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Title:

Incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Author:

Zoran Đukanović Editors:

Isidora Marčetić, Predrag Jovanović Publisher:

Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 72/II, Belgrade For publisher:

Prof. Dr Vladimir Mako Reviewers:

Zoran Đukanović, Giovanni Ruffini Authors of graphic concept and total design:

Isidora Marčetić, Predrag Jovanović Material suppliers:

Nebojša Prokić, Mila Paunović, Milena Solujić Associates:

Nebojša Prokić, Milena Solujić, Mila Paunović


Print:

C-PRINT Radomira Markovića 27 Belgrade www.cprint.co.yu Printing:

500 copies printing ISBN 000-00-00000-00-0 Place and year of publishing:

Belgrade, 2012


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity


01 Intro incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Welcome / Serbian party 02 Input

Japanese party 03 Step 1 German party

Singaporean party

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- About Belgrade fortress - Belgrade bus tour - Lectures

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- Making of the groups - Data analysis and presentations

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04 Weekend - Excursion - Free time 05 Step 2

Italian party

Content

- Preface - Expectations - Workshop info - Topic and general approach - Arrival and country presentations

06 Step 3 Goodbye / Fusion party

- First overview - Photoshop party

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- Final overview - Exhibition and ceremony

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07 Conclusion - Leaving Belgrade - Impressions by students - Postproduction and results 08 Index

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- Index of people - Index of pleaces

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00 Content | made by: Sibel BaĹ&#x;


01

Intro

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity


Intro Preface Expectations

Zoran Đukanović. Raffaele Paloscia. Darko Radović. Ružica Božović Stamenović. Giovanni Ruffini. Ben Sassen. Lorenzo Tripodi.

Workshop info

Organization. Initiators. Partners. Participants. Groups / team work. Non-Academic support. Target and context area. Timetable. Materials. Deliverables and final event. Expected outcome. Possibilities for further impacts.

Topic and general approach

Arrival and country presentations

Arrival. Accommodation. Official start. Representatives of the countries.

01 Intro |

Starting point. Intention. Aim. International exchange. Complex and multidisciplinary urban issues. Local / global interrelations. Representation / communication of urban landscape and project.


Preface

Intro

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity


01 Intro | Preface |

From year 2009 the universities of Florence and Belgrade stipulated an International Cultural Agreement, developed on the base of previous collaboration between specifically the Laboratory City and Territory in Southern Countries (LabPSM) of the Urban and Regional Planning Department (DUPT) of the Faculty of Architecture of Florence, and the Public Art and Public Spaces (PAPS) program of the Faculty of Architecture of Belgrade. This previous collaboration started during the UN international cooperation project City to City, when the Florentine DUPT was involved with the Urban Planning Institute of Belgrade in the development of a research for the creation of “New Island River Park” on the left bank of Danube River in Belgrade (further info in: Project Heron - Čaplja. Hypothesis for the New Island river park on Danube in Belgrade, INFO bulletin special issue, 24-25 2009, Urban Planning Institute of the City of Belgrade. www.urbel.com/documents/ info24-25_tema.pdf). In that occasion representatives of the two universities had the possibility to compare and share their vision of a Territorial Heritage, and on that base they established the first step for the official Cultural Agreement for students, researchers and professors international cooperation. First activity of students’ mobility was held in June 2010, again about cultural heritage in Belgrade: the international workshop Incomplete Dream of Belgrade Continuity was held with the participation of more than 60 students from the universities of Belgrade, Florence, Yokohama, Singapore and Weimar, about possible revitalization and promotion projects of the Kalemegdan Fortress area and park in Belgrade, in partnership with (among others) the City Council, the Urban Planning Institute, the Public Enterprise “Belgrade Fortress”, the Military Museum of Belgrade, the Centre for Cultural Decontamination (further info at: http://www.beogradskatvrdjava.co.rs/International-Workshop_2876-80_1983).


Zoran Ä?ukanović University of Belgrade Faculty of Architecture Belgrade Serbia

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Intro

Expectations


01 Intro | Expectations | Zoran Đukanović |


Raffaele Paloscia University of Firenze Faculty of Architecture Firenze Italy

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Intro

Expectations


01 Intro | Expectations | Raffaele Paloscia |


Darko Radović Keio University Dept. of Systems Design Engineering Tokyo Japan

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Intro

Expectations


01 Intro | Expectations | Darko Radović |


Intro

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Ružica Božović Stamenović National University of Singapore Department of Architecture Singapore

In five key words: Continuity, Duality, Otherness, Paradox, Dream Intro It was all so clear right from the start – Incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity was, for me, a trap disguised in an innocent and warn-out word workshop. And what a trap it was! The haunting issue of my own continuity, whatever that is, was mischievously twinkling from my screen the first time the title appeared. A devoted Belgrade born, with childhood comfortably nestled in the heart of the city, the Place of the Republic, I was now for a decade living and falling in love with tropical rains in South-East Asia, in Singapore. Kalemegdan’s fortress was my childhood playground and later my teenage escape from the unbearable world of adulthood. Memories were pouring in: family walks on Sunday afternoons, snowball battles on the steep slopes of the fortress at the age when challenging the destiny by rampant parkour actions was a must, and just slightly later solitary and not so solitary walks in summer evenings filled with philosophical discussions on how and where and why to be…. Even memories on early professional successes were about the confluence as symbol of Belgrade’s continuity. Dragan and I won the competition for a symbol of Belgrade as a candidate for hosting the ‘92 Olympic games. Out of hundred over competitors we were the only to pick up the confluence and War Island as the symbol of Belgrade. For us the issue of representing Belgrade’s continuity, at that time at least, could not have been resolved at the level of built environ-

ment, but within its intrinsic codes. Anyway, years later with this workshop my continuity issues, let alone Belgrade’s, popped up as difficult to resolve as ever. And there I was, in my NUS office, briefing my three curious Singaporean students who took the challenge and opted for this workshop in, let’s put it politely, exotic part of Europe, may be thinking it can’t get much worse than pronouncing my name, right? Continuity In Belgrade’s case there was an easy way out – discontinuity is its persistent notion, deeply rooted in the character of this city and its urbanites. The immanent disruption of any established patterns in Belgrade’s urban and architectural design history evolved over time into a specific critical attitude towards any imposed models, styles or movements. Continuity was sought for, but actually it is the prevailing discontinuity that provided creative freedom for new endeavours. New design theories, styles or just ideas would always come with thunder but would immediately be hit by withy criticism, challenged and twisted to only then find their place in broken weaving of Belgrade’s architectural history. Continuity of discontinuity appeared as a workable, open-ended and challenging pattern. In the early XX century the juxtaposition of early Modernism and classicism may have seemed as an excellent case of discontinuity if it was not following the same path that early European Belgrade took while emerging from Ottoman frontier post when the new just overlapped the old skipping the lengthy evolution and creating a specific urban bitmap with built-in fractal structure. In Belgrade, ideas emerge and changes happen not because of but in spite of. So, later, in spite of the ideology that needed the New Belgrade to be as


Pandora’s box was opened. Duality Two tracks, two sides of a coin, two faces of the god Janus; all picturing the atmosphere of Belgrade workshop. For participants and us, their tutors, the workshop melting pot was reflecting who we are and who we become while working with others. Rather than duality it was the case of multiple personality’s behaviour as multiplicity was the prevailing notion in all communications. From morning discussions in language that is no ones mother tongue, to flamboyant evening parties when finally hearts and pallets had a distinct flag to relay upon, we were all facing otherness. How to act? To dominate or to submerse, to lead or to follow, to be strict or to adjust, to negotiate or to impose? All and none of these, obviously. For the tutors the experience made it an easy task. For participants their age did the trick – a few clashes here and there, but also many more jokes, friendly smiles and more than friendly hugs, street food and long walks home. The duality of Belgrade’s urban situation with old and new Belgrade mediated through river banks and the fortress was much more difficult to handle. The two parts have their separate history and the city as a whole constantly negotiates their different rhythms and scales. They share, however, the political background of urban decisions and ownership transitioning from social (neither public nor private) to private and all that these imply. Lectures given by urban professionals and civic society leaders communicated many facts on contemporary urban issues in Belgrade, but also raised even more dilemmas. Issues like commodification of urbanscape have generated very different outcomes in old and new Belgrade. Along Terazije grid all the way

01 Intro | Expectations | Ružica Božović Stamenović |

opposed to the old Belgrade as possible highlighting the new, different era, what it actually did was to paste together two historically different cities, Belgrade and Zemun transforming Belgrade into a cosmopolitan urban pastiche on the river banks. However, for our international workshop participants the issues of continuity immerged in many even more interesting ways too. Just looking at the board with five key words asked from all students at the early stage of the workshop revealed that their responses are the continuity of who they are, shaped by their respective cultures, context and education. The interesting content suggested by key words is beyond the point, but striking for me was the sheer graphical form with two distinct extremes: exactly five keywords presented in orderly manner from my Singapore student and a baroque cartoon like story from a Belgrade student. Telling the story turned up to resonate with the storyteller. The words had their literal meaning, but the ways in which they were exposed suggested the importance of their semantic relevance and value. Example of orderly presented words in a way could be read as reflecting the efficiency and prescriptive professional seriousness in dealing with urban themes, so characteristic for Singapore. On the other side, the freestyle interpretation of key words pictured the overwhelming creative chaos of Belgrade urbanism. Therefore, thinking of Belgrade continuity emerged as inseparable from our own continuities. The very idea of continuity was also almost immediately questioned. The instant response to the theme was spanning from physical space and scale to metaphysical dimensions and meanings with huge emphasis to the later. The transition from descriptive to representational was almost immediate revealing the insufficiency of the material world to respond to the idea of continuity. The


Intro

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

to Kalemegdan fortress the threshold between the public and private domain is in the process of being blurred as public functions extend and penetrate the city blocks both horizontally and vertically. Across the Sava river, however, same phenomena actually creates this boundary as densification generates distinctly new street patterns. Participants perceived this and many more intangible dualities and learned how to juggle based on their own genius intertwined with others in group work. Between the frenzy of busy days and exciting but exhausting nights we all learned how to deal with self and otherness. Otherness And as we did, the ideas emerging from discussions appeared ever more intriguing and overall better. Multiplicity was resonating with the core of Belgrade character. The first ideas that came out of initial discussions had the neutral almost academic tone reflecting the professional routine. The final proposals had changed this patina and emerged in unexpected ways. What happened in between? Aren’t we all taught to apply the acquired knowledge and deal with context using our professional tools –analysis-conclusions-solutions? The generic urban design knowledge was actually melted and reshaped virtually immediately. Tasting Belgrade for a few introductory days was just what was needed to persuade all that mercilessly meddling with notorious professional routine is the only way out. Belgrade urban laboratory fit for complex experiments was immediately recognized as a challenge. Thus, new tools had to be created. Stiff models derived from urban theories did not fit in, or even if they did, appeared so inferior in the face of possibilities that inserting the spirit of otherness opened up. Key words used by different groups to mark

their core concerns and approach were interpreted in unexpected ways even within the same groups. We looked into infrastructure and saw the futuristic transformations of mundane reality. We talked about continuity but we implied anything from physical, stylistic continuity to flow of thoughts, ideas, and philosophy behind the seen. We rethought heritage and public spaces with same poetics and flair of being in between as the groups whose main concern poetics was. Peeking at otherness proved fruitful. Paradox Paradoxically the strength of final ideas on Belgrade continuity was built upon this complete meltdown of any institutionalized urban models and was created from primordial chaos of words like individuality, phantasm, illusions, connection and disconnection, timeless, rootless, poetic, ephemeral, fear, gipsy….. Knowing less about the city or ignoring the known proved to be an advantage for both guests and hosts. The spirits were high as the so called urban reality was dissected and appeared so surreal in the process that it was easily discarded. Conquering the real to embrace the surreal was the very noteworthy outcome of the workshop. Belgrade hosts knew this technique very well as it had always been the beacon of bare mental survival in this city. The surprising part is that guests from the developed Asian and European countries, overwhelmed by complexity and faced with remnants of destruction embedded in grim Belgrade streets also turned from the intellectualized rationality of Corbusian planning theories and immersed into the surreal. Walter Benjamin’s flaneur was unleashed in both groups. Then, the bold political and urban Machiavellism was confronted with joyful easiness of creative


Dream Dream is a noun and a verb. It is a fact, a course of action and the ultimate key word for Belgrade’s continuity. In dreams time and space intertwine. In dreams disconnected sequences make perfect sense. In dreams the static momentum of perfection is replaced with randomness, unrest, pulsating interfaces and many more attributes actually perfectly describing both the past and the emerging Belgrade urbanity. Achieving the ideal is not on the agenda. Moving towards it is, through understanding the mechanism of contention and vitality on the edge between real and virtual. If Belgrade urban continuity is taken as a dream, it is a perfect one. In final projects the number of proposed virtual spaces and increasingly virtual outlook of real spaces defined this new vision for Belgrade urban continuity. In this approach architecture had merely a role of catalyst. It was not important what the solutions were or how they looked like. What mattered was the role they played as this vision for Belgrade continuity was unveiled. The outcomes of this workshop, the time spent together, the words exchanged in many languages, the drawings and sequences of individual creative ideas put together affirmed that to complete the dream of Belgrade continuity is eventually possible. For me, at least, this was an ultimate triumph of this workshop. P.S.The issues of my continuity are however, still work in progress.

01 Intro | Expectations | Ružica Božović Stamenović |

ideas. The concept of striving towards creating perfect spaces is just pushed aside as obsolete and replaced with this exciting process of creating a phantasm, but one in which all choose to believe as real and possible.


Intro

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Giovanni Ruffini University of Firenze Faculty of Architecture Firenze Italy

Since the first moment, when we - professors and researchers – started to think about the organization and the possibilities of this international workshop, I felt a double kind of expectations arising in my intimacy. On one hand an obvious concern about the didactic and professional results we should try to get from the joint efforts of teachers and students and with the support of local experts, in reading the complex urban issues presented by such a magical and breath-taking study area as Kalemegdan Fortress and Park, in just a two weeks period with very inhomogeneous groups of students. On the other hand, I recognize I was feeling a sort of anxiety, a very strong desire to introduce the foreigner students and to share with the Serbian students my personal experience and vision of the soul of the incredibly rich and multi-layered city – talking about local cultural identity - that is Belgrade. In this sense my first concern was to avoid the error, even if unconscious, to give a too subjective clue, distorted by my personal way of interpreting urban phenomena and relationships that determine the deep essence of a city. At the same time it doesn’t mean that students should try to be objective and neutral in reading and describing what is ultimately their personal and extremely subjective perception of the city. Therefore the main expectations were about instilling awareness of the complexity of the urban reality, about opening eyes and doors on the imagination – intended here as a mix of interpretation and representation - of the elusive and often indescribable essence of (urban) places. But subjectivity and individual preconcepts

shouldn’t overcome in any case the main academic aim of the workshop, that is, as specified in the Topic and general approach section of this book, a training to work in an international and multicultural project group, trying to compose in an harmonic synthesis – not forgetting that even the dissonances in these contemporary times can rightfully participate in the construction of a symphony – a variety of cultural approaches and different views on urban reality. To solve the dilemma and the (apparent) contradiction between subjectivity and complexity, between multicultural vision and local identity, my expectations were concentrated on two basic concept that the workshop should contribute to unearth and illustrate in their deep meaning to the SerbianItalian-Japanese-Singaporean-and-German students. First, speaking about urban design in a such dense place (dense of history, significance, meanings and symbols, cultural and ecological and economic value...) as Kalemegdan Fortress, it should be clear that they should provide an idea or better a project for a process instead than simple architectural design. In my opinion there’s a stronger didactic value, for the educational path of architects and planners, in identifying actors and forces that give physical shape to the elements that compose the urban landscape than in a careful design for a park bench or a touristic information totem. Second, the workshop should clarify to the students the great importance of communication in an urban design process: communication between the members of the international group, communication between the groups, communication between students and teachers and local experts, communication with the city’s inhabitants and visitors and administrators, communication about the interpretation of the city - from a subjective analysis to a


bivalent nature of a Crossroads and of a Centre. Belgrade is there because is a crossroads: confluence of rivers with a continental breath, crossroads of age-old paths connecting different worlds and civilizations... obviously a crossroads is a place of meeting or clashing, especially when for its importance it raises to the level of a centre. Since the development of the first prehistoric civilization of an European scale, that took the name from its main capital settlement Vinča, just few miles from Belgrade of present times, to the city that has been the federal capital of a multicultural-multilingualmultireligional country, the hinge between East and West, Europe and Asia, and thereafter between capitalism and communism, USA and URSS, the rich North and the poor South, Belgrade has been a global city and the urban centre of whole southeast Europe. It is a recent fact that the image of this city is presented as an almost exclusive Serbian city, that is a contradiction with its real, deep, local identity. Belgrade is actually the capital of Serbia, but I’m also sure that the genius loci of this city is much wider. I was curious, both professionally and personally speaking, to see if this contradiction could emerge also during the workshop, in the results of the meeting-and clashing works of the international groups of students or even in their parties and free time. But it didn’t happened. I can assure that the parties were pure multicultural fun, while the panels presented in the final exhibition show genuine efforts to read in deep the relationships that link the transformations of urban spaces with local and global phenomena through the flow of time. All of that, in just two weeks, by groups of students very inhomogeneous by country, cultural backgrounds, age, experience... Again, I found big difference on the level of integration and fellowship of the groups (... it should

01 Intro | Expectations | Giovanni Ruffini |

group synthesis -, communication of the project basic concepts for a revitalization of the blazing core of the Belgrade. During the workshop I literally didn’t have the time neither the readiness to recognize what was happening: given my position of tutor, perhaps closer to students than the one of professors, I was too busy with practical/logistical problems and with the not-so-easy task of smoothing tensions and misunderstandings between so many different points of view and individual sensibilities, between the conflicting needs of deepening the study and producing interesting works, between working time and free time - that had a very strong role in the universally recognized success of the workshop, at least speaking in terms of satisfaction for all the participants. In the conclusions only, during the installation of the final exhibition, and maybe more intensely in the awarding certificates ceremony, remembering the debate between professors, researchers and local experts that followed the presentations of the final results by the seven thematic groups River, Heritage, Poetic spaces, Green spaces, Spontaneous spaces, Infrastructure and In between , I started to recognize that something great happened in the two weeks of the workshop. Looking at the drawings presented in the exhibition, even if finding strong imbalances between the level reached by different groups in interpreting and designing the revitalization of Kalemegdan Fortress and Park, I realized that, as usual, what emerged with a strong emphasis was the capacity of the city of Belgrade to represent itself through the eyes of the careful urban reader, the capacity to unveil its genuine welcoming spirit, hidden in the folds of a turbulent history and under the gruff facade of its bubbly nowadays present. I always felt that Belgrade presents the am-


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

be very strange the opposite...), but in this sense the general success of the workshop has been extremely satisfactory and the desire to go on with further collaboration shared between (almost) all the participants. It’s very funny to check on the social networks on the web the comments and the new friendships that have sprung from the workshop – not just virtual friendships, but real friendships with home-visit and so on... In some cases also professional collaborations in international students competition... Not surprisingly, the workshop left a strong impression in all the participants, but the wish to return to Belgrade was so strong for two Italian students that they decided to prepare their bachelor thesis about a revitalization plan for the Kosančićev venac neighbourhood, the more ancient inhabited part of the city, adjacent to Kalemegdan fortress, so they came back for a three months period to study the capital’s heritage. This is probably, in my opinion, the most important follow-up of the workshop.

Intro

Keywords: project/process [in urban design needful is to think to a project of a process: it’s process design] communication [the city is communication / communication makes the city] crossroads/centre [in this world there is not one urban center without a crossroads]


01 Intro | Expectations | Giovanni Ruffini |


Ben Sassen Bauhaus Universit채t Faculty of Media Weimar Germany

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Intro

Expectations


01 Intro | Expectations | Ben Sassen |


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Lorenzo Tripodi Bauhaus Universit채t Faculty of Media Weimar Germany

Intro

Belgrade. Capturing the breath of the white city. Experience of collaborative urban survey with the group of students of the course of Experimental Television, Prof. Ben Sassen, Bauhaus University Weimar. No object better than a city is suitable for such a practice of collaborative description. The city in itself is the result of a plural perspective, is the material embodiment of social practice and conflictive processes, its identity is forged through a continuous stratification of discourses and mediated discursive practices. As students of media, our attention will be particularly focussed on those discourses and practices setting the image of the city, on its perceived space. The workshop will concentrate on capturing the identity of a locality with a specific interest in its representational space. We deal with imagined and built landscapes, investigating over the relationship among those two faces: on one side the image of the city, unceasingly produced and reproduced by linguistic acts, narratives, or processes of signification; on the other, the production of spaces as resulting from physical construction and technical integration. We will focus on two poles of the city of Belgrade. Two centres, which in very different moments generated a process of growth of the city: the Old Fortress and the New City. The ancient militarized core of the city, today a void, an empty space but almost saturated with historical and political meanings, and the new centre built by the

modern aspiration towards technically determined and effective organization of the territory (and population). The first object of our attention will be the relationship between those two elements of the urban landscape, drafting an ideal line that connects them in historical, geographical and social terms. Our survey will be developed along this line, tracing a cross section of the city determined by our curiosity and our will to give light to the aspects which better capture our instinctive attention. Participants will have freedom to use any techniques in order to note and capture elements of the physical or social landscape, including the use of photo cameras, sketchbooks, audio recorders, video cameras or collecting objects. The workshop will be held in the frame of the international student exchange taking place among the universities of Belgrade, Florence, Tokyo and Singapore, to which we will participate with a certain grade of autonomy. Our time schedule is different and will allow us only a partial cooperation. Nevertheless, objectives and modality of work of the whole event are consistent with our project, and we are expected to present some elaboration which will be integrated in its outcomes, including a catalogue and a website. The main focus of the international exchange program will be the Old Fortress, which provide us a solid starting point and a good introduction to the city and its issues. From that point on, our group will progressively turn into its specific path of research towards Novi Beograd, to get finally back to the confrontation with the rest of the group. Apart from a daily moment of briefing and coordination, and the fixed meetings with the other groups, every participant will be allowed to choose its own modality and timing to tackle the explora-


tion. On the contrary, the selection of the route of exploration, to say, the line which the “cross section” will follow, and the thematic focus or perspective assigned to every student will be decided from the beginning on the basis of a common discussion.

domain. It provides us a romantic image or common lieux to decipher.

