The Art of Typo graphy
Natalie Lukaszewski Spring 2018 Graphic Design The Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising
Ever since I was little, I wanted to be an artist. I took a wide variety of art classes growing up including ceramics, drawing, painting, computer graphics, screen printing, and photography. I never knew what I wanted to pursue until I found FIDM. I looked through their majors and found Graphic Design. It seemed like the perfect fit so I applied to the school. When I got in, I finally felt like I was taking a step in the right direction.
Typographical Terms 6 Character Studies 10
The Question Mark
The Letter A 14 The Letter F 16
Sketchbook 18 Ubiquitous Type 22 Logo Designs 24
Name Logos 26
Museum of Modern Typography 28
Newsletter Redesign 30 Typography History 32 Pop! 48 Fonts Used 66
Typographical Terms GROTESQUE
Grotesque is used as a synonym for sans serif fonts in general. More specifically, grotesque refers to the set of sans serif fonts produced around 1815.
Distressed fonts consist of irregular contours and a weathered appearance.
Two or three characters joined as a single character.
In printing, refers to type that drops out of the background and assumes the color of the paper
A capital letter with an ornamental flourish
A line or rule, 1/4-point in thickness.
Type made from wood. Formerly used for the larger display sizes more than 1 inch where the weight of the metal made casting impractical.
A cursive fonts consists of flowing strokes with the lines joined together
12 pt. RULE
A black line used for a variety of typographic effects, including borders and boxes.
Elegant handwriting, or the art of producing such handwriting.
Slab Serif is a typeface characterized by thick, block-like serifs
Display letter that is set into the text
Typographical Terms HANDLETTERING To print by hand.
A typestyle that combines features of both Old Style and Modern.
A small graphic symbol.
Type used to attract attention, usually above 14 points in size.
The opening and closing cross-strokes in the letterforms of some typefaces.
An early, ornate, bold style of type, typically resembling Gothic.
Roman characters that slant to the right.
A typographical device other than a letter or numeral (such as an asterisk).
Adjusting the space between the letters so that part of the letter extends.
A typographic element usually used to highlight specific lines of text.
Used in digital typography to mean overall letterspacing.
The question mark is a universally recognised symbol, and yet its origins remain quite mysterious indeed. And these two sets of origin stories are as different as stories can get, but I’ll try and do my best to cover both.
The Romans The first (and admittedly the less likely) of the two stories starts where most things inevitably start: in Rome. The story goes that the question mark actually originated from the Latin word qvaestio, meaning question. This word was reportedly abbreviated in the Middle Ages by scholars as just qo. Eventually, a capital “Q” was written over the “o”, and it formed one letter. However, the actual evidence that this is the case is almost non-existant, for no medieval manuscript found thus-far supports this idea. In fact, it seems that the opposite holds true; the question mark morphs to look more like a q rather than less like a q as time passes.
Alcuin of York The more accepted story by linguists is that of Alcuin of York and his “lighting flash” of a symbol. Around this time, the need for punctuation in writing was becoming more and more evident, for books were now not only spoken aloud but read silently by monks on their lonesome. Without knowing where to pause or stop, it was a bit hard for monks to enjoy their reading. While there was an old system pioneered by, you guessed it, the Romans in place using a bunch of dots, it wasn’t sufficient. To combat this, Alcuin created the punctus interrogativus to signal an inflection at the end of a clause. The symbol itself was a tilde over one of the old Roman dots.
The Bodoni™ font is a well-known serif typeface series that has had a long history of interpretations by many design houses. The various font styles begin with Bodoni’s original Didone modern font in the late 1700s through to ATF’s American Revival in the early 1900s and into the digital age. The original design had a bold look with contrasting strokes and an upper case that was a bit more condensed then its stylish influence Baskerville®. The unbracketed serifs and even geometric styling has made this a popular font seen in almost every kind of typesetting situation, but particularly well suited for title fonts and logos.
o one knows why ‘A’ is the first letter of our alphabet. Some think it’s because this letter represents one of the most common vowel sounds in ancient languages of the western hemisphere. Other sources argue against this theory because there were no vowel sounds in the Phoenician language. (The Phoenician alphabet is generally thought to be the basis of the one we use today.)No one also knows why the ‘A’ looks the way it does, but we can construct a fairly logical chain of events. Some say the Phoenicians chose the head of an ox to represent the ‘A’ sound (for the Phoenicians, this was actually a glottal stop). The ox was a common, important animal to the Phoenicians. It was their main power source for heavy work. Oxen plowed the fields, harvested crops, and hauled food to market. Some sources also claim that the ox was often the main course at meals. A symbol for the ox would have been an important communication tool for the Phoenicians. It somewhat naturally follows that an ox symbol would be the first letter of the alphabet.
