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www.counterterrorbusiness.com | ISSUE 46

PERIMETER SECURITY

RADICALISATION

MARTYN’S LAW

POLICING

THE 24/7 TERROR THREAT How Counter Terrorism Policing has been keeping the country safe during the pandemic


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COUNTERING TOMORROW’S THREATS, TODAY Counter Terror Expo (CTX) unites professionals from industry, infrastructure, government and policing to explore counter-terrorism and other complex security operations. The event facilitates the development of new ideas and technologies to combat the latest threats facing the UK and other regions. Re-unite with the counter-terror community in London. Visit the event website for details of Covid-19 safety protocols. Co-located events:

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COUNTER TERROR BUSINESS 5

www.counterterrorbusiness.com | ISSUE 46

RADICALISATION

PERIMETER SECURITY

MARTYN’S LAW

POLICING

THE 24/7 TERROR THREAT How Counter Terrorism Policing has been keeping the country safe during the pandemic

RADICALISATION BEHIND BARS ‘There has been a steady drumbeat over recent years of terrorist attacks against prison officers, and an increasing number of individuals who may well have formed their terrorist intent in prison under the influence of high-status terrorist prisoners.’ Those were the words of Jonathan Hall QC in January this year after an inquiry into the way prisons deal with convicted terrorists was launched amid concerns of growing radicalisation behind bars. Following a series of high-profile cases, including the 2019 London Bridge attack when Usman Khan, a terrorist prisoner out on licence, stabbed two people to death, Hall said that ‘we need scrutiny of how prisons operate to either contain, or worse encourage, terrorism’. It was under this microscope that CTB365, the digital events arm of the Counter Terror Business, recently hosted a ‘Radicalisation & Extremism’ online interactive event. We have summed up some of the discussion points from our six expert speakers on page 42, but with such a timely and relevant topic, the conversation should not end here.

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The inquest into the deaths of Jack Merritt and Saskia Jones continues and, with the Police, Crime, Sentencing and Courts Bill set to end automatic halfway release from prison for serious crimes, there will be more to follow soon, I expect. Michael Lyons, editor

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CONTENTS

CONTENTS CTB 46 Supported by

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07 NEWS Technology and security face ‘moment of reckoning, says GCHQ’; ‘damaging’ force league tables should be scrapped; and changes to terrorist sentencing and monitoring have been granted Royal Assent

15 PERIMETER SECURITY The pandemic has presented an exciting opportunity to have another look at our urban landscapes and consider the role of physical security in protecting the high street. Iain Moran shares his thoughts

19 PERMIMETER SECURITY Perimeter Intrusion Detection Systems (PIDS) are devices that detect and deter the presence of intruders attempting to breach the perimeter of a site, thereby allowing efficient response from security personnel

22 POLICING As the country’s collective consciousness has understandably been focused upon the Covid-19 pandemic, the officers and staff of CTP have quietly continued the 24/7 work of protecting the UK from another serious threat - terrorism

26 CYBER SECURITY One of the biggest problems that people face when protecting their business is their reliance on either physical security or digital security. Ideally, you should ensure a good mix of both, writes Lisa Ventura, CEO of the UK Cyber Security Association

30 MARTYN’S LAW As lockdown starts to ease, the government is keen to ensure the public is kept safe from terror attacks at entertainment events and venues. A consultation process is now underway. Jim Preen explains more

32 FIRST AID General first aid at work kits do not contain the required items to treat the types of injuries experienced in terrorist attacks. Michael Grevill discusses the importance of bleed control kits at venues across the UK

38 TERRORISM We have ‘terrorism on the brain’ and vested interests are using any excuse to label all acts of violence committed by any group as terrorist, writes Phil Gurski. Mass shootings are terrifying, but are they all ‘terrorism’?

40 RADICALISATION Concerns about radicalisation, and what can be done about it, are very much to the fore in policy circles at present. Here, Catherine McGlynn and Shaun McDaid write about how safe the safeguarding route is in higher education

42 RADICALISATION & EXTREMISM How can the extremist education agenda be thwarted in the prison system? Does the de-radicalisation process need strengthening and revalidating? These questions, and more, were discussed by our CTB365 webinar speakers on 22 April

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CTB NEWS TECHNOLOGY

Tech and security face ‘moment of reckoning’

Jeremy Fleming has warned that the West is faced with a ‘moment of reckoning’ when it comes to technology and security.

Speaking to the BBC, the head of intelligence agency GCHQ, said that there was a risk that key technologies on which we rely will no longer be shaped by the West. He claimed that although the UK is a ‘big beast’ when it comes to technology, the nation is now at a point where it needs to decide if we were going to continue to evolve and compete with our adversaries. Fleming was speaking ahead of giving this year’s Vincent Briscoe Annual Security Lecture at Imperial College, and in the wake of the Integrated

Review, which placed science and technology at the centre of future security and defence policy. He warned that there is an increasing risk that new ‘technology is implemented in a way in which we can’t assure its security’ and that we risk losing control of the standards that shape our technology environment. Fleming highlighted the lessons to be learnt from the debate over the role of Chinese company Huawei in building a new 5G telecoms system.

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LEGISLATION

ONLINE RADICALISATION

New counter terrorism laws gain Royal Assent

Project to protect tech-savvy teens from online radicalisation

Changes to terrorist sentencing and monitoring have been granted Royal Assent, providing courts, police and security services greater powers to protect the public. The new Counter-Terrorism and Sentencing Act end the early prison release for anyone convicted of a serious terror offence and forces them to spend their whole term in jail. Under the law change, the most dangerous offenders – such as those found guilty of preparing or carrying out acts of terrorism where lives were lost or at risk – now face a minimum of 14 years in prison and up to 25 years on licence, with stricter supervision. The Act builds on emergency legislation passed in February 2020, following the terrorist atrocities at Fishmongers’ Hall and in Streatham, which retrospectively ended automatic

early release for terrorists serving standard determinate sentences. The new legislation also enhances the tools available to counter terrorism police and the security services to manage the risk posed by terrorist offenders and individuals of concern outside of custody. This includes stronger Terrorism Prevention and Investigation Measures and making it easier for the police to apply for a Serious Crime Prevention Order in terrorism cases. Home Secretary Priti Patel said: “This legislation will lengthen sentences for terrorists, improve monitoring of these dangerous offenders, and give the law enforcement agencies the powers to strengthen their ability to take action.”

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A new partnership in the north east will see expert cyber Prevent officers work alongside their counterparts in Counter Terrorism to identify young people with highly specialised digital skills, who often run the risk of being exploited and coerced into committing serious offences online. The North East Regional Cyber Crime Unit initiative was created earlier this year after a teenager bypassed his school’s VPN to access extreme materials. Due to the teen’s exceptional computer skills, he was brought to the attention of NERCCU’s cyber officers, who were able to help educate him about the dangers of hacking and offer a range of ethical and legal platforms for him to perfect his skills. It is hoped that the new scheme will mean teenagers, especially those with a range of neuro-diverse traits, who are brought to the attention of Counter Terrorism will be able to benefit from specialist intervention from cyber officers – who can work with them to steer them away from online crime.

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CTB NEWS POLICING

‘Damaging’ force league tables should be scrapped hospital admissions for stabbings, referrals to drug treatment programmes and other figures. The Police Federation of England and Wales said the plans would result in a return to a ‘damaging, target-driven culture’ and urged the government to reconsider. John Apter, chair of the federation, said: “Mechanisms for holding individuals and forces to account are in place, and we are already amongst the most scrutinised professionals in the world. My message to the government would be to stop and think before returning to the mistakes of their predecessors. Targets in policing are not new, and we have seen before that when resources become scarce, forces focus on targets to the exclusion of other issues.”

Police officers have called for the government to scrap planned league tables for regional forces that could spark the ‘return to a damaging, target-driven culture’. Originally reported by The Times, Policing Minister Kit Malthouse announced in a

letter to police chiefs that forces would be assessed on their ability to reduce homicide, serious violence, drug supply, neighbourhood violence and cybercrime, as well as on victim satisfaction. It is believed that new benchmarks will incorporate recorded crime,

HOSTILE STATES

CYBER SECURITY

Spies using fake profiles on LinkedIn to trick staff

New cyber security laws to protect smart devices

MI5 has warned that at least 10,000 UK nationals have been approached by fake profiles linked to hostile states on the professional social network LinkedIn. The security agency’s chief Ken McCallum said that ‘malicious profiles’ are being used on ‘an industrial scale’ and warned that users who had accepted such connection requests might have then been lured into sharing secrets. The 10,000-plus figure includes staff in virtually every government departments as well as key industries, who might be offered speaking or business and travel opportunities that could lead to attempts to recruit them to provide confidential information. A campaign - Think Before You Link - has been launched to educate government workers about the threat. It is being run by the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure.

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Makers of smart devices will now need to tell customers upfront how long a product will be guaranteed to receive vital security updates under new government plans to protect people from cyber attacks. Latest figures commissioned by the government show that 49 per cent of UK residents have purchased at least one smart device since the start of the coronavirus pandemic. These everyday products - such as smart watches, TVs and cameras - offer a huge range of benefits, yet many remain vulnerable to cyber attacks. Recent research from consumer group Which? found a third of people kept their last phone for four years, while some brands only offer security updates for a little over two years. By forcing tech firms to be upfront about when devices will no longer be supported,

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the law will help prevent users from unwittingly leaving themselves open to cyber threats by using an older device whose security could be outdated. To counter the growing threat, the government is planning a new law to make sure virtually all smart devices meet new requirements: customers must be informed at the point of sale the duration of time for which a smart device will receive security software updates; a ban on manufacturers using universal default passwords, such as ‘password’ or ‘admin’, that are often preset in a device’s factory settings and are easily guessable; and manufacturers will be required to provide a public point of contact to make it simpler for anyone to report a vulnerability.

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ISSUE 46 | COUNTER TERROR BUSINESS MAGAZINE

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CTB NEWS EDUCATION

Training to help shore up cyber defences in schools

Schools will be able to improve their defence against online attacks through new training created for teachers and staff by the National Cyber Security Centre. NCSC, a part of GCHQ, has released free cyber security training for school staff, which sets out real-life incident case studies and four practical steps staff can take to protect themselves online. The

resource is the latest package of support the NCSC has offered the schools sector to improve cyber resilience, and follows an updated alert issued last month to help education establishments in the wake of a rise in ransomware attacks. The training shines a light on the main threats schools face and outlines the severe impact cyber incidents can have, with one case study showing

how a school lost a substantial sum in school fees after reception staff fell victim to a phishing scam. Sarah Lyons, NCSC Deputy Director for Economy and Society Engagement, said: “It’s absolutely vital for schools and their staff to understand their cyber risks and how to better protect themselves online. That’s why we’ve created an accessible, free training package offering practical steps on cyber security to help busy professionals boost their defences. By familiarising themselves with this resource, staff can help reduce the chances of children’s vital education being disrupted by cyber criminals.”