The following piece about Novi Beograd is taken from Wikipedia. It is a brief and incomplete description, but nevertheless contains some interesting information:

water (city of) Flows / static city memory / erasure Industrialization / post-industrial turn (ancient times) modernity / postmodernity construction / distruction (substitution) image / space (production)

This small narrative provides us a series of significant inputs, which can trigger our curiosity and prepare us for the search. It tells us about the connection with the water and the river. It connects the site with a geography of flows, which starts from water and sand to end up with commuters, traffic, data, money. It speaks about the memory of the places, and the social construction of identities which arises from it. It reports the industrialization of the construction process which is characteristics of modernity. It suggest us destruction as a complementary part to construction, in the urban field as in any other

01 Intro | Expectations | Lorenzo Tripodi |

The main physical characteristic of Novi Beograd is its flatness, which poses a high contrast to the old Belgrade which is altogether built on 32 hills. Except for its western section, Bežanija, Novi Beograd is built on terrain that was essentially a swamp when construction of the new city began in 1948. For years, kilometers long conveyer belts were transporting sand from the Danube’s island of Malo Ratno Ostrvo, almost completely destroying the island in the process, from which only a small, narrow strip of wooded land remains today. Thus, it is romantically said that Novi Beograd is actually built on an island.(wikipedia)

This will be our first outline for an exploration plan, providing some keywords to focus on, with relative antinomies and corollaries:


Workshop info incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Organization University of Belgrade – Faculty of Architecture; Belgrade; Serbia. Initiators University of Firenze – Faculty of Architecture – LabPSM – Laboratory – City and Territory in Southern Countries; Firenze; Italy University of Belgrade – Faculty of Architecture – PaPs – Public Art and Public Space program; Belgrade; Serbia

Intro

Partners Academic partners: Keio University – Department of Systems Design Engineering; Tokyo; Japan National University of Singapore – Department of Architecture; Singapore Bauhaus-Universität – Faculty of Media; Weimar; Germany Other academic partners: Public Art and Public Space program; Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade; Belgrade; Serbia co+labo radovic; Keio University – Department SDE; Tokyo; Japan IKI; International Keio Institute for Architecture and Urbanism; Tokyo; Japan Non-academic partners: Public Enterprise „Belgrade Fortress“ +SUD – Association for International Cooperation in Urban and Regional Planning; Firenze; Italy Participants The selected group of about 60 students and pro-

fessors from five faculties with high interests in fields of spatial planning, town planning, urban design, architectural design, media, cross-cultural research, eco-urbanity, from around the world are invited to attend this special workshop. University of Firenze, Italy: 17 students + 2 professor + 1 tutors Keio University, Japan: 8 students + 1 professor National University of Singapore: 3 students + 1 professor Bauhaus-Universität, Germany: 7 students + 2 professor + 1 tutor University of Belgrade, Serbia: 15 students + 1 professor + 1 tutor Groups/team work The deliverable of the workshop will be a group drill organized through international teams of students (4-7 students per each team, 10-20 teams in total). During the first week of activities the students will aggregate in groups/teams on the base of personal preferences, specific statement/issues/themes, but also according to precise rules given by the tutors and professors to balance genders, countries and level of experience. Non-Academic support Organizer will provide support of experts from different scientific and practice fields, following the specific needs of selected topic and particular interests of participants. Workshop will also involve


Target and context area The target area: Belgrade Fortress The context area: city of Belgrade The focus of the exhibition/publication will be the Belgrade Fortress, assuming that some of the groups could eventually include the whole city as the context area. Timetable Total working time is proposed as 40+40 working hours (with one weekend in the middle): • theoretical lectures (first week’ mornings – 16 hours approx) • on-the-field visits (first week’ afternoons – 16 hours approx) • workshop activities/deliverables (second week daily – 32 hours; groups can visit target area individually if needed; additional lectures can be supplied if requested by some group) • final event – final presentation of the workshop - Friday 25th, 8 hours • organization issues • it will be possible to organize a one-day excursion out of Belgrade on Saturday 19th of June to visiting other fortress in the neighbour area Materials Every group will be provided with a basic set of tools and data, such as maps of the city and of the target area, ortho-photo, digital cartography and other necessary data. Deliverables and final event Possible form of the deliverables: poster for indoor/

outdoor exhibition, printed reports, material for website presentation, papers or ppt. presentations, physical models, films, photo documentation etc. Oral presentation of the participants is obligatory. Expected outcome Book and exhibition. Possibilities for further impacts The Workshop „Incomplete Dream of Belgrade Continuity“ has the opportunity to be (or not to be) part of the greater, long-term Project „Revitalization of Belgrade Fortress“ within the wider frame of the official Plan and Program of the Public Enterprise (PE) „Belgrade Fortress“ for 2010. The project is in progress and is being realized on the initiative of PE „Belgrade Fortress“, in cooperation, among others, with University of Belgrade – Faculty of Architecture and, more particularly with the program Public Art & Public Space (University of Belgrade, Faculty of Architecture). The Project is financed by the City of Belgrade – Secretary of Culture.

01 Intro | Workshop info |

relevant representatives of city government, local municipalities, public enterprises and others.


Topic and general approach

Intro

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Starting point We are now living in the scraps and leftovers of Belgrade. The blazing core – its heart and its kernel – the essence of Belgrade is right in that place where the City is now absent – in the Belgrade Fortress. That is where the White City has been conceived. That is where the seed has germinated, from which Belgrade has sprouted. That is where the City used to be, that City which we have found when we settled in this land, and dazzled by its whiteness we called it Belgrade – the White City. So we have decided to stay and remain right here. We moved and fled from every other place except this one, this is the only place where we have always belonged, the place that we always returned to. Thus we have built it with our dreams, determination and hopes… and lastly, now we have just forgotten it. Nowadays, only shards of the City grounds stick out of that temporal soil, with no body and no roof, lost in the holes in our memories. It is leaking through these holes into our house, and we are not even aware of it, being lazy to remember and spoiled to dream even in the corners of the dreams once dreamt but never fully reached. Those citizens of Belgrade who witnessed the City’s existence within the Fortress, and who could recall it vividly, are no more among us. However, the City is remembered in the grounds hidden below the sediments of centuries, and it is embodied in the old engravings and photographs, in travellers’ chronicles and biographies, letters and reports, decrees and orders, even in the accounts of vario23weus national and Belgrade public expenses, which are scattered and silently kept in royal museums, archives and libraries. They all bear witness of the whiteness that once used to exist there, of what we have inherited even though

it is not there anymore; they all speak about what this Place remembers in spite of our short lasting minds. We who are here today cannot do anything else but to lick this wound which is now slowly healing into the Park on the Belgrade Fortress. If we lose it all, at least we would have our dreams. But if we lose our dreams, we would lose it all. Intention It has been almost two thousand years since the CITY has been erected in the Belgrade Fortress area, where it has permanently remained to exist. Only in the past sixty years the CITY has given up and disappeared, so it is not there anymore. Instead of it, we cherish a magnificent park now on its ramparts, at the grounds of its ghostly buildings... But had we been so fortunate as to have the CITY at the Belgrade Fortress persist and last, had it not been demolished and eventually destroyed, what CITY would it be in the place where the park is? What would have been if the Belgrade Fortress was still a CITY? How would Belgrade appear today if the “White City” was still shining white from the Fortress? What meaning would it have for present, modern Belgrade? What would have been, had it been…? These are all questions that this Workshop will not try to give final answers to, but rather it should serve as incitement to their thoughtful examination. In the years to come – may God give us good health and wisdom – we shall continue… keeping the flame alive, and also preserving the ashes... Aim The main academic aim of the Workshop is to build up the student’s capacity of critical description, inclusive/participatory development and sustainable design of specific urban areas. It is strongly advised not to expect creating a


International exchange The workshop stems from the belief that the variety of cultural approaches and sharing of different views on the urban reality is an essential factor of enrichment of the educational path of architects and urban planners. Working in an international - multicultural group with people from ‘other’ cultures and with different background helps to deepen the analytical reading of the urban context and to overcome individual pre-concepts. Last but not least, this kind of international exchange strongly promotes cross-cultural and trans-cultural understanding of the otherness which emerges to valid mutual statements on city life and finally to better design. Complex and multidisciplinary urban issues The contemporary city is characterized by a cultural and morphological complexity, which includes a multiplicity of practices, lifestyles and forms of living and transforming the urban space that requires multifaceted, hybrid and multidisciplinary analytical methodologies. Therefore, the purpose of the international workshop lies in addressing these complex issues through the overlap of reading levels and interpretations of reality, towards a descriptive synthesis able to identify the diverse aspects of conflicts and to orient responsive and intervening projects.

Local/global interrelations It is considered extremely important to stimulate the ability to read the relationship between local reality and global phenomena. In this sense, the location of this workshop is of particular interest: the City of Belgrade, characterized by a past of early multiculturalism, a local identity addressed by its very nature - the fruitful encounter between East and West, the mix of cultures, languages, religions. In recent years this true federal capital, has seen violent upset of its system of local/global relationship and its role in the international context, challenged today by strong transformations and parallel strong spatial, economic and social imbalances. Representation/communication of urban landscape and project The workshop will start with the reading (knowledge), representation (description) and exposure (communication) of the characteristics of the identity of places, between transformations and persistence, aiming to identify and to highlight some spatial and social elements, latent but potentially reliable, on which to base a design response to the problems that plague the area. Instead of defining the precise circumstances of the project, students will be engaged in a creative description of the study area, which will inevitably contain diverse interpretation of the urban/human landscape characterized for each group. The quality of communication is the key for the nucleus of consistent and culturally sustainable design vision.

01 Intro | Topic and general approach |

comprehensive document for all possible social, morphological, functional, ecological, economical, etc. components characterizing the site. On the contrary, the ability of students to develop the maximum depth of vision will be much appreciated, even if they are starting from a very specific approach.


Arrival and country presentations incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Arrival The selected group of about 60 students and professors from five faculties with high interests in fields of spatial planning, town planning, urban design, architectural design, media, cross-cultural research, eco-urbanity, from around the world are invited to attend this special workshop. Accommodation After a warm welcome and reception, guests invigorated from their long journeys.

Intro

Official start After the first encounter, introduction and general information, everything was ready for representation of each participant, and therefore the official start of the workshop.


Representatives of the countries University of Belgrade Faculty of Architecture Belgrade Serbia

Host on behalf of University of Belgrade: Provost - Professor Dr Pavle Ivetić Host on behalf of Faculty of Architecture: Dean - Professor Vladimir Mako, PhD

Professor: Prof. Zoran Đukanović Tutor: Aleksandar Bobić

Students: Božo Pejaković Enisa Vejselović Igor Mišković Isidora Marčetić Mila Paunović Milena Solujić Miloš Mihajlović Nebojša Prokić

Nemanja Marković Nevena Mitrović Predrag Jovanović Sibel Baş Vesna Šunjkić Vladimir Kovač Vladimir Parežanin 01 Intro | Arrival and country presentations |

Participiants on the workshop: 15 students + 1 professor + 1 tutor


Representatives of the countries incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

University of Firenze Faculty of Architecture Firenze Italy

Guest on behalf of Italian embassy in Belgrade Participiants on the workshop: 17 students + 2 professor + 1 tutor Professor: Prof. Raffaele Paloscia Prof. Giovanni Ruffini

Intro

Tutor: Elena Tarsi

Students: Adriano Statello Andrea Saladini Carmelita Breccione Mattucci Cecilia Caldini Claudia Roselli Gianluca Bertoldi Giulia Carlone Giulio Becattini

Jacopo Bardi Luca Montanari Matteo Scamporrino Michele Morbidoni Polya Genedieva Yordanova Pietro Facendola Rita Biconne Sara Bartolini Serena Francini


Representatives of the countries Keio University Department of System Design Engineering Yokohama Japan

Participiants on the workshop: 8 students + 1 professor Professor: Prof. Darko Radović

Students: Hiroki Yoshitake Hirotaka Yokose Katsuhito Komatsu Koshiro Torii

Ryosuke Fujii Shigeru Rakuman Takaaki Watanabe Takashi Takei 01 Intro | Arrival and country presentations |

Guest on behalf of Japan embassy in Belgrade


Representatives of the countries incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

National University of Singapore Department of Architecture Singapore Singapore

Participiants on the workshop: 3 students + 1 professor

Intro

Professor: Prof. Ružica Božović Stamenović

Students:

Felicia Lin Yanle Gracia Vera Quek Jia Min Mervin Tan


Representatives of the countries Bauhaus-Univesit채t Faculty of Media Weimar Germany

Participiants on the workshop: 7 students + 2 professor + 1 tutor

Tutor: Sandra Naumann

Students: Alexander Klosch Eduardo Donoso Katrin Linke

Larissa Wunderlich Melanie Schumann Melissa Chollet Eva Thinius 01 Intro | Arrival and counntry presentations |

Professor: Prof. Ben Sassen Prof. Lorenzo Tripodi


WELCOME/SERBIAN PARTY

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Sibel

Cc

Mila

Peđa

Milena

Bota

Enisa

Neca

Mishke

Vesna

Milosh

Nevena

Kovach

Parezanin

“ЧОКАЊЧИЋЕМ ЋУ ме ЧОКАЊЧИЋЕМ ћеш ТЕ” Serbian tounge-twister


Bocko

Ä?uka

Nexy

This first, welcoming party was serbian themed. It was, also, the wildest of them all :). At first, everyone was shy, but then rakia started to connect different cultures. By the end of the night people were dancing like crazy :).

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Serbian party marked the great start of the Workshop and two weeks of fun.


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About Belgrade fortress

The position of Belgrade fortress and model. Brief history of Belgrade fortress. Sightseeing tour of the fortress. Lectures in Kazamati: Dejan Miljković and Branislav Mitrović. Visiting Military museum.

Belgrade bus tour

Old city - New Belgrade - Zemun - Gardoš, guided tour.

Intro workshop: Zoran Đukanović and Raffaele Paloscia. Cultural discourse: Borka Pavićević. Planning in the wild side (of Danube river): Giovanni Ruffini. Management discourse: Milica Joksić, Žaklina Gligorijević and Dejan Vasović.

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Lectures


About Belgrade fortress The position of Belgrade fortress and model Belgrade fortress was demolished and rebuilt again for centuries. Fortress always was recalling the time of unrest and conflict. For these reasons, its dominant purpose in this moment is park. Fort is situated at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, in Old Belgrade. Area of ​​land under the fortress is 66 ha. Zoo occupies 6ha. Only 12% of it is archaeologically explored. Below the fortress is a system of tunnels, catacombs, developed at different times. It is estimated that the tunnel system occupies the same area as the fort itself.

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All maps, images and texts about Belgrade fortress, in this chapter, are courtesy of JP Beogradska tvrđava. www.beogradskatvrdjava.co.rs


3D model was made by Anđelka Borović and Milana Aleksić.

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Brief history of Belgrade fortress

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Beginnings of settlement The strategically convenient location of the ridge at the confluence of the Sava and the Danube, which dominates the surroundings and enables control over the plain from its north and west side, had been inhabited since prehistoric times. Based on the archaeological findings at the Upper Town’s plateau of the Belgrade Fortress, the first settlement originates during the Neolithic period. Singidunum Significant changes at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers occurred during the period following the unsuccessful march on Delphi in 279 BC. Upon their arrival at the territory surrounding the River Danube, the Celts – Scordisci, led by Batant, first came across the Illyrian tribe of Autariati and other Thracian and Illyrian tribes. The presence of the two different ethnic elements is indeed reflected in the town’s name: Singidunum is a compound of Thracian and Dacian tribal name Singi and Celtic word for town – dunum. After settling down, the Celts, who were great warriors, developed agriculture and pottery, and started making coins by the middle of the 2nd century BC. Relevant archaeological findings show that Celtic Singidunum was actually situated in the area of what is now Karaburma instead of the area of the Upper Town of the Belgrade Fortress. The roman military camp The first Roman military camp was established at the beginning of the 1st century, most likely between the year 6 and 11 AD, as a response to repeated attacks of the barbarian tribes against the ridge over the confluence of the Sava and the Danube. At the beginning of the 2nd century, Sin-

gidunum became the base of the IV Flavia legion. This legion was also called Felix, meaning lucky, due to its war successes. The first Roman fortification was a palisade, soon after a military camp – castrum was built. The castrum had a rectangular basis, 560 metres long and approximately 350 metres wide. It was situated in the area of today’s Upper Town with a part of Kalemegdan Park up to the Pariska Street. Parts of Roman ramparts with remains of the four-angled tower have been excavated under the layers of later fortifications and can be seen today at the northwest wall of the Upper Town. During the reign of Hadrian (117138), Singidunum had a status of a municipium ‘the settlement with a restricted self-governance’. The status of a colony, i.e. a town enjoying complete Roman civic rights, was obtained between the years 211 and 287. After the partition of the Roman Empire in the year 395, Singidunum was included in the Eastern Roman Empire-Byzantium. Migrations and Byzantine Singidunum Situated at the crossroads, Singidon – as the Byzantines called the city at the confluence of the Sava and the Danube – was an unavoidable place for many people who were passing by or staying in during the Great Migration. Under the leadership of Attila, the Huns broke through in the Balkans in the year 411, destroying a number of towns, Singidon being among them. After Attila’s death, the Huns’ state disintegrated, while the area of Singidon was settled by the tribes of Eastern Goths, Gepidaes, Sarmatians. The leader of the Ostrogoths, Theodoric conquered Singidon in the year 471 and had rule for 17 years, until his departure for Italy. The Byzantine emperor Anastasius I allowed the tribe of Heruli to settle the territory of Singidon. Being aware of the importance of the border towns in the struggle


Slavic Belgrade Byzantine emperor and historian Constantine Porphyrogenitus wrote that the Serbs got to Singidunum on the way to the Balkans. The whiteness of the limestone ridge, with the remains of early Byzantine fortress built from the stone of the same geological composition and colour, had clearly stood out from the rest of the surrounding, which clearly determined the Slavic name of the town: White Town – Beograd. There is no certain data when the Slavs built their own town, but it is believed it occurred between somewhere the 8th and 9th century. The Slavic name of the town, Beograd, was recorded for the first time on 16th April 878 in the letter of the Pope John VIII to the Bulgarian prince Boris. The Pope mentioned the Slav Sergius as the head of the Belgrade episcopate. The Byzantines, Hungarians, Bulgarians and the crusaders in Belgrade During the 9th and 10th century, Belgrade was under Bulgarian rule, and in the 11th and 12th century under the Byzantine. In these turbulent times, Belgrade was destroyed and renewed more than once. Numerous different crusader armies passed over the territory of Belgrade several times. After the crusader’s invasions in 1096 and 1147, in the Third crusade in 1189, Belgrade was the centre of Frederick I Barabarossa’s crusader army. Reestablishing the border at the Danube during the reign of Manuel I Comnenus (1143-1180) the Byzantine Empire showed interest in Belgrade by

renewing the town’s fortifications. Several towers and walls were built following the principles of Byzantine military architecture, as well as the deltoid castle in the Upper town, which was 135 metres long and 60 metres wide. During the entire 13th century Belgrade was, apart smaller interruptions, in the hands of Hungarians. Serbia and Belgrade In 1282, Serbian king Dragutin gave up his throne in favor of his younger brother Milutin at the council in Deževo, and got a part of Serbian country to govern. Dragutin was married to Katarina, the daughter of Hungarian king Stephen V, from whom he got Mačva with Belgrade to rule over in 1284. Historical records about Belgrade in this period are very poor. It is known for sure that the Byzantine princess and Serbian queen Simonida visited Belgrade, most probably in 1315. On that occasion, Simonida made an obeisance to the icon of Holy Mother, which was considered to be miraculous and the greatest sanctity ever since 1070s. Belgrade remained Serbian until Dragutin’s death in 1316. In March that year, king Milutin took Dragutin’s region and held it until 1319, when Hungarians attacked and conquered Belgrade. Although the later Serbian rulers, tsar Stefan Dušan and duke Lazar fought against Hungarians on several occasions, the situation had not changed significantly – Belgrade remained in the Hungarian hands until the beginning of the 15th century. Belgrade – The capital of the Serbian state After the battle of Angora in 1402, Stefan Lazarevic, the son of duke Lazar, was given a title of despot by the Byzantine Emperor, while Hungarian king Zsigmund gave him Belgrade to rule over. Thus, in 1404, Belgrade became, in a diplomatic way, for the first time the capital of the Serbian state, and

02 Input | About Belgrade fortress | Brief history of Belgrade fortress |

against barbarians, the emperor Iustinian I (527565) started with the renewal of Singidon just before the beginning of the year 535. Procopius, Iustinian’s court writer, noted that the emperor surrounded the town with strong ramparts turning it into a ‘city of great glory’.


