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QUA RTERL Y B ULLETIN Containing Calendar 1916-17 and Suggestive High School Courses in Botany, and Lessons in Nature Study

Volume II

JANUARY 1, 1916

Num b er 1

QUARTERLY BULLETIN Containing Announcements of Calen dar 1916-17 and Suggestive High School Courses in Botany, a nd Lessons in Nature Study.


P ub lished By The Nebraska State Normal Sch ool P eru, Nebraska


E:n tered as second class matter J uly 1, 1915, at the Postoffice at Peru, Nebraska, under act of August 24, 1912.

THE CALENDAR REGULAR YEAR 1916-17 Annual short courses begin November 15, 1915. Second semester and winter term short courses begin January 24, 1916. Fourth quarter begins March 27, 1916. Easter Vacation (to be announced). Annual Music Festival, May 30, 1916. 46th Annual Commencement and Alumni Home Coming, May 31, 1916.

SUMMER SCHOOL, 191•6 Summer school begins June 5, 1916. Summer school closes July 28, 1916.

FALL TERM Fall Term begins Sepember 11, 1916.

Ron. Ron · Ron. Ron. Ron. Ron. Ron.

NEBRASKA STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION Dan Morris, President_ ________________ Kearney T . J . M aJor · s, y·1ce-P res1'd en t ---------------- P eru A . L. Cavmess, · S ecre t ary --------------- K earney George E. H all, Treasurer _______________ Lincoln A. H. Viele ___________________________ Norfolk H. E. Reische _______ _______ ______ _____ Chadron A. 0. Thomas, State Superi.ntendent_ __ ___ _Liricoln


96 067

FOREWARD This little bulletin is published in response to t' ' e increasing desire on the part of the Nebraska high sch ools for better and more scientific te aching of Botany, a nd for th e purpose of further stimulation of interest in the great and important fie ld of Nature Study in the elementary schools. The suggestive course of study in Botany is t h e result of years of preparation an d study on t 1~ e part of its a u t~' or, Professor F. C. Jean. Its merit is attested by th e unqualified endorsement of the late Doctor Bessey of t t- e University and its successful app lication in a number of Nebraska's best h igh schools and in the prepar atory courses of the Peru State Normal School. The outlines in Nature Study are adapted from those used by Professor B. Clifford Hendricks in the state normal classes and the training school. Copies of this bulletin will be available after FebruarY' 1, 1916, to those who accompany requ est with a stamp for postage. Address inquiries to President D. W. Hayes, Pel'\1, Nebraska.

NA 1URE STUDY A Justification for Such Work.

All teach ers will undoubtedly concede that there are thr ee great sources of knowledge : Books, people and things. Am ple provision is made for the gaining of information from books in our schools. We are coming more and mor e to a ppreciate that much can be gained by ac quaintan ce with people a s well as with books. The thir d source, h owever, is used sca rcely more than in an incidental w ay. Yet, is t here any good reason why this, ooc first tea cher , should be almost wholly ignored? Tr ue, an a tt em pt is made to study t hings in a ll laboratory subjects in our hig h schools. But in m a ny of these, much is made of t ext book instruction, with only a minor place f or first hand inquiry. It is the contention of the following page~ t hat fi r st hand inquiry is just as adaptable to grade c1-ildren as t o t he m ore a dvanced. It is urged that th e book, which in so many cases is a barrier between the child and reality, be t a ken awa y for a time and the child brought fa ce to f a ce with the obj ect of study. Is it too mu ch to ask t hat every pupil in our public schools attain t o as ready a f a cility in finding out things from n ature as 路 either fro m books or men? \Vays of T e a ch ing Na t u re Stu dy

There are various sch em es offer ed for working nature study into the curriculum. Quite in line with the old ide a of a Se.J~rate recit ation for ever y subject, is the plan for bavirg o:1e p eriod every d a y f or every gr a de set r eligious'v 1 路 路 asr路c1e, cacr ed t o th e ca use of nature stu dy.


Som e pra ctical objections to this p la n occ ur to on e. T (ll select materials from the local envircnment and to or ga nize such into a co urse woul d requ ire the trai ning of a n::tt ur e expert. The avera ge te a ch er of Nebraska d oe .. n ot lay claim to s uch training. T he t eacher of such a course wo ul d n ee d time to secur e a nd car e fo r t t e m -:tt er ia l u::o ed for s uch instruction. Nebraska r ural teac' ers: vit],_ twenty to th irty recitations per d a y do not ha ve t h tt. time t o give. In most of our programs t here is no time fo r any extra su b ject eve n if a ll the foregoing ob jections could b e met. What is to be don e if the subject is n ot to be introdu ced as a distinct course in our day's program? A survey of the N ebraska course of st udy shows that sixty-four p er cent of the subjects, at one p oint or a noth er, lend t 1; emsel ves to w h a t might be calle d "Nature Study T r eatm ent." Furth er, an examination of the contents of a ny one of these subjects shows a wealth of topics that a lmost com pel f'.uc¡l t r eatment. In a third reader, selected at ran dom , were f oun d , am ong many, t h e fo ll owing to pics : " Leaves ::-t P lay"; " Good a nd Ba d Apples"; "My Shad ow" ; "Pea Blossom's Story"; " The Cobweb's Stor y"; "Bees"; "Squ irre l W isdom"; "Ants an d Their Ways"; and "Playing Butterfly". In a grammar grade arithmetic wer e f oun d, " C ur Country's Food Supply"; "The Farmer's Potat o Crop"; "La ying Out a Garden"; and "Weather" - Furth er search w ould show a n equa l or greater a rray of topics in other subjects. In fa ct, it is not <:t q uest for to pics but a problem of selection. With such material a lread y in the course d emanding nature study a pproa ch, on .th e one han d , an d w ith the lack of time both in the progr am and in t h e teacher' s preparation hours, on the other , it




