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ITER Instituto Tecnológico y de Energías Renovables S.A.

GOBIERNO DE CANARIAS

World Solar Programme (1996-2005)

Créditos: Créditos

Sponsors

Unelco Unión Electrica de Canarias S.A.


Building the future of the islands

Sustainable Energies Island SolarAgenda Recommendations Proceedings Edited by: Cipriano MarĂ­n and Manuel Cendagorta

Island Solar Summit • Tenerife 1999


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Indice Adresses and Presentations ..............................................................................

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Message from the Director General of UNESCO .......................................................... Address by the Chairman of the Island Solar Summit ................................................. Inaugural speech by the President of the Canary Islands Government .................... Message of the Spanish Minister of the Environment ................................................. Address by the Government of the Republic of Cape Verde ....................................... Address by the Government of the Republic of Kiribati .............................................. Address by the Government of the Republic of Maldives ............................................ Address by the Government of the Sicilian Region ...................................................... Island Solar Summit: Building the Future of the Islands CIPRIANO MARÍN ................................................................................................................... Sustainable Energy Resources in SIDS. Progress in the Implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action PAOLA DEDA .......................................................................................................................... Address by the Secretary-General of INSULA................................................................ Address by the European Commission .......................................................................... Address by the Government of the Azores .................................................................... Address by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus ............................................... Address by the Government of the Republic of Papua New Guinea .......................... Address by the Government of the Republic of Seychelles ........................................ Address by the Italian Small Islands Association .......................................................... Renewable Energies, Energies of Peace LUIS MARQUÉS ...................................................................................................................... The World Solar Programme 1996-2005 BORIS BERKOVSKI .................................................................................................................. The New Energy Challenge in the Island Regions MANUEL CENDAGORTA ...........................................................................................................

11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 57

Island Solar Agenda .............................................................................................. 63 Island Solar Agenda .......................................................................................................... 49 Clean Energy and Water Programme ............................................................................. 57

Island Presentations .............................................................................................. 77 Using Renewable Energy Sources in the Mascarene Islands: Problems, Policy and Challenges PREM SADDUL ....................................................................................................................... Electrification of Kiribati Rural Areas Using Solar PV System TERUBENTAU AKURA ............................................................................................................. Renewable Energy Sources in the Canary Islands ANTÓNIO LÓPEZ GULÍAS ........................................................................................................ Implementation Plan for the Large Scale Deployment of Renewable Energy Sources in Crete ARTHOUROS ZERVOS, GEORGE CARALIS, NIKOLAOS ZOGRAFAKIS ..............................................

79 87 93

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Rural Renewable Energy in the Falkland Islands TIMOTHY COTTER .................................................................................................................. Renewable Energy Plan of the Minorca Island ANTONI JUANEDA, CIPRIANO MARÍN ........................................................................................ The Development of Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation: the Example of the French Overseas Departments and Corsica J. L. BAL, M. BENARD, M. LE NIR, B. ROBERT ....................................................................... Full Supply for El Hierro by means of Renewable Energies JAVIER MORALES ..................................................................................................................... Renewable Energy Proposals on Cape Clear Island (Cork County, Ireland) BRENDAN DEVLIN ................................................................................................................... Bioclimatic Buildings: Solutions for Islands GUILLERMO GALVÁN .............................................................................................................. Use of Solar Energy in Remote Areas, National Parks and various Islands in Costa Rica SHYAM S. NANDWANI .............................................................................................................. The Water-Energy Binomial: a Challenge for Islands FRANCISCO PÉREZ SPIESS ........................................................................................................ Insular Context of Renewable Energies. The Madeira Case FILIPE OLIVEIRA .................................................................................................................... Renewable Energy Islands. The Danish Energy Way IBEN ØSTERGAARD ................................................................................................................. Renewable Energy Resources and Utilisation in Fiji: an Overview SURENDRA PRASAD .................................................................................................................. Neverland Island GIANFRANCO D'EREDITÁ, CRISTINA MANICARDI ........................................................................ National Energy Program CROTOK. Energy Development on Islands ALENKA KINDERMAN ............................................................................................................... Renewable Energy on Small Islands THOMAS LINGE JENSEN .......................................................................................................... Wind Powered Reverse Osmosis Desalination for Stand-alone Island Operation MATTHIAS GROTTKE, P. HELM, H. EHMANN, M. STÖHR .......................................................... Energy in Cuba. Present Situation and Main Actions ALFREDO CURBELO ALONSO .................................................................................................. Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources in the Greek Islands GEORGE ANDRITSOPOULOS, J. BOUKIS .................................................................................... UNELCO’s Experience n Wind Farms SEBASTIÁN MOLINA ................................................................................................................ Planning Integrated Ventotene island. Ventotene as Laboratory for the Environment of the Future ANNA SIMONE ........................................................................................................................ Utilization of Solar Energy. The Case of Cyprus SOLON KASSINIS ..................................................................................................................... 6

107 115

119 125 129 133

143 149 151 153 157 163 165 171 173 179 181 183

185 187


Programmes, Policies, Market and Networks ....................................... 191 The Global Education Solar Programme OSMAN BENCHIKH ................................................................................................................. 193 Background on Gef Renewable Energy/Energy Efficiency Projects MOHAMED T. EL-ASHRY ......................................................................................................... 207 Small Island Developing States NETWORK (SIDSNET) HIROSHI TAMADA .................................................................................................................. 209 The OPET Network PEDRO BALLESTEROS .............................................................................................................. 215 MultiMedia Energy Efficiency Training (MEET) Self Directed Training for Local Energy Agencies JOAQUIM COROMINAS ............................................................................................................ 219 An Approach to Renewable Energies Education and Training Programme for the Small Islands NELSON EURICO CABRAL ....................................................................................................... 221 Using the Web to Learn about and Make Policies for Sustainable Energy on Islands PETER MEINCKE ..................................................................................................................... 225 EU Policies on Promoting Sustainable Energies JUAN FRAGA ........................................................................................................................... 229 An Integrative Approach to Maximise the Uses of Solar Energy ÁNGEL LANDABASO ............................................................................................................... 231 Energy and Sustainable Tourism: the Island Challenge TOMÁS AZCÁRATE Y BANG ...................................................................................................... 239 The Alternative Transport MIGUEL FRAILE ..................................................................................................................... 241 Technology Needs for Island Renewable Energy Systems JOS BEURSKENS ...................................................................................................................... 245 Wind Energy The MADE AE-46/1 Wind Turbine FEDERICO GONZÁLEZ ............................................................................................................. 251 Characteristics of Implanting Solar Collectors on Islands ALFREDO BERNABÉ ................................................................................................................. 255 Promoting Thermal Industry Comparison and Evaluation of Experiences RAINER BERKMANN ................................................................................................................. 257 Water-Energy-Waste Integrated Management for the Mediterranean Islands FRANÇOIS VALETTE ................................................................................................................. 259

Rapporteurs ................................................................................................................ 273 Sustainable Energies: a New Challenge for the Islands RAPPORTEUR: RONALD G. PARRIS ........................................................................................... 275 High Priority Projects and Experiences for Islands RAPPORTEUR: JESÚS RODRÍGUEZ ÁLAMO ................................................................................. 277 7


Market and Technology RAPPORTEUR: FRANCO CAVALLARO .......................................................................................... 279 Island Networks. Information, education and training programmes RAPPORTEUR: MIGUEL MONTESDEOCA .................................................................................... 281

International Agreements, Basis for Actions ........................................ 285 United Nations Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (Barbados 1994) ...................................................... European Conference on Sustainable Island Development. Insula - Unesco - European Commission. Consell de Menorca (1997) ...................... Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly 53/7. World Solar Programme 1996 - 2005 ............................................................................... Small Island States - Leading the Global Energy Revolution ...................................... Palma de Mallorca Declaration ........................................................................................

287 289 291 293 295

List of Participants ................................................................................................. 285 Committee of Honour and Executive Committee ............................ 309 ITER (Institute of Technology and Renewable Energies) ........... 311 WEB Site ....................................................................................................................... 319

Santa Cruz de Tenerife Island Solar Summit

Tenerife Canary Islands

ITER


Adresses and Presentations


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Message from the Director General of UNESCO F EDERICO M AYOR Z ARAGOZA Director-general UNESCO

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rganising the Island Solar Summit, in collaboration with UNESCO, INSULA and the World Solar Programme 1996-2005, was a magnificent and timely initiative of the Tenerife Cabildo, ITER and the Canary Island Government that will make a valuable contribution to the on-going discussion on the future of island societies. After the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, UNESCO organised a meeting of high level experts called "The Sun at the Service of Mankind". The objective of the meeting was to study how to increase the use of solar energy and other renewable energies, in the interests of economic and social development and the protection of the environment. In compliance with the recommendations of this meeting, UNESCO spent three years preparing the organisation of a World Solar Summit to provide a political stimulation from Heads of State and Government, to enhance the disseminationofrenewableenergies.HeldinHarare,Zimbabwe, in September 1996, this Summit approved a Declaration on Solar Energy and Sustainable Development and initiated the preparation of the World Solar Programme 1996-2005, which was approved in June 1997. A World Solar Commission, chaired by H.E. Robert G. Mugabe, President of the Republic of Zimbabwe, and made up of 18 Heads of State and Government, including His Majesty King Juan Carlos I, provides direction and supervises the implementation of the Programme.

The use of renewable energies has two main facets: social and economic development on the one hand, and protection of the environment on the other. On the threshold of the third millennium, there are still 2.4 billion human beings with no access to basic energy services, more specifically electricity. This means that they have no chance of education, health, communication, drinking water supply or any of the other services that are necessary these days for a decent quality of life. Concerning the environment, for the first time, the Rio Conference recognised the risk of climate change caused by the emission of gases produced from consumingfossilfuels.TheConferencealsohighlighted that a greater use of renewable energies is one of the basic factors required for mankind to adopt a new and sustainable energy strategy. As islands do not have fossil resources, they are highly dependent on the exterior for their energy, which is a burden on their gross domestic product and a constraint on their development. The fragile and vulnerable nature of island environments mean that importing inappropriate energy models also represents a serious risk to island environments, their most valuable asset. On the other hand, they generally have an abundance of available renewable energy sources that would make it possible to install decentralised, stand alone and clean energy systems. To this end, in the United Nations Global Conference on Sustainable DevelopmentofSmallIslandDevelopingStates(Barbados1994) and in successive developments, especially the case of 11


the Island Agenda for Sustainable Development (Minorca 1997), the strategy of maximum use of renewable energy sources appears as an essential challenge for island societies. In fact, because of their special characteristics, island territories are one of the most privileged habitats, where the option of renewables becomes, in most cases, the only rational solution. Places, that will almost certainly become the gateway for the solar solution in the next millennium. Of course, a greater spread of the pertinent technologies requires competent personnel and palpable and specific demonstration actions to determine which are the most suitable in each case. This explains the importantroleofeducatingandtrainingengineersand technicians in the area of renewable energies. The experience of ITER as an international centre for harnessing and investigating renewable energies in an island setting, is a practical example to be followed by

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many island regions of the Earth. We hope that this Centre of Excellence will be one of the foundation stones in the construction of an effective system of inter-island co-operation to promote a real and largescale use of renewable energies. The three interdependent dimensions of developing these energies of the future are therefore, social, educationalandenvironmental.Neithershouldweforgetthat solar energy and the other renewable energies, by their very essence, are energies of peace that can make an important contribution to UNESCO's Culture of Peace Programme, whose objective is to transform the predominant culture of violence into a culture of peace. I would, therefore, like to congratulate the organisers of the Island Solar Summit and I prey that the recommendations that have been approved can improve the quality of life and living standards of island consumers in


Address by the Chairman of the Island Solar Summit RICARDO M ELCHIOR N AVARRO Chairman of the Island Solar Summit CABILDO DE TENERIFE

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he celebration of this Island Solar Summit joins in with the wide process of transformation and reflection affecting the future of insular societies here at the dawn of the 21st Century. Following the Rio Summit and the Barbados Conference, we are now witnessing the awakening of islands' consciences in the search for effective solutions to development, that can make the conservation of our fragile natural heritage compatible with a just and enduring development. There are many challenges that insular territories must face in these new times. New productive specialities such as tourism, or the rapid growth in populations, place islands in an extremely vulnerable position. Situations in which our limited resources must be managed with extreme caution. Energy, because of its territorial, environmental and economic implications, represents a central element of the insular dilemma. The adoption of improper energetic models could mortgage our economies and environments,asenergysolutionsmaintainanintimate relationship with the way in which insular resources are managed. This interdependence is extremely evident in islands, also involving the politics of transport, water or residues that are key aspects that need to be satisfactorily resolved in our area. The Cabildo of Tenerife, as an instrument of insular government, has always been conscious of the need for sustainable island development, an idea common to the majority of states and insular regions. We have, as in many islands on this planet, an important tourist activity, which is due precisely to the existence of valuable

environmental resources. However, this being one of the main pillars of our economies, it at the same time inflicts pressure on the environment that must be controlled and miminized. And in our case, one of the forms of conciliating insular sustainability with tourist activity is through the use of renewable energies. The majority of islands possess abundant natural resources, such as the wind, sun, sea and geothermal sources(inthecaseofislandsofvolcanicorigins).These resources can be converted into sources of beneficial energy by transforming them into electricity, heat or motive power, with the capacity to cover actual needs, such as heating and passive refrigeration, production of hot water or electrical energy. By applying these to desalination processes, potable water can be produced without having to resort to the use of fossil fuels or nuclear energy. Through these and other techniques, the emission of pollution and damage to the environment can be drastically reduced. Over the last few years these solutions have been progressively applied, though at a much lower level than their real potential. One has to consider that it is precisely in islands where it makes the most sense to aim for a strategy of energy based on efficiency and the maximum penetration of renewable energies. Likewise, the experiencesaccumulatedovertheyearshaveconfirmed apossibleandprofitableuseofrenewableenergiesagainst conventional solutions, besides making public opinion aware of the need for these applications. The world-wide exchange of knowledge and relations between distinct insular sectors, at all levels (po13


litical, technical, legislative, financial), is fundamental to facilitate large scale implantation of renewable energies and a rational use of energy resources. An attitude that, without doubt, will be translated into a significant improvement in the quality of life of all islanders, and in a necessary reduction of dependence on exterior sources. In this sense we are really glad for the excellent acceptance met by the proposal to consolidate the ITER as a focal point in this inter-island co-operation strategy, a proposal drawn up during this Summit. UNESCO's approval, through considering it a centre of excellence, encourages us even more to enlarge our working horizons and to contribute with our available resources to the common task of building an

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efficient network based on the exchange and transfer of technology, information, advice and training, a priority need for islands in this particular moment. Energy sustainability in islands today is not a utopia, it could said that it constitutes a condition for consolidating their balanced development. Today's technology is able to permit the bringing together of a great alliance in favour of renewable energies and energy efficiency in insular territories. For this reason, this summit has been an important step in the construction of a common future of co-operation to assure the conservation of resources and development of distinct insular economies. An essential step for a promising tomorrow that we will be able to feel proud of.


Inaugural speech by the President of the Canary Islands Government M ANUEL H ERMOSO R OJAS President of the Canary Islands Government

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irst of all, I would like to welcome all the authorities and participants who have come to the Canary Islands to take part in the Island Solar Summit that opens here in Santa Cruz de Tenerife. We all know just how dependent islands are on the outside for their energy needs, and the environmental impact of conventional energy sources on territories like ours that base their economic development on the tourist industry. This explains how important it is for those of us who have the responsibility of government, to protect the natural environment, to conserve it over time and to promote a model of sustainable development that is impossible without considering energy production. On the islands, therefore, we do everything we can to promote the protection of the environment and give everybody the chance to participate in nature conservation. That is why the development of renewable energies is a matter of great concern to us. Conventional energy production on islands does not onlyrepresentanimpactontheenvironmentandthose of us who inhabit it, it also has an impact on the economy because of the relatively high production costs in comparison with mainland territories. But we do have advantages too, as our regions are usually rich in sun and wind energy, enabling us to find solutions to our energy problems by specialising in the production of alternative energies and developing our technological skills. We in the islands are potentially

one of the largest markets in the world for implementing renewable energies. For example, in the Canary Islands, we will shortly have the first clean island in Europe. The Island of El Hierro will cover all its energy needs with renewable energy, in this case using water for generating energy. Society’s will to use non-polluting energy sources is growing day by day, which is why we must make every effort to develop the use of renewable energies that, I amsure,willsolveourenergyproblemsinthelongterm. But, to achieve this, we must continue to advance in implementing renewable energies and one of our most important missions will undoubtedly be the battle for having island specificities recognised in all national and international forums in which political decisions are made. Our regions require different solutions, as the problems too are different. We must also disseminate our experiences among islands in order to foster co-operation, aimed at developing renewable energies, define our priorities in this area, adapt energy legislation and administration to our needs and develop our own market strategies. Our basic heritage is our people and our natural environment. Therefore, all of us here present have a duty, inherent in the social commitment we have accepted, to pass on this natural heritage to future generations, so that they can enjoy a better quality of life. Thank you very much. 15


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Message of the Spanish Minister of the Environment ISABEL T OCINO B ISCAROLASAGA Minister of the Environment SPAIN

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n the medium and long term, sustainable overall development and climate stability, both of which require similar actions, are dependent on a revision of energy management aimed at achieving a significant reduction in the use of fossil fuels. And there are only two sustainable means of achieving this reduction: with growing improvement in energy efficiency and an important expansion in the use of alternative energy sources, especially renewable energy sources. Achieving ambitious objectives in this area is a complex, but essential task, requiring all kinds of contributions.ThedevelopmentofsomeenergysourcesinSpain, such as wind energy, is a very positive example. The Ministry of the Environment does not have direct competence over renewable energy policies, but, by helping to adopt ambitious strategies and objectives for limiting and reducing carbon dioxide and other green house gases, we are stimulating the creation of appropriate conditions for these to develop. Within the context of the Kyoto Protocol and the Community distribution of emissions reduction, Spain is committed to limiting the growth of green house gas emissions to 15% above the 1990 level by the year 2010. Although

some would criticise this objective as not very ambitious at first sight, this 15% target will require a significant reduction in the trend to produce more and more emissions over the coming decade. Furthermore, this change in trend will have to become increasingly significant in the future, leading to an absolute reduction inemissions,requiring animportantcontributionfrom renewable energies. In the National Climate Council, whose prime task is to draw up a Spanish strategy on climate change and present it to the government for approval, the new Renewable Energy Promotion Plan is being considered as one of the main sectoral plans necessary as a response to this global threat. The aim of the Plan is to achieve the objective of 12% renewable energy in Spain by the year 2010, twice the present level of consumption. Island regions are especially suitable for developing renewable energies, as they are not connected to mainland conventional energy grids, highlighting the importance of local energy sources, such as wind and photo-voltaic energy, for the sustainable development of islands. 17


One the final sessions of the Summit, in the presence of the island representatives.

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Address by the Government of the Republic of Cape Verde A LEXANDRE D Ă?AS M ONTEIRO Minister of Commerce, Industry and Energy REPUBLIC OF CAPE VERDE

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ay I begin by expressing my deep satisfaction, on behalf of the government of Cabo Verde, at being able to share in these reflections on solar energy, which is one of the important issues for the future of our countries and for humanity in general. In bringing together island populations that share common cultures, motivations and aspirations, this initiative seeks to debate ideas, compare points of view and exchange experiences in order to arrive at mechanisms that will contribute to resolving one of the most pressing problems faced today by our countries. The issue of energy, which is closely bound up with environmental problems, is without doubt one of the chief concerns not just of people, but also governments and international institutions. We are living in a rapidly-changing world, one in which the constant growth in the population, the dominant model of development and the growing needs in the goods and services required for the progress and well-being of humanity are all exerting great pressure on natural resources. Although for the present these resources are generally available, they are not always accessible, they are not inexhaustible and are often non-renewable. No-one would dispute the major advances that have been achieved in virtually all areas over the second half of the century. Advances in science and technology have served to considerably raise the life expectancy of people worldwide. Quality of life has also improved significantly in many parts of the world. However, this progress has

not been distributed equitably and in many cases has been at the expense of the ecosystem and the deterioration of nature, which is ultimately the basis for life on our planet. Urgently needed therefore is a more rational and rigorous management, shouldered by all in order to guarantee sustainable development and to safeguard the well-being of present and future generations. This approach is all the more important and urgent in relation to the small island states in which we live, particularly in view of their scarce resources and their extremely fragile ecosystems. The study of the potential of renewable energies constitutes, therefore, one of the most viable alternatives if we are to reverse current trends and reduce the harmful repercussions of conventional energy use. In this regard, island states need to harmonise their strategies, seek synergies and mobilise resources in the valuation of human potential, in research, in technology transfer and adaptation, creating partnerships both multilateraly and bilaterally. Furthermore, we also need to put in place concerted mechanisms for technology transfer not just within the context of our inter-island cooperation but also in the area of North-South cooperation, and give priority to the training and qualifications of managers and to the mobilisation of financial resources. New challenges face us today both as a result of the growing demands arising out of the process of development and also from the urgent need to reverse the trend towards environmental degradation, the chief 19


cause of which is the long drought suffered by the islands of Cabo Verde since the end of the 1960s. The government of Cabo Verde is currently in the process of deregulating the energy sector and creating mechanisms to rationalise and increase efficiency in energy production, distribution and consumption. In this regard, a programme is under way, with the support of the World Bank, for the restructuring of the energy and water sectors, consisting of the extension of electricity supply networks to rural areas, the opening up of said sectors to private initiative and the strengthening of the institutional and regulatory framework, the provision of incentives for greater energy efficiency and greater use of renewable energies. Our country has made a considerable effort in recent years in the area of electrification. However, due to the dispersed nature of our rural environment conventional electrification means are not viable in certain parts. As a result an estimated 12,000 homes would be permanently excluded from conventional electricty systems. For this reason an innovative electrification programme was devised using renewable energy technologies in particular, with the installation of photovoltaic panels and small individual wind turbines. The programme aims also to encourage foreign suppliers of such equipment to set up in our country in partnership with their Cabo Verde counterparts. It is therefore vital that we adopt new strategies in order to study renewable energies, with the obvious advantages they hold in environmental, economic and social terms. In this regard, we have already commenced experiments and pilot projects for the application of wind energy and the use of photovoltaic solar energy for water pumping through the Solar Regional Programme, with support from the European Union, in three of our islands.

I should like to stress also that the concern to diversify sources of electrical energy production was behind the government of Cabo Verde’s decision to incorporate wind farms into the traditional electricity systems of the three main urban centres. Together these farms account for a considerable share of the electricity generated. Cabo Verde’s privileged geographical location is, we feel, propitious for the establishing of strategic alliances in this field and would encourage the exchange and diffusion of the information needed to create the conditions for the large scale use of non-conventional energies If we look at the objectives of the present Summit and the conclusions of the World Solar Summit which was held in Harare in 1997 we will see that the two coincide, particularly as regards the strengthening of international cooperation, the promotion of strategic alliancesandinternationalagreementsfortraining,and the consolidation of the role of renewable energies in improving quality of life and protection of the environment. I reiterate our unequivocal support for the pursuit of thse objectives and our hopes that the specific actions which emerge from this Summit will confer practical content on the Solar Action Plan. The presence in this forum of distinguished personalities from countries that possess resources and technologies bears witness to their interest and also gives us grounds for hope and optimism for the future. We would like to wish this vital initiative every success and reaffirm the commitment of the government of Cabo Verde to the process. By way of conclusion, it is ultimately the survival of our societies and of humanity itself which is at stake. The islands of the world are in a position to contribute to enabling the peoples of the world to complement and help each other and breathe new life into our Earth. Thank you for your attention

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Address by the Government of the Republic of Kiribati M ANRAOI KAIEA Minister of Works and Energy REPUBLIC OF KIRIBATI

K

am na bane mauri (Greetings to you all)

IbringthatsamewarmgreetingsfromtheBeretitenti, the Government and the people of the Republic of Kiribati to you distinguish delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen. For those who do not know where Kiribati is, let me diverse a bit, and draw to you the geographical location of where Kiribati is. Kiribati is situated right in the middle of the Pacific Ocean divided into 3 groups of islands, which are the Gilbert Group in the west, the Line Islands in the east, and in between is the Phoenix Group. The distance between the Gilbert Group in the West and the Line Group in the east is approximately the same distance as from New York to Los Angles. This covers approximately a total ocean area of about 3 million square kilometers, and within this vast ocean space is a total land area of 886 square kilometers. These small atolls, 33 in all, rarely rise more than two meters above sea level, and are composed entirely of coral debris. Given this physical structure it makes what would be minor environmental issues in larger countries, major ones in Kiribati. Kiribati is very much part of the global village and we

can not distant ourselves from developments that are on going around us. We must keep pace to developments not at a rapid rate beyond our means but at a controlled rate that is affordable to us. The Government of Kiribati is mindful of the harmful effect of the use of fossil fuel generation in the production of the green house gases and the sea level rise. A sea level rise of one meter in the Pacific Ocean would cause a loss of approximately half the land area of Kiribati, and in addressing these concerns Kiribati is very much active in participating in the regional and international arenas that addresses these environmental issues. The Government of Kiribati is very thankful for the invitation to this summit, and will support the needed co-operation that will improve the development on all forms of renewable energy. I would like to thank the Government of Spain and thepeopleoftheCanaryIslandsinsupportingthissummit and the hospitality offered to me and members of my delegation. In closing I offer you all the Kiribati traditional blessing of te mauri (peace), te raoi (health) ao tetabemoa (prosperity) to each one of us in this summit. Kam bati n raba (Thank you) 21


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Address by the Government of the Republic of Maldives I SMAIL S HAFEEU Minister of Home Affairs, Housing and Environment REPUBLIC OF MALDIVES

I

t is indeed a great pleasure for me to participate in this Island Solar Summit - with its theme of Renewable Energies for Islands. I would also like to take this opportunity to congratulate the World Solar Commission for organising this very important meeting and to thank the Government of Spain for the warm hospitality accorded to us. Climate change is, the greatest challenge facing our world, and among the human activities having a discernible impact on our climate, none is more prominent than energy generation from fossil fuels. There is an uncertain future for us in the next century if we do not take action now, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, from fossil fuel combustion. Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere leads to global warming and according to the predictions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, as a result of global warming, sea levels may rise by as much as 95 centimetres in the next century. Even if the more cautious estimates prove correct, small island states, like my country Maldives, may in the next century, become uninhabitable. With islands having an average elevation of just 1 meter above mean sea level, the Maldives, may be among the first victims of the rising sea and waves. Thefactofthematterhowever,isthatclimatechange isnotaproblemofjustsmallislandstates.Itisaproblem forthewholeofhumanityandconstitutesaglobalthreat without parallel. We must address the issue of rising globalconcentrationofgreenhousegasesintheatmosphere. The choice before us is to act now or leave our children

to face the consequences of our inaction. No doubt, energy is the driving force of economic and technical development,butthewayweutiliseandgenerateenergy must be compatible with our environment, climate and health. That is why we must switch to solar energy and other forms of renewable energy. Now is the time to turntothesun,assolarenergyistotallysustainable,clean, the supply is everlasting, and solar energy will help in saving the future for our children who will inhabit the smalllowlyingislands. We, the island people shall not view the opportunity provided by solar energy only as a means of addressing climate change. We must also recognise that it makes economic sense to utilise solar energy in our islands. The small island developing states do not possess oil reserves and import of fossil fuels for electricity generationconsumesamajorportionofournationalbudgets. Not being able to achieve economies of scale in purchases, the prices we have to pay are higher. Not only that, there are huge shipping costs to get fossil fuel to our ports and from the ports to the islands. In comparison, the primary resource of solar energy is freely available in our islands. Most of the island nations are blessed with long hours of sunshine everyday and throughout the year. True, solar energy may not yet be economically viable for some large scale uses. However, it is fast becoming technologically possible and economically feasible to utilise solar energy at smaller scales that are suitable to our economies. Thereareunderstandablereasonsfortheslow breakthrough of solar power into the energy mainstream. 23


The opposition and counter action of many countries with fossil fuel dependent economies and the reluctance of developed countries who have invested heavily in fossil fuel dependent technology has been sufficiently strong to hinder research and development efforts on solar energy. However, the Kyoto Protocol and other recent global developments provide a more positive and promising outlook on solar energy. It is this kind of optimism, which I believe small island nations, can take advantage of. We can play a crucial role, in focussing global attention on the potential of solar energy; in raising the awareness of people who have been presented with misinformation, particularly in fossil fuel dependent economies; and establish convincing dialogues with those who can lead to the required breakthrough. We also need to build partnerships. Partnerships with development agencies such as the United Nations System and financial institutions such as the World Bank to generate the required financial momentum on R&D. Partnerships with international power generating groups to engage them on the technological challenges. Our small size, our dispersed small populations and our small number of consumers create diseconomies of scale that hinder our development. However, these very diseconomies of scale present a rare opportunity for the small island nations, which bigger nations do

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not have. We can show the world, that it is indeed possible and practical to have islands, even a nation, thriving on renewable energy. Simply, we can become superb models of solar energy. It is noteworthy here, that the Kyoto Protocol commits states to implement policies and measures relating to enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant sectors of the national economy; promote, develop and increase the use of new and renewable forms of energy; and phase out market imperfections, fiscal incentives, tax and duty exemptions and subsidies in all greenhouse gas emitting sectors that run counter to the objective of the Climate Convention. True, these measures apply only to parties included in the Annex I of climate convention, but I believe these are important measures that we even small island states should consider in our energy policies and strategies. We all must act together, with foresight and determination to ensure the survival of small island states. Solar energy points in the right direction. So let us grasp this unique opportunity and lead the rest of the world towards a future where energy generation will be clean, safe and compatible with the ecological balance that is so crucial for our survival, the survival of small island states, the survival of humanity . Thank you for your attention


Address by the Government of the Sicilian Region A NGELO C APODICASA President SICILIAN REGION (ITALY)

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s the millennium draws to a close, we are witnessing a general process of reflection on the prospects of Mankind’s development and its implications for the future. Since the Rio Conference of 1992, scientists, politicians and economists all agree on the need to build a development model based on the concept of limited basic resources and on the fact that their redistribution is inevitable. In Agenda 21, these prospects take the concrete form of a set of actions, which, if implemented, will make it possible to talk about development for Mankind, knowing that we are building it in a sustainable manner and, therefore, applicable everywhere and at any time. Although the islands of the world are participating in the future prospects in a fundamental fashion, they face the prospect of having to adapt appropriate and correct solutions that will enable them to consolidate developmentalongsustainablelines.Populationgrowth and economic activities (like tourism) put our islands in a more vulnerable position than mainland areas and, therefore, island land resources must be managed with extreme caution and parsimony. This situation has been the core of several international meetings, in which the islands have called on the scientificcommunitytodiscussthesemattersandwhich havemarkedthebeginningofworkingtogether.Iwould remind you that Sicily itself, at the ISLANDS 2000 International Forum in 1992, was a starting point for this process of common reflection. On that occasion, more than two hundred politicians, experts and researchers from all over Europe and beyond, discussed the world of islands and what form of development they should pursue for the third millennium.

Within the context of the European Union, islands account for an important part of Community territory,withtheirownpeculiaritiesthatthescientificworld has recognised and that have now been translated into actions being taken by all the different institutions. The principle of “insularity” is first mentioned in the Treaty of Amsterdam. This marks an important first step towards full recognition by the Union and, I hope, by all Member States, of the problems we have and which we can not face alone. A common strategy must be drawn up to deal with this matter. TheassemblyofEuropeanislands,organisedlastyear in the Canary Islands by the CPMR and chaired by the President of the Canary Island Government, Mr. Hermoso Rojas, witnessed a very fruitful start to the debate. The objective was to give content to the idea of “insularity” that has been recognised, but which has not taken effect yet, due to the resistance of the old Commission. TheGotlandAssemblynextJune,mustcontinuewith island initiatives and the meeting is a useful opportunity for maturing proposals to be put to the new Commission. The European Conference on Sustainable Island Development, held in Minorca in 1997, as a continuation of the 1994 Barbados Conference, identified a series of key sectors for a balanced and sustainable development of island regions. Among these, energy must play a central role. Territorial, environmental and economic implications make energy production a symptomatic aspect of the island dilemma. Erroneous energy models could mortgage the future of our economies or our environ25


mental resources, making it essential that energy solutions are a fully integrated part of the territorial resource management model and the economic development model. I am convinced that energy strategy is a vital political node, because of the connections it has with all key sectors in the development of islands. Therefore, I consider that this conference is a good starting point for incorporating the island regions of Europe in a more general project of co-operation, to put into place the possibility of a ÂŤEuropean island systemÂť. To conclude our meeting with a practical result, I think that a European Island Renewable Energy Promotion Agency would be an operational instrument for providing assistance to island governments in tailoring the most appropriate and efficient energy model

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to each individual case, from the stance of sustainable development. Our meeting, and I hope other successive ones too (possible announcement of a Summit in Sicily in the year 2000), serve the purpose of gathering together our identities in our attempt to get the message across to Europe that the islands are not asking for assistance; we want to draw up a joint project and reach an agreement with the rest of Europe. In fact, the islands constitute a territorial and cultural wealth that is a common asset for the whole of Europe and their geographic position could enable them to act as a bridge with other continents. Our future, which I hope will be one of peace and well-fare, rests on this and other common initiatives. ThankyouverymuchandIwishyouwellinyourwork


Island Solar Summit building the future of the islands

C IPRIANO MARĂ?N Secretary of the Island Solar Summit Vice-secretary of INSULA

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irst of all, I would like to express my gratitude to many of you here today for the major effort you have made to attend this Summit. We all know the added difficulties imposed on our relations by the scattered nature of the island micro-cosmos. That is why I would like to recall for a moment, the many island regions and countries that have become part of the process that we are starting here, and indeed of the Summit, despite the communication problems that prevent them from being with us here in person. Mention must also be made of the inestimable support that many international agencies related to the island problem have provided in organising this meeting, especially those belonging to the United Nations system and other wholly island oriented regional organisations like AOSIS. The idea of facing the challenges of being an island together has become an established sensibility among islanders. In recent decades, the foundations for interisland co-operation have been laid at many different levels. We know that the new island options must be clearly and independently defined within the framework of globalisation, based on the premise that safeguarding our natural heritage and the natural and cultural diversity of islands is a basic asset in the construction of our future. We know that the island world encompasses territories that are characterised by their extreme diversity and complexity. Remote archipelagos or islands that lie close to the mainland, some with just a few dozen square kilometres of land to the largest islands, but all

with one common denominator. In the course of this Summit, we have seen once again that, in the area of energy, and indeed in many other areas, islands have an enormous variety of circumstances. Their extreme diversity and singular nature are what differentiate them in a world wide context. In this context, the Island Solar Summit is a major milestone for reinforcing a common policy to promote energy sustainability in island regions. We talk of reinforcing as the path to be followed has been gradually consolidated for some time. In fact, we have already seen many different initiatives, such as the Barbados Action Plan that emerged from the United Nations Conference for the Development of Small Island States, or, for example, the Island Agenda approved in the European Sustainable Island Development Conference organised by UNESCO and INSULA. These are just two examples of the intense activity carried out in recent years by the islands, in which the new challenges of energy policies account for a large proportion of island strategy. Two years ago, in the Minorca Conference, island representatives stated unequivocally that "All energy sources, other than renewable energies, should be considered as provisional solutions for solving the energy problems of the islands in the long term." No other regional or world wide forum has ever mooted such a daring alternative as this. And that is precisely what the island factor is; we have different conditions and resources, our problems are very different and, therefore, we need specific strategies to tackle them. 27


The option of using renewable energy sources to the maximum is presently a real objective for islands, as we have seen here. But, what is even more important is that we have seen that there is a clear determination to put the theory into practise. Sustainable energy in the islands already has well defined strategies and actions. That is, we are in a position to work together to promote a clean and distinct energy strategy, based on the features that distinguish us from the mainland and our real potential for change.

Distinguishing features of the island energy factor The external dependence of islands in energy matters, is a factor that determines the basic aspects of their development. In most cases, especially in small and medium-sized islands, energy products account for over 15% of all island imports. The cost of electricity production in islands can soar above the same cost in other regions. Small and medium-sized islands encounter costs that are between four and twenty times greater than on the mainland, in cases where there is no cable or gas pipe line connections with the mainland. But it is not just electricity productionthatisexcessivelyexpensive,inmanyplaces, energy consumption by the transport sector alone can account for over 60% of the energy balance. These figures in themselves explain shortages of supplies in many small islands, or the fact that they have to bear an unacceptable financial burden to survive. At best, excessive specialisation of most island economies often forces them to install over-sized energy capacity, as there are other determining factors like acute seasonal peaks and troughs in consumption, abrupt changes in demand or greater territorial fragmentation than in other regions. We should not forget that islands are currently the world's leading tourist destination after historic cities, and, moreover, it is the area in which the greatest growth in the industry is forecast. The environmental impacts produced by conventional energy sources and technologies are more far reaching than on the mainland, due to the fragile and vulnerable nature of island regions. A good example of this fragility and of just how important the island heritage is, lies in the fact that the area of islands under protection is generally far greater in proportion than on the mainland. So, energy solutions must adapt very carefully to these conditions. 28

Concerning energy efficiency, the systematic import of rigid mainland models of production and consumption generally adapt very poorly to the energy sources used.Islandscannotsupportconventionalenergymodels in either physical or economic terms, and we should not forget that this kind of mistake has caused really serious problems in the past, In fact part of the work we face in the next few years is to solve these problems.

Putting the theory into practise: Arguments in favour of island energy sustainability Most islands have excellent renewable energy resources available in sufficient abundance to guarantee very often, a large degree of self-sufficiency in energy terms. These are currently under exploited in comparison with their real potential. Much of the energy forecasting and planning work done in recent years in island regions indicate that potential energy sustainability is highly feasible. If we take the example of wind energy, we can see that, in an international context, the largest growth in wind farms has taken place in islands. The scale of islands allows for highly modulated energyplanning,withrenewableenergiesaccountingfora large proportion, a factor that must be considered as a valueaddedaspect.Itishardlysurprising,therefore,that projects with a heavy bias in favour of RES are implemented in islands, giving rise to the first initiatives promoting100%renewableenergy.Thisisapossibilitythat wouldhavebeenunthinkableafewyearsago,butwhich has been favoured by technological advances and by a firm will to change the existing model. But, along with the rediscovery of the great potential of RES, one of the main challenges for islands is achieving an acceptable level of energy efficiency in practically the entire range of domains and activities. This is a possibility that fits in perfectly with the idea of recovering the true island culture, overflowing with solutions that convert shortages into relative abundance. Studies carried out in this field inislandswithrapidgrowthintheservicessector,suggest atrulysurprisingpotentialforreducingenergyconsumption. Islands have joined the great tourist market in an especiallyintensefashion. Islands are also excellent laboratories for researching anddevelopingappropriate,cleanandlowimpactenergy models.Thescaleofislandsmakesitpossibletointroduce and test new solutions within an acceptable time scale.


Thisisarealadvantageincomparisonwiththerigidtechnologicalmodelsofthemainlandmarketandoneofthe basicfoundationsthatunderpintheargumentforimplementingthesustainableenergystrategy.

Overcoming island barriers One of the main lessons to have been learned from the ISS is that the barriers impeding the development of sustainable island energy are not exactly of a technological nature. The obstacles impeding the implementation of renewable energies are political, financial, legal and training barriers that must be overcome in order to create a favourable and technical and social economic climate, especially in the area of comparing them with conventional energy sources. The lack of differentiated energy policies for island regions at all the main levels of decision making: local, national and international, is another major handicap. Sustainableenergystrategiesforislandstatesandregions must go beyond merely introducing conventional energy policies. One of the main pillars of island energy policies must be to establish incentive mechanisms and instruments to foster energy saving and rationalisation. Specific frameworks that create favourable conditions for overcoming these shortages must also be promoted. Inthiswork,theinternationalagenciesinvolvedcanmake a powerful contribution toward this essential change. It is also surprising to see the enormous deficit that exists in differentiated market strategies and initiatives, making it impossible to convert the islands into one of the greatest real niches in the renewable market. Individually, islands generally do not achieve an acceptable critical mass, but as a whole, they are the largest current gatteways to the great renewables market of the XXI century. This situation could be negatively affected by a poorly established technical supply and a lack of services capable of laying a sound foundation for a clean energy industry. But,inthiscase,wedohavetheimmediateinstruments forchangingthecourseofevents.Theseinstrumentsfacilitateaccesstospecialisedinformationandtraining.Island networks and good mainland connections for promoting a maximum level of transfer of the technologies thatinteresttheislands.Whatisvitalforustoo,istouseall the means at our disposal to foster an interchange of experiences. The special conditions in which we operate mean that we have to learn from the mistakes of other islandersandtoimitatesuccessfulsolutions.

So, these are some of the principle challenge that we must tackle in practical terms. We need to consolidate the Island Solar Council as an instrument for understanding and as a platform for promoting sustainable energy agreements. This will lay the foundations for a network of specialised island training centres and information, and developing good practise guides and systems for reaching a consensus in the process of turning ideas into reality. All these action proposals, recommendations and specific experiences are contained in the Island Solar Agenda, which will almost certainly form a solid base and an initial point of reference for the powerful island renewable energy movement. The ISS secretariat, in co-operation with UNESCO, theWorldSolarProgrammeandINSULA,withthesupportoftheorganisationsandinstitutionsthathavebacked this Summit, will immediately address the task of guaranteeingafollowuptothemainaccordsandwillstartto build an effective system of co-ordination and participationamongislands,basedontherecommendationsand proposals contained in first Island Solar Agenda. AT this point, I would like to remind you of the words spoken by the representative of the Solomon Islands, when he stated that the technical discourse must never forget the human dimension of energy. In the end, the essential role of renewable energies is focussed on their contribution to a fair and balanced development of island societies and to safeguarding their future. In this Summit, we have not only learned from our experiences,Ibelievewehavealsohelpedtostrengthen the idea that, by working together, we islanders can break down many of the conventional barriers that have traditionally constrained us. But our starting point must always be our own conception of the world. I can still hear the echo of the beautiful and angry words of an island novelist. He said in one of his books, that an islander is an apocalyptic creature because he senses every threat. He is indolent and only puts his sluggishness aside to the extent demanded by survival (....) The islander is disdainful, haughty and simple. An islander is a man on a rock, and also a rock-like man. He can not turn his back on geography because geography has moulded him. He is a man both obsessed and threatened by travel. In short, the inhabitant of a paradise or an inferno. We hope, therefore, that another process for recovering our threatened island paradises has been initiated. As the representative from the Azores so rightly said in his presentation, building the future of islands is also building a major part of the future of the world. 29


Mario Matulic (France) reading his rapporteur report during the Closing Session of the Summit.

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Sustainable Energy Resources in SIDS progress in the implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action P AOLA D EDA SIDS Unit - Division for Sustainable Development Department of Economic and Social Affairs UNITED NATIONS

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e are grateful to the ISS Secretariat for convening this meeting, which we welcome as a valuable opportunity to further address policies and action on the development and use of renewable energy in small islands. We hope that the outcomes will assist us in our task to support and facilitate the implementation of sustainable development of energy in SIDS, as called for in the Barbados Programme of Action. I would like to present to you a short overview of the work undertaken by the Division for Sustainable Development with reference to the sustainable development of energy resources in small island developing States. In April 1994 the first Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of small island developing States was convened in Barbados. The conference highlightedtheeconomicandecologicalvulnerabilities of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and, through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, recommended specific policies, actions and measures to be taken at the national, regional and international levelsinsupportofthesustainabledevelopmentofSIDS. In Chapter 7 of the Barbados Programme of Action bases for action are set both for the sustainable use of existing energy sources and the adoption of alternative and renewable energy sources in small islands. Given the current heavy dependence of SIDS on petroleum fuels and biomass and the high potential for alternative natural resources, the BPoA emphasizes the efficient use of energy and the development of environmentally sound sources of energy, such as solar, wind

and where feasible hydroelectric, geothermal and wave energy, and the use of energy-efficient technologies. The BPoA also emphasizes how the development of SIDS’ full potential for the sustainable use of energy sources is dependent on a series of interconnected actions to be taken at the international, regional and national level. At the national level the BPoA calls for: • the implementation of appropriate public education and awareness programmes; • the promotion of efficient use of energy and the development of environmentally sound sources of energy and energy-efficient technologies; • the establishment and/or strengthening of research capabilities both in the fields of energy efficiency and renewable sources of energy. At the regional level the BPoA recommends regional cooperation among SIDS on energy issues in order to: • strengthen research and policy capabilities in the development of new and renewable sources of energy; • gather and disseminate information and assist in the formulation of energy policies. The BPoA recommends that action be taken at the international level to: • support the research, development and utilization of renewable sources of energy; • develop effective mechanisms for the transfer of technology and formulate international agreements on 31


energy-sector issues; • encourage the incorporation of environmental soundness and conservation principles into energysector related projects. As part of the follow up action to the Barbados Conference, the Commission on Sustainable Development, in the context of its Multi-Year thematic Programme of Work, has reviewed the implementation of the Programme of Action on two occasions, in 1996 and in 1998. As far as the sustainable development of energy sources is concerned, the review process demonstrated that some progress in the implementation of actions and policies proposed by the BPoA has been made. Efforts have made through international assistance programmes, to develop and use renewable energy sources. Solar photovoltaic home systems for lighting, radio/television and telecommunication, particularly in remote locations, have increased. However: • imported petroleum remains the main source of commercial energy in small islands developing States. A number of SIDS continue to rely heavily on traditional forms of biomass energy, especially wood fuels for cooking and in a variety of small-scale agricultural processing; • little progress has been made in increasing the supply of energy from domestic sources in the majority of SIDS.Severalofthemregistereddeclinesinpercapita consumption of primary commercial energy during the period 1992-1995, the result of economic factors and slower rates of increase in energy supply compared with demand associated with expanding population; • implementation of measures for energy conservation and efficiency has been sporadic and much remains to be done. On the supply side efforts are needed to reduce losses in storage and in transit and to improve the efficiency of electricity generation and distribution. On the demand side, the focus is on the improvement of energy efficiency through conservation measures, such as proper operation, maintenance of equipment and replacement of inefficient appliances; • in absolute terms, the use of new and renewable sources of energy is increasing, accounting for a sub-

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stantial part of rural energy demand in several SIDS, but their share of total energy supply remains at a level significantly below their potential; • several constraints to the large-scale commercial use ofrenewableenergyresourcesremain,includingtechnology development, investment costs, availability of indigenous skills and management capabilities. Nevertheless, there are successful examples of use of modern renewable energy technologies, in particular of small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) power in remote areas. Solar energy has demonstrated its ability to play a useful role in situations with small loads, and it has proved to be more economical compared with dieselbased systems. With the rapidly declining capital costs of PV panels, solar PV systems are likely to become cheaper than diesel systems with their higher variable costs, given that diesel fuel is relatively more costly in small island developing States located far from main petroleum products supply points. In many cases solar PV system are proving to be economically and technicallysuccessful,whencomplementedbyaninstitutional approach, including financial arrangements, that provides for installation and maintenance of the systems. The review of the implementation of the BPoA made clear that while the energy strategies of the small island economies will continue to remain primarily focused on improving the management and regulation of petroleum fuels and electric power plants, increasing the role of renewable energy should become an important part of the overall strategy in many SIDS. If for traditional forms of biomass energy the challenge is the efficient use through conservation measures and proper maintenance and replacement of equipment, for alternative sources of energy the objective of SIDS is to increase the possibility of using, where appropriate, renewable sources and environmentally sound energy technologies. To limit the dependence on imported petroleum SIDS need to increase their efforts in the development and use of indigenous renewable energy resources. In this effort SIDS need enhanced technical, managerial, financial and particularly external assistance to make the necessary investments. Assistance should continue to be provided also in the formulation of energy policies, technical standards and guidelines for the energy sector of SIDS and to enhance national capacity to effectively plan and manage their energy systems.


Address by the Secretary-General of INSULA P IER G IOVANNI D'A YALA Secretary-General INSULA (International Scientific Council for Island Development)

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wo years ago at the first European conference on sustainable island development held in Minorca, we committed ourselves to fully recognize the significance of socio-economic development and human well-being for the people of our islands and give to these goals the highest priority – the present island solar summit is a major step in that direction. We are in fact deeply convinced that economic development, social, cultural progress and environmental protection are inter-linked and mutually reinforcing components of sustainable development and social justice. We all know that as peripheral and isolated entities, the barriers to be confronted for implementing real patterns of sustainable progress are higher than for continental areas and that only by joining efforts, we shall overcome the obstacles which still condition our island’s present. We know also that conventional energy supply is for islands an area where the dependency from external sources is the highest, as well as high are the costs for such a supply. This is the reason why INSULA has concentrated its efforts on renewable energies and on tele-communications and telematic applications considering them priority sectors having a major impact on all of the interrelated economical sectors concerning island’s development. The present meeting brings together island decision makers,industriesandexpertstogetherwithrepresentatives of the relevant international organizations. It focuses on the first theme «renewable energies». These

still considered as uneconomic in continental countries,representforislandsaconsiderablechallengeboth in pricing as well as political terms, as soon as independence is considered as a paramount goal. Independence is for islands not a simple political catchword. It goes further, it means pride related to cultural identity, something which only apparently is an intangible quality. A good however that few islanders are ready to abandon to the vagaries of what was recently called mondialisation. To preserve the islands identity is a respectable global aim. Nevertheless, the only way to achieve global aims, is through the implementation of specific actions. Here we start from renewable energy – the Tenerife Authorities and the Institute of Renewable Energies (ITER) have provided us with a unique opportunity to develop our task by summing up concrete efforts, exchanging experiences and looking towards tangible results. In my view our first endeavor is to adopt a strategy aiming to minimize the environmental impact of human activities, including rational use of energy, the development of renewable energy sources and the implementation of clear production systems in all sectors. Islands are presently facing the global market challenges including the European one as dispersed and fragmented entities. No single isle in itself represents a market where large companies, national or multinational, would enter in competitive bidings. But if we take advantage of potential synergies, promotinginter-islandsjoint-ventures,thenthemarketsize 33


increases exponentially and islands might represent all together a critical mass where technological innovations and consequent investments will appear as attractingissues. Mr. Chairman, dear colleagues, let’s not under estimate this concept of critical mass that can be attained only through strategies optimizing the potential represented by five hundred or more European islands. As an example, each island is promoting separately its touristic offer – obviously multinational tour operators are consequently able to play the piano of interisland competitions. Islands offer after all only a few diversifications of services on the internationally controlled market. Prices and products quality is imposed as a consequence. Few are able to escape to such captive market conditions. INSULA has proposed a common platform of telematic services related to tourism. Where information, electronic commerce and other related services are proposed under a standardized form enabling operators and users to come together at the best avail-

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able interactive level. The same platform will host information about renewable energy applications on islands in terms of expertise and concrete experiences. INSULA is proposing here to set up a special networking system in order to insure the appropriate management of this island dedicated service. Last, but not least, Mr. Chairman, to introduce new technologies in developing countries, and all islands with few exceptions, can be considered as such, requires a consequent training effort dedicated to the technical staff managing locally the energy issues. I am glad to inform you that ITER together with the authorities of Tenerife, supported by UNESCO will act as the first international research and training center dedicated to appropriate technologies. A strong institutional tool facilitating the diffusion of renewable energy use not only in the European Islands but also in all those overseas where sustainable development is a priority. Thank you for your attention.


Address by the European Commission E NZO M ILLICH Directorate General XVII EUROPEAN COMMISSION

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ver 11.000 years ago, there existed an island nation located in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, populated by a noble and powerful race. The people of this land possessed great wealth thanks to the natural resources found throughout their island. The island was a centre for trade and commerce. The rulers of this land held sway over the people and land of their own island and well into Europe and Africa». This is the way Plato, the Greek philosopher, began the description of the island of ATLANTIS, around 360 BC in his dialogues «Timaeus and Critias». Atlantis, he added, was the domain of Poseidon, god of the sea. But the island honoured and worshipped other gods like Aeolus, Apollo, Volcano and Demeter, gods of the wind, of the sun, of underground resources and of agricultural crops. All these were abundant renewable resources of the Island. Todayinourmodernworld,otherInstitutionslikethe EuropeanCommission,Unesco,theWorldBanketc.have taken the place of the ancient gods in promoting the harnessingofthesenaturalresourcesforthewell-beingof humansociety. Majorinitiativeshavelongbeentakentowardsthisgoal andgreatprogresshasbeenachievedinrecentyears. In Europe it all started in 1996 with a Green Paper followed by a White Paper and an action Plan for a Communitystrategyonrenewableenergysources. Thispapercontainsacomprehensivesetofmeasuresto attaintheobjectiveof12%forthecontributionofrenewable sourcestotheEUenergyconsumptionbytheyear2010.

A campaign for Take-off will now be launched as an essentialpartofthisaction.TheCommissionbelievesthat anearlyandvisiblestimulustothestrategywouldaccelerate thenecessarytrendtowardsincreasedinvestmentinkey renewabletechnologies. TheCouncilofMinistersforEnergy,initsresolutionon theWhitePaperwelcomedtheideaofsuchacampaignas itwouldraise interest among industry, investors and the public. Also a very positive feed-back was received from the European Parliament and the other Community institutions. The EU Parliament in particular, took a spectacular initiative at the end of last year, in favour of Renewable Energy Technologies by assigning 60% of the 1999 RD budget inside the V Framework Programme to the renewable energy sector. Additional sources of funding, necessary to reach the objectivesoftheWhitePaper,shouldcomefromnational energyprogrammesandschemesaswellasfromprivate sources. Given the decentralised nature of renewable energy sources, the subsidiarity principle requires intense participationofnational,regionalandlocalauthorities. Ihavetriedtooutlinehereintheshorttimeallocated, themainfeaturesoftheEuropeanstrategyforpromoting theimplementationofrenewableenergysources. Iamsurethat,withthehelpoftheancientandmodern Gods, we will achieve the ambitious but still realistic objective of doubling the share of renewables from now totheendofthefirstdecadeofthenewmillennium. 35


S MILJAN Ĺ IMAC Ambassador of Croatia in France

T ARMO P IKNER Director of Development and Planning SAAREMAA (ESTONIA)

A preliminary session of the Summit. Boris Berkovski (UNESCO) is delivering his presentation. From left to right: Carmen Becerril (Director-General of IDAE), Ismail Shafeeu (Minister of Home Affairs, Housing and the Environment of the Maldives), Ricardo Melchior (President of the Tenerife Island Council), Alexandre Dias Monteiro (Minister of Commerce, Industry and Energy of Cape Verde), Manraoi Kaiea (Minister of Works and Energy of Kiribati) and Pier Giovanni d'Ayala (Secretary-General of INSULA).

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Address by the Government of the Azores ANTĂ“NIO C ORREIA Advisor to the President of the Azores Regional Government AZORES (PORTUGAL)

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he Autonomous Region of the Azores is deeply proud to be represented at this Island Solar Summit in the beautiful city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, set in the middle of the Atlantic, which is such an important factor of unity in an increasingly small and closer-knit world. In this brief statement, I would like to refer to the contribution made by the Azores to the issues of geothermal, wind and water energy by mentioning the real developments we have achieved in the most important day-to-day aspects in our archipelago. It is not enough to agree on intentions alone. It is vital that we do our utmost every day to pursue the social opportunities for sustainable development afforded by renewable energies for those who, like those of us here today, are committed to more solidary solutions for the correct use of our planet’s resources. The Autonomous Region of the Azores is proud to see examples such as that of the island of Sao Miguel, where the use of geothermal energy is on the increase and there are plans to to invest even more heavily in the study and introduction of this and other energy forms. The reason is not simply financial. Above all, we believe that the development of our Region, which comprises nine small islands, is possible only if energy policy does not compromise the future of our children and grandchildren. We believe that it is possible, and hope that it will happen, and we are only too willing to contribute to ensure the success of events such as this Island Solar Summit, in particular the practical actions that need

to be taken so that the discussions on these issues by politicians, academics, industry and the representatives of all living forces, do not prove merely to be a waste of time but rather lead to actual developments. It is worth noting that the subjects we will address here are not specialist issues. On the contrary they are day to day ones which could make islands not just the paradises they already are but also paradises for the clean and democratic future we all aspire to. It should be stressed that the different alternatives to fossil fuel energies (especially oil) are crucial if islands are to gain their independence energy-wise from the continents, thus saving the heavy cost of transporting oil by-products. This is an important issue because, without energy independence, there is no true political autonomy and the development of islands is conditioned by outside factors. In many cases regional development projects often depend on fluctuations in the oil market, given the expensive of importing non-renewable energies in islands characterised by costly sea transport. There are so many conditioning factors in islands that we cannot afford not to resolve the energy question to the benefit of all. Clearly the subjects being discussed here arise out of different situations in our islands, whose levels of development are not entirely the same. However, the aspects which unite us in this area are certainly stronger than might first seem. We share a common respect for renewable energies, a respect based on the belief that the future has already commenced today. 37


It is our understanding that the world’s islands will not be able to enjoy political autonomy as long as their dependence on proves disastrous for the environment and for archipelago economies. The issue of renewable energies must be made a specific issue for islands and not one merely of good intentions where archipelagos simply bemoan what might or should be done. It is a highly topical and everyday issue, for which we must mobilise the political and social forces in our islands to participate in an endeavour that merits and calls for our full interest and attention. We also believe we must demonstrate with specific examples that can be seen in our own islands that renewableenergiesareverymuchthefutureoftheAzores in energy terms and are definitely the most intelligent way to eliminate the distance costs of energies from traditional and polluting sources.

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Having said that, we are aware that there is still some way to go before we achieve the hoped for results in the field of renewable energies. We know this, but must not give up, such is the uniting strength of the hope that guides us in seeking as far as possible to adapt our view of energy to give absolute priority to renewables. We believe that it is indeed possible to achieve more specific results in the mastery of renewable energies. We believe that this important summit will be more thanameansandwillbearoadtoevengreaterprogress in the realisation and implementation of renewable energies in our islands. I should also like to say that renewable energies are thewayaheadinthebuildingofthefutureofourworld, of all islands and, hence, of the Azores. May I just reiterate our satisfaction at attending this summit and thank you for your attention Thank you


Address by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus S OLON K ASSINIS Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS

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t is indeed a great pleasure and honour to address this conference on behalf of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus. Renewable energy sources are indigenous and contributetoallthreekeyobjectivesforenergypolicywhich are general for all countries, namely; • Competitiveness, • security of supply, and • protection of the environment. They can actively contribute to employment and they can be a key future in regional development, research and technological development.

At present prices for conventional energy do not reflect their full environmental cost putting RE at a competitive disadvantage. Even though Cyprus has proven to the world that the solar water heaters are economical and that is the reason why 91% of the houses and 50% of the hotels in Cyprus are using solar waters heaters. The message I would like to convey to you is that Cyprus is ready, willing and available to co-operate with you and share its 10 years of experience in the solar Energy Sector. Thank you

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Address by the Government of the Republic of Papua New Guinea KAPPA YARKA Permanent Delegate of Papua New Guinea to UNESCO

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t gives me great pleasure on behalf of the Government of Papua New Guinea to congratulate you and other members of the Bureau on your election to guide the deliberations of this important Island Solar and Renewable Energy Summit. We are hopeful for a successful conclusion including practical implementation of the Resolutions that will emerge from this Summit. It is also my pleasure to thank the Organisers and in particularUNESCOandtheCanaryIslandGovernment for the efficient manner in which the arrangements have been made. Our gratitude should also be convoyed to the people of this beautiful island for the warm courtesies extended to us. It has indeed been appropriately chosen to host this important Summit and we will have fond memories when we depart. Renewable energy plays a significant role in development and it has been the cornerstone of enormous successes in many developed and developing countries. However in the world where the non-renewable energy resources are fast depleting at such an unimaginable and speedy rate, it is about time that other means of providing sustainable energy need should be identified from our own respective local surroundings. Papua New Guinea is a young island Developing Democracy with a population of nearly 5 million people and our efforts to promote sustainable development with a view to improving the basic life-styles of our people have been and indeed continue to be an important task challenging the Government and its people. We consider Renewable Energy to be an important and integral part of achieving our objectives, hence appro-

priate policy guidelines have been put in place in order to devise a Solar and Renewable Energy regime that is consistent with and aimed at achieving our targeted objectives. PapuaNewGuineaislocatedinthetropicswithabundant amount of Solar Energy which is available almost all the year round. Besides, it rugged terrines have enormous hydro, biomass and wind energy potential for exploitation as useful resources. Although Renewable Energy has been talked about in Papua New Guinea for a fairly long time since independence in the early 70’s there has been little or no progress made particularly by way of an institution that would encourage, train and monitor the personnel required for various applications of Renewable Energy. I am pleased to inform the Summit that three National Seminars were held in Papua New Guinea on «RenewableEnergyforRuralDevelopment»inthe80’s and 90’s. Although it drew enormous support including high volumes of work in the form of Reports and Conference Digests, nothing concrete however, came out of these interactions in terms of a cohesive Programme of Action by the Government. The Draft National Energy Policy Statement formulated by the Papua New Guinea Office of Energy Development stated that “The Government of Papua New Guinea seeks to improve the welfare of its people and promote the economic growth of the nation in an equitable and sustainable manner through the adoption and implementation of cost-effective, equitable and Sustainable Energy policies». 41


The Government is indeed committed to meeting this solemn policy objective, however, since this is a new area that involves sophisticated technology as well as expertise, the support and assistance of the international community is a pre-requisite if such policy is to be effectively implemented to meet the development needs and aspirations of our people. Having this in mind, the Papua New Guinea Government initiated a Draft Resolution on the establishment of a regional Solar Energy Educational and Training Centre in Papua New Guinea, which was approved by the 29th UNESCO General Conference in 1997. The proposed institution is aimed at promoting and developing solar and renewable energy not only in Papua New Guinea but also extended to our smaller Pacific Island neighbour States. It is also expected that the proposed establishment would serve as a vehicle for achieving the stated policy objectives of the Government of Papua New Guinea as well as those of the other island Governments in the South Pacific Region. I am pleased to inform the summit that relevant feasibility studies have been concluded including submission of a report to UNESCO seeking support for the establishment of this important sub-regional centre. The Director General of UNESCO, H.E. Dr. Federico Mayor has personally shown interest and commitment to ensure UNESCO contributes meaningfully in the realisation of this emerging centre. The Education and Training Programme for this proposed Regional Training Centre has been so designed to meet the objectives of the World Solar Programme as specified in the Harare Summit on Solar Energy and Sustainable Development. Its major aim would be to produce as many technical and managerial experts in the Renewable Energy Technologies as possible, through practical training emphasising hands-on experience in the promotion of energy solutions within the Region.

At the country level the participating trainees from each country would ensure that relevant agencies, like education, information, media and industries as well as the NGO’s working in the similar areas are all enveloped to the theme of Renewable Energy Technology. The Regional Institution is expected among others to raise greater awareness of people into the abundant use of Renewable Energy resources and thus, enhance the productivity and the quality of life of the people. The results to be derived from this training centre are expected to be realised when all trainees (men and women) would utilise what they learnt about Renewable Energy Technologies in their respective communities, including the promotion and spread of energy systems, raise awareness of the policy makers to the importance of Science and Technology in Renewable applications generate an action plan for the utilisation of renewable systems by all sectors of the population and envisages to penetrate the South Pacific Island population in a 5-year outreach/development plan. Finally I wish to reiterate that my Government is committed to promoting Solar and Renewable Energy Development in Papua New Guinea consistent with the Harare Declaration. However, concerted and meaningful contribution by the International Community particularly the industrialised developed countries is significant if our effort are to be successfully realised. ExperienceinmanypreviousinternationalMeetings/ Conferences and indeed, Summits have consistently come up with numerous so called resolutions and declarations including specific and targeted programmes of Actions but without little or no success when it comes to implementation. It is in this context that my Government calls on the International Community to «put their money where their mouth is» as without practical and meaningful contribution we cannot expect to achieve any tangible results. Thank you

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Address by the Government of the Republic of Seychelles C ALLIXTE D 'O FFAY Ambassador of the Seychelles in France

I

am always delighted to be part of an event which deals with important island issues. It is easy in international politics to become preoccupied with the pressing issue of the day. But, while there is absolute and imperative need to deal with the conflicts of today, it is crucial that we keep thinking about the kind of world we want to live in tomorrow. If we want that world to have a healthy environment, then we have a major challenge ahead of us. That challenge is precisely the kind of international cooperation we want to establish in favour of renewable energies and energy efficiency in our islands and indeed in the entire world. This issue is central to development strategy and is recognised as a critical ingredient in sustainable development. And, I am very pleased that this Conference in the beautiful island of Tenerife is able to serve in this way as a platform and forum for such an important constituent of our islands. Many of our islands are dependent on imported petroleum products, largely for transport and electricity generation. We will continue to be heavily dependent on petroleum, fuel and biomass in the short and medium term. However, the current use of these fuels tends to be highly inefficient. Increase efficiency through appropriate technology and national energy policies and management measures are instrumental in reaping both financial and environmental benefits. Seychelles has a long commitment to environment and it is a major component of our foreign policy. There is a strong awareness that the foundations of our economy especially in the development of its backbone

sectors, namely tourism and fishing, depend to a large extent on stable environment conditions. Any deterioration in the quality of the country’s terrestrial and marine ecosystem would inevitably lead to a disruption in future economic activity and compromise the sustainability of the country’s development. We therefore have a great interest in clean technology and renewable energies. Good use of the environmental technologies holds back global warming. It is for this reason that the question of sustainable and efficient use of non renewable resources and ecosystems feature prominently as one of the main objective set for environmental protection and which have been fully articulated in the country’s present Environmental Plan Strategy. Our economic future is bound in with our environmental future. Growth must be sustainable if it is to be commercially viable in the long term. Farmers and fishermen in the world have learnt to their cost the economic impact of exhausting the soil and the ocean. We therefore need to build sustainability and proper resource management into our economies, to protect our fragile and vulnerable ecosystems from further degradation and to find viable alternatives to the depletion of scarce resources. Such measures underline our security, indeed our very survival. Today’s conference will contribute to on-going international efforts to address the particular problems of islands by focussing on their specific constraints and development opportunities to foster their sustainable development. 43


Seychelles are very supportive of all this work. As an island country, we have long been aware of the particular island vulnerabilities and how their circumstances can inhibit sustainable development. I look forward to working with you all, to continue to develop mechanisms to address the needs of our islands in the ambit of our priority development areas.

44

Finally,IwouldliketothanktheauthoritiesofTenerife for their warm welcome and hospitality, and particularly for hosting this Conference. I also express my gratitude to everyone involved in the extensive preparations it has required. I thank you


Address by the Italian Small Islands Association MICHELE G IACOMATONIO Vice-President A.N.C.I.M. (ITALY)

T

he ANCIM, the National Association of the Minor Islands’ Municipalities is the organisation that represents 34 municipalities of 42 small Italian islands; i.e. from the island of Elba with 26.000 inhabitants and 8 municipalities to the archipelago of the Trermiti islands with 400 inhabitants, Sicily and Sardinia are excluded. All these islands, even if they belong to different regions – Tuscany, Apulia, Campania, Sardinia and Sicily – have a lot of similar aspects that lead to mutual developing problems. We can pick out the following mutual elements: a) Insularity, for a long time considered an isolation factor. In fact , the islands have been places of internment for social and political «undesired people». b)Local economies, considered as separate economies and sometimes even «closed» economies, with very few synergies with the mainland; c) The need to start off self-contained systems for the essential needs (electricity, water supply, waste disposal, sewage, marine connections) without being able to take advantage of scale economy; d)The tourism which has represented, from the ‘60s, the only redemption from a poverty exceeding to misery is now experiencing limitations connected to seasonal tourism. Theknowledgeofthegreatpotentialsoftheseislands –potentialsminedbyanendemicfragility–hasbrought

allthemunicipalitiesmanagementtojoinintheANCIM, trying to speed up the advent of a new economic reality playing the card of a cultural and naturalistic tourism thatimprovesandqualifiesthetourismwhichhasgrown in the last years. A tourism which is able to develop throughout the year; increase incomers without jeopardizingtheenvironmentanddestroyingthefundamental characteristics and the originalities of our communities.Togetherwiththistourism,enrichnedbymotivations, we must foresee: the renewal of agriculture aiming at the creation of typical products, guaranteeing its origin; thereconversionofthefishingindustrythroughseaseeding and fish culture, fish markets and fish conservation; the renewal of ancient products; artistic and qualified handcraft that renews and flings back handwork of stones, wood, iron, materials, embroidery, basing it on local patterns taken from archeology, local art, ancient and recent traditions. To support this undergoing process, ANCIM has worked out a well fit in unitary project, to be discussed with the national government and with the regional governments aiming at the financial support of european structural funds 2000-2006. One of the most important points of this project is that of electric energy; of its quantity, in order to face the growing needs; and of its quality- in order that the production of this energy is compatible with the sustainabledevelopmentthattheItalianislandsfirmlywish to defend. 45


Luis MarquĂŠs, member of the Spanish National Commission for UNESCO, delivering his speech during the Closing Session of the Summit.

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Renewable Energies, Energies of Peace L UIS G. M ARQUÉS Spanish National Commission for UNESCO

O

rganising the Island Solar Summit is a major contribution to the discussion that is currently taking place in United Nations agencies on how to achieve an economic and social development that at the same time, enables us to achieve the supreme goal of peace in the world. The above mentioned agencies include UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation), which has taken the initiative of proposing that the international communities adapt a culture of peace to replace the culture of violence and war that has reigned from the dawn of time, and whose presence can still be felt in modern society. Article 1 of the UNESCO Constitution summarises its objective: «The Organisation proposes making a contribution to peace and security in the world by promoting collaborationamongnationsthrougheducation,science and culture in order to ensure universal respect for justice, law, human rights and the fundamental liberties recognisedforallthepeoplesoftheworldbytheUnited Nations Charter, without any distinctions being made for race, sex, language or religion.» Today, more than ever, peace is recognised not just as an absence of war, but as something that contributes to the economic and social development of all human beings and their harmoniousrelationswiththeirenvironment. One consequence of this enhanced awareness is the idea of «sustainable development» based on the philosophy that attending Man’s basic needs and improving his quality of life must be the main objectives of any development process. These objectives must be under-

stood as the ability to achieve economic and social growth in an environmentally sustainable manner, with a long-term perspective that does not endanger the interests and rights of future generations. There have been many armed conflicts in the history of Mankind that were fought for economic reasons, mainly related to water and food. Up until the latter third of the last century, energy was produced locally, as the use of wood and agricultural waste was confined to the area around these energy sources. Even coal, the power house of the industrial revolution, was not transported any great distance. This situation underwent a radical change with the arrival of the post-industrial era, when oil became the main source of energy and the origin of most of the energy used in the world was to be found in the countries that were not the largest consumers. Modern society is so dependent on the supply of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) that tensions and conflicts between producer and consumer countries are a constant threat to peace. One only has to consider the two oil crisis that caused a world-wide economic slump and the Gulf War. If we add the impact of using fossil fuels on the environment and, more specifically, climate change, it is clear that if Man continues to produce the energy required for economic development from these fuels, he may irreversibly damage the Earth’s ecosystem, thus violating the rights of future generations. Solarenergy,andrenewableenergiesingeneral,have many features that could be used to define them as energies of peace. First of all, they have no military 47


application and the technologies used to harness and exploit them, whilst in certain cases advanced and complex, have very little, if anything in common with military technology. Secondly, they can be found in one form or another, all over the world, making them an unlikely source of international tension. Third, the direct or indirect source of these energies, the sun, is out of Man’s reach and beyond the scope of his intervention. Fourthly, public opinion, in general, sees them in a favourable light and solar energy’s positive image has its roots in ancestral traditions and cultures. Finally, the effects on the environment of exploiting renewable energies are very limited and in many cases they have no affect whatsoever. If we consider that; apart from not causing international tension and conflicts, renewable energies can

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make a positive contribution to peace by improving the living standards of millions of human beings who still have no basic energy services because they live in remote and rural areas, on the islands themselves or in the poorer countries; then it immediately becomes clear that they are energies of peace. In the specific case of island states and territories, which usually have no fossil fuel deposits and a fragile environment, the renewables have undoubted advantages, including the fact that the energy can be produced on the island, as they are harmless. Development and a greater dissemination of renewable energy technology, along with an energy efficiency and energy saving plan, are the basic components for ensuring sustainable island development in an acceptable time scale.


The World Solar Programme 1996-2005* BORIS BERKOVSKI Secretary-general of the World Solar Commission Director of the Engineering and Technology Division UNESCO

T

he second session of the World Solar Commission took place at the United Nations Headquarters in New York on 23 June 1997, on the occasion of the special session of the United Nations General Assembly to Review and Appraise the Implementation of Agenda 21, «EarthSummit+5». TheCommissionapprovedthedocumententitled«WorldSolarProgramme1996-2005». It should be recalled that, whereas the processes leading to the holding of the World Solar Summit (Harare, Zimbabwe, September 1996) and to the approval by the World Solar Commission of the World Solar Programme 1996-2005 (New York, June 1997), were initiated by UNESCO, together with other major partners, theWorldSolarProgramme1996-2005isaninstrument at the service of the world community, for the development and deployment of the technology of environmentally-friendly renewable energies. The World Solar Commission, composed of 18 Heads of State or Government, under the chairmanship of H.E. Robert Mugabe, President of the Republic of Zimbabwe, continues to oversee and guide the implementation of the World Solar Programme 1996-2005, assisted by its Secretariat, located at the UNESCO Division of EngineeringandTechnology. One of the main recent highlights was the adoption by the General Assembly of the United Nations, on 16 October 1998, of a resolution in favour of the World Solar Programme 1996-2005 (document A/RES/53/7

dated 26 October 1998). This resolution, which was sponsored by 54 countries, was adopted without a dissenting vote and constitutes a recognition by the highest governing body of the United Nations System of the contribution of the World Solar Programme 1996-2005 towards the attainment of sustainable development. The World Solar Programme 1996-2005 pays special attention to the large scale use of Renewable Energy sources and technologies in small island developing states and in islands in general. Small island developing States are currently heavily dependent on imported petroleum products, largely for transport and electricity generation, energy often accounting for more than 12 per cent of imports. They are also heavily dependent on indigenous biomass fuels for cooking and crop-drying. These countries will continue to be heavily dependent on petroleum fuels both in the short and medium term. However, the current uses of these fuels tend to be highly inefficient. Increased efficiency through appropriate technology and national energy policies and management measures will reap both financial and environmental benefits for small island developing States. Renewable energy resources endowments of islands vary greatly. All have substantial solar resources, which have still not been developed to their full potential. Wind potential is highly variable with location. Hydroelectric power is a possibility only for some islands.

* The term «solar» is generic and includes all renewable energies (solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, wind, biomass, tidal, ocean, microhydro, etc.; geothermal energy is also included).

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Biomass endowment is common but unequal. Studies of the potential for geothermal, ocean thermal energy conversion and wave energy are continuing. Many constraints to large-scale commercial use of renewable energy resources remain. These include technology development, investment costs, available indigenous skills and management capabilities. Small-scale application for rural electrification has been sporadic. The use of renewable energy resources as substantial commercial fuels by small island developing States is dependent on the development and commercial production of appropriate technologies. In keeping with the commitments contained in the Harare Declaration on Solar Energy and Sustainable Development, and with the recommendations contained in the World Solar Programme 1996-2005, the secretariat of the World Solar Commission pays a lot of attention to the development of the Island Solar Programme 1996-2005 and strongly encouraged island authorities to participate in the Island Solar Summit and the Island Solar Council. Certain countries

have taken legislative action favouring the development and deployment of renewable energy technologies. Several Members of the World Solar Commission have been very active and concrete results in the large scale use of renewable sources of energy have been achieved. Some encouraging implementation results ExemplaryRenewableEnergyProgrammeshavebeen undertakenbySpain.Inthesevenyearsthathavepassed since the Programme began, 5 200 projects have been completedtotalling595,061toe/year.Totalinvestment in these projects has amounted to 201,238 million pesetas, of which 27,657 million pesetas consisted of public support. This support took the form of both outright subsidiesandThirdPartyFinancing.Asat31December 1998, a large portfolio of projects were at the construction stage. If data relating to the projects under constructionareaddedtothosealreadycompleted,thesitu-

Table 1: Electricity generation using renewable energy sources Areas

Target

Completed

%

1991-2000 at 31/12/97

Under way

%

at 31/12/97

Completed plus

%

underway at 31/12/97

SMALL HYDROPOWER Capacity (MW) Production (GWh/Year)

779,0 2,474,0

461,5 1646,3

59,2 66,5

328,5 1.142,5

42,2 46,2

790 2.788,8

101,4 112,7

239,0 1.297,5

67,4 501,6

28,2 38,7

18 38,7

7,5 3,0

85,4 540,3

35,7 41,6

168,0 403,0

448,5 1123,2

267,0 278,7

1.017,4 2.688,7

605,6 667,2

1.465,9 3.811,9

872,6 945,9

2,5 4,5

4,4 7,3

176,0 162,2

1,2 2

48,0 44,4

5,6 9,3

224,0 206,7

1.188,5 4.179,0

981,8 3.278,4

82,6 78,4

1.365,1 3.871,9

114,9 92,7

2.346,9 7.150,3

197,5 171,1

MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE Capacity (MW) Production (GWh/Year) WIND Capacity (MW) Production (GWh/Year) PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR Capacity (MW) Production (GWh/Year) TOTAL Capacity (MW) Production (GWh/Year)

Source: Renewable Energy in Spain – Balance and Prospects for the year 2000, IDAE

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Table 2: Indicative Scenario for Developing Key Sectors 1999-2003 Sector

Solar Energy

Campaign Key Actions

Estimated Total Investment Cost

Capacity

billion EURO

650,000 PV systems : EU

650 MWp

2,85

350,000 PV systems : TC

350 MWp

(2,45)

15 Mm2

4,7

10,000 MW

10,1

10,000 MWth

5,5

10,000 MWth

4,4

1,000 MW

1,2

5 Mio tonnes

1,25

15 million m2 solar collectors Wind Energy

Estimated Installed

10,000 MW of wind turbine generators 10,000 MWth of combined heat and power biomass installations 1,000,000 dwellings heated by

Biomass

biomass 1,000 MW of biogas installations 5 Mio tonnes of liquid biofuels

Total

30 billion EURO

Source : Energy for the Future : Renewable Sources of Energy (Community Strategy and Action Plan) – European Commission Services Paper

ation under the Programme amounts to a diversificationof1,008,376.5toe/year(asshowninTable1),involvinganinvestmentofsome423,810,4millionpesetaswith publicsupportamountingto35,434millionpesetas.Figure1illustratesthesedata.SincetheProgrammebegan, 981,8 MW of capacity has been installed which has been estimated to produce an average of 3,278 GWh/year. If we include the projects under construction, this figure rises to 2,347 MW of capacity involving an estimated averageoutputof7,150.3GWh/year. The government of Spain having decided that renewable energies should play a greater role in the future national energy scene, a Ministerial Order had been issued on 6 February 1997 concerning the Energy Conservation and Efficiency Programme; this Order has now been developed and applied. Subsidies can be granted to the renewable energy firms, and legislation for an electricity protocol has been passed, firmly establishing the principle of differential treatment and giving priority to electricity generation by renewable energy sources. On 30 December 1998 a Government decree was issued establishing the mechanisms and incentives enabling Spain to increase from 7% to 12% by

the year 2010 the share of electricity produced by renewableenergy. Following are some other examples: • His Excellency Mr Eduard Shevardnadze, Member of the World Solar Commission, organized in Tbilisi, on 23-24 July 1998, a Solar Forum «Business and InvestmentfortheWorldSolarProgramme1996-2005». The government of Georgia has created recently a National Sustainable Energy Development Programme which has the support of both the President of the Republic and the Parliament. A high-level Governmental Commission, chaired by the President himself and including, in addition to the Ministers concerned, the rectors of the main universities and other important personalities, has also been established in order to coordinate and facilitate the promotion and practical applications of renewable energies. A Permanent Council emanating from this Commission, acts as executive body to oversee and control the implementation of the decisions taken by the Commission. • In Austria the implementation of the European Union electricity guideline gives a new stimulus to the 51


use of renewable energies, and the Government has decided that, by the year 2005, an additional 3% of electricity production must be from renewables (excluding hydropower, which already produces 70% of Austria’s electricity). Network operators are required to accept feeding-in electricity produced by renewableinplantssmallerthan5MWandpayanincreased tariff for this electricity. • In September 1998, the government of Tunisia decided to create a National Renewable Energy Agency and to adopt a series of measures in favour of the increased utilization of these energies, including a system of grants to buyers of renewable energy systems covering up to 60% of the cost. • An indicative scenario for development of renewable energy in European Union is given in Table 2. • The government of Niger created in November 1998 a National Solar Council in the Office of the Prime Minister, with the mandate to promote the use of renewable energies in the country and to contribute totheimplementationoftheWorldSolarProgramme 1996-2005. A prestige colour brochure on the World Solar Commission, published in 1998, in both English and French versions, gives basic information on the Commission and on the World Solar Programme 1996-2005, it also contains personal messages from each of the Commission’s 18 Members and summaries of renewable energy achievements and projects in each of their countries. In addition to the Internet Web Site for the World Solar Programme 1996-2005, (http://www.unesco.org/ general/eng/programmes/science/wssp/index.html), a new one has been set up for the World Solar Commission: http://www.worldsolar.org The Global Renewable Energy Education and Training Programme, which is one of the five major projects of universal scope included in the World Solar Programme 1996-2005, is currently under development by UNESCO, which is the executing agency. Given that the more pressing needs are in the African continent, a specialisthasbeendetachedfromUNESCOHeadquarters to the UNESCO Office in Harare, Zimbabwe, in order to prepare first the African component of this Programme. Another major project of universal value entitled «International Renewable Energy Information and Communication System» (IREICS) has also been initiated, following an agreement with the International Solar Energy Society (ISES), with the establishment of 52

a steering committee. The project will be implemented jointly with ISES and other relevant international institutions. Within the framework of the information activities of the World Solar Programme 1996-2005, a prestige book by the distinguished Indian scholar Madanjeet Singh entitled «The Timeless Energy of the Sun» was published in eleven language editions; a pocket-book edition will be printed in one million copies and widely distributed round the world.