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therefore its military, economic and cultural centre. Since the town was, according to the Constantine the Philosopher, ‘ruined and uncared for’, the despot began renewing old and building the new fortifications, as well as the town walls and towers. Belgrade was divided in two parts: the Upper and the Lower Town. The town was surrounded by double walls with towers and trench from the mainland. In the Upper Town, at the place of the former Byzantine castel, despot built a castle, with especially strong walls with towers and a trench, and the entrance over a drawbridge. There was a court inside the castle, and the two towers – Nebojša and Bojša, houses of the aristocracy, chapel, library and a treasury. During the reign of despot Stefan Lazarević, Belgrade enjoyed both economic and cultural prosperity. After the death of despot Stefan in 1427, Belgrade again fell in the hands of Hungarians, who started to enhance and fortify the fortress, due to the more frequent attacks of the Turkish army. Turkish Belgrade Belgrade was defended against Turkish attacks for the first time in 1440. Sultan Mehmed II, the conqueror of Constantinople, undertook the Great campaign against Belgrade in 1456. After great battles on the rivers, with outstanding Serbs- ‘šajkaši’, and on the ground, Belgrade managed to defend and became ‘Antemurale Christianitatis`, the wall of Christianity. During the third siege of Belgrade in 1521, Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent succeeded to conquer the town. At that time, Belgrade became a very important stronghold for their further movement towards the heart of Europe. The town field in front of the Fortress was named Kalemegdan (kale - town, megdan – field), and the hill on which the Fortress was built, was called ‘ficir bair’ – hill for contemplation. From this period, only two of many Turkish buildings at the Belgrade For-

tress are preserved: the fountain of Mehmed-pasha Sokolović (second half of the 16th century) and the tomb (turbeh) of Damad Ali-Pasha (18th century).

Baroque Belgrade After almost two centuries of Turkish rule, Austria began to rule over Belgrade in 1688 and at once started to build a modern fortress based on the design of engineer Andrea Cornaro. However, the Turks took over the town in 1690. During the siege, a Turkish bomb hit one of the towers in the Lower Town. The fire caught gunpowder storage and the explosion was so strong that it completely destroyed the castle of despot Stefan Lazarević, with casualties of over one thousand people. The Turks worked on restoring fortifications guided by Cornaro’s design, as he joined their service. Austria took over Belgrade and again began new constructions of walls bastions and earthwork. Colonel Nicolaus Doxat De Morez managed the works. The Belgrade Fortress became one of the strongest military strongholds in Europe. According to the Belgrade Peace Treaty in 1739, Turkey got the town without fight. Following a clause of this peace treaty, Austria was obliged to destroy all newly built fortifications. Once again Austria succeeded in taking over Belgrade in October 1789. By the Treaty of Svishtova in 1791,


Belgrade fortress in the modern times At the beginning of the 19th century, after the murder of the commander of Belgrade town, Hadji Mustaf – Pasha, janissaries controlled the town and the neighbouring villages. The terror of janissaries and the events around the ‘Decapitation of the dukes’ led to national awakening and the First Serbian Uprising in 1804, headed by Karađorđe Petrović. The rebels had taken the town in 1806 and the Fortress in 1807. After the debacle of the Uprising in 1813, the Turks ruled over the Fortress again until they finally left Belgrade. The Turkish commander of Belgrade handed over the keys of the town to prince Mihajlo Obrenović at Kalemegdan on 6/19 April 1867. Serbian soldiers replaced Turkish military guards and the flag of Serbia was raised next to the Turkish one. After this period, the importance of the Fortress as the military stronghold decreased. The first works on arranging the town field Kalemegdan started in 1869. During March 1891, the pathways were cut through and the trees were planted; in 1903 the Little Staircase was built, based on the project of Jelisaveta Načić, the first woman architect in Serbia, while the Big Staircase, designed by architect Aleksandar Krstić, was built in 1928. All old buildings were ruined in the First World War, while the fortifications were considerably damaged. The park got its present appearance between the two world wars. The promenade along the Sava bank was made together with the Big Staircase on the road to the Kings Gate and newly built statue ‘Victor’. The first archaeological research started in this period and is still on-going. The Belgrade Fortress and Kalemegdan were placed under the state protection in 1946.

Belgrade in the third millenium The life at the ridge over the confluence of the Sava and the Danube has lasted for over two millenniums. Six centuries elapsed since Belgrade became the capital for the first time in its history. The core of today’s two million agglomerations is the Belgrade fortress and the Kalemegdan Park. They form a unique spatial entity with clearly visible remains of the Fortress divided into Upper and Lower Town, with two distinct styles – elements of medieval architecture combined with dominant baroque solutions typical for the 18th century. The Kalemegdan Park, Large and Little, developed in the area that once was the town field, are the place of rest and joy. The Belgrade Fortress and the Kalemegdan Park together represent a cultural monument of exceptional importance, the area where various sport, cultural and arts events take place, and are fun and joy for all generations of Belgraders and numerous visitors of the city.

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Austrians left Belgrade, and the janissaries were forbidden to enter the Belgrade pashadom.


Sightseeing tour of Belgrade fortress guided by Milan D탑odan

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2. Karađorđe Gate (Upper Town) This gate, along with the bridge, serves as a passage from the Large Kalemegdan to the Fortress. It was built in the eighteenth century. It owns its name to the leader of the First Serbian Uprising, Karađorđe, who passed through the gate during the siege of the Fortress at the start of the 1807. The inner side of the gate was renovated in 1953. 3. Guard Building in Big Ravelin (Upper Town) It represents one of the oldest buildings with distinctive features of stylistic architecture. Examination of the relevant historical resources and building itself, which was carried out in 1993, showed that it was built in the period between 1825 and 1835 for the necessities of the guards protecting the main entrance to the Stambol Gate. Presently, it houses the Natural History Museum. 4. Outer Stambol Gate (Upper Town) It is made of finely dressed stones on the eastern side of ravelin in the period between 1750 and 1760. The gate is arched, having a semi-circular vault and massive two-winged doors on the outer side reinforced with horizontal tiles made of wrought iron. Interior of the gate includes niches, casemates and guardrooms.

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1. Monument of Gratitude to France (Kalemegdan) The work of sculptor Ivan Meštrović was ceremoniously unveiled in 1930 in the presence of king Aleksandar Karađorđević. The monument was put up at the initiative of the Society of Friends of France and Society of Former Pupils of the French School in the same location where once stood the memorial dedicated to Karađorđe, which was destroyed during the First World War.


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

5. Inner Stambol Gate (Upper Town) Fortifications at the south-eastern front date from the period of Austrian rule over Belgrade, in early 18th century. They represent the work of military engineer Nicola Doxat de Morez. Provisions set forth in the Belgrade Peace Treaty from 1740 prescribed the demolition of the entire gate at the south-eastern front. In 1739, when Turks started regaining control over Belgrade, they began building new Inner Gate whose grounds lay over the remains of the Austrian gate. This Gate was the main gate on the Constantinople road during the Turkish rule. When Serbia declared war on Turkey in 1876, the pole displaying the Turkish flag was removed from the gate as the last sign of Serbia’s vassal relationship with Turkey.

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6. Sahat Tower and Sahat Gate (Upper Town) At the end of the 17th century, a Venetian constructor Andera Cornaro, built today’s Sahat Gate as a part of restoration works on south-east rampart. This Gate has casemates used for guards, weapons and other military material. Sahat Tower, located above the gate, was built in mid-18th century. The tower was renovated in the middle of the 19th century. 7. Damad Ali Pasha Turbe (Upper Town) This is one of the few well preserved monuments of Islamic culture in Belgrade. The mausoleum was built in 1784 over the tomb of Belgrade’s muhafiz (commanders) Ismet Mehmed Pasha. On a later date, bodies of other two muhafiz were buried here. 8. The Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments, Belgrade (Upper Town) This Building was built at the end of the 19th century for the needs of Serbian army. Since 1960, the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments, Belgrade is located in this building.


10. Big or Roman Well (Upper Town) The well was built during the baroque Austrian reconstruction of the Fortress, in early 18th century, when it was named “The Big Well”. The name “Roman Well”, first mentioned in the 19th century, came as a result of folk tradition according to which most of the structures of forgotten origin were linked to Romans. The well was examined in detail in 1940. Surface waters, which descended from the Upper Town’s plateau filling the well with water, compensated for the lack of natural springs and inability to connect with the River Sava. In such manner, the well served as a tank from which people took water using a special wood mechanism functioning as a pump. 11. King Gate (Upper Town) The gate was built within the south-western rampart, in late 17th century. It got its final shape during the Austrian reconstruction of the Fortress in early 18th century. The gate has a baroque appearance, with a half-vault and rooms located at the inner side of the rampart. 12. Victor monument (Upper Town) The monument is the work of sculptor Ivan Meštrović. Its pedestal is made of stone, while the sculpture representing a man with an pigeon is made of bronze (14 metres high). It was unveiled in 1928 to commemorate the decennial of breaking through the Solun front.

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9. Military underground Bunker (Upper Town) These underground passages, used for anti-air defence in the 90s, are open for public in 2009.


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

13. Remains of the Inner Sava Gate (Archeological sites) Archaeologists working on the reconstruction of the Sava Gate on the Belgrade Fortress, have discovered a part of the rampart and the gate from the 14th century, from the period of Emperor Stefan Dušan’s reign. Ramparts were rebuilt in the later phases, and got their final form in the 18th century.

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14. Remains of Despot Stefan Lazarević Castle (Archeological sites) The remains are still preserved in the northwestern part of the Upper Town. The citadel or inner town was firstly designed as a Byzantium fortress in the 12th century. It was rebuilt during the rule of despot Stefan Lazarević (early 15th century). The castle was completely destroyed during AustrianTurkish fights at the end of the 17th century. 15. Mehmed Pasha Sokolović Fountain (Upper Town) The fountain was put up by Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic in the 2nd half of the 16th century. During the Austrian reconstruction in early 18th century, the trench where the fountain was placed was filled up in order to create a passage to the Lower Town from the Defterdar’s Gate. After this, its appearance changed greatly. The fountain was unearthed in 1938, and since 2006 is operational. 16. Defterdar Gate (Upper Town) Defterdar Gate is located on the north-western ramparts. During the Middle Ages it represented a pedestrian connection between the Upper and Lower Town. The gate got its name after the profession “defterdar” – a person who keeps written records in Turkish army. The gate got its final form in the 18th century.


18. Remains of a Metropolitan Court (Archeological sites) This court was built during the rule of despot Stefan Lazarević. It was a part of the complex of a Metropolitan Court, which was destroyed in a fire during the Turkish siege of Belgrade in 1521. Next to the palace was a church destroyed in the 18th century. 19. Nebojša Tower (Lower Town) This best preserved and biggest medieval tower is located at the end of the north-eastern rampart. The tower was built around 1460 at the very river bank and it protected the entrance to the medieval wharf. This tower was mentioned in the 16th and 17th century by Turkish and European travel writers as a White or Timişoara Tower. It got its current name after the biggest and most successfully defended tower of the Upper Town – Nebojša Tower, which was destroyed after an explosion of a powder magazine in 1690. During the Austrian reconstruction, it was completely reconstructed. The Turks used it as a dungeon. 20. Carlo VI Gate (Lower Town) It is integrated in the north-eastern rampart, and was built in 1736 in the honour of the tsar Carlo VI. The crest on western side is the oldest preserved crest in Belgrade.

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17. Big Powder Magazine (Lower Town) It was built during the Austrian reconstruction in early 18th century. The goal was to make a safe place protected from the enemy artillery. In the middle of the 18th century, the magazine was surrounded by protective wall. Since 1970, the first chamber of “Barutana” houses the National Museum’s Collection of stone Roman sarcophagi, gravestones and altars, assembled during the second half of the 19th century.


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

21. Amam - Old Turkish Bathroom (Lower Town) It originates from the 18th century. There was a powder magazine here, which was destroyed in an explosion in 1690, creating a cutting in the hill. In this cutting the Turks made a bathroom. Currently, the Planetarium of the Astronomical Society “Ruđer Bošković” uses Amam as their premises. 22. Vidin Gate (Lower Town) The gate originates from the 18th century. The first gate was built by the Austrians as a part of defensive system of the north-eastern front, but it was destroyed. At that same place the Turks built today’s Vidin Gate. It got its name after the direction of the road leading to the east, towards Vidin.

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23. Church of St. Petka (Lower Town) It was completed in 1937. in place of an old chapel, above a spring which is considered to have miraculous powers. Architect Miomir Korunović was in charge of the project. While digging the grounds for the church, the bones of Serbian soldiers died while defending Belgrade in 1914-1915 were found. 24. Ružica Church (Lower Town) The church was dedicated to the holiday of the Birth of the Mother of God. The building was at first used as one of the three powder magazines constructed during the period of Austrian reconstruction. In 1867, after the Serbs restored the Fortress into their power, the powder building, with an added bell tower, was turned into a church. In 1924, two bronze figures, which are the work of N. P. Krasnov, were put up at the entrance of the church, one representing a medieval knight and the other a soldier from the First World War.


26. Remains of Roman Castrum (Archeological sites) Within the medieval north-eastern rampart of the Upper Town there are still visible the remains of Roman castrum rampart, built with quader sandstones, and the remains of a rectangular tower. 27. Leopold Gate (Upper Town) It is located in front of the Zindan’s Gate Complex, in a bastion dating from the 17th century. It was named after tsar Leopold, since it was built at the time of his rule. 28. Despot Gate and Castellan Tower (Upper Town) This complex is often referred as to Eastern Upper town’s Gate. During the Middle Ages this was the main entrance to the Fortress. Alongside with the north-eastern rampart, it represents the best preserved segment of the medieval Upper Town dating from the 1st half of the 15th century. The Despot’s Gate is the only one preserved in its original state. Beside the gate there is also a massive quadrangular Castellan’s Tower. It was the home of a fortress commander in the 18th century. This tower was severely damaged during the bombing of Belgrade in 1915. It has been partly reconstructed in 1938. The Castellan’s Tower currently houses the Observatory of the Astronomical Society “Ruđer Bošković”.

02 Input | About Belgrade fortress | Sightseeing tour of Belgrade fortress |

25. Zindan Gate Complex (Upper Town) It was built in the middle of the 15th century. Towers above the gate are identical in shape and purpose, but they are not connected in any way. These towers had more levels which were interconnected. The Turks used the towers’ basement as dungeons for Christians. Hence the name for the whole complex (Turkish word ‘zindan’ stands for dungeon). The towers were reconstructed in 1938.


29. Kazamati (Upper Town) incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Kazamat (casemate) is a fortified gun emplacement or armoured structure from which guns are fired. Originally the term referred to a vaulted chamber in a fortress. Left and right of the Stambol gate are symmetrically placed two bastions of the south-eastern front of the Belgrade Fortress. This rampart has fourteen large vaulted casemates, seven on each side of the gate, with an entrance from the inner trench wall in front of the south-east rampart of the Upper Town.

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Right bastion to the east of the gate, which is approached by a ramp from the inner trench, retained its original shape. On its upper surface were deployed more guns, but today they are not preserved. Guns that are now presented here belong to the setting of the Military Museum. Left bastion, on the opposite side, partially lost its original appearance after the construction of the building of the Military Geographical Institute (now the Military Museum) in the third decade of the century. As part of our guided tour of Belgrade fortress, a lecture was held in Kazamati about the project of reconstruction and revitalisation of Sahat tower, Nebojša tower and Kazamati.


Lections in Kazamati: Project for Nebojša tower Mr. Dejan Miljković Architect Professor at Faculty of Architecture University of Belgrade

Nebojša Tower, a monument of great cultural and historical significance, has lost its function and usage from the previous centuries. It has been empty and closed for public, representing only the time that is long behind us. It is a real pioneer attempt to reconstruct it and make it functional again, adjusting it to modern conditions, yet preserving the authenticity of the Tower. It has been a big challenge and a very difficult task to ensure structure, protect it from flooding and groundwater, while modernizing the space and including it in the cultural life of Belgrade. This kind of intervention on cultural monuments is a pioneer project, the first of its kind in Serbia and the region. End of the construction and successful implementation of this large and very complex project shows that it is possible to bring in the content, without jeopardizing the monument but preserving its authenticity. Works to revitalize the building began in June 2009 and completed in May 2010.

02 Input | About Belgrade fortress | Lectures in Kazamati |

The project of revitalization, conservation and reutilization of Nebojša Tower is the biggest and the most demanding project in the field of heritage preservation and protection in Serbia.


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Lections in Kazamati: Project for Kazamati Mr. Dejan Miljković Architect Professor at Faculty of Architecture

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University of Belgrade

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02 Input | About Belgrade fortress | Lectures in Kazamati |


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Lectures in Kazamati: Reconstruction of Sahat Tower Mr. Branislav Mitrović Architect Corresponding member of Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts Professor at Faculty of Architecture University of Belgrade

The clock (Sahat) tower was built in the 18th century, while the walls of the fortress around it and the tower gate were built up somewhere inbetween the Middle Ages and the construction of the tower itself. This project from 2008 included the functional adaptation of the tower and space surrounded by walls underneath the tower. Cultural and educative content, required by client, is planned, along with obligatory gallery where archeological material from vicinity of the tower is stored (and displayed?). The clock tower is octagonal room with the clock mechanism on top of the stairway. With this project area of the tower would be open for visitors, so adaptation of unstable wooden staircase was necessary. The vertical tower that rises above the fortress opens up a view of the environment through windows at the top. This view includes, in addition to the Belgrade fortress, part of the Old city and New Belgrade across the Sava and Danube rivers. Regarding the vertical nature of this structure, we chose horizontal architectural gesture, reduced to a single move. We recognized vacuum between medieval walls and the Austro-Hungarian building as the main spatial potential of this formation. Basic architectural principle here is subtraction, related to removing the soil between two historical layers.

Researching and analyzing this location, we found that the most adequate space for archeological exhibitions is a linear series of wells between the two walls on one side of the tower. Continuous space between the walls on the other side of the tower provides place for a wide range of functional organizations. Designers insisted on the relationship with inherited historic layers, by organizing useful in-between spaces that emphasize the fortress walls and display it as a museum piece. Between the layers of history is a unique space entity, with open chamber hall auditorium and covered multifunctional room containing the telescope mounting panels on both sides, and can be used as an exhibition space. Entrance hall, souvenir shop and toilets are planned as an additional content to this functional program. In addition to subtraction as a basic principle of intervention, design gesture was intended to bring together all the contents and set the term of the new historical layer. In the analysis of materials compatible with stone walls, with a focus on the continuity of an architectural gesture, we chose a corroded steel sheet as the dominant material. Additional decisions in materialization are related to the steel construction and horizontal glass panels that act as divider between levels and protect from bad weather conditions. Area of corroded metal sheet articulates the designed space in one unit. By going from a horizontal to vertical plan, depending on the respective areas, this unit receives different functional determinants: the stairs, the auditorium, entrance, floor, and wall.


02 Input | About Belgrade fortress | Lectures in Kazamati |

Earth embankment made by building a defensive Austro-Hungarian wall in the 17th century covered stone fortification from the Middle Ages made by Despot Stefan. By freeing up the location of the embankment, we got an in-between space that has new dynamic ambiance. Different, and somewhere enclosed areas are connected through a gallery, looking like a steel band, which is a contrast to the weight of the existing walls, and the link that connects them.


30. Military museum (Upper Town) incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Although the museum was established on August 10th 1878 with a decree of prince Milan Obrenović, it was not opened to the public until 1904 in a small octangular building on a Roman well located in the Upper Town. Since it was destroyed during the First World War, it was reopened on April 2nd, 1937 in a part of the building and a hut in the Upper Town of Belgrade Fortress. During the whole Second World War, the museum’s collection remained in Belgrade. The Germans took some valuable and very rare items. At the end of 1944 the museum reopened. A new collection of the museum was displayed on October 20, 1961 in a renovated building of the former Military Geographical Institute. It represents the military history of Yugoslavian people from their settlement on the Balkans to the twentieth century. This installation is basically well preserved. It includes: armaments, uniforms, flags, medals, archival materials, art works, photographs, scale models, etc. Some parts of the collection are exposed in the open.

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Guided tour of Military museum Mr. Miroslav Knežević Colonel Director of Military museum

Guided tour and all information about war history of Belgrade fortress was provided with courtesy of director of Military museum, colonel Miroslav Knežević.


02 Input | About Belgrade fortress | Visiting Military museum |


Belgrade bus tour

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Old city-New Belgrade-Zemun-GrardoĹĄ Guide: Miodrag FerenÄ?ak


During the bus tour, workshop participants were better introduced to modern-day Belgrade and its structure. The goal was to highlight development and transformations of Belgrade in the 20th and 21st centuries. The tour started at the Belgrade fortress. Driving through the Old city, students saw the first phase of city expansion outside the fortress walls. This part of the city was badly ruined during the Second World War, but most of its structure remained, although its appearance changed.

The tour ended in GardoĹĄ (Zemun), another old city quarter, which was a town of its own before New Belgrade came into the picture. This part was also greatly influenced by conquests through the history, mainly by Austrians (unlike the Old city centre, where influences were mixed Austro-Hungarian and Turkish). This tour was guided by architect and urban planner Miodrag FerenÄ?ak. All the students got clearer picture of Belgrade, by seeing these three main parts of the city in the same tour.

02 Input | Belgrade bus tour |

Afterwards, we crossed the Gazela bridge toward the New Belgrade side. This is the part of the city that started developing in second half of the 20th century, and it has completely different structure than the Old city centre. Its construction was inspired by the Athens Charter ideas (like Le Courbisier’s Chandigarh): huge, open city blocks with lots of greenery, where the objects are modular in structure and built for the needs of the city in expansion. Some of the students from Bauhaus university concentrated on exploring the difference between the Old city and the New Belgrade.


