Page 1

~~- ~ ~~~~~

~

THE STATE

ME~~~~::: 9 ER.

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I

No.1.

~ I PR.INCIPAL CONTENTS.

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Presented to Col lege by

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Browne 1 1


Vol. IV. , N o . L

P ERU, NEBRASKA, SEPT EMBER, J900.

Whole No. 24.

·1 HE PSYCHOLOGY OF PUNISHMENT. /:y [ A wh o rl l h l·-.. ;, .,, a -.. t .tdc..·ut iu !Juu rl~· ···

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t il \

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II'. II . \ n d rt•11·s. lilhu.·.\thutn ll 's,y~lHl i U~~· in t · nh ·t!Nit,y u f C hicngn . Spri ng

1." I

l FE i-. c-. ~· cnti : tll y l'n n t inu n u :-:. h u t t hl· flow of i t s CIIITl'llt is nnt : tlw :t v s tl11• sn ll1l' . So n H·t illll'-. it is t·:tlm :t lld <..'OII s tau t : :t'"'ain i l is s wn _,Tcl hy tIt~.- ti ck s nf :-:tonn y passi o n. \V :tn.:sn f' g ,·id' tit' :tll _!..!'l'l', o 1· de· s p:tir m :ty to ss :tnd whil'l t h e · · tn~:llll o f life un t il co11tnd is whol ly lost. \\'h l'll the c::d111 flow of' lifi.: is di s tlll' h c d llw indi\'idu ttl t <.' ud s ln lo se c onLJ·n l < ,,. i l , o t· •·: ttlt l' l' it t.. ~eS<.' O il l r n l or i l :-:l·ll'. Th l' ll ,.,.l'l' of' e onlro l, t he life <.' lllTl'lll pl un g ·c s !'n,-,,-al'(l in t h e lin t.: iu w hi c h it \V :J:< n tn v ing . it m :t y h t• Lo it ~ own d cs l l'U CLio n \Vh;tll' \'(.'1' ma y he O lll' dcliniti o n t•du c:ali o n. I ~ uppnse t h :tt :til will admit tha t iL itH.:Iudcs nmong o t h e 1· t hicgs po~iti\'l' d in·ctinn nncl (.'Ollst •·u t·ti\'e .~· uidnn c e of lifi.: . TnH: educati o n ec t·L:tin ly is n o t negnlion. It s on e di:-:ti n cti n : fc n t un:- a m o n g 1111 o thers mu s t h e th n t it is p o~ itive , co ns lnlcti ve W()J' k of' :-:o nt l' k i nd. E d u ca ti o n is such a proc t·s s n s will en a ble t h e inclivirlun l t o t ake hinu;elf into hi ~ O\\'n h n 11cl s . a s i l w e t·c. n 11 c1 g u ide and el i t-ee t hi ~ ow 11 li tc lo H definite e n d . It is in a ~c n se s<.:lf:eon trn l. In in f~tn c y thi s sci r:co ntJ'() I is w a 11 ti ng. T h e c hi ld is p 1-cy t o hi s own fix· ling . T h e life i ~ ccntl red n o ' v up o n o ne , n o w up o n

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nr

a n o th er. tcding n nrl t he wh ole "current of its bt·ing" plunges fo rw a rd in th n t dirccli n n . The e•no tio n:::: nrc nrousl•cl . Rnd for the time usurp th e funct ions o f t he in t elk el. Hc:t!"Oll is dethroned . In this blind :::: t:t tt· t he hl·ing. thl.' wh ole life is bo und t o cb :-: h wit h things. It hn s bro ken from its n nc h o r. th e rcn son. nnd dri fts helplessly :tl.>Olll un ti l a coll ision occurs w hich wi ll fo 1· 11 anont c•nt clll~ck t he un en n tro llcrl fl o w o f the lili: c urren t nnd all ow l h l· rcnson to eo ull: a g n in into nuth oriLy. T his collis io n is punis hrnc u t r rlcline pnnis luncnt ns n ny mcn ns wh n tcn·r, citlu:r· gen t le o r sc,·cre, by which the t eacher nrrcsts mo menta rily the fl o w o f t he Jtfc curren t o f t he pupil in o rder to g i,-e i t t h:,t pos iti,·c, con stnu:: ti ,·c,g~tidnn~e .tl~n t t ru e ten chiug requires. 11Hs dcfi m ttOn clirnina tcs a t o nce a ll d iscus!"iou aho n t t he ends o f punis hm en t. As t llll!: defined it tn kc!: its place on a p a r wi t h any o f t h e m eans w hich nrc a t the rli s po~a 1 o f t he t cnc hrr in g i,·ing t hnt directive influe nce whic h he i~ s uppo sed to give. The e nd o f educa tio n is t he d~vd opmcn t o f ~ p i ritual powe r . K a nt h ns show n th a t t he w o rld in wh ic h we !i,·e, a nd m ove and h ave o ur· bein g is a w o rl d o f our own ere-


2

T il E ST ATE ~0 1<:\IAL SC II<H>L ~I I ·.SS I. :'\ Irl ·. l\

atio n . This wo rld i ~ the p r o d uct o f ou r s pri t. ua l life. I t is t he sum total of our ._l"ff a nd c lw r~1et.cr. The ,·c r y esse nce of s piri tu a l li fe is ac ti vity, and its rl cn.: l o p m~o: n t i ... a co nt inu o u s ly pro g 1-cssi ,·c nHIYl' llH.: n l. The d irecti ve l'Cn lcr of t hi s 1110\Tillclll m us t a l ways lo o k fo r w :1rcl . I f it s Yil·w is cc n tc rccl o n t h e pa s t o r p n ·sen t i t s a d iYity is csst: nt i:d ly lcssl·nl·cl , if n •1t who lly s top pccl , a nd s piri tu:dly b y n ·a s on of t h :tt Yc r y f:t c t, begin s to clic The e u r re n t l hl·l •· rics a n d me th o d s o f pu n is hm e n t le:1 cl to thi s ,·c r y res ul t. We in s ist t h :1 t th l· c hild s ha ll s t o p in h is g 1·o w t h . t h :lt h is s piri tu: d a c t i vity s hall he st ill ed , un t il hl· se n ses t lw fac t o f ho w g rt·at 11 sinne r hl· h :1s h el' ll . T h is req ui re s h im to t h ink oYe r hi s \\T o n ~ d o ing , to sen se o,·cr a n d o\·c r :t ';a in t l1e g ulf he twet:n h im a n d h is fe ll o w s. ll is vie\\' is t urned b~1 e kw a rd, hi s wh o le lifi.· is rcve r se<.l. H e lo ok s u pon cle a th 11s if li fe co u ld eome fr o m it.. \V hen o nce a s t e p in to w r ong cl() i ll ~ ha s bt:cn ma de , t he soo nt:r a eO IT l-ctiYe inl1 11encc can he bro ug h t t o IJe:t r the b et ter. Th t: mem o r y o f t he d eed o ught. t o h e han · is hc d a s soo n as possib le . Th t: c hid sees him se lf as id e n t ica l wi t h t h e c o m ple t ed ac t. In t he beg in ni ng t he a ct wa s see n . in .t he d istOJ· tc d v iew o f the c h il d, m: a goorl . But as r eveale d in its complctccl state th e a e t sta nds fo r t h as " m o s t t h o l·o ug h ly n ot good ." He feel s t h e d11ali s m in h is life , real izes t h a t t he act u a l ~e l f is :1t w <ll' w i t h th e re a l id e ct l s elf. W he n on ce t hi s reali u t t io n h as h ce n mad e fur t h c1· t h o u g ht u po n t he w r o ng net is p osit i,;ely inju ri o u s . As s oon a s the m e ani ng o f t he s h o r t-c o min g h as h cen b r o ug h t h o m e to t h e c h ild . ju~t t h at mom ent t h o u g h t upo n i t s h o ul d ce :1se , nnd t he wh o le ce nte r· be fi xed aga in up on t he law of h a rm o n y; t he c on st ru c ti ve spir itu1\l li fe s h o ul d b egin a ga in . I f th e n ature o f the pu n is hme n t he s u c h as to t urn t he : tltcn ti o n upo n t he ~1 c t h a d i n itself, t he m o re t he act beco mes a fixed fi n a lil_v. the m o re it is a bso rlx·d into t he sl·lf, the m o re i t is

"fir-.t~o· lulun·d . thl· n piti,d . th,· n~onrlot· an·cl

Continut·d thttu;..:ht "I" ' " it h:tnh n-. thl· very j..,oJ:ttillll \\'hich lu· ln ·l-. m:tl; ,·-. wickr hn:cd1 ln·t \\Tl' ll tlw I'"Jlil :tnd hi:.: te:ccht·r :111CI k)),.w-.. '' hidr till' lir-.t n·alization of h i ... \\'1'"11 :.! :wl tvnckd t11 hl·:tl . tiH:

Thl· l'Xp•·ric·n ·iu;..: " ' l •: tilllul l.'""''' f)ll<ll l'l.'~ from wrong d oin;..: h., ... "" n· tnv di: tl l' ' ' " 'l'l'. Fu 1·llu.: r . pln:tllil·-. :t'.' """ t il tiH· 1.'\l':' nl' the ofli.·11fl~o-r t la· :• pp~o·:tl·: tnn· '.r n·n n:..:l·, , ,,. "l· \·c nin~ ll)l.. T lu· :lt't :.-. :til :t~o·t l'. ,nnnt he e h: 11r;..:l·d T lw illllt l· t i1111 , r l' :till •·: 111 111 1111 w: l \'ltt· a rTc" " il '~'ll "v r...- it .\ II th:tt t·an l rl· dnnl· i" in ,..l , llll' \\' •y l11 ;..:•·t thl· pttp il to Sl' IISC tfll· 1/lt'.'/1/lll.~ t~f hi -. :ll.'t :1111 1 11 11 · d er thl· stim u lu s nf 1 h i-: llll':1 u in!.! nn d t h e gu id : tlll'L' o f hi s tv: td rc r . lt1 .!.!1'1 thc h l·ttc r ne\\' p f t h c 1 ruly g • '"d tow:t rd w hi ch he s h o u ld gtt . I ha ve cl l'l in c cl puui s h lll l' ll t :t s : Ill \' :tJTcs t of th e life c u r r c nt t h :1t \V <nrl cl : tl tn w t hL' cons l r uc tivl· work 11 f 1l1 c tl·: td ll'l' t eo tP uch t he drild fr o m t hl· g c ntJt.s t ti> Ul' h o f l'e j)l'l l< d. Il l' CO II· mancl t o t he ~ l' \T IT :<t • ·x~o-rc i sc o f :1ut h n r·i 1v. T he c h il d in m-cd of p u 11i:'lltl ll' ll l is. fn t· th l· Lim e h e in g . in :11 1 lltil lt·: ll t h y s t: l l l·. !l is s piri t u a l n <t lll rc i ~ out " r l1 :11·n1o n y \\' it h the law n n rll'l' \\'hic h :c t th e 111 UIIl c nt hl· o u g h t t o h e a c t ing. Th c lll l' t h o cl lr v whic h h is a tlt· n t io n i,- to h c :tn-cs t•· cl n n d hi,- ,iii: lo u c h ccl mu st d e p e nd u pnn th (.• m ca n s w hic h wil l most l'ITc.:t i vc ly re ac h hi 111. rrnck r t. h i~ o ne condit io n t h a t a ll lll l'a u ~ hl· cssc nt i:. ll y spi ritu :d . If o n ly p h ys ical pun· is hm cnt w il l h e d l'c c l in·, I see 1111 " hjvctinn to i l p r o v ided i t i~ l h L· o n ly llll':l n -: ~t n tl t h a t it be u se d with ~p i 1· i tua l c nd s in ,. i,·l\'. Fro m th e vl' r y n:tt tt i'C o f tnr l' ll'nch in.!! ph y s ic al pu ni ~ htn l' ll l lll USt h l' o f \T t'_\' l': lrl' n ecessity . Co n t r o l s h o u lcln eve 1· cl l'.!.!l'lHT :t t l' into l'"· l'r c wn . !)Jat o -:aiel , .. r\ fn 't' mi n d o ugh t tn lca r·n n o thing a !' a ~ l a\'C." T hen· is n o Jif,.. g i v in g p o we r in c o l' rc io n , n o g t·tl wt h in m e r e nega ti on. C oer t iu n m :1y rT pn·ss c \· il h ut n e ve1· t'l'acl ic· ttcs i t I t ca n onh· rT· pn:ss \\To ng d o in g fnr :1 tim e, nn d ll\· ~o


3 duin;! it n.· .. t~·i,·t-.. :..!•····1 " lu.-!1 -..fl,•ultl 1... • , . , , . ,, ... Ill' \ , . , tn.t.J, .1 wkc it.. pl:tn· cbilrl ('n::tl ;,.,. :t11tl tlw :..::• ""' 1 h "' l' l l' . l l l \ l po\'li'-'r ;., tlh· ,., ... . 1 :tl c·h·111l 111 111 . . tu, . 111<'11 CfK•rcion C'fii"I'IIJII' thc tdc.tl · \\ , -.h••\\

'

uur .,kill '" tt :'"' ''" 11111 t:..:: ' " ' " , , llt>l '" 1fe troying it Tlu l'111ld " .t ilt... t n tin !>Om~·thit~gth:tl