High Priority National Projects In parallel with the preparation, negotiation and approval of the World Solar Programme 1996-2005, the Secretariat of the World Solar Commission and major partners of the World Solar Summit Process have initiated identification, development and implementation of High Priority National Projects (HPNP) and also WSP global projects. For example: • An awareness and fundraising campaign has been launched jointly by the UNESCO Assistant DirectorGeneral for Science and the UNDP Assistant Administrator for a High Priority National Project from Ecuador, «Solar Energy for the Galapagos Islands». ThefeasibilitystudyhasbeenfinancedbyGEF,UNDP and UNESCO (US$350,000); • one of the Zimbabwe HPNP, «Solar Electrification of Rural Institutions», has received a US$10.5 million funding in the form of a grant from the Italian Government; • a US$20 million soft loan from the World Bank and a grant of US$20 million from GEF were obtained for implementationofoneofthenineIndonesianHPNP, «Home Photovoltaic Rural Electrification in Indonesia»; • a US$97.5 million soft loan has been negotiated with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development for one of the five HPNP of the Russian Federation, «Geothermal Electrical Station for Kamchatka»; • the Onamunhama Demonstration Solar Village has been built in Namibia and inaugurated by the UNESCO Director-General; • the Umbuji village in Zanzibar, Tanzania has been equipped with solar energy equipment; • within the framework of the World Solar Programme 1996-2005, the French public utility EDF (Electricité deFrance)andtheAfricanSolarCouncilhaveagreed


to implement a programme for the electrification of 500 to 1,000 rural villages in Africa (US$ 2 million); • a human settlement in Niger in the National Park «W» has been provided with solar power supply; • a solar school in a mountainous area of the People’s Republic of China has been equipped with a solar power system; • a nine-volume UNESCO/WSP learning package on renewable energy for English-speaking practising engineers has been printed and largely disseminated; • a CD Rom «UNESCO/ISEEK Energy Database» has been prepared and widely distributed; • a prestigious annual summer school «Solar electricity for Rural and Remote Areas» is being held at UNESCO Headquarters since 1990 with technical visits to the best European solar centres; the last one was held in July 1998; • the first annual summer school on solar electricity for English-speaking African countries was held in Harare, Zimbabwe from 2-13 March 1998; • a Pan-African Seminar on Business and Investment in Renewable Energies was held in Bamako, Mali, from 23 to 28 March 1998, with financial assistance from the Government of the Netherlands and Electricité de France; • feasibility studies are under way for solar energy projectsinAngola(US$105,000),Benin(US$160,000) and Niger (US$85,000); • the pilot solar cookers project in Zimbabwe will be extended to cover other suitable SADC countries in 1998(US$280,000); • UNDP is financing a feasibility study on photovoltaic energy in Tanzania, which will be the basis for a proposal to the Global Environment Facility (GEF); • creation of a UNESCO chair on energy conservation and renewable energy at the Belarussian State Polytechnic Academy in Minsk (US$23,000); • completion of the pre-feasibility study for a pilot project on the socio-economic development of solar settlements in the region of Aspindza, Republic of Georgia, that will serve as model for the development of rural and/or remote areas (US$100,000); • the E-7 Group (composed of eight major power companies from Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the USA) is raising some US$2 million to modernize a hydroelectric plan in Zimbabwe; • in cooperation with national and international institutions, solar village demonstration projects were initiated in Angola, Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Niger, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland;

• a solar village was set up in Togo (Kpedji village) with national funds; • in order to develop the local capacity for the manufacture/assembly of solar energy systems, UNESCO and the African Energy Policy Research Network (AFREPREN) are financing feasibility studies in ten African countries; • studies on the environmental benefits of renewable energies have been completed in Benin, Malawi, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal; they will be used to develop projects in these countries; • ademonstrationplantforbiogastechnologyhasbeen set up in the Chikwawa district of Malawi; • in September 1998 a sub-regional workshop on recent developments and strategies for the promotion of renewable energy was organized in Nairobi, Kenya, jointly by UNESCO and AFREPREN. Preparation of two other training workshops in Ghana and Niger is under way; • a book on «Small Solar Electric Systems for Africa» initially produced by a grant from the Commonwealth Science Council, was reprinted and widely disseminated in the English-speaking African countries; • with the assistance of UNESCO, the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the University of Science and Technology of Kumasi, Ghana, is preparing a technician training manual for solar energy systems; • the establishment of the African Solar Council, under the chairmanship of H.E. Abdou Diouf, President of the Republic of Senegal, is under way; • following completion of the feasibility study, the electrification by solar energy of two schools in the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, has begun; • the feasibility study for the larger project «Solar Energy for the Galapagos Islands», is under way, with financing from UNDP/GEF and the Ecuadorian National Utility INECEL; • in agreement with the Rigoberta Menchú Foundation, UNESCO has initiated the preparation of a solar village project for a rural community of refugees returning to Guatemala; • within the framework of the assistance provided for the reconstruction of the damage caused by hurricane Mitch in Central America, the WSP foresees the installation of three solar villages in each of the countries concerned, i.e. Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Nicaragua; • out of the 19 projects from Spain included in the World Solar Programme 1996-2005, five have been fullyimplementedandfiveothersareunderway.They 53


range from hybrid photovoltaic/wind systems to production of biodiesel fuel, to seawater desalination systems. Special mention should be made of the demonstration power plant in the Canary Islands based on the EUCLIDES (European Concentrated Light IntensityDevelopmentofEnergySources)prototype. This project is implemented with the assistance of the European Commission; • the five High Priority National Projects of the RepublicofCyprusconcerningindividualandcollectivesolar water heaters, water desalination, solar cooling and solar water pumping are being financed by the European Commission through the programme FEMOPET-CYPRUS at the level of 50%; the remaining 50% are financed by the Government of Cyprus; • following a preliminary expert study, agreement has been reached with the Government of Albania to initiatethefeasibilitystudyforapilotmini-hydroplant offering an exemplary integrated solution for the installation or renovation of similar plants; • the Asia/Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO in Tokyo, Japan, published a book for children and young people entitled «The Sun», as part of its ecology series; this book is largely devoted to solar energy and its positive impact on the environment. Business and investment opportunities, to enhance the implementation of the World Solar Programme 1996-2005, have been extensively studied at the following events:

• African Solar Forum, Bamako, Mali, 25-28 March, 1998. • Business and Investment for the World Solar Programme 1996-2005, Tbilisi, Georgia, 23-24 July, 1998. • Business and Investment Seminar for Renewable Energy in Latin America, Quito, Ecuador, 14-16 September 1998. • Business and Investment Forum for Renewable Energy in Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe, 29-31 March 1999. • Meeting of the Personal Representatives of the Members of the World Solar Commission, Harare, Zimbabwe, 1st April 1999.

UN wide partnership The Secretariat of the World Solar Commission has organized the follow-up to Resolution 53/7 adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations at its 53rd session: • At the Fourth Session of the Conference of the PartiestotheFrameworkConventiononClimateChange (COP 4), held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in November 1998, a presentation was made by the SecretaryGeneral of the World Solar Commission to the delegations of Brazil, the People’s Republic of China, India and the Russian Federation. Meetings were organized with Mr Maurice F. Strong, Chairman, Earth

Renewable Energy Programme (1991-2000)

Source: Renewable Energy in Spain – balance and prospects for the year 2000, IDAE

54


Council; Mr John Novak, Edison Electric Institute; Mr James Gustave Speth, Administrator, United Nations Development Programme; Mr Thomas B. Johansson, Director, Energy and Atmosphere Programme,United Nations Development Programme; Mr Mohamed T. Al-Ashry, Chairman, The Global Environment Facility (GEF) Secretariat; Mr Prohipto Ghosh, Asian Development Bank; Mr. Robert Priddle, Executive Director, International Energy Agency; Mr Luiz A.M. Da Fonseca, Executive Secretary, Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE); Mr Michael Jefferson, Vice President, World Energy Council; as well as the chairmen of the electricity utilities members of the E7 Network of Expertise for the Global Environment. • In December 1998 draft letters for the signature of theUNSecretary-GeneralwerepreparedatUNHeadquarters; they were to be addressed to the Executive Heads of Specialized Agencies and Programmes of the UN System and to funding and technical assistance sources, as foreseen in para. 4 of the UNGA Resolution. • An information mission was carried out in February 1999 to the UN, UNDP, the World Bank and GEF. Mr. Nitin Desai, UN Undersecretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs, was especially approached in this respect. • The Director-General of UNESCO, Mr Federico Mayor, and the Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme, Mr James Gustave Speth, have agreed to co-sign a joint letter to UNDP ResidentRepresentativesandDirectorsofUNESCOField Offices, with an instruction to provide support to the implementationoftheWorldSolarProgramme19962005. • ThetextofUNGAResolution53/7hasbeenannexed to the last Progress Report on the implementation of theWorldSolarProgramme1996-2005,dated17February 1999 and widely distributed in English, French and Spanish.

• The World Solar Programme 1996-2005 has been included in the Draft Programme and Budget of UNESCO for 2000-2001 as an interdisciplinary undertaking, with an overall allocation of US$1,800,000 from the Regular Budget. • The brochure on the World Solar Commission has beenlargelydistributedtocompetentandconcerned organizations worldwide.

Clean Energy and Water for Islands Clean energy availability and water for human consumption throughout the world has dwindled dramatically with increases in population. This situation in islands is very critical and particularly affects are coral islands where the water quality within the water into the water lens and the residues of its living inhabitants and the domestic animals. For Kiribati, the damage to its ground water lens from its over populated areas has been identified and relieved to some extent. However it is still persists in its over populated islands and will continue to increase the suffering of its people, if clean water alternative supply are not considered. The Island Solar Summit may wish to identify new methods of providing assistance for the afflicted population in areas where the applicable technologies could be practically applied. The World Solar Commission consider the genuine need of small islands for the provisionofgoodandsafedrinkingwatertoitspopulations, as one of its high priority project. The project to comprise a desalination plant operated by solar energy, a renewable source of energy that is readily available for the continual existence and well being of these people under the Solar Water Programme 1996-2005. The Island Solar Summit may wish to launch a major global programme entitled «Clean energy and water for future generations» as an integral part of the World Solar Programme 1996-2005.

55


56


The New Energy Challenge in the Island Regions M ANUEL C ENDAGORTA -G ALARZA Director ITER (Institute of Technology and Renewable Energies)

T

he growth of the population during the last decade has created a debate about the possibility of maintaining the development and the quantity of natural resources available in our planet. An accurate view of the prospects suggests that it is impossible to fulfil and satisfy the needs of this uncontrollable growth, and it advises for a change in the way the exploitation and use of the natural resources are conceived. Theproblemscausedbytheincreaseintheconsumption are basically related to the settlement of cities and touristareas,whichhaveproducedotherconsequences involving pollution, lack of natural resources, a bigger density of population and many more concerns. The degradation of nature has been caused by the systematic exploitation of the natural resources and the use of non-renewable sources such as petroleum and coal. That type of energy has clearly contributed to degrade the planet plus originating energy dependence. Moreover, these conventional sources are finite, as explained in the following table: A closer look at this table reveals that actual consumption habits will deplete all reserves in the near future. The main result will be an increase of energy cost, thus fast impoverishment and a higher pressure

OIL

on the environment. Moreover, fuels with higher reserves (like uranium and coal) require an enormous investment to lessen environmental impact.

Woodisnotconsideredaconventionalenergysource, as its consumption should be extremely joined to its perpetuation. Nevertheless, it should be noted that it is the main fuel of less developed countries, with an average consumption of 700 kg per person and year. 1300 millions people used wood as their primary energy source in 1980, and this figure will be raised to 2400 by year 2000. This pressure destroys 11 millions ha of forests and turns 6 millions into non-productive land.

NATURAL GAS

COAL

URANIUM

ANNUAL EXTRACTION

2.9

1.7

2.18

0.5

KNOWN RESERVES UNKNOWN RESERVES

144 67

115 113

572 772

30 85

TOTAL RESERVES DURATION OF KNOWN RESERVES

211 49

228 68

1344 262

115 60

72

134

617

230

DURATION OF TOTAL RESERVES

57


As a fact, all these considerations are even greater when applied to island regions, due to their fragile ecosystems and lack of conventional energy sourced. Their specific economy usually focussed on particular sectors (like agriculture or tourism) increase their vulnerability to the consequences of energy consumption related to the use of fossil fuels. The development of renewable energy and desalination systems are the only way to guarantee a sustainable future for insular systems.

Water and Energy Water still remains as the essential liquid for all living creatures and the Earth itself. People have always settled down in humid areas like riverbanks and coastlines, especially in dry climates. The lack of water and its quality is one of the main problems modern civilisation faces; its bad management and pollution are the result of an irrational behaviour when water was not scarce:theuseofsewage,theemissionsoffumes,chemical products and solid waste to the ground, atmosphere and rivers, lakes and sea... In the long run, an increase of the population confronted with a limited water supply will cause a desperatesearchforwater,andsomepreventivepoliciesshould be taken. SeveralEuropeanandMediterraneanCountrieshave waterproblems,butitgetsworsewhenreferringtosouthern islands and municipalities, mainly devoted to tourism. The problem there is worst, because tourism demands an endless supply and, because of the leisure facilities,suchasswimmingpools,golfcoursesandgreens, evenwhenthereisenoughwater,therearehighlossesin mains supply, which is often polluted or salted. For all these reasons, there is a growing necessity for theutilisationofdesalinationplants,duetotheincrease of the consumption and the lack of water that central and southern countries suffer originated not only by the inhabitants but by tourists; the prospects for the use of product water as an energy storage system along withtherisingintroductionofrenewableenergiesmake it easier to implement systems to cover the urgent necessity of fresh water. Moreover, the energy for water supply in Mediterranean countries is very expensive, and most of the time it depends on fossil fuels, increasing pollution and dependence from the exterior. Pollution should be avoided, as tourism may escape to other unexplored targets once the environment is harmed. 58

Nowadays, PV systems are quite expensive in larger plants compared to conventional energy sources and other renewables, like wind energy. Nevertheless, it perfectly fits small applications of no more than 2 kW, making it the adequate power supply for direct distillation systems in small and local applications. On the other hand, wind energy is a high competitive form of producing energy, even in islands with a low average wind speed. The usage of wind turbines to power medium sized desalination plants is perfect, and severalpilotplantsarebeingdevelopedundertheframework of some European programs, as well as hybrid systems using PV panels and wind generators to produce fresh water. Finally, these desalination plants could also be connected to the grid, which is the easiest approach. Anyway, in order to avoid pollution, a parallel solution consisting in the installation of RE generation systems connected directly to the grid should be applied.

Renewable Passive

Solar

Energies Energy

The basic concern is the minimization of heat loss and taking maximum advantage of useful solar gain. The house must be isolated to avoid losses of heat or coolness, not to mention the added value of reducing noises from outside. Double glasses in the windows will also help (they reduce the heat losses to its half), as well as using other systems to keep doors and windows perfectly shut, as 40% of heat is lost if they are not.


Active

For passive solar heating, there are four configurations available: direct (large areas of south facing glazing), indirect (some part of the building enclosing the living spaces collects the heat), isolated (collection isolated from living spaces to be later transferred) and dual gain systems (uses the advantages of the previous three systems). Other aspects may help in the cooling: building form and external finishes, building envelope, air movement, shading, reflectors, orientation depending on wind and sun conditions, etc. For passive solar cooling, an indirect gain system using water wall or roof pond could be used. It consists in the installation of a thin pond placed on top of the house, in contact with a ceiling made of high conductivity material. For the heating, the collection system is exposed during the day and isolated by night transferring the heat to the house, performing the reverse way for cooling. Fountains, ponds, etc. can humidify the surrounding air, thereby helping the cooling. A bioclimatic design may save a 70% of the heating costs, producing an additional cost varying from zero to 20% in extreme cases. Natural lighting may be provided directly to interior spaces (Core System) or adjacent to the house exterior (Perimeter System). Advanced windows, light shelves, skylights, roof monitors and side lighting will also help to reduce lighting costs. A compromise between lighting and heating can be made illuminating the room before converting the light to heat. Instead of using the traditional bulb lights, low consume ones (20% of the normal consumption) or halogen lamps will be used. It saves 0,5 ton of CO2 to be emitted to the atmosphere to change a 100 w. traditional light for a low consume. Photoelectric controls switch off unnecessary lights when not required, producing a saving between 10 and 80%

Solar

Energy

Two devices can be mentioned: solar collectors and photovoltaic cells. Photovoltaics is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity using devices made of thin semiconductors layers; these devices are called solar cells and a PV module consists of a number of cells connected together. The peak output power of a module, defined as the power delivered at an irradiance of 1000 W/m2 at 25oC, ranges from 30 to 120 W. The PV modules can form PV systems when they are connected together. There are two types of PV modules: the flat plate module and the concentrator module (it concentrates the incident light onto a small area). The cells can be divided in crystalline or thin film. The lifetime of crystalline silicon is at least twenty years, and the limits are established by the corrosion of the module material glass, metal and plastics. The module replacement rate is about 0.2% per year. When talking about amorphous silicon modules, the light induced degradation reduces the efficiency approx. 5% after the first few hundred days of operation, which restricts the application in large stations. Active solar energy systems of low temperature use an energy collector, especially suitable for heating water for human use and heating. The main components are the solar collector, a storage system and the distribution or consumption system. The basic element, the collector, contains an absorber which converts the incident solar radiation into collected energy; later on, the energy is transferred to the water for transport directly to the load or to isolated tanks for later use. A family consisting in four members uses 200 l. of hot water a day.

59


The costs of an individual collector system is 12501900 ECUs, while in a central plant supplying several houses,theyrangebetween350-540ECUsforeachone.

used. The most used resources for biomass production in Europe are agricultural wastes.

Wave Wind

Energy

The machines that transform wind energy in a usable one are called wind turbines or generators, and its power ranges from a few watts to megawatts. The main generated energy is mechanical, but it can be transformed to electrical with a gearbox and an electrical generator. Wind systems available commercially at present are reliableintermediatesizetwoorthreebladeshorizontal axis turbines, with rotors diameters in the range of 30 to 60 meters and with power ratings in the range 300 to 1,500 kW. They are cost competitive if operated under the most suitable wind regime. Even though wind turbines in the MW range are proportionally more expensive than medium sized machines, they are making a breakthrough in the wind energy market nowadays. The generation costs of wind energy are determined by the investment cost, economic parameters, system efficiency, wind speed, annual average power output, technical availability, O&M costs and lifetime. Present machine costs are 300-600 ECU per m2, and infrastructure costs (foundation, transport, etc.) will add 30%, giving an average installed cost of 600 ECU per m2. In areas where both environmental conditions meet (plenty of hours of sunshine and high wind speed), a hybrid plant could be made, assuring a better performance during more time. A backup conventional system should be supplemented to meet daily loads during periods without sunshine or under bad weather conditions. In the case that a hotel or urbanization decides to make the investment on their own, there is no need of a backup system, as the energy in extreme cases will be supplied by thegrid.Whentheenergygenerationexceedstheneeds of the tourists lodged in the building, the extra energy generated will be sold to the electric company.

Biomass Biomass is the organic part that comes from animal, vegetal and micro organism wastes, that can be converted in usable energy or products for other purposes. Considering biomass as an energy source, the one produced by photosynthetic organisms capable of transforming solar in chemical energy is very interesting. The overall electricity production costs range from 0.05 to 0.11 ECU/kWh, depending on the processes 60

Energy

Nowadays, wave energy is being investigated and developedinamajorwayinEurope.Theusageofaproved technology and the advantages of natural resources make the use of wave energy profitable, specially in energetically isolated areas. Several plants are now working in several countries. The generated energy is converted in electric and potential energy or high pressures for seawater desalination, depending on the demand. The costs of obtaining energy will be reduced to a minimum by using the places with a maximum wave surge concentration, setting systems in breakwaters and taking advantage of the existing infrastructure.

Geothermal

Energy

There are places in our planet where huge steam accumulation at a high temperature happens, and it would allow the movement of steam turbines for electricalproduction.ThereisathermalstationinLaderello (Italy) that produces a third of the energy generated by a power station. There are other plants in places like New Zealand and France.

Desalination

Plants

Because of the lack of water, islands should take advantage of their natural resources. With this resolution, together with the installation of desalination plants, the quantity of water available will be increased and the pollution caused by fossil fuels reduced. Desalination is the separation of dissolved impurities from water. Part of that water is recovered in a product stream in a purer form. Desalination processes can be divided into two large groups: Distillation and membrane systems. Distillation isusedalmostexclusivelyforseawaterdesalination.Membrane systems include electrodialysis (brackish water) and reverse osmosis (both brackish and sea water) As the lack of water and its impurity is a problem that isaffectingpeoplealready,desalinationsystemswillbeof significantimportanceinthenearfuture.ROinparticular will be of special interest on islands and coastal sites, because of the availability of sea water and the avoidance of costs that a well and a pumping system will take, in case that there is a brackish water available. The product water in RO is normally purer than in ED processes, and it is the most suitable system to pu-


rify seawater. As this type of plants is being more and more used, the price of the membranes is reducing quickly, and it is expected that RO will be a widely used system for the desalination of sea and brackish water with a high salt concentration. Anyway, it always depends on the characteristics of the water to be treated, and the elements dissolved in it. Because of the purity of the water obtained by RO, it is possible to mix it with brackish water to increase the quantity without affecting the salt concentration required for a specific application.

Final

ergy needs of the world population. The most interesting fact about these figures is that, even though they come from completely different approaches, they have more or less agreed to the same results, which make renewables a real trend for the future. Besides, the percentage of the Gross Domestic Product used for Primal Energy Supply, considering a fixed price of 20$ per barrel of crude, has been decreasing from 5% in 1970 to 3,8% in 1995; it is expected to follow this trend, reaching 3% in 2020. This reduction is mainly due to the change in the economy towards the service sector.

Considerations

The fear of a polluted environment is not exclusive of a specific sector of society. Many organizations and groups have expressed their concern on these matters, as well as their belief that renewable energies are the solution for a sustainable development. Several fora have given their expectations for the future: • The prospects of the Madrid Conference are that, by 2010, 15% of the energy consumed in the European Union will be produced with renewable energy sources. • Regarding Western Europe, the renewable energy supply is estimated in 15-20% by year 2020 (World Energy Council) and 61% by 2050 (United Nations). • Shell Company has estimated that on 2060, renewable energy will satisfy more than the 505 of the en-

Conclusions The creation of local Energy Agencies for Islands is an essential step towards a rational development of island states and regions. Their creation is a necessity to study,inalocalscale,theenergypotentialofrenewables, the economic and technical aspects of RE implantation, and its maximum penetration in islands’ grids. TheexperienceachievedintheCanaryIslesisahopeful one, and the application of RE in islands with similar characteristics is a fact. Several Wind Parks and other Renewable Energy installations, as well as lot of sea water desalination plants (especially in the eastern islands) are now operating in the islands, contributing step by step to a sensitive management of the resources and preservation of nature. In the near future, it is expected that their share in the energy generation will besubstantiallyincreased.Touristsandinhabitantshave shown both curiosity and satisfaction for the prospects this clean energy offers. Two alternatives are suitable for islands to be applied: the first one is the installation of large Renewable Energy Plants to centralise the distribution and generation of energy, working together with the traditional stations already working. The other one will be the local and individual application in buildings and dwellings. The creation of Energy Agencies is only one of the requirements that should be met. In addition, political actions should be taken to adapt current legislation to promotetheuseofRenewableEnergy.Ifacompromise ismadewithdecisionmakers,involvingallsectors,100% oftheenergydemandcouldbecoveredwithRenewables.

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Ricardo Melchior, President of the Tenerife Island

Carmen Becerril, Director-General of IDAE, the Spanish

Council and Chairman of the Island Solar Summit,

Institute for Diversification and Energy Saving, delivering

during the Closing Session.

her speech during a preliminary session.

Reading of the Conference's Recommendations by Cipriano MarĂ­n (Secretary of ISS), Manuel Cendagorta (Director of ITER) and Osman Benchikh (World Solar Programme 1996-2005).

62


Island Solar Agenda

63


64


Island Solar Agenda

Introduction On the eve of the XXI century, the islands are preparing to meet the new challenges that have appeared in today's world. And they are doing this with a new mentality that is based on a common tie. Island societies have seen that the extreme richness and diversity of their natural and cultural heritage is under serious threat, and that they must become the masters of their own destiny in the face of the processes of globalisation, placing their confidence in the development options that can guarantee a future for them without irreversibly mortgaging it in the process. Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 points out that islands are a special case for both the environment and for development, and that they have very specific problems in planning sustainable development, as they are extremely fragile and vulnerable. In the context of sustainable development, energy is the cornerstone of their planning strategies. The use of energy facilitates all human activity and social and economic progress. Energy is used for heating, cooling, lighting, health, food, education, industrial production, agricultural and fishing activities, services and transport. So, we know that energy is absolutely essential for development, but in islands, the sources and technologies used have a major influence on, and sometimes even determine, the development model chosen and its different options. Due to its territorial, environmental and economic implications, energy is a central factor in the island dilemma. Implementing the wrong energy model could mortgage our economies, future development options and the environment, because energy solutions are closely related to how island resources are managed. This interdependence is extremely prominent in islands, where it also involves transport, water and

waste management policies, all of which are key aspects of striking a satisfactory balance in our area. The magnitude of per capita energy consumption has become an indicator of progress. Therefore, energy-related matters and policies have been closely linked to the demand for energy. This has meant that, for many years, the strategic and environmental consequences of energy consumption patterns have been neglected. All too often energy models and solutions have been imported that are inflexible and inappropriate for island conditions. The fragile nature of the island environment requires ecologically rational technologies that are appropriate for the characteristics of each area and its resources, technologies that are within an island's carrying capacity. But, we also know that the global attitude of other regions toward energy solutions involves direct environmental risks for many islands. Seven years after the Rio Conference, Climate Change remains the core of international debate, especially after the ÂŤThird Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangeÂť that was held in Kyoto, where the islands clearly expressed the need for a change in the energy model in light of future risks. But, development strategies thus far have also ignored the basic function of energy in enhancing quality of life and in alleviating poverty. For decades, we have lost sight of the human dimension of energy. The answer is not just to plan for an increase in conventional energy sources. Experience has shown us that this strategy fails, from both the point of view of financial consequences and environmental concerns. A basic change in approach is needed for proposals and for island energy services. It is clear that islands are facing, and have historically faced, a broad range of constraints. It is 65 for precisely this reason that many of the limitations of insularity must be tackled from the


aspects of technological qualification, moving away from the traditional culture of the quantity caused by the need to cover historic deficits in island territories. Nowadays, islands have to seek shared solutions based on a common strategy, in which innovation and adaptation must be the dominant factors. The strategy to adopt has already been clearly outlined at the United Nations Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (Barbados 1994). In Chapter 7 of the Barbados Programme of Action, bases for action are set both for the sustainable use of existing energy sources and the adoption of alternative and renewable energy sources in small islands. Given the current heavy dependence of SIDS on petroleum fuels and biomass and the high potential for alternative natural resources, the Barbados Programme emphasises the efficient use of energy and the development of environmentally sound sources of energy, such as solar, wind and, where feasible, hydroelectric, geothermal and wave energy, and the use of energy-efficient technologies.

have any great variety of energy sources either. These factors increase island vulnerability and, sometimes lead to an over-exploitation or premature exhaustion of their limited nonrenewable resources. Specialisation of economies The over-specialisation of most island economies forces them to install an over-sized energy capacity to cover factors such as prominent seasonal demand, abrupt market changes or far greater territorial dispersion than in other areas. Particularly the development of the tourist industry involves adopting behaviour patterns and energy needs that are difficult to bear. Island tourist destinations will have to face the many added energy problems derived from the industry, which in most cases also implies a radical change to traditional cultures of consumption.

Islands are an exceptional case for sustainable development, with very special characteristics from the energy point of view. Most islands have a profile that presents a series of pros and cons that must be weighed up carefully when taking the most suitable energy decisions.

Scale, a technological and market constraint The scale of islands generates two added difficulties. On the one hand, their size seriously limits the efficiency of conventional energy systems, which have been conceived and designed for other economies and areas. For example, one can often see how the cost of generating electricity in small and medium-sized islands can be ten times the mainland reference figures. On the other hand, the scale factor is also a serious impediment to market conditions. Small island energy markets are unattractive and often depend on the hypothetical capacity of the public sector to cover their deficits.

Disadvantages include: Isolation and dependence. One current constraint faced by islands is their extreme dependence on imported energy products. This is something that is aggravated in the fields of transport and electricity production. In most cases, acquiring energy products accounts for more than 15% of all island imports. Energy production is an extremely large item in GDP. A heavy burden that, in many cases, limits the development possibilities and quality of life for islanders.

Highly sensitive environment Islands are characterised by the fragile nature of their ecosystems. This can be seen from the large proportion of protected areas they have, or areas that need protection, which is much higher in proportion than in other regions of the planet. In an island context, the environmental problems of energy take on extreme proportions. Furthermore, islands have to reproduce all the energy generation and storage infrastructure within a small area of land, leading to extremely high external costs.

Limited range of energy resources Available conventional energy sources are generally limited or none existent. Islands do not

Inefficient use of energy resources Importing rigid mainland models of production

Energy, a new challenge for islands

66


and consumption leads to energy vectors being very poorly adapted to final use. Most prospective studies on potential energy saving and efficiency, give reduction parameters which exceed 20% in some cases. Rational use of energy in new consumption is one of the major issues to be tackled at the moment. Imported modes of mobility and internal transport are usually extremely inefficient too, and they are gradually pushing up the island energy bill. On many islands with a strong presence of the services sector, energy consumption for transport is very often over 50% of total consumption.

together, they are presently the largest niche market in the world for renewable energies. In recent years, the greatest relative growth in specific segments of the renewables market is to be found in islands. For example, wind energy penetration is recording unstoppable growth figures in islands, compared with relative stagnation in mainland regions. In fact, at the present, the largest percentage of renewable energies in the energy balance are also to be found in islands, to the point that we are now seeing the appearance of the first 100% renewable islands.

In the other side of the scales islands tend to enjoy the following advantages:

Growing acquisition of technology and availability of human resources. The capacity of islanders to learn the new energy technologies is really high. Isolation has always generated an accentuated ability to find new solutions in an emergency. Furthermore, the human resources of islands represent one of their greatest future assets, as they have an exceptional creative capacity.

Abundant renewable energy sources Most islands have excellent renewable energy sources, which are often enough to guarantee ample energy self-sufficiency. These are currently energy resources that are used very little in comparison with the existing real potential. Solar, wind, micro-hydraulic and wave energy are extremely abundant sources of energy on all islands. In general, they are complementary energy sources, the lack of one is usually off-set by abundance of another. Small can be an advantage Renewable energy sources have an excellent capacity for modulation to smaller scales, compared with the rigid conventional production systems. Renewable energy technologies adapt much better to island scales and needs. Integration of renewable energy sources in most island cases is an economically feasible solution despite their relatively high energy prices. Island economic specialities are not very energy intensive Islands are hardly ever the home to energy intensive economic activities, as most of them tend to increasingly move toward the tertiary sector. Intensive energy consumption is very occasional and most demand goes to the services sector, transport and housing. The great island renewables market Individually, islands are not very important energy markets with an acceptable critical mass, but taken

If we weigh up the energy pros and cons of islands, the option of a strategy based on sustainable energies is not merely a technological, cultural or financial alternative, it is very probably the only rational choice we face. At the present moment, other, non-renewable energy sources should be considered as provisional solutions for solving the long term energy problems of islands.

Sustainable Energies for building a future for islands Current trends in energy policies are aimed basically at achieving greater competitivity. For islands, however, this criterion alone is not enough; a long term consensus must be reached on the guidelines for a common energy policy that considers other fundamental factors as well: respect for the environment, creating employment and assuring supply. This is a scenario that should be governed by sustainable energy criteria, that is, by energy saving and efficiency and a maximum use of renewable energy sources. At the present time, however, renewable energy sources still make an unacceptably modest contribution to the islands' energy balance in comparison with the potential that is technically available.

67

Renewable energies


energy. Energy and environmental problems remain the same for islands however, but with the difference that current technology greatly increases the chances of achieving acceptable solutions. The concept of renewable energies encompasses a wide range of sources, which require a range of different techniques to harness them. Islands generally have several of these sources available to different degrees. The ones with the greatest potential are wind, solar and ocean-related energies. The other renewable energy sources vary in potential, depending on the specific case in question. Wind A widespread use of wind power is one of the most significant changes that have occurred in recent years. Wind energy is now a highly competitive form of energy production, even in islands with low average wind speeds. Recently installed wind farms and turbines are achieving efficiency and competitivity levels that would have been unthinkable ten years ago. Wind energy generating costs are determined by investment, system efficiency, wind speed, annual generated power, technical availability, operating and maintenance costs and the average life of wind generators. Accumulated experience and the development of wind technology have made it possible to reduce costs significantly, to around U.S.$ 300 - 400 per m2 of surface area swept by the wind turbine. Passive solar Energy conscious building techniques (improved insulation materials, daylight lighting, built-in energy, natural ventilation, passive solar energy, energy management systems, etc.) are building technologies and know-how with sufficient positive experiences to be able to provide managers and users with a highly useful tool for designing the habitat of the future. By harnessing passive solar energy and responsible building techniques, it is now possible to make comfort compatible with proposed energy saving and efficiency requirements. Traditional building techniques are the basic point of reference; there constitute an extremely rich and varied building heritage that generally includes surprisingly good solutions for passively 68

harnessing energy. Over the centuries the conditions on islands has forced their inhabitants to adopt astute and efficient designs, which must be maintained or recovered. There are four possible layouts for a passive solar heating system: direct (large south-facing areas of glass), indirect (part of the house, including the living areas, traps heat), isolated (heat is trapped in specific areas of the house, to be transferred later) and dual gain systems (using the best of the three other systems). There are other factors that can help in cooling, such as the shape of the house and the exterior finish, coatings, materials, air movement, shade, reflectors and which way the house faces, depending on sun and wind conditions. Active solar Photovoltaic energy makes it possible to convert solar radiation directly into electricity using devices made of fine layers of a semiconductor material. These devices are called solar cells. A photovoltaic module consists of several of these cells, all connected together. Large scale photovoltaic systems are still relatively costly in comparison with conventional energy sources or other renewables, such as wind energy. They do however, fit perfectly with the profile for small applications up to 2kW and the electricity supply is suitable for many stand-alone applications, which are frequently found on islands. Low temperature active solar energy systems use solar collectors, which are ideal for heating water for human consumption and for heating. The main components are a solar collector, a storage system and the distribution and consumption system. The basic component contains a collector that converts solar energy into usable energy. The energy is then transferred into water for immediate use, or for storage in insulated tanks for later use. Solar collectors are now widely used in most island regions, although there have been problems related to the correct installation and maintenance of the system. Biomass Biomass is the organic part of the waste from animals, vegetables and micro-organisms. It can be turned into useable energy or products for other uses. This is a resource that is unevenly distributed in island regions. Harnessing biomass energy takes on a special significance in islands with high and intensive agricultural production, generally crops


produced for the export market. Mini and micro-hydropower There is a long tradition and much experience of obtaining energy from water falls on many islands where these resources are abundant and geographic conditions make it possible to harness this energy. One must not forget that the first water mills to be discovered from ancient times were built on islands. Turbine technology currently used in mini and micro-hydropower stations is extremely reliable and can be broken down into modules. The maturity of the technology can be seen from the large number of small power stations that have been operating for decades. Energy saving and efficiency as a complement Developing techniques and procedures for increasing savings and for a more efficient use of available energy is an essential complement to incorporating renewable energy sources. Fitting energy vectors to final use, choosing the most efficient and appropriate equipment to meet the requirements of island consumption, incorporating control systems and adopting good practises are solutions that are generally within our reach already, allowing a more rational sizing of energy demand. Squandering energy, forced on us by the scale and new models of island consumption, is something that is generally inadmissible. Suitable demand management, therefore, is vital, in order to reap the social, economic and environmental benefits of renewable energy.

Barriers Barriers to the development of island energy sustainability are not just technological in nature. There are also political, financial, legal and training barriers preventing the generalisation of renewable energies, which must be overcome in order to create a favourable socio-economical and technical space, particularly when we compare them with conventional sources of energy. The main barriers include: • Lack of international and island institutional frameworks supporting energy sustainability. • Non-existence of differentiated and specific energy policies directed at insular areas. • Inappropriate legal frameworks for the imple-

mentation of RE and RUE. • Regulatory biases or absence. • Lack of connection with, and identification of potential market operators. • Lack of energy planning. • Greater environmental integration requirements. • Below long-run marginal cost pricing and other price distortions. • Lack of qualified information. • Lack of trained personnel and technical and managerial expertise. • High transaction costs. • High initial capital costs or lack of access to credit. High user discount rates. • Mismatch of the incidence of investment. • Mismatch of the incidence of investment costs and energy savings.

The need for an Island Strategy Instruments for change Based on the need to overcome existing barriers to achieve island energy sustainability, the Island Solar Summit promotes a strategy aiming at: • Promoting and harmonising co-operation both at an island and international level, particularly within the fields of training, research, technological transfer and industry alliances. • Supporting regional inter-island co-operation with regard to the transfer of replicable experiences and the consolidation of service and information networks • Helping, where necessary, to draw up energy policies, rules and guidelines applicable to islands, as well as efficiently improving islands’ capacity for planning, management and supervision. • Promoting a thorough auditing of the possibility of developing new and renewable energy sources on islands • Developing the necessary awareness actions that will allow the essential role of renewable energies within the energy supply and island environment protection framework to be strengthened. • Promoting the widest possible dissemination of renewable energy applications in different sectors of economic activity and geographical situations. • Supporting appropriate funding actions, and the appropriate institutional and regulation reforms. • Developing legal and financial frameworks favourable to RES. 69 • Identifying priority projects and implementing them by organising partnerships between private


International framework favourable to RES • Recognition of the specific status of islands by international organisations and programmes. • Progress in implementing the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States. • Encouraging multi and bilateral donor and finance organisations to recognise the specific energy needs of the islands.

Legal and Regulatory Framework Advancement of Renewables and the introduction of rational energy use generally require a supporting legal and regulatory framework to be established. Regulatory tools should be promoted, allowing: • the harmonisation of financial and fiscal measures. • the prioritisation of environmental criteria when making energy choices. • Ensuring energy supply and its quality. • Consolidating the use of local renewable energy resources. • the simplification of administrative obstacles for RE suppliers.

Fiscal and Funding measures The environmental and social benefits of renewable energies on islands justify favourable funding conditions. Applicable actions include: • flexible depreciation of renewable energy investments. • favourable fiscal treatment for third party financing of renewable energies. • financial support for investment, start up subsidies for new productions plants, SME’s and new job creation. • financial support for consumers to purchase RE and RUE equipment and services. • introduction of innovative financing measures, including micro-credits. • guaranteed prices. • grants for innovation projects and for those of general interest. • removal of the unfair disadvantages imposed on the renewables by political pricing, which often protects conventional energy sources. • prioritisation of public renewable energy funds over other conventional options. 70

General market measures • Promote an enhancement of local entrepreneurial and business management capacity. • Support for RES market development and commercialisation. • Develop demand-side management programmes. • Support for energy service companies. • Enhance the institutional dialogue with the private sector. • Create co-operation frameworks with main market actors. • Create markets through price support and regulation. • Favour inter-island partnerships, which allow better market scales.

Fair Access for Renewables to the Electricity Market • Get distribution system operators to accept renewable electricity when offered to them, subject to provisions on transport in the internal market in electricity. • Establish guidelines on the price to be paid to generators using renewable sources, which should at least be equal to the cost of electricity that has been saved on a low voltage grid of a distributor plus a premium reflecting the renewables’ social and environmental benefits and the manner in which it is financed: tax breaks, etc. • Avoid discrimination among electricity produced from solar radiation, biomass, hydro-energy and wind. • Build the necessary infrastructure for renewable energy (planning, grid connection regulations). • Plan accumulation systems that guarantee the maximum use of RES in electricity production: water desalination, pumping, charging electric vehicles, etc..

Market Acceptability and Consumer Protection • Implement appropriate public education and awareness programmes, including consumer incentives to promote energy conservation. • Enhance consumer information on quality goods and services for renewable energies. • Establish standards at island level, with the aim of


maintaining minimum levels of guarantee and reliability, given the specific features of island requirements. • In order to respond to and mobilise the existing strong public support for renewable energies, products should be clearly labelled as such and best practise experiences, in particular for services and system operation (a typical field for this is passive solar applications), should be collected and widely disseminated. • Set up regional focal points for information and consumer advice.Good practices guidelines - labelling

Good practises guidelines-labelling The development of best practise guidelines on RUE and RES should be promoted, as well as their voluntary adoption by the different sectors of activity. Guidelines and Codes of Conduct in sectors like tourism, transport, building, small industry and services demonstrated their efficacy in many islands. Sometimes these guides are at the base of labels that differentiate services and products according to their energy quality. Transfer of models, experiences and applicability ideas through guidelines is an important objective in the development of the information systems proposed during the Island Solar Summit.

Standards Standards and labels are powerful tools that guarantee and control appropriate implementation of RES and RUE technologies. Islands are exceptional fields of application where adaptability has priority over all other considerations. This need can be detected in aspects like environmental integration, modularity, flexibility and guarantee of service and training. To this end, a commission needs to be created, supported by the Island Solar Council, whose task will be to elaborate the specific island applicability requirements of RES and RUE technologies and management systems.

Research, Technological, Development and Demonstration It is generally recognised that there is still much scope for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration to improve technologies,

reduce costs and gain user experience in demonstration projects, on condition that technological development is guided by appropriate policy measures for their introduction into islands markets and subsequent their implementation.

Priority areas and demonstration projects Identify priority projects and organise governmental and private sector coalitions to launch them, particularly in the following areas: • Rural development • Incorporation of renewables to the electricity grid • Water production • Incorporation of RES and RUE measures in the tourist sector • Low-impact transport • Buildings Promote demonstration projects in order to show potential RES users that new energy technologies work and can be readily implemented. At a regional level, we recommend calling for demonstration project networks to be set up, with the following characteristics: • Capacity of replication • Accessibility (visits and stages) • Technologically innovative • Timeliness and exemplarity • Socially necessary • Environmentally integrated

Energy Agencies The creation of local Energy Agencies for Islands is an essential step towards a rational development of island states and regions. Their creation is a necessity for studying, on a the energy potential of renewables, the economic and technical aspects of RE implantation, and its maximum penetration in island grids, on a local scale. In the future, agencies would play a fundamental role in: • carrying out extensive energy audits of the renewable energy potential of islands. • promoting demand side management aimed at reducing energy needs. • evaluating technologies and markets. • providing assistance to island market actors. • supporting regional centres.

Information and education for renewable energies

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It is necessary to promote the elaboration of easyto-understand information on renewable energies


• The establishment of better co-ordination between energy needs and the choice of RES and RUE appropriate equipment. • The creation of maintenance teams able to interact with the rural population in order to solve the technical problems they might face and also to provide them with the necessary information on how the equipment used operates. • Raising user awareness on the effective use of this equipment. • After identifying the candidates for a training programme, the duration of training should never be long, especially for decision-makers and for those engaged in field activities. Two powerful tools can underpin the RES and RUE training strategy: the consolidation of Regional Centres and the specific application of the Global Education Solar Programme in island areas.

an international campaign has been proposed, oriented at supporting island proposals. Its objective is to achieve total RES cover for their power supply. The ISS Secretariat, with the support of ITER, INSULA and the World Solar Programme, will set up the appropriate measures aimed at: • Providing counselling for local island administrations and governments in identifying feasible 100% RES opportunities. Preferably: small islands, protected natural spaces widely used by the public, medium-sized rural settlements with potential for applying mixed systems. • Developing a label under the denomination of «Island 100». • Co-ordinating with island-related agencies in promoting Island 100. • Co-ordinating with island-related initiatives and organisations.

Regional Centres

Telematic alliance in favour of RES

It is necessary to select, support and consolidate island regional centres capable of: • developing effective mechanisms for the transfer of energy technology. • establishing databases to disseminate information on experiences in the use of new and renewable sources of energy and on the efficient use of non-renewable energy sources. • acting as focal points for general information on RES and RUE. • providing information on technology markets and financial instruments. • advising island agencies and institutions responsible for energy matters. • establishing themselves as and specialised skills training centres. • acting as a link between the different development and research centres. • promoting technological innovation in RES and RUE. The ITER set itself up as the first regional centre of this type.

The Island 100% RES campaign As an RES promotion measure among islands,

RES: Renewable Energy Sources RUE: Rational Use of Energy 72

Some initiatives (information systems, distance learning courses and networks related to sustainable and renewable energies) are to be developed in the islands over the next few years. Some of the problems arising out of these isolated initiatives are: • Duplicity of efforts. Many of these initiatives have common objectives and involve developing applications or implementing similar telematic services. • Greater cost. Use is not made of other available resources and infrastructures for these projects, most of which are implemented from scratch. • Restricted application of results, in spite of the fact that many of the systems and services can be designed for application in various sectors or to satisfy the needs of larger groups. • Lack of local resources, an obstacle to more ambitious objectives. Many islands lack the knowhow necessary for properly and fully implementing certain projects, with any guarantee of success. The solution is to create a collaborative environment, and share to compete. The first step for the optimisation of the island resources is the proposal of a telematic platform developed in co-operation between INSULA and SIDSNET, with the support of other initiatives in the field of distance learning courses.


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Clean energy availability and water for human consumption throughout the world has dwindled dramatically with increases in population. This situation in islands is very critical and particularly affects are coral islands where the water quality within the water into the water lens and the residues of its living inhabitants and the domestic animals. The damage to its ground water lens from its over populated areas has been identified and relieved to some extent. However it is still persists in its over populated islands and will continue to increase the suffering of its people, if clean water alternative supply are not considered. The Island Solar Summit may wish to identify new

74

methods of providing assistance for the afflicted population in areas where the applicable technologies could be practically applied. The World Solar Commission consider the genuine need of small islands for the provision of good and safe drinking water to its populations, as one of its high priority project. The project to comprise a desalination plant operated by solar energy, a renewable source of energy that is readily available for the continual existence and well being of these people under the Solar Water Programme 1996-2005. The Island Solar Summit may wish to launch a major global programme entitled “Clean energy and water for future generations� as an integral part of the World Solar Programme 1996-2005.


Clean Energy and Water Programme World Solar Programme 1996-2005 Island Solar Council

W

e undersigned, participants of the Island Solar Summit,heldinTenerife,CanaryIslands,6-8May1999, Aware that one of the priority tasks of the United Nationsforthebenefitofpresentandfuturegenerationsis the elimination of poverty and the improvement of the quality of life of the millions living in misery. Recalling in the concept of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, that sustainable development is one of the main goals of the United Nations system and that one of the key elements for attaining it is the application of sustainable energy systems, which includes the wider use of environmentally friendly, renewable energies. RecallingthattheworldSolarSummit,heldatHarare on 16 and 17 September 1996, adopted the Harare Declaration on Solar Energy and Sustainable Develop-

ment and approved the preparation of the World SolarProgramme1996-2005aimedatimprovingthequality of life in both industrialised and developing countries through the wider use of renewable energies, notably in the rural areas of developing countries, and that the Programme was approved by the World Solar Commission n June 1997, Recalling also resolution 53/7, World Solar Programme 1996-2005, adopted by United Nations General Assembly, 16 October 1998, DecidedtolaunchwithintheframeworkoftheWorld Solar Programme 1996-2005 and activities of the Island SolarCouncilajointInternationalProgrammeentitled: Clean Energy and Water Follow the signatures of the island representatives.

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Head-Table of the ISS Final Session: from left to right: Luis Marqués (member of the Spanish National Commission for UNESCO), Boris Berkovski (UNESCO), Adán Martín (Vice-President of the Canary Islands Government), Ricardo Melchior (President of the Tenerife Island Council) and Pier Giovanni d'Ayala (Secretary-General of INSULA).

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Island Presentations

77


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Using Renewable Energy Sources in the Mascarene Islands: problems, policy and challenges P REM S ADDUL Ministry of Environment REPUBLIC OF MAURITIUS

A

t the dawn of the 21st century, electrical energy is considered as one of the priority needs of mankind in all parts of the world and more so in rural areas. In most of the developing countries and in Small island States, the demand and consumption of electricity has continued to maintain a steady trend of growth since the 1960’s, following sustained economic development in the manufacturing, tourism and transport sectors in the rise in number of domestic consumers as well as in the rise of per capita consumption. This has brought a significant increase in the consumption level of commercial fuel. Most (around 90%) of the commercial fuel is in the form of petroleum and is imported. These oil imports represent a major component of the total bill of Small Island States. The oil price increases of the 1970’s have had a very marked effect on their economies, particularly since oil price escalation has far outstripped the corresponding price increase of the agricultural products which these small islands export. The extensive use of nonrenewable energy sources (fossil fuels) upon which island states are highly dependent is the root cause of atmospheric pollution and the emission of green house gases. Since small islands have a delicate ecosystem, they should continue to strive for economically efficient energy development paths that are increasingly environmentally safe and sound. This will require reliance on the adoption of methods and techniques that will ensure better efficiency in energy production, transmission, distribution and consumption, as well as on the use of new and renewable sources of energy that

will not degrade the quality of the atmosphere and the environment in general. The Mascarene Islands have enough potential for exploiting new and renewable energy sources for a variety of uses. What we need is to convince the respective authorities on their existence, their importance and the urgency of acquiring, quick and soon, the appropriate technology and know how to develop these sources. These will undoubtedly require a sustained inter sectoral and regional cooperation among small island states of the South West Indian Ocean through education, research, technology transfer and adaptation measures with special attention to new and renewable sources of energy.

Key Question What are the possibilities for the efficient and effective development of the existing renewable sources of energy in the Mascarene Islands and what are the barriers and constraints that are preventing these Islands towards achieving the objectives prescribed in the Barbados Meeting (1994) and the Kyoto Summit (1997) and how can we remove these barriers ? Having access to renewable energy sources is now more than ever the essential prerequisite towards achieving sustainable development. Man must be able to harness the forces of nature (waves, wind, falling water and solid wastes), burn biomass and convert energy from the rays of the sun to produce more and 79


more energy services in order to depend less and less on the importation of fossil fuels - which are costly and notenvironmentfriendly.Insmallislandstates,thetransition from non renewable to renewable energy sources has to pass through the acquisition of appropriate technological development and adequate human resources.TheUniversitiesandotherTertiaryInstitutions have a crucial role to play in this area not only by providing education and awareness-raising programmes but also in experimenting and adapting energy efficiency projects with the application of new technology appropriate to the specificity of each island state. Producing electricity from the sun, waves, wind and biomass has many advantages which are environmental and economic in nature and can be put to different uses both sectorally and spatially as well as in the intensity of use - from domestic level to industrial and commercial use. In terms of technology demand, the exploitation of renewable energy sources range from simple artisanal methods used in many rural areas of developingcountries,tohightechnology.Hence,thisprocess is accessible to all whether in rural or urban areas or in remote islands. The question which we have to ask ourselves is how much progress has so far been achieved in the generation of electrical power from new and renewable sources. A recent survey shows that the generation of electricity from renewable sources contribute only about 20% of electricity needs on the global scale with HEP contributing around 6% and biomass 13% (Chabot,1998).

The case of Mauritius In Mauritius, imported petroleum products account for about 90% of the total primary energy input. This figure has remained virtually constant for the past decade. The sugar industry which consumes more than half of the island’s energy requirement, is self-sufficient energy-wise, using bagasse, a by-product of sugarprocessing, for all its energy requirements. The total primary energy supply which increased annually by about 7% during the period 1970 to 1993, declined gradually to about 3% annually till 1990. The current growth rate is 5% which will be the growth rate beyond the year 2000. With the exception of the sugar industry, the transport sector will remain the main consumer of energy. Electricity consumption has continued to maintain a steady trend of growth with an aver80

age increase of 9.1%. The number of customers rose by 3.04% and the annual consumption per customer increased by almost 6%. As far as production is concerned, 61.62 % is being produced by diesel base stations with gas turbines and Hydro stations producing 19.3% and 9.02 % respectively and electricity from burning bagasse 10.35% (1996), which represents an increase of 41.43% over the previous year. Energy supply in 1997 is provided in Table 1.

Table 1: Energy Supply in 1997 (primary-KTOE) Source. Beeharry.1996.

Energy Type

Year - 1997

%

Hydro

17.27

2.4

Bagasse Gasoline

61.00 83.46

8.6 11.9

Diesel Kerosene

186.77 79.90

26,2 11.3

Fuel Oil LPG

217.55 44.72

30.7 6.3

8.26

1.02

Coal

Power Sector Action Plan for Mauritius In consideration of the sustained increase in electricity demand resulting from population growth and living standards and the small margin available to meet power demand, the Government is envisaging the setting up of new generation units using oil products over the coming years. Unfortunately, this is the expensive solution both in terms of trade and energy dependence and the environment. Recent generation planning exercise carried out in Mauritius by the Central Electricity Board’s (CEB) consultant Rust Kennedy and Donkin and the Japaneese Consultants have recommended the construction of a new base load thermal power station at Fort William (near the capital city of Port Louis) to be operational by the year 2002. Accordingly, US Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) was approached to finance a feasibility study to determine what type of thermal power station would be most suitable, that is, coal, diesel or combined cycle gas turbines, taking into consideration the sources and security of supply, stability of long term fuel prices, handling and storage capacity and the strategic optimum generation mix. The


study will also focus on the sizing of the units on the basis of the country’s future electricity demand, transmission line requirements to connect the power stations to the national grid and more importantly, the environmental impact assessment with respect to the operation of the new power station at Fort William. The new power station which will have a capacity of about 500 MW is expected to be in operation as from the year 2002 to cater for the country’s generation capacities up to the year 2010 (Production in 1996 : 1,150 GWh). However, the CEB would most likely require,overandabovethebaseloadunitsatFortWilliam, two gas turbines of capacity 50MW each to meet peak demand requirements in the late 2002 and beyond. The transport sector, the most «energy greedy» sector has been by far the largest consumer of energy, accounting for about 60% of total final energy use. The transport sector uses only petroleum products and there are hardly any substitutes to motor vehicles, while all other sectors use at least a certain proportion of high grade energy in the form of electricity To further close the gap between energy demand andenergysupply,andtoavoidforeignexchangedrainage and sustain the economic development process, efforts to develop locally available alternative energy sources must be reinforced. This is more so is small islands. We have potential to exploit sources like the biomass, direct solar energy and other alternative energy sources, which should have a significant impact on the energy balance of our island in the short, medium and long term.

The exploitation of renewable energy sources in the Mascarenes and other Small Island States of the South West Indian Ocean Solar

Energy

The future of electricity generation in small islands from renewable sources lies to a large extent with the sun - the most important primary source of energy on Earth. Unfortunately, a high percentage of this valuable energy is reflected back to space and at the same time, we are burning combustible and highly polluted imported fossil fuels to provide us with warmth, to light our homes, public buildings and streets. Harnessing the sun is not a new idea, but has taken a new dimen-

sion. The Mascarene islands, given their latitudinal locationreceiveabove8hoursofsunlightdaily(Beeharry, 1996).This energy which is equivalent to some 2000 KWh/m2 can be tapped for multipurpose uses through the installation of photovoltaic cells and solar water heaters. This is the minimum we can do. This will not help save the world overnight, but at least it will help to go a long way towards achieving the objectives of Barbados and Kyoto. We have to pursue further our programme of development in this sector. In order to succeed, we need to reinforce regional cooperation among small island states of the South West Indian Ocean. The time will soon come when authorities will request architects of private and public buildings to incorporate in their blue print solar water heaters as a mustfortheissueofapermitespeciallyinregionswhere insolation is high. InAgalegaIslands(population300),PVelectricityo\is provided to some 40 households, The project is funded by UNDP-GEF/SGP (Global Environment Facilities / Small Grants projects). A PV based Survival Centre for food storage and desalinization is being set up. I would like here to quote the Director of EDF (Electricite de France) Réunion in his concluding speech during the Conference on renewable Energy in theIndianOcean,heldatLaRéunioninOctober1998: «Il conviendra également de mobiliser d’autres acteurs à nos côtés: par exemple les maîtres d’ouvrage, les architects et les bureaux d’études qui conçoivent et construisent les bâtiments de demain, Intégrant les facteurs d’économie d’énergie. Derrière toutes ces actions, les enjeux sont importants et dépassent largement le seul intérêt dEDF: bien sûr, il y aura moins d’ouvrages à construire, moins de combustible à importer, moins de pollution, mais aussi cela contribuera à de nouvelles perspectives d’activité économique et à préserver le cadre de vie tant apprécié de notre île.» The problem is that a decentralised system of electricity transmission using locally available renewable sources to small units of consumption is costly. There is a need to sensitize consumers on the importance of this method and why not subsidize its cost at all levels. Many individual local users of solar heaters in the Mascarene Islands find it too costly to install one on their roof and in many cases the materials with which they are made get rusted and perforated with time. There is a need to develop low cost and relatively low technology solar water heaters. 81


Current

situation

Mauritius Current utilisation of Solar water heaters in Mauritius • In many coastal hotels - for hot showers. This is, however,onthedeclineasthetechnologyhasfailed.Hotels are now having recourse to gas boilers. • Domestic - About 5 % of the total domestic household. Almost 90% of the households in Mauritius use either electricity or some other fuel to heat water. Rodrigues In Rodrigues, the natural forest has been reduced to less than 1% of the total area. The use of firewood for cooking is still used by a great majority of the inhabitants. This is why gas cookers are finding their way more and more into the Rodriguan household. On the other hand, generation of electricity from hydro will be too costly and economically not viable, given the nature of the relief and rainfall uncertainty. The only viable renewable energy sources are solar and wind power and to a lesser extent, solid wastes which have invaded the island. However, non of them have been successfully and economically exploited.

Solar

Heaters

Only some 50 households have one on their roof excluding the hotels and guest houses. The installation of these solar units are too costly and the incentives provided by the development bank not too encouraging for the users. Photovoltaic cells The same argument as above holds true. However, from a purely experimental point of view, a solar voltaic powered irrigation system is being tested in one of the river mouths where intensive cultivation is practiced. With regards to solar energy, a contract has been awarded last year for a pilot project on the design, supply and installation of a photovoltaic (PV) system for street lighting and lighting of Government Building, using fluocompact lamps, to promote the development of renewable sources of energy on mainland Mauritius and Rodrigues. The pilot project will consist of the supply and installation of a total of 125 solar powered street lighting units (to be installed in Mauritius,RodriguesandAgalegaIslands)togetherwith the installation of a grid tied photovoltaic system on the New Government Centre building in the capital city of Port Louis. 82

Rodrigues Island is the best site where small scale PV systems could replace the use of diesel generators. For Mauritius, the argument is that the use of PV does not make much sense at present since peak demands are in the evening and in the morning. The University of Mauritius proposes to study the use of PV systems on Rodrigues island, paying careful attention to the waterpumping applications, problems with salt-intrusion to wells, etc. and the general hydrology of Rodrigues, as well as the more straight forward technical aspects of PV water-pumping systems, eg. Size of array, type of pumps, economics of delivered water, and integration with existing diesel generating systems. The possibility of setting up a PV module assembly industry in the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) in Mauritius seems to be a reliable option. Present PV module construction is quite labour intensive. Inexpensive Mauritian labour could significantly lower costs for modules exported to Australia and African countries forming part of the SADC Region.

Hydropower Hydroelectricity, with the exception of Reunion Island, is not fully developed in the Mascarene Islands. In Mauritius, the average annual electricity output from hydropower is around 103 GWh, which represents 9% of the total output. Hydroelectricity is non existant in the island of Rodrigues. The problem in Mauritius is that the hydopower stations are fully operational in the rainy summer months only. The reservoirs are of average storing capacity and the terrain not too conducive for the construction of other HEP stations. The same applies to Rodrigues. Beeharry et al (1996), argues that in view of difficulties with the availability of water near hydroelectric plants for release of water for power production, it may be both desirable and necessary to construct a pumped hydropower system at certain sites, using the existing upper reservoir, and a new daily storage reservoirbelowthepowergeneratingstation.Suchapumped hydropower system makes sense only if cheap baseload is available, provided by improved steam utilisation efficiency at sugar factories and economic bagasse storage for year-round bagasse burning.

The use of Bagasse Electricity production and exportation to the national grid using bagasse produced from sugar factories has been practiced since the 1950’s.The sugar factories in Mauritius, by making use of excess bagasse


and steam, produced some 60 GWh in the mid 80’s. In 1994, almost 13% of the 945 GWh of electricity generated in Mauritius was produced from sugar industry by using the bagasse/coal system with bagasse alone providing around 8.1% of the electricity. The fuel oil saving here to the Mauritian Central Electricity Board in terms of TOE is quite significant. In the past, bagasse has been viewed as a waste product disposal problem and the bagasse-fired boilers were not designed with high efficiency in mind. It has been shown that, by using steam more efficiently for raw sugar manufacture and by making use of high pressure boilersandcondensingturbinesasopposedtolowpressure boilers and counter pressure turbo alternators, exportable electricity production can be increased 10 fold (Baguant, 1985) . Such a high pressure steam facility has been installed at the largest of the 17 sugar factories. It is expected in the short term that the total contribution of the sugar industry will be around 80 GWh, representing a fuel oil saving of 19,000 TOE.

Wind

energy

As part of the Government of Mauritius plan to diversify its use of alternative energy sources, the Mauritius Meteorological Office (MMO) initiated a programme in the early 1980’s to evaluate the wind energy potential of Mauritius. The survey for Mauritius has shown a major potential for exploiting wind energy at various sites. However, the wind energy programme needs to consider its exploitation in relation to the energy resources and capital investment costs. The case for exploiting wind energy is much clearer for Rodrigues, where electricity generation by other means is less universally available. It is the policy of the government to promote the use of wind and solar energy. Measures are also being considered to boost the development of renewable sources of energy other than hydro and bagasse. Taking into consideration technological advancements in the field of wind energy, and the favourable wind regime as assessed by a study financed by the UNDP in 1985, it has been agreed to encourage the development of wind farms in Mauritius and Rodrigues on a BOO (Build, Operate and Own) scheme by providing a proper pricing policy. In addition, incentives would be provided, as it has been the case in many other countries, to encourage the development of clean, environment friendly and local source of energy to generate electricity with a view to decreasing our heavy reliance on imported fuel.

In this context, the Australian Embassy has been approached to finance a consultancy service to prepare a feasibility study on the development of wind energy in Mauritius. So far, all projects related to the conversion of wind energy into electrical energy with a view to feeding the present grid have lamentably failed in both Mauritius and Rodrigues. Efforts from different Agencies and Organizations (United Nations, German Development Bank, Australian Trade Commission) in the setting up of small wind farms on the island have been commendable, but all have been damaged by cyclonic winds, corroded and finally dismantled. Lack of available funds, lack of appropriate technology and training and of regional cooperation are some of the discouraging factors. It is to be noted that wind energy will not provide firm power but the wind farms will supply energy to the grid as and when available to displace substitute energy from imported fuels. In Rodrigues, the installation of a 50 KWh wind turbine of the vertical blade type rather than the horizontal one, which was damaged by the passage of a cyclone is being set up.

Reunion

Island

Reunion Island’s energy supplies (imports) and local resources have grown steadily since the 1980’s. They represent 425 KTOE’s in 1981 and reached 1.011 KTOE’s in 1997 which represents a rise of the order of 138% in 16 years, i.e an average of 3.6 KTOE annual extra consumption and a 54 KTOE (5.3%) rise from 1996 to 1997. Energy demand has soared both as a result of rapid population growth and higher standard of living. In Reunion Island, energy type breakdown is as follows: Oil Products Bagasse & Steam

56.4 % 6.8 %

Electricity Wood & Solar

31.7 % 5.1 %

Renewable resources are an asset to Reunion. Though the hydraulic potential is practically tapped, there are still a number of potential sites where micro power stations can be installed. Since its setting up in 1946, L’Electricité de France (EDF), has included in its strategic Action Plan for energy development, objectives related to maintaining the quality of the environment. Reunion Island has also 83


joined the Regional network of the member states of the IOC with a view to achieving sustainable development. Typical to all the other islands of the South west Indian Ocean, Reunion Island has invested heavily on producing electricity from renewable sources. In so doing, the island has saved import of fossil fuel to the tune of 30 MW. Development of renewable sources of energy has been focussed on solar water heaters (10,000 units already in operation.), and the use of photovoltaic cells both in urban and rural areas. Through the «Abonnez vous au soleil» campaign launched by SOLELEC Réunion, a branch of the TOTAL ENERGIE, some 1500 solar heaters are being installed every year. The tapping of geothermal energy is also envisaged. This is because having access to warm water represents about 50% of electricity consumer per household. EDF and L’ADEME (Agence de L’Environnement et de la Maitrise de L’Electricité) have set up a structure to encourage households to purchase a solar heater by providingvarious«saveenergy»incentives.Oneofthem is the provision of a soft loan of 5.5%. The campaign aims at sensitizing the public on their contribution towards solving environmental problems such as climate change, acid rain etc. This is the only way for each one to contribute his lot towards achieving the Barbados and Kyoto objectives. However, the generation of electricity from wind farm has so far not been encouraging. Much remains to be done to encourage more and more units of solar water heaters to be installed over the whole of the Mascarene islands. The constraints according to Beeharry (1996) are as follows; • Relatively high capital investment required for a solar water heater compared to an installed electric heater. • The cost of cyclone and corrosive proof materials is beyond the reach of many people. • Absence of proper maintenance services. The passing of proper legislation governing the issue of building permits for buildings in certain areas of the Mascarene islands with inbuilt water heaters, further subsidization from the Development Bank and the development of low cost locally available materials are some of the measures proposed by the study.

Wave

energy

In Mauritius, the Mauritius Wave Energy Project was conceived in 1958 focusing on the possibility of con84

verting wave energy into electrical energy at Riambel, in the south of Mauritius. However, progress has been minimal. Several problems associated with the wave project have been identified: • Proper siting of the turbines. • Permeability and strength of the reef • Ecological impacts of the wave-ramp on the reef and coastal areas (salt water infusion) • The effect of seasonal variation on the electrical output. Though it is recognised that wave power will most probably not have an impact on the energy balance of Mauritius during this century, continual monitoring andreviewingofdevelopmentelsewheremustbemaintained.

Energy

conservation

Conservation efforts should be complemented and reinforced by the development of a more active and systematic conservation programme. Within such a programme,energyconsumingsectorsneedtobeidentified where conservation could have significant impact in the immediate and the long term. For example, conservation in the transportation sector, which consumes almost 50% of the total primary energy, would have a significant impact on energy savings. Approaches to increasing the use of forms of public transport other than buses (light monorail), and legislature to on the use of private cars by individuals are to be investigated. In the industrial sector, introduction of systematic energy auditing schemes would help to identify the potential for substantial energy savings. Even at the sugarfactories,suchschemeswouldhelpinsavingprocess steam. In the residential sector, introduction of new cooking fuels and stoves will reduce the demand for imported kerosene for cooking. Also, the introduction of new housing design based on possible heating/cooling concepts could increase the comfort factor of housing in the Mascarene Islands. The use of Ecowatt lamps, solar energy captors on houses, photovoltaic generators with batteries and regulator for domestic lighting, refrigeration etc, solar powered beacon lamps, solar power water pumps etc, will go a long way towards energy conservation.


The role of Universities and other Institutions of higher learning Not only must the university be seen as being involve with scientific and technological matters as best it can but also, and possibly of greater immediate relevance and importance, the university must be seen to be prepared to give expert and comprehensive advice on the sort of technologies in the energy field which a country should employ, develop indigenously or pay from the outside (Prof.J. Manrakhan Vice Chancellor - University of Mauritius) Universities, in developed and developing countries, have a major contribution to make to the planning for a long-term shift to renewable energy technologies. Those in small states, cannot be just centres of higher learning dedicated to the pursuit of academic achievement, pure and simple. They have to act, and be seen to act, as instruments in national development strategies, being fully integrated in the development process. Universities must be able to convince Governments that they can be privileged partners for national development, with constant interactions between decisionmakers at the national level and the university staff. These ideas were expressed by the Acting Chairman of the Council of the University of Mauritius, Hon. A. Gayan, who was addressing delegates on the need for partnership between the University and the Government on the Development Process of Small States. Higher Education Institutions can make a useful contribution to renewable energy by developing new technologies and providing courses at all levels from Diploma to Doctorate as well as set up sustained link programmes with Institutions of higher learning of the region and with the developed world. Research Programmes which should involve staff exchange between two or more institutions. There is a real need for government to invest with confidence towards diversification of its electricity production and for cheaper and cleaner production. Here again the University of Mauritius and the Regional University of the Indian Ocean have an important role to play in carrying research and providing the appropriate technology and knowhow. The University will continue to participate in energy conservation programmes mounting seminars, workshops and energy conservation campaigns in close collaboration with the private and public sectors. Training courses in energy

management could also be conducted at the University to upgrade the skill of policy makers, planners and plant managers. As far as the development of photovoltaics is concerned, it is essential that the University staff should be familiar with such aspects as the PV modules available on the market, their characteristic efficiency, proper installation techniques, etc. Demonstration units should be set up at the University to identify and investigate the possible applications of PV’s for small irrigation projects, safe domestic water supply, and solar cooling. Economic analysis and comparative cost of this energy source would have to be taken into account. Publications from Tertiary Institutions on energy sources and demand will have to be continuously updated. Better methods of bagasse storage during the intercrop season needs reexamining. Economically viable strategies need to be developed, and to that effect efforts already initiated at the University must be reinforced and maintained.

Regional Cooperation for the development and promotion of renewable energy sources The Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) and the IEPF (L’Institut pour L’Energie et L’Environnement de la Francophonie) have taken the initiative in bringing together all the islands of the South West Indian Ocean in setting up a concerted Action Plan for Regional Cooperation in the development of existing and potential renewable energy sources in the different islands taking intoconsiderationthespecificityofeachinsularstate.In so doing, they have taken a pledge to adopt the recommendations of the Action Plan of Barbados (1994). The IOC, which is coming forward with the idea of a RegionalUniversityoftheIndianOcean,hascompleted a study to assess the priority areas in the field of technology related to the development of new and renewable energysourceswhichtheUniversityshouldofferforthe benefit of technicians and engineers of member states (Mauritius,Seychelles,Reunion,Madagascar). During the second round table organised by IEPF at SaintDenis(Reunionisland)inOctober1998,theneed for Inter Island Cooperation was again stressed. This is because Regional Cooperation is still considered as a loose concept although authorities from the different islands are conscious of the importance and multiple advantages of developing new and renewable energy 85


sources. It is to be noted that although all the IOC member States have several common environmental characteristics, yet purchasing power, level of technology, consumption pattern and other socio economic parameters are not necessarily the same. Duringtheconference,thefollowingprojectsrelated to new and renewable sources of energy were tabled in response to the Kyoto call:

References 1. Beeharry, R.P. 1996. «The State of Renewable Energy Resources Development in Mauritius». Le Reduit. University of Mauritius. 2. Chabot, B. 1998. «Energies Renouvelables et Développement Durable». Système solaire No. 24. Bulletin du Réseau Scarabée. ADEME Réunion 3. Central Electricity Board Annual report. 1996. 4. Gimmer, D.P.and Baguant,J.1985. «The University Role in the Study of the Energy Potential in Mauritius». Le Reduit. University of Mauritius. 5. Prof. Manrakhan,J. 1960. «Energy in the quest for survival». Le Reduit. University of Mauritius. 6. Power Sector Plan. Ministry of Public Utilities. Government of Mauritius.1999. 7. «Protection of the Atmosphere».Agenda 21. UNCED. 1992. Rio de Janeiro. 8. Reunion Islands’ Energy Profile. ADEME 1997.

ISLAND STATE

PROJECT PRIORITIES • Maximising use of bagasse. • Setting up of wind farms In Mauritius and at Canne Paul in Rodrigues.

MAURITIUS

• Use of solar heaters and photovoltaic

cells for

Hotels and Government buildings • Use of low energy street lights

SEYCHELLES

Same as Mauritius except for use of bagasse and setting up wind farm. • Rational use of woody biomass to combat deforestation

COMOROS

• Setting up of photovoltaic cells in remote areas. • Investigation of geothermal energy potential

MADAGASCAR

• Same as the Comoros • At present 56% of the potential for renewable

REUNION

energy sources have been exploited. Further exploitation of solar and geothermal energy sources to be exploited.

86


Electrification of Kiribati Rural Areas Using Solar PV System T ERUBENTAU A KURA Solar Energy Company Ltd. KIRIBATI

T

he Republic of Kiribati is a former British Colony, theGilbertIslands,whichgainedindependencein1979. It consists of 33 atoll type islands scattered 5o North and South of equator and 150oW to170oE longitude in the Pacific Ocean, and sub-divided into three main groups: • The Gilbert group: a chain of 17 atolls spread over680kilometersinthewestwhichincludesTarawa, the seat of Government; • The Phoenix group: a cluster of 8 atolls lying about halfway between the Gilbert and Line groups; • The Line group: a chain of 8 atolls spread over 2,000 kilometers, located some 3,000 kilometers east of the Gilbert group. It includes Kiritimati Island, which accounts for half the country’s land area. The total land area of all these islands added together is only 746 square kilometers. Kiribati’s population is approximately 75,000 people with over 25,000 lives on the southern part of Tarawa. The land elevation averages less than two meters and does not exceed 5 meters, frequently consist of a thin broken ribbon of land partly enclosing a lagoon. It is composed primarily of coral sand and rocks. Droughts often occur due to irregular rainfall patterns. The soil is poor and vegetation is mainly limited to coconut palms, breadfruit and pandanus trees, where production of agriculture products on commercial basis is virtually non-existent. The primary local food sources are coconuts, pandanus fruit and breadfruit plus the vast resources of the sea.

Socio-economic

Conditions

TheI-KiribatipeopleareMicronesian,withsomeresident Polynesians and Europeans. The level of literacy exceeds90%andthe1990GDPwasestimatedatUS$525 per capita. Kiribati is one of the world’s least-developed countries. Because almost all manufactured commodities are imported, the government is trying to develop small-scale industries such as handicrafts, tourism, and commercial fishing. Recently, the export of seaweed to the European market has grown to a significant level. The capital island, South Tarawa, is electrified by Diesel engines. Fossil-fueled generators are normally used to power the outer island (rural area) government offices and larger secondary schools. There is no gridbased electricity provided apart from Tarawa and Kiritimati Island.

Environmental Concerns and Responses The poor soil, the limited supply of potable ground water and the small size of the islands, it makes what would be minor environmental issues in larger countries, major ones in Kiribati. Through the ages, the people of Kiribati have evolved a rigorous system of life, which kept the precarious balance. In recent years, rapid change in the direction of westernisation has so disrupted that balance on the capital island of South Tarawa that it has become impossible to support the island’s population without heavy dependence on out87


side resources. Thus far, the rural islands have not lost their ability to live in harmony with the environment and remain capable of independent survival. The Government of Kiribati has recognized the danger to the survival of its rural people due to uncontrolled ÂŤmodernizationÂť. In this respect, the social, economic and environmental impacts of its rural programs are carefully considered before implementation. However, it will only accept those components that can improve the lives of the rural people without endangering their ability to retain the self-sufficiency, which is vital to long term survival of the people and the country itself. In general, economic development programs are centered on improving access and use of the very large ocean resources available to the rural people and not on changes to the use of the limited, fragile land areas. Social development programs emphasized more on improved health care, education, communications and the quality of life. The impact of the programs which would change traditional agricultural methods, the use of the limited fresh water resources of the atoll or the basic patterns of existence of the populace are very carefully considered before implementation. On a larger scale, the specter of a rising ocean due to global warming is of very great concern. A sea level rise of one meter in the Pacific Ocean would not only cause the effective loss of at least half the land area of Kiribati but it would adversely affect the vital fresh water lens making life on the remaining land area much more precarious. The great importance to Kiribati of both the local and global environment have resulted in strong support of the Government of Kiribati for local, regional and global environmental programs.

Why Solar Energy for Rural Electrification? Alternatives sources of energy for the outer islands Kiribati had been relying heavily on imported energy and will continue to do so in the years ahead. It has no river, so hydropower system at any scale is not possible. On the other hand, wind energy in the Gilbert group is not practical due to low and non-persistent wind speed; however, there is a possibility that Kiritimati may have a wind potential. In this connection, a wind monitoring system to determine the viability of wind speed on the island will be installed sometime this year. Wave, tidal and ocean thermal energy conversions are other 88

sources but at this point in time, the technologies are not yet commercially viable. Biomass in the form of coconut residues and hardwood has been considered potential energy sources for the rural area in terms of cooking only. However, biomass use for power generation is not encouraging as the supply is insufficient and its environmental effect is disastrous to the islands. Solar energy is an abundant source of energy readily available in Kiribati. Therefore, at this time the choices for power generation are limited to two sources: 1. solar and 2. fossil fuel powered generation. InspiteoftheabundanceofsolarenergyinKiribati,its use on its present state of development is limited to certain areas. Fossil fuel generation will continue to be the main base of power generation for Kiribati especially to support energy demand of South Tarawa where the averagedemandisat1,998kilowatts.Tousesolarenergyin its present development state as substitute to meet the energy demand on South Tarawa will not be a practical option. However, there is potential for the use of the solar PV system in the outer islands where the average demand of household is less than 1 kilowatt. TheapplicationofPVsolarsysteminKiribatiismainly concentrated on social activities rather than in support of direct commercial economic developments. The initial area of concentration of the PV Solar system has been for the provision of efficient electric lighting services in the rural areas of Kiribati. Recently the need has expanded to the connection of radios, cassette players etc. The changes are understandable given Kiribati can not distant or shield itself from developments on going around it. Energy demand will rise as the people are exposed to these influences, placing the present PV system uneconomical to operate when it exceeds 1 kilowatt. Environmental Issues With the fragile land and the enclosed reef, there is concern on energy production that will have negative effect on the environment. The possibility of fuel and lubricating oil spills contaminating both the ground water and the reef is a concern together with the noise and the green house gases emitted from the diesel engines. The disposal and recycling of used oil and lead from batteries are major environmental concerns in Kiribati. At this time, the used oil returned to the Kiribati Oil Company from the public utility company (PUB) and other major users are send back to Mobil in Fiji for recycling. In the case of solar PV system, the


only environmental concern is the disposal and recycling of used batteries. However, GNB a battery manufacturer in New Zealand has indicated its willingness in recycling used batteries. Therefore, from an environmental point of view, solar energy for electricity production for rural household electricity needs has many advantages over other alternative sources of energy. Cost Issues of Solar PV System Looking at the current electricity demand of the rural Kiribati citizens, the solar PV system at present offers the most economical system to use to provide that level of power desired. The cost advantages of using the solar PV system is that it does not require construction of an interconnecting grid; (2) having little potentialforenvironmentaldamage(providedameans for recycling failed batteries is included); (3) requiring a predictable one-time capital investment with low operating and maintenance costs; finally being modular the systems can be specifically sized to fit the needs of individual households. Although not directly related to cost, other advantages of PV over diesel for rural Kiribati include the continuous availability of power rather than a few hours per day which is all that can be afforded with a diesel system to reduce its high operational cost. The fact that each solar PV system is independent the failure of one system has no effect on any other while the failure of a component in a diesel system often leads to a loss of power to many if not all customers.