Intro workshop Zoran Djukanović incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

professor at Faculty of Architecture University of Belgrade

Raffaele Paloscia professor at Faculty of Architecture University of Firenze

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Introductory lecture on the Workshop was held by professors Đukanović and Paloscia, day after the tour of Belgrade fortress and the city took place. They explained the importance of cooperation in international teams. First task for everyone was to form their own view on the issue in question, based on the lectures and tours. Groups were formed according to these views, and the aim for the groups was to be as diverse as possible. The entire first week was dedicated to this Input and forming of the groups.


Belgrade – cultural discourse Ms. Borka Pavićević playwrite, cultural activist, Founder and Director of Center for Cultural

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Decontamination, Pavilion Veljković


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Planning in the wild side (of Danube river) Giovanni Ruffini professor at Faculty of Architecture University of Firenze

This lecture is about plan and project in Belgrade, from a point of view of a foreigner planner/researcher who had the chance to work in an international cooperation project for the Balkan Metropolis. The big chance in my case has been the opportunity to work side-by-side with some of the best Serbian living planners and architects, inside the Urban Planning Institute of Belgrade, in the framework of the Master Plan 2021, shaking hands with the most representatives actors of the public administration, drinking coffee (or rakia...) and smoking cigarettes with the brightest minds of the University... In a few words, I had a taste of the famous Serbian warming welcome, in a professional sense, and I had the pleasure to see my work appreciated by the most clever and honest planners of probably the whole South-Eastern Europe. Obviously they sincerely acknowledge the many social, cultural, political and economic problems that affects their beautiful city and country, and perhaps this frank recognition is the biggest difference I found with the Italian planning scene I’m used. For sure it is the main factor that opened my eyes, in reading indeep causes and effects of the serious environmental and urban imbalances that are complicating the roadmap towards sustainable development in the Serbian capital city. The study I’m presenting here concern the left riverbank of Danube river in Belgrade, the 8 km. long, Amazon-like green, stripe of trees and marshes that fulfil the view toward north from the heights of Kalemegdan and Gardoš, from Zemun to Pančevo Bridge. Aim of the research project is to

investigate the premises for the realization of a river park on the great New Island foreseen by the Master Plan of the city council administrative area. For the transformation of this large area, characterized by great environmental-naturalistic and touristiclandscape qualities, some basic guiding lines have been formulated in a collaborative process between the Town Planning Institute of Belgrade, the Commune of Florence and the Urban and Regional Planning Department of the University of Florence, in the general framework of the city plan. The strategic principles of development for the Danube-Sava area formulated in the Master Plan are about protection and requalification of the areas of naturalistic interest, protection of the water-resource and reduction of sources of pollution, requalification of urban river fronts, increase in the touristic and recreational offer linked to the river, re-vitalization of the river transport system, enhancement of the peri-fluvial agricultural spaces, as the general objective to place the river at the centre of policies for sustainable development of the metropolitan area as well. All the area of the Sava-Danube confluence, from the shores of Zemun and Novi Beograd to the Kalemegdan park, from the green island of Veliko Ratno Ostrvo to the green waterfront of the left bank of the Danube, really represents the green heart of the city of Belgrade, a fundamental reserve of air, water, biodiversity, a very particular identifying and typifying aspect, almost a brand-mark, a unique landscape for a great capital. It is evident that, faced with inevitable strong anthropic and speculative pressures, current and above all future, the maintenance of these green spaces is not possible or sustainable only through conservation measures and the prohibition of new building. Still more unfortunate would be inaction, the abandonment to spontaneous and uncontrolled processes, with absolutely predictable


opment project, where alongside flourishing economic activities linked to the new possibilities for nautical tourism and services for sport and leisure - activities in any case traditionally among the customs of Belgrade citizens, who have always considered the river banks and the river itself, in addition to as a means of communication and a source of resources, as a public space for meetings and trade, for regeneration and relaxation, with a very interesting predilection on floating objects, such as floating houses, hostels and restaurants to floating theatres, gyms or disco clubs - there are interventions for ecological/environmental conservation and re-qualification, and innovative solutions for the placing of anthropic activities and settlements in the delicate fluvial and riparian setting.

02 Input | Lectures |

results - already occurring in the suburban area north of the bank around the townships of Borča/ Ovča/Krnjača, the so-called “Belgrade cha-chacha” - such as the un-controlled low-quality/high polluting sub-urban sprawl, the expansion to the bank of irregular illegal building and abusive refuse dumps, speculative manoeuvres in land and building, the intrusive presence of large investors without sensitivity or direct interest in the maintenance of environmental quality. Not to mention the megaproject for the urbanization of the wide agricultural areas in the north-west, the idea for a “Third Belgrade” full of skyscrapers directly connected with the future Zemun Bridge on Danube. From the present and potential critical features arises the opportunity for a great sustainable devel-


Belgrade – management discourse Mss. Milica Joksić incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

architect, Director of Strategic Planning and Development Department of Town Planning Institute of Belgrade

Ms. Žaklina Gligorijević architect, Managing Director of Town Planning

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Institute of Belgrade


Dejan Vasović architect,

02 Input | Lectures |

Deputy Mayor of Belgrade – the City Architect


JAPANESE PARTY

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Hiro

Kou

Fuji

Take

Chige

Ban

Hiroki

Matsu

Darko


Paper cranes were all around... This party was all about origami, sushi, sake, oddly shaped candy and Yebitsu beer (^_^)

Page break | Japanese party |

How to make Sushi 1. Pour the vinegar over the rice slowly, and scramble it up. 2. Slice fish (neta). 3. Take some rice in the right hand and squeeze it (shari). 4. Place neta in the left hand. 5. Place shari on top of neta and turn it around. 6. Hold sushi with right index finger and middle finger. 7. Finished!


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Step 1

Making of the groups

Data analysis and presentations

By groups: River, Heritage, Poetic Spaces, Green spaces, Spontaneous spaces, Infrastructure, In-between.

03 Step 1 |

Students attitudes toward Belgrade Fortress. Students preferences as criteria for making groups.


Carmelita

Andrea Polya

Step 1 Giulia

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Gianluca

Luca

03 Step 1 | Making of the groups | Students attitudes toward Belgrade Fortress |

????

Adriano


Enisa

Cecilia Hiroki

Step 1 Koshiro

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Ryosuke

Claudia

03 Step 1 | Making of the groups | Students attitudes toward Belgrade Fortress |

Tekei

Mervin


Gracia

Komatsu Mila

Step 1 Bozo

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Isidora

Milena

03 Step 1 | Making of the groups | Students attitudes toward Belgrade Fortress |

Pedja

Nemanja


Fly

Nebojsa Sara

Step 1 Sara

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Michele

Pietro

03 Step 1 | Making of the groups | Students attitudes toward Belgrade Fortress |

Sibel

Jacopo


Giulio

Unknown Larissa

Step 1 Katrin

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Matteo

Mela

03 Step 1 | Making of the groups | Students attitudes toward Belgrade Fortress |

Serena

Edu


Eva

Shigeru Nevena

Step 1 Milos

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Chige

Vesna

03 Step 1 | Making of the groups | Students attitudes toward Belgrade Fortress |

Hiro

Kovach


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Parezanin

Igor

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03 Step 1 | Making of the groups | Students attitudes toward Belgrade Fortress |


Students preferences as criteria for making groups

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After first stundents task, where they exposed their first impressions, thoughts, visions, ... and wrote the words of inspiration on the board, than time for professors followed. Their first task was to form groups of students based on interests they have in common, recognized from the words they wrote on the boards. That was very hard duty for them, because the groups making was one of the most important thing for further work on the workshop. A few hours of talking, thinking and arguing, but they did not manage to find right qualitative mode for making groups that would satisfy all. So, they decided to change the way of thinking, and instead to sort students into the groups, they just named the groups, based on students interests written on the boards. So there was 7 definited groups, that represent future tasks of the work, named:

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RIVER HERITAGE POETIC SPACES GREEN SPACES SPONTANEOUS SPACES INFRASTRUCTURE IN BETWEEN

Now, we had groups, but we didn`t have students in the groups. Then, professors let students to choose and fulfill each of the group, based on their interests and vision of the work on the workshop. The only restriction was that the groups must be international - formed from students from different countries. Exeption were German students who worked separately on their project. A few minutes laterr, the groups were formed.


03 Step 1 | Making of the groups | Students preferences as criteria for making groups |


River group - Analysis incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity River group Japan Takaaki Watanabe Italia Cecilia Caldini Matteo Scamporrino Polya Genedieva Yordanova

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Serbia Enisa Vejselović Miloš Mihajlović Vladimir Kovač

The territory of the city is divided in three areas from rivers Sava and Danube. The waterfront, currently a fundamental landmark, the Kalemegdan Fortress, some chops of those two rivers and big War Island have a great potential and validity for the future urban planning in Belgrade. The waterfront is a very peculiar part of the city, it is different from the other parts in many ways: place, morphology, nature characteristics, functional and ambient characteristics, historical and cultural values… Waterfront has dominantly linear shape and character of public space which could be connected with other public spaces in municipality Stari grad. River also could be observed in macro level as a physical, geographical, economic and cultural con-

nection of Belgrade with other big European cities through which Danube is passing. That is why the river is very important for the future of Belgrade and in its deep connections with Belgrade fortress. If the river gets some better touristic stage, the whole waterfront including fortress will get it too. In the first steps we wanted to define the meaning of the word „Waterfront“ for us, in connection with fortress, we think that this is the main subject of this workshop. Waterfront is not only an aquatoria zone and a coast line, it is much more. It is a huge space which penetrates deeply into the city structure and should not be a seaparated part of the city, but today actually, it is. It looks like the city turned its back to the rivers, and this is a big paradox, because the rivers are nowadays the most important potencial


of Belgrade. There are some interactive relationships between the river and the city, that we tried to identify, but as well we think that there should be much more relationships like that.

We noticed that there are many visual connections beetween the fortress, the coast and the waterfront (showed in maps), which could be a motivation for pedestrians to walk from fortress to river and from river to fortress, but for making that possible we need to provide physical connections (showed in maps). Also, we investigated on visual readable and no readable spaces, devastation of spaces, conflicts, attracting points, meeting points during the day and the night... Our conclusion is that the river actually needs more connections with the fortress and the upper part of the city. Besides, the boundaries between the river and the coast should be more incoherent and not so strict as they are now. So we were thinking about ways to make people visiting the coast, to make the river a live place. And that was the point from where our vision started...

03 Step 1 | Data analysis and presentations | River |

We tried to investigate the history of this area, morphology changed through time (the land side grew because the river brought soil, so in the past the fortress was on the limit of riverside but today it is not), public spaces changed functions through time, and the most important influences of the past and nowadays. Today we have a lot of limits in beetween the river and the city, the biggest are currently traffic and railways, but they are going to be removed in the future, as already mentioned in the General plans for year 2021.


Heritage group - Analysis incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Heritage group Japan Takashi Takei Italia Luca Montanari Michele Morbidoni Serena Francini

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Serbia Božo Pejaković Predrag Jovanović

On the confluence of the rivers Danube and Sava lies the Belgrade fortress. This place has always provided defense with fortifications on both sides of the rivers. This is one of the key points in the region and represents the oldest historic heritage site in Belgrade. The oldest part of the fortress are pieces of a roman camp from the second century (north-western part of the fortress). From the medieval period (IX-XV c.) best preserved are the western ramparts (Despots tower), while the ottoman period has left singular points as are the Zindan gate or the mausoleum of Damad Ali Pasha. The best preserved parts of the fortress are in fact from the most recent historic period - Austro-Hungarian. All this point to the fact that the Belgrade fortress is consisted of many historic layers and that it was destroyed and rebuild numerous times. With all the remains from countless battles and the green canopy it now wares, it’s like the fortress needs to tell us its story and show us all its mysteries. First of all, the place that is the Belgrade fortress must be look at by the eyes of its users. In most cases those are the citizens of Belgrade. Because of the specific emotion that the citizens feel for this place, it’s very important that they are included in its transformation and improvement. For these reasons we decided it’s best to use a method which will include them. Three types of tools are used: descriptive, spatial, figurative. So we used interviews, maps and sketches.

1. The interview was made of 15 questions, divided into three groups: 1. Questions about Kalemegdan 2. Questions about Belgrade 3. Questions about the person in relation to Kalemegdan 2. The second goal was to discover which parts of the fortress are the most recognizable. Which routes do people usually take, and which places do they stay at. We gave to the interviewees blank maps to show us these places. 3. At the end we asked the interviewee to make a quick sketch of an intervention that was appropriate for them if one was necessary. The Majority told that they want nothing changed.


• people mostly come to Kalemegdan for park activities • they mostly come with their friends • the time they spend on Kalemegdan is not longer than two hours • the most frequent visitors are the citizens of old Belgrade • the landscape is considered more dominant than the history and culture • the worst thing is its poor management and security • it is missing service facilities • the monument of the Victor is the most recognizable monument • the visitors have heard of the underground corridors but they are generally uninformed • almost everyone has visited the army museum • people would preserve the fortress in its current state • Kalemegdan is mainly described by nature • most people don’t know how Belgrade got its name • for the symbol of Belgrade most chose one of its monuments As the most dominant places the people recognize the statue of the victor, the confluence, the zoo, the exhibit promenade and the army museum. However, only few interviewees placed these places on the right place on the map. When we layered all the maps, we saw that most of the visitors come from the Knez Mihailo street, then proceed to the park in the upper city, and spend most of their time on the ramparts with the view of the confluence and New Belgrade. When we gave the sketch paper to the interviewees, most of them stressed that they want

nothing changed on Kalemegdan. And from the sketches they made we concluded that they imagined more service facilities, and conceptual ideas that illustrated interventions that were ephemeral. With this method we came to the conclusion that Kalemegdan needs an intervention that can be transformed through time and not impose the existing structure. We also saw that the problem of poor lighting needs to be solved. One of the initial ideas was a design solution that would be interactive with the visitors, also to provide information in a creative way. Since we are living in an information driven society, with mobile devices of all sorts, this way of communicating information would not be a problem.

03 Step 1 | Data analysis and presentations | Heritage |

Through the interview we found out that:


Poetic spaces group - Analysis incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Poetic spaces group Japan Ryosuke Fujii Italia Gianluca Bertoldi Giulia Carlone Singapore Felicia Lin Yanle

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Serbia Isidora Marčetić Milena Solujić

Poetic spaces have to do with moods, ideas, and design, all more ethereal than realistic. We tried to present sense of place, describing it visually by photos, that evokes the: viewer’s memories and yearning based on past experiences, present feelings and future dreams. We are aware that we can visually describe the scenes and each viewers completes it by supplying what is personally meaningful. Poetics in space embrace elements familiar to all people. Poetic devices can help us as we use these tools to read spaces and also to think of a strategy. A Chinese philosophical telling reflects how we approached at the topic between real and surreal; also understood as the transformation of things. Once, Zhuang Zi dreamt that he was a butterfly; a butterfly fluttering about, enjoying itself. It did not know that it was Zhuang Zi. In fact, it did not know whether it was Zhuang Zi dreaming that he was a butterfly, or whether it was a butterfly dreaming that it was Zhuang Zi. Suddenly, he woke up, and was Zhuang Zi again. Between Zhuang Zi and the butterfly there must be some distinction. This is a case of what is called the Transformation of Things. How does one know when reality is essentially real? When dreams become adequately real, one is incapable of distinguishing whether one is dreaming, or living. These fleeting moments of ethereal existence plays with one’s perceptual experience with life and being. And when something powerful is present it is provoked by all senses to produce a heightened awareness of existentialism, we call these the poetics of a space. When the imagination becomes real, the present becomes surreal. Something that is, becomes something that was/ something that it will be.

We approached the topic in three steps: 1. Our point of view The first site survey was guided by mood, feeling and sense of design as interpreted by the distinctively different Serbian, Japanese, Singaporean and Italian senses. The results were translated into poetic compositions of the site. The different points of view are shown in imageries related to the perceived poetic places in Kalemegdan. These poetic spaces became places suspended through the reality of something that is and something that will be in the uncertain future. Through the points of view, the image compositions are reflections of the interrelationship between connotation, contrast, denotation, symbol and imagery... at all times, present in each place. 2. Senses Places can be felt by the senses such as being seen, heard, smelt and touched in a direct (physical) and an indirect (past experiences and dreams) ways. When interviewing people, we focused on the sense of beauty, mystery and peculiarity to try to understand how sites in Kalemegdan area are perceived by locals. We also wished to understand how tangible features could make a place intangibly


3. Images to translate...work with filters We tried to translate concepts and feelings from these steps of analysis into some images. Poetics is strictly connected with time. Man translates the present through the past experiences and act and dream for a desired future. Our body and mind are filters that translate the present reality, which are thoughts, ideas and feelings that are not only personal but also sharable by groups of people. Through these immaterial filters, we transform the tangible reality into an intangible surrealism. Our second basic concept is to combine the idea of material filters with the senses: earth as

touch, water as sound, light as vision and air as scent. These material filters, related to senses, are tools to make the fortress alive not only as an airy memory of the past but right now, in the present, make the fortress alive in the future. The image of soap bubbles is related to the feeling of ethereal and freedom. As a soap bubble reflects all of its surroundings in a distorted manner, our individuated visions then filter and transform what is present, by underlining, catching and transporting the fortress and its surrounding into the temporal existence of a bubble, into what was and what could and will be. Scents of flowers and war will mix together but in manifesting their own identity and to stimulate individual responses to see and think about past, act in the present, for the future, through the root of the city: Kalemegdan. 03 Step 1 | Data analysis and presentations | Poetic spaces |

beautiful, mysterious and unusual. The results were hardly astounding, as we have come to realise that though poetics of a space may not need to be verbally agreed or acknowledged on, the space is certainly powerful enough to evoke the emotions and sensations in people. As we have found, people associated the Kalemegdan district with mainly feelings of peace, delirium and nostalgia. Places of peace are like the lonely corners that have no sounds from nature or people – vacuum places void of distractions and yet, the heart beats louder than everything else. Places of delirium are associated with socialising events, human interaction, and gathering. Sounds of delirious laughters, human mingling and chatters can be heard in these places. Lastly, places of nostalgia are the historical sites where the harsh shadows of textured brick walls against the brutal rusting of heavy metal gates rudely remind people that Kalemegdan was in fact a fort where blood was shed and war was fought. Here, people feel grey and blue; uncertain about the past, uncertain about the future.


Green spaces group - Analysis • usability of the upper part of the park and a project from scratch on the underside, given the current state of abandonment;

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Green spaces group

• the relationship between green space and daily life, after a few visits and some question posed to the users of parks and gardens, there was a lack of perception in terms of quantity of green spaces in Belgrade, and existing ones after being retrained (above) need to be made in connection with each other and where the physical connection is not possible we must find the visual;

Japan Katsuhito Komatsu Italia Adriano Statello Giulio Becattini

Step 1

Serbia Nevena Mitrović Vesna Šunjkić

Another step taken to get an idea of the project was the research on the Internet, some examples of projects of green space, sustainability today in the design of street furniture to be included in a project. The group began by analyzing the term Green Spaces by listing what it meant and what he meant every member of the group with this term, in a subsequent discussion following an inspection done individually, not to influence each other in the impressions, differences emerged cultural customs and traditions of most European students and Japanese students. The main points raised by exposing the first mid-term review and there were two ideas to operate: • the quality of the green, just the second European students, but with some areas for improvement, hence the idea, the vision of Kalemegdan as the “central park” in Belgrade by increasing the services and


03 Step 1 | Data analysis and presentations | Green spaces |


Ephemeral / Spontaneous spaces group - Analysis incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Ephemeral / Spontaneous spaces group Japan Shigeru Rakuman Italia Claudia Roselli Jacopo Bardi

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Serbia Igor Mišković Nemanja Marković Vladimir Parežanin

free thoughts on this matters Which is the meaning of ephemeral? What doesn’t mean EPHEMERAL?

When in the far-west scenario the waste, ruling from one side to another, that mean creating a disturbance but also create a possibility.

Try to explain the meaning of ephemeral just giving an interpretation of ephemeral and spontaneous linked to the city of Belgrade.

Shigeru: The city of Belgrade is without identity.

Interpreting the concept of ephemeral related to DREAM-REALITY, CONTINUITY-DISCONTINUITY, ANALISYS-SYNTESIS, PROJECT-NO PROJECT

Shigeru: After a traumatic event, the normally growing of the city is stopped. That create a break on the urban developing. Here we can speak about the concept of MA. MA can be interpreting like an expression of time and space, or better like a space “in between”, if you would like give the interpretation of nuance relating to the meaning of time and space: MA + FLUX = TIME MA + AIR = SPACE

Different answer from the people of our group: Claudia: Ephemeral can be interpreting just thinking regarding the REALITY and the DREAMING REALITY. In the reality the space of the fortress is empty. Not physically empty, but empty of important meaning, and empty of build structures that can give to that space symbolic and relevant signification. This emptiness can be the space for the possibility. That mean: making what you wishes or you imagine that can be interesting for the city of Belgrade. POSSIBILITY, POSSIBILITY, POSSIBILITY................ Nemanja: The meaning of ephemeral can be see just interpreting and reading trough the double sense of DISTURBANCE. Disturbance can be interpreted in double way: NEGATIVE WAY, memory of a war, memory of same traumatic event that interrupted the natural urban development of the city, but disturbance can be transformed in POSSIBILITY. Like a rolling bush in the far west cartoon.