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UNITED STATES

Internal review to root out white supremacy in Homeland Security The US Department of Homeland Security is due to perform an internal review to address the state of domestic violent extremism within its own ranks. Following the Capitol insurrection in January and amid a growing threat of white supremacist violence, the review follows a similar move from the Pentagon to study ‘prohibited extremist activities’ and ‘extremist behaviour’ within the US military. President Joe Biden has sought to place combatting domestic violence at the centre of his homeland security agenda. In January, DHS issued a terror advisory bulletin that warned ‘ideologically motivated violent extremists’ motivated

by ‘perceived grievances fuelled by false narratives’ could ‘continue to mobilise to incite or commit violence’. The warning remains in effect through 30 April. Secretary Alejandro Mayorkas said in a statement: “Domestic violent extremism poses the most lethal and persistent terrorism-related threat to our country today. As we work to safeguard our nation, we must be vigilant in our efforts to identify and combat domestic violent extremism within both the broader community and our own organisation. Hateful acts and violent extremism will not be tolerated within our department.” At the direction of the Secretary, a crossdepartmental working group comprised of

senior officials will immediately begin a comprehensive review of how to best prevent, detect, and respond to threats related to domestic violent extremism within DHS. This internal team, which will be led by the Department’s Chief Security Officer, will produce a report with recommendations for the Secretary on how best to identify and respond to threats related to domestic violent extremism, including those based on racially- or ethnicallymotivated violent extremism.

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FRANCE

France set to unveil anti-terrorism bill An anti-terrorism bill that would enable security services in France to increase the use of a controversial algorithm technique to detect potential threats is to be presented to the French cabinet. Presented by Interior Minister Gérald Darmanin, the text reinforces an arsenal of provisions that already exist but that the executive wants to be set in stone. The controversial measure within it is in regards to the so-called ‘algorithm’ technique which allows the automated processing of connection data to detect threats while extending it to web addresses (URLs). Beyond that, the bill would also increase the time allowed for collecting computer

data to two months from one month currently and for the authorities to store that ‘dead’ data for up to five years for research and development purposes and to advance the artificial intelligence of the intelligence services’ ‘black boxes’. Darmanin has stated that two of the 35 terrorist attacks foiled in France since 2017 had been ‘thanks to the digital traces’ left by the perpetrators and that nine recent attacks were not preventable with current resources. The expected announcement comes just days after a policewoman was stabbed to death in Rambouillet, some 60km southwest of Paris, in a suspected terror attack. The attacker, who reportedly

came to France from Tunisia several years ago, was shot dead by police.

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ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE

Q&A

A threat from above Written by Michael Delueg, Frequentis head of Defence Product Portfolio

Drones are providing many industries with efficiency gains, however, they are also offering terrorists new capabilities including assisting Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN)-related crimes. Michael Delueg, Frequentis head of Defence Product Portfolio, explains how organisations can stay ahead with the right technology

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CAN YOU TELL US A LITTLE ABOUT FREQUENTIS AND YOUR ROLE? Frequentis has over 70-years’ experience of mission-critical communication, information and surveillance systems with cross-industry knowledge that spans civil aviation, defence, public safety, maritime and public transportation markets. One of our core products is our secure communication system, which is the fundamental piece of the puzzle for all safety-critical control rooms. Frequentis is acknowledged as the number one supplier of safety critical communication systems globally. As Head of the defence product portfolio I am responsible for managing the global defence product families, their roadmaps, and innovations, to provide best in class solutions for our defence customers. WHAT ROLE DO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS HAVE IN LIMITING THE THREAT OF TERRORISM IN EUROPEAN AIRSPACE? Secure, resilient, and reliable communication is fundamental to ensuring critical information reaches the right people, at the right time for effective decision making. The starting point for managing any kind of incident is a communications system to link relevant stakeholders. You can find a Frequentis communication system in 35,000 controller working positions worldwide, from pilots to police dispatch personnel. In addition to that there would ideally be an incident management system in place to coordinate alarming, risk assessment and the intervention of procedures and communications.

The Frequentis Incident and Crisis Management (ICM) system provides a common operational picture based on a Geographical Information System (GIS), as well as interfaces to central data sources. A collaboration and decision support service with multi-user support based on role and rights assignment, an integrated link to the voice communication system (VCS) and legal recording functionality complete the solution. Key to mention is the mobile application, ensuring information can be received anywhere, at any time. We also promote cross-agency collaboration with our ICM system, which allows multiple agencies to work together on an incident in real-time. IN THE GLOBAL DEFENCE AGAINST TERRORISM, ESPECIALLY IN THE EVENT THAN AN AIRCRAFT IS HIJACKED, HOW IMPORTANT IS INTERAGENCY COOPERATION? AND HOW HAS FREQUENTIS WORKED TO INCREASE COOPERATION WITHOUT INCREASING WORKLOADS FOR CUSTOMERS? There are a multitude of command and control systems (C2) in use today with varying levels of functionality. Often these systems cannot interact with each other, and when they do, they can only do so on a very basic level. This challenge is faced today by both defence and locallyfunded emergency services who procure their own independent systems. The Frequentis ICM solution allows the seamless interconnection of all those independent systems, from multiple

COUNTER TERROR BUSINESS MAGAZINE | ISSUE 46

agencies, enabling ordinarily siloed systems to work together to share information, reducing manual information sharing and speeding up reaction and resolution times. Frequentis was commissioned by the German Armed Forces to equip the German National Air Policing Centre (NAPC) with an Air Policing system with this very aim. The system integrates numerous data sources from defence agencies, government and national local emergency services, even public buildings, allowing contact at the touch of a button with “click to dial” functionality. Information can be shared securely, and layered on top of existing systems, ensuring all required parties have a fused Civil-Military common operational picture in the event of a crisis. The best way to manage any emergency is for all contributing agencies to work together to improve response times and coordinate resource allocation. By sharing information across the entire national network, linking assets and communicating in real time, a common operational picture is created, allowing real-time intelligence and tactical decision-making. Air policing, Joint Operations, Search and Rescue, Drone Detection and Cyber Defence are just some of the typical use cases which benefit. WHAT IS YOUR EXPERIENCE WITH THE EMERGING DRONE MARKET? IT IS A CHALLENGE FOR DRONES AND CIVIL AVIATION TO COEXIST IN THE SHARED AIRSPACE, HOW DOES FREQUENTIS SEE THIS MARRIAGE BEST ESTABLISHED? Frequentis has a long history supplying communication and surveillance systems for air traffic control and air defence so we have a deep understanding of aviation stakeholders, solutions, and air space regulations. The primary concern with integrating drones, or unmanned traffic management (UTM), and air traffic management (ATM) is safety, and ensuring manned aviation, as well as individuals and property on the ground are not negatively impacted. The key to solving this challenge is to enable timely and high-quality information sharing between ATM and UTM, and, again, the ability to communicate in real-time. By integrating ATM and UTM on the same platform, situational awareness and safety will be enhanced, allowing increased use


ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE of drones in everyday life. When both civil aviation and drone pilots can communicate in real time, will we see the most benefits in terms of safety and efficiency. ONE CONCERN IS DRONES IN VICINITY OF AN AIRPORT. HOW DO YOU SUGGEST AIRPORTS OR AVIATION SERVICE PROVIDERS TAKE ACTION? As drone traffic increases, airports, law enforcement, and air navigation service providers (ANSPs) face new safety and security challenges. The key is ensuring quick response times and appropriate action. A system that fuses ATM, UTM, Drone Detection, Visual Reports, and Blue Force Tracking into a common air / ground situation picture, ensures common situational awareness in complex drone incidents. With integrated communications and incident management, all organisations can work together on the same goal, focusing on the procedures, and minimising response times in the event of drone incursions. Part of managing the incident is airspace deconfliction, where a data integration with ATM and UTM is a value add. With that integration, we can give automatic warnings to air traffic through ATC, deconflict UTM and counter-UAS operations, and can also differentiate between the good and the bad guys. Another element is managing countermeasures; this starts with coordinating law enforcement units to find the drone and drone operator. We are currently working in partnership with the German Federal Police, German ANSPs and a large German airport on the Falke project, researching threat scenarios for airports and validating appropriate solutions to incidents. This puts us at the forefront of airport counter-UAS management. The findings will serve as a blueprint for all airports in Germany and potentially other European countries such as the Netherlands. With integration of mitigation systems, law enforcement units can jam and disrupt drones. With blue force tracking integration, resources can better managed, asking airport staff to identify and follow the drone and coordinate with police forces who will have the means to take the drone down. Key to mention is also the use of a

mobile application; intelligence is collected by the incident manager and shared to mobile devices so that the right people can be notified at the right time, allowing them to take action wherever they are. ARE THERE AIRSPACE RESTRICTIONS THAT NEED TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN DEPLOYING DRONES TO SUPPORT COUNTER TERROR OPERATIONS? Frequentis is also working on other projects providing the common information services (CIS) function of the ATM/UTM airspace integration platform that allows ad hoc drone flight plans to be submitted and approved in real-time. The CIS can also differentiate between regulated and nonregulated drones to assess safety concerns and trigger automatic alerts. The system then allows communication with aerodromes to close the airspace and law enforcement agencies to locate the drone operator. As mentioned, this is also available on the mobile client. WHAT ABOUT THE THREAT OF DRONES BEING A POTENTIAL TOOL FOR TERRORISTS TO COMMIT CRBN ACTIVITIES? A Frequentis subsidiary, CNS-Solutions and Support GmbH, is part of the European Defence Agency (EDA) CBRN Surveillance as a service project, which will utlise drones and unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) to keep the European population safe from potential CRBN incidents.. The project, led by the

Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT), is made up of a consortium of 12 partners from four countries with the aim of developing a rapidly deployable 24/7 CRBN surveillance capability. CNS will be providing the ICM software technology, mainly consisting of a CBRN Common Operational Picture (COP), integrating aggregated sensor data from UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) and UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles). Other incident-relevant information and a CBRN-specific Incident Management module will also be displayed. The integration of this sensor data will allow operators to see threat locations and react accordingly, including deploying troops, supporting the decision-making processes. A direct video livestream from the UAVs and UGV will be integrated into the ICM suite to provide an even better on-scene perspective and optimise strategical planning. The objective is to have a fully functional technical demonstrator available by spring 2023. Our experience in serving not only ANSPs but also military and blue-light customers, means we have the breadth of understanding and experience to deliver integrated cross-agency solutions that span the full requirements of a counter-UAV solution in an airport environment. L

With a Masters in engineering from the technical university of Vienna, Michael Delueg has a background in software development and project management. He joined Frequentis in 2014 and is responsible for the Defence product portfolio, their inter-relationships, and the portfolio’s role in the market, including profit and loss.

FURTHER INFORMATION www.frequentis.com

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DESIGNERS, MANUFACTURERS AND INSTALLERS OF AWARD WINNING PERIMETER SECURITY PRODUCTS

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SECURITY’S ROLE IN THE FUTURE OF OUR HIGH STREETS W

ith the Housing, Communities and Local Government Committee informed at a January meeting that the lockdown-induced shift towards online retail will likely be permanent, the high street must move its emphasis away from retail and instead become more focused on alternative avenues of use and revenue generation such as leisure and experience-focused activities with the help of new pedestrianised zones. The pandemic has undoubtedly accelerated changes that were already happening in consumer behaviour. This has presented an exciting opportunity to have another look at our urban landscapes and consider how they might be transformed to better serve the needs and wants of the public. Last summer, pedestrianisation zones were implemented extensively across the UK and proved to be a great idea, creating new multifunctional spaces for people to gather and socialise. These spaces can be used to provide a much-needed boost to hospitality businesses, or host fun community events, which will be critical when it comes to drawing people back to the high street as things start to return to normal.

THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL SECURITY IN PROTECTING THE HIGH STREET When creating these new spaces, choosing the right physical security measures, such as bollards and impact-tested street furniture, will be crucial to ensure the public can use and enjoy them with confidence. While this may seem obvious, according to our recent paper, The Future of Urban Design, many architects, it became apparent that specifiers and urban planners feel that not enough is invested in security for the projects that they are working on. Research revealed that 60 per cent of urban design professionals have concerns about the level of investment in security measures, while 47 per cent feel that their nearest city isn’t safe. When asked about the barriers to appropriate implementation, the majority (67 per cent) cited insufficient funding, 55 per cent identified a reluctance from local authorities to invest, and 32 per cent had experienced a local unwillingness to have the look of a space spoiled by ‘obtrusive security measures’. Exploring the potential solutions to these barriers, 53 per cent of those surveyed E

ISSUE 46 | COUNTER TERROR BUSINESS MAGAZINE

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PERIMETER SECURITY

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 suggested working in partnership with local authorities and suppliers right from the beginning of a project to determine the most appropriate security measures, while 36 per cent were keen to make use of impact-tested street furniture to counteract any aesthetic concerns. Returning to normality and seeing our cities and towns bustling with life again once the pandemic comes to an end would be a welcome sight. So, how do we create new safe, public spaces to ensure that a bright future awaits our high streets? CREATING A PROPORTIONATE SECURITY DESIGN The requirement to facilitate social distancing and the additional pavement space required by hospitality venues to match pre-Covid capacity has resulted in a shift of use in the public realm. Whenever an area goes through a period of adjustment or a change of use, security measures should be reviewed. The vulnerabilities previously identified to secure our traditional high street set-up might have shifted to present a different set of vulnerabilities. These new or altered vulnerabilities need to be re-assessed by a security professional who can produce a revised, proportionate security design. Different factors are taken into consideration when producing this type of report:

• Aesthetics: There are buildings and areas which may call for a strong, physical presence of security measures to deter security incidents. The public realm is not one of these spaces. Varying approaches to aesthetics can be considered. Security measures can be integrated into street furniture or even lettering and artwork to soften the visual impact of security. Measures can also be fitted with aesthetic sleeves in varying designs to include heritage colours or finishes if being placed within a historic town centre. The impact of security measures can also be lessened if areas within a city or town centre work together on delivering a holistic security scheme. Looking at an area in its totality allows for clever placement of measures to secure key zones. If areas are dissected and land ownership prevents these areas from working together to achieve the end goal, more measures can end up being put into place unnecessarily. The key here is to work with a qualified security consultant and a physical security manufacturer from as early in the process as possible to achieve the best result. • Stakeholders: Within the public realm, there are many stakeholders to consider - local authorities, Counter Terror Security Advisors, emergency services, power and utility providers, councillors, and retail consortiums to name just a few.

WHEN CONSIDERING THE TYPES OF THREAT THAT YOU ARE PROTECTING AN AREA FROM, IT IS VITAL THAT THE ASSESSMENT IS PROPORTIONATE. IF AN ARMAGEDDON APPROACH IS TAKEN, MEASURES WILL BE UNREALISTIC, HUGELY EXPENSIVE, AND WILL SIMPLY NOT BE USED All these groups have different requirements from their section of the public realm. Each stakeholder group must be consulted to understand the implications of any new or altered security scheme. With security measures having a lifespan of up to 15 years if maintained, the investment in time at the start of the project to ensure that measures meet all requirements and consider any access nuances is time well-spent. This consultation and collaborative approach could also result in a more successful scheme with all groups being bought into security measures from the very start. This could also result in a more effective operating methodology for security measures.

• Access Requirements: Taking the time to identify who is using the public realm is important. How many delivery vehicles are moving in and out of city/town centres to sustain the supply chain of shops and hospitality venues. Does any existing equipment have maintenance measures in place, if so - how often are maintenance contractors needing access to the area? Are there annual events taking place within the space which sees an annual or seasonal increase in visitors? Do hospitality venues have pavement licenses within the area being assessed? All these questions build up a picture of the types of vehicles accessing an area, how frequently and aims to capture the ‘one-off’ or ‘annual’ visits too. The result of this is to understand the type of security measures which can be implemented. Are there complete zones which can be secured with fixed security measures so completely pedestrianise and protect an area? Or do demands on the supply and delivery chain within the area prevent this from being possible - do measures in fact have to be automated. If automation is required, the map laying out the types of user and access requirements can assist

in building an operational methodology for the area or for individual zones to begin to shape a holistic security plan.

• Proportionate Security: When considering the types of threat that you are protecting an area from, it is vital that the assessment is proportionate. If an Armageddon approach is taken, measures will be unrealistic, hugely expensive, and will simply not be used. Proportionate security measures look to protect against likely threats. Within the UK, this would be protecting crowds of people and busy streets against vehicle ramming and VBIED (vehicleborne improvised explosive device) attacks. While the global terror threat in the UK remains ‘substantial’, these forms of attack, similar to those seen on Westminster Bridge and Borough Market remain a real threat to our society. With this in mind, a possibly unrealistic response would be to exclude all types of vehicles from town and city centres completely. While this would certainly create a safer space for pedestrians, this might not be practical to underpin the day-to-day running of businesses and town centre economies. A more proportionate scheme would have to be implemented to accommodate users who still required vehicular access. Working alongside key stakeholders, security equipment manufacturers can provide proportionate measures to create successful and aesthetically pleasing security schemes to encourage people back to our high streets and make them the centre of our community once more. L Iain Moran is ATG Access’s Sales & Marketing Director. Iain has contributed this article on behalf of the Perimeter Security Suppliers Association.

FURTHER INFORMATION

www.atgaccess.com

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PERIMETER SECURITY

A GUIDE TO SPECIFYING PERIMETER INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEMS T

he events of the past year have shown us how quickly the world can change, and so too can the methods employed by criminals and terrorists to invoke attacks. The recent absence of large events and crowds has temporarily vanquished the threat of vehicle borne attacks, while an increase in empty premises due to remote working has made alternative targets more appealing. Security systems, particularly those of CNI, need to work harder than ever, and be better integrated to ensure there are no gaps in perimeter security strategies. Thankfully, technology is always evolving too. Perimeter Intrusion Detection Systems (PIDS) are devices that detect and deter the presence of intruders attempting to breach the perimeter of a site, providing an early warning by remote alarm to allow efficient response from security personnel. There are different types of PIDS available which can be installed by various methods; CPNI groups them into free standing, barrier-mounted, and ground based. They should always form part of an integrated security solution, and the specification of such systems requires a detailed analysis of the site’s landscape and topography, climatic conditions, local environment and regulations, response force arrangements, and any current or planned infrastructure, including physical barriers. Fence mounted PIDS consist of piezoelectric wires that are attached to the fabric of the fence and detect any attempt to cut or climb the perimeter. Vibrations are sent along the fence line to a remote seismic analyser, providing the earliest signal that a potential breach is in progress. Fence mounted PIDS are a cost effective solution because they can be attached to almost any existing fence that is in good condition, without any complex ground alterations. They are also known to work well in challenging climates, weather, and light conditions. When specifying PIDS, there are many factors to consider to determine the best solution for each site. If the PID system is being attached to an existing fence, the condition of the fence needs to be inspected to ensure it does not impede the detective work of the PIDS, and that the PIDS will operate to its full potential. The stability of the fence should be tested, and check that the fixings are free from rattle and are performing effectively. Rigid steel fencing E

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PERIMETER SECURITY  such as welded mesh is ideal for allowing the vibrations from the system to travel smoothly to the remote analyser; the fence fabric must not be slack as this could hinder performance and accuracy. Any planned infrastructure changes around the site need to be considered before selecting and installing PIDS, such as whether any existing fencing is going to be replaced, or an additional line of fencing installed, if the site will be expanding, or whether any new buildings are due to be constructed. PIDS can be easily adapted to include changes, by extending the system to accommodate additional buildings and fencings. Landscape and topography are important factors, particularly with ground based PIDS, as these are installed below ground and need a suitable terrain to operate. Tree roots and drainage also need to be carefully controlled with these systems to avoid interference. With barrier mounted PIDS, the landscape needs to be managed - any trees or foliage should be well maintained to prevent them from coming into contact with the fence, while debris and leaves should be swept away as they can be blown around by wind and attract wildlife, all of which can cause false alarms. If the site has existing alarms or detection systems, plan how the new PIDS will be integrated. Ideally, they should work together seamlessly and be monitored centrally, with dedicated personnel responsible for surveillance. Once an alarm is raised, the alert must be verified, generally by cameras, and then an appropriate response must be initiated as soon as possible. The response plans should be tied into the risk assessment, so that the response team are well versed on a range of possible incidents.

WHICH SITES SHOULD BE USING PIDS? The 5 D approach to security involves measures that work together to deter, detect, deny, and delay intruders, and defend a site. This layered approach is typically applied to high security sites, but even residential properties may use parts of it; lighting to deter, alarms to detect, and fencing and gates to deny. PIDS can be used in commercial and high security sites as part of the detection layer, or detection and deterrent if combined with an electric fence, but there are specific sites for which the use of PIDS is definitely recommended. CNI, utilities including gas, water, and power, data centres, oil refineries, government properties, outside storage, warehouses, and manufacturing should ideally be including PIDS in their security strategies. With high value goods, sensitive information, or critical services inside, ensuring any attempted attacks or intrusions do not go unnoticed is vital for preventing disruption to crucial operations. CHOOSING PIDS A good place to start is CPNI’s Catalogue of Security Equipment (CSE), which shows a range of detection systems which have been evaluated against specific security standards and have achieved a performance rating. The reputation of the manufacturer or supplier should also be considered, as well as any relevant experience they have in working with your type of site. Look for case studies detailing similar installs, and check the accreditations and memberships they hold as a company, such as an ISO 9001 Quality Management System, Secured by Design licence, or PSSA membership, and if

they have products tested and certified to LPS 1175 and CPNI standards. PIDS are technical systems, so installation should only be carried out by approved professionals with experience. They should be installed according to the manufacturer’s installation procedures, which if not followed could cause problems of responsibility. A certain number of false alarms should be expected from any system due to their sensitivity, but these should not be so frequent that they cast doubt around their accuracy, and cause personnel to ignore what could be a legitimate warning. As recommended by CPNI, after installation of the PIDS, it should be subjected to a range of commissioning tests to ensure they are working to or exceeding the promised performance specification. Commissioning tests should be performed before accepting the system to eliminate any performance concerns and provide a window to reject the system should it not function as expected. A CLOSER LOOK AT FENCE MOUNTED PIDS Fence mounted PIDS are generally the most common systems to install, as most sites will have an existing perimeter fence onto which the PIDS can be installed. Combining fencing and PIDS also starts the process to building an integrated security system; PIDS to deter/ detect depending on which type, and fencing to deny, delay, or defend, or a combination of all three. PIDS may be installed in zones, which allows them to be matched to areas covered by CCTV, and also allows specific zones to be switched on and off accordingly, i.e. for legitimate pedestrian access.