" ·til' '! "'·...... 111 ... •n· ti,it~ It mu.,t :ti'L i11 "'"1<' " .1, It pn·kr-. t" .tl' l c:rt·a ti\'dy. : tlld t Ia,· llt ..... t l.tt.tl hlut~d ...· t· iu di"<.'tplin 1.· J",' It 111 httllll' .tnd ... ,.It, ... ( t ... t lw ch,·l·k utg o f :t1.· ti \ it .' l t t'l': l l l ... l.' it "'·' ·" It,· din·ctccl t o " '''""!-! ··nd-. .. t F,-.,,· hk 1 \\'h ...·" \\"C:t tl l' lllp llly f<'l ' l ' l' teo l'llll l (ll'l nh,·d i c t ll' l' to a ''l llll tll:tlld . \ \' t' ttllclt·t·t: tk ...· '" Inn:•· thl· for mation n f' :t \' ic .l:t tt • II in :1 human mind. a man i fc..:s t l.' illtp•• ... ~ ihk thi11 .:..:: . The s l:tlt: II H: tt t i:- ~t t't ...·n 111:uk tlt:t t \\' L' pu nis h in o nft.t· t h : t t l: t ttl t s 111 :ty ' \."l h ...· c:o mm i tt ~.· cl i n t it ...· t'tt t nn·. I t' Llt1.· d tild \\'l'I'C.: a IJciu g w i t h n 11 t d _\'lt : ll t t i ~.· ~ ~ ~~ ·,. ,. o t' i ts <t \\' 11, :tn d w h t.: ll <1 11 L'I.: .t.: i'' '-' 11 : a d it·..:c l io n \\' o nlcl . li k e :t m o \' i ll g 1" " 1." k l'l' Jl i t . t. h ,·t'l' lll ig lt t possib ly h L· S () t tt ~: f'.,n....· i11 t it ~.· s t : t t.t· m~: n t. Hut t. h c ~: hild h :a s :111 i tll) H: Iling t'n t'L'I.' or i ts '"''11 , i t is cssL· n t i:tl ly cl y n :11n ic :t tH I t h e ick :tl of1.·clu <.:alio n is t lt :tt t h is f,, ,.e ...· h L·self~ d i rn·t ­ in~. Sc l f-~o· onu·o l is t h e nnl y t'Otl t t·olu n d t• t· w hic h h e a lth y "' " ' ll t: tl lilt.- can <I L' \'L'lo p . The impul s e.: t o \\'l'tl ll g -clning mu s t h t.: n ·plact.:d b y i mpul :-:es tow: tn l t h e g <HHI: n o t t h i'<Htg h :1 fc..: :t t' n f l h L· t.:O il ~L' Cf li L' I H.'t.:!' o f w n111 g do ing hut ft·o m a n :tblt o t'I'L'lll'L' <>I' t he d i s uni o n n nd d i:-;co n l t hn t t.: \' i l ht·illg:' in t o t h e.: l ife.: . l i e mu s t s l11·ink fnn 11 t h e mora l g u lf' t lt [Jl y: t \\· n s IJ ,·futT him n n d divid es hi s a c lu : tl s c..: lf (if h e d ot.:>' \\'I'Oilg) :~ s see n in h is (co m ' et cd ) act, ft·o m his h ett1.-r . i d ~:: al sel f' hi s l'c..:: tl sel f a s h e \\' is h cs i t t o h t.:. T hi s l o\' l' o f u ni t y i n th e self. thi s \\' h o leness of !i ll: , is t h <.· o nl y t hi n g t h at c<t n kee p hi m f1·o m w i ll in g a n d do in g n · il. The fea t· of p u n is h nl c ll l fJCr .sc ca n n c ,·e1· ht·in g this s t a t e o f m ind : th o ul. L i i"L· o u g ht n o t Lo d(· \'('l o p i tt f"L· r11· o f' ; 1 t·cs lr~t i ni ng p c n::t l t,v. I t i s h c LLC.: t' t n pass b eyon d t h e li n e a nd in~:: ur Lh L· p e n ni ty Lh n n t o s t an d s t i ll a nd wis h t o d o a n imnH, t':JI dee d . I t is b e t te r

tn c..' ~lk'rll'lll"-' thl• ~rttlf nnd ri:;c nbov e it .

t h.\11 in n moral ::c..•n!-C to li.'t'l it in t he life l~ 'rc..·n·r

.\ ~.tin. it is said t hnt we shou ld punish f,H- thl· vimli ...·a ti~om of ln w . En~ry bw. in :-o fnr as it is in hnrmony with t he morn! l.tw. is its own ,·indicmnr. If not in ha rlllltll \' \\'ith the mornlln w it o ng h l no t to he..· , t;ltlil':t t...·tl. The r hild o ug h l not to look nn his tl.•ndttT n:-; n ne whost• du ty it is to 'imlil':tll.' tltL' lnw. hut t hn t law for him ,· intlil':tt ~o.•s it:::df in a d i,·idl'rl nnd inhnr-

lllllninns !if~.· . Shall \\'t' Jll'llish fo r t hr good of the ofl~lllkr? T hl' at·t n:: :1 11 net is pnst. I t t•n n n o t he dtn ngcd. T he o nly ,·nine it hns for th ...· l'h ild i:' tht· m ...·nning it hns in his life. I r thi:-; h as bl.'l'n fullY senst·d . to en usc fm t hL'l' :-;ulli.Ting- o n n.ccoun t of it is simply t' t'ltcl t ,. n nd. re ,·t·n~e. It still cu nscs t he <"l'n tt•n:rl o n a n act bad in it sl'lf. mi n d :tnd thi ~ o nlY cm p hns izt•s nnrl ha rdens t he di ~ 11 11 i n 11 in ~ h e !if~·. F o r t he child to snffi.'l' :1 fte•· t he conscio usness of his deed lt :ts co ntc ho me to him is destructi,·c n f' t. h c hap piness a nd buoy:tncy of con:< t n tt•ti \'l· grow t h. i:< dt·strnct.i\'e of life it-

to )),•

s~o.·l f.

:\ ,·o n1 nwn t hl'ory o f punishtnt•n t req u ires t h:lt children s hould sutTer t he co n:::cq IIL'lll'l'S o f t heir misdt•cds . t hn t c\·il deed s :-;h o uld be t heir o w n ayengers. T his t heo1' \' i:-; a dvoca ted w it h g reu t earnestness by 1-i r r hcn S pe ncer : a n d Miss Ha r r iso n says, "\Vc r o b d1i ldren of t he g rrn trst men ns of self~c o n lro l w hen we free t hem fro m t he · o w n nets. " \VI11'Ie ,·o n seq nencts of th et" t h l' re is m uc h o f t ru t h in t his t htory t here is :lls o mu c h o f e rro r . It is q ui te eviden t t ha t :<O fa r as i t can be done it is well to usc t h e ac t s o f children as a mea ns of p un is hmen t. T h is p r inciple is sound psychologic::tll y s ince it wi ll mo re t hn n anything else ca use c hi ldren t o weig h well t heir net s a nd lead t o t hat self-con t r ol nnd judg emen t \\' h ich i:< o n1.· o f t he objects of educa ti on . 1.3u t ma ny nels w r ong in themseh·cs n rc en p n b lc o f t hi s use, n nrl ot her men us of n r-


4

T il E ST .\ T I·: :\ f li<:\1.\ L

~Li lCHl L

~IL ":-:.1 ·:

' t , f f,

res ting :t lll·n t in n nt u ,. t l~t· fo u nd . .\n d fu r t he r , in t he gTt·n trn njnr ity o f l':J Sl·~ it io., 1111 l

co m pli-.h~·d. t11 r11 :1IH· lrinr ,·:r r'f'.' l ~~~· ck:ul \\'l'i" ,., h l ,,f hi-.. mr-..t:rl;~· \\ lll'll hi-.. \\ hoh:~o.· Jl l'f'·

po ssihl e no r j us t to h o ld c h il dre n rc!-. po n o.,i b l<: fo r t he full co n seque nces o f tlwir :tcl'Thcir mind s a rc n o t rn atu n :, t h ey e;r n n11t y<: t sec the full c o n s e< t c nct·s o f l..' l' J'l :1in lim ·.., o f c o nduct. T he feel tugs :r n· :1s !-l o ng in c hi ldh o o d :rs in m :rt un: life. w hi t.- Lla· n :: rso n is \'c r y w c:d <. \\' lu.: n Wl' :t:--,. unr t· t h :ll t hey mu s t no t e,-c:rpl' t hr.: co n:--l'q ul' nt·t·,. of' th eir ow n :ret,. we r.:st:rl rli,. h :r r u le o f' p ro ccr.:d urc in w hic h t h t.:n: is s~:: r rccl y :111 ~..·lt·­ mc nt o fju s ti~..·t.: . Thi s ru lt.: i:-- re~:ogn i zr.:d to be u nju s t evt·n in Lhe ca s t· of t hosc o f m:l tu re life: , m u ~: h m o rt· , t he n . in t h r.: c :r ,.l' of c hild rc·n .

g il'" o., h oul d go " lr n ll _, l~> l h~..· ~..·c n r-. t f'l ll' tin· p ron:..,.., of r·ight I \'ing. i.., p :1 1'Li:dly t o in !-- u n· hi ~ failun· in :rd,·:r rHT T h~..· l:t\\' i,\' ill d icalld whr·n lr·· ... ,., .... h in ,-.~..·11' :r-. Ill· i:- . •

L et us s tllll up t h e po,.i t in n " nss um ed i n t h is pa pe r . T he fu nc tio n o l p un is h m e n t psyc ho logic a l! y is , t h e n , a 11 n r n·s t e r o f at t e ntio n . T h is I b e li e ve t o h r.: i t s o n e a n d o n ly fun c ti o n in t h e m a n age m e n t o f t he sch ool. T he c h il d m u s l be m ade to sec th r.: m e a n ing o f h is n et. Th is rn c:11 ri ng mu ,.l be re ali zed a s fu ll y as the m in d o f t h t.: c h ild i s ca p ab le o f d o in g . Whe n th is h :r,. l rc t.: n d o ne . th e li fe {' lltTc n t s h o uld fl ow o n a ga in a nd c o n s tntcti\' c w o f'l < b egi n. l nti l thi :m e an ing is n ·al izt·d th t.: ..: hild i!' o ut o f h a t·· m o n y w it h hi s asso t·ia t es :rnd p un is h m t.: n t o f so me kind m u s t he u sed u nt il h is att t.: nt io n is foc u sed fu lly u po n hi s c o n duct a n d h e sees h im self as h e is . After Lh is is a t·-

h i ... furtl11·r -..uth'f'illt: ,·:rllll •l r· h:lll,t :t' lri-..

:ll'l

n " r :1d d : " ' ,. n r" r·l· ': 1;..: 11 1l y l c• l lr l' In \\' . Tlu.: n· j._ :rl o-.ohltl·h 1111thi n .:..: t'11 rt h~..· r· in :1 l' On ~ Ln u: t i n· w :1y t .. r p nn i ... h ll ll' ll l t n d n . T h 1.: o n l " t hi 11 ~ •' i t l" lll d" i.... 1 " h: t rc k 11 Ii li.· :1n d cl;rr kl· n i t ... ' " " ' lrin t·. T lr~..· lili: o t' tlrr• l·h ild ,.l:l' l<~ h:1p p in r·....... :1 11 d t lr 1..· gnncl :1:- n: rl ura ll y .. ,. thl· p l;r n t turn .... t o\\' : rn l t lr ~..·l i .:..:ht \i• •••rctt t .... l ili.· n n l -,· ll\' .

-

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t': ru ,. in g i t lt • g o lcor w :cr d t'c> ll lin u cll t:'ly . :rn d fct r t.: \ '1.:1'." ~..· r r ct r t11 : t k i11g :t ,· irt ll l' g r ow itt i ts p l:ll'l:. l 'u n i ,. l ll r t ~o.· t t t :rl n ll l' \\' ill rllll r oot o u t t.: rnr r . : rnol it it d icl . n o t h ing \\' Ou lcl" l>e g :rim·cl ll ll t il t ire p l:rn· o f c rmr h a d lrt.:cn otTil !Ji t.:d 1,_ ,. :r po:-: iti \'~o.' ,-ir tll l'. L e t puni ,. hnw n t hl· r <.: cl tt <.:l' cl Lo :r nrin itt tlltll : rn d

ll ,.t.: cl

g rri d an ct.: .

o 11 h ·

: 1,.

; r n rl·:1n ,. o f L'O il :-:tn tt•ti \'l'

(~i \' l' It-,.!' t lt oug h l tu \' indi t•:rt t·cl

l: r \\' . le ss :t n x io u !' c:IIT t h :r t :r w r.:: tlc

w:t y·

\\':lrd t.: h il cl s h : tl l s ui'fi.T t h l' l'1tll p c n :d ly o f its o \\'n fra il l y, lnt l wi t lt n il t h l' st rl'l rg t h th a :: humn n lo ve c :rn gi \ ' 1.: yo11 , lt.: ad t h e t.: h il d 0 11 l int o t h t.: ,.llll":ltill t.: o l :r ha p py lifl·. T tll' n its fat'l' t o w : rn l Cocl :11H I Lh1..· lig h t , a ncl k t.:t.: p it t hc r t.:.

Tren t t h e ch ild r·l n fa irly , k inrll _y, L ea d t he m gen t ly o n t hei r w a y , L et t hem fcc! t h e po w er o f s uns hine , A s they t o il fro m d ay t o d ay . :\l a ke t heir labo r:' happy, p leasant , Win t he m by a lo\'e o f l ruth ; Lu re t h em o n by s weet incentive O'c,· the ~li ppc ry pat hs o f you t h . - A no n .