All: Why?

Nemanja: The same concept can be representing by a mathematical system: in one flat plan you can put the concept of space, and in the third axes, named z, you can just represent: with a multidimensional and geometrical representation conical meaning of time: in one direction you can give shape to the future and in the other direction, you can represent the past. Exactly when the conical representation of time will meet the plan of the space, you can find the moment of present. The same concept of transition can be interpreting giving a possibility to a butterfly to became a caterpillar and viceversa. All: Ephemeral like a temporary and transitory. Temporary: on time | on place | on shape | on usage


So spontaneously like a metamorphic: changing, temporary, light, future, contemporary... different meaning... LIST OF EPHEMERAL EXISTINGS STRUCTURES IN BELGRAD: - informal spaces for informal vendors - informal land camps for a gipsy - informal structures that will rebuild and reshape in some years (Staklenac Shopping Mall) - informal market Buvljak

03 Step 1 | Data analysis and presentations | Ephemeral / Spontaneous spaces |

Spontaneously Regarding the meaning of spontaneously from Wikipedia: is the time-evolution of a system in which it releases free energy (most often as heat) and moves to a lower, more thermodynamically stable, energy state. The sign convention of changes in free energy follows the general convention for thermodynamic measurements, in which a release of free energy from the system corresponds to a negative change in free energy, but a positive change for the surroundings.


Infrastructure group - Analysis incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Infrastructure group Japan Koshiro Torii Italia Andrea Saladini Pietro Facendola Singapore Gracia Vera Quek Jia Min

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Serbia Nebojša Prokić

Belgrade Fortress in the context of this project is intended to be a core and a symbol of Belgrade, and even Serbia. Thus, our strategy for this project is to enhance the preexisting connectivity of this core, so as to facilitate cultural exchange/communication and the physical connectivity of the fortress between locals and foreigners alike. The schema of this project is as follows: a pragmatic approach to the concept of infrastructure, entitled “the jump” and a more hypothetical approach, entitled “utopia”, set in place to challenge the notion of infrastructure at present. The Jump Dabbling with the notion of tangibility, we break down the concept of infrastructure into two main components – material and non-material. Material infrastructure encompasses tangible elements of pedestrian paths, streets, roads, the river and the railway. Non-material infrastructure takes form of intangible elements, such as the impromptu activities found onsite, the exchange of information and an understanding of the fortress by its visitors. Prior to designing, several guidelines were set to give this project a structure and a clear direction of design. A primary guideline of adding layers to enhancing the framework of communication within and between the fortress and it’s surroundings, more so then solving the existing infrastructural problems. Next, the physical notion of infrastructure is challenged – with an analysis of time and the rate of connectivity, elements of non-material infrastructure are layered upon the preexisting connections. In addition, there were several considerations made in the process of design, foremost of which was the visual impact of the new additions in our de

sign. This created the impetus of designing mainly with mobile elements to create a dynamic dimension to the visual impact of the static fortress. An idea of the various infrastructural networks was idealized as “jumps”. These “jumps” connect the fortress to various parts of the state, the city and river and at several different levels as well. As such, we then proceeded with realizing these “jumps”, focusing on unconventional transportation systems (in the context of Belgrade and Serbia). For example, “jumping” from street to fort, a network of cable cars and ramps are put into use. “Jumping” across the river to Zemun or the Big War Island involves the use of a river taxis. In the realization of the non-material component in our project, the use of information portals, wireless internet hot-spots and a moving library on the soon to be abandoned railway system connects the fortress to the people, thus facilitating the communication of information and culture.


03 Step 1 | Data analysis and presentations | Infrastructure |


In-between group - Analysis incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity In-between group Japan Hiroki Yoshitake Hirotaka Yokose Italia Carmelita Breccione Mattucci Rita Biconne Sara Bartolini Singapore Mervin Tan

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Serbia Mila Paunović Sibel Bas (turkish exchange student)

Eight people. Eight proposals. Endless possibilites.The concept of “in-between” –was formed based on the broad idea of finding a plug to the “empty” space, which we refer to as the “in-between”; the act of locating an in-between space and exploring the wonderful possibilities. Similar to the painting of Michaelangelo, the creation of Adam; the painting focuses on the space between the fingers. The emptiness that overcomes the whole painting personifies the understanding of space in-between. Be it the lack of objects or the composition of existence and implied existence that creates attention to the “in-between”, one thing for sure, is that what is in-between is definitely not something negligible, but an important factor to consider whenever there is a need to connect or join any parts together. Initial resources offered us simple, concise key words; dream/reality, continuity/discontinuity, the broadness in turn generated contradicting responses amongst us. From urban to architecture, planned to informal, inclusion to exclusion, oriental to occidental, temporary to permanent, old to new, and citizen to government so on and so forth, allowed us to further push the boundaries to define the space that we needed to grasp. The elusive “in between” provided countless questions that were concluded with a simple basis of three basic relationship: social issues, physical issues, and other social issues which saw physical interventions as solutions. This provided us with a framework which led us to question the need of find a “plug” or rather intervene in a less intrusive manner and contribute to a more holistic approach to the betterment of the city. However, one key element of the concept was that “Kalemegdan”, the fortress, was the main source of energy of Beograd. This icon

which stands at the most strategic location since the ancient of time still proves to be ever so prominent and current even though it has seemingly lost its “draw”. To its citizens, its beauty and power which once it held is no longer talked about or noticed. Its desolate state contradicts to what it stands for metaphorically. Ironically, its desolation allowed it to be silently beautiful and prominent, quietly reminiscing its past in the background of the city. It is exactly this allure of lost charm that contradictory drew us to its splendor. Constant visits and studies proved that the once ever powerful location has lost its strategic draw factor to a newer but not definitely better expansion of the newer Beograd. A simple but yet suggestive note was created from this very stem point. A simple analogy to mirroring the situation: The universality of a square. Taking this basic object and manipulating it, be it height, angle, size. A square (cube when look upon elevation wise) when rotated does not just change your perception of visual connection, but at the same time, changes its function and its purpose. After a 360 degrees rotation at a specific angle, the cube would eventually return to its original position as a square. This diagrammatic explanation would then form the main element to our project. The perception of the fortress is different due angles and relevance. This way of perceiving the fortress does not just appear in a one directional manner. It is no longer able to be seen only in its original purpose, for how it relates to the city now, is layered and tiered to many. The perception is supposed to go both ways from city to fortress and from fortress to city. What the fortress is, is not just defined by purpose, but by perception. In this manner, we can provide a platform for interaction, and a manner at which the fortress will no longer be unreachable but very approachable.


03 Step 1 | Data analysis and presentations | In-between |


Memories of Belgrade incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

During our workshop we were given the chance to participate in a workshop that was initiated by the University of Belgrade. Together with four other Universities from Florence (Italy), Singapore (Singapore) and Tokyo (Japan) we have explored the city in order to plumb its secrets.

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Within our group we concentrated on capturing the identity of the locality (hood, city, place) with specific interest in its representational space. We dealt with imagined and built landscapes, investigating over the relationship among those two faces: on one side the image of the city, unceasingly produced and reproduced by linguistic acts, narratives, or processes of signification; on the other, the production of spaces as resulting from physical construction and technical integration. We focused on two poles of the city of Belgrade. Two centers, which in very different moments generated a process of growth of the city: the Old Fortress and the New City. The ancient militarized core of the city, today a void, an empty space but almost saturated with historical and political meanings, and the new centre built by the modern aspiration towards technically determined and effective organization of the territory (and population). The first object of our attention will be the relationship between those two elements of the urban landscape, drafting an ideal line that connects them in historical, geographical and social terms. Our survey will be developed along this line, tracing a cross section of the city determined by our curiosity and our will to give light to the aspects which better capture our instinctive attention. The group used various techniques in order to note and capture elements of the physical or social

landscape, including the use of photo cameras, sketchbooks, audio recorders and video cameras. The results of German group: Different approaches: 1. Soundwalk through Novi Beograd (Katrin Linke) 2. Comical stereotyped ideas about its inhabitants presented in handdrawn sketches (Eduardo Donoso) 3. Impressions of expressions - private traces in public places. Journey through Stari i Novi Beograd (Melissa Chollet and Larissa Wunderlich) (whenever they found a private message on the street they marked it in the city map) 4. Living in boxes - flying visits to Novi Beograd’s living rooms (Melanie Schumann and Eva Thinius) (captured the way of living in the blocks by using a videocamera and a digital camera)


Together with Melanie I brought the newer part of Belgrade into focus: Novi Beograd, a 41-km2 terrain that was essentially a swamp when construction on the new city began in 1948. Juxtaposing Novi Belgrade with the older City Centre it was the new area with its high rising buildings and innumerably flats that attracted us the most. Thus we started dipping into the history of this borough and figured out how its inhabitants are living there. We already got an impression how some of them redesigned their houses by redecorating their balcony or windows. Melanie and I were wondering whether it was possible to personalize one’s own private space within those look-alike flats. It was this question that incites us to knock on several doors of Novi Belgrade. After some research on that borough we figured out which blocks were built in the first decade and hence has changed the cityscape over the past decades. With the help of our Serbian friends Mila and Pedja we climbed up blocks, sneaked into unknown living rooms and discovered other secret places. It was a very short and intense week for us that not only showed us how hospitable Serbians are but also demonstrated us how hundred thousands of people arrange their live within this area.

Once again - somewhere in Weimar and somewhere in Belgrade, similar ideas were born...

03 Step 1 | Data analysis and presentations | Living in Boxes |

Living In Boxes by Melanie Schumann and Eva Thinius


The Blocks and their environmental adaptation - by Eduardo Donoso

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incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity


03 Step 1 | Data analysis and presentations |The Blocks and their environmental adaptation |

Comical stereotyped ideas of our professors and their expectations... by Eduardo Donoso


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Looking for private traces in public space – a journey through Old and New Belgrade. - by Melissa Chollet and Larissa Wunderlich “Space is apracticed place. Thus the street geometrically defined by urban planning is transformed into space by walkers.”

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Michel De Certeau, The Practice of Everyday Life, 1984

Larissa and I quickly found our working rhythm and way to ‘drift’ through the (heat sunken!) city, as one was taking photographs and the other would sketch down and write down some indication about the location of the message we had found to later trace it on a map of Belgrade.

Choosing our way by what would catch our eyes! With special attention to the various EXpressions emanating from the places, we were concentrating on the IMpressions they would have on us. We were particularly attentive to impressions emanating from and hiding in mostly overseen details among city walls, streets and buildings. That way, we recorded political messages, gang battles on walls, love messages or records of boredom - personal traces in public space.


... somewhere in Weimar On a personal level, this project changed the way I approach new, unknown cities as spaces. I try to get back into that open, receptive state of recording all kinds of (visual) impressions of a place and get to know the city in that way.

... somewhere in Belgrade

03 Step 1 | Data analysis and presentations | Looking for private traces in public space |

What stays a vivid memory linked to every single photography and written record –and what I personally enjoyed the most was the reactions people showed seeing us ‘at work’ – photographing a random sign or kneed on the street trying to catch a marked piece of pavement – their interrogative look, but mostly the interactions and discussions we had with passer-bys. As an example I recall an altercation that happened in the surroundings of Saint Sava Church: a man stopped by as we were photographing a tag and started talking to us quite passionately. As we obviously could not understand him, a woman who was getting into her car next to us translated what he was saying – namely his strong dislike for tags and graffiti and the way they would ‘disfigure’ the city… as he left, the woman eagerly mentioned that she really did not share that man’s opinions, on the contrary! We talked for a while and she ended up giving us information about where we could get in contact with the graffiti scene, before driving off…


GERMAN PARTY exhibition

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Alex

Katrin

Larissa

Ben

Sandra

Lorenzo

Melissa

Mel

Eva

Edu

This was a typical German party with lots of greasy food, alchocol and great progressive music, but also an exhibition since our German friends were leaving earlier... Walls were covered in their workshop accomplishments while we wrote our goodbye notes...


Page break | German party and exhibition |

All around there were hot Würstels, traditional potato-salads, bunch of little bread rolls known as Brötchens, tasty Gulasch, strong Jägermeister and natürlich pints and pints of good old beer... It was, as Germans use to say, Toll! :)


04

Weekend

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity


Weekend

Sightseeing tours: KruĹĄedol monastery, Sremski Karlovci. Guided tours: Petrovaradin fortress (Novi Sad), BaÄ? fortress.

Free time

04 Weekend |

Excursion


Excursion

Weekend

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Sightseeing tours: Krušedol monastery Sremski Karlovci Guided tours: Novi Sad - Petrovaradin by Siniša Jokić Bač fortress by Vesna Glavošević


Sremski Karlovci Sremski Karlovci is a town and municipality in Serbia, in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, situated on the bank of the river Danube. In ancient times, a small Roman fortress existed at this location. In 1698 and 1699, the town of Karlovci was the site of a congress that ended the hostilities between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League. The congress produced the Treaty of Karlowitz. After this treaty, the town was part of the Habsburg Monarchy and was included into the Military Frontier. The town was also the spiritual, political and cultural center of the Serbs in the Habsburg Monarchy. The Metropolitan of the Serb Orthodox Church resided in the town. To this day, the Serb Orthodox Patriarch retains the title of Metropolitan of Karlovci. The town also featured the earliest Serb (and Slavic in general) gymnasium founded in 1791.

04 Weekend | Excursion |

Krušedol monastery This Serb Orthodox monastery on the Fruška Gora mountain is the legacy of the last Serbian despot family of Srem - Branković. It was built between 1509 and 1514. The whole family including Đurađ Branković and Stefan Lazarević, as well as two patriarchs of the Serb Orthodox Church, were buried in this monastery. The monastery church is dedicated to the Annunciation. The whole monastery complex was declared Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1990, and it is protected by Republic of Serbia.


Guided tour of Petrovaradin Mr. Siniša Jokić

Weekend

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Historian City museum of Novi Sad

Petrovaradin Fortress is a fortress in Novi Sad, Serbia. It is located in the province of Vojvodina, on the right bank of the Danube river. The cornerstone of the present-day southern part of the fortress was laid on October 18, 1692, by Charles Eugène de Croÿ. In 1991 Petrovaradin Fortress was added to Spatial Cultural-Historical Units of Great Importance list, and it is protected by Republic of Serbia. Recent archeological discoveries have offered a new perspective not only on the history of Petrovaradin, but on the entire region. At the Upper Fortress, the remains of an earlier Paleolithic settlement dating from 19,000 to 15,000 BC has been discovered. With this new development it has been established that there has been a continuous settlement at this site from the Paleolithic age to the present. During the excavations carried out in 2005, archeologists also discovered another significant find. Examining remains from the early Bronze age (c. 3000 BC), ramparts were discovered which testify that already at that time a fortified settlement existed at the Petrovaradin site. The first larger fortifications were created with the arrival of the Romans who built the fortress (Cusum) which was a part of the fortified borders (Limes) along the Danube. The turning point in the history of the area came in 1235 AD when King Bela IV of Hungary brought a group of the Order of Cistercians from France. This order of monks built the monastery Belakut upon the remains of the Roman fortress of Cusum. The walls of this monastery were built between 1247 and 1252 and represent the fortifications at this site during the Middle Ages.

The fortress was strengthened due to the threat of Turkish invasion. However the fortress fell after a two week siege in 1526. Petrovaradin Fortress has many underground tunnels as well. Four levels of the underground were constructed between 1768 and 1776. The length of the corridors is supposedly 16km, but it seems that there is more. This unique system also had mine fields incorporated, as well as chambers for soldiers, weapons and 12,000 loop-holes. In the emergency, underground galleries could have accommodated over 30,000 people.

EXIT festival is an annual summer music festival that has been held at the fortress since its inception in 2001. Since then, it has grown from the biggest festival in South-Eastern Europe, to one of the best in Europe. source: http://www.veljkomilkovic.com/PodzemljeEng.html#20km http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petrovaradin_Fortress


Archeologist Fond “Vekovi Bača”

In north-western Serbia, the part of Vojvodina province called Bačka was named after the small town of Bač. It is located on the left bank of the Danube River, while on the other side is Croatia. The history of Bač starts in the Neolithic period, which is testified to by many excavations. A sword from that period, found in the vicinity of today’s Bač is kept in Budapest, and the excavations from the Roman period show it was once a large settlement, destroyed in a barbarian attack. Earliest written tracks of the ancient town on the Mostonga River, a tributary of the Danube, which is today just a dry riverbed, date back to the period of Emperor Justinian, when the lord of Constantinople and of the Eastern Roman Empire had mentioned Bač in a letter from 535 AD. The next written record is from 869, when Methodius, one of the two Slavic brothers from Thessalonica who were spreading literacy and Christianity among the Slavs, became the bishop of today’s Srem region. As a devoted missionary, especially among the Slavs, for whom along with his brother Cyril he made a new alphabet, Methodius was preaching and baptizing people in Bačka. Also mentioning Bač is Arab geographer Idris, as an important and significant town in Hungary, where many merchants and craftsmen used to live, and known for its wheat fairs. The fortress in Bač dates back to the medieval times, and stands as the best preserved fort of that period in the territory of Vojvodina. It was built on an islet, made by the Mostonga River, and it belongs to so-called “water towns”, since it was surrounded by the river. The fortress has a pentagonal foundation, and was en-

tered over the pull-bridges. On each angle there is a protruding tower, and in the middle of the fortress is the highest one, so-called donjon, or defensive tower. The Bač fortress was under construction from 1338 to 1342, during the rule of Hungarian King Robert of Anjou, and it got its final looks in the 15th century. Archbishop Petrus de Varda holds merit for the nicer appearance of the fortress, and his orders had the Mostonga made deeper, so that the boats from the Danube could reach the town of Bač. During the works on the reconstruction in the 15th century, wide cannon windows were made on southern and north-eastern towers. Few decades later, the Turkish army took over the fortress, and soon after the battle of Mohač, in early 18th century, the fort was burnt, torn down and abandoned. However, despite that barbaric act, the visitors can admire this brick construction to this day. The former yard of the castle is still dominated by the tall, well preserved tower, which represents one of the best examples of late-medieval donjon in this part of Europe.

02 Weekend | Excursion |

Guided tour of Bač fortress Ms. Vesna Glavošević

source: http://voiceofserbia.org/serbia/node/17


Free time

Weekend

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity


04 Weekend | Free time |

Most of us spent our first (and only) free day on Ada Ciganlija doing sports. The main event was international football match between Japanese and mixed Italian/Serbian team. The game was pretty close, but the Mixed team eventually won after additional time. Guess the prise was worth fighting for :). So, as defeated team, the Japanese guys bought beer for all. Still, the man of the match was Fujii from Japanese team! Afterwards, swimming in the lake followed, and then lunch including serbo-turkish specialties :). All in all, it was a great free day in the middle of work work working week!


SINGAPOREAN PARTY

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Mervin

Gracia

Fly

Ružica

Century Eggz Known also as preserved egg, hundred-year egg, thousand-year egg or thousand-year-old egg, the Century Egg is a Chinese delicacy used in many traditional dishes. Fresh duck, chicken or quail eggs become Century Eggs after weeks, sometimes months of preservation in a mixture of clay, ash, lime, salt and rice. The process of “cooking” Century Eggs is believed to date back 600 years, when someone apparently found some old eggs preserved in a pool of slaked lime. Upon tasting them, he decided to produce some more, but this time with some added salt. After the preservation is complete, the hull mixture and egg shell are removed to reveal the now dark-brown egg-white and a dark-green, creamy and pungent yolk. Century Eggs are consumed either raw, or as ingredients in other Chinese foods.


Page break | Singaporean party |

Exotic new tastes...Lucky chopsticks...Funny Superstitions...and loud international music made this party c r a z y a n d u n f o r g e t a b l e !


05

Step 2

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity


Step 2

Presentation by groups: River, Heritage, Poetic Spaces, Green Spaces, Spontaneous Spaces, Infrastructure, Inbetween.

Photoshop party

05 Step 2 |

First overview


River group - Project incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity River group Japan Takaaki Watanabe Italia Cecilia Caldini Matteo Scamporrino Polya Genedieva Yordanova

Step 2

Serbia Enisa Vejselović Miloš Mihajlović Vladimir Kovač

Considering all the previous analysis we found out that the main element that we should investigate working on the waterfront, was the sense of continuity. We noticed a lack of continuity, we noticed a city suspended in time between its past and future, and suspended in space, looking for a relation with its rivers that it never had during the past. We surveyed the area looking for a possible continuity within the water and also within the land. In fact, physical continuity flows all along the riverside, mainly with nature, vegetation spontaneously growing and the borderline itself. On the other hand, there’s a lack of continuity concerning human presence. But things can change. We just need to make it more evident and intensive. Meeting points and attractive cores for people on the coast are now very far and dispersed, moreover they are not enough. So we decided to put more points of interest which could include some cultural objects, in place of the former brown fields, some touristic functions, places for children playing, swimming pools, fountains, water channels, little docks, many clubs and cafés, increasing the traditional tendencies of spontaneous use of the waterfront with floating houses on the water. Moreover, we suggest to include some new stairways, a cableway and elevators to increase on the area the presence of new technologies, getting new physical connections between fortress and river coast. We planned to connect the water with the land, creating some other new relations able to include the river in the city like fountains, swimming pools on the waterside, some water canals and an intervention of land art meant to let the water penetrate within the land. In this sense we propose to flood the lower part of the fortress, creating a new space with canals and some islands that suggest

the shape of the old city that existed in that place until seventeenth century. On the other hand, we meant to make some separated clear water swimming pools inside the river to make it possible to feel the experience of bathing in the river (which is not usable now). Another important subject in our work is also to find new boundaries between the river and the coast, that’s why we thought about some multi levels and some movable ramps (on the coast line) which are going to support changing of water level through the year and make possible the direct contact of the people with the river.