The Font Didot
The first Modern typeface is attributed to Frenchman Firmin Didot (son of Franรงois-Ambroise Didot), and first graced the printed page in 1784. His types were soon followed by the archetypal Didone from Bodoni. The Italian type designer, punchcutter and printer Giambattista Bodoni (what a great name! [1740-1813]) drew his influence from the Romains du Roi (with its flat, unbracketed serifs) and the types of John Baskerville (high contrast), for whom he showed great admiration.
History of the letter f. The Greeks used the Semitic sign vau in two forms. One form (1), called upsilon, was for their vowel u. The other form (2), called digamma, was for the sound w. The latter sign disappeared in Greek, but it was preserved in the Latin writing because the Romans needed a sign for their consonant f. Several forms of the new sign (3 and 4) were used in Italy.
The latter form of this Latin capital came unchanged into English. The English small handwritten f took shape in late Roman and early medieval times. Scribes in the 5th century began to use a continuous curving stroke, making the stroke at the top first, then the stroke down, and finally the lower side stroke (5). A carefully made 9th-century version (6) gave rise to the English printed small f.
The Font Black letter Black letter, also called Gothic script or Old English script, in calligraphy, a style of alphabet that was used for manuscript books and documents throughout Europeâ€”especially in German-speaking countriesâ€”from the end of the 12th century to the 20th century. It is distinguished by a uniform treatment of vertical strokes that end on the baseline (e.g., in b or l), the use of angular lines instead of smooth curves and circles (e.g., for b, d, o, or p), and the fusion of convex forms when they occur together (e.g., as bo, pa, and the like).
ypography makes at least two kinds of sense, if it makes any sense at all. It makes visual sense and historical sense. The visual side of typography is always on display, and materials for the study of its visual form are many and widespread. The history of letterforms and their usage is visible too, to those with access to m short manual of typo-graphic etiquette. It is the fruit of a lot of long walks in the wilderness of letters: in part a pocket field guide to the living wonders that are found there, and in part a meditation on the ecological principles, survival
techniques, and ethics that apply. The principles of typography as I understand them are not a set of dead conventions but the tribal
customs of the magic forest, where ancient voices speak from all directions and new ones move to unremembered forms. One question, nevertheless, has been often in my mind. When all right thinking human beings are struggling to remember that other men and women are free to be different, and free to become more different still, how can one honestly write a rulebook? What reason and authority exist for these commandments, suggestions, and instructions? Surely typographers, like others, ought to be at liberty to follow or to blaze the trails they choose.
Typography thrives as a shared concern and there are no paths at all where there are no shared desires and directions. A typographer determined to forge new routes must move, like other solitary travelers, through uninhabited country and against the grain of the land, crossing common thoroughfares in the silence before dawn. The subject of this book is not typographic solitude, but the old, well traveled roads at the core of the tradition:
paths that each of us is free to follow or not, and to enter and leave when we choose - if only we know the paths are there and have a sense of where they lead. That freedom is denied us if the
tradition is concealed or left for dead. Originality is everywhere, but much originality is blocked if the way back to earlier discoveries is cut or overgrown.
If you use this book as a guide, by all means leave the road when you wish. That is precisely the use of a road: to reach individually chosen points of departure. By all means break the rules, and break them beautifully, deliberately, and well. That is one of the ends for which they exist.
Letter forms change constantly, yet differ very little, because they are alive. The principles of typographic clarity have also scarcely altered since the second half of the fifteenth century, when the first books were printed in roman type. Indeed, most of the principles of legibility
typography are, at any rate, stable enough to weather any number of human fashions and fads. and design explored in this book were known and used by Egyptian scribes writing hieratic script with reed pens on papyrus in 1000 B.C. Samples of their work sit now in museums in Cairo, London and New York, still lively, subtle, and perfectly legible thirty centuries after they were made. Writing systems vary, but a good page is not hard to learn to recognize, whether it comes from Tang Dynasty China, The Egyptian New Kingdom typographers set for themselves than with the mutable or
Renaissance Italy. The principles that unite these distant schools of design are based on the structure and scale of the human body the eye, the hand, and the forearm in particular and on the invisible but no less real, no less demanding, no less sensuous anatomy of the human mind. I don’t like to call these principles universals, because they are largely unique to our species. Dogs and ants, for example, read and write by more chemical means. But the underlying principles of
“Typography is the craft of endowing human language with a durable visual form, and thus with an independent existence.” Typography is the craft of endowing human language with a durable visual form, and thus with an independent existence. Its heartwood is calligraphy the dance, on a tiny stage, of It is true that typographer’s tools are presently changing with considerable force and speed, but this is not a manual in the use of any particular typesetting system or medium. I suppose that
most readers of this book will set most of their type in digital form, using computers, but I have no preconceptions about which brands of computers, or which versions of which proprietary software, they may use. The essential elements of style have more to do with the goals the living, speaking hand and its roots reach into living soil, though its branches may be hung each year with new machines. So long as the root lives, typography remains a source of true delight, true knowledge, true surprise.