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PERIMETER INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEMS (PIDS) ARE DEVICES THAT DETECT AND DETER THE PRESENCE OF INTRUDERS ATTEMPTING TO BREACH THE PERIMETER OF A SITE, PROVIDING AN EARLY WARNING BY REMOTE ALARM TO ALLOW EFFICIENT RESPONSE FROM SECURITY PERSONNEL

There are different types of fence mounted PIDS available, those that are sensor mounted, providing detection only, or electric fence post mounted, which involve multiple wires and provide detection and a deterrent.

MAINTENANCE OF PIDS Maintenance schedules are important with any security system, and the same applies to PIDS. Regular testing and maintenance are essential to prevent problems arising and ensure any faults are resolved in a timely manner. Products deemed suitable for use by UK Government, national infrastructure and other sensitive sites are attributed a CPNI Protection Level, and PIDS require varying levels of operational checks according to which rating they have achieved. For example, the lowest level products should be visually inspected monthly, and functionally checked quarterly, while the highest level products should be visually inspected daily, and functionally checked weekly. While commissioning tests involve various methods of attack, routine testing can involve a simplified version of these, with one confidence check per zone to ensure the systems are functioning correctly. For example, barrier-mounted

systems could be tested with a simple improvised cut test to the detection zone. Clear debris and litter away from the site periodically to ensure they do not move around and cause a false alarm. Vegetation should also be cut back to make sure it does not interfere with the system. During your maintenance checks, the condition of the detection area, fence, and the system itself should be checked. For fence mounted PIDS, this includes the attachments used to attach the PIDS to the fence. Ensure that any screws or hinges are not corroded, and tamper-resistant fixings are holding strong. Crucially, power supplies must be operating correctly. L

For advice on choosing a Perimeter Intrusion Detection System contact Jacksons Fencing on 0800 408 4766.

FURTHER INFORMATION

www.jacksons-fencing.co.uk

Next generation of perimeter intrusion detection systems launched

The next generation of perimeter intrusion detection systems (PIDSs) are coming to market with significant innovations to provide even greater levels of perimeter protection for sites of national or strategic importance. Leading the way is Heras with a new portfolio of products with next-generation capabilities built on the foundations of the previous generation of PIDS products: most commonly fence mounted, but they can also be wall or ceiling mounted. PIDSs are designed to complement and greatly increase the overall effectiveness of both existing and specified perimeter protection. They are usually installed on the fence fabric to detect potential intruders attempting to enter the site by climbing over, cutting through or even going under the fence. Heras, Europe’s leading end-to-end supplier of permanent and mobile perimeter protection solutions, has taken its first generation of the PIDS products and simplified the range by focusing on its new GeoMic and GeoPoint products, which both have pro versions.

GeoMic uses a discreet microphonic sensor cable (alpha) that listens for sounds – such as those generated from an intrusion attempt – around the entire perimeter. These sounds are converted into electrical signals that are transmitted to the GeoMic, which analyses the signal and then generates an alarm output, if the signal meets the configured alarm criteria. The new GeoMic system is a direct upgrade of the previous generation. The new GeoPoint sensor system utilises multiple sensors that are distributed along the fence line to detect movement and vibration. These sensors can be set up individually with reference to sensitivity and functionality, dependent on the mounting location. The sensors can be grouped into multiple unique zones around the perimeter, enabling more-accurate visual verification of an intrusion when used in conjunction with video security management. GeoPoint is not limited to fence lines only: it can also be used to bring smart detection to critical assets inside the perimeter. Heras has highlighted highlightedthree threecritical critical attributes that that will will increase increasethe theperformance performance capability of of its its PIDSs. PIDSs.The Thefirst firstisisthe theimproved improvedalgorithms analyser analyser algorithms to deliver added to deliver added intelligence intelligence and categorisation and categorisation of threats.

Thethreats. of secondThe is the second multiple is the configuration multiple configuration options to match options the site to match situation theand site situation reduce false andalarms. reduceThe false third alarms. is theThe improved third is the improved communication and integration communication options. and These integration options. improvements meanThese that PIDSs improvements performs meanaccurately, more that PIDSsdelivers performs better moreinformation accurately, delivers and can better be usedinformation in combination and can withbe other used in combination security measures. with other security measures. Ian Crosby, Crosby, Chief Chief Marketing Marketingand andTechnology Technology Officer, said:Officer, “Listening said:to“Listening customer to customer and feedback feedback that ofand ourthat ownofinstallers our ownand installersintegrator security and security partners, integrator we have partners, taken we have taken advantage of developments advantage ofindevelopments multifunctional in multifunctional components, codingcomponents, and IP technology codingto and IP technology significantly updatetoand significantly simplify our update product and simplify range. For theour GeoMic product products, range. we For maintain the fantastic GeoMic products, performance we maintain of our alpha thecable fantastic and now couple performance this with of our updated alphaand cable and now couple upgraded analysers thistowith deliver updated best-in-class and upgraded analysers performance for perimeter to deliver detection. best-in-class The performance brand-new GeoPoint for perimeter products detection. deliver aThe step brand-new up in technology, GeoPoint offering products more deliver flexibility a step up inopening and technology, up new offering opportunities more flexibility for the and opening detection of intrusion up new opportunities or tampering on forthe the detection of perimeter butintrusion also inside or it.” tampering L on the perimeter but also inside it.” L FURTHER INFORMATION FURTHER INFORMATION www.heras.co.uk/products/detection/ www.heras.co.uk fence-mounted-detection

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POLICING

THE WORK OF COUNTER TERROR POLICING OVER THE LAST 12 MONTHS

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n the last year, as the country’s collective consciousness has understandably been focused upon the Covid-19 pandemic, the officers and staff of Counter Terrorism Policing (CTP) have quietly continued the 24/7 work of protecting the UK from another serious threat. Whilst lockdowns, death tolls and vaccinations have somewhat dominated headlines, the UK has continued to face a terror threat that hasn’t dipped below SUBSTANTIAL during the last year, meaning an attack is likely. To put it more starkly, since the pandemic began CTP and the UK Intelligence Services have foiled three potential terror attacks, despite CT arrests falling to their lowest level for nearly a decade. There were a total of 185 arrests for terrorism-related activity in the year ending 31 December 2020, 97 (34 per cent) fewer than in the previous 12-month period and the lowest annual total since 2011. CTP frequently use non-terrorism legislation to make arrests and disrupt terrorist activity, and the overall reduction in crime which occurred during the lockdown period has presented fewer opportunities for officers to do so. Despite this, CTP and their intelligence partners have still managed to successfully protect the public against three attacks – taking the overall number of foiled plots to 28 since March 2017. The Senior National Coordinator for Counter Terrorism Policing, Deputy Assistant Commissioner Dean Haydon, believes these statistics tell us two things: “Firstly, that despite facing unprecedented challenges brought about by the pandemic, CTP continued to keep the public safe by making 185 arrests across more than 800 live investigations.

“And secondly, that while the rest of us have been focused on protecting ourselves and our families from a terrible disease, terrorists have not stopped planning attacks or radicalising vulnerable people online.” So if the threat from terrorism has remained at a high level despite the pandemic, what does that mean for public safety now that restrictions are beginning to ease? And how can businesses, and the public, help CTP to protect the UK against this ever-present threat? Well, these are the top three issues that CTP is asking businesses and the wider public to help with during 2021. YOUNG PEOPLE AND THE THREAT OF RADICALISATION One of the key CT issues to have emerged during successive lockdowns were concerns about a ‘perfect

storm’ of potential radicalisation, amongst young people in particular. Assistant Commissioner Neil Basu, head of Counter Terrorism Policing, said: “We are seeing more young people being drawn towards terrorist activity. What concerns me most is this – there has been a sharp increase in extremist material online in the last few years, and Covid-19 has meant that vulnerable people are spending a lot more time isolated and online, and with fewer of the protective factors that schooling, employment, friends and family can provide. In my opinion that is a perfect storm, one which we cannot predict and that we might be feeling the effects of for many years to come.” Underlying this concern are statistics demonstrating that more children under the age of 18 are being arrested in relation to terrorism offences than ever before. In 2020, 19 children were arrested in relation to terrorism offences. Some were as young as 14 years old, while nearly all will have been radicalised entirely online. In the same time period, hundreds of children under the age of 15 were helped by the Prevent programme to choose a different path, away from hatred and violence – demonstrating a critical need for CTP to boost awareness of the sometimes life-changing difference early intervention from Prevent can make to those vulnerable to radicalisation. Family and friends are best placed to spot the signs first; worrying behaviour changes which can indicate that a loved one is heading down a path towards terrorism, however currently just two per cent of referrals into Prevent come from that group of people. To meet this operational need, CTP created and launched a new service called ACT Early, a dedicated safeguarding website and advice line designed to provide parents, friends and with the specialist support they need to stop their loved ones being drawn into harmful activities or groups. E

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POLICING  UK PROTECT DUTY Since 2017, CTP has worked tirelessly to improve collaboration with the business sector, and recent years have seen us work closer than ever before with UK businesses to address the challenges terrorism presents across the UK. That is why we welcome the recent launch of the Home Office’s public consultation on the proposed Protect Duty legislation; which considers how we can work together to develop proportionate security measures to improve public security. It also considers how those responsible for publicly accessible locations are ready and prepared to take appropriate action, were a terrorist attack to happen, and how a legislative requirement might support this. CTP are strong advocates for the Protect Duty and the benefits a legislative framework can provide for the consistent provision of protective security across the country. It is important at this stage that everyone’s voice is heard and we would encourage you and your businesses to contribute to this process. While she was still Senior National Coordinator for Protect and Prepare, the newly appointed Chief Constable of the British Transport Police, Lucy D’Orsi, explained why she believed putting protective security on a legislative footing would be beneficial for the whole country: “A Protect Duty would transform the UK approach to protective security and ensure we create a hostile environment for terrorists to operate. “I firmly believe that a Protect Duty would be transformational for the UK, and it would be as important to protective security as GDPR [General Data Protection Regulation] has been for data handling.” Visit www.gov.uk/government/ consultations/protect-duty for more information, and have your voice heard.