Ptico - watch raw is best thing for our city, it solves many environmental, and a key problem in the city centre and with this project the future of Belgrade water will be much brighter.

Ptico - watch raw The concept of this project is a connection, a connection between two protected spices. First of them is a Belgrade’s raw, heritage from the nineties, and the second are the birds from the Great War Island. In a few last year’s the analysis of that area shows that most bird species in the area of Great War Island, which in the future can be a big problem in terms of the survival of these species. The main problem that has arisen is the preservation of rare species of birds in the area of the Great War Island, as well as the expansion of their habitat in the green areas of Kalemegdan. Through this environmental project is realized the possibility of enlargement of the population of rare species of birds. In this way, the project encourages sustainability of biodiversity in the centre of Belgrade. The design is inspired by the raft form logic bird habitat and a bird nest shape. Quietly form and materialization attracting birds on the nest and in the space inside of the nest. Floating nests created within the micro eco-system that fully meets the needs of endangered species. The logic of the idea of approaching the nesting birds floating through the mobility of conducting themselves floating structure. During a day of floating structures crossing the road from the Great War Island, New Belgrade coast to coast of the low town on the roll and back. Because of the slow movement the birds can assimilate with the object, they losing fear of it and freely fly in the ”Noah’s Ark of Belgrade”. In this way, many species that have never had a habitat outside the war island will now find it. This concept opens up possibilities in the future assimilation of many other endangered exotic species (such as Bengal tigers, white rhinoceros, lemur, large Galápagos turtles ...) On the other hand the birds viewers, pigeon keepers, tourists and retirees it makes possible the easy access to birds, for monitoring, feeding and enjoying in the beauty of nature.

03 Step 2 | First overview | River |

Existing floating objects (cafés, restaurants, houses, hostels…) are elements of transversal continuity, and positive example of using and activating water which make Belgrade rivers a peculiar and unique ambient, so we planned to keep them. Nevertheless, they need some redesign and infrastructure improvements, so we suggested some ideal models took from floating houses in Holland. We tried to achieve a new continuity on a macro level, too. So we suggest to add some public transports floating from side to side of the river, creating many stations, a kind of river-taxi which could exist in whole Belgrade aquatoria. New urban connections by ferry could successfully sew the opposite sides, of the river, mending the ancient fears of the “notknown” coming from the forest of big War island.


Heritage group - Project incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Heritage group Japan Takashi Takei Italia Luca Montanari Michele Morbidoni Serena Francini

Step 2

Serbia Božo Pejaković Predrag Jovanović

The project is consisted of three main features, and it has a night and a day mode. We determined a main route based on previous analysis (value map, historical map, etc.). Binoculars are placed along that path, through which visitors can spot designated places that represent historic segments. Also in the view of the binoculars are placed letters, so when a visitor looks through all the binoculars, he can assemble a word (in this case Beogradski san – Belgrade dream). The second part of the project is a proposal of the extension of hidden/neglected facilities. It spreads from the facility to the surrounding open space, like a ribbon. In this way it creates many semi-outdoor spaces. The presence of the ribbon indicates the presence of these neglected facilities, and also makes the historical value stronger. In the example of the army museum, the ribbon starts in starts from the open space in front of military museum, and then it goes down to the lower level, and twists around tanks and cannons, and also makes small exhibition spaces around them. Then the ribbon extends around the moat, as a long introduction of the army museum. There are two types of small units, which link together and make one ribbon. Two units have different form, and thus a flow of the ribbon gets different shape, such as curved, straight, and the mix of them; we can make many kinds of flexible shapes, which correspond to each site. In terms of material, the panel consists of the accumulation of small metal rings, and thin polycarbonate panels sandwiching them. These rings correspond to the small scale of Kalemegdan wall, made by huge numbers of bricks and stones. On the other hand, this structure is very light both in terms of weight and appearance, so the ribbon

makes a remarkable contrast between historical construction and the contemporary ephemeral pavilion. These panels are connected with hinges so they can easily be folded up for storage. The third part of the intervention is focused on Kalemegdan at night. The night part of the project uses light installations, holographic images, film projections and light signs, accompanied by adequate music cover to complete the ambiance. The light is used in such a way that is points out to certain parts of the structure, so the visitors can see important elements. Holographic images are used to depict a certain event in the past, and bring the visitors closer to the essence of the place. This kind of show is accompanied by music from the same historic period to deepen the atmospheric experience further. This way we put the visitor directly in the past, with medieval knights riding by, ottoman soldiers firing cannons, and roman legionaries marching in unison. In some parts of the fortress light is used to depict a certain mood. For instance, the place of relaxation on the north-eastern ramparts is amplified by the light projection of waves on the ground. This also focuses the attention of the visitors to the river and reminds them of its historic importance. Furthermore, if a visitor seeks more detailed information he or she can use wireless transmission to receive it. It’s important to stress that all of these interventions are completely invisible during the day, so they don’t in any way interfere with the existing structures.


Ribbon 03 Step 2 | First overview | Heritage |

Binoculars

Night light


Poetic spaces group - Project incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Poetic spaces group Japan Ryosuke Fujii Italia Gianluca Bertoldi Giulia Carlone Singapore Felicia Lin Yanle

Step 2

Serbia Isidora Marčetić Milena Solujić

Our proposal is to “reconstruct” something that is imagined by modifying the way to see and feel. These imaginations may be something that is historical, lost, fictional or idealised. During the first survey and the citizen’s survey we singled out some poetic spaces which we then classified onto the Kalemegdan plan into categories such as point, line and zone in Kalemegdan area. The proposal is based on creating a system that transforms this space into an organic path of illusion and surrealism, yet it remains inevitably real and materialised through the use of filters that such as water, air, light and earth. These filters are designed as horizontal and vertical platforms to reflect, refract and transform the senses into surrealistic feelings. We have horizontal platforms that are very slightly convex shape to catch a thin layer of water. These horizontal platforms create a space that is multidimensional as one can occupy the enclosure below the “roof”, or see the cloud reflections when one is on top of the “roof”. The “roof” becomes ground, and earth becomes sky. The vertical platforms work with the distorting and expanding the actual elevations of buildings, greens and walls. They have different shapes and curvatures to contort conformed images of the area. Also, by strategically locating these vertical platforms, they create spaces in between. The combination of the horizontal and vertical systems with planar and organic platforms will work by reflecting, erasing what is, and replacing it with air and earth.The gate represents the immediate point of emission where scent flows out from. Here, air is employed as a filter to transform one’s imagination and feelings.

Sometimes the house of the future is better built, lighter and larger than all the houses of the past, so that the image of the dream house is opposed to that of the childhood home... Maybe it is a good thing for us to keep a few dreams of a house that we shall live in later, always later, so much later, in fact, that we shall not have time to achieve it. For a house that was final, one that stood in symmetrical relation to the house we were born in, would lead to thoughts - serious, sad thoughts - and not to dreams. It is better to live in a state of impermanence than in one of finality. - Gaston Bachelard, The Poetics of Space


03 Step 2 | First overview | Poetic spaces |


Green spaces group - Project incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Green spaces group Japan Katsuhito Komatsu Italia Adriano Statello Giulio Becattini

Step 2

Serbia Nevena Mitrović Vesna Šunjkić

The intervention focused on the lower part of the park of Kalemegdan here the link with the river is completely cut off from the first Karedjordjeva street and the railway line, so it was a project designed in two phases, the first part (the majority) to be implemented instantly, and the second will be solved when the infrastructure problems and streamline traffic along the street Karedjordjeva. The idea is to bring the missing functions or away from this area and increase its neighbours, the functions identified are: • Teaching, to be attached to the zoo; • scientific, given the presence of the planetarium is currently little used; • sports and recreation areas; • parking in the direction of the marina; These works were conceived as a sort of buffer zone to separate it from the network infrastructure Karedjordjeva the street and the railway, the largest operations will be carried out directly placed against the side of the hill he will be as small as size as you approach the waterfront the structure, thought to be completely covered by green construction, a dual solution in terms of visual impact of isolation, in fact, over time, will recreate a huge garden. When they solved the problems of street Karedjordjeva connection to the river will be nearly direct, as traffic will be more than halved is designed to create safe crossings Rialto that will keep users of the park.

Map shows the real and ideal connection between green, city and river. Besides the long river, an interesting street mostly used pedestrian, is analyzed by its quality of green inside and around it. In fact is important not only the green where the pedestrian walk but also the view overall with other coast. The points sign the big problematic place where need to connect green with river.


03 Step 2 | First overview | Green spaces |


Ephemeral / Spontaneous spaces group - Project incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Ephemeral / Spontaneous spaces group Japan Shigeru Rakuman Italia Claudia Roselli Jacopo Bardi

Step 2

Serbia Igor Mišković Nemanja Marković Vladimir Parežanin

THE FORTRESS... which one can be the interpretation of ephemeral? PROCESS: This stage of research is referred to a special logic and translation. How are we going to use the pieces of premises from analysis and turn them into defined space? Our theme is about spontaneous spaces on the fortress. From the very beginning there was a paradox question how are we going to plan and design space that needs to be unplanned and spontaneous. So we tried to define what does spontaneous means from spatial point of view. We focused on two things: 1. issue of change 2. issue of predictability Change issue is referred to an appearance of space. It’s about changing the shape and form, about relationship between static and dynamic, about illusion, about moving, flexibility and mimicry. We tried to think of the ways how could people spontaneously change appearance of some space or object just by using it. We started considering one of the more simple shape: the cube, linked to that: the possibility of interpreting this cube, just only giving to him the freedom of interpretation. For example, we deconstructed frontal surface of the fortress wall in a modular greed of cubes. We imagine the wall made out of the flexible cubes that would move back and forth hosting different types of events. The spaces would flip out from the surface of wall if someone wants to use it for some kind of event. This way the shape of the wall

spontaneously changes it surface by people who use the boxes. There would also be different kind of tool boxes: fun box, naturalistic box, hammock box, sport box, bar box.... Inside the surface of the wall which you could take and use. Inside those toolsboxes would be different kind of material depending of what you would like to do. This way you can literally deconstruct the surface of the wall changing its appearance and also spontaneously form your own space using the tools you find inside the box. Predictability refers on a question of how is this space is going to be used. It’s about designing the space universally and at the same time generically. It’s about attracting people to use some space with a minimum suggestion of how are they supposed to use it. Space with a low level of predictability of what is it used for is spontaneous space. This kind of space has various possibilities of what you’re going to put inside it. Suggested a number of various events, such as: taking a sun bath, sightseeing, music sessions, meditate, spending time in nature and from the start we had a problem of how we’re going to present (design) them. Designing a space for music rehearsals you can be sure that it’s going to be used only for that purpose, and this is the problem: it’s a high level of predictability. In order to make it more spontaneous you have to lower this level of predictability. So we try generically to design a space for each of this event and then mix the all and came up with tree types of universal space that can be used as a place for rehearsals but also as a place for picnic or place for having a sunbath or a place for sightseeing. This way you are going to be sure that the designed space is not made for one purpose but for many. And that is spontaneous and ephemeral, giving space for create a situation.


The project is linked to the transportation of ephemeral on the city, or better on the core of the city, that mean the fortress of Kalemegdan. The idea to create some ephemeral structure inside the fortress, will transport the philosophical meaning of POSSIBILITY, inside the still and strong symbol of the fortress. The initial aim was to subverting the common representation, and the common interpretation like a war symbol of the fortress. The boxes, are ephemeral,

and not fixed, just giving the possibilities to the people to create a new situation, converting the memories of the war place, in a new place able to generate peaceful and nice atmospheres. In that sense ephemeral like a positive interpretation of the unknowing. In the unknowing all the experiences can be done and tried. Let’s open a box and have fun!

03 Step 2 | First overview | Ephemeral / Spontaneous spaces |

TITLE OF THE PROJECT: “PLAYGROUD BY PLESURE BOXES”


Infrastructure group - Project incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Infrastructure group Japan Koshiro Torii Italia Andrea Saladini Pietro Facendola Singapore Gracia Vera Quek Jia Min

Step 2

Serbia Nebojša Prokić

Utopia Our hypothetical approach represents a futuristic projection of the concept of “jump” – it is radical in the context of today, owing which to the impetus of solely using our thoughts and feelings of experiencing and connecting the fortress to the rest of Belgrade. The direction in this chapter of our project ditches the current concept of infrastructure today, replacing it with our own definition of networks and communication with the similar aim to connect people and information. Retaining the notion of the fortress as a central core with arms connecting it to the rest of Belgrade and Serbia, we envision a surreal infrastructure network that is beyond the technologies of today. In addition, we further connect the fortress and the city via the provision of a new set of links to Third Belgrade, as at present, Third Belgrade signifies a new direction of planning and development. As mentioned above, our thoughts and feelings reined superior to reality in the consensus of design. We tapped from the rich history and importance of the fortress, it being the location of numerous victories and of losses, and the control it had over many lives. The translation of battle in the context of today stands within the field of natural resources. Thus, we draw onto the notion of a high-tech battle of resources for the extension of life. The building blocks of life are chemical elements, as represented by transport bubbles that move through space in different directions. In line with the notion of elements being singular in nature, these transport bubbles are uniform in design but can be adapted to a variety of transportation types – bubbles that are transported through space (cable bubbles), bubbles transported on water (floating river bubbles) and bubbles moving on land (train bubbles).


03 Step 2 | First overview | Infrastructure |


In-between group - Project incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity In-between group Japan Hiroki Yoshitake Hirotaka Yokose Italia Carmelita Breccione Mattucci Rita Biconne Sara Bartolini Singapore Mervin Tan

Step 2

Serbia Mila Paunović Sibel Bas (turkish exchange student)

With the main subject in hand, attempts at creating a singular and objective project proved in vain. The difference in scaled provided a very daunting but yet exciting way to conceive our baby or babies. The difference in view although caused friction, but it was this very friction that created a spark that aided us to realize our potential to the fullest. We therefore integrated the sub topics of physical and social issues, and created eight different projects but yet intertwined together to form a comprehensive matrix of study. River and Fortress – Fortress and City The powerful and scenic river body, which runs through the heart of Beograd, creates a beautiful point of study. The connection or the lack of it proves a vital point of inquisitiveness for circulation. Like the pulse of the dragon, the “Blood” of the fortress needs to have a connection to start drawing the people of Beograd into the heart of the city. Separation of a Single City Beograd, which is embraced by the Sava and Dunav River, is indirectly splitting into different segments. The separation of the parts generated interest to have the “need” to connect them physically, but yet having the subtlety to not impose on the once dreaded route of war. Diluting the City As a city grows, the main core loses its main reason for growth. As years go on and the larger the city grows, citizens tend to forget why and how Beograd was formed in the first place. As the saying goes, “the know where to go, you have to know where you came from” draws the attention back to the main focus of the fortress to revitalize the ideals and core centre.

Retention of the City Blessed with its location, city of Beograd has been the centre of attention of different civilizations. It burns itself to death and emerges from the ashes as a new phoenix in each time. The act of rebuilding should also reflect on the act that showcases the fruits of labour of past empires. The memory remains. These differences in scale proved to be the ingredient that completes the missing link that allowed the group to refocus on the integrated project that will propel us. “creating any connection that will reinvigorate people through visual and physical memory” Like the tapered openings in the underground fortress, the tip of the turning point was reconstructed to fit into a more comprehensive directional goal. The act of finding and designing common theme/pattern, forced us to investigate the vital points or parts of the Beograd city. The connection will choose to find ways and means to revitalize and reconstruct physical intervention that hope to solve social issues or return missing links and memories. The proposed scheme allowed us to see Beograd as a whole and intervene sensitively to bring about a more closely knitted city rather than a growing city with the main roots diluted into the past. Our project focuses on filling in the wide spread city with conscious memories or information that brings the city back to its glory days. By making the fortress ever connected to the other parts of the city and making it very accessible, we have tied the city together.


Wall Extension To rebuild the disconnected, the existing wall that cuts off the connection to the outside has been manipulated. It now treated to be porous with points of physical connections coming through. Through materiality, it remains seamless with the old fortress, but now, instead of a barrier, it becomes connection points. This reconnection allows barriers to be redefined and draws more circulation into the fortress.

Memory Grave The form was created from the symbolic clock tower in the fortress. Similar forms have sprouted within the city grounds and it was chosen to aid in familiarity and iconic status. The memory grave also doubles up as rest points and meeting landmarks. The memory grave has an additional feature that allows information to be sent out to nearby radius. This information allows bits of history and event updates to be transmitted to anyone who has a mobile phone. In this manner, we allowed constant reminders that’s the fortress is ever alive and to give it another way to value add into the possible use of the fortress through renewed functionality.

03 Step 2 | First overview | In-between |

Ferry System and Memory Tunnel Specific locations are chosen to house memories of the past. This allows the viewers to enter into another realm and exit back into the current city as they move along the city. The memories depicted on the walls serve as a reminder of the historical past and the existing city. The added ferry system that taps on the beautiful vista along the river, this brings about a revitalized form of transport that was very prominent in the past.


Photoshop party

Step 2

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

work, party, work, party, work, party, work, work, party, work, party, work, work, party, work, party, work, party... dream completed ! :)


The day before final review comes. It is now time for students to produce the last panels for the exibition. But somehow, classrooms at the faculty were half-empty. It seems that almost everybody was looking for more appropriate working space. Arka Barka floating hostel and caffe, at that moment, got a new purpose. It became a place for over 15 plugged in computers. This moment somehow got a name “Photoshop party” because one Italian student said “Oh, good! We are going to work all night on our computers, like we are having a party in photoshop”.

05 Step 2 | Photoshop party |

That day and the night after were full of funny moments, working atmosphere, international socialization, football matches on tv... All in all: no sleep - time to “work”!


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Jacopo

Serena

Andrea

Pietro

Luca

Giulia

Giulio

Gianluca

Matteo

Claudia

Cecilia

Carmelita

Rita

Sara

ITALIAN PARTY

It was the real Italian way of having fun, good energy, toasts with the best wines and dancing with songs such as Lasciatemi Cantare...


Adriano

Polya

Michele

Elena

Giovanni

Raffaele

Finally we were able to eat real Italian food..

Page break | Italian party |

There were bruschette, Pasta alla Norma, Caponata and and other tasty salty food, but what we remember most is the famous Italian sweet Tiramis첫 :)


06

Step 3

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity


Step 3

Presentation by groups: River, Heritage, Poetic Spaces, Green Spaces, Spontaneous Spaces, Infrastructure, In-between.

Exhibition and ceremony

06 Step 3 |

Final overview


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity River group Japan Takaaki Watanabe Italia Cecilia Caldini Matteo Scamporrino Polya Genedieva Yordanova

Step 3

Serbia Enisa Vejselović Miloš Mihajlović Vladimir Kovač

1.Premises

2.Process


05 Step 3 | Final overview | River |

3.Proposal


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Heritage group Japan Takashi Takei Italia Luca Montanari Michele Morbidoni Serena Francini

Step 3

Serbia Božo Pejaković Predrag Jovanović

1.Premises METODOLOGY

WHAT

2.Process WHERE


05 Step 3 | Final overview | Heritage |

3.Proposal HOW...


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Poetic spaces group Japan Ryosuke Fujii Italia Gianluca Bertoldi Giulia Carlone Singapore Felicia Lin Yanle

Step 3

Serbia Isidora Marčetić Milena Solujić

1.Premises

2.Process


05 Step 3 | Final overview | Poetic spaces|

3.Proposal


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Green spaces group Japan Katsuhito Komatsu Italia Adriano Statello Giulio Becattini

Step 3

Serbia Nevena Mitrović Vesna Šunjkić

1.Premises

2.Process


05 Step 3 | Final overview | Green spaces|

3.Proposal


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Ephemeral / Spontaneous spaces group Japan Shigeru Rakuman Italia Claudia Roselli Jacopo Bardi

Step 3

Serbia Igor Mišković Nemanja Marković Vladimir Parežanin

1.Premises

2.Process


05 Step 3 | Final overview | Ephemeral / Spontaneous spaces |

3.Proposal


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Infrastructure group Japan Koshiro Torii Italia Andrea Saladini Pietro Facendola Singapore Gracia Vera Quek Jia Min

Step 3

Serbia Nebojťa Prokić

1.Premises

2.Process


05 Step 3 | Final overview | Infrastructure |

3.Proposal


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity In-between group Japan Hiroki Yoshitake Hirotaka Yokose Italia Carmelita Breccione Mattucci Rita Biconne Sara Bartolini Singapore Mervin Tan

Step 3

Serbia Mila Paunović Sibel Bas (turkish exchange student)

1.Premises

2.Process


05 Step 3 | Final overview | In-between |

3.Proposal


Exhibition and ceremony

Step 3

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

After the exhibition we enjoyed drinks and snacks. Ceremonial awarding of certificates for participation in an international workshop followed.


06 Step 3 | Exhibition and ceremony |


GOODBYE/FUSION PARTY

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

This party was like a fusion of different cultures and people. All parties in one, special goodbye party! It was also Milena’s birthday party, so she provided The Cake. However, more of the cake ended up on peoples faces than in their stomachs. Everyone was toasting with sake and signing Milenas birthay present book and fun continued till early morning!


Cake - Bomb Bark 8 eggs, 8 spoons of sugar, 8 spoons of ground walnuts, 2 spoons of flour. The ingredients are mixed and baked into the crust. First eggs with sugar and then other ingredients are added.