5

NATURE STUDY.

h :t..., !I llM\III'.tl l~•lldiH.''-' fnr tlut..~ nnt li:d the ::trn in of t h1.'. new wo rk . E n •n if lu: ll'll\'e~ ~t:lwol before he enters the thing._ : d11111l h1111 till' IIIIJIIII't, llll thl' hi•"h ~t..·hool. n~ so mnnY ;um of n:atun· -..tud _, i-. tn '" ~ ulti ' :ttl' thi:. do. these hnbit:; w ill lx.' n n nicl in his lili: w o rk, whntcYth:~t fr u m it -4h: al l l'll llll' : 111 .art ll' lll. tnath !'4-"c:ki ng , n.: v~..·n.· n t nt,itudl· l•I\V : IId lllltll l"'-': t..' r it m a y he nncltht> nll-around k nowledge w ill he nf prm·ticnl u~c nnd fit him to nwre a dc.. irc ; n H I p n t i l· uc~..· ln ).; now a lld ' lll fl \" fu lly np pr'\: ·in u • n nd enjoy t he world. her n nd sa wi llin g n~..· .... -.. ' " k:arn thl· k-.:- 1 u;:; T n lw ~o:om pe ll'nt to hn ndlc nnture study <~~he h nH to lt: a c h . ~l ot h l·a· ~ : tt11n· hn:; ;.!i ,·n t cncher net•ds the nbility to teach. n lo ye eu u s m a ny \\'o aHk d 'u l t h ill:_::- fnr n ut· l:n m n f nn ture a nrl 11 11 intinli\te k no wledge of fo rt n ncl <: llj o yn ll..' lll :and hy ~tn dyi ng her her. n g-n.•a t lo \' l' fi)r children nnd her fcl· w e n r c cna hh:d t o a pp n ···i: at1..· t lw m r i,!..! hth·. low m en stron~ fn ith in t he Crentor of I t is impo~s ihk- t i l I K·com~..· :tl·quain tc~l. t h~ l ' ni \'l'rsc . :111d ndded to t his , a th ore ve n s lig htl y with th ~..·~l· l' X pn·~-- i n m nfthc o ugh instruction tn t he sciences. F o r ho w wo nds·o u s th o u g h l ~ u f ( ~n d . with o ut hl·in~ e n n s he len d otht•rs where she has ne,·er dnHvn n ca s·cr t o llin1 . th ei r ~l:tkl' l ~t nd h~..·~.. · n herself? he needs t he kn wwledge n nd " ur!'. Thi s must un co n ~ l· i o 11 ~ lv h :t , .... l::;o n·r cn t • \.' Onlickll(:e t hn t specinl work in science will influ<:ncc in formi n g the d t:tr: actcs· ( J f th e bring tu her. After lun· ing used the mi· child , mnl<i n g it s tronger and ewcetlT . l:r oseopc in t he lnbor ntory,shc will be nble Nature !:nudy is of \": tltH: t o the ~..· !•ilrl in to teach C \ 'l'll in t he lo west grades with tlu: pre!'l'lH s itH.'l' it g i ,Ts him :a n ·n d rkd inmuch m ore en thus iasm an d purpose. For terest ::~nd p lcas u n· in hi s s~..· h nu l wo s·k n n d cxmn plc. she cnn presen t her lesson o n the streng th e n s the l>o ncl h ct \\'l'l'll t~..'ac h~..T nn rl buttcs·Oy wi th much mor e life after having pupil. I t train s him t o sec :and t o th ink sc~n t ht' beauty of i ts wings a nd its curi:a !' he sct:s; i t mnkcs him : a c~..· ,u·a tc, enlarges o u s eves thro tJ€h t he s~cro ·cope. hilll voca huhu·y n n<l hc·lps hiiJI to cxps·css M~;c h of the ,·erv best of material in him self w~l, hoth os·ally nnd in his w s·i tl nngunge nn d drawing is furnis hed by the tl·n wos·k,• thus nHddt· !..!' lrtn ,.... "'u:t ,..., o-c w o d< work in nature s tud y, a nd s·ince it is muen~y a nd plcasn nt; it ctdtiv:t t l·s a sy mpnt h y for a ll livin g things . h u wc\'l'r sma ll m · ' t uall y rela ted to a ll other brnnches in t he seeming ly uRe lcss. I t t:tk es him o ut uf comm o n schools it sho uld be given a pr o min ent place in the daily progra m . or doors in to t he fresh ::~ ir and su n shine nnd nt lens t s hould be taught correl nti,·dy. is a cure for ovcr-,vorkcd tll·rves and tit·ed, As the field fro m w hich to choose mntcrial restless hs·a ins . Thro u g h it h1..' gains an i nc reased respect fo r h onest la b o r. in teaching nnture study is so wide, in P r operl y condu cted th r n11g h t h e gntdcs, kn owing w hat to select atld \vhen to pre· nntut·e study payes the way fn s· the sci- sen t it t he teac her s h ould be guided by t he l·ncc!S o f t h e hi g h s<:hool. Man \' of the ele- seasons o f t he yea r. the different holidays, menta rv fac t s arc a h·cacl,· kno~v n ' h ::l\·inrr 0 t he enviro nmen t a nd interest of the chilbeen abs o r bed nattHall y. T h e pupi l's dt·en , a nd her ow n good judgement . The 111 ind ha s a 1rcady received so m e scientific ' '" ork sh o uld deal with pla n t life, a nim nls, ts·ai nin g and h av ing a l ready d e l ved into and a ll n a tura l pheno mena If t he boys manv o f n at ure ' s s ec t·ets anrl ha vioo. formed t h e h a hit o f :accu s·n tel y oh~:t..•t·v in g catch a b at g ive a lesson o n it; if a m oth emerges fro m a cocoon, let the children and correc tly pic turin g tlw ohS<T \' ation, h e

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6 !;tucly it; o r if liH:rc i s ~~ :-; now :-; torm, all ow

\\'111Hil·r ... on tlu· ;.!f:r ...... -.!i rk :rn d tlrl' 11 pa·

t hem t o s e:e the bea uti c ~ of llu: t-ry .... u d -. through th e mi crosco p e .

ttr r c h i-. .,J,..,t·n:rtiotr-. "rtl1 l •t·rrcil "~' clr:dk. Btrt an·ur:rtt· "1,-. t·r·,·.r ti o u -. : rurl rlr:rwi n g -.:

The teache r mu st be p rc pan·cl for· j u -. t !;m·h t•m c rgc ne ics, bu t s h ou ld cleh:11· unim -

Ill' in-.i -. tt·d ''JI"U h v 1!11· H·: ..·hl r t"f-.l' t11l' IJt' rt dit 111 IH· tkri\l d lrn 111 tl:l· -.u hjlT l wiiJI,c !11-.t. Till n · will lr l' 1111 n ·: d kn ow lt·dgi: ga ir H·d. and r·:r rc·lr·-.-. . .., J,. tlrl n 1 h :rl rit -.

p o r·tant strhj cc t s and c h oos e t h o :-;e t h at w ill b es t s er ve h e r o w n parti t· rrla r· purpos es. Th e wo rk !;h nu lcl co n s i-.:t "f :rt'llr:d ohs l·r \' !rtions an d in v<·s t ig:rt ill r1s of rt :rlun: it~t·l f. a nd not t h e g lerrning of idl'a s a nd luw wl cdgc fr o m the numerou s n:rtu r l' rl':lfl c r~ . h o we\•er good. Th e less o n s s h o uld h l· g i \'in n n at ura l mnnnl:l', t lw pupils t:rl<irtg Lir e m ost a<:l ivl' p a rt a nd t h l' tl':H: h cr s l<illlull y gui d in g. ~ Cnd cr the direction of the l' OillJil'l t·nt Ll'ach e r muc h prac t ical good wil l r·l's ult if t h e mi.cl'O sco pe. bl' u sed t hnnrglr t.h t· g r a d es. E\·en thl' li tt ll' fo lks will IJl' hL·m·littcd by its ule if t h e lesso n is s o arr:r n gcd that eac h l'hilcl b e : rll owul tn lo ok :rl tht·

..

11111 '-l

fi ,rnw d . II\· u r:d;i n ;..: h :r-. t ,. . i n ·•liTtTt dra w in g-. tlH· c hi ld w i ll lt~ r1rr t iH· h : rl rit , ,f T hl· w o rk rni -. n: pn·-.l'u tin;..: ot iH·r th i n ;..: s lr n1rlil :rpp l·: d t11 t he iur :1;_!i u :1l ir1u .,f tlrl· l'hi ld , n ·t ~ lrrnrld tk: d with f.r,·t ... It wil f r,(

it !'l· lf •~ pt· rrupth t· l ~t· :rrrtit'nl " .,,rf,J , ,fprrl·try : rrrd s1111g :rn .t n d ti\' : rtl· t hl· t:r ~ rt· fnr gr~trtl fiH·r!lllllT. Sornt: nne h : rs -.::ri d . · The thrnr;..:ht-. dvr·i\'t·d frorn n:rtn r c s tud y : rn·

:11 11 <111 .!.!

t lrl·

loftit·s t th: rt J H> ~ Sl'~S thl' lrr 11 11 :rn so n!. " Tlru ~ if the yont h o f 1111r l:t nd l>t· gin·n s nd 1 : r cr 11 rr·st· in t h i: pt thli e Sl.· h oo ls.

<Jill '

e i t izl'll -

s hip :r nrl l· i ,·i li z: rtimr wi ll ltl' r: ri s l·d ltl :t

h i glr~: r pb m·

WESTERN PIONEERS. H1· Hnnnn h Stnrk.

fi n this pape r, \vh iC'h \\': t ~ pn: par·l·fl ns :til l..'Xc n .:ise h t th e s(•ci4• I HJ.!'.'" d :tss. i\ li s!" St : trl' so n a l kn ow l ed ge.]

1:- .l

the yea r 1865. in tht•eity of \V:t s hingtnn, two you ng p eo ple w e re mar ri ed

nncl s t a r·tecl o ut to mak e a n ew hont e . M 1·. X. wns a memhn of thl' ll o s pit: rl

Coq )i' of tht: r egu la r rtrmy .

s pl·: tl.:s fn•ur p l· r

th ey were to ld by :1 ph ysicia n th:tt :t c o rn p lctl' change o f :ti t· : tnd SlT ll l' w:r s tll'l'l'SS:tr·y. They di d n ot k n ow wh:t t to d o T h ey \\Tri: dqre 1ul<:nt npon hi s s: rl :rt·y f, r :t liY-

I Ie ,,·ns <,f

in g an d ht· d id not ft·l'l tlr: t t he l'lllll d lt·:r \T

ari stoc r at ic Gc nn c:ltl· pa r entage nnd a man

the s en·ice. Fn:rl ly thro n g lt tlte inflttclll'l' of a fr-il' tHl. i\ l r-. X. w:rs t r·a n sfl' rTt d to F o r·t

of li n e l'ducation.

M r s. X. wa s of I ri s h

d escen t, hut h ad bee n bro u g h t up in Philadelphia, w h t r c s h e h a d fitt N l h ersel f fo r t h e professio n of teach i n g. Mr. X. w:.s a d evo u t Catholic n nd Mrs. X . a n Hctive m c mbt: r of the B a ptis t C hurc h . A fte r t h ei1· m a rri age the yo un g co uple resided at F o r t Meye r , jus t nut o f W <ts h ing t on fo r n ca d y two y.:-a r s . Jt w:r s h vr t: that thei r· fi r s t c h ild w as h o rn . The h cn lt h o f M r. X. began to f<ti l , Hncl

Seclg-ewiek . nca r Kl':tr n ey . A t that ti111e th t· n t:a r·est ra ilwny st:t tion w:rs Oma h a. and f1·o m he r~: thc>y \\'ent o yerland 111 the s upply w:r g o n s th: rt U1c ~ k r :1ti cnt s l o l h e so ld ie 1·s. They r·cm:riut:rl at the fnrt :rho_~;;1t :t \'l':t1' when i t h t't'fl 111l' a p pa r·en l t h ntl\111'. X. lt :rrl co n s umpti o n , :111d that t h e chn n gl' ol climate had bee n too lnte to do hint ; rn,· _goorl .

Knowing t h at h<· could not . l ake·


rc:ufhi .. \\lk . •n·l httl. ~ ~~·

llllhh

lnngt•r.

~:1\'c: up 111 .. I'"''''"" ·' "" h .. u:.. .1 right · to :1 h• •Ill< -.t, ,,,J ........ h••ll ''''·"' -.h ,, t n "itua h·d in the l 'l.tt • ,. di tanc.·c.· fn1111 (~, :111d 1-.l.,nd The~· gatlH·•··d "I' "h . tt r. " Jt, u-.dt .. hl tJl rl jJ._ tlh·_y l'"llld :..:•·1 .11 tit, h•tt .11111 ith ;, l l' :llll " ' \'llll<h 11 111\' " ' 1\ " ' \ Jt.,, ... , ... :1nrl :1 c.·n"· hum t•. The hllnH· -..t,·: t~l h, IJ .. , t ... u:..:ht h:11l .1 ... , ,., huu..,~· \\'ith t\\· •• ..,,,,," ' · ·' h .tr ll .11111 . 1 \\dl. whid1 ha d l1n·11 ]11'11\ idnl ''' 1 ht..· 111 : 111 "h" ltml .. o ld tht..· 11 t tiH· pJ.,,.,.