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POLICING POST-LOCKDOWN VIGILANCE One of the main impacts the pandemic and resulting lockdowns have had on the CT picture in the UK has been the restriction upon free movement, and the shutdown of the crowded spaces that terrorists would normally target during attack planning. Despite three foiled plots during the last 12 months, these restrictions have made it more difficult for would-be terrorists to plan or enact attacks, and the threat of attack was described as ‘temporarily suppressed’ during this period. As the easing of lockdown begins in earnest across the country, there are concerns that as crowded places start to fill with people again, there is potential for that risk to come back. That is why CTP has recently launched the ‘Easing Lockdown Vigilance Campaign’ to encourage businesses and the public to support the police’s 24/7 efforts to keep the country safe by remaining vigilant, and reporting anything that doesn’t seem right to security staff or the police. Businesses are also being asked to update their security plans and ensure any new outdoor spaces opened to meet new regulations have been properly risk-assessed – helping to protect their customers not just against Covid, but terrorism too. Deputy Assistant Commissioner Matt Twist, who recently replaced Chief Constable Lucy D’Orsi as the Senior National Coordinator for Protect and

AN ATTACK IS STILL LIKELY. SINCE THE PANDEMIC BEGAN COUNTER TERROR POLICING AND THE UK INTELLIGENCE SERVICES HAVE FOILED THREE POTENTIAL TERROR ATTACKS, DESPITE CT ARRESTS FALLING TO THEIR LOWEST LEVEL FOR NEARLY A DECADE Prepare, said: “CTP has the vitally important job of reminding everyone that while Covid-19 is still dominating our lives, we must do all we can to prevent another threat from reappearing - terrorism, sadly, has not gone away. “The best defence against the terrorist threat is a collective community effort - where police, security staff, businesses and the public come together to minimise the chance of attack, and Counter Terrorism Policing have a range of training materials and advice to help businesses improve and update their security plans.” THE EASING OF LOCKDOWN Counter Terrorism Policing has three actions they wish businesses to carry out during the easing of lockdown restrictions in the coming weeks:

• Arrange for staff to take our Action Counters Terrorism (ACT) Awareness online e-learning course. It is free, takes just 45 minutes to complete and could save lives.

• Review our sector-specific crowded places advice documents, and make sure that you carry out risk assessments on existing sites and any new areas such as outdoor spaces. • Download the ACT app to your phone to be sure of having the latest official information and updates from Counter Terrorism Policing in your pocket 24/7, and encourage your staff to do the same. DACSO Matt Twist added: “Our range of ACT products can help you make quick, cost effective improvements to your security plans and help you protect both your business, your staff and your customers. “It is yet another example of how collaboration and integration between police and the private sector can enhance national security and how we can collectively work together to make all our communities safer.” L

FURTHER INFORMATION

www.counterterrorism.police.uk

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CYBER SECURITY

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COMBINING PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL SECURITY TO PROTECT YOUR BUSINESS I

n the past, relying on physical locks and security features was normal. There was no such thing as digital locking systems and CCTV was rather primitive. Today, things are completely different, and since the Covid-19 global pandemic there are now a whole new set of security needs due to the mass move to working from home. This move has left many office buildings empty which has left them wide open to be prime targets for burglaries and break-ins. It is therefore important to combine both physical and digital security in order to ensure your business remains secure even if your office doors remain closed due to lockdown. ENSURING A GOOD MIX OF PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL SECURITY FOR MAXIMUM PROTECTION One of the biggest problems that people face when protecting their business is their reliance on either physical security or digital security. Ideally, you should ensure a good mix of both. For instance, if you only have a

digital lock protecting your doors there will be countless other ways for people to break in. They could then hack into your security solutions and trick them into opening doors with pre-programmed ID cards, or even by abusing security safeguards and backdoors. However, it is also possible that you are relying too heavily on physical solutions and not making room for digital options. A good example of this is installing a traditional CCTV system that can only be monitored from within your office. Since many are now working from home, it is important to have a remote system that allows you to view camera footage from any location. This will give you peace of mind, your security systems will alert you whenever there is a potential intruder and allows you to manually look at the camera feed to see if you need to call security or even the police. Despite all this, certain devices will still need to be switched on such as network solutions and servers, and this makes offices a top target for thieves. E

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CYBER SECURITY  WORK WITH THE RIGHT SERVICES TO ENSURE COMPLETE PROTECTION To ensure complete protection and peace of mind, you should engage an emergency locksmith and security services to protect your business both digitally and physically. There are many different solutions for both, so it is important to mix them carefully to ensure your business is protected regardless of its circumstances. For example, you may need to focus on how you are going to protect your networking solutions from online cyber criminals. Since you will need to keep your servers online to work from home, you may want to move your remote workflow away from your own office and instead use other cloud-based services that offer enhanced protection and security features. This will make it easier for you to personally manage and provide reassurance that there are experts looking after your data and ensuring that your business remains fully operational despite everyone working from home during the pandemic. There are also many physical security risks to organisations as well as digital

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ones. Here are some of the more common ones, and how you can protect your organisation against them: PHYSICAL SECURITY RISK 1: TAILGATING Most offices have a type of access control such as a swipe-card access point or a locked door. While these physical security measures are good, they can be easily overcome by someone who is determined to gain unauthorised access to your premises. Tailgating is the practice of an unauthorised person following an authorised person into a building or a secure area. This often happens as multiple people will pass through doors every day, and the people following behind will simply follow through to gain access, making it easy for an unauthorised person to get into an office building with no difficulty. Tailgating can be limited with the right security measures, if you are willing to make the investment, as anti-tailgating doors can be installed which make this practice virtually impossible. Another way to reduce

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tailgating is by providing physical security training to your staff. It is far less reliable, but more cost effective. Your staff should also be encouraged to report any tailgating attempts they witness to security personnel. PHYSICAL SECURITY RISK 2: DOCUMENT THEFT Papers and documents are likely to be lying around in many places from printer stations to desks. Sensitive and confidential documents can easily become unaccounted for and fall into the wrong hands. Even if they are not taken from the office, a visitor could have access to information that you do not want them to see. The best way to prevent the accidental viewing of documents or the theft of them is to have a clear-desk policy in place. This means ensuring that staff all clear their desks and put all documents away at the end of a working day, which will make it less likely for confidential documents to be left in vulnerable places. Your staff should also shred all sensitive documents held by them when they are no longer required.


CYBER SECURITY PHYSICAL SECURITY THREAT 3: CONTROL ACCESS TO VISITORS It is impossible to keep a high level of physical security if you don’t know who was in your office at specific times. Visitors that are unaccounted for can pose a serious risk, as you will not be able to tell if they were there if an incident occurs. Having swipe-card access or ID doors for access control is essential for the security of your organisation, and all visitors should be accounted for through visitor passes. By having this system in place, you will always be able to find out if a person within your office is authorised to be there, and you will also have a log of their entry to verify if needed. The caveat to this is that you should be careful that everyone actually uses the verification that they are authorised to use. PHYSICAL SECURITY THREAT 4: STOLEN IDENTIFICATION If people are going in and out of your office using someone else’s identification, the end result is the same as if you had no control over the access to your office at all. Your staff should be educated about the importance of protecting

ONE OF THE BIGGEST PROBLEMS THAT PEOPLE FACE WHEN PROTECTING THEIR BUSINESS IS THEIR RELIANCE ON EITHER PHYSICAL SECURITY OR DIGITAL SECURITY. IDEALLY, YOU SHOULD ENSURE A GOOD MIX OF BOTH their IDs or access cards. If training on this is not provided, many will share or lend each other their cards quite innocently without thinking about the security ramifications of this and making it much harder to properly monitor office building access. PHYSICAL SECURITY THREAT 5: SOCIAL ENGINEERING Social engineering is one of the most challenging physical security vulnerabilities to overcome. These kinds of attacks come in many different forms, which makes them difficult to combat. They rely on the manipulation of your staff, often using information they have gained to impersonate someone else, or by abusing human empathy to gain access to secure networks and areas.

The ‘coffee trick’ is one of the oldest social engineering tricks in the book. It is a more sophisticated version of tailgating and involves a person holding a cup of coffee in each hand walking towards an office door. An unsuspecting employee who is passing nearby may then open and hold the door for them out of politeness, thus letting an authorised person gain entry to the premises. There is no way to overcome all threats that are born out of social engineering, but to try and combat them, you should undertake a thorough physical security risk assessment and consider how someone could get past all the protections that you have put in place. Raising awareness through training about social engineering is key, as it will help your staff to understand the risks that it can pose, and to help them stay alert to any suspicious activity. BUILD A STRONG PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL SECURITY CULTURE While sadly it is impossible to stop all attacks against your business, both physical and digital, by combining the two and raising awareness about physical and digital security among your staff you can encourage them to take an active stance in helping to defend their workplace. This is by far the most effective way to stay as secure as possible. You may think that your staff are you biggest threat, but they are also your greatest ally. L

Lisa Ventura is an award-winning Cyber Security consultant and is the CEO and Founder of the UK Cyber Security Association (UKCSA), a membership association that is dedicated to individuals and companies who actively work in cyber security in the UK. Lisa is passionate about raising awareness of being more cyber aware in business to help prevent cyber attacks and cyber fraud. She is a thought leader, author and keynote speaker and has been published in various publications globally. In 2020 she was named CISO Magazine’s Infosec Superwoman of the Year, in 2021 she was named as one of SC Magazine’s ‘Top 30 Women of Influence in Cyber Security’ and has won numerous other awards for her work including SC Magazine’s ‘Outstanding Contribution to Cyber Security’ award.

FURTHER INFORMATION

cybersecurityassociation.co.uk

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MARTYN’S LAW

GOVERNMENT PURSUES COUNTER TERROR LEGISLATION A s lockdown starts to ease, the government is keen to ensure the public is kept safe from terror attacks at entertainment events and venues. A consultation process is now underway which is designed to determine new antiterrorism legislation. This comes in the wake of the horrific bombing at the Ariana Grande concert in Manchester in 2017. In one of the worst acts of terrorism in the UK an Islamic terrorist detonated a home-made bomb at the Manchester Arena killing more than 20 people and injuring a further 137, many of them children. Legislation to address these issues stalled because of Covid-19.

MARTYN’S LAW One of those who died in the blast was Martyn Hett. Since that day his mother, Figen Murray has campaigned tirelessly for ‘Martyn’s Law’ to force venues and public spaces to improve counter-terror security measures. Murray told the public enquiry into the bombing that new legislation should be delayed no longer and said: “My focus will always be to stop such violent acts from happening again because Martyn and the other 21 victims cannot have lost their lives for nothing.”

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The government’s so-called Protect Duty legislation will build on ‘Martyn’s Law’ and would apply to large public venues, retail and entertainment chains and public spaces. Currently, it is not compulsory for a venue or site owners to give staff antiterrorism training and there is no obligation on their part to engage with advice on terror threats or on how to mitigate risk. Security Minister James Brokenshire said the consultation ‘considers how we can work together to develop proportionate security measures to improve public security. It also considers how those responsible for publicly accessible locations are ready and prepared to take appropriate action, were a terrorist attack to happen’.