Glaze 12 egg whites, 500g sugar. Glaze is poured over filling and can be made of small bomblets.

Page break | Goodbye/Fusion party |

Filling 300g biscuit, 300g ground walnuts, 500g margarine, ½ l peach juice, 12 egg yolks, 200g sugar. Mix all the ingredients together, and then put a filling over baked crust.


07

Conclusion

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity


Conclusion

Leaving Belgrade Time to say Good-bye

Comments by participants. Belgrade: Landscape and Time.

Postproduction and results

Master projects by: Gianluca Bertoldi, Isidora Marčetić and Predrag Jovanović, Nebojša Prokić, Milena Solujić, Mila Paunović.

07 Conclusion |

Impressions by students


Leaving Belgrade

Conclusion

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Time to say Good-bye Two weeks of study, hard work, but also new acquaintances and intensive association combined with a heaty pace that the professors induced. Encouraged the students to rely on each other, even more. All together such temper of student cooropration reached a higher degree of task compression. For the above mentioned reasons parting time came upon the participants with more emotions then expected. In spite of exchange of precise contact data faces where telling the fare-well for good-bye story. There was tears, long and powerful hugs, looks drifting info infinity to avoid invitable separation. All at the end, leading into satisfaction, happiness and warm smiles ..., but with one tought - Home Sweet Home.


07 Conclusion | Leaving Belgrade |


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

THE experience Put an unknown fantastic city, a lot of new friends from everywhere in the world, an historic and fascinating place and some funny and stimulating professors all together in a pot and mix. If in the end you feel you don’t wanna go back home, or wish to return as soon as possible, that’s “The incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity” workshop. THE group It wasn’t a group, it was the infra-group: there’s a reason for the five stars ;) THE project Utopia-proposals, dream-reality, havefun-work; was there any alternative to a successful result? Flick through this book and give yourself an answer. Pietro Creativity... Sharing... Curiosity...

Conclusion

Rita

1.Here we was, stuck by this river... 2.Different minds, different eyes, different stories, different languages, but we could work togheter and imagine better cities, better living places. 3. Too much reveries, too much memories, too short time. Again? Michele

I got a feeling of spontaneous brotherhood within partecipants and the will to understand each other by most of people. Gianluca

Ps. Can I propose something? REVOLUTION!!! Don’t prepare anything, don’t present, don’t work-work-work! Give to Djuka 1 liter of Rakija! (no, the last one will not change anything...) Michele


Everyone was different, interesting on their own. Somehow these differences when put together created a whole new recipe for success that was far greater than imaginable. Mervin The mix of participants allowed for an insight to vastly different cultures, perspectives and opinions surrounding an exciting project brief. Gracia

“NO CONVETIONAL JUMP�. Andrea

The winds have blown to a land hitherto left unknown. Maybe it was the swift operation, smooth precision, masked in an elusive scent of unfamiliarity. The nomadic architecture student has arrived, to meet fellow wandering souls. Fly

07 Conclusion | Impresions by students |

Wonderful city! Wonderful people! Wonderful workshop! Tahnks! Ben Sassen


Conclusion

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

As hosts of the Workshop, from the very first moment we were enthusiastic and excited about the whole event. In the end everything turned out even better than we could have imagined. Very fast we got to know each other so there were no communication problems. Despite the crazy svchedule, through discussions, lectures, tours, parties and fun, we tried to explain and introduce all the participants with the very context and idea of the Workshop. On the other hand, it was a valuable experience to hear all those thoughts of students and professors from other universities and to deal with partially or completely different approaches and methods, schools of architecture, urbanism, urban planning and media. Finally, I can say that I really enjoyed participating in this workshop. I believe I’ve learned a lot about teamwork, especially when in a such short time you have to get the maximum from each participant individually and at the same time connect all their ideas into a meaningful creations with all individual impulses visible. That was a great challenge packed into a small time frame. In my team particularly, first of all, people were phenomenal, not to mention and excellent students, so getting to know and work with them was great pleasure. Enisa Vejselović

It was a very short stay in Belgrade. Eventhough we were provided with sightseeing tours, international getogethers and city walks I still feel I haven’t seen enough of this megacity. It was its electrifying atmosphere that made me never forget it. There is also the fact that the hospitality of the serbians/inhabitants and the well-organized workshop made me feel very comfortable. I have never been to Serbia or Belgrade before. I had no idea what was expecting me when walking out of the airport. Still, I like to indulge in reminiscences by flipping through my photo album. Thanks again to all the participants that made this workshop a nice and valuable experience. Especially the encounter with the head co-ordinator of this workshop Djuka will always stay in my mind, as well as I will never forget the long walk with Mila and Pedja through their hood. It was great! Eva

different schools and approaches multinational friendship game


Our excursion to Belgrade changed my life.

By being in close contact with students and professors from different yet similar study majors as mine, the exploration through Novi Beograd and the fortress gave a whole new twist to my learning process. I am aware, that a longer stay would have meant a deeper enrollment with the broader project, but the fact that we used the time and opportunity so intensively, reminds me how valuable it all was. Hopefully this workshop will be but the first step to a longer and lasting teamwork between the participants. Forever grateful, Edu

In every aspect I agree with Melissa. We had a unique and wonderful week in Belgrade. Larissa

On a personal level, this project changed the way I approach new, unknown cities as spaces. I try to get back into that open, receptive state of recording all kinds of (visual) impressions of a place and get to know the city in that way. The fact of working with architecture and urbanism students from different countries further broadened my perspective to approach a city both conceptually and physically. And of course, the quality of contacts that arose from that made the workshop a fulfilling experience, both academically and humanly speaking. Even though I must admit Belgrade somewhat still remains a mystery to me, and there is still so much more to explore - I feel I had the chance to get a one-week glimpse of it. What will stay in my mind of this week through Belgrade is the helpfulness of people we came across, both during the workshop (and afterwards - a special thanks to Prof. Darko Radovic for his precious help in translating political slogans!) and on the streets, the direct way of getting into lively discussions. Melissa

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A short but definitely intense experience, the workshop provided me with such an input, that it keeps on coming in my artwork ever since. It expanded my perspective upon architecture and urbanism, specifically by setting up a direct association between the building blocks and their inhabitants.


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

…….There was a diverse mix of different cultures and backgrounds of the various participants, ranging from the feisty and loud Italians, the hospitable and chain-smoking Serbians, the collected and quiet Japanese and us, fort-is-Fort-Canning Singaporeans. It was definitely somewhat a cultural immersion between the participating countries within two weeks, and the intensity of this workshop proved that there was much difference within our various architectural upbringing……

Conclusion

….. From the Italians, their huge respect and near insistence towards the accurate portrayal of the history and culture of site was slightly stifling to the children of the tabula rasa. From the Japanese participants, there is a strong conceptual element in their impetus to design and the product, while not always feasible, is lucid. The local Serbian participants were able to offer help with regards to site visits and background research. Some of them have also been actively working on ideas on rejuvenating the fortress, and were able to inspire us towards a goal that is more culturally and locally attuned. It was a pity that the German Media Art students could only stay for half of the workshop, if not the workshop would probably have been more holistic as their artistic and sensitive inputs would have further added another dimension to the projects. Work aside, it is interesting to see the vast difference in stress management - the Europeans simply danced away, while the Japanese downed a few bottles of beer. We recommend that this workshop be continued in the near future as the unique site already poses, in any way, a very exciting brief that is challenging to us, and also to be part of this architectural synergy where Media Artists, Architects and Urban Planners meet and mingle. Singaporeans


It was a great chance for me to be a part of this workshop meeting so many people from around the world in such an interesting place like Belgrade which has a very interesting historical background. This was my first time in Europe and therefore my perspective has changed so much after I participated in this workshop. I believe that this experience will always be the biggest part of my life as I take part in the architecture field from now on! Our group faced several conflicts over our different views towards the project and I was worried at first how our final product would be. But as we talked over and over, we started to respect each other’s ideas and realized that the most important challenge through out this project wasn’t only how we make a perfect product at the end but also how we get along on the way and try to understand and make best out of it. Thank you! Chige

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The great benefit of the Workshop is a discovery of new outlooks in the country which have different culture and hesitates. I had done some urban analysis and research in Japan, especially at the metropolitan city of Tokyo. But I had not experiences of analyzing cities in foreign countries. In the city of Belgrade, there were many social difference/rich heritage/rich natural environment. Through lecture and site survey, I could know about it deeply. And the lectures from researchers were very useful because there is full of inspirational research topics. These experience and knowledge will be useful for my works in the future. At the end, I deeply appreciate for all of professors and students who organized the workshop. Work in our group is full of joy derived from discovery and creation. We could consider about the context of the cities through fieldwork and discussion. And each of members have different method/idea for analyze, knowledge of urban planning/Architecture and Architects. That were most enlightening talks. I am deeply grateful to my group member for their help and advices. We could finally introduce how the Fortress should be with the concept of “The Jump” and “Utopia”. I was very pleased with the final product. Especially, I think that Video which was made for our final presentation was successful. Koshiro


Belgrade: Landscape and Time Cecilia Caldini, Giulia Carlone, Serena Francini

Conclusion

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

In order to prepare for a workshop in Belgrade we started our journey in Florence by looking for some informations about the city. While browsing through different bookshops, to look for a travel guide, even just on Serbia, to our surprise, we did not find one. On the Rome-Belgrade flight, the Alitalia in-flight magazine contained an article by Toni Capuozzo. As an expert on the city – he was the Italian correspondent during the war – he was also surprised by the absence of guide books on Belgrade. So we decided that during our stay in Belgrade we would take the opportunity to try to cover a small part of this shortcoming, weaving suggestions and challenges of our experience in Belgrade through the topics of time and landscape. The work presented here consists of two parts. The first part is a critical reading, almost a travel book: two weeks in Belgrade. The second part is a collection of three video-interviews, a direct testimony of academics and professional town planners intimately involved in the processes of the city’s development and formation. 14 days in Belgrade ... Belgrade, the White City, is located in the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Balkan Peninsula encounters Pannonia. The name Beograd (literally “white city”) was imposed by Pope John VIII in the late I century AD, but was used briefly. The Bulgarians who governed the city, renamed it in Alba Graeca. During the centuries, many peoples - Romans, Goths, Huns, Slavs, Byzantines, Turks, Austro-Hungarians - have lived, ruled, built, destroyed and reshaped the tangible and intangible, physical and cultural spaces of the city.

Time has been always the bearer of great political and cultural upheavals resulting in different land occupation and substantial changes in the landscape. As a Backdrop to scenes of events, the Danube and the Sava, are the backbone of the city. The water, naturally, always played a life-giving and strategic role. As a Perennial protagonist in the spirit of the city, it is the mirror of changes, delivering, during time, discontinuous and changeable functions, identities and perceptions. As a System of relations and conflicts, water is an element not always recognized as central, distinctive and founding of the city but, always “present”: therefore, it will be our key for a reading of Belgrade. Thus the character of time investigated as permanence, contrast, difference/limit, urgency and opportunity, will be framed by the fil rouge of the water system and described in its relations with landscapes of Belgrade. Time as contrast Belgrade is a city of many contrasts. Belgrade is the result of contrasts. The contemporary planning vision envisages the city in the form of three cores: the Old Town, the New Belgrade (Novi Beograd) and the Third Belgrade. Each of these parts is strongly characterized by a specific urban development and historical and geo-morphological structure that reflects the profound differences of each part. The Old City today consists in the Fortress and Zemun, the latter included in the city of Belgrade by the end of World War II. Both, as primordial units of two separated cities, are situated on two hills facing each other. Between them, flows the river Sava. In the space between the Fortress and Zemun, New Belgrade has developed following Le Corbusier’s principles from the Ville Radieuse, on a


II when archaeological and historical studies have shown that the area was completely built inside the ramparts, a spatial configuration that also appears from the representations that, since the beginning of the eighteenth century, are given by local artists. The continuous wars that shook this city have repeatedly changed and layered the configuration of the Fortress in a succession of full and empty space and culture. The contemporary debate among urban planners, investors, academics and public administration is focusing on the way to rethink the fortress as a new unit of attraction, between desires of construction and reconstruction, maintenance and futuristic adaptation operations. During the day, Kalish – as Belgradian affectionately call it - disappears in the time of the daily life. One can glimpses the straight lines of the bastions in the greenery, between the skyscrapers and the New Belgrade. But as the day ends the Fortress is lit up, and viewed from the Danube, everything seems to make sense and becomes almost the soul of the city. On the waterfront, on the western part, the profiles of six high-rise buildings of small vertical lights, lead the mind to the present, to a future real and possible. The fortress opposes them, and through the light, it becomes clear root and fruit on the hill (not very clear...). so Magnificent and so beautiful, it leads the mind to the past in an aura of strength and protection, but at the same time, it comes alive inside thanks to a few restaurants and the famous kissing wall. Again, the contrast, day and night, past and future and, in the middle, us investigating the past to think about and to design a desired future. New Belgrade is structured and is named as a composition of blocks on a rectangular matrix. Moving on from the bridge between the Old and the New Belgrade, the scale of the city changes suddenly: multilevel residential buildings with different

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reclaimed marshland, after the second Word War. The Third Belgrade, lastly, was created during the last decades of the last century on an alluvial soil on the left bank of the river Danube. Distanced from the shore and screened by a dense band of riparian vegetation, that leads it out of sight from most parts of the city, it is the manifestation of the contemporary phenomenon of uncontrolled urban sprawl. The initial core around which the present city has grown and has developed is Kalemegdan, The Fortress. With a history of about two thousand years, the Fortress is situated on the hill at the intersection of the Sava and Danube rivers and covers an area of about thirty hectares. Built in the second century BC as a Roman fort, it was an important frontier line for the empire. Since its foundation it has been the subject of conflict and desire of conquest: the representative image of the point of collision between East and West. Its image is a direct consequence of its name. The name White City come from the color of its walls, which, in the past, were visible miles away in contrast to a landscape of swamps and forests. Over the centuries the Fortress was destroyed and rebuilt several times and its current configuration refers to the European culture of military science and Vauban’s design. The Fortress is now used as an urban park in contrast to its military past. This new function needs the adaptation of the Fortress’s open and covered spaces for the leisure needs of contemporary society. The Plan of Development Restoration and Valorisation for the biennium 2008-2010, is based on the intention to promote the cultural value of the fortress and give the complex a central role for national and international tourism in Serbia. This intention has grown since the end of World War


Conclusion

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

volumes facing each other within large infrastructure spaces and green areas as public open spaces. The resulting image is a composition of parallelepipeds that seem to come down from above among green crowns. Driving through this neighbourhood, the perception is to be in a place where time stands still in a modernist skyline. But this is a superficial image. The matrix that draws the public and private spaces of buildings, shops and paths, has lots of possibilities. In fact, at street level, there is a socialisation rich in colours, ethnic groups and different functions that make up a unitary system at the social and spatial level. Opposite and complementary social dynamics, which reflect autonomous and uncontrolled uses and appropriation of the territory, are radically changing the flood plain on the left bank of the Danube. On the right back the highly planned city (New Belgrade) contrasts the sprawl of the Third Belgrade at a spatial and ideological level. Skyscrapers of fifteen and twenty floors, highly visible from most parts of the city, are the identity unit of New Belgrade’s urban landscape. This urban landscape has no relation with the invisible Third Belgrade, composed mostly of houses with two floors and hidden by vegetation. The Third Belgrade is felt only when we cross it. A series of single-family low-rise buildings draw a lack of urban design with unfinished roads and partly open-air sewers. The lack of planning and the development in a short span of time and unregulated growth dynamics, are leading to a rapid advancement of building towards the river banks that is also a strong concern about the risk of geological instability. The division into three cores reflects the identity and constructive matrix of the city. Each core is identifiable by specific urban landscapes that are set in areas with different geomorphologic configuration and linked to times that reflect specific and

defined socio political and economic issues. Time as permanency What remains what persists. From the panoramic viewpoints of the city, one notes a strikingly large mass of green. A triangular island in which greenery is reflected, so opulence through the water, is on the edge of the city. This green core, which captivates viewers, is the Island of the Great War. The island is located at the centre of the confluence of the rivers and is like an invariant point trough time and the process of nature. This portion of emerging earth, unique great permanency within the continuous changes and evolutions of the city, has remained unchanged over the centuries as a military area in a territory that has always been disrupted by wars. Paradoxically the island expresses a peaceful and immanent nature, in spite of its name. Today it is a protected area, a condition that highlights and strengthens its morphological and cultural identity. Despite this link, the island is at the centre of a heated debate on the possibility of human reconquest of two square kilometres in the centre of the city. The island as a protected area is the major ecological resource for the city of Belgrade and, if properly linked to infrastructure, with rehabilitation and conservation projects of other parts at highly natural value, resting on the Danube and the Sava banks; it could become a powerful nodal point for the contemporary ecological system of the city. Time as difference/border The water in between The water has always been a boundary line for the city. A border full of differences constantly changing through time: in the past it was the limit in


the river landscape is becoming part of the city. The first signs of this process become apparent in some recent urban plans to restore the waterfront and the empty old docks; on the other hand, these plans aim to create a new futuristic image of the city, with skyscrapers located on the riverside functioning like new landmarks for Belgrade. Time as urgency and opportunity New urban processes Among all the connections previously analysed using the fil rouge of water, the two rivers are above all, systems whose urgency for a renovation currently represents a good chance to generate new urban processes. In our opinion, such an opportunity should not be exploited just for an intervention on the ecological systems. It should represent a new way to intervene on urban landscapes, on their shape, their social perception and identity. With reference to the Old Town, the waterfront is composed of two areas that have been set up at different times and that develop on several levels: Kalemegdan is an area that can be defined a direct waterfront. Some specific interventions, both designed and implemented, aim to the reconfiguration of some buildings partly destroyed in the fortress area. Recovery interventions of the waterfront as such aim to create new functions in the area by building art galleries, professional offices and restaurants. In our opinion, an overall plan aiming to connect the original core of the city with its modern spread along the banks of the Sava and the Danube, could be a key point in shaping a new landscape identity. With such a plan, Belgrade would have the opportunity to obtain new public spaces linking environmental systems and human fluxes. This is a desir-

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between the city and the outer territories; nowadays it is a border itself, not in use anymore because it is still polluted from the bombs of the last war. The river was always perceived as a limes and it structured the connections between built and not built areas, defining the cultural attitudes of the people living on the city side. Like a threshold into the unknown, it materialised the fear of the unfamiliar, it was the forbidden line to cross. The lasting signs of this attitude are the thick, green embankments between the Danube and the former buildings of the recent urbanization of the cities of Korex and Bora. Kalemegdan and the rivers are indivisible, because their functions were always closely connected. During the construction and development of settlements the river was integrated in the Fortress complex as a part of the defence system; at the same time it was used as a trade and communication line. On the northern and the eastern side, the water replaced the city gates with drawbridges; the fortress was open on the riverside leaving a huge space for the growth and development of the harbour area. Nowadays those connections are not clear anymore. The processes of de localization of the harbour and the demilitarization of the fortress that took place after War World II, permanently changed the overall image of the system, creating an unseemly, odd landscape. Unlike many other cities, in which city life is strictly connected to the river and the different parts are recognized for their position in relation to it (Oltrarno in Florence, Trastevere in Rome‌), this is not the case here. The river becomes alive during the night, and in it, thanks to the peculiar use of floating houses with different functions: private flats, night clubs and restaurants. More recently the important border marked by


able perspective subsequent to the demand for the clearance of the rivers.

