å7~hÆ]gzx>Ë~[Š Zh +] .~ÝZgŠ V om†Î …‚³nu ™ù  á ~4:{g ÑÐZ ä~Ôc* Š Ÿ-zÚZq -Z CZ6,gîÆ]gzxgzZÔ à½ò qaÆqËäVrZX Å]!* Ðr # ™8 -g ** sî»qi *ËLZ~}g !* Æó ó]c* ĹægzZ](‚:Ô](‚L L[ ó óY Zg s ZãcL LKZ äVrZaÆ5 :{g ÑX c* Š ä~ìC Ù ªÎÔìg]˜„ÐqzÑ=~ŸÆkZˆÆh e™Ã)Zg eÆe $h +] .ˆâ X c* Š™e $Ágy* E, zX c* Š™sv .ˆÆ{g Ñ„ q -Z x ** »yZaÆvÐ ]gzxÅnkZ År # ™8 -g ** „B‚gzZX H7ù  á y*{z # ™8 r -g ** , zX Vz7,w1[Zh + á X Vƒlñ{ÐWÆ¡ÅV2zŠzŠ¡X Vƒ7~hÆ]gzx>Ì[Z~ì ]!* ù á Š z!* Æ−ÆyZaÆ5:{g ÑÃy*ñƒ‘6,[ ó óY Zg s ZãcL LÅyZ ä~p¤ /ZVzŠ™s # ŸztÐá ZjÆ YK ù  á ̺uh +' × Ôì 7»¥}Ÿt ÌZgzZ | }p-6,[ ÏZ~ 10gzZ 9{gшÆkZpå H7 X ì g ( 7:{g Ñ;Ö…æ æ#…] +˜ G, MÚZ·,X Š H–ÃY 2008s6, Z] ‚ ) @* ™7„Ð ~ Vzk , ’·,KZ[Z Æ]ŸZ ‹Z}g ‚ÆlãkZaÆ−h +' × Åò ‚ m, z6,¡ a„  zŠg Z—Y)LZ~ Cheersà Zzr # ™ò ‚¡ aÌÐs§~÷g !* kZ+¢qgzZX ¹!* Ä{0 + ig c* X ÇVƒg

$ Ô](‚ ó ó" L LKZ ä # ãZ~ ó ó]* c ĹægzZ ](‚ øL F r™8g * *P8ÍËZ eìt Ì[ZX~Š C ã ë @*

?;g Y17VYJÌZ, 6Rd{¤ÃwZÎkZ~VñqÆyZgzZ ?7* c Kºu, 6 ä e} , ( ( Y 2009~Z 18‹Š ‚’ÏÚ ]…^Ûa )** izg·,) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


www.urdudost.com

UrduDost Library

49

Qg !* -ZI]¾ q LZÆZ”ä8 -g ** ËZ e Z #‰ Ü z kS p¶~Š™ »cär # ™I]¾)g fÆé~ Z ~y WKZÃY 2009ðÑ 2 ` Wä VrZXì ˆ Wx› Û Ï~hðÌÃr # ™I]¾Âì Å qzÑîÅ]ŸZ ‹Z CZ fÐQ)g fÆò ‚¡ aò qq -Z Xì –ñƒ¬„q -Z » ~ m, ôZ=~]gßÅé~ Z6zZq -ZÃY 2009~ZB17  t~©:ƃ ƒ  kZÔìg `q -’Å„ Ze~}g !* Ær # ™8 -g** Ð w4ZT\WXt]! r # ™g©x HL L ó Xó Bâ  Û ±5Ì ÎX ñYH„g „6zZ b§Åé6zZ År # ™I]¾ÌÐZ Œƒ  oQp56,gîCZ f 7Z ä~¬[Z »kZ X –[Z tä~X c* Š™„gÌ~]gßÅé6zZÄ~ZB17‰ Ü zÏZÐZ ä™q Ê ËÆr # ™8 -g ** X Vƒ;g}Š[Z »]â Z²Z {Šƒ"Ô;g `7îðÃ~X}™3g6,wqÆ\WvZ !ð¸}÷L L 6,RdtX  ßx Z²ZÔ a| 7,á Zj}g ‚ {Š™7ä ~ì c* C ä Ë„:gzZX 17РϤÃXÝZ ä á Zz ?VzŠ7Ì[Z »]â Z²Z yZ~T e\WH ÂÔD Wt ‚]â Z²Z {Šƒ"6, RCZ f ¹!* Xìtzgu oÑe $. Z} .tigÔ,™sp » Z} .:gzX ,™„Š y¶ KÂÅq -Z ËXƒ Z 7,r:~[Z ¡= ,™„Š y¶ KÅy*q -Z Ë}÷ ó Xó ì @* ƒ~B;Æ akZÔVƒ [™ÌpôÐZ~gzZì Š ñeg kgyWv Z%~g ‚—‚à Zz äƒB‚Ær # ™I]¾èa 5!~ Zt6, X N Yªz»ÏZ ÌæEÎG gîÆe ( Ð*` ) om†Î …‚nu ( ìN* ð` ÔyŠW{g Š Hä7)Y 2009~ZB17 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Š ññƒ|[Z {Æg–@ á yZ/gzZh +âwD Z~[Z ÆkZV;z5„~ m, ôZ är # ™I]¾ VHç³³³³³Þ tX bX c* W76, xg ¯kZ ðÃQXì Š HóÎ, $‚ÃVñqÆr # ™8 -g** 6, xg ¯kZÐA $gzZ


www.urdudost.com

50

UrduDost Library

~È0* 6, ñZgg ÖZQg !* -Z q Æ äå ó ó]mZ L L„â & y*ª Z÷Ð á ZjÆ V-È0* 6,ñZg g ÖZ Å r # ™8 -g ** P 8 Í ËZ e :^â àS ËZ eX Š HH ù  á Ì~8 -g ** P8 Í]g @* ÆŠ !* WxsZ ó ók?LtL QX å H ù  á B‚Æx ÈZ ä ‹Š ó óöÝ Z y*zyL ˆ L

[Z ÆyZpìg @* ƒÂ{ "z6,Š ã C"gzZ N* Ñ»VñqÆyZ ÑZz äƒÐ s§ÅyZì CƒÒÃtå År # ™8 -g ** -g ** 8 P8Í ó ók?L LgzZ ó óöÝ Zy*zyL LÔ ó ó]mZ L Lã¹Å’  ¦Å 12{g ÑÆ[Š Zh +] .X ñ3Š: ðà c ¥ ZuzŠ »k , ¦~ [Z Æ{ "z6,Š ã C"ÆV¹‚Ær # ™8 -g ** ËZ e Z # ~ VâŠDq[ZX `| 7,Mg ‡zŠg Zƽ *Š)g fÆ ~ZB18 ` W k\ZpXK ù  á Ð x ÈZ }p}÷ä ‹ŠÑ Zg ø: Zizg Âñƒ qzÑ H [Z Ð s§~÷~

gzZÈß D zL LÐs§År # ™8 -g * *tXì ˆ~Š ZÃg® ) á Z Åy*+F, { i @* }÷™wZ e ƒ !* Š6, g ¶Z kZÃx  á ÅY 2009 { i @* CZB‚ƸŒ  ¦{Š ñ[ZÔ Vƒ [ Ñ6,x ¬©Ì㹫Œ  ¦År # ™8 -g ** èaXì Zƒ ¯©ÑZzó Šó Zi WŒ ËZ e L L}p}g ‚LZ0ÐcÅV¸uÆ8 -g ** ËZ eXì ˆ~Š ZÃg® ) á ZÅTÔVƒ;g™7t ‚Æ*ŠzŠg Z Ìy* Ô Ï| Ð V”VâzŠ yÎ 0* gzZ c* +Z [ÂtX Vƒ ;g Ñ~ ]gß! „ ¢Ð x ** & Æó óe $h +] .ˆâ gzZ 8 -g ** P 8Í ( tX bXvZY ¶ KZ $ g+ „g]gßÅé~ Z6zZ, 6 çElG iZé~ Z+ ZZiÐgZÙDqZÃY 2009~ZB 18B‚Æ^âÑ* !{gÃèó Šó ZŠzgÅV.~ , mz, 6L Ly* X tX bX * c Š™ùáä]Zg ¶Z&Ãy*{gÃè‰ÆzgÐ) ®áZ~g ¶ZqZ~³ÆTH ŠH


www.urdudost.com

51

UrduDost Library

Š ZŠzgÅV.~ m, z6, +ƒ ZggzZq & -Z »e $×År # ™8 -g ** ]‚gzZX Zƒù  á ~VÇzŠÃV:g @* Å~ZB7gzZB 6~‹Š óÑ ó Zg øL) L ** izgy*ó ó?ðZzg »È/µc* µ· Z L L 5!~ Z Åxg ¯LZ= ä r 7M»xg¯ÆyZ~X Hi ¸W»−æEÎG # ™ò ‚ m, z6,¡ añge â Æxg ¯, MÚZq -ZÐ Z”Ä ~Z +gzZVCÇ »gaÏg ÃÆyß~é~ Zq $ -Z KZÃ~Z]‚X c* Š™qzÑ ** i ZâÐ]c* ÁKZq - käVrZ=Š z!* ÆkZX å :–är # ™ò ‚m, z6, añƒ¬y*ZƒZ½Ðã!* ¡ i Some Urdu poet has written, "baat niklay gee to phir door talak jaaey gi". Here is another article on the recent spike of accusations re Dr. Narang. I share it without comments.This shows you the unfortunate state of minds in Urdu literature.

HE.² .J2_Iy*q –Š~[Z ÆV¸uÆr # ™8 -g ** s§~uzŠìg™çG -Z%Æ ø45 LZ {zìgÈsßñÂs§q -Z ó óÏñY.gzŠ¹Âh]!* L L ìg}Š ËJ -ÌZ s # Ÿz dðà c* ðÌÜæ ðÃ~ŸÆV¸uyZ ˆ W6,V¸uÆr # ™8 -g ** Q™Qx˜pˆgz¢J -gzŠ ]!* ~³Æà Ÿ y*ó ó?ðZzg »È/µc* µ· Z L Lär # ™8 -g * *t Š Hƒ{ i Z0 +Z=„ XéÅr # ™ò ‚X mW7Ðs§ êŠ Š ZŠ Å[NZÆ yZXì H[NZ » r # ™ ò ‚¡ aÐ Z”ä VrZg !* kZgzZXì ;e ** {Z h +' × Ãc 6,äWt ‚ ë› :–~[Z ÆékZ Åò ‚m, z6, a‰ ¡ Ü zÏ QgzZizgÏ Qä~wq¾Xì Ñï{È™`äVrZX Vƒ [Z 7Z »V-gaKZXì »V-gaÅyZX~Š ã Cp!vZpÂT e ** ™qzÑ& +ƒ Zg ZuzŠr # ™8 -g** /Z)g fÆ\W L L ¤ X ó óÇ} 7, „ bŠ Å„gé~÷ ñƒD™{ût6, xg ¯LZQizgÏZ äVrZ~[Z ÆkZ I am sharing this message from Haider sahib, who runs a web magazine from Germany and is among the main accusers of Dr. Narang. Objectivity requires that I share it.I am surprised at this comment, "aap kay zareeay agar narang saheb doosra round shuru karna chhatay heN to bismillah!" You may have noted that I rarely share any item, message, or input about Narang sahib at our forum and in my communications.My interaction with Narang sahib is minimal. Such accusations are at best sad indeed.


www.urdudost.com

52

UrduDost Library

You be the judge. Cheers.

Å% Z e {Š6,6,V-ga År # ™8 -g ** b§T~ y´Z ÏZgzZ¸ìg YK y´Z » ~gZ—Y)KZ~ i Z0 +ZTr # ™ò ‚¡ a Ãp ÖZá ZzV-gaÅr # ™8 -g ** Ð~yZgzZp ÖZÝZ}÷Ô7]gz¢Å]o} haEËaÆkZÔ¸ìg â  Û Òà {z´ÆkZ ë@* X Å qzÑðZzg »t „6,}g  á ZÆr # ™8 -g ** ä sßñì °»aÆä™ ãZzt „ ** ™7Æ™sv . FÆc 7q -ZÐ kZì +Z ðZg Wíq {zX H7B‚ÆðZg Wíq {Š c* i¹ ~ ~ m, ôZÃk , ’: Ó» ÅwD Z;ä VrZ -Š 4, q }g øa ÏZXì CY ¬ 1 : ]!* à Zz V¸uÆ r # ™8 -g ** ~³Æ kZìt ! Zy  p D Y Á} i ZzgŠ Xdt?7c* Kºuär # ™8 -g * *ìtsÜqçñZg øˆÆ¶Š}Š[Z J -uq -Z »t # I0)}uzŠ yZÄ»kZX åHk , ’y*: Ó¬q -Zäh +âwD ZÆÖZ~[Z Æk , ’: Ó»ÅwD Z;Xce** W„6, gîd[Z »kZgzZì ˜Ý»'Æ]gz¢~g ¶ZwD Z;X ó ó?ìgaÌ(Z ðÃHgziB} Z L Låc* ¯Ã·^~y WÆS~y WÅÝ»ÆwD Z;„ Xì YY¬ŠB‚ÆϤÃt Û Æk , ’: Ó¬gzZk , ’: Ó»Ðy*Æh +âwD ZgzZÝ»ÆyZë@*

Æ~g Z0 +ZZe $.s§}uzŠ¸ìg YK y´Z » ~g Z—Y)KZB‚Ælzy  z l Âs§q -Zr # ™ò ‚ m, z6,¡ a ~ õg@* Å~Z]‚sÜ åݬt »lzy  z l ÆyZX¸ìg Y− á YZÃVÂ!* 0)aÆäUzÂÐ V¸uB‚ 5!~ Z {g Š XŠ HH el »]â } .xaÆzŠg ZÅr # ™8 -g ** yZgzŠ kZX ,7, −7,æEÎG HÅyZ= {g ÑÆ‹Š ó Ñ ó Zg øL ) L ** izg –[Z »kZ6,gî~g ¯ä ~çOÔ å ZƒD»x Z²Z {Šƒ" á Zz ]], Z)g fÆyZ=èa yWÃY 2009~ZB9Ìy*Z÷Xì * @Yc* Š Î6, MÚZ „Ãx  , á ¬ÐyŠŒ ZÃg ¶Z kZ6,gîx ¬X Š Hƒù á ~Y 2009~ZB10 Ü zð` ‰ 7Z„íÑyW»y*LZˆÆV[ RPgzZ 54âZgy*!Z : Ó¬»h +âwD Z ä~çOX å[ƒíÑ X c* Š Ÿ6, 4&™ #õ0* ._Æ „g är # ™ò ‚¡ aÔ¸ìg™ ãZz b§~g7 ÃV¸uÆr # ™8 -g ** B‚ÆŠgÆ]â Z²Z {Šƒ" y*VâzŠt °»X¸–h +' × ÌZ ÂC Ù Æ,gZ—Y)ÅyZX „g7J -DsÜ]!* pX Š HÁx½» ~gZ—Y)ÅyZV-XK 7 -{Å :–ñƒD™ REPLY 7ZB‚Æéq -Z Å~Z]‚ÅyZä~ ÷ EZZÃ~ZB10ˆÆg OZ wD Z;är # ™h +âwD ZˆÆ] &nµÃ õg @* ÏZ²Ô‰ƒlñ{Ç!* \WˆÆkZÔ ¶Bé~y WtÅ\W L L [Z »x Z²Z6Ær # ™8 -g ** ~# Ö } .Å\W ÂÀgzZVƒ[™egzg ÃÌŠpÃ\W[Z tX åc* Š™„g[Z »Ý»Ær #™ óì ó éÅ ã;ŠŠ c* sÜtXìg}Š7÷äg ðÃVY7Ø\WpX åc* Š ŸÌ :ðWét¬Ðs§ÅyZ~[Z ÆkZ Hello Qureshi Sahib,Thanks. I became busy with some of my professional activities and am currently traveling.

:ðWé~ ZtÐs§ÅyZˆÆ4âÇÆkZ


www.urdudost.com

53

UrduDost Library

I do not have access to my forum links.Sending you this message from my blackberry that does not provide full internet access. Regards. Munir

:BétÅr # ™ò ‚m, z6, aá Zzh ¡ ex »Ðó óV.~ m, z6, L LJ -ÌZˆÆ4zŠÆé~ Z ~uzŠp Quick question? Are you a member of the forum?

:Èét7Z6, gî~g ¯ä~6, kZX ¶ˆƒC Ù ª™Á[Z+ M Åsßñèa 5!{Šƒà Zz e \WX X ?åM»xg ¯Æ\W~‰ Ü z k Q HԉŠqzÑ'æEÎG $×{Šƒ" Å8 -g ** =ä\WZ # ! ò ‚¡ a›L L 5!åH &g ~g ‚Åxg¯=\W?åM»xg ¯Æ\W‰ 45ÒG 5H G Ü z k Q~HÔ H„g™}Š4Ãb§TÃé~ Z ~÷A $ä ìg™egzg ÃæEÎG G [Z »x Z²Z {Šƒ"Æ]], ZgzZ c* Wt ‚[Z d»Ý»á ZzwD Z;[Z ?åM»xg ¯Æ\W‰ Ü z k Q~H ( pôƒ  )¸ -ñZuzŠ~yZyd\W[ZgzZX åHg »aÆ& +ƒ Zg}uzŠ ä8 -g ** Ã\W Zƒ" $U* XŠ HWŠ c* wZÎtq - kÃ\W Âc* Wt ‚ wZÎÆ\W[ZgzZÐí@* à Zz äY Å™ú1yY Å\W[ZX å c* àW¸ „Ð é«=X ìg™m, / ¤ Ð äÑt ‚Ì X X X ó Xó Ù `ñXì °»„ eg kg Ú Za}÷Xì c* Š™ãZz¼ƒ ä ÅyZ¸ìg™éh + á ={z~ªZŠ KZX ñWF, ZJ -ukZ6,V.~ m, z6,ò ‚ m, z6,¡ aˆÆ4]‚ÆékZ ~÷ :ðWé Hiader Sahib, I have some personal questions if you cared to reply: 1. Are you a Pakistani by origin or Indian. 2. Did you live in India for a sustained period (2-3 years) 3. Did Gopi Chand Narang publish an article by you in a book titled Urdu ki Nai BastiyaaN (I have not seen the book but a friend suggested that he may have seen such an article) 4. Where do you live now, Germany or Denmark. My understanding is Germany I will be going to sleep in a few minutes and will look at my mail tomorrow.

:Èé~ ZtÃyZ6, gî~g¯‰ Ü zÏZä~6, kZ

5!~ Z! Z Ã\W¬pì [Z »wZÎC ˆÆkZgzZXì [Áx½» ~g Z—Y)Š .x ** Å\W:gzX Âe** ™„gæEÎG Ù Æ\W L L 5!~ ZÅJ ó Xó ì °»„ eg kg »æEÎG -[ZXì 7]gz¢Å ƒ {Z ËÐV2zŠg Z—Y)‰\W= 5!~÷d ÅyZ~kZX X„gæEÎG $Œ Û ÆW{g Š Hä7Ã]ZgizgŒ Zäò ‚m, z6, aˆÆí@* ¡ {Š c* iÌÐV[ Räa Æ y*TgzZ @* ƒ[Wg ¶ Z »~Z {g Š HJ -A $6, $‚d V $zÅ óÑ ó Zg øL) L ** izg._Æ”zgx ¬X ¶ï á 6, gîãZz{ +$ + # ™8 r -g ** ËZ egzZX ;gíÑyWg ¶ Z »~ZB10ÌyŠŒ Z7„yŠ kZì t · ZX @* ƒ: „Š ñ6, „kZ {zŠ HH„gÄ


www.urdudost.com

UrduDost Library

54

XŠ HJ 7, {Š c* i¹ÐŠ Z®Åw©ÅMg‡Æg ¶ Z ÌÃ}p—‚gzZ ÌÃy*kZÐá ZjÆV¸uÆ ï¢ aÚZ „ÐVzk , ’—‚KZ=aƶŠ[Z »yZÔ‰ ñÎx Z²Z Ìæ6, í6, ìÆr # ™8 -g ** -ÌZ J hzZ ÅäZ™¦Ã12{g ÑÆ[Š Zh +] .X CW77„]gz¢{Š c* iÅ™¼ *Xì * @Yƒë!* nZ ‹Z »r # ™8 -g* *ì @* Y ë~‚X } 7, ™« Z „6, yZñâ i WÌ"wæär # ™8 -g ** -ò ‚¡ J aò q6 LZ @* I]¾™áЕ w B;Æ}uzŠq -ZäV”Ðs§Vzg e~kZ ó ó?ã0* H !T~÷w1X X XgP8ÍX X Xg«ZC Ù L LX¸D™|öq -Z VâzŠ LZ^ZƒZ yg0 +ZQÂå* @YWJ -uZ # ã0* ZƒqzÑÐV'X å@* CRÅ ã0* ™ƒZ9^q -Z~yxgŠÔ å@* ƒc* ¯I™x å -g** 8 P8ÍËZ eX D™o¢Ä¤ /KZ™È óÐ ó NšÃ„3L La}uzŠgzZ @* Î[¢™È óÐ ó ,h ÂÑ@* Ð V ŒL Ð L Vð; x Z²Z {Šƒ"ÅËs Ü}÷J -V^ Zga! Š Z™áÐi>Zg§ZÆ]ZŠ ¢Xì [VJ -ŒÆyZ ã0* Â,™g¨¤ /Zr #™ Æ]ZŠ ¢X ǃ** ™ o‚B‚Æd $*! Š ZgzZg ‡zd»x Z²ZkZX $ Ë ƒ7e $', Ðx Z²ZÆV¸uÅr # ™8 -g ** ÐVìZ F, -ŒÆyZ ã0* J X ,™ o‚»x` LZŠpr # ™8 -g * *ì ‰ Ü zÌZX 7„IZ »äZ™e $', dÅyZ ÌðÃÐ~Vz§Z Â@* ƒŠ HWt ‚™Áx` {z6, Rdb§kZgzZ @* ƒZƒx` ** ƒ… r»‘u} (, ãZ ( }™: Z} .Ô}™: Z} .)Ðí(ÅyZXì [V X êŠ äW: " $âÅîJ -Œ LZÆã0* ~ 7LÂa}÷ˆÆäYÁx` Xì „Ú ZsøZ÷~]5ç, ZakZh + á X @* ƒ°»„ ã0* ½ðÒOF » ~gaÅäe} (, ãZ ˆÆVÆwhzZò ** $×! Š Z)gzZd)ÅVñq}g‚ÆyZgzZˆÆs ÏZÆV¸uX X X BŠÐy·Šr e # ™8 -g ** !ì [VJ -ŒÆyZ ã0* 6, R! Š Zzd XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX EÀ ( Y 2009~ZB 20X ðJ34£ XÉ åˆñ^q)** izg·,) X ci +Z, MÚZ‹Š‹m†¶ŠÓm] á^j‰æ‚ßa )** izg Y 2009~ZB24X ‹Š‚’ÏÚ ]…^Ûa )** izg Xì [ ø 7Š6, „kZJ -ÌZy*t http://dailyhindustanexpress.com/adbi_sargarmiyan.htm