1984 - The Founding of the Solar Energy Company The Concept and its Implementation Background of SEC The initial used of PV systems between the 1970s and 1980s was mainly for communication, lighting and water pumping. It was a bit difficult then to get solar products from any retail outlets and therefore to improve the situation, a company known as the Solar Energy Company (SEC) with a responsibility of selling out solar products to the public started off in 1984 by the Foundation for the Peoples of the South Pacific (FSP), a U.S. based NGO. The company was established using USAID funding and was organized as a private, limited corporation. The shareholders at that time were FSP and the Ministry of Works and Energy. Its original char-

ter was to act as a retail outlet for solar products and to provide technical assistance where needed for their installation and maintenance. Solar PV systems were new then and its used was not widely known. In this connection the Energy Planning Unit (EPU) in the Ministry of Works & Energy was assigned with a responsibility of providing technical assistance to the company and the promotion of the use of solar PV systems through aid funded projects. Within this understanding the SEC confined its activity on the sales of solar products while the EPU, the coordinator of energy activities in Kiribati, promote the use of solar PV system in the country by identifying projects that utilisedsolarenergyandletthecompanyimplementsthem.

Failure of the Company after a good start In an effort to improve the SEC technical capabilities, on maintaining and installing solar PV systems, the company was invited to take part in training courses conducted by S.P.I.R.E in Tahiti. To further improve reliability and to increase public awareness on the outer islands on the use of solar PV systems training courses were held on Tarawa in 1986 and 1988. The objective of the course was to train people in the outer islands on maintaining and installing solar PV systems, together with SEC technicians. In doing this, two participants from each of the island in the Gilbert group were invited to attend the course. The requirement for the participants was one should be a mechanic or technician employed by the island council and the other from the private sector. The rationale being that the island council worker will be responsible for maintaining government solar powered projects while the other participant attend to request from private users of solar PV systems. With this in place, it was hoped that the reliability and acceptance of solar PV systems in the outer islands would improve. Despite these attempts and that of the USAID grants in support of SEC operation, the SEC by 1989 was at the verge of bankruptcy. Annual sales declined to the point where operation cost can not be covered from revenue, let alone providing money for reinvestment in inventory. In an attempt to determine the reasons for the declining in sales and to provide data on how to proceed with further PV implementation, the EPU requested the Forum Secretariat Energy Division (FSED) to fund a country wide survey of rural PV system users. The purpose of this survey was to determine the cause of failure and non-acceptance of the Solar PV Systems. 89


The emphasis on the survey was put on systems sold by the SEC. The survey was carried in all villages of the outer islands of the Gilbert Group, where the PV users could be found. From the survey, it was found that 270 solar systems have been installed in the rural area. Of the 270 PV systems, about 90% were only marginally operational or not in use at all. It was also found that the main problems were: • About 100% of the systems had not been maintained otherthanthereplacementofdefectivecomponents. Battery life was shorter than anticipated and most components were never cleaned and have been damaged by insects. • 50% of the systems had been installed without controller, a requirement for satisfactory battery life with these small systems. • 48% of the installations had serious wiring deficiencies, usually in the form of twisted connections or wires that were too long for their size. • 43% of the systems had replaced the original deep discharge batteries with automobile batteries having inadequate capacity and a short life expectancy. • 16% of the systems received minimum charging because of poor orientation of panels. • 13% of the systems were placed in locations where panels were shaded most of the time. Many users had replaced the original high efficiency fluorescent lights with automobile head lights or tail lights when the fluorescent bulbs failed making the system consumed more power than originally designed. Others added CB radios and other appliances making the system under sized. Arising out of the failure of the system people were discouraged to purchase a solar PV system as they have known it to be unreliable and expensive. It was concluded that the concept of selling out solar PV system without the company’s technical back up service was not a practical approach.

Reorganization of the Solar Energy Company and its approach Service instead of sales, SEC becomes a solar utility company Following the survey it was clear that the present approach was not a success and an alternative means need to be identified to further implement the solar based 90

rural electrification in Kiribati. In this regard, assistance was sought from S.P.I.R.E. to advise the Kiribati Government and the Board of Directors of the SEC as to what should be done. The result was a recommendation to promote a service oriented approach based on a utility concept. Toadopttheutilityconcept,itwasrecommendedthat: 1 The system should be owned and maintained by the SEC. Appliances and house wiring after the battery connectionownedandmaintainedbythehomeowner. 2 To set up rural electrification districts with not less than fifty households. The district should be of a sufficientsizetoallowproperservicingofthesystemsbya single SEC employee who would be designated as a field technician. It was considered that a single field technician could properly maintain up to 125 systems where this was based as the maximum size of a district. Ifmorethan125systemscouldbeinstalledinavillage, it would be split into two districts provided the household in the second district is not less than 50. 3 Users to sign a contract in which they should agree to pay an installation fee of $50 and after installation not to tamper with any of the utility owned equipment, to maintain the panel area free of shade, to pay the levied fee monthly and to use the system in accordance with published guidelines — which includes not attaching any appliances to the system without prior approval of the utility. In return, the utility would keep the electrical supply in satisfactory repair, replacing all failed parts at no added cost except for the user owned lights and appliances. 4 To establish a monthly fees based on the cost of operation and maintenance which is the sum of the costs of battery replacement after an estimated life span of 4-7 years (according to the type of battery and its service requirements), the cost of replacing the controller at the end of its useful life and the operating cost of the utility organization. The monthly fee range from US$7 for basic lighting to over US$40 per month for a full system with capacity to operate a refrigerator and video as well as lights. 5 The field technician who lives in or near the district to visit each installation once a month to check the equipment and to collect the monthly fee. 6 ASeniorTechnicianfromheadquartersinTarawaoffice to visit each district twice a year and audit the field technician’sperformance.Additionally,aseniortechnicianwouldbeavailableoncalltoassistfieldtechnicians in troubleshooting and repairs, which are beyond the levelofthefieldtechnician’strainingandexperience.


7 To establish a user’s committee within each district consisting of five to seven members. The committee would be the bridge between the utility and the users related to complaints and requests from users to the utility management, and to communicate utility matters to the users. The committee would also arbitrate in the case of proposed disconnection on the failure of the user within the district to pay the monthly fee. The Board of Directors of the SEC accepted these recommendations. The acceptance of the recommendation coincides with the implementation of the Japanese Government funded rural electrification project where the concept was applied.

Rural Electrification Programme using the Utility concept The Pilot Project Funded by Government of Japan A 55 Households and 1 Maneaba Trial On the submission of the Kiribati Government, the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) agreed to support the new institutional structure of SEC and the utility concept in the implementation of the rural electrification project. The main component of the project was the funding of the installation of 55 home system, and the full operation of SEC as a full scale solar utility. The site chosen for the implementation of the project was North Tarawa for its close proximity to SEC headquarters. The project was completed in 1992 and monitored directly by JICA for one year and indirectly for the years following. The results were very favorable with surveys showing a high level of customer satisfaction with the monthly fee collections promptly paid and technical inspections showing a continuing good level of maintenance. At the end of the project period in 1994, both JICA and the EPU reported that the solar utility concept was working well and that the concept was ready for larger scale implementation.

Expansion of the Program The EU Funded Project Three Islands, 300 Homes Electrified WiththesuccessoftheJICAruralelectrificationproject using the utility concept, the Government of Kiribati approved the expansion of the program to other outer

islands using the European Union funding assistance under Lome II PV Follow Up program. The EC project involvestheprovisionof250systems.Indistributing,the system 100 of the units was added to the JICA project on North Tarawa in an attempt to fill at least part of the added demand generated by the JICA project. The rest of the system was equally divided between the island of Marakai, north of Tarawa and Nonouti located south of Tarawa.Thetwoislandswerechosengiventheirdistance from SEC headquarters in Tarawa where operational controlwouldbedifficult.Inimplementingtheproject, the utility concept was again applied. The EU systems were installed in 1994 and follow up inspections by the EU was made in 1995. The follow-up inspections concurred with the results of the JICA project in that (a) installations were all functioning well; (b) customer satisfaction was high; and (c) technical maintenance was being properly carried out. Rural Solar Electrification Impacts on the Rural People It is now more than five years after the commissioning of the projects funded by JICA and the EU and the systems are still working. Of the 55 systems installed by JICAin1992,therewereonly5batteriesthathavefailed. On the EU project from the 250 systems installed in 1994, one battery has had to be replaced. Light bulbs and light fixtures have been the main items, which have failed, but the necessary spare parts are kept in stock to provideinstantreplacementwhenneeded.Theseitems have to be ordered from abroad. The controller manufactured locally by the SEC using the design developed by S.P.I.R.E. has proven reliable to ease the financial pressure on SEC to order the complete unit from elsewhere. Because of the success of JICA and EU project public perception towards PV system, have changed resulting in an increase in demand of solar products. The SEC in providing after sales services involving regular maintenance on the system, the system has become more efficient and reliable. In addition, the utility concept has no longer users to accumulate funds to invest in the solar PV system. As a result, the rural population has come to realize the convenience and the benefits they can get from using a solar PV system at an affordable price. The women benefited a lot from this program as they can do extra works in the night such as weaving, sewing, family gathering, school children can do their study at night and many more. Outer Islands that were not covered in the program have indicated their willingness to join the program. 91


Apart from the support to social activities in villages the PV system are not cost effective to address the energy demand of economic activities that are adaptable to the villages and support the island’s economy. Most economic activities undertaken in the outer islands because of their high energy demand has to rely on fossil fuel generators, such as the Fish Ice Plants, Small Scale Cottage Soap Factory etc.

situations, the break even point for the operating company is from 500 to 1000 installations according to the level of fee which can be afforded by the majority of households in the service area. 5) As with any project, the quality of the staff involved is very important to maintain the system. Training is the important element to both senior and field officers.

Supports to the Rural Electrification Program In spite of the existence of the demand of the solar based system from the outer island, SEC has been unable to attend to the new demands. The main problem lies in the initial capital investment required for the new system. Within the revenue derived by SEC on a monthly fee from the 300 system users SEC can only manage to cover operational and replacement cost. It therefore means that further expansion of the system require injection of funds into SEC. The SEC to self finances this expansion, it will require to raise its monthly fee. Any inclination to raise the monthly fee would be financially expensive to the rural household. SEC to self finance this initiative further development of the solar PV systems on the outer islands will be at a snail pace. Given the limited financial options to support further expansions to the outer island the Government supports the SEC expansion activity through sourcing external donors to fund further expansion of the existing system at a larger scale.

The Future Following the successful implementations on North Tarawa, Marakei and Nonouti, the Ministry of Works & Energy began seeking donor assistance for full electrification of rural Kiribati through solar photovoltaics. The cost of operating the SEC does not increase in step with the number of systems in operation, therefore the profitability of the SEC will rise as additional systems are installed making the SEC not only self-sustaining but, after about 1000 systems are installed, capable of generating sufficient capital for expanding existing systems or adding new systems.

Experience From what Kiribati learned through the implementation of the solar PV powered rural electrification project, the following factors need to be considered for the utility concept to be successfully: 1) Sufficientnumberofhouseholdsofnotlessthanfifty for the system to be economically viable to operate. 2) Systemstobeproperlylookedafter,whereinKiribati case a field technician. It is considered that a single field technician could properly maintain up to 125 systems. 3) That the households in the target area can be expectedtoneedlessthan1kWh/dayofenergyuseon the average. Higher average energy demand can be metmoreeconomicallybyfossiloralternativesources of energy that are proven technically and economicallyviable. 4) That there is the potential for at least 1000 total installations by the operating company. For most 92

Case Study Summary Through the use of solar photovoltaics for rural electrification, Kiribati has managed to increase the rural quality of life significantly, particularly for women who are able to spread their productive work over longer periods through the use of electric lighting and for children whose educational efforts are seen to improve thoughtheavailabilityofelectriclighting.Thishasbeen possible with almost no environmental impact, an issue of great importance to the government and people of Kiribati. The significance of the proper institutional model for solar electrification is especially clear in the Kiribati case since both a sales model and a utility model were tried with the sales approach clearly a failure and the utility approach equally clearly a success. Of particular importance is the fact that no external inputs other than seed capital have needed to be made. As one of the few truly sustainable approaches to rural electrification through solar energy, the innovative structure of the Kiribati Solar Energy Company is a very positive model for other countries and with minor modifications to fit local conditions and culture, has the potential for successful replication in most developing countries.


Renewable Energy Sources in the Canary Islands A NTÓNIO L ÓPEZ G ULÍAS Directorate General for Industry and Energy GOVERNEMENT OF THE CANARY ISLANDS

T

he geographical situation and the weather conditions in the Canary Islands make them specially suitable for the use of solar and wind energy, as well as other RES such as geothermal energy, biomass energy, solid waste incineration, wave energy, etc, which are being studied at the moment. RES are important in the Canary Island for different reasons. On one hand, RES contribute to improve the environment because of the reduction of pollutant emissions to the atmosphere as well as ionising radiation caused by the traditional energy sources. On the other hand, RES contribute to diversify the energy supplying, improving the security of the system and, since they are the only endogenous energy sources, increasing the Islands’ self-supplying capacity. We have to point out the existence of a large number or activities whose energy consumption are higher than necessary, that is why is important to intensify the education and dissemination actions as well as the financial support in order to rationalise the energy consume. The Canary Islands consist of six independent systems whose main characteristics are their very small size and the long distance from the main supply centres. Moreover, because of the non-existence of conventional energy sources in the islands, the energy dependency is absolute. All these reasons together with the increasing production of water demanded by the tourist sector, which has a strong participation in the GNP (Gross National Product), make difficult the implementation of some plans of energy policy. For this reason, the «Plan

Energético de Canarias» (Energy Plan for the Canary Islands)definethemainobjectivesfortheEnergypolicy that can be summarise in the following functions: • Assure the energy supply • Reduce the vulnerability of the supplying by diversifying the energy sources • Promote the rational use of energy (RUE) • Reduce the energy dependency from external energy sources by promoting as much as possible the use of new energy sources • Assure a stable and reliable energy offer • Minimise energy costs in the different production sectors • Contribute to the environmental protection and conservation It is evident how important it is for the Canary Islands to increase its energy self-supplying capacity by developing its own resources such as renewable Energy sources. In the White Paper, the EU establishes, as a general objective for the European Community, an increase in the utilisation of RES to the level of 12% of the gross energyconsumptionin2.010.Nowadays,RESrepresent approximately 6 % of the gross energy consumption in the EU. Spanish legislation establishes identical objectives so that RES will supply 12% of the total energy demand in Spain. These objectives have to be taken into account when setting the bonus for promoting RES. In January 1998, the Canary Islands Declaration on the Promotion or RES was dictated during an Interparliamentary Meeting on «Renewable Energy 93


Sources in the European Union» that took place in the Islands. Finally we want to point out that the Parliament of the Canary Islands, on 8th July 1998, urged the Government of the Canary Islands to promote the use of RES, in the citizens interest, developing legislation and administrative dispositions in order to propitiate their penetration in the Energy Market. The Parliament of the Canary Islands insisted on the necessity of influencing on other administrations in order to get support for the implementation of actions and proposals included in the Canary Island Declaration and in the European Commission’s White Paper «Energy for the future: Renewable Energy Sources». The legislation that regulates the Special Regime of the RES are: • Law 54/1997, 27th November 1998, of the Electrical Sector, • Law 11/1997, 2nd December 1997, of the Canarian Electrical Sector. • RD 2818/1998, 23rd December, on production of electricity by installations that use RES, Solid Waste or Cogeneration. • Order of 20th August 1996, by which the Register of Installations of Energy Production in Special Regime in the Canaries is create and regulate the access to the Special Regime In the following paragraphs we describe the different plans for the promotion and the implementation of the RES in the Canary Island:

Wind

Energy

The potential of this source in the Canary Island is assured by the Trade Winds, whose moderate speed and direction are constant throughout the year. The first initiatives started in 1984 when the «Consejería de Insdustria y Energía» installed a 55kW aerogenerator with the purpose of studying the use of wind as energy source and supplying electricity to a sea water desalination plant. The windgenerator was also connected to the grid so that the excess of energy produced sometimes could be used. In 1986, an agreement was signed in order to install a 300 kW wind farm in Granadilla (Tenerife) with the participation of the «Consejería de Industria y Energía», UNELCO and the IDAE. 94

In December 1986, the IDAE, the Consejería and ENDESA signed an agreement for the installation of 20 MW of wind power in Gran Canaria and 20 MW in Tenerife.Althoughnoinstallationwasdeveloped,many previous studies were done, which have been the base for the definition of the present situation of some of the wind farms in service at the present. At that time, the biggest support to the development of wind energy and this kind of installations came from the community programme VALOREN. In the island of Gran Canaria , in 1995, a 20.100 kW wind farm was installed. It consisted in 67 national technology wind turbines of 300 kW each one and nowadays it is the largest wind farm operating in the Canary Island. The second largest wind farm is the one in Fuerteventura with 10.260 kW that represent the 11% of the total energy production in the island, the highest percentage of penetration of RES in the grid in the Canary Island. Throughout, 1995 and the first months in 1996, the number of initiatives directed towards the installation of new wind farm increase considerably. In order to organise this situation, the Consejería de Industria y Comercio published the Order of 14th March 1996bywhichtheconditionsforthewindgeneratorsto connect the grid in the Canary Islands are regulated. InthisOrder,theyfixedthemaximvaluesforthewind potency that can be connected to each one of the insular grids depending on the different time periods. In order to comply the Order of 14th March, it was published the Order of 9th May 1996 by which it calls for an open competition for the assignment of the wind power that can be connected to each one of the insular grids. The maximum total power that was admissible in that open competition was: • Gran Canaria: 18.400kW • Tenerife: 22.000kW The resolution was published in August 1996 On 25th November 1996 a new Order was published by which it is call for an open competition for the assignment of wind power that can be connected to each one of the insular grids. The maximum total power thatwasadmissibleforthisopencompetitionwas36.440 kW in Gran Canaria and 25.520 kW in Tenerife. With this Order it was reached the maximum total power that can be connected to each one of the insular grids that was established by the Orden of 14 March 1996 in 80 MW for Gran Canaria and 55 MW in Tenerife.


The resolution of the open competition was published in Jun 1997. In Order to determinate and clarify which installations can be considered as self-consumer , it was published the Order of 7th July 1997, by which it was modify the Order of 14th March 1996, that regulated the conditions for the wind generator to access to the Canarian grids. This Order modify the third article of the Order of 14th March, modifying the maximum wind power that can be connected to each one of the insular grids. So that the maximum wind power that can be connected to the grid in La Palma would change from 1,9 MW to 4,6 MW during low consumption periods. The Order of 18th July 1997 calls for a public open competition for the assignment of wind power that can be connected to the grind in La Palma. The maximum power admissible for this Open competition was 500 kW. Since there was not any application for it, this power has not been assigned yet. The present situation of the wind farms in the Canary Islands is summarised in the following table Installations

Number of

Total power

windturbines

(kW)

Gran Canaria

235

72.360

Lanzarote Fuerteventrua

53 51

6.405 11.610

147 18

52.730 4.110

2 2

360 280

508

147.855

Tenerife La : Palma La Gomera El Hierro Total Canarias

The future of RES in the Canary Islands was established in the framework of a collaboration agreement between the Consejería de Industria y Comercio of the GovernmentoftheCanaryIslandsandtheIDAEsigned in 1994, which has become the framework of the criteria, actions and measures that should be taken in account for assuring the penetration and development of the technologies for the utilisation of RES. The Renewable Energy Plan of the Canaries (PERCAN) plans to install 128 MW more before 2.002. This project will mean an investment of 25.000 millions of pesetas, of which 8.500 millions will be grant by the public sector. These numbers will be probably reached at the end of 1998. Although the installations developed at the present consist on farms generating energy in order to

pour it into the grid, the future of the RES in the Canary Islands include applications such as desalination , pumping and transportation of water, as well as generation of energy in installations not connected to the grid. On the other hand we have to point out that selfconsumer installations are already a reality in our community. Some examples are: • Artes Gráficas del Atlántico, S.A., in Gran Canaria with 450 kW supplying energy to the rotary press of the most important newspaper in the island. • La Vereda with 225 kW supplying energy to a desalination plant in Gran Canaria • Awindturbine,330kW,supplyingenergytodifferent desalination plants in the ITER in Tenerife. There is two important reasons that justify the development of this kind of installations in the Islands. First, the scarcity of water in the islands make necessary to look for new energy sources for obtaining water, by pumpingordesalination,thatrespecttheenvironment. The second reason is that, even though the Canary Islands are geographically and climatically suitable for the use of wind energy, the biggest problems against its penetration is the uncertainty about the fluctuations in small size grids. Finally, the 31st December 1997 it was signed and agreement with the Cabildo Insular the Gran Canaria for the development of a Special Plan of protection for the implementation of installation and infrastructure for obtaining wind energy on non-urban areas. This Plan will allow to find out new areas for the installation of wind farms, as well as diminution of the visual their visual impact.

Thermic Solar Energy Thermal Solar Energy is one of the most important sources in Canary Islands which is still waiting for being introduced. This energy presents many benefits not only environmental, avoiding atmospheric pollution, it also contributes to improve the ecological image in tourist establishments, of grate importance in our islands, and giving a vision of respect with environment, looking for it, and quality of life. The most important application shall be the production of hot water in domestic and hotel sector, although applications of warming pool water is also interesting. In the Canary Community there is factory to produce solar panels placed in Tenerife island, property of 95


«Energía Eólica y Solar Española (E.S.E.)». E.S.E. comprises the 70% of the market and actually manufactures two thermosyphon equipment and two models of solar panels. Referring to foreign manufacturers, the most important are two Israeli: AMCOR and CHROMAGEN and in Spain: ISOFOTON. The Renewable Energy Plan for the Canaries (PERCAN) promote the installation of 36.000 square metres of solar panels in a period of 6 years. In order to reach this objective, it establishes a programme including the following measures: • Set up an operator agent to start the programme. • A system of financing installations. • Some technical reasons which limits the kind of installations that may choose the programme: Officially approved collectors, installations made by an accredited enterprise, maintenance guarantee, etc... • Promotion actions, as demonstrations in public establishments, promotion in hotel sector, press and radio dissemination, particular incentives to local entities, private potential users, etc... • Legislative actions such as the obligatory character of pre-installations in domestic sector and in some types of hotel establishments.

promotion of solar installations in Canary Islands (Procasol 98). The most important numbers from Procasol programme in 1998 were:

According to this programme, there was published the Order of 26th May of 1997, by which it regulates the subsidies for the installations of solar plane panels destined to the production of hot water, according to the programme of promotion of solar installations in the Canary Islands (Procasol programme). For a better management of possible subsidies related to the programme, an agreement was signed with the «Instituto Tecnológico de Canarias, S.A.», to manage and verify the installations that have been granted. The objective of the Procasol programme was the financing of installations by means of a double form: 1 Subsidy for m2: attending to the number of square meters installed (about 20.000 or 30.000 ptas/m2) 2 Subsidy for m2 and interest rate: financing the bank interest rate for the loan. Due to the campaigns organised, and the starting of the Pymes programme of the «Instituto de Diversificación y Ahorro de la Energía (IDAE)», is expected a great growth in this sector, being possible to install from 5.000 to 6.000 m2 per year. The Order of 3rd April of 1998, set the regulation basis for years 1998 and 1999 to give subsidies for the installations of solar plane panels destined to the production of hot water, according to the programme of

In the objectives for photovoltaic energy actions are included that, in first place, mean the realisation of installations isolated from the grid in domestic (which are the 90% of the installed power), agricultural, lighting applications, or that allow to reinforce electricity supply in those areas that, due to whatever circumstances, have not a satisfactory supply. Additionally, installations that are for energy exchanges with the grid, are also included. It is important to say that electrification of isolated houses from the grid is reducing, helping to increase other demands. WearegoingtotalkaboutsomePhotovoltaicCentrals placed in Canary Islands: • Photovoltaic Central of La Graciosa: This central supplies electric energy to the community of Pedro Barba,situatedinLaGraciosaislandhaving21houses with 25 Kwp. • Photovoltaic Central of La Palma: This installation is situated in the «Llanos de Aridane», in the roof of the school «José María Pérez Pulido», giving the extra energy to the electric grid of Unelco. Power: 25 Kwp. • Photovoltaic Central of Granadilla: This Central is placed with the installations of «Instituto Tecnológico y de Energías Renovables, S.A.(ITER)» in the industrial area of Granadilla in Tenerife, power 27 Kwp.

96

Number of projects: m2 : Total subsidy:

620 projects 2.201’2 m2 52.464.447 Pts

On the other hand, it is important to remember that all the calls published by the Government of Canary Islands are directed to installations having less of 30 m2, because the group having 30 or more m2 is subsided by the laws of the Ministry of Industry and Energy which are included in the Energy Saving and Efficiency Plan (PAEE). Due to geographical criteria, it is the Government of the Canary Islands who has to work out the calls for the open competitions, which is taking place at the present. Nowadays there are installed in Canary Islands about 51.000 solar panels.

Photovoltaic Solar Energy


In 1997, the Order of 16th May of 1997 was published, by which they were approved the regulation basis for giving subsidies to energy saving projects, energy diversification and use of renewable energy. The objective of this law is the electrification of isolated houses from the grid with photovoltaic panels, so as little wind generators or mixed systems, liveability studies to projects destined to achieve an energy rationalisation with the introduction of advanced technology of saving and diversification. For the period of 1998, it was published the Order of 23rd March of 1998 by which they are approved the regulation basis, for 1998 and 1999, for giving subsidies to energy saving projects, energy diversification and use of renewable energy and they are called for the subsides for 1998. The Energy Saving and Efficiency Plan (PAEE) defines some actions to achieve a rational use of energy, for example subsidies to energy saving in application of law 82/1980 of 30 December, about energy conservation. The law of 7th February 1997 was published, in which were approved the regulation basis for giving subsidies in the framework of PAEE, for the period 1997-1999, and called the basis for 1997. In 9th May of 1997 an arrangement was made by the «Consejería de Industria y Comercio» and the Ministry of industry and energy for financing the Renewable Energy Plan for Canary Islands (PERCAN). According to this arrangement, all the projects included in the specific plan of both administrations, will be grant by the Ministry of Industry and Energy with an average subsidy of 50% from its cost. The law of 6th February 1997, by which they were approved the regulation basis for giving subsidies in the framework of the PAEE is the instrument that will carry out the agreements. The budget of the Ministry is 3.700.000 ptas. We must show up some of these projects as the concentration plant based on the prototype that is being developed in the ITER of Tenerife, with 480 Kwp, it will be the biggest concentration plant when opened at the end of 1998. For the 1998 financial year and according to the arrangement made by the cabinet, the territorial distribution of the subsidies is established in favour of the «Comunidades Autónomas», applying objective criteria, and trasferring the fund to make it possible. The funds that correspond to the Canary islands are 66.000.000 ptas. The funds could be increased with the total subsidy IDEA-FEDER, for those projects complying with the requirements. At the moment, an agree-

ment is being elaborate to be sing by the IDAE, as well as calls for the subsidies for 1998.

Minihydraulic

Energy

The use of hidraulic energy under 10 Mw is called «Minihydraulic». The hydrologic aspect is a key factor that conditions the general development of the Canary Islands, since there are areas on the islands where there is a high limitation of hydraulic resources. The necessary equipment for using hydraulic resources are in singular locations and for reduced power. Actionsincludedintheobjectivesaredirectedmainly to the islands of Tenerife and La Palma. Actually, there is the hydraulic central of Vergara-La Guancha, having 463 Kw. In La Palma there is the hydraulic central of El Mulato,withaninstalledpowerof800Kw.Ontheother hand, the increase of water demand and the new infrastructure for its distribution could have entailed the realisation of hydroelectric developments, and so, compensate partially the energy costs of pumping. There is an investigation project that is being made by the ITC about «Viability study of the minihydraulic potential in the islands of Gran Canaria and Tenerife», which is an evaluation of the energy resources that would be extracted from those islands. The realisation of this project was regulated by means of an arrangement signed by Unelco and ITC on 8th July of 1997.

Saving There are included in the performances of the national energetic politics all the actions that promoted energy saving and diversification to reduce the energetic dependence on external places, to diminish contaminant emissions and to improve the competitiveness in the productive sectors. They were organised different campaigns in 1997 to make aware the tourist sector and schools of saving.

Energy

Audits

According to the energy saving and diversification energy plan started by the «Consejería de Industria y Comercio del Gobierno de Canarias», it has supported local corporations so that they could make an efficient use of energy and pay less money. Applying that politic, 97


anenergyauditprogrammewasdevelopedinCityHalls of the Autonomous Community, to be done in several phases. There were audited 15 municipalities, actually there are being audited the following municipalities: Aguimes, Guimar, Frontera and Puerto del Rosario. The audits comprises all the municipality sections, including installations of street lighting, administration offices, schools, sports centre, installations of water supply and waste water treatment, etc… In the future, the audits will extend to all the existing municipalities in the archipelago, and there will be obtained important saving in the energetic bill the Autonomous Community pays for the importation of fossil oil and will reduce the emissions levels and will help to improve the quality of life.

Cogeneration Cogeneration is the sequential production of electric or mechanical energy and thermal useful energy, from the same primary source. Actually the installations that work are the following: Installation Melia Salinas Central

Power (Kw)- state 1.460 In hand

Cogeneration of Tenerife, S.A. (Cotesa) Brewing Industry of Gran Canaria Brewing Industry of Tenerife East dock

13.000 Operating

Las Palmas Y Mare Nostrum

24.200 Operating 5.100 Operating

Cogeneration Pino II Total

European

This project is presented together with ICAEN and the objective is the realization of thermic solar energy projects in tourist urbanizations at Lanzarote island. The cost of the project for Canary Islands amounts to 40.000 ECU. Other islands included in the project are Guadalupe (France) and The Galapagos (Ecuador). The subsidy will be a 50% of the total cost.

WEB Page (http://www.cistia.es/dgie)

38.200 Operating 5.530 In hand 5.530 In hand

6.164 In hand 99.184

Project

Because of the call for of the pluriannual promotion programme (1998-1999) for renewable energy in the Community (ALTENER II), whose objectives are: a) Contribute to create the necessary conditions to apply a community action plan about renewable energy, in particular juridical, socio-economic and administrative conditions. b) Impulse public and private investment in the production and consumption of energy derived from renewable sources. 98

Thefollowingprojectswerepresentedin1998,which have been approved and actually are in phase of realization: • PRIOR ACTIONS OF THE PROMOTION PLAN. The objective of this proposal is to design an industrial renewal for the promotion plan and the necessary processes for its control. • CONTROLLING THE PROMOTION OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY PLAN IN SPAIN. The objective of this project is controlling the implement of that plan. • DEVELOPINGOFREINVESTMENTPROJECTSIN ISLANDS FROM THE BIOSPHERE-RESERVE.

This Web page, with on-line information in the «Dirección General de Industria y Energía» offers several possibilities about energetic themes in Canary Islands, and the different action ways to develop them. The web user has the possibility of consulting directly about the following themes: Wind farms Thermic solar energy Photovoltaic centrals Minihydraulic centrals Prices of fuels Energy audits in municipalities Actions in energy saving and efficiency Electrification plan in Canary Islands (PELICAN) Cogeneration installations Installations included in the special regime register of- Canary Islands • Subsidies for the implantation of renewable energy and energetical efficiency • Consulting and giving opinions • Saving campaign in schools • Daily advices to save energy • • • • • • • • • •


Implementation Plan for the Large Scale Deployment of Renewable Energy Sources in Crete A RTHOUROS Z ERVOS, GEORGE C ARALIS National Technical University of Athens - RENES N IKOLAOS Z OGRAFAKIS Regional Energy Agency of Crete GREECE

C

rete is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean with an area of 8335 km2 and a population of 540,000. Its population marked in recent years by a net increasingtrendandeconomicgrowthratesdoublethe national average. It faces a chronic energy problem causedbythehighratesofincreaseinenergyandpower demand and the reluctance of the population to accept the installation of new thermal power stations. Crete is an ideal area for the development of RES due to the availability of a rich and largely under-exploited RESpotential,thehighinvestmentinterestandthepositive attitude of the public towards RES exploitation. The Region of Crete has adopted since 1994 an energy policy, which gives a particular emphasis on the utilisation of RES. In the framework of this policy, it has set the goal to make Crete «a privileged field in Europe for large scale applications of RES». The National Technical University of Athens, in collaboration with the Regional Energy Agency of Crete have formulated the Implementation Plan for RES. The plan has been developed in the framework of an ALTENER project [1]. The objective of this work was to analyse the perspectivesofRESinCrete.ThedefinedImplementationPlan for the period 1998-2010 is focused on the exploitation of RES for electricity production since the major problem of Crete’s energy system is the inability of the existing electrical system to meet the increasing demand. In formulating the Implementation Plan, a detailed analysisoftheenergysystemofCrete,carriedoutwithin

past studies [2], is considered. A general description of Crete’s electrical system and a forecast of the island’s electricity demand are presented. Furthermore, the rationale used in the formulation of the Implementation Plan and the proposed actions are detailed. The impacts of RES integration into the electrical system are considered. Finally, a special emphasis is given to the definition of the necessary investment costs for the realisation of the plan and the related socio-economic and environmental benefits.

The energy system of Crete ElectricitydemandinCreteincreaseswithlargerrates than in the mainland system due to the high growth of the island’s economic activity. Several failures of Crete’s electrical system to meet the demand have recently occurred, resulting to rejections of loads. The reason is the power shortages during peak hours both in summer and winter. The electrical system of Crete has the following characteristics: • Thebaseloadislowduetothesmallindustrialactivity. • Strongseasonalvariationsoccurinelectricitydemand due to the development of tourism. • Both domestic and commercial sectors show a rate of increase in electricity demand that exceeds the corresponding rates of the mainland system. The structure of the electricity demand in Crete is depicted in Figure 1. 99


Figure 3 depicts the evolution of net electricity production in Crete during 1975-2025.

Figure 1. Structure of the electricity demand in Crete, 1975-1997.

Concerning the electricity production, twenty thermal power units compose the existing electrical generation system of the island of Crete. Geographically these units are supplied by two power stations. The production units’ schedule of entering into service for the satisfaction of the annual load requirements is determined by economic reasons, as well as by their technical minimums. The «divided» load duration curve is presented in figure 2.

Figure 3. Predictions of the net electricity production.

An implementation plan for RES in Crete

electricity demand (1997)

The Implementation Plan was formulated on the basis of the available RES potential, the technical constraints for the RES penetration and the existing legislative framework. Thus, the Implementation Plan provides the framework for the potential «optimum» development of RES in Crete taking into consideration the investors interest. The objectives of the Implementation Plan are: (a) to cover the additional electricity demand in a sustainable way, (b) to cover the maximum average net hourly production, (c) to provide the electrical system with an adequate safety margin, (d) to require the minimum interventions to the existing grid, and (e) to use the most mature and cost-effective RES technologies

The planning of the electricity system is based on the forecasting of annual electricity net production and on the forecasting of maximum and minimum net power production (hourly average values). The electricity demand forecasting specifies the kind of additional units and the energy policy to cover the electricity demand.

Formulating a scenario for the maximum possible penetration of RES into the electrical system of Crete, the assumption that RES will be used to cover 100% of the new -after 1998- electricity demand was considered. However, consideration of this assumption denoted several technical and financial constraints, as well as operational and management problems:

Figure 2. Entering schedule of the units to cover the

100


IMPLEMENTATION PLAN FOR THE ISLAND OF CRETE DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT (1998-2010)

1. Energy-saving measures • Replacement of incadescent bulbs at the residential sector and in street-lighting • Passive and hybrid systrems for cooling at the dwellings, hotels and bungalows 2. Solar Hot Water systems • Intensive use of Solar Hot Water systems at the domestic and tourist sectors. 85000 m2 in 2000, 365000 m2 in 2005 and 500000 m2 in 2010 3. Actions for the smoothing of the daily average hourly load curve • Time-zone pricing system

ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION

Short Term 2000 2005 Maximum load (MW) Energy demand (GWh) Safety margin (%) Total non-intermitent sources (MW) Mean Net Power of Conventional Units (MW) Mean Net Power of RES (MW) 4. Wind-farms (MW) 5. Biomass units (MW) 6. Small hydro-electric units (MW) 7. Photovoltaic installations (MW) 8. Pumped-Storage units (MW)

Medium Term 2010

409 1815

527 2484

647 2700

21% 491

36% 717

20% 776

469 110.2

546 373

585 445

89.3 20

200 40

250 60

0.6 0.2

6 2

6 4

-

125

125

Table 1: Implementation Plan for RES in Crete

1. Technical constraints: • Wind farms, photovoltaic and solar thermal systems can not reliably cover maximum loads due to their intermittent operation. • AlthoughlargePumped-Storagesystemscanstorewind andsolarenergy,suchsystemsshouldnotbeexpected to operate before 2005 due to technical difficulties. • Although RES technologies proposed in this report are mature enough, technical risks still exist. 2. Operational and management constraints • Harvesting of agricultural by-products for bio-electricity production could face several difficulties as it has not been tested before in Greece. • Compatibility of RES plants with the existing electricity grid could postpone their exploitation. 3. Financial constraints • The significant existing grant policy as far as RES exploitation is concerned (40% on the total investment cost), is unlikely to continue indefinitely due to limited budgets. There are two general groups of actions (table 1) differentiated by both the time that can be applied and by

theirsignificance.Short-termactionsrefertotheperiod 1998-2005andmedium-termactionstotheperiod20052010. The plan promotes electricity production by exploiting RES (Wind farms, Biomass, Pumped Storage Units, Small Hydroelectric Units, Photovoltaic installations) at a maximum possible penetration rate is proposed in order to cover the increase of electricity demand.Moreover,itsuggestsadditionalactionsaimingat Electricity savings (solar hot-water systems, replacement of incandescent bulbs, passive and hybrid systems for cooling, time-zone pricing system etc.). The contribution of various sources to the electricity supply for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010 are presented in Figure 4. The contribution of the conventional fuels (diesel and fuel oil) decreases from almost 100% in 1997 to 81% in 2000, to 61% in 2005 and to 55% in 2010. The total renewable electricity production will reach 19% of the total in 2000, 39% in 2005 and 45% in 2010. The annual electricity demand increases from 1078 GWh in 1990, to 1815 GWh in 2000, 2484 in 2005 and 2700 GWh in 2010. Energy savings due to additional Solar Hot Water Systems utilisation are considered (52.5 GWh in 2000, 218 GWh in 2005 and 300 GWhin2010). 101


Economic Evaluation of the implementation plan

Figure 4. Contribution of various sources to electricity supply (year 2000, 2005 and 2010).

The exact location of the RES plants is crucial both from the economic and the technical point of view. The selection of suitable locations was made via a general methodology of resource assessments supported by a GIS program. In general, site selection is the output of the implementation of several considerations and restrictions over the region under examination: • RES potential (wind speed, biomass potential, streams, etc.). • The topography of the region (altitudes, terrain slopes, etc.). • Subregions dedicated to special activities (archaeological sites, airports, urban districts, etc.). • Difficulty of access and energy transportation. • Balanced distribution of the plants (leads to a stable electrical system, reduces electrical losses, leads to balanced local development) • Existing electrical grid • Environmental impacts Figure 5 presents the proposed sites for all the plants.

The economic evaluation of the proposed RES investments has been carried out and the implementation plan as a whole during the period 1998-2010 has been evaluated. The basic output of this analysis is the Net Present Value (NPV) and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of the total investment. The RES installations expected during the period 1998-2005 and data used, are presented in Table 2. The financial parameters required for the economic analysis have been set, according to the law 2601/98 and the requirements of the Operational Program for Energy (OPE) of the Ministry of Development, as follows: • Grants: 40% of the total investment (in case of SHWS the grants are assumed the 15% of the total investment), • Own capital: 60% of the total investment, • Exchange rate: 350 drachmas/ECU, • Price of the electricity sold to PPC: 0.0714 ECU/ kWh Considering the above parameters, a discount rate of 8% and a 15 years lifetime, the indexes Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Net Present Value (NPV) of the Implementation Plan of RES in Crete for the period 1998-2005are: NPV=229MECU IRR=17.5% For the period 1998-2010 the total initial expenditure is 740 MECU. The amount of the required subsi-

Figure 5. Existing and future electricity production units and the electrical grid of Crete.

102


Actions

Installed

Energy

(1998-

Capacity

Produced

cost

or saved

(MECU)

2005)

Investment Maintenance

(GWh)

and operation cost (MECU/year)

Wind Farms

200 MW

500

224

4.6

Biomass Small Hydro

40 MW 6 MW

237 26

63.8 8.42

8.9 0.092

PSU125 MW PV2 MW

212 2.75

157 13.6

2.4 0.068

363,000m2

217.5

124

1.2

1,195 GWh

591 MECU

17.2 MECU/ year

SHWS TOTAL

Figure 6. Energy production cost of RES technologies

Table 2: Data used for the RES economic analysis period 1998-2005

dies is 244 MECU. The maintenance and operation cost is 23.3 MECU/year. Considering the same assumptions, the following indexes are calculated: NPV=289MECU IRR=17.6% Energy Production Cost (CEP) for the investments that exploit RES has been calculated by the following expression:

ÿ

=

+ ÿ

, =

Figure 7. Comparison of RES and conventional systems Energy production cost

ÿ − (ÿ +

)− ÿ

where TIC the total investment cost (kECU), M the annual operational and maintenance cost in kECU, E the annual energy production in MWh, i discount rate (%) and N the lifetime of the project. Figure 6 depicts the electricity production cost for each RES technology. Most of RES present low electricity production cost. An exception exists in the case of photovoltaics. The significant production cost restrains the further development of these systems, unless important cost reduction occurs. Figure 7 depicts the electricity production cost for the implementation plan as compared to the electricity production cost by existing conventional thermal units. The average cost of the kWh produced by RES is lower than that of the Thermal Units average production cost and much lower compared to that of gas turbines and combined-cycle unit.

Socio-economic and environmental evaluation Methodology RES investments create new jobs and local income and have benign environmental effects. In this chapter the socio-economic and environmental aspects of the Implementation plan are presented. The methodology adopted for the assessment of the relative impacts is mainlybasedontheexistingassessmenttoolsandmethodologies(3,4). In addition, actual data about RES projects that have been launched in Crete have been collected, analyzed and used to adapt the above-mentioned theoretical input to the specific aspects of the Implementation Plan. The tool was applied to the different sectors of the Implementation Plan and to the Plan as a whole, assessing the socio-economic and environmental impacts of RES development in Crete. 103


The methodology that supports the Assessment Tool estimates the effects of RES projects on the economic development of the region, regional employment and the environment. The present analysis examines the impacts that only affect the region of Crete. Regional added value Regional economic effects of the Implementation Plan mainly depend on the extended added value that the region can generate on the RES investments during the manufacturing, installation and operation phases. Added value depends on the infrastructure and the perspectives of local firms to contribute to the Implementation Plan as well as on the quality of the necessary human resources. Share of Net Incomes in Added Value Regional Added Value includes Net Incomes that, in general, concern either revenues from work or return to entrepreneurial and capital inputs. For every phase of the investment procedure (manufacturing, installation and operation) the work content has been calculated analytically. Then using average wages and salaries, net incomes from work result easily. Conventional energy substitution The cost of the primary conventional energy, at its entry to the region, which will be avoided due to the Implementation Plan, is regarded as regional benefit. Contribution to Public Finances The Implementation Plan will require subsidies that will burden public finances. The Public financial inflows concern: • Income tax and social charges on local net incomes. • Avoided unemployment payments due to employment created. • ValueAddedTax(VAT) The pay back period of the subsidy can then be calculated using the annual public inflows. Regional Benefit The regional benefit of the Implementation Plan, for the total operational life of the RES projects, is defined as the sum of: 1 Total net incomes distributed in the region. 2 Avoided imported conventional fuel cost. 3 Total public inflows. The index «regional internal rate of return» can then be used to evaluate the regional socio-economic effects of the Implementation Plan. 104

Local Employment Effects There will be short and long term employment effects during the manufacturing, installation and operation phases respectively. In general, short term effects concern non-permanent employment during manufacturing and installation phase, while long term effectspermanentjobcreationduringoperationphase. Indirect employment due to the spin-off effects of the Implementation Plan, and possible losses in the conventional energy sector are also considered. Contribution to environmental protection Electricity produced by different RES projects substitutes conventional electricity which would have been produced by different conventional units, using different types of fuels with different efficiency rates and different CO2, SO2 and NOx emissions by their combustion. Dealing with these issues the amount of emissions avoided is assessed for each type of renewable energy.

Socio-economic

evaluation

Comparison of RE technologies Considering the various RE technologies to be used, indicators that quantify the socio-economic and environmental impacts have been calculated. The indices are then used for the evaluation of the Implementation Plan, considering in parallel the technical aspects that the large-scale development of RES entails.

Figure 8. Regional benefit created by 1 kECU investment of various RE technologies.

In Figure 8 the Regional Benefit created by the varioustechnologiesiscompared.Theindexesarereduced per unit cost of investment. Figure 9 shows the employment effects due to RES investments. For most of the RES employment effects during manufacturing phase are limited. An exemption exists in the case of SHWS,


as local industry employs local people. During operation, the creation of regional permanent jobs is important for combating unemployment

Figure 9. Employment effects in the region created by 1kECU investment of various RE technologies

Evaluation of the Implementation Plan In the diagrams 1 and 2 the detailed application of the aforementioned methodology is presented for the short-term actions (period 1998-2005). In Diagram 2 the assessment of the Socio-Economic evaluation of the Implementation Plan is presented. In Diagram 1 the employment effects of the Implementation Plan during manufacturing, installation and operation are presented.

With regard to the socio-economic evaluation of the implementation plan we can note: • The implementation plan during 1998-2005 requires an investment of 591 MECU and a total subsidy of 205 MECU. On the other hand it creates 392 MECU Regional Added Value and returns a Regional Benefit of 967MECU(Totalnetincomedistributedintheregion is 76.9 MECU, the cost of avoided fuel is 702 MECU and the public inflows are 188 MECU). The Regional Internal rate of return is 18% and the pay back period of the subsidy to the public receipts is 11.6 years. • 230 new permanent jobs will be created due to the operation of the plan in the region. The total employment during the manufacturing, installation and operation phase is 6272 man-years. • Significant fuel substitution is expected due to the Implementation Plan and pollution is avoided. The avoided CO2 emission is 976,000 tn per year 2005 and 1,238,000 tn per year 2010. Different effects are expected during the various phases of implementation of each plant. For each technology the potential contribution of local firms varies between the manufacturing, installation and operation activities. Moreover, different duration is required for each project manufacturing and installation. Dealing with these issues, time schedule of impacts for the period 1998-2005 has been carried out. After 2005 the definedimplementationplanwillcontinuetohaveposi-

Diagram 1. Calculation of employment effects of the Implementation Plan - Period 1998-2005

105


Diagram 2. Socio-Economic evaluation of the Implementation Plan - Period 1998-2005

tive impacts due to its operation activities, intensified by new projects (long-term actions) manufacturing, installation and operation activities.

Conclusions The proposed Implementation Plan is realistic, feasible and economically viable. It takes into consideration all the technical, social and legislative issues. It is in accordance with the priorities of the EC White Paper for RES and the targets of CO2 emissions reduction. Thanks to the implementation plan the installed electricalcapacityinCretewillbeincreasedinaneconomic, ecological and socially accepted way. The implementation plan: • may partly cancel or delay future installations of conventional units. The construction of new thermal plants in Crete to fully cover future demand raises significant objections due to public opinion reactions and environmental impacts, • covers the maximum average net hourly production, provides the electrical system with an adequate safety margin, and uses the most mature and cost-effective RES technologies, • improves the operation of the electrical system of Crete, minimizing the transmission losses due to their regional character.

• the Implementation Plan as a whole is a quite attractive investment, • the mean cost of RES electricity production is less than the mean cost of conventional units’ electricity production, • the implementation plan creates significant economic regional benefit, local employment and considerable amounts of CO2 emissions reduction. • The island of Crete may and should constitute a preferential area for the extensive deployment of RES. It could become a pilot region in the Mediterranean and one of the first «100 Communities» to realise the goals and objectives of the EC White Paper. The results and the experience gained should be disseminated to other Regions. The methodology of the socio-economic evaluation of RES in Crete, can also be used in other regions to support their energy policy.

References 1. NTUA (GR), «Implementation Plan for the Large Scale Deployment of Renewable Energy Sources in CreteGreece», Final Report, Altener project XVII/4.1030/Z/ 96-0139, November 1998. 2. NTUA (GR), «Developing Decision Support Tools for the utilization of Renewables Energies in Integrated

With the realisation of the Implementation Plan the contributionofRESwillreach39.4%ofthetotalannual electricity demand of the island by 2005 and 45.4% by 2010. In addition hot water solar heater utilisation will contributetoreducetheelectricitydemandby218GWh (approximately10%)by2005and300GWhby2010. With regard to the socio-economic evaluation of the implementation plan we can note: 106

Systems at the local level (DRILL)», Final Report, Joule project JOU2-CT92-0190, March 1996. 3. FEDARENE, «Evaluation Guide for Renewable Energy Projects in Europe (ELVIRE)», ALTENER publication. 4. EEE and ENCO, «Methodology for the assessment of employment benefits and local economic effects of a RES installation», EXTERNE, Vol.6, European Commission, 1995.


Rural Renewable Energy in the Falkland Islands TIMOTHY C OTTER Falkland Islands Development Corporation FALKLAND ISLANDS

T

Energy

FIDC offer a range of services including: • Finance assistance and services • Training and vocational education assistance • Practical business plans and assistance • Cost saving measures including energy

The main population centre is the town of Stanley. Diesel generators provide a continuous electricity supply from Stanley Power Station. The normal load is between 1 and 3 Megawatts and the power station capacity is 6.6 Megawatts. There is also a plan to install four 250kW wind turbines to augment this supply. There is no island-wide power grid system to distribute power of the remainder of the population across the many islands. It would be uneconomic as the small population is scattered too widely. Most farms make their own energy using small diesel generators 3-20kW. The larger farms and settlements have a central power source of between 20-100kW.

he Falkland Islands Development Corporation (FIDC) is the commercial division of the Falkland Islands Government. Its function is to encourage and assist all aspects of local business. This includes industry, agriculture, construction, fishing, retailing etc.

Falkland Islands data Land Area

11650 km2

Population

2564 (1996)

Climate Mean temperature range Annual rainfall Average wind speed Latitude

Cool Temperate 0 C - +14 C 600 mm 8 m/s 50 South

The Falkland Islands are much bigger than most people imagine and the high wind regime means there is a lot of scope for wind power. In recent summers, the Antarctic ozone hole has expanded to include the Falkland Islands. In time of high UV risk, the population is warned by radio broadcast.

Distribution

Early Renewable Energy History Early attempts to use wind power to pump water and generate electricity were very successfulandanumberfarms used12voltbatterywindchargers. Some larger settlements usedsmalldirectcurrent(DC) gridsoperatingon120Voltfor lighting.Powerwassuppliedby the wind and stored in batteries.Someofthesesystemslasted intothe1970s. 107


Renewable Energy Projects Inthe1980sFIDCinvestigatedalternativeenergywith a number of projects. Much of the technology was new and untested. A 20kW hydroelectric scheme at Port Howard was installed to operate in conjunction with the diesel generator.

The AES 2kW inverter performed well, but proved to be slightly undersized. These trials also showed up shortcomings in the existing diesel generator alternator that was replaced as a result of the tests. In December 1995, a Trace 3 kW Power Center replaced the 2 kW inverter. This transformed the whole project. This Trace Power Center inverter has proved to be very successful and is able to manage automatically all day to day power situations without interruption. The most important being fully automatic diesel generator start and stop control. The Solar panels performed well but wind turbine proved it could produce more than enough energy. This system is still in service but the lead acid battery has been replaced.

Pebble

Wind power trials started on Pebble Island with the installation of a 10 kilowatt wind turbine, battery bank and inverter. The system was not successful as inverter failures were frequent and trials were abandoned. These projects did not live up to expectations and damaged people’s confidence in renewable energy. Due to the fairly constant high winds, equipment life was measured in months or weeks. Inverters were unreliable and inefficient but fuel savings were significant. In the late 1980s, FIDC launched a scheme to offer financial assistance to farms for a small inverter and battery. This was not taken up by anyone because many were still convinced that renewable energy was unreliable and a waste of time and money

Renewable Energy Test Projects Estancia

Farm

A new initiative was started with a renewable energy installation at Estancia Farm completed in October 1993. The installation comprised: • LMW turbine 800W • AES 2kW inverter • Siemens PV cells • 24V Lead acid battery 108

Island

The abandoned 10kW Bergey wind turbine was rehabilitated with the installation of an AES 20kW inverter, a 120V Lead acid battery. This worked well for 15 months when the inverter failed. The settlement is currently undergoing a power system upgrade and will be back in service later on in 1999.

Size of renewable system Most people have no idea as to their power requirements and believe that the renewable systems FIDC propose are not large enough to power their farm house. FIDC has a recording electricity meter to accurately establish consumption patterns. Installing the meter takes around 15 minutes and it is normally left for between 7 -10 days. It is the only way to establish the actual energy consumption.


Theresultsarediscussedwiththefarmerandtheyare madeawareofadditionalenergysavingstheycouldmake. Many have adapted better energy consumption habits after the renewable system has been installed.

The red line (top) shows how the efficiency of the generator increases with load. (kWh/litre) Maximum efficiency is achieved at about 75% Research has shown that it is usual for a diesel generator of this type to be running below a load factor of 40%, sometimes as low as 25%. The overall quantity of electricity produced is therefore small compared to the fuel consumed, the running hours and the servicing costs. Little effort has been made to optimise the generator size to the actual power demand of a farm or settlement.

Typical Power Demand This is a typical power survey result using 15 minute integration periods. This diagram clearly shows that a 3kW inverter would handle most of the power demand. This generator actually supplies 2 houses and the generator usually operates below 50%, which is very inefficient. These power profiles are used to advise farmers why the inverter system does not have to be as big as their existing diesel generator and that further savings could be made by turning off unnecessary equipment, changing habits and replacing old, inefficient equipment.

This is the cumulative power pattern over an 8 day period at the same site.

Diesel Generator Efficiency It shows that a 3kW power source would cope with up to 60% of the demand but a 4.2kW power source would cope with up to 97% of the demand. However, the slope of the graph indicates that it is likely that a 3kW inverter would cause frequent diesel generator operation and a 4.2 kW renewable system would be more suitable for this site.

Rural Energy Situation Results of research

The Lister TS2 is widely as a generator engine used across the Islands. The blue line (bottom) shows how the fuel consumption increases with load. (Litres/hour)

• • • • • •

Observations show: Generators oversized for mean load Generators run for long hours at low load factors Power only available for limited period during day 24 hour power not economic using diesels Energy wasted (No incentive to save) Generating costs between 50c -$1.20 per kWh 109


Rural Energy Programme 1996 Reducing the cost of Rural Energy was the main target of this programme. From the outset it was believed that the following secondary aims could also be achieved; 1 Improve domestic living standards 2 Improve electrical safety standards 3 Create new opportunities for diversification 4 Increase generator operating efficiency - Decrease generator downtime - Reduce maintenance and spares costs. - Reduce fuel requirements (and transport and storage) - Reduce exhaust and noise pollution

Project

Strategy

Based on the success with the Estancia project, the Renewable Energy Programme plan was to provide the Rural Community with economic 24 hour power through the use of high efficiency electronic inverters and power controllers, modern wind turbines and lead acid batteries. The existing diesel generator would be incorporated into the system to provide power during calm periods and surplus generating capacity is used to charge the battery. Most farms have fairly modern generating plant and adequate electrical equipment suitable for modification to 24 hour power without too much difficulty.

Rural Energy Grant Scheme 1996-2000 The Scheme was formulated in mid 1996 by the Energy Advisory Committee of the Falkland Islands Government to use EU Stabex funds to help finance the installation of systems to provide 24 hour power in rural houses that serve as first homes. The whole Scheme was approved by the Executive Council of the Falkland Islands in June 1996. It was decided to split the Scheme into two phases so that a farm could spread the cost of the renewable installation over a longer time period to ease the costs. 110

Phase one Grant level of 50%. Inverter/charger, lead acid battery, E-meter Installation and Freight costs Phase two Grant level of 70%. Wind Turbine, Mast, Control equipment Installation and Freight costs The higher level of Grant attached to the wind turbinephaseistoencouragetherenewableelementwhich although desirable, is not essential for 24 hour power. The overall level of Grant (approximately 60%) was chosen to support the farm as much as possible but firm financial commitment from the farm was required to promote ongoing interest with operation and maintenance of the system. All costs associated with the installation such as labour, cables, safety equipment, fixtures and fittings and transport of the equipment are covered within the relevant phase.

Funding for scheme Because of the fall in world wool prices in the early 1990s, the Falkland Islands wool industry qualified for financial assistance from DG VIII of the European Union under the STABEX rules. Four main project areas were identified that would improve business opportunities for farmers. 1 Rural Roads, Tracks and Jetties 2 New modern Abattoir 3 New Agricultural Laboratory 4 Renewable Energy Systems for farms This meant there would be finance available to continue and expand the Rural Energy Programme. A major problem is that Stabex money should be spent on European products and services. Even with help from consultants, finding appropriate equipment from Europe was very difficult. The hardest item to source was the inverter. Not only does it have to be an efficient sine wave inverter with suitable overload protection but also has to be a programmable high current battery charger and deliver the power demanded without interruption or failure. In addition, it has to have a built in system to automatically operate the diesel generator.


The only inverters we have been able to locate to meet these specifications are manufactured by AES (Australia) and Trace (USA).

Basic Conditions of the Rural Energy Grant Scheme • Farm must be main home • Applicant should contribute to the farming industry • System intended for domestic power supply • Generating equipment in good order • No arc welders, wool presses, large machinery. • Domestic power system must be tested and safe The Domestic Electrical Installations Improvement Grant Scheme provides assistance with wiring improvementsandiswhollyfundedbytheFalklandIslandsGovernment. This was felt necessary, as many electrical power systems island-wide were known to be potentially dangerous. A major condition of the Scheme is the electrical safety test, which has to be completed by a qualified electrical contractor. The cost of this test is paid from Falkland Islands Government (FIG) funds at no cost to the farm or STABEX funds. The farm pays for any remedial works required to comply with the rules. A separate Grant Scheme from FIG funds is now available to assist with the cost of electrical improvements.

Stabex rules state that equipment should be sourced from Europe but an exemption was obtained to use a limited number of Trace or AES Inverters

Chloride

Motive

Power

Batteries

Weconsideredleadacidgelcellsandnickelcadmium. Capital cost was a major factor so we decided on tubular plate traction batteries. Estancia farm is now running on AlCad nickel cadmium but these cells were not new and we are monitoring progress. FIDC assisted with the training of local companies to install and maintain renewable energy equipment. This involved training sessions in the UK, the US and Australia. This investment has proved invaluable now we have the skills

Small Farm Systems The Scheme has standardised on two systems. 4.2kW • TraceSW4248E • Chloride/Fulmen 660Ah lead acid battery • Proven WT2500 Wind Turbine 3 kW • TraceSW3048E • Chloride/Fulmen 330Ah lead acid battery • Proven WT2500 Wind Turbine Early 3kW systems were 24volt

Selected Proven

equipment

Wind

Turbines

Trace Powercenter Inverter/ charger

The equipment eligible for Grant assistance has to be reliable,robust,efficient,andofgoodengineeringquality. TheProvendownwindturbinedesignhasshownthat itcansurviveextremesofwindandproblemshavebeen fairly minor. The slow running polypropylene blades do not erode and are much cheaper than fibreglass blades. A set of 3 blades costs about $320.

Trace SW Series Power Center The Trace Sine wave inverters have survived a number of abuses but the only total failure was believed to been caused by to a lightning strike on the settlement power line. We believe that the Trace product is excellent value for money and has restored confidence in inverters.

The key to the Trace PowerCenter is that it simple to operate. Once set up by the installer, the microprocessor will run the whole power system. Most farmers now opt for full automatic control. The Powercenter is very robust and has survived many accidental abuses 111


Thechangeoverprocessisverysoftandnotnoticeable. The generator run time can be adjusted as can voltage changeoverthresholdsandmanyotherconditions. The Trace PowerCenter operate in two main modes;

Normal

Chloride Lead Acid Battery

Mode

Electricity supplied by inverter and the battery charged by wind turbine

Overload or battery low mode The inverter can cope for short-term surge (8kW peak) but if certain parameters are exceeded or the battery capacity is low, the inverter will start the diesel generator, and transfer load to diesel without glitches. The inverter will transfer to charge mode and surplus generator capacity is then used to charge battery. When load has been reduced or when batteries are charged, diesel generator will shut down

Proven Wind Turbine

We considered a variety of battery types including gell cells and Each systems is fitted with an E-meter which gives instantaneous readings of battery voltage, current, state of charge and the time remaining at the discharge rate. It will also record other useful information. It monitors charge and discharge currents and calculates a charge efficiency factor as a percentage. If this figure falls, it indicates that equalisation may be necessary. The meter monitors the total number of discharges more than 10%, the deepest discharge and the average discharge. Battery life is always a concern but at the current discharge patterns, we believe that farms should get between 6 to 8 years.

Trace/Proven The turbine nacelle is a space frame covered in a polypropylene casing. Sliprings are standard. The permanent magnet 3 phase alternator is at the bottom. The polypropylene casing is attached and the wind turbine hoisted up on its hinged base. The foundation is 1 cubic metre of concrete and is prepared in advance of the main system installation. The mast is only 6.5metres high but this is more than adequate.

112

Installations

Lively Island Alex and Elliott Jaffray Trace3kWSW3048E ProvenWT2500 Chloride360Ah 1house


This system was installed 2 years ago and was one of the first in the Islands installations. In that time the farm diesel generator has used less than 122 litres of fuel.Inthefirstyearofoperation,Alexusedwindpower to shear 3500 sheep.

and 30kW integrated wind power systems. We do not believe that anyone makes a system to meet out requirements. However, we plan to install a double Trace SW4248E system with a Proven WT6000 at Walker Creek in 1999.

Weddell Island John and Stephanie Ferguson Trace4.2kWSW4248E ProvenWT2500 Chloride660Ah 4 houses

Project

Summary

• Up to 80% generator fuel saving • Up to 80% reduction in generator hours • Electricity available 24 hour per day • The only investment that will save money and workload • Opportunity for new agricultural activities All farms have been very pleased with these systems. Many were originally very uncertain about reliability.

Costs - Complete Small Farm System Actual cost

Cost to Farm

$20931 $23400

$8070 $9296

3.0kW 4.2kW

This is probably the most heavily used inverter in the Islands as Weddell has 4 houses. John has made an active effort to reduce his power load by installing low energy light bulbs, and replaced old inefficient equipment. Weddell Island has a telephone repeater station, which is run from the inverter. Last winter, the Island was unoccupied for 6 weeks. The inverter and wind turbine ran unattended and kept power on to the freezers and telephone system. Overall, John estimates that his generator fuel consumption has dropped by 65% and the running hours have dropped by 80%.

Installation

Summary

Systems installed to May 1999 3 or 4.2 kW systems (phase 1 only) 3 or 4.2kW systems with Proven Turbine 20kW system (Pebble Island)

7 24 1

Systems planned for 1999/2000 3 or 4.2kW systems with Proven Turbine Large systems 8kW - 30kW (hydro/wind) Proven Wind Turbines (phase 2)

19 6 7

Installed Systems

Large Farm Systems Stabex rules prevent us using AES inverters and Bergey Wind turbines. We have had problems finding suitable equipment fromEuropeanddiscussionswithEuropeanpowerelectronics companies for a 20-30 kW power conversion inverter system combined with a charging and diesel generator control system have not produced results. We have also requested further information from Enercon Gmbh, a major German manufacturer of large wind turbines who have recently developed 10kW 113


Installed Systems 2000

Where do we go from here? We are very happy with the success of the scheme and especially with the reliability of the equipment. However, it is likely that most of the modern technology we are using will be out of date in 10 years, probably earlier. We are keen to keep up to date with new technology and we are especially interested in new methods of energy storage. The lead acid battery has been with us for over 100 years. We hope that someone come up with a modern alternative soon. We are watching the progress of Iceland with their 100% renewable programme based on hydrogen.

114

Falkland Islands Government Energy Policy 1 To reduce reliance upon imported fossil fuels for production of electricity throughout the Falkland Islands. 2 To reduce consumer operating costs through energy conservation and good energy housekeeping. 3 To reduce production of carbon dioxide and other polluting emissions associated with the consumption of fossil fuels.

Broad

Strategy

1 Investigate the viability of supplementing the Stanley electrical power system through wind power as a renewable energy source. 2 Provide encouragement for rural residents to conserve fuel oil through use of renewable energy technology. 3 Promote energy conservation measures in the public sector. 4 Ensure appropriate energy saving measures are considered for incorporation into all new building projects. 5 Promote energy conservation measures in the private sector through issue of advice and information. 6 Evaluate a grant assistance programme for insulation of domestic and commercial premises and the supply of low energy equipment. 7 Promote electrical safety tests by qualified personnel and provide encouragement and financial assistance with remedial work.


Renewable Energy Plan of the Minorca Island A NTONI J UANEDA Vice-president of the Minorca Island Council C IPRIANO MARÍN INSULA (International Scientific Council for Island Development)

T

he island of Minorca with a population of 65000 inhabitants and 720 km2 of territory, is a prototype of insularity. It is a complex territory where many economic activities converge, among which it emphasises the tourist activity, as with what it occurs in a large part of the European islands. The protected areas from the island occupy 46% of the surface and an another large proportion is represented by the singular agricultural landscape that deserves its consideration as cultural landscape according to the terminology of the World Centre of Heritage. Furthermore, the island lodges about 1500 megalithic monuments of large interest. UNESCO declared in 1993 Minorca as a Biosphere Reserve. Such a nomination converts the island into an international reference for sustainable development. It’s an important challenge for an island which receives more than one million visitors per year and whose natural and cultural heritages are among the most interesting in the Mediterranean. TwoyearsafterwardsaSustainableDevelopmentPlan establishes an island strategy with aims in the medium and long term. Drafting of a Renewable Energy Plan that marks the lines of energy action in the island with the perspective of the maximum penetration of renewable energies was one of the basic elements. The island initiatives of this type acquire a greater relevance if we take into account that there are more

than 500 inhabited islands in the European Union, and that they occupy as a whole 6% of the territory where about 14 million European citizens inhabit. The need to provide to the islands of a framework for future developments in renewable energies was already highlighted in the European Commission’s White Paper on Renewable Energy Sources, United Nations Conference on Islands and Small Island States (Barbados 94) and the 1st European Conference on Island Sustainable Development, which give the general principles that inspire the present Plan. We highlight the emphasis given in the European Island Agenda on this topic: «non-renewable energy sources must be considered as provisional solutions, inadequate to solve in the long term the energy problems of the islands.» So,theRenewableEnergyPlan,developedwithinthe framework of the Altener Program and implemented in close co-operation between the Consell Insular de Menorca and INSULA, with the technical realisation of the Institut Menorqui d’Estudis, is inserted in the general sustainable development strategy of the European islands and in the specific lines of action that the Sustainable Development Plan marks for Menorca. One of the most important aspects of the Minorca Plan is given by the present situation, characterised by a very low renewables penetration (~ 1% of the primary energy). 115


Objectives and development of the project The Plan has complied with the following objectives: • Identification of the energy economy potential and the sources of renewable resources to mobilise. • Identification of the economic and technical potential to develop. • First forecast of the degree of mobilisation and the interest of the actors concerned. • Identification of political priorities for the renewables in the context of island sustainable development.

Planning and prospective Major aspects Wind

energy

The model made from the data available of wind has permitted identifying the usable wind sites in the island. These activities indicate us that it is possible, in function of the grid stability, to reach an objective of 9 MW for the production of electrical energy connected to the grid. The technological recommendations point at the creation of parks based on 500-600 kW machines of, and even larger.

Solar

Thermal

In this field there is an innovating aspect for the islands, applying a more precise research methodology in order to determine the solar actual potential in the tourism sector. There is a replacement potential, only in this sector of 1060 toe/year, on the basis of an installed panel surface of 15100 m2. The medium term objective is of 8000 m2 of solar panels. Similar work has been carried out for the domestic sector and small industries.

Solar

Photovoltaic

The current high costs limit the possibilities of gridconnected systems. However, there is already in the island an experimental 42 kW plant and it is proposed a comprehensive long-term strategy to allow more market penetration when the conditions of market permit. Regarding small scale facilities, where the quality of service predominates over the cost, prospective for new applications has been made, especially in protected areas, dispersed archaeological monuments and the traditional applications to the rural world and the communication. 116

Solar

Passive

Minorca traditional architecture offers passive solutions of great interest. In the tourism sector it is seen as one of the fields for the incorporation of solar solutions with greater future. The need for systematic refurbishing of the premises introduces the possibility of attacking these solutions to a certain scale. The work was made on the scope of application of 51 000 conventional tourist beds that exist in the island.

Biomass This is the chapter of the Plan that has shown lesser possibilities of development. The maintenance of a dispersed agricultural-forest system that produces a singular landscape and the low density of urban and industrial biomass waste, make practically non-viable new energy valorisation systems of biomass. The study made on forest biomass has shown its energy and commercial impossibility. In the aspect of animal biomass low density is also detected.

Renewable and environment sustainability criteria The special consideration of Minorca as a Reserve of the Biosphere of UNESCO has brought about that the resolution of the so-called eco-dilemmas in implementation of renewable energy sources has occupied a preferential place in the Plan. Possible environmental impacts caused by the incorporation of renewables have been analysed in detail, on the basis of the existing regulatory packages and the directives from the Reserve management board. The planning criteria have included also other also important aspects in the field of sustainable development: • Employment creation according to potential by sources. • Promotion of the small and medium-sized local business. • Qualification of the business and labour staff. • Strengthening capacity of the image of joint responsibility that implies the Reserve.

Action

strategies

Any activity that is framed within the sustainable development mandate inherent in the Reserve of the Biosphere must primarily have the perception and active


collaboration of its inhabitants. The widespread recourse to renewable energy sources is deemed a capital vector for the establishment of solid sustainable development strategies in Minorca. The Plan develops the following aspects on an horizontal approach: • Specific information to the market actors • Join the renewable energy component to Minorca’s institutional logo. • Establishment of a service of guidance and support on renewable energies. As specific activities per renewable source the Plan foresees:

Wind

Energy

• To take measures for at least 1 year from 40-45 m over ground level in the area, in the selected sites, as a step previous to the introduction of the windfarms. • Viability and environmental impact study of the sites.

Thermal

solar

energy

• To favour specialised training for thermal solar system installers. • Training and information actions for designers and architects, as well as for the building sector on the possibilities of solar thermal techniques and their integration potential in buildings. • Toexemplarise,fromthepublicinstitutions,bymeans of incorporating solar concepts into new public projects. • Concerted action with the hotel sector aiming to reach an 8 000 m2. Objective

Photovoltaics

Energy Saving and Efficiency An additional strategy to the Renewable Energy Plan The Renewable Energy Plan of Minorca is conceived in the framework of an integral sustainable development policy where energy efficiency and saving are additional objectives to the strategy for the penetration of renewables. Given the impact and relevance that the public initiatives have in the island, the municipal public lighting system has been chosen as object of analysis and proposal regarding energy saving, taking into account that the electrical consumption in this sector represents 6% of the total. This demonstration action is completed with the proposal of incorporation of rational use of energy criteria to the Code of Good Practice and Renewable Energies of Minorca.

Prioritising activities actors and sectors Major sectors and actors Town Councils and Consell Insular The model nature of the municipal activities and of the ones financed by the Consell Insular suggests that it is in this area where the first steps of the Plan implementation are taken. • Integration thermal solar applications into the principal public buildings. • Photovoltaic installations in monuments and tourist centres in natural areas. • Passive solar design for new public constructions.

• To launch as a pilot project the integration of photovoltaics into the rehabilitation strategy for dispersed archaeological and historical heritage into the island (illumination, communications, traffic signs and didactic systems). • Actions of training and information towards the designers

Tourism Sector • To launch a campaign aiming to install 8 000 m2 of solar panels in the island’s tourist buildings. • To incorporate renewables as guidelines of action with the support of environmental management systems and Bio-hotel labels.

Passive

Sources and technological availability

Solar

• Actionsoftrainingandinformationonthetraditional solutions and on new solutions aimed towards designers. • Preparation of a catalogue of accessible solutions and typological recommendations that considers as a common factor formal solutions

Wind • To establish a concertation scheme between potential wind operators, upon the initiative of the Consell Insular and with the support of the competent departments in the Govern Balear. 117


• To establish, in the island and regional legal frameworks the environmental and technological requirements for the use of wind energy in accordance with the directives of the present Plan. • To contribute the necessary logistics that permits the best identification and characterisation of the sites. • Toconsolidatetheviablesitesintheframeworkofthe territorial management instruments, via municipal planning and inclusion in Special Plans that regulate the uses in ANEI (Natural Areas of Special Interest). Solar • To consolidate and disseminate the current grant scheme, implementing Guarantee of Results approaches. • To identify the fields of application of isolated photovoltaic projects and of small scale (rural services, archaeological heritage and tourist sites). • To provide guidelines

Instruments Preparation of a Code on Renewable Energies and Energy Efficiency in Minorca with a double purpose: • To act as Guide of Good Practice in the principal sectors of activity. • To become a guide for the incorporation of measures at regulatory level. Such a action is found between the statutory recommendations of the Seville Strategy on Reserves of Biosphere of UNESCO. To develop a campaign of information and awareness on the renewable energy sources and energy saving in the context of the sustainable development of Minorca as a Reserve of Biosphere.

Management and co-ordination of the Plan The Consell Insular de Minorca is the principal actor for articulating the promotion and implementation of the Plan. It should create a legal body for the promotion of renewable energies, with the support of the international organisations involved, INSULA and UNESCO. It is proposed to consolidate this figure as: • Local group of the Balearic Energy Agency.

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• Group of Energy within the Consell, capable of putting together and of driving the efforts and supporting itself in the existing bodies: IME (Institut Menorqui d’Estudis), Socio-environmental Observatory of Minorca and the Biosphere Reserve Board. The body’s tasks are the following: • To bring about the necessary concerted actions between public and private actors. • To identify immediate opportunities for renewable energy implementation in the different sectors, especiallyinthosewheresufficientpotentialhasbeenidentified. • To facilitate technical and procedural assistance. • To identify additional financial resources. • To co-ordinate promotion and information campaigns on the possibilities of renewable energies in Minorca.

Other

measures

Implementation of the plan has foreseen the adoption of accompanying measures such as: • The creation of the Code of Renewable Energies and Energy Efficiency of Minorca. • The necessary regulatory and legal actions. • Deepening of specialised training.

Regulatory

and

legal

actions

• Inclusion of the renewable energy concept in Minorca’s institutional logo. • Analysis of the creation of a specific label that awards investors. • Specific consideration for renewable energies in future management plans of the territory. • Negotiation with large hotel workers established in the island for the implementation of mechanisms of ‘technology procurement’ in Minorca. • Co-operation with the Govern Balear in the implementation of the regional Energy Plan in Minorca. • Negotiations with the Govern Balear and the central Government to ensure access to grants for Minorcan investors that resort to the conclusions and recommendations of this Plan.


The Development of Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation: J. L. BAL - ADEME M. BENARD - EDF M. LE NIR - CFG B. ROBERT - CDF FRANCE

C

the Example of the French Overseas Departments and Corsica

ompared with the major interconnected power systems such as those in Europe, the systems of the French Overseas Departments and Corsica are quite different: from the electrical standpoint, they concern small isolated networks, because of their location on islands(GuadeloupeandMartinique,intheCaribbean, Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean) or not connected to neighbouring countries (French Guyana). The peak loads barely exceed 340MW in the largest of these Departments (Corsica). As a result, the conventional generating facilities which may be used are costly (these facilities are mainly large diesel sets consuming heavy fuel oil). Furthermore, the late character of electrification and the fairly large dispersal of dwellings have still left a relatively high number of homes not connected to the power network. Finally, the potential of renewable energy sources in these territories situated in tropical regions and almost always volcanic is remarkably high, whether it involves hydroelectricity, wind, sun, biomass or geothermal energy. The interest of electricity generation sources calling upon these energies has thus increased considerably. Their development, in which ADEME (French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management), EDF (French Electricity Board), Groupe Charbonnages de France (CDF) and Compagnie Française de GÊothermie (CFG) have taken part in particular, has been sustained and diversified.

Hydroelectricity Historically, the use of renewable energy sources for electricity generation in the French Overseas Departments first concerned hydroelectricity: developed everywhere today except in Martinique, it provides more than 25% of the total output. As all of the major sites have already been harnessed, the recent facilities (Corsica, Guadeloupe and French Guyana) are mini hydro power plants with a capacity of a few MW and having a limited impact on the environment. New minihydro plants are forecasted for an estimated total of 20MW, mainly in Corsica.

Biomass energy generation, bagasse as a fuel Bagasse: an abundant and advantageous fuel, which is generally under-utilised One of the main activities of the French Overseas Departmentsisthecultivationandprocessingofsugarcane. The sugar cane industry produces a residue called bagasse, which is the fiber of the cane after sugar has been removed. One metric to of cane produces about 320 kg of bagasse. Bagasse has a Net Calorific Value of 7900 kJ/ kgwhichisgreaterthantheNCVofmanylignitesmined intheworldveryexpensively. 119


Besides, compared to fossil fuels burned in conventional power plants, bagasse presents several substantial advantages: • bagasse is a by-product, its use as a fuel would therefore seem economically more desirable than the use of fuel oil, natural gas or coal • bagasse is issued from biomass; it is a renewable fuel and the CO² emissions from its combustion are offset by photosynthesis when sugar cane grows • bagasse is sulfur free, no sulfur dioxides are produced when bagasse burns. Traditionally, in most sugar cane mills of the World, bagasse is generally burnt in boilers in order to produce only the steam and the electricity needed by the mills. The least efficient sugar mills require yet another fuel (usually fuel oil) to meet their own energy needs, more efficient ones generate surpluses of bagasse (which then have to be disposed of), and the more modern ones generate surpluses of electricity exported to the grid, most of the time however the energetic efficiencies reached for the combustion of bagasse are modest compared to the results which could be obtained with more elaborated solutions. Bagasse is therefore an under-utilised resource of the planet. Every year 230 Million tons of bagasse are produced which are the energy equivalent of 45 Million tons of fuel oil or 75 Million tons of coal.

The

Bois-Rouge

Concept

In order to maximise the use of bagasse, a new type of Power Station was designed and built in Bois-Rouge (La Reunion). It was based on the application of the following principles: • the Power Station in built next to the sugar mill in order to minimise transportation of bagasse • the Power Station supplies process steam to the sugar mill and exports electricity to the grid • The plant boilers generate efficiently (90 % thermal efficiency) high characteristics steam (80 bars, 520oC) • in order not to store large quantities of bagasse, the Power Station burns all of the bagasse as it is produced by the sugar mill • when bagasse is not available (mainly during the intercropseasonwhichlastssixmonths)asecondfuel is used, and the Power Station is operated as a conventional Power Station producing electricity for the grid • The impact of the Power Station on the environment would have to be minimal (in particular as far as emissions are concerned) 120

• the plant would be operated by a company owned by SIDEC (subsidiary of Charbonnages de France), Industrielle Sucrière de Bourbon (sugar mill owner) and Electricité de France The Bois-Rouge Power Station is made of the following equipment: • two boilers producing each 130 tons of steam at 80 Bars abs 520oC, the two boilers can burn either bagasse or coal exclusively as well as any combination of the two fuels. Switching from one fuel to the other can be done on line automatically. The boilers are of the two drum multipass spreader-stoker type, with a two-stage superheater. Bagasse firing equipment is made on bagasse feeders that allow bagasse extraction and feed regulation from feed chutes. Coal feeders include slat conveyors and projecting drums located at the bottom of the coal chutes • flue gas cleaning equipment made of two distinct dedustingsystems:onemechanicaldedusterdesigned to collect large particles which will be reinjected into the furnace, the second stage consisting of an electrostatic precipitator • bagasse handling system which includes an indoor storage of capacity 1000 tons needed to accommodate the different operating rates of the sugar mill and the Power Station, a set of conveyor belts and slat conveyors whose function is to carry an even quantity of bagasse to the boiler house • coal handling facility including truck weighting, unloading, screening, grinding, two storage silos and a set of conveyor belts • two turbo-generator sets of capacity 30 MWe each, consistingoftwosteamturbineeachcomprisingahigh pressure body and a low pressure body and a steam extractionsystem,twogeneratorsandtwocondensers • two cooling towers aimed at cooling down the condensers, the lube oil plant and the generators • ash handling system • two water demineralisation units The plant was commissioned in August 1992 and has achievedexcellentresultsthenceitwasdecidedtobuild a second plant of the same type near Le Gol sugar mill. Thisplantwascommissionedinthelastquarterof1995.