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The hu ~ h a nrl \\' :t-.. ' '"" 1"" "e:d, '" do muc h f: 11·m "'' ' ~'~'- ~~~ h ,· :r11d 111-. IJ ,.,.,,i"· wili.· c.xc h:111 g ed pl:1,.,.~ . : 11 u l " lt i k· h,· ,·:1n·d fn t· their li1.tk g i rl :11Hl :t t tt..· •Hh- d t " thl' cl t> 11t\':-· tic rd f:1in;, ~ ~~~· l"·"l' v t hv ~n• 1111d fn t·. :tnd l'lantl·cl tlll·i•· li• ·~ t ,: n •p . "h ic lt w :t:- w h,·:ll. T he c rop \\' : 1 ~ " ' ·: ,.-l y n ·:1d y t " 11 :11·\·l·:: t w he n Lla: ~ o ] : lit..T \\'Ito ~.· : 11 T ie.l th \· t11 :1i l t 11 t he fo 1· L .::1111 \' 1 o lltl· f:11·111 :111d t t~ ld \11,·111' tlwt t h e y h n d l lc ll\'1' ~ · · h : 1 ~.·k t •• t it ,· fun. ns 't h e 111d i:t11 :; \\'t..T <.· .:..: i ' i 11 .~ :1 .:..: .. o d d c:tl 11f t roub le. Tlwy lt :ltt..·d t l> ]n:;,· w h :1t li ttk t hey h <t d :tncl hoped :1_!.!:1i11 :;t h "Jl' ' th :ll t he JnrJi rt ii S ·\\' CHdd IIO t llll llt..-~t tlt \' 111. A)Hllll t hn-c \\Tck~ :iftv 1· tlti :; lilllt..' :\1,·:;. X . wn s a t t h e h : 11·n d n ill.!.! !'IIIII\' \\' Pt·k when loo kin g n11t on tltv pt·:lit·i,· :; Ill: !':t\\' :th o ut fift y h o n ,c m c ll . ll v•· ]ll'.lc t i <.·~.· d t..•y c told hc t· thal t h ey \\'CIT 111di:1 11 S llun·it..·dly cut tin g the n >'p c Lh:1t t et h e n : d th e c o w. s he l>l·idlerl the h o t·:;t..·s :tnd Lno l' t hc 111 t o t he _hou :;c. S h e assisted h<.T hu :;hnnd tn m o un t Oll l' ll f' th<.· h ot·se~. n nd to o k h ct· lit t le g il'l h c f'o t·c ht..T nn th<.· nt h <.·•· o n t..·. :1nd lll'g:•n u l"tll'C fot· lit(:. Th t..Te \\'<IS :1 n t nch seve n miks a way th ~ 1 t h rl'l :t :; U·o ng \\Til fnrt ifi cd log h ou~c :.~ nd ti vt..· d c t cl· mi n cd men Lo defe nd it. S he kn ew t h :1t if s he IT:tched th a t s he \ V OLdcl he s a lt: fo1·" time Ht ka s t. She h ad quite• a li ttle s t:11·t o f t he l ndinn s , :tnd s h e mad<.: t he lli OS l or it. Th <.· y <.: h a scd he •· f'o 1· a s h o t· L di st:lll l'l' llll t st:t..•i ng that t h <.· y co uld not <.: n l ch ht..T hefo r c.s h e r·e a e hccl the n tn e h . thc v turned hn ck :t nd cks ln >Ycrl

thin~

"·Hn

,,,Jt-

tltl~r

•tl ,·nlm· t hey co uld . . They punk:: t hro ug h the

whcn t." kill"... l the ,·uw . :tml h urnl•d u p cn~ry thing th.tt \\\Hthl hurn T ht..•y l' \' l'll po ured t he milk o ut ami u::ed tltl' h utt.er t o grc:t~l' t h,•i r ll't':( l111.' ol tlw mt•n nt t ht• rn nd1 wn:: ::ent t.o tlw Inn tn pnlcu rl' nid :wei hl' returned in . llhllll ,, 1\trt ni!!ht wi t h :1 lil•utcnnnt nnd ' . f, l rl \ i'llhlil'l"$ :\I r :1111 I :\I r::. X. rl't u rued tO l ht• hi.' a p of , tun:: t hl'Y h nd n nl.'c ,·nlled ho me n nd hra \·,·h · :<t:l rt l•cl a new . T he sold il'r:: r em.tincd at th l' fnrm fo r 0 \'l.'r n mo n t h, b u t .1:: thl' Ind ia n:: (hcl no t n' t11rn they wen t

1

t:

'h:1l· k tn till' fo r t . :\l r . a nd :\l r::. X . were well ni gh diseo11r:1gcd . .\ 11 t h,· pnH" i::ion:: th~y h ad fo r w inl l' t' \\'t..' IT :1 fift y po uld ::nck o f mea l and t wl·n t y po nncl:: o f s moked beef w hich t he :;o ldi,·r:: had kft t hl'lll . Thl· ::o lclil· r:: did no l fo rg et nn old cnmr :uk. a n<r ::no n nfter n wngon w nli sen t d ow n fro m t he fo t·t. contni ning srn okl~d 111e:1t . men 1 :1 ncl ::ug-a r t.•nough to lnst them t hro u " h th..: \\'tll ll'r. It "~'"in til e f:U.llowi ng winter th~t their l'l'l'Olld child wn :: bo rn . Mrs. X. , seeing that h n h11:;ha nd co11ld not li,·c long: w r ote her brother in P hi!n dclp hin to come tn her . S he co11lcl not g o to him as thnt m ea nt to a bando n th e farm. and t hat wa:; n ll ::h·: h:1d. S he t ook t he letter to t he •·a nch w here nne of t he men promised to mail it fM her . \V lu:n Ita y o unges t child wns fo ur m o n t hs old her hus ba url dicci a nd she was left a lo ue w: t h her two li tl I e ones. The fo ll o w in rr J1111 e her bmther cnmc. bring ing "'· with him n new s tock o f s upplies. She hnci put in a stnn ll crop of w hen l nml h e•· bro t het· lwei jus t' harves ted it w hen t he India ns made <1 seco nd raid on the place. They saw them jus t iu time a nd escaped unhat·med , a l t ho ug h the l ndinns a g ain des troyed eve ry t hing . The brolht..T w ent to t he fo t·t an cl spen t the little mo ney he ha d fo r s up p lies and ng ain 'thcy s ta rt ed OYer.


8

THE STA TE N0 f01 A L SC II O<JL ~~ E SS E:"'(< ;E J<.

They were n ot m o les led th at winter hu t the fo llo wing s pring the l ndi ~tn s agn in raided them. Thi s tim e Mrs. X . po iso ned the s ugar , and o f co urse the I ndians g o t it . She never knew how m a n y at.e i t hut s ht· was t o ld afterward tha L tht:rc were s o m e pretty s ick Sioux. The settlers n ow began a sys temat ic a nd organizC'd campaign Hf!a inst th e Indi a ns , having become weary o f waiting fo 1· the government to help t hem. The s ettlers carried on their ca mpa ig n so well that they s oon terrorized the I nd ians int o l<:tting them a lo ne. After the J ndi a ns wen~ yuiotcd d o wn, new settlers cam e in .a nd "too k up" lnnd . A post office was est.ahlin hed and Mrs. X.

was m :Hh: post - m istrT~ S . :\ fc..· w _\"l·:aa':' :a fterward t he: r a ilro/ld wa:- h1!llt 111lcl the ho mcs tc:u l th at ha d J,c..·c..· n hc..·ld wit h ::uch priva ti o n :11Hf s u0l:r ing is IICIW :t v:dunhk farm . Wi t h t he :trriv:d of I l l' \\' ~l"l t kr~ ::c..· lw n b were c . . whlis hl·d :tnd the: two little..· girl:: were gi vc n a g ood c..· d 1u.::t 1i4 >1l . :t nrl w hc..·n t hc:y hc:camc: o ld c..· n <111g h t hc:_v ~ upportc:d t hcm sel \ 'C:S.

·M rs. X . is a ,,·om:tn wc: ll :tcl v:an c..·t cl in vcars nuw an d is 1-c::tpin g th~ fruit crf h~1· ~ac,· ificc and toil in pc;tc..-c..- nnd c:nmfo t·t. She tell s inn m o s t g a·:ap h it· 1!1 1ll lll c r o f the s lo w dtvc:lopnH·nt of th e l ' l:t llc vu llcy from a h:u·rcn 1wa iric to :t tl11·iving :t g t ic u l tur:tl n·gion,

PSYCHOLOGY OF EXPRESSION. By Alice II. {-'urtiss. [A ThcHi!l in Bclucutional Pt<~· chul ogy . l

E

XPRESSION, psyc ho logicall y speaking, is o nly t o be unders t ood when we begin with th e first acti o n of t he mind and w o r k it o ut, and up, throug h the stages o f development. T here is a mental or su bjccti vc co efficicn t as well n s an objective one . !::veryt hing ac ts a n d r eact s on an individual, in a psych o logical way, eit her by mea n s o f o bjec ts or t h r o ug h itself. We may no t understand o r rcnlize this until int r ospection h us t n ken place a n d w e t hen b el'o me con sciou-s o f self. We m ay sen se t hings about u s. I t mnkes os perceive, not only t he objcct, but the s urr oundings, o r envi r o nment, t h at we find it in . In contrast to this w e see that the o bserv a ti o n may h e i nward ly preceiving the ac tion o f the mind a nd its workings. In both cases we must have the s u nject , feel ing t he p ercep t io n , a nd t he object fel t. H er e the wi/1 plays i ts partt he d esire o r w illing b eing th e s uhj e.1: t and the d esi re, put into action , th e o bjec t .

Ther e co mes II OW hcfDrc u s grcn t fn n11 s representa tiv e o f t 1·uth anr! gcm·nal i rl eH I:'. l. a ws ex.ist b y w h ieh t he mrncl is g u }fkrl in t o fuller activity, o1· 1·a thc t· in to funll lllated th o ught. I n the lowct· form s o f t he a ni ma l ld n~don ·.vc get action tow a t·cl ul timate ends, but w i t h o u t Jl-l·ccnm·<:iv,·rl ideals d esig n ing to nccomplish t hcse end s. M a n d oes n ot plac(; him ~clf in hi s best environment b eca use of comfort d e rived , )lil t beca use by looking inward he..· wDrks with understand in g toward his en ds . 'vVe h ave come nnw to a conscinm: s elfacti vit y which must he Hcceptcd, t·lse nll_ knowledge, a ll action, wou lrl be suspended and n o prog r ess mnd e. In the plant ti le we find self ac t iv i t y prov en h y its rln·clopm cnt t o an end , not a con scintas <'l H I , hu t as perfec t a o n e. In nn imal life we find the same thi ng i n r egan] to cn\"in)llmcnt . As we learn to compehencl our i11ncr self~o w e unden; tand t h e connection o f tlwF>c with the nat ura l man ifes tati o ns in the oli-

- - - - - - - -


li\·~· \\orld It"'' ·''~"'' "k.J c,· th.tt " '' hll\'«: -.elf :tt.·t i \it\ . undt.J :1 clllt.' · t ~uitl .tllt.~· ,,. :a C:Cllll'lu-.ion ... ,. I ll Ill \\ •• t ht.•JI oll'klll\\\ lt"flgc l hat " .,. h :" ... · idt·a ... ·· H n rri .. -.:, ."'". · · I 'I a nt-. . ' ..... i 1111 Ia tt· , .., tt.-ru:aJ,, nni1n:d-. a ...... inlll:ttl· : 11111 ,.t.' IH"t>dllt.'t.'. \\'hill· fllllll :t''llllilatt·-.. n · p rc11h u.>l'' 111111 .. dfprnclu~·l'' or cn::t tt.·-. ·· F1·nn1 tht.· id\.·a tlt.•n:lup ... thl.• thoug h t till-. 111:1~ ht.• o f :111 tl h j'-'Cl :IJ1:1rt fnu n it .... l.ll , inllllllt.'llt or it mnv he.· M> t: lo:-L·Jy L'll llll t.T l t•d with aiJ that i~ :thou t i t t h ut i t c..· :Jilllt 11 t.' :\ i:-t :tlnnt.•. Tho u g h t:- . l' VL'II " ·L· II pn· .. t.·ll tL·!l. l'!IIIIIIH lw k n o wlt.·cl g c until it i:- l' XJll't.'!':' t.'d: a n d t n L'Xp ri:s~ it a form 11111~t lit.' ht.·ld ill th L· m i11d w hi c h m :l\· l~t.· lll :tllif~· ~ t c..•ith c: 1· th ro ugh Ia ng1w gc !"po I<,.,, 111· \\Ti ttL' II, ti ll ( lll:,! h fa cia l c x prc~ !< ioll n •· hnd i I\' liH) \'e liiL' IIt . S<: n :r <d fo n:c:~ l'o 111 L' ill hL' I.L' to m:tkc t hi s po!'sil•lc - im : •gi na t iun. at te n t in n. tht.' will and n•t.·nH>l·y . A _\'CI IIII g child ha !" 11 0 iclc::t of weig ht , lig ht. cli ~t: III L'e: a 11d n ot 1111til cx pcri c n<:c hn!" gi ,·L' ll hi111 ""'""kdgc of the fads can thct·L· he: a th n nght i11 n·g:1nl to it. A~ nn example nf t hi !< w e: :'C:L' the: L· hild with the: •fir:o:t gift... li t.• h : t~ at fir:-;t 11 0 idea nh• ut it hut hv fi.:e li11g thc:m hL• gets fnrm nnd ~uh s tnnce: 11 ot lllltil he h ns reached fn t· l hem cn ll he ex JllTiencc sp:tCL' nnd distanl·e . Size . c o lo 1· :111d w e ig h t L'OIIl(" eventu a ll y. He ha s L'x pct·iL'liL't.'d tht·ough his scnsl'S and 11 0\V he h:1 !' c:on ccptions which he expn.•ssc~-hy ,·caching tht· pro per distance , Ctl·., all accomplished nnckr action of will. The l· hild n nt untlly is ever ohserv .n g and imit at i\·L· . Ifit is true that man gTo w s hy m eans of that which comes near him. at·e we no t r esponsible for thnt '"' hich h e is? vVc louk about in natu1·e :t nd see cvt•rything capahlc of pcrfecti o 11 in its pn>gressio n t o w:trd it s idea l. It t a kes of t h at whic h it n eeds nnd n o man in tcrfcr es . Thi s exp1·essi on is wha t we p1·izc m os t, a nd fo t· wh a t w e w o uld give o ur best effort t o g uide o n•· li ves, and oth ers, to a like result. The Aower nee ds no p1·ai se fo r its rig h t living hut m a n, with the two w ays to choose