www.urdudost.com

55

UrduDost Library

â** Z6, -ZÐá ZjÆ](‚ q $ Ŭ » Ÿz ™ Îiär # ™8 -g ** ËZ eXì J 7, B‚ÆzÂ~g7ä~y*»8 -g ** P8 ÍËZ eÐmÆ](‚ øL F X Vƒg Z ¦ / ]»yZ~aÆTÔì ðƒã‚ Wh +' × ~Kûe6 kZ=ÐkZ ÆkZ Âì @* W~Š zQðÃZ # Ô Cƒ7AðÃÅ'úÆQ:._Æ»e6 kZVƒe™tJ -ÌZ~ ~g ‚tXì 7wg UŠpðÃÅðX B bg7•~Š ZÐZ CZðÌðÃXì @* ƒÀ» ~g ‡gzZì CYƒ]ñÅ'„B‚ X Á{ Ze'!* åÃà ¥pà âgzZû%Y ÔwCZ f Å'V;X 7y‚W** ™ŠgÐZakZÔXì @* ƒŠp~g ‡ª»ðKZ' È»kZ Â7AðÃúÆðKZÅ'¤ /ZX g D» ó ó!p~WL LkZŠpŠ ÕC(‚‰}g øpce* *™i Z0 +Zà XìŠ §~VÂ!* VâzŠQÂ7wg UŠpðÃÌÅð¤ /ZpXìg (Z"'ì 4{Š c* i Â,™7ä%ÆWi¤ /Z ñOÅä™yÒ~i Z0 +Z {6zjgzZÚÔÂûekZ+Š** C(‚ -ZXì:%g Z0 q + á »WiC(‚ó ó³7, :ùÃ;L Ly*»yZXì HÝqi Z ³Z »qzZ~ekZär # ™8 -g ** Xì + E I GG34DW s§~uzŠXì ~gz¢** ;g YH~g Y)** $Z@Š** e ï g@* Z^vÆ]ñÃ'ìh +”Ú ZkˆZ » ~Š Zi WÅ~g ‡s§ X ³7, :ùgzZ³7, ùÃ;ì ‰6, R@¬gzZì weq -ZÅ䃙6, [Š Z ÅVzŠ ÕÝ!* Ðp Ò!~h WÅ~g‡t6, R! Š ZX X X s çqø X úC;Å~²µ ˆZÆVzg›ZŠ O%Z $ ÆðC@¬q -Z b§ÅwßZ³‚ wÎZw¾q -ZªX ~6Æ~g¹ËgE-q -Z+C Ù â O%ZÆ](‚ øL F ~g ‚¹~yZzÔ]Ã%Z}g ‚ƒe~x Z ¸ZgzZŠ Z Û Z ZV˜Xì e** ¨P~ eåpÔnƒÍÑ6, gî sÜШP~ eå?ì $ Ë YÅÍÑù ~g¹ðÃb§Åáñg ó‚6, x Z ¸ZgzZ]4ZÎX Ì similarities !x\ÃO%ZX Ç“x\ÃX Ï“Åg ** Z Ъ zŠ Å׊ z!* Æ䃉 Ü ¤~(, âZ ì $ Ë ƒúÅ}ÑçO%ZÐä™Za päâ ðgzZe $œ / %ÑÅQ xZ ¸ZyZÔg›ZŠáZzä™mÑÐPgzDpÆyZÃxZ ¸Zwâ ÑâÐñâuD™h Âà Grand NarrativeçOXì xzø X T e** ½Ðx\ÃO%ZÃÜDpkZs§~uzŠ ÂT e** ™bZiÃòzøµˆZ O%Zs§q -ZÆ™ZaÜDp~ ~Š ã CÆr # ™8 -g ** =ì k\Z=X OgÃåL$ÌÐZì _òÐM%Z ã¹ Å·_C(‚ÆŸÆ** zz X Z 7, ** ™{g  á Z Ìs§Å’Z7ë Z ñƒ} a  B‚Æqçñ ( 237Ô 236™X Y 1994cŠ @* ðÑ Ô 3{g ÑÔ { hƒÔj‰„ â&·,â)


www.urdudost.com

56

UrduDost Library

aÎ~÷ Ð á ZjÆe $h +] .ˆâ !WnÆnÅ]c* ÃLZÐZäVƒz¤ /Cc* ÃZLX AŠgzš f', -g F~VÎ', 8 J‚¸¦ /ä[Š ZzŠg Z % iÆaÎ+[ ˆÅÒÃÅäÑW, ZæLG +Z Û ÐZ LX Š HHg ZÜZ6, Ú ŠÐá Zj C1)sÜÐZ LÂ;e** ™wEZ6, gîÆg » Ð~i *"~(, $ÎäYc* A Š rz Û Ãe $h +ŠZ # ~äYZh +] .X ˆÅlz»ÅiY~N WWÆÏ0 + i CZ f Å'Ã[Š Z L Xì 7~g ZŠ)f ~gø** ŒÃ~g ‡X ˜6, i ZzWÅg0 +Z LZ Âë ÎäY¹t d qŠ¤ ~"ŠÆe $h +ŠX ‰ÌV×C~zb ~ƒ  yZXìgD ¯ õ/GI / Æ[Š ZzŠg Z]gßÅVùgZgZzŠ Z}g ‚t "tX c* W[c»e $s" ~äYZzŠgZh +] .Ðá ZjÆe $h +ŠX Š H1™ðC´ÐZЬ$ +p¶ðC~zb q -Z Ì kZäVzg ó: YZXçOX}Š™s ™Ô ¶_ƒŠß W8 -i ÔÃe $sãZ6, ÅäYZzŠgZ åp!* Ðp ÒkZ[c»e $s xŠ~*Š Å~gó: YZˆÆÚ ŠÃÚÓ! c}g ‚äVMXÑ UY}\ZÆe $s5VŒÆyZ 1™gˆÃgzš! c }IVŒÆyZnW7C Ù !* -ÌZЪ J q! cÅe $s"g ó: YZ pì îŠ ð3Š]gßp!* ¸ ÌVŒÆyZ 3g p"ÅyZ ‰ o±g  á gzZ+Š** , ZP7Z ZƒnkZÕtB‚ÆyZXì CYƒx¥„ÐgzŠª qà Zzã0* ñƒ X åŠ Hc* Š™i Z0 +ZÃ8Ã~g ‡gzZ ¶ðƒµÌZÅg »ðgzZðJ -ÌZXÑ äÑ~hÃÅgz™ÐVzk , ’ á ZzäZ™gz!* $s‚Šp~Vzk e , ’p"ÔÑ äƒdl ÆW( Œ| # ‚gzZ ) C(‚VŒ}g ø„‰ ¸~g ¬Ð¢ A &! +Š** , Z}g øpVƒ&ðC~zb q -Z ÌûŠ ~W6 kZ~X ðW0űg á gzZ+Š** Âf e™Za } 8 -gœÆãç~k , ’Æ"Ôp" ËëZ #  eÎäVrZX ÎäWkZg„ {Š c* i¼ »e ~Wt7Z wïb§kZÐðÃg »ðä+Š** Ý!* Ðp Ò!™á h WÅ~g ‡çO___! Hg »ðgzZ HðX ZƒCZ Zg øÂw¾ Zg ‚Q [Š Z LXì ~g YÌZ˜ÓötX Š Hc* Š™xzøÌÐhÆäƒ~g ‡Æð„ KZÃg »ð ____w!* Ð~æ‰HC Ù !* ǃkˆZ7Z ÂÐVƒrg ÃÐÚÓvßg c* X ìgƒæW', F, ½Ð~wâ zgLgzZìg Yñ3Š™wïlÍy  Ð8 IÅ Xì @* ™ì‡yi Z Âq -ZÎâÆ~g ‡gzZðÔg »ðÂ[Š Z (zðZ’Z »y*‰‘6, 1+ 6n:çÖ 1Ò àe çf=çì « z** ÆuZg0 + -Š ) Y 1995ag â ~gz Û : {g ÑÔgƒÑÑ]…æ] )xâ·,) ( uZg0 + -ŠY 1995:{gÑX ‹Š h] æ…] oÛÖ^Â


www.urdudost.com

57

UrduDost Library

wgß@¬gzZe $h +] .ˆâ (zck , i »tg ZŠ ZÆ*` [Š Zh +] .) yZX X X Ì~ hÆyZX `ƒ ù  áJ -[Z}p: Ó¬„ Äá ZzpgmÐ cÅ](‚ˆâ gzZ](‚ $ §q þLG -Z CZ »t # I! Š ZXì ÌZ(KZ KZ Ń  yZX Ìá Zz ä™ì‡uq -Z Åyi Z ÂyxgŠÆyZgzZX X Ì~¿#Å

t åŠ HƒãZzt¹A $¶Ðäƒi Z0 +Z W, Zq -’I¹F, ~[Š ZZ #  ǃ: û"™ftVŒë@* X ’ e xg ¸tÔì @* ƒg » $Xì Se ** 4›E ˆâ gzZ](‚Z # îE 0G ™ ZŠ Z9 Û »w”Æœ£vŠgzZ VÅx4, ñgzZxcΊ z!* Æ]Z W, ZÐ ¹LZq -’ 8 »'gzZ Q¶ˆÅÒÃÅäZ™gz!* Ðs # Ÿz ~(,~}p‰A $¸ìgƒdl ÆV-zZiZÆ](‚

ã Wx Ó6,Š ã CÅkZèYì ** ™x ZŠZ s ÜÆVòIè ‰Ð s§ÅVòO%Z ÝZgŠ ** ™¤ /YZÃÌZ Å ~g ‡Æ™g ïZ &‡** X » Deconstruction z ðƒ]!* Å䃿ÿLE Æ~g¹w¾ V˜ b§ÏZXì CYƒ ÔÅÛ{gzZQÆà %iÌ ì @* Yƒ ~gz¢tÔì c* Š 3ŠÆ™t :Z » ~g¹Å DeconstructionKZ6,t Z²gzZyj îjZ äM%Z²[ZX c* WcæLG 6, gî4{Š c* iVð;ÆVzg›ZŠyQ}g øx »tX ñY1{ ^ ,Y»kZ Ì~øÚÆC Ù biÆkZB‚Æg~*Š Å~g¹

zÂàSs§kZg›ZŠ x Ó,Z}gøì yZX  ìgÉ c* Ô  ìg ˜ ~ ¿# c* kZñ0Ð qçñkZ Çnƒ % iÃVƒ UiÆ»e kZgzZÔÐN â  X ÏnƒW4{Š c* i™ÑcæLG Û ( Y 2003cŠ @* ðÑ Ô 1:{g ÑÔ*` h] ‚m‚q ·, )


www.urdudost.com

UrduDost Library

58

¿›g6, bg ZŠ Z wgß@¬gzZe $h +] .ˆâ ( gƒÑ) ¸ Mk , izËZ e &‡6,gîàStg ZŠ Z »\ M ¼¹~}pLZ=Ðá ZjÆTì c* VZN (Zq -Z ä\ M ~kZXì p°ÿLE ä ](‚ :gzZ ](‚ åtXÝZX X X ~ }pÆóø ó ÚgzZ pL L[ ~÷m<!* Xì „g Ýq ]Š XÅ™ Âä +®O%ZX H¬k',:e1z ÁÐ ` M ä +®Æ÷Z Û x »tX ¶ÅÔÅg¦Æ Logo-Centrism c* ó óœ / %L L ÕäMuZ]!* tgzZ Å]!* Å web of relations ªwYÆV¤g ñOÆœ / %ä](‚Xì Åì˜pÅ+®úZ Û3 ](‚èYXì H7~}pLZ ä~NtX mƒ: ÔÅœ / %Ð ä™ÔÅ óœ / %L~| # ‚1X ¶g »Ð]¢h +] . Â_6,ä Vß Zz ](‚ c* ÍXìg¦~Š ß Z]uz Ôì êŠ ð3ŠŠ ñ6,x £C Ù g0 +ZÆ| # ‚ ~g ‚óœ / %L~ | # ‚{Š™7Å X ˆƒ}ÂÅg¦Æ~4!Å óœ / %gL0 +ZÆ~g¹ÅyZŠpV-X ñƒx » ** b§~', ~ä™ÔÅ óœ / %1 L â 廊 ÒZ t ¹gzZ ~Š™ÔÌÅ| # ‚§¦Æ](‚äDeconstructionists ª+®Œ| # ‚ˆÆVß Zz ](‚ E " ‰Ô Cƒ 7ÔÅÛ{ ÌÐ kZì –ä ~ Ô~ [Z Æ kZXì Labyrinth ªÚq ÅÒÃä õfI‹G3 -Z ]Ñ» G GLG ©G3©8Xì Å„0 gzZ {Š6,gŠ {Š6, Ãg¦Æaï +¶ KÌÅ]zÆäƒZgzâ Ð û~s ™zZæZÆÛ{äøZŠ ¹æŠpX ¶ !ì Yá ~Ĥ / ù‚f »y¨ KZì [sg0 +Z[s c* ' c* ÍÔ Dƒq -ÑVÐó ó~g‡gzZ QÔ' L L~ ~g »ðì c* Šgzi Ì6,]!* kZ~ }pLZ ä ~ G7]c* à ä+®Æ](‚:gzZ](‚VƒYÈt~ñƒ‚Ã]!* X Y™7g ïZ ðÃÐwÅÛ{ Xì c* Š™ Deconstruct„ŠpÃ]Zg¦LZäVrZªXìŠ ñÅ! Zy  ]gßuZg0 +ZÆ]c* ÃyZŠp XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

( ß ).k„Ü**

kZ Å\W Xó ñY1{ ^ ,Y»kZ Ì~øÚÆC Ù biÆkZB‚Æg~*Š Å~g¹ L ì Å7m, ?t ä\W ÅM%Z6,t Z²gzZ yj îjZÉì B bgœ£Ï(@¬sÜ: ( ](‚ˆâ gzZ](‚) ~g¹ì wìt»\Wuø» m, ?


www.urdudost.com

59

UrduDost Library

ÅkZì H{C Ù bäM%Z »ˆT~ ´ ˜òsZzŠ yZ c* ÍX `ƒ ÌÝqœ£tÆ~g¹)g fÆðZzgg »Y¯ O%ZÝZgŠ ** ™¤ /YZÃÌZ Å~g ‡Æ™g ïZ8 »'gzZQ L ì –Ìtä\W~KkZì $ Ë Yà Z e6,~g¹~g ZŠ)f Å]gmó Xó ì CYƒÔÅÛ{gzZQÆà ã Wx Ó6, Šã CkZèYXì ** ™x ZŠZs ÜÆVòIè‰Ðs§ÅVò §ZzgÆ VzI ¹F, 6,ÃtzZiÆ \WgzZì x ¬ ~ ( ÄôŠgi ) Äô ì ~& «ÅnÏZ ~ ]ÑìyZÆ \WB‚ ¹F, Ãwq]gßÅ ~g¹ä \W~ g ZŠ ZX  D h Ð „  (} & +Z eÆ~g¹!Š ZC Ù ì ;gƒ kCÌt‚ »áñg à X ~gz¢¬ » Ÿz‰VŒXì Ìc* ZIz˜Æq -’I bgzgŠ » *s ÏZx]!* ta}÷ kZ]c* Ã! Š Z l»X $ Ë Y~±(~(,~(, 6,D1. Þ Æ~g¹ ì B ä™" $U* ,YÃe ^ $', ', gzZ k B ì $ Ë Yãâ Â]!* tX M h™³gzZ M hhñcg »]5ç Ï(@¬{zDƒgz‰ Ü ¤gŠ ªì ¢ A & à ©)Åä™ DeconstructÃQc* kgje c* bÃÌË~ ~g¹1 M h YK äz ]c* ÃaÆ E G4h±gâ âQc* GG3B+G Wð¨ Kc* ï g @* 5c* ƒ~g¹Åkgje Åà ¯Xì $ Ë ™¢ÃV<ÕÅnC Ù ~Qc* bÃ~g¹ kZ ïG Æe $×kZ Å]4gz$~g¹XìB‚ÆV5{Š™i Z0 +ZÃgzZ wâ 0* 7B‚ÆV5gÇÐ bzg ÅÝZ KZ ~g¹b§ ]”~g7gzZg|Z ° Cƒ7‰ Ü ¤b§Å/~~g¹ìt3¯ ) !* »kZ ÂmÑ7~p!zZ~g Ziª qÅyZ¤ /ZŠ z!* ]!* «~KkZ Âì wZλg ïZÆ'gzZQJ -V˜gzZXì „gƒúzgCgCg ìÐ~p~„m» ~g¹ƒC Ù ªÐ Æ'gzZì Š Hc* Š wzg ~œ / %Ã]Z Œ Û ÅkZgzZ QÝZgŠÆ™g ïZ »'X 7¦ / Ù »Qì Š C HH H Âg ïZ »'ìt ÚZ 37öRÅäY~,VŒXì Š HH~©:~„gzZdm{q -Zg ïZ »'7Z NÏ( ðÃÌ~g ïZ [ÅÄkZt X ì: ZI ={zì ¦ZŠ Å ÕC°_T](‚X c* Î ä ](‚y¶ KDZÎ6,ÏŠ ñÅ'ì n² ÝqÃx Âá Zz ä™ Za ÃkZX 7ÃpÆ1ÌZÝZ Z®ì @* ƒïq » p1ðÃ'ÆTgzZÐzz ÅTì C™ 4›! » Ì‚Î Xì ¨P ¯Î gzZ – Signifying ) x  C G é5E  e Z6,q -Z ÌŠ Û Ð bzZi kZ Xì –  e Z6, pXì

$Zzg!Š Z'c* e ÍXìaz»gÖZÆx ÂkZ ñOÆÛ{ Z®Ì'Xì @* ™g ÖZ CZ)gfÆyágzZŠ Z Û Z ( system ƨ _LZ15J -uÅ]q˜Za}g ø'!* tÔì C™g ÖZ CZ™ ¯azÃ']c* Ät@* ™7»Ã]c* Äc* ÏZD™Š ÷ 7ZÐ e $ZzgaÆçÆgŠÅ}g 0* ®ËgzZïŠ ÌZu"Ãe $Zzgƒ  ë †X 7bZÐg ±Z J 7, ™? Ø ÐAƨ ¸Ãg ÃZƨ ¸X ~Š ¬Æpgt ¤ñÑ!* Ã'ñAë~`ÅÆpÆ}g 0* ®Ëb§ ÂOgpÅÃY AÆkZ c* '¤ /ZXì ]ÒÅp~g ÃZÆkZì ;g * @Yc* ŠgZ Œ Û Ì² á Z (, è ¸ÐzzÏZgzZXì ;g @* Y

'Xì ƒ  o„ ** ™ÃsÜÐ'‰ Ü zÆ]Z Œ Û Ðg ±ZkZX ÇñYƒ{gq -gzZŠzöe $.¿» ~&pÅ}g 0* ® 6,qçñkZƶZg 7ût », ) 7eÔÅe $Š ZÐZ Å'! ,!* Xì ˆÅ§{ Åä¯ &pgzZŠ Zi WÃ]Z Œ Û ÔÅ &«»]ñÅ'Xì ðƒ]ª6,kZXì H[™Ð VòO%ZÃgïZÆ'ä\W ( M hYK±5]Ñ£


www.urdudost.com

60

UrduDost Library

Å¿#ÅçO%Z6,t Z²ä÷Z Û gzZXì ÷Z Û ÌòÈÀÅ](‚:z](‚X åHä]g !* VÑzgŠ ÕúZ Û Ây´Z Hg ÖZ „ »]26,kZ~´ ˜}uzŠ:¤ / z( ì 5gzZ )ì Yïrz Û Ã~g¹V˜ì o (Z÷Z Û „¸ìtÂhgzZX ¶ !X X X X X X X X X X X {ÒW¹!* X Dƒg Ñ~VzŠ ÕÆ~g¹Ìͨugi + Û ÆM%ZXì Š H XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

7Œ Û g© ( ~[Z Æ.k„Ü** ) V⊠ðZ’ZÆq -’I¹F, ä~X X ‰ƒC!* .Ð} hðñƒD™g ÖZ »¿›g6, _ bg ZŠ Z.k„Ü** xgŠ Z', à ZzäYʼn Ü zÆi ¸ MÆt # Ie $h +] .ˆâ „B‚gzZì ÅÌ„Šy¶ KÅÙZ F, x Z²Z à ZzäYÅÐ+ $YÅ5#ÆkZ~ I Âäg›ZŠgzZŠ Õr‰wYÕËZ e ÕäM5!X åŒ7ƒ  o** ZC Ù ŠÃp ÖZ JÐ ¹ä ~É Xì Å„0 +¶ KÏÑÅÙZ F, x Z²Z G$ Rq -Z Åt # IyZX åc* Šg Z Œ Û li ‚ÅV-Š·ÐZ yZÃwgß{æ M 7Z # pì ƒ  o´gzÐZgzZì J -uÅ[Š Z éME 5G4¨G ¬¹Ð¢‚ÆyCZí** x Z²ZtXì ]!* ~¡** ƒZa »u“~}g !* Æt # I!Š Z,ZQÂñY¬Š~ÝzgÅ]â Z²Z Æ46,Š ã CÅÜÁIè‰Ð„¬ σª œÃVzg›ZŠ O%ZyQÐä™~ .Z ãçì eðÆQgzZ ÔÅ'ì » E " !* Xì CY0‚i !* „Åy´ZÆ õfI‹G3] tV-ì CƒÔÅÛ{Æà ã M6, Šã CÅg¦kZì ]!* ÏS¦¹X s Ü E " ÆgñZPÐmÆìZ ³O%ZgzZe $h +] .ˆâ Ь¹Z # ÎX ;gÉ7™wÅX Vƒ;g}Š Zg  á ZsÜ»y´ZÆ õfI‹G3~ øZŠ O%ZÐZ ñƒD™„0 +¶ KÅVY ܃yZ H Âì @* 3Š Ì@* ƒsÃyZ‰ Ü z~ˆgzZ å;g YHg ÖZ »u“™Á~ }g!* ! VƒY™ HgzZÆg ÖZÆÏqÑñZÎ~ Âì ÄôŠgitq -Š 4, Æ\ M¤ /Z ?ì x` ðÃ** ™lz»ÅÚ Š™h Ð ÆkZì ~ŠÌZ Ã~g ‡äe $h +] .ˆâìtlg Z ¦ / ~ekZÔì m»s # ŸzÅ\ M Åä™: ÔÅQJ -V˜ Q ÂñY M J -x £, Z wgßZ # X Lg7² c* xMZ f °ðÃÐ ~ ƒ ¸ÆV-r c* Þ Æ!ðŠgzZÄq . -Z Å;£Z ;ˆ ?ˆ{gÌZ HÅQ h™³gzZ h M Mhñcg »]5ç Ï(@¬{zDƒgz܉¤gŠkZ]* c Ã! Š Z l» :ì –(q -Z ä.k„Ü** ~×ÆV=pgzZ]!* zZ} (,}g ‚ÆVß Zz[f:¤ / z‰ É(Z~ãZzg Å×zz. k„Ü** ð¸ì wì Z÷X ¿q -Z » ¸ Mk , iz ËZ e vg ) ,! Š ZœÆr # ™.k„Ü** gzZ LZ nÆvÐ x¯ÁîXì „g¨  ¸ ðâ  Û g »„ Å]c* Ã


www.urdudost.com

UrduDost Library

61

X VƒêŠG7!Zj ‚

E ,~ËÆT~Š (F, ÅäY0ó4 ó L LÌÃVñ¸ÉŠ Z Û ZsÜ: ä( U** X õfI‹G3")g¦Æ+4ñ’ ~[fL L

4gzZ ( Super Race)±4B‚Æ }4~ XI~±(@¬ ñƒ Za Þ6gzZ hzgzZ Óª}4Æ ~œ ó óuš Ïzg gzZ uš O%Z ‰ Š Hƒ gZË Ìg¦ » uš 4QX ÐïÌà ]Zg¦Æ ( S u p e r n a t i o n )x ¸ ( 71m, 6} i ZzgŠkZ.Š ) ?ì mZ H~: M »V=pY zÏ(ÅV;zgzZ]c* Ã! Š Z~[f @* ƒ7C Ù ªÐt‹kZ H DpZèÑq ) ~g¹„q -Z nÆVâ ¨ KZÆ*Š ~g ‚Xì ¨p Z (, Ù „ìŠ C HH7g¦ » ~g¹w¾ ¶ Š [Z ÷Z~]gßÅzZ KÚe nÆkZ ?ì H: Ä á Ï(gzZ ~Š OZ »e $K¬kZp( D™ÔÅe $K¬+ZŠp]ZŠ § gzZe $K¬Å~g¹w¾X kNŠ Ì¿Šgh +”»x ZúÆ´ ˜! fŠps ÜÆkZgzZ kNŠÃìZ ³ÆVµDRgzZ ´ ˜ X 7`wðà Â~h e™g¨6, kZ ?7c* ì *g ãzg0 +Z ðÃ~e $K¬ÅzZ KÚe

G 7ÌZ ðà éM›‹¢ÃkZ~ ÷Z Û X c* M kZg „ÃVzg›ZŠ O%ZŸt pðƒ—" Z’Z Å]Zg¦ C(‚Ð ÷Z Û

ä™g (ZgZ Û Ð õg@* ]1KZ ÅyZ c* M kZgÃVzg›ZŠ O%Z ÌtpZƒÐ ÷Z Û y´Z »]ñÅ õg @* ‰ì „,ztX B »]c* Ã6,wC ;gE-) !Š ZgzZ ( c* z7 -Z¼Z ) Y Ô ( ~È/µD) Ï(V;z’ e ´ŠŠ ZŠ Å$;f ÅM%Z

X ¶~

@Y c* Š™ qzÑ ** ™ugzxƒÐ¬6,RC Ù ( g e6, ` Mæ Mgc6,kZX ¶~ŠÉ ó óƒ Z”»V'*L L~Y 1997 ä HuntingtonXì * VâŠDqçOXì ;g™ãZzh +' × Ã-ñLZ™ M6,c* zO%Z%%/ HuntingtonÉ ;gƒ7„æ MgŠ¿sÜXì ;gƒ y›}g ‚Xì 7& ¸ðÃ~y›w_gzZy›„  6, Šã Cq -Š 4, }÷ì c* ŠÈJ -VŒ~p ÖZ ãZz} (, äkZ~ ,ZÆVzg›ZŠ O%Z\ M n kZX Š Hc* Š yZgzŠÆV.O%Z å-zÚZ ðc* +g »yZtX ’ e ** i ƒ ?¹»yZgzZ ‰q -Z „ X ,™ÒÃÅäYJ -g0 +ZÆyZX B:ÐÏŠ ‚âZÃ]µF, +ZgzZ]** Ò