Bois Rouge and Le Gol Results Themaintechnicalchallengesfacedbytheengineers and the operators delt with: • the size of the plants (circa 60 MWe each) compared to the overall size of the island grid (260 MW)


• the necessity to switch automatically from one fuel to the other • the necessity to meet at the same time the demand from the grid and the demand from the sugar mill which could vary in totally different directions Thesechallengeswerebrilliantlymet.Bois-Rougeand Le Gol power plants provide today 44% of the total electricity produced on La Reunion Island, with an average availability of 90%

Le Moule project A third plant of the same type and of size 2 x 32 MWe hasbeencommissionedin1999inLaGuadeloupenear the town of Le Moule. With this project, bagasse available in the French Overseas Departments will be almost totally used to produce electricity and steam.

Geothermal Geothermal production of electricity Generalities The production of electricity by geothermal energy demands high-temperature resources, essentially associated with current volcanic activity. TheworldconferenceonGeothermalEnergyatFlorence in May 1995 reviewed the evolution of the production of electricity using geothermy on the whole planet. This represents a significant market with a present installed power of 7045 MW and more than 700MW under construction each year, which represents over a billion dollars in new projects annually world-wide. Despite a high investment of between 1200 and 2000US$perkW,operationandlow-maintenancecosts, generallyrepresentingbetween10and20%ofthekWh produced and a high availability of about 8000h per year, make this form of energy extremely competitive at between 5 and 8US cents per kWh for a minimum installed capacity of 10-30MW.

Geothermal Production of electricity in the French Overseas Departments: Guadeloupe, Martinique and Reunion The production of electricity by geothermal energy in the French Overseas Departments presents certain advantages: • anattractiveproductioncost:anislandcontextmeans that geothermal energy production costs compare

advantageously with those of standard production, even for small installed capacities, • geothermal energy uses local resources and has no greenhouse effect, • geothermal energy is a significant potential resource at regional-demand scale: Guadeloupe: a 5MW pilot geothermal plant was constructed and brought into operation in 1986 by EDF.Followingrecentrenovationwork,itisnowoperated by a private company, combining CFG (subsidiaryoftheBRGM[BureaudeRecherchesGeologiques etMinières])andCharth(EDFsubsidiary). An availability rate of around 90% over the first years makes this plant highly promising. A minimum of 20MW can probably be installed at the Bouillante site, i.e. 12% of the island’s peak demand, 15% in produced energy (base operation), and exploitation of a further site seems foreseeable. CFG has been carrying out research since 1995 on these two points and on the successful installation of 40MWe. The drilling phase for the extension to 20MW of the pilot plant will begin during the 2nd semester of 1999. Martinique: 5MW could be installed in a first phase at the Lamentin site with, if possible, 10-20MW during a second phase. Three zones show promising indications. Development includes an exploration drilling phase that is scheduled to begin in 1999. Reunion: 20MW could be installed when the demand currently met by the bagasse-coal plants need the installation of supplementary production means (2006). Two deep exploration boreholes were drilled in 1985 at the Grand Brûlé and Salazie sites. Although non-productive, these boreholes and associated studies have shown that potential exists for discovering exploitable high-temperature resources, especially at Salazie.ItshouldbenotedthatinHawaii,sixboreholes were put down before a resource of 358oC was found at 2100m depth.

The Bouillante plant in Guadeloupe: an example reproducible in the Caribbean The original specifications drawn up at the start were retained during the renovation work. They are based on: • automation enabling the plant to be operated by five people that permanently monitor the smooth running of operations via an assistance network. 121


• daily remote transmission of the main operating data to a dependable, but external, technical unit, located in this case more than 5000km away. This unit periodically interprets the operating data. A permanent dialogue thus exists between the plant and the external technical unit, which must be able to intervene rapidly upon request. It intervenes in the same way for other geothermal sites elsewhere, also external. • integration in a difficult environmental setting. This plant is sufficiently soundproofed that normal operation is imperceptible outside the plant site, even though this plant, originally built on the urban outskirts, is now contained within the built-up-area. Total steam condensation also removes any visual impact of the plant’s operation. A return of sea water at 40oC in an area of natural, major and very hot (70oC) submarine springs completes this environmental integration, assisted by the fact that the geothermal fluid at Bouillante (and that of its springs) is a 50-50 mixture of sea water and meteoric water infiltration without specific chemistry. The H2S content is very low and a trapping system is currently being installed.

Other projects in the Caribbean The Caribbean basin is an area of active volcanism that, since the 1950s, has enabled the production of electricity by geothermal energy to be developed along the western margin: 1039MWe are already installed, including793MWinMexico,105MWinSalvador,70MW in Nicaragua and 70MW in Costa Rica. The eastern margin, constituted by the Caribbean volcanic island arc, was subject to an inventory that revealed several areas of interest, the main ones being the islands of Nevis, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent. Drilling was carried out in Saint Lucia and Guadeloupe in the 1970s following work carried out by BRGM. The Bouillante plant in Guadeloupe is an example of the integration of a small electricity production unit and demonstrates that geothermal energy is a mean of producing electricity in the Caribbean and in volcanic islands in general, specific areas that have in common: • a favourable geological setting for significant geothermal resources, • relatively high costs for conventional production methods, • favourableenvironmentalsettingforthesitingofsmall electricity production units with low impact. 122

Wind

Energy

Specific technological difficulties in the Caribbean islands Althoughthewindresource(tradewinds)isquitehigh in the Caribbean islands, the use of wind power to produce electricity has not been developed in these islands until very recently. It is mainly because in the past a certain number of technological difficulties have inhibited any real development of this source of energy. The logistics and technology of the wind power stations in the Caribbean have nothing in common with what exists in Europe or the State. It seems difficult to get a 40 to 60 metre high crane carrying several tons around the islands where the access roads often have a limited capacity. TheCaribbeanisoftenhitbyhurricanes,whichcould up beyond repair the type of machines designed for the milder climates in Europe or the States. The maintenance and up-keep of the wind machines must be possible without any special equipment and with properly trained local workers. Even more restricting is the fact generating wind energy on a diesel grid is only of interest if it represents a major part of the energy consumed altogether. However, the machines on offer from the main builders only allow between 10 to 15 % of the petrol consumed to be replaced by wind energy. Furthermore, the diesel grids in the Caribbean islands often work in a rather haphazard manner with frequent power cuts.

Wind machines adapted to the Caribbean context IfthemachinesonofferfromtheEuropeanofAmerican constructors are not adapted to this context, they have nonetheless led to major technological breakthroughsonthewindpowerfrontwiththedevelopment of low or medium power wind machines which are perfectly adapted to the Caribbean context: the wind generators produced by VERGNET CARAIBES. No particular equipment is needed for the installation and maintenance of these machines: they are mounted on post that can be lowered with just a winch or a «tirfor» that is motorised hoisting gear. These machines have been designed in such a way so that a locally trained mechanic can maintain them. The maintenance of the Guadeloupean equipment is made so easy by the original technology behind the mechanical speed control mechanism.


Their exceptional ability to withstand high winds and sea spray and the possibility to lower them if a violent hurricane is on the horizon means that their permanent installation can be envisaged in the Caribbean. Lastly, the technology developed by VERGNET CARAIBESforGuadeloupe’swindturbinesallowsthem to coast along which means that they can contribute relatively highly to to energy produced on the diesel grids, even if they are of mediocre quality. Up to 60 to 70% of energy can be generated by wind turbines. This technology, perfected in Guadeloupe, with materials manufactured here following studies carried out by VERGNET CARAIBES, is behind the development of low and medium powered wind power stations, that is with turbine units of between 10 to 60kW and soon with 200kW turbines units. The price per kWh is already competitive compared to the price of a kWh produced from fossil fuels.

Realisations The first wind power station, on Desirade island (off Guadeloupe) up and running since 1992 shows VERGNET CARAIBES’ Guadeloupean technology potential for adaptation and competitiveness. In the beginning the Desirade wind power station’s capacity was 140kW, this has been increased to 500kW which covers all of the island’s energy needs. A second wind power station with a 1.5MW capacity has been commissioned at the end of 1997 on MarieGalante Island (also off Guadeloupe). The other projects for Antilles (Martinique and Guadeloupe) with a total capacity of 12MW have been approved for financement in the frame of the Eole 2005 Programme. This new wind energy technology from and for the Caribbean is of interest for all the region and some projects are already underway in Santo Domingo, studies are being carried out in Haiti and the Grenadines and Cuba has already shown an interest. The studies of this natural resource, the manufacture, installation, training and maintenance, even the management of the power station are all available in Guadeloupe.

Development Corsica

under

progress:

The technical potential of wind energy in Corsica has been identified: 433MW for annual average wind speed higher than 7m/s. On this base the economical potential is estimated at the level of 100MW. In the frame of the Eole 2005 programme, 11 projects have

been approved for a total of 52MW. The first realisation is planned for the end of 1999.

Solar Energy There are several thousands of dwellings which are located in remote places in Corsica and in the French Overseas Departments, and therefore not connected to the grid. A very significant number of these dwellings, and also farm installations, pumping stations... have been fitted with photovoltaïc systems: at the end of 1998 their total number reaches almost 4000 and the total installed capacity is about 4MW. It is worth noting that the «PV density» of the French Overseas Departments, defined as the number of Wc per inhabitant is probably one of the highest in the world. The population of these Departments being close to 1.5 millions, their PV density is about 2.5Wc per inhabitant. The unit installed PV capacity is quite high (about 1kWc). Even when excluding professional uses, the unit installed PV capacity in each dwelling is still high especially when compared with Solar Home Systems in developingcountries,theunitcapacityofwhichistypically in the order of magnitude of 50 - 100Wc. This high unit capacity is necessary because of the substantial amount ofelectricityservicesnecessaryforrelativelyhigh-income populations. It in turn necessitates high quality installations, sophisticated energy management and very good reliability. The main operators in this field are the companiesSolelec-CaraïbesandSolelecReunion,subsidiaries of Total-Energie. CHARTH acquired a 35% stake in the share capital of this firm in 1996. Solar energy is also used on a large scale in its thermal form, for the production of hot water in solar water heaters as a substitution for the use of electricity. At the end of 1998, the total number of solar water heaters reaches 40.000 compared to a total number of dwellingsofabout650.000.Morethan10.000solarwater heaters have been sold during the last two years. In this field too, a great emphasis has been put on quality and reliability, with maintenance contracts up to 10 years.

Conclusion Renewable energies provide about 35% of total electricity generation in the French Overseas Departments and 40% in Corsica. Combined with major electricity 123


demand side management programmes in these Departments, their use makes it possible to substantially reduceelectricitygenerationbasedonpetroleumproductsinconventionalthermalplants,withatriplebenefit: • from the environmental point of view, a substantial reduction of global (CO2) and local (SO2, NOx, dust...) pollutants • from an economic point of view, a significant reduction of generation costs (partially due to the tax exemptions schemes which exist in these Departments in favour of renewable energies) • from a societal point of view, the use of renewable energies instead of imported oil provides more jobs locally, in Departments which are heavily struck by unemployment. Besides that, people living far from the electricity grid can now benefit from electricity services provided by the above mentioned PV-electrification programs. All the corresponding techniques have been adapted to the difficult climatic characteristics of these Departments (hurricanes, substantial rainfall, air that is hot, salty and extremely damp, and therefore very corrosiveintheislands),andareavailablelocally,whichmeans they can be readily used without additional adaptation in other tropical or Mediterranean regions, in particular those in the area of the French Overseas Departments, where electricity supply is provided under similar conditions: islands of the Caribbean and the Indian Ocean, and the Amazon region. The Renewable Energy development in the island’s context is a real success story. The RE technologies have proved their reliability and their economical competitivity, notably with the concept of long period plant management by private operators and energy sales to the users.

* stability at 8 Mtep in individual dwelling sector with efficiency improved by 10 %.

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Considering these results, ADEME has proposed to the French Government a Renewable Energies Development Program 1999-2006 adapted to the continental context. The energetic targets for 2006 are the followings: • Biomass *+200.000tepincollectivedwellingsandtertiarysector • Electricity from renewable energy sources Wind: * + 500 MW (1.2 to 1.5 TWh/ky) * + 3.000 MW in 2010. Small hydro: + 100 MW (0.5 TWh/y). Photovoltaïc (grid-connected and off-grid): * + 10 MW Geothermy: + 25 MW (0.150 Twh/y) • Heating and hot water Geothermy: + 10.000 equivalent dwellings (5.000 tep). Solar thermal: + 85.000 Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems + 35.000 m² in collective/tertiary + 1.500 Solar heatings of individual dwelling. The targets are also to enhance the economical competitivity of Renewable Energies technologies and tosupportthedevelopmentofastrongprofessionalsector,industrialists,engineeringcompanies,installers… To reach these objectives, a set of financial measures will be notified in the next weeks to the European Union Commission.


Full Supply for El Hierro by means of Renewable Energies JAVIER M ORALES El Hierro Island Council EL HIERRO - CANARY ISLANDS

E

l Hierro is the smallest and westernmost of the Canary Islands. It has a population of 8,000 inhabitants and a total surface area of 275 km2, with a wide range of micro-climates, which vary according to which way they face (North and South-facing slopes) and altitude. The island, like the whole of the archipelago, is exposed to the N.E. trade winds, which blow constantly throughout the year. Theterrainismarkedbylargeescarpmentsandslopes, a central plateau and flat lands on North and NorthWest facing coastal areas. Maximum altitude is 1,500 m.

An illustration of this concept would be the following:weshouldliveoftheinterestgeneratedbythe“natural capital� at our disposal. If we want to spend more each year, the answer is not to dip into the capital, but to increase capital so that it can generate more annual interest. The Sustainable Development Programme covers aspects like Agriculture, Transport, Tourism, Industry, Energy, Water, Architecture, Livestock, etc. Thus, clean and sustainable energy production on the island is a fundamental part of the broad strategy.

Context for acting A plenary session of the El Hierro Cabildo (Island Government) adopted the Sustainable Development Programme in November, 1997. The objective of the programme is to use a broad series of projects, in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Rio Summit to strike a balance between human development and the conservation of nature on the island. SustainableDevelopmentisunderstoodtobehuman,socialandeconomicdevelopmentasawhole, in which resources are used in such a way as to prevent their availability becoming compromised for future generations. Resources do not just include material assets, they also include some intangibles, such as scenery, bio-diversity, social values, cultureandthechannelsofsocialparticipation,etc. 125


Characteristics of the Project Average electricity consumption on the island is presently 2,000 Kw, with peaks in the summer, when there are more visitors on the island, of up to 4,000 Kw. Electricity is produced in a Unelco conventional power station in Llanos Blancos, next to Puerto de La Estaca. On the other hand, there are two wind turbines installed in Valverde. These are connected to the grid and produce 180 and 220 kw of power. These wind turbines have been in operation for about five years and have proved their consistency and efficiency. In fact, for some months of the year, they are the most regular wind turbines in the Canary Islands. Despite this fact, the unpredictable nature of the wind, fluctuations, periods of calm and the need for stability in an electricity grid subject to variable demand make it technically difficult to match energy demand and supply with wind generation if it does not have a suitable storage system. Therefore, and bearing in mind the terrain and prevailing meteorological conditions, the solution proposed here is to build a wind-hydraulic system made up of the following components: • A 20-turbine wind farm with a total generating power of 10,000 Kw. • A water pumping system • A water storage reservoir sited at altitude (700 m) and with a total capacity of 500,000 m3, meaning the

126

reserves would cover an 8-day period of calm. • A return loop and turbine connected to an electric generator. All these elements would be necessary if the water used came from the sea. If fresh water were chosen for the system, the following components would also be necessary: • A water reservoir down at sea level, the same size as the upper one. • A sea water desalination plant. The system would work as follows: the wind turbines would pump water up from sea level, or from the sea, to the reservoir at 700 m, where a potential energy reservoir would be created. The water would be piped down from the reservoir to a turbine and generator, and the flow would be regulated according to energy demand from the grid. If fresh water were used, a desalination plant would be necessary for producing it and to off-set evaporation from the two reservoirs and the extra power required. The desalination plant would be essential for a fresh water project, because of the water shortages generally suffered by the Island of El Hierro. The advantages of using fresh water, would be a reduction in the level of corrosion in system components, and the possibility of using the water produced for domestic use and irrigation.


At the same time as it generates energy, the project would also improve its service to the local community, within its Sustainable Development strategy in the following manner: • Tourist and education services, with a Project Interpretation Centre to explain the details of how the system works to visitors. • Commercial services and support for the rural economy by selling local craft work and products from El Hierro in a shop next to the Interpretation Centre. • Leisure and sports facilities, with a Restaurant and a Centre for promoting sports like rowing and canoeing (the reservoir will have a surface area of 5 ha and will be located 2 km from the Island’s capital)-. • Productive services, with fish farming. Having studied the different possibilities for sites on the Island, we propose that the system should be located in the area of Valverde for the following reasons: • There is a natural depression of more than 500,000 m3 at 700 m above sea level, next to the Valverde – Frontera road, close to the capital. This would allow savingsinearthmovingandwouldalsominimisevisual impact on the landscape.

• Constant wind conditions and experience in harnessingwindpower(2windturbines)2kmfromtheabove mentioned depression. • Proximity of the present energy generating plant, which is located at sea level, almost directly below the storage reservoir. • There is an electricity distribution grid close to the system. • The land to be used for the project is suitably zoned in the Island Land Management Plan. • There are roads and channels of communications close to the site of the wind turbines. • Relatively close to towns, making maintenance easier.

Investment and current status of the Project Planned investment is approximately 3.5 billion pesetas. The Plans are currently being drawn up and a Co-operation Agreement has been signed by the ITC (Canary Island Technological Institute), Unelco (the electricity company) and the El Hierro Island Cabildo forco-ordinatingthestudies.WeestimatethatthePlans should be drawn up and completed within 9 months. 127


128


Renewable Energy Proposals on Cape Clear Island Cork County, Ireland BRENDAN D EVLIN Cork County Council IRELAND

T

his Project came about as a result of a successful application to the European Commission in 1994 to carry out a study on the Island of Cape Clear. It was part of a European Partnership with the North Aegean Islands of Greece and the Isle of Ponza off Italy. The project received 33% funding from DGXVII under the Regional and Urban Energy Planning Programme and work commenced on the project in January 1997. This paper gives a summary of the present position of the project as of May 1999.

ergy Systems Ltd. LEADER and Cork County Council funded this. There was also an Interim Report on energy conservation, recycling and waste management and wind developments prepared by the Council’s Energy Office under an E.U. Contract. This contract includes Italian and Greek Partners. Comharchumann Staff prepared an ‘Environmental Report’ on a proposed upgrading of the Island’s wind energy system. (consistingoftwo30kWwindturbinesinstalledin1986.)

Cape Clear Energy Trail

Executive

Summary

History During the past two years a partnership has been created between Comharchumann Chléire Teo (Cape Clear Island Community Council) and Cork County Council’s Public Energy Information Office based in Mallow. The aim of this partnership is to develop all aspects of renewable energy and energy conservation on the island. The possibilities for various kinds of renewable energy are greater on an island and the preservation of the environment and sustainable tourist development should go hand in hand.

All these initiatives have created significant interest andawarenessamongsttheIslandCommunityandhave created a focus on energy conservation and renewable energy. This has been realised in a practical way in the implementation of a ‘renewable energy trail’ on the Island. The first steps have already been taken to create this trail. These ‘first steps’ include the installation of a solar water heating system in the school, the preparation of a ‘biomass demonstration plot’, and two demonstrations of solar powered public lighting on the island. A study has also commenced on a small-scale hydroelectric system and planning permission has been obtained to develop the wind energy system from Cork County Council.

Projects on Cape Clear Anumberofsignificantstudieshavebeencompleted. These include a feasibility study for a ‘Renewable Energy Trail’ on the Island commissioned by the Comharchumann and carried out by Hyperion En-

Energy

Conservation.

All houses on the Island were visited by the staff of the council’s Energy Office who gave free leaflets and advice on energy saving in the home. Two people from 129


the Island were trained in Mallow, as Energy Managers. The school children also visited the Energy Office as part of their 1997 School Tour. CurrentlytheCountyCouncilisassistingtheCommunityCouncilinpreparingandpresentingWeekendTrainingCoursesinRenewablesandEnergyConservation.

Work Programme for Cape Clear Project Due to the two year delay in the commencement of the project, a slightly revised work programme had to be prepared to make the work relevant to 1997. This revised programme was adopted at the kick-off partners meeting in February 1997. The Irish Work Programme will be divided into five main areas that are briefly explained hereunder.

Wind

Energy

a A preliminary study to assess the wind energy potential of the Island will be produced, b Technical support to the Islanders, in the area of windenergy.

Island

Energy

Manager

Training of Energy Manager for the Island: The existing energy agency in Mallow will train one Islander on energy matters with an emphasis on energy conservation. It is anticipated that when trained this person will have the ability to conduct • energy audits of buildings, • promote energy conservation, • promote water conservation, • have a working knowledge of the benefits and applicability of renewable energy on Cape Clear,

Solar

Energy

a The feasibility of erecting solar thermal systems on tourist/visitor accommodation will be investigated/ promoted/ and a pilot plant will be erected. b Photovoltaics: The reallocation of part of an existing large-scale PV installation will be designed and investigated, with a view to stand-alone applications for PV on the Island. c Promotion of the use of passive solar in the newer dwellings will take place. 130

Hydro

Power

The possibility of one or two small hydro power units, e.g. 1 kW size will be investigated as an energy source for the school or other installations.

Desalination Regularly in the summer periods there is a shortage of water on the Island. The feasibility of desalination in the Irish context will be investigated.

Summary of Activities to - date 1997 • Participated in partners meeting Lesvos Greece in February 1997. • Appointed consultant to the project - Hyperion Ltd • PreparedandpresentedpublicpresentationonCape Clear to involve the Islanders. • Arranged publications for the project in local media. • Prepared Interim Report to the E.U. • Visited the Island to attend the official switch-on of national electricity grid connection to Cape Clear. • Initiated work on four Renewable Energy reports. • Visited the Island re. Hydropower Survey. • Visited the Island re. Solar installations. • E.U.partnersmeetingonCapeClear(October1997). • Organised and sponsored Educational visit by the school children of Cape Clear to the Councils Energy Office in Mallow, (June 1997).

1998 • Trained two Islanders as Energy Managers (January 1998). Solar panel on the school


Energy Conservation in the homes Mr. Pat Walsh, Mr. Padraig Barrett, Mr. Ger Barry of the Council’s Energy Agency Office visited the Island of Cape Clear on the 20th and 21st of February 1998. The main purpose of the visit was to enlighten the Islands inhabitants on the subject of energy conservation and the ways in which they could put it into practice in their own home. Each house, occupied during the winter-time, was visited. As well as expert advice being given to the householders, a pack of approximately 12 leaflets on Energy Conservationinthehomewasdistributedtoeachhouse. PV light on noticeboard

• Completion of each Report (Solar Thermal, PV, Hydro & Energy Conservation). • Installed Solar Thermal panels on the school (February 1998). • Examined Sources of Funding for the individual projects on the Island. • Examined Possibility of Wave Energy demonstration on the Island (April 1998). • 2nd Interim Report submitted to E.U. (August 1998). • Supported Islanders in Wind development proposals. • Brief E.U. partners meeting in Cork (December 1998).

1999 • PV powered light for noticeboard installed. • PV Electric Fence installed. • PV powered water pump installed. • Advised Islanders on the installation of P.V. powered electric light for slipway (January 1999). • Produced Brochures for Training Courses on the Island. • Produced Course Notes for Energy Training Courses -April 1999. • Presented 2 day training workshop on 17/18th April 1999.

Proposed Activities in May • Install 1KW wind turbine for lighting. • Present paper to Island Solar Summit in Tenerife CountyEngineer. • Hold weekend Energy Workshop for Teachers 22/ 23rd May.

Energy trail The aim of the proposed work is to establish an Energy Trail on Cape Clear. The Trail will consist of nineteen different renewable applications located at different locations throughout the Island. The renewable energy systems to be included in the Trail are as follows: 2 x 35kW wind generators • Hydraulic wind pump • PV Water Pump • PV electric fence • PV weather station • PV buoys • PV Refrigeration • PV powered security System (Holiday Homes) •PV remote supply for sheds • Stand-alone PV house • PV/wind powered system (Based on 20ft container) • PV battery charger on boats • PV radio transmitters • Biomass demonstration plot (10 Biomass plants) • Thermomax solar heating system on houses • Passive solar design of houses • Wave Energy demonstration. The aim of the Trail is to establish new business activitiesontheislandbasedonguidedtours,trainingcourses, workshops and the sale of renewable energy products. The market for the Trail would be tourists, education, research, energy demonstration, training and energy supply. The main categories of renewable energy systems would be wind, solar thermal systems, small hydro systems and small PV systems. There is a large cost in131


• 10 Biomass Plants • 2 x 30KW wind generators (previously on the island, currently switched off)

Conclusion

PV Light

volved in establishing a high quality Renewable Energy Trail. This is due in large part to the high cost of the PV modules, but this could be divided into three stages: • Stage 1: Mini-trail in North Harbour • Stage 2: Medium sized PV systems • Stage 3: PV Systems for R & D The main possible sources of funding for the proposed Trail are: • Udaras Na Gaeltachta • Leader • FAS • EU R&D programmes • Department of Energy AER Programme. The success of the Trail will depend on the quality of the systems, the quality of the personnel presenting the lectures/tours/courses and the effort used in promoting the Trail. The support of the community is essential to ensure the success of the initiative. Thelonger-termsuccessoftheTrailwillbebasedonthe operationoftheTrailasabusinesswithpropermarketing, trainingandmaintenanceprogrammesinoperation.

Present Position - April 1999 A mini Trail is presently in operation on the island: • A solar thermal system has been erected on the roof of the national school. This was funded 50% by Cork County Council and 50% by Udaras na Gaeltachta. • V operated Public Light on the slipway. • PV operated water pump. • PV operated electric fence. • PV operated lighting for noticeboard. 132

This project is now well advanced. The final Report is due for submission to the European Commission in February 2000. Even though a small project, it is an excellent example of how a small island community can establish strong links with a Local Authority, Private Consultancy Companies, Suppliers, European Partners and the E.U.

Acknowledgements The Cork County Council would like to acknowledge thevaluablecontributionofthefollowingorganisations: • The E.U. support received under the Regional and UrbanEnergyPlanningProgrammeofDGXVII,now amalgamated into the SAVE II programme. • ComharchumannOileanChleire.WhentheCouncil thought of this idea in the first instance in 1994, we always felt that we were «pushing an open door». The Islanders were very enthusiastic and indeed, the Islanders themselves have undertaken several of the actions listed here • At the start of the project Consultants from Watergrasshill, Hyperion Ltd, were employed and it was Hyperion who thought of the idea of an Energy Tail and produced the report for the Energy Trail. • NationalMicroelectronicsResearchCentre(NMRC), who contributed financial support and several ideas for the Energy Trail concept. • Leader & Udaras Na Gaeltachta who supplied some financialsupporttosomeoftheactionsimplemented.


Bioclimatic Buildings: Solutions for Islands G UILLERMO G ALVĂ N I.T.E.R. CANARY ISLANDS

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he growth of the population during the last decades has created a debate about the possibility of maintaining the development and the quantity of natural resources available in our planet. An accurate view of the prospects suggests that it is impossible to fulfil and satisfy the needs of this uncontrollable growth, and it advises for a change in the way the exploitation and use of the natural resources are conceived. The degradation of nature has been caused by the systematic exploitation of the natural resources and the use of non-renewable sources such as petroleum and coal. That type of energy has clearly contributed to degradetheplanetplusoriginatingenergydependence. For example, in Spain, houses and cars spend more than one fourth of the total energy consumption, that is 17 millions of tons oil equivalent (mtoe), or 13,000 millions of ECU per year. Mainly due to the climate, the consumption of a Spanish house is only 40 % compared with one from another country of the European Union. Tenerife Island in the Canary Isles is also concerned about this situation. The fact of being an island makes the dependence of outside areas even stronger. The lack of conventional energy supplies is another inconvenient besides the number of inhabitants in a limited amount of space. The Excellent Island Government of Tenerife (Cabildo de Tenerife) and the Institute for Technology and Renewable Energy Sources (ITER), and the College of Architects of the Canary Islands (COAC) promotedanInternationalTenderforPreliminaryProjects

homologated by the International Union of Architects (UIA) on March 1995, for the selection of proposals for the construction of 25 isolated one-family dwellings designed to take the utmost advantage of bioclimatic conditions. Also and whenever possible, recycled and recyclable materials will be used. The development will be located on land belonging to the Wind Park of Tenerife, which is situated in the municipality of Granadilla, in the South of Tenerife. The tenderer who obtained the first prize will be commissioned for the execution of a Visitors and Information Centre. The end result shall be an autonomous unit with areas for visitors and supplementary open spaces. A nonpolluting development inspired on ecological principles.

The Tender The project began with the call for the international and public tender, which was open to architects whose qualifications had been accepted by any of the National Departments of the International Union of Architects, and they were able to participate either individually or as directors of multidisciplinary teams. Thediffusionperiodlastedfromthe1sthalfofMarch until the 2nd of May 1995, when the registration finished. The admission of works took place until 6th October 1996, after a period of consultations answered by a Technical Committee and delivery of information. 133


The total number of teams that attended was 397 from all over the world: Germany

6

Israel

3

Argentina Austria

5 16

Italy Japan

21 1

Belgium Brazil

3 1

Kazakhstan Kenya

1 2

Canada Colombia

1 1

Mexico Norway

7 1

Croatia Cuba

5 2

Peru Poland

1 1

Czechoslovakia Denmark Spain USA

1 11

Portugal United Kingdom

1 19

169 14

Reunion Rumania

1 2

Finland France

8 55

Russia Sweden

5 10

Georgia Greece

6 4

Turkey Venezuela

1 1

The Netherlands Hong Kong

6 1

Yugoslavia Zambia

1 1

The Selection Committee proceeded to the public readingoftheresultonthe27thofOctober1995,which date coincided with the opening (the exhibition of all those works which were accepted, distinguished and prized). Said exhibition took place in the Tenerife premise of the College of Architects of the Canary Islands. The Committee took into account the integral value of the proposals and their financial feasibility and yield, their adaptation to the environment, their response to the surrounding conditioning factors, the use which is made of the bioclimatic conditions of the location, and research into the use of recycled and recyclable materials. Also the tenderer who obtained the first prize was commissioned for the execution of the project, including the Visitors’ and Information Centre to be built on the development.

General

description

The energy consumed in a Spanish house is distributed as follows: 29% for heating, 28.5 for hot water, 11% for the kitchen, 10% for illumination and 21.5% for appliances. Heating and hot water expenses can almost be eliminated by the bioclimatic design of the 134

houses and the use of solar collectors; this reduces the electric energy consumption to a third part, that can also be minimised using wind and solar energy. If the houses consumption is reduced in a 25%, the savings would be 1,700 MECUs in the economic scope and 11 mton of CO2 in the environmental. In the EC, the energy consumption for the heating, cooling and lighting of buildings is approximately 50% of all primary energy. The dwellings selected in the Tender are supplied with the electricity generated from PV panels, wind turbinesand/orenergyfrombiomassandrubbish.The electrical grid will support these installations to guarantee a continuous supply. A desalination plant will produce fresh water, and the sewage will be used in a purifying plant for irrigation purposes. The hot domestic water will be obtained with individual solar collectors, fulfilling the needs of each house. The rubbish will be treated to generate electric energy. The use of renewable energies and the techniques for desalination and waste processing will cause a noticeable drop in pollutants and a important saving of the scarce traditional resources and, as a result selfsufficiency. The incorporation of renewable energies, such as solar or wind, in domestic life, shall constitute an important step to divulge technical knowledge within this field. The project also foresees the use of biomass and solid residues for the production of electricity. Some guidelines were to be followed in the elaboration of the proposals: • standard 500 sq.m. plots with a maximum built-up surface of 120 sq.m. • 3 - 4 bedrooms, and standing no more than two store high. • cost of construction per square metre shall not surpass 150,000 ptas (US$ 1,200). This project gives a local solution to many problems like energy production and consumption, as well as the use of renewable energies on a small scale. The dwellings will be integrated in a small urban development that would allow a technical and scientific tourism to come and stay in this place using the common areas and evaluating the results. The experience could be applied later in other areas with similar characteristics, allowing the dissemination of experience and knowledge developed in this kind of buildings.


Situation

• Humidity probes • Air flow measuring device • People presence sensors • CO2 and dust measuring device.

The 25 bioclimatic dwellings shall be located on the coastline of the South of the island of Tenerife, along a dry ravine. The main reason for choosing this location lies in the enormous potential of the islands in relation to renewable energy sources: large number of sun hours,constantwinds(mainlyfromtheEastandNortheast) of a considerable force (7.5 m/s), scarce rainfall and arid land. Nevertheless, its situation near the coast enables experiences on water desalination using RE. Tenerife is one of the islands of the Canaries archipelago, which is situated in the Atlantic near the African continent. The development will be placed near the headquarters of ITER, and it is conceived as an outdoor laboratory. Once the dwellings are built, the efficiency of each one of them will be monitored, with an expected output that will be really useful for later applications in a national and international scope.

Thesesensorswillbecomplementedwithweatherstations, which will measure parameters such as sun radiation,outsidetemperature,pressure,humidityandparticles, and energy consumption and generation registers that discriminate the source of origin (PV panels, wind generator, other RE and grid). All the data will be collected in a concentrator that will process all the information and send it, with a specific protocol, to a central computer in the Visitors’ Center and, eventually, a local computer for the data acquisition of each of the house. The central computer will perform a global data compilation of the whole development, allowing access to the results either individual or globally in realtime analysis. It will also serve as a storage unit and will

CLIMATIC PARAMETERS -1.981-1.992 AVERAGE

AVERAGE

SUN

DAYS

PARTIALLY

TEMPERATURE

WIND

HOURS

WITHOUT

CLOUDED

°C

SPEED m/s

CLOUDS

DAYS

JAN FEB

18,42 18,36

7,55 7,59

191,57 192,59

10,33 8,50

19,33 17,17

MAR APR

19,41 19,24

7,97 7,59

210,42 199,23

10,17 6,50

18,33 21,17

MAY JUN

20,16 21,91

7,17 7,43

233,13 237,08

4,67 7,83

23,83 21,00

JUL AUG

23,93 24,89

8,19 8,03

271,26 256,63

18,17 15,50

11,83 15,00

SEP OCT

24,75 23,40

7,31 7,06

191,18 199,49

8,50 3,33

20,17 24,00

NOV DEC

21,53 19,50

7,13 7,01

185,61 190,82

5,83 4,67

21,33 24,00

TOT

21,28

7,50

2.559,31

104,00

237,17

Monitoring Each house will have several sensors and probes that will measure certain parameters in each of them for a later analysis and monitoring, and other specific ones depending on the main characteristics of each dwelling (anemometers and wind vanes in air tubes, temperature or humidity in special places, etc.). The devices for each of the dwellings include: • Vertical temperature profile probes • Inside / Outside wall temperature probes

allow, with the use of several devices, a real-time monitoring of the performance of the dwellings and a data processing of the desired time space.

Building

considerations

Energy savings can be substantially made without involving generation plants; that is by using materials with certain characteristics to avoid losses or devices to reduce the consumption, as well as designing techniques to maximize the use of daylighting. 135


Passive

Solar

Energy

The basic concern is the minimisation of heat loss and taking maximum advantage of useful solar gain. The house must be isolated to avoid losses of heat or coolness, not to mention the added value of reducing noises from outside. Double glasses in the windows will also help (they reduce the heat losses to its half), as well as using other systems to keep doors and windows perfectly shut, as 40% of heat is lost if they are not. For passive solar heating, there are four configurations available: direct (large areas of south-facing glazing), indirect (walls and roofs), isolated (the heat is transferred in and out the living spaces) and dual gain systems (uses the advantages of the previous three systems). Other aspects may help in the cooling: building formandexternalfinishes,buildingenvelope,airmovement, shading, reflectors, orientation depending on wind and sun conditions, etc. For passive solar cooling, an indirect gain system can be made using water wall or roof pond. For the heating, the collection system is exposed during the day and isolated by night transferring the heat to the house, performing the reverse way for cooling. Fountains, ponds, etc. can humidify the surrounding air, thereby helping the cooling. A bioclimatic design may save a 70% of the heating costs, producing an additional cost varying from zero to 20% in extreme cases. Natural lighting may be provided directly to interior spaces (Core System) or adjacent to the house exterior (Perimeter System). Advanced windows, light shelves, skylights, roof monitors and side lighting will also help to reduce lighting costs.

Environmental Impact The design of the microclimate around the houses is very important. The site planning and orientation is being carefully studied, not only to provide the best energetic conditions, but also to match the environment. Many designs are integrated with local rural architecture. The energy generation and water treatment plants will be made in such a way that they do not affect the landscape either hiding or integrating them to reduce the visual impact to a minimum. A landscaped area will be planned to avoid environmental impact plus improving the surroundings and its weather. The autochthonous vegetation will be respected in the maximum way, reinforcing it with an adequate irrigation. This vegetation is mainly formed by tabaibas and cardones, dominated by different species of Euphorbia and a numerous group of shrubs, mainly endemic. Materials and Appliances The materials used for the making of the house are recycled in the maximum way possible and, depending on the weather, with thermal inertia. The appliances of the house should be perfectly fitted to the needs of the residents (capacity, power, etc.) and would preferably have the ‘Ecological Label’ of the European Community. Instead of using the traditional bulb lights, low consume ones (20% of the normal consumption) or halogen lamps will be used. It saves 0.5 ton of CO2 to be emitted to the atmosphere to change a 100 w. traditional light for a low consume. Photoelectric and people presence sensors switch off unnecessary lights when not required, producing a saving between 10 and 80%.

Energy

production

Even though a great percentage of energy is saved with the design and equipment of the house, autonomous installations are needed (wind and solar energy, biomass) to meet the electricity needs of each house, besides water treatment plants. The machines that transform wind energy in a usable one are called wind turbines or generators, and their power ranges from a few watts to megawatts. The main generated energy is mechanical, but it can be transformed to electrical with a gearbox and an electrical generator. Photovoltaics is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity using devices made of thin semiconductors 136


layers; these devices are called solar cells, and a PV module consists of a number of cells connected together. The peak output power of a module, defined as the power delivered at an irradiance of 1.000 W/m2 at 25ºC, ranges from 30 to 120 W. The PV modules can form PV systems when they are connected together. Biomass is the organic part that comes from animal, vegetal and microorganism wastes, that can be converted in usable energy or products for other purposes. Considering biomass as an energy source, the one produced by photosynthetic organisms capable of transforming solar in chemical energy is very interesting. PV panels and wind turbines will not be common resources, but individual solutions for the consumption of each of the dwellings. The Visitors’ Center may have a medium-sized wind turbine or PV panels for the electric supply of public installations, like water treatment plants. Due to the optimal environmental conditions of the area (plenty of hours of sunshine and high windspeed),ahybridplanthasbeendevelopedinsome proposals, assuring a better performance during more time. Rather than having an autonomous generation system, the houses will collect the extra energy needed from the electrical grid.

Water

supply

Adesalination(reverseosmosisorelectrodialysis)and a purifying system, both placed in the visitors center, will be the suppliers of the water needed for the village. There will be three distribution networks. The water obtained from the sea will be treated in the desalination plant to produce fresh water; it will supply the houses with the first pipe network. The sewage originated in the buildings will be sent to the Visitors Center by a second network, where it will be treated in a sewage farm. The third network will supply purified water for irrigation. Active solar energy systems of low temperature use an energy collector, especially suitable for heating water for human use and heating. The main components are the solar collector, a storage system and the distribution or consumption system. The basic element, the collector, contains an absorber which converts the incident solar radiation into collected energy; later on, the energy is transferred to the water for transport directly to the load or to isolated tanks for later use.

Waste

treatment

Each Spaniard produces 1 Kg. of waste per day, that is 1 ton per family and year. The treatment of that wastes could supply with part of the electricity for that same family, maybe in a percentage of 15-20%. All the wastes derived from a house will be reused to minimize its volume and weight, which is a big nowadays problem. A well-dimensioned storage hole will be made, considering that no smells or dust should come out of it. The techniques used for the energy generation from wastes will be the ones technically feasible and economically available in the moment of the construction. One of these procedures is pyrolysis, where the wastes are pressed, obtaining fuel with complicated techniques. The wastes will be separated by the type of material they are made of: glass, organic wastes, plastics, paper, etc., with the objective of agreeing with the ‘Three R’ postulate, also adopted by the EC: reduce, reuse and recycle.

Use of the development The houses will be exploited for the lodging of a technical-scientific tourism that will inhabit them temporarily. Their studies and remarks will be of great interest for future applications. 137


Thedevelopmentmaybevisitedbypeopleinterested in these subjects, and for that reason, a Visitors’ and Information Centre is planned. This Centre will inform on the experience achieved and may also be the quarter of Conferences and Congresses on renewable energy. The results will be vastly disseminated and periodical reports on the performance of the village will be made. Assistance on the development and implementation of this idea all over Europe will be available, and the houses will be the subjects of all the necessary tests to improve their designs and collect data in a long period. Every year a seminar will be made in collaboration with the College of Architects of Canary Islands, to analyse and discuss the design improvements, new devices, innovative techniques and all other aspects relating to solar architecture.

The Awards The prized proposals were: 1º MADRID (SPAIN) RUÍZ-LARREA CANGAS, César ÁLVAREZ-SALA WALTHER, Enrique RUBIO CARVAJAL, Carlos NEILA GONZÁLEZ, Javier MONEDERO FRÍAS, Alberto ORTEGA BARNUEVO, Gonzalo

2º VICENZA (ITALY) PULITZER, Natasha LOS, Sergio BOGHETTO, Cristina COZZA, Enrico LOT, Sergio MIOTTO, Alberto PANDOLFO, Salvatore BERTAZZON, Annamaria

3º BARCELONA (SPAIN) ADROER PUIG, Marta SERRA CASALS, Sergi

3º ENGELSTRAAT (BELGIUM) EECKHOUT, Luc E.G. VAN DEN BROEKE, Jean Pierre

138

Other 21 works were awarded (from teams of the United Kingdom, Francer, Denmark, United States, Finland, Venezuela, Mexico and Poland). All of them, together with a reservation list of 10 works, plus other 22 form the travelling exhibition that has already been shown in several cities, like Berlin and Barcelona.

The Prizes First Prize: LA GERIA The most sensible ‘bioclimatic architecture’ for any place should not be different from anyone arisen from the sensitive and natural reading and translation of the specific conditions of the context. That is, to analyse its climatic, landscape and cultural parameters, the traditional construction, the materials, the collective habitats that have been made, the vegetation, colours, shapes, etc., with the objective of proposing architectures that arise from and for the area. For that reason, that architecture is not a cultural option and an own technique taken as a reference to verify and correct it afterwards in an specific location, but an adequate solution that the place suggests after an accurate observation and preceding experiences. Consequently, the problem created has an strictly architectural nature, and bioclimatism is only a variable


with the same importance of those which take part in thematerializationofthetime-spacecrossroadinwhich life develops in a certain time -place. The main objective of the work is to project architecture capable of doing that, where a shelter from sun, wind and rain may be found, and where the selected site may have a meaning for the rootless modern man. An architectural system rooted on agricultural and constructive traditions of the islands and capable of defining morphologically the whole unit is proposed and, more than that, of generating a group that will be able to give the urbanisation a peculiar identity. An own micro-climatic space protected from wind and abstract in its internal spatial configuration is guaranteed by the use of an enclosure walled with volcanic rocks. A sequence of rocky circles with a 20 mts. diameter placed along the gardened and pedestrian path (materialized in a walk with wood elements) give architectural meaning to the whole landscape. That circle may be found standing on its own or against the slope with bigger inclination, using the natural orography as a limit in certain cases. This circle allows for each location the adequate orientation of the protected interior space towards the optimal bioclimatic conditions. The house is supported on the land and protects it in the same way hundreds of shelters built by the shepherds all around the island to protect the cattle do. Spectacular geological nature. Let us protect its mineral silence. Let us think in the shelter. Let us isolate the living spaces with a rocky enclosure. We gently settle on the area. Without harming it, without using artificialterraces.Respectingitsautochthonousvegetation. Suavemente nos posamos sobre la zona. Sin romperla. Sin introducir artificios aterrazados. Respetamos su vegetación original. Endemic species that only grow in these latitudes. This context is the greatest determining factor of the architectural problem. The wind is constant and annoying there. It is the energy that breathes the place. To tame is purely an architectural concern. On the other hand, the climate is optimal. All over the year it is on the fringe of comfort. There is not much work to do. Just to have enough sense to combine those variables and the habitat is created. The wall architecture is the element that has always been used to solve it. Once this is done, man watches the sky, looks for a cloud to protect him, and bring him water and shadow. We anchor more and more in each situation. Man is placed on earth in horizontal platforms, protected.

¿Which will be the architecture here? The covered cloud, the platform, its shadow, the enclosure... will be in fact the magical energy established between the interaction of the platform and its cover. The upper edge of that and the lower of this is turned into architecture and landscape. Some local materials are piled, oxidised colour palettes are used, active elements for energy collection are provided and nature is hoped to be absolutely passive to the elements that form the proposal. Flexible interior space. The enclosure limits its horizon. The user chooses the most appropriate place for his activities for each moment of the day. The house is proposed as a series of spaces interchangeable in time. Watch-see-think-create.

Second Prize: The Place The project focusses on the following issues: • A MULTI-SCALE ARCHITECTURE: the proposal configured a bioclimatic home adaptable to different locations and which in the final implementation could be appropriate either for a single building or a combination to form a settlement that avoids the nasty image of houses as parked cars. • THE SITED BUILDING: the response which the drawings try to convey is the delineation of a “way of inhabiting / constructing in the south-east coast of Tenerife”. Currently, the more useful resources of information about coping with such 139


problems come from the historical urban or village contexts, which demonstrate a cultural evolutionary response to land and climate. However the traditional architecture of Tenerife has had a very short lifespan and it has been disturbed by the international building habits, furthermore, we lack such local supports because the south-east coast is quite uninhabited. Therefore the project should contribute to originate such a tradition, considering both the cultural and the physical contexts. The cultural context refers to the tradition of Spanish architecture and more generally in the domain of the Mediterranean landscape; the physical context to that of a wild rocky landscape crossed by a strong wind. The typological precedents at the building scale are the Mediterranean porticos and pergolas diffused everywhere in the Latin culture countries; at the settlement scale are the windy villages with a microurban tissue characterized by plots surrounded within sheltering walls, as those subjected to the Trieste ‘bora’ in the Carso region or to the ‘ora’ wind that blows in the neighbourhood of Garda lake. • A SUSTAINABLE DESIGN: theplanningisfocusedonthemorepermanentbuilding characteristics - those entrusted to a lasting architecture, which is able to resist the elements with a low maintenance standard - and not to a modernist, shortlife, consumer building. These houses could be left empty for some months and operate without their inhabitants. The concept clearly distinguishes between thoseelementsthatbelongtothemassiveterracedland, considered as a kind of site’s prothesis, from those various technological device which reflect the will of inhabitants to invest resources into increasing the building’s self-sufficiency. However options are provided in order to facilitate the various kinds of life style that could be lead within. • A CIVIC ARCHITECTURE: a frame of walls for supporting and protecting both private activities and the public domain has been designed. A network of public spaces is produced that we call a ‘civic architecture’. So we achieve three distinct levels of privacy; that of the building interior, that of the outdoor rooms and that of the street and square. Supports have been provided which give flexibility in terms of the degree of openness / closeness and allow for personalisation of the home and the possibility of self-construction. The project background could be synthesised in a set of issues that for us distinguish the 140

design and construction of immovable products (buildings, agricultural structures, infrastructures, etc.) from that of movable ones (cars, ships, planes, etc.): • a multi-scale system • a double envelope architecture • an asymmetric organization • a site building • a geometric field frame • compositive elements

Third Prize: La Estrella (The Star) The dwelling is created from the geometrical characteristics of the circular plot, trying to take visual advantage of the remaining land included in the construction area in the most extensive way. The intention is to plan a house that defines an imaginary building site from a radial structure generated by stone walls, with the particularity of having to cede the land that is not urbanised to the village, without putting up a fence round or making use of remaining land of the plot. The house has all the rooms interconnected and relatedbyanopencentralpatio,whichisalsotheentrance of the building and the key room due to the favourable climatic conditions. The house is semi-buried 2 mts. in the perimeter. A ramp stair saves the unevenness to access the house from the patio. Some earth slopes hide


the inclined cover from the North perimeter and they elevate the Southern facade of the patio to enable solar collection. The roofs in the living room and the kitchen fall to the patio in different directions inversely in the Southern side to allow the sun radiation. The project is conceived for the application of passive solar energy, including direct solar installations and wind protections in winter, shadowing and crossed ventilation in summer, as well as a thermodynamically efficient design for the cover of the building. In this respect, the cooling and heating mechanisms are inherent to the building (one-storey distribution, orientation, openings, etc.). Because the land protects it, the dwelling has a transmission factor (K) smaller than 0.4 w/m2ºC in all the non-glass closings, which allows the use of direct systems where all the elements that form a passive system (collection, absorption, storage, distribution and regulation) are in contact with the inhabitants. Therefore, the fluctuation of temperature in the different rooms is small during the year, and they have a high thermal stability. The design is also protected from exterior sounds like the strong winds from Northeast. A ventilated cover is planned, protected by adequate land, because the accumulated heat is expelled by convection. At the same time, ventilation induced by stack effect is proposed. The active devices include solar collectors for hot domestic water and PV panels for energy supply. The roof of the living room is the most appropriate for their installation. A gallery under the kitchen has the hot water storage system, pumps and the necessary machinery for the required performance of the system.

Third Prize: Adobe Cube Thinking about environmentally aware and energysaving housing, the model is based on specific environmental characteristics, on optimised modern technology, and of course on lessons learned from historic examples. Historic architecture has developed a rich collection of solutions that happen to respond directly and efficiently to the characteristics of the environment. Creating favourable micro-climatic conditions was done through passive systems that do not waste any energy resources. These traditional systems have been incorporated, translated into a modern design, and integrated with a collection of modern solutions, for the purpose of producing a new kind of building that responds adequately to its environment and its time. Some bioclimatic solutions were:

• Reducing the surface to volume ratio: a cube is a very compact volume • An extra earth shelter: keeping the interior cool in summer and moderate in winter. • Orientation and layout: were chosen to capture prevailing N-E breezes. • Thermalinertia:thisdwellingshouldbebuiltinadobe: earth bricks, shaped in moulds and dried in the sun. • Unbaked earth - a regulating, healthy, non-polluting and recyclable material - absorbs day’s warmth, to radiate it only when the outside air has cooled after sunset. • Shading: by roof overhangs, filtering roofs, removable and adjustable louvers and shades • Coolingandventilation:usingapatio-sunkenandcovered-with controlled air motion, evaporation by vegetation, and a permanent irrigation system with rainwater and purified wastewater. • Ventilation: adequate air exchange by conducting outside air (from the coolest place) through clay tubes buried in the earth (floor vents) and located under the roof (eave vents). By using energy saving appliances with the highest efficiency and optimised water saving taps and techniques, the demand for electricity could be reduced to 1400 kWh/year (for an average family of 4 to 5 persons) and the demand for water to ±80000 l. A composting toilet offers a management system that conserves more than 50000 Ltrs. per year, and of course the energy to provide and purify this water. Supply of electricity is done by a combined system: a wind generator (blades of wood-rated nominal power 180W) in parallel with a PV solar system (integrated in glass panels, running above the patio-rated power 396W). This energy system was designed to be 100% autonomous,conqueringtheworstimaginableweather conditions in this region. The production of domestic hot water is done by the I.S.C. (Integrated solar collector), an optimised, uncomplicated installation (in which collector and boiler are unified), placed upon the roof. Some very simple devices to reduce waste to the minimum are the composting toilet, the soil bed/grey water filter, and the classification unit for solid waste. The choice of the construction materials was done after a bio-ecological evaluation of their properties, based on their life-cycle analysis. Only healthy materials are used, with no affection of ecosystems, no toxic emissions, with a minimal energy content, with minimal treatments to obtain the end product, which are 141


recycledorrecyclableafterdemolition.Theadobecube is merely built out of sun baked earth, trass mortar, local clay tiles and natural stone, timber framework using durable pine tree (larch and cedar), cellulose insulation, natural plaster and paints. It should be emphasised that climate, technology, materials and function did not only determine the architectural form. This house was also designed to affect the spirit of the occupants (and visitors), in a positive way. A place to enjoy life. Architectural imaginationisworkingbestinthesmallmarginsofalltheabove.

Visitors’

Centre

The tenderer who obtained the first prize was commissioned for the execution of the project, including the Visitors’ and Information Centre to be built on the development. The Visitors’ Centre responds to the followingguidelines: • The purpose of the building is to receive and inform all those persons who may be interested in learning about the research that is being carried out on the development. • It shall have a multifunctional hall for exhibitions and acts with a capacity for at least 100 persons. • It shall contain offices for the administrative staff of the development and corresponding services. • It shall also contain a small cafeteria, which shall be in the service of the research staff that may be living temporarily on the development. • The maximum height of this building shall be of two storeys. • The built-up surface shall be of approximately 900m2. Several strategies, both preventive and curative, should be applied to avoid the overheating of the building. For example, a white wall reflects 85% of sun radiation,comparedwiththe3%ofonemadewithbrown bricks. We are using ‘tosca’ as the building material, so an air chamber is used to prevent the heat to be transferred to the building. Ventilation is used to eliminate heat excesses inside the Centre. TheVisitors’Centrehasbeendesignedtoavoidaffecting the ecosystem by using local materials and following theshapeandformsoftheterrain.Itisbuiltonanatural wall, hiding from the direction of the constant winds of the area. It is completely made with recyclable materials andprotectedfromhightemperaturesbywallswithhigh thermal mass, plus cool underground air currents that flows from bottom to top of the building. The roof is covered with plants to refrigerate the ambient.TheCentreisonlyopenedtothesouth,where 142

special double glass windows are used to prevent over heating, and it uses solar panels and collectors for the production of electricity and hot water. All accesses are made by ramps, and several patios can be found with local vegetation.

Conclusions From the beginning of the project, when the Tender wassummoned,theinterestarisenhasevensurpassedthe initial expectations. In this new society, close to the next millennium,anewsensibilityisbeingbornregardingthese issues.Todaywethinkofaglobalplanet,mainlyduetothe fast improvement of technology and communications. The respect for the environment and the planet is a key aspectoffutureandsustainabledevelopment. Bioclimatic architecture and the use of renewable energy is therefore a secure bet for tomorrow. There is no place left for a homogeneous architecture that can beusedanyplace,withoutconsideringthesurroundings andtheknowledgeacquiredintraditionalconstructions. We are now being conscious of the need to integrate buildingsinitsenvironment,adaptingthemselvestothe climate, the landscape, and the local architecture, as wellasre-usingthebuildingmaterials,thatshouldalways be natural, non pollutant, recyclable and recycled. The bioclimatic design is not only the result of applying several special techniques, but a different way of thinking when it comes to development of the project in all its phases and the implementation, without overlooking the usual technical and artistic aspects of the good architecture. This compromise goes beyond the mere solution of closing or opening the building to sun radiation, to avoid overheating or to reduce coldness. The objective is to reach, maintain and regulate the thermal comfort of the inhabitants during all the seasons, with a minimum consumption of traditional energy sources (mainly fossil). Passive solutions should be applied through architectural aspects to condition the outside environment to our needs. This ambitious project will be a great scale laboratory with 25 prototypes, which will be tested under the same environmental conditions to analyse the performance of different solutions, with a high value output. But the interest goes beyond that, as the whole settlement will be bioclimatic, which makes it a pioneer experience to really study how would a world based in this innovative approach work.


Use of Solar Energy in Remote Areas, Natrional Parks and various Islands in Costa Rica SHYAM S. NANDWANI Solar Energy Laboratory - National University COSTA RICA

Figure 1 Places where solar systems are installed

C

osta Rica is located in Central America, between latitude 8 and 11 degrees north and longitude 82.5 and 86 degrees west. It has a total surface area of 51,000 Km2, population of 3.5 million. It has 21 Indian Reserves (1% of total population), 29 National Parks on the firm lands and on the islands, and 13 Islands, as shown in the Figure 1 and include countless different ecosystems. The National Park system and equivalent reserves of Costa Rica (forest reserves, biologial reserves, national monuments, etc.) extend over a total area of 12,661 Km2 (in 1997, excluding ocean part), which is equivalent of 24% of the country´s territory. Costa Rica has been recognized throughout the world for its natural beauty and dedication to the protection of its ecology and environment. Of the total ENERGY consumed by Costa Rica (85X1015 J) , it uses national sources (50%) like firewood and other biomasic sources, geothermal, wind energy, hydroelectricity and rest 50% is imported in the form of petroleum and some derivatives. On the other hand, of the total ELECTRICITY consumed (1370 MW), 79% (including 3% by private sector) is produced by hydro plants; 9% (120 MW), from Geothermal, 2% (30 MW) by wind farms (private) and the rest 10% from oil based- thermal power plants. Costa Rica has national electrification of 92% on the global level. Although the urban area is blessed with almost 100% electricity, the rural area has only 80-82%. In other words, 8-9% of the families (55,000 families) are not connected with electricity.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Pacuare Indian Reserve Chirripo Natinal Park Drake Bay Wilderness Camp Tortugero National Park Forest Reserve (Peninsula of Osa) Corcovado National Park (Peninsula of Osa) Cocos Island & National Park Caballo Island

Nevertheless Costa Rica has very high hydroelectric potential and is using only 12-14% of its total potential, however to satisfy the present and future demand (68% increase per year) it is not an easy job due to high initial investment for generation and transmission cost. Most of these families either live in remote and dispersed places, like in rural areas, indian reserves, and some on islands etc., and it will always be difficult to connect these persons to the electric grid. 143


Because of this and in order to preserve the environment, Costa Rica is promoting the use of solar energy in some of these places (Fig. 1), mainly for lighting, radio and television sets (Ref.1,2), leading to a sustainable developmentintheenergysector.Inthepresentarticlewe will be dealing only with one Indigenous village, 5 nationalparksand2islandswheresolarenergyispresently used for different applications. For the convenience of the readers, these places are numbered in Figure 1.

has two refugee camps, one for 25 people and the other for 15 people and potable water and Wood stoves. As shown in Figure 3, six solar panels, regulator, and batteries were installed in this park in 1993 for park rangers to satisfy their basic needs.

Use of solar energy - National Parks and Islands Pacuare

Island

Reserve

In 1991, 4 panels of 33 watts and 12 V each and one panel of 47 watts, were installed (Fig. 2) in two Indian reserves (district of Pacuario, canton of Siquirres, and the province of Lim贸n). In addition to regulator and batteries it has an inverter to convert 12V DC into 110 V AC, so that the their normal radio could be used. The system is meant to run light 3 fluorescents of 20 watts each and one radio (3,4). Before the installation of these systems, the families were using bateries for radio and casette recorder; kerosene and candles for illumination. Earlier an Indian family was spending per month Colones 3,500- 5,000 (US$13- US$18) for batteries, candles and kerosene. With the availability of this solar electricity, they spend only ($1.5) per month mainly for kerosene.

Figure 3

Drake Bay wilderness camp On the northwestern coast of the Osa of Peninsula (Puntarenas), Drake Bay (remotely located) is a paradise for the fisherman, bird watcher, nature photographer or adventurous vacationer. The sprawling 10 acre (privately owned) Drake Bay wilderness camp has a radio- telephone, and offers 19 comfortable cabins on the beach, with the basic commodities including electricity. I had a chance to visit the camp in june- july, 1992. For the tourist the owner was using: a Natural gas for cooking meals, b Absorption refrigerator (type Electrlux, using gas cylinders) for storing food items, c Diesel plant for small electric generator for ilumination, d Thermal solar system (black pipes) for water heating and e Solar panels for charging batteries to be used for TV (Fig. 4a) and Telephone and Fax (Fig. 4b) etc. Figure 4b

Figure 2

Chirripo

National

Park

Chirrip贸 is the top of the world for Costa Ricans. The highest peak at 3,820 meters is beautiful. Situated along the southern Talamanca mountain range, it contains the greatest biological wealth and diversity in the country, as well as the largest remaining virgin forest and protect many of the species in danger of extinction. It 144

Figure 4a


Tortuguero

National

Park

One of Costa Rica´s most popular ecotourism destination- the canales, rivers, beaches, rainforest, freshwater and lakes is Tortuguero National Park. The nesting of sea turtles is one of nature´s most amazing spectacles. Green Turtles nest along the beaches of Tortuguero National Park from July to October. In 1996, solar photovoltaic system was installed for providing electricity for the houses of the park rangers in Jalova (1).

Forest Reserve (Peninsula of Osa) In1998,30panelsof65wattseachhavebeeninstalled in the peninsula of Osa, in the south of Costa Rica. This project concerns 32 families in sites such as Miramar, Rio Nuevo, Rio Tigre, Balsa and Progreso de Puerto Jimenez, in the canton of Golfito (province of Puntarenas). Financing was provided through the bilateral Convention for Sustainable Development between Costa Rica and the Kingdom of the Netherlands, for an amount of $29,000. The counterpart of the Costarican Institute of Electricity amounted to $8,500. The families pay a monthly fee of 1500 colones (<US$6) for using the equipment. The resulting fund will enable battery replacements, moving the equipment and acquisition of new units for other families living outside the area covered by the national power grid.

Corcovado National (Peninsula of Osa)

The funds for the US$5,000 system were provided by Asociación de Educación de Punta Carbonera, created by John and Karen Lewis, owners of the Lapa Rios Hotel and 1,000- acre private nature reserve.

Cocos Island and National Park (2,400 hectares land, 97,235 hectares marine, in Pacific Oceans). OneofthecrownjewelsofCostaRica´snationalparks system lies 500 km out to sea. It is a lush, densely vegetated world, far removed from the bustle of modern life, visited by only a few people each year. Accessible only by oceangoing boats, this uninhabitated island is Costa Rica´s «Treasure Isle». The real treasure of the island is its untamed splendor, with evergreen forests, waterfalls, flora y faunas, and the crystalline water with marine life (7). Diverscomeinsearchoftheisland´sfamedschoolsof hammerheadsharks.From200to500sharkshavebeen seen at a time, sometimes swimming within touching distance of the adventurers. All of the sea life seems to growbiggerandschoolinlargernumbersatCocosthan any where else in the world (Fig. 5).

Park

Anothersolarsystemisaeducationalproject(Escuela de Carbonera) in the same area (6) but near de National Park. Formerly conducted by candlelight, the classes will now be illuminated by stored electricity of the standard alternating current Solar Energy System. Light from the sun is absorbed by four single- crystal silicon solar panels on the roof of school cafeteria. The energy is stored in batteries and is converted into usable electricity by means of an inverter. Lights in classroom, as well as appliances in the teacher´s house next door, run on stored energy. The system provides 600 watt hours per day of electricity. Approximately 30 stand- alone solar energy systems have been installed by Sistemas de Energía Eficientes, in hotels and homes of the Osa Peninsula, where the Costa Rican Electricity Institute (ICE) does not reach every corner.

Figura e

145


IthaslongbeencherishedandprotectedbytheCosta Rican government. In December 1997, this jewel of park, Cocos Island, was declared World Patrimony by UNESCO, in recognition of its natural beauty and unique biological treasures. Author visited this Island in 1982 and after observing the transportation and the consumption of conventional fuels (gas, diesel etc.), recommended in one of the national conference (8), the possible use of Solar Energy at least to save part of these fuels. Well after ten years, ICE installed first system for illumination of the camps and for communication for park rangers, and also for the benefits of tourists. In 1998 the system size was increased. As shown in the Fig. 5, island has two PV systems, installed at two different points, one at the sea coast and other some where inside the island. Each system has its regulator, battery and one inverter to feed AC to Faxmachine.Thetotalpoweroftheinstallationis850W (16 paneles Siemens M55).

Caballo

Island

This island can be reached by one hour by boat from puntarenas. Thirty four families (about 200 persons) live on this island. As this is the only island where various solar systems have been installed recently by ICE and SIEMENS, we would like to describe the project in detail. On this Island: • 90% of the population is born there, • some persons are living there for last 30-40 years, Figure 6

• for cooking, most of the families use gas cylinders, and some use firewood, • they dedicate in fishing mainly for sale and can earn US$200- 250 per month, • seven- eight familes (related to each other) have a common diesel electric generator, • otherfamiliesontheaveragecanspend(permonth), $4 for illumination (candles/kerosene) and $6 for radio (charging batteries), • transport medium from nearest coast is by boat. It consume 2 gal. of diesel (costing US$2.5) for one round trip (2 hours of journey), The community have the basic need of: • Electricity, • potable water, • health center, • education, • initial help for increasing the productivity and small workshop. The various systems have been installed to satify part of different demands. On December 15, 1998, solar installation was inaugurated, in the presence pf Ambassador of Kindom of Holland, ICE, SIEMENS, community and the invitees. I had the chance to attend the activities and witness the installations (Fig. 6). Some of these are: Electrification Lighting for illumination in the house (35 families) and on the island. Each familiy has an individual system, consisting of onesolarpanelof100W,12V;onebatteryof100Amph; regulator of 20 Amp; and 3-4 flourescent tubes of 12VDC and 13- 20 W. Although the users do not have to pay the cost of the system, market price is about US$1,000 (including the installation). If they want they can connect (at their own expenses) either 12 VDC TV or standard 110 VAC TV but with an inverter Water Assuming the need of 25 gal/ day of each family, three wells have been dug at the depth of 6 m. Eight tanks with the capacity of 3000 l (each), have been kept at different levels. Topumpwaterfoursolarpanels,eachof12VDC,and 75Wandonechargeregulator,havebeenusedforeach pump(submergible).Nobatteriesareused.Duringthe day, water is pumped and stored in various tanks kept at higher level. When required, water can be collected by gravity. In total about 3500 m of tubes are used.

146


Ice machine Iceisrequiredmainlyforpreservingthefishforlonger period and it can increase the possibility of better commercialization. Usually the fisherman has to buy ice at the rate of $2.5/ bag plus cost of transport (2 gal of diesel/ trip). Recentlyinstalledphotovoltaicsystemformaking400kg of ice per day, has the following components: • 8 solar paneles of each 36 W, 12V, for two pumps, • 60 solar paneles each of 100 W, 12V (Fig. 6), • 36 batterias (cell type) of 2 V y 2500 Amph,(each), arranged in such a way to produce 24 VDC and 7,500 Amph. As the Ice machine (compressor system) runs on220VAC,thereisoneinverterof24VDC/220VCA, rated at 2000 W (10 amp.). Cost of the system is $75,000 plus $ 3,000 for the installation.

Conclusions In brief, all the projects mentioned are expected to improve the quality of life of the people and accelerate the productive activities and at the same time maintain the environment cleaner. Remote areas, national parks, Indian reserves and Islands around the world are installing photovoltaic power systems at an increasing rate. The benefits of well designed photovoltaic power systems include (10): • lowest cost for many applications, • virtual elimination of fumes, noise, chemical emissions, • power lines, generator fuel tanks, hazards of fuel transport, transfer and storage, • high reliability with minimum maintenance, • public demonstration of effective direct use of solar energy, • PV arrays are silent, they do not emit any pollutants or odors, they do not radiate heat, but they can be seen, •Can reduce the emissionofCarbonDioxide in the atmoshpere. In addition to electricsystems,islandscan use thermal systems like solar cookers for cooking, dryers for dehydratingmarine/agricultural products and stills for purification of water etc. (11).

This plant is expected to produce 2800 Kg of ice per week and can be connected to the existing plant, which was running with diesel. The plant can use sea or well water. As already planned in the project, shortly more solar panels will be installed in two schools for computers, Fax etc., one health centre and small workshop for the maintenance of boats and other household items etc. The cost of all these projects is US$350,000, of which US$300,000 are provided by Holland Kingdom (agreement. Sustainable Development), and US$42,200 are provided by Costa Rican Institute of Electricity.

Acknowledgements Author is pleased to know that UNESCO through Solar World Commission and Solar World Programme (1996-2005) is promoting Solar Energy through the organisation of this and other similar activities (like Solar CookingatMilan).IamgratefultotheOrganisingCommittee of Island Solar Summitt for the invitation and enabling me to share the experience with other participants. 147


References 1 Misael Mora Pacheco, Antecedentes Proyectos Fotovoltaicos en Costa Rica; Departamento de Conserva-

7 COCOS ISLAND in NATURALLY COSTA RICA, publicity brochure, Costa Rica, 1998-1999, pp. 62.

ción de Energía, Instituto Costarricense de Electrici-

8 Shyam S. Nandwani, Aprovechamiento de la Energía

dad, Costa Rica, July 1998 (personal communication).

Solar en la Isla de Cocos; Costa Rica, Presented at II

2 Shyam S. Nandwani, Panorama de la electri-ficacion

Seminario sobre Ciencia, Tecnica, Sociedad y Desarrollo

rural fotovoltaica en Costa Rica; Article presented in

en Centro America, San José, Costa Rica, 18-22, Octo-

Taller RIER-IIE sobre Controladores Electrónicos para

ber 1982.

Sistemas Fotovoltaicos de Electrificaciòn Rural, realized in Cuernavaca, Mexico, 27-31, July, 1998.

9 Electrificación Solar in Cocos Island; in Instalaciones de Energías Renovables en Latinoamerica, published by

3 Eugenìa Obando S., Manual Ureña C., Proyecto ex-

THERMIE (Comisión Europea), Institut Catala

perimental de Energìa Solar en Palenques, Indigenas;

d’Energia,TEAM (Tecnología Energía Ambiente Mate-

Tecnologìa ICE, Vol. 2,no. 2, pp. 23-26, June, 1992.

rial) y CEEETA.

4 Shyam S. Nandwani, La Energía Solar como alternativa;

10 Cedric G. Currin, Photovoltaic arrays for Parks and

Aportes, Popular magazine, CEDECO, Costa Rica, No.

Campgrounds, bolletin Asociación Costarricense de

67, June 1990, pp. 24-25.

Energía Solar, Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica, Vol.

5 Electrificaciòn rural en la penìnsula de osa con sistemas

5, no. 3/4, 1994.

Solares Independientes; document prepared by ICE,

11 Shyam S. Nandwani, La Conversión de Energía Solar

ASIADE (Asociación Interdis-ciplinaria de Analisis Para

en Energía Electrica para Aplicaciones en Zona Rural,

el Desarrollo), Fundecooperaciòn para el Desarrollo

Presented in XIII Conferencia Latinoamericana de

Sostenible) y SIEMENS, 1998.

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6 Tanya Kleifoth, Solar Education Comes to Osa Penin-

Costarricense de Electricidad, Compañia Nacional de

sula, The Tico Times, Weekly Central American News-

Fuerza y Luz, Costa Rica, 14-20, April, 1990, published

paper, Sept. 11, 1998.

in Proceedings, Volume 3, No. VIII, pp. 1-19.

148


The Water-Energy Binomial a challenge for islands

FRANCISCO P ÉREZ S PIESS I.T.E.R. CANARY ISLANDS

I

slands typically can be regarded as relatively small and isolated systems. If we consider the energetic point of view, there are only a few islands in the world linked to a continental energy supply network. Energy and water management are two of the more importantissuesanislandgovernmentconstantlyhasto deal with. In fact, electrification plays a fundamental role in the development of any community, and water resources directly determine survival possibilities. Water, heat and electricity management must cope with the generation, transport, distribution and usage strategies. Regarded from an abstract point of view, three types of schemes are possible for every resource: • Centralised production and distribution: Big production sites care for resource generation and large distribution networks cover nearly the whole geographical area of the island. A vast majority of the population and industries have easy access to the generated resource. This type of scheme is very common for higher income zones, or urban population zones. • Decentralised production: No distribution network is needed,astheresourcesaregeneratedonthedemand site by relatively small production elements. This is a typicalschemeinplaceswithlowpopulationdensities. • Combined centralised and decentralised schemes: Some geographical areas are covered by centralised, some others by decentralised ones. This kind of scheme is usual for some transition economies, with comparable urban and rural population figures, together with a low rural population density.

There are few restrictions in using different schemes for different resources. In one scenario, electricity and heat could be produced using a centralised scheme, while water is produced in a decentralised way, directly at the consumption sites. All of the electrical and thermal energy that is consumed on an island has to be produced there as well. This leads to several major logistical, economical, environmental and social constraints. Presently, electricity and heat are usually produced by thermal plants or engines, burning oil derivatives or natural gas. Refined oil goods, as well as other fossil fuels, have to be imported, which in turn creates additional specific infrastructure, storage and safety requirements. This leads to extra investments and external supply dependency. Renewable energies offer a clean and sustainable approach to energy production. Even if we do not consider environmental factors, they can still be economically attractive, as they can for instance help to reduce externaldependency. Their applicability is very much site specific, with sun, wind, waterfalls, geothermal, waves, tides or biomass potentiallybeingenergysuppliers.However,allofthem suffer from smaller or bigger behaviour irregularities, as well as a quite unpredictable production nature. In the past, these properties strongly limited their possibilities of more intensive use: • In centralised energy production schemes, an extended use of renewable energy resources can produce grid instability, as power generation can fluctuate in a different way than the power demand does. 149


• In stand alone systems, high specific investments are needed, as system dimensioning has to be based on the worst production and highest demand case scenarios. This leads designers to oversize energy production and storage elements, and to high energy costs, when compared to centralised schemes. One of the most important drawbacks of electricity is that with currently available technologies it is still expensive and energetically inefficient to store large quantities of energy. If electricity could be easily stored, energy overproduction could be retrieved during demand peaks, in this way smoothing the differences between generation and consumption. Coming now to hydrologic resources, it is typical for many islands to suffer from fresh water supply shortage. The reasons for these problems can be manifold: • Climatic reasons , as for example low rainfall. • Populationconcentration,whichcanbeseasonal(tourism), overwhelming local production capacities. • Inefficient use of water resources, for instance due to infrastructure reasons. • Distribution losses, which had figures as high as 40% in certain areas. A modern integral water management should base on a production-usage-recycling-disposal policy. Fresh water is produced or retrieved at some place, then it is stored waiting for usage. Waste waters are treated and recycled for agricultural use, and final wastes are disposed with minimal environmental impact. Recycling policies, together with fresh water production coming from sea water desalination can be consideredasasustainablephilosophy.However,desalination is a relatively high energy consuming process. Commonly used desalination techniques are distillation or membrane based, but from an energetic point of view they can be categorised into: • Mainly heat consuming processes (distillation). • Mainly electricity consuming processes (membrane). Typical figures per cubic meter of fresh water are 8-15 kWh for commercial distillation and 4-7 kWh for commercial membrane systems. Large per capita energy

150

demands have to be supplied to cover the daily fresh water demands of a certain population. A typical daily water consumption figure can lie somewhere between 125and200litresperperson,dependingonlivingstandards. Agriculture can reach much higher figures, depending on several factors, like climate, irrigation techniques, soil types, and of course, the plants grown. Compared to electricity or heat, water storage is a quite simple matter. Water tanks and reservoirs are easy to build: The skills and materials are world-wide available. Moreover, they can be long lasting, which is a financial advantage as it permits considering long term returns of investment. Water storage is thus a straightforward issue for most of the islands, and even more, it is already a necessity derived from current water management policies. It was mentioned before that renewable energy sources suffer from irregular energy supply, leading to either oversize systems and dumping overproduction, or to infra-use and stronger external energetic dependency. However, with an increasing demand for water, as well as with the development of more energy efficient water production and retrieval technologies, making them adaptive to energy availability, the penetration of renewable energies can be supported, pushing them forward to much higher levels of penetration than at present. Water production plants may play a major role as variable loads for any kind of system, helping to absorb production peaks, and adapting to energy demand peaks by down-regulating their output.Aswatercanbestoredwithoutdifficultiesforlonger periods of time, water demand peaks do not have to affect water production rates, as large reservoirs can act as buffers. A rational, technically advanced water-energy tandem can be considered as a single, stable whole, acting as a storage and retrieval system which makes an optimal use of sustainable and clean energy sources, and minimises external energetic dependencies. With such an integral approach philosophy the final goal of every island government, namely to lead their community to higher living standards, without environmental penalties, can be at last achieved.


Insular Context of Renewable Energies the Madeira case F ILIPE O LIVEIRA AREAM- Regional Agency for Energy and the Environment MADEIRA

T

he ultra-peripheral insular regions present some specific problems concerning energy supply and the major energy networks (natural gas and electricity) are not available and are not expected to be. As consequence of the isolation and distance, insular regions are typically very dependent on oil products and have additional costs for similar quality of energy supply, namely the electricity supply, due to maritime transport of oil products and relatively small dimension of the energy systems. In these insular regions, major oil alternatives are usually not feasible. However, renewable energies and rational use of energy are frequently attractive in these regions, due to over-costs and higher prices of energy supply and the availability of natural conditions. Insular regions seem to have ideal conditions for some demonstration programmes for new energy technologies. Regi茫o Aut贸noma da Madeira (Autonomous Region of Madeira) is an archipelago composed by two inhabitedislands(MadeiraandPortoSanto)andtheDesertas and Selvagens islets, which do not have a permanent population.In1991,ithad253426residentinhabitants, which represents about 2,5% of the national population,withanadditionalnon-residentpopulationofabout 11000people,duringtheyear.In1998,theresidentpopulationisestimatedinabout260000inhabitants. Concerning primary energy, the local resources represent about 13% of the global demand and the remaining is imported oil products. The local energy resources with higher expression in the regional energy balance are the hydroelectricity

and forestal biomass (firewood), which is essentially used to produce heat in the residential and industrial sectors. Both wind and solar energy, which expression is not so high, are also of considerable importance, among the renewable energy sources available in Madeira. These energy sources present a relatively high potential and can have an important development in the future. The energy valorisation of solid waste by incineration is envisaged in the future waste treatment plant to produce electricity. Madeira Primary energy sources 1997

151


Regional energy sources

1991 24387

1994 25401

1997 30570

Biomass Hydro

17539 4274

16533 4515

15581 9744

24 2550

1054 3299

978 4267

156036 65123

185841 78964

211626 78474

Diesel Petrol

48237 24314

54549 31320

70918 38867

LPG (propane and butane) Kerosene

17545 379

20180 326

22613 176

Jet A1 (Madeira-Porto Santo) 438 TOTAL 180423

503 211241

578 242195

Wind Solar Oil products Fueloil

Madeira Electricity production 1997

Local energy resources are very important to reduce energy importation, as well as the rational use of energy. A large potential of energy savings is estimated in the residential, buildings, transports and industry. Madeira Renewable energy sources 1997

152

Referring to electricity production in 1997, the hydro contribution was 23%, the wind was 2% and the remaining was produced by Diesel power plants using fueloil. The annual peak of demand in Madeira island was 100 MW in 1997, occurred in December, that is 5,4% superior than in 1996. The peak in Porto Santo was 4 MW, that is 5,3% more than in 1996, in August due to the tourism demand. The total electricity consumption by final users was 418,08 GWh, being 405,02 GWh in Madeira and 13,06 GWh in Porto Santo, showing an increase of 4,5% in Madeira and 9,9% in Porto Santo, comparing with 1996. The growth of the electricity in this decade was very high mainly due to the residential and the tertiary sectors. In 7 years, the electricity demand increased from 261,30 GWh in 1990 to 418,08 GWh in 1997. This is an increase of 60% that corresponds to an average growth of 7% per year. The growth of the electric power supply capacity during the next decade will be essentially based on the thermal production. It is not forecasted a large development on renewable energies for the near future to follow the increase of the demand.


Renewable Energy Islands The Danish Energy Way

IBEN Ø STERGAARD Energy Centre Denmark DANISH TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE

D

enmark covers approx. 9 % of its energy consumption with renewable energy, and 9 % electricity consumption is covered by wind power. Denmark has one officially nominated Renewable energy island, a county in Jutland is covering more than 100% of its electricity consumption with wind, and several other renewable energy societies and RE-technologies are flourishing in the backgarden. Of course, our RE island Samsø will be of interest in this matter and so will our other self-grown RE societies such as Ærø. We find information and dissemination of results of great importance, and we already had a European RE island conference on Samsø last summer with representativesfrom14countriesandpresentationsfrom 10islandsalloverEurope.Anewglobalconferencewith focusonREinislandstatesisgoingtotakeplaceonÆrø Renewable Energy on Samsø

inSeptemberthisyear.Bothconferencesaresupported by the Danish Energy Agency and the Commission.