is but a part of re::1son to use w hat m ay b e cal1 ed " N at ure study Treatment' ¡. A muc~l em phasized difficul ty in t h e w a y of suc cessf ul nature stud y instr uction is t he absence of a text in t h at :subject. T his is not altog eth er a n evil , £or a text book w ou'd defeo.t tl: e ver y obj ect of L e co urse : T r a ining 'n an u.bility to le a rn from things. H owever, to instruct wi thout a text pl a ces heavier demands u pon t h e te a ch er . To meet his very problem , t o a r range a sch em e of t opics alre ody in our state course, su ch t hat , by giving at least one half we ek a m onth to each g r a de , t h e t ea ch er will b:we to m a k e b ut one n at ur e study preparat ion pe r d ay, :is tl' e obj ect of th e plan suggested on t h e f ollowing pa ges. T ~- e virtu e in all th is is not so m uch in the topics selected as in the pla n, w l~ ic 11 is a d aptable to a ny course nnd under varying conditions. It is not intende d that a ll n atu r e stu dy instr uct ion be r estricte d entirely to such a schedule. Real nature st udy, of a ll st udies, will submit least to such restraint. R ath er, the purpose of such a progra m is to m a ke th e n at u re stud y work of each gra d e stand out, t o give it rig ht of w ay, the place of h onor, so to sp eak, once a mont h . During that time, und er such a plan, th e t eacher will put forth her best effor ts u pon h er pre parati ons for the tea ching of n ature study in t hat grade. During the other three week s sh e m ay empha size text book instruction, but durin g t his one, sh e w ill stress natur e study. Some Availab le Natu re Stud y Material in the Present State Course In th e f ollowing, th e to pic is given first . th e grade fo r Which it is intend ed n ext, t h f! n th e wee k of t h e school



year, followed by the sub ject and the page in t h e course of study, a nd lastl y by suggestions for t he topic's treat~ ment. (Abbreviations for subjects: L m eans Language; H, H ygiene; N. S., N ature Study; G, G eogrQ p ~ y ; A._. , , Agricu lture; and Ar, Arithmetic. Further: Ho, stands fo r Hodge's Nature Study and Life; N. E. A. fo r Nati:m::tl Education Association Report of a Committee on Industrial Education in Schools for Rural Communities, 1905; and T, for T af ton 's Course of Study f or Mankato Normal, Nature Study Review, Vol. 11, No.3.) Space permits suggestions for bu t three months, September, December and April. Th e enterpri ing te a ch er can readily work out material for the oth er moneis. T h e Department of Nature Study of t he Per u Normal will g lad ly aid teachers in such work. September

The Cat, 1, 1, L, 91. How take care of our pet cat? H ave cat at the school for several days a nd allow children to note its habits, food, etc . Encoura ge reports abo ut cats at home. Ho. 41. Air a nd Breathing, 5, 1, H, 12 5. Experiment to show air currents. Make lung tester by using large bottle filled with w a ter a nd inverted in a tub of water. Test for lung capacity when erect, w hen not erect, etc. Cabbage and the Cabbage Butterfly, 2, 2, N. S., 2 10 . Use in language period. Leaves compared with those of maple, in shape, color, texture a nd use. See type lesson. Ho. 225.



We a t h er, 6, 2, G, 65. Sbrt weat h er r ecord and keep for four weeks. Read E~e~¡mo meter. Make toy windmill and use for obtaining direction an d ve oc'ty of w ind. Items in record ; temperature, clouds, wind direction and velocity, rainfall ( unt ). N. E. A . 30. The Moon an d a P ara chute, 4, 3, G, 63. Keep m oon's record a month. Include: Sha pe (drawn ) , po ition (at sun down), d a te, hour of observation. Develop : Shape, time of revolut ion. Construct parachute f r om an old handkerchief. Shoot it up by bow an d a r r ow. T. 165, 141. The Mouth an d Mastication, 7 , 3, H, 127. Pupil use h and mir r or and make study of his own mout'1, for boundries, parts, etc. Experiment in mastication; chew dry bread five t imes, then twenty times and note results. Time, 3, 4, G. 61. each child make a pendulum. Test if it always t akes the same time for ea ch swing. Make hour glass an d sundial. Place best of these in the museum. T. 149. W eeds a nd Insects, 8, 4, G, Ag, 70 . Make wee d h~rb arium and weed seed selection. Community survey for we eds. Collect and mount insects. B aYe fu ll oral r epor t on each collection. Start agricultural museum. Pla n for sch ool f a ir. December