ë @* Ô YY H7g ïZÐ ]ZxµÆq -’I ¹F, ‰„,zÔ’ e ** Ñt ‚gz¢Ã]Zx! Š ZµÆe $h +] .ˆâ

ù Zgf O%Zá Zz ä™x »'Æœ£mº1 :Æ»e kZ „, z åŠ HHyjÃV¸Ï(1 :Æq -’k Q‰ ãƒgzŠ .ß Âì 7¼ (Z ¤ /ZÔ ’ e ** M t ‚ÐZ Âì ¼ (Z ªZz ¤ /Z X 7`w ðÃ~ ä™]!* 6,Š z x° c* Š z Æ X ’ e** ƒ7nZg ** 6, kZX ’ eãYƒW™Á6, qçñkZ nkZX ’ e &‡Vƒ~ HËDÿL X3Z ¥gzZ X Ç ñY c* DƒgŠ ÿLE ¯ 7¯ ) !* »Š Á c* ** Z CZ f Å Ëà qçñkZVƒ @* ™yZ ~ GG , k igzZ wgß{æ M 7{zì CY Å µÂÐ yZX g›ZŠ ëZq -Z}g ø éMG 5©G3©8. k„Ü** ™? Ø Ð Vzg›ZŠ ~g »uÈöX  XÐ,™gz¢ÒÃÅÚ ŠÆ™sptzZig !* -ZÃXc q XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


www.urdudost.com

UrduDost Library

62

( Y 2004~g†X 2{g ÑÔ*`  h] ‚m‚q ·,) ñÑ~ yxgŠÃ’g CZ f ËXì Å ãU* Ã6,]Ñì LZ ä VrZ Zƒ { i Z0 +ZÐk , ’Dqq -Z Å. k„Ü* *ì ]!* ÅÙp * $¢ 4¨GG @* ƒ" $U* yzç~ »g Z ~„@',Ætzg tÆ ä™spKg 0*

ìtzgq¡q -Z éME 5G 8™ ãU* Ã6,]Ñìzg °Z LZ% Xì 7k½Z ‚¿»k , ’Å.k„Ü** Xì kgje 0Ð V”y Q¬: Å™(6,Š ã CÅ„ kgje6,V”gz$~ ~œ,å Z ä ‰ Ü ¤@¬uZz Ång Z Ò™ L L }: }~ kgje kZX c* Š h © h 3ZÃÚ Ý‚z " $U* gzZ ]g q~9C Ù QgzZÔ c* Z™gz!* gzZ c* ;)g fÆc* z7QÔbŠ ú E ( 11m:Â7»‡]æB Ôm] [ÂÅ ¸WÐ) ó ó;gï á gz¢ç¸N3“NIèÔ


www.urdudost.com

63

UrduDost Library

g Ñ"à ZzäƒwßñyZgzŠÆ® ) á ZÅ}p}÷

! 5 E Î G ]Z W, @* PÐ~æ ~ Z

Thanks for sending me your piece. I read it with great interest and hope that your and Professor Naim's efforts will bear fruit. Please keep up the good work. Warmly, Muhammad Umar Memon (U.S.A.

x »QƒÌx ³» ðÍhgzZƒ:hZzn¾KZ ÅòŠ WZ # X ñƒL e~ŠŠ ZŠ ÅÈ Å\WgzZBZ e| 7, ,k , ’Š¼Å\W Xì @* ƒÐÅ !* " ÏZ (M%ZÔÍ D) àÛnÚ †Û ‚ÛvÚ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

Xì ~Šx 1Z# Ö } .~(, Å[Š ZzŠg ZÆ™x !* i ZÒä\WÃ]‡uÆ8 -g ** P8 Í Masha'allah, very well written. You are doing a great service to modern Urdu literature.I am circulating its copies among friends and have saved it for publication in the Khabar Namah at the prpoer time. I also read and enjoyed your hard hitting reply to Munir Sami.

¸ á éE & M îÈW ù ¹oÎæ…^Ê àÛu†Ö] ‹Û= XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

ÏZk , PZg7»yZX D W7i !* ÐVÆwKZÔDƒ‚e¹vß¼pegzg Ãs¢ aZg ‚Ú Z\Wt]¹ Xì ZƒZ½Ð]uZzÆb§ ( ‹Š ) oËßu ÜnÛ= XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

gzZìgwïÐ ! x»Ì[Š Zh +] .Š z!* Æ]Ñq³#ãZ\Wì Å]!* kZ Ùp=gzZ ~D}÷ÆcÆ\W ´gwì CZ¬Ð ƒ  ~ kZ ìg}Šx 1Zu\WÆc èYÚgwì CZX ìg™Ð i Z0 +Z„  Š', i} (,Ìx » ¹!* ( cZ™ ) PnÛa ‚Ûu]

Xì ~gz¢¹ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

Ð [Š Z ~ m, ôZ yx™FÌgzZ D™7„ r # ™8 -g** sÜQwu oÑtX  ðƒ Z ~ðŠ År # ™8 -g ** OŠ Z V#¸ D™ ‹¬X ` ™wßz Ìeg Z-Z6,ºuxLZ Âr # ™8 -g ** X  ìg™7Ð x ** LZÆ™ÀF, ¼¹


www.urdudost.com

UrduDost Library

64

Xì ~g ZŠ)f Ń  ë ** ™[Õ"ÃVÍßyZX „gƒÇÁ ~g7~g7[Z 1™~gaÄä² á ( Š !* WP M Z ) ‚a^rÚ ànŠu ‚Ûu] XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX M5G " ½` W{zìg}Š]o»ÈgzZ Å !* x™ Å8 -g ** pì ;gƒ{ Âx »Xìa ** éE " TÉìg™7„ # Ö } .Å[Š Z\W ( 9 y·Š6,V-i ]e -g ** Æ™i Z0 +ZÃÃyZX  7~g ·g ÑË~ *Š ! Š Z Ôì „gï+ÃV ðG3J4£EïHŸMF ¼á Zz½™ñ X £Š

( ‹Š ) ‚mæ^q o× XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

( ‹Š ) oã9n‰ ^nßÚ

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

very, very interesting!

t]

Thanks for drawing attention to this thought provoking article by Prof.Naeem. I never knew that an eminent Urdu scholar of the repute(??) of Dr. Narang should be indulging in this kind of reprehensible act of plagairism and getting an award for the same.I remember a case when Mr.Narayanan, once an editor of daily " Hindustan Times" who lifted pasages from another author's artilces and published as his own was summarily dismissed from the editorship and has since receded into oblivion. Knowledge is any one person's monopoly but if you rely on someone else's views of opinion, you must gracefully acknowledge it and never pass on as your own original work. J a g d i s h Prakash ..........................................

I thank you for being so proactively persuing the question of purity of thought, creativity and expression in Urdu making Dr.Gopi Chand Narang's case as symptomatic of the malaise. While this kind of plagarism is condemnable unequivocally, Mr. C.M.Naim has drawn attention to another issue of manipulations in the corridors of powers to win partronage and positions.This is what had happened in case of Dr.Narang.This is a weakness of the system for which real talent suffers while mediocrity thrives. I also wish to inform you that I am presently in Canada and will move back to India around 25th September. Jagdish Prakash

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX thanks for your e-mail . i read your clarificatory article on Dr Narang's sarqas with interest. he seems to have crossed all limits of decency, With regards Arshad Kamal ,


www.urdudost.com

UrduDost Library

65

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

}g øX ìg YñÑ t ‚]¬çñ~gz¢)™? Ø Ð qçñÝZì ðWt ‚|tÐk , g ‚Ÿz Å 7Œ Û g© z!Zj š ; @* zÀF,c*5Y ðB"[ {gÃè Å8 -g ** P 8 Í ËZ e c* Wì ;g wZ΄ q -Z Ð VÎ',{g !* t‚ -g ** 8 P8ÍËZ e Š Hƒ" $U* t[ZÐ ¦): ]Åg–@ á yZ/[»gzZ Ùñ{!‚{g !*Å8 -g ** P8 ÍËZ eX X X ?s # ZÜ $ Ô](‚ L L[ÂÅ b§kZ~õg @* Å[Š Z[ÂtgzZì ô¥z!Zjš;@* zÀF, É 7" ó ó]c* ĹægzZ](‚ øL F ( Z” )‚mæ^q ä×Ö]‚fÂX ( , m³Ý°Z .x ¯) σ`gŠ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

7]ª {Š c* i= 6,]!* à Zz ‘uX  ]©iZ °»}÷Ð r # ™8 -g ** ÍX J 7,Ðz„ ~(,y*Zg7 » \W èYá Zzäg —„! Z~g ?Åè\WX TgÑ ~ä™S¦V» År # ™8 -g **

6, Vâ ZŠzŠg ZyZì −Xì XXXXXXXXXX

X B‚Æ\W]÷Zp( ~÷XÐ,Š7B‚»\Wlz Û ;ÆzŠg Z

ìg Î „~·_ÆyZ Ây¨ KZ ÂÐC]¬Åt # IgzZ}p„  Š', i ãZ Z # [»XÐ,Š ä™7~™â=\W ä ~gzZX Š Hµ „ yŠ Zg7 ~"7,³™ÂBéÅ\WX Ç}Š ÎyŠ Zg7 ~ ä™·_» ë›u oÑ1NŠ yZ {zgzZX Ç [Š ZtX ǃc* Š‰ Ü zÚ Z~™ùŠ z!* ÆÏ0 + isz^ÅV;zgzZŠ z!* Æ~™âä\W Âì Ή Ü zÚ Z~"7, =Z #  eÎ ‹ŠX ‚=]… Ün‰æ

XÇg# Ö sÃ\WZ} .Xì „Î_ß"Å\WaÆ

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX It is an interesting debate indeed. I would try to follow both sides as a student of Urdu literature. So far you seem to have been using proper references and that shows the objectivity.Although these kind of Manashqaat are unfortunate for Urdu literature however for some of us these become a great learning experience. Ahmad Safi (karachi)

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

Å\Wr # ™7Œ Û g©¬¹Ð yQ1Ôå b Zæ »r # ™8 -g ** ËZ eX ì Cƒu ܃gŠ¾á ð8E z!* ÆVZgß[pF, x ÓÔ ðC Y E ( I! EE & è ¹Q ä \WX¸ìg Yá s§Å< ¼æ¾$ G é& á ö øä ði é®õ/4E Ø è ÃWdq -Z r # ™ËZ e Ôì k\ZX Ì}Z »V6& Y E 43Xò éE & ä é& Ô×Ú ‚Ö^³ì XÐN VQ}Š6, dйgzZ\WVƒ‚ rg¢Xìgi !* H YZÔ èG 5_IîE ! é$ æ ïE8 éuëE ( *` Ôv[) Øu^‰ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX ! V¹]Z` âZ~gzZ ËÔM hwZ eB;„\W6, Y8 -g ** X YZ¹vZY  á â X Vƒ @* ™†  7 ÃkZ Ì~X ,™ send 8 » £yZ Å kZ Ì=X ä \Wì Å ñ Å w¾Xì ¬Š y*ä ~


www.urdudost.com

66

UrduDost Library

( Њ )X hƒ^q á^Ûn׉ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX !Š ·g I6,]Z` zÈ kZXì)** g »! Š Z: Zq]Z` Z (,¹tÔì c* VQä\Wb§TÃXÆ[Â{”‘uÅ8 -g ** ËZ e ( ÷Z Û ) ‚nÉ †fÚ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX h N¸ F g {zX ! r # ™Š Hƒ©» „ # Ö ªÂtÔi ZzWÅ[¢!Š Zz dÜ>ZuZ§ßÅ\WgzZ ,Üh N ÅP8 ÍËZ e ( C;Ô * eë Z ) oÚ^¿Þ †‘^Þ X ìgNŠ @* ƒãstÂ~*ŠdÔÐ,QD h Z b§ÅVß ÇÆðzg XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX ƒÑ! Š Z ÅyZX ñWF, = Z6,VìZ F, x Z²Z —tZ ñO Åì¼~}g !* ÆV¸uA LZ8 -g ** ËZ eì ]!* Å ãZª ( OZ ) p…çÆ 1Ê Ünq X _ƒga


www.urdudost.com

67

UrduDost Library

¡ÅV¸uÆ8 -g ** P8 ÍËZ e ŠVŒÃyZÔì H7B‚Æ]‚½Z ~i Z áÃV¸uXÆ8 -g ** P8ÍËZ e~}pg e LZ äg–@ á yZ/ ‘usîq -ZÐ ó ó$ e+ h. ]ˆâ gzZøÚ‘u »8g * *P8 Í L L[Â5Å@ á yZ/~y WˆÆ]‚½Z yZX Vƒ ; ™7Æ™ á Ìk½Z {” ]‚½Z »XVƒ ;g™ï á p ÖZ´{z sÜÆg–@ á yZ/VŒB‚Æ]‚½Z x ÓyZXì ;g Y Hï t ‰K7Ð~}pg e {Š™k , ’Æg–@ á yZ/ì ** Ct sÜÑ~Š ã C:gzXì ~gz¢u" ** Y H7~øÚÆ % i {gÃè ÅyZ/X  ¡ q +' h × gzZ ºut ~® ) á Z æLG -Z sÜÅV¸uÆ8 -g** P 8ÍËZ eƒ  tÔ k½Z *q -ZgzZ ]‚½Z

Xì à Zz „ äW Ì[Â NŠ gzZ q -Z Ð á Zj ÏZ Å g–@ á yZ/ˆ Æ yZ gzZX  ìg Wt ‚ ºu g Ñ "

om†Î …‚nu XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Ô ˜ 8 -g ** P8 Í &‡Ô ë ~g ó|& tÃ{z»[Š ZìC .2_ÎkZ L L @»|xg Ã! Š Z~ í úŠtXì 7fZæ ÿLE Ù ªÐøÚ~çJG gîj¸ ªÔD™/Šë »Tì |{z Š Z%~g øÐ|¤ /ZXì ( Tautological)Ô²!* g ZƒsÜÔì C™7

ì C™7@» *Š kZ ~g ó|Ô ZƒtÝZgŠÔì C™7@»|~g ó| L ~úŠtÂì Cƒì‡)g fÆy!* i6, ì 7¼ ZÎÆ ( Tautology) ó²!* g Zƒ tL ì C Ù ª ( Constructed in Language)ì ó Cƒ ì‡)g f Æ y!* i ( 78Ôm )X X X X X X " Ò5E Ôì —ög G+u From this post-Saussurean perspective it is clear that the theory of literature as expressive realism is no longer tenable. The claim that a literary form reflects the world is simply tautological. If by 'the word' we understand the world we experience, the world differentiated by language, then the claim that realism reflects the world means that realism reflects the world constructed in language. This is a tautology................ (Belsey, Catherine. Critical Practice, London, Routledge, 2003, P,43)

" " Ò5E Ò5E Zƒ W, OÌp{Š™ì‡ » ög GÐ Tì Hsv .Æ  7 ÂÆ ög GÐ ~ kZì H `gŠ k½Z ä 8 -g** P 8Í

ÅÒÃÅä™ì‡W, @* t™É~+zZzà "²!* g Zƒ "~k½Z Ñ!* zgqäV,Z ZuzŠXì 7}!Zj »™ÆkZë @* Xì " Ò5E ög Gì Š HH7 ùM¿VŒ&k½Z Zg ‚»}g ‚Xì 7(Z~|²ì fp â Ði ‚tÃ}uzŠ Ëb ˜Zm{tì


www.urdudost.com

68

UrduDost Library

" Ă&#x2019;5E ĂŹ 7Âť8 -g ** P8 Ă?ĂŹ Âť Ăśg G+utâ&#x20AC;šĂ&#x2018;!* zgqXĂŹ fp â Ă?[Ă&#x201A;Ă&#x2026; " Ă&#x2019;5E  WX KĂ&#x20AC;F, Ă? x ** LZ Ă&#x201A;/Ă&#x201A;]â&#x20AC;&#x161;½Z FĂ? [Ă&#x201A; Ă?Z Ă&#x2026; Ăśg GĂ&#x2030; H7Ă&#x153;Ă&#x192;k½Z â&#x20AC;&#x17E;q -Z¥ä 8 -g ** P8Ă? Ă&#x201D;,â&#x201E;˘iĂ&#x192;%zĂ&#x201A;6, k½ZgzZq -Z Ă&#x2020;]ZgÂŚĹ  ĂąIâ Ă&#x201A;¤ /Z LX D Y Ăą0*~Vâ !* iZaĂ&#x2020;gÂŚq -Z ĂŹ F F6,V-ĹĄ /yZ Ă&#x2026;V/?Ĺ  Ă&#x2026;çJ.cÂą L L 3!* iZĂŹt|( 116Ă&#x201D;mkgĂ&#x192; )Ă&#x201D;ĂŹ 7(ZpĂ&#x201D; D YĂą0* wĹ  pĂ&#x2020;yZ~y!* i ~uzĹ Ă?y!* iq -Z Ă&#x201A;DĆ&#x2019;óÏâ&#x20AC;Ąa kZ ~ m, Ă´Z@', Ă&#x2020;kZ MoutonĂŹ Ă&#x201A;q -Z~ĂşZ Ă&#x203A; X ~Ĺ  BVFä çJ.cÂąX Câ&#x201E;˘C Ă&#x2122; ÂŞgzZ á [Ĺ 6, gĂŽZĂ&#x192;VzqĂ&#x2026; *Ĺ  X ( 68Ă&#x201D;mĂ&#x201D;8 -g ** P8 Ă? ) Ăł ĂŹ Ăł Câ&#x201E;˘t Ă&#x203A; ~SheepgzZ MuttonwĹ  Ă&#x2020; " Ă&#x2019;5E Ă&#x201D;Dâ&#x201E;˘q gs§Ă&#x2026; Ăśg G[Z Saussure's argument depends on the different division of the chain of meaning in different languages. ' If words stood for pre-existing concepts' they would all have exact equivalents in meaning from one language to the next; but this is not true' (Saussure, 1974: 116). The truth is that different languages divide or articulate the world in different worlds. Saussure gives a number of examples. For instance, where French has the single mouton, English differentiates between mutton, which we eat, and sheep.............(Belsey, 36-37).

" Ă&#x2019;5E &â&#x20AC;ĄĂ°â&#x20AC;˘ZĂŤ@* ĂĄ Zjâ&#x20AC;°aĂ?[Ă&#x201A;Ă&#x2026;çJ.cÂą~bâ&#x20AC;šLZ ä Ăśg GĂŹt%ZzĂ&#x201A;ĂżLE Ă&#x201D;ĂŹ Ĺ  H3gÂżĂ&#x152;Ă&#x192;k½ZkZÂŻ ) !* Ă&#x2020;ÂŞ ď&#x20AC;¨ZĂŽ " 5E Ă&#x2019;G g äV,ZĂ&#x2030; H7~ .ZĂ?[Ă&#x201A;Ă&#x2026; Ăś äV,Z!ZjçJ.c¹Ï HĂŹâ&#x20AC;ĄW, @* tä 8 -g ** P8 Ă?²Ă&#x201D;ĂŹ H7â&#x201E;˘wøĂ&#x192; XĂŹ wVĂŁZzĂ&#x2026;â&#x20AC;&#x17E;c* +!Ĺ  ZtĂ&#x201D;ĂŹ H¡_â&#x20AC;&#x17E; $ ď&#x20AC;Ś ZgĂ&#x201C; Z', çJ.cÂą GG3J43XĂ?zg {z´Ă&#x2020;]Y!ZjĂ&#x2018;!* Ă&#x2020;kZXĂŹ Ĺ  HHĂ&#x153; Ă?Strucuralist Poetics Ă&#x2026;°ï**

z9Âť[!* â&#x20AC;°â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;6, ~I ĂŻ {gĂ&#x192;è 8 5E 4ÂťG HĂ&#x20AC;F, ä8 -g** P8Ă?Ă&#x201A;/Ă&#x201A;Ă?Structuralism and Semiotics[Ă&#x201A;Ă&#x2026;ž;á¢[!* ĂĽĹ  Hâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;6,èEjE Ă°zg{z´ Ă&#x201D;N â  Ă&#x203A; Âą5k½Z WXĂŹ IF 4&L Ă&#x192;y!* GG3J43XĂ?zg L L ~Š Ăł øL G i~}g 0* ÂŽwEZ!Âťy!* i L ĂąWâ&#x201E;˘cĂ?wĂŹkZĂ&#x2020;mzzg kĂŤ~KĂ&#x2020;VzI ĂŻ 58E 4ÂťG Vc* ĂşUCZg 7Z~y!* i!Ă&#x2026;~² ĂĄ ĂŹ HĂąĆ&#x2019;Dâ&#x201E;˘â&#x20AC; Ĺ¸Z6, kZ èEjE Ă&#x201D;ĂŹ @* â&#x201E;˘Vc* ĂşĂ&#x192;\WLZÂż~g Ă&#x2013;ZÂŞĂ&#x201D;ĂŹ @* WĂĄ XĂŹ B bgĂ&#x152;ZgĹ kZ~~² ĂĄ ( equivalence)sĹ  Z%ĂŹzz¸XĂŹ Lg ~zq{Ĺ  c* iUĂ&#x2026;ĂŽZ~y!* i!Ă&#x2026;Ă&#x201D;ĂŹ Lg ( 140) Ăł XĂł X X X X X XĂŹ cgq -Z ÂťsĹ  Z%Ă&#x152;e $i Z ĂĄ Ă&#x201D;N â  Ă&#x203A; zĂ&#x201A;6, k½Z ~ m, Ă´ZkZĂ&#x2020;Terence Hawkes[Z

We have already noticed the argument of Jakobson's fellow Prague school critic Mukarovsky with regard to foregrounding: that the aesthetic use of language pushes into the foreground the 'act of expression' itself. Jakobson offers the more refined proposal that the metaphoric mode tends to be foregrounding in poetry, whereas the metonymic mode tends to be foregrounded in prose. This makes the operation of


www.urdudost.com

69

UrduDost Library

'equivalence' of crucial importance to poetry........(Structuralism and semiotics, 1984, p80)

ÃM K, FÅs Z/ ¤ ZcqZPà Structuralism and Semiotics [ž;÷¢ä8g * *P8 Íì òúŠtZ÷

Xì ~Š Z™ù áÐx * * LZÆ™À, F[ ~g‚Å~g‚Æ™sp

Ü™w$ +K M F, ÅyZ¡Â/Â[ ~g ‚är # ™8ÍÐ~Structuralism and Semiotics[ž;÷¢ I ¡Â „z p ÖZ ¤ /ZX  ïŠ É~ yxgŠ r # ™ 8ÍÃs Z¤ /Zc ÏZ Âì q¬ s Z¤ /Zc q -Z ¾; ÷¢¤ /Z äÕM5!Xì Å

Ü z kZì Yƒt ,z X ǃ HÐ %$ +K M F, Ås Z¤ /Zc lŠ¤ /~g¹Å intertexuality Å Z-™ 1 ~ ‚fÆ yZ ‰ Ôì HV-¼~[!* ñƒ‘6, TodorovÔ¾;÷¢X Ù Š flavour»s Z¤ /ZckZ WXƒ„g™

The notion that literary works are ultimately about language, that their medium is their message, is one of the most fruitful of structuralist ideas and we have already noticed its theoretical foundations in the work of Jakobson. It validates the post-romantic sense that form and content are one, because it postulates that form is content. At one level, this permits, for instance, Todorov to argue that the ultimate subject of a work like The Thousand and One Night is the act of story-telling, of narration itself: that for the character involved- indeed for homo loquens at large- narration equals life: 'the absence of narration death'........... (Structuralism and Semiotics, p,100).