Conclusion

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Time as suspension A suspended city Recently the urban spreading of Novi Beograd and the southern part of the metropolitan area is accompanied by the desire to reshape the urban image, in order to transform Belgrade into European city. The central government of Serbia is aiming to join the EU and its capital is dealing with the demand for a new urban identity. Once again the contrast is a key issue: a strong contrast is taking place between the Municipality and the Academia. There are indeed neither idealistic nor methodological points of contact. On one hand, the Municipality is looking forward to build a new skyline based on capitalistic and global formats: the aim is to involve “archistar” to reshape the city (we are thinking of the Libeskind’s Master plan developed for the waterfront area). On the other hand the academic world completely disagrees both with the model and the related urban processes. The aim, the organization and the experience of the international workshop that involved us, focused specifically on the critical thinking of the current trends. For the first time in Belgrade a heterogeneous group of students, coming from Serbia, Japan, Singapore, Germany and Italy had the opportunity to work with international tutors and Professors to develop ideas and concepts for a urban development based on identity, focusing on the old core of the city: Kalemegdan. At the beginning we were surprised by such a focused subject because, though we understood that Kalemegdan’s open space could be improved

by introducing new functions and uses, it is however a place that already has a strong identity. For our Professors, what we previously defined an ‘unseemly landscape’ is the key element to start thinking a new development for Belgrade. Therefore we could appreciate that there is actually a strong will to modify the urban landscape basing it on cultural approaches. The meaningful point for the academic world is not to go along with global trends, but to re-think the city starting from its strong and multifaceted connotation. Therefore, the public space is not only a place where to enjoy, but it becomes also an educative device able to develop a consciousness of the place. Here in the suspended city, we found once again the brief space of daily life and the time of memory, coming out clearly from the issue of the Fortress and Zemun, that are currently not linked to each other as a unique heritage. Daily life goes on in Novi Belgrade, with a small but important change of the public use of space: the streets are getting crowded with small stands selling ice creams and fresh drinks, modifying the urban landscape and subtracting a space that has long been used by the whole community. Direct accounts During the fortnight in Belgrade, we had the opportunity to meet some cultural and professional actors involved in the processes of urban change. Based on our specific research fields within the PhD in Landscape Planning, we aimed to collect some direct accounts from Professor Zoran Dukanović, Professor Darko Radović and Zaclina Grigorijevich, General Director of the Town Planning Institute. Urban Landscape and urban development, Port


cific case of the transformation of the harbour area on the Danube. The current debate on the dynamics of reconversion of the harbour incorporates all the topical elements about the urban landscape change that still have no solution. The demand for the recovery of the huge area of the harbour, currently unused, is an emblematic opportunity for the national and international profile of the city. In the planner’s purposes, this will lead to a radical renewal of the urban image. The debate clearly shows the urgency to get out from the condition of limbo in which the city has been stuck for too long. The harbour area is currently a private closed space, an off limits area. It is separated from the city that always distanced itself from it. Nevertheless, this space that actually has no identity could become in the future the new core of urban identity. The area in which it is located and its huge surface point to the direction of a functional renovation of the structures and spaces with the contemporary criterions of mixed uses, increasing new public spaces. A new, important landscape could rise from this urban vacuum. With a good planning and a good management Belgrade Municipality could solve one of the main current conflicts of the city: the complete separation from the river. The will to modify the urban landscape and the pursuit of identity also acting on a cultural point of view led to think about Public Art as a device for good practices. Art interventions are means to pay attention to the issue of the public space in all its meanings: space of common life, space of heritage and democratic space. This is the peculiar case of the Kalemegdan Fortress. Public Art is therefore considered like one of the means for the development of a historical con-

07 Conclusion | Impresions by students |

and urban changes, Public art in public space, were investigated through three structured questions using three keywords: image, identity, perception, in a diachronic and synchronic way. In the following lines we report some reflections that came out from this work. The current way to look at the city of Belgrade is based on the concept of three cores, representing a strategic starting point to think about the development of a city that always had many contrasts and differences. Those cores are not similar at all: each one of them has its peculiarities for nature and form. Three cores absolutely different and connected to each other for their differences. In a landscape vision time becomes landscape defining the current entities - Old Belgrade and New Belgrade – and the future entities. The Third Belgrade is a concept recalling a geographic place on the Danube banks, but currently it is just a plan. For the first time Belgrade is considered as a whole including the space on the opposite side of river Danube and the unknown space becomes part of the urban vision. At present, the crisis is an opportunity for professionals and academics alike to think about the future Belgrade like an updated city in an European vision. Images of the growth of the city, with a skyline marked from green skyscrapers, are promises more than sustainable projects. The great richness of the city lays on its capability to become differentiated and to create a characteristic urban landscape, rich of possibilities and visions for the future. There is indeed a strong will to react to a time suspended for too long, trying to renovate the heritage of a past that still haunts. Those broader issues involving the future of the whole city are significantly perceivable in the spe-


Conclusion

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

sciousness and a new identity, because each art intervention can sharpen reflections on the past, and at the same time it can suggest a way to shape the future. One of the aims of the Architecture Faculty of Belgrade is to form new professionals capable to work on these issues. Therefore it is not a coincidence that the workshop led us to develop artistic ideas for the vision of a space that aims to become one of the most representative public spaces of the city of Belgrade.

Bibliografia G. Ruffini, Project caplja – a river park in the new island on the danube in belgrade, in Macrame`, n. 3, Firenze University Press, 2009, pp.139-147 V. Slavica, Fortresses and Remnants of Fortified Towns, Publications n.6-9, PE Belgrade fortress, Belgrade, 2008. D. Zoran, E. Zivkovic, Public Art and placemaking: Case study - Belgrade, city municipality Stari Grad, Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, 2008. D. Zoran, D. Radović, Urbophilia, Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, 2007. Seminari/Lecture Lecture: Planning discourse Mss. Milica Joksić, architect; Director of Strategic Planning and Development Department of Town Planning Institute of Belgrade Mr. Dejan Miljković, architect; professor at Faculty of Architecture University of Belgrade Mr. Branislav Mitrović, architect; corresponding member of Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts; professor at Faculty of Architecture University of Belgrade Lecture : Cultural discourse Ms. Borka Pavićević, playwrite, cultural activist; Founder and Director of Center for Cultural Decontamination, Pavilion Veljković Lecture: Management discourse Mr. Dejan Vasovic, architect, Deputy Mayor of Belgrade – the City Architect Ms. Žaklina Gligorijević, architect, Managing Director of Town Planning Institute of Belgrade


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UNISOLATION OF THE SAVA RIVER

- study of Kosančićev venac and project proposal incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Project 1 Italy Gianluca Bertoldi

Introduction The workshop experience had been really interesting and enriching for me, for the people I’ve met, the personal experiences done and of course for the intellectual part. That led me, together with my will to elaborate my thesis outside my country, to the decision of coming back to Belgrade. Thanks to professor Paloscia (relator), professor Đukanović (external relator) and architect Ruffini (expert and co-relator) I could do it. Discussing with them I decided to concentrate on the area of Kosančićev Venac, to study its history, analyse its actual state and try to propose some new projects.

Conclusion

The analysis of Kosančićev Venac area Kalemegdan area surely represents an area of big importance per the Serbian identity, but it’s a nonresidential area. Looking at the border districts we can notice big differences: nearly the whole historical centre is organized by an orthogonal grid that is extended from the feet of Kalemegdan towards southeast and covers the area of the Turkish settlements before the independence. After it the whole part resided by the ottomans, mainly built in wood, were razed down and re-built following the plan of Emilijan Joksimović of 1869. The only untouched zone has been the district of Kosančićev Venac, the Serbian “ghetto” under the Turkish domination. In this part of the town the Serbian population were living, and developed its commercial activities thanks to the Sava port. It extends between Kalemegdan, Sava river and Branko’s bridge, strongly connected to the ancient fortress.

The area has been analysed under many aspects: • • • • • •

Historical analysis; Urban development; Soil and buildings use; Existing preservation constraints; Paths classification; Fluxes;


The district have many critical elements. The upper part is the less problematic, better kept and integrated in the city. The void left by the destruction of the National Library in 1941 is a never healed wound in the soul of the city and of Serbian people. In this moment the ruins are left abandoned to themselves, and no restoration work has been made up to now. Along Kosančićev Venac, close to the ruins, exist some old buildings without any architectural value and in contrast with the surroundings, especially one in a strategic point of view towards Sava river. The slope is an element of extreme criticality: it’s unstable hydrogeologically and has problems about inner water who comes out of the stone inside some buildings adjoined on it and in the lagums, who are half-abandoned and dangerous, when they could have been restored and given back to the people. In the lower part the criticalities are worse. The main road Karađorđeva is an extremely critical element for the whole area: the traffic is really high with heavy vehicles too, acting as a barrier between the district and the riverside, who developed together. Other than bringing acoustic and air pollution, it makes really uncomfortable to reach the river and the activities of the Beton hala for the pedestrian flux, that’s already obstructed by the railway. Along Karađorđeva, and inside the district too, exist some abandoned buildings, in really bad conditions, and many lived buildings are in bad aesthetical conditions. This impacts negatively on the

aesthetical of the whole district, being the buildings visible from Sava, the bridge and the other side of the river. The port, source of developing of the entire district, now is in a state of half-abandon. The company that owns it, since more than two decades, never developed any project of restoration, showing no interest in it. Beton hala, that has been half restored and now hosts several good commercial activities, still have many abandoned parts. There are some projects that should complete the restoration process, with the creation of museums and other cultural and recreational activities. About social we can perceive from the inhabitants a feeling of being abandoned to themselves, a sort of ancient memory of the Turkish domination era.

07 Conclusion | Postproduction and results | Hotel |

From these analysis it has been possible to see the criticalities and potentialities of the area.


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Project 1 Italy Gianluca Bertoldi

In 2007 a detailed plan of the district had been approved, and many changes are previewed. The sure changes are: • the new station of LRT (Light Rail Transit); • the restoration of the Beton hala. From the analysis of the existing and the projects of the plan I finally moved to develop some personal ideas to make the district better, architectonically and socially. To make this it was important not to contrast the historical elements and the identity, trying to recover the relationship with the history that made this place.

Conclusion

The projects of the actual plan that I decided to keep in my project are: • the construction of the Memorial Centre in the void of the National Library; • the reconstruction of the palace Đumrukana, home of the old customs house and later theatre; • the restoration of the slope with the creation of the pedestrian path, connected to the lower level by a lift. The new things I proposed are: • the undergrounding of Karađorđeva street; • the creation of a big river park along the Sava; • the develop of the touristic port with the creation of new river links as public transportation service; • the creation of a underground car parking between Karađorđeva and Beton hala, transforming the surface level into a garden-roof; • the adjustment of the areas with buildings in architectonical contrast.

All these projects are going to give back to the district that vitality and centrality that characterized its history, livening the historical relationship with the river that now is nearly non-existent. It’s fundamental to create some new attraction poles in the district, and develop new protected links for pedestrians, both internally and with the outside. This brings to revalue the role of the district in the urban contest, giving it back that ancient importance and centrality that it had in the past. The inhabitants too in this way would recover the relationship with the city community, coming back to be co-protagonist and not feeling anymore isolated and ignored.


07 Conclusion | Postproduction and results | Hotel |


PATH TO THE LOST CITY incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Projects 1 and 2

Conclusion

Serbia Isidora Marčetić Predrag Jovanović

The main idea of this project is to create a system of movement through forgotten cultural, historical and folklore heritage of Belgrade fortress. This system is connected with a number of cultural and historical points and additional elements (marked on the map). We think it is important to identify the potential of “hidden places” inside the existing structures, rather than make interventions that would distract attention from the fortress. This approach is predominantly inspired by participating in Heritage and Poetic spaces groups during the Workshop. All elements that we anticipate in this project are classified according to the table below.


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Table of elements in system


MUSEUM of Slavic mythology and Urban legends incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Projects 1 and 2

Conclusion

Serbia Isidora Marčetić Predrag Jovanović

This museum includes an old building of former Serbian freemasons lodge and an addition that expands to the fortress walls behind it. It consists of a public space on the fifth facade (roof) and of two underground levels. On those levels are two exhibitions: Slavic mythology and Urban legends. Both of these topics are closely related to the history of Belgrade, with very little material relics about them (which is the main reason we chose these two subjects). The exhibition on the ground floor integrates with public space on the top, and therefore attracts visitors to the museum. Round skylights provide natural lighting and connect all the levels. Each exhibition occupies one level.


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Museum ground floor plane


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Projects 1 and 2

Conclusion

Serbia Isidora Marčetić Predrag Jovanović


Belgrade fortress doesn’t have an epicentre – a square. This square can be formed amongst archeological remains in the Upper city. Choosing from these very ruined remains (including three Austrian barracks and a mosque), we decided to further develop two of the barracks. Features of square led us to locate a public company “Belgrade fortress” headquarters on the Lost City square. Besides that, all the functions that help people participate in further development of this area are located here as well. The form of the new objects follows the disposition of the old barracks and integrates them with their functions. This way, parts of the barracks that are not of exceptional archeological importance would be reconstructed and preserved as one of the historical layers of Belgrade fortress.

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LOST CITY SQUARE


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Projects 1 and 2

Conclusion

Serbia Isidora Marčetić Predrag Jovanović


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Hotel “Kalemegdan” - Belgrade Fortress

-recovery, conservation, rehabilitation and (re)use of the walls in front of the Great gunpowder warehouseincomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

ABSTRACTS | I

Project 3

This master project is an architectural and urban solution of the western Lower town of Belgrade Fortress. More precisely: the space between the medieval walls in front of the gunpowder magazine called the Barutana. This project provides one possible answer to the potential ways of activation of this part of the fortress through its revitalisation, conservation, and (re)use through active protection. Besides architectural solutions, this project provides urbanistic proposal for location environment, with the aim of improving the quality of public spaces.

Serbia Nebojša Prokić

Conclusion

ABOUT THE PROJECT | II The project aims to preserve cultural and historical heritage and to present itself in the other way using new features. The architectural programme of the new object enables the possibility of activating this part of the fortress, by introducing of accommodation programme with additional thematic contents. All of these are available to users on this exclusive location in exclusive environment. This hotel-restaurant with accommodation facilities and a range of supporting facilities, would contribute to the affirmation of, not only Belgrade fortress, but the city itself. This would further promote Belgrade and highlight it on the tourist map of Europe. 1 |Great gunpowder warehouse 2 |The remains of the medieval walls 3 |Earthen embankment in front of the warehouse 4 |Monument “Pobednik” 5 |Sava river


TIPOLOGY | III

07 Conclusion | Postproduction and results | Hotel |

Hotel Kalemegdan can be defined as a city hotel. This type of hotels is usually interpreted as nonfunctional, with lack of some contents due to constrained space. However, this is not the case. Functional organization is designed so that users can get all the needed services and information in this object, or in the immediate environment.


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

A) The main part - hotel B) Annex - the northern part of the services C) Central public hall D) Immediate environment - ground

Project 3

Conclusion

Serbia Nebojša Prokić

FUNCTIONALITY | IV Hotel is divided in 3 units for better functionality of technological processes, movement of the employees, guests and visitors. Due to the objects’ uniqueness, this division is also extremely important because of the fire-proof corridors and the presence of the natural light and air in the building. PROBLEMS AND LIMITATIONS | V A lot of limitations and potential problems appeared in the design process. Primarily, it is of national importance to protect the object and its environment as a cultural heritage. That means that aggressive methods aren’t allowed. Every new construction would have to be independent from the existing object. Not a single intervention should damage any part of the fortress.


A new ground floor solution is proposed in this design project. New access paths are planned, existing ones are adapted, and a small square is formed. Also, space for an open gallery is planned. This exhibition area would be a new meeting place for young artists, and also for all citizens and guests of the hotel. Special importance of this location is the fact that this would be a new presentation space for public art. That would enrich cultural and historical value of this whole project.

07 Conclusion | Impresions by students |

VI URBANISTIC SOLUTION | VI


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

REVIVAL OF THE LOWER TOWN OF BELGRADE FORTRESS ON THE SPACE OF NORTHEAST WALL - VIDIN GATE

Project 4

Conclusion

Serbia Milena Solujić

Bastion of the north front “Vidin” gate is situated in the old part of Belgrade, in the lower city of Belgrade fortress, near the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers. In contrast to the Upper Town of the Belgrade fortress, which has a dominant position and the organic connection with regard to natural phenomenon of the Sava and Danube, The lower town has a subordinate position, and unsafe. First because through the centuries he has always been exposed to enemy attacks coming from the water and second flooding as a natural threat.


„before“ concept: The primary concept is preceded by examples that are: • Workshop Incomplete dream of Belgrade Continuity. Beograd. • Project for revitalization, conservation and reuse of Nebojša Tower. Belgrade. • King’s Bastion. Gibraltar.

• CONTEMPORARY The revival is based on presenting the past with a contemporary form and content “In the reality the space of the fortress is empty. This emptiness can be the space for the possibility. In one direction you can give shape to the future and in the other direction, you can represent the past.” Ephemeral / Spontaneous spaces

07 Conclusion | Postproduction and results | Hotel |

The main directions of the concept: • PUBLIC A public space that “all” use (excludes private) • DIVERSITY The diversity of content and mixing functions • ACCESSIBLE “Like the pulse of the dragon, the “Blood” of the fortress needs to have a connection to start drawing the people of Beograd into the heart of the city. “ In Between Group


Sections as an illustration of movement within the walls incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Project 4 Serbia Milena Solujić

Conclusion

The concept of urban proposition is based on: • Retaining the situation according with the terms of heritage protection, without new fixed structures outside of the bastion. Conditions for the walls of the bastion are: the retention volume and form of the walls, no new holes in the walls, green fifth facade; • Continuation of the Project for revitalization, conservation and reuse of Nebojša Tower; • Treatment of the north-eastern wall as a unity of Belgrade fortress walls around the Upper town and Lower town; • Implementation of new content in the northeastern walls that could support possible manifestations on outdoor activities. Northeastern walls are also providing amphiteatral perception and participation in those manifestations with their path and position; • Better accessibility that is enabled with increasing number of parking, designing bicycle paths and pedestrian public communication on the upper surface of the bastion and their continuity from the “Nebojša” tower to the “Jakšić” tower;

• Calming of motor vehicle traffic in the future, especially heavy cargo transportation; • Maximum adjustment levelling of existing terrain and retention of existing vegetation.


07 Conclusion | Postproduction and results | Hotel |


Memories Of The Future incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity Project 5 Serbia Mila Paunović

Are there any memories of the future? Memory of something that is repeating? Is there an eternal circulation in nature, eternal merge of time? Does senses the caterpillar that it’s going, wake up in the spring, as a beautiful butterfly? Does the gas molecule knows law that it will sooner or later become Sun again? Does the mind knows that it is unbreakably connected with eternity? The man is now different than it was yesterday or the day before yesterday. The man constantly changes and constantly updates himself on the infinite line which is called time. Belgrade fortress is also on that mysterious journey... It will never be the same city immortalized in between the covers of our book because it is constantly changing, growing, moving...

Conclusion

The main idea of this master study was to recreate the life that once existed within the fortress. By creating new inspirational public places and contents Belgrade fortress will resurrect from its dull present and once again stand proudly on the confluence of two important rivers like in ancient times. Inspired by the old fortification elements, the idea came. Something that once was an obstacle became a connecting tissue between history and future. The old forgotten fortress becomes fresh, modern and inspiring. Tower layout The towers are arranged according to their individual needs. Their main volumes are raised high as possible but with special precaution taken not to endanger the old fortress views.


Tower courtyards Bioclimatic methods were used. The distance between the towers enables natural daylight to enter each one of them.

Tower inside Both from inside and outside, whole location and action are visible. Green rooftops and transparent construction enables you to enjoy a full 360 degree panorama of Belgrade fortress. Tower Panorama All the existing views, as they were, with new objects overlooking both the old fortress and the river. By creating new mini, ambiental and inspiring spaces the fortress would, step by step, become alive again. By using new materials and new contents, familiar to common people, we will recreate the idea of the old fortress.

07 Conclusion | Postproduction and results | Memories Of The Future |

Towers green carpet In some places the ground floor is manipulated to create an entrance to towers underworld through which you can enter the fortresses reurbanised and revitalized area where you can explore, relax and enjoy all its beauty.


incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Cross Section 1

Project 5 Serbia Mila Paunović

Longitudinal Section

Conclusion

Cross Section 2

The Master Project basic ideas • Rehabilitation of Upper and Lower Town of the Belgrade fortress with different interventions and implementation of various functions. • Creating a new local urban centre in the Lower city area with combined public offices, living and working, but of course with the utilization of all advantages of the location and preservation of existing flora and fauna. • Creating attractive cultural, artistic and inspiring ambience suitable for tourism and recreation, that would make this area even more attractive and more interesting to all residents of Belgrade as well as the tourists. • Ensuring good formal and functional correspondence with surrounding neighbourhoods both distant city areas, which will commence the creating of Reurbanised and Revitalised Belgrade fortress as a unique organic entirety. • Creating a new identity that aims to increase the attractiveness of the area.


North-West Fasade

Floor plans

South-East Fasade

South-West Fasade

07 Conclusion | Postproduction and results | Memories Of The Future |

North-East Fasade


Index of people

Index

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

Students: Bardi Jacopo Bartolini Sara BaŞ Sibel Bertoldi Gianluca Becattini Giulio Biconne Rita Breccione Mattucci Carmelita Caldini Cecilia Carlone Giulia Chollet Melissa DonosO Eduardo Facendola Pietro Francini Serena Fujii Ryosuke Genedieva Yordanova Polya Jovanović Predrag KLOSCH Alexander Komatsu Katsuhito Kovač Vladimir Lin YANLE Felicia Linke Katrin Marković Nemanja Marčetić Isidora Mihajlović Miloš Mitrović Nevena Mišković Igor MontaNAri Luca Morbidoni Michele Parežanin Vladimir Paunović Mila PEJAKOVIĆ Božo Prokić Nebojša Quek JIA MIN Gracia Vera

Rakuman Shigeru Roselli Claudia Saladini Andrea Scamporrino Matteo Schumann Melanie Solujić Milena StATello Adriano ŠuNJkić Vesna Takei Takashi Tan Mervin THINIUS Eva TorII Koshiro Ulosch Alexander VEJSELOVIĆ Enisa Watanabe Takaaki Wunderlich Larissa Yokose Hirotaka Yoshitake Hiroki Professors and tutors: Đukanović Zoran Bobić Aleksandar Božović Stamenović Ružica Naumann Sandra Paloshia Raffaele RADOVIĆ Darko Ruffini Giovanni Sassen Ben Tarsi Elena Tripodi Lorenzo


08 Index | Index of people |

Lecturers: GLAVOČANIN Vesna GLIGORIJEVIĆ Žaklina FERENČAK Miodrag JOKIĆ Siniša JOKSIĆ Milica MILJKOVIĆ Dejan MITROVIĆ Branislav PAVIĆEVIĆ Borka VASOVIĆ Dejan KNEŽEVIĆ Miroslav


Index of places

Index

incomplete dream of Belgrade continuity

After the exhibition we enjoyed drinks and snacks. Ceremonial awarding of certificates for participation in an international workshop followed.


Index of places

08 Index | Index of places |

After the exhibition we enjoyed drinks and snacks. Ceremonial awarding of certificates for participation in an international workshop followed.


Profile for Public Art & Public Space

incomplete_dream_of_belgrade_continuity  

draft version of publication. The Workshop “Incomplete Dream of Belgrade Continuity” was organized within the wide frame of General Protocol...

incomplete_dream_of_belgrade_continuity  

draft version of publication. The Workshop “Incomplete Dream of Belgrade Continuity” was organized within the wide frame of General Protocol...

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