fr\lm in hi:: fn: •dnm . must choose o ne wny. It i:: al this su~p thnt n second indi,·itlunl mny blunder n nd the best be ln~t fore wr. Tnkc till' study o f plant lift•. Wt.• nn.• tn plnce, o r rnthcr let t he child plnl~' hi m . df. in h:1nu o ny with his s urr,,u ncl in;r~ n nd then the fncts will be n :-impk sto ry t o him nnd he will compre-lwml the ln w$ th nt go,·l'm their liYes; their fnr m:: n nd Ct)luri n~ n:: cnsily nnd perfectly u mkr:: to od n :: the first simple truths. I ntt•nn to sn y thnt. t o my mind, n child mny enter int o nn npprt-cintion of nature so th n t his " willi ng·· will be for the rig ht :tnd truth . n nd t he exprcs!;io n will come ns n pt.•d i..'C tly spontnneous result-something thnt cn nnot be withhdd. It is simply another ' ' ny of snying th a t the ex pressio n dept.'nrls upo n the conceptio n a nd the concept ion cnnnot be expressccl until t here is t he will fo r nclion. T his wn. the a im of Pestnloz7.i when he s:1 id we will gi n~ the children nn object by which t hey cnn fo rmulnte t heir ideas and g-i ,·c cxprL·ssion t o t h nt which t hey have expe,·icnccd. A fnilure of a teacher to gain t h e n ltentio n of t he schola rs may be bel'fiiiSl' she w as tn lking of something of which they knew nothing nnd co uld therefore hn ,·e i10 conception-<"onld form no th o ught o f the subject. T r emember a m orning in the kindergm·tc n where a child was asked to play the part o f n s quirrel. inn cirde game . Herefu s ed, backed n way from the otht•rs, hung hi s hea d all(l would thereon take no mo re p a rt in thecircle work. All were surprised at his indiflcrence and wondered at the occasio n. L ater at the tables, where the th o ught of t he ga mes is further worked o ut, I fo und t hat the child knew nothing of a s quirrel. It was little wonder that he •·efuscd t o give expression to something that did n ot exist in his own mind. It is with the earlies t thought formulated th a t education mus t begin, for educati o n is kn o wledge acquired a nd the development of m ental a nd physical powers.


10

TilE S TATh

~0 1 <:\ 1.\L

SL I! Illll. \ll.:->:->l."-1 ,1. 1\

lf c rb <: r tS p cnce r ~ay s, " Ed ut·at io n 1s pn·pa r at io n fo 1· co n 1pletc li v ing. " :11HI \\'l' fin d t hn:c !;tcps in the: p1·o c: c: ~ ~ whi d1 : 11·l·. tak ing in, :t!;simi l:1 t ing, :tnd g i v in g o u t or~· ~­ prc!>s ion . Br,wt·n tell s , in hi -. l11H 1k 1111 F roc:hc:l, that in form:1tinn lJ l't' OillC!- k n o w ledge when we have rc::dizt:d i l!- h ea ri ng 11 n ot hc r facts :111cl thing~ :11HI wltul \\' l' t·:t n put it to ~ i mplc, IWlUt':tl ll ~e:-.. .\l -.11 t h:t t th e: first pq>cec:durc: of the mind ~ ~ :tt t: tl\t icn l- tal ing a f:11:t :t!< :t whoh: aut! fin d in g the IHII'lS, and aft e r· th(s rtT onst ru etion whi c h in voh ;cs jntet-cs l a t tt·ntion a nd 11 n d c rs tanding . T o a ch ild luw\\'h:d .~t· ha ..; li ttle: o r no n du<: un t il it is :t mean :- IJ,· w hi ch it can do s o m c:th in g, :tnd :tl o n n ·. I t is thi s \'ct·y ex l)l'ess ion t ha t ~h o w s tlt t· observe•· what knowl c: cl gc tht: chi ld has . \V c can no t thcn:fo•·e :dTorrl to s u pp rt·ss, \ II' c\:cn n o t <:nco urnge, all fonn :- of r ight ~clf­ t·x p 1·cssion kno\\'n to m a n . Tn obt: tin llt i" :1 cc rLrtiJ) a mount,,(' mttsc ul :t r tntinin g :1 s we ll n s rn.ipd and se n ses 1nust h e g i \'l· n the l')1ild th atth<;und iscip line<] individu:tlnwy g a in d d ·i ni t e co ntn>l of hi s p U\\'c r s. The refo re in . the ki•Jd crg<t rt cn we h a,·e the games, song-s, models, pic t111't's an d , a s Bowen s ay s, 'picture s pccc h" to fo 1· \\·:~rd self-expressio n. Co o ncl f'm·kc1· S[I)' S th :1t "the c hil d tries -t o makl·e vc rything t h :tt h e Sl'CS, OVC1'C0111CS [Ill o bs t: tcic;; in the l'IHI IJ <:ca u sC the whole body is a u.ni t of <tc t ion . The whole •·o und o f kn ow lt·dgc i ~ h l'g1111 l,y tht' c hild an(! hegun h<:c:tu ~w i t IJJ-l':l th e,. nnd livt·,.," rr thi" t·x pn·ssioll is a ll:l llll':d qut co mc of life we must n ot w ithh o ld thc natural means, as a1·t. mu sic , ca n·ing. ga mes a nd other ge ne ral so u rn·;;. Can th e chi ld in the gn·at c i t ies li•·<· without "uch g uiding po\\'en; when becomes from o u t ., f the un clea nn ess, both mo1·al :tnd phy si~:n!? \ Vit h out the flowcrsan d t il t• ri vc 1·s :111d the t r ees, what sha ll h e n sc CIS a s ubs titute. Den icd hi s physic ~tl nctiv i ty the dangc 1· i s g 1-cat lest th e mental h n lan l'l' h<: (o,.t. As we find t he l:u-ge m a j onty in th e eiti<·s thc s o lu tion wou ld in part, at least , be fo und 111 b1·ing ing natun.:s hc:1util·"· both

.:.! I'll \\

:11111

1n;.: and :11 1111< 1 1l. I" Jill' .... ,·!toni r u unr. t hl .,ll!.!h :1<1\l .d <' <> I t :l\' 1 dl .l\\ illg

tlt t 111 , ll lf>llld in" en l':li ll tlll.!.! tltun . l 'Jil'l'>' ... ,.llll'l lt in ;! " ' till' ;.: 1" 1 ' 1 h :11 j .... 1• llu t ul .\ g ·1i11 t ill •>~1;.:h 1!w 111 .1 .., ' 1 • ll ll " in p:llnting , " <'II i(' ' Ill t :1111! 11 1\l..., ll' \\ t <.1 11 11< >1 I ll I ll :1\\:1 v \\ i t lt., 1JI r n ·• ;.!Ill/ II.~ L1·i 1 illl( ll •ll· :1 11~ t· T i11· lt'" lill l• n i•· .... : 11•' II II IIH 1 '11\1 ~ uf t iH· -.t n 11!.! 1h • •! t h , ... . ,. ·!1in_:.: .... :111d lt11w t hly h:1 ,.,. iu!lnt' lll't d t !Jt 111 11 <>!1 1 ...., •IIH' 11f <>u r ;.:n ·:~tt'" l 1111 11 !1:11\\l ll tt·lf .... 11s th :ll h is II\ Ill ft I': 1':1 \'\·lin!_! \\ ,. ..., d l<·ll f.- 1) " ·' tiJ~· pit'• ti ll'\' " ' :. l l'"l'i~·:d 1• 1.1111 .\:.,: .tin Tn r n t· r's gt·n i u -. \\': 1-. li nd 1,_ ,. 1l 1 · :ll.'ci d t nt :d h nl il i:trity of :1 11 en tfi n :1r y l"l l llll ' . 'f' ht·~·~pn·s~iu n will t..'ll lll l' 111 Ii;.:l ll . 1.. • it n .. l ,f.- u1· i,!..!II OI k• Th <:~t· t h in .!.!s :1 n · :1 11 l' x p i:J n :1t io n .,r tht· th ing .... w hi l·l1 li l' h l'l·, •n· 11111: \\' h ll i-. ht·ginnin g t o -.t·t..·, :11111 f., r I hi ..; n·:1-.11 11 t he t..' tl\ lll ll'\" d 1ild mTd ,. :d l th t·-. t· thing ,... i11 h is sdlllnlI t i:-. lH>t 1'1111111, :1:-. wdl :1 -. t h l' t..·it y c hild . :d\\-:1_\' " l'll"IIJ-:h '" 1"' .... :--L':o-'-', t'11 r it o flt'll t:tk~-,.; :t'l e:-: I.J :t ll :lt ic•ll ( I> 111:1kl· i t :t p:tr t uf o lll' The llll d~· l ·:-.t: l ll clin:_: de •L·,.; not t't1 111 ~' w itho11l t :J!,i 11.!.! in.:l :-.~ intil: lt i co~l :1 11tl gi ,·ing 0\1 L. \\' e "L'l' :1 1'\ 'l'll,!.! IIi I i11 11 of thi s \\' !JL'll •>u l· hi g h c,.;t -.L·r1 t ,.; cd (,.,ll·n ing Jill thei r building,.; witl1 : til 1 i1 : 1t i:-: h L'"L an d ,; ug;.:cs-

i \'l'. F1·oche l gi \'(·;; " " Sll ll ,:_::-<. piL'tll l'l'"· ocnq >:tl.ic.ns :tnrl gi ft:- with t ll l'Sil l1 1cCih,itel. \\'ith the gift:- the child l'X JII · c :-: ~ ~· ,.; \\'h:t t ht• h n,; !-ct·n - he imi t: l l t·:-:. n · pr c>~lll l't..'" :1 n d t:tll l;;t nl ct:-: fr o m thv vxlL· rn ; il \\' <>r id . l1111 thL· cond it ion;; of t hi ;; \':'\ pn·.-:-.it >ll :11T found \\'ithin, :tnd ,.;o t ht..· gi(t pn·t..•t•t·d ,:; t h~· Ol'l'llp:t ti o n wodc Til L· ,.; tu :·y i:-: to lrl, in :1 life of(~nrficld. ~: f :1 1':11'111<'1'':- "'i fi.: . l"·in g n \';:r (~:tdi c ld' ;; hnmt·, who \\':1:-; 11111<:h l rouh ;,.,l O\'l'1'l h e fnet th:1l OIIL' ,.0 11 aft tT lhL· ot hl'l' in s i"tcd 11(1011 k n1· ill,!..! hi,.; lJCIIlll' an d goill,!..! to s<:: J. It \\'i t" nftL'I' 111 :t n y _n·:t rs lh:tt il h<:::ame l<nown t h:tt l':tch :t nd L'\'L' I'." ont..· l wd ht..•e n in s pin:d hy :1 picl\ll'l' or :t ,.;hip in mid -ot·ca n. llnclL-1· fnll ;;n il , w hich hung"" ' r the m:tnte l in :1 mtwh u,.ccl 1'0!1 111 . Vl/c h ave to d, al with th e eh i' cl \\' h•· h:•s n<:Vl'l' ,.;u· n a lln\\·e 1·. :1 ,. :11 l'(l n r .1 11 , . u f l hL• l


' I" II E :-;T.\ II. :'\U I<.\ 1.\ L Sl'IHJUL \lt::SSE NGEH .