Ô D â  Ûk , ’V-r # ™8 -g ** P8 Í

igzZ Ôì @* ƒ ì‡Ð y!* i {g0* ®! Š ZwìtL L C(‚ ~Š ã C'THE MEDIUM IS THE MESSAGE':ì x ' „ y!* $Mwìt X å H ãZzÃVzŠ ã Ô q -ZÝZgŠŠ ZñgzZxgÃì @* ™}ÂÌÅg¦~â â zg øF CCc* ÃÅkZ ä ÍgzZ Ôìtà Ð5ų Z ðVZcNŠ e »g ‚ á ‰ öG $.t(q -Z äszgzŠ Â6, ¯ÅwìÏZXìŠ Zñ„xg Ãì ,¦ /Yg¦t~kZèY

ÆyZgzZgó Z0 +Yá Zz% 1Lª (HOMO LOQUENS) y¨ KZƒ  g ZŠ™èYì ó¿»ì 㹊pÝZgŠ óqçñL~Š ã C

'NARRATION EQUALS LIFE: THE

ó óX ]ñì È » äYƒ »Æã¹gzZì # Ö ´ Åg {0 + i ** ‹ ã¹a

X ( 130X 129Ô],Ô]c* ĹægzZ](‚:Ô](‚) ABSENCE OF NARRATION DEATH' P' 92

gzZ‘ Ì~+zZz}L‰~k½Zá Zz6, zZ är # ™8ÍXì @* ™£»»zÂð•ZÐMg ‡s Z¤ /ZcÑ!* zgq

W, @* t{zÐkZXì 7!Zj »)g fÝZ~Tì H `gŠ Ì™J -VŒgzZì –Ì~~ m, ôZ {Lq -Z~y WˆÆkZ

÷¢·_ »k½Z kZ Â/ÂìgNŠ ë²Xì H·_»[ ŠTodorov ä VrZ ìg™ÒÃÅä™ì‡

zÂKZ}~g ‡ @* ì H (Z™ú1yY är # ™8 -g ** P8 ÍŠ Õ Zƒt È »kZXì YY H6,100™Æ[ž;

XÆ™:iÃ%s§Å[ž;÷¢

Ôì H¾;÷¢X D™iÃ%zÂ6, k½ZgzZq -Z[Z

We have already noticed the arguments of Jakobson's fellow Prague school critic Mukarovsky with regard to 'foregrounding': that the aesthetic use of language pushes


www.urdudost.com

70

UrduDost Library

into the foreground 'the act of expression' itself. Jakobson offered the most refined proposal that the metaphoric mode tends to be foregrounded in poetry, whereas the metonymic mode tends to be foregrounded in prose. This makes the operation 'equivalence' of crucial importance to poetry, not only in the area of analogy, but also in the area of 'sound' of those metrical, rythmic and phonic devices,.......continue. (Terence Hawkes, P, 80).

Ă&#x201D;ĂŹ V-k½ZĂ&#x201D;zĂ&#x201A;tÂťr # â&#x201E;˘8 -g ** @* WĂĄ ~Š Ăł 7LĂ&#x192;y!* i~}g0* ÂŽwEZ!Âťy!* i L ĂąWâ&#x201E;˘cĂ?wĂŹkZĂ&#x2020;mzzg kĂŤ~KĂ&#x2020;VzIË&#x2020;Ă?zg L L Lg Vc* ĂşUCZg 7Z~ y!* i !Ă&#x2026; ~² ĂĄ ĂŹ HĂąĆ&#x2019; Dâ&#x201E;˘â&#x20AC; Ĺ¸Z6,kZĂ?XĂŹ @* â&#x201E;˘Vc* ĂşĂ&#x192;\WLZÂż~g Ă&#x2013;Z ÂŞĂ&#x201D;ĂŹ L ĂŹzz ¸XĂŹ Lg ~zq{Ĺ  c* iUĂ&#x2026;ĂŽZ~y!* i!Ă&#x2026;Ă&#x201D;ĂŹ XĂŹ B bgĂ&#x152;ZgĹ kZ~~² ĂĄ EQUIVALENCEĂłsĹ  Z% ĂŹ ~g YĂł ĂŹ Ăł Ă? ÂźĂ?Z {z Ă&#x201D;ĂŹ Ă&#x152;Z Ă&#x2026;e $i Z ĂĄzg ZĆ&#x2019;gfz yZizZgzZ Ă&#x201D;]ZĂ&#x;Z Ă&#x201D;°Z ¸z pĹ gXĂŹ cg q -Z ÂťsĹ  Z%Ă&#x152;e $i Z ĂĄ X ( 140Ă&#x201D;m ) Ă&#x201D;Dâ&#x201E;˘g¨6, k½ZgzZq -ZĂ&#x2020;ž;ᢠW

P ĂŚ oetic language is deliberately self-conscious, self-aware. It emphasises itself as a medium over and above the 'message' it contains: it characteristically draws attention to itself and systematically intensifies its own linguistic qualities. As a result, words in poetry have the status not simply of vehicles for thought, but of objects in their own right, autonomous concrete entities, In Sausure's terms, then, they cease to be 'signifiers' and become 'signifieds', ...(P, 63-64).

: Ë&#x153; r # â&#x201E;˘8 -g ** ZĆ&#x2019; yĂ&#x2019; )g fĂ&#x2020;kZ Ă&#x201D;â&#x201E;˘Ć&#x2019; F, â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Ă? x ' c* qçùt XĂŹ CĆ&#x2019; kĂ&#x2122;Ĺ pgzZ { Ă&#x2021; WĹ pt Ă&#x201D;ĂŹ CĂ&#x2018;Ĺ  kË&#x2020;Z Š z LZ ĂšMy!* i ~Ă&#x201E;L L E G G-4& y!* i ~Ă&#x201E; ĂŠM5BG â&#x201E;˘Vc* ĂşĂ&#x192;s â&#x201E;˘zZ LZgzZ ** â&#x201E;˘wzK+ $YKZĂ&#x192;zĂ&#x201A;œ¡ ~Ĺ  ĂŁ CÂťy!* i ~Ă&#x201E;XĂŹ CĂ&#x2018;Ĺ  kË&#x2020;Z ÂťwKZĹ pĂ&#x201D;ĂŹ EXĂŹ ** .J2_â&#x20AC;&#x161;XĂŹ CĆ&#x2019;]ZÂŻ!* ÂĄĂ&#x201A;~ pĂ&#x2020; çG ĂŹâ&#x20AC;Ą  D Y 0|k^Ĺ pĂ&#x2030; Ă&#x201D; Tg 7=g f Âťâ&#x2C6;&#x2019;F, Ă&#x2026;" _ .c* w ĂŹ 3p Ă&#x2013; Z ~ X ( 89Ă&#x201D;m)ĂŹ ~g YĂł ĂłX X X D Y0signifiedĂ&#x2030; Tg7signifiers Ă&#x201D;N â  Ă&#x203A; g¨6, k½ZkZĂ&#x2020;ž;ᢠFormalist theory realised that the 'meaning' habitually carried by words can never be fully seperated from the words themselves because no word has 'simple' one meaning. The 'meaning of A is not simply A1 or A2 or A3, for A has a larger capacity to mean which derives from its particular context or use. No word is ever really a mere proxy for a denoted object. Infact the transaction of 'meaning' has a coplexity of dimensions which the 'poetic' use of language further complicates. Poetry, in short, does not seperate a word from its meaning, so much as multiply - bewildering - the range of meanings available to it... (P, 64).


www.urdudost.com

71

UrduDost Library

:s Z eÃ6, k½ZkZÆr # ™8 -g ** »³ZXì * @YŒxk!* A7{Š ‚ ÚZx »pgzZÔ M hYK7Z] .8ÐÂpgzZÐp åkˆZ »kZÃVzIˆL L ÚËÂðÃX Tg s$ +8™ïÐV/}uzŠgzZÐt òzt (pƳZèYì 73³ Z c* Ô2³ ZÔ 1³Z¡È

ZÆkZÉ Ô C™7Z] .Ð pÃkZpì C™]Z¯!* ì‡ÃÂp¤ /Z y!* i ~Ä:Xì 7ì‡aÆå ~ pŠzöÆ gÒƒ 4›!ªÔì Cg ¸ZÃ]** Cƒïq ŪÅ[<Zz ]ª c* wì êL ÒZ ãJ1t ÅpXì C™ Za à b : Û µ¸ CG é5E kZ ½ ¢ X ( 89Ôm )ì ~g Yó Xó X X X X X X Xì 5_ðZgWz6, Ô˜y åHÓG

There is another stand in poststructuralist thought which believes that the world is more than a galaxy of text, and that some theories of textuality ignore the fact that the discourse is involved in power. They reduce political and economic forces, and ideological and social control, to aspects of signifying processes. When a Hitler or a Stalin seems to dictate to an entire nation by wielding the power of discourse, it is absurd to treat the effect as simply occurring within discourse. It is evident that real power is exercised through discourse, and that this power has real effects....... The father of this line of thought is the German philosopher Nietzsche, who said that people first decide what they want and then fit the facts to their aim: 'Ultimately man finds in things nothing but what he himself has imported into them.' All knowledge is an expression of the 'will to power'.This means that we can not speak of any absolute truths or of objective knowledge.... Foucault regards discourse as a central human activity, but not as a universal, 'general text', a vast sea of signification. He is interested in the historical dimention of discursive change. What it is possible to say will change from one era to another. In science a theory is not recognised in its own period if it deos not conform to the power consensus of the institutions and official organs of science. Mendel's genetic theories fell on deaf ears in the 1860s; they were promulgated in a 'void' and had to wait until the twentieth century for acceptance. It is not enough to speak the truth; one must be 'in the truth'. (Selden, Raman. Contemporary Literary Theory,3rd ed, Britain,1993,P158-159)

ÔD™wzKzÂ+ $YÅ ºuÆ8 -g ** P8 Í

GG3E 4G 5! öÆ܉¤~ *ŠÉ Ô7¼ ƒ„ ( TEXTUALITY) ó ï L ì* @™g ZÜZ ì ÌgzZ Zg JŠ ~„qZ~](‚:L L G GG3E 45! Æó ï L ìt`~Š C ã » (MICHEL FOUCAULT)à ¯éXì ïá ( yÒ ‚Þ Üæ) ókgje LÆQñO~

ÔÓ ðÃ# Zìt |X  ïŠ ]ÃwÅyZ™}Šg Z ÛŒb‚zÆ ó~& pLÃYß * c àWgzZ V!¤ Y gzZ Ï(bÃ

´gŠzöJ óQLÃ]Z , WZÆ܉¤kZXì * @ƒ)g fÆ܉¤Å ókgje L(Z ÂÔì * @`, 6¬LZÃx ¸~g7qZÞ6Z * c ÔhÎñ H E õfI4&X X X X X  Dƒ $ A%]Z , WZ k^Æ܉¤ kZgzZ Ôì * @ƒ)g fÆókgje LwEZ »Ü‰¤ÝZì Hà ¯Xì ]* !·


www.urdudost.com

72

UrduDost Library

E G GG 4 M B @Wü „z~Y âZÃyK * ¨Z é5 E&X óe fwJ e ._ÆÑLZÃë›QgzZÔce H¹ZD™ð¬vß L å¹ä » ( WILL TO POWER)éZpÅ܉¤Dx Óì HñƒD J , (ÐWÃckZà ¯Xì H4ZŠ äkZŠp~yZ ì

ÔD™t܉z ÏZsÜÃbó‚ * c ËvßX h M™7]* !ÅDèzc* c ܉ZœÇë Zƒt È »kZXì1 èE L 4Xfà ókgje Là ¯X} , F Q Zg7 , 6 Vâ e òZgÆ܉z * c ñ3 ÎÐ ðC * c Yß * c àW * c ]Zgn: Zg›ZŠgzZ Ï(ÆÇLZ {z # Z

~ò]g * @Å~p{zX, 6gîÆg«WzqZÆó~&pÉ L 7, 6gîÆóQL¹ÃWx ¬qZÔì êŠg Z ÛŒò/ ¤u~/ œ%Å ãK ¨Z

H7tJ܉z kZtÃðÃÌ~b‚Xì * @Y w+ $~Ç}uzŠÐÇqZ {zì eI¼ ì H{zXì r ‚g pŠ

wì Hà ¯Xá ™: Za “ _Ð ¬Z Âz¤Æ Vâ ), F ~g »uÆ yZ gzZ Vzg ZŠ Z gÇÆ b‚ {zJ# Z Ô* @Y KZ ÅyZgzZ Ô¸ ñƒ7~ Y Ü]Ñìt * c Ͷðƒ: ðZ, k+ 5 ðÃ~ äâ iÆ Y 1860ÅbÃÆ åÉOZ ÂDÆ ( MENDEL) ÔmÔ8g* * )ì ó ~gz¢Ì* *ƒgó + 0Z Æ L ðCì 7°» Ü1 s sÜ L ì w¸g»kZX Z , 7* *™g OZ » ~œ,nÆqJ

X ( 196X 194 5_Wz6, Ô˜y®ÐX D™7k½ZÐ[!* ‰‘6, °ï**

Æy åHÓG Jonathan Culler (see also chapter 5) has argued that a theory of reading has to uncover the interpretative operations used by readers. We all know that different readers produce different interpretations. While this has led some theorists to despair of developing a theory of reading at all, Culler argues in The Pursuit of Signs (1981) that it is this variety of interpretation which theory has to explain. While readers may differ about meaning, they may well follow the same set of interpretative conventions.... (Selden, P62).

ÔN â Û±5)* *g » »# r™8g * * E G # ]R ÛŒMg‡xk* ! n™È‚ŸÃ~g ‡dgzZƒzx ~Z {zì ~gz¢nÆbÃÆ]R ÛŒì êŠgzi, 6]* !kZ°èEŸ L L ¸ »ƒz¨p/ ¤ ZX  D™æW, '.¢Z~g ‡ZÐ Q„ qZce ´g~ÃÃ]* ! kZX  D™wEZ yZgzŠÆ GG ¢OŠ nÆVzi ‚tÃÐ ¹ÆWk‚Z ~g ‡ÝZgŠ qà ì ¸ ½»bÃì Hñƒ D™c°pÔì C á) ¯* !» ï Mg‡nƨzƒpì YƒÂs %Z »p~Mg‡nkZÔ ñYHÈ‚ŸÃqàÆ.¢gzZ]* * kZÆVÂPÛŒZ X ( 319X 318ÔmÔ8g* * )óì ó Ë$YÅÒÃÅä™Ä* c gŠÃyQÔ fƒRX¼~yZÔD™wEZ j§gîgzZ ñZc

5_ ÔN â  Û ±5Ãk½ZkZÐ~[!* ‰‘6, Z-™ 1 Æy åHÓG The word 'revolution' in Kristeva's title is not simply metaphoric. The possibility of radical social change is, in her view, bound up with the disruption of authoritarian discourses. Poetic language introduces the subversive openness of the semiotic 'across' society's 'closed' symbolic order: 'What the theory of the unconscious seeks, poetic language practices, within and against the social order.' Sometimes she considers that the


www.urdudost.com

73

UrduDost Library

modernist poetry actually prefigures a social revolution which in the distant future will come about when society has evolved a more conplex form. However, at other times she fears that bourgeois ideology will simply recuperate this poetic revolution by treating it as a safety valve for the repressed impulses it denies in society. Kristeva's view of the revolutionary potential of women writers in society is just as ambivalent.... (Selden, P142).

ÔBŠÃ# r™8g * * Æ` y* !i ~ÄXì«, 6¿Æ~i Z+ 0Z ñgzZ $ dC~ kgjegÇ~pp+ ig Y ìtg¦»[zZ » Z-™ L L Æ` ÃkZy* !i ~ÄÔì Le gÅÑXì îŠ { Zgà ( W{e ? ) ~zg {Š Zi WÅ~g »$ dCC*K ¶~x Âä´ÈgzZÈ‚Ÿ Æ y* !i ~Ä5 Â Ç ñYƒ {ë {Š * c i ÔÈ‚Ÿ {Š * ci# Z x  Y ì ¢Ã Z-™Xì gŠ ‡, 6h N ], ' s ÜÆ` gzZg+ 0Z [zZ ~Äì epOÔì îŠwï7 e »kZ™ CZÃq5ÙCYß * c àWZzjg1ì˜. }ÌtÃkZpÔ ÇnY* c Ñ[zZ)g f 7]i YZ xk* ! ~ ` ÅXnÆ ` Z yZÆ ]* * Ì ñƒ"Š yZ Ô}™wEZ, 6 gîÆß Zz ´qZ Yß * c àW Zzjg1 Ìà X ( 202ÔmÔ8g * * ) óì ó ÃyZ …n kZ ¹7WáÊpèa ä VrZpÔìÀF, [ ~g ‚År # ™8 -g* *ì Hn²Ì¬ä ë 6 5_Xì ;g 7, ÖnÆr # ™8 -g ** Xì ðZ™ù  á Ðx ** LZ ä r # ™8 -g ** ™hg]‚½Zq -ZP[Âx ÓÅy åHÓG Itg ‚ nÆäZ™ ã;Š ¢Ã~g ‡{zì 7y‚Wx »tnÆ¿}uzŠ ÌËX å³»yZ eg Z-Z Š Hƒy‚Wn kZ r‘u™ 5_6,VŒnkZXìg @* „6,¶Š,Å],sÜëñOŶŠá Zjh +' × Æ]‚½ZÐ[ÂÅy åHÓG ™Vc* i »‰ Ü z LZ XÐ,™Ýqð‚ggz¢J -]Z~ .–ÝZ ~g ‡{¤XÐ,™ rZ 5_ðZg ],Æ[ÂÅ8 -g ** P8 ÍX X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X ],Æ[ÂÅy åHÓG 79 -106X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 27 - 42 288 - 329X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 49 - 70 234 - 240X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 149 - 158 243 - 267X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 86 - 103

5_ì òúŠtZg ø t%Z ÑZzä™{Ši]ªX ñZ™ù á Ðx ** L Z ä8 -g** P8Í],x Ó‰ ŠÐ[ÂÅy åHÓG 6,[ÂÃr # ™8 -g **  Zƒ†ŸZ Ìn kZ~ ]ªÅ ¶ZgX VƒGk , ’Špp ÖZP „h + á ~ [ kZ ä r # ™8 -g * *ì X ÇñYƒg DWi ZgtÀÂ7` Wmƒ:¸tÌŠpÃyZ HX ¶]gz¢HÅ™x ** CZ'§ 5_ D™ q g + $Y Å[ ~uzŠ q -Z [ZÆä™7,F, x Ó;ë›ÆºuÆr # ™8 -g ** Ð [ÂÅy åHÓG Å°ï**

{ ‰Æ y*ÏZìg Š c* Xì c* â Û ‘u » y*‰ ‘ 6,Bg !* VÑzg ä r # ™8 -g ** Ð [ kZ X 


www.urdudost.com

74

UrduDost Library

Ð [ ŠJohn Sturrock {z  ìg YG 7]‚½Z 6,VŒ pX  ‰ ñZl Ð Structuralist Poetics {zì H‘uä r # ™8 -g ** »y*TX ì HA $%Ã}p‰ ‘6,Vz®h +] .ˆâ õ0* ~[ÂkZ ä u7X ‰ n y!* i ~uzŠ är # ™8 -g ** X Hù á Ðx ** ÆV–ÆyZÃ}px ÓgzZ Hp Ò» ðC: Åäu7Xì {Š™k , ’CZ »u7 Ô˜u7yYX D™7:i Zñ»VâzŠ  WX 1™x ** LZÃy*ñƒ‘6, Bg !* ñƒD VZ {Z +Ãg7½»

ðExistentialism, on the contrary, preaches the total freedom of the individual constantly to change..... Barthes, like Sartre, pits therefore the fluidity, the anarchy, even, of existence against the rigor mortis of essentialism; not least because, again following Sartre, he sees essentialism as the ideology which sustains that tradional bugbear of all French intellectuals, the bourgeoisie... he writes at the conclusion of his most feroriously anti-bourgeois book, the devastating Mythologies (1957......... In one way, Barthes goes beyond Sartre in his abhorrence of essentialism. Sartre, as so far as one can see, allows the human person a certain integrity or unity; but Barthes professes a philosophy of disintegration, whereby the presumed unity of any individual is dissolved into a plurality or discontinuous. This biography is especially offensive to him as a literary form because it represents a counterfeit integration of its individual. It is a false memorial to a living person....... (Sturrock, John. Structuralism and Since. London, Oxford University Press,1979, P 53)

:ºs§År # ™8 -g ** Bg !* Xì Š ã CÅ~pC Ù åc* Šgzi6, ~Š Zi W~Š ã CkZÅy¨ KZ äe $Š z~«£Æ(ESSANTIALISM)ó óèiÑL L ~i Zzjg1ÃèiÑÌ{zb§Å F, g ‚X åb‡»J - ( Åg ** Z)Û A Z3, É ]zŒÅ b§C Ù s ÜÆe $ƒgzZèiÑb§Å F, g ‚Ì XìC Ù ªÐMYTHOLOGIES (1957)"0ZcðZ’Zq -ZÅkZ 6å@* ™ŠgÃkZÐ]¸~g7gzZÔå&y¶ K» » (INTEGRITY) Y‚gzZ]uzF, g ‚èYÔ Š HòÐWÌÐF, g ‚Ðg ±Zq -ZBg !* ~¿#Å~i Zzjg1gzZèiÑ Åy¨ KZ åI»kZX å@* ™7m, / ¤ ÐJ -e $×Å Æ6 gz“s ÜÆY‚~i Zzjg1~ïŠ KZBg !* pÔå7” G Ô7Ì» Z} .Ôå7„b‡Ð}u »]uz{zXì óF LÝZgŠq -ZC Ù Ð~ë ÂñY¬ŠÐg¨¤ /ZÔì!Zz» b§q -Z]uz »%~ ÒÃÅä™ Za ]uz7[Š Z n ÏZ öZÎì I »kZX å@* ™e $×ÅkZBg !* Ôì uZz)gzZ Ú) q{zC Ù X ( 161X 162ÔmÔ8g * * ) ó Xó ì ÝZ)gzZì C™7:% ÔD™g¨6, k½ZgzZq -ZÐ~y*ÏZÆu7yY his arch enemy is the doxa, the prevailing view of things, which very often prevails to the extent that people are unaware it is only one of several possible alternative views. Barthes may not be able to destroy the doxa but he can lesson its authority by localizing it, by subjugating it to a paradox of his own...... Barthes is only fully to be appreciated, then, as some one who set out to disrupt as


www.urdudost.com

75

UrduDost Library

profoundly as he could the orthodox views of literature he found in France...........The grievances against contemporary criticism with which Barthes began were deeply influential on what he came to write later. There were four main ones. First, he objected that literary criticism was predominantly ahistorical, working as it did on the assumption that the moral and the formal values of the texts it studied were timeless.....Barthes was never a member of the Communist party - let us say neo-Marxist objection. He dismissed existing histories of French literature as meaningless choronicles of names and dates... (Sturrock, P, 54-55)

»ú1™Ì~g ‡¤ /ZÔì HspÐ ]g '~(,Ã,Ås Z¤ /ZcnÆÝÑwðŠ~çWÅ ~g ‡ä r # ™8 -g ** 6,ÔÏZ X D™q gs§Åk½ZÆr # ™8 -g ** X Y{g7ÍzZÐÃÅkZ Ì‘utƒïq Ѓ  CZBg !* ÐQÔƒC™wJe $ÒZ&g¦{”t»wgßzY âZ ªDOXAL L ™{ nà DOXA{zX å&ÔŠ Z (, Xì @* ƒq -Z ¡Ð ~ ]Zg¦ÂÆ|Ô B9vßxk!* &g¦{z »| c* Š ÑŠ kˆZ eZ ä kZpÔ7c* e 6, ]c* Ã! Š ZÐQXKçg !* g !* äkZ6, W¶gzZW: ‚gæX ðÎ[¢~g »äBg !* VÑzg Ì6, g¦: ZªÆ[Š ZçOX X X G4J4X GG3E B+G Bg !* X EZŠg ZŠZ ¹ÜZgzZ ö-G5 ÅQì wìx ¬èYÔì » ï g @* )yDg¨ ¸~W! Š Zt wÍ Z :¸nZ ‹Z m{g e GG3E B+G Vñ** ÃV:g @* ! Š Z ÅÇLZ äkZXìgz¢Ëg â â Â2: Ëg âtûkZ~}g !* Æï g @* Å[Š Zp;g7êñL E $NyY"» èEG45_gzZ Šg Z Œ Û {g éG X ( 162X 163ÔmÔ8g * * ) ó óc* 5kIF :ì c* VZ~p ÖZyZnZ ‹Z ZuzŠÐá ZjÆBg !* äu7 Barthes's second complaints against academic criticism was that it was psychologically naive and deterministic....when critics chose to explain textual data by biographical ones, or the work by the life....The elements of a literary work - and this is an absolutely central point in literary structuralism - must be understood in the first instance in their relationship to otherelementsofthatwork.....(Sturrock,P,56)

:ì ÅÒÃÅä)ï~p ÖZyZ6, nZ ‹Z}uzŠÐá ZjÆBg!* Æu7är # ™8 -g** 'ÃQЊæ Å]â ¥ö ZÎXì: â 9J -u: âêgÅ»];»W¶ åt nZ ‹Z ZuzŠ »kZ6,WÒq -¶ L L &‡** }uzŠÆQ{z ì YYŒÐŠæÅV¤g½ZŠyZsÜÃÜÁÆQ!Š Zq -Š 4, ÆkZX X X åx` °çÿLE -Š 4, q ÆkZ X ( 163ÔmÔ8g * * ) óì ó ß~Š ã C»„C(‚NtX n pgÐÜÁ :ì V-¼~p ÖZÆu7nZ ‹Z ZŠ6, W¶Ðá ZjÆBg !* Æu7 They could see only one meaning in the texts they concerned themselves with, and that one meaning was usually a very literal one. This they subsequently held the meaning of the text, and that to search further for supplementary or alternative meanings was futile. They were men of narrow and autocratic temper who fancied they were being scientific when they were merely being culpably dogmatic. Their minds were closed to the ambiguities of language, to the co-existence of various meaning within a single form of


www.urdudost.com

76

UrduDost Library

words,....... (Sturrock, P 57-58)

:ì * cJm ®Å ºuLZ~p ÖZyZÃnZ ‹Z}ŠÆBg !* {Š™yÒÆu7ä8 -g ** ÔM hƒp~½sÜÂpÙXì C™gZÜZ6,kZÐ ð˜e e $.gzZì Š9Ãp{”ðÙsÜÆQW¶ L L {zÔì CƒŠzöÃgzZ N* g‚f »yQì –äBg !* ~}g!* ÆVzŠ Õ¶X DƒßJ -uÅÏŠƒ" 9zÒZ~[Š ZgzZ EE hƒY Zg W¿B‚B‚pF~xg Äq M -ZgzZì m, _Ðx ·Zîp©$ °[Š ZX X X g ZŠbÆe $ÒZ~[Š ZgzZg D»e $¬Š Z EE 3{!