Samsø – 100% RE island IntheDanishActionPlan,Energy21from1996itwas decided that the government should work on the designation of a local area which should change its supply of energy to local RE sources. AsaresultofthiscommitmenttheDanishislandSamsø was in 1997 chosen among five competing islands to be powered and fuelled by renewable energy only - including the transport sector - within the next decade! On Samsø they are busy planning and carrying through the ideas, in order to provide the island with renewable energy sources and to live up to theexpectationsinvolvedintheappointment. Being chosen, as a renewable Energy Island does not mean that the energy agency/ Governmentdecidesandpayseverythingand-here youare:AREisland.No,withoutthecontribution of the population, there will be no RE island. There will be local involvement in all the projects for instance local workshops have beensetupinthedistrictheatingareas.Working groups use their influence on the projects concerningownership.Alsoinrelationtowind turbines, citizens meeting are being held concerning ownership, visual impact on offshore wind farms, etc. 153


Renewable Energy on Ærø

The Samsø plan Samsø is an island of 114 km2 with a population of approx. 4,400 people. The plan consists of 5 cornerstones: 1 Energy savings and increased efficiency: (20% cut in the 340TJ for heating in buildings) 2 Expansion of collective heating supply systems with 4 locally based systems fuelled with RE (wood chips, central solar, biogas) 3 Expansion of individual heating systems using heat pumps, solar heating, etc. 4 Establishmentoflandbasedandoffshorewindpower plantstocovertheelectricityconsumptionandtocompensate for use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. 5 Savings in the transport sector and gradual conversion of the transport sector from petrol and oil to electrical power. (5% reduction of traffic, 15 % reduction of energy consumption by using electric vehicles. Still this leaves 250 TJ fossil fuels. (1/3 for the ferries). 75 % should be produced by wind turbines the rest by biomass and solar cells. It will take app. 600 mio. DKK to carry out the plan over a 10 year period, and it will create 45 fulltime job in this period and 35 jobs after the 10 year period.

District

heating

Wind

turbines

The enormous local interest of establishing wind turbines on Samsø has been significant for the rest of Denmark:40privatepeoplehaveappliedforpermittoestablishsolo-windturbineontheirownland,butonly15wind turbineswillbeallowedbytheplanningauthorities. One could expect this matter to end up in a dogfight. Butafterapublichearingandasuccessfulcitizensmeeting and negotiations, status is that there will be 3-4 wind turbines in four groups in a mixture of single owned and cooperative owned. This ownership model has been the driving force in the diffusion of wind turbines in Denmark.

Offshore A off shore wind farm of 10 wind turbines of each 2 MW is planned to be established on share basis. Also here there will be a public hearing and comments will be incorporated in the final detemination of which site Samsø will give highest priority. As another example of the dynamic Danish energy world I will mention another RE Island, Ærø:

plants

Citicents groups from two of the district heating areas have decided that the electricity ulility ARKE is going to establish the two plants , and the construction and final implementation will be completed in the end of year 2000. Market ananlysis on the local interest for joining a district heating scheme take place now, , because an important factor will be the amount of interest from houseowners when they are asked to sign up. The Municipality of Samsø will guarantee the necessary loans. TheNordbyMårupdistrictheatingplantwillbebased on wood chips and use a central solar heating plant 154

The Ballen area district heating system will be based on a ground load of biogas from the waste disposal site and the liquid manure from several local pig farms. This can be combined with a strawfired plant and and perhaps a connection to the existing strawfired plant in Tranebjerg. Other plans are not so far: One plant with biogas CHP and surplus heat from ferries and waste disposal gas. One plant is going to be supplied with straw.

Ærø – tradition with RE 90 km2 and 7.600 people, Ærø has traditionally been a RE island in Denmark, as it has worked with RE since the early 80s, and covered 15% of its energy with RE in 1996(3timesasmuchastherestofDK).Ærø,ofcourse, joined the competition but did not receive the honour, and one could have expected that they would disregard it; but on the contrary: it seems as if the Government support for Renewable Energy Islands gave them a new start, so they continued their work with even more effort: with the goal of 100% RE.


The plan of how to fulfill it is not completed yet –the planning work is subsidised by the DEA – and what they intend to do first is: 1 Wind to cover 100% of the electricity consumption (9 x 1.5 MW = 40 mio kWh, private + shareholders) 2 Three district heating plants with some RE (Solar, straw, wood chips) 3 Neighbourhood heating (Solar – wood pellets) 4 Increasing amount of biomass (new hedges, fences energy crops) 5 Energy savings. (Visits to private households, energy audits)

Starting new initiatives and supporting ongoing avtivities These 2 islands can be seen as examples of the different types of contribution from the Danish Energy Ministry in order to support and create RE islands: The Samsø case, where a more or less virgin island as to renewables gets the inspiration from a national competition, encouraging people to commit themselves to become 100% renewable -(by joint forces in order to reach the goal) with all the local contribution and cooperation that takes. And Ærø, where governmental policy already supports ongoing initiatives - and the support to Ærø has not been decreased even though Samsø is the official RE island – neither has the local engagement.

Information - dissemination SamsøwaschosenashostforthefirstEuropeanSeminar on Renewable Energy islands because the island in 1997 was selected as the Renewable Energy Island in Denmark: The project will be a showroom to the many challenges which are facing the authorities, planners, and not at least the inhabitants of such comunities. Being on the doorstep to this project - with several possible ways to go - Samsø was the perfect host for this semianr. The semninar was supported by the Danish Energy Agency and the EU ALTENER programme. First of all the semianar was an excellent playfield for the 80 participants from 14 countries to get more information about renewable energy islands and to exchange experience - as well at the sessions but also in the breaks and maybe especially at the site visits. As this was the first seminar on these topics several contacts

was established and the seed was put in the earth for establishment of networks and further development of existing contacts and networks between the islands. Tenislandswerepresentedinthe2dayseminar,from Orkney Islands in the North West , Gotland in North East , Madeira, Cap Verde and Canary Islands in the Sourth West to Crete in the South Eastern corner. Those islands were presented focussing on different aspects concerning the energy situation such as organisation, planning, financing, local development and of course also the technical solutions. Besides those islands, different ingredients which are useful when planning with renewable energy or energy savings on islands:Technicalsolutionsandpossibilitiesforlargescale implementation of renewable energy, and state of the art of electric vehicles.

Site visits Two very succesful site visits were carried through, the Samsø tour and the tour to the Tunø Knob Off Shore Wind Farm. On the Samsø Tour the renewable energy sources and - potential, and already established renewable energy plants were presented and visited: The strawfired district heating plant in the main town Tranebjerg was established in 1993, and even without tilslutningsplig it supplies 90 % of the possible users withdistrictheatingcorrespondingto13%oftheoverall energy consumption. A wood pellet boiler was presented as an example of the renewable energy plant which together with solar heating could be an actuality for supllying the inhabitants in the “open country”, who do not have access to district heating grids. The 30 participants visited 2 “old” 80 kW wind turbines owned by a typical Danish wind turbine guild, and the real old post mill in Brundby witnessed about ancient tradition for exploitation of wind energy. Several small wind mill of different types from the 70ties and 80ties showed that there has been a public interest in this field since the energy crises, and that several concepts were tried before the typical “Danish” concept became dominant. 155


Two small boats with guides from Vestas Wind Technology took 25 participants to the Tunø Knob off shore Wind Farm. With 10 Vestas Wind Turbines of each 600 kW owned by the electricity company . Altogether the tours gave the participants a good wiev of renewable energy plants and - ressources, and how it is expected to be exploited on Samsø, and also it gave an impression of Danish energy policy and the legislation and tradition for implementation of renewable energy.Together with the presentations about Samsø it also gave a very important impression about the concernforinvolvinglocalinhabitantsinenergyplanning. But first of all the seminar created a good grow field for further expansion of cooperation and exchange of experience in Renewable Energy Island, and the experience from the seminar can be very useful for the global conference on renewable islands…..

Coming up soon As a follow ut to the European seminar a Global ConferenceonRenewableEnergyIslandswillbeheldonÆrø, Denmark, in september. The aim of this global conferenceistobringtogetherrelevantactorsfromalloverthe worldtoexchangeexperience,toincreaseawarenesson REislandsandtoestablishaplatformforfuturecooperation and networking. The conference will be supported bytheDanishEnergyAgency,DANIDAandEUcommissionenergyprogrammesSynergyandALTENER.

How did we reach this stage Whentheoilcrisiscametousinthe70sitwasanatural continuation of old traditions with renewable energy when an enormous activity started in all corners of the country with the old people delivering gently of their experiencewithwindmills,woodfurnacesetc.Theyoung ones contributed with their enthusiasm and newly acquired knowledge from the educational institutes. But another very important thing, without which we would not have been where we are today, is the government and official bodies caught the public opinion very soon, and the policy of supporting the RE development in different ways has survived changing governments throughout all the years. And without this governmental support carried out as direct subsidies, research and development programmes, information and dissemination services, without this, we would not 156

have come so far. This dynamic Danish government policy has been successful because it supported the diversity of activity. Just as well as we can say that the windturbine industry would probably not have become anything if the first early entrepreneurs had not bought the windmills even though the blades flew away and the investment was more than doubtful. Just as well we can say that the wind industry in the entire world would probably not have become what it is today, if the Danish Government had not subsidised the investment in wind turbines from 1979 to 1989. Danish energy politics has generally been based on a large amount of contribution from the population, as well savings as investment in RE, so for instance there hasbeeninvestmentsubsidiesforWT,Solar,heatpumps and biomass. And private people own more than 80% of all wind turbines. The Danish RE development is characterized by numeroustechnicaluniversitiesandotherinstitutionswhich have given room for the development of RE for 25 years –whichhaveallowedtheforward-lookingandenthusiastic engineers to work with this interesting niche even thoughitwasnotthemostprofitableniche.Pleaseallow me to mention my own Danish Technological institute, where we have been among the technological leaders withintheareasofbiomass,heatpumpsandnottheleast solar energy. During the last 15 years the finest goals for the test laboratories here have been to ensure the performance and quality of the RE plants as well as in the production as in the installation phase. At Solar Energy Centre Denmark the relevant solar energy partners are joining forces, and the Energy Centre Denmark carries outOPETactivities(alsosupportedbytheCommission), bringingDanishandEUpoliciestogether.Participation in this international network has led to invaluable experienceanddissemination. Another example of governmental subsidiation of RE is RISØ National Laboratory. As for the other test stations and laboratories: Their importance for the development of windmills in Denmark and thereby for the whole world is recognised all over the world. – And without governmental subsidy in different forms it would not have had the same strength. The Danish results are based on a dynamic energy policy where governmental bodies inspire, provoke, listen to, and support a broad diversity of RE-activity all over the society, ranging from grassroots, research and technicalinstitutes,consultants,manufacturersetc.and vice versa. This combined with the right people on the right time and place has after all made a difference.


Renewable Energy Resources and Utilisation in Fiji: an Overview S URENDRA PRASAD University of the South Pacific FIJI

F

iji has always relied on imported petroleum products for all its transportation needs as well as for electricity generation and industrial uses. Since 1983, however, the major island of Viti Levu has been provided with electricity from a hydroelectric power station. Energy for domestic cooking and heating has been dominated by biomass which has also provided energy to the four sugar mills in Fiji through bagasse, the waste product of the sugar producing process. Biomass also provides energy for commercial, industrial and agricultural use. The major energy sources are biomass, hydro-power and petroleum products. This paper presents an overview of the renewable energy situation in Fiji. The current supply and end uses of energy from renewable sources are examined and prospects and constraints for the greater future use of renewable energy are addressed.

Introduction The importance of energy in its various forms to the social and economic progress of mankind cannot be overstated. We need energy in ever-increasing amounts for the provision of a comfortable environment for living, for lighting, cooking, heating and cooling, for communications and transportation, for manufacturing and commercial purposes, for entertainment and for a whole range of other purposes. Renewable energy, derived from the sun, is a benign and sustainable form of energy. While it has made

substantial contribution towards meeting energy needs in the domestic rural and remote sectors, it has not made significant inroads into the electricity generation and industrial sectors, with the exception of hydroelectric power generation. Part of the reason for this has been the generally diffuse nature of renewable energy as well as the poor economics of power generation using renewables. With the recent global concerns regarding the adverse effects of the use of fossil fuels on the environment, renewable energy technologies are well placed to make a more significant contribution to the global energy supply. For small developing countries such as Fiji, being devoid of conventional energy sources such as petroleum products, coal or natural gas, there is always heavy, and in many cases, total reliance on conventional energy sources for transportation, industries and for electricity generation. Fiji has relied very heavily on petroleum products for all of these, except for electricity generation since 1983, when hydroelectricity became the major source of electricity for the country. The Monasavu hydro-electricity scheme, located in the centre of Viti Levu, and with a rated capacity of 80 MW supplies most of Viti Levu with electricity. This leaves Vanua Levu and all the other islands still dependent of electricity from diesel-fuelled power stations. Electricity from the hydro-power station is not enough to meet the demands in Viti Levu, with the result that several major industries, including the Vatukoula gold mine, as well as many remote com157


munities still rely on electricity from diesel power plants. In 1993, around 47 % of the population of Fiji had electricity supplies. This consisted of grid electricity from the Fiji Electricity Authority (FEA) as well as village or community-based diesel generated electricity. The total number of domestic consumers of grid electricitywas143,000householdsin1993,representingless than 47 % of the total population. Some 8000 consumers have access to electricity from diesel-fuelled power plants, representing 5.5 % of the population. Thus, as at1993,around150,000householdshadelectricityavailable.

Renewable Energy Sources: The Global Picture Renewable energy has always played a vital role in meeting energy needs on the global scale. For example, solar energy has been, and still is being, used for the provision of energy for crop and food drying and preservation, for providing hot water for cooking and washing and, in recent years, has provided electricity and other fuels for domestic, commercial and industrial uses. The energy in the wind has been used for many centuries to power sailing ships and to provide mechanical energy for water pumping and grain grinding. Since the beginning of this century, the kinetic energy of the wind has been used to generate electricity for a wide range of applications, in scales ranging from a few watts to several million watts per system. Similarly, the kinetic energy of falling water has been converted into mechanical and electrical forms. Solar energy trapped by plants has provided energy for cooking and heating and other purposes since the existence of mankind. For the last two centuries, biomass has been converted into a wide range of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels which are more convenient to transport, store and use, and are richer in energy. Some of these fuels include charcoal, methanol, biogas, producer gas, ethanol and hydrogen. Even if hydro and biomass sources are ignored, the other renewable energy sources are making a significant contribution to the global energy demand. In 1988, renewable energy technology was worth an estimated US$5 billion, excluding hydroelectric power generation. In the USA in the same year, electricity generating capacity using wind power was over 2000 MW and growing quite steadily. Solar thermal elec158

tricity generation is a billion dollar industry globally and is also expected to show steady growth. Large scale electricity generating plants utilizing renewable energy sources have been competing successfully with fossil-fuelled power systems for quite a while now. The global electricity generating capacity from hydro power stations was over 500 GW in 1980 and is around 1000 GW currently. Countries such as New Zealand, Norway and Sweden have a heavy reliance on electricity from hydroelectric power stations. In Fiji, over 80 % of all electricity generated comes from the Monasavu hydroelectric power station.

The Current Energy Supply Situation in Fiji Currently, the major energy sources are petroleum products, biomass, hydropower and coal. Energy from coal contributes less than 5 % to the total energy supply. Biomass and petroleum make up over 70 % of the total primary energy. Table 1 shows the energy supply situation since 1981. Before the commissioning of the Monasavu hydroelectric power scheme in 1983, electricity was generated by diesel-fuelled power stations. Since 1983, however, electricity has largely been generated from the Monasavu hydropower system, with around 95 % of all electricity for the island of Viti Levu coming from it. Electricity for consumers outside Viti Levu comes from diesel power stations operated by FEA. Biomass, mainly in the form of bagasse for the four sugar mills, and wood bark and chips for the Drasa sawmill, also is used to generate electricity (and process heat), for industry. The Fiji Sugar Corporation (FSC) has a collective electrical generating capacity of 27 MW in its four sugar mills. The mills utilise the combustion of bagasse to generate steam and electricity. In 1993, 43,823 MWh of electricity was generated, from 940,500 tonnes of bagasse. The Drasa sawmill in Lautoka has a 3 MW power station, which supplied all the energy requirements for the sawmill. The bark and chips-fired boiler consumes some 24 tonnes of fuel daily to generate steam for process heat and for electricity. Table 1 shows energy supply data for Fiji between 1981 and 1994. The mix of imported and indigenous primary energy supply, along with the individual components of each category are shown in energy units as well as in percentage terms.


ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY SOURCE : 1981-92 YEAR

COAL

PET. PROD

%

ELECTRICITY

C+P

DIESEL HYDRO BAGASSE TOTAL

TJ

TJ

TJ

1981

485

7762

62.14

881

1982 1983

541 479

6930 7170

59.17 59.68

1984 1985

535 428

7165 7077

1986 1987

601 485

1988 1989

TJ

WOOD

TJ

TJ

%

0

164

1045

924 830

0 114

179 93

58.8 57.99

87 65

945 974

7698 6925

59.61 56.81

67 68

333 446

6575 7266

54.56 56.66

1990 1991

431 571

7686 8206

1992

462

8664

TOTAL TJ

%

TJ

7.87

3980

29.99

13272

1103 1037

8.74 8.09

4053 4131

32.10 32.23

12627 12817

155 129

1187 1168

9.06 9.03

4208 4268

32.13 32.98

13095 12941

1067 1059

151 129

1285 1256

9.23 9.63

4339 4377

31.16 33.56

13923 13043

122 114

1105 1169

111 162

1338 1445

10.57 10.62

4415 4453

34.87 32.72

12661 13610

57.45 59.25

116 122

1252 1249

153 138

1521 1509

10.77 10.19

4491 4528

31.79 30.57

14129 14814

59.87

160

1247

144

1551

10.18

4566

29.95

15243

Table 1: Energy Supply for Fiji: 1981-94

Renewable Energy Sources Renewable energy sources in Fiji include direct solar, wind, hydro and biomass. Hydroelectricity has been the major electricity source for Viti Levu since 1983, with a capacity of 80 MW. In addition there are 2 mini hydroelectricity schemes and a number of micro-hydro plants. Biomass sees extensive use, for domestic cooking, crop drying and for electricity generation in sugar mills using bagasse. These sources are discussed in more detail in the following sections.

Direct

Solar

Energy

Fiji, located in the southern tropical zone, has a generally good solar regime. Mean daily insolation varies from 17 MJ/m2 (June) to 22 MJ/m2 (January). Average daily sunshine hours range from 5 to 7 hours/day. The annual daily average insolation, based on a 10-year measurement cycle, is 19.5 MJ/m2 and the annual average sunshine hours is 6.2 hours. The current utilisation of solar energy in Fiji includes provision of hot water through domestic and commercial hot water systems and for electricity generation through photovoltaic power systems. These latter are mainly for village level domestic use and for remote telephone repeater stations. There is significant potential for greater use of solar energy for hot water systems as well as for electricity generation for domestic, commercial and even indus-

trial use. However, the current economics of PV systems does not provide an incentive for this application. However, there is significant potential for solar thermal electricity generation, the economics for which are quite favourable and comparable to fossil-fuel based systems.

Hydro

Power

Resources

In Fiji, the 80 MW Monasavu hydro-electricity system, in central Viti Levu, has been providing electricity to most parts of Viti Levu since 1983. Over 400 GWh of electricity is currently generated from the scheme annually. Two mini-hydro systems, rated at 100 kW and 800 kW respectively, provide electricity to two remote communities. Fiji has a relatively huge hydro-power potential. As a result of the nature of the islands, which are of volcanic origin and are mountainous, there are natural catchment areas in most of the larger islands. Fiji also enjoys high rainfall, with an average of 4000 mm per year. Estimates put the total potential of the resource to over 1 GW. Electricity from the 80 MW Monasavu hydroelectricity scheme in the interior of Viti Levu, the largest island in the Fiji group, is distributed to over 90 % of the electricity consumers supplied by the FEA. Apart from this large hydropower scheme, two mini hydro-schemes (with a total capacity of 250 kW) supplies electricity to two remote communities. There is very significant potential for greater use of hydroelectricity, generated from small-scale microunits or medium mini systems. 159


Biomass

Energy

Resources

The availability of biomass varies considerably in nature and amount from country to country. Some examples of waste biomass available in Fiji include coconut husks and shells, sawdust and waste timber, logging residues, cane tops, rice and maize straws, rice hulls, and animal wastes from pigs, cows, chickens and other animals. Biomass, in combination with petroleum products, makes up over 70% of the total primary energy used in Fiji. Biomass, in the form of bagasse from the four sugarmillsandwoodchipsandbark,providesthesugar mills and a large sawmill with electricity and process heat. In 1993, some 940,500 tonnes of bagasse was burned to provide steam for the mills and 44,000 MWh of electricity. The major use of biomass resources is for energy, mostlyforcooking,withsmalleramountsusedforsteam raising and electricity generation for industries. These resources include wood from forests, waste wood from sawmills and crop wastes and residues. Many industries such as sugar, copra, soap and oil production, rice and timber mills use wood for raising steam and for electricity generation. Boarding schools, abattoirs and even a few restaurants and bakeries use wood for cooking and/or steam raising. Biomass accounted for 51 % of the total primary energy supply of 27000 TJ in Fiji for 1992 (DOE, 1992). Of this, bagasse (9123 TJ) was the dominant source, contributing 34 % with the rest (17%) being contributed by wood. Domestic cooking in the rural areas makes up the largest single end-use for the energy from wood. The sugar industry uses around a third of the bagasse generated in the sugar mills to generate process steam and electricity, selling any surplus power to the utility. The 1984 installed capacity of the sugar mills using biomass- fired turbines was almost 29 MW (Tata Report, 1985). Some 2.8 GWh of electricity was sold to the Fiji Electricity Authority in 1985 (Fiji Electricity Authority, 1986). Around a million tonnes of bagasse was used for electricity generation in the mills in 1989. There is abundant biomass resource, in the form of forests as well as agricultural and industrial waste, to warrant serious consideration of biomass-fuelled power systems. The two major options are direct combustion systems using a steam engine or turbine connected to an alternator and power gasification systems. The sugar mills, for instance, use bagasse to generate all their electricalenergyrequirements;afewsawmillsgenerateelectricity and steam on-site and a 25 kW wood-fired steam 160

power cogeneration system supplies electricity and heat for drying copra at a plantation in Taveuni.

Wind

Energy

Resources

The power in the wind varies as the cube of the windspeed and is directly proportional to the cross-sectional area of the harnessing device through which the wind passes. This means that if the windspeed in a certainlocationdoubled,thewindwouldpossesseighttimes morepower.Duetotheintermittentnatureofthewind, intermsofbothitswindspeedanddirection,windpower is not very reliable and, for electricity generation, a storage and backup power system are required. A study on wind power in Fiji determined that the average wind power flux over the most windy areas is between 42 and 140 W/m2 (windspeed between 4 to 6 m/s)( Prasad ,1982). The power in the wind can be (and has been successively) utilised to provide mechanical power (for water pumping, for instance) and for electricity generation. There is good potential for the use of small-scale WECS, using battery storage, to provide power to remote communitiesandforremotetelecommunicationsinstallations. In general, the wind regime in Fiji is not very promising for harnessing the windâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy for electricity generation. The mean windspeed for most locations in Fiji varybetween4and6m/s.Therearelocationswherethe windspeed is much better but it is not consistently so.

Electricity

Generation

Electricity is generated mostly from 3 sources- hydroelectricity generation, generation from dieselfuelled power stations and biomass-fuelled electricity (sugar mills, sawmills). Apart from the sugar mills and a large sawmill, electricity is generated by the Fiji Electricity Authority either through the Monasavu hydroelectricity generating system (for most of Viti Levu) or through its thermal power stations fuelled by diesel fuel. The Public Works Department is charged with the responsibility of generating electricity, through small and medium scale diesel generating plants for remote and rural communities. Figure 1 shows electricity generated by various sources since 1981. Electricity generated from the rural diesel power systems are not included; nor is that generated by the Vatukoula gold mine. The latter generates its own electrical power requirements through diesel power systems.


ELECTRICITY GENERATION IN FIJI

Figure 1: Electricity Generated from Various Sources: 1981-1992

Barriers to Greater Use of Renewable Energy Despite the relatively abundant renewable energy resources, the current level of utilisation in Fiji is rather insignificant, except for biomass and hydro power. Other resources such as solar, wind, wave and tidal sources have yet to make any impression on the energy front in Fiji. The main reasons are the current state of renewable energy technologies, the economics and the general lack of government and industry support for renewables. Renewable energy systems, particularly the small-scale ones, cannot compete economically with the large or even medium scale fossil-fuel based electricity generation systems. Apart from the obvious advantages of economy of scale for fossil power systems, the renewable systems suffer from unreliability and intermittency of energy supply, the diffuse nature of the energy (solar, wind) and the wide acceptance and well developed current level of technology for fossil-fuelled systems. Current opinion has it that barriers due to the technology and economics of renewable power systems that prevent their widespread acceptance and adoption (Bannister,1989).Heprovidesevidencethatrenewables face cultural barriers of considerable magnitude and further examines the background to the renewable energy debate (Bannister, 1990). Bannister argues that renewable energy technologies have not been able to make significant contribution to the global energy because of ‘cultural’ barriers. He points out that for too long, renewables have suf-

fered the label of ‘alternatives’ and this has been one of the major drawbacks to the wider acceptance and adoption of renewables. He further points out that unless the attitude of society-at-large was changed vis-avis renewables and their benign and sustainable nature, there would be little point in renewables trying to compete with conventional energy systems on their own terms. Bannister and others advocate that the key to gainingacceptanceofrenewablesonanindividuallevel in society lies in not appealing to their pockets but to appealing to their conscience. He goes on to suggest ways to promote renewables using existing institutional structures. Weightman (1996) lists various constraints on the development and expansion of renewable energy projects within New Zealand. Some of these include the following: • lack of commercialisation • lack of established infrastructure of some re technologies • low cost of energy from conventional sources • evolving pricing regime for national grid transmission cost for electricity • lack of an environmental externality cost in the current price of fossil fuels • lack of familiarity with the technology by investors, professionals and the public • lack of specific and more general information on renewable energy technologies. All of these constraints are applicable to the situation with regard to use of renewable energy in Fiji, and indeed to everywhere else, to some degree. 161


Conclusions In Fiji, energy comes from a number of sources of which the three dominant are petroleum products (for transportation, household and industrial use and for electricity generation), hydropower (for electricity generation) and biomass (for cooking, process heat and electricity generation). Other sources include coal (for industrial use), solar energy (for hot water and lighting), geothermal (mainly for cooking), Electricity is generated using hydropower, diesel fuel and bagasse ( for the four sugar mills). Biomass, in the form of firewood, sawdust, bark and agricultural waste (mainly coconut husk and shell), is used to provide process heat for industries and commercial enterprises as well as to generate electricity. While there is good scope for greater use of renewables (such as hydropower and biomass) for electricitygeneration,itappearsunlikelythatthesewillmake significant inroads. However, there are industries such as the sugar mills, sawmills, copra mills and other industries that are looking increasingly at the feasibility of generating their own power through the use of the waste products they generate. Thus, Fiji’s electricity generation will continue to be dominated by the hydroelectricity facility at Monasavu (for most of Viti Levu) while the rest of Fiji will continue to rely upon diesel generation, through large central power stations or small diesel generator sets for the rural and remote communities.

References 1 United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. (ESCAP). 1985 «Energy Issues and Prospects in the Asia and the Pacific Region». Energy Resources Development Series #31. 2 Prasad, S. B. (1989) ‘A Biomass-Fueled Steam Power Generation System: Modelling, Performance and Control Aspects’. Unpublished Thesis, Department of Engineering Physics, Research School of Physical Sciences, Australian National University,Canberra, Australia. 3 World Bank (1992) «Issues and Options in the Energy Sector». Country Reports for Fiji, W. Samoa, Tonga, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. The World Bank in cooperation with the UNDP/ESCAP PEDP, the ADB and FSED. May, 1992. 4 Etherington, D. M. 1987. «The Coconut Connection: Towards Regaining `Subsistence Affluence’ in the South Pacific. Part 1: A Policy Perspective». Economics Department, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. 5 Bannister, Paul (1989). «Cultural Barriers to Renewable Energy». Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand Solar Energy Society (ANZSES) Solar‘89 Conference. 30 N0v.-2 Dec. Brisbane, Australia, 1989. 6 Bannister, Paul (1990) ‘On the Philosophical Background to the Renewable Energy Debate’. Energy Research Centre, research School of Physical Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. 7 Department of Energy, Fiji. (1994). Energy Statistical Yearbook, 1992. 8 Fiji Electricity Authority, 1994. Annual Report 1994. Parliamentary Paper No. 1/1994. 9 Fiji Sugar Corporation (FSC) (1995). Annual Report.

162


Neverland Island

G IANFRANCO D 'E REDITÁ C RISTINA M ANICARDI Ansaldo Renewable Energy Consortium - ENERIN ITALY

The system

I

n the framework of renewable energy source development and integration, the commonest ecosystems in Mediterranean are its islands. Islands offer sources of renewable energy and provide an attractive exploitation opportunity in both technical and economic terms, as well as benefitting employment and the environment. The «island system» represents the best opportunity to demonstrate an integrated development approach to: • using locally available «renewable resources» to conserve the environment and improve the social and economic fabric; • connecting «renewable resources» available in a flexible manner using innovative distribution and control systems.

System integration optimisation

and

• The different generators installed on the Island will be operated in parallel and their output, according to the availability of primary energy sources, will be optimised by an intelligent power dispatcher (possibly based on fuzzy logic techniques). • As far as energy saving is concerned, a control will be implemented on the users’ sides, by mean of intelli-

gent plugs or other similar devices, able to connect low priority loads only when the overall balance between power demand and power availability allows such loads to operate. This will sensibly increase overall system efficiency and therefore reduce the need for expensive energy storage capacity. • A simple prototyping tool is used to investigate closed energy systems including several generators (Wind, PV, Mini-hydro, Fuel Cells, etc.) and different types of users (residential, water desalinators, etc.). The tool allows a fast tailoring of the system to the client’s needs and to the existing infrastructures in a optimised configuration.

Energy and information links Ventotene

integrated

project

The project, now under development, has been made by Enerin according to Italian and UE laws, in partnership with local contractors and public authority and is aimed at: • Integrated utilization of renewable sources: Photovoltaic, Solar Thermal, Biogas (that will gradually substitute diesel oil) with the existing local energy grid fed by fossil fuel (1.2 MW diesel power plant) • Potable water production by desalinators and water supply by the existing distribution grid with pumping fed by electric system or PV plant 163


ENERGY AND INFORMATION LINKS

• Energy saving system + intelligent power dispatcher This project is the result of a careful and realistic evaluation, above all concerning the timing, to turn over a «fossil» system to a «renewable + fossil» system and at last to a «renewable island» system.

164

VentoteneIslandcanbeclassifiedasasmallsizeisland (300 residents, 300 beds in 7 Hotels, 2500 people in the summer period - bed & breakfast). This Island is subject to environmental and naturalistic bonds: Ventotene is a natural and sea park with endemic species.


National Energy Program CROTOK Energy Development on Islands A LENKA K INDERMAN Energy Institute Hrvoje Poþar CROATIA

H

istorical development of the islands and their present situation can be clearly observed at Figure 1. showing the changes in demographic pattern in the last hundred years. The diagram shows that the decreasing trend is linear and very steep. If the emigration and mortal trends are not changed, the population shall drop very quickly and in 2005 it would be just a half of the year 1921-population level.

ponent, which must be observed in the context of viable growth. That was the reason that the Energy Institute Hrvoje Poþar started a specific national program CROTOK. The Program elaborates different aspects of energy development of the Croatian islands. The Program has been started with the aim to improve energy economy of the islands, use of renewable energy sources, preservation of the environment, and to mobilize experts in accomplishing the tasks within the Croatian energy supply sector.

Institutional framework of Energy Planning in Croatia

Figure 1: Number of inhabitants on islands (1900-1991)

Theupgradingandimprovementoflivingconditions on the islands, economic growth and preservation of environmental values, were the motives to introduce the National Program of Development of Islands. The Program is coordinated by Ministry of Reconstruction and Development of the Republic of Croatia and it systematically takes care of all segments of the problems related to the islands. The Program recognizes the energy supply of the Croatian islands as a very important infrastructure com-

At the beginning of 1994 the Government of the Republic of Croatia adopted a new research project in the energy field called PROHES - Development and Organization of the Croatian Energy Sector. The preliminary results of the project’s implementation which were published in 1995. have showed that there is a need for more detailed studies considering Croatian development both globally and by sectors. During 1996 seven studies were finished analysing future energy demand in industry, services, transport, building construction, forestry, agriculture as well as global economic development. In March 1997, Government of the Republic of Croatia and all competent ministries and other state institutions and companies signed the agreement to manage ten national energy programs with the Energy 165


Institute “Hrvoje Poþar”. The program’s objectives are to develop a number of measures to overcome existing barriers for wider implementation of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. The first phase of research on the projects lasted about one year and preliminary results published in the summer of 1998, served as a basis elements for the Draft study Energy Sector Development Strategy of the Republic of Croatia. The eleventh National Energy Program-CROTOK was started in 1999 as a part of the PROHES project. It is particular organization of ten others national energy programs whose goals is to provide conditions for increasing energy efficiency, alternative energy use and environment protection on croatian islands.

obstacles for increasing cogeneration plants construction, everywhere where heat and electricity are used in technological processes.

MIEE Network of Industrial Efficient Use of Energy The network installing program objective is to ensure all institutional, organizational and expert prerequisites for increasing energy efficiency in industry, service and public sector, based in experiences of developed countries.

MAHE-Small Hydro Plants Construction

Power Program

Thisprogramaimstoprovideallconditionsforagreat number of small plants construction. total amount of theinstalledpowerinsmallhydropowerplantsis24MW and technical potential is estimated at around 150 MW

SUNEN - Solar Energy Use Program This program objective is to give all legal, incentive, promotional and other prerequisites for significant solar energy use. At the present level, total potential of solar energy is estimated at 1,4 PJ in 2000, about 5 PJ in 2010 and about 15 PJ in 2020. The potential of passive solar architecture is estimated at about 350 TJ in 2000 and 6430 TJ in 2020.

Figure 2: Organization of activities

The program plans to use waste-wood, straw, biogas , and other waste, and conversion from biomass to liquid fuel (ethanol, methanol). The total energy resources of biomass in Croatia are at about 50 PJ whereby 39 PJ makestechnicalenergyresourcethatcanbeusedtoday.

in the project PROHES

National Energy Programs in Croatia PLINCRO Gasification program

in

BIOEN- Biomass and Waste Use Program

Croatia

ENWIND-Wind use program

Energy

Program objective is to increase use og gas n energy consumption structure as whole as a prerequisite for gas network expanding to all until now non-gasified regions. Currently, about 15% of Croatian households are connected to gas pipeline system and until 2025 the expected increase is about 40 %.

The program has shown that the yearly electric energy production from wind energy could be between 380 and 790 GWh on 29 locations analysed. apart from production of electric energy the wind generators can be used in water supply systems (desalination) what is also interested for the Adriatic islands.

KOGEN-Cogeneration

GEOEN - Geothermal Energy Use Program

Program

Currently, cogeneration plants contribute to almost 10 % of the Croatian electric consumption. Program objective is to obtain all preconditions and take off the 166

In Croatia there is e hundreds years old tradition of using geothermal energy from natural resources for


medical and bathing purposes. It is also possible to use thermal potential in agriculture, hospitals, hotels, residential buildings, etc. The amount of geothermal energy resources of the known deposits in Croatia is 812 MWt and 45,8 MWe.

KUENzgradaBuilding Efficiency Program

Energy

The program of energy efficiency in building construction includes the changes of regulation in order to favor increase of thermal insulation and reconstruction of existing residence buildings.

Poþar” and regional centres in Split, Rijeka and Osijek. Basically,anecessarylevelofuniformityinthemethodological part of the co-operation between certain centres and offices would be in charge of Energy institute. Croatian islands are a specific natural resource of the RepublicofCroatiaandtheirgeographicandeconomic characteristics demand a special approach in management of energy generation and consumption. Therefore, they are organized as separate regional entity and correspondingCountiesandtheirenergyofficeswilltake responsibilityofenergydevelopmentonislands.

KUENcts-Energy Efficiency in Centralised Thermal Systems Program The aim of the program is to define all conditions for energy efficiency increase, ranging from thermal consumption measuring to the overall situation in the energy sector in therms of ownership and economy.

CROTOK-Energy on islands

development

The goal of the program of energy development on islands is to ensure institutional, organizational and expert prerequisites for increasing energy efficiency and alternative energy use on islands.

Energy planning on Croatian islands

Figure 3: Relations between the country energy offices and regional energy centres

Regarding to the specific climate, economy and energy supply system in particular areas in the Republic of Croatia it is necessary to organize regional energy planning. The basic administrative unit of the regional planning of energy sector in Croatia is a county. In additiontothat,theareaofplanningmayincludemore counties at the regional level or certain specific parts of some counties, as for example, the Croatian islands. However, regional development of energy sector must be in co-ordination with development on national level, especially with electric power and gas system as well as with system for oil derivatives production and distribution. Energy offices will undertake the responsibility for the duration of the process of energy planning in the counties and for the implementation of the plans. Those offices will be given expert and scientific support for their activities by the Energy institute “Hrvoje

Methodological concept of energy planning on islands The methodological concept of the island’s energy system development is based on the regional energy system planning in the countries of the European Union using the Least-Cost Planning and Demand Side Management methods. In Croatia, such experiences were achieved through the project Regional energy planning in Istria (Sinergy, Exergija, EIHP). The development plan evolves in two phases. The first phase is the elaboration of the starting points followed by the definition of the development plan for the improvement of energy efficiency and renewable resource utilisation. Both phases, including the individual steps, are shown in figure 4: 167


• Economic development of the island determines its energy system development, therefore it is necessary toconductananalysisof all available resources. • Energy data base shows the current state of affairs of the energy consumption and at the same time creates the basis for further planning of the island’s energy system development. It consists of individual consumer categories and energy consumption according to structure and purpose (heating, non-heating, cooling). Most of the data necessary for the elaboration of the data base can be gathered through public opinion polls with the authozised institutions furnishing some general data. • Renewable energy potential is elaborated based on the location records of all possible renewable energy resources. • Housing potential data review the existing buildings according to their purpose, type, age, heating conditionsetc.,andarealsogatheredthroughopinionpolls. • Pollutantemissionswiththeexistingenergyconsumption result from the present records and measurements. • Analysis of current consumption and future needs of useful energy in all consumption sectors is performed by means of several scenarios. It is based on the main economic development guidelines and some other elements such as demography, climate, technological progress, etc. • Possible renewable resource utilisation and energy efficiency enhancement in order to meet future needs: The competitiveness of the renewable energy potential is compared to the classical supply systems in time sequence. Improved energy efficiency in hotel business, industry and building construction also affects future supply and profitability of investments. • According to the foreseen scenarios of energy consumption and supply, pollutant emissions create a limiting factor which will bear influence on the structure of the energy consumed. 168

Figure 4

Preliminary results of investigation on the project CROTOK The preliminary results of investigation on the programCROTOKshowpresentenergyconsumptionand predictions of future energy demands until 2020. The year 1996 has been taken as a reference year for which detailed energy consumption data by energy form and energy use are available. Projections of future energy demands have been made according to the general development projections, infrastructure development, the protection of the human environment, the development of the economic activities as well as the development of social activities. Energy system on islands is analysed through three consumer categories: households, services and industry. Agriculture is not developed, so its consumption, compared to others sectors, is not significant.

Energy consumption on islands in 1996 Households Among 717 islands in Croatia 66 of them are inhabited, and 110953 inhabitants live on them. The majority of the population lives on 15 islands while less than 5 percent live on others. The total number of households is 39643, but this number is bigger during the summer period when people form mainland come to their holiday houses. Households are the major energy consumers on islands. Concerning the energy structure and needs they


are in comparison to the continental part of Croatia.Averageannualenergyconsumption in a household is calculated from the data obtained from a questionnaire which was conduced on several islands. Results show that one household needs 46,43 GJ per year for its thermal and non-thermal purposes as well as for the cooling and overall consumption on islands is 1842,17 TJ. The most useful energy source is fuel wood and its share in overall consumption is 50 percent. Electricity has very high share of 36 percent as a result of its intensive use for thermal purposes (heating, cooling and hot water). Light oil and LPG have shares less than 10 percent. Services The service sector on islands comprises tourism and catering, trade, health, education public administration and others. Regarding to the fact that tourism is the most developed branch on islands this sub-sector is the largest energy consumer in service category. Total accommodation capacity on islands is 129 305 beds, and 29 percent of that number belongs to the primary capacities Figure 6 : Thermal energy consumption on islands in 1996. (hotels). Total energy consumption in servPrediction of future ices in 1996 is 477 TJ, 54 percent of that energy is used energy demand on for thermal purposes, 38 percent for non-thermal purislands until 2020 poses and the rest for cooling. Mostly fossil fuels are Base year energy consumption is the main prereqused for thermal purposes while other demands are uisite for the elaboration of energy balances. The tacovered by electric energy. ble 1 and figure 5 show increasing trends for all three categories of consumption: households, industry and Industry services. Industry on islands is very poorly developed, but there is shipbuilding, textile industry, plastic production, salt industry and arhitectural and building stones extraction. In 1996, 250 TJ, mostly fuel oil and electricity, in this sector was consumed. Total thermal energy consumption on islands in 1996 Figure4showstotalthermalenergyconsumptiononislandsaccordingtotheirgeographical positionandconsumercategoryin1996.Total amountofusedenergywas1206TJ,74percent belongingtohouseholds,16percenttoservices and10percenttoindustry.

Figure 5: Energy consumption prediction until 2020, TJ

169


1996

2000

2005

2010

2015

2020

TJ

TJ

TJ

TJ

TJ

TJ

1204,68 1,00

1435,00 1,19

1673,00 1,39

1890,00 1,57

2060,00 1,71

2228,39 1,85

SERVICES

419,04 1,00

640,00 1,53

900,00 2,15

1150,00 2,74

1420,00 3,39

1707,38 4,07

INDUSTRY

166,81 1,00

220,00 1,32

285,00 1,71

320,00 1,92

330,00 1,98

333,62 2,00

1790,53 1,00

2295,00 1,28

2858,00 1,60

3360,00 1,88

3810,00 2,13

4269,39 2,38

HOUSEHOLDS

TOTAL

Table 1: End-use energy consumption prediction on islands until 2020, TJ

Total end-use energy demand on islands in 2020 will be 2,38 times bigger than in 1996. The highest increase will have the service sector because of the planned intensive development of tourism as a leading economy branch on islands. With that the share of service sector will increase in totalconsumption.Energyconsumptioninhouseholds willalsorise.Until2020theirdemandwillincreaseabout twice. It is predicetd that the number of inhabitants on islands will rise. Also, a better living standard is predicted, so the average yearly consumption per households will grow up as well. Also, energy consumption in industry and agriculture will rise, however their share in total energy consumption will stay the same. Basic information on Croatian islands Croatian Islands are the second largest archipelago of the Mediterranean Sea. They encompass all islands of the

Conclusion Croatianislandspresentanenormousnaturalresource which requires a special attention and care on the state level. The purpose of the program CROTOK is to help energy system development on the islands in order to create conditions for a high-quality management of energy generation and consumption. Owing to specific geographical and climatic conditions the renewable energy resources and energy efficiency measures are going to play a crucial role when defining future developmenttendencies.Theywillhelpdevelopasystem which meets all world standards and regulations in relation to environmental protection and preservation. Apart from positive environmental effects, the program isexpectedtohaveawidesocialandeconomicinfluence such as an improved standard of living, employment, infrastructuraldevelopmentandmodernisationandthe enhancement of agriculture, industry and tourism.

Adriatic East Coast and its central zone. There is a total of References

1185 islands, including 718 islands, 389 sounds and 78 reefs. They determine the territorial sea of the Republic of

1 Graniæ, G., et al.: Energy Sector Strategy Development

Croatia, which makes 37 per cent of its overall territory.

of the Republic of Croatia, Draft proposal, Ministry of

The total surface of the archipelago is 3300 km2, which is

economic affairs & Energy institute “Hrvoje Poþar”

5.7 per cent of the total national land territory.

Zagreb, 1988

They are situated in the area with Adriatic type of Medi-

2 National program for islands development, Proceedings

terranean climate. Summers are hot and dry, winters are

of the Symposium on National program for Island Devel-

mild and wet, and the insolation degree is high. July aver-

opment, Ministry of Development and Recovering, Krk

age temperature range from 23,7 oC to 25,6 oC. Croatian

22.-24. February 1996

islands are among the areas in Europe most exposed to

3 Regional Energy Planning for Istra, Sinergy Programme:

the sun, the annual average of insolation ranges from 2200

Regional Energy Planning in Istra, Exergia & Energy

to 2650 hours of sunny weather, which means over 7 hours

Institute Hrvoje Poþar, Athens 1997

of sun daily. The regime of precipitation is typically Medi-

4 Majstoroviæ M., et al.: Energy Balances and Energy

terranean. There are 266 to 1141 mm of precipitation.

Demand Forecasting up to 2020, Project Energy Sec-

Adriatic Sea belongs to the group of warm seas. The sea

tor Development of Splitsko-dalmatinska County, Fac-

surface temperature in winter period does not drop bellow

ulty of Electric, Mechanic and Naval Engineering -Split

10oC and during summer season it can reach up to 25oC.

and Energy Institute Hrvoje Poþar-Zagreb, 1998

170


Renewable Energy on Small Islands THOMAS L INGE J ENSEN Forum for Energy and Development (FED)

I

nitsenergyactionplanEnergy21from1996theDanish government decided that a Danish island as a demonstration project should become a Renewable Energy Islands (REI), i.e. 100% self sufficient from renewable energy sources (RES), including transportation, within 10years.InNovember1997theDanishislandSamsøwas selected among 5 candidates to become an official REI. The Danish Council for Sustainable Energy, which is an independent council advising the Danish government and parliament, found the REI-concept a good starting point for exchange of experience and information and global co-operation. The Council therefore asked the DanishNGOForumforEnergyandDevelopment(FED) to initiate a global mapping of renewable energy development on small islands with a size below 500 square kilometres. The report Renewable Energy on small Islands was available in April 1998. Below are some of the major conclusions from this report supplemented with information gathered since.

Major Reliance on imported Fossil Fuels Most small islands around the world today are dependent on imported fossil fuels for the majority of their energy needs especially for transport and electricity production. E.g. in the Caribbean petroleum imports are responsible for more than 75% of primary energy demand and in the insular areas of the European Union (EU) oil accounts for approximately 90% of the primary energy demand.

Because of small size and isolated location, infrastructure costs such as energy are higher than on the mainland and cost of fossil fuels constitutes a substantial proportion of the total value of imports. E. g. energy often accounts for more than 12% of all imports in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and more than 15% of all imports in the islands in the EU. This is also reflected in the cost of electricity production. The production costs for diesel power in the Caribbean is for example10-15 US cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh) and in the Pacific approximately 20 US Cents per kWh. The average production cost per kWh at diesel power station in SIDS can easily be 3-4 times typical production costs in for example Denmark. Fuel imports are thus a great drain and a significant constraint on development because they crowd out vital capital.

A few islands with Significant Renewable Energy Penetration In general there is not a higher penetration of renewable energy on islands compared to the rest of the (mainland) world. This is a paradox. The high price for fossil fuels, and the low demand increases the unit costs of production for conventional power production, which creates a competitive situation for renewable energy technologies on the islands. Further most of the islands are endowed with good renewable energy resources, primarily sun and wind. However, dispersed around the world there are a few islands with a significant utilisation of renewable 171


energy. To give a few examples - in Nan’ao Island (China), La Desirade (Guadeloupe, France) and Pellworm (Germany) more than 75% of the electricity is generated by wind power, in Fiji and Dominica hydropower provides more than 50% of the electricity production, in Barbados there are installed solar water heatersin1/3ofthehouseholds,inTuvalu’seightouter islands more than 45% of the households have their electricity supplied from small photovoltaic systems, and in Réunion (France) more than 18% of the electricity is provided from biomass (bagasse). Below are shown main figures for the investigated islands regarding: renewable energy penetration, kind ofRESutilised,geographicaldispersionandsovereignty status. Penetration 75-100% 50-75% 25-50% 0-25%

Investigated Islands 9% 9% 21% 61%

Table 1: Renewable Energy Penetration

Source Wind Hydro PV Biomass Solar Thermal

Investigated Islands 48% 21% 16% 11% 4%

Table 2: Renewable Energy Sources utilised

Area North Pacific South Pacific Caribbean North Atlantic South Atlantic Baltic Sea Mediterranean Indian Ocean

Investigated Islands 18% 15% 13% 29% 4% 11% 5% 5%

Table 3: Geographical dispersion

Status Non-sovereign Sovereign

Investigated Islands 82% 18%

Table 4: Sovereignty Status

Renewable Energy penetration in the power sector is a good indicator of how much RE contributes to the energy supply on the investigated islands. Average figure for renewable energy penetration is about 25% (see table1). Approximately 20% has more than half of the electricity generated from RES. This figure is ex172

tremely high, not only compared with island average, but also when compared with world average. The kind of RES utilised is wind: nearly 50% of the islands have utilised wind. 20% of the islands have experience with hydro, and this figure is almost similar with regard to photovoltaics. The islands investigated are scattered all over the world (see table 3), but almost 1/3 are located in North Atlantic. Regarding sovereignty Status of the islands the conclusion is unambiguous: 80% of the islands are non-sovereign (see table 4).

Islands

interesting?

Are islands interesting when it comes to questions of development of renewable energy on a local and global scale? The answer is yes for two primary reasons. Thefirstreasonisthecompetitivesituationforrenewable energy technologies and the good renewable energy sources. These two major barriers for the dissemination of RES do not exist on most islands. There are of course other barriers, technical institutional and political.Themostsignificantisnodoubtfinancial–thehigh initial capital costs associated with purchase of RE technologies.Thisisclearlyillustratedinthereview.Approximately80%oftheislandswithrenewableenergyexperiences are non-sovereign. They are formally connected to a mainland and therefore have substantial economic support in all sectors, among others infrastructure. The island states do not have this financial base of support so most of them are dependent on bilateral, regional and multilateral aid agencies. Through a concentrated effort by donors it is possible to increase the utilisation of RESonmanysmallislandstatessubstantiallyandthereby contribute to the social and economical development and improve the local and global environment. The second reason islands are interesting when it comestoquestionsofdevelopmentofrenewableenergyis that experience gathered at islands can serve as demonstrationprojectsformainlandlocalcommunities, not only in developing countries. There are about 2.5 billionpeoplelivingoutsideanationalgridindeveloping countries.Thesepeoplealsoneedelectricityservicesand experiencesfromREIsarehighlyrelevantinthiscontext. Furthermoreislandscannotonlyserveasdemonstration projects for local communities in the developed and developing world – through concentrated efforts some small islands states can serve as demonstration nations. Despitetheirsizesmallislandstatescouldsetanexample to the world’s nations.


Wind Powered Reverse Osmosis Desalination for stand-alone island operation MATTHIAS GROTTKE , P. HELM, H. EHMANN, M. STÖHR WIP Renewable Energies GERMANY

T

he presented development and operation experience addresses the strategic topic of providing drinking water through sea water desalination. The reliable and safe provision of fresh water supply is turning out to be one of the major constraints which countries around the Mediterranean Sea, including the southern European regions, North Africa and the Middle East are currently facing. A contribution to the solution of actual and future fresh water shortages is presented here through a very energy-efficient and cost-competitive modular wind energy converter (WEC) - reverse osmosis (RO) sea water desalination concept. The concept targets essentially applications in remote, often off-grid, areas with small and medium local water demand, such as islands and isolated villages in coastal areas. The prototype plant consists of a 200kW WEC, the ENERCON E-30, and an RO unit with 3 identical RO blocks (1,2). The RO blocks are constructed according toanew,innovativedesign.Thisrepresentsacompletely new approach to the RO process and a milestone in sea water desalination technology as well as for wind energy application. The design of the RO blocks allows for operation at fluctuating feed water flow and pressure and facilitates them switching on and off while reducing the specific electricity consumption of the RO process. This paper focuses on the further developed design, set-up and operation of the two modular WEC-RO plants which were set up on the Canarian Island Tenerife, Spain, and the Aegean island, Greece. They have been installed and operated within the project Modu-

lar Desalination under the framework of the EC DG XII JOULE III programme (3).

Modular plant concept The presented pilot plants on Tenerife and Syros follow both the general modular plant concept which combines WECs of various sizes with various numbers of RO blocks. The WEC are in all cases 3-blade, active pitch controled, gear-less ENERCON machines. The lack of a gear-box and other fast rotating components reduces • energy losses between rotor and generator • soundemissions • mechanical wear and tear • oil losses • mechanical friction losses and leads to low maintenance requirements. Optionallyanenergystoragesystemisincludedwhich adapts the WEC output power to the power requirements of the load and includes a diesel generator, batteries and a flywheel generator. The output of the energy storage system is connected to the RO unit and to the electric grid if available. The connection to the electric grid can be interrupted if necessary. In addition, a secondary electricity source like a diesel generator might be included. The general plant design is shown in Figure 1. 173


The produced drinking water is stored in a second storage tank, such providing a further energy bufferandthepossibilityto adapt the wind power availability to the actual water demand. All the components of Figure 1: General WEC-RO plant design. the RO unit are housed in The RO unit is subdivided in a sea water pretreatstandard 20' and 40' containers, thus facilitating transment section, a number of identical RO blocks and a portandon-siteassembly.Figure2providesanoverview drinking water storage section. The sea water storage of an RO unit with 8 RO blocks as set up on Syros. section contains a tank which acts as an energy buffer: The modularity of the plant concept is reflected by the operation of the sea water pump can be restricted the operation and control software which is composed to periods of high wind power availability if required. of modular sections with exactly defined interfaces. The number of RO blocks determines essentially the sea water desalination capacity of the plant. Each RO Pilot plant in Tenerife block incorporates an energy recovery system which is based on the piston accumulator principle. A high The pilot WEC-RO plant on Tenerife (Figure 3) has pressure pump is only required on the fresh water side beenintegratedintotheexistingwindparkofGranadilla of the RO process, thus reducing the high pressure which belongs to the regional authority. water flow rate and the energy consumption. The omitment of a sea water resistant high pressure pump is also advantageous, because it reduces the equipment costs. By varying the speed of the high pressure pump, the desalination rate can be adapted to the available wind power and water demand.

Figure 3: View on the RO unit of the WEC-RO pilot plant on Tenerife.

Figure 2: Flow diagram of the RO unit with 8 RO blocks on Syros.

174

The WEC which is used in the pilot WEC-RO plant on Tenerife is an ENERCON E-12 machine, a newly developed WEC with a permanent magnet synchronous generator, 30kW nominal power and a passive yaw system. The E-12 has extremely low maintenance requirements, thus being specifically suitable for remote areas, and for combination with remote, small RO sea water desalination plants.


The E-12 grid management system first rectifies the AC output of the generator and then, depending on the application, transforms the generated current into an AC current of specific voltage and frequency. In case of a grid connection, the AC current is fed into the grid via a transformer at a voltage and frequency according to the requirements and standards given by the utilities. When using an electric motor as a load such in the case of a RO plant, the output of the management system has a variable frequency and voltage. The pilot plant in Tenerife does not include the optional energy storage system and contains only a single RO block with a water desalination capacity between 60 and 110m3/day, thus presenting an ideal case for testing the internal energy buffer capability of the RO plant.

Figure 5: Interior view of main container on Tenerife.

The 40' tank container (Tankcontainer) houses two 14m3 tanks, one for pre-filtered sea water and one for the produced drinking water. The sea water tank serves as a buffer for the sea water and hence as an energy buffer, while the drinking water tank serves primarily as a storage for the rinsing system. The 20' collection container (Sammelcontainer) houses the connection pipes from the main and from the tank container. It houses also the dosing stations for the sea water and for the purification system.

Pilot plant on Syros On Syros, the WEC and the RO unit (Figures 6 and 7) are installed at two different sites, about 1.5km distant, and linked via a medium voltage grid line.

Figure 4: Arrangement of three containers which house the RO unit on Tenerife.

TheROunitisinstalledintwo40'andone20'containers (Figure 4). The 40' main container (Haupt-container) houses the RO block, the purification plant for the incoming sea water, the rinsing system and a pump forfeedingtheproduceddrinkingwaterintotheislandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water distribution system (Figure 5). The rinsing system is required because the RO modules must be flushed with fresh water after each switch-off, in order to prevent the membranes from getting blocked. The main container houses also the connection for the electricity supply of the RO unit and the main control.

Figure 7: View on RO unit on Syros.

175


TheWECusedinthepilotplantonSyrosisthewidely experiencedandprovenENERCONE-40machinewith synchronousringgenerator,500kWnominalpowerand a grid management system which allows for output frequency and voltage control and self-adaptation of the WEC to weak electric grids. TheelectricityfromtheWECisbufferedintheenergy storage system before it is fed into the RO unit and the electricgrid.TheROunitcontains8identicalROblocks with a water production capacity varying between 60 and 900m3/day. Since the maximum power consumption of the RO unit is only 200kW whereas the nominal power of the WEC is 500kW, a large fraction of the generated electricity is fed into the island’s electric grid. The RO unit is installed in five 40' containers (Figure 8). The main container houses the purification plant and the rinsing system, as well as the main electrical connection and the main control. EachofthetwoROcontainershousesfourROblocks. The tank container is identical to its counterpart in the plant on Tenerife. The collection container houses the connection pipes to the island’s water distribution system and to the RO and tank containers as well as two pumps:apre-pressurepumpsuppliestheROcontainers with sea water and another pump feeds the produced drinking water into the water distribution system.

• All plants produce high quality drinking water with a typical conductivity of 0.85mS/cm (sea water values are about 41mS/cm on Tenerife and 61mS/cm on Syros). • The combined WEC-RO plants can operate in autonomous as well as grid-connected mode. • In the autonomous mode, the RO unit follows perfectly the available wind power. • Switching processes are managed correctly. • The power consumption of the high pressure pump, and as a consequence the water flow and pressure can vary over a wide range, e.g. 5.5 to 15.3kW on Tenerife. • The energy efficiency is very high. The typical evolution of the WEC-RO operation parameters are shown in Figures 9, 10 and 11 which display operation parameters for the WEC-RO plant on Syros which incorporates 8 RO blocks. The chart «60 Days Data Modular Desalination Plant of Syros» (Figure 9) displays the three most characteristic parameters of the modular desalination system: The average daily wind speed, the daily energy consumption of the RO unit and the drinking water flow rate. During the 60 days period shown in Figure 9, the WEC output power was limited to 200kW and the plant was operated in a quasi-autonomous mode, i.e. the consumed energy of the RO unit follows closely the produced energy of the WEC. Figure 9 shows that the three most characteristic parameters evolve in parallel, except if the wind speed exceeds the value which is necessary for a WEC power output of 200kW. 60 DAYS DATA MODULAR DESALINATION PLANT OF SYROS

Figure 8: Arrangement of the five 40' containers of the RO unit on Syros

Operation

experiences

The long-term operation of the prototype and pilot plants has allowed to verify the following features: 176

Figure 9: Average daily values of wind speed, RO unit energy consumption and drinking water production during 60 days of quasi-autonomous operation.


eralenergyconsumers:whilethepretreatment unit is operating during the entire period, a pump which generates prepressure on the RO blocks as soon as two or more RO blocks operate is switched on at about 10:22 and the two sea water pumps which fill the sea water tank are switched on at about 10:29. The irritations at 10:28 are due to a problem when starting the well pumps. While the power consumption of the peripheral components changes essentially in three steps, the main power change is due to the change of the number of operating RO Figure 10: Typical daily operation cycle in the crucial part-load range. blocks. The curve showing the power of the RO blocks has also essentially The chart «24h Data Modular Desalination Plant of three components: the control unit gives a constant Syros» shows a characteristic day at the modular contribution of about 0.2kW. The second component desalination on Syros (Figure 10). The sample interval is the high pressure pump whose consumption varies for the data is 15 minutes and the data are averaged according to the number of revolutions of the pump. over the sample interval. The wind speed varies beThe third and most characteristic component are the tween 5.5 and 7.5m/s on that day, i.e. below the value stuff pumps in the piston type accumulator systems of whichisnecessarytogenerate200kW.Asaconsequence the RO blocks whose power consumption has a typical the RO unit operates in the crucial part load range. oscillating structure. When several RO blocks are operThe RO unit’s energy consumption follows closely ating, the oscillations from the stuff pumps belonging the WEC energy production, thereby smoothing out to different RO blocks interfere and partially cancel the available energy from the WEC. The drinking waout each other. ter flow rate follows almost proportionally the RO unit It must be noted, that the conductivity of the proenergy consumption though the number of RO blocks duced drinking water is constant over the entire peis switched in steps from 4 up to 7 and then down to 3. riod. Only if an additional RO block is switched on, the Even when the number of operating 15MIN DATA MODULAR DESALINATION SYROS RO blocks is constant, the consumed energy and the drinking water flow rate can still vary and adapt to the available wind power, because each RO block can operate over a wide range of input power. The chart «15 min Data Modular Desalination of Syros» (Figure 11) shows operation data for a 15min period in which the RO unit was geared up from 1 to 5 RO blocks operating, while switching on all peripheral energy consumers in parallel. The power curve showing the energy consumption of the peripheral components has three steps corre- Figure 11: Operation data of a 15 minutes period with a quick switching on of several RO blocks and peripheral components. sponding to the three major periph24H DATA MODULAR DESALINATION PLANT OF SYROS

177


conductivity increases shortly for a very small amount. However, the conductivity of the drinking water depends slightly on the pressure and water flow which is determined by the high pressure pump which is operated in a constant mode in the displayed period.

shortages in the Mediterranean area, including southern European countries, North Africa and the Middle East.

Acknowledgements Conclusions In total three innovative, modular WEC-RO plants of different size have been designed, set up and operated. They allow for perfectly matching the drinking water production rate to the available wind power, thus permitting autonomous, grid-connected and hybrid operation. Through the implementation of a totally new, inherently energy saving RO concept a very high energy efficiency of the entire RO unit could be achieved, even when including the energy consumption of peripheral components into the consideration. The developed and pilot-operated technology is particularily suitable for remote areas with small and medium local water demand and can provide a contribution for combating up-coming serious water

178

This project has received co-financing from the European Commission, Directorate General XII within the framework of the JOULE III programme under project number JOR3-CT95-0018.

References (1) Prodesal, EC DG XII project RENA-CT94-0018, Final report, 1997 (2) H. Ehmann, A. Wobben, M. Cendagorta, Prodesal Pro Desalination, The development and pilot operation of the first wind powered reverse osmosis sea water desalination plant, in: Proceedings of the 1996 European Union Wind Energy Conference, Gรถteborg (3) Modular Desalination, EC DG XII project JOR3-CT950018, Final report, 1999


Energy in Cuba Present situation and main actions

A LFREDO C URBELO A LONSO Director of Industry and Energy CUBA

General

description

C

uba is an archipelago made up of the island of Cuba, with a surface area of 104,945 km2, Isla de la Juventud island, 2,200 km2, and more than 4000 small islands and keys with a total surface area of 110,922 km2. Cuba has a population of 11.1 million inhabitants, 27% of whom live in rural areas. The electricity service reaches approximately 93% of the population, with those living in the more remote regions of the country, basically in mountainous or forested regions, having no access to the grid.

The energy situation Theislandishighlydependentonfuelimports,which cover 60% of the economy’s energy needs and account for nearly 30% of the total import bill. Domestic oil production is around 1.5 million tons a year. The high viscosity and sulphur content makes this oil typically of a low quality. It is used directly for producing cement and electricity. 90% of electricity is produced in fuel-oil fired power stations and 70% of all the fuel-oil used for this purpose is imported. The use of bio-mass fuel is concentrated in the sugar industry, which produces the equivalent of 30% of the fuel used in the country. Crude sugar production is

done almost entirely using sugar cane bagasse as fuel. At the same time, this process produces nearly 10% of all electricity generated. The use of firewood is very limited as this is used mainly as fuel for starting up the sugar mills and for producing charcoal for cooking in rural areas. The share of firewood in Cuba’s total energy balance is around 1%. Hydroelectric energy presently makes a very limited contribution, because the long, narrow shape of the island means there are no large rivers. Total installed power is 42 MW in a hydroelectric power station and around 10 MW in small and micro hydroelectric plants. As we can see, the main contribution of renewable energy sources comes from sugar cane bio-mass. The possibility of increasing the share of renewable energies in the country’s energy balance, however, is a strategic element, as it would increase the energy security of the island in situations of political, economic or commercial change on the international scene. In certain conditions, it would also improve the national balance of payments, generate employment and even increase gross domestic product whilst making a modest contribution to mitigating climate change and helping to raise environmental awareness among the population. To this end, there is not just a need to introduce renewable energy sources, especially where this would be economically advantageous, there is also a need to increase energy efficiency in its end use. 179


Main actions In the area of energy efficiency, the main opportunities are to be found in the industrial sector and even more so in the area of people’s homes. People at home consumenearly40%ofallelectricitygenerated.Moreover, it is a sector that is characterised by the use of low energyefficiencyequipment.Presently,theCubanElectricity Saving Programme is targeting this sector with measures such as compact lamps and improvements in refrigerator technology. In the tourist industry, one of the fastest growing industries on the island, the government is working to introduce the use of energy efficient equipment and technology, on the one hand, and to harness the advantages of bio-climatic architecture to reduce energy consumption in buildings, on the other. Nowadays, renewable energy plays an important role by contributing 30% of primary energy used. Its share in covering the country’s energy needs could be much greater if efficiency could be improved in the use of sugar cane bio-mass for generating electricity and by increasing the installed capacity of bio-mass. Bio-mass could generate up to 50% of electricity produced and the main constraint to growth in this area is financial. Nowadays, the use of firewood for energy generation is very restricted, mainly due to the limits of the technology available for preparing and handling it as a fuel and for using it in ovens and boilers as a substitute for fuel-oil. Studies of the potential of wind energy have enabled us to identify some sites that could be used for this purpose. The first Cuban wind farm was opened, with 675 kW of installed power. There has been an increase in the use of solar heaters in commercial tourist installations and photo-vol-

180

taic panels are used for supplying electricity for houses and social establishments in remote communities. This is the result of support that has been given by nongovernmental organisations that have shown solidarity with Cuba. The Cuban NGO, «CUBASOLAR» has played a significant role in this. With a view to promoting rational energy use and harnessing renewable energy sources in Cuba, the government has carried out a series of actions. These include: The National Energy Source Development Programme, which was drawn up in 1993 and identified the main technological actions in this field; the National Science and Technology Programme, «Sustainable Energy Development», implemented by the Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment; and the Cuban Electricity Saving Programme, led by the Ministry of Basic Industry.

Conclusions: As an island state, Cuba comes under pressure in its attempts to assure the necessary energy supply for achieving its targets of social and economic development. There are two main ways of doing this: by developing national energy sources and by increasing energy efficiency. The main difficulties the county faces arise from our limited access to appropriate sources of finance and the most suitable technology. Whilst most of these problems are shared by all the other island states, collaboration among these states could become a means, which, if used correctly, could help to find solutions to these problems. The first step has been taken, the will to work together, we now need to move forward with specific actions in which we are willing to participate.


Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources in the Greek Islands G EORGE A NDRITSOPOULOS J. BOUKIS CRES - Centre for Renewable Energy Sources GREECE

I

t is known that significant differences exist between islands and the mainland as far as energy issues are concerned. In particular, islands face common difficulties, requirements and problems, some of which are listed below: • limited range of indigenous resources (insecurity of energysupply) • small markets and, hence, difficult to reach economies of scale • specialization of economies • fragility of ecosystem. Asfarasenergyissuesareconcerned,theislandsshare specific circumstances and the most intense problems regarding production and distribution of energy. The island energy issues are further characterized by: • major reliance on imported fossil fuels • small-scale generation of electricity • high distribution costs • under-use of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in comparison with the existing and technical exploitable potential • integration of RES in the existing energy infrastructure of the islands.

Present

Situation

The Greek islands are known to have a high RES potential and it is considered that a significant proportion of their needs may be covered by renewable energy. A serious effort to promote the use of RES in the Greek

islands has been undertaken in the frame of the New Development Law 2601/98 and the Operational Programme for Energy (OPE) of the Ministry of Development, which constitutes a part of the Community Support Framework I and II for Greece. The Development Law 2601/98 and the Operational Programme for Energy operate under a legislation regime, which creates very favorable conditions for applications of new technologies and investments, utilizing Renewable Energy Sources, Rational Use of Energy and Energy Saving. Thepositiveresultsofthiseffortarealreadyvisible,consideringthat,untilnowaboutU.S.$600millionshavebeen allocated for energy production projects from RenewableSourcesandEnergySaving,.Outofthisamount,U.S.$ 400 millions have been allocated for renewable energy productionandthroughtwocallsoftenderU.S.$62millions have been already absorbed for 53 projects in the GreekIslands.Athirdcalloftenderisexpectedlaterthis year.Theprivatecontribution,fortheaboveprojects,rises to 59% of the total budget and the rest 41% is contribution of the European Union (about 30%), through the CommunitySupportFrameworkIandIIforGreeceand Nationalsources(about10%). Up to now the installed power is about 113 Mwe from Wind turbines and the total expected from all the renewable technologies in three years time will rise to about 300 Mwe. The most of this power deduces from Wind Energy installations, which almost all of them are located in the Islands of Crete, Evia and the Islands of the Aegean Sea. An indicative sample of the RES projects is given in table 1. 181


As has been mentioned before this table is an indicative one, it includes only installations under construction or already operating and funded from the Operational Programme for Energy. It does not include projects funded from other financing channels, as for example the Development Law 2601/98. However, one can see the biggest projects concern Wind energy and if one includes all the approved works for the whole insular region of the country the total amount of money summed to U.S. $ 62 millions for 53 projects.

energy production is combined with other issues related to regional development, such as water irrigation, a problem commonly addressed to almost all Mediterranean islands.

Conclusions and recommendations

The following conclusions may be drawn concerning RES deployment in the Greek islands: • a huge potential of RES (in particular wind, solar and geothermal energy) can be identified in Greece Prospects • a number of significant applications concerning the implementation of RES in the Greek islands has been One can ask, why the market prefers to invest money undertaken both in public undertakings and private for RES projects in the Islands. The answer is simple. As investments • the high fossil fuel costs in the islands constitute a it is known, for reasons of scale and varying degree of major benefit to the promotion of RES applications. isolation from the mainland infrastructure, the costs Finally, a set of actions for further penetration of of fossil fuels is very high in European, in general, and RES applications in the Greek islands in both the short Greek islands in particular. It has been estimated that and medium term, may be summarized as follows: energy accounts for more than 15% of all imports of • create a more favourable and less bureaucratic glothe islands in Europe. Fuel imports may, hence, be bal framework for RES in the islands from the politiconsidered as a significant constraint on local developcal, legal and financial points of view (lobbying) ment in the island regions, since they drain vital capital, • ensure that proper attention is paid to further idenwhich could be allocated to local development, protification of the RES potential in the islands in the moting growth at a local level. framework of new national and international energy Thus, a number of pioneering communities may be programmes developed,aimingathighenergyself-sufficiency,where • ensure that the existing programmes should be cenRES could be deployed, exploring their identified high trally coordinated potential. Consequently, settlements like residential ar• increase awareness of the potential users developing eas, recreational areas, small rural areas, etc. could synergistic actions (e.g. RES deployment and the proserve as viable examples of local development and atduction of drinking water) tract synergy actions and networking, especially, when • identify and define priority fields for suitTable 1: Projects concerning RES development funded by OPE in the Greek islands able RES applications • promote industrial Beneficiary Location BUDGET Type of application contacts and co-op1 FAIA AETA KERKYRA US $ 119,000 SOLAR THERMAL eration developing lo2 DAFNILA S.A. KERKYRA US $ 103,000 SOLAR THERMAL cal production capa3 AIOLIKI NEORIOU SYROS US $ 3,080,000 WIND ENERGY bilities. 4

KAPSIS S.A.

CRETA

US $

80,000

5

PUBLIC ENTERPISE OF KARPATHOS

KARPATHOS US $

525,000

6 7

LITOS A/P CYCLADES

CRETA MILOS

8 9

182

SOLAR THERMAL WIND ENERGY

US $ 177,000 US $ 1,403,000

SOLAR THERMAL WIND ENERGY

RHODES BUNGALOWS RHODES HARMI PAROS

US $ US $

SOLAR THERMAL PHOTOVOLTAICS

TOTAL

US $ 5,825,000

230,000 108,000


UNELCO’s Experience in Wind Farms S EBASTIÁN M OLINA UNELCO CANARY ISLANDS

U

NELCOistheelectricitycompanythatproduces, transports and distributes electricity to the entire Canary Island archipelago. The company belongs to the ENDESA group, Spain’s leading electricity utility and one of the top four in the world after the recent merger process that it has undergone. Focussing now on the Canary Islands. This is an archipelago basically consisting of seven islands with six different electricity grids, as it has only been possible to connect the islands of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote with a submarine cable, due to the enormous depth of the ocean between the other islands. The Islands have a population of 1,600,000 inhabitants and electricity consumption is influenced to an enormous degree by the tourist industry, as more than 10,000,000 tourists come to the Islands every year. This has led to growth rate for demand of around 7% per annum in recent years. In the Canary Islands, wind energy connected to the electricity grid is by far and away the most interesting of the renewable energies, as the Trade Winds blow strong and consistently almost all year round. Sufficient technology to harness this energy and feed it into the grid is also available. Because of these factors, a series of wind farms have been created on all the islands and UNELCO has played an active part in their developmentsincethebeginning(1990).UNELCOhas created management companies and, as UNELCO in turn, manages the whole electricity network, one could say that the company has extensive experience in the matter.

Installed wind power is currently 71.3MW, compared with 1,553 MW from conventional sources (fundamentally diesel and steam-powered stations). In 1998, 115 GW/h of power were obtained from wind, of a total production of 5,798 GW/h, that is 2.04%. In the immediate future an additional 30 MW are being installed, or are planned, so, by the end of this year, we hope to reach 100 MW of wind power. Wind power is not uniformly distributed in the Islands, as the Lanzarote-Fuerteventura system, for instance, provides 17.79 MW of installed wind power, compared with 219.41 MW of conventional power and, as it has troughs of around 50 MW, it is no mere coincidence that these are the islands that have had the most serious problems of grid stability, due to wind-power input. There have been times in the LanzaroteFuerteventura grid, at off-peak times, when wind power has accounted for more than 30% of consumption, leading to serious stability problems. So far, the solution adopted for guaranteeing supply with a certain level of quality, has been to take direct action, with remote-control systems, on wind farms, with a view to controlling the wind-generated power that is fed into the grid at any one time. All of this leads us to the conclusion that wind farms, whilst appearing to be the ideal solution for the Islands at first glance, given the lack of other energy resources, have clear limits, which in some cases have already been reached, or even surpassed. We consider the ceiling to be around 5% of production. 183


So, in stand-alone systems (the case of the Islands), the only solution that we can see for raising these ceilings, is to develop new technologies as follows: â&#x20AC;˘ To optimise the systems that control the input of wind-generated power in the grid. â&#x20AC;˘ To develop wind/diesel systems. â&#x20AC;˘ To develop wind/hydraulic systems

184

a) Hydraulic turbines b) Desalination This way, we believe that the proportion of wind energy that can be fed into the grid can be considerably increased, thus improving the renewable energy share in the energy balance of the Islands, and this could be extrapolated to other stand-alone systems.


Planning Integrated Ventotene island Ventotene island as laboratory for the environment of the future A NNA S IMONE Advisor to the Municipality of Ventotene ITALY

T

he project,nowunderdevelopment,hasbeenpromoted by the Municipality of Ventotene island accordingtoItalianandUElaws,inpartnershipwithpromoter commitee P.I.V. , local contractors and other investors. The goals of the P.I.V. are:

â&#x20AC;˘ to change the problems into opportunities by Integrated Planning , one problem can be the solution of another problem â&#x20AC;˘ to catalyze private investments on friendly environmental projects

185


• to coordinate the utilization of regional, national, and european found Ventotene island can be calssified as a small size island ( 300 residents, 300 beds in hotel, 3000 people in the summer period - bed and breakfast ) Ventotene is subject to envinmental and naturalistic bonds: is a naturalistic and sea park with endemic species The problems of Ventotene island are the same of all other islands • water cicle • sustainable development • cleaner energy system • wasted cicle • environment protection • innovative strategy for employment growt The project to realize in Ventotene island is an power network environmental friendly: • gradually substitution of existing 1.2 MW local power plant fed by fossil fuel whith biogas fed fuel cell plants • Integrated utilization of renewable sources: Solar

186

Termal and Photovoltaic applications with the existing local energy grid fed by fossil fuel • Application of energy saving systems and intelligent dispatchers • Potable water production by desalinator and water supply by existing distribution grid with pumping fed by electric system or PV plant • To promote differentiated wasted collection and the local production of biogas and manure This project is the result of careful and realistic evaluation, above all concernig the timing, to turn over «fossil 2 system to a» renewable + fossil 2 system and at last to a «renewable island» system. The environment frienly power network can stimolate other key actios that we have colled «green initiatives» that belong to innovative strategies of local employment growth: • Fish repopulation in sea reserve and restoration and reuse of ancient roman fish pools • Local green species repowering • Promotion of local agricoltural and marine resources • Sea environment observatory location


Utilization of Solar Energy The Case of Cyprus S OLON K ASSINIS Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS

Evolution

of

energy

consumption

Imports of energy in 1997 amounted to 134.3 million CÂŁ, which corresponds to 61% of the country's total domestic exports and 9.1% of the country's total imports for home consumption.

Energy

intensity

indicators

Inlinewiththedevelopmentalnatureoftheeconomy energy consumption is increasing at a high rate. Between 1990 and 1997 the final energy consumption increased at an average annual rate of about 4%. During the same period GDP increased at an average annual rate of about 4%.

Cost of imported energy

The burden of cost of energy imports on the economy of Cyprus is considerable.

The energy intensity indicators of Cyprus can be considered healthy. However, the final energy intensity indicator of Cyprus reveals that considerable margins for energy savings do exist. This is evident by the fact that Cyprus, with a Tertiary sector which accounts for almost 70% of GDP and which is considered to be a non energy intensive sector (11% of Total Final Consumption - TFC), has a TFC/ GDP ratio which is higher to that of Austria, Italy Spain, France, etc., countries of a wider industrial base. 187


Primary

energy

sources

Today, 91% of households and 50% of hotels are equipped with solar systems.

Cyprus is the leading country in the world in solar collectors per capita (0,86 m 2 ) installed. The contribution to the energy needs of Cyprus from solar energy is about 4%. 10% of CO2 from electricity generation is avoided by the use of solar hot water heaters. The stock of installed solar collectors is about 550'000 m2. No indigenous hydrocarbon energy sources â&#x20AC;˘ High utilization of solar energy (4% of total primary energy consumption - PEC) â&#x20AC;˘ Energyconsumptionispredominantlyoil-based(90% of PEC) â&#x20AC;˘ Coal is the only other form of commercial energy used (Cement production: 6% of PEC)

Evolution of Solar energy utilization in Cyprus

Solarwaterheaterswerefirstproducedin1960.Their use during the first years was limited due to technical problems. With further developments in the construction of solar heaters and the rationalization of production, solar heaters penetrated the market.

188

Almost all solar systems installed in houses are of the thermosiphon type: two solar collectors with a total area of 3m2 are connected in series to a hot water tank, placed at a predetermined height above the top of the collectors. Since the city water supply is not continuous, a cold water storage tank is located above the hot water tank. Hotels are using active solar systems with central storage tank. Practice has proved that collector area should be approximately 0.7 m2/bed. Recently , domestic active systems, telephone kiosks and telecommunication transmitters at remote areas are powered by photovoltaic cells.


PRODUCTION OF SOLAR COLLECTORS (In sqm) Between the years 1985-1997

Implementing energy policies Securing energy supply: • Increase capacity of local refinery from 0.8 millions MT/year to 1.3 in 1996 • Study the possibility of applying diversification of primary energy sources for electricity production (coal and LNG). Meeting demand: • Increase of the installed capacity of EAC from 660 MW to 900 MW by the year 2000. (Ten years EAC development plan). • Increase of storage capacity of petroleum products (possible locations to accommodate a new depot were identified).