Phi Theta Kappa Hosts:
April 23 - May 4 Phi Theta Kappa Hosts:
DIY AIR PLANTS We’re celebrating Earth Month! Add more greenery to your apartment by decorating your own plant pottery to take home with you. Supplies will be provided. Tuesday, April 24 11:15 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. Student Lounge Patio
Celebrity Fashion Designer
The Industry Club Welcomes:
Intrested in being a fashion designer and entreprenuer? Hear from celebrity designer, Walter Mendez, whose creations have been featured on celebrities like Beyonce, Britney Spears, Selena Gomez, Mel B, Jennifer Lopez, Camila Cabello and more. Tuesday, April 24 2:45 p.m. - 3:30 p.m. Room 425
DENIM DAY Wear denim with a purpose, support survivors, and educate yourself and others about sexual assualt and rape! Sign our pledge to support survivors. #endrapeculture Wednesday, April 25 All Day
Girl Power Day
A Look Behind the Magazine
Ladies! Let’s have a serious (and fun) chat about our bodies. Remove the stigma that comes with being a woman. Embrace your femininity and feel empowered with PTK. Who runs the world?!
Interested in learning what it takes to put a magazine together? Join FIDM MODETM Magazine for our first photoshoot of the quarter, a make-over!
Tuesday, May 1 11:15 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. Room 425
Thursday. April 26 10:30 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. Room 425
Student Council Hosts:
Phi Theta Kappa Social:
Self Defense Class Join PTK for this safety workshop led by Peace Over Violence. Empowerment self-defense is a set of awareness, assertiveness, verbal confrontation skills, safety strategies, and physical techniques. These enable one to successfully prevent, escape, resist, and survive violent assaults. Sign up in Room 425. Friday, April 27 11:15 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. Room 500
The Industry Club Hosts:
Pinkies Up: An email ettiquette workshop Lost for words when you have to send a professional email? No worries, we got you! Join us for tea time and learn the unwritten rules of email etiquette to make the best impressions. Tuesday, May 1 2:45 p.m. - 3:30 p.m. Room 425
You got what it takes, you just haven’t realized it yet. Learn impactful ways to let your confidence speak for you. Whether your’e asking someone out on a date, going to an interview, networking or asking for a raise, confidence is key. Wednesday, May 2 11:15 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. Room 425
FIDM MODE™ Magazine:
FIDM Tote Bag Challenge! Looking for a way to get involved in MODE™ Magazine? Here’s your chance to showcase your talent. MODE is looking for fun and creative designed FIDM Tote Bags to feature in their upcoming issue. Take the classic FIDM Tote and transform it with fabric, paint, patches, beads, rhinestones or anything that inspires you. 10 lucky winning designs will get chosen! Stop by Student Activities, Room 425 for more details to apply. Sketches are due May 3. Contest ends May 25.
Career Center Indusrty Partnership on Wednesday, April 25 from 11:00 .am. - 2:30 p.m. in the Student Lounge Companies will be on campus to recruit for part time and interships positions in the Student Lounge. Come prepared to network and interview.
Effective as of July 1, 2017, failed units will be subject to a $500 per unit charge (Example: 3 units =$1,500.00). Please see Financial Services for further information.
Are You Wired? Do you have access to your email, WiFi, Adobe, eLearning, FIDM Portal, and FIDMPrints? Make sure to check the FIDM Portal or visit either eLearning (Room 403) or the Annex Copy Center to make sure you are wired for FIDM Technology this quarter!
NEED MONEY TO HELP PAY TUITION? If you are a student starting your 2nd, 3rd or 4th year, in the Summer Quarter of 2017 you may be eligible to receive a Scholarship from the FIDM Scholarship Foundation - ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS: • Cumulative GPA 3.0 • U. S. citizen or permanent resident. • Currently employed or interning - INSTRUCTIONS & APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS • Meet with Student Advisor to obtain application in suite 401
- Now Available Submit completed FIDM Scholarship Foundation Application to your Student Advisor including references and resume
Don’t delay, schedule your appointment today!
Student Acivities Presents:
“May The Fouth Be With You” Mixer Attention Star Wars lovers! Join us for this awesome mixer. Watch one of the classics while enjoying refreshments and snacks. The best Star Wars inspired outfit will win a prize! Friday, May 4 11:15 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. Room 425
GET YOUR MONEY’S WORTH!