X ( 163ÔmÔ8g * * ) ó ó

4¨ x ÓÑ!* :ºs§Å²j¬  WXì H™Ã óðCLKZ Ì6 , ²j^', ZgˆÆäZ h ZŠ» èEG zgqär # ™8 -g ** Attempting to distinguish between constant and variable elements in a collection of a hundered Russian fairytales, Propp arrives at the principle that though the personage of a tale are variable, their functions in the tales are constant and limited. Describing function as "an act of a character, defined from the point of view of its significance for the course of the action," Propp developed inductively four laws which put the study of folk literature and of fiction itself on a new footing. I their baldness and universality, laws 3 and 4 have the shocking effect of certain scientific discoveries: 1. Functions of characters serve as stable, constant elements in a tale, independent of how and by whom they are fulfilled. They constitute the fundamental components of a tale. 2. The number of function known to the fairy-tale is limited. 3. The sequence of functions is always identical. 4. All fairy tales are of one type in regard to their structure. (Morphology of the Folktale, pp. 21,22,23) In comparing the functions of tale after tale, Propp discovered that his total numbers of functions never surpassed thirty-one, and that however many of the thirty-one functions a tale had (none has every one) those that it had always appeared in the same order.... After the initial situation, in which the members of a family are enemerated or the future hero is introduced, a tale begins, consisting of some selection of the following functions in the following order: 1. One of the members of a family absents himself from home. 2. An interdiction is addressed to the hero. 3. The interdiction is voilated. 4. The villain makes an attempt at reconnaissance. 5. The villain recieves information about his victim. 6. The villain attempts to deceive his victim in order to take possession of him or of his belongings. 7. The victim submits to deception and thereby unwittingly helps his enemy.

ÂñY~Š„  zå¤ /ZX ǃ~gz¢)¬ Ô ÇñYƒ†ŸZ~ª ZîÅy*жŠ„  zåXì Cƒ»™ Y6, wZ„  zt M5G " ½Š Z®Å], Vƒ;g™−~,Å ºuÆ8 -g ** ²Ôñ™g¨Špi Z6, ],yZ ~g ‡nkZXì CY¬J -â éE

Scholes, Robert, Structuralism in Literature, New York, Vail-Ballou Press,1974 P, 62-70.

:D™iÃ%zÂ6, wÅr • # ™8 -g **


www.urdudost.com

77

UrduDost Library

yZ6,Y ¯ Å ( FUNCTIONS)ó¶· Æ L yZgzZ Vzg ZŠ™ c* CÐb‹LZgzZ H[NZ »VE¹ußÎq -Z ä \z6, LL uœgzZ ZÆVE¹yZ ä kZXì $ Ë Y ÅÐ ! p¾~ÈzgŠ ÅyZgzZ Ôì YY H[Õ" Ã| # ‚½ZŠ ÅVE¹uß x ÓgzZÔìgH(FUNCTIONS)ó¶· L»Vzg ZŠ™pÔTg s$ +g ZŠ™p¤ /Z~VE¹yZ à6, ËkZgzZ Ht‹»ÜÁ ä \z6,Ôì Zƒ Z a Ð Z b Z}uzŠÆ e $sÅ ã¹ ñƒ ïŠg Z Œ Û ¿{z »g ZŠ™Ã¶·ÆgZŠ™Xì Lg ‚q -Z ~ VE¹ Ɖ Ü ZœgzZE:Z ¹ÃWX ~Š™ëZ Û *Š 5Ƭ_Æ6ÒgzZ[Š Z uß™^ÐWäV2KA $%2Z ¸g e6,gî~g Z`Z :ì c* ŠzgŠ »Äc* gŠ ³‚ä+®ÒZÃgegzZ&yâ ‡Ðg ±Z X Z b Z ~Š ã CÆã¹tÔì êŠx 1ZuÃyZyÃÐkZÃsÔÜÁ[& +è)gzZ tZgÆ㹶·ÆVzg ZŠ™X 1 XìŠzö~VE¹Š Z®Å ó¶· LX 2

Xì SgÏq -Zå(SEQUENCE)óâF, LÅ ó¶· L LX 3 Xì Üq -Z| # ‚~VE¹x ÓÆqàŠ z!* X4 ~ VE¹ à6,³kZ \z6,ñƒ D™t‹» ã¹q -Zˆ Æ q -Z Ð g ±ZÆ (FUNCTIONS) ó¶· LÆ Vzg ZŠ™ N L Vzg ZŠ™ ÔI7V* c ±¼ Å¿~ VE¹‰p¤ /ZgzZÔf(,7b§ËÐ 31wZŠ Z®ÿ®Å (FUNCTIONS)ó¶· Æ

ã¹ Âì CYƒ „0 +¶ KÅz‹gzZ ÔD Wt ‚Š Z Û ZÆäZ yZ # ˆÆ©ðZ’ZX X X X Xì Sg „z K M F, ÅyQå p :ì CƒyÒÐK M F, ÏZЊæʼnc*  Ð~(FUNCTIONS)¶·yZ ƒ Xì * @YƒT $¸ÐyŠ Û ðûyZ0 +{X 1 Xì CYÅƘÅz‹X 2 Xì CYÅ~igzs ÜÅƘX 3 Xì @* ™ÒÃÅÏÎYÞzX 4 Xì Qq :Z~}g !* Æ(VICTIM)gó DLLZÃÞzX 5 Xá™ï6, [òZzwâÆkZ c* 6, kZ @* ì êŠðŠÃ gó DLLZÞzX 6 X ( 110X 109ÔmÔ8g * * ) Xì @* ™ŠæÅÔŠ LZ·ZŠ ** gzZì * @YW~k , zH, ÄZŠgó DLX7 D Yá J -117™ñƒD™ÜÂ/ÂÃb‹Æ²j{z´Æä™ÜÂ/ÂJ -wZÄ  zkZ Ìr # ™8 -g ** X B7~gz¢bŠ!ZjÌ}pÔ ~ ~ m, ôZ¬ WX ïŠ ð3Š D™‘u »]‚½Z { Zp§{ ÌÐ V”ZÆ[ÂÏZr # ™8 -g ** {z´Æ],yZ :,™g¨6, k½ZkZƲj^', Zg The last half of the nineteenth century and the last half of the twentieth were charecterized by the fragmentation of knowledge into isolated disciplines so formidable


www.urdudost.com

78

UrduDost Library

in their specialization as to seem beyond all synthesis. Even philosophy, the queen of the human sciences, came down from her throne to play solitary word games. Both the language -philosophy of Wittgenstein and the existentialism of the Continental thinkers are philosophy of retreat...... Scholes, Structuralism in Literature, New York, Vail-Ballou Press,1974, p,1)

:¶ ŠÃk½ZsfzgqÆ8 -g ** P8 Í E E E ¶ˆƒ{g 0* {g 0* -ukZ™ J# J $~Vâ ZyZÆH㨠KZæL¾¡~wÍZ ýL {$ ~œ,gzZy WýL {$Æ~œ,ÞZ L L µ ZÆV/Ì{zÔì * @Y ¹{  á Š !* »6¨ KZ ÄE& Ì,Ø{gzZ ÂgzZX ¶CW7Ãe~È { i Zè ðÃÅ b§Ë~ kZ EY& X ( 34Ôm )X X  Ƈ Z%ƒ  t ÕäMuZÔe $Š zÅ+®8 g-c* ƒy—,»í éH 5k4»H zX å[µ~öá ZzäY7, ê :˜ kgâ Û :™®¯Î~â ¤', Derrida's professional training was as a student of philosophy (at the Ecol Normale Superieure in Paris, where he taught until recently), and his writings demand of the reader a considerable knowledge of the subject. Yet Derrida's texts are like nothing else in modern philosophy, and indeed represent a challenge to the whole tradition and self-understanding of that discipline. Norris, Christopher. Deconstruction.3rd ed, London, Routledge,2002, P18-19)

: ˜ r # ™8 -g ** Ü zkZgzZÔì …Zh +gŠ ÌÐg ±ZÆš M F, LL kZ2XìŠ *Z » ~Ecol Normale Superieure, ParisX X {z̉ Å Zh +gŠ~ nkZÔì ÂÌ** ™g Ñ~ ÃVzk , ’Å Zh +gŠë @* Xì e** Ì'%äYÃVÂ!* ~Š ã CÅ ÃVzk , ’Å mÔ8g * *) óì ó @* ™ ½Ôì ì‡D‚Ÿ¨,6,XÃVzŠ ã CyZgzZÃe $Zzg: ‘~g7 {zèYÔ Q7q ðÃz˜ÆVzk , ’ :˜ kgâ Û :™X X X X X ( 217 Derrida refuses to grant philosophy the kind of privileged status it has always claimed as the sovereign dispenser of reason. Derrida confronts this pre-emptive claim on its own chosen grounds. He argues that philosophers have been able to impose their various systems of thought only by ignoring, suppressing, the disruptive effects of languages. His aim is always to draw out these effects by a critical reading which fastens on, and skilfully unpicks, the elements of metaphor and other figural devices at work in the texts of philosophy. Deconstruction in this, its most rigorous form acts as a constant reminder of the ways in which language deflects or complicates the philosophers project. Above all deconstruction works to undo the idea-according to Derrida, the ruling illusion of Western metaphysics- that reason can somehow dispense with language and achieve a knowledge ideally unaffected by such mere linguistic foibles. Norris, P18-19). (


www.urdudost.com

79

UrduDost Library

:,™g¨6, k½ZkZÆ[ÂÅ8 -g ** P8 Í E ¡ 7g »Ã¶ŠzgŠ: Z%WtD‚Ÿ¨Ã Zh a#ì ~ í úŠ »kZX N YbŠ™pôx ** Æ t £]Æ㨠KZæL¾ +gŠ L L $ Ô D !* 7›g LZ Zh +gŠ X  ìg D™i Z0 +Z Ãc* sZ e 1 øL F Š Ã]ZŠ §½ZŠÆ y!* iaÆ ä™™Ã„ñ; x  LZ

Ãx »Æ…{zì +Z ÎâÅy!* iì @* ÑŠŠ c* Ð ñe $.g !* g !* {zXì @* ™V c* úÃV-gzmgzZV-gz$yZ Å ~]°_ 4ŒÅZˆâ ! fp¤ ÃðCgzZì $ Ë 0* {g ÖÐ y!* i b§Ë: Ë ã¨ KZ„ì ;gx ¬ wìt~ ] é›G3E /ZXì C¯ F, ÂÐ Â ( 217X 218Ôm )X X Xì $ Ë ™äzi§RgzZØ{ðûä™yÒ

7~g Y yÒ F F6,~I •Z (Z ðÃ{z n kZX  { Ç W! lÐ ÌZ Å Ð wÅäƒ^#¯Îkgâ Û :™ E & e äVrZ6,V˜~k½Z Ñ!* .n4»G V;zÔì H™f » Ðá ZjƨçH zgqX ñYÅ#~gz¢)Å Ð TÔ D™

äVrZì YY¹tÂñY1{ ^ ,Y»?£ÅJ -[Z¤ /Z År # ™8 -g ** Xì c* ŠÉ ó ó._ÆZh +gŠ L L~p ÖZ ãZzäVrZ6, Ð k½Z kZÆyZ Ô… Y 7¼~}g !* Æ {zì Èt »kZX ðVZ7c6,g °ZÆ…ÌË~}pLZ G &‡** éM›‹¢ ** ƒŠ Zi WÐËÆy!* i » gzZÔ B bg7w{Š c* iÐcZzµÂtÅ ì @* ™" $U* 6,gîh +Š F, ÿLE Zh +gŠp L ì L ãZz

X ( 218m ) ó ì ó e** Ô˜ kgâ Û :™

In this sense Derria's writings seem more akin to literary criticism than philosophy. They rest on the assumption that modes of rhetorical analysis, hitherto applied mainly to literary texts, are infact indispensable for reading any kind of discourse, philosophy included. Literature is no longer seen as a kind of poor relation to philosophy, contenting itself with mere fictive or illusory appearances and forgoing any claim to philosophic dignity and truth. This attitude has, of course, a long prehistory in Western tradition. It was plato who expelled the poets from his ideal republic, who set up reason as a guard against the false beguilements of rhetoric, and who called forth a series of critical 'defences' and 'apologise' which runs right through from Sir Philip Sydney to I. A. Richards and the Americans new critics. The lines of defence have been variously drawn up, according to whether the critic sees himself as contesting philosophy on its own argumentative ground, or as operating outside its reach on a different - though equally privileged - ground. (Norris,P19)

:ìg 3Šw¾ H™ƒW, OÐk½ZkZr # ™8 -g **

$$ £»Q! Š Z 3 t‹ö™G +c* ã—ìt y‹Z ~Š ã C»kZÔCW~ sf Å[Š Z {Š c* iÐ ÂñY ¬ŠÐÃkZ L L

[Š Zì -ñ» Zh +gŠXì ~gz¢nƬ_{¤ÆyÒ: ‘wø( discourse)yÒÌË|gŠ {z Ôì @* YŒ G E + 5BÆV/¡…ÃTÔ7g ZŠ¸g »gzŠ » Æäƒg ZŠz » ðCÉ Ô ìg D™Šg6,gîÆÆŸá Zz ä¯ f D  öÐG ÏZЄ  c* g à VKZÃVz² á ÔV'Š Z äyî#Zì x¥]!* âZXì mºnÆ ì »g ŒZz]³ÏZ[Š Zð**


www.urdudost.com

80

UrduDost Library

&‡e : ZŠ Zi WÅ[Š Z J -W5gzZ i el g™á Ð ãˆAuX ¶: “  ZŠ',ÿLE $i WÅ[Š Z~«£Æ= å c* Š™ `g { n X ( 218ÔmÔ8g * * ) ó óX X X X Xì ;g * @YHq Ê »w B‚ÆkZX N Yƒ: nZg ** Ð x ** ÆM%Zá ZzzŠg Q}Ôì c* Š™sv .à óO%Z LÂÆkgâ6,VŒä r # ™8 -g** Œ~gz¢äVrZV˜ìg™7t‹tŠpr # ™8 -g ** }½Z W, @* tÐ TÔì c* ŠÉ~~ m, ôZÃkgje äVrZB‚ X c* Š™ÌwEZ »Â~ m, ôZ gzZ q -Z  WXìÀF, ɃР[ Åkgâ Û :™Š Zñx ÓZƒ –6,ú›ggzZ Zh +gŠ ~ [ Å8 -g** P 8Íì òúŠt » ¶Zg :˜ kgâ Û :™X ,™g¨6, k½Z The counter-arguments to deconstruction have therefore been situated mostly on commonsense, or 'ordinary-language' ground. There is support from the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951) for the view that such sceptical philosophies of language rest on a false epitemology, one that seeks (and inevitably fails) to discover some logical correspondence between language and the world. Wittgenstein himself started out from such a position, but came round to believing that language had many uses and legitimating 'grammars', non of them reducible to a clear-cut logic of explanatory concepts. His later philosophy repudiates the notion that meaning must entail some one-to-one link or 'picturing' relationship between propositions and factual status of affairs. Languages now conceived of as a repertoire of 'games' or enabling conventions, as diverse in nature as the jobs they are require to do (Wittgenstein 1953). The nagging problems of philosophy most often resulted, Wittgenstein thought, from the failure to recognise multiplicity of language games. Philosophers looked for logical solutions to problems which were only created in the first place by a false conception of language, logic and truth. Scepticism he argued, was the upshot of a deluded quest for certainty in areas of meaning and interpretation that resist any such strictly regimented logical account. (Norris, P127-128).

:BŠ óweC*—LÅr # ™8 -g ** ˆÅÐ ÃYNÆ (ORDINARY-ANGUAGE) y!* i x ¬ {z ì ˆÅ c ÌÎs ÜÆ ú›g Å Zh +gŠ L L Y &zvz−¬ÐVÍß,Zìgy¶ 4»H ì [È (LUDWIG WITTGENTEIN 1889 - 1951)X X í éH 5kE K§{Xì G Za *g x» b§Ë: Ë~Y âZgzZ y!* i z » (EPISTEMOLOGY) ] G é5.БKÑkZbÃ: é¹½hI4$0Ð y!* i Y &zXì Se* 4»H XÔwEZÆb§FÆy!* iÆà6, ËÏZ {z~ˆpÔ H qzÑÐùÏZ^: ‘CZŠpäí éH 5kE *™ Y E& kZ,»í éH 5k4»H zX $ Ë YðÑ76,RÅVßßZ s Ës ™ÆyÎZ¤ /ÌðÃÐ ~yZgzZÔCƒZa ,ÎZ¤ /Å b§FÐ Æb§ b§~ Tì @* ™6,gîÆx Â,Zq -Zg¦»y!* i {zXì‚Zg »q -ZgzZq -Z~ —gzZ Â~ y!* iì h +Š F, Å]!* Y E& GG3E % ià ï 4›.ÅZMÅy!* Ãa#X YÑ7x ZŠ çLG i {zìtX » ì I »í éH 5k4»H zD Yr öÆb§b§nÆœ£


www.urdudost.com

81

UrduDost Library

G EY& : é¹½hI4$x Ó{zí éH 5k4»H zw–n¾X 7e¹xÅpèYì³» `ÅÅŒùgzZÔì Cƒ]gz¢ÅixÆb) GG$ X ( 219ÔmÔ8g * * ) ó Xó g66, äƒg D»]ªÔ M hNŠ7ÃV ð3©E _q‡ZZyxgŠÆ|gzZ yÔy!* i

5_ðZg ä 8 {Š c* i¹Ð ~ Contemporary Literary Theory [ Åy åHÓG -g ** ì [Y Hn²t ÌIÐ kZ M5G " ½™hg[!* 5_ä8 [Âx Ó éE ~y WgzZ ª»[ÂÅy åHÓG -g ** ._Æï~g øXì H ( ~]gßÅä™t)ÀF,c* ‘u 8 E H$ "gÃggzZ kî c* .2H 5_Âq ZXì c* Š™ÀF,» s Z eÃ6, [Z1ZyZXì Š HHÀF, Ð~[ÂÅy åHÓG -Zq -Z Š H–6, {)zçJG Ô èEj.GÔ èE4ÓºG

5_?Wác* X ˜y åHÓG ì tg ‚¿tD™êQgzZX ‰K77Ì}IÐkZ 

Eagleton, like Althusser, argues that criticism must break with its 'ideological prehistory' and become a 'science'. The central problem is to define the relationship between literature and ideology, because in his view texts do not reflect historical reality but rather work upon ideology to produce an effect of the 'real'. The text may appear to be free in its relation to reality (it can invent characters and situations at will), but it is not free in its use of ideology. 'Ideology' here refers not to formulated doctrines but to all those systems of representations (aesthetic, religious, judicial and others) which shapes the individuals mental pictures of lived experience. The meanings and perceptions produced in the text are a reworking of ideologie's on working of reality. This means that the text works on reality at two removes. Eagleton goes on to deepen the theory by examining the complex layering of ideology from its most general pre-textual forms to the ideology of the text itself. He rejects Althusser's view that literature can distance itself from ideology; it is a complex reworking of already existing ideological discourses. However, the literary result is not merely a reflection of other ideological discourses but a special production of ideology. For this reason criticism is concerned not with just the laws of literary form or the theory of ideology but rather with 'the laws of the production of ideological discourses as literature'. Eagleton surveys a sequence of novels from George Eliot to D.H Lawrence in order to demonstrate the interrelations between ideology and literary form.... Eagleton examines each writer's ideological situations and analyses the contradictions which develope in their thinking and the attempted resolutions of the contradictions in their writing. After the destruction of liberal humanism in the first world war Lawrence developed a dualistic pattern of 'female' and 'male' principles. This antithesis is developed and reshuffled in the various stages of his work, and finally resolves in the characterisation of mellors (Lady Chatterley's Lover) who combines impersonal 'male' power and 'female' tenderness. This contradictory combination, which takes various forms in the novels,canbe related toa 'deep-seated ideological crises'withincontemporarysociety. The impact of poststructuralist thought produced a radical change in Eagleton's work in the late 1970s. His attention shifted from the 'scientific' attitude of Althusser towards the


www.urdudost.com

82

UrduDost Library

revolutionary thought of Brecht and Benjamine. This shift had the effect of throwing Eagleton back towards the classic Marxist revolutionary theory of the Thesis on Feuerbach (1845): 'The question whether objective truth can be attributed to human thinking is not a question of theory but is a practical question...The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point is to change it'. Eagleton believes that 'deconstructive' theories, as developed by Derrida, Paul de Man and others can be used to undermine all certainties, all fixed and absolute forms of knowledge.............. RamanSeldon,ContemporaryLiteraryTheory,3rded,Britain,1993,P,92-93.

H $ H_ 5_É Ô ( @* 5 ìg ãZz -95™~[ÂÅy åHÓG J ƒ7»Ì‘u »8 -g ** ÐBŠ ë ) Zƒ7»y*t6,èE4ÓºG Z »y åÓG -8E H$ 5_ˆÆ kZ Xì @* tì Š H–¼ ~}g !* Æ èE4ÓºG Zìge‚f ÌNt VŒXì c* Š™i ¸W » c6,èEj.Gä y åHÓG Y H$ 5_Xì Zƒ –»y åHÓG 5_ ì 4 (ZX c* Š ¯ eÃà ó ó−F, z x ~Z L L„6,],P aÆ~g ‡gzZ H·_ »V1 ŠèE4ÓºG Z ä y åHÓG

ìt|X D™7k½Z¸ »8 -g ** Ì~g Zjgzm6, R~„zdð•ZÆ8 -g ** X … Y7ÌÈ »−F, zx ~Z8 -g ** H$ Z X ~Š äƒ 7Za ~ í!* Æ yZ J - bzg ! Š Z z dä öÆ „c* Š$ +d t‹t Ô @',Æ 8 -g ** Ð á ZjÆ èE4ÓºG 5_Wz6, ,™±5** ƒó óuPŠ" L L»8 -g ** Xì ~gz¢** Ñt ‚Æ~g ‡Ã3 F, Â/ÂÆ8 -g ** Xì Åy åHÓG ó ó−F, zx ~Z L gLzZ G-Ê H$ 0b‚gzZ}™{¸g CZÐèâ ŠÑ-àW{zì ~gz¢aÆW L ì HèE4ÓºG Z ñƒD™t · ZÐÐ ðG3Ÿ Z L L ™ƒ ZgW¿B‚ÆYß c* àWÉ Ô@* ™77@»|]g @* [Š ZèYÔì ç» ºgÆYß c* àWgzZ [Š ZXÝZ Xó ñY LZÐ Yß c* àWpÔì Y™»: ZŠ Zi WÃwgßgzZ Vzg ZŠ™{z Ôì Š Zi W~ ºg LZÐ |QXì @* ™ Za W, Z »| Ô] G é5;XÅZ Ô]1) wøÉ Ô  n pggÅë »X7Š Z%*Zçz wßZgzZ ]Zg¦Ï( {z sÜÐ Yß c* àWX 7Š Zi W~ ºg

ÝZgŠ ]Zg¦gzZ pá Zz äƒúzg)g fÆQXì @* ™ì‡g¦6f » " ó ŠñƒÀLŠ Û Ð bzg ÅX]â Âx Ó{zÔ]1° H$ QèE4ÓºG ZXì @* WgŠÐ b§zŠg¦»|~ Qc* Í b§kZXì Hì‡ä Yß c* àWq Dƒg¦¯ !* »|§¦kZ

ì wì » kZ Xì @* ™ Za Ýz h +' × ~bÃLZÆ™t‹» V¤g {ëÆ yZgzZ VªÅ Yß c* àWň gzZ Ŭ Ð G-Ê H $ Zw–Xì @* wq¾Xì @* ƒÄc* i !* Åt # IÆYß c* àW Â[Š Z èE4ÓºG ƒ6,, ÃÐ Yß c* àW[Š Z7ƒ  oIt »Ð ðG3Ÿ Z G-G 4E & ƈ sÜx » »W'Xì @* ƒC Ù ª6,gîÆgó ZzZa Lm{q -Z ÅYß c* àWÉ Ô76,gîÆ@Æb IÆYß c* àW[Š Z éM5BG E

X Áe~gó ZzZaLÅ[Š Zt # IŠÑ-àWÐzgÅXÔìÌ** ™ð»2Z¸yZÉ Ô7çCc* ûYßc* àWc* »*ZçzwßZ H$ H$ Ù èE4ÓºG C ZXì¸g H~ˆ! Š Z Yß c* àWì @* 3ŠgzZì @* ™·_»Vßz** Š¼J -÷gÑÝZ ~ eÐ áZ `g Y èE4ÓºG Z

&tgzZ Ôì @* HÅä™iÃ]ZŠ §yZy ÕäRE ™C Ù ªÃ]ZŠ §Æg °ZÆyZÆ™t‹gzZì © 8{ ^ ,Y »-ñŠÑ-àWÆ' " ÅwßZ óãZ²gLzZwßZ:ó ZŠ%LVŒÆ÷g шÆxk 3I gzZì ó @* ƒúzg Ì)lŠg L»kZwq¾Ôì Qe $ ðE B «X ˆÅÒà 5!ªXì @* 5!~gó ß9 çH 28F~7Ly .G &ñƒDg¦ ÕäRE / ÐVß2F :ó ZŠ%L6,R— )g ZŠ™ »iæÎG Wt ‚~]gßÅi~g ZŠ™ÆiæÎG J H$ $  D™C Ù ªÃ øm Z™ŠÑ-àW ãzg0 +Z kZ o ng ZŠ „Æb§kZ èE4ÓºG Z w–Xì ïq‰ Ü z à »VâzŠ ò3,óãZ²LgzZ ]¸


www.urdudost.com

83

UrduDost Library

Xìg D` »T G-Ê H$ $ ˆÆ1970 Ø Ðbzg³‚ÆÐ ðG3Ÿ ZzÂÅkZ[Z ðƒúzgt~p~Š ã ? C~x »Æ èE4ÓºG Z¯ ) !* Æ„C(‚ øL F E G H GBG 4 $ 4 º Ó M G E Thesis on Feuerbach (1845).bÃ! zZ` o¯Æ¾g â è Z é5 E&X ˆƒiÃ%6, „!zZÅ+gzZ6 ', ™ ''THE QUESTION WHETHER OBJECTIVE TRUTH CAN BE ATTRIBUTED TO HUMAN THINKING IS NOT A QUESTION OF THEORY BUT AIS A PRACTICAL QUESTION.... THE PHILOSOPHERS HAVE ONLY INTERPRETED THE WORLD IN VARIOUS WAYS; THE POINT IS TO CHANGE IT''.