Solar

Industry

In Cyprus there are more than 30 solar system manufacturers. 10 of them are well established. The total production capacity is about 50.000 m2 of solar collectors per year. The production in 1996 was 9,700 solar systems. Imports and exports are occasional and in small quantities. Standard and codes of practice • CYS 100/84: Specification for solar water heaters • CYS 119/1980: Method of testing the performance of flat-plate solar collectors. New standards: • CYS 209/1991: Method of test for solar domestic water heaters (based on an ISO standard). • CYS 259/1992: Test methods of thermal performanceofglazedliquidheatingcollectorsincludingpressure drop (based on an ISO standard).

Grant Schemes and Programmes: • Grant scheme - incentives for the promotion of biogas. The Government subsidizes up to 66/ of the total investment. • EAC purchases electricity generated by alternative energy sources at the same price it sells to the domestic consumers. • A grant scheme for Utilization of Solar Energy in the Hotel Industry was recently prepared. • A grant scheme for Energy Conservation (installationofsystemsandequipment)wasrecentlyprepared. Applied energy centre - FEMOPET CYPRUS • AdvisesGovernmentonenergymattersregardingrational useofenergyanddeploymentofrenewableenergies, • carries out energy studies, • performs solar systems efficiency tests, Country profile (1997) Area Population

Energy

Policy

651,800

Density

80

National Currency

1 C£

The main objectives of the Cyprus energy policy are the following: • Securing energy supply • Meeting energy demand • Mitigation of energy consumption impacts on the environment. • Harmonization of the island energy sector with the Acquis-Communautaire. • Energy conservation and development of renewable energy sources.

9,251 km2

GDP (C£ mil) GDP per capita (C£ mil)

1.71 ECU 4,350.00 6,638

GDP annual growth rate (1990-97)

4%

Primary energy consumption

2,060.00 Ktoe

Final energy consumption

1,486.00 Ktoe

Solar energy contribution

84 Ktoe

Cost of imported energy as a percentage of total exports Final energy consumption per capita Consumption of electricity per capita

61% 2.26 Toe 3.63 MWh

189


• disseminates information on energy aspects, and • publishes information material and carries out energy campaigns. Future plans and programs • Grant scheme - incentives for the promotion of solar energyinthehotelindustry(thermalandphotovoltaic applications) - subsidization up to 50% of the total investment. • Grant scheme - incentives for the improvement of the aesthetic view of existing solar systems in the domestic sector.

190

• Introduction of standards: durability test for solar systems and components • Introduction of standards relating to photovoltaic cells: efficiency, durability, etc. • Upgrade the testing facilitiesof the Applied Energy Centre. • Utilization of solar energy for electricity production. • Utilization of solar energy for cooling and heating buildings. • Future co-operation with all countries and organizations interested in solar energy.


Programmes, Policies, Market and Networks

191


192


The Global Education Solar Programme OSMAN BENCHIKH World Solar Programme (1996-2005) UNESCO

I

neverydevelopmentprocess,theavailabilityofqualified human resources is a necessity. It is precisely in this field where the lack is crucial in the developing countries. That is why increasing attention has been given in most countries to the education in science and technology which indicate that the development of the teaching process is being considered as one of the essential tasks. The good quality of science teaching is the best way to initiate scientific vocations. As science and technology are forming values in the intellectual level and stimulate the capabilities for creativity, they appear to be an indispensable tool for the perception of nature and the environment, as well as for the comprehension of the contemporary world. The rational use of scientific and technological progress can powerfully contribute to solving the problems of development, in particular those of hunger and disease. Science is becoming more and more a direct productive force upon which economic growth and social progress are dependent. The role of training in the scientific field is apparent at three levels: for upper echelon staff and researchers, for mid-level technicians and for qualified workers. Important achievements have been accomplished during the last recent years in this aspect, particularly in developing countries, in order to ensure a higher priority for the scientific teaching process, to improve its quality and to direct it more towards the solution of the problems related to everyday life. The development and amelioration of science teaching confront serious

difficulties in many developing countries. It is costly teaching in these countries where there is lack of equipment and laboratory materials, as well as the capacity of local production. To meet the increasing needs for qualified personnel in the developing countries, a diversified training programme becomes a necessity. This training should take into consideration the latest developments in science andtechnology.Itmuststrengthenthecompetenceand the technical polyvalence in such a way as to form a technical staff of high quality in judgment and decisionmaking,necessaryfortheplanningandmanagementof projects, and able to find the most appropriate application and utilization formula for their local conditions. The recent growth in energy consumption, considering its cost and important role in the economy, has led all countries to formulate and execute various strategies to improve the efficiency of energy use, to increase energy conservation and to explore and develop new and renewable sources of energy. Aware of the role which renewables can play in the global energy system, especially for the supply of energy in rural areas, most countries expressed, in an increasing manner, a justified desire to create appropriate training programmes on these energy sources. The training needs which are important in the short term as well as in the mid term can be explained by the fact that the desire of using renewable energies combined with the decrease in equipment costs stimulate the countries to conduct research on new equipment and on the utilization of renewables. 193


Inthefieldofphotovoltaics,forexample,thenumber of applications is ever increasing such as: rural electrification, solar pumping (mainly during dry seasons), clinic refrigerators, telecommunications, etc. It is evident that all programmes using renewable energy equipment support the availability of specialists of various levels, able to use and maintain in a good functioningstatusthesuppliedandinstalledequipment.This againunderlinesthecrucialneedforthetrainingofspecialised personnel. Several countries have strongly confirmedtheirinteresttotrainthestaffandspecialistswho will be able to rationally utilize renewable energies. The training in the field of renewable energy must be ensured along three distinct axes: «Decision makers» (engineers, economists, administrators,) local maintenance technicians and users. It should concentrate on the following aspects: • The progressive reinforcement of research centers and the development of qualified personnel, • Theestablishmentofbettercoordinationbetweenenergyneedsandthechoiceofappropriateequipment, • The creation of maintenance teams able to interact with the rural population in order to solve the technical problems they might face and also to provide them with necessary information on the operation of the used equipment, • Raising the awareness of users on the methods of the effective use of this equipment. • After identifying the candidates for a training undertaking, the duration of training should never be long, especially for decision-makers and for those engaged in field activities.

Training needs Why

renewable

energies?

The goal of education and training is to prepare a population for its future. If we need to assure the actual needsoftrainingandeducation,wehavetoexaminethe needs of tomorrow’s society - for the beginning of the 21st century, for example for the period 2000 - 2030. Energy is a vital and essential need for any society, and has two contradictory aspects. Firstly, it reflects the standard of living and the progress status of a nation. It also presents the growing awareness concerning the level of risks, which would be faced by a nation to satisfy its energy needs. The first half of the 21 st century will certainly have a rapid progress1 in both the level of energy consump194

tion, as well as in the diversification of its production methods, for the following reasons: • The population growth in the three continents: Asia, Latin America and Africa are an important factor of the increase in energy consumption 2. The ecological risks of certain energy sources, the most important among them, are considerable; mainly, the earth surface warming due to the greenhouse effect caused by the emission of gases3 and the uncertainty surrounding the methods of the long-term storage of nuclear residues. • The actuating need for humanity to follow a very strong policy of energy economy in the «North»4 , as well as in the «South». The need to strengthen the diversification of energy resources5 and mainly the growing place of renewable energy in the future. The necessity for renewable energy It is the last point which concerns us here; it seems that an inevitable change of our energy strategies would result from the above mentioned constrains. It is a longterm obligation to move toward an energy flux, rather than the rapidly depleting stocks of fossil fuels. The scenario method has been used to quantify and elaborate the evolution of energy trends. A scenario is not based on foretelling; it is a theoretical model, in which a good internal coherence should exist. With the help of several scenarios we can explore the field of possibilities. Starting from today’s situation, scenarios can describe future levels of consumption and the relative importance of different production methods. Accordingly, the scenario of the World Energy Council (WEC) is prepared under different states which are «of reference», «of development», and «of ecological dominance». The scenario of reference consists of an extrapolationofcurrenttrends(businessasusual),modestenergyeconomy,highdependenceonfossilandnuclear energy, and an increase of renewable energy use (increasing in 75 years from 13% to 26% of the total). This scenario leads to several unfavorable consequences, including: • adelayindevelopmentof«South»withrespectto«North». Itisestimatedtobeintheorderofahundredyears, • the doubling of CO2 content by the year 2060, • The multiplication by 50 in 75 years of accumulated nuclear energy residues. The scenario New Energy Options (NOE), developed at the CNRS (France), has the following principal characteristics:


• Theeffortsonenergyeconomyareaccentuatedinthe North,butarealsopracticedintensivelyintheSouth. • After a strong growth until 2020, nuclear energy will be reduced progressively in a way that it will cease to exist in the year 2100. • The accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere is reduced as much as possible. With this hypothesis, renewable energy must be developed as much as in the previous scenario, but their relative share will be more important as the global energy intensity is lower. This share will increase from 13% today to 27% in the year 2020 and up to 50% by the year 2060. On the other hand the accumulation of residues (CO2 and nuclear) will continue. COMPARISON OF PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE THREE CONSIDERED SCENARIOS:

Scenario WEC «reference»6 1985 Total consumption (M toe) 7680 Energy production (M toe) fossil 6320 nuclear 330 renewable 1030 Energy per capita ( toe/p ) North 4.5 South 0.6 nuclear 330 Residues: CO2 content (ppm vol.) 340 Nuclear residues accumulation (M t) 0.05 Scenario NEO7 1985 Total consumption ( M toe ) 7680 Energy production ( M toe ) fossil 6320 nuclear 330 renewable 1030 Energy per capita ( toe/p ) North 4.5 South 0.6 Residues: CO2 content (ppm vol.) 340 Nuclear residues accumulation (M t) 0.05 Scenario "Shell"8 1985 Total consumption ( M toe ) 9400 Energy production ( M toe ) fossil 6900 nuclear 550 renewable 1950 from unknown sources (yet)

2020 2060 13995 21665 9530 13190 1710 2910 2755 5750 6.0 0.77 1710

7.25 1.17 2910

420 540 0.49 1.4 2020 2060 10100 11500 6900 450 2755

5500 250 5750

3.3 0.8

1.95 1.0

400 450 0.26 0.4 2020 2060 13800 30600 9700 9400 1000 1500 3100 16500 3200

HerewealsoinvestigateascenariodevelopedbyShell Oil Company. It has intermediate characteristics between the previous two: • modest energy economy, • high development in the southern countries, • progressive decrease in fossil flues starting in 2040, • moderate increase in nuclear energy, • rapid increase in renewable energy, • a reserved place, starting in 2050, for a source of energy which is unknown today. The results of this model are very high growth in energy consumption and in pollution (CO2 and nuclear residues) which is not calculated, but probably are intermediate between the two previous models. These three models, more or less realistic, more or less optional, have a common conclusion: A massive increase of the contribution of renewable energies during the 21st century in absolute value, as well as in market share. Renewable energy credibility Nothing will guarantee that the real evolution will follow one or the other of these scenarios. That depends onfourconditions:Technicalcredibility,economiccredibility, ecological credibility and political credibility. The massive growth in the contribution of renewable energy during the 21st century will not happen unless these four conditions are satisfied.

Technical

credibility

We mention, briefly, the following facts: - Heat production: (i) woodhasalwaysbeenandwillcontinuetobelargely used, except in the case of risk of desertification; the improvement of domestic stoves in the arid zones stay as an essential need; (ii) the district heating by geothermal energy is functioning in several localities, under the condition of solving the damaging problem of corrosion; (iii) the utilization of direct solar gain in buildings is an old practice which has got a new youthfulness with the regulation of bioclimatic housing, with awaited new progress in «intelligent windows» and transparent insulating material; (iv) solar crop drying, solar water heaters and different collection equipment for space heating using solar collectors are functioning. -Electricity production: (i) hydroelectricity is a major resource; the installations in many important sites are suffering from 195


modest local consumption, necessary protection of natural sites and the shortage of financial capabilities. However small water heads are being exploited more and more, especially in China; (ii) wind generators are commercially distributed, either for the supply of electricity in long networks or to satisfy the needs for specific local applications; (iii) some thermal power plants burning organic residues are operational; (iv) diverse types of solar thermal power plants are the subject of research, prototype construction and sometimes are operational; (v) stand-alone photovoltaic systems are commercially marketed for rural electrification in developing countries, for the electricity supply of isolated housing and for various professional applications; (vi) grid-connected photovoltaic systems are the subject of numerous demonstrations, either in the form of central stations or integrated to building facades and roofs; (vii) theresearchonphotovoltaiclanternshasindicated the existence of a considerable level of technical progress.

function of research results and market growth. At this step, it is important to introduce the social cost of energy. It is the actual cost paid for the consumption of energy, not only by consumers but also by citizens in general. In other words, the costs of classical sources of energy are today under-estimated, as they do not include important costs, termed external, related, for example, to environment protection, research subventions or the need to transmit to future generations an unburdened heritage influenced by the present consumption. This problem is treated, for example, reference10.Theinternalizationofexternalcosts is recommended more and more by the specialists. It would have as a consequence the formal improvement of the competitiveness of renewable energies, which, in general, have a limited ecological impact. The previous considerations concern the short and medium term. We may also need to estimate the longterm economic viability of scenarios such as thos stated at the beginning of this chapter. That was carried out (see reference7) and gave the following results for the comparison of the scenarios WEC and NOE

Benefits of NEO compared Direct to WEC for the period savings 1985-2020 Electricity sector 420

Savings of the environmental protection expense (109 FF ) 220 (green house effect) 780 (retreatment) 1200 (green house effect) 3700 (green house effect) 5900 8260 billion French Francs

Economic credibility We shall be limited to the known facts concerning the most important cases: • The use of geothermal heat and of solar heat by Transport sector 660 different techniques is competitive today within Thermal sector 1280 certain contexts, and of course that of wood. Total 2360 • Hydro-electricity is an example of the success of renewable energies. Its economical characteristics, which need an important initial investment and To the direct savings (calculated for an oil price of then small running expenses, can be found in many 18$/bl and an inflation rate of 10%), we have to add other cases. environmental protection. • Wind generators connected to the grid supply elecConsequently,the«optional»scenarios(NEO,Shell) tricity at a competitive cost in the USA and in Europe appear not only as credible (the resources and the techin regions privileged by high wind speeds. niques to convert energy to a usable form are exist• Stand-alone photovoltaic systems allow, better than ent), but also economically advantageous. grid extension or diesels, the «microelectrification» ofisolatedruralzonesindevelopingcountries(moduEcological credibility lar power around 5 kW). All the above-mentioned techniques are, producing • The best solar thermal power plants are 1.5 to 2 times more energy than is necessary to manufacture and to more expensive compared to conventional ones, and install them. For example, photovoltaic systems have the photovoltaic power plants are 5 to 7 times more an energy return period of 2 to 4 years compared to a expensive when any of them are connected to a grid. lifetime of at least 20 years. Additionally, most of these However improvement is very high. techniques are ecologically benign. The associated so• Certain «green fuels» are almost competitive. cial costs of renewable energy are extremely small. An In conclusion, there are actual niches of competiexception is the dams retaining water reserves of extiveness, which will increase, in the medium term as a tended surfaces. Wind generators are very well ac196


cepted by the population of the neighborhood, as it is seen from field inquiries in Great-Britain. The intensive agricultural of «energy plants», which are the origin of green fuels, would be criticized with certain agricultural methods, but not with the modern methods which allow the localization of additives (pesticides and fertilizers) under the foot of the plant(a technique which needs further development). The ecological balance of renewable sources of energy is, in most cases, better than all other sources of energy. At this point, we are reminded that an active policyofenergyeconomyisagainbeneficialforthewhole planet from the economical and ecological points of view; «the best energy is that which we do not produce». The role of energy economy is highly considerable and the synergy between energy economy and renewable energy is evident in different applications such as, for example, the solar space heating of houses and the solar rural electrification. Note, this point has been one of the principal merits of the first «alternative» scenario dated 198811, and it stays as a superior advantage of the scenario NEO compared to the other two (WEC, Shell) discussed above. Political credibility Dependingonthepoliticalwillofenergyspecialistsin the different countries and on the international scale. Weshallbrieflyanalysethepresentsituationofthisissue Major countries on the international scene have shown a firm and constant will for the last 20 years to develop renewable energies. These include the United States, Japan and Germany. The state and private credits granted to renewables in these countries are in regular increase. The European Union has also a dynamic policy of research and development. Some other countries, which have a public opinion against nuclear, are now on the top of the movement favorable to renewables; Austria, Italy, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Some others are more reluctant, but however active (France.) Among developing countries India, Brazil, China, Morocco and others are active in some aspects, and the World Bank has started in 1993 to finance renewable energy in these countries. Nothing would guarantee the permanence of a constant dynamic policy in favor of renewable energy. However, we can presume that renewables will be more and more esteemed at their real values as they posses two favorable characteristics: • Their flexibility; the possibility to have local energy sources, hopefully to complete the large central grids,

• Theyarebeingresponsivetotheincreasingpreoccupationsconcerningenvironmentalprotection.Theawarenessthatclimatefragilitywillleadtocommitmentsstricter thanwhatwasdecidedinRiodeJaneiro(Brazil)in1992 willcertainlyfavortherenewableenergies. On the other hand, it is admitted that one of the principal obstacles facing the widespread use of these technologies is the deficit of information on this subject. If the present project is precisely presented, it will ameliorate the knowledge that renewable energy possesses intrinsic merits that should lead to a growing adhesion of the world and the people in its wide sense. Job creation Comparison between all the sources of energy production The renewable energy sources constitutes, one of the most important reservoirs concerns the job creation point of view compared to the other sources of energy production. Intheconstructionsectorforexample,thetotalnumber of employment created in the sector of the solar photovoltaic for the production of 1TWh yearly output represent 198852 Jobs. These figures represent the higher numberforthesameenergyproduced,comparedtothe othersourcessuchas:gas,coal,oilandnuclear. The following table gives a comparative overview on the jobs created between the sources of energy production for 1TWh yearly output. CONSTRUCTION EMPLOYMENT NUMBER OF JOBS PER 1TWH YEARLY OUTPUT DIRECT INDIRECT

Electric Utilities Gas Coal Oil Nuclear Photovoltaic Bioenergy

18250 29077 29077 45073 79541 30933

39992 78215 65223 115334 119311 83960

TOTAL

58242 107292 94300 160407 198852 114893

733986 Jobs created per 1 TWh yearly output

197


Manpower needs for electricity generation from renewable energies JOBS FOR OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE PER 1TWH PRODUCED

From Biomass From Wind

970 60

Jobs/TWh Produced Jobs/TWh Produced

From Small Hydro From Geothermal

50 108

Jobs/TWh Produced Jobs/TWh Produced

From Photovoltaic

400

Jobs/TWh Produced

1588 Jobs / TWh produced for Operations and Maintenance

Comparing the jobs created by the different forms of energy as can be seen from the table, it is clear that Biomass and Photovoltaic are the renewable energy forms that create the highest number of jobs . These resources being in abundance in Africa, once can imagine the total number of jobs to be created if only 10% of the non electrified population in Africa will have access to the solar electricity. Apart from the jobs to be created the use of the renewable energies will contribute to improvement of the local economy creation and ensure a beter quality of the living conditions. In Conclusion; having in mind that almost 2/3 of the World Population living without any sources of energy, and considering that this situation will certainly not change in the coming decades,The renewable energy sources constitue probably the only solution to improve the living standards of this population. One can calculate the total number of jobs to be created if a minimum of energy produced by the renewable energies is given per capita. This will certainly contribute to the diminition of the poverty of this already affected population and improve there local economy.

Training on renewable energy Current situation Education in the area of renewable energy is certainly a field where almost all is still needed to be done. 198

Thisabsenceofambitiouseducationalprogrammescan be explained by the two following principal factors: i. The multidisciplinary and diverse nature of the subject. ii. The non-recognition of renewables as a major component of the ÂŤEnergyÂť subject. The specialization in this field assumes a general knowledge of diversified technologies and their adaptation to different contexts and different fields of applications. We affirm that no specific university training and education programmes are existent in the field of renewable energy, which gives a degree in this specialty. More particularly: i. Lay people have very little information on the current state of the art and real perspective on renewable energy. What little information they have is often disoriented by what is fashionable and unfashionable in relation to the energy economy and environmental contexts, particularly concerning this type of energy. ii. There does not exist a specific course on renewable energy for secondary schools capable to capture the interest of young people in order to orient them to a realistic career choice. iii. Very few practical educational manuals in the field of renewable energies are addressed to lay people, especially to the youth. iv. Very little information is addressed to secondary school students on the prospects and the employment chances that would be gained through a specialization in the renewable energy field. v. The coordination is lacking in the field of education between the diversified activities related to renewableenergy. vi. Very little information is available concerning the pre-requisites and the procedures in the universities which would lead to a degree or training in renewable energy. vii. The training needs in the field of renewable are rarely well known. The organizations which need trainingforitspersonnelandfieldsofinterestshould be identified. viii. Very little information is available concerning the required programs; technical, practical, intensive courses, continuos education, specific courses, summer schools, ... etc. In addition, although the photovoltaic potential, for example,isnon-negligibleontheinternationalscale,the research and training centers related to renewables are


mostly badly distributed. The regions favored by a high potential of solar energy and confronted by a deficit in electrification,mainlyrural,arethosewhohavethesmallestnumberofthespecializedtrainingcentersinthefield.

Training

needs

The general aspects of the needs for training are examined under two angles: • What «focuses» for the educational process? It is evident that today’s needs are the actual prospects of job the market. • What courses should be taught? The general answer will be proposed in the following. On the European scale, for example, the training needs have been treated in 1993 for the three technologies: Solar thermal, photovoltaics, and wind generators12. We are largely using this study in our analysis after adding some recent information to it. Starting at 0 in 1980, the number of jobs created by these three technologies in Europe in 1992 are 3000, 3000, 6000 respectively. It should reach 20,000 in the year 2000. Let us examine in more detail the structure of the 6000 jobs of wind generators technology in 1992. These include 2500 jobs directly created in the companies of the same sector. These companies are of a small size (10 to 100 persons), which reflects a lack of maturity. One single company has had 500 persons in 1992. Of these 2500 «direct» jobs, 1400 were located in Denmark, 400 in the Netherlands and, 300 in Germany and 100 in Great Britain. This is in addition to 1550 «indirect» jobs (suppliers, dealers) and 2900 jobs are attributed to installation and maintenance. Since1995thissituationhasgreatlychanged.According to the review «Systems Solaires»13, the number of jobs reached 5000 in Germany (of which 1400 are direct), 3700 in Great Britain (of which 1300 direct and 220 dealing with exports) and a planned French program of 500 MW of wind generators in 10 years, creating 2800 jobs (of which 860 are direct). In few years we have passed from 1.5 to 5.6 jobs per installed megawatt; a sign of a more advanced industry. In this aspect we recall an indication from the Worldwatch Research Institute: To build a piece of equipmentproducing1000GWhannually,100persons are needed in the nuclear sector, 116 in the coal sector, 248 in the solar thermal sector and 542 in the wind generatorssector.Thesenumberswillcertainlydecrease in the future. However, renewables will stay as job-creating sources compared to classical energy sources

(which is translated in general by a tendency of a high capital cost, but compensated by a smaller running cost).These quantitative comparisons must be augmented by new studies, on the one hand updated and generalized to other technologies and on the other performed for different regions, including rural zones of developing countries, where renewables (basically photovoltaics) has an important role to play. We can conclude by the following provisional conclusion: The various renewable energy technologies are a considerable mine for new jobs. Tens of thousands of jobs have already been created in few years. The locations and natures of these jobs, as well as their number, are in a progressive evolution: It is then a sector to which appropriate training policy seems to be an absolute necessity We are going to treat, as much as we can, the qualitative aspect of the current job market. Lacking other studies, we shall make reference to the document mentionedasreference14(which,particularlyforthispoint, must be updated and completed): Renewable energy requires diversified components for the construction of systems. These components should be ameliorated by intensive research and development and by more efficientindustrialproduction.However,itisnotthefundamental research which presents the principal barrier to theirdevelopment,butitisthelackoftrainedpersonnel to design, install, and maintain the complete systems. «Most new jobs do not require a radically new competence. The needs vary according to the different components and can be summarized as follows: • meteorologists and analysts for the selection of sites and appropriate programmes, • metal workers having a good competence for hydraulics for the assembly of wind rotors and towers or for the assembly of solar collectors, • plumbers and tube workers for the installation of solar hot water systems, • electriciansforphotovoltaicsandwindenergysystems, • carpentersandbuildingcraftsmenfortheintegration of solar systems with buildings and for central plants, • architects for the urban planning and buildings design, • engineers and designers in several sectors: civil engineering,powerelectronics,electricengineering,process control, quality control, chemistry, ... «All those people need training sessions based upon their original background. For instance, engineers, designers and architects would have sufficient basic knowledge, but a radical change in their usual behavior 199


is necessary. They are used to work with congenital systems, which can be utilizing anywhere, and at any environment. To the contrary, the site influences the technologies of renewable energy and climate and they interact with consumers. They do not offer universal solutions (except for some applications, such as calculators and solar lighting kits), and this is one of the principal barriers to their widespread use. In general, they require more work than conventional systems for their design, adaptation, and commissioning. This implies the creation of more jobs in order to get durable and efficient systems.»

Specific

training

aspects 15

Some specific considerations should be taken into account in a better way for the training of researchers, engineers, technicians and superior technicians, and for the information of decision makers, local elected representatives, consultants and of the general public. In the following paragraphs will shall develop, as an example, some of these considerations. The training of technicians is the most important and necessary action for the success of a renewable energy programme. It will be presented first to reflect the importance which it deserves. Training for technicians Technicians do have a principal role in all steps of solar energy projects. In fact, they participate at the levels of laboratory work, test centers, industrial production of components, commercial distribution, system assembly, installation and operation and maintenance. The success of solar projects will not be achieved unless each step is realized successfully by the action of competent technicians. It seems that the most important requirement is the availability of competent technicians to ensure the installation, repair and maintenance of systems. As a matter of fact, if one considers the example of rural electrification, its development will be achieved through local networks of installers and repair technicians. First of all, system design, sizing and optimization should be performed based on the precise needs of either individual or village community. These systems then need to be installed . They will also need to be operated, maintained and repaired when needed in order to ensure the best quality of service. Past experiences revealed that, even if photovoltaic modules are of an extra-ordinary quality, the PV systems are subject 200

to failures. These are mostly caused by defects in classical components, switches, batteries, power conditioning, connections, etc. These problems would be without consequences if one can rectify them in due time. It will evidently be regrettable to neglect these aspects of after sales services. A very similar situation occurs in the field of solar thermal. The development of solar heaters on a large scale will, necessarily, depend upon qualified installers, who will also have to ensure the repair and maintenance of these systems. Accordingly, we see that very precise needs of training of technicians in specialties such as PV systems installers, agents for the repair and maintenance of PV systems, solar water heaters installers, agents for the repair and maintenance, etc. The technical education institutes are logically the best places to perform this training. These institutes should work in close relation with the solar testing centers, where their technical facilities can advantageously be used as an educational support to training. The permanent training constitutes another aspect for training of technicians. It should permit technicians qualified in other disciplines to acquire, in a short time, the necessary knowledge to master one of the above mentioned specialties. The organization of this type of training constitutes one of the actions of ensuring the formation of solar technicians. The availability of specialized documents of high quality is a necessary complementary aspect of technicians training. A great help will be offered to them by getting documents of the following types: • Technicians guide or handbook, gathering, in a condensed manner, the theoretical results, the schematic diagrams, the basic formulas, the rules and the practical recommendations which would be useful to solar technicians. • Documentation on components and solar equipment.Thedocumentscouldbeakindofuser’sguide, indicating the suppliers, the cost, the performance, the best ratio of quality / price, etc. Training for researchers We have to underline the importance of promoting a research programme in a relatively new sector, that of solar chemistry dedicated for the production of fuels. It is convenient also to mention other research topics which are already well established, but should at least continue or even be amplified.


First of all, we have to consider the research on photocells and photovoltaic systems. The performance and cost of these systems still need to be improved in a substantial way compared to the current situation. As an outcome to the rural electrification programme and the resulting market expansion, the progress in this field will be accelerated. This dynamism would lead to an increase in industrial efforts and will justify the reinforcement of research facilities in this sector. It is the universities and the high schools of engineering in the countries of the North and of the South, which will take-up the mission of forming tomorrow’s researchers who will ensure the progress in this programme. The following actions can be adapted starting now to help these institutions in their mission: • Reinforcement of theoretical and practical education in the basic disciplines upon which the above mentioned research would depend. Also, solid-state physics, physics of materials, molecular physics, thermo-chimestry, photo-chemistry, thermal sciences and thermodynamics should appear in the first rank of disciplines to be considered within this frame. • Definition of research topics in the field of photovoltaics (photocells, photo-chemistry, solar fuels), for student thesis or graduation projects. • Insertion of these research topics into a global vision of the place of renewables among the energy resources for the coming century (analysis of energy supply and demand, economical considerations, environmental constrains). • Organization of cooperation programmes between higher education institutions in the North and South on the topics of research related to solar energy. This collaboration could be materialized through common studies of scientific projects leading to the exchange of students. • Creation of a group of thinkers (under the framework of the World Solar Summit, for example) on the training of researchers in the disciplines which would permit the progress of solar energy. The task of this group is to define the actions to be taken for the training of researchers, to elaborate a strategy in this field and to aid the university departments to set up these programmes. Training of engineers The realization of renewable energy programmes, particularly the solar rural electrification, constitutes a large industrial project for the coming decades. The industrialized countries can have an appreciable con-

tribution in this aspect, which will have also beneficial consequences on the level of job creation. We can also hope that this dynamism would lead to an industry in the users’ countries which have capabilities to significantly contribute in these programmes. The industrial boom foreseen in solar and wind electricity and passive architecture requires a new generation of engineers whose work, initiatives, and competence will be the best guarantee for success. It now clearly appears that the necessity to ensure the creation and training of this selection of future engineers who will have the task of the creation, organization and the set up of the solar industry in the coming decades. The required fields of competence in the education of engineers are, as those mentioned above for the researchers, solid-state physics, physics of materials, molecular physics, thermo-chimestry, photo-chemistry, thermal sciences and thermodynamics, ... etc. We also add to this list power electronics, electro-technology, and fluid mechanics. In this educational process the practical aspects should have priority. In fact, the course contents leave a large part for the experimental work and for projects related to real equipment and to full-scale installations. Therefore, there is a real interest to establish the training institutions for engineers near by the solar testing centers of which a certain number already exists. The specialized education and training in renewable energy leading to obtain a university degree, such as «Master,» for example, constitute an adapted programme which could be proposed for both researchers and engineers working in this field. This type of education has the advantage of permitting planners and those who carryout renewable energy programmes to have an access to the totality of information and know-how in this field during a reasonable period of time (18 months). Continuos education constitutes another important aspect for the training of engineers. In fact, this process would permit the engineers specialized in other disciplines to acquire during a minimum of time a sufficient knowledge, enabling them to work efficiently in a new field. The short training courses, such as summer schools, are very responsive to this need. The annual summer school organized by UNESCO on «solar electricity for rural and isolated zone,» present an example of action in this direction. This initiative should be encouraged, continued, and even extended to other sectors such as biomass, wind energy, as well as other forms of renewables. 201


To summarize, we can formulate the following recommendations: • To encourage and support the activities of solar testingcenters(mentionedasexamplesare:CRES(Mali), CDER(Algeria), CDER(Morroco), SIRDC (Zimbabwe)) and to promote their contribution in the education and training of engineers. • To promote in the engineering schools the teaching of the above mentioned disciplines related to solar energy and to encourage the proposals of solar energy topics for the training in the enterprises, for the graduation projects, for the practical work, ... etc. • To organize at International level the collaboration of students of engineering schools from the Northern and Southern countries, in a thoughtful study on interesting topics related to the solar programme. In this aspect, we can, for example, promote large inter-school projects oriented towards integrated topics in the education and training programmes in the engineering institutes. • To satisfy the needs of continuos education in the fields related to solar energy. The summer schools programme should be supported and expanded. • To set up a committee of thinkers on the problems encountered in the education and training of engineers in order to elaborate a real policy in this field. Information for decision-makers, local elected members, and technical services people To promote these programmes one of the difficulties to be overcome is to convince the decision makers of the solid basis of these proposals in order to get their support. The present context is far-away to be favorable for such an action. The current low cost of oil products and the existence of other technologies, considered, correctly or wrongly, more credible, have created in decision makers and experts a kind of uncertainty, skepticism and even hostility towards solar technologies. This hard situation is also a result of the lack of general knowledge on the results and the success of solar technologies during the last years. In addition, the possible progress and the future prospects are probably very poorly known. The insufficiency of information in this field is not necessarily due to the modesty of solar researchers, but it is rather due to that of the offered facilities to them in the past. A real effort is to undertake to develop a better general knowledge outside the solar research community. 202

The past experience showed that the principal obstacle to the development of solar technology is the neutralism or the opposition of the electricity producing and distributing companies and the indifference of the decision makers responsible for the selection of energy materials for the local community or the regions. For an electricity planner, rural electrification mostly means the development and the extension of the existing grid. For a locally elected representative, who does nothaveagoodknowledgeofthevariousavailabletechnologies, and after going back to the national electricity utility, the safest solution is adapted either by inertia or by tradition. Therefore, it is necessary to convince both the electricity utility staff and the local representatives that the adoption of solar technologies is a favorite card for all. The decentralize solar technologies are not necessarily antagonist to interconnected networks, but it is complimentary to it. Certain electricity utilities hold this viewpoint, especially when the construction of a new power station and new high tension transmission lines are confronted by financial, ecological, and regulatory difficulties. They see the solar technologies as complimentary solutions to the traditional ones. In the developing countries, the concept of «preelectrification» would result in promoting certain solar technologies as a first step towards the construction of an interconnected network. The best ally to solar is the electricity engineer when he understands that solar energy is not a competitor, but is a tool for the development of the electricity supply. A major effort for the development of general knowledge and training in this field is still needed. Amongtheactionstobeundertakenforthedevelopment of general knowledge programmes oriented towards decision makers, we can consider the following: • The organization of seminars, workshops or summer schools targeting decision makers and experts related to other energy fields in order to inform them about possible solar applications in the future, their anticipated progress and their economical aspects. • Differentpresentationsonthepossibilitiesofsolartechnology market penetration in the form of alternative scenarios should be foreseen under this framework. • The publication in scientific and economic journals of the prospects of renewable energies. • The organization of technical visits to the most outstanding solar energy installations. • The realization of audio-visual material illustrating the existing solar installations and the future prospects of its technologies.


Information to the public The training and information activities elaborated in the previous section will equally be undertaken for the general public, who are ignorant today to most of the achievements, the possibilities and the prospects of the solar technologies. In the countries where solar programmes would be realized or where the population would have a direct contact with solar equipment, this information programme would join that for the users. Therefore, the information and training of the general public need much work to be undertaken. The following actions can be considered in this aspect: • Thepublicationofinformationintheprintedpressin the form of study articles and comprehensive, well documentedreportsonsolarenergyanditsprospects. • Informationdocumentationtoconsumerassociations • Therealizationandbroadcastingofprogrammesand documentary films on TV channels. • Thecreationoffixedexhibitionsontechnologyparks toallowthepresentationofalongarrayofsolarequipment and their applications. In this regard, general public visits to solar test centers can be organized. • The encouragement of teaching solar energy technologies in primary and secondary schools. It is in the courses of physics, chemistry and technology that a scientific base on solar energy can correctly be brought into the minds of young students, who will be the executors tomorrow of the big energy programmes we are entertaining today.

We discuss here the «general store» of basic courses and options from which particular «menus» will be selectedforeachtargetaudience(researchers,engineers, technicians,decisionmakers,industrials,endusers,general public etc.) Basic general courses History and geography of energy production/consumption -(to study the past, to understand the present and imagine the future) -Non-commercial energies. The appearance of commercial energy. -The appearance of centralized energy and energy networks. -History of hydroelectricity. -Energy intensity and standard of living: geography, history. -A review of fossil energy stocks. Renewable energy sources -The different sources. -The natural fluxes. -A review of the used resources. -The renewable energy potential. Energy and the environment -Risks of the principal energy forms. -The greenhouse effect and its consequences. -The management of residues. -Residues and risks associated with renewables.

General contents of the teaching programmes

A

The objective of the education and training programmes is to reach, on the one hand the general problemsrelatedtoenergy,theneedforenergyconservation andthenecessitytouserenewableenergysources,andon theotherhandsuchparticulartechnologysuitingthecompetenceoftheinstructorandthedesireofthelearner. In the past, we were mostly performing training programmes dedicated to a specific type of renewable energyandconcentratingonacertaintechnology,without placing it in the general context. In addition, general training programmes on energy conservation have existed which were not oriented to a specific type of renewables or a particular application. This situation is notsatisfactoryanditdoesnotrespondtotherealneeds. A general education and training programme on the renewable energies associated with all the related technology options is proposed.

Energy sociology -Analysis of the energy demand in the different regions. -Potential of energy conservation. -Centralized / distributed energy. -Rate of development: research, industrialization, commercialization.

review of energy economics -Actualization of economic rates. -Actualization of global costs. -Examples of cost of energy systems/energy networks. -External costs of energy / the need for internalization. -Competitiveness / selection criteria. -Financing options. -Renewable energy world market.

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Technology options GUIDE OF TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS

Technology

Hydroelectric

Wind turbines

Related disciplines Mechanics

**

**

Geology Atmosph. phys

** *

**

Photovoltaics

*

*

*

** **

**

**

*

*

** *

*

* * *

*

*

*

* **

*

* *

** *

Agronomy Bio. eng.

The above table shows the rarity of appropriate disciplines in each of the relevant teaching programmes for each technology. We may easily notice from the table that, if one would like to intensify his technical capabilitiestosolvetheencounteredproblems,hemust select one of these particular technologies as an option. This should also be supported by the usual basic knowledge, which remains the basis for the build-up of the trainee’s abilities, together with any other necessary knowledge complementary to the training. The complementary knowledge would be acquired partially by the basic general courses mentioned in thge previous section, which would offer the understanding of the place of renewable energy in our world. It would also include other particular points depending on each technology option, to help the trainees in dealing with real field problems. It is of high priority to implant in the mind of the trainee the real technical state of the art of systems manufacturing or utilization and, if possible, both of them at the same time. Based on this vision the role and importance of technology options would be clear and any training programme can cover one or two of the technologies stated in the preceding table. Eachscientificeducationunitwillchoseitstechnology options according to its interests. It is not excluded to selectsimultaneouslya«Renewableenergy»optionand a «Classical energy» one. At the same time, the executives of these units should be absolutely enticed 204

Geothermal

**

Building eng. Chemistry

Electro. phy. Electro. tech.

Solar thermal

*

Thermodyn. Thermal sci.

Chem. eng. Phys.of mat

Solar therdyn. conv.

Biomass

* *

* **

*

** **

to give a sufficient space to the general knowledge and to assign external specialists to teach it. Inthesamemanner,theeducationalunitsspecialized in economics or human sciences wishing to launch a programme featuring renewable energy would need to hire external specialists to teach such courses on renewable energy technologies with sufficient details, in order to implant a minimum of realism at the audience level. To summarize: The education and training of renewable energy specialists is based upon the knowledge usually taught in various disciplines and levels, but it needs specific complementary components. These are of two classes. Firstly, a general knowledge able to create the understanding of the important role which the renewable energy has and will have in the future. Secondly, a strengthened technical knowledge relevant to each technology which would offer the tools for an efficient field work under the specific utilization conditions of this technology. We recommend that, for all educational and training programmes, a common preparatory work be elaborated by general energy specialists, as well as competent professionals in each specific technology. These two categories of specialists should provide their contributions to enable the professional setup of these programmes.


Proposed

actions

Analysis of the education and training needs In order to respond in a better way to the needs of training, education and information, the identification and analysis of needs appears to be one of the high prioritytaskstobeundertaken.Thepreliminaryactions to be implemented within the scope this framework can be summarized as follows: 1 Conducting a survey of the initial objective of identifying the existing training programmes in the renewable energy field in the European Community countries. The report resulting at the end of this survey should be published and disseminated. 2 Analyzing the needs (on the basis of a preliminary survey) in order to define the type of training to be undertaken and to propose a teaching programme for each target audience, such as: - university-level education, - secondary education, - technicians, - decision makers, - industrialists, - Users. 3 Defining correspondents in all interested countries for the global programme of education and training in the renewable energy field. This should cover - various technical sectors,

- various interested countries, - various types and levels of education.

Establishment of an African Institute for renewable energies «Open Door Institute» (AIRE) This institute aims towards providing a framework within which the various initiatives of education and training can be executed. It should be established under the auspices of UNESCO as one of the strategic actions of the World Solar Programme 1996-2005 to be launched by the World Solar Summit. The adaptation of modern communication techniques should allow the setting up of a wide-ranging programme through: • Video cassettes • Films • Tele-conferences • Documents made available on the Internet This institute will depend upon «regional nodes» (research centers or reputable institutes to disseminate the educational packages). For example, SIRDC (covering the SADC region), the renewable energy development centers (covering the Maghreb countries), the ENDA (covering West Africa), ... etc. All can play the role of regional nodes.

205


1. Rapid, means here: «in some decades». It is the required time for the increase in importance of all new sources of energy, even when a voluntary policy is continuously practiced . 2. Quantitatively, the future population growth is estimated with a goal precision, but not the level of development. The scenarios for the future must take into consideration realistic hypotheses. 3. The content of CO2 in the atmosphere has increased by 50% since the beginning of the industrial era. The human activities (combustion of carbon, oil, and gas, the change in agricultural methods) are mainly responsible. According to the «Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change» (1996),«the earth surface temperature in average increased globally by 0.3 to 0.6 8C since the beginning of the 19th century.... A group of elements suggest that there is a perceptible influence of man on the global climate.» This climate change will continue with very serious consequences. We mention, as a value, a warmingup of 2 8C and the increase of ocean's level by 50 cm by the year 2100. 4. In France from 1950 to 1986: More than 12% energy economy in the car industry, 20% in energy necessary for wheat production, 50% of energy needs for new housing. This appreciated decrease in energy intensity was stopped in 1986 due to the decrease of oil prices. 5. This trend will not go by itself. In the 19th century carbon was dominating while for the 20th century it is oil. Fossil fuels accumulated during hundreds of million of years are being burned today at such a rate that they will be largely depleted in few centuries. For example, oil crises in 1973 and 1979 have been overcome due to major discoveries (the North Sea, Alaska, Siberia). However, the (probable) absence of such discoveries in the future will keep the Middle East the main producer during the coming 50 years, with all the political risks in case that the oil share in the energy balance stays as it is. 6 B. Dessus «Energie: défi planétaire» (Belin, 1996), ISBN 2-7011-2037-3. 7 Same reference. 8 Activity report 1996 of the institute fur solsrenergietechnik ,Fraunhofer Institute, Freiburg 9 For more details, refer to the following EU documents: - Renewable energies in Europe, Int. J. of Solar Energy No 1-4 (1994). - T. Wrixon, A.M.E. Rooney, W. Plaz, Renewable energy 2000, Springer Verlag, 1993 10 O. Hohmeyer, R.LOttinger, Social costs of energy ( springer-verlag-1994 ). 11 J. Goldemberg, T. Johansson, A. K. Reddly, R. William's, Energy for a life world(The French Documentation, Paris, 1988). 12 Ph. Malbranche, «The training and qualification requirements to support the development of solar thermal-energy» (a report presented by the European Materials Research Society to the European Union DG 1). 13 See 2 articles in «Systemes solaires» 113 (1996) 26. This review is dedicated to renewables (146 rue de l'Univeriste 75007 - Paris). 14 J. Percepois, Vol. 2, Summer School «Solar Electricity for Rural and Isolated Zones», Ellipse/Unesco, 1993. 15 O. Benchikh «Renewable Energy Education and Training Program» (a proposed program during the Mediterranean solar summit, 1996).

206


Background On Gef Renewable Energy/ Energy Efficiency Projects MOHAMED T. E L -ASHRY Chief Executive Officer and Chaiman GEF

T

he use of renewable energy sources is one of the mostpromisingmeansofachievingglobalenvironmental benefits consistent with local development goals. Perhaps no other technology or strategy has the potential to do so much good. Properly designed, solar energy projects can promote local economic development, improve air quality and reduce oil imports, while also reducing the build-up of greenhouse gases responsible for climate change. The GEF program recognises the benefits of solar energy in projects under development around the world and includes many different types of technologies, from established solar water heating systems to emerging technologies like solar thermal power plants and photovoltaics. Such projects constitute a major share of the climate portfolio, which now exceeds 600 million in more than 60 countries, with $4.8 billion in associated financing.

Solar-Home-Systems

Projects

The GEF has approved 14 solar home systems projects in 16 countries (India; Sri Lanka; Indonesia; China; Ghana; Zimbabwe; Benin; Togo; Peru; Bolivia; Argentina; a regional project in India, Kenya and Morocco;andtheglobalSolarDevelopmentCorporation). The designs of these projects differ in several keys respects, but all projects address in some combination and with different emphasis what are considered the key generic barriers to solar home system diffusion: • high first-cost • unfamiliarity with technology and its expected performance by users • poor credit-worthiness of households from financier perspective • lack of sales and service firms to market and maintain systems • poor long-term system performance • difficult to determine system quality and identify «flyby-night» vendors • lackoffinancinganddifficultyofdealer/installerfirms to finance systems • difficulty of local entrepreneurs to establish viable business

Early

projects

Two early projects took place in India and Zimbabwe starting in 1991. The India project provided credit to commercial financiers through the India Renew207


able Energy Development Agency (IREDA). The financiers were to purchase systems from manufacturers and supply them to households. A separate service firm, under contract to the manufacturer, was expected to providemarketing,installation,commission,andaftersales service.ThisapproachprovedinfeasibleinIndiabecause the commercial financiers were unwilling to lend to rural households due to credit risk concerns.

208

In1998,theIndiaprojectbeganimplementinganew approach featuring modified energy service companies (ESCOs), in this case, local, community-based ESCOs. These ESCOs lease systems from commercial firms. The commercial firms purchase the systems from manufacturersandreceiveataxbreak,whichtheyshare with the ESCO. Ownership of the system remains with the commercial firm, not the ESCO.


Small Island Developing States Network (SIDSnet) H IROSHI T AMADA SIDSNet UNDP

I

n Barbados in June, 1994, the Action Plan of the Regional Technical Meeting for the Atlantic/Caribbean/Mediterranean preparatory to the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (SIDS, Barbados–May/June 1994) made the following recommendations on Information Management: «In view of the vast primordial importance of information and the volume which already exists in regional and international organizations and institutions, which represent great value in time and experience in the different areas of sustainable development, efforts must be made to tap these databases avoiding duplication of studies. The following actions should be taken: • improve the availability of existing information in databases in regional and international organizations and institutions by indexing relevant information for SIDS under a new index entry for SIDS; and • promote and facilitate inter-island exchange of informationonexperiences,researchanddevelopment in the area of sustainable development between the SIDS.» The Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) has endorsed SIDSnet as the networking mechanism or platform linking islands on issues related to sustainable development. A Website (www.SIDSnet.org) has been established and SIDSnet is actively supporting the sustainable development objectives of SIDS agreed to in the Barbados Plan of Action, that resulted from the

1994 conference of the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, Agenda 21 and related post-Rio UN conferences. Geographical isolation of SIDS remains a major impediment to collaboration. Although Internet connectivity extends to all SIDS regions and should in principle, help overcome problems of distance, not all countries are well connected and very few people can take advantage of the Internet. SIDSnet supports AOSIS and the implementation of the post- Rio accords on sustainable development. For stakeholders in SIDS to fully participate in AOSIS and the post-Rio accords, and to utilize SIDSnet, there is a need to strengthen local capacity to gain beneficial use of the Internet, related information technologies and management practices. SIDSnet recognizes the importance of improving the organizational capacity of the AOSIS missions in New York. Most missions have outdated computer equipment which are not capable of utilizing recent Internet technology. SIDSnet is committed to providing an InternetbasedfacilitytoenableAOSISmissionstoshare documents, hold virtual discussions, make announcements and develop resolutions from any Internet connection in the world. Many elements contribute to the constraint of both the use and the growth of the Internet in developing countries.Theseconstraintsincludelimitationsofbandwidth, minimal access to computers and computer peripherals, not enough telephone lines, lack of techni209


cal and managerial expertise and too little private sector involvement. The adoption of new information and communication technologies (NICTs) is helping to overcome this situation as a result of the proliferation of Internet Service Providers (ISPs) worldwide. But in some of the SIDS, this phenomenon is confronted by limited market size and thus limited demand. That, coupled with insufficient infrastructure and a lack of technical and managerial capacity to promote appropriate IT technologies makes it even more difficult to facilitate and encourage Internet adoption. The enabling environment so necessary for this to take place does not exist. The heralded explosion of Internet applications in electronic commerce, tele-medicine and distance education have not been applicable in most SIDS giving little reason for policy makers to pay more attention to Telecommunications infrastructure. For an Internet based network to succeed, SIDSnet will have to focus on projects that encourage island governments to invest in infrastructure and introduce pro-active policies that make access affordable.

A Global Network: Regional Endorsement SIDSnet has been endorsed by governments in each of the SIDS regions to deal with networking and related issues under the Barbados Programme of Action. Currently the SIDSnet website provides tools for virtual discussions, chat conferences, focused searching, document submission and storage, mailing lists, events calendar and links to relevant Barbados websites. SIDSnet also mirrors the websites of the Pacific Forum Secretariat, South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, UNDP Trinidad and Tobago, UN Agencies, Mauritius and the Caribbean Conservation Association. SIDSnet works closely with organizations in Climate Change and continues to build its relationships with key national bodies. SIDSnet’s website received over-70,000 monthly hits for April 1999 from over 75 countries including donors and SIDS. Regionalendorsementshavebeenreceivedasfollows: Caribbean Being aware of the inadequacies in data and information systems in the area of sustainable development, 210

we shall encourage the development of information systems and processes such as the SIDS Network (SIDSnet) Caribbean Ministerial Meeting on the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Caribbean. Barbados, 10 - 14 November 1997 Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and Africa Region – Mahe Declaration African SIDS should share experiences and best practices in priority areas of the Programme of Action and their efforts in this connection should be facilitated with the use of modern information management technologies, involving the systematic expansion of the Information Network (SIDSnet), to include all SIDS and to eventually cover the issues addressed under the Mahé Programme of Action. African Small Islands Developing States Ministerial Meeting, Mahé, Seychelles,7th – 10th July, 1998 Valetta Declaration Support the development of SIDSnet, which we consider to be an important source of information for the promotion and monitoring of sustainable development. MinisterialMeetingOnTheSustainableDevelopment Of The Small Island Developing States In The Indian Ocean, Mediterranean And Atlantic Regions, Malta: 24-27 November 1998 Pacific Region Leaders, conscious of the importance of reliable data and information systems in the pursuit of sustainable development endorsed the early implementation of SIDSNET activities in the region as part of its efforts to implement the BPOA. Communiqué: Twenty-Ninth South Pacific Forum Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia 24 - 25 August 1998 Training Workshops National workshops funded by the Government of Japan will be implemented in 30 SIDS before completion of Phase I.

SIDSnet

Components

SIDSnet activities can be divided into 3 components. Each with different activities but mutally supportive.


A. Component 1: The Global Network for the Barbados Programme of Action Objectives: • Promote dialogue among partners/stakeholders on issues identified in the Barbados Programme of Action that are not restricted by regional or national boundaries • Enhance collaboration and share experiences on issues of common concern to islands to ensure that successstories,expertiseandrelevantlessonsareavailable to decision makers in the development process. • Provide a gateway to key information and knowledge resources available on the Internet related to island development. • Build national and regional capacities to promote access to the Global Information Infrastructure and raiseawarenesswithdecisionmakersandstakeholders in island countries of the importance of national / organizational strategies for Information and CommunicationsTechnology. • Raise the profile of the Barbados Programme of Action and of the information needs of SIDS at regional and global forums. Activities • ContinuehostingSIDSnetwebsiteatwww.SIDSnet.org and ensuring that the site provides relevant tools for interactive discussions, document storage, virtual conferencing, focused searching of island websites and other pertinent services. • Continue providing a ‘technology watch’ and ‘technology test bed’ to identify, select, test and apply new information and communication technologies for the benefit of SIDS • Employ a person in each of the key island regions (Indian Ocean and Africa, Caribbean and Pacific), attached to a regional organization. A regional SIDSnet officer will be responsible for relevant SIDSnet content and targeting SIDSnet stakeholders in countries and key organizations for training and awareness. • Work with regional organizations to ensure that SIDS have a comprehensive and well coordinated publicity campaign at specific regional and global conferences relevant to SIDS. • Promote the publishing of national content on the Internet by BPoA stakeholders and ensure relevant material and news is published electronically • Advocacy role with partner organizations to pressure telcos and governments to provide affordable access.

Outputs: • Greater participation by SIDS stakeholders in the formulation of national/regional and global resolutions on issues of concern to SIDS. • Stronger ties between AOSIS and national / regional organizations and enhancing preparation and coordination for global meetings and on development issues in general • Increased number of organizations and individuals from SIDS involved in an active virtual community of stakeholders sharing experiences. • More island development content published by stakeholders. • Greater impact of SIDS in international negotiations, treaties, conventions, etc., and more benefits from globalization, international trade and related issues

B. Component 2: Strengthen AOSIS Missions Capacity AOSISisinstrumentalinadvocatingtheislandagenda at a global level within the United Nations system and other critical conferences. However AOSIS missions are often hampered by restricted budgets and old equipment. SIDSnet will build and maintain an AOSIS private virtual Intranet that will enable missions and invited stakeholders to store and share documents, collaborate on resolutions and reports, and formulate strategiesfromanywhereintheworld.TravelingAOSIS delegates / negotiators will remain updated on progress at home while providing reports on meetings to AOSIS missions in New York. This component will improve computer equipment in missions, provide training and the central virtual repository for AOSIS information exchange. Objectives: • Strengthen networking capability of the AOSIS Missions • Improve the ability of AOSIS missions to coordinate common documentation, formulate strategy papers and other work that requires input from several missions. • StrengthentheadministrativefunctionsoftheAOSIS chairman and staff, simplifying rudimentary tasks of notification and distribution of materials for meetings and follow up issues. • Enable negotiators representing AOSIS to be able to utilize the instant communications tools of SIDSnet, have access to information and circulate documents 211


required for comment to ALL members from anywhere in the world where Internet exists. • Provide a central archive of common AOSIS documents as an information resource for missions. • Improve capacity of mission staff to utilize the Internet Activities • Provide 1 laptop (traveling negotiators) and 1 Computer for each of the 25 AOSIS missions in New York. • Host and maintain a virtual and secure AOSIS Intranet as a private virtual workspace for the AOSIS missions. • Provide training and support to ensure AOSIS is able to utilize both the SIDSnet website and the AOSIS Intranet. • Form an information team from within AOSIS missions to decide on IT issues related to AOSIS needs. Outputs • Better coordination of AOSIS information needs. • Management tool for AOSIS chairman and staff resulting in savings in communications and time. • Central archive available for all offices. • Virtual workspace will enable greater participation on discussion and formulation of joint papers / positions. • Shared resources and more efficiency with communications will strengthen ties between AOSIS missions. • BettercommunicationsbetweenAOSISmissionsand home country counterparts as well as with others.

C. Component 3: e–nitiatives for SIDS (e -SIDS) Internet Initiatives relevant to the infrastructure of SIDS are still in their early stages of development. With the pace of development today, SIDS are already losing ground as developers continue to focus on products that apply to the highly developed telecommunications infrastructure of the North. Projects with applicable technology continue to flounder because of a lack of awareness from donors and local institutions alike. Funding to enable SIDSnet to promote outstanding initiatives or initiate key information projects in areas critical to economic development in SIDS will provide incentives for Governments to INVEST in infrastructure. Governments must be convinced information technology will stimulate development. Relevant applications enable SIDS to tap into 212

the vast market (130 million users) on the Internet and find niches that expand opportunities for development in sectors such as trade, tourism, education, environment, finance, health and agriculture. Objectives • Identify and sponsor or seek sponsorship for selected initiatives in tele-medicine, distance education, ecommerce that optimize the limited telecommunications infrastructure of SIDS. Seek out joint initiatives with the private sector and other potential partners when and as appropriate. • Identify developments where a more relevant application is required to effectively utilize the Internet to strengthen a sector of the economy. • Develop and promote a portfolio of working examples of selected initiatives that can be demonstrated to national policy makers of Internet initiatives. • Measure the impact of various IT policies on SIDS development which provide invaluable guidelines for SIDS policy makers. Activities • Support initiatives that will apply to health issues in islandstoensurelessonsandexperiencescanbetransferred. • Sponsor e-Commerce opportunities relative to trade (niche products) and tourism. • Identify and support 2-3 projects in distance education that will provide a cross section of examples for distance education. • Form partnerships with relevant projects to ensure that applications developed can work under limited island bandwidth situation. • Conduct research on impact to development of electronic initiatives. Outputs • Policy makers recognize Internet as a development tool. An emphasis on improvement of IT infrastructureandnationalinformationstrategyisimplemented. • Improved patient care in remote hospitals. • Improvements in numbers and type of tourist visitingSIDS. • Increased trade from Internet exposure. • Better information infrastructure for SIDSnet users from SIDS. Better understanding of the type of applications most likely to be successfully adopted in SIDS


Implementation

Coordination with related projects and activities

Management Global coordination of the SIDSnet program is required to make it a reality. A neutral location, excellent connectivity, access to diplomatic missions and international agencies justify the initial location of SIDSnet in New York. Regional nodes will be implemented in Phase II and eventually headquarters will be with the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). Phase II will transfer the overall responsibility of the SIDSnet project to AOSIS. For SIDSnet to succeed it is important to recognize the political endorsement of AOSIS and strengthen AOSIS own internal capacity. Additionally, it is important for SIDSnet to provide information to members of AOSIS about the current concerns of stakeholders. For the present time, SIDSnet will remain with the Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) project in the UNDP offices until AOSIS can secure funding for facilities to be located within AOSIS. Content of the global SIDSnet network will remain decentralized to the «most interested» regional organizations. The 3 regional SIDSnet officers will be the catalysts working to ensure stakeholders are capable of utilizingSIDSnet.

Despite SIDSnet being initiated by UNDP, it remains a vehicle for strengthening communications in existing organizations in island regions and acting as a catalyst for greater use of the Internet as a vehicle for fulfilling the Barbados Programme of Action. SIDSnet will cooperate with regional organizations and existing initiatives to ensure that maximum benefit is passed to the users.

Partnerships: SIDSnet builds partnerships that now include technology companies and regional organizations. • Content partners: work with SIDS and other related internationalinstitutionsinpartnershiptoensurethat useful information is being published by stakeholders on SIDS web sites and the SIDSnet global network remains relevant to users within the global SIDS community. • Financial partners: develop a multi-tiered partnership scheme to encourage sponsorship from donors, private sector and stakeholders to ensure long term sustainability of the SIDSnet. • Development partners: work with technology orientated corporations and organizations to ensure that SIDSnet communication tools continue to meet the changing needs of the users.

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Head-Table, Session nยบ 2: High priority projects and experiences for islands. From left to right: Callixte d'Offay (Ambassador of Seychelles), Paola Deda (United Nations - DSD-SIDS Unit), Mario Matulic (INSULA) and Alfredo Curbelo (Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment of Cuba).

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The OPET Network

P EDRO BALLESTEROS DG XVII EUROPEAN COMMISSION

O

PET stands for «Organisation for the Promotion of Energy Technologies». There are 39 OPETs in the European Union and associated states of Norway, Iceland and Israel, plus 14 FEMOPETs (Fellow Members of the OPET Network) in the applicant countries ofCentralandEasternEuropeandCyprus.TheOPETs and FEMOPETs may be public or private sector organisations, but they all have a public mandate to work in the energy field, promoting new technologies in the renewable energy, rational use of energy or fossil fuel sectors. The OPET initiative was first launched under the THERMIE programme (1990-1994). At that time, the role of the OPETs was to help the European Commission to disseminate information and to promote the uptake of new energy technologies through publications, events, training programmes and other marketorientated initiatives. In November 1996 the OPET Network was relaunched under the 4th Framework Programme, but thistimeasajointinitiativebetweentheINNOVATION Programme and the JOULE-THERMIE Programme. While the role of the Network continues to be one of technology promotion and information dissemination, itnowplacesmuchgreateremphasisonworkingclosely with local market actors to address specific local energy needs. The use of Performance Indicators as a means of measuring results has also improved the targeting of resources and placed greater emphasis on the follow-up of activities.

What do OPETs actually do? OPETs and FEMOPETs develop their own annual Work Programmes in collaboration with local stakeholders and with the European Commission. In order to gain the support of local co-financiers (mostly public bodies or trade associations), they have to tailor the activities to match national/regional energy policies and/or industry requirements. The activities also have to relate to European energy policy in terms of improved efficiency and savings, of increased diversity of supply or of the wider use of renewable energy sources. An important component of the OPET activities continues to be the promotion of results from previous EC-supported energy R&D and demonstration programmes, and the encouragement of the participation of local companies and research organisations in EU programmes. The range of activities carried out by OPETs is extremely broad, but typically includes : • NetworkingandAssistingMarketActors:linkingwith local networks, one-to-one meetings with SMEs and industry, open days and technology transfer days, site visits, training etc.; • Evaluating Technology and Markets : studies, preparation of technical fiches etc.; • Events: seminars, workshops, conferences, exhibitions etc.; • Publications : newsletters, reports, brochures, CDROMs etc. 215


OPETs may be generalists or specialists. Some work only on the promotion of renewable energy sources (EC BREC-LEI in Poland and Lithuania or CLER in France, for example) or just on new hydrocarbon technologies (CMPT in the UK). However, the majority of OPETs and FEMOPETs work across the different technology fields of Renewable Energy Sources (RES), Rational Use of Energy (RUE) and Fossil Fuels (FF). Why have a transnational network? The organisations involved in the OPET Network already have a public mandate to promote new energy technologies. They also have the local market knowledge and technical expertise to allow them to do this. So why set up a transnational network, with all its associated costs ? The rationale behind a transnational Network for the promotion of new energy technologies is firmly rooted in the European policies relating to competitiveness, cohesion and market transparency. By being members of the Network, the OPETs and FEMOPETs immediately have access to a much broader base of technologies and markets. Furthermore, when advising on technology selection they can draw on Best Practice across the EU (and Central and Eastern Europe), so ensuring that their clients use the most cost-effective and/or environmentally-favourable option. Finally, the transnationality of the Network also helps them to identify and open up new markets for their local suppliers intechnologyareaswheretheyhaveparticularstrengths. An example of the transnationality of the OPET Network working in practice is technology procurement, which involves OPETs (and FEMOPETs) catalysing innovation and market deployment by bringing together manufacturers and technology users. This ‘speeding up’ of the innovation process has worked with impressive results in Sweden, particularly in the area of high efficiency refrigerators. By broadening the scope of the procurement activities across national boundaries, the manufacturers have access to a much wider potential market and can benefit from economies of scale. This in turn reduces the cost of the relevant technology to the consumer/user. What has the Network as a whole achieved? The OPET Network measures its impact on the local market in terms of real technology transfer commitments, the number of new project opportunities identified or EC proposals submitted, or energy savings achieved/output from renewable energy sources. These are just some of the OPET Network after its first two years of operation under the 4th FWP: 216

• Over 200 events have been organised; • Over 5000 specific queries or requests for further information have been handled; • OPETs have advised on the preparation of around 300 proposals for EC funding; • Almost 2000 potential energy savings projects have been identified; • Over250energyauditsorfeasibilitystudieshavebeen carried out. However, the results and outputs are perhaps more tangible when we look at particular case studies based on the work of individual OPETS. The EC recently produced a brochure of OPET Network Success Stories featuring 13 examples of OPET actions which have had a real impact on the market. This can be downloaded from the OPET Web site: http:// www.cordis.lu/opet/home.html. To give a brief flavour of the results so far demonstrated: • Institut Wallon in Belgium has focused on the identification and training of Energy Managers in public organisations. These ‘EMs’ take over responsibility for all issues of energy management, thereby raising the profile of energy use and ensuring measures are taken to reduce consumption. The Energy Manager at the hospital of Montigny-le-Tilleul has shown how this can work in practice. After training he was able to ensure a comprehensive review of heating distribution and control, improved ventilation in the laundry room and installation of a co-generation unit. • Cross-Border OPET Bavaria and Austria has set up an advice centre for SMEs on how to access and use the results of EC supported energy research programmes. Some eleven innovative energy projects have been initiated with the support of this OPET. • IDAE (Spain) has been helping manufacturers of innovative ice production technologies to increase market uptake. They organised a technology presentation and have produced articles. As a result, IDAE has passed some 25 enquiries to the relevant companies.

What about the future? The current OPET Network completes its Work Programmes towards the end of 1999. However, the OPET Network will continue within the energy, environment and sustainable development component of the new


5th Framework Programme (1998-2002). The first call for proposals under this programme was launched on 20th March 1999, and this included a call for organisations wishing to become OPETs: the deadline for submission is 15th June 1999, and the new OPETs are expected to start work by 1st January 1999. Within the 5th FWP the OPET Network is expected to build on what has been achieved and to add new features and objectives. It is expected that the use of Performance Indicators and an emphasis on resultsoriented activities will continue to feature strongly in the new Network. Stronger transnational collaboration on specific themes is also likely to be encouraged. There are also new ideas for increasing the impact of the OPET Network under the 5th FWP. In line with the new approach, a special attention will be given to the integrationofefficientenergysolutionsinordertosolve problems of the society. Another novelty is the use of

associated organisations in countries outside regions covered by the OPET Network itself, as noted above: they will both identify local needs and help to promote relevant European technologies into the markets that they cover. The OPET Network has been active ins several islands: Cyprus, RĂŠunion, Guadaloupe, Martinique, Islay. We recognise that the specific problems of the islands must most often be addressed with integrated approaches, and we hope that the new approach for the OPET tasks within 5FP will allow for more actions in and for the European islands. More information on the current OPET Network is available on the Networkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Web Site: http:7// www.cordis.lu/opet/home.html More information on energy under the Fifth Framework Programme is available on the 5th FWP Web Site: http://www.cordis.lu/fp5/src/t-4.htm

217


Presentation of the European Commission OPET Network, by Pedro Ballesteros.

218


MultiMedia Energy Efficiency Training (MEET) self directed training for local energy agencies JOAQUIM C OROMINAS The Monfort University – Energie Cités – Ecoserveis

T

he European Commission has been running an energy management programme, under DG XVII-A2, at local level since 1989. In response to this over 70 local and regional energy agencies have been formed throughout the community, many without any formal qualifications or training. Following the Energy Agencies contractors' meeting at Odense (DK, 21-22 October 1996), two of the greatest concerns expressed by the 45 representatives from 24 agencies were: 1 The need for a training strategy to expand the knowledgebaseandlevelofstaffexpertisewithintheagency network. 2 The need to exchange experience and case studies within the agency network, and learn from the best practice of this.

within the project will enable new agencies to acquire the knowledge and experience of the well established agencies. This will be facilitated by the development of an effective rapid-access electronic information network covering all the community's energy agencies. The Multimedia Energy Efficiency Training (M.E.E.T) website has been developed by the Institute ofEnergyandSustainableDevelopmentatDeMontfort University, Leicester (UK), Energie-Cités, Besançon (France) and Ecoserveis, Barcelona (Spain), with support form the European Commission SAVE programme. Extensive use has been made of examples of good practice from throughout the European Union and material from other organisations has been used where appropriate.

Objectives While many agencies are competent in a variety of specialist fields, they are often unaware of all the technical implications, have limited previous experience to draw upon, or lack the practical skills to implement alternative and/or broader actions. Therefore training is required to enable them to fulfil their full potential. In addition within the local energy agency network, there is a lack of a clear training strategy for staff.

The

Project

In response to this need, the M.E.E.T project developed a structured training programme covering all the sectors of activity in which the agencies are currently involved. In addition, an integral workpackage

Theselfdirectedtrainingcoursewouldprovideauniform grounding for energy agency personnel in urban energy management, with a particular focus on the dissemination of information, promotion of efficient use of energy and application of renewable energies. This project aims to provide a self directed learning course in urban energy management that will equip the staff of energy agencies with the necessary knowledge to operate a successful local energy agency. It would; • provide the basic reference material in urban energy management; • allow energy agency staff access to a distance learning package; 219


• distribute the training material in a variety of multimedia resources (paper, CD-ROM, internet, floppy disks, etc.…) to generate greatest possible access; • highlight case studies and examples of typical situations to illustrate best practice; • provide a recognised and accepted training qualification; • build the confidence and capacity of the energy agencies; • provide a network of services, and give access to support systems. The training package offered through the World Wide Web (WWW) could also become a centre of Energy Agency information dissemination. Whilst it is the intention of the proposers to consult with all energy agencies as to the requirements of any training package through an electronic communications system, it is proposed that this be further developed to provide an exchange of information for the Energy Agencies. In effect a continuos conferencing tool is envisaged for the sole use of energy agency information dissemination. This would then constitute a platform to exchange ideas, innovation, experience and knowledge for the mutual benefit of the Energy Agency programme. It would provide a means to respond to European Commission needs and priorities as well as being able to support further initiatives. The general energy training covers the broad areas identified below This training is currently being developed. The four areas, based on existing training needs and the experience of Energie Cités, are:

220

Overview • background to energy efficiency and environmental commitments • demand side management; • energyplanning; • renewable energy; • political aspects; • barriers to energy efficiency. Energy Management • domestic dwellings; • business premises and processes; • municipal buildings; • municipal services (street lighting, sewage, wastes) • transport; • political involvement; • energy standards; • monitoring and targeting; • building energy management systems; • new energy technologies. Renewable Energy • introduction to renewable energy; • renewable energy technologies; • renewable energy generation; • political support; • use of renewable energy in cities; • design for renewable energy. Advice and Information • advice to the general public; • advice to professionals; • giving advice.


An Approach to Renewable Energies Education and Training Programme for the Small Islands N ELSON E URICO C ABRAL Social and Human Sciences Sector UNESCO

T

he question is, what could the Renewable energy, mainly solar energy, for the improvement of the development, without environmental degradation? The main relevant subject to be taken into account should be, on one hand, the dramatic problems of the environmental preservation and the absolute need of natureprotectionandincreaseofqualityoflifethrough the reduction of level of all kind of pollution and on the other hand, social and economic problems which include food shortage, education, health care deficiency, extreme poverty and social exclusion. NaturalandHumanSciencesconnectionisabsolutely necessary to the sustainability of the development system, and education and information should be considered as an essential factor of change. In the developing countries nothing could be expected without the improvement of basic education neither with direct consultation with social groups affected by any planned action for change in social work organisation, production and consumption. The problem of solar energy cannot be dissociated of the other renewable energies like wind patterns or geothermal and hydroelectric potentialities where those possibilities exist. Some priorities seem to be necessary to develop and to expand the techniques for the exploitation of solar energies: 1 Standardization and certification of the appropriate technologies. Equipment sent to developing countries should be prepared according to national requirements in terms of programmes and acceptance by the users. Therefore the design of the project should consider the need to verify that the technol-

ogy proposed is adaptable and the relevant equipment is reliable and user-friendly. 2 Trainingisabsolutelynecessary.Inordertoensurethe success of the improvement of solar energy and dissemination of the progressive research issues on the matter,thetrainingofengineers,techniciansandcommon users is essential. International and bilateral cooperation can be used for the transfer of information andcommunicationonthenewinventionsintermsof basic knowledge and its application. On a large scale, the establishment of regional centers could be a solution to cover various countries with the possibility of production of cheap adapted material. 3 The projects and programmes should be established with a view to preventing environmental degradation and to reduce the cost of the importation of fuel oil. In the case of small island state the solar programme needs the development of a local industry capable to providesustainabilitywithengineeringinstallationand maintenance. The involvement of individuals and groups at all stages of the process is determinant to ensure success.

Social implication of projects on solar energy The problem is very easy to understand. Scientific developmentshouldbeusedtosolvehumanproblems. These problems are social, economic and philosophical. They are related to health, education, housing, 221


food and even to the system of reproduction which becomes more and more controlled by concerned people. The complexity of the problems to be solved demands the combined efforts of various disciplines. In a global view, science and technology necessitate not only the evaluation of technical expertise but a social and philosophical impact evaluation as well. It is often difficult to conceive a realistic evaluation method taking into account sociology, philosophy and culture in the projects on water, food and energy, but social implications are unavoidable. Thus, the role of the social sciences is to be seen through two aspects: first, directly by the participation of social scientists involved in the conception and progress report of the technical prospects, and secondly, by the production and dissemination of high-quality literature on concepts of evaluation in general terms. Human practices affect the natural environment as peopletrytosurviveinallconditions,sometimesagainst the natural equilibrium. Humanity is responsible for many cases of land degradation, concurring vegetation changes, soil degeneration, rainfall imbalance and other negative environmental effects. As much in developed countries as in the rest of the world, the human establishment has only recognized environmental degradation when the situation became more complex because of increasing human intervention which, as we know, can be as dangerous when abusively and wronglyappliedasitisbeneficialwhenundertakenwith good sense and observance of the natural law. In many insularspacesitthusbecomesextremelyurgenttoadopt a global strategy for a sustainable society based on a good relationship among humanity, space and nature. Governmentshavetofindsolutionstolimitrapidlygrowing populations, to avoid desertification, to control the use of chemicals in agriculture, bearing in mind not only quantitative production but also the correct managementofthenaturalelementssoastomaintainthem in good order for the next generation. Solar energy is one possibility to help the improvement of sustainable development ; project development in biotechnology may help the evolution of agricultural production, and poor nations facing food shortages could have the opportunity to solve the problem of starvation and malnutrition by using the new techniques, but in all cases a correct system evaluation should be part of the programme. The same could be done relating to health within the framework of a real socio-biotechnological revolution.Theprerequisiteremainspublicacceptance and participation, and control by process evaluation, 222

impact evaluation and comprehensive evaluation, taking into account as well the chemical, physical, social and ethical aspects of the problems.

Improvement of social understanding, technical training and efficiency of evaluation A proper evaluation study of society needs an examination of the present situation and of future prospects and possibilities.It needs support from the basic disciplines in social and human sciences, including mathematics, so as to provide principles and methodologies in qualitative and quantitative analysis and projection. Evaluationresearchconsistsnotonlyinapplyingtechniques and methods to the study of large-scale human service programmes, but it is also a political activity, from which emerges a series of policy decisions regarding economics and quality of life in terms of environment and overall well-being. Obviously, the contribution of sciences to this research should ensure its effectiveness by applying recognized assessment methodologies and employing scientific procedures in all stages of the evaluation. In a few terms we can say that process evaluation permits the identification of targets â&#x20AC;&#x201D; in other words, for whom the bell tolls - and the specificity of the action according to the planned objective. To follow the process is to make sure that the execution of the programme operates in conformity with the plan and the final expected results. Impact evaluation monitors the change and the direction of the effects resulting from the action undertaken, and comprehensive evaluation includes both process and impact evaluation. The justification of evaluation is to reduce the rate of errors to a minimum so as to favour policy determination, efficiency and the contribution to the social and cultural dimension of the problems. Process evaluations are difficult to undertake correctly and conflicts among actions could appear during the exercise; they need persuasion within the framework of cultural and scientific agreement based on confidence and objectivity. The easy way would be to avoid process evaluation, but this is not a solution. The need is to confront the basic and scientific approach with the socio-economic, political and geographical reality in the field, and to avoid referring simply to an ideal situation that has no connection with reality. The integration of regular with extra-curricular


training in solar energy, involving representatives of local power, municipalities and NGOs, will reinforce the applicability of knowledge to the concrete needs of the population. All over insular spaces and small island states, the university should be responsible for education and research, but it should work in connection with those facing the reality in the field with a view to promoting understanding of the phenomena, to propose change and to manage implementation, limiting errors to the minimum possible. The framework of the system should be based on the improvementofhigh-levelteachinginmajordisciplines,

with the development of new techniques to train future trainers, managers and grassroots specialists for lifelong education. The overall objectives are to strengthen and to improve the quality of the specialists in basic and social sciences, to ensure better co-operation within the general programmes related to industry, agriculture, energy and environmental protection. These theoretical and practical actions may have a beneficial effect in helping to understand the possible change and mutation with an efficient application of solar energy.

223


Head-Table, Session nº 3: High priority projects and experiences for islands (2). From left to right: Tarmo Pikner (Director of Development and Planning, Saaremaa County Government, Estonia), Antoni Juaneda (Vice-president of the Minorca Island Council), Jesús Rodríguez (ITER), Francis Ngalu (Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Works and Energy of Kiribati).

224


Using the Web to Learn About and Make Policies for Sustainable Energy on Islands P ETER M EINCKE Island Web Consortium,University of Prince Edward Island PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND

T

he purpose of this paper is to show how world wide web technology can be used tohelp achieve the objectives of the Island Solar Summit. The web has enormous potential but also has pitfalls which can be avoided by careful design. This paper is also available on the web at http://www.upei.ca/~meincke/ paperiss.htm with live links to the examples. Over a quarter century ago, at a multidisciplinary NATO conference on Information Science in Wales, Licklider warned that the greatest challenge of the emerging computer communications revolution was going to be the organization of information. The IslandWebConsortiumwhichIchairwasformedin1997 to promote the use of the web to support the sustainable development of small islands. The IWC has been trying to find funding to build a gateway to organize and facilitate access to web based information relevant to small islands but there doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t seem to be any funding for the very considerable task of building and maintainingsuchgateways.IslandWebCreationswasformed as a non-profit partnership on Prince Edward Island and uses the income generated from the creation of web pages for purchasing hardware, software, contract services, supplies, communications and travel to promote the use of the web for islands. The website described in this paper has grown from two roots. One is the course on Energy Environment and the Economy which I have taught at UPEI for more than a decade while the other root lies in the work of Island Web Creations on the Small Island Developing States network (SIDSnet). Like any plant, the

site has evolved through many stages and continues to grow and evolve as new technologies such as Net Objects Fusion become available. It is planned to integrate the appropriate parts of the sitewiththeIslandWebConsortiumgatewayifadequate support can be found to keep that organization alive. Hopefully, this solar summit will lead to some cooperative agreements and I am delighted to have the opportunity to be here. The outlines the overall purpose and structure of the site and describes each of the pages on the second level, Information Resources, Assignments etc, Student projects, FAQâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, and the Webliography of recent energy developments in small islands . On the next level down the page called describes the organization of the third level pages into Sources and Conversion, Storage and Transmission, End Use and Conservation,EnvironmentandEconomy.Thisclassificationistheresultofmanytrialsandrevisions.Evennow there remain some potential ambiguities which may be further resolved in future classification schemes. The organization of the fourth level pages under has also been given a lot of thought in terms of a balance between strict logic and facilitating access to the information the user wants. Note how the navigation bars supplied by Net Objects help keep the user aware of where he/she is in this complex site. Those on the side provide links to pages on the same level as the current page while those at the bottom of the page provide links to the pages on the level above. There is always a link to the main home page. 225


The page on hydro which is still under development (as are all the pages) shows how the web can be used to provide information at different levels starting with a general overview on the main page for that topic with links to more detailed information and analysis as required. The main page for that topic under information resources can be used in a lecture or assigned to the students in preparation for a discussion seminar. The lecturer or the student can stay at the overview or introductory level of the main page for that topic or can go into the subject as deeply as the web site will allow. Thus the site should be useful for any level of education from high school to graduate and forinformingthegeneralpublic.Itshouldalsobeuseful for those public policy makers and decision makers who wish to access quickly the appropriate level of information they require. That may be asking a lot of a single web site but proper design should be able to take advantage of the inherent strengths and capabilities of the web which are still being discovered. One of the early assignments given the students in this course asks them to examine a few sites on the topic and report on their assessments of those sites in class. This exercise introduces them to the use of the web and what to look for in a site. Later they have to do searches for new web sites on a topic to be discussed in class and report on what they found. These exercises introduce them to searching the web for specific information and improving their skills in using search engines. It also produces new sites to include in the site for the course. A later assignment will require the students to find sites on energy developments on one or more islands and fill in a webliography form on those sites. The students then create a web page on a topic of their choice which allows them to examine a topic that is of particular interest to them to a depth that is appropriate to their background. A list of that are available on the web can be seen by selecting.Itisamazinghowwelltheydogiventhatthisis the first time some of them have created a site. Content, site organization and their webliographies weigh more heavily than than fancy web effects in the marking. A demonstration of the Islands energy and its potential for keeping abreast of energy developments on Islands can be seen by selecting .One of the most powerful features of Net Objects Fusion presents the information stored in a database in a summary form as an alphabetical list of all the islands with a separate entry for each energy projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s web site, the rating and a link 226

to one of a set of stacked pages containing the full assessment information for each island energy project. The following is an example of the data available on the stacked page for Fota island. Fota Location Title

Ireland Fota PV Pilot Plant

URL

http://nmrc.ucc.ie/groups/ solar/pv/pvcase.htm

Published by

National Microelectronics Research Centre

Languages Navigation

English Index plus 6 pages

Features Audience

Photos, diagrams, graphs General, Technical

Rating Last Update

A 01/20/98

Organizations

National Microelectronics Research Centre University

Type

College Cork PV 50kW pilot plant

Abstract

Island

Although it takes some time to set it up, adding data and changing the presentation is very easy. Net Objects Fusion also has a provision for checking whether the sites to which the links connect are still available. Finally, let us review how such a site could help some of the key objectives that have been discussed at this Island Solar Summit.