PROTECT DUTY Protect Duty will likely require staff to under-go mandatory counter-terrorism advice and terrorism response training. This would then form part of the induction process for any new employees. It’s also been suggested that a venue should have a specially trained crisis manager on duty at all times when the premises are open. Free training is already available on the government ACT website. The government


MARTYN’S LAW may seek to expand and build on these existing measures. Organisations may well have to conduct risk assessments at their venues. This should help identify what measures need to be put in place when vulnerabilities have been identified. This may mean more thorough security checks including body scans and bag searches. LOCAL AUTHORITIES Local authorities will also be expected to work with venues and have plans in place to deal with a terror attack. Since the Civil Contingencies Act became law in 2004 local authorities are obliged to implement multi-agency Local Resilience Forums, but currently they don’t engage with mandatory counter-terrorism planning. This looks set to change. The government is keen to make clear that the legislation should not come at a substantial cost to venues and their owners. Though of course costs will vary depending on the size and nature of the venue concerned. AL FRESCO DINING Businesses are already raising concerns. Last summer we saw al fresco dining make a land grab on pavements and roads outside restaurant premises. Restaurants are set to re-open later in the year, but it’s unlikely that out-door dining will go away. With customers thronging outside space, who is responsible for their safety and who has to undertake risk assessments and counter-terrorism training? This might be a big ask for a local trattoria. Similarly, many outdoor spaces are owned by one organisation and run or managed by another. Once again who has responsibility? Is it the owner or the operator who must oversee counter-terrorism advice and training? Who will be held accountable and how will this work in practice when multiple parties are involved? Legislation will need to be easily understood and implemented by organisations of very different types, sizes and staffing profiles. The government must get the scope, criteria and threshold right and also consider how to conduct inspections and enforcement regimes. COMMUNICATING WITH THE PUBLIC Good communication between all parties during a terror attack is essential. This includes the emergency services, venue management and security staff. Attention is now turning to see whether there is technology available to reach out to members of the public during an incident. Ideally, this would allow venues and the police to send customers the information they need to stay safe and avoid mass panic. A suggestion that is gaining traction is to leverage attendee’s phones. Asking

customers to download an app to receive messages is thought unlikely to work, but SMS or text messages could be sent to their phones if they merely have to scan a QR code or call a number to register. The code and number would be found prominently displayed on their ticket and their registration deleted the following day. This might provoke GDPR and personal privacy concerns, but if these could be ironed out it would be another security measure to help keep the public safe.

barely recognise as an inconvenience. This may be easy to say and hugely desirable but how it is put into practise will present real challenges. The government is seeking views from the public, the industries concerned along with the emergency services. HMG is keen to act, and legislation could be on the books in short order after the consultation is complete this summer. The roll out of the legislation and the time it takes for organisations to become fully compliant may take a little longer. L

WELCOME LEGISLATION It is thought likely that new counterterror legislation will be welcomed by the public, with many people critical of firms and venues for not taking the terror threat more seriously. Prior to the Manchester bombing many larges venues had made little or no effort to put plans in place to stop or mitigate the effects of a terror attack. For all that, a balance will have to be struck between keeping people safe while at the same time allowing the public to enjoy the events they have paid to see. Too many overt restrictions are not the way ahead. Some have called what is required ‘protection without detection’ meaning the public is kept safe but in ways they

Written by Jim Preen, YUDU Sentinel crisis management director. In his role as crisis management director at YUDU Sentinel, Jim provides client specific advice on all aspects of communications, designs and delivers crisis simulation exercises, writes crisis communication plans and media trains senior executives. Formerly he was a journalist working at ABC News (US) where he covered stories including the Gulf War and the Bosnian conflict. He won two Emmys for his work.

FURTHER INFORMATION

www.yudu.com/sentinel

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FIRST AID

BLEED CONTROL KITS AND PUBLIC PROTECTION P

ublic protection, the protection of all visiting or working in a public accessible location, whether a stadium, an arena, a place of worship or a shopping centre, to list just a few examples, has always been the number one priority of effective service providers. The upcoming Protect Duty - Martyn’s Law will move public protection from good practice to being legally binding. In future no employer or service provider has a choice. Protection and preparedness to deal with a terrorist attack will become a legal requirement. History shows us that the types of injuries experienced in terrorist attacks tend to be penetrating chest wounds, stab wounds, amputation of limbs with a majority causing life threatening catastrophic blood loss. General first aid at work kits do not contain the required items to treat and stop such severe bleeding. MANCHESTER ARENA The need for public protection is currently being highlighted by the enquiry into the Manchester Arena bombing of 22 May 2017, which claimed the lives of 22 and seriously injured 500. Although the enquiry is still to report, witness testimony, already in the public domain, tells us that some of the deaths could have been avoided and many of the injuries treated better, if those on the scene, immediately after the blast, had been able to access specific first aid equipment especially bleed control kits, rather than the few, general first aid boxes available. Given the delay in paramedics arriving on scene, the people inside the venue in most cases security staff and employees ,already stunned and reeling from the blast, had to try to stem catastrophic bleeding and plug deep shrapnel and blast wounds, with nothing better than some gauze and sticking plasters, not to mention a lack of training.

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Despite their heroic efforts, and those of some members of the public able to function after the shock of the blast, lives were lost that could have been saved. It has become obvious, as the inquiry has gone on, that it was the lack of bleed control kits, and the lack of training for staff on scene in their use, that were key factors in adding to the already horrific effects of the attack. Had staff been able to access strategically placed and provided bleed control kits, containing crucial items such as tourniquets and gauze to pack deep wounds, as well as effectively trained and tested, in the use of the contents of the kits, lives would have been saved, and the impact of the tragedy lessened. The basic lesson from Manchester, is that staff in public accessible locations, regardless of the type of venue, must have access to and be trained in the use of bleed control kits. The public has to be protected. That includes protecting them after potentiallylife-threatening events, such as terrorist or criminal attacks and accidents. Not only did the chaos that reigned after the bomb went off in the Manchester Arena leave many families bereft and broken because of death and injury, but it also left a deep trauma on those staff and public who struggled with whatever they could find, to try to save lives. The victims of Manchester were many. We know that similar events may happen in future and that the Protect Duty will require us to be prepared for them. Lives that can be saved are too precious to be lost.L

Written by Michael Greville, Salvas managing director.

FURTHER INFORMATION

salvas.co.uk/salvas-learning/


Image © John Tlumacki, photographer at Boston Globe

FIRST AID

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EVENT SECURITY

ANALYSING THE PROTECT DUTY LEGISLATION I

t’s a certainty that the proposed Protect Duty could significantly impact the UK events industry. For a sector reeling from the effects of Covid-19, the thought of additional checks, measures and costs in complying with Protect Duty legislation is a concern for many. However, event organisers should see Protect Duty as an opportunity to bring clarity and focus to event security and counter terrorism planning, creating safer events for visitors, exhibitors and staff. The current Protect Duty consultation runs until 2 July, and only after that will the final shape of any legislation start to

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become apparent. As an organiser who works in multiple venues, a key question will be the division of responsibility for security aspects between the venue owner/operator and Clarion as the event organiser who takes the tenancy. Physical security of the building and public areas will largely fall to the venue operators. But if there is a requirement for enhanced bag searches or X-Ray scanning, whose responsibility will this be? CTX has always conducted high-level security at its entrances, irrespective of venue security, but other events do not. The events industry will keenly scrutinise the details of the


EVENT SECURITY

additional measures required by Protect Duty; this will be the area where most of the additional costs will lie. COLLABORATIVE WORKING One thing is for sure, a more joined-up approach between the venue and organiser will need to become the norm, potentially involving the local Counter Terrorism Security Advisor (CTSA) or other external security expertise. There is no point in organisers creating a secure event if the visitor queue extends outside the venue due to inadequate registration or crowd control. The venue and organiser will have to work together to ensure the safety of visitors both within the organiser’s tenancy space and the public areas. Just dropping the responsibility

for the security plan onto the event Health & Safety team will not work, as the knowledge required is different. There is a growing concern that organisers may have to add the cost of implementing enhanced security schemes onto ticket prices or stand rental. However, the main thrust of the legislation should be towards simple, affordable interventions that protect and reassure the public, as well as to deter would-be attackers. The Manchester Arena Inquiry found significant failings in staff training leading to complacency and a lack of awareness of the likely threat. Mitigating this, and creating a security culture, is an area that all organisers can focus on at minimal cost. Fortunately, free resources are available such as ‘Action Counters Terrorism’ (ACT) e-Learning training for event staff. Counter Terrorism Policing has created an app allowing individuals and organisations access to the latest CT Policing information & guidance - over 100,000 downloads so far. Before CTX in September, our show team will have carried out the e-learning, facilitated by Clarion’s in-house training platform. This

training is something any organiser can do, regardless of their budget. Whatever your point of view on Protect Duty, it’s vital to engage with the consultation. Covid-19 and the safe reopening of events and venues may have the industry’s attention now, but Protect Duty will be with us long after the pandemic has subsided, so it’s essential you have your say.

David Townsend is Event Director of the Counter Terror Expo. CTX is run by Clarion Events, one of the largest event companies in the world.

FURTHER INFORMATION

www.ctexpo.co.uk

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EVENTS DIARY

EVENTS DIARY products and services including mobile technology, AI, facial recognition, body-worn tech, digital forensics, through to connected vehicles, digitallyenabled officers, kit and boots and training.

IFSEC INTERNATIONAL 12-14 July 2021, ExCeL London www.ifsecglobal.com/event/en/home The in-person IFSEC International event will be taking place on 12-14 July and represents the first major opportunity in over two years to meet face-to-face with the security community in a safe and secure way. So much has happened in the security sector over the past year with many innovative approaches to technologies coming to market. IFSEC 2021 will be the first chance you’ll have to see how thermal surveillance cameras can be deployed to manage coronavirus, as well as the latest evolutions in touch free biometrics. The event will present an opportunity for delegates to examine cutting-edge security solutions and products, covering perimeter protection, cybersecurity, video surveillance, access control, integrated security and intruder detection.

THE EMERGENCY SERVICES SHOW

THE SECURITY EVENT 7-9 September 2021, NEC Birmingham www.thesecurityevent.co.uk Created for the commercial and residential security market, this free-to-attend event will bring together a world-class education programme, market leaders and industry experts back at the home of UK security. Spearheaded by nine of the industry’s major players, the exhibition will showcase the world’s leading security brands. The Security Event will attract thousands of attendees with key features including a tailored content programme and networking opportunities out of show hours. The highly focused tailored education programme investigates the evolving challenges and opportunities involved in the delivery of security projects throughout the supply chain. The Security Event will tap into the expertise of leading security professionals and explore the latest innovations from suppliers.

7-8 September 2021, NEC Birmingham www.emergencyuk.com Featuring over 450 exhibitors displaying the latest equipment on the market, live interactive demonstrations, unique CPD accredited seminar programme, and unrivalled networking opportunities, this two-day event brings together all areas of the emergency services industry - both public and private sector, to discover innovative technology and solutions, share their experiences and unite in their collaborative approach to operational effectiveness and efficiency. There are plenty of networking opportunities throughout both days of the show. ESS is an ideal place to meet your peers, forge relationships with potential new partners, or to strengthen relations with current clients. With four other relevant events co-located alongside, benefit from the cross over audience. The new Future Policing Zone at ESS 2021 will feature a dedicated exhibition area of the most innovative

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COUNTER TERROR EXPO 14-16 September 2021, ExceL London www.ctexpo.co.uk Counter Terror Expo (CTX) unites professionals from industry, infrastructure, government and policing to explore counter-terrorism and other complex security


EVENTS DIARY

operations. The event facilitates the development of new ideas and technologies to combat the latest threats facing the UK and other geographies. Having launched in 2008, this year marks the show’s 13th iteration, but first at the new ExCeL London home. With all attendees verified and approved, you can expect a high quality, relevant audience encompassing law enforcement, government and the private sector. Targeting the evolving threat landscape, CTX allows highlevel security stakeholders to: meet with specialist exhibitors to explore sector-leading services; discover innovative products from established suppliers and new market entrants; freely attend educational conference sessions on topical issues; network with industry peers and stakeholders from across the security spectrum; and explore co-located events, including Forensics Europe Expo and DSEI.