The Dog or the Sheep, 1, 13, L, 86. Rave diff er ent d og for each day's observation. How dogs differ ? What do dogs do at hom e? Things Y<:tt



have seen dogs do. If there are sh ee p ac cessible, study them instead of the dog. T. 163. Emergencies, 5, 13 , H, 126. Pupils bring b andages and practice using them. Boi l water to disinfect cloths for bathing "make-believe" wounds. Boy Scout and Camp Fire Girl's "first aid". Sell Red Cross Christmas stamps. Stars and Evergreens, 2, 14, L, 91. Learn: Great Dipper, Polaris, Cassiope's Chair. E ac h child be able to point these out in th e evening sky. Select Christmas tree and make stars to decorate it. Farm Crops, 6, 4, Ar, 28. Map the district and divide farms among the pupils. Make crop survey for acreage and yield. H ave pupils see the corn, etc, as they take the amount. Problems from this. See type lesson. Winter Birds, 4, 15, L, 98. ¡ Make a bird table . Keep millet and s uet upon it. Learn to recognize Chickadee, Slate-colored Junco, and other winter birds resident in district. Arithmetic and drawing can be correlated here . Ho. 347-363. Great Britian's Climate, 7, 15, G, 67. Gulf Stream the key. How? Heat same weights of d irt and water equally. Stir. Note temperature changes. Allow to stand; note temperature. Why doesn't the Str eam cool before it r each es Great Britian? Oth er exp eriments to show heat loss by evapor ation . Th e Hill, 3, 16, G, 61. Coasti ng up on it. ¡w ::s:c :: start? Stop?

How far can



one go? Can you coast on all sides of it? What can you see f rom it while you rest?, etc. Model the hill. The Horse, 8, 16, Ag, 77. P roblem : Why so many different kinds of horses? How tell, from t'' e '¡ orse, what kind he is? Study one horse first hand c::trefully then compare others with him. Score card. Use it.

April Dw " rf Nasturtium, 1, 29, L, 88. Nasturtiums for t'; e flower show. Penny seed package~ given out. Child i o crrre for plants at home and to bring them to an exr i ~ it t- e last of May. Give prizes for best. Ho. 91. Bones, 5, 29, H, 126. Introduce by a study of the hand. Count the bones, give the ir shap e, lengths, uses. Compare with other bones of t 1e body. Experiments with chicken bones. Seed Germination, 2, 30, L, 92. P lant some seeds in bottle near enough the glass to see development of roots, root hairs and all parts. What do plants need, to grow? Answering by experiments. Plant window garden. Ho, 366. Arbor Day, 6, 30, L, 106. Make this grade responsible for the Arbor part of the Bird-Arbor day program. Work with them in selecting, and grouping the program parts. Study trees and select one fo r planting. Bird Day, 4, 31, L, 99. Organize Bird Lovers' Club. Make houses for the



wrens or blue-birds. Prepar e materia l for Bir d-Ar bor day. Encourage oral a ccounts of pupil's own expc:-;cnce with birds. H o. 33 2-33 8, T. 166. See 1-y:re lesson. Garba ge and Flies, 7, 3 1, H, 129. (See type lesson). A Rain Stor m, 3, 32, G, 62. T his may not occur just when desired. Get re:1d y for it when it com es. H ow it looks as it approaches, its sound on the roof, its dash against t 1e win dow, etc. N. E . A. 32. T he Farm er 's Garden, 8, 32, Ar , 42. Use this in a dd ition to d a ir y problems given . E ach p upil m a k e survey of own ho me garden. D oes it pay? Problems arising. Relate this t o garden club work. From the a bove a nd oth er m a terial in the course it is p ossible t o h ave first grade t opics deal largely with pets ; t h e second, with simple p lant studies; t h e third, wit h regional geography; t h e fo ur th, with birds a nd the beginning of construction work ; the fifth , w ith persona l hygiene; t h e sixth, with trees and f urther construction work; t he seventh, w ith personal a n d co mmunity h ygiene; and the eighth, w ith agriculture an d economic nature study. Each grad e can be ma de resp onsible f or some school enterprise ; the first, the flower show; second. th e Christmas decorations ; third, a geography museum; fourth, bird day an d bird club; fifth, Red Cross pa rt of Christmas; sixth, Arbor day a rrangements ; . sevent h, community health survey a nd exhibit; a nd eigh th, sch ool fa ir a nd a gricultural museum. Some Type Lessons are offered as suggesting a more detailed method of treating the t opics.


1 !~

'l'aldu g tlu• Sdwnl to Natm·e- Nature Stud y Class of the Nor;:nal a t e:ntra nce of Ar bor Lo cl ge- J. Ste rlin g ror ton's H ome.

The Ca bbage Butterfly.

Second Grade, Sepemb er. Child 's pro blem : W hat is t her e a bout a n d on t h e cabbage ? ller('IOJHHI'II t


Butterf!n abou t t he cabbage Wh at do they look like? Wh at are they doing? Caterpillars on t he leaves. Color, s ize a n d be ha vi o r . Arran gemen t of leaves on cab-bage. Applicat ion- A nswe r pr oblem Question. Dra w ana cut out Cabhage and cabbage butte rfly. ~'

eecl th e ca terpilla r s.

Watch lllPm in their home.