l

I

wdl knu\\ 11 t'<llllltt·y animal:-. .._'hall w~ t tot .~i' \.' t Ia·-.~.· t·hi ldr~.·n t' \'l'ry ph:1sc of nn tlt:tt i:-- 1Hh:-- ihk. th:tt out of the: bloom of tilt· :--l:t-.nn :1 littk . at k:t:--t may he c:1ug-ht :t tld illl(ll"i-.., 11\.'d fn1· llt1.' ages that ar~.· to l"•lltll<' j',,l. t ftt"CIII)..:fl the: dtifcJ'...: (lliSSCSSiOil th~.· l':tn· llllt-.t l'l't'l'in: its part. I t W•HIIcl :--t'l' llt tl tl' , , ,tJy po:-:--ihk means whl·r~.·h,· :1 :--ot"t,·nvd h \.: lutiful ancl ).!l'lll'tUIIS na~un• euttld ltl' d~.·,·~.· l op~.·cl nut nl h:tSl'l' llll'ta l. :-;o \\'l' h a, l' .:.::1 ill l·d t wo thing:-< : 1 :-:uppt·l·:-<sio n n( tltl: l'\' i( l'X(l l'l':-':-<illll :tttd :1 cJiiTCt l' X)lrl':-'· :--icllt ,,r t iH· .~n ncl . 1 >':t\\' tlti ,- ck m o n :'t r at~.·cl i11 t :tk in .:.: :<•lllll' ~.·hild iTn . w h ose ho tnl'S \\' l'l'l' in ll 11.' lllP:<L ck-gl·:tclccl p n 1·tion of o ut· c i t y . i n to t lt 1.· \."t •ll ll t n · :t lld :-<:t\\' the t r:t iiS· ll.:.:tt 1·:a in 1t \\'lt i ~.·lt t;w k p l:tc..:l· w h~.·u th~.· ,· S: t \\' I.CJI" I h t: fi l">'l t i1111.: :-< ights whic..: h WCt:e tnt • t.:t> lltlt tiJ II t n 111 1.: to : t ll1':1l' t m y :11 tc..:nt in lt. w : t:-- : t:- k c d ·'what th ese things \\T r l', · JH>illlin.:.: to ro: t<l -:-.iclc wl·cds a nd \\'h e n 1 t o ld tlt\.'111 that t h e \' w er e fl o w e n; t h ~.·y dirt 1111l ll tHkt·st:t llcl . Th l'.Y ga t h <: t·ed t lt c 111 i11 : t r m fu ls : tll cl ill :-<i:-<tt•cl upo n gi\'ing th ~..: 1n to llll'. \\"hen I a :-k t:cl thl' lll w in· llt vy ga \'t: th~.· m Lo m e th~.·y an swt.'IT cl . "h~­ c :tu :-c \\'\.' l o \"l' y ou. " ()I \.'O li i'SI.: it w :ts n ot llll' tlwy lo ved itt p [tl' l ic u ' at·, hul nature 's h ~.· : tttl ies lt:1 rl C.: l'l' pl in :t ncl thi s w a s t he lll e :tll S uf e xpn::-sio n . Then· is , lo 111 e. On(· g n :n t d<tng~ r. in th<.: sc h o ol - that \\'i t h mu e h teac hi ng thcchild m:t y h e o vc t· hunlL·II c cl o t· \\T .g h t l·d d ow n hdow :t loa d or ll':trttillg that willm n kc th e rk si l'l' of kt tcl\d ,·d gc im possihk; bu t o nh· lt y :tju s t il t ll' I' J' i'\.'l:t ti o n c:tn \\' l.' sec or fn ·l " Th e lu.:a 11 ly . and t h e \\'Cl tllk t·. ami t he power. Tlt c :-: h:qll· ~ o f thi11.~:< . th l' it· l'O it> rl", lig hts a nd si ta d e:< . C lt:tng,·s, su qJt· iscs-a ud (: o<l 111 a dc t hem a ll ."

'

F1·o m :11·t \\' 1.: l' :t ~ i! y pn ~~ t o p(ldt·y. as a l l!C~t n s oft•x p n:ss io n : fo 1· a p oem is hu l a \\'O nl pict111·c that may he p :tsst·rl o n fr o m tlt 11s<.· \\' ltc> lt:tY c lo t ho~l' wh o rk s i1·e. E 1n·e 1·"'o t. s11ys • Tit ~· yn ~t ng 111 n n l"l' \"lT~s nt~· n o f g' n i11:-<. l ll:c:l ll ~ l' . L<> !' pc:tk t ntl _v,

11

tltl'Y are mo re himself t h a n he is." And aga in . " F or n il men li,·e by t ruth , a nd stnnd in need of <.·x.p ressio n . In JO\·e, in n rt. in poli t ics, in la bo r , in g nmes, w e study to u ttc •· her pa inful secret . The nt a n is on lY ha lf him ~cl f. l he o th er ha lf is

" To make t he wo rld with in his reach ::>om<.'whnt t he bet ter for his li,·ing, :\ nd ~rtn rld cr to r hi s hunHtn speech. ·· " Tit in,.,.,. 111 o re cxecll cn t t han e ,·ery im~ I age. " s:tys Jnmblichus, "[I re ex presscc t hrough im ages.'' beea usc Emerso n tell ~~ s 'nn t u rt: is n s ymbo l, in th e wh o le. a nd 111

e \·cn · p a rt . ., • . · · · Jt ~L it•t<: bee n < ~ 1 OCtn· IS l 1l l'll 1JUt :-<Cet ng \\ " · · d b · c:ome e ,·et· with us a nd unpercct\'C . ) • bc· · to t ha en use t he soul w ns uo t se ns ttn·c • t so . . I has t he so ul close to 1ls !eel. 8;1c t one ' . I de,·cloj)men t , eap n hll' o f cx.pa ns JOil n ne and the b o d,· is but t he ho lder-the o ne 11 ec~.·ssnr \' t o. the ol her, bot h w orking to. I T tl c maJ· o ri t Y, I g-e Lltcr as a wh o c. o t ~ ' mo re raptd ly 1 s ho uld s:n·, t he so ul de ,·e o ps . fl" I t ile bod)· a nd .ben nd w1 t h l l.'s~c o r t t w n . . · th al d irectiOn e :1u se of o ur o ve r-k•amng 111 ' . . . d the ha nds un w c hnd th e m1n r1 ne ti\'C', a n , . . . ·e n1·e in a de. u ·n lllecl. \\hen thiS IS t ru e \\ qu atr to o ur best ex pressio n . . In 1887 the b oa rd of cclucati Oil o f Ne w Yo rk cit Y fnc.: in g t his con di t io n m ade a e:trcful s t~1d\' o f th e facts. in t he l'c hools, and of. t he s •ubJ.ec t o f' ma n u a l tra inin•Y . o• d eI l1. t m1g . I1t l)e ,,.l·se to te:::t tts bcnl'l'cl rc1 t1a ..:ul :,; w1. t 11 l 11e rcsu It t ), ..~t man ' )' t NH h cn; . · t o · tc: help fulness t o 1· g l\·e st ro ng tcstun o ny . · ren, ho t I1 1ntc · 11 ee·t u.·tlh· t)h,·st he c htld . ·tnrl ' . it·a lh·. I t w o uld see m tlta l ha d n ot the Olll' j,l'l'll n ec~ssn r v t o th e other t hey w o ll ltl n o t han· been so ~l o!>ci.Y a llied by na t ure. The h od,· a nd mind arc uni fi ed. If \YC wo uld ke.ep th em so we cann ot a llow Oli C' t o d o a ll t he w or k w hile lh e olhcr d oes n o thin g . but l o J;cep th em n o t m a.l t he chilriiTn's o hsc.: n ·atio nl" n ud expct;m en ls m usl for m a ha ~ i s o f thl'ir ccl ucHtio n . \Vc 111u s l h:tH· s killed eye!', ha 11ds . clt·.,


12

T II E STJ\ T E NO I<.\ I A L SC I 1C H J L

for these things bul o nly as a m <:ans to th<: end. The child is fo ll o wing in t h <: li n~:~ of t he r·ace, th<:y tell u s; th<:n l<:t him foll ow with his b o dy as w<:ll as his h.-ain . (;r;rnl· ing then, t hat th e phys ica l :t<: livily he provided fo r, wha t s im p l<: r. m on: dir<:cl way could be dcsirc4J fo r l<:arn ing lh<: p rn p~: rli<:s of m a tter? In no way can th <: t· hilcl <:\':tr ltthc nc<:cs~i ty of u~ in g- his inl<:lkcl , flr hi..;

:\t ESS I ~ :'\1; I ~ 1.:

oh~<:n·ation,

whik wod<ing o ut hi:' proll-

lc.: rn ~

fo r hi 111 :-l· l f. l'' IIIW to :r pl·r· iod wh~:n n o lo n;.!<:r tht· hl·:rring :rl o ll l' is : rckqu:rll' hu t till' cloing rnu :- l l1 <: :td1 k cl to tn : rl'c t h l' CrHnpll' t\' w hoi<:. " \\' h:rt thou s t inhcritl·d fr o m th y fnn.•f:tlhcr!-1. :rl·q uirl· it th y"l'lf. th a t them rn : r .v'!<t !< :tv 'ti s t h ine: . \\'~: Ita n :

STANZAS ON FREEDOM. BK! wh ose boast it is that n· Come of fathe r s hr:r \'<.'and fnT. If there hrenthc on c[u ·th a s lave , Arc yc truly free and hr~l\-c? If you d o n o t feel the elwin , ' Vhcn it works n broth e r '!< pain , Arc yc not base s lnvcs indee d. ~l a ,·cs unworthy to he fn·ed? M

Is true I<'t·ceclom hut to brc.:ak Pcttcrs fo r our o wn dea r· sa ke, And , with lea the rn hearts, forget Th a t we o we mankind n dcht? No! true ft·eedom is t o s han: All the c hains our hrothc.:rs wem·, And, with hcnr·t and hand , to he Ecarm:~t tn make o t·hc •·s f•-c.:e! They a re s laves who fear to speak For the fa llen and the weak; They arc s laves who will not c h oose H atred, scoffi n g, a nd a huse, Rather than in si lence s hrink Fro m the t1·uth they needs mu st think; They are s laves wh o d a 1·e n ot h e ln the rig h t with t wo o t· three. - J a m es H.usse ll Lowell.


TIII::- s." J'.\ .1'1;:- ."'"'ll·'\l ·'' , .\1.' - l'IJOOL :\1 ES 'E~GEI~. ~~,,~~

(

..

·'

THE STATE NORMAL SCHOOL MESSENGER~

..

....

A ,l\u g07lnc dC\O ICd lo I he lnlc n:<l:< o r lhe S:alc Normal School or Neb m.-;J..a .

f 'llhf i., !Jct! "·'· t lit' F :tc:llfty on tht' lilit•t.•lll h o / III<· / !/(II/( h.

W. A. cLARK, Editor. J. D . B i.;h op, l ~n t , rct/

n t

B usiness Man:tgc!r. tilt.•

JHI:-Lollit.:L' :It Pc_·ru . .Y c.•/Jr:t:;k n . :1 ...

'(.'t.'trl l tl•t , ............ lll.lil t ll:lltc.•r.

Te rms, 50 ce nt s a yea r. (;<l\'tTilll lt'll l in .\ lllL' t·ica i~ the l'O il!"<:iom: di t'L'l'Lin ll \\' h id1 ~<l<.: iL·ty gin:::: to i t~ 0\\' 11 I ill·. Eel u c: 1t io n i~ the c h ief men ns o f co nst t·ucti\'L' .~·o\'l' r ll l l l<.~ t l t. T he m a ture gen c r:JL io JI ~L· t· k ~ Lo p: t ~::: o n to t h e comi ng gcn <.T 11L io n till :t<.'Ctl llltd atccl bod y o f expe riL' Il C<..· ~ <t ncl l l':t cli tio n ~. T h ey cndcn \·o r to J'et i~c Lhc c h i lclJT il ~ pce cli l y anrl p lens n n tly Lo t h e pl:t i n \\' hic h th ey themse lves h n\'C n ::tcl! c d, p u l l in g t h c JII t hus cad itT in t o p n ~~t.:~ ~io n of th e i r in h c•·i te lll:c. T he pu b lic sc h oo ls n •·c ~ocicty's in s ti tu ti o n a l orgru .iza ti o n fo 1· th e p u rpo se of clcn:t t in g t h e o n com ing g·c n e1·a t io n t o th e hig h plain o f its p!T sc n L :t LL ai n n• c nls . T h e public sc hun l t cach en: a 1·c set apa•·t hy t h e d iv is ion o f I;JI >O r fn t· t h i ~ p :11·t ic u l:n w o d ;:. They nrc t hu s st <t Lc o fTi c i : d ~ . \\'h ose fun e ti o n i t is to p n .• se•· , ·<..· a nd tnt n s m i t Lh c s o c ia l irl cas a n d As suc h t hey n eed s p ecia l trn inc u sto m s. ing for t h t·i •· \\' Ork , a nd n o n nn l sc h ools \\T IT c s Utbl is h cd to alfo,·d t hi s t r 11 in ing. T he (H' illl:ll'." fu nct io n ,, f C\'CJ'.}' n o r m~d s<..· h oo l is t o Lt·ain t h e public schoo l tcr~c h cr fo 1· hi ~ \\'o J·k n s <t s t at~' offi e iul. T h is t1·ai n ing con sist s in sccu t·ing s.:hnlastic •.:qt•ip mc n t in etc!t clcmic n ncl (H'Ilfessic•nc•l kun\\'lcclgc. No nn a l schoo ls ctin'c,- f•·om nthc 1· cdu c:.tin n al in s t i tutio n s in t h e em ph :t s is put up o n t he s t ucly of educational

13

,·alues and method . They n re n ot p r im n ,·ily acnckmic .in. titutions fo r gene ra l nil tu re. but a rc st rictly p1·ofcs ional scho nk designed to fit :.t par t ic ulnr b ody u f \\' Or k m en fo r t heir a \·ocatio n . :\l·brnskn ':-: Sta tc :\01·m :d Sch ool w as csL:thlis hed fo t· t he p urpose o f prepa r in g tl':tt:IH: J·s for work in t he pu h lic sch ools of thl· state. 1t hns grow n wi t h t he dcvcloplll<..' nt of the othe r insti tutio ns of t he state and to-dny is fu lly nbreast c,f t he co-ord in:ttl' form s of go,·e rn men tal o rganizations. It n •cog-.tizcs ns its first duty the s u pplying of the common sch ools of the slate \\'i th t rained tenchc rs. I t pr·J \' tdes t h or o ugh instruction in t he commo n school hrnnehes a n d in m ethods of manngemcn t and instruction in such schools. Si nce more tha n 90 per cen t. of t he public, ~e h oo l t<.· ach rs of t he state arc employed iu t he lo \\'l' r e irrh t o-r acles t heir t ra inin g "" "' ' m ust rccc i\'c py·opt·•· co n!"idcr:tt iO ll. In t he rL·-o rga ni za tio n of t he co u rse of st ud y n O\\' in p r ogn:s:; an effo r t is being ma de to .::t.ren n-t ht·n the work in t he lower ._.,gTadcs, ... t-o. b oth ncmlc mic a n d p rofession a l. That s u c h a chn nge \YaS dem a nded is full y t he la r ae cla sses in ad ,·nnccd lJr o,·ed bv "' a ri t h metic. adYanced gramm a r , e tc., w h ic h n1·c m ai n tai ned t his fal l. l\lorc tha n 200 p c•·so ns a rc<.:ngagcd in t he critica l stu dy o f t hese co mm o n sch ool s ubjects, a n d t he effect upo n t he p ublic schools ca n n ot b u t be good .