June 2018 GRADS who benefited from the FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN, must complete an E-EXIT COUNSELING by the deadline: May 15, 2018 E-Exits are available online at WWW.MYLOANCOUNSELING.COM COMPLETION IS MANDATORY Failure to complete, will result in your DIPLOMA being held. If you have any questions, please contact Evelyn Garcia at (213) 624-1200 ext 4292 egarcia@fidm,edu or stop by room 401-N.
UTILIZE THE FIDM LIBRARY RESOURCES Stop by the Media Room to check out DVD feature films, documentaries, runway shows, and biographies! Also discover innovative textiles, review Vogue Magazines from 17 different countries, and MUCH MORE!
Save the Date! Cap & Gown Distribution! Wednesday, May 16 12:30 p.m. - 5:00 p.m. Check in at Rotunda (1st Floor)
1:30 p.m. - 6:00 p.m. *RSVP REQUIRED at FIDMGRADCARNIVAL.RSVPIFY.COM
STUDENT ADVISEMENT CURRENT INFORMATION Does FIDM have your most current address, phone number, and email address? If not, please go to the Student Advisement office, Rm. 401 to update your information. Thank you. Attention All First Year 2nd Quarter Students! Have you met with your Student Advisor? If not, you need to schedule your appointment in room 401 as soon as possible to start planning for your 2nd yr.
The FIDM Store Earth Day Sale
In support of Earth Day, our reusable drinkware is 20% from April 23 - 27! Celebrate a clean Earth and purchase a reuseable water bottle or tumbler at the FIDM Store.
Now Accepting Applications for Summer 2018 and Fall 2018! Look beyond your current AA degree and consider your options to earn your Bachelor degree in: Business Management Apparel Technical Design Design Interior Design Graphics Digital Cinema Social Media Come to Suite 401 to make an appointment today! Now Accepting Applications For MBA For Summer 2018 (You need to have a Business Bachelor Degree) Contact Sang Pak in Student Advisement, Suite 401A, spak@fidm. edu, for more informations
Why Art Deco?
Why Art Deco? I chose Art Deco because I love the geometric qualities of the period. I find the different uses of line and shape very interesting. I like how the designers of the period used simple lines and shapes to create complicated designs. I find the color choices intriguing; they are bright, yet slightly muted. In my own work, I tend to lean towards geometric patterns and shapes, so I find the Art Deco style very inspiring.
What is Art Deco? Art Deco, also called style moderne, movement in the decorative arts and architecture that originated in the 1920s and developed into a major style in western Europe and the United States during the 1930s. Its name was derived from the Exposition Internationale des Arts DĂŠcoratifs et Industriels Modernes, held in Paris in 1925, where the style was first exhibited. Art Deco design represented modernism turned into fashion. Its products included both individually crafted luxury items and mass-produced wares, but, in either case, the intention was to create a sleek and antitraditional elegance that symbolized wealth and sophistication.
Edward McKnight Kauffer
Raymond Loewy Eliel Saarinen Paul Poiret William Van Alen
Edward McKnight Kauffer
Edward McKnight Kauffer is almost certainly best known for his posters that he produced for London Underground – 140 of them. So it seems slightly strange that he was born in Great Falls Montana. Via the Art Institute of Chicago Kauffer arrived in Paris in 1913 where he met his partner and later wife, the textile designer, Marion Dorn. They moved to London a year later at the outbreak of WW1 and lived in Britain’s capital until 1940 when Kauffer returned to New York where he designed book covers and in 1947 became a client of American Airways – producing many notable posters for the company. He died in 1954.
While Kauffer was in Chicago he witnessed the Armory Show one of the first exhibitions in the US that introduced modernism. It had a major impact on Kauffer who showed abstract influences including cubism, vorticism and futurism all his working life.
Denis Masharov Principal design A fresh decorative geometric grotesque with a hint of Art Deco and câ€˜onstructivism. Poiret One is a unique typeface with light forms and pure elegance. Sleek and simple. Based on geometric forms, it has stylish lines and graceful curves. The font is applicable for large signs, labels, titles, headlines and any type of graphic design on the web, in motion graphics, or in print - from t-shirts to posters and logos. It is also well-suited for short texts and advertising where style is desired. Complete with a lower-case letters, the Poiret One is also useful for all-caps usage.
pop! in this issue: literary journal issue one frank ocean picasso volume seven lil peep ayn rand frida kahlo
pop! literary journal
issue one volume seven
in this issue: picasso
frank ocean lil peep
ayn rand frida kahlo
pop! literary journal
in this issue: ayn rand frank ocean frida kahlo lil peep picasso
issue one volume seven
lil peepfrida kahlo ayn rand
picasso frank ocean
pop! literary journal
volume seven issue one
in this issue:
pop! pop! pop! pop! pop! pop! pop! pop! pop! pop! pop!