H$ ä™4Š" Ãp{”ðЬÃkZ Ôì Hì‡äVzuzŠgzZ yâ ~Š w0* Ô Zh +gŠÃTúŠgtÃì t · ZÐ kZÃèE4ÓºG Z

X ( 264X 265Ô8 -g ** ) óì ó YYHwEZaÆ H$ ¹ægzZ ](‚: ](‚L LXì * @Y ` J - 267™„ ~ c Å èE4ÓºG Z sÜ ì ~g Y‘u »8 -g ** ìg ãZz H$ G4h±gâ L L~[!* 1VZÂ/Š Zñx ÓŠ H–6, {)z èE4ÓºG ZÐyZÄÆó ó](‚:gzZ](‚Ô ïG ,v0* ÆzŠ[ÂÅ ó ó]c* Ä ,Å],Ì6,V;zÔˆ~Š6,332™,Å[!* ,v0* ÆzŠ[Â~gŠ rX ˆ~Š7,ðÃÅ],6,V;zÔì Š H nÆpg ñ¯ gzi »]!* Xì HÌÀF, gzZ 3V;z å~gz¢V˜L L ì ¹~-zÚZ LZ ä 8 -g ** P 8 ÍXì 7Š ñ 5_ÃkZw¾zx Óä8 -g ** ì * @YƒãZzÐä™iÃ%zÂ6,k½Z Ñ!* {gÃèó Xó bŠ((ÌQuotationsÆÝZ Åy åHÓG J tÐ TÔì ˆ~Š~ ~ m, ôZ Quotation q sÜì ˆÅÒÃÅä™ì‡çI.* @* -Z~ k½Z kZ1Ôì c* Š™ÀF, Ð [ Æpg ó óñ¯ gzi »]!* L LV;z ˆÅkC]gz¢V˜ì ¹~-zÚZ ä8 -g ** Ôì fip â Ð '}uzŠ Ëk½Zq -Z¸ É Ô7aÆp ó g ñ¯ gzi L»]!* wEZ » Quotation~i Z0 +Z kZìgNŠ ë²Ô‰K7 Quotationa ì 4 (ZÐk½Z Ñ!* {gÃèXì ðƒÝq!x»{ Zp§{ÃyZ~TÔì ÒÃÅpg óñ¯gzi CZ L~V-g Zj å 0* Z6, gî6f X ǃsŠ ZáÆä™[‚g Z »{LÓ k HË~x|! Š Z ItÔìt‹»8 -g** ÂC ÙŠ H–~zŠg Z 8 H$ E 5_Wz6,ˆÆkZ èE4ÓºG Z ZƒtÈ »äVZV»V Xì 1VZV»V ä8 -g ** ÌÃkZÔì Åc¿6,èEj.Gäy åHÓG -8E -8E 5_ÔH7·_»[ÂËÌÅ èEj.Gä8 aÆäŒ~p ÖZy‚ WÃD¨ ¤! fÌÐá ZjÆ èEj.Gy åHÓG -g ** b§Å„ 5_¬X D™7™ ¯ó ó−F, 5_™ VZ Â/ÂÃkZ8 Åy åHÓG zx ~Z L LKZQg !* -ZÃ−F, q zx ~Z Åy åHÓG -g ** ÔD™7sg ¬

:º+ $Y In America, where the labour movement has been partially corrupted and totally excluded from political power, the appearance of a major Marxist theorist is an important event. Jameson believes that in the post-industrial world of monoply capitalism the only kind of Marxism which has any purchase on the situation which explores the 'great themes of Hegel's philosophy - the relationship of part to whole, the opposition between concrete and the abstract, the concept of totality, the dialectic of


www.urdudost.com

84

UrduDost Library

appearance and essence, the interaction between subject and object'. For dialectical thought there are no fixed and unchanging 'objects'; an 'object' is inextricably bound up with a larger whole, and is also related to a thinking mind which is itself part of a historical situation. Dialectical criticism does not isolate individual literary works for analysis; an individual is always a part of a larger structure (a tradition or a movement) or part of a historical situation. The dialectical critic has no pre-set categories to apply to literature and will always be aware that his or her chosen categories (style, character, image, etc.) must be understood ultimately as an aspect of the critics on historical situation........ A Marxist dialectical criticism will always recognise the historical origins of its own concepts and will never allow the concepts to ossify and become insensitive to the pressure of reality. We can never get outside our subjective existence in time, but we can try to break through the hardening shell of our ideas 'into a more vived apprehension of reality itself'. His The Political Unconscious (1981) retains the earlier dialectical conceptio of theory but also assimilates various conflicting traditions of thought (structuralism, poststructuralism, Freud, Althusser, Adorno) in an impressive and still recognisably Marxist synthesis. Jameson argues that the fragmented and alienated condition of human society implies an original state of primitive communism in which both life and perception were collective.............. All ideologies are 'strategies of containment' which allow society to provide an explaination of itself which suppresses the underlying contradiction of history; it is history itself (the brute reality of economic Necessity) which imposes this strategy of repression. Literary texts work in the same way: the solutions which they offer are merely symptoms of the suppression of history. Jameson cleverly uses A.J Greimas' structuralist theory (the 'semiotic rectangle') as an analytic tool for his own purposes. Textual strategies of containment present themselves as formal patterns. Greimas' structuralist system provide a complete inventry of possible human relations... which when applied to a text's strategies, will allow the analyst to discover the posibilities which are not said. This 'not said' is the represses history. Jameson also developes a powerful argument about narrative and interpretation. He believes that narrative is not just a literary form or mode but an essential 'epistemological category'; reality presents itself to the human mind only in the form of the story. Even a scientific theory is a form of story. ( Seldon, P, 95-97).

ÔD™·_»[ÂÅ8 -g ** 8 8 E E 4)Gugi : Zg ZŠ {gYZ V˜ ~ *Š óQ: L ì wì » èEj.GX X X Xì NŠ ™{ ** ƒ Za »i ‚tÃËgâ ë Z‰ èEjG + Û ~M%Z L L

Ô ** ƒo1%Ð À» b ªÔƒ ðƒ ~ a Ð \xŠƬ ì $ Ë ƒ[x»n„z sÜÅxšgâ Ôì {gzŠgzŠ » ~g ZŠtâu 8 E ~„C1] .èEj.Gw– X {)zÔ¿gŠ¿»nzcgzZ qçñgzZ “: 1] .~ÝZgzZ^~C Ù ªÔg¦»=Ô ** ƒŠ „»ŠêgzZk^


www.urdudost.com

85

UrduDost Library

]g @* Šp Ð ‚fá Zz WÎgzZ Ôì Zƒ Z a 6,gî“. Þ ‡** Ð À} (,q -Z nzcC Ù gzZ Ôì 7nzcÙW ** pgzZ {gHðÃ

c* $Zzgq e -Z ìz »| # ‚~(,F,Wzq -ZŠ Û èYÔ C™7t‹µ Z µ Z »Vzg 0* ®~Š ZÐZWC1] .Xì @* ƒZ a Ð wgß

{Š™ÉÆkZŠpì @* ™p ÒÌ»]!* kZ {zÔ @* ™7t :Z »Vz%i {”ðЬ6,[Š ZŠ ÕC1] .C X ì $ Ë ƒÌq -’ I :N»wgß]g@* gzZce ** ƒ kˆZ »~ .–]g @* LZåÃWC1] .Ëg â X  æEE ÅkZŠpy s !* {)z ßZÔg ZŠ™Ô[|Z ÕäM5!}%i

pÔ M hW7C Ù !* Ъ q ¦çñKZg0 +ZÆ Vâ i ë—" Xƒ euZgŠ Z 9»| @* ce bŠ äƒ:æY ¦ / Ù Ã]Zg¦ C

X Ùƒ6, gî4Å| @* M hh ÂÃwpñƒDƒJÆ]Ñì -8E ÃÜÁŠ „Š¼B‚ÆöÆ„ C1] .~THE POLITICAL UNCONSCIOUS, (1981) [ ŠèEj.G G-Ê -8E $ Ô](‚ äÕMI 5!Ôì M¿»äÈ 4E 58E q: G ª é5E ZgzZ {g0* {g 0* Å ` {Š ñì I» èEj.GX {)zâgzŠ ZÐ ðG3Ÿ ZÔe $àZ Û â](‚ øL F -8E ì wìÌt » èEj.GÔ¸ÆÎ⦽ZgzZ{A ƒ  ]Zg¦gzZai~TÔìg¦» Ï0 + i Å Z· Z Åäâ i *Š~

ì îŠ µñ»]!* kZà ` ì ^ÅVh§gîÆ( CONTAINMENT)pg~1‡gzZ ä™Ýqg Z MZ Yß c* àWx Ó óì ó |“zÅ]gz¢~Š OZ L

L õg @* ìt]!* ůgzZXnYc* !* ŠÃ]ZŠ §eµÆõg @* 

''THE BRUTE REALITY OF ECONOMIC NECESSITY''

ŃÆõg @* Šp{z Ôì @* ™7i Qxk!* èY Ôì @* ƒZg W¿b§ÏZ ÌQ! Š ZXì C™™„ŠpÃVh§gîyZƃ -8E G-JG 454X Vâ%ö j§gîƃ]g @* Xì @* ', Ð! x»aÆœ£LZÃ[ C*¶ KÆZ¤ / ®C(‚ä èEj.GXì @* ƒ# Ö ´

D YƒC Ù ª]â £{zÂñYc* â i W6, yᤠ/ZÐZXì F F6, VzgZØÍÆV¤g 㨠KZÂx ÂC(‚ » Z¤ / X DƒC Ù ª~

X ˆ~Š !* Š õg@* {z]â £‰¾:tX ‰¾ 7 -8E CG é5.БLq -ZÉ ì 7gî c* xg Ã! Š Zq -Z¡6Òì wì »kZXì ÅcæWg » ~(,~}g !* ƱÂÅkZgzZ6Ò ä èEj.G &‡|akZÔì ( EPISTEMOLOGICAL CATEGORY) ó{%i ~xg ÃÆã¹Ã\WLZŠpaÆäƒûÿLE X ( 267X 269) ó ì ó Yƒã¹Ìtó‚q -ZgzZ ÂgzZXì C™7

t Ðpg ~g Y·_ñƒ n pgt ‚ÃV1 VâzŠ ~ öÏZ ƒ =ÂÃ~g ‡¤ /Z X @* ƒ 7»6,Dk½Zt »8 -g**

ÅyZŠ z!* Æä™ÀF, Â/ÂÃV¯Z¤ /ZcZÐ~g Èð•Z8 -g * *ÍXì Lg ~g YŸ»3 F, Â/ ÇñYƒs ÏZ

¬8 -g ** 6,gîÆwVX c* Š äƒ7»ÃöaÆä™y‚WÃ| # ÙÅŠ Zñ‘zää¶ZgpÔD™ÒÃÅ%$ +K M F, $ X n 4¨GG ºuÆb§kZ éME 5G pg ~g YÃ3 F, ÐÔ¬{g !* zŠ™ VZs Z¤ /Zcq -ZÐÔŒ ZˆÆkZD™ÀF, »Ôq -Z

{zÂÔ‰bŠ hg}LJ WˆÆkZpÔÀF, Â/Â}LzŠì 8 ŠZ # ~g ‡x ¬èYÔ @* ƒ7y‚W** Ñ~Ĥ / Ã

gzZ ðÃÐÔkZˆÆkZì Y WNt~‚fÆkZX Š Hc* Š 7Ð t!Zj »yZgzZÀF, }LzŠ ¸h + á ì YaÎ

ÀF, w¾zx ÓgzZÔÌ+ $Y ÅÔ¬{g !* zŠ8 -g ** ìtNNŠX ì Y™i Z0 +ZÃÃUƺu{z Š Hc* VZ 7s Z¤ /Zc vŠgzZ [ Å8 -g * *ì ÅÒÃt ä ¶ZgÔaÆpg pôÐ ÏëÃ~g ‡X  D™ÒÃg7 ½Åä¯ ÛZÃ~g ‡Æ™

ÐZgzZì HwEZ!Zj » ~ m, ôZ~zŠgZ ä8 -g** b§¾BŠ~k½Zá Zz6, zZX ñY3g ì‡Ãö~V1Â{”ÀF,


www.urdudost.com

86

UrduDost Library

Zg7Ù Š ëpÔì 7öRÅnZ ‹ZakZì ãZztèaX Š Hc* Š 7™»k½Z ~ m, ôZ kZÍXì c* ŠÉ~ +zZz

[!* å å¸ ÂŸ» » ~g Z0 +ZZXì 7}!Zj »kZì ˆÅ„0 +¶ KÅŠ ZñvŠT~[!* kZgzZÔì Š HH7VŒ k½Z

X eƒ: {g ZÍÃ8 -g **

åYYHC Ù ª„J -uÅWásÜÊpaÆkZpÔ * @Y3g~+zZz„ 5_ðZgQg!* D™g¨6,[!* ‰ ‘6,kî c* N WXì J m ®Å ºuÆ8 -g **

ǃ** ™·_»[!* kZÆ[ÂÅy åHÓG -Z q 5_Ô Ô,™±5p ÖZÆy åHÓG Jauss, an important German exponant of "reception" theory, gave a historical dimension to reader-oriented criticism. He tries to achieve a compromise between Russian Formalism which ignores history, and social theories which ignores the text. Writing during a period of social unrest at the end of the 1960, Jauss and others wanted to question the old canon of German literature and to show that it was perfectly reasonable to do so.... He borrows from the philosophy of science (T.S Kuhn) the term "paradigm" which refers to the scientific framework of concepts and assumptions operating in a particular period. "Ordinary science" does its experimental work within the mental world of a particular paradigm, until a new paradigm displaces the old one and throws up new problems and establishes new assumptions. Jauss uses the term "horizon of expectations" to describe the criteria readers use to judge literary texts in any given period.... For example, if we consider the English Augustan period, we might say that Popes's poetry was judged according to criteria, naturalness, and stylistic decorum (the words should be adjusted according to the dignity of the subject) which were based upon values of Popes's poetry. However this does not establish once and for all the value of Pope's poetry. During the second half of the eighteenth century, commentators began to question whether Pope was a poet at all and to suggest that he was a clever versifies who put prose into ryrhyming couplets and lacked the imaginative power required of true poetry. Leapfrogging the ninteenth century, we can say that modern readings of Pope work within a changed horizon of expectations: we now often value his poems for their wit, complexity, moral insight and their renewal of literary tradition. In Jauss's view it would be equally wrong to say that a work is universal, that its meaning is fixed forever and open to all readers in any period: 'A literary work is not an object which stands by itself and which offers the same face to each reader in each period. It is not a monument which reveals its timeless essence in a monologue.' This means, of course, that we will never be able to survey the successive horizons which flow from the time of a work down to the present day and then, with an Olympian detachment. to sum up the works final value or meaning. To do so would be to ignore the historical situation. Whose authority are we to accept? That of the readers? The combinedopinionofreadersovertime? (RamanSeldon.P,52-53).


www.urdudost.com

87

UrduDost Library

&zy åHÓ5_Wz6, -ÍG : âêÆ8 -g ** N WÔn pg ~g Yx » » ºuLZ Ì8 -g ** gzZ”¶ŠwVÅ çE,G ˆÆk½Z kZ G ÔÙ ŠÃ÷ u ~(,ä T) ~Iˆ Ïzg ä kî c* Xì Å «ò]g @* ÃW ó k‚Z ~g‡L)g fÆqJtÃä kî c* ^', zg L L ~*` Z # ~1960X X Xì ÅÒÃÅä™ Za °Wë ( D™i Z0 +ZÃÃQ )~V-ÃY gzZ ( åHi Z0 +ZÃà õg @* J Åkî c* X c* Šgzi6,]gz¢Å% Z eÃ56,e $Zzg ! Š Z ð` gzZÔ Ñ”ÐQÃ[Š Z ð` ä V¹‚ÆkZgzZ kî c* X ågzŠ »[ZCZ 8Š Z%·ù{z »]ŸzcgzZ]Zg¦kî c* © Ð kZìg »Ð ‚ÃöZ K…Æb‚ÝZgŠ (PARADIGM) ó{%i Lb ˜Z G-W8 ðà »]Zg¦ ö ì Lg @* 0* x 1Z~ *Š 6f Å } ó %i Lm{q -Z Ëx » C!* Šå ~b‚Xì @* ƒ â Û g »~ÇÌË ì Ä6,ÅQMg ‡ÆÇÌËX  D Yƒ ì‡]ŸzG6 gzZ ]Zg¦6 b§kZgzZ Ôì ꊙ4Š" à } ó %i L¬ó{%i LZuzŠ Ô D™wEZ » 2Z ¸Xa Æ Å (HORIZON AND EXPECTATIONS) ó]uÂgzZ ¬Z La Æ yZ kî c* Y H± ÂBZ eÃ6,gzŠ èE4h WÆ~² á ~ m, ôZ ë¤ /Z6,gîÆwVì H{zX  F F6,g¦³‚Æ} ó %i

L ì @* ™wEZ ²˜Z kZgzZÔ{“gzZ- á Ô]gŠz„  sÅkZ‰ Ü zkZçOX ¶._ÐÆ]uÂgzZ ¬Z !Š ZƉ Ü zkZ ~² á Å\7 ǃx¥

Æå 7zgŠÅ ~² á Å\7 Ð zg Å]uÂgzZ ¬Z ! Š ZÆäâ ikZë @* X ˆ~ŠŠ ZŠ Åäƒ ._Æ]¡Æ]ÑìÆ gŠ ‡q -Z¡{z c* Ôå² á ªZz\7 H Î äY c* VZ wZÎt ÒZ~W~ m, ôZ ÅìzŠ ÛÆ~œ,zg VZçOX ˆƒ7ða E ~~œ,X 7c* ì VŒÆ\7{zHÔì oÑÇ aÆ~² á EX c* Š™xàÐZ™wZ e õ/G¢ ‡~ÄäTåò** xæZ À` WX QB‚Æ]uÂÅ b§~uzŠgzZ ¬Z6f ñƒá$ +q -Z'PŒ Ûh +] .Å\7ÂBŠOŠ ZX ðƒ~pQ~}g !* kZ

VÒpƒ  t Ôe $g ZŠ',DÅe $ZzggzZ ]ù ¹ÜZ Ô b Z' × ~ kZ {z´Æ¦0 ªXì ;g Y ¬Š ~ 8 -g „ q -ZÃ~² á Å\7 X ( 303X 304ÔmÔ8 -g** ) ó óÐäY@ŠÐVƒóÅgŠgzZÔˆà™lˆ Å"0 +!* Þ ÆV¶°Å8 > -g ** ˆÆkZgzZÔN â  Û zÂXì * @YƒVÈÐ ä™sp™sÜÔì ~g Y ÌZ‘u »8 -g ** 5_X ,™ Za ]P` ! Š Zz¹ÜZ ÅÚ ŠÐÃÅ]g ›Ã• wkZ ñO ÏZ‘u »8 -g ** Xì Š HH76, zZ ì „zs Z¤ /Zc»y åHÓG Xì ö» Ô‰ƒ³~äâ iÆkZŠpp ÆkZ c* Ôì ¹ÃWc* ìaÆVâ â ix Ó{g 0* ®ÌðÃì ßOÎtì Hkî c* LL {g 0* ®kî c* w–Xƒ@* 3Š {n„q -ZÃ~g ‡~ÇC Ù gzZÔƒ]Z¯!* ì‡ 7q+Z {g0* ®! Š ZX Z # Zz6, ~g ‡~ÇC Ù p„z 7ì‡g¦» ó]uÂgzZ ¬Z, L Z Ëë~*Š Å[Š Z c* ÍX Ïñ™]!* ~y!* i„q -ZÐVâ â ix Ó Ô7]g q]g @* g ÇŠ c* ðà ÅMg‡Æˆâ c* ÔÃñZg ÅMg ‡—‚Ô3â 9þëªX ǃ** ™i Z0 +ZÃê q]g @* ** ™ (ZXƒaÆVâ â iƒ  M h™ &zˆÆ kZ X ( 305X 306 mÔ 8 -ÍG -g ** ) ó Ãó ñZg ÅMg ‡ÅgzŠ LZŠp c* ÔÃñZg Zƒ 3g ~g Y‘uä 8 -g ** Ð ™fÆ  çE,G 5_ðZgQg!* Ôº+ $YÅy åHÓG -ZX Š q Hc* Š7™Ì}ìg ãZzXì


www.urdudost.com

88

UrduDost Library

The French semiotician Michael Riffaterre agrees with the Russian Formalists in regarding poetry as a special use of language. Ordinary language is practical and is used to refer to some sort of 'reality', while poetic language focuses on the message as an end in itself. He takes this formalist view from Jakobson, but in a well-known essay he attacks Jakobson's and Levi-Strauss's interpretation of Baudelaire's 'Les Chats'. Riffaterre shows that the linguistic features they discover in the poem could not possibly be perceived even by an in formed reader. All manner of grammatical and phonemic patterns are thrown up by their structuralist approach, but not all the features they note can be part of the poetic structure for the reader. However, Riffaterre has some difficulty in explainig why something perceived by Jakobson does not count as evidence of what readers perceive in a text. Riffaterre developed his theory in Semiotics of Poetry (1978), in which he argues that competent readers go beyond surface meaning. If we regard a poem as a string of statements, we are limiting our attention to its 'meaning', which is merely what it can be said to represent in units of information. If we attend only to a poem's 'meaning' we reduce it to a (possibly nonsensical) string of unrelated bits. A true response starts by noticing that the elements (signs) in a poem often appear to depart from normal grammar or normal representation: the poem seemes to be establishing significance only indirectly and in doing so ' threatens the literary representation of realty'. It requires only ordinary linguistic competence to understand the poem's 'meaning', but the reader requires'literary competence' to deal with the frequent ' ungrammaticalities' encountered in reading a poem. Faced with the stumbling-block of ungrammaticalness the reader is forced, during the process of reading, to uncover a second (higher) level of significance which will explain the grammatical features of the text. What will ultimately be uncovered is a strcutural 'matrix', which can be reduced to a single sentence or even a single word. The matrix can be deduced only indirectly and is not actually present as a word or statement in the poem. The poem is conected to its matrix by actual versions of the matrix in the form of familiar statements, cliches, quotations, or conventional associations. it is the matrix which ultimately gives a poem unity. this reading process can be summarised as follows: 1. Try to read it for ordinary 'meaning': 2. Highlight those elements which appear umgrammatical and which obstruct on ordinary mimetic interpretation: 3. Discover the 'hypograms' (or commonplaces) which receive expanded or unfamiliar expression in the text; 4. Derive the 'matrix' from the ' hypograms'; that is, find a single statement or word capable of generating the ' hypograms' and the text.


www.urdudost.com

89

UrduDost Library

(Seldon, P,60-61).