Procedu re-Take class a t n oon, recH·-:; or a ft er sc hool to a cabbage, pn.te i1 to see t he butte r fl ies. "Someon 'l s ho w how he fl ies. Shu t ey e; a nd tell wh at h e looks like. Each t ry to discove r somet hin :; o n t he cabbage lea f. As soon as fou nd ou t come and tell t h e teach er Miss what it is like and what it is do ing? Find a ca te rpill a r on a leaf t ha '. can be broken off witl, ou t in ju r -· in g th e cabba ge. Wh y th a t l eaf '! P lace th ese leaves with ca ter pi! a rs on t hem in jars, cover ed bu t adm ittin g a ir . Feed til er,• with cabbage leaves.



(This lesson is to be fo ll owed by on e on: "Wh y did t h e cabbage butterfly fly about t h e cabbage?" as soon as t h e caterpillar's metamorphasis is complete.)

"Organized to Work with Nature" Bird Lover 's Club of the Normal's T r a ining Sc1¡.ool. (Th rough co urtesy of Miss Alice Burl ey.)

Hou se for W rens.

(Modell ed after Trafton, page 164.) Fourth Grade, April. Pupil's Problem: What kind of a house can we ma ke in which wrens will nest?


Develo)lmen t Outline1.

2. 3. 4. (a) (b) (c) 5.

Kind of material to use. Shape of the house. Size of the house. Entrance hole. Size. Shape. Location. Provision for fastening.

Appl ieationChildren use their own plans and make wren houses at home. Grant permission to secure help if they need it. Have houses brought to school and painted. Take picture of them.

(Follow this lesson by on: t 1'e wren house?")


ProcednreHave several wren houses present one with a nest in it, if possible, also pictures of such houses and of wren. Have pupils examine houses for kind of material. Ask each to select the shape he prefers. With a rule measure each part of the house and on large sheet of paper draw it the size it measures. (Simple working drawing) . Select opening desired and after discussion of reasons for its size and position draw it in its proper place. On the drawing locate strip for fastening. Determine how it is fastened both to house and to pole.

"Where and how to put up

"Bringing Nature into the School" Class in Training School of the Normal Studying th e Mosquito.

(Through courtesy of Prof. Gregg.)



G arbage and t he Housefl y.

(After Prof. F. M. Gregg , Nebrask a Te a cher, May, 1911.) Seventh Gra de, April. P u pil's Pro bl em: ·why sho uld we cor:sider f'e bo use fl. 7 2 men c. cc b good l1.e::tl th ? H ow is ga rb age related to t::e fly? D('\'C~op mc nt

Out:i ncne '3 t . (:.!) T he eggs. (l1 1 r -a rvae. 2. T' me for production of one fC'tw ;·~ Uon . 3. Num te r in a ge n rration. 4. · Mr Ji'ly 's p er son. h. ) Division of his tody. (h J H!s prob oscis. f c) H::: irs on his bod y. f. Relation of fly to s um m er ro ,, ,.,la in t, t yphoid fe ver , etc. App!"rati(J IIAn~we r tlce p r oblems set. n h'tt of flies . on baby 's face anrl 1.



It is expected tint the c'l ildren h::t··e P:ttc he ·l the de7eJo·:r>1ent of t he fly th :·o ·1gh the egg, hrva and pupa to t!1e fly. be ~o:-e thh J es~o n is given. This expe:- i:::J ent is t o for;n a b8.ckr,ro--url for topics one an d tw•l. To pic three is a rea~lin g ce:trchto pic as is a lco to p ic five. To pic four shou ld be worked out wi·,.l:! fly he"ore t he pupi l. A h and len s or r eading g lass w ill prove very he lpful i n thi s par t of t he study.


(T!·is study sl:ould be followed by a lesson on fly preve ~1ti o n an d garb:::tge disp osal.) EoyJ' an d girls' cl ub work is grad ua ll y co ming to its own in Neb ras ka. Possibly the time may come whe n most cf t h e nature study will be done, by our best teachers, at le ast , tl:rou gh the m ed ium of these clubs. Certainly, any pro bl em m et by a pupil in a corn, garden or pig club contest w ill need no sp ecial effort of the teacher to ward motiv a tion. The "need will be felt" at once. There is a socia l value, of course, in such organiz ations as the Bird Lover's Club, the Garden Clu b and the School Improve· ment Club , as wel l as a n edu cational valu e in their a lli·



ance w it~1 nature study. Every te acher in Nebraska, if s!:e does not a lr ea dy have a copy of Nebraska Extension Bulletin No. 10, should send to Miss H uld a Peterson, S tate F arm, Lincoln, Nebr., for it. No teacher can do a b etter service L a n by becoming sponsor for one of these cl:!bs in ter district. Tl'e f ollow ing typ e lesson was suggested by Miss Sadie Gla:::gow, Principal of Peru Public School. It shows, in a striking way, the education al use t h at is being made of tte activities of this school's School Improvement Club. A Popcorn Crop.

Sixth Grade, December. Pupil's Problem : How much money did t he popcorn from our school garden make us per acre? DeYelopmcnt Outline-


1. Co rn placed in packages. (a) Yield in pounds. (b) Yield in bushels. 2. Value in dollars. a. Size of th e patch. (a) In s qua re feet. (b) In a cr es. 4. Number of days of work. (a) By boys. (b l By man and team. 5. Net inc om e per acr e. ApplicationDid t he patch pay? Where could we have made it pay bet ¡¡ ter ? Would it have paid mo<'O if the whole crop had been sold to one pe r son? In what ways shall we pla n differently for next Year?