International Security Expo is the only flagship event bringing government, industry, academia and the entire end-user community in charge of regulation and procurement together to debate current challenges, share knowledge and updates and to source the latest security technologies, products and services. With innovation at the very heart of the event, International Security Expo provides a unique and secure place to source the latest products, test and evaluate the technologies and see them in action in one of our live demonstration areas. Additionally, debate the latest topics and challenges in our high-level educational seminars, all free-of-charge and CPD certified. Speak to product experts, share knowledge and have your questions answered by worldrenowned speakers and acclaimed global security leaders.

INTERNATIONAL CYBER EXPO DSEI 14-17 September 2021, ExCeL London www.dsei.co.uk DSEI connects governments, national armed forces, industry thought leaders and the entire defence and security supply chain on a global scale. With a range of valuable opportunities for networking, a platform for business, access to relevant content & live-action demonstrations, the DSEI community can strengthen relationships, share knowledge and engage in the latest capabilities across the exhibition’s Aerospace, Land, Naval, Security & Joint Zones. As British forces modernise to meet the demands of the information age, they do so with the understanding that success on the future battlefield requires integration across land, sea, air, cyber and space. Under the theme of ‘Integrated Response to Future Threats’ DSEI 2021 will be shaped to support this strategic shift with input from industry, academia, international partners and delegates.

28-29 September 2021, OlympiaL London www.internationalcyberexpo.com The International Cyber Expo (ICE) takes place alongside International Security Expo 2021 delivering best in class education around Cyber Security Risks & Threats, Detection & Response and the very latest technology and services that protect the digital and physical future of businesses. Aimed at government, CISOs and an international audience, the event is designed to help improve the security and resilience of national infrastructures and business continuity.   ICE is the first event to bridge the gap between the physical & cyber security industries on a global scale. Featuring an exhibition of the latest cyber security capabilities and innovation, a two day ‘Cyber in Security’ Conference with ‘real world’ case studies from the industry’s leading thinkers, a Cyber Innovation Theatre, Live Attack Demonstrator and more.

INTERNATIONAL SECURITY EXPO 28-29 September 2021, OlympiaL London www.internationalsecurityexpo.com

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TERRORISM

MASS SHOOTINGS ARE TERRIFYING, BUT ARE THEY ALL ‘TERRORISM’? We have ‘terrorism on the brain’ and vested interests are using any excuse to label all acts of violence committed by any group as terrorist, writes Phil Gurski

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ur continued difficulty in defining what terrorism is and what it is not is not helpful. If I am not mistaken most people probably have a good, if not a very good, impression of New Zealand. Far off in the South Pacific and hence hard to get to (trust me, I’ve been there four or five times and it takes forever!) it is nevertheless a beautiful land full of amazing scenery and very nice people. It is also a relatively peaceful nation with a relatively low crime rate. As one Website put it: “You’re more likely to get hurt while participating in an extreme sport than by a criminal down here”. Sounds good to me.

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And yet, a few years back New Zealand was the scene of a horrific mass murder. A right-wing extremist from Australia, Brenton Tarrant, entered two mosques in Christchurch in the South Island in March 2019 and opened fire. By the time he had finished shooting 51 people were dead and another 40 wounded. In August 2020 he was sentenced to life in jail without parole – the first person in the country’s history to receive the sentence. One of the counts on which he was found guilty was terrorism, again a first in New Zealand. By all accounts New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinta Ardern put in an extraordinary performance in the aftermath of this


TERRORISM

tragedy. She said and did the right things and in essence was the true leader everyone looks for when things of this nature happen. Unlike certain heads of state in recent history who shall remain nameless. New Zealand reverted to its usual low key self afterwards. Not all places are so lucky. Fast forward to April 2021 and the land which experiences more mass shootings than any other witnessed yet another one. On 15 April, a 19-year old former FedEx employee entered a facility near Indianapolis and killed eight and wounded several more before taking his own life. The FBI is rightly cautioning against jumping to conclusions on a motive for the crime. During an earlier investigation into the shooter – his mother was concerned he would try to get killed in what is known as ‘suicide by cop’ – the FBI noted ‘no Racially Motivated Violent Extremism (RMVE) ideology was identified during the course of the assessment’. SO, WHERE DOES THIS LEAVE US? In a phrase, in the realm of uncertainty. Tarrant’s spree was definitely an act of terrorism as he was known to espouse anti-Islamic and pro RWE ideas. In other words, his actions were a) extremely violent and b) ideologicallymotivated which makes them terrorist in nature. The Indianapolis shooter’s reasons are as yet unknown and may never be discovered as he is not cooperating with police (on account that he is dead). Despite our hunger

for why we may have to satisfy ourselves with ‘we do not know’. Alas, this information gap has not stopped some from leaping to conclusions. As four of the dead were Sikh an advocacy group has already urged a probe of possible racial or ethnic hatred as a factor, despite a grand total of zero clues in that regard. It is nevertheless likely that conclusions have been drawn and some of these will be hard to undermine regardless of whether new information surfaces in the weeks and months to come. THE BOTTOM LINE The unnecessary deaths of eight FedEx workers may be nothing but a terrible act of violence by a messed up young man (there is some possible link to mental illness here). That the act was terrifying is not in question. That it was terrorism is, despite New Zealand‘s unfortunate decision to include ‘fear incitement’ in its revised definition of terrorism, most definitely still at issue. I am sure that the criminal ‘incited fear’: that does not make him a terrorist. I once again see that we are losing the thread when it comes to what is and what is not terrorism. The ‘court of public opinion‘ rather than the real court has already ruled and there is no room for appeal. We continue to have ‘terrorism on the brain’ and a whole slew of vested interests (ethnic and other socially-structured groups, lobbies, academics, etc.) are using any excuse to label any act of violence committed by an identifiable gathering as terrorist.

This is neither necessary nor productive. If those making these noises succeed and end up influencing governments to make policy and operational decisions to expand the terrorism remit we will see organisations responsible for countering it end up with way too much on their plates (which are already overfull in an all-you-caneat buffet way). That ain’t good. Let’s come to an agreement shall we? Let’s refrain from calling just about everything ‘terrorism‘ before the facts – any facts! – are in. And let’s stop classifying every brain fart produced by every Tom, Dick and Harriet as an ‘ideology‘. Let’s keep terrorism where it belongs: a thankfully rare event (in most places that are not Afghanistan) that does not need more attention than it deserves. Please? L

Phil Gurski is the President and CEO of Borealis Threat and Risk Consulting Ltd. and Programme Director for the Security, Economics and Technology (SET) hub at the University of Ottawa’s Professional Development Institute (PDI). Phil is a 32-year veteran of CSE and CSIS and the author of five books on terrorism.

FURTHER INFORMATION

borealisthreatandrisk.com

ISSUE 46 | COUNTER TERROR BUSINESS MAGAZINE

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RADICALISATION

RADICALISATION AND COUNTERRADICALISATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION How safe is the safeguarding route? Catherine McGlynn and Shaun McDaid, from the University of Huddersfield, explore

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oncerns about extremism and radicalisation, and what can be done about them, are very much to the fore in policy circles at present. The government has recently re-started the Independent Review of Prevent (the UK’s counter-radicalisation policy), and work has also begun on an Independent review, led by Lord Walney, the government’s independent adviser on political violence and disruption, into far-right and far-left extremism in the United Kingdom.

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During the current pandemic, there have been concerns that online radicalisation has worsened, especially among young people. Whilst the pandemic may have provided a fresh stimulus to extremists of all types, and encouraged the proliferation of conspiratorial rhetoric and thinking, such concerns about the potential for youth involvement in extremism are by no means new. Indeed, young people, in both statutory and higher education, have been the focus of initiatives


RADICALISATION to spot and prevent radicalisation into violence for over five years, as part of the government’s ‘Prevent Duty’. Introduced in 2015, as part of the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act (CTSA), the ‘Prevent Duty’ obliges a range of public institutions, including universities, to have ‘due regard to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism’. At the time, and since, observers have been divided over the potential impact of the Prevent Duty. On the one hand, there are those who say the duty is necessary to keep students, and the wider public safe, and on the other, there are those who fear the duty may have negative implications for civil liberties. The National Union of Students (NUS) has promoted a ‘Students not Suspects’ campaign that encapsulates two key criticisms of the Prevent Duty: “Communities who are already at the sharpest end of state repression are further targeted through Prevent; Muslim, Black and international students disproportionately find their ideas and beliefs reported to the police yet, as surveillance also extends to lecturers and environmental and political activists, civil liberties are curtailed for us all.” However, advocates of the duty have argued that it is a necessary and proportional legal framework for a terror threat that is all too real and can point to the increasing focus within Prevent on right-wing extremism. Indeed, the last extremist outfit with a notable core of student members was the fascist group National Action, proscribed as a terrorist organisation in 2016. Concerns about a so-called ‘chilling effect’ on free speech in universities have gone beyond the realms of security concerns. Recently, universities have been subject to enhanced political scrutiny regarding their commitment to freedom of speech, amid media reports of the supposed ‘no platforming’ of speakers with views that are deemed to be unfashionable or controversial, especially those on the right of the political spectrum. FREEDOM OF SPEECH Given that debate around this issue has remained intense and has become increasingly polarised, we wanted to do empirical research that asked has the Prevent Duty impacted on universities in the UK, and what are the implications of this apparently conflicting focus on freedom of speech on the one hand, with the ‘due regard’ duty on the other? To ascertain the potential impact of the duty on universities, we examined the publicly available policy documents of over 100 universities in England, and also conducted focus group interviews with students and staff, both those who had taught or studied topics related to terrorism, and control groups who had not.