Education

and

Training

If it is true that the use of a main page for a topic with links to information at other levels can be used for education and training at various levels, then the extra work of creating and maintaining a resource for many purposes can be shared among those interested in providing the various levels.

Public

Awareness

As more and more people gain access to the web, they are using it to access the information they need to make informed decisions. If enough care is taken to be as objective as possible and make the main page as general and as attractive as possible, they should be useful resources for increasing public awareness. Even if the public does not have ready access to the internet, the pages can be used by governments, NGO;s and the local media to inform the public.


Promotion

of

Renewable

Energies

In spite of the need for this site to be as objective as possible, the case for renewable energies should be obvious. The more objective the site, the greater its credibility and the more convincing the argument in favour of renewable energy technologies.

Keeping up with the latest developments In any rapidly developing field, it is essential to have up to date information about the latest developments. For example, decision makers contemplating the installation of wind or photovoltaic systems should be aware of the current state of development of the reversible fuel cell which could replace batteries or pumped storage to cover those times when the wind is not blowing or the sun is not shining.

Facilitating access to high quality information As anyone who uses the web knows, there is an increasing amount of biased and incorrect information being stored in web pages all over the world. Search engines are yielding more and more sites that are not relevant. There are more and more out of date and even dead sites that keep coming up in the searches. Even if the site is accurate and up to date, it may not provide the information that is being sought. The user should be able to find out enough information about the site to have a reasonable idea if it is worth the time to download. That is what the webliography can provide provided there are adequate resources to maintain it. The skills and resources required to develop and maintainsuchwebliographiesareatleastasgreatasthose required for cataloguing books and creating annotated bibliographies for print materials. But one must compare those costs with the opportunity cost which occurs whenanexcellentwebsitegoesunusedbecausetheperson needing the information could not find it or takes much more time to find it than would have been spent using an up to date webliography. One of the distinct advantages of a highly credible webliography is that the creators of new web pages will let those responsible for maintainingthewebliographyknowabouttheirnewsite or about significant modifications. This saves a lot of time searching for those new sites!

Building

Virtual

Infrastructure

As mentioned many times in this and other conferences on small islands, one of their most significant problems is lack of adequate infrastructure. I explored how networks could build virtual infrastructures and help to overcome this fundamental problem in a paper delivered to the Colloquium on the Future of the Commonwealth in Ottawa. If small islands are willing to put their experiences both good and bad on the net and other islands are willing to make use of this information, a lot of mistakes and waste of time and money can be avoided. But such virtual infrastructures will only be useful if the information on experiences can be found quickly and easily. A busy decision maker, bureaucrat or politician under pressure to come up with an answer will soon give up on frustrating searches and make a decision on the information at hand.

Reduction of critical mass Critical mass refers most often to the number of people required to plan and implement a project. Projects on small islands often fail because the critical mass is not available. The web has the potential to reduce this critical mass by making it possible for the smaller number of people on the island to find relevant information and find and interact with people who have experience in such projects. The â&#x20AC;&#x153;enhanced virtual critical massâ&#x20AC;? allows the planning and implementation of the project in spite of the fact that the number of people actually on site is smaller than the normal critical mass. But such benefits can only be achieved if the resources can be found quickly and easily and the precious time of the people involved is not wasted in fruitless searches. Electronic gateways such as those proposed by Island Web Creations and described in this paper are essential. In closing I urge you to make all of the fascinating information which we have been so fortunate to hear at this Solar Summit available on the internet as quickly as possible and let me know so your site can be included in the island energy webliography. The website described in this paper can be found at http://www.upei.ca/~physics/p261/

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Working during the Sessions in the Secretariat of the Summit.

228


EU Policies on promoting Sustainable Energies J UAN F RAGA Secretary-general EUFORES

T

heEuropeanCommission’sreportENERGYFOR THE FUTURE: RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (the White Paper), has provided a common plan for promoting a significant development of renewable energy sources (RES) for the first time. The White Paper sets ambitious but realistic objectives (12% of primary energy demand for the year 2010), it offers detailed linesofactionandproposesaninitiallaunchcampaign. Unfortunately, Union budgetary constraints mean that the burden of the strategy proposed will fall mainly on EU member states, regions and towns. This is a consequence of applying the principle of subsidiarity, and also of the need to customise measures to the peculiarities of the different EU levels. Thus, specific developments on a local scale are necessary, but this could hamper a common EU approach and, in some cases, supra-national co-operation. On the other hand, energy efficiency, (EE) faces an even more complex situation, as it is difficult to quantify, especially for setting political objectives. Furthermore, EE requires demand, rather than supply management, making it even more different from conventionalplans.TheEuropeanCommissionreport Toward a strategy for the rational use of energy, in a similar way as with renewables, is the first step toward a common strategy for rational energy use. Current trends in energy policy are basically aimed at achieving greater competitivity. A consensus must be reached in the long term however, on the essential outlines of a common energy strategy for the EU that also considers other factors: respect for the environ-

ment, job creation and assuring supply. One can not forget the commitments the EU assumed in Kyoto, with regard to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Energyefficiencyandrenewableenergiesrepresentone of the few really effective options for reducing CO2 emissions. There are many advantages of having a co-ordinated implementationofnewenergytechnology,whichmakes an integral assessment of their benefits especially important. This approach could lead to a common policy based on the following guidelines. • The use of energy efficiency and savings to reduce consumption as much as possible. • The increased use of renewable energies to cover as much demand as possible. • Covertheremainingsupplywithconventionalsources. Tothisend,theEuropeanSustainableEnergiesCharter (EURENEW) has recently been presented to the European Parliament. This should facilitate legal harmony, going into detail of sustainable development, creating employment and economic growth in a market environment determined by competitivity. A coordinated approach should be fostered too, as well as adequate monitoring and assessment mechanisms that enable us to achieve agreed objectives and that will enable us to establish new instruments. The proposal includes an indicative programmes mechanism (Indicative programme for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energies - PIPER), a periodic 229


obligation of the Commission that would provide a mechanism for establishing binding objectives for each member state and for each technology, and to review them periodically and commit the necessary funding, in the same way as responsibilities are shared out to achieve the common objective of reducing CO2 emission agreed on in Kyoto. This whole framework should be applied at all levels of the EU, community, national, regional and local. The latter two are especially important as these are technologies that are applied in a decentralised manner, with a significant impact on the immediate sur-

230

roundings. Therefore, and given the job generation and local industry promotion capacity involved, as seen fromthelocalapplicationsthathavebeenimplemented thus far, specific local initiatives should be actively adopted for promoting their use. A specific case is the one of adapting new technology to islands. Although the opposite may appear to be true, clean and decentralised technology also gives priority to quality rather than quantity, thus adapting to these islands with special success. I believe therefore, that this opportunity to assess the benefits associated with implementing them should not be missed.


An Integrative Approach to Maximise the Uses of Solar Energy Á NGEL L ANDABASO Directorate-General XVII EUROPEAN COMMISSION

S

ince the Stone Age, men of all latitudes have built their homes using the available skills and materials with the aim to solve the problems affecting their communities at their specific moment. Security, privacy, comfort or social recognition have driven the mechanisms to build what today is known as «our built environment». However, at the verge of the 21st. century, energy-efficient concepts have emerged as those new elements which impose unavoidable constraints to what it is perceived as a legitimate desire of welfare and highcomfort standards. And this disturbing situation affects normal developing decisions due to the proven relationship of energy consumption and the global environment destruction. In the next century, more than half of the world population will live in urban areas consuming almost half the primary energy demanded in a global basis. In this frame, every home family will account for a part of the biggest environmental problem and will have little reactioncapacityunlesstoday’ssettlementsareplanned with a coherent approach, aiming to build efficient communities capable to maintain high comfort standards with low energy consumption levels. This strategy is not only technically possible but even economicallycompetitiveifanadequateintegrationplan is established and consistently implemented. Such integrationplanstartswiththeurbanplanningphasewhere energy-consciuousconceptsmustbeincorporatedinthe urbanplanningprocess,followsbyacomprehensiveuse ofallthepassivesolarstrategiestodesignandbuildstructures able to compensate by itself the local climate oscil-

lations and, finally, to incorporate as much as possible theexistingsolarandrenewableenergytechnologiesthat will affect the energy consumption pattern either at the supplyanddemandside. As proven, this integration approach generates urban developments reducing traffic problems, limiting water needs and waste production, where buildings consume a minute amount of fossil-energy to maintain comfort levels and where decentralised energy systems help maintaining the community social cohesion and decrease the greenhouse gas emissions.

What integration means in urban developments? Comfort, safety and security are among the basic elements of the quality of living and working environments, and often refereed as the leading forces when planing urban developments. However, the practical results of such theoretical aims are seldom in accordance, and the most it can be said is that only partial success are achieved in securing safe and comfortable urban areas at a very un affordable costs from the sustainable development point of view. This lack of success has to be addressed to complexity of the building process, where the competence over energy and construction are usually spliced amongst different organisms and where the lowest possible construction cost philosophy, affects the rationale of any project development. 231


concepts in the energy field which cut consumption by half .

Construction techniques

Energy supply

On top, some countries have decentralised decision structures over the urban vectors while others no ; therefore the necessary planning of energy- control regulations become a quite difficult task; further complicated because conservation (= demand side) must prevail over supply-side measures and where plans must consider solutions to a brand new type of problems affecting: • the shifting of primary energies, • the energy conversion technologies, • the energy conservation, • the regenerative energy potentials, • the waste utilisation and organisational and behavioural implications among others. City planners immersed in this boundary conditions must balance the effort in solving daily and long-term problems within a new frame that should consider a comprehensive approach where working tools should contain the following aspects:

Urban

Planning

In the standard approach, urban planning is essentially atomistic and their own domains dealing with elements of infrastructure, land use etc. tend to interact very little to the wider urban fabric.The present comprehensive urban planing is an emerging science that conceives the city and the building as complex interactive systems and uses the available knowhow to make interventions for the communal benefit in energy, transport, water, waste or social mix. Under such approach, new developments preserve the wildlife and ecology , reduce the vehicular utilisation by limiting the car movement, control the water and waste cycles andincorporatesupplyanddemand-side 232

Conscious-energyconstructionpractices (upgraded insulation materials, day-lighting, embodied energy, natural ventilation, passive solar, energy management systems etc.)aretechnologiesand/orconstruction know-how that have accumulated enough successful experience to provide the city plannerswithauniquetooltoaccomplishthechallenge of the city of the future in what matching the comfort and environmental protection requirements.

Energy

supply

Changes in the economic context and growing environmental concerns, demand to broadening the approach to the supply planning by not only the enlargement of demand side activities ( DSM ) but, also , the adoption of a framework for integrated evaluation of all resource options in order to balance supply and demand in the most acceptable and efficient way. Electricity, gas, co-generation, waste and renewables are candidatestointegratetheenergymenuofanewmethodology called Integrated Resource Planing (IRP).

Tr a n s p o r t The traffic and transport sector is engaged in a conflict where individual rights to use private vehicles collide with the pollution and land use of parking and motorways. On spite of technology improvements on vehicleconsumption,theemergingtransportapproach envisions the massive utilisation of transmission and information technologies in conjunction of innovative concepts for public transportation. Transport


Water and waste management Municipal solid waste must follow a comprehensive management with action plans over prevention, re-utilisation, re-cycling, energy value and discharge. Solid waste management will become a multidisciplinar task in which, industrial, transport and social associations must collaborate in setting a sustainable waste cycle where social and energy values must be upgraded.

Water and waste management

electricity), the constraints of a sustainable development force the building construction actors to apply a rational scheme which considering economic and social aspects, incorporate at any possible extent and at the every level of the building process, the following precepts: • Understand the local climate and its influence over the building. • Modify the nearby urban parameters for the benefit of the building. • Influence the building design for an appropriate use of solar energy. • Adequate the construction materials to the energetic demand. • Upgrade building standards and construction practices to avoid unwanted losses. • Select innovative and efficient technologies on either the energy supply and demand sides. • Stress the low-maintenance goal, healthy materials and recycling possibilities. • Acknowledge the low embodied energy principles.

Rationale of Energy in the Building Process

Existing tools to shape the integrated urban development

In rational architecture, building design reflects not only the needs of inhabitants and site constraints but also the cyclic energy flows of natural environment. Thus, good practice architecture should stress the design of buildings with the goal to minimise the impact of climate both in summer and in winter and without any restriction concerning the type of building use and typology. This situation imply a comprehensive approach over thedifferentanddynamicaspectsinfluencingthebuilding: Climaticandgeographicalparameters,urban-applied issues, social mix/settlement patterns, energy supply means, transport management and , of course, envelop materials and construction technologies. Whenever the building itself is not able to counterbalance the external influences and maintain the comfort levels, mechanically-driven technologies enter into action to supply the deficit. Though partial concepts applied into its maximum possibilities are showing results in terms of comfort (superinsulated houses/ zero energy approaches or modern office buildings fully depending on gas and

Elements of energ-conscious urban planning Urban planning is conceived at either national and local level and has its corresponding specific applicable actions. Noneless, it can be highlighted a number of good practice rules that might help planning teams involved in either both activities: • Encourage the energy and environmental improvements within urban legislation, in conjunction with any revision and/or updating of urban master plans. • Promote local building codes which give emphasis to natural solutions or costless options to reduce the energy and environmental impact of urban settlements. • Remove negative or discriminatory legislation and regulation to implement renewable energy technologies. • Encourage the urban planning which provide innovative solutions in functional zoning, improving the quality of life and decreasing energy and environmental pollution related to urban transportation as well as consuming displacements. 233


Balancing such phenomena along all the living area is a challenge that need some detailed analysis of material characteristics as colour or thermal conductivity.

• Promotetheseparationoftransportationmodeswithin the urban territory, giving priority to car-free paths. • Facilitate the adoption of higher quality standards for new and renovated buildings, through attractive incentives for builders and users. • Develop efficient methodologies to help local administration in energy and environmental planning. • Promote the identification at the community level of innovative environmental indicators.

Building design and construction practices Ifproperlydesignedandbuilt,dwellingsshouldbythemselves temperate the external climatic shifts and keep internal conditions close to the comfort levels. Such «building in favour of climate» approach has been labelled as passive, bioclimatic or energy-saving architecture. The rules affecting this type of architectural approach,arediverseandextensivelycoveringorientation, building materials, internal zoning, ventilation patterns and daylighting concepts. However this complexity, all are governed by simple rule of thumb: common sense. To fully understand what passive systems are, it is important to understand their basic characteristics:

1. Use of local energy resources The joint utilisation of sources (solar radiation, outsideairandinternalgains)andsinks(skyandspace,outside air and wet surfaces), allows a degree of comfort to be achieved in a building with limited use of traditional energy sources. The benefits from these sources do not come free of charge, however, because these sources have relatively weak flows and densities and are not constant, forcing the planner to a careful design. 2. Use of natural energy flows Inpassivesystems,heatistransferredbyradiation,conduction and convection resulting in quieter environmentsand,ingeneral,greaterindoortemperatureswings. 234

3. Making thermal use of buildings In passive systems, the elements which collect, store, transfer and dissipate heat are an integrate part of the architectural elements such as walls and roofs. Thus, in contrast to the traditional approach, an architectural component may serve to heat and cool as to enclose space and shape the building.

Technologies and policies to control energy consumption at the demand side A widely accepted strategy for energy saving in the building sector is a demand-side strategy, where energy is being saved by interfering the energy demand acting over the mechanisms that might reduce the amount needed to keep comfort standards. The number of effective measures which could be labelled under this topic exceeds the space of a short paper and thus, we will only present a glimpse of the activities undertaken within the Thermie-sponsored Targeted Projects in the Building Sector.

1. Construction practices The majority of projects have incorporated energysaving approaches within the construction process that remarkably improved the thermal coefficient at almost no extra-cost. Avoiding thermal bridges around the windows ,intelligent application of the insulation layer, opening vents for natural ventilation, using low-k bricks and the associated mortar application, selecting the appropriate colour for wall and roof surfaces or the paving used as heat storage are some of the practices that have shown excellent results with an almost universal replicability. 2.technologies and/or materials Efficient appliances and lighting, heat recovery of exhausted air, condensing boilers, low-emission glazing, transparent insulation materials, highly efficient window frame and glazing, energy management systems and associated domotic approaches, evaporative cooling, water saving toilets and fittings, local energy meters.


Technologies acting over the supply side

Integrated planning of resources must incorporate the previous criteria, looking for the nexus between focus points oriented to the optimisation of the supply side «least cost planning» and those that search at compatibility with demand «demand side Management« relating energy and the other natural resources with the totality of needs, use and the production-recycling of by products. The lines of action must be strengthed: • Decentralised production and efficient distribution systems. • Joint exploitation: Co-generation CHP, heat pump, etc. • Renewable energies: Hydraulic, wind , photovoltaic, thermal solar and biomass. • Use of existing technologies in energy saving: buildings, equipment, means of transport, industrial processes, etc.

The evaluation of final uses: illumination, motive force, heating, cooling etc. ... it’s spatial and temporal distribution permit the design of shared systems and cycles of combined usage (Co-generation CHP, simultaneous heating and cooling, accumulation systems, etc..), for which an energy analysis demonstrates how drastic global efficiency improvements may be obtained. Energy constitutes the transforming element for the rest of natural resources, although not reaching the extreme of using it as a yardstick for development. The analysis of energy intensity used in processes of manufacture and distribution of goods and services are the key to help determine the coherence of industrial energy-saving policies.

Summary of actions and energy saving incidence of ParcBIT development Generic Incidence

Energy Saving compared to Traditional (%)

Urban Planning Elements

· Street orientation

Building façades with the most beneficial orientation

· Paving colour and materials · Solar access

Reduce high surface temperatures and allow evaporat. Allow solar gain on buildings and public areas

· Heat gain control by shading and natural cooling

Lower ambient temperature and cooling load

· Heat loss control by wind break barriers

Reduce wind velocity and infiltration load

4 0.8 2.5 2 2

Internal Transportation · Pedestrian & bike paths

Promote car-free short distance movements

0.5

External Transportation · Teleworking

Reduce car travelling for working needs

10

Energy supply services · Centralized distribution

Equipment high efficiency and distribution losses reduction

20

· Active solar energy · Other renewables

Energy savings Partial needs electricity generation

6 3

Other Urban Elements · Water management

Water consumption reduction and so, energy and 20

· Waste management

chemicals of water cycle treatment Waste control organic composting and waste disposal energy reduction

---

Buildings · Improved energy-saving standards Reduce the U-Value · Daylighting Reduce electricity consumption

30 50

· Passive heating & cooling · Improved HVAC

Reduce energy for building comfort Maximum efficiency for back-up systems

30 25

· solar DHW · Domotics

Reduce size and consumption for water heaters Control the appliances for safe and energy efficient operation

50 10

235


To succeed into such goal, a multidisciplinary team will analyze and find sustainable solutions to the basic urban elements such as: • Energy • Social mix • Transportation • Telecommunications technologies • Green space and agriculture • Water ways and waste • Integration of energy exploitation technologies in constructive structures.

Examples and case studies I - Comprehensive and sustainable urban planning ParcBIT ( Palma de Mallorca, Spain ) ParcBIT is the name of an expansion area of Palma de Mallorca conceived by the Balearic Government as a milestone in what the future Balearic development must rely upon. Located over a total surface of 140 Ha, of a traditional agricultural land adjacent to the University of the Balearic Islands and a five-minute drive form downtown Palma, the area will be urbanised under the basis of creating an small pilot community that will rely on the state-of-the-art telecommunications which, in combination with location and environment, will attract residents and business within a global strategy to transform the Balearic standard tourism economy into a «business resort» economy. The principles of the ParcBIT design are based on creating a high-quality environment of living and working. A maximum of 400.000 sqm of either residential and non-residential buildings will be erected creating three communities arranged within three urban clusters,eachofwhichisitselfanintimatevillage,andwhich as a whole, form a distinct community. The new village, will accommodate up to 5.000 people under a comprehensive planning approach which objective is to create a high quality yet balanced environment that offer real alternatives to dense urban saturation with a human-oriented urban development that is more comfortable, more efficient, consumes significantlylessenergyandconsequentiallyemitsmuch less pollution. 236

In the design of such development, the ParcBIT concern is focusing on renewable energies strategies and the relationship to issues such as how social activities are mixed. It will also focus on the linkage of public spaces but speciallyonhowtoseparateurbansystemssuchastransportation and interaction of green space, parks and water ways to ensure an amenable microclimat Energy demand is reduced by 40% ensuring that energy efficientbuildingsarebuiltinconjunctionwithusinglocally generatedpowersoasrenewablesourcesofenergyarea consistentlyusedwithintheenergysupplyscheme. Energy distribution will rely on an efficient decentralised system using co-generation for heating, cooling and electricity. This energy-generating system will be linked to the municipal Solid Waste Treatment plant of Palma de Mallorca, to use biomass as a primary fuel. Passive solar solutions for heating and cooling will be incorporatedassiteelementsduringtheplanningprocess, but additional implementation in buildings will be encouraged by the local regulations adopted at the Master Plan.

II - Buildings Residential applications Project REMMA is a ‘93/94 Thermie Programme Targeted initiative. Its objective is to integrate in real home configurations , different elements directly related to the management of the energy consumed in the residential sector of the Mediterranean area. Project REMMA encompasses three commercial promotions that include 303 dwellings in Castelldefels (Barcelona), 48 in Lisbon and 44 in Cecina ( Italy) with the involvement of twelve companies from Spain, France, Italy and Portugal. These promotions incorporate five elements that greatly improve the energy behaviour of residential buildings:


• Low energy design, taking in consideration the site and climatic conditions • Optimised building envelop materials, specifically using a low U-value brick and advanced window models. • Heating and ventilation systems compatible with the low-energy design • Thermal solar energy systems for Domestic Hot Water. • Integrated Energy Management Systems, conceived to co-ordinate the previous elements. Up to date, REMMA has completed 172 dwellings in Barcelona, 44 in four blocks in Cecina and the 12 storey-high building of Lisbon is underway. Monitoring results have shown energy reductions of up to 40% in Barcelona with very high comfort levels of indoor air quality, natural light, low noise levels for a typical downtown flat.

Non residential applications Low Energy Office L E O is a 2700 sq.m tertiariy building located in Cologne (Germany), supported by a Thermie grant and awarded 1st.prize of 1995 European competition for Ecological Commercia Buildings. Advanced insulation materials, daylighting techniques, natural ventilation for either heating and cooling seasons and appropriate window design give the result of a building demanding one fourth of standard energy values. The building is a compact daylight three storey over basement atrium-type with north and south orientation of main façades. Sunlight and daylight are redirected to avoid glare and provide high quality illumination. A ground duct encircles the building The and preheats the cold incoming air in winter as well as cools inlet air in summer, supported by night purging of the building. As per constructional techniques, prefabricated hollow-core slabs to avoid raised floors and suspended ceilings as well as measures of the type of high standard insulation, result in a building which regardless of its 2700lsq.m is equipped with only a gas-fired condensing boiler with 49 kW heating power.

• Passive cooling of inlet air with the same duct. • Daylight-priority control of the lighting system. • Occupancy-dependent ventilation and heating of offices. As per constructional techniques, it can be highlighted: • South-north orientation and appropriate window placing. • High thermal mass. • Transparent Insulation Material on the south façade Obstruction-free ceiling for enhanced daylighting.

Integrated Solar Systems on Buildings The Hammarkullen project about 20km. north of Goteborg ( Sweden) comprises 1500 sq.m. of roof integratedcollectorsontwolargeexistingmultifamilybuildings. The solar heating systems are designed to preheat domestic hot water in about 400 apartments. The buildings are connected to the main district heating network in Goteborg. The collectors are divided in four systems, two on each building. Each building has two district heating sub-units where the solar systems are connected on the secondary side of the district heating heat exchangers. Heat is stored in form of hot water accumulated in four storage tanks of24.4,18.9,20.7 and 19.2 cu.m of capacity.The collector array was mounted on site using the roof structure as a collector casing and incorporating separately, the insulation, absorbers and glazing. For an annual hot water consumption of 50cu.m. per person, the 1.500 sq.m.solar collector array is supplying about 22 percent of total DHW demands.

The energy-saving and cost- saving potential has been enlarged by several technical procedures as: • Recovering heat from exhausted air. • Passivepre-heatingofinletairthroughagroundduct. 237


Head-Table, Session nº 4: Market and Technology. From left to right: Franco Cavallaro (INSULA), Antonio Correia (Advisor to the President of the Regional Government of Azores), Alvaro García (CEPSA - Canary Islands).

238


Energy and Sustainable Tourism the island challenge T OMÁS A ZCÁRA TE Y B ANG ZCÁRATE Chairman SUSTAINABLE TOURISM INSTITUTE

I

t is absolutely impossible to talk about sustainable tourism in islands without doing so in energy terms. Island regions are presently the second most important tourist destination in the world after historic cities. But, energy aspects represent an obstacle to fair and balanced development, especially in small islands, because of the extreme degree of external dependency that they create (sometimes greater than 15% of GDP), and they are obviously an environmental risk of the highest order. We are aware that the size of the tourist industry has such a powerful influence on the future of sensitive destinations like islands that it can lead to an irreversible degradation or it can become a powerful ally of sustainable development. Since the Conference of Rio ’92, the international agencies and the more enlightened sectors of the tourist industry have addressed the possibility of a sustainable tourism that accepts its responsibility to future generations, especially in the places and destinations that should be protected as our common heritage: natural spaces, biosphere reserves, mankind heritage sites. But Rio was almost seven years ago. There has been a plethora of international accords like the Lanzarote Charter of Sustainable Tourism and the actions of the World Tourism Organisation. But the time has come to put theory into practise. Therefore, the Institute for Responsible Tourism (ITR), in collaboration with international agencies like UNESCO, has launched a series of initiatives, through

important associations and tourist destinations, aimed at turning the possibility of responsible tourism into a reality.A“QualityforLife”labelhasbeencreated,based on a standardised system of environmental quality for tourist industry. This label has proved to be a powerful practical instrument for promoting the sustainable development of tourism in sensitive destinations. The area of energy has been treated with special care and devotion in the Responsible Tourism standard, a pioneering action in island destinations. It is a standard that includes criteria for: • Energy saving and rational energy consumption in hotel accommodation. • Defining energy efficiency criteria. • Guidelines for consumers on energy behaviour and a good practise guide in transport matters. • Promoting renewable energy sources and having them included in tourism development strategies. • Energy, land and tourism planning. These measures that consolidate the sustainability of the tourist industry are even more important on islands. After all, many of the pioneering experiences in sustainableenergyarebeingdevelopedonislands.One of the incentives for this is the need for real solutions and efficient models for sensible tourist development. We have the experiences of Lanzarote, the Hawaii energy code or the transport experiences of Jersey. All of these are examples of a broad island movement toward a rationalisation of the tourist industry that now encompasses most of these destinations. 239


Reading of the Conference's Recommendations during the ISS final session. From left to right: Osman Benchikh (World Solar Programme 1996-2005), Manuel Cendagorta (Director of ITER) and Cipriano MarĂ­n (Secretary of ISS)

240


The Alternative Transport

M IGUEL F RAILE IVECO - PEGASO

I

n the current world, the concept of mobility, either people or goods, has become development synonym. This in not patrimony of the big continental countries, but rather it affects in same proportion to other countries with different dimensions and infrastructures as they are the islands. The transport comes playing a fundamental paper in the modern society where the mobility has become a necessity, and where the efficient transport of people and goods play a basic paper in the economic growth, but also to the own social cohesion. From the energy point of view, the transport represents one of the sectors with more and more constant growth in the last years. The demand of transport comes increasing in a constant way from the last 20 years to a rhythm of 3,3 to 4,8% respectively, superior to the own increment of the GDP.

As an example in the European Union this necessity of mobility is quantified , in the use and employment of the third part of the consumed energy dedicated to the transport, and inside the transport , 84% of that consumed energy, it is dedicated to the transport by road, that is automobiles, trucks and buses. As compensation to this positive facet of the development, is the negative aspects of the polluting emissions, so much gassy as sound. Proportional to the consumed energy, practically 1/3 of the polluting emissionsintheEuropeanUnionareproducedbythetransport, and in the case of certain types of pollutants as the NOx or the CO, the percentages can rise above 50%, and even superior in the urban centers. Ingeneral,andinspiteofeverything,thesituationhas spread to improve sensibly starting from the beginning of the nineties, with the incorporation in the vehicles of

241


When we consider that more that 80% of Europe’s population live in cities and account for about 75% of Europe’s energy consumption, it is easy to see and understand the relevance to use and introduce low or zero emission vehicles (GNC, Hybrids, Electrical, etc.)

Key

new technologies: control systems, injection direct, bigger efficiency in the propulsion/transmission systems, aerodynamics, among other, improves of the fuels, as well as the introduction of the catalysts systems in the vehiclesautomobiles,markinganinflectionpointinthe constant tendency of increase of contamination. However, and in spite of this, the problem continues existing and being increased in the island urban areas and centers where the concentration of transport, added to the residential or industrial, causes high indexes of contamination. These same considerations or risks are been able to apply to those spaces or natural places where the protection to the nature takes special priority, like islands. In the face of this fact and reality, the authorities are making effort in finding solutions that allow to improve the environment conditions in the islands' urban, historical or natural areas. Solutions can be in some cases politicians as the creation of pedestrian areas, restrictions to the use of the private vehicle; or by means the application of such technical solutions as the potential of the public transportation regarding the private one; or especially and every time, with the understanding in the employment of alternative energy in the urban transport, such as it is the case of the public transportation (buses, taxis, vehicles for goods, vehicles of service, etc.)

Market

opportunity

Niche products for: • Congested urban areas • Selected vehicles • Heritage cities • Energies alternatives options • Healthy living environment 242

technologies

The consumers rarely consider important the energy efficiency of the vehicles when their acquisition. For that the paper of the Official Organisms, as well as the own States, to play a fundamental paper for reducing the energy consumption as well as the environmental impact of the transport, without penalising the economic growth, the mobility or the own quality of life. For their contribution to this demands or political, as well as for their potential capacity to the contribution to the reduction of energy consumption and of the environmental impact, it deserves to highlight: • Theapplicationsofadvancedtechnologiesinvehicles • The employof alternatives fuels(electricity,gas,etc.) • The Improves of the current fuels quality • The introduction of Technology of traffic and transport control. • etc

Main task • Minimize exhaust gas emissions • Reduce noise level • Maintain fuel efficiency • Maintain operational efficiency

Regulation

frame

Starting from the years 70´ in the entire world has creating the ecological understanding of the absolute necessity of the control of the polluting emissions. Consequence of it and in relation with vehicles, it has been the progressive emission from the normative authorities the different regulations, more and more rigorous, in order to reduce the level of polluting emissions that are allowed to the different types of engines Obviously,fromthestandpointoftheEuropeanCommission pollution problems and energy consumption represent one of the great challenges, which is why increasinglydemandingpollutionregulationsareconstantly laiddownforvehicles,inordertomakingvehiclesmore andmoreenvironmentallyfriendly.Nowadayswithstandards known as EURO-2, vehicles only cause one third of the pollution they generated just ten year ago, and the up-comingEURO-3andthefuturestandards(EURO-4, EEV´S,etc.)willbringpollutionlabelsdownevenfather


CityClass CNG Environmental Performances

Fig.4 IVECO CITY CLASS

However, this regulations are aimed at transport in Acoustic Emissions general, they do not manage to accommodate the specific needs of major urban CityClass CNG areas, because of the imEnvironmental Performances pact transport has on the quality of life of the city, and also because of the local impact pollution (gaseous and noise) has on the historic heritage. So, despite the fact that the new vehicles,withconventional propulsion system are complying with ever stricter pollution regulation, it is not enough to alGas emissions g/k Wh (based on EC R49.02 law) leviate pollution levels in cities. Alternative transport choice: The clean transport (GNC, Electric, Hybrid, etc.) represent a major benefit in urban as well as on islands Alternative fuel choice GNCVehicle and in special natural protected areas that will make today a significant contribution to minimise the effect Alternative propulsion systems Hybrid vehicles of pollution that so much damage both people and cultural and historical heritage

Alternative propulsion and engines

systems

As we have commented, and in areas specially needy places of using vehicles of very low emissions (urban and historical centers, protected natural areas, etc.), especially those of the nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particles (PM) to be considered the most harmful, the manufacturers have had to explore the field of the alternative energy, being in fact those viable and operative propulsion engines:

Alternative

transport

Focus of methane • Easy availability • Low cost • Very low exhaust emission levels • Safety • Stable gas composition

Focus of hybrid • The electric and hybrid propulsion • GNC - Gas Natural Compressed

• Low emission in hybrid • Zero in electrical 243


• Maximal quietness • Low energy consumption • Operational flexibility vs. electrical vehicles • Modular overhaul Natural gas engines appear to be the most promising and available technology to obtain a huge improvementveryquicklyofairqualityatreasonablecost.Other alternative propulsion system are Hybrids, Electric and Bifuel and also Bimodal (diesel electric and trolley), or in the next future: Fuel Cell TheIVECOexperiencesinthelastyearsusingverylow emission vehicles (more than 230 units, and 12.000.000 km), in several scenarios (more than 30 cities)

IVECO-PEGASO «Ecobus»

244

Product

versions

• City Buses • Minibuses • Garbage collection - Heavy compactors - Light collectors • Distribution - Light trucks - Med. & Heavy trucks However, in spite of these important experiences and results, as well as these permanent and significant efforts in R+D, to develop and to arrange competitive and operative these very low emission vehicles to the final user, still today continues existing inside of the differents European community, big difficulties of economic type as well as legislative one, when attacking today significant implementation of these clean vehicles in relation to the traditional fuel transport


Technology Needs for Island Renewable Energy Systems J OS B EURSKENS Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN

I

n the early eighties, during the start of the modern renewable energy development period, relatively much attention was paid to utilising wind and solar energy systems to provide electricity to remote, isolated communities without any energy infrastructure. As the supply of wind and solar energy varies stochasticallyintime,energysupplyandenergydemand do not match most of the time. To provide security of supply, a storage system is needed, which absorbs energy during periods that supply exceeds demand and supplies energy in times that the situation is reversed. Storage of energy in general and of electricity in particular is very expensive. So in order to overcome this cost problem solutions were sought in so called autonomous - hybrid - systems where wind turbines and/ or solar photo voltaic (PV) systems were working in parallel to diesel units. Manyexperimentswerecarriedoutandmorethan10 research establishments had more or less comprehensive development programmes. Looking back from the presentsituation,onecanconcludethatallthedevelopment efforts on autonomous systems only had limited success, contrary to grid connected wind and solar PV systems, which grew to an annual $ 4 billion world market (and is still growing by some 25 % annually). The need for independent island renewable energy system has not changed since. Analysing and understanding the reasons why this happened could provide us with the conditions for a real successful revival of the development and market implementation of autonomous systems.

The needs for energy Energy needs consist of need for fuels (transport, cooking, heating, etc.), heat (houses, domestic applications) and electricity (lighting, telecommunication, cooling, conservation of food). For a number of applications mechanical energy is needed. For instance for water pumping; in those cases supply and energy demand can be matched by storing the product in stead of storing electricity. This also applies for instance if products are to be cooled. This contribution will concentrate on electricity as a very high quality form of energy, which is a very important ingredient in the development process. Of the rural population in the world a large portion has no access to the electricity grid and will not have it for the foreseeable future. Africa

90%

Latin & South America Industrialised nations

50% 0%

All others

70% Table 1. Rural population,

having no access to the public electricity grid

Benefits of renewable energy Using locally available renewable energy systems have general advantages, but also advantages which are of specific for isolated regions. 245


General advantages include environmental protection (compared to the use of diesel sets: oil spilling and CO2 emission are avoided), the creation of local employment (installation, operation and maintenance) and it saves maintenance cost of possible diesel units. Maintenance cost of diesel units are relatively high. An advantage which is of special interest for isolated areas is the reduction of the use of fuel, to be imported, and thus saving foreign currency. Of course autonomous hybrid units are more expensive than single units such as a diesel unit. Nevertheless hybrid units can be economically competitive because of higher electricity cost from conventional units on remote locations.

at low penetration degrees is roughly equal to the averageoutputoftherenewableenergysystems,which is typically in between 20 and 35% for wind turbines an lower than 20% for PV systems.

The issues in designing island systems are: • Security of supply. The higher the demand concerning security of supply, the larger storage systems or back up systems have to be. In extreme cases, for instance units which supply electricity to remote telecommunication systems, redundant units have to be installed. The required supply security has a very big impact on system cost. • Power quality. If small margins in the variations of output voltage and frequency is required, fundamentally different system concepts have to be applied. Control and storage systems have to be more elaborate and thus will be more expensive. • Reliability. This requirement has a close relationship with the local available maintenance skills. The more regular maintenance can be provided locally, less exotic components and subsystems can be used. The initial investments will be lower.

Figure 1. Generalised Wind-Diesel System

Basic systems Electricity producing systems can be subdivided into three basic categories: 1 Stand alone units, which do not have a back up system, for instance an internal combustion engine. 2 Hybrid units, consisting of one or more renewable energy units, working in parallel with a back unit. A back up unit may consist of a diesel unit, a regular internal combustion engine, a Stirling engine or a batteryunit.Theinstalledrenewablepowerisroughly equal to the installed power of the conventional unit. 3 A grid connected renewable energy unit. In isolated areas with a relatively strong ‘island’ grid, wind turbines and PV arrays may be connected to the grid without special precautions as long as the penetration degree of the variable renewable energy systems is not exceeding, say, 20%. At larger penetration levels, voltage and frequency instabilities may occur. On the main land where large electricity transportation and distribution grids are connected, penetration degrees may be higher than on islands, where a isolated unit has to maintain stability, without the possibility of switching to nearby grids. The capacity credit 246

Figure 2. Configuration of a Wind-Diesel System on a sub-system level

System

configurations

An autonomous renewable energy system (see figure 1) basically consists of the following sub systems: 1 Back-up unit (combustion engine) and/or wind turbine and/or PV array. 2 Load matching devices: dump load and/or storage systems (batteries, fly wheel, hydraulic pressure unit), «product» - storage (heat, cold, pumped or desalinated water). Figure 2 is an illustration of an autonomous wind diesel system on the sub system level.


Table 2. List of various wind-diesel systems that were realised between 1977 and 1989.

In the past a number of different configurations were developed and tested. Table 2 [1] gives an overview of systems developed in the eighties. Figures 3 to 7 are examples of units that were realised.

Figure 4. Configuration of a Wind-Diesel system on the Norwegian island of Frøja. The system does not include power electronics at the wind turbine-grid interface.

Experiences to date Figure 3. Outline of the Wind-Diesel system with power electronics, developed by the Eindhoven University of Technology and ECN, the Netherlands

The experiences with developing, marketing and operating autonomous renewable systems to date can be summarised as follows: 247


tainable Village Power» and the special conferences, which are being organised by that group. The renewable energy research institute ITER on the Spanish island of Tenerife is very active in demonstrating renewable energy systems, especially designed for islands. In Germany DEWI (Wilhelmshafen), ISET (Kassel) and FhG-ISE (Freiburg) have programmes including solar and wind energy systems. ECN of the Netherlands (Petten) has a special programme for renewable energy systems for remote and isolated areas including PV arrays and wind turbines. CREST of University of Loughborough (UK) has a group working on rather small scale autonomous systems. Spread over the world, different groups, mostly connectedtouniversities,havemodestR&Dprogrammes on autonomous systems, like the Utrecht University in the Netherlands. • No significant market development took place. The present market consists of specially designed systems for typical local circumstances in terms of load pattern, transportation and installation methods, supply security, power quality and climatical circumstances.

Solar (PV) energy Figure 5. Wind-Diesel system, realised by the Eindhoven University and ECN on Cabo Verde, Santiago, Tarrafal. (1987)

Wind

energy

• More than 40 demonstration projects were realised, tested and operated since the early eighties. Most of them were taken out of operation because they proved to be uneconomic and unreliable. Especially vulnerable were wind turbines, control strategies and also the diesel units, which had to operate under conditions, they were not designed for (many starts and stops, too low loading). • More than 15 companies have been trying to commercialise autonomous systems. Only few are left. • Quite advanced simulation and design software has been developed and verified. Because the software is not being used intensively, there is to little maintenance to keep it up dated. • More than 10 R&D groups have been involved in the development of autonomous systems. Some abandoned their activities. A very interesting source of information is the Web site of NREL, Golden, Co, USA (www.rsvp.nrel.gov) called «Renewables for Sus248

• PV systems for village electricity supply have proven to be too expensive, but reliable. • Small units consisting of one or two PV panels of each 50Wandabatterystorage,e.g.solarhomesystemsfor individualhouses,arecheaperthanwindturbines.

Future

developments

Apparently the need for island systems has not changed since the eighties. However the technology has improved considerably. Especially those components that appeared to be too expensive or too unreliable, such as wind turbines, electronic components and control strategies have improved dramatically since. This leads to the conclusion that a revival of the development of island systems is very well possible. The first signs are already visible. Some examples: ENERCON (Germany) starts the production of a 0-series of stand alone desalination units; Atlantic Orient Company (USA) installed 18 wind diesel systems in extreme climates (Alaska, Siberia); Lagerwey the Windmaster (Netherlands) is developing new systems; Northern Power Systems (USA) supplies a number of specialised autonomous and stand alone units including wind turbines and PV arrays.


A careful analysis of the experiences so far lead to the following recommendations for industrial and generic R&D and demonstration in order to accelerate the developments. • Evaluate, test and demonstrate the use of new batteries to reduce the number of subsystems. • Evaluate the cost-benefit ratio of adding PV or solar thermal power units. • Replace diesel units by biomass units in order to reduce fuel cost and to achieve 100% renewable energy levels. • Develop and demonstrate stand alone units for cooling (conservation of food), desalination of brackish and sea water. • Use storage of desalinated water and cooled food as a storage to match supply and demand of energy. • Use new electronic sub-systems. • Update and verify analysis and design software tools and control strategies

Figure 6. The Frøja system in operation.

And last but not least: • Standardise sub-systems to increase the modularity of systems. This a necessary condition for accelerated market development. It will not only lead to reductions of the production cost of systems, but also the design and engineering cost.

Conclusion Since better and cheaper new electronic systems and storage units became available and renewable energy converters (wind turbines, PV arrays, biomass units) became reliable and cost effective, autonomous, hybrid and stand-alone renewable energy units will become cost effective in the near future. A systematic R&D and demonstration approach balanced with industrial activities and market introduction incentives is needed.

References 1 Hunter, R.; Elliot G. ed. «Wind-Diesel Systems», Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994. 2 Bonte, J. de: «Review of Conversion Systems used in Autonomous Wind Energy Systems»,TUE, Afd. Figure 7. The stand alone Wind desalination unit in operation on the island of Tenerife, Spain.

Natuurkunde, R563D/EM82-35, February, 1983. 3 Different internal reports of various institutes.

249


Head-Table, Session nยบ 5: Island networks. Information, education and training programmes. From left to right: Michele Giacomantonio (Mayor of Lipari, Sicily), Ulrik Jacobsen (FED - INFORSE), Miguel Montesdeoca (Teleinsula).

250


Wind Energy The MADE AE-46/1 wind turbine

F EDERICO G ONZÁLEZ MADE Sistemas Eléctricos - ENDESA

M

ADE Tecnologías Renovables is a wholly Spanish company, forming part of the ENDESA group. The company has been working in the field of both solar and wind renewable energies for more than 12 years. In the case that concerns me as an engineer working in the field of developing wind generators – i.e. wind energy -, MADE has grown and evolved in parallel with wind generator technology. Thus, what was almost a research project into unknown technology more than a decade ago, projects that MADE embarked upon as a pioneer in the energy industry, was gradually absorbed and improved until it became the mature technology it is today, capable of competing with any domestic or international manufacturer. The efforts initially made by GESA, another company of the ENDESA group, with two prototype 24 kW and 30 kW wind generators, gradually gave way to the MADE models AE-15 (75 Kw), AE-20 (150 kW), AE-23 (180 kW), AE-26 (250 kW), AE-30 and AE-32 (330 kW) and the AE-41 PF (500 kW) and many others, up to the AE-46/I 660 kW, a wind generator, made with technology that comes with the guarantee of MADE’s continual progress in the field of wind energy. As a result of this process, MADE, now has a total of more than 740 wind generators, made with our own technology, installed and operating in Spain. They generate a total of 230 MW of wind energy. In the Canary Islands,MADEhaswindgeneratorsinstalledintheseven islands,producingatotalofmorethan40MWofpower. The company’s spirit of advance and development has

meant that MADE has not limited its operations to the domestic market. The company currently has agreements to install wind farms, some of which are in the construction phase, in places such as China, Mongolia and Tunisia, and excellent growth prospects in flourishing markets such as Latin America. In the short time available, I am going to try to explain the basic process MADE uses for any new development, and the MADE AE-46/I wind generator, our most advanced commercial model, is no exception. There are four basic points of reference in the process that work as follows: (transparency 1)

Guarantee The MADE guarantee is based on almost 15 years experience as a manufacturer, developer, operator and maintainer of wind farms, in which each and every one of the design criteria, improvements and developments that have helped to make the windmills more reliable, have been gradually introduced. This has given our technical staff a more exact idea of what makes our machines different and better. The quality of our machines is accredited by the ISO 9001quality assurance certificate, obtained under the supervision of Germanischer Lloyd. In the specific case of the AE-46/I, an additional objective right from the beginning, was to certify the wind generator as Class I, i.e., for the severest wind and operating conditions. Unfortunately, I can not proudly 251


present the first wind generator based entirely on Spanish technology to obtain a CLASS 1 certificate, once again under the strict supervision and in accordance with the demanding criteria of Germanischer Lloyd. We still need a couple of weeks for the final details before certifying the wind generator. A class 1 certificate does not just require coherent calculations on paper. Tests are also done on a prototype set up in the field for the purpose of taking empirical measurements, which have to confirm the theoretical ones. The first prototype MADE AE-46/I was installed in the Barbanza wind farm, in Galicia, more than a year ago. From the point of view of load (lateral and vertical wind components in a complex terrain, wind turbulence, with annual averages of around 8.5 m/s) this is one of the most aggressive sites possible, and the generator has been working to our complete satisfaction ever since.

Simplicity ThelongexperienceIhavejustmentionedhastaught MADE that the simpler and tougher the wind generator is the better; the easier it is to maintain the better, the easier access to it is and the safer it is to operate the better. Thus, MADE has opted for fixed pitch technology, avoiding the problems that arise with other technologies that involve more complex maintenance and operations, and which are not always more profitable.

Profitability Everything I have said so far would not make sense if the machines were not profitable. Wind energy has reached the stage of technological maturity to enable it to compete with conventional energy in terms of production costs, even if we do not take into account the additional costs of conventional production like eco-taxes. Therefore, in MADE we try to combine two seemingly opposite concepts; high efficiency and low cost. As with any engineering solution, there is an optimum point of equilibrium, which, in our opinion is fixed pitch. Although this is not the ideal solution from the point of view of energy efficiency, it does enable us to substantially reduce costs (manufacturing, operation and maintenance costs). In fact, the cost per kW of production (the parameter that all investors try to mini252

mise) for MADE generators is so low that they are among the best, not just in Spain, but among the best wind generators in the world from an investment point of view.

Environment Last, but not least, respect for the environment. Long before environmental impact studies were compulsory, MADE commissioned or carried out complete and exhaustive studies on the influence a potential wind farm could have on local flora and fauna. The main obstacles an inherently clean energy like wind power has had to overcome have been the visual and acoustic impact of the windmills, a field in which MADE has invested a lot of time and effort. With regard to the visual impact, MADE builds the transformer into the tower of the AE-46, in order to eliminate the transformer centre. A replacement plan is then drawn up, taking into account all the details of the civil engineering work, in order to reduce final impact to a minimum. From an acoustic point of view, apart from working in depth on a new multiplier design, the drive shaft is mounted on elastic supports, minimising the transmission of vibrations to the rest of the structure, the hood has an absorbent lining and the propeller is a two-speed one. Apart from optimising energy production in light winds, which is when noise is most noticeable, this also minimises propeller blade tip velocity in these conditions, the main characteristic of aerodynamic noise emissions. We believe that all these ambitious objectives have been achieved with the MADE AE-46/I. I will now show you two diagrams; one of the nacelle (transparencies 2 and 3) and an overall view, showing some of the concepts mentioned before: simple (conventional machine, three blade horizontal propeller), tough, spacious and with easy access to all components in the nacelle. As a consequence of the certification process, the German wind energy institute took an exhaustive set of measurements, including load, power curve, energy quality and noise levels. Thenextthreetransparencies(4,5and6)showsome of the results of these measurements. These include the real power curve, very close to our theoretical calculations; values for availability and noise, around 99.3 dBA, and electric power factor. The noise levels are optimum for the nominal power of the generator (the


range within which other manufacturers operate for this level of nominal power is 98.5 to 103.5 dBA, including generators with no multiplier). The electric power factor is, once again, exceptionally good (above 0.985 when it reaches 20% of nominal power), especially if you consider that this is a windmill with an asynchronous generator that is connected directly to the grid. I would like to emphasise once more, that all the data you can see here are empirically measured values and not just theoretical values. I do not want to conclude without spending a few minutes assessing the AE-46/I as an ideal machine (from the point of view of size and characteristics) for

working here in the Islands. On the one hand, extraneous means (cranes, trucks, access) needed for installation are of a reasonable size compared with 1 MW and larger machines that are starting to become widespread in the North of Europe. On the other hand, the asynchronous generator used, which, whilst it has no frequency converter devices, it does have the previously mentioned advantage of being a far tougher and more reliable system than those that use synchronous generators. Furthermore, this system causes virtually no disturbances in the grid, something that is very important in weak grids like those found on islands.

253


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Characteristics of Implanting Solar Collectors on Islands A LFREDO B ERNABĂ&#x2030; EnergĂ­a Solar EspaĂąola CANARY ISLANDS

T

he present energy situation has changed from one of oil crisis to a more rational use of energy, motivated basically by environmental concerns, with the clear objective of reducing greenhouse gases. Renewable energies form part of the solution to the problem, particularly Thermal Solar Energy, which is a direct participant in the process as it is so close to the grass roots of the people. Islands in general have two clearly defined sectors; the domestic and the tourist sector. There are specific applications for both, from simple thermo-siphon facilities to large installations for producing hot water for homes, hotels or swimming pools. Installation and maintenance costs vary, but, in most cases, solar energy compares favourably with conventional energy, in strictly economic terms. In this area, the Government plays a fundamental role in developing these technologies, by subsidising and/or financing installations, although user awareness proves to be the best aid.

The current structure of the market increases the costs of products that have to be imported into islands. Low temperature thermal solar energy is a simple technology, which opens up a market for local manufacturers to attend to the specific characteristics of each region, such as integrating installations in typical architecture, water quality, etc. This not only guarantees diversification of energy, it alsoguaranteesindustrialdiversification,promotingthe creation of specialist jobs in manufacture, installation, maintenance, etc. Lack of raw materials and transport undoubtedly represent an added cost, but this is comparable with the added cost on fossil fuels for the same reason. Manufacturing can be constantly optimised through technologytransferfromdifferentUniversitiesandR+D TechnologicalCentres,thusforginglinkswiththeworld of business. Thus, the use of thermal solar energy, and renewable energies in general, provide economic, social and environmental benefits.

255


256


Promoting Thermal Industry Comparison and Evaluation of Experiences

R AINER B ERKMANN President EUROPEAN SOLAR INDUSTRY FEDERATION

E

SIF - the European Solar Industry Federation was founded in 1992 to promote solar thermal energy in Europe. The 20 members of ESIF include national solar industrial associations which contain 300 companies with 10,000 employees. Other members are national agencies, institutes and laboratories working in the solar field.

ESIF goals include : the dissemination of information about solar energy, â&#x20AC;˘ representation of the solar industry to European and national bodies, â&#x20AC;˘ development of a European quality label for solar thermal systems, â&#x20AC;˘ ensuring that trade in solar thermal equipment is free and unencumbered. Sales of solar collectors in Europe are currently (1998) in the region of 1 million square meters per year, with major markets in Germany, Austria and Greece. Installed collector area in the EU at present is over 8 million square meters, which annually saves 1.4 million tons of CO2 emissions and the equivalent of 450 thousand tons of oil, and has created 10,000 new jobs. This figure corresponds approximately to 20 square meters per thousand inhabitants. There are several applications throughout Europe with Solar domestic water heating the major application. More specifically, in Germany an increasing proportion of solar systems being sold (currently more than 30%) are used for combined DHW and space heating support. Combined water and space heating is

used to support a conventional heating system where there is a long heating season. It is quite common in Austria. . A few thousand swimming pools in Europe, mainly in Germany, Austria, France, Switzerland and The Netherlands are equipped with solar systems for heating swimming pools. Since 1979, numerous district heating plants in Denmark,SwedenandGermanyhavebeenaugmentedwith solar collectors. Solar systems for drying agricultural products are common in Scandinavia and Switzerland and gaining popularity in Southern Europe. There are several industrial heating applications in Greece and the latest development is the use of solar systems in hotels for air conditioning/cooling. Solar cooling has an enormous potential and is developing rapidly. From this brief introduction on the applications of solarsystemsaroundEuropewecaneasilyseethatthere are different approaches to promoting solar thermal depending on geography, climate, standards of living, public concern, and most importantly government and regional support. Therefore there is no one recipe for promoting the solar thermal industry. If we look more closely at the major markets (Greece, Germany, Austria) we will see that a very important combination was the major factor for their success stories.Thecombinationofpublicawarenesscampaigns with government incentives (Solar DHW systems are/ were subsidised in all the countries with growing sales). And looking at the developing markets in Denmark, The Netherlands etc we will find co-operation with local authorities for large district heating applications 257


Preparing the Final Report and the Conclusions.

258


Water-Energy-Waste Integrated Management for the Mediterranean Islands F RANÇOIS V ALETTE CNRS- MONTPELLIER II University RITME (Réseau Insulaire Tropical et Méditerranéen) - CIRAD FRANCE

T

he organization and the functioning of most research institution, as well as these of most productive systems, naturally lead to the fact that they generally approach separately the problems of resource management, through specialised analyses and (when suitable or possible) corresponding models. This specialization implies a lot of difficulties when, in the «real systems» and at the «real levels» of organisation which have to manage these resources, and to take concrete decisions for that, it is necessary to consider them all together rather than separately, notably in the new perspective of the sustainable development that everyone seems to admit since the Rio world conference on environment. Two levels of integration then appeared necessary for helping decisions of authorities and actors, at every level:integrationofdifferenttechnologicalapproaches, concerning the main concerned resources (energy, water, and wastes); and integration of different sciences or disciplines, in the sense of the organization of R&D structures, to create real links and transferts of knowledge between the technological (i.e. instrumental) and the socioeconomic or political (i.e. decisional) levels. The main issue of the first level of integration, concerning technologies, is obviously to ensure the technical coherence of the resource management systems, notably by taking in account the links which exist between the resources to manage, in terms of competitions,dependencies,exclusionsand/orcomplementarities. These links are numerous, and often exist on different plans: for example, between water and energy, local

water management always implies significant energy consumptions, for solving quantity problems through increasing productions (by pumping in aquifers, or desalination of sea water…) as well as for improving the quality of water, by various treatments… But water may also be a source of energy at an other scale, through hydroelectric dams. The same kind of links exist between energy and waste, because the waste treatment systems always require energy in some steps (fuels and electricity, for transport and pre-treatments), but may produce heat and/or other fuels in further steps. Lastly, some waste treatments also imply huge amounts of water, and produce as much waste water… So independent designs of these resources management subsystems may lead, on the whole, to non optimal, poorly efficient, and sometimes even absurd systems. Integrated models, on this material plan, allow precise descriptions, simulations and evaluations of the potential costs and benefits of different solutions to get good uses of such technical links. The main issue of the second level of integration, focused on methods for helping decisions, is to allow more complete evaluations of systems and projects at other more general levels (that is, by definition, more «integrating» levels). So it implies, after and beyond the technical integration described above: • in a first step, and at least, to include in the technical models a basic economical anneals of the direct costs and benefits (investments, maintenance and operating costs) of installation and running of considered systems. This typically micro-economic approach can 259


help decisions of private actors, in the sense of the identification of the best solutions for solving their problems independently of others, on a basically (technical and) financial point of view. • in a second step, to evaluate more generally the economic impacts of resource management beyond its direct sphere, by taking in account the fact that corresponding systems produce and consume others goods and services (than those for which they are built), such as land, materials, or equipments, and of coursehumanwork,allthingswhichdetermineother activities in their economical environment. This level of analyse is specially relevant at the regional scale, for middle and long term perspectives, to help the definition of local development strategies. • in a third step, to take in account global constraints or objectives, concerning notably social and environmental, and/or other general (cultural, political, strategical…) issues of the resource management. This level of analyse is specially relevant at the national and global scale, for long term scenarios on development. It is generally based on the use of macroeconomic models, to include realistic views of the main economic structures and flows in the present… but its major issues are linked to the addition, in these models, of descriptors of future activities expected to solve new problems, considering new goals and values that the development progressively imposes to societies. In this view of things, taking in account social and environmental externalities 1 of resource management appears as essential, in the sense that these externalities may considerably modify the decision criteria. Allthesekindsandlevelsofintegrationhaveofcourse specific interests, which justified a huge diversity of researches on them in the world. But the problem is that no model or formal analysis can integer all these aspects of realities… so that in practice, most of existing systems and models do not explore all the field that economic evaluation should cover. Because formal integration of «all» seems impossible, for practical as well as for theoretical reasons 2 , the improvement of decisions in concrete situations just can come from efforts of integration of integrated models models, with different combinations of approaches whose choice essentially depends on the scale at which systems are studied - i.e. on the level of decisions. This integration may require parallel or sequential (hierarchical) uses of different models, and the interactions between them are not necessarily formal, 260

nor automatic: what matters, in these efforts, is to take in account as much as possible relevant knowledge and informations on concerned systems, and to allow then interactions between concerned actors and deciders, before taking decisions on those bases. The following review of approaches, models and applications will be intended to show the diversity of resource management problems, and to try to identify, under this lightening, the specific assets of islands to become places of exemplary studies and realizations.

Principles and applications of some approaches of «integrated modelling» The order in which methods and applications will be presented corresponds to a sense of lecture of things «from the realities to the decisions on them», that is: • from the concrete and technical aspects of resource management at the levels where they are managed through the operation of various equipments (of which functions and dimensions have to be precisely known and described) • up to more abstract and global views of the same realities, through integrations and changes of scale allowing to evaluate them according to other criteria, to allow more general (and especially socioeconomic) interpretations of the issues of the systems operation (at longer and longer terms, and/or at larger and larger scales), and so to prepare or help decisions.

Microeconomic and simulation

analysis models

General principles and objectives Resource management problems on a given territory are often firstly, - and it is a part of their definition-, problems of adaptation of these resources to the needs of the populations (and more generally systems, or activities) which use this space. In any existing system, resources are indeed collected in precise forms by their collectors, at precise places and moments… while human activities determine different and generally independent final uses. So this adaptation can be necessary on different plans or themes: • adaptation in the space, because the needs may be locatedinotherplacesthanthosewheretheresources


are collected or available; this fact implies the installation of adapted transportation or transfer disposals (for example, for electric distribution, water conveyance, or waste collection). • adaptation of the form, because collected resources may be collected in forms which are not those required by the activities; this fact implies the installation of adapted conversion or transformation disposals (for example, for conversion of heat in electricity, potabilization or desalination of water). • adaptations in the time, because collected resources may be collected at moments which are not those when they are required by activities; this fact implies the installation of adapted storage or transfer disposals (for example, by batteries, tanks or dams).

Fig.1: Different scales of time to consider

Several simulation tools can help to build models able to describe the functioning of systems associating so many kinds of disposals. Their common principle is to simulate separately the action of each disposal by disintegration of the time in as many periods (steps) as necessary to observe correctly the effects of time-lags, shifts or gaps between available resources and needs, at each step. For example, the suitable steptime to choose for models concerning energy, water and/or waste

management is generally one hour, because variations of the corresponding flows (productions as well as consumptions)arealwaysimportantduringaday,which imply the installation of storage (whose capacities have to be adapted). The principles and issues of the action of each disposal at each steptime are described by as many differential equations (more or less explicitly, depending on software) whose parameters sum up the performances or capacities of equipments. The description of the resources and needs can be made by using lists of data and/or any simulation method giving realistic values of their amount in each period. Such simulations have to be run during long enough periods to allow the obtention of «balances sheets» of the simulated resource management in different conditions or scenarios of functionig and equipment, and to calculate from them global indicators of the performances of the corresponding systems, in technical terms (autonomy, pollutions…) as well as in economic terms (investments, costs and benefits of operation…). This period is usually a «typical year», considerated as representative of the «normal» resource profiles during all the lifetime of simulated systems -in the statistic sense-, so that the results of simulations can be usedfororientingthesizingofeachoftheirequipments by optimization, through descent algoritms 3 . The STELLA software The STELLA® software is an extension of theDYNAMO simulation language, to which it added a convenient graphic interface allowing very direct and intuitive possibilities of description of many kinds of real active structures (i.e. describable as combinations of sources, stocks, transfer systems, converters, and final uses). This software simulates all the issues of events that the modellers want to describe between the elements of the studied system (collection or production of consumed goods, conversions, transfers, variations of the content of storages, final uses and emissions…). Corresponding results are calculated on every steptime (dT), possibly registered, and integrated on any period (T). Parameters T and dT are of course initially choosed (and then may be changed, if suitable) by the modelist, depending on what he has to evaluate. In spite of the remarquable lot of its qualities and aptitudes to describe the functioning of complex systems (low cost, simplicity, reliability, efficiency for teaching and demonstations, existence of compatible PC and Macintosh versions…), the STELLA software may 261


turn out to be inadequate for applications in which it is necessary to consider the management of many kinds of flows, and/or to describe through special formalisms some relations between variables.

Fig.2: Principles of the Stella’s graphic formalism 4 ,

Applications of the STELLA software The STELLA software has been applied to a large variety of technico-economic studies concerning energy and water management at different scales: houses, farms, villages, water basins, islands, and regions. In all these cases, it was used to search out optimal solutions of equipments (versus an micro-economic criteria, indicating the time of return of investments) for satisfying all the water and energy demands, through systematic explorations of all their possible arrangements by descent algorithms in present conditions (i.e. prices and performances of equipments, current resources anddemands…). Most of these studies concerned real insulated systems for which it had sense (or was necessary) to look for solutions of autonomy, notably through the exploitation of renewable resources of energy, notably from sun (for electricity and/or heat production) and wind (for electricity or mechanical energy). About insulated sites, this research mainly concerned: • the island of FORMENTERA (i.e. the smallest island of Baleares), for studying innovative solutions to face its problems of water quality and scarcity, and to reduce its energy dependency by using renewable sources [BARROUK,VALETTE,1996]; • very recently, the island of NOIRMOUTIER (France), for the evaluation of economic and environmental issues of wastewater reuse, and evaluate possibilities of using windenergyinthiscontext[BRISSAUD,VALETTE,XU,1999]; • a lot of imaginary «standard cases», studied in variouscontextsofresearch[VALETTE,1994],trainingand teaching 5 , to explore the problematic of autonomy of insulated sites in energy and/or water through a large diversity of situations and conditions (climate, activities, level of development…). The most interestingexamplesconcernedindividualinsulatedhous262

ing (in mountains or islands), large groups of houses (villages high up in the mountain, holliday villages on islands),andveryspecialsites(highmountainobservatories, radio beacons, island light houses…) in which autonomy is in fact a constraint rather than a choice. The main general results of these experiences are that: • the role of storage devices is really essential to adapt collected resources to the needs of considered systems. Insufficient storage capacities indeed lead to significant cuts in their efficiency, by loss (in the sense of non use) of collected resources… but they have to be limited under cost constraints, implying an acceptation of some losses. Their optimization, although it requires many simulations, is so an essential issue of modelling — of which it must be emphasized that it cannot be obtained differently! • an interesting complementarity often exists between solar and wind resources, allowing to reach high levels of autonomy in winded sites of many regions, specially on some mediterranean coasts and islands. This complementarity generally allows only small reductions of the suitable (optimal) storage capacities, but it notably limits the drawbacks of the high dayly and seasonal variabilities of each resource, limiting the frequency of resorts to spare generators, and improving the global security of energy supplies. • inthesameidea,waterandenergysystemsintegration allows a larger diversity of the themes of energy consumption, that leads to significative reductions of the frequency of the periods in which electricity collected by solar and/or wind collectors cannot be used. So waterproductionandtreatmentappearasaninteresting (though not reversible) complementarty mean of storage of energy...Thisinterestprobablyexplainsthe fact that systems for production of freshwater (from wastewater or seawater) through the use of renewable sources of energy are now developped. But the ideal solution for integration, to limit storage costs as well as energylosses,isofcoursetoletthegrid(whenitexists) absorb the maximum of energy production. In the situations of scarcity of water resources, it was in addition observed that specific investments implied by energy consumptions for water production and treatments could reach the same order of magnitude than the specific investments for water itself. So the most usual approach, through which water-systems designers consider that electricity is a simple «external utility» without feeling concerned about its produc-


tion (specially in developped countries, where the grid is supposed to be always able to satisfy needs), may lead to serious underestimations of the global insvestment which are really necessary for satisfying of water needs. These studies also showed that, even on islands, seeking for total autonomy from renewables resources of energy was generally still not realistic, from the economic point of view, in present conditions of prices of implied technologies. Other interresting issues of these studies concerned, beyond precise answers to specific questions, the analysis of long term scenarios (up to 20 years) of evolution oftheconditionsofsimulationsandoptimizationabout population (demography), activities, evolution of habits (development), investments, operating costs and performances of concerned technologies, and rules or logics of management. Such analyses indicate that, while taking in account strategic, social, or environmental externalities is often necessary today to justify investments on innovative technologies, the quick evo-

fig.3: «Instrument pannel» if the WEIRM model

lution of their (increasing) performances and (decreasing) prices will soon makes that their exploitationwillsurelybecomeobvious in more and more common situations during the next decade, just because they will be interesting enough, by themselves, from the purely financial point of view. This assertion notably concerns

photovoltaic systems and windmills, of which applications may soon meet real mass markets, such as airconditionning (in the sense of heating and cooling, through heat pumps) in individual and communal housing, or water desalination. The following illustrations concern a STELLA’s application to general problems of water-resource management at the level of small territories (basins or regions) on which it has sense to aggregate water resources, demands and stocks, supposing that they can be managed through common rules by a common authority. The complete model includes about 200 variables. Its principles have been adapted to the cases of Formentera[BARROUK,VALETTE,1994],Palestine[MOURAD, VALETTE,1997]andNoirmoutier[BRISSAUD,VALETTE,XU, 1999]. This model has been named WEIRM (Water and Energy Integrated Resource Management). TheWEIRMmodelexplicitlydescribesandsimulates the productions, transfers, conversion, storages and final uses of four kinds of water resources: primary water, drinkable water, wastewater, and seawater. The elements of the system (equipments) of which functioning can be simulated hour per hour, during one typical year, are : global stocks for primary water (aquifer and natural reservoirs, dams), and for every other quality of water; converters for collecting water (pumps, impluvii),equipmentsforimprovingthequalityofwater (epuration, potabilization, deslination), and networks (for distribution of primary and drinkable waters, and collection of wastewaters). A lot of results can obviouly be obtained from so multi-variable models, so that the essential part of the work to do on them concerns their exploitation rather than their formal construction. The following figures give a glimpse of the form of some results directly comming from the STELLA software (Fig.4), and from EXCEL (in which one can easily «paste» some STELLA’s results, for further data treatment ).

Fig.4: Technical analysis: Examples of tracing variables (physical functioning of the system)

263


because many of them draw a lot of their monetary resources from tourism, very sensible to its quality… But other considerations, such as the principle of seeking for autonomy beyond direct economic interest, can play a large roleinalldecisonsattheirlevel. These facts lead to concieve Fig.5: Economic analysis: examples of local optimizations within a descent models in which the integraalgorithm, under different hypothesis on costs of equipments and price of water) tion of the resource management questions has to be perAs a provisional conclusion about this technico-ecofected, in the sense of a generalization of the role of nomic level of analysis of resource management probeach element of the system, as potentially producer lems, through simulation models, it can be said that it and/or consumer of several goods. isobviouslyjustastepoftheiranalysis,surelyinadequate In the field of systems analysis, this ambition implies a for answering all the questions which have to be asked very general mode of representation of the structures on them… but surely also the most «strategic» one, in of systems, based on the principles of «object programthe sense that it appears as the only way to get, for ming» of which STELLA does not always allow comfurther levels, basic information on realities; and perplete applications 6 . haps the most difficult to carry out, because it implies The SOSIE software a cooperation between a large diversity of scientific Rather than a model, the SOSIE software was deknowledges on systems, which is not the most common signed to help the construction and operation of simupractice of most of scientists in concerned disciplines. lation models through this «object programming» apMeso-economic approaches, by proach, in which the structure of complex systems are «object oriented» models represented as articulations of transformers (or «objects») linked by exchanges (flows) of various goods General objectives and principles and services. It is well known that, in any community, optimal solutions for the whole system are not those which maximize the individual interest of each actor. This evidence comes from the fact that the usual definitions of individual optimum are essentially refered to criterias which do not integer some elements of the collective interest inside the system (notably concerningtheproblemofsharingcommonorfreeendogFig.6: The basic view of systems through the object enous resources); nor some other elements of the colprogramming principle lective interest out of the system (concerning the same resources, and/or implying other ones). In any given level of analysis, a «system» can generally For this reason -among many, but a good one is here be seen as a combination of several subsystems (like enough-, the micro-economic analysis of resource manM1, M3, etc. on Fig.6) which exchange different kinds agement problems of a system have to be completed of flows (lines linking the blocks). But the initial «sysby more global approaches in which the management tem» itself may also be seen as a subsystem of a bigger of common resources, and/or the relations of the syssystem… and some initial «subsystems» may theirselves tem with other systems, can be considered. include several subsystems. One of the interests of «obIn the present discussion about islands, this extenject» description made by SOSIE is to manipulate eassion mainly concerns problems of environment, on ily these changes of levels. which is appears necessary to put a special attention 264


In this view of things by SOSIE 7 , an object can be an abstraction of any physical element: the soil, a river, a waste water treatment plant, or an abstract element: a demand, an activity, etc. It is defined by its behaviour rather than by its structure, because its environment can only perceive its reactions to diverse stimuli («black box» principle). Its description includes a database (static portion) and a number of procedures (dynamic portion). An interface provides communication with its environment. A system of messages transmits requests that are being executed from another object or from the user interface (Fig.7).

Fig.7: SOSIE element (subsystem)

SOSIE allows the management of several resources at the same time by each module (or subsystem). The modeller has just to indicate (by logic or graphic instructions) what are the possible connections between modules, and to describe the transformations applied to the flows. Each module may receive and produce up to 10 flows, but combinations of modules are of course possible is more is necessary. Each element of a system is scaled by internal variables and located with respect to other objects, which may match an explicit spatial situation. Flow transformations and transfers are analyzed over a succession of periods or time steps. The module type is explicitly defined. Generic or specific modules can be filed into a library of objects for later retrieval and for use by other models. Ten different clocks keep track of time. Each operation is attributed a periodicity linked to one of the clocks. Daily operations, monthly means and an annual balance can be simulated simultaneously. Single or programmed series of simulations are possible [VALETTE, 1990]. In the first case, simulations follow an invariable management logic. At each time step, flow exchanges and internal state variables can both be monitored. In the latter case, a programmed module manages the succession of simple simulations. The

methodic exploration of parameter variation can lead to sensibility analysis or to optimisations. Management rules can also include hierarchical calls of modules or of flow computation order. Usually, these hierarchies are fixed in order to control completely the courses of operations. These constraints can also be relaxed. Modules can be invoked dynamically, and flow computation and transfers can also be geared to the behaviour of the system environment. The SOSIE software has been programmed in such a way that the construction of models may be undertaken by any kind of scientist, even non specialists in computer science: • the first definition of a model may be introduced in a very intuitive graphic mode, by dropping symbols of the elements of the system on any background image (for instance, on a digitalized map or photo, or on a functional diagram…) • the connections between the elements are very simple to create, by graphics as well, and the relations describing the corresponding flows are also easy to write(inanadvancedversionoftheBASIClanguage), in any form (single equations, or subroutines). • the logical rules of management of the different flows may be fixed at the level of the elements, or at a general level (by a kind of supervisor), • many accessory functions are implemented for the «user’s comfort», such as tracing functions, sensitivity analysis and graphic-tracing facilities… • elements or groups of elements, may be «transported» from one model to another one, or duplicated and stored in a «library», so that the modeller can reuse them as he wishes, saving a lot of time in building new models, or variants of previous models. Applications of the SOSIE software Most of the applications of SOSIE were realized between 1986 and 1994 at MONTPELLIER, by the Centre d’Ecotechniques of the CNRS, on a large diversity of subjects in the field of resource management. They notably concerned: • the management of the natural gas resources in Western Europe, with long term scenarios for supply and demand[PERCEBOIS,VALETTE,1991] • the management of energy, water and waste products in a french urban community of about 300 000 habitants [VALETTE & Al, 1991] • the management of water in the MONTPELLIER region [COLAS,1991]. 265


• the management of water, energy and waste, in the case of the Formentera island, soon mentioned above8 [VERNAY,1995]. The Formentera model allowed, about islands, a much more detailed analysis of energy and water management, considering more qualities of flows of corresponding resources, and more solutions for their managements through a parallel action of more various technologies for energy conversions and water treatments. This application also integrated an in depth analysis of the environmental issues of the water resource management, because the Formentera island knew then serious problems of water quality, essentially linked to the development of the freshwater consumptions by tourism during the two last decades. Such enlargements of problematic allowed to verify the benefits of integrated approaches in the sense of the improvement of the technical coherence and efficiency of systems in the short term, as well as in terms of possibilities of taking in account long term evolution of activities for helping decisions on local development. A new development of SOSIE software is now in the process of being realized, notably to make it runable on most of PCs, to simplify its interaction to other softwares, and to equip it with more friendly-user interfaces, all improvements which should considerably open the field of its applications. Concerning islands, the most interesting themes of application of this software will of course concern problems of development and environment in archipels, for which its «object programming» approach is naturally relevant, and probably the most efficient.

Macroeconomic approaches linear programming

by

General principles The thirdly proposed step of integration, as defined in introduction, implies to consider the resource management through very global views of the systems, for being able to evaluate its general issues on the macroeconomic point of view, notably about employment and environment, which appear as key-problems of most of developed countries in their present experience of going out of a long term crisis 9 . In fact, this phase of development is known to be essentiallyendogenous,thatistightlylinkedtotheemergence of new activities which satisfy new expectations of consumers, and allow the necessary reallocations of 266

work and wealth… The development of these new activities may take some decades, but naturally stops at the level at which they satisfy the corresponding new «needs». So the possibility of describing the existence of «new activities to solve new problems» is surely an essentialconditionofthequalityoflongtermprevisions on development. In its context of uncertainty, this description may stay essentially global and functional rather than detailed and dynamic, because its purpose is more to take in account global constraints and objectives, rather than to give hour per hour or day per day views of operations. Suchintentionsfindinthelinearprogrammingmodelling approach a large part of their solutions, because this approach allows the simulation and the evaluation of the issues of many kinds of changes in any given system, through the introduction of many kinds of new activities in the description of its present state in this formalism. The MEPP software As SOSIE and MEPP softwares are designed to help the building of simulation models, (rather than models by themselves), MEPP 10 is designed to help the building of linear models (on any subject). The main interest of linear models is their ability to represent the structures of exchanges in complex systems, including many types of equipments and activities, when the relations between this equipment and these activities may be described through linear equations summarizing what they do with others (i.e. what they produce, consume, import or export). These models are specially useful for regional economics in which the information is not sufficient to describe everything that is really exchanged — such as in developing countries, where the statistics are not adapted to reality and/or are not reliable, and where the unofficial sector represents an essential part of the economy. The principle of this approach is to consider that, on any given territory, it is necessary to verify that, for all the movements of goods and services around which the economy is organized, the balance between production plus imports on one side, and consumption plus exports, on the other side, is positive. Considering that production and consumption of goods and services are proportional to the level of activities implied in this relationship, this hypothesis implies as many linear equations as there are goods and services.


Some other equations may be introduced to express other global or specific constraints (such as natural or agreed limits of some levels of activity, e.g. areas available for agriculture, or quantities of usable water, or numbers of people active in the population, etc.). As this information generally permits and infinity of solutions (because it is sub-determined, including more variables than constraints), it is also necessary to introduce a criterion for optimization.

Fig. 3: Arrangement of data types processed

Linear programming is a powerful tool, useful for helping the description of complex structures whose elements are linked by many constraints. It knew a lot of applications in agriculture and industry, to plan managementofresourcesand/ordevelopmentprocesses… At the level of regions or states, it may also be applied to the evaluation of the impacts of global policies, or of localprojects,givingalotofinformationonthechanges that any action has, directly and indirectly, on all its environment. A «scenario» is a combination of constraints and objectives which translate a given global orientation of the economic system concerned. A «solution» for such a scenario is a list of all the values of the variables, that indicates the levels of the activities, and which permits the position of all goods and services in the system to be analysed. This representation of the reality can be very complete (i.e. describe hundreds of activities, and hundreds of goods or services), rather long to realize and not very easy to use, but it can include and make consistent a lot of technical or economical informations, and give a lot of useful results under the form of very complete

evaluations of different kinds of actions, from local projects to general policies. In the field of resource management, it has the interest to allow as good as possible estimations of the amounts of resources which may be produced and consumed, in different scenarios of development, of any country of a region. These evaluations include the direct effects of described actions, which is generally easy, but they also their induced (or indirect) effects, by takinginaccountinteractions through goods and services other than directly studied resources. This approach finds in islandaspecialinterest,because most of their exchanges with their economic environment (in the sense of «the rest of the world») are generally registered, either directly in value (asimportsorexports),either through their issues in terms of transports. It is also very coherent, in this application, with the fact that autonomy versus many goods and services is «naturally» a stronger constraint in islands that in continental sites or regions. The last but not the least interest of linear programming is that it allows in depth analyses of the sensitivity of «solutions» (or optimal combinations of activities) to changes of the optimization criteria, which is not necessarily economic as in classical models, and so can express any other (or complementary) objective of policy. So it can give evaluations of the relative costs and benefits of taking in account environmentalist contraints, concerning for example air and water pollutions, and so allow some non-contingent estimations of corresponding «externalities». It is to note the development of powerful algorithms for solving large systems of different kinds of equations recently made it possible to go beyond some classical bounds of linear programming, concerning for example the respect of whole number and threshold 11 constraints on some variables, or the description of scale effects (implying fractional exponents). So new formal connections between linear programming and other (notably econometric) models are now possible, by integration of non linear equations [ANDRIES, 1997]. 267


Applications of the MEPP software This approach has also been applied to a great variety of problems of development in Europe and Third World, at the local or regional level (in the sense of naturaloradministrativeregions).Severalofthesestudies were realized in cooperation with sociologists, geographers and ethnologists, as well as in contact with local populations, to identify as realistic as possible scenarios of development. All these studies concerned «continental» economies, but deserve to be mentioned here because their principles can be easily adapted to context of many islands (notably Mediterranean), using a lot of their data (in terms of nomenclatures of goods and activities, as well as in terms of data). They concern indeed: • the evaluation of technical and economical feasibility of energy self-sufficiency of a small Mediterranean region [BRITTO, 1985]; • the exploration of a large diversity of socioeconomic scenarios of local development, in a southern french department[COURRÈGE,DEFLANDRE,GACHIE,MATARASSO, 1987]; • the comparison of several approaches of the evaluation of environmental policies, in a french southern region,[MANTEROLA, VALETTE,1997]; • the description of informal economic systems and social structures in several African regions or countriesoftheThirdWorld,[CHENEAU-LOQUAY,MATARASSO, 1998].