One o f the m ost im por tant ch n nges ma d e in t he ~o rm a l Sch ool at t he b egi nn ing o f t he present )'L'ai' wa!" the nbql iLion o f "prn<.:licc teaching'' by studen ts i n t he In st ea d of p ract ici ng • lower co u rse." tc: c hing unrlc r t he in str uction of critic teac he r s t hese s tudents now observe the wo r k d o ne by t he regul ar ~ forle l Sc h ool tcnc hcrs, \\'it h whom they aflcrwarcl disc u ss \\' h n t t hey sec. They w i tncss ex perl tcnc h ing, e n clca\'ori ng t o unders tan d nnd :1 pp n ·cia tc i l. T hey arc cx pee ted to p 1·c-


14

TilE S TATE .'\01<:\1.\L

sent to these same .\1 odel Sch o ol t <:adu:'r'in s ubs equent di scussio n th e :tim nn d prot·e!;s em b o d ied in Lh c n :cit:t l io n . Th e\· arc thus led to s tud y co n s t n tcl i \'el y th e a r t o f teachi ng as p ract iced by (.' x pc rien ced t t·;tc h e rs. Good r(.'s ults, bo th ft)l· th<· <:hildre n and for t h e s tud ent, n re confid e n tly e x p et'lecl ft·om t his method of IH·oceccl un: . Sen ion;, w ho h a\'e :tlrea d y s tudit·d lt·a c hing h y ohsen·aLion in a pn·,·ious ye a r and who ha ve m ade proper pn.: paratory profe ss io na l s tudy , tt·<tc.: h :t p :tt"L of e:tc h d:t \' t hr ouf~ h out t h(.' )'(.':t t· und t·t· c lo ~t· sys t e nw tic s u pen· isio n .

G eorge L. F a rnha m . Do u btless n o pres id e nt o f the :-\c.:hnts l<:t State No t·m:tl Sch ool w;ts more widc l \' k n own or m o re univcn;nll y loved by the A lu mni t h an Geo rge L. Fa m lw m . I t is d i ffi c u l t fot· o n e w h o l<ncw him o n ly indi rcct ly through t he •·es ttl t so f hi s laho t·s a n d th e m c m o l'i es of h is ft·icnd s to spea k of w ha t he h as dqn e fo t· t hc sc h ool. H is administJ·ntion m a rk s the l im e whcn t h e sch ool passed ft·om i t s mc:agct· beg in n in g!; to a w<.:l l eyuipped s t ::ttc in stitut io n . Those w h o kn ew t he sch ool a dcc:ade Hgo would be a b le to p o int oul o n evc t·y hand the ev ide n ces o f hi s t h o ug ht an d consec:mte d work. At the n·qucst o f t h e edito t·, n ne who k new h im ns nco-wo rk er th r o ug h hi s t e n yean; o f sc •·vice h a s t'Ont ri b u tcd to o u t· p ages a few \VO rcl s o f ~t p pt·cci at i o n . 'We a •·e a sl<ed to p rin t the m wit h o u t fu rt h c t· acknowledgement:The news of the clca th o f DL Ceot·gc L . Farnham wi ll b r in g sn tTow to man y hca t·ts. As a man h e was hi g hl y cstccm c cl by his fell ow c it ize n s . It was in the fa ll o f 1 880 thn t he ca m e to t h e Nc hntska Sta t e No t·mal Sch ool and fo r n ea rl y ten yca t·s was it!< h onored princ ipa l. ri c was a lt·eacly an educ[ll tH· o f w irl c a nd va t·it•d ex pet· ience, o riginal in h is m e thod s, a nd in !-'_y mpathy with

~LJ I ()OJ.

.\1 1. ~~1 ·. '\c, J. I~

th:~n

tn ,,,.t·, ... t int:ttv hi -. ''''n :thihty . I t \\'oulrl l11' ditl .. ·ult t11 l' tlltt nl·rat<.' till' tll:tll\' 1' \'irll·tH'l'' nl hi-.. tnnr: d inll~~t.. nl't' in t h l· -..dtot~ l : :d\\ :ty-. -..trn n ;.: for th1.· t•ight, \\' inni ng -..ullkllt"-. ~· n :t l1lin ;.: th1·nt to st"\' th l· nohl1· : tlld t l'lll' in li k. :t nd t o "- ll'i\'C.~ f11r il I n t h l· di -..e ll ...... i.. n .. r :1 11 :d •~t t·: t t't s uhj,·l·t Itt· \\':l'-1'\'l' t" rl':t d y \\" itlt ; 1 l' lllll'l'l' l C.: l'XIIIII p)l· t11 m :ak1· vk:a r t o th1· "-L Udl'lll- \' isinn \\' h :at w: t -.. ~~~e k :t r t 11 hi -.. o \\" 11 tnind . It i.. mon· e: t-.y to -. pe:t k nl' th1· m:ttl·r i:d l'\'i clt•Ji t'l':- or h i ... w nrk ... ~ :-l'l'll in t h l.' :-dwol buildi n g ~_· n l n r;.:l'd tn rlou h k i ts ori;.: inrt l <.·:t]W l'ity :\ t :a ;.: l:a nt'l' h1· 1t:td ~c~.· n It o \\· in:t rl c qu :tlv \\"l' t"l' th v f':tvilitil·~ l'nr c:IIT\' ing o n t h e \\' Ot'l< of :111 dlieit·tll St: alc :-\or111nl S <: h ool . i\1-cord in g ly \\'ilh so lll l' clo u ht s on th e p:11·t 111' hi s fri e n d ,.;, h e sc.: ri o u :-:ly and fc: 11·lcss ly :11 h · t ,,.:t tcd :t n :a p pl':d to t he kgis l:ttu t-c to :t p pt·op t·i:t l l' :1 s tt n l ~u ll i c.: icnt f'o r s uch <.·n l:t rgl'll tcnl. Tit~.· :tpjw:d \\':t~ m nck. anrl t h e poi n t g:ai n t·c l. L:a Le t· Lhc Lib t-:11·." b u ilding \\'II~ c.:rcdcrl, :an d tht· Ohst' n ·:a tot·y. in whieh i ~ a li n t: six in <.·h te l c ~co p<: . Al l these <::an Itt' ~e<: n :a s ;a m on u ntcntto his good \\'O t' k and th:t l of l hc f':tit Jt fu ) Olll' S \\'ho p t·ccct·clvcl hi m :11Hl prep:arcd t he w:ty fo t· hi 111 . T h e fol lowing fnll ll ;a Hi ngh:tm p tnn , :\. Y .. llt'W Sj)[tpc•· is a \-cry in le r c.:sli ng s kc.:tch of Dr . F :tr nh am's lif(: :Pn>f. Gen. L . Fa t·nha m o r R i,·cr!iidc. Ca l iforn ia, d ied s u d ck nly la sl l'\'Clli ng :tl (i :~W o'clock at the.: home of J. \ V. Brown . Prof. :tnd i\ l r ~. No. 17H I I a \\' lev st t-c.:t't. Fa r n h :11n c am e to thi~ c i ty ahoul three wee k s ago and lHt d hcl'n !-'t:tyi n g wilh illr . :and M t·s . i\tl at·ti n L. Il all . ofNn . 1 Art hu t· st r cc.:l. I Ic had ht'CII n ltl'ndi11g- lo the J"l'tn Ov: tl of !-' OI11t: goo d s ft·o m h i!< fu r ml'r residc:ncc ndjoin ing M 1". Bro\\·n '!-' a11d .''~'~­ ttT rl:t y had just c nt <: t-cd :VI r Brown 's IH lllll' w h en h e t' Olllpl:tillecl o r l·l'c.:lin g badl y. :tnt!


TilE ST.\ TE :-\OR:\1:\L 'C II OOL ?\l E' E .:-1GER. :-:illin;..: d own in a \."h:ti 1·. he quietly pn:<:<erl Cnnllt~· •· ~111 ith. wh o wa~ en lied, d cei ck<i that d~·:tth \\':1:< due tu hL':ll't di::;~· :t:-l·. tn , ._ hidt tnHthlc l' n l f. Parnham had