Use balances (spring) and weigh the corn out in desired sized packages. Find aut number of pounds p er bushel and determine 1. b. Actually meaoure the patch if it ha sn't a lready been done. Topic four should be tak en from time, record kept, and should include time required in selling crop.



Bibliography. Every teacher should own: C. F. ¡Hodge's "Nature Study and Life", price $1.50, published by Ginn & Co., Chicago; "Special Course of Study Number of the Nature Study Review", March, 1915, edited by Gilbert Trafton, publish~d by the Comstock Publishing Co ., Ithaca, N.Y., price 25c; National Educational Association Bulletin, "Industrial Education in Schools fo r Rural Communities", price 10c, Secretary of N. E. A. The following books should be in the school library : Needham's "The Natural History of the Farm", Comstock Publishing Co., Ithaca, N. Y., price $1.50. Lovejoy's Nature in Verse- Silver, Burdett and Co ., price 60c. L-ovejoy's Poetry of the Seasons-Silver, Burdett and Co., Chicago., price 60c. Edward H. Forebush's "Useful Birds and their Protection'', Mass. Board of Agriculture, Boston, Mass., price $1. J. H. Comstock's "Insect Life", D. Appleton & Co., New York, price $1.75. Harriet Keeler's "Our Native Trees", Scribners, price $2.00. H. N. Ogden's "Rural Hygiene", MacMillan, Chicago, price $1.50.





The purpose of the high school course in botany is a t hree-fold one ; namely, skill, preparation and knowledge. It sh ould t rain the pupil to observe accurately, to use his 'h ands deftly and to correlate hand and eye; it should serve as a preparation for elementary work in agricul;. t ure and its many allied subjects; it should enlarge the pupil's world, enhance his appreciation of and interest in living things and add to his knowledge and general culture. General P lan

For the most part the plan of the work should follow tl:e or der suggested by the natural phylogenetic relation of plants. It ought to be sufficiently intensive to point out characteristics clea rly and to establish relations between type forms wh erever possible . The study of plants themselves-field and laboratory work-1:'\ hould constitute the main part of the course, and text assignments and class discussion should be made supplementary to this.

Time 1. Len gth of course-in schools where zoology is not taught, one f ull year-five hours a semester, should be given to the study of plants. In schools where zoology is



taught, the crowded condition of the curriculum will probably limit botany to one semester. 2. When the course should begin-The one-ye ar course should begin obviously at the opening of the first semester. The one semester course may begin the second semester, but it is better to alternate it with another subject and carry it throughout both semesters-this for t h e r eason that it is easier to get the lower forms of plant life in the fall than at any other time of the year. Equipment

1. Text Books-In addition to his own text book each student should have access to others as references. All texts, in fact, should for the most part be used as refer~ ence books only, designed to serve tbe course which t! :e teacher himself has elected to follow.

2. Laboratory-The laboratory should be a well lighted room and should receive the light from the norb windows so as to avoid the direct rays of the sun . Care must be exercised, too, to see that rays coming to the microscope mirror are not reflected by leaves or other surfaces t h at will discolor them. 3. Tables-The trapezoidal form of table is best, since it en ab les a ll students whether close or more remote from the w indow to get a proper degree of light. Approximately 27 inches is probably the most serviceable height. 4. Microscopes-Each student while working should have a microscop e of his own. If there are not enough instruments for each pupil, then the class should be separ-


ated into divisions.


T he micr oscopes t he mselves should

be of some stand a r d m ake such as the Bau sch an d Lomb, th e Sp encer, t he Leitz or the Z eiss. They should have the necessary oc ul a rs and objectives to give powers of appr oximately 80 an d 420 diameters and shoul d be fitted with dou ble nose pieces. They should also have both the coarse (r a ck-and-pinion) and the fine (micrometer screw) a d justments. It is highly desira ble , too, that each lab oratory have one or more micrometer scale oculars to measure mi croscopic objects. It does not pay to purchase ch eap inst ruments, and schools can scarcely hope to get satisfactor y ones for less than from $27 to $30 each. 5.

Ap paratus-Each student should be supplied with u!icle~ . cover g lasses, scalpel , section knife, pipette. lens P ~ !'e ''. disse ction needles, alco!;ol, r eage nts, etc. 6. Material-Living material is best for laboratory pu rpo,eD an d if possib le sh ould be obtained lo cally. W he;1 tl:is is not a vailable , p r eserve d material may be substitute d . Th is may be gathered in season by the teacher a nd class a nd preserved eith er in alcohol (50-75 per cent) or in forma lin (3-4 per cent). Mu ch material may also be ta k en and kept in the dry con dit ion . ·when spec1mens t h at cannot be gotten in th e vicinity of the scl-:.ool a re desired, they m a y be obtained of the Department of Bot a ny of the University of Nebraska for cost of collecting, preparation a nd postage . Good m aterial may a lso be p urch ased from the Cambridge Botanical Supply Company or t h e Plant Study Company, both of Cambr idge, Massachusetts. As a rule, however, the rates of t he t, t t wo fo r materi a l are considerably higher.