Other approaches, complementarities and joint uses Other approaches, forms and levels of aggregation The ambition of the above «revue» of models and applications was obviously not to cover all the field of approaches which can help the analysis of resource management problems in islands, and then to take decisions on that in their context. So macroeconomic models, expert systems, and multi-agent models, as well as Geographical Information Systems (GIS), were not discussed… while they know (or have known) a huge development on similar questions. Each of them is an expression of other views of the same problems, putting emphasis on some of their dimensions only : • macroeconomic models are devoted to the evaluation of the global economic issues of some decisions (on growth, employment…) at the level of nations, big regions and states, and large islands, on which 268

they require large statistic databases; they do not allow precise descriptions of the projects themselves, but take in account some of their intermediate effects (which may be then supposed, or estimated through other models); • expert systems are rather devoted to the description of situations, in which the knowledge of the rules of functioning of the system, and/or the results of previous experiences of other systems in similar situations (collected in a database), are used to suggest whatistobedone.Someofthemcanbeprogrammed to automatically integer and put in form new rules and data from their own experience, and so become kinds of «learning systems»; • multi-agent models also simulate situations, but at the level of the elementary actors of management (or, more generally, of any economic system); so they can describe some interactions between them, and integer some learning processes, to finally help the evaluation of some global effects of the set of their decisions at more global levels; the multiplication of agents and the variability of their behaviour can give a great realism to such representations; • geographical information systems are essentially databases (rather than models), which of course put emphasis on space to describe what exists in each part of any territory, according to a given precision of its division into elementary areas; but some of them now integer dynamic descriptions of what they survey in each of these areas, and even some models to do it, so they tend either to become full models, or to be used as active components of other models. The purpose of this short «complementary review» of other models is not to confine each of them to a small role, but it is rather to show the richness of the «toolbox» on which resource management studies can be based. So in every particular case, this potential should be fully considered to identify the best approach, or the best combination of approaches to carry out, according to the size and the complexity of the system, the state of the information on it… and the kind of problems to solve in it, as well as the process of decision on which the solutions will depends (which may determine a part of the form of expected results). Complementarities and joint-uses between models Being given that any model of a reality is by definition a partial view of this reality, some (more or less) useful complementarities of course exist between dif-


ferent models of any system. It is also obvious that the more these models differ, considering for example different scales of time and/or space, and the more this «complementarity» will be great… but the more also it will be difficult to interpret and compare their results through a common logic of evaluation. In spite of large differences between their principles and objectives, a great complementarity exists, which can be valorized in concrete terms, between the three models on which we related our experience in the first part of this communication: • STELLA and SOSIE, for example, as simulation models, turn out to be very interesting to be successively implemented for studying complex systems: STELLA allows a quick and comfortable construction (and checking) of models describing the functioning of some simple systems, which can then be considered as subsystems in SOSIE. • STELLA and/or SOSIE need to be fed with exogenous data for describing the flows of resources and demandstheyhavetohandle(dependingonpopulation, habits, nature and level of development of many activities…), and the equipments involved in resource management (dams, networks, treatment units…). Most of these data, which generally result from other (macro) levels of organization or decision, can be obtained through a parallel MEPP approach [COLAS, VALETTE, 1992]. In the other direction, some results from STELLA and/ or SOSIE (annual balances of the resource flows, optimized dimensions and costs of equipments…) may be used by MEPP as data, to take implicitly in account the problems of variability of some flows in the time, and/or of distances between the subsystems in the space. For what concerns other models or approaches, a lot of promising experiences are left to be realized about resource management: MEPP can be partially linked to macro-econometric models, SOSIE and MEPP may simply use data from GIS, or complete them as full models, for allowing a better integration of spatial constraints; expert systems and multi-agent models can also use and/or serve other approaches, for a better description of behaviours and interactions between the actors of the system… But most of these enterprises are easier to list than to undertake, because they suppose concrete cooperations between very different institutions and disciplines, which is always difficult to promote in the presentprevailinglogicofspecialization,forcedbymost of research institutions… Corresponding projects can

however and happily draw more and more financing from international programmes (mainly financed by the UN and by the EC), which express a strong social demand about sustainable development.

Conclusions and perspectives On long term, the development process implies a lot of parallel progresses in two complementary fields that human affairs sometimes seem to oppose: the field of ideas and knowledge, on one hand, and the field of things and technologies, on the other hand. The problematic of resources management is obviously not a «new» one, in the sense that all civilizations have been bound to do with it, with their proper means and tools, aspirations and constraints… But the problematic of this Summit, as well as the theme of our communication in this context, are surely going with recent (in the sense of two or three decades) and important facts or trends of the current world’s development on these two plans. In the cultural field, these changes notably concerned: advances of kwowledge in every domain (in terms of informations on and methods); strong aspirations of people for more security in the satisfaction of their needs (in terms of quantities as well as in terms of quality); and a global petition for different forms of identity,relatedtoterritoriesorcultures.Thislasttheme concernsmanyislandsandremoteregionsoftheworld, to which it probably give new impulses to act for their interests… as well as assets for interesting tourists. In the material field, many spectacular progresses also gave to most of actors more and better tools to observe, to think, to search and to communicate; to analyze situations and to act on their elements; to build or to change structures; to travel and to transport goods and equipments; to study and control life… that is, at the end, as so many means to realize what came to them from the field of ideas, and to make that men, through the development of their societies, globally get a better and better control of time and of space. All these facts in the material and technological fields obviously had a lot of influence on the field of ideas itself… but the point here is not what prevails, between things and ideas: it is just to note that they always interact positively in the above listed directions. So the development of the exploitation of renewable sources of energy meets global aspirations of people for long term security of supplies (sustainability), and serves at the same time the cause of the quality of 269


environment(littlewaste,nogreenhouseeffect…);and it appears as particularly relevant in many islands, for which it meets, beyond technical criteria, strong aspirations for autonomy (which is a form of security) and identity. And so the development of new methods and tools to study and integer resource management problemsgoeswiththedevelopmentofknowledgeonthings andsystems(onpeople,technologies,societies…),with the development of tools for getting and using this knowledge, and of course with the development of the resource management technologies, themselves. All these interactions naturally lead to a considerable complexification of the decision processes, because the theoretical range of choices is always widening, and the means to explore it (to evaluate their issues) always increase… but at the same time the list of constraints on them is lengthening. In other words we can do much more, but there is much more to do, before acting, to integer the new elements, constraints and aspirations of our development. Islands so globally appear as a kind of «ideal environment»:

• for realizing integrated studies on development, in which taking in account a lot of new questions (identity, quality, security, autonomy…) is not an artificial choice, but answers to real problems and expectations of the actors themselves; • aswellasfor realizingexemplarysystems ofintegrated resource management, in which most of the benefits of systems integration may be maximal. Beyond these concrete issues, and all the kinds of integration we suggested about them, what is at stake with islands surely also justifies now important efforts on the more global plan of institutional and international integrations, on a worldwide scale. International organizations, such as the United Nations (notably through UNESCO), and the European Union (essentially through its Framework Programmes forR&D12 ), have soon largely contributed to open this way. But specific networks, such as INSULA13 and RITME14 , can naturally play an essential role in this matter, notably at the political and scientific levels… and directly at the worldwide scale, by the way of INTERNET .

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linéaire», Rapport final d’étude dans le cadre du projet

BRISSAUD (F.), VALETTE (F.), 1997 - «Technico-economic modelisation of water resources management: models integration principles, and application to water re-use projects», Définition d’une recherche dans le cadre du

SAFIRE (CEE-DGXII),

CNRS

et

Institut

des

Aménagements et de l’Environnement, Montpellier, 69 pages + annexes VALETTE (F.), 1995 - «Modélisation et représentation des

C LIMAT ,

connaissances». Communication d’introduction de la

Laboratoire «Géofluides, Bassins, Eau» (Université de

session «Halieutique et Modélisation» au Deuxième Fo-

Montpellier II), 12p.

rum Halieumétrique. IFREMER Nantes 26-28 Juin 1995,

programme européen E NVIRONNEMENT

ET

VALETTE F., 1997 - «Modélisation de la gestion intégrée de

Coll. Colloques et Séminaires, ORSTOM Ed., Paris, 15 p.

ressources renouvelables en milieu insulaire: approches

BOQUILLON (C.), COLAS (H.), VALETTE (F.), 1993 -

par la modélisation», Communication à l’atelier «Initiative

«Modélisation de la gestion intégrée des ressources en

Eco-Régionale: Régions Insulaires Tropicales et

eau dans les zones littorales méditerranéennes - Appli-

Méditerranéennes», CIRAD Montpellier, 1-2 décembre

cation au cas du bassin versant du Lez (Hérault)»,

1997, 8p.

22èmes Journées de l’Hydraulique, in «L’avenir de

LESOURD (J.-B.), PERCEBOIS (J.), VALETTE (F.), (Eds Sci),

l’eau», Sté Hydrologique de France, 10p., 1993.

1996 «Models for Energy Policy», Association

VALETTE (F.), COLAS (H.), 1992 - «Integrated Water Re-

d’Econométrie Apliquée. Routledge Ed., London, 253 p.

sources Management Modelling in the Méditerranean

270


Region», Middle East Multilateral Working Group Confe-

VALETTE (F.), 1988 «L’ouverture européenne et ses

rence on Water Resources, Washington, 26p.

besoins en méthodes: exemples de prospective

VALETTE (F.), COLAS (H.), 1992 - «Modélisation de la

régionale», Communication au Colloque international

gestion intégrée des ressources en eau en région

INRA

méditerranéenne», Rapport final de Contrat européen

économiques», Montpellier - Sce Publications de l’INRA,

EUR-DG I / CREDEN dans le cadre de la préparation

«Agricultures

régionales

et

politiques

Actes et Colloques, 12 p.

de la Conférence de Washington sur la paix au Moyen-

KHELFAOUI (Z.), ORLIAC (J.) et VALETTE (F.), 1987-

Orient, ASSEAU, Montréal-Centre d’Ecotechniques du

«Définition d’un modèle de simulation et optimisation de la

CNRS, Montpellier, 24p.

gestion des ressources en eau dans les zones littorales

VALETTE (F.), 1990 «Présentation d’un nouvel outil de simu-

méditerranéennes». Rapport d’A.T.P. au PIREN, Centre

lation: SOSIE 2», Communication au Séminaire Franco-

d’Ecotechniques du CNRS et Centre Régional de

Vietnamien «Planification énergétique, formation et

productivité et d’Etudes Economiques, Montpellier, 91 p.

coopération», Hanoï, Vietnam, 26-30 mars 1990, 11 p.

VALETTE (F.), 1986 - «Simulation and optimisation of local

VALET TE (F.), 1990 «Les outils de la Recherche

complex systems using renewelable energy ressources:

Opérationnelle: analyse des fonctions et des complé-

the SOSIE model and some of its applications». Inter-

mentarités aux niveaux micro, meso et macro-

national Congress on Renewelable Energy Sources.

économique», Communication à l’Atelier «Recherche

Madrid, 18-23 mai 1986, 8 p.

Opérationnelle et Développement», CNRS - GIS

VALETTE (F.), 1985 - «Simulation et Optimisation de

«Systèmes Energétiques et Utilisations de l’Espace,

Systèmes Micro-énergétiques.», Thèse, Université Paul

Montpellier, Janvier 1990, 12 p.

Sabatier, Toulouse, tome 1, 439 p.

VALETTE (F.), 1989 «Des outils de la prospective régionale:

CHENEAU-LOQUAY (A.), MATARASSO (P.), 1998 -

principes et applications». Cahiers de l’Observatoire

«Approche du développement durable en milieu rural

International de Prospective Régionale, Paris, Mai 1989,

africain», l’Harmattan, 1998, Paris.

9 p.

ANDRIES (C.), 1887, «La modélisation économique

JAMET (M.) et VALETTE (F.), 1989 «Un outil de simulation

régionale, une contribution à l’élargissement des poten-

pour la gestion des ressources: SOSIE. Notice

tialités de l’approche MEPP», mémoire de DEA «Ana-

d’utilisation du logiciel», Centre d’Ecotechniques du

lyse et Modélisation Economique», Université de Paris

CNRS, Montpellier, 130 p.

I, sous la direction de F. VALETTE, 91p. NOTAS

1 Economists define externalities as flows of resources which cannot be taken in account in the classical and

described by analytical expressions, but by discrete (point per point) evaluations.

«official» economic analysis at the moment when they

4 This diagram illustrates, through a very simple exam-

happen, because their economic values are not yet

ple of (imaginary) system, the main functions that

precisely identified (so they have no price, and ther is

STELLA can describe: rectangles represent storages

no market on which they can be exanged, with precise

(and show the relative state of their content); circles

financial issues), and/or simply because they are not

are symbols of variables or parameters, double ar-

(or cannot be) observed by present statistic systems.

rows show flows, associated to variables which ex-

2 Practical reasons are linked to the limits of detailed

press their amont; simple arrows indicate that rela-

descriptions of large systems by models… and by the

tions exist betweeen connected variables, from those

limits of human brains to really control (rather than to

which determine results to those which are so deter-

concieve) large models. These limts are often contested

mined (calculated); clouds représent, depending on

by technologists and methodologists, who think that

that they are at the origin or at the end of double

computers and models will be sooner or later able to

arrows (i.e. flows), sources or end-uses of relative flows.

solve all problems… But the theory of complexity

Different graphic tools allow modifications of the model

showed that at the end this debate had no sense - in

from its diagram, to move, remove or color any ele-

spite of regular advances of corresponding sciences,

ment. Graphs and tables can be automatically edited

because of the limits of…

to trace the values of all the variables, while an ana-

3 Optimization methods devoted to find any extremum of a function of several variables, when this function is not

logic animation can directly show their instantaneous (and relative) state on the diagram.

271


5 For third-cycle courses and doctoral training insured

ECONOMIQUE PHYSIQUE ET PROSPECTIVE’. This software was also

by the author on modelling since several years, at the

developped by the Centre d’Ecotechnique of the CNRS

universities of Montpellier I (economics) and Montpellier II (hydrology) and Paris I (environment). 6 Essentially because its basic formalism cannot define multi-function operators.

at MONTPELLIER. 11 Whole number constraints may concern some industrial equipments (such as large power-stations, windmills or trucks) of which it would not be realistic to con-

7 In french, SOSIE is the acronym of «Simulation an Op-

sider as real (math. form) variables their number in a

timization of Integrated Systems for Environmental (analy-

system. To put a treshold constraint on a variable im-

sis). This software was developped by M. JAMET and F.

plies than this variable must be either greater than a

VALETTE at the Centre d’Ecotechniques of the CNRS

certain number, or equal to zero. These two kinds of

(Montpellier), directed by the author, during the middle

constraints are often suitable to make correct formula-

80”s.

tions of the resource management problems, but they

8 In fact, this study preceded the STELLA’s application mentionned in the previous chapter, and was the source

lead to a significative complexification of the algorithms which have to search for their solutions.

of its datas. The STELLA application was just under-

12 Specially, for what concerns the present reflexion,

taken to make available a more simple and carriable

through its specific programme «Energy and

version of the model, and to use it in the perspective of

Environnement», which covers most of the themes of

training students on its subject with PCs-beeing given

research that we mentionned in this paper (i.e. energy,

that the SOSIE approach was developped for Macin-

water, waste, and integrated approaches of their man-

tosh only.

agement in the context of sustainable development).

9 In the sense of Kondratiev…

13 UNESCO,

10 Acronym of the french expression: «M ODÉLISATION

14 Réseau Insulaire et Tropical -

272


Rapporteurs

273


274


Sustainable Energies: a new challenge for the islands RAPPORTEUR: RONALD G. PARRIS INSULA

T

he presentations can be categorized into two broad areas: • Challenges to renewable energy systems or the difficulties as well as opportunities to promote renewable energy as viable energy alternatives; • Policies and strategies in favour of enhancing renewable energy capacity.

The contributions of Manuel Cendagorta Galarza of ITER, Tomas Azcárate of ITR (Responsible Tourism Institute)describedthechallenges,whileamuchgreater concern with Policies and Strategies was reflected in the papers of Juan Fraga of EUFORES, Angel Landabaso of the European Commission and by Antonio Lopez of the Government of the Canary Islands. Mr Cendagorta gave an overview of the present and predicted declining consumption of fossil fuels and their final disappearance within the next 150 years and various types of alternative renewable energy sources that would become more important. He concluded that there it is necessary to create Island Energy Agencies, as each island should set up its own agency to analyze technical and resource needs. Furthermore, new legislation to promote the use of renewable energy should be adapted or adopted, with the objective of meeting 100% energy demand with renewable energies. In some sectors such as Tourism energy is crucial. The challenge is how to balance energy demand and use in the tourist industry with respect for the environ-

ment and other social demands. This was the view of Tomas Azcárate of ITR, who proposed a number of strategies that should be pursued. Globalization and liberalization are likely to generate a radical change in energy demand and use as isolation among countries is reduced. According to Juan Fraga, this is the opportunity for new policies and strategies to maximize opportunities. The European Union should develop an integrated approach to renewable energy and the market mechanisms to promote it. At the moment, there is no common energy policy in the European Union, but rather a collection of various national energy policies with some countries retaining their commitment to nuclear energy, while other ban it. There is need for a consensus on a common energy policy and strategy. Proposals for addressing this situation include: • Removing obstacles from renewable energy; • Promote social awareness of renewable energy, • Develop a market for renewal energy, • Define and promote political and legislative context favourable to renewable energy use and demand • Clean water and clean energy should be the objective mix in our policy goals. In considering the renewable energy strategy in the Canary Islands, António Lopez showcased the information system established by the Government concerning energy use and demand. The use of this Web Site allows for interaction between the Government and the people. 275


There are legislative instruments concerning renewable energy. There are covenants governing wind generation, public competition and public/ private sector use. There are remote control mechanisms to facilitate the penetration of the market in the Canary Islands. Subsidies are offered in connection with solar thermalenergyusedforhotwaterandswimmingpools. The representative of the European Commission (DG XVII), Angel Landabaso broadened the perspective to include consideration of creating profit opportunities to attract investors, since energy is a capital incentive sector. The political, legal and other institutional support systems must be in place to bring this about. He also emphasized the need to support cleaner energy. The following proposals were offered to support renewable energy:

276

• Create markets through price support and regulation. • Build the necessary infrastructure for renewable energy (planning, grid connection regulations) • Guaranteed prices • Tax reductions • Investment subsidies • Grants With respect to the broader question of integration, the following concerns were identified as important elements of this process: • Urban planning and land use • Water and waste management • Construction techniques (building regulations) • Energy supply • Investment in renewable energy systems


High priority projects and experiences for islands RAPPORTEUR: JESÚS R ODRÍGUES ÁLAMO ITER

A

ll islands share some peculiarities regarding the energy production and consumption: Small demand • Dependence on external sources for conventional fuel • Limited water resources • Highly sensitive environment • Lack of experienced technicians Because of these peculiarities, islands present an adequate field for experimentation and implementation of renewable energy sources. Firstly, all impacts presented by the insertion of these techniques can be easily evaluated due to the limited extension of the grid (if existing) in island systems. On the other side, a largescale implementation of renewable energies implies a greater autonomy from external energy sources (fuel), as well as a lesser environmental impact, being the one of the pillars of a sustainable economy. During the 3rd session of the present summit, several aspectsofthisimplementation,togetherwithsomecase studies were presented. Although all the presentations shared the common points stated above, regarding the feasibility of islands for studies of implementation of renewable energy, some specific subjects were issued. On one side, there was the need to include water management together with energy management in the modelsforasustainableeconomyonislands.Bothshare the same aspects on the fact that they have to be produced and distributed to the consumers, and that there

must be a thigh control of the resources, as they are limited by the insularity. Beyond that, there are two other aspects that relate both resources. On one side, water itself can be regarded as an energy source, using hydroelectric plants. On the other side, as the water resources of the islands are limited, as the population increases, there is a need to use water desalination for satisfying this increasing demand. Water desalination needs to use energy, either heat or electricity to be produced, thus linking tightly energy production with water production. Some models presented regarded even desalinated water as a possible mean for storing the excess energy produced by the renewable energy sources at off peak demand times. Another issue of great importance that arose during the sessions was that of electrification of rural areas in islands where there are no electric grid. This is one of the theoretical cases where using photovoltaics can be considered economically viable, as the costs of deployment a grid are much higher than those needed to supply those areas by means of PV. Some of these areas are located in developing countries, where the use of renewable sources has an added value of permitting a sustainable development of these areas, without contributing to increase the amount of greenhouse gasses. However, those countries have to afford the higher cost of those systems. Together with this, their dependence on external sources still continues, as they need to acquired the materials from other countries, and provide training to local technicians in the maintenance of those installations. Moreover, there is a need to pre277


serve the natural environment, as most of those regions are located in places of high bio-diversity. There is a global need to preserve this environment to avoid the increase of global warming. However, this preservation shouldn't occur in despite of the quality of life and development of those regions. In this context, the only alternative is the use of renewable energy sources, for which subsidies from developed countries are needed. Another important conclusion from this session can be extracted from the fact that many efforts have been carried out in order to provide models, assessments and implementations of renewable islands on islands.

278

It seems to be a high awareness about the need for changing the usual development trends into sustainable ones. Most of the problems presented in the implementations have been identified and their solutions proposed. The plans for further implementation of sustainableschemetakeadvantageoftheseexperiences in order to improve the efficiency and reliability of the programmes. The exchange of all those experience is thus necessary as the same problems are presented in many places. Events such as this summit can serve as a milestone and update of the knowledge achieved by all the attempts made throughout the islands of the world.


Market and Technology

RAPPORTEUR: FRANCO CAVALLARO SICILY

W

e must convince ourselves that only the establishment of a real Renewable Energy Sources market can transform our ideas in a substantial improvement of the environment. Then, like in every market, we must apply the same rules: to be precise we must understand who produce, for whom and how much does it cost. The presence in this summit of technology producers is a clear signal of an interest shown by the industrial system in the problem of RES; in fact we have listened to Mr González, the representative of MADE Sistemas electrónicos. MADE is an enterprise that, among other products, also produces aerogenerators for wind energy production. Mr González showed us the characteristics of an aerogenerator produced in Spain with Spanishtechnology. Mr Berkmann from Germany is President of the European Solar Industry Federation, joining about 400 enterprises from all European countries, which work in the production of solar technology. He has affirmed that this market is developed all over Europe, and that Solar Energy Technology is commercially mature. Traditionally applications where related to the production of hot water for domestic purposes, but now new systems have been ideated, combined with traditional energy sources, that will open the market of solar application. An interesting presentation, dealing with the results of the design, set-up and operation of wind energy converter reverse osmosis sea water desalination plants operation, was developed by Matthias Grottke from

WIP Renewable Energy (Germany): a very interesting proposal for small and medium sized islands. Public Agencies and Private Companies working in RES promotion and dissemination have also offered important contributions: we listened to Mr Beurskens from Netherlands, representative of ECN Solar and Wind Energy, Mr Bernabé from the Canary Islands, representing Energia Solar Española, and Mr Hualde of BP Solar, Spain. In their reports we have seen the activity of preparation of local development projects based on valorisation of RES. The study of island community problems shows that it is impossible to separate energy and environmental issue. The most successful strategy is founded on integration and global approach. Mr Molina, from UNELCO, the company that distributes electric energy in the Canary Islands, showed us the strategy of his company. UNELCO in 1992 was producing only electric energy, now in 1999 the same company produces also water from desalination, distributes gas, making a large use of RES. MrFraileofIVECO-PEGASO,SPAINofferedanother example, focusing the pollution problem caused by transports. He showed us some projects of his company: electric buses and more efficient traditional buses, aiming to obtain a reduction of air pollution in island cities and especially in little islands. 279


Finally, special thanks go to Mr Millich, Head of Unit for Energy Production Technology, DG XVII of the European Commission. He offered full details of the strategy of the Commission for RES Market in Europe, explaining very clearly the differences between 4th and 5th RTD Framework Programme.

280

One of the most important difference is that in the 4th programme 45% of financial resources was destined to RES, while in the 5th they grow to 60%, 75% of which are destined to demonstration projects. Many thanks for your attention and I hope to see you all in Sicily next year.


Island Networks. Information, education and training programmes RAPPORTEUR: MIGUEL MONTESDEOCA TELEINSULA

T

he rapid and increasing importance of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to the economies, societies and governments has been well documented over the past several years. The telecommunication industry has significantly reduced information access costs. At the same time, the computer has evolved from being an autistic machine, into a very much more extensive system that is far closer to the individual: now we can enter into social relationships that go beyond the functional use of technology, and creating virtual communities. Broadening this access to all European Islands is not only an objective, but also an essential social and politicalchallenge.Europeanislandsneedthetoolsandskills, which will enable them to turn that information into knowledge. Telematic applications and services will enable island communities to overcome isolation and to compete in the global economy. INSULA has promoted actions for enhancing an equitable sustainable development and human well being for islands communities. The first European Conference on Sustainable Development committed to provide a stable framework in accordance with our institutions, laws and procedures to promote and strengthen inter-island and general international cooperation for sustainable island development. When building a model-based information and decision support system for islands in the field of renewable energy management, the following characteristics must be present:

• Beeasytouseforadministrators,planners,engineers, and decision-makers; • Support planning and decision-making by providing scientifically sound information from state-of-the-art tools; • Integratenumerousinformationsources,fromonline monitoring to databases, and complex simulation models, in one common framework and presentation format; • Be cost-efficient by using a flexible architecture that minimises investment requirements. The concept of energy efficiency provides multidisciplinary learning opportunities to compute energy and monetary savings, and pollution emissions; to evaluate what makes one system more efficient than another, or to study the environmental effects of burning fossil fuels; to analyse different approaches to energy policy; etc. Some on-line renewable energy education modules are already available, based on interactive kiosks, multimedia CD-ROMs or Web sites, containing information about technology areas such as solar, wind power, small hydro, biomass, geothermal, etc. However, a global education and training strategy related to renewable energies at different levels - from management to technical maintenance- is still needed, as Mr Nelson Eurico Cabral (UNESCO) pointed during his speech. Integrated networks and platforms can provide information about cost-effective energy solutions, the 281


expertise and resources to meet the heat and energy needs of administrations and companies around the world, by using the locally available resources. These information systems with a minimal set of services in a collaborativeenvironmentcanassistdevelopingnations in their transitions to a sustainable energy paradigm by offering expert knowledge and communications to practitioners of sustainable energy world-wide. Based on the belief that renewable energy technologies offer economically viable, technically feasible and socially acceptable solutions to the islands growing energy demand, a better understanding of existing programs will provide insights for future project and program development. The Internet provides one of the most effective means to disseminate these information and to build partnerships at local and regional levels, as Mr Hiroshi Tamada said when he explained the Small Island Developing States Network (SIDSnet), that also incorporates some on line services (chat, news, forums, etc.). Informationanddisseminationsystemsandnetworks play an important role for the promotion of Energy Technologies. The OPET Network was re-launched in 1996 by the European Commission (DG-XVII) to disseminate information and to promote the uptake of new energy technologies through publications, events, trainingprogramsandothermarketorientedinitiatives. Mr.PedroBallesterosexplainedhowtherationalebeing a transnational Network for the promotion of new energy technologies is firmly rooted in the European policies relating to competitiveness, cohesion and market transparency.TheOPETNetworkhasbeenactiveinseveral islands: Cyprus, Reunion, Guadeloupe, and Martinique. Mr. Ballesteros recognised that the specific problems of the islands must most often be addressed with integrated approaches, and we hope that the new approach for the OPET tasks within 5FP will allow for more actions in and for the European Islands. Education and training programs are taking place in manycountrieslikeCuba,asMrAlfredoCurbeloAlonso explained to us. The islands clearly constitute an ideal area for the immediate application of the telematic tools of distance learning, given their frontiers and limitations, in geographical terms as well. Courses on renewable energies can be widely accepted throughout to the islands and will be of great use to them. The participation of local agents in the definition of the material and content of the courses is absolutely necessary for the viability of the same. 282

Mr Joaquim Corominas explained the MEET project (Multi-media Energy Efficiency Training), developed under a energy management programme that the European Commission has been running since 1989. Another example of using the Web to Learn and make policies about sustainable energies on islands was explained and shown by Mr Peter Meincke (Island Web Consortium). European islands' competitiveness, its jobs, its quality of life and the sustainability of growth, depends on they being at the leading edge of the technology. The gathering and dissemination of concrete experience gained through projects and activities like those explained during the sessions will help other islands determine their own telematic and networking needs and expected benefits. It should also facilitate the transition from pilot experiences to full blown applications. Based on the experience gained from projects such as the one realised in Ventotene island explained by Ms Anna Simone and those realised in Greece explained by Mr. George Andristopoulos, information systems and islands networks may also help to communicate islands'organisational,regulatoryandfinancialrequirements to service providers and regulators. It is necessary to define a structure and some global objectives for the information system and islands network to avoid duplication of effort and guarantee maximum utility and dissemination of the results, having regard to first and foremost: • The problems common to islands (lack of infrastructure, geographical isolation, isolation with respect to centres for the production, management and exchange of information, difficulties faced in development of own sustainable development policies, etc.) • The need for active policies to stimulate demand, especially in the least attractive areas for market force. • Limitedresources(financial,specialisedhuman,technological, and research and development) in the majority of island regions. • Convergence of information processing, communication and media markets globalisation and the need for inter-operability, convergence, coherence and synergies. Some initiatives (Information systems, distance learning courses and networks related to sustainable and renewable energies) are to be developed in the islands over the next few years. The problems arising out of these isolated initiatives are, among others:


• The duplicity of efforts. Many of these initiatives have common objectives and involve the development of applications or the implementation of similar telematic services. • Greater cost. Use is not made of other available resources and infrastructures for these projects, most of which are implemented from scratch. • Restricted application of results, in spite of the fact that many of the systems and services can be designed

forapplicationtovarioussectorsortosatisfytheneeds of larger groups. • Lack of local resources, an obstacle to more ambitious objectives. Many islands lack the know-how necessary for the proper and complete implementation of certain projects, with a guarantee of their success. The solution is to create a collaborative environment, and share to compete.

283


Signing the cooperation agreement between Sicilian Government, INSULA and Tenerife Island Council. From left to right: Ricardo Melchior (President of the Tenerife Island Council), Aurelio Angelini (advisor to the President of the Sicilian Region) and Pier Giovanni d'Ayala (Secretary-General of INSULA).

284


International Agreements Basis for Action

285


286


United Nations Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (Barbados 1994)

ACTION PLAN: Energy

Resources

Basis for action 1 Small island developing States are currently heavily dependent on imported petroleum products, largely for transport and electricity generation, energy often accounting for more than 12 per cent of imports. They are also heavily dependent on indigenous biomass fuels for cooking and crop drying. 2 The small island developing States will continue to be heavily dependent on petroleum fuels and biomass both in the short and medium term. However, the current uses of these fuels tend to be highly inefficient. Increased efficiency through appropriate technologyandnationalenergypoliciesandmanagement measures will reap both financial and environmental benefits for small island developing States. 3 Renewable energy resources endowments of small island developing States vary greatly. All have substantial solar resources, which have still not been developed to their full potential. Wind potential is highly variable with location, both within and between countries.Hydroelectricpowerisapossibilityonlyforsome islands. Biomass endowment is common but unequal. Studies of the potential for geothermal, ocean thermal energy conversion and wave energy are continuing.

4 Several constraints to large-scale commercial use of renewable energy resources remain. These include technology development, investment costs, available indigenousskillsandmanagementcapabilities.Smallscale application for rural electrification has been sporadic. The use of renewable energy resources as substantial commercial fuels by small island developingStatesisdependentonthedevelopmentandcommercial production of appropriate technologies.

A

National action, policies and measures (i) Implement appropriate public education and awareness programmes, including consumer incentives to promote energy conservation. (ii) Promote the efficient use of energy and the development of environmentally sound resources of energy and energy efficient technologies, paying special attention to the possibilities of using, where appropriarte, economic instruments and incentive structures and the increasing economic possibilities of renewable sources of energy. (iii) Establish and/or strengthen, where appropriate, research capabilities in the development and promotion of new and renewable sources of energy, including wind, solar, geothermal, hydroelectric, oceanthermalenergyconversion,waveandbiomass. 287


(iv) Strengthen research capabilities and develop technologies to encourage the efficient utilization of non-renewable sources of energy. B Regional action (i) Establish or strengthen research and policy capabilities in the development of new and renewable sources of energy, including wind, solar, geothermal, hydroelectric, wave and biomass. (ii) Assist, where appropriate, in the formulation of energypolicies,standardsandguidelinesfortheenergy sector applicable to small island developing States, and enhance national capacity to effectively plan, manage and monitor their energy sectors. (iii) Gatheranddisseminateinformation,andpromote regional cooperation and technical exchanges between small island developing States on energysectorissues, including new and renewable sources of energy. C International action (i) Support the research, development and utilization of renewable sources of energy and related technologies and improve the efficiency of exist-

288

ing technologies and end-use equipment based on conventional energy sources. (ii) Formulate and ratify international agreements on energy-sector issues in relation to sustainable development in such areas as carbon emissions and the transportation of petroleum, for example, the use of double- hulled tankers. (iii) Develop effective mechanisms for the transfer of energy technology, and establish databases to disseminate information on experience in the use of new and renewable sources of energy as well as on the efficient use of non-renewable energy sources. (iv) Encourageinternationalinstitutionsandagencies, including public international financial institutions, to incorporate environmental efficiency and conservation principles into energy-sector-related projects, training and technical assistance and, where appropriate, to provide concessionary financing facilities for energy-sector reforms. (v) Develop effective and efficient ways of utilizing, disposing, recycling, and reducing the by-products and waste of energy production.


European Conference on Sustainable Island Development European Island Agenda Insula - Unesco - European Commission Consell de Menorca (1997)

Operational

field

n.4

ENERGY RESOURCES THE ROLE OF RENEW ABLES RENEWABLES ENERGY SOURCES A Basis for action A conditioning factor of European islands is an almost total dependence on imported energy, especially for transport and electricity production. Energy often accounts for more than 15% of all island imports. • The over-specialisation of most island economies forces them to install an over-sized energy capacity to cover factors such as prominent seasonal demand, abrupt market changes or far greater territorial dispersion than in other areas. • Environmental impact and constraints of the energy sector are always greater in the islands, basically because all generating and storage facilities have to be duplicated, increasing external costs enormously. • Flexibility between the energy vectors used for end use is generally very low on the islands because energy, planning criteria are almost always imported from the mainland and the energy technology that is usually used is highly inflexible. • Energy efficiency in almost all technological fields and activities is one of the major challenges islands face. Forecasts drawn up for islands with rapid growth indicate a potential saving of up to 20%. • Specialised island economies distort the accepted view of quality and safety aspects of energy supply, making striking a balance between a commitment to

minimum costs and environmental conservation extremely difficult. • Most islands have excellent renewable energy resources, especially the general potential for wind energy and the potential for solar energy in Southern Europe. These resources are under-used in comparison with their real potential. • The scale of islands allows for highly modular energy planning, with renewables accounting for a large share, in contrast to the low level of consolidation achieved by technical supply and provision of services, despite the social acceptance they enjoy. • Non-renewable energy sources must be considered as provisional solutions, unsuitable as a long-term solution to the energy problem in islands • In order to achieve a favourable economic and technical climate for implementing renewable energy technology, financial and bureaucratic obstacles must be overcome. • Islands are excellent test beds for researching and developing suitable, low impact energy models, their scale means new solutions can be tested in a reasonable period of time. B Priorities • Formulating guide lines for island energy policies. • Prices and markets. • Promoting island energy agencies. • Integration in European energy policy. • Incentive mechanisms and instruments for rational energy use and saving. 289


â&#x20AC;˘ Establish maximum market penetration by renewable energy sources, within a context of rational energyuse,asthemajorobjectiveofislandenergypolicy. Promotion and use of renewable energy sources. Transfer of energy technology. Energy decentralisation to support endogenous development.

290

Foster research and development of energy technology. Promotion of good practise guides. Implement specific regional initiatives concerning rational use of energy and renewable energy sources in islands, following an approach similar to UNESCO's Mediterranean Solar Council.


Resolution Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly 39th plenary meeting - 16 October 1998 53/7. World Solar Programme 1996 - 2005

The General Assembly Aware that one of the priority tasks of the United Nations for the benefit of present and future generations is the elimination of poverty and the improvement of the quality of life of the millions living in misery. Recalling, in the context of Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, that sustainable development is one of the main goal of the United Nations system and that one of the key elements for attaining it is the application of sustainable energy systems, which includes the wider use of environmentally friendly, renewable energies, Recalling also that the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21, adopted by the General Assembly at its nineteenth special session, recognized the need to promote efforts in research on and development and use of renewable energies at the international and national levels, Recalling further that energy will be one of the main topics of the ninth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development in 2001, Recalling that the World Solar Summit, held at Harare on 16 and 17 September 1996, adopted the Harare Declaration on Solar Energy and Sustainable Development and approved the preparation of the World Solar Programme 1996-2005 aimed at improving the quality of life in both industrialized and developing countries through the wider use of renewable energies, notably in the rural areas of developing coun-

tries, and that the Programme was approved by the World Solar Commission in June 1997, Recalling also resolution 29 C/14 concerning the World Solar Programme 1996-2005, adopted by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation in November 1997, Considering the need to make all necessary efforts to achieve the goals set out in the Harare Declaration, Noting with appreciation the support shown and commitments made so far by a number of donor Member States 1 Expresses its appreciation to the heads of State and Government who have agreed to serve on the World Solar Commission, and especially to the Chairman of the Commission; 2 Endorses the World Solar Programme 1996-2005 as a contribution to the overall sustainable development agenda; 3 Invites all States Members of the United Nations to contribute to the successful implementation of the World Solar Programme 1996-2005. 4 Invites the Secretary-General of the United Nations, in consultation with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and in close cooperation with the United Nations Environment Programme and other relevant organizations: a To undertake concrete action in order to ensure that the World Solar Programme 1996-2005 is fully integrated into and brought into the mainstream of the 291


efforts of the United Nations system to attain the objective of sustainable development; b To bring the World Solar Programme 1996-2005 to the attention of relevant funding and technical assistance sources and to encourage them to consider contributing to its effective implementation; c To continue to sensitize and generate a greater degree of awareness in all Member States and international, regional and national institutions, both public and private, to the strategic importance of the World

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Solar Programme 1996-2005 for ensuring sustainable development; d To submit to the General Assembly to its fifty-fourth session, under the item entitled «Environment and sustainable development», a report entitled «World Solar Programme 1996-2005» concerning measures taken by the different entities of the United Nations system in accordance with the provisions of the present resolution. 39th plenary meeting 16 October 1998


Small Island StatesLeading the Global Energy Revolution Symposium on Sustainable Energy Options for Small Island States held in The Board Room of The Rockefeller Foundation in New York, on October 3, 1998 Recommendations • The Small Island States should promote a clean energy environment and despite their size set an example to the world's nations. • Encourage multi- and bilateral donor and finance organizations to recognize the needs of the Small Island States and use AOSIS and the active regional organizations as entry points. • Institute common policy and procurement measures and concentrate capital and technical resources to overcome the small size and perceived high transaction costs by, for example, South Pacific or Caribbean countries. • Recognize that technology will be ineffective unless the decision-makers at the political and official level are persuaded of the economic and environmental benefits of renewables and energy efficiency and the link between clean energy and development. • Arrange summits/briefings, possibly at a regional level, to link decision-makers with technical and financial experts. • Enhance the dialogue with the private sector by for example arranging discussions between AOSIS representatives and major private sector leaders such as BP, Shell and Enron.

• Organize a briefing of the major US and other foundations on the potential to green Small Island States, to improve their economies and open rural and outlying communities to electricity. Concentrate efforts to provide not only demonstration projects but demonstration countries using a practical case studies approach to provide exemplars and educational material. Up-to-date technology and relevant training must be available. • Identify specific projects and organize governmental and private sector coalitions to launch them. • Draw attention to the benefits of demand managementinreducingenergyrequirements,costandemissions. • Ensure that Small Island States receive greater attention from the multilateral organizations and that they are ready to take advantage of the opportunities under the CDM and emission trading arrangements. • Overcome the absence of initial money for planning and business development and encourage the building up of local entrepreneurial andbusiness management capacity. • Further develop self-help local or regional funding mechanisms particularly in rural and outlying areas without electricity. 293


• Understand the need for basic training and capacity building so that programs and business can be locally sustainable. • Induce investment industries such as tourism to introduce renewables and energy efficiency. • Make sure that the local budget, legal and utility arrangements are understood, and changed if nec-

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essary, before the introduction of new programs and projects. • Encourage the preparation of easy-to-understand information on renewables and energy efficient practices and equipment so that individuals and communities can take advantage of the opportunities available to them.


Palma de Mallorca Declaration The Conference on the new energy challenge in the island regions The participants to the Conference: having met in Palma de Mallorca (Baleares) on the 19th and 20th of March 1999, have adopted the following declaration: 1 Policy of energy supply and demand management • Wish to underline that the Islands have hitherto insufficiently benefited from the Trans European Network, TEN, for energy • Callfortheimplementationofmeasureswhichwould result in: · a greater security of energy supply in the islands · a diversification of their energy resources · a capacity for exporting their own energy experiences and technologies to the global market, should they have the potential to do so. Consequently, call the Commission, the Council and the European Parliament: • to direct the TEN programmes in the Islands so as to develop fixed links energy infrastructure in the mainland and within islands or infrastructure for reception and distribution, • toimprovetheexistingfixedlinkswhichareoutdated or whose capacity is insufficient to build the necessary capacity for an autonomous energy production and distribution, with special emphasis on renewable energy sources, adapted according to geographical and physical conditions and to the development of technical progress, • urge the European Institutions to present, adopt and implement a Community Directive on Renewable energies, which would put a strong emphasis on the situation of Islands and on the use of their potential, with the aim to increase progressively the

percentage of renewable energies within the European Union, • urge them to provide adequate financial means to implement such a policy, • express concern about the potential effect of the forthcoming reform of Structural Funds if such a reform did result in a general diminution of the available financial resources, and in the exclusion of some Island Regions from the list of eligible Objective 1 or Objective 2 areas, • request the Commission to give priority to energy projects which might not get priority in the new programme plans being prepared for objective 1 or 2 areas, and request for close scrutiny of all plan documents by competent services, • recognisethatinislandregions,energydemandmanagement is fundamental, and therefore actions in this way must be considered as a priority policy, in order to attenuate the continuous final demand increasing, • note that the Island Authorities are engaged to promote more energy demand management through theEnergyManagementAgenciescreatedorrelevant energy structures. But it is still necessary to urge regional and local authorities, to implement energy policies, to improve energy efficiency and to sensitise citizens and visitors of islands on intelligent use of energy measures, • call for the presentation by DGXVII of a communication on energy demand management in which the special needs of islands are specially recognised, 295


• call for Research and Development funds applicable to energy projects to contain special islands criteria to ensureflexibilityandpriorityforprojectsfromislands. 2 T ariff policy and competitiveness Tariff • Stress that the policy of tariff perequation or similar systems which now prevails across the European Union is a fundamental factor in ensuring that island consumers are treated equally with mainland consumers, and as such, plays a key role in the social and economic cohesion of the Community and constitutes an example which should be followed in many other fields. • Point out that a liberalisation policy in the field of energy markets which would not include adequate safeguardtoreservetheprincipleoftariffperequation would cause a major threat to the islands and would run in direct contradiction with the principles expressed in article 158ª of the Treaty on Social and Economic Cohesion and in the joint Declaration nº 30 on islands adopted in Amsterdam. • Recognise that, while tariff perequation between the islands and the mainland must remain a fundamental principle, it should be accompanied by adequate policies to implement the rational use of energy and the development of alternative energy resources in those areas, so as to lower as much as possible the additional costs resulting from insularity. • Island Regional authorities are engaged as key actors in the implementation of the necessary policies to promote the rational use of energy, and the development of alternative energy resources in those areas, so as to lower as much as possible the additional costs resulting from insularity. • Island Regional authorities are engaged as key actors in the implementation of the necessary policies to promote the rational use of energy, so as to ensure that such policies do not prove harmful to the social and economic development of these regions. Recognise that energy policy is also a transversal policy and has to be considered and implemented in the context of other policies: regional , urban and rural de-

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velopment, construction, transport, tourism, employment and environment. 3 Environmental and fiscal policies • The Island Authorities are engaged to support the E.U. policy seeking a reduction of harmful emissions such as CO2 and a reduction of the greenhouse effect, as expressed in Kyoto. • They should consider to exploit the energy content of waste in order to valorise this indigenous energy source, and to have a responsible treatment of waste and solve associate environmental problems. • Nevertheless, stress that the implementation by the European Community and Member States of fiscal measures affecting the cost of sea and air transport to the islands would result in economically and socially damaging consequences for these regions. • Remark that such measures would be obviously inappropriate since the islands have historically had limited responsibility in the present environmental situation, precisely because of the lack of development in some of them. 4 Inter-Island Co-operation in the Field of Energy • Agree to set up an Island Energy Forum to be managed on a regular basis by ISLENET, where experts from the islands and representatives from the European Union would meet through the Palma de Mallorca Conference spirit, in view to explore island issues, to outline potentially beneficial policies and to seek to alleviate the problems of insularity. • The Island Authorities agree that Islenet should review the Islands Energy Charter and put forward proposals for updating it. • Request that similar worthwhile events such as the Palma de Mallorca Conference be held at regular intervals with the support of DGXVII to discuss new opportunities concerning islands and to foster increased collaboration between regional, national and Community authorities, and between the public and private sector.


Participants

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List of Participants Island Solar Summit Sustainable Energies Building the future of the islands

Adelina Abad Pedrosa Technical Co-ordinator (INNOGY) National Power PLC Harwell International Business Centre OX11 0QA Harwell / Didcot UNITEDKINGDOM Tel.: +44 1235 444931 / Fax: +44 1235 444909 E-mail: adelina.abad@natpower.com Terubentau Akura Solar Energy Company Limited Director General P.O. BOX 493 Betio, Tarawa KIRIBATI Tel.: +686 26058 / Fax: +686 26210 E-mail: sec@tskl.net.ki George Andritsopoulos Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) 19 km Marathonos Ave 190 09 Pikermi GREECE Tel.: +30 1 6039900 / Fax: +30 1 6039911 E-mail: gandri@cres.gr Aurelio Angelini Consulente per le politiche ambientali del Presidente della Regione Siciliana c/o Università di Palermo Facoltà di Scienza della Formazione

P.zza Florio,24 90139 Palermo. ITALY Tel.: +39 091 6965517 / Fax: +39 091 6965518 E.Mail: angelini@mbox.unipa.it Tomás Azcárate y Bang Presidente Instituto de Turismo Responsable Edif. ITC Plaza de Sixto Machado, 3 38009 Sta. Cruz de Tenerife Tenerife. ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 902 117725 / Fax: +34 922 568913 E-mail: newtourism@newtourism.com Pedro Ballesteros DG XVII - European Commission Av. Tervuren 226-236, bur. 0/26 B-1049 - Bruselas. BELGIUM Tel.: +32 2 2967839 / Fax: +32 2 2966261 E-mail: Pedro.BALLESTEROS@BXL.DG17.cec.be Carmen Becerril Martínez Directora General Instituto para la Diversificación y Ahorro de la Energía (IDAE) Paseo de la Castellana 95 Edificio Torre Europa, Planta 21 E-28046 Madrid. ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 91 4564900 / Fax: +34 91 5551389 E-mail: DirGeneral@idae.es 299


Alfredo Bernabé ESE C/ Santa Amelia, 18 38108 La Laguna. Tenerife ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 610174 / Fax: +34 922 612567 E-mail: esolar@teleline.es Osman Benchikh UNESCO Division of Engineering and Technology (SC/EST) World Solar Programme 1 Rue Miollis 75732 Paris cedex 15. FRANCE Tel.: +33 1 45683916 / Fax: +33 1 45685820 E-mail: o.benchick@unesco.org Rainer Berkmann President European Solar Industry Federation 60, Praxitelous st. Nikea 184 52 GREECE Tel.: +30 1 4944154 / Fax: +30 1 4969095 E-mail: esifadm@otenet.org Boris Berkovski Director UNESCO Division of Engineering and Technology (SC/EST) 1 Rue Miollis 75732 Paris cedex 15. FRANCE Tel.: +33 1 45 68 39 01 / Fax: +33 1 45 68 58 20 E-Mail: b.berkovski@unesco.org Jos Beurskens ECN Solar & Wind Energy Westerduinweg3 P.O. Box 1. 1755 ZG Petten. THE NETHERLANDS Tel.: +31 224 564115 / Fax: +31 224 563214 E-mail: beurskens@ecn.nl Elsa Noemí Blanco Chávez Avda. Cuesta-Taco, 95 La Laguna Tenerife.ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 622293 / Fax: +34 922 278763 E-mail: jvarao@nexo.es 300

Nelson Eurico Cabral Specialiste du Programme SHS/CFD UNESCO 7, Place de Fontenoy 75700 - Paris FRANCE Tel.: +33 1 45683809 / Fax: +33 1 45685720 E-mail: n.cabral@unesco.org Francisco Calamita Calderín SEYMA CC. Ntra. Sra. De África, local 48. C/ Darias y Padrón. Sta. Cruz de Tenerife ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 206358 / Fax: +34 922 206358 E-mail: seyma@cistia.es José Manuel Calo García J.M. Peréz Ortega San Lázaro - Autopista del Norte, km 11. La Laguna. Tenerife ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 253142 / Fax: +34 922 261228 E-mail: ortegajm@arrakis.es Franco Cavallaro Tecnopolis Coop. Via Palermo, 332 98121Messina Sicily ITALY Tel.: +39 090 343828 / Fax: +39 090 391967 Manuel Cendagorta-Galarza López Director - ITER Polígono Industrial de Granadilla 38611, San Isidro. Granadilla. Tenerife ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 391000 / Fax: +34 922 391001 E-mail: iter@iter.rcanaria.es Joaquim Corominas Ecoserveis C/. Cerámica, 38 08035 Barcelona ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 93 4284167 / Fax: +34 93 4027625 E-mail: ecoserv@eic.ictnet.es


António Correia Gobierno Regional Palacio de Sant'Ana Ponta Delgada Ilha de S. Miguel Açores. PORTUGAL Tel. +351 96 2863 61 / Fax +351 96 2836 97 E-mail: antoniocorreia@pg.raa.pt Timothy Cotter Energy Advisor Officer Falklands Islands Development Corporation Shackleton House WestHillside Stanley FALKLAND ISLANDS (UK) Tel.: +500 27211 / Fax: +500 27210 E-mail: cotter@horizon.co.fk Alfredo Curbelo Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología y Medio Ambiente Industria y San José, Habana Vieja Ciudad de La Habana CUBA Tel.: +53-7 330560 / Fax: +53 7 330559 E-mail: acyt@ceniai.inf.cu João Crisóstomo da Cruz Lima Assessor Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy Praia, Santiago CABO VERDE E-mail: cruzlima@iname.com Rosa Dávila Marnely Consejera Delegada de Medio Ambiente y Calidad de Vida Ayuntamiento de Santa Cruz de Tenerife General Antequera, 14 38004 Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Tenerife.ESPAÑA Pier Giovanni d'Ayala Secretary-General INSULA 1, rue Miollis 75015Paris FRANCE Tel.: +33 1 45684056 / Fax: +33 1 45685804 E-mail: payala@insula.org

Paola Deda Sustainable Development Officer SIDS Unit Division for Sustainable Development Department of Economic and Social Affairs United Nations - Room DC2-2230 New York - N.Y. 10017. U.S.A. Tel.:+1 212 9634721 / Fax:+1 212 9634260 E-mail: deda@un.org Gianfranco d'Eredità Ansaldo Consortium for Renewable Energies ENERIN Via Tiburtina 1238 00131 Roma ITALY Tel.: +39 06 41894673 / Fax: +39 06 41894372-87 E-mail: deredita@ansaldo.it Pedro Agustín del Castillo Machado ELMASA C/ Emilio Castellar, 4 35007 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Gran Canaria. ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 928 490380 / Fax: +34 928 490386 Callixte d'Offay Ambassador of the Republic of the Seychelles in Paris 51, Av. Mozart 75016Paris FRANCE Tel.: +33 1 42305747 / Fax: +33 1 42305740 E-mail: ambsey@aol.com Brendan Devlin Cork County Council Energy Agency Office Spa House, Mallow County Cork IRELAND Tel.: +353 22 43610 / Fax: +353 22 43678 Alexandre Dias Monteiro Minister of Commerce, Industry and Energy Praia, Santiago REPUBLIC OF CAPE VERDE E-mail: cruzlima@iname.com 301


Rodrigo Díaz Frias GRANASOL Edf. Galte III. Plaza El Cabezo 38600 El Médano Tenerife.ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 176 668 / Fax: +34 922 176 113 E-mail: granasol@cistia.es José Miguel Doña Rodríguez ULPGC Dpto. de Química Campus de Tafira. Edfo. Ciencias Básicas 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Gran Canaria. ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 928 454437 / Fax: +34 928 452922 E-mail: jmd@cicei.ulpgc.es Juan Fraga Egusquiaguirre Secretario General EUFORES Avda. de Burgos 48, bajo B 28036 - Madrid. ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 91 3833339 / Fax: +34 91 3833159 E-mail: jfraga@eufores.org Miguel Fraile IVECO - PEGASO Avda. de Aragón 402 28022Madrid ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 91 3252223 / Fax: +34 91 3252092 E-mail: fraile@iveco.com Esther Friend Monasterio ITER Pol. Ind. De Granadilla Parque Eólico 38611, San Isidro. Tenerife.ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 391000 / Fax: +34 922 391001 E-mail: efriend@iter.rcanaria.es Guillermo Galván García ITER Pol. Ind. De Granadilla Parque Eólico 38611, San Isidro. Tenerife.ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 391000 / Fax: +34 922 391001 E-mail: ggalvan@iter.rcanaria.es 302

Juan Gámez ADAPTA IGT, S.L. Avda. Dr. Joaquín Artiles, 36 Centro Comercial Estación 35260 Villa de Agüimes Las Palmasn de Gran Canaria Gran Canaria ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 928 786 796 / Fax: +34 928 786 796 E-mail: adapta@cistia.es Alvaro García CEPSA C/ Alvaro Rodríguez López, s/n. Santa Cruz de Tenerife Tenerife. ESPAÑA Tel.:+34922602630 Michele Giacomantonio Sindaco Comune di Lipari Piazza Mazzini, 1 Lipari (ME) ITALIA Tel.:+39909811240/9887244-5 Fax:+39909880633/9880196 E-mail: mgiacomantonio@trainet.it Marta González Casanova Gabinete de Prensa Cabildo de Tenerife Plaza de España, 1 38071 - Santa Cruz de Tenerife Tel.: +34 922 239891 / Fax: +34 922 239779 E-mail: mcasanovas@cabtfe.es Federico González Vives MADE Paseo de la Castellana, 95 Torre Europa 28046 Madrid. ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 91 5984141 / Fax: +34 91 5974893 E-mail: fgonvives@made.es Jaime González Cejas Ayto. de Granadilla Plaza de González Mena, s/n. 38600, Granadilla de Abona Tenerife.ESPAÑA. Tel.: +34 922 759902 / Fax: +34 922 759965


Matthias Grottke WIP Sylvensteinstrasse, 2 81369Muenchen GERMANY Tel.: +49 89 7201237 / Fax: +49 89 7201291 E-mail: renewables@tnet.de Jorge Arturo Guzmán Fajardo Ayuntamiento de Icod de los Vinos Plaza Luis de León Huerta, 1 38430 Icod de los Vinos Tenerife ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 869 600 / Fax: +34 922 869 643 Manuel Hermoso Rojas Presidente Gobierno de Canarias Santa Cruz de Tenerife Tenerife ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 601585 / Fax: +34 922 601557 Ignacio Hualde BP Solar Española, S.A. Isla del Hierro nº 5 Parque Empresarial La Marina San Sebastián de los Reyes 28700Madrid ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 91 6586565 / Fax: +34 91 6586566 Abdul Razzak Idris Director General Ministry of Communication, ScienceandTechnology 5th floor, BML building Boduthakurufaanu Magu Malé MALDIVES Tel.: +960 331693 / Fax: +960 331694 E-mail: officegen@comscitech.gov.mv Hugo Ise Cruz C/. Antigua General Franco 16 - 2º D Los Cristianos - Arona Tenerife ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 753045 / Fax: +34 922 796073

Ulrik Jacobsen Program Consultant Forum for Energy and Development (FED) Secretariat for the International Network for Sustainable Energy (INFORSE) Landgreven 7 1301CopenhagenK DENMARK Tel.: +45 3312 1307 / Fax: +45 3312 1308 E-mail: inforse@inforse.dk Antoni Juaneda Cabrisas Vicepresidente Consell Insular de Menorca Camí d'es Castell, 28 Maó - Menorca ESPAÑA Tel.:+34971356241 Manraoi Kaiea Minister of Works and Energy P.O. Box 498, Betio Tarawa KIRIBATI Tel.: +686 26022 / Fax: +686 26172 E-mail: works&energy@tskl.net.ki Solon Kassinis Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism Andreas Araouzos, 6 1421Nicosia CYPRUS Tel.: +357 2 867140 / Tel.: +357 2 489977 Alenka Kindermann Energy institute Hrvoje pozar Ul. grada Vukovara 37 10000Zagreb, CROATIA Fax: +385 1 6118401 E-mail :akinderm@sunce.eihp.hr Angel Landabaso European Commission Directorate General XVII - Energy 226 Avenue de Tervuren B-1150 Brussels BELGIUM Tel.: +32 2 2953456 / Fax: +32 2 2966016 E-mail: angel.landabaso@bxl.dg17.cec.be 303


Antonio Lecuona ITC Plaza de Sixto Machado, 3 38009 Sta. Cruz de Tenerife Tenerife.ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 568900 / Fax: +34 922 568901 E-mail: alecuona@cistia.es

Adán Martín Menis Vice-Presidente Gobierno de Canarias Plaza de España, 1 Santa Cruz de Tenerife Tenerife. ESPAÑA Tel.:+34922239500

Antonio López Gulías Consejería de Industria y Energía Gobierno de Canarias Pza. de los Derechos Humanos, s/n. Edf. De Usos Múltiples I. 35071 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Gran Canaria. ESPAÑA. Tel.:+34928454900

Manuel Martínez-Fresno Jefe de Protocolo Cabildo de Tenerife Plaza de España, 1 Santa Cruz de Tenerife Tenerife. ESPAÑA Tel.:+34922239506

Alberto Luengo Barreto Arquitecto Carlos J.R. Hamilton, 12/D Santa Cruz de Tenerife Tenerife.ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 289853 / Fax: +34 922 291823 Jeremiah Manele Counsellor Solomon Island Mission to the United Nations 800 Second Avenue, 4th floor New York, NY 10017-4709 U.S.A. Tel.: +1 212 5996192-3 / Fax: +1 212 6618925 E-mail: simny@solomons.com Cipriano Marín ISS Secretary INSULA InternationalScientificCouncilforIslandDevelopment c/o UNESCO 1, rue Miollis 75015Paris FRANCE Tel.: +33 1 45684056 / Fax: +33 1 45685804 E-mail: cmarin@insula.org Luis Marqués ComisiónNacionaldeCooperaciónconlaUNESCO Paseo Juan XXIII, 5 28040Madrid ESPAÑA Tel.: +33 1 45684049 / Fax: +34 91 5351433 304

Mario Matulic 69 Av. du Mal Foch 78100 Saint-Germain-en-Laye FRANCE Tel.: +33 1 39734573 / Fax: +33 1 39210610 E-mail: mario-marijan.matulic@wanadoo.fr Peter Meincke Island Web Consortium University of Prince Edward Island 550 University Ave Charlottetown C1A 4P3 Prince Edward Island CANADA Tel.: +1 902 566 0347 / Fax: +1 902 368 1704 E-mail: meincke@upei.ca Ricardo Melchior Navarro Presidente Cabildo de Tenerife Plaza de España, 1 Santa Cruz de Tenerife Tenerife. ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 239728 / Fax: +34 922 239784 E-mail: rmelchior@cabtfe.es Bénédicte Meyer ADEME European Projects Manager Expertise and International Projects Department 27 rue Louis Vicat 75015 Paris. FRANCE Tel.: +33 1 47652021 / Fax: +33 1 46420558 E-mail: benedicte.meyer@ademe.fr


Luis Mir Payá INSULA InternationalScientificCouncilforIslandDevelopment c/ General Mola 35 38007 Santa Cruz de Tenerife Islas Canarias - ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 230688 / Fax: +34 922 200951 E-mail: eypinsu@mmcicom.com Sebastián Molina UNELCO Avda. Alcalde José Ramírez Bethencourt, 22. 35003 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Islas Canarias. ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 928 309908 / Fax: +34 928 309987 Enzo Millich Head, Energy Production Technology European Commission Directorate General XVII - Energy 226 Avenue de Tervuren B-1150 Brussels BELGIUM Tel.:+ 32 2 2953625 / Fax: +32 2 2966261 E-mail: Enzo.Millich@bxl.dg17.cec.be Javier Morales Febles Consejero de Agricultura y Medio Cabildo Insular de El Hierro Valverde El Hierro ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 550101-03 E-mail: ashero@cistia.es Ramón Moreno Castilla C/ Luis Doreste Silva, 12 35004 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Gran Canaria ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 617 805 005 / Fax: +34 928 490386 John Murray ITER Pol. Ind. De Granadilla Parque Eólico. 38611, San Isidro Tenerife. ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 391000 / Fax: +34 922 391001 E-mail: john@iter.rcanaria.es

Maximo Nägele Lanzarote Beach Club Servicios Apdo. Correos 333. 3550 Arrecife Lanzarote . ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 928 590003 / Fax: +34 928 590014 Shyam S. Nandwani Laboratorio de Energía Solar Depto. de Física Universidad Nacional P.O. Box 728 Heredia COSTARICA Tel.: +506 2773482 / Fax: +506 2601197 E-mail: snandwan@samara.una.ac.cr Mr Francis Ngalu Ag. Secretary for Works & Energy P.O. Box 498, Betio Tarawa KIRIBATI Tel.: +686 26192/26105 / Fax: +686 26172 E-mail: works&energy@tskl.net.ki Filipe Oliveira AREAM Madeira Tecnopolo P-9000 Funchal Madeira PORTUGAL Tel.: +351 91 723300 / Fax: +351 91 720033 E-mail: aream@mail.telepac.pt Giuseppe Orlando INSULA InternationalScientificCouncilforIslandDevelopment c/o UNESCO 1, rue Miollis 75015 Paris. FRANCE Tel.: +33 1 45684056 / Fax: +33 1 45685804 E-mail: eypinsu@mmcicom.com Tomás Padrón Presidente Cabildo de El Hierro Valverde Islas Canarias - España Tel.: +34 922 550101-03 E-mail: ashero@cistia.es 305


Ronald Parris William Paterson University 300 Pompton Road. atrium 229 Wayne NJ 07470 - 2103. USA Tel.: +1 973 7202535 / Fax: +1 973 7202171 E-mail: parrisr@nebula.wilpaterson.edu Carlos Pérez ITER Pol. Ind. De Granadilla Parque Eólico 38611, San Isidro Tenerife.ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 391000 / Fax: +34 922 391001 E-mail: cperez@iter.rcanaria.es Jesús Pérez Peña ULPGC Dpto. de Química Campus de Tafira Edfo. Ciencias Básicas 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Gran Canaria. ESPAÑA. Tel.: +34 928 451316 / Fax: +34 928 452922 E-mail: JesúsPerez@quimica.ulpgc.es Francisco Pérez Spiess ITER Pol. Ind. De Granadilla.Parque Eólico 38611, San Isidro Tenerife.ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 391000 / Fax: +34 922 391001 E-mail: spiess@iter.rcanaria.es Blanca Pereyra I. Andrés Bello Plaza Cantos Canarios 38007 Santa Cruz de Tenerife Tenerife. ESPAÑA. Tel.: +34 922 223341 / Fax: +34 922 213001 E-mail: 38006150@correo.rcanaria.es Tarmo Pikner Director of Development and Planning Saaremaa County Government 1 Lossi St. EE 3300 Kuressaare Saaremaa. ESTONIA Tel.: +372 4533499 / Fax: +372 4533448 E-mail: tarmo@saare.ee 306

Surendra Prasad Head School of Pure and Applied Sciences University of the South Pacific PO BOX 1168, Suva FIJI Tel.: +679 301246 / Fax: +679 302548 E-mail: prasad_sb@usp.ac.fj Mª del Pilar Reyes Glez. I. Andrés Bello Plaza Cantos Canarios 38007 Santa Cruz de Tenerife Tenerife. ESPAÑA Tel.:+34922240432 Fax: +34 922 213001 Juan Antonio Ríos ONG- ACAGE C/ Donado Gumiel,17 38205 La Laguna Tenerife. ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 651764 / Fax: +34 922 651764 Jesús Rodríguez Álamo ITER Pol. Ind. De Granadilla Parque Eólico 38611, San Isidro Tenerife. ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 391000 / Fax: +34 922 391001 E-mail: jalamo@iter.rcanaria.es Loreto Ródríguez Mendoza ITER Pol. Ind. De Granadilla Parque Eólico 38611, San Isidro Tenerife. ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 391000 / Fax: +34 922 391001 E-mail: lrodri@iter.rcanaria.es Ana Luisa Rosquete Hdez. Ayto. Icod de los Vinos Plaza Luis de León Huerta, 1 38430 Icod de los Vinos Tenerife ESPAÑA Tel.: 34 922 869 600 / Fax: 34 922 869 643


José Luis Ruíz Martín SEYMA CC. Ntra. Sra. De África, local 48 C/ Darias y Padrón Sta. Cruz de Tenerife. ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 206358 / Fax: +34 922 206358 E-mail: seyma@cistia.es

Anna Simone Architect Advisor to the Ventotene Municipality Via Sant'Ippolito, 26 00162 Roma. ITALY Tel./Fax: +39 06 442428924 E-mail: anna.simone@flashnet.it

Prem Saddul Associate Professor Mauritius Institute of Education Advisor of the Ministry of Environment Le Reduit MAURITIUS Tel.: +230 454 6526 / Fax: +230 454 1037 - 4543281 E-mail: psaddul@bow.intnet.mu

Smiljan imac Ambassador of Croatia Embassy of Croatia 39, avenue Georges Mandel 75116 Paris. FRANCE Tel.: +33 1 53700276 / Fax: +33 1 53700290

David Sáenz Cortés PROEXCA, S.A. Avda. de Anaga, 35 38001 Sta. Cruz de Tenerife Tenerife. ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 286050 / Fax: +34 922 286722 E-mail: decossio@cistia.es Arnoldo Santos Guerra Jardín de Aclimatación de La Orotava La Paz s/n Puerto de la Cruz Tenerife. ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 383572 / Fax: +34 922 371596 E-mail: asantos@teide.net Julieta Schallenberg Rodríguez Centro de Investigación en Energía y Agua ITC - Instituto Tecnológico de Canarias c/. Cebrián, 3 - 5º planta (esq. Venegas) E-35003 - Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Islas Canarias - ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 928 452018 / Fax: +34 928 452007 E-mail: jschallenberg@cistia.es Ismail Shafeeu Minister of Home Affairs, Housing and the Environment Huravee Building Ameer Ahmed Magu 2005 Malé MALDIVES Tel.: +960 321752 / Fax: +960 324739

Hiroshi T amada Tamada Technical Development Associate SIDSNet UNDP/ Sustainable Development Networking Programme 304 East 45 Street, New York, N.Y. 10017. U.S.A. Tel.: +1 212 9066462 / Fax: +1 212 9066952 e-mail: htamada@alum.mit.edu François V alette Valette Laboratoire "HYDROSCIENCES" UMRCNRS-IRD(exORSTOM)Nº5569 Université de Montpellier II Sciences et Techniques Place Eugène Bataillon - Case courrier 57 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 FRANCE Tel.: +33 4 67 14 42 70 / Fax: +33 4 67 14 47 74 e-mail: valette@dstu.univ-montp2.fr Carla V elayón Morales Velayón PROEXCA, S.A. Avda. de Anaga, 35 38001 Sta. Cruz de Tenerife Tenerife. ESPAÑA Tel.: +34 922 286050 / Fax: +34 922 286722 E-mail: decossio@cistia.es Liebrecht von Beyme Inoconsult - Madrid Reyes Magos 4 28009Madrid ESPAÑA Tel.:+34609002696 E-mail: liebvb@stnet.es 307


Bernd von Droste Senior Advisor to the DirectorGeneral of UNESCO for World Heritage 92 rue des Tonnerolles 92210 Saint Cloud.FRANCE Tel.: +33 1 47718543 / Fax: +33 1 46020965 Miguel Zerolo Aguilar Alcalde Ayuntamiento de Santa Cruz de Tenerife General Antequera, 14 38004 Santa Cruz de Tenerife Tenerife.ESPAĂ&#x2018;A Tel.:+34922606000

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Arthouros Zervos NTUA National Technical University of Athens P.O. Box 64011 15701 Zografou Athens GREECE Tel.: +30 17 723272 / Fax: +30 17 721738 E-mail: zervos@fluid.mech.ntua.gr


Committee of Honour A DÁN M ARTÍN M ENIS

R ICARDO M ELCHIOR N AVARRO

Vice-President of the Canary Islands Government

President of the Tenerife Island Council

F EDERICO M AYOR Z ARAGOZA

I SABEL T OCINO B ISCAROLASAGA

Director - General of UNESCO

Spanish Minister of Environment

A NTÓNIO M ASCARENHAS M ONTEIRO

M ARIANO R AJOY B REY

President of the Republic of Cabo Verde

Spanish Minister of Education and Culture

G UIDO

DE

M ARCO

President of the Republic of Malta

M ANRAOI K AIEA Minister of Works and Energy of Kiribati

G LAFCOS C LERIDES

I SMAIL S HAFEEU

President of the Republic of Cyprus

Minister of Home Affairs, Housing and Environment of Maldives

A NGELO C APODICASA President of the Sicilian Region

C ARLOS C ÉSAR President of the Regiao Autónoma dos Açores

O WEN S. A RTHUR Prime Minister of Barbados

J AUME M ATAS P ALAU President of the Balearic Island Government

C LAUDE L ISÉ President of the General Council of Martinique

J URE R ADIC Vice-Prime Minister Minister of Development and Reconstruction. Croatia

R OSA E LENA S IMEÓN Minister of Science, Technology and Environment of Cuba

M OHAMED T. E L -A SHR Y Chairman of GEF (Global Environment Facility)

P IER G IOV ANNI IOVANNI

D ’A Y ALA

Secretary General of INSULA

B ORIS B ERKOVSKI Secretary General of the World Solar Commission

D OMINGO J IMÉNEZ B EL TRÁN ELTRÁN Executive Director of the European Environment Agency

P ABLO B ENA VIDES S ALAS ENAVIDES Director-general of D.G. XVII – European Commission

Executive Committee Presidente

/

President

R ICARDO M ELCHIOR N AVARRO Presidente del Cabildo de Tenerife Presidente del ITER

C IPRIAN O M A R Í N ISS Secretary

P EDRO B ALLESTEROS DG XVII – European Commission

O SMAN B ENCHIKH M ANUEL C ENDAGOR TA ENDAGORT Director – ITER

World Solar Programme (1996-2005) UNESCO

R ONALD P ARRIS – B ARBADOS

F RANCO C AVALLARO

INSULA President

Sicily

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ITER Institute of Technology and Renewable Energies

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ITER Institute of Technology and Renewable Energies

T

he Institute of Technology and Renewable Energies was founded in 1990 by the Cabildo of Tenerife, the island's local authority., and was conceived as a technological answer to insular problems, having been for almost a decade a pioneer of renewable energies as a the basic solution to the future development of the islands The geopolitical situation of the Canary Islands has affirmed ITER's role as an important centre of investigation and technological development, acting as a bridge between three continents. The majority of the

projects carried out by ITER are co-funded by the European Commission, or local organizations or other agencies.Theprojectscover areas from renewable energy sources to many other aspects related to insular questions related to management of resources and risk prevention..

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• FEDARENE - Federation Des Agences Regionales de l'Energie et l'Enviroment • CERE - Communities of Europe for Renewable Energy ITER has also formed part of four Co-operation Networks and has been co-ordinator of two of these.

At present, the institute has a multidisciplinary team composed of over 50 people involved in projects, investigation, development, demonstration, covering a wide variety of fields and working in close association with the most important group of pioneering institutions and companies from all over the world. The outcome of this collaboration can be seen from ITER's membership of various agencies and co-operation networks, such as : • EUREC-Agency - European Renewable Energy Centres Agency.

• ECOWAT: European Co-operation Network for the supply of Water and Management of Optimum use of Renewable Energies. • NETWORK OF EXCELLENCE: Development of a Network of Excellence between Municipalities and Regions for the Development and Use of Renewable Energies. • EUREC NETWORK ON BIOMASS (Bioelectricity). • OPET ITER-AREAM: Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technologies co-ordinated by ITER. Originated to promote and disseminate RE technology in peripheral and ultra-peripheral regions, particularly in islands. ITER closely collaborates with various universities, such as the University of Kassel, Louisiana State University and the University of La Laguna ITER's grounds are located in the Industrial Estate of Granadilla de Abona on the southern coast of the island, some 52 km from the capital Santa Cruz de Tenerife. These grounds occupy an area of 365,000 m2 and posses great advantages for the development of renewable energy projects : high wind velocity (with an average of 7.5m/s in the E-NE direction), an long coastline, considerable levels of solar radiation (daily average radiation of 452.3 W/m2 and a temperature of 21º) together with the necessary communications and service infrastructure Some of the many projects developed at ITER are : • HYBRID PRODUCTION SYSTEM: The design of a hybrid production system powered by wind energy, solar energy, as well as a small diesel generator • CONSTRUCTION OF 25 BIOCLIMATIC DWELLINGS: The project proposes the construction of 25 individual dwellings based on bioclimatic standards and using recycled construction materials and renewable energies for energy production. The selection of the projects was carried out through an international tender, in which 25 proposals were selected to be constructed.

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• VISITORS' CENTRE: This will be an annex building to ITER's head office that will serve as a reception area and will contain audio-visual rooms. • PLATFORM FOR TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS OF THERMAL SOLAR ENERGY • MONITORING OF ITER'S BIOCLIMATIC BUILDING • NETWORKS: The project has contributed to the development of desalination projects based on RE covering all types of water needs, such as those for human consumption, industrial or agricultural use, creating a methodological tool for the evaluation of RE in seawater desalination plants in various localities on the Greek coast. • DESERESCUE:Theobjectoftheprojectistodemonstrate the viability of improving live in arid and desert zoneswithhighlysimplifiedbioenergeticsystems • URBAN PLANNING: The project studies the main problems of contamination affecting major European cities. • MORE: Its aim is to improve the flexibility and viability of modular hybrid supply systems with the intention of reinforcing their introduction in isolated areas of Europe and also developing countries. • STUDY OF HARMONICS AND TRANSIENTS Maximum penetration of wind farms in the electricity network • MEHTODED'EVALUATION:Anevaluation guide that operates as an aid to political leaders in order to measure social, economic and environmental aspects of local RE projects • EARTHQUAKE PREDICTION VIA THE USE OF GEOMCHEMICAL METHODS.

• FLUID GEOCHEMISTRY APPLIED TO HYDROLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES IN OCEAN VOLCANIC ISLANDS : Project financed by NATO in which ITER is a participant together with the Argonne National Laboratory (Chicago, USA) and the Louisiana State University (Louisiana, USA) • VOLCANIC ACTIVITY MONITORING EN PAPUA NEW GUINEA • GEOCHEMICAL PROGRAM FOR MONITORING OF SEISMIC-VOLCANIC ACTIVITY ON THE ISLAND OF LA PALMA • RETEC-PARK: Continuation of the project Training Centre that analysed global aspects of RE. • ENERGY ISSUES: Project for promoting energy efficiency technologies for utra-peripheral regions and islands • G.I.S.: Its intention is to describe the integration potential of each RE sector in local energy markets, as well as their effects on the environment, employment and regional economy for large scale use of RE. G.I.S. is composed of different interactive databases of

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whichthoserelatingtowindandbiomassenergyhave been the first to be developed, containing all the necessary information and providing prospective maps on a regional level. • EURO-TRAIN: The growing success of the diffusion in Europe of of training programmes related to the potential of RE technology and its applications in the publicandprivatesectorhavebeenanimpellingforce in this field. • ADAPT-RENOVABLE PROJECT: ITER has actively participated as an instructor in the programme "Professional Adaptation for the Development of Renewable Energies in the Canary Islands", directed towards various objectives: professional training of university graduates and young workers in the field of RE and its applications, favouring the integration of young investors in RE related technologies, and in making companies aware of the benefits of RE • RE TRAINING ACTIVITIES : Centred on giving courses to technicians, designers, and industrial personnel, etc., from various EC and developing countries, in relation to systems based on wind energy.

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Different modules were combined, each one specialized in distinct objectives. In November 1996 the courses began and the activities were developed, all of which were in the framework of ITER being a


specialized centre for the development of the training courses and as an expert in RE themes. • ENTERPRISE TRAINING: This non-academic course, held at the end of 1996 in ITER offered practical assistance to small and medium sized companies for the utilization of the extensive RE market. Electronics projects are also developed, such as is the case of the inverter for the EUCLIDES Project and the preparation of multimedia programmes. • TIME PROJECT: A programme for telephone training and tele-working designed for physically disabled people. • DESIGNOFANAUTOMATEDCONTROLSYSTEM FOR THE WIND FARM: A specific and totally automated control system for the wind platform has been designed. The typical control requirements of a wind turbinedifferfromtheirindustrialequivalents.Therefore ITER decided to design a prototype system to avoid the acquisition of a great quantity of specific characteristic control modules • GRID CONTROL: The object of this project consisted of defining, developing and demonstrating a

system for the control of grids supplied by renewable energy systems. Many of the projects carried out by ITER have given way to various installation (desalination plants, hydraulic systems), in parallel the institute has invested in the installation of Wind Farms or Photovoltaic Systems with the aim of developing theirknowledgeinthese fields and to contribute to clean electricity. In the same way, investment has been made in the preparation of infrastructures that favour the diffusion of infor317


mation about renewable energies, a key aspect for their acceptation and implementation on a large scale. Between the various installations that are normally visited at the institute, the following can be found:: • 2.83 MW EXPERIMENTAL WIND PLATFORM • 4.8 MW WIND FARM • 5.5 MW WIND FARM • 28 KW PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR PLATFORM • PHOTOVOLTAIC CONCENTRATION PLANT EUCLIDES PROJECT: The EUCLIDES project, cofinancedbytheEUandco-ordinatedbyITERisbased on the concentration of solar energy. By using concentration systems such as the EUCLIDES, it is intended to lower by half photovoltaic energy costs. The pilot plant installed in ITER's premises is based on the EUCLIDES concentrator developed by IES and BP Solar over the last few years. The plant occupies an area of approximately 1 Ha (the biggest in the world in its class), divided up into fourteen 84m long modules, reaching a capacity of 480 kW. The East-Westsolartrackingsystemisinstalledand works on an axis. The project involves the participation of other public institutions such as the Ministry of Industry and Energy • DESALINATION PLANTS: The institute has three desalination plants used for demonstration of various seawater desalination systems utilizing renewable energies, resulting in three investigation projects: MEGA-Hybrid, PRODESAL and MODULAR DESALINATION • MINI-HYDRAULICPLANT:Asystemforthe production and storage of electrical energy based on the utilization of environmental conditions at ITER's site has been installed and evaluated. • TECHNOLOGICALWALKWAY«MONTAÑA PELADA». Its fundamental idea is to show to the public Renewable Energies in a educational and agreeable manner. In this way various interactive thematic areas are integrated intothegrounds,alonganaturalravinewhich runsthroughITER'sterrains.Itisdividedinto six specific areas and in each one a distinct type of energy source is explained via panels and computers. It is constructed along a stream which flows down the ravine into a small lake. The banks of the ravine have been protected due to their high scenic value with total respect for the natural environment. 318

• BIOCLIMATICBUILDING-ITER'SHEADOFFICE: The two storey building occupies a surface area of 2,048 m2 and has been built using bioclimatic criteria, consisting of offices, workshops, a dining area and rooms for visitors.


Island Solar Summit WEB Site

http://www.insula.org/solar

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IslandSolarSummit Tenerife 1999

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Building the future of the islands: Sustainable Energies  

Edited by: Cipriano Marín & Manuel Cendagorta (1999). Published by: UNESCO-World Solar Council, Insula, Gobierno de Canarias. Proceedings of...