:t w:t ,. .

~~~·~· n

:00: ll hj I.T l. )'nd·. F : antl t:t lll w as horn !"l'\'L'nty-six y~· : 11 ·:-: :a ;..:n :a n d hi:< e:trly boyhood \\':t:i :O: p l'llt iII \ \' :t tl'l'tll \\ I I. . \ ftLT hi::; :h.::ldt•tn ic t·r• ut·:-:L· It t· L' nt e n ·d the Alban\· :-\n nn :tl :-:t· ho o l :1 1t d :<tudiecl a n cl g'l':tduatt•d t ht•re un d c 1· ll o•·nce :\ l : t n lt. Fro m hi:< t· hil d h n o d h t· took :1 ;..:•·eat i n krc:-:t in ecluc:nio n n l m:attt·•·:-:. A ftc.:1· ).!T:td u ating from the :\1h :nty :-\cJt' tll :t l sc h oo l h e retu rn~·d t o \\' n lc.:rLn\\' 11 :t n cl L'tt g:tged in :::eh ool \\'0 .-1•. Soon a ftL· r·\\·:anl:; h c.: h ct·:tnH' superi ntendent of lh<: s_,TaC.:II :iL: :'L' h ools. Thi:-: p ositio n he fill ed w i l h g t-c:tt ned i t :111d put t h e SYntc.: u :-:L' :-:ch oc,l :-:y:-:l~· n1 0 11 a good \\'orkin g b : ts i:-: . F , o m Sy l':t l' tt :-:~.· h e en m e to t his city in 1 H li~J : tnd w : t :< s ttp~Tinll:n d en t of t he local sc h oo ls ft·o •n 1 9GU to 1 ' 75. Thi s p osi t io u h e fil le d m ost sat isfadorall y n n d d id mu c h in t h e d ~·,·~·l np m c n t of t hc p nl, lie sc hoob of thi s citY. D urin g t h e n ext two y ean; h e \\":ts p r in c i pa l of t he Ca rro ll s t n·ct schoo l. T hc li o n . l. T . Dcyo pa id n hi g h tt·ibu tc Ln P 1·o l'. Fa t·nh am '::; w ork in t his city in hi sn lumn i b :tngu ct ndcl n :ss, J u ne 2 1,1 897 . li e sa id, '' T o P1·of. P :u· nh a m mo1·e t han to a n y ol h (·•· man bclo ngs t h e c red it fo r t he p1·c~e n t <:xcellc n t co nditio n of ou1· p ublic sc h oo l ~. H e la id t h e fo uncl atio ns b1·o nd a nd d ee p . H e 1·ecogni %cd th e fact t h nt th e m ost i m p o r ta n t p e•·i ocl o f a c hild 's t r a ining is in t h e p •· im a 1·y sc h ool. He ina ugun t te d a system o f p rimar y education w hic h was l oo k crl upon in th ose clays as a r e,·nlulio n in educationa l met h ods; but i t i s a s ystem \\'h ich stood the tes t of m o re t ll :t n a qu n•·tc•· nf a century, a n d t o-cl ay i s looked upon \\' it h nppr0\· a l by pntctica l ccl 11ca t o n ;. ' P n >m t h is ci t y P 1·of. P rtrnh nm we n t to Coum:il R luH's \\' hc 1·e h e was c ng agl·cl a s s ll p c •·int t· JHlc nt of~ehoo l s for tlu·ec yen rs .

1 .3

Pro m there he wen t to :.:-1ebra skn, becoming the principal of t he State Normal ~ ch ool. This w as. perha ps, his greatest work. T here he mo ulded t he cha racte r of the w hole sch ool system of the state, it being t h e o nl y state no rm al school. In 1 93 , after being principal o f t he Nebmsl.a 'tnte Norm a l School fo r nin e an d a h a lf yean;, h e remO\·ed to Ri,·ers ide, Califo rnia. \\' h ere he o wn ed a n ora nge g rove :tliCI w here he h as since lived. As a n cducntor Pr0f. Farnham held n pro mine n t p osit ion. He ori!rinatcd t he sentence met ho d of learning to read, a system which is n o w generally adopted. He is t he nu t hor of ''The T hought and Sen tence :\ l cl h od.' w h ich is considered the au th ori ty o n t his s u bject, a nd which is said to be t he o nh· wo rk to which educato rs r efer . Pro f.. Famha m li,·cd in Syracuse during th e d ra ft ri ots a n d at t hat time w as attacked a n d 1·eccived a severe wou nd in t h e fo re head fro m a poker, the sear of which he . n l \\'avs bo re. I n c haracter he was a man . • t egn' t y · He was .a lo f t he• m os t ster11ng tn . · fi 1 t'na ,,,ron o• a wh 1eh wa \'S a J:!'!!l'eSSI\'e 1n g 1 I o · ~~ . d 111 · · his was t he on ly 1n t o leranre he hn nnl ure. . ·•e cttie L. He is survived b Y h IS w w • Farnh nm; a da ug h te1·, Mrs . Lizzie Buxton , o f S vrncuse; a sister, Mr s. Scrib ner of Des :VIo i.nes, Iowa, a nd a brother , the Rev. P. P . Fa rnh a m , of Brig hton , M ichigan.

Jesse Hesseltine. T he r ial's of '82 loses one of its number in t he deat h o f J esse H esseltine wh ic h occ urred Jul y 22 las t, at t he age o f 42. Jle len ,·cs ~fam ily consisting o f a wife, fo rmerly Mis · Dorn Wvne, a nd four children. Aflcr graduating h ~ t a ugh t in Geneva a ud later at Gib bo n , Neb ra sk a, b ut oflnte year s Mr. H esselt ine ha d follo\\'ed farmin g . a nd frui t growing. Last yea r he w ns prcsicl cnl of Alumn i Associatio n.


lG

TilE S TA TE

~()1<:\L\L ~LIICH!L ~~~ ~~S J ~~~~ I ·. I\

The Educnli()nn l f<c.'l'icu· for Sl·pt~.·ml)('r is unusual ly good. if we ca n thus ~pl·ak of a journa l whose cvet·y issue is a pl<: as:tnl su rpt·ise. lt is beyon d the pt·cst·nt llltt')H ISl' to review lhc conte nts :ts a wholl', hut il is n plcasu rt t o call t he nllcntion of our rcatkrs to two of its p:tJH:rs. The arlide by j oseph Ltc cJJ t "\l un..,terIJcrg on t he Ncw Education" is in lltt' lll:tin a \"cry jus t criticis m upon IJJ-. \ltttl''terbcrg's arlide in the :\lay AL1:111lic. \\'ltilc w c all recogn ized that tlll'n: is mttclt t t·ntlt in Dr. :\1unstct·hcrg's criticism of our Ame rica n pu hi ie sc h oo ls, we nen:rthcles.., fell that he did n ot fully app•·eeiate the American id ea and m ethod s. Out· g reat critic's shar p lance hn s n.: pC<tled ly in t ht' past fe w years touche d se ns i tive.: spnts in our sc hool syste m . T he.: s pot prickc.:d ha s n ot a l ways becnarl iscasc.:d onc , aC least not i n the way pointed out h y tlt c cri ti c For exa m ple the tem·hi ng professio n is not su i~ fe ring from nn exccssivc k n n\\'lcd gc of psych o l<•gy , eilhct· rJf the true scie nce o r(,(' the milk-and-wa t~: t· tnix lure ca ll e rl ' 'cducational psyc h o logy." Thert: is ;d s o , clcs pi tc Dr. J\.Junstcrhcq; 's hlinclness t o th e f<tcl . a true scie n tific basi fot- cducatio nal pt·ocerlurc. There is a Sci ence of' I::rlucalion, at least in p osse. To the ~tssu m plion t ha t the America n schools can he best impro ved by confo rm ing them lo t he Ger man type, iVI L Lcc m akes mo!<l sat is f:tctory r ejoinde r: • B u t it docs n ot fo ll ow t h n t hc(a use th e German scho o ls h a\'e l>ce n so s u eec·!'sfu l tn taking a re: tl p lace in Gc rm a n life tha t Amct·ican sc h oo ls co u ld be equal ly s u cec!'!'ful by ado p t in g t h e s nmc mea n s, or tha l. as Professor :\I u nstc r hu t g s ugg('sts, the Amcrican h o m e can he m ade into a ' good h ome'' by an allc m pt to hri111! i t in to th e (~cnn an att i tude o f adoratio n t o \\'arcl t h c Gennan sc h ool sy s tem o t· a n y system nearl y t·cscmhling it. Amcrica is not Cet·m n n y; we an: n o t (icrm:tn!<, :tnd if we t ry to i milale t h e Ge rm an method !< i tt t h e h o pe of pt·cHl u cing Gcrm:u1 results \\'e s hall

im·\'ital,Jy '"' di~·IJ'I"'nttt• d Tto tt"' 1- n <l\dl'd).!t' i-. ttcot tht: ;.:~t·at • nd :tn d :tint ,.f lilt·. :tnd if \\'t' m :ty juri;.:•· ft·•ottt tilt' lti~t••ry nt ••nr r an· it 111'\1'1' \'.tlllov It i-. u~t ], ...... fnr ,, ... til try teo lin· np '" tltt· C~ ~·ntt:t ll -.t;tlld :trcl in tJti .., d in ·t·ti .. n. lon·:tt t"t' i t i... tl c•t IIIII' '-'l:t nd :trrl. :ttld "''' lt :l\1' tt<•t .:..:n t it in I I ' ttl :tllaitt it CJut· irh :tl i-. :ttl id ,·: tl. nut of k:trning lntt "' d~>ing. n••t • d :ll''JII itl'tttl'llt, but 11f :tl'liootl \\' t• \\ttttlcf t·: t tltt t', :ttld t'.tll nH•n· L':t'-ily. nt :tla· lti ... t ~>t·y tlt :t n \\'ritt· it . Tn ""lift· tiH" llt :tkin ;..: :tntl t'tolltnollill;.! of tht· good and llt:llttifltl tlti n.t.!"' ul tlti ... \\'oriel, lor llllt "d\'l'" aud • •I hl'r-. l" ' ,... ..,t· ~:-t·s tlHJI't' :tltt':tt'lion tlt;ttl tht· :ll'l]tti ~ iti nll of :tny :ttltlllltlt nl '" ' ""·krl.~t· of It o\\' tiH·:-ot' tlt in.:..:e m:ty or cnt;..: ltt 111 h1.· ot· lt:l\t' h t·t·n dtJtlt' . To n s 111CIIIl_\'-llt: tl;i n.t.!-11tt· princip;d nll':tn s \\'hil'h ttlfl dl'n t Iii\.· su pp lit•s for pu l ling th ou g h t into :t ct ior r- cl ol'S Jl () l s<:t: lll \'ttl g: tr O J' Sl't'lli!Cl- I·:t lt' : t ~ i t dot'S to thl' E~trO] t L':IIl. \\'l' ~l't' in i t lit't·. - 1h<· _juy of' l'(lllll.'Sl , th l· OJI]JOI'llllli Ly f11 1' ht·:I\'L' :11td nohJl' \\'O r]\, thc lll l':ll tS or l'~t:tliJ i s hing :t nd h c:tuli fy ing t h e h o tlll.', or l n tildillg 11 ]1 t hl' ~t·honJ Or JiiJI·: tl'_\' or OUt' ll:t l i\'l' ltl\\' 11, 0!' i mp i ·t·s~ ing up on oulet· o hj tTls o ur innc r thou ghts: tnd :t !< pi r :t tion s o l li\-illg o u l our id c :tl~ as ~<111~ . r:, thcrs , ht·oth~: I·s. citi zens. Th c!<t: arc l he t h i n g~ \\'l' Sl'L' \\'lt vrc tit<.: l~<"l'­ m:tn scc!< n ot hin g hut :t lo \\' and :tnn oy ing intl't't'll]ll ion lo hi~ s tttcli t·s . To ~~ ~ lill:.lifc w it.h bl ood in it. full o f :t c tion , t·o n lc~:.. a<.: lri cve m erlt , c ro \\' n cd \\'i l h llll\\-c r :111d c:tp<t h k of' bcnifil'c n cc, i ~ th l' tn :t in thin g·. Yo u CH illlO L m: t!\l' or II ~ a r :t('t: of :-t u cknt~ . n n d y ou c :llt n ol g i\'c n s ".~noel II o mcs " lty try ing to m ~ tk e t h e t\nl ct·ic:tn h o nl t' ;ike the (;crmHn h o n tc- :ttl :tdjttn l' L of tltc sclt ooJ a n d !<t ti >O rd i n al<: Lo the o ld tT !<l' h ool iclca of learning n!' Li te· c h il.·f a im or Jill:. The p n>hlc m h c r c is not to ht·ing t h e h o tllt' to t h e school hu t t o ht·i n g· t h e school to l hl· hom e. n t· n t t lt~: t· tP m:tkl' hotl1 t lt c ~choo l a nd Lht• hom<: co-o p tTat c itt mi ni s t t·t·in ).!' to lifc-to th e h e ~t t h e t't' i~ in 11 ~ h e n: in A~tw r­ ie:t a l t h e p1·esc n t litii L'. Thi ~ i~ thc teachit g of th e IlL' \ \ ' t·d 11 <.::t lion ~t g<ti •t ~ t \Yitit'lt


17 Pr"fl·.. -.or :\I l lll '-l"' '' i.~· 1 :..:· .. : tt t idt ,, .uhln>'· I t \\':t'- t iH· lt'! h: lnu.:.: ,,f F1"~h~l. .11ul l bclic\' l' tlaa t F1·.. ,· 1 •d ' -.. l" ''l'ho..~·.' th . lt .\ m o..r· ica w o uld ),.. tlw pl. •u· in " l11dl lu-.. 11k. l .. \\'oulrl be nlo ... t t'ulh ,;: 111 ~t•d ""t ,.. '"' " in pruel'"'"' of lullill111t' n t · The "'' '<.'otul anid~· 1-.. t ha t h\" ~ It J.t:\\'chnn 011 " .\ ~.'Ill h~· -..1 -.. , ,f ll~· ·· h: nt n nd F r ocht·l. " I t i .... : 1 -.l'hnl.t.-1 .' p :tpt· r . a ' .llu ahlc co nt ri but ion tn ..·du ..::1tinna l philn :'1•· phy . The l:1-..t p : u ·:t,!..! 1':tph 111 :1y ht· qmH '-·tl :t!. a ~l ttll111 : 11 ·y of t h t· :t u t luu··:' t:u n o..·t•ptiu n :': h ut t o ri g h t l y : tppn.·...·i: tt'-' i t. it ll lll:'t he..• rea d a~ th e co nd11 ~ i n 11 ~>f the..· thou<! lll in t he wh o ll: .... ~._ay .- · \\'~,.· t:oncl 11 d1.·. t h c:n. th a t bot h l·'1·och1.·l :tlld I [ ~,.· 1- h :t rt h :l\'l.' mm: h to tc.a c h u ~ . h11t t h at t.•:tch :'t.' l :' fo r·tl1 : 111 incomp le t e t h <:o t·y of c d tn:ati o 11. :\ tn1c educa ti o n mu ~t cu 11thin c h oth thco1· i ~..· ~: it mu s t tt·a in Lil t.' c hilcln: 11 bot h in :'pot~t:l nic­ ty a n d in o h c di c 11 cc. 0 11ti t t h e.: lattc1·, a nd w e h ave [ I nH: n : nt o n st~....- n f c:1 p1·icc a nd do n ot n :ach tn1 c fn·c rl o nt. T n1 c e du ca ti o n mu!'t co mbine wo t· k and play. n tti () n :l li ty n nd incli,· iclu :tl ity . F t·o rn F1·och d w e k a rn to 1·cspcc t th e c hild 's n c li ,· it y : f1·o m

~.

I h •a·hart w e k a nt thn t we mus t not let it run wild : fro m llerbn rt w~ lcnrn t he imimpu nan~-e o f in~tructi o n -t hc im}Jorr.lllt..'t ' . th:tt i~. n f mentnl food: fr m Froeucl w~..· knrn the lesso n t hat . n il kn . . o\\:l~dge .... mu:'t hL· ncqui rcd n nd turned t.o use by t he d1ild'~ () \\'11 eflo rt~. lu bt;cf. Herbnr t tells ~~~ ll H):' l ahnut the \\'Ork of t he cd ucntor; Frud>d m ost n uo ut t hnt of t he chi ld iu t h~ wh o le..- cducn t i ,.c proL-css. Ench exngg~.· r:ne~ the functio n of the o ne wi r h wh n m he i~ dcn liug-, nud ench is lc:td to do :'n hy hi~ philos o phical poi'ition. But it is no t iu ex .. n •.,.ncrntions o n o ne i'ide or the -~

:---.~

tHh~ r thnt the tn1c cducntionnl doctri ue is

fo und. but. in t he perfect and harmo nious cn-o pc: rn t io n of cnch factor. I t is in such n ~y n t hcl' is of Frocucl n ud Hcrba r t , I a m con \'i ncccl. t hn t t ntc cducn tiona I t heo ry li~·~.

The child must be broug ht in to h:ll'111 0 11 \' wi t h his s urro undiugs; but , at t he :':llu: t im e . w e m us t m a ke t he m ost nn d t he best of him as a u indi,; du a l. T hese n rc n ot ~on trad icto ry a irus w hcu huma n lite is r