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Cla ss Work

T h e course ougH neve r to be introduced by taking u p a lot of general names a r: d d efmitions, suc h for instance, as the different divisio11 s of botany. At the outset th e stud ent shoul d be put to work with living things. He should be led immediate!y to see t h at every cell is a moving mass of protoplasm full of life ; that ever y stagnant pool has its wonderfully in te1·esting and b eautif ul fiora ; tl1at each clover nodule teems with bacteria; that, in f a ct, t he in visible world of living things is a lmost as \arge as the visible. W h en the pupil's interest in these ~·eal living things has been fully awakene d, h e may th en Lake up the text work with profit. The class hom· ought to be an informal one a nd t he wod c m< a s concrete as possible . If at a ll feasi ble, >pecimens represcn t utive of the particu lar phase of th e ~ u bject b eing studie d, sho uld be before the class. Not h!ng vitali zes a b obny cl ass like an en thusiastic teach er and the opportunity to study plants rather than to study a b out t h em. The pupil's past expei·ience and obser vation >hould be drawn on freely and discussion encouraged . As th e work proceeds .the t eacher a nd class working t ogeth er shou ld summariz e and organize t he k nowledge ;;ained f rom the plants, the text and the class room d iscussions. In most instances th is may be don e by work ing out an outlin e, wh ich , in the writer's opinion, is one of t he most eff ective methods ·of r eview. La boratory Exercises

This work n atura lly fa lls into two classes, the mic roscopic and t h e macroscopic. 1. Microscopic-Wh en using the microsco p e ever y


stu dent sho uld be encour::tged to work ir.depende!1tly with reference to preparin g mountin gs, adjusting instruments a nd making observations. After a mount has been studied carefully, then the student should make a neat. accurate , h a rd pencil drawing of it. All p aris of the drawing should be properly labeled. 2. Macroscopic-This will includ e largely exercises in the gross morph ology of plants and experiments in their physiological f unctions. H ere, too, the student should make careful dra¡wing s and accura t e obse r vational notes. In both micro- and macroscopic work only those fo1¡ms and experiments that m ake a definite contribution to the development of the course as outl ined should be used. T he class must h ave specific directions as to proced ure. These directions, however, should not be so much the statement of mere facts as suggestive qu estions which shall direct the student's investiga tion. Field Trips

Frequen t field trips are indispensibl e. Wherever possible the student should collect the material to be used . both the microscopic and the macroscopic. A violet in the hand is qu ite a different thing from one a mong the cool leaves on the bank of a stream and an Oscillatoria und er the microsco pe bears littl e resemblan ce to its apPearance when with its fellow s it forms a blue green slime on mud. Laboratory exercises are invaluable in Working ou t details of form a nd stru cture, but they at best are but fragme ntary. In an elementary course form and structure are not an end in themselves but are valuabl e only as th ey help the student to understand the plant



gro wing a n d f u nctionin g und er natura l or cultiva ted cond itiona. So, in or d er that tr. e p up il m ay lea rn to kn ow pl ants in th eir natural ha unts; that he m ay fi nd out some~~ ing of th e w on de r f ul a d a pta tion ma n ifest in t he vem::d ~w b it of some plants; tl1at t e ma y kn ow t ,1e d if fe re:-:ce bet ween a l1 ydr op h yte and a mesoph yte, or a xero:1!i yt e for instance; that h e m ay see w it h own eyes the va rie d and often beautiful fl ower f or ms a nd col ors concerne d with pollina tion; that he m ay perc eive f- e a m ost intelligent "co-op eration" be tw een in-::ect m:. d flowe r ; t hat he m ~ y appreciate tl~e ingenio us d evic es of plant s to a id in seed disp ersal ; for t:h.ese reasons l:e ought to go into t h e fiel d often. When carefull y dire cted nothing stimulates a n interest in pla nt life so m uch as do fie ld tr ips. He rbarium T he n umb er of specim ens t hat sho uld be r equired w ill va r y somevihat w ith the locality, season an d school. Sch ools in the south ern part of the stat e can coll ect more tl1a n those in the northern part ; a n ear ly sp ring will afford more plants t han a late on e. Schools not equipped to d o the requisit e a m oun t of labor atory wor k may, to som e exten t, sub stitute in its stea d field wor k and herbar ium work. In t h e a ver a g-e school a bout twenty-five specimens sh ould b e requ ire ~. T hese should b e w il d flowers and should includ e som e of the stem and leaves. If the pla nt b e sma ll , the roo t, too, may be ta k en . T he specimens should be pressed between driers subject ed to enough weight (usually abou t 50 lbs. ) t o keep th em fro m shrive ling. When dry t h ey sh ould be neatlY mounted on goo d herb arium p aper of st a ndard size (111/2



x1 61:! inches ) and ne atly label ed. This label should include t h e following d ata: Phyl um, class, f a mily, gen us. specic3, common name, locality, habitat, d ate an d name of collector. Tl;e student should never be required to make long. ste r aotyped analyses of the plants such as was formerly tl:e custom in many schools. These analyses are burdensome to the stu dent and of little val ue. T h e members of the class should be encouraged to contribute specimens to the building u p of a school h erbari um that shall, at least, includ e a ll the plants of that locality. Appallingly inaccurate work in analyzing and classifyi ng plants is too often done. Few high school students wh en turned loose by themselves will ever, in the time available , learn to analyze and classify plants correctly. With the flow ers in the laboratory, or better still, with man ual a nd lens in the field, the class and teac her should carefully work togeth er. Letting them do t he work, t he te acbcr shou ld direct the students through the a nalyses and classification. This he ought to do several times or unti l the pupils are ab le to work independently with some degree of a ccuracy.