Ôº+ $YÅ ºuÆ8 -g ** GG3J43XÏzg~}g!* Ôì F F6, UiÆg ÖZy!* ix ¬Xì wEZm{ »y!* i ~² á ì Zâë »VzI ï Æy!* i ~Ä¢Ãg¡â L L GG3J43X ì F kZìC Ù ªXì ]Z åOEÉ!* Š°gzZìz » ï F6,óq :Z LkZy!* i ~IJÔì C™7à ( REALTY) |Ë: ËgzZ G4J54X 58E 58E 58E 4»G 4»G 4»G .J2ŠÅ 1 ä kZ7~C gzZ èEjE Æ çG

75Ð ò}yZÆ èEjE {zpÔì W, OÐ èEjE ðzg Ô¢Ãg~bzg ö-G èzc 58E 4»G A & !* ¢ Lx ¬Ë{zÔD™kZ7gzZ èEjE ™f »X÷áã—{zì H¢dgX¸K7~b‹ÆLes Chat. $‚ b§T~¬_C(‚LZäVâzŠyZX 7Æ'Æó~g ‡ 7µÂtÐ~g ‡Cc* M F, š -ZX M q hƒ7z»¢ A &6f Å ó~g ‡g ïYLÌË÷átÔì H™f »Vâ%C»ßgzZ C§Æ 58E 4»G  @* ™7ë Z Û VY]Š ÞÅ]!* kZ·_» èEjE ì܇РäCt¢Ãgë @* Xñ 7,Ð j§m{kZÃQ{z$ Ë YÅ G ™ b§¾g ðO{$ »Q~g ‡ ~ kZXì Q~semiotics of poetry (1978) :[ ÅkZ úÅbÃÆ¢ÃgXì @* B·ù»]â ¥¡ÃÄë¤ /ZXì * @YÐWÐpá ZzäƒZa6, RÅQ~g ‡¢ A & !* ì à Z e Ýzg6, ZkZä¢Ãg %Z¤ / x ¬ CƒqzÑÐä™zÂ6, ( signs)]** KyZ]Z Œ ¶ Û 9q -ZX 0Ð]â ¥ ñ0* VJ -pkZsÜë  C™m, / ¤ Ð ã)F, ~½Å|{z b§kZgzZÔì CƒZgW¿6,gîôZß !* ~&p~~² á X VƒñƒX Ðã)F, Åpx ¬c* dÅkZgzZKÃm, /Ð%Z¤ ¤ /x ¬gzZ ]ïziñgÆg ÖZ !Š ZpÔì °»qZ ã—à ©aÆ+ Y pÆ6,RÅQÔì p{z D™g6Ã~g ‡Ôƒ Š HHs ZLZÐ x ¬ÁEZ~X÷á ã—,ZXì oÑqZ ! Š R Å b§m{aÆ~g » ÆyÒzy!* i~XÇg { óÌ6, ]â £x ÓyZ2X D Yƒ×zgÐp÷ábZÆg ÖZV˜ÔAŠ Ìà R½ZŠ Å~& ~gz¢Xì YYÚÌ~Âq -Z c* ßq -ZÆ™¿&ì H MATRIXC(‚»ÄÐZ¢dgXì ðƒg ZƒÅ÷በÆMATRIX~C Ù ªLZ ÄX  M h™~ .ZÐ QÃkZpOÔƒŠ ñ~ Ä~ ]gßÅIF,c* ßq -Z MATRIX 7 4Ó®Ô]** "NÐ ]òogzZ]â i ˆòÀc* @* ƒ éE 5E Ô õfIG ÒäTäYxk!*MATRIX~C Ù ªXì Cƒ ~ a Ð MATRIX½ZŠ)g f X X X Xì +Š Å MATRIX½ZŠÆkZ]uzÅÄXì Xce−7, aÆpx ¬ÃQ¬Ðƒ  X1 X ‘ W^z»g~{ ZgÅ ã)F, x ¬Å| gzZÔì m, / ¤ Ъ~%Z¤ / x ¬Æy!* i~XÔce** ™Šiy¶ KÃÜÁyZQX 2 45E8E Xì Š Hc* é5E Z~QÃXñY¿gÃ6, ]Zg ÖZx ¬yZˆÆkZX 3 G C™ generate »ÃQc* ]Zg ÖZx Ó IF,c*  c* Ý~ã{z ªÔ ñY H~ .Z Matrix ½ZŠÐ ]Zg ÖZx ÓyZ ùMy WX 4 X ( 316X 318ÔmÔ8 -g ** ) óƒ ó The notion of 'structure', he argues, even in 'structuralist' theory has always presupposed a 'centre' of meaning of some sort. This 'centre' governs the structure but


www.urdudost.com

90

UrduDost Library

is itself not subject to structural analysis (to find the structure of the centre would be to find another centre). People desire a centre because it guarantees being as presence. For example, we think of our mental and physical life as centred on an 'I'; this personality is the principle of unity which underlies the structure of all that goes on in this space. Freud's theories completely undermine this metaphysical certainty by revealing a division in the self between conscious and unconscious. Western thought has developed innumerable terms which operate as centring principles: being, essence, substance, truth, form, begining, end, purpose, consciousness, man, God, and so on. It is important to not that Derrida does not assert the possibility of the thinking outside such term; any attempt to undo a particular concept is to become caught up in the terms which the concept depends on. For example if we try to undo the centring concept of consciousness by asserting the disruptive counter force of the 'unconscious', we are in danger of introducing a new centre, because we can not choose but enter the conceptual system (conscious/unconscious) we are trying to dislodge. All we can do is to refused to allow either pole in a system (body/soul, good/bad, serious/unserious) to become the centre and guarantor of presence. This desire for a centre is called 'Logocentrism' in Derrida's classical work Of Grammatology. 'Logos' (Greek for 'word') is a term which in the New Testament carries the greatest possible concentration of presence: ' In the begning was the word'......... Phonocentrism treats writing as a contaminated form of speech. Speech seems nearer to originating thought. When we hear speech we attribute to it a presence which we take to be lacking in writing. The speech of the great actor, orator, or politician is thought to posses presence; it incarnates, so to speak, the speaker's soul. Writing seems relatively impure and obtrudes its own system in physical marks which have a relative permanence; writing can be repeated (printed, reprinted, and so on) and this repition invites interpretation and reinterpretation. Even when a speech is subjected to interpretation it is usually in written form. Writing does not need the writer's presence, but speech always implies an immediate presence. The sounds made by a speaker evaporate in the air and leave no trace (unless recorded), and therefore do not appear to contaminate the originating thought as in writing. Philosophers have often expressed there dislike of writing; they fear that it will destroy the authority of philosophic truth. This Truth depends upon pure thought ( logic, ideas, propositions) which risk contamination when written. Francis bacon ............ (Seldon, 144-145).

:ñYÅ„0 +¶ KÅ ºuÆ8 -g * *ìt~gz¢‰ Ü zkZ / œ %» b§Ë: Ë»pì ì‡6, 2 zGkZg¦» ( š7)| # ‚~„C(‚ì H Zh +gŠ ñƒD™cÐ](‚L L È »„0 +¶ KÅœ / %Æ| # ‚ ) YYc* Ñ7,@* Æb‹Ãœ / %kZŠppÔì ‚ rg ,@* LZÃ| # ‚œ / %tXì @* ƒ(Centre)


www.urdudost.com

91

UrduDost Library

:ì $JÅ óÏŠ ñLœ / %akZì @* ™éZpÅœ / %åy¨ KZ ( ** ™lˆœ / %ZuzŠ ǃ «e $œ / %ÃÏ0 + i ãKgzZ 6f KZ ë6,gîÆ wVCENTRE GUARANTEES BEING AS PRESENCE LKZ ë ÂVƒ: óë Lc* ó L;~ y!* ~ iÙ nÛì YY HÐ kZ { i Z0 +Z »ÌZ Å óë Lc* ó~; L Ð wEZÆ~ ó L; D™ ì I» Zh +gŠXì â  Û g »~µÅ| # ‚ÅVñ¤ / ux ÓÅ *Š ì wßZ »]uzkZ óÏŠ ñLnºZXÐ,™ù]mZ » óÏŠ ñ 4ŒÅZˆâÆ]uzÅŠ zÆ™[Õ"ÄÅgÅÑgzZgÅä[ „Š ã CÅ ÂñY¬ŠÐg¨X ~Š™?Åa ÅŠ NZ C é›G3E +ZÛ MI 7~ ðW“ŠtZh +gŠX ÝZÔC Ù ÔÑÔíÔ hÔgó Å LÔ]uzÔŠ zÔy¨ KZÔ Z} .Õä5!Ôì ì‡6, wßZÆä™ «óœ / %LÃp ì6, ]Zg¦,Z }Ìt¤ /ZÙ n Û Xì 7~yZ {zÔì‡6, óœ / %LTÆp]q˜ZtÉ Xì eOΙƒC Ù !* Ð]q ˜ZyZ @* ™ .wEÅ!* Vj˜ZÐQ ÇƒÈ »ä™tœ / %à ) ó LXì 7Ì~) ó Lœ / % » p çG ì‡É Ô 7]Z¯!* ì‡]Zg¦t I 㨠KZ ]¸RCÅgÅÑñY H »™Èt Ãœ / %Ægó ÅL¤ /Z ÕäM5!Xì 7]Z¯!* ì‡ ÂÌ) ó è L Y ** ™tœ / % * c* ** ƒg ë¤ /~ ™! TÆg¦èYÔ ìg™tÃœ / %6 q -Z ë ǃt È »kZ ÂÔì Sg â  Û g »6,gîÆ ÿ) á Zz 䙊gq -Z~ ,

{Š c* iÐ{Š c* iX Ç} 7, ** ƒ4ZŠŠp…~kZÉ Ô M h™7[NZëÐkZX ìg™ UNDO4Š" ëà ( gÅÑ/gÅ)x  œ W 🠻 (PRESENCE) óÏŠ ñLc* Wœ “ / %Ãq -Z ËÐ ~ ( ë!* /hÔ bzg /ŸÔgÅÑ/gÅ ) @§ M h™t ë ì‡Æ ]Zg¦6,V/~ OF GRAMMATOLOGY ó** g» ` o¯Æ Zh +gŠ Š H¹¬ 6X X X X X ,Š: ]i YZ

ì b ˜Z +Z LOGOS ~)** Ç *ì  ã** - LOGOSXì Š H¹e $œ / %ÂÔ (LOGOCENTRISM)Ãäƒ ÔmÔ8 -g** ) 'IN THE BEGINING WAS THE WORD'

X X X Xì ðƒ ~½¨  ]Ð g¦Æ óÏŠ ñL X ( 207X 208

åk , ½Xì ñƒa^z5Åk , ½ ì ^{z Å (†)k , ½ÝZgŠk , ’Ðzg Å ( PHONOCENTRISM)e $œ / %]ßL L

~k , ’ÅTD™[™Ð( PRESENCE)óÏŠ ñÐ L ZëÂF g(†)k , ½ëZ # Xì Cƒd $Œ Û {Š c* iÐwìÝZ YY ¹ÌV- Ôì B bg óÏŠ ñtL ì @* ƒkC', Z',~}g!* Æk , ½ÅVZŠ„  ( c* g» ZŠ ZÔ¿}(,ÌËXì CƒkC¶ E 4h$—" ì C™{Šß WÐ]** éMG 5E K~k ¶ , ’ÃxÂLZgzZì Ø{)k , ’~«£Æk , ½Xì VÅ bzgÅáZz%1k , ½ì # ÌÅk Z , ½Xì îŠ {ZgÃe„p Ð Ñƃi!* gzZƒgZƒtgzZX M h\Yg!* g!* ÔM h™pôÔM hZC Ù ŠÃk , ’X x 3rE Å1Š Z%Ðk , ½@', ÆkZX 7~gz¢óÏŠ ñLÅ'aÆk , ’Xì e„™Ñ~k , ’ûLE ÃkZ (Zxk!* Âì CY Ń , k ’ Ô7< á »^z5~wìÆk , ½aÏZX Lg7¹!* y¶ KðûkZgzZì CYƒ¹~Zƒ~g¯iZzWÅgHXì óÏŠ ñL~g¯  åI»yZX ÇñYƒ»e»‰ Ü Zœ: ‘Ðk , ’¸`{ {zèYÔì Å¿#Åk , ’aÏZ äVâZŠ,*ŠXì e~ " 5E (210ÔmÔ8 -g** )ì~gYó Xó XXX XXXX èE½G 1Z Û X å˜} .»ÏŠß WÐk , ’ÃyZ(c* ,Ô]ÑìÔy )ìF F6, „Ø{‰ Ü Zœ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


www.urdudost.com

92

UrduDost Library

k½Z {”‘ugzZq -Z »8 -g ** ËZ e ì »ˆÆ]‚½Z {Š™7~}pg e¬ÆyZ/

In the context of his own concept of ideology, and also of the work of Roland Barthes on literature and Jacques Lacan on psychoanalysis, it is possible to construct an account of some of the implications for critical theory and practice of Althusser's position. The argument is not only that literature re-presents the myths and imaginary versions of real social relationships which constitutes ideology, but also that classic realist fiction, the dominant literary form of the nineteenth century and arguably of the twentieth, 'interpellates' the reader, addresses itself to him or her directly, offering the reader as the place from which the text is most 'obviously' intelligible, the position of the subject (and of) ideology. According to Althusser's reading (rereading) of Marx, ideology is not simply a set of illusions, as The German Ideology might appear to argue, but a range of representations (images, stories, myths) concerning the real relations in which people live. But what is represented in ideology is 'not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of those individuals to the real relations in which they live' (Athusser, 1971: 155). In other words, ideology is both a real and an imaginary relation to the world-real in that it is the way that people really live there relationship to the social relations which govern their existence, but imaginary in that it discourages a full understanding of these conditions of existence and the ways in which people are socially constituted within them. It is not, therefore, to be thought of as a system of ideas in people's heads, nor as the expression at a hihger level of real material relationships, but as the necessary condition of action within the social formation. Althusser talks of ideology as a 'material practice' in this sense: it exists in the behaviour of people acting according to their beliefs (155-9). It is important to stress of course, that ideology is by no means a set of deliberate distortions foisted upon a helpless populace by a corrupt and a cynical bourgeoise. If there are sinister groups of men in shirt-sleeves purveying illusions to the public, these are not the real makers of ideology. In that sense, it has no creators. But, according to Althusser, ideological practices are supported and reproducedin the institutions of out society which he calls Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs). Unlike the Repressive State Apparatus, which works by force (the police, the penal system and the army), the


www.urdudost.com

93

UrduDost Library

ISAs pursuade us to consent to the existing mode of production. The central ISA in contemporary capitalism is the educational system, which prepares the childer to act in accordance with the values of society, by inculcating in them the dominant versions of appropriate behaviour as well as history, social studies and, of course, literature. Among the allies of the educational ISA are the family, the law, the media and the arts, each helping to represent and reproduce the myths and beliefs necessary to induce people to work within the existing social formation. The destination of all ideology is the subject. The subject is what speaks, or signifies, and it is the role of ideology to construct people as subject: The obviousness of subjectivity as the origin of meaning and choice has been challenged by the linguistic theory which has developed on the basis of Saussure's. As Emile Benveniste argues, it is language which provides the possibility of subjectivity, because it is language which enables the speakers to posit himself or herself 'I', as the subject of a sentense. It is in language, inother words, that people constitute themselves as subjects. Consciousness of self is possible only on the basis of the differentiation: 'I' can no be signified or concieved without the conception 'non-I', 'You', and dialogue, the fundamental condition of language, implies a reversible polarity between 'I' and 'You'. 'Language is possible only because each speaker sets himself up as a subject by referring to himself as I' (Benveniste 1971:225). But if in language there are only differences with no positive terms, as Saussure insists, 'I' designates only the subject of a specific utterence. 'It is literally true that the basis of subjectivity is in the exercise of language' (226) (Belsey, 52-55).

" Ò5E }V˜ ä ög Gt ¬ Ð ƒ  X  ~gz¢g~ ‚f ]ïP Vz™7k½Z Zƒ H‘u »8 -g ** ~¬ Ð kZ G-Ê " Ò5E 5.G'Z c* 0k½Z ~y W» ög GXì c* Š Ì!Zj »™Éì c* Š Ìx ** »[ÂtsÜ: V;zÔì HwEZ!Zj » Uz0 öÐG Ð ðG3Ÿ W " Ò5E ðÃ}» Uz01ì c* VZ k½Zt Ìä8 -g ** Xì Š HH76,gîÆk½ZÐZ~[ÂÅ ög GÔì Š H1Ð [ÂÅ Uz

(Z 8 -g ** ë @* Xce ´g§{ºÅÃVßßZ ! Š Z‰ Ü z D™7]‚½Z ¹ZÔ ¶à™~ e ÝZ 8 ~ 1958 Âä 8 -g ** Xì 7!Zj »~ .–ÝZ kZ „:gzZ완: V;zì HwEZk½Z ~ m, ôZV˜ä8 -g * *ÐBŠëÐá ZjÆ8 -g ** X D™7 X º+ $YÅk½Z ñƒñZl Æ8 -g** ¬Xì Š Hc* Zl k½Zx ÓtÐTÔì™f} G-Ê G gzZ[Š Z ÂñY¬Š™5B‚Æóš M Š Z5LÅBg !* VÑzggzZ óe $àZ Û â LÅV»ÑuZ j¤ /ZÃg ðO{$kZÆYß-àWÆÐ ðG3Ÿ W L L G-Ê ²N $Ozg! Š Z »yQ c* ôG-!LÅV¤gY ÇyQ[Š Z7tsÜ?ŠXì @* Wt ‚™ ÿ£gzZ-ñ»Ð ðG3Ÿ W~}g !* Æ]ZÆV ðG G D I J5G4CE+ 4 $ Ð Ôì yDg ~zq Ì» ~œ,J -u ~(, É ~åuM ,ÞQ 6: ZI |É Ô D™úÅYß-àW ì ö ö wtgzZ Ôì * @Y0qà Zz äW~™Ð ã‚W[Š ZÐ Tì @* ™ «w+ZÃ~g‡gzZÔì @* ™[æ„  ZgÓZ',Ð ~g ‡


www.urdudost.com

94

UrduDost Library

G-Ê ~h +Š¡Yß-àW._ƨ5Å ¾g â ÅÐ ðG3Ÿ WXì Ð ózg Å Yß-àWÉ ì g0 +ZÆ Yß-àWsÜ: óqçñgL G ?-!Z Ô( ]** Ï0 + ivß~Xì 0Ð V¤g ÇyZ ì x  {z »V7ÒúÅôG-!LgzZ Ô çEG Ò Üæ) kgjeÉ Ô7·ù»]Zg ðO{$ E ºg à ìk Qì ]g „tÉ Ôì ,@* ÆXŠ z »Š Z Û Zì 7]g „Ð V¤g ÇyQ Yß-àW~ V/}uzŠX  D™ G ÇÔÌCZg ðO{$gzZì B bg̸g ÇÐ*™ Yß-àWc* ÍX D™Ï0 + i{zg0 +ZÆXn pgÐV¤g Çk^yQŠ Z Û Z Ð X D™ç»VpqÅŠ zÆyQ n pgÐV¤gY yQ{z òÃV¤gyQŠ Z Û ZÐz¥ÅTìi§{ztakZ G 5O©!g0 åG +ZÆVpqyQ6,gîY {zÐ zg ÅXÃïZúyQ „:gzZ M h7™b§~g7 ÃVpqÅŠ z LZŠpŠ Z Û ZakZ à ìgzZ G-Ê ËÅV¤g Cc* Š â g ÖZ »Tc* ÔVƒDQa~V~f LZŠ Z Û Z&ì 7x Â(Z »]Zg¦Yß-àWì I»Ð ðG3Ÿ WX  X X X X X X X :ì ª q ~gz¢Å¿ÆŠ Z Û Zg0 +ZÆóúY tL É Ôƒ@* ƒ6, RdZ G-Ê 6¿œä~i Zzjg1&ì 7—+Z ðà éM$iÑYß-àWì à Z e Ýzg Ì6,b kZ~Yß-àWYtÃLZ äÐ ðG3Ÿ W ÔD YK Za ~Vzg ZŠ Z Y ó]Ñ©LŠß-àW%ZXì Š ñ éMG &gz¢t CY7Å Za Ðg ±Z kZ Yß-àWXƒc* ŠŠ Ñ6, G -Ê ÃVzg ZŠ ZyZÐ ðG3Ÿ WX D YñJ m yZz6, gzZ IDEOLOGICAL STATE APPARATUSES

I Ô:7 ÕäM5! (REPRESSIVE STATE APPARATUSES)g » ñƒ!Wƃ 4c* ggzZ ~ yZ {z b§kZ Xì H Ð z¥ÅTì êŠ w~œ / %ýÄÂÆwj â : Zg ZŠtâu{z~g »ñ; !WŠß-àW4c* gXì @* ™t Û ~ {)zD°Ô ` ¯ AO+E ` gzZì êŠ ]i YZ ` ÅXì * @Yc* Š èÃgZŠZ yQÐ „ qzÑ)g fÆš M F, ! Š ZgzZÔ]°_Y Ô õg @* ~‚fÆ õF gzZ c* zÔyâ ‡ÔyZ0 +{ {z Ô Tg¤ / g »B‚Æk Q c*  ïŠB‚ »½x Â}g ZŠ Z ~ KkZX  }WëÐ x ÂÆ @* ƒ Zc¿y¨ KZg0 +ZÆóúY ŠL ñÐ zg ÅXÔ D ¯ o¢¹QgzZ ïŠ ` ZzgÃãgzZ ]** ‹Z y Q ƒ  ƃ  t X ^g W 'TO

:ì êŠ ú óqçñgL à x Zúx » ÝZ » kZgzZ ( g0 +Z Æ ` Šó  Û Lª) Ôì óqçñLx £ ÝZ » Yß-àW Xì CONSTRUCT PEOPLE AS SUBJECT'

G .2_Î ì c* c* W~Š zÐ zg Å]ÑìÆ çJG Š™:|ä we â C*—k QÃg ðO{$ kZÆ (SUBJECTIVITY)ó® )çñLp òâ 5.G'ZXì zg Å„ y!* iªÔì C™ Za ykZ »Îçñ ì „y!* i {z ._Æ (EMILE BENVENISTE)U} z0 öÐG E$E „ ì‡gÅ» ~Š ZÐZ øL ©Xì @* 0* úqçñgy¨ KZx ¬)g fÆ„ y!* iXì qçñ»ß ì @* ™ì‡™È ~ ó LÊp1Ð E G 4¢§Åt Ë Ìw$ $ +èG Û Æó? gLzZ ó èG4$MLÔì oÑ~Š ã CÅy!* i ~ã kgzZX 7e%Æ~ ó )gL ðO{$ ðû ó~LXì6, t Û kZ .2_Îy!* »]‡Z íZ ._Æw¸gÆçJG i¤ /ZpXì YƒóqçñL™È ~ ó ÃL Šp1C Ù ~kgjeì aÏZ „ey!* iX  EE Îçñì " $U* :Xì qçñ»ßmº¡~ ó è L YÔ$ Ë 7„ƒì‡îLp©$ °ÎçñÅ ~ ó LÂÔÆÜÁ CmZ%ì x  X ( 256X 258Ô8 -g ** ) óÐ ó wEZÆy!* iì Cƒì‡


www.urdudost.com

95

UrduDost Library

Æ],ä 8 -g ** b§¾ì YNŠ {z ƒ: J0 +Z¤ /Z ~g ‡X}Š ð3Š }wV+F, +Ð kZ „h $ + á Å „c* Š$ +6,R~„ 'TO

Ôì H 7 ~ ~ m, ôZ {Lt ä 8 -g **b§ ¾ BŠ 6, zZ X  aZ™ ù  á Ð x **LZ Æ™ÀF,¡],

V,Z {Lq -Z¸sܸT e ** ™" $U* t8 -g **  ZƒtÈ »kZÔCONSTRUCT PEOPLE AS SUBJECT' " Ò5E M5G " ½M ñƒ D™{C Ù b» „c* +ð•Z b§Å[Z1ZvŠÐ [ÂÅ ög G],zŠ éE $ hNŠ6,gîãZzëXì 1Ð ~ m, ôZ ä