Our interviews did not produce evidence to support the thesis that the duty is having a ‘chilling effect’ on free speech. Generally, students seem free to express their views and opinions, even on controversial topics. Where they have reservations about discussing these sensitive matters, it is due to a desire not to offend their colleagues rather than a fear of the eavesdropping state. Staff, likewise, do not appear to be overly burdened by their Prevent Duty obligations either. Several described the ‘tick box’ nature of the training, and the sense that the policy was being implemented because the universities were obliged to comply with the CTSA, and not out of any zealotry on their part. Ostensibly, the worst fears of those critics of the Prevent Duty do not appear to have materialised – or, at least, not yet. THE SAFEGUARDING ROUTE The Policy documents we analysed helped us understand why the Orwellian nightmare predicted did not come to pass and also help to explain the above-mentioned ‘tick box’ approach observed by staff. Certainly, universities have complied fully with their legal obligations by creating appropriate policies on IT usage and reporting concerns, but for the most part appear to have gone no further than the minimum that is required in the legislation. For example, universities have not been required to proactively promote ‘fundamental British values’ as has been central to Prevent strategies for statutory levels of education, and so they have left the concept well alone. However, what we did find, is that in order to facilitate this approach of a minimal compliance threshold, universities have adopted their new counter-radicalisation obligations into existing frameworks of adult safeguarding. And it is what we call the ‘safeguarding route’, for all that it seems an attractive way for universities to package their Prevent Duty obligations, that has had potentially the most problematic

effect in a higher education setting. Radicalisation is framed in the wider PREVENT strategy as something anyone can fall victim to, if certain circumstances pertain at a given time. In this formulation, individuals may be considered ‘vulnerable’, and the risk assessment matrixes (the ‘Extremism Risk Guidance’, also known as the ‘Vulnerability Assessment Framework’) used by PREVENT explicitly identify particular ‘vulnerabilities’ that could potentially signal someone was at risk of radicalisation into violence. Universities appear to have enthusiastically embraced the idea of vulnerability and counter-radicalisation as a form of safeguarding. Analysing their policy responses, we saw again and again how this had been identified as a way of protecting institutions’ counterradicalisation approaches from the charge of targeting particular communities based on ethnicity, religion, or political belief. If everyone is potentially vulnerable to radicalisation, then safeguarding across the board seems a non-discriminatory way to implement the policy. The problem is such approaches are potentially at odds with the realities of the student experience, and, indeed, the processes by which people may become involved in political violence in the first place. We found that students in particular had absorbed the stereotypes of the lost and lonely, open to brainwashing by extremists and differentiated themselves from it, but the evidence base of risk and behaviours, currently lacking in testing through measures such as control groups, is not there to support that image. Long-term, we suggest that universities are adding to existing problems that stem from casting adult students as vulnerable subjects. We would also ask them to consider the fall-out of a future violent attack if it was to emerge that an institution dealt with a potentially violent extremist through well-being

FURTHER INFORMATION

www.hud.ac.uk

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RADICALISATION

CTB365 RADICALISATION & EXTREMISM I

n light of the recently announced inquiry into the way prisons deal with convicted terrorists, amid increasing concerns of growing radicalisation behind bars, Jonathan Hall QC, who leads this inquiry, has said: “There has been a steady drumbeat over recent years of terrorist attacks against prison officers, and an increasing number of individuals who may well have formed their terrorist intent in prison under the influence of high-status terrorist prisoners…We need scrutiny of how prisons operate to either contain, or worse encourage, terrorism.” There can be no doubt that the petri dish atmosphere in the UK prison system is illequipped to prevent vulnerable, malleable and disillusioned young offenders (often with mental health issues) from being ‘converted’ to a harder, more violent and extreme individual, not only more capable, but more motivated to carry out terrorist acts on their release. We only have to look back to the events at Fishmongers Hall in November 2019 – where recently released Usman Khan fatally stabbed Jack Merritt

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and Saskia Jones at a prisoner rehabilitation event, then going on to injure two others before being shot dead by police officers – to see that the custodial de-radicalisation program was ineffective. Indeed, the Prevent officers tasked with monitoring Khan had ‘no specific training’ in handling terrorists. Meanwhile, closer to home, Assistant Commissioner Neil Basu has again advised parents and carers to ACT Early and keep a close eye on signs of extremist grooming as young people spend more time out of school and online. The head of Counter Terrorism Policing said that the ongoing national lockdown was likely to bring increased risks of radicalisation due to groomers seeking to exploit isolation and more time being spent on the internet. Only recently, a 16-year-old boy from Cornwall was sentenced to a 24month youth rehabilitation order for offences against the Terrorism Act. He was identified as the leader of the UK cell for the worldwide online extremist group Feuerkrieg Division (FKD), promoting right wing terrorism, white supremacy, homophobia and racism.


RADICALISATION So, how can the extremist education agenda be thwarted in the prison system? Should solitary confinement for terror-related offences be mandatory? Does the de-radicalisation process need strengthening and revalidating? Should all prison officers be ‘Preventtrained’ to be able to better spot those inmates in danger of being exposed to cancerous cellmates, hellbent on turning the prison system into a terrorist training camp? How do we address the issue of online radicalisation? Do ISPs need to intervene earlier? What about freedom of the internet? These are the key questions that were addressed at the CTB365 ‘Radicalisation & Extremism: The Bigger Picture’ online interactive event, which took place on 22 April. Hosted by Security & Intelligence Specialist Philip Ingram, the busy agenda for the event listened to the presentations and group discussions of: Mubin Shaikh, a former supporter of the global Jihadist culture who became an undercover operative for the Canadian Security Intelligence Service; Liam Duffy, an advisor for the Counter Extremism Project; Shaun Greenough, one of the most experienced former Operational Counter Terrorism Police Officers in the UK; Jesse Morton, a former Jihadi Extremist and now executive officer for Parallel Networks; Julia Rushchenko, a senior lecturer in Criminology at the University of West London; and Angela Misra, deputy chief executive and co-founder of The Unity Initiative. Here, we look at some

of the discussions of Mubin Shaikh, Liam Duffy and Julia Rushchenko. SETTING THE SCENE Mubin Shaikh is a former supporter of the global Jihadist culture who became an undercover operative for the Canadian Security Intelligence Service and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), Integrated National Security Enforcement Team (INSET). Shaikh worked multiple classified infiltration operations, online and on the ground. The last investigation became public when the RCMP in the ‘Toronto 18’ terrorism case of 2006 arrested 18 individuals. In total, 11 aspiring violent extremists were convicted after five legal hearings over four years in which Shaikh was the main Fact Witness. Shaikh is currently a Professor in the School of Public Safety at Seneca College, and a Counter Extremism Specialist for the NGO, Parents for Peace. Shaikh began his discussion looking at both the November 2019 London Bridge attack and the Streatham incident from February last year, and how both incidents raised questions over the difficulties that security services face in dealing with such offenders, concerning the challenge of surveillance and monitoring of suspects, both before offending and post release from prison. Shaikh said that Parliament, off the back of these attacks, realised a legislative gap whereby people were being released from prison after only having served

a portion of their sentence and so the Terrorist Offenders Act was put forward. Since then, the terror threat has been dropped to substantial in the UK. Looking at what is happening now, Shaikh briefly touched upon the issues of citizenship revocation, especially Shamima Begum and Jack Letts, as well as the problem of returning ISIS personnel. Moving forward, Mubin said that his three main concerns are that the crime to terror nexus will increase, that attacks on correctional services officers will rise and that we will see public attacks, post-coronavirus lockdown. This session also asked the question that was revisited many times during the seminar: whether all prison officers should be Prevent-trained to be able to better spot those inmates in danger of being exposed to cancerous cellmates. Heavily in favour of this, Mubin also highlighted the need for better, widespread self defence training for prison officers as a paramount investment in their safety. RADICALISATION AND DERADICALISATION Liam Duffy is a strategic advisor for the Counter Extremism Project based in the United Kingdom. Liam previously delivered the government’s Prevent Strategy – the prevention strand of the overall counter terrorism policy – in London, and was director of SINCE 9/11, a UK educational charity teaching about the 11 September terror attacks and their impact. E

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RADICALISATION  Wanting to challenge some of the language and terminology that we use when talking about radicalisation, Liam questioned the recent coverage of the rise in online radicalisation - a move that he believes has been damaging in our understanding of the terror threat in the UK, obscuring more than it reveals and leaving us in a poorer position to prevent attacks and incidents of radicalisation happening in the future. Looking specifically at France, Liam said the idea of radicalisation being the result of people spending more time online during lockdown is not supported by historical research and geographical trends. If we were facing an online phenomenon we would likely see disparate clustering, spread evenly across population centres - but this is not what researchers have found. For example, Toulouse and Nice in the south of France have dozens of Jihadi travellers, whereas Marseille, a city twice the size and with all the socioeconomic conditions, saw only a handful of travellers through the conflict zone. Such findings challenge both the online only thinking, as well as preconceptions we hold over Muslim jihadis. So, if it is not structural factors or online radicalisation, what explains this? Liam pointed to the relentless work of recruiters on the ground to build networks. This means that what we saw in 2015 and the following years in France is the result of decades of effort being pumped into recruitment. This, in the UK, can also be seen in small areas like Luton, where geographical clustering and real-life relationships between those living in the region is noticeable and traceable. Liam concluded that we should perhaps not put the terrorism phenomenon down to individual trajectories into violence and not remove it from the historical and geographical context, but also not reducing it to simply the structural and removing peoples agency from their decisions. PRISONS AND TERRORISM Dr Julia Rushchenko teaches Counter Terrorism and Organised Crime at the University of West London. Besides her academic experience, she also has a track record of working with think tanks and international organisations, including the United Nations, on combating extremism and social cohesion. She joined the second session of the CTB365 Radicalisation & Extremism webinar to look at the role that prisons can play in radicalising people – and in reforming them. Seeking to answer to what extent is prison radicalisation a security threat, Julia outlined how prisoner radicalisation can be controversial, but, in the context of Islamism,

prisons are known as a security risk where dangerous inmates can spread their harmful ideologies to other prisoners, with Camp Bucca in Iraq a key reference point. Set up by the US military, Camp Bucca saw an alliance develop between the jihadists and the Baathists, which, in turn, led to the first military successes of ISIS. SO WHY DO PEOPLE RADICALISE IN PRISONS? Prison conditions can play a significant role in this, and, unfortunately, prisons currently suffer from an institutionalised penal crisis and are seen as ineffective, inefficient and inhumane. This is down to shortage of resources, poor facilities, punitive attitudes and issues of overcrowding, lack of access to health care etc. This is recorded in Julia’s presentation as push factors. For pull factors, she highlights how embracing certain ideologies could be appealing for many inmates who seek better protection, confidence, self esteem, membership and a sense of belonging. There are numerous examples of how being part of a radicalised group can offer an inmate a sense of increased power and respect. It is also important to consider the influence of facilitating factors, such as terrorist recruitment in prisons and charismatic terrorist preachers. Most prison and post-release deradicalisation programmes seek to attempt to alter beliefs and generate behavioural change. Experts believe that there are four main themes of focus available on this: firstly, re-educating radicals from their ideological narratives; secondly, providing a legitimate lifestyle helping to promote family commitments and vocational opportunities; thirdly, using amnesty and restorative justice; and lastly, creating legitimate opportunities to address grievances. There are a number of opportunities to work with violent extremist offenders in prisons and most social rehabilitation programmes take advantage of the following approaches that are used to rehabilitations offenders: spiritual or theological guidances, to combat the extremist mindset using opposing beliefs; developmental interventions, aiming to rehabilitate whilst developing skills to help offenders lead a more constructive life; cognitive behavioural therapy, helping offenders to change the way that they think about the world and interact with it; family-based interventions; and, lastly, situational interventions, designed to reduce the likelihood of offenders committing a crime, or recommitting a crime. L

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