ONE SEMESTER COURSÂŁ l>Iant Cell-Elementary study of plant cell to determin e

structure of cell and nature of protoplasm. Use hairs on stem of you ng tomato or petunia seedling. Plant Divisions-Thallophytes (algae and f ungi) ; Bryo-

phytes (liverworts, mosses); Pteridophytes (ferns and a llies); Spermatorphytes (conifers, flowering plants, etc. THALLOPHYTES lllue Green Algae-Gloeocapsa, Oscillatoria, *Bacteria,



**Nostoc, (Anabaena); study structure; ma nner of reproduction; appearance of m ass. Consider economic importance, particularly of bacteria. Y e llow Green Alga.e.- Protococc us, Oedogonium, Spiro-

gyra, Vau cheria . (Ulothrix, Stige oclonium, Diatoms). Note advancement in structure-organized nucleus, definite chloroplasts, holdfasts, branching filaments, asexual and sexual forms of reproduction. The meaning of holdfasts, and the retained, protected egg should receive special attention. Fungi-Ustilago (smut) ; Puccinia (rust) ; Phys cia (lichen); Lycoperdon (puffball); Agaricus (m ushroom) . Emphasize nature and effect of parasitism and saprophytism on form and structure of plant body; also, the economic importance of the group . BRYOPHYTES Moss-Gametophyte, protonema and le afy ste m; sporophyte . Terrestrial habit; alternation of generations sh ould be noted. PTERIDOPHYTES Fern-Gam etophyte, sporophyte; give attention to independ enc e of generations, advance of sp orophyte in form, structure and size. SPERM A TOPHYTES Embryo. Study embryo in both soaked a nd germinating seeds. Emphasize difference between embryo of m onocotyledons an d dico¡ tyledons. Note provision for protecting and nour¡ ishing young plantlet. 2. Roots. Develop m ent, structure, kinds, f unction. Note carefully, root caPt root k: :s. Here in

Flowering Plants- 1.




studying stru cture a lso emphasize n ature and function of meristem , epidermis, p ar enchyma, tracheary and sieve tissues. 3. Stems. Monocotyledons and dic otyledons. Structur e and fun ction of fibro vascular bundles in tl~e two gr eat classes of t h_ e flow ering plants. Review tissues studied in roots a nd a dd study of fibrous tissue; ab ove ground a nd unq erground stems; purpose of stems. 4. Buds. Kinds a s to arrangement on stem; also contents; ways by which they a re protected; dormant, act ive, a dventitious buds. 5. Flow ers. Parts of flowers and their functions; a dvanta ge of f orm and color; d evices to promote or prevent self or cross pollina tion; fertilization; classification. 6. F r uit. Unipistillary; aggregate; accessory; multiple ; agents and d evices to insure dissemination of seeds. 7. Le aves. Kinds as to general form; venation; structure ; arr a ngement with reference to light. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY Make an elem entary study of photosynthesis, transpiration, respiration, assimilation and r eproduction. In connection with protein synthesis and a ssimilation study nitrogen fixing b a cteria and t h eir economic value. At this point th e student's study of physiological functions should not b e confined to the flow ering plants alone. II . e should b e led t o see that a ll pl ants from the lowest forms to the highest h ave practic a lly t h e same vital processes, an d t h at the g rowin g complexity of form and



structure arises as a result of t he adaptation of plants t a c 1_:.anging environment. ''Bacteria are not algae, of co u rse. They seem, however, to be mor closely rela ted to th is gr ou p of algae than to any other pla nts, s for this reas on they may be treated as a degenerate form of th blue greens . **For ms in par enthesis may be substitu ted for the oth er s n ame d i case the latt er a r e no t to be obtai ned.

O NE YEA R COURSE P lant Cell-Study plant cell to determine str ucture , n ture and elemenary functions of protoplasm. Hai from stem of petunia or filaments of virginiaca (spider wort) m a y be used. Pla nt D ivi~i o n s-Thallophytes (algae an d fungi) ; Br y phytes (liverworts and mosses) ; Pteri do p h yte (ferns and allies) ; Spermatophytes (conifers, fl ow ering plants, etc .) THALLOPHYTES Blue G:reen Algae-Gloeocapsa, Anab aena , (Nostoc, Rivularia). Study structures, not ing ~ sence of chloroplast and orga nize d nucleus ; ma nne of reproduction; macroscopic appearance. Emp ha size economic relations of bacteria with refe ren ce t f ermentation, decomposition, nitrogen fi xa t ion and diseases. Yellow Green Algae-1. Protococcus, ScenedQsurnS, Oedogonium (Ulothrix, Stigeoclonium, Coleoch a ete.) 2. Conjugating Algae-Spirogyra, diato ms. 3. Tube Algae-Vaucheria. In Yellow Greens note advance ment in structure organized nucleus, definite chloroplasts, hol dfas branching fil a ments, asexua l an d sexual r ep r odU