[ÂÆ™ÀF, D YwÈ{z‰ Ü zë (ZXì `gŠ~ÙZjx ** »[ÂD™7?Št~g ZjÆ8 -g ** X ‰ ñZl  äÐ V1ÂZäXce ** Y 3g~ +zZz¹Z ÂÔì * @Y HÜV»V Ãp ÖZ Z # X YB7'ðÃÐ ¶Š x ** » X YB7'ðÃÆ™ÀF, [Z1Z XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX ,™" $U* ßÐZ ½Ãr # ™8 -g ** ÈxqgzZx¯dÜ Â»V1 ~ m, ôZ 7, Z Ì],äsÜJ -334™áÐ 33™Æ[ÂÅr #™ 8 -g ** X1 X Vƒ:ÀF, ö Å~g7B‚Æw$ +wŠ Z à ©Æ~Z¤ /Zc Structuralism and Semiotics[ž;÷¢X 2 Xì à™ï á ~[ÂKZ ~g7 5_ðZgX 3 X ¡q -ZÅkZÔì Š HH‘u ÐContemporary Literary Theory[ÂÅy åHÓG 5_ðZg ],Æ[ÂÅ8g* *P8ÍX X X X X X X X X X X X ],Æ[ÂÅy åHÓG 79 -106X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 27 - 42 288 - 329X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 49 - 70 234 - 240X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 149 - 158 243 - 267X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 86 - 103


www.urdudost.com

96

UrduDost Library

Jagdish Prakash to Haider Qureshi Aug 28, 2009 01:45 PM 1 Facts provided by C.M.Naim are eye-openers. I am also getting so many emails from our literary world. Here I want to share an e-mail of a friend regarding this subject. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: "Dear Haider Saheb, I thank you for being so proactively pursuing the question of purity of thought, creativity and expression in Urdu making Dr.Gopi Chand Narang's case as symptomatic of the malaise. While this kind of plagarism is condemnable unequivocally, Mr. C.M.Naim has drawn attention to another issue of manipulations in the corridors of powers to win patronage and positions. This is what had happened in case of Dr.Narang. This is a weakness of the system because of it real talent suffers while mediocrity thrives. I also wish to inform you that I am presently in Canada and will move back to India around 25th September. Jagdish Prakash" :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Haider Qureshi Okriftel,Hattersheim, Germany http://outlookindia.com/article.aspx?261517


www.urdudost.com

97

UrduDost Library

The Emperor's New Clothes The recent case of plagiarism is only symptomatic of the truly serious issue: the utterly cynical and self-serving attitude of a great many people who walk the corridors of power in New Delhi, wearing cloaks labelled 'Culture' And 'Education'

C.M. Naim on Gopi Chand Narang

My previous note concerning the scandal swirling around Dr. Gopi Chand Narang’s award-winning Urdu bookon Structuralism, Post-Structuralism and Eastern Poetics was based on the three Urdu articles by Imran Shahid Bhinder of Birmingham City University that appeared in various issues of the journal Jadeed Adab (published from Okriftel, Germany, and Delhi, and also available on the web). Since then I have obtained a copy of the special issue of ‘Akkas International, #9 (2009), published from Islamabad (also available on the web). Besides a fourth, well-documented essay by Bhinder, it includes some other interesting and revealing articles. In one such article (“The Story of Jadeed Adab No. 12”), Haidar Qureshi, the editor of Jadeed Adab, reveals how he was forced to exclude from that particular issue material that was critical of Dr. Narang. “The previous four issues (Nos. 8, 9, 10, and 11),” Qureshi writes, “were published by Mustafa Kamal Pasha Sahib of the Educational Publishing House, Delhi… I liked Pasha Sahib as my publisher. And so I sent him the final files of the 12th issue. It was printed in October 2008. But before it could go to the binders, Dr. Gopi Chand Narang put pressure upon the publisher by threatening legal action. Pasha Sahib, rightly, did not wish to be dragged into any litigation… And so the binding was stopped. Dr. Narang wanted that Jadeed Adab should not publish anything against him.” And so only a censored version of the 12th issue came out in 2009. (Qureshi informs me that I was in error when I wrotethe magazine was no longer published from Delhi. It still is, but under the contract it cannot include any article or letter that is critical of Dr. Narang.) After reproducing the censored letters, Qureshi concludes his essay by appealing to the government of India to take notice of this act of blackmailing. Qureshi’s article also appeared in the Urdu quarterly Asbat, Mumbai, in its issue # 3, Dec. 2008–Feb. 2009. But it went unnoted—like Bhinder’s three articles between July 2007 and October 2008—by the academics and authorities at the Aligarh Muslim University and Maulana Azad National Urdu University who conferred honorary degrees on Dr. Narang early this year. The most interesting thing for me was to discover that, contrary to my earlier belief, Dr. Narang had in fact defended himself in print—in an interview given to Nand Kishore Vikram, the editor and publisher of Adab-i-‘Aliya International (“Classics


www.urdudost.com

98

UrduDost Library

International”), a magazine infrequently published from Delhi. The interview appeared in its issue for April–June 200; the relevant portion is reprinted in the special issue of ‘Akkas International, (p. 109). I immediately posted a translation in the ‘Comments’ to my first essay; here is a revised version: Nand Kishore Vikram: People say that those who presented Structural Criticism (sakhtiyati tanqid) in Urdu did so either through translation (tarjuma) or by means of adaptation (akhz) and summarization (talkhis). What do you say about that? Gopi Chand Narang: When I began my work on “Theory” I was aware—my training is in Structural Linguistics (sakhtiyati lisaniyat)—that the fundamental requirement in Philosophy (falsafa) was Scientific Objectivity (sa’insi ma’ruziyat). I had before me many examples where people started with some talk of Philosophy but very soon began to soar on wings of Imagination, eventually becoming victims of their own silly inventions (ijad-i-banda). Many of them toiled to make themselves more prominent than the original texts, while others succumbed to their own writing style and wrote what would be called light entertaining essays (insha’iya). [The problem I faced] was that the needed terminology did not exist in Urdu. Secondly, the style of writing of the New Philosophers was so complex, so brimful with meaning, and so dense that it was a major issue for me to transfer it [into Urdu] with scientific accuracy and objectivity. In order to maintain the “Preciseness” and “Rigour”—[both words are in English in the original]—of their texts it was necessary for me to use all available means in my expositions (afham-o-tafhim; lit. “comprehension and explanation”), all the while avoiding—as it is required in the discipline of Philosophy—any coloration from my own imagination (takhyil ki rang-amezi) as well as any subjective flight of thought of my own (mauzu’i khayal-bafi). The first two parts of my book—[entitled “Structuralism” and “Post-Structuralism”]—are of the analytical kind (tashrihi nau’iyat). The third part—[entitled “Eastern Poetics”] and the final section [of conclusions] are of a very different nature. In my expositions of the New Philosophers and their ideas and insights I have unhesitatingly used akhz (“adaptation”) and qubul (“extraction;” lit. “acceptance”). Where it became necessary I also used talkhis (“abridgment”) and tarjuma (“translation”). In order to retain the force of the argument I have also quoted at many places from the original texts so that the philosophical issue or the insight of the thinker might reach the Urdu reader with its full impact. To every section of the book I have attached a bibliography of all its sources. Further, in the bibliographies, I have marked with a star the books that I used much more extensively than others. Let me make it clear: the ideas are not mine, they are of Saussure, Levi-Strauss, Roman Jacobson, Lacan, Derrida, Barthes, Foucault, Kristeva, Shklovsky, Bakhtin, etcetera. That is why I have dedicated my book to all the philosophers and thinkers whose ideas it consists of. And I have clearly indicated in my Introduction: “The concepts and ideas (khayalat aur nazariyat) are of the Philosophers, the understanding, explanation, and language (afham-o-tafhim aur zuban) are mine.” Dr. Narang is right about the lack of established terminology in Urdu literary criticism. We must, therefore, take him at his precise word when he claims that the first two chapters of his book were “analytical” (tashrihi), and that what he had done as a


www.urdudost.com

99

UrduDost Library

whole was to first comprehend (afham) and then explain (tafhim)—in his own language (zuban), Urdu—the ideas and concepts of the people whom he calls the “New Philosophers.” That, however, is exactly what Bhinder has solidly refuted. According to him, only the language (Urdu) is Dr. Narang’s; the analysis and exposition are by other people—Raman Selden, John Sturrock, Catherine Belsey, Terence Hawkes, and many more who find no mention in the interview. Nor are their names mentioned in the “Introduction” and the “Dedication.” They make only desultory appearances in the expository chapters, and seldom when whole lines of their English become Dr. Narang’s Urdu. To give just one example from the many that Bhindermeticulously identifies, Christopher Norris, in his book Deconstruction: Theory and Practice (3rd edition, London, 2002), writes on Derrida at some length on pages 18 and 19. Bhinder has quoted fifteen lines from those pages (‘Akkas International, #9, p. 87), and identified them as the original of ten lines in Dr. Narang’s book (pp.217–8). One might say that turning fifteen lines into ten was a nice act of summarization (talkhis), but what is one to make of the fact that every Urdu sentence in those ten lines is the exact translation—not a summary—of some sentence in the fifteen lines of English—and the Urdu sentences occur in the original English order? When I looked up the Urdu pages cited by Bhinder, I found that Dr. Narang had actually mentioned Norris’s book two pages earlier, calling it “the best and most comprehensive” book on “Deconstruction.” It is also listed in the bibliography of his sources for the chapter. The book is starred—as explained by him above—but then so is also Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations, listed two names below Norris. No page numbers are listed in either case. Are we then to assume that Dr. Narang used Norris and W ittgenstein equally extensively in his “analysis” and “exposition” of Derrida’s ideas? Rereading Bhinder’s first article in the special issue of ‘Akkas Intrnational and checking its accuracy, I stumbled upon something else. On pages 29 and 30 of the journal, Bhinder states that Dr. Narang had extensively translated passages from Catherine Belsey’s introductory textbook, Critical Practice. One of the examples he cites is this passage in Belsey’s book: Saussure’s argument depends on the different division of the chain of meaning in different languages. ‘If words stood for pre-existing concepts they would all have exact equivalents in meaning from one language to the next; but this is not true’ (Saussure, 1974: 116). The truth is that different languages divide or articulate the world in different [ways]. Saussure gives a number of examples. For instance, where French has the single word mouton, English differentiates between mutton, which we eat, and sheep, which roams the hills. (pp. 36–37.) I compared it with the passage he mentions in the Urdu book (p. 68). The Urdu is a meticulous translation of the English—it even includes the page number in Saussure’s book, which, as Bhinder points out, creates the false impression that Dr. Narang was quoting directly from Saussure. As I compared Dr. Narang’s page 68 with Catherine Belsey’s page 39 (a different edition from what Bhinder used), I realized that Dr. Narang had twice done the same injustice earlier. In support of Saussure’s argument Belsey


www.urdudost.com

100

UrduDost Library

had quoted more examples as given by Jonathan Culler and Louis Hjelmslev in their separate books—properly acknowledged by Belsey. Dr. Narang has translated those examples, without mentioning Belsey, and then cited the page numbers given by her as if he were quoting directly from Culler and Hjelmslev. But what really surprised me was on the opposite page (p. 69), where Dr. Narang, leaving the safety of translation, offers his own examples for Saussure’s contention. “If we wish to see,” Dr. Narang begins, “there is no lack of such examples even in Urdu where words are similar but meanings are different. Just take [the terms for] kinship. Baba is used in Urdu for ‘father,’ the same as Abba, while in Hindi it is used for ‘grandfather.’” He then goes on in that vein for the next 13 lines, citing how some words mean one thing in Urdu but quite another in Arabic, from which Urdu borrowed them. Apparently, Dr. Narang totally failed to comprehend (afham) Saussure’s radical notion that different languages divide the world differently—even after Belsey further explained it by citing examples given by Culler and Hjelmslev. (A correct example for Urdu readers would have been how Urdu divides the world of “parents’ siblings” into chacha, phuphi, mamun, and khala, while English divides the same world into “Uncle” and “Aunt.”) Dr. Gopi Chand Narang is presently a “Member, Advisory Committee on Culture, government of India,” which is symptomatic of the bigger, truly serious issue: the utterly cynical and self-serving attitude of a great many people who walk the corridors of power in New Delhi, wearing cloaks labelled “Culture” and “Education” and bartering favours among themselves. The big issue is not the individual, who did what he considered was necessary in order to prosper in Indian academia and win patronage from politicians. Let us also not forget that it was the literati of India who chose Dr. Narang to preside at the Sahitya Akademi, over Mahashweta Devi, one of India’s most honest and courageous writers. The rot has settled deep and at many places, and unless more people begin to protest, challenge, and condemn publicly what they shake their heads over privately, nothing much is going to change in Education and Culture. ....................................................................... http://outlookindia.com/article.aspx?261517


www.urdudost.com

101

UrduDost Library

C.M. Naim Aug 03, 2009 02:20 AM I have now learned from Dr. Narang's website that his book has been translated in several Indian languages besides Urdu and Hindi. The site states: "Samrachnavad, Uttar-Samrachnavad evam Prachya Kavyashastra (trs. by Devesh), Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi 2000. (Besides Hindi, this book is also published in Tamil, Marathi, Punjabi, Bengali, Bengali, Maithili, Gujarati, Kannada and Malayalam; translation in progress in Kashmiri, Telugu and Oriya)." I hope someone in those languages will also do some checking of their own. C. M. Naim Bara Banki, India http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?260108 ..........................................................

S. Singh Jul 29, 2009 10:59 PM Plagiarism is not a new word for literary circle. There are several creations here which are the modified version of old ones. Your detailed study on Mr. Narang has only confirmed the deep routed menace of literature. I used to be an amateur in this topic, few years back I liked to read and find out who is copying from whom, its been several years since I left this practice. But I do remember some faint charges on Gopichand narang before. I have also heard that Harivansh rai bachchan's creation "madhushala" is not his creation, it is a modified/manipulated copy of omer khayyam's poetry. However, solid proof is yet to be discovered. Literary bankruptcy has become a common trait of our era. S Singh Hyd, India http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?260108 ............................................................


www.urdudost.com

102

UrduDost Library

Plagiarize And Prosper Dr. Gopi Chand Narang, Professor Emeritus, Delhi University, former President of the Sahitya Akademi and the recipient of two “Padma” awards, stands accused of massive plagiarism in his award-winning book. Monday, August 03, 2009

C M Naim There was a time when people wrote a literary piece and then ascribed it to someone whom they held in high esteem out of love, admiration, reverence or some other strong sentiment. Jalaluddin Rumi wrote a magnificent volume of ghazals but did not put his name to it. It has always been known as Diwan-i-Shams-i-Tabriz (The Diwan of Shams of Tabriz). An unknown poet wrote another, smaller diwan of ghazals and ascribed it to Khwaja Mu’inuddin Chishti of Ajmer. Later some other people concocted ‘table-talks’ of some of the Chishti Sufis and circulated them as genuine collections. In Urdu literary history, two examples of something similar immediately come to mind. When Muhammad Husain Azad desired to publish a definitive edition of the ghazals of Shaikh Ibrahim ‘Zauq,’—the first poet laureate of Bahadur Shah ‘Zafar’—he felt no qualms in composing new ghazals and verses to fill in the gaps he felt his beloved master would have filled in himself. Then there is the fascinating case of one of the foremost modern poets in Urdu: when Sana’allah Dar took on the name “Miraji” after a woman named Mira whom he obsessively loved, he might have had in mind the exemplary bond between Rumi and Shams. Urdu literary culture, however, has known many more cases where someone took the work of another person and claimed it as his own. Particularly among the poets. The practice of ustadi/shagirdi in Urdu poetry encouraged it. Many an ustad or master poet earned his meagre living by giving away his verses to his pupils or shagird, who in turn provided for his needs. Some ustad openly sold verses to anyone who came with money the night of a musha’ira (a gathering of poets). A nawab or king would appoint some good poet as his ustad and then quite as a norm expect him to put together a volume of ghazals in his name. It also happened in prose. Imam Bakhsh ‘Sahba’i’, a contemporary of Ghalib and teacher at the famous Delhi College, reportedly wrote for a Mughal prince a tazkira or account of the poets of his time. The book, Gulistan-i-Sukhan, carries the name of Qadir Bakhsh ‘Sabir’ as its author, but Ghalib always referred to it as “Sahba’i’s tazkira.” Much later, when the Anjuman-i-Taraqqi-i-Urdu (“Association for the Development of Urdu”) published The Standard English-Urdu Dictionary in 1937, the organization’s Secretary, Maulvi Abdul Haq (a.k.a “Father of Urdu”), put his own name on the cover as its editor, instead of the


www.urdudost.com

103

UrduDost Library

Anjuman’s. But at least he was honest enough to clearly acknowledge in the Introduction that the work had mainly been done by Dr. Abid Husain of Jami’a Millia. Since then, however, things have been going downhill in Urdu, particularly in its academia. The late Azhar Ali Farooqui of Allahabad earned his living by writing Ph.D. dissertations for others, with the full knowledge of the university’s professors. I personally witnessed how he worked. In the old literary culture plagiarism of the ordinary kind was also common and not made much of. The stakes were not high then. But now the stakes are quite high in the academic world. Ambitious university teachers no longer can make do by merely taking care of their patron’s grocery shopping and milk cows—I witnessed both at Aligarh. Now they must publish “research” in order to get coveted promotions and titles. Sadly, quite a few take to plagiarism as the shortest route. I became involved in the case of one such ambitious academic at Aligarh back in the early 1980s. The Department of Urdu, Aligarh Muslim University, had obtained some money from the government for a professorship in Aesthetics, and advertised the job. One of the candidates was a Reader in the department, who was far better known for his fiction than research—he wrote at least one superb novella that will always be admired. In no time that gentleman managed to publish a volume on Urdu Aesthetics. I was most surprised when I came across the book in our library at the University of Chicago. Having known the person since our shared college days, I couldn’t imagine him as the author of the book. A couple of hours of digging around in the library solved the mystery. The talented academic had taken a well-known book on Aesthetics in English by a Bengali scholar and diligently translated most of it into Urdu. Dutifully I prepared a short article, presenting page-and-line references to the original. It was published in Urdu, and received plenty of notice. But nothing actually happened. The gentleman didn’t get the job—no one did, as I remember—but he went on to become a full professor, and soon chaired the department for a while. Needless to say he received—justly, I must add—a ‘Padma Shri’ as a fiction-writer. Presently the Urdu literary/academic world has been violently shaken by what must be termed “the mother of all plagiarisms”. Instead of the out of fashion field of Aesthetics, it is the currently much more fashionable field of Literary Theory that is at issue, and the person at the ‘heart of darkness’ is no less than Dr. Gopi Chand Narang, Professor Emeritus, Delhi University, who from 2003 to 2007 presided over the Sahitya Akademi and has received two “Padma” awards from the Indian state—the latest being “Padma Bhushan” in 2004. (A full list of his honours and publications may be seen at his website. At the centre of the scandal is the book Sakhtiyat, Pas-i-Sakhtiyat Aur Mashriqi Shi’riyat (“Structuralism, Post-Structuralism, and Eastern Poetics”), for which Dr Narang received the Sahitya Akademi award in 1995. Though the title suggests that it might be a comparative study, bringing out the commonalities and oppositions between two contemporary Western literary/linguistic theories and their counterparts in Sanskrit and Urdu—a rather curious undertaking—but in reality it only describes and explains the three topics in the book’s title, and the major thinkers who contributed to them.


www.urdudost.com

104

UrduDost Library

As far back as 1997, an Indian Urdu critic named Fuzail Ja’fari had explained in some detail how Dr Narang’s book shied away from original thinking and analysis, limiting itself simply to what X wrote and Y said in Western languages (Zahn-i-Jadid, Delhi, #22-3). In fact, he described the book as a “compilation” (talif), adding that it was not an original piece of writing (tasnif). Now a young scholar Imran Shahid Bhinder, a doctoral candidate in the Department of English at the University of Birmingham, U.K., has made a much more serious charge. Bhinder published in 2006 in the annual issue of Nairang-i-Khayal, a Pakistani journal, an essay entitled “Gopi Chand Narang is a Translator, not an Author.” A year later, a revised and expanded version of the essay appeared in the journal Jadeed Adab (July–December, 2007), which at the time was printed at New Delhi—now allegedly stopped under pressure from certain people—and published from Germany. (It is also available on the web). In 2008 Bhinder published two more articles in Jadeed Adab, the first in its January–June issue, entitled “Plagiarism in Urdu Literature – How Long will it be Defended?” and the second in the July–December issue, entitled “Gopi Chand Narang’s ‘Truth’ and ‘Context’ [as] Thievery.” Both articlesfound plenty of circulation in both India and Pakistan, and excerpts were reproduced in a couple of Indian journals. Now a Pakistani journal, ‘Akkas, published from Islamabad, has brought out a special issue devoted to Dr Narang’s oeuvre and career, including a more detailed analysis by Bhinder. (Also available online) In summary, Bhinder has most convincingly established that Dr Narang’s achievement in that award-winning book is not that of an author but only of a translator, and that too of a reprehensible kind. According to Bhinder, Dr Narang did not read the original authors—Ferdinand de Saussure, Claude LeviStrauss, Roland Barthes, Jacques Derrida, Jacques Lacan, Michel Foucault, and others. He read only their well-known interpreters, and then transferred the latter’s analyses and interpretations into Urdu, doing so verbatim and without giving the reader any indication of what he was doing. In his third article mentioned above, Bhinder has given extraordinary details of the Dr Narang’s “authorial” enterprise. He has quoted excerpts from the Urdu book and then placed them next to their unacknowledged English original. Further, he has listed with precision the countless pages in Dr Narang’s book that correspond almost word-for-word with the English pages of American and British scholars. For example, pages 79–106, 234–240, 243–267, and 288–329 of Dr Narang’s book, according to Bhinder, are exact translations of pages 27–42, 149–158, 86–103, and 49–70, of Raman Selden’s book, A Reader’s Guide to Contemporary Literary Theory (1985). The other exploited scholars that Bhinder similarly identifies are Terence Hawke, Catherine Belsey, John Sturrock, Jonathan Culler, Christopher Norris, and Robert Scholes. (I must add that Bhinder’s critique has some other dimensions too that are important and relevant for all academics in a general manner. See: here.) The evidence Bhinder presents is quite irrefutable. When, for example, I checked the pages he points out in Selden's book, they indeed turned out to be the unacknowledged source of Dr Narang's remarks. I also stumbled upon something equally interesting. Dr Narang has a note on Michel Foucault (pp. 193–8) in the second


www.urdudost.com

105

UrduDost Library

chapter in his “Book Two,” i.e. the second section of his book. The text on pages 194–6, as pointed out by Bhinder, is merely a translation of pages 158–9 in Selden's book. I checked the “sources” that Dr Narang's has helpfully listed for each chapter, and found that he does list Raman's book as a source for that particular chapter. And gives exact page numbers too: 79–84 and 98–102. The first reference, however, turned out to be Where Selden discusses Bertolt Brecht, Theodor Adorno, and Walter Benjamin The second was equally curious: in Selden's book, page 98 deals with Frederic Jameson, but pages 99–102 contain only a bibliography. Again, the opening paragraph of Dr Narang’s note on Jonathan Culler (pp. 318–9) is, as per Bhinder, entirely Selden’s (p. 62). But in the sources, Selden’s name is listed with page numbers 106–27! In other words, while Dr Narang twice went to the trouble of indicating precise—though unrelated—pages in Selden’s book, he somehow failed to include the pages he had actually abused. Bhinder’s charges are extremely serious. They are also thoroughly documented. First made three years ago, his accusation has remained unchallenged—unlike in the past when the slightest criticism of Dr Narang promptly produced a spate of articles in his defence and diatribes against the critic. This time he and his admirers are remarkably silent. And for good reason. They understand that any attempt would only bring more notoriety. Sadly, they also know that the academic circles in India in general, and the university departments of Urdu in particular, take no notice of inconvenient details. With them it is always “business as usual.” After all, soon after Bhinder’s original article came out in 2006, Dr Narang received the degree of ‘D.Litt. Honoris Causa' from the Central University at Hyderabad. Then after two more articles, two similar honorary degrees were conferred on him in the past six months, by the Maulana Azad National Urdu University and the Aligarh Muslim University. Sahitya Akademi has an excellent policy of making its award-winning books available in other major languages of India, including English. Dr Narang’s book received the award some fourteen years ago, but, to my knowledge, it has so far been translated only into Hindi (2000). May I ask the Akademi to do a major favour to Urdu letters? Marathi and Bengali scholars, in my experience, are usually far more knowledgeable about modern and pre-modern literary theories than an average Urdu academic. (I very much include myself among the latter.) The Akademi should have Dr Narang’s award-winning book translated into both Bengali and Marathi so that it can properly be judged by his peers in India. Given the international protocols on copyright, however, an English translation might not be advisable at this time. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------C.M. Naim is Professor Emeritus, University of Chicago http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?26010 http://thenews.jang.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=191143 http://www.southasianmedia.net/index_opinion.cfm? category=Culture&country=Pakistan#C%20M%20Naim http://www.urdustudies.com/pdf/24/39Columns.pdf


www.urdudost.com

106

~k , $Ñ„  zŠzŠg Z xÃ^ Z e„  zŠzŠg Z

www.urdudost.com

Ãg ZŠ ºg c*  zŠ ËLZ[Ât „ <é~ Z

UrduDost Library


Gopi Cand Narang aur ma-baad-jdidiat