tion. The significance of tl1 e holdfast and t 1: e retain ed, protecte d egg should receive careful attention. Brown Seaweecls-Fucus. Note h abitat, form and reproduction. tudy form, habitat and Reel Seaweecls-Polysiphonia. re production, emphasizing alternation of generations. Fungi-1. Lower Fungi. Mucor, Peronospora. 2. Higher Fungi. Physcia, Ustilago, Puccinia, Lycoperdon, Agaricus. Note the result of hysterophytism on the plant body with regard to form, size and structur e. Emphasize the economic importance of the rust and smuts. BRYOPHYTES Liverworts-Riccia, Marchantia. Give close attention to land habit, form, a lternation of generations, gametophyte and sporophyte. Moss-Use any larger common moss plants as Minum. Study form of both gametophyte and sporophyte wit h regard to advancement. over liverworts. Relation between gametophyte and sporophyte. PTERIDOPHYTE Fern-Study gametophyte (prothallium) and sporoph yte. Note independence of both generations; great advance in sporophyte; appearance and significance of fi brovascular bundles. liorseta ils- Equisetum. Sporophyte, structure of stems, ap pearance of cones. Probable reasons for survival. SPERM A TOPHYTES . !lines-Nature and structure of sporophyte; gameto-



phyte much reduced, dependent. Seeds borne in cones. Flowering P lants-Study flowering plants as outlined under the one semester course. The following modification's, however, should be made: 1. When studying the flower note (a) That it is a modified cone. (b) That the seeds are inclosed in a carpel as contrasted with the naked seed of the conifers. 2. The students should collect a herbari um of thirtyfive specimens. -Plant PhysiologyCover the same subjects here as in one semester course. The experiments, however, may be more numerous and somewhat more advanced. REFERENCES AND TEXT BOOKS Andrews-Practical Course in Botany. Good text. Price $1.50. American Book Co. Bergen-Elements of Botany. For smaller High Schools. Price $1.00. Ginn & Co. Bergen and Caldwell-Practical Botany. Excellent refer-

ence book and very good text for larger schools. Price $1.30. Ginn & Co. Bergen and Davis-Principles of Botany. Good reference text. Price $1.50. Ginn & Co. Bergen and Caldwell-Introduction to Botany.

good text for all classes of High Schools. $1.15. Ginn & Co.

VerY Price

Bessey-Elementary Botany. Valuable for its manual of the genera from the lowest to the highest form of


the common plants of Nebraska. versity Publishing Co.


Price 35c.


Bessey-College Botany (8th Edition). A reference text that should be in the hands of every teacher. Price $1.50. Henry Holt. Britton-Manual of the Flora of the Northern States and Canada. An excellent manual containing the names and descriptions of all the ferns and flowering plants of the state. Price $2.50. H-enry Holt. Britton a nd Brown-An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada. All species illustrated. 3 Vols. Very fine. Price $13.50. Scribner. Coulter-A Text Book of Botany for Secondary Schools. Very good for reference text. Price $1.25. Appleton. Co:1lter-Plant Relations. Useful for sup pl ementary rea ding by more advanced pupils. Price $1.10. App leton. Coulter, John G.-Plant Life and Plant Uses. A very good text for all classes of high schools. Price $1.60. American Book Co. Codter , 11arncs and Cowles-A text Book of Botany for College an d Universities. For references only. A most excellent advanced Botany. Vol. 1, Pt. 1, Morp l: o ~ ogy, price $1.50; Pt. 2, Physiology, price $1.25; Vo l. II, Ecology, price $2.00. American Book Co. Curtiss-Nature and Development of Plants (3rd edition). An excellent advanced reference book. Price $2. 50. Henry Holt. Gray-New Manual of Botany (7th edition). An excellent ma nua l for the eastern tier of counties. Does



not cover whol e state. Price $2.50. Co . Onterhout-Experiments with Plants. Full of intere experi ments, many of which are easily ma de. $1.20. Payn e-M a nual of Experimental Botany. Full of simp experiments. Should be in the hands of teacher. Pri ce 7 5c. American Book Co . Peterson's-Flora of ¡ N ebraska. Manual of plants and conifers of Nebraska. Every Nebraska sho uld have this manual. Price $1.00. N. F. Peterson, Plainview, Nebraska. Pinchot- Primer of Forestry. Two parts, each 5c. Supt. Documents, W""'"'"'¡l'.

D. C. To the above list sh ould also be added a subscription the botany journal, " The American Botanist," w hich published at Joliet, Illinois. Teachers are also urged to secure the bulletins r el to plant life issu ed free of charge by the United Department of Agricu lture, Washington, D. C., Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station at Nebraska.

R epublican Print, A uburn

1916 January Catalog of the State Normal School of Nebraska - Peru  

1916 January catalog of State Normal School of Nebraska at Peru, which is now Peru State College

1916 January Catalog of the State Normal School of Nebraska - Peru  

1916 January catalog of State Normal School of Nebraska at Peru, which is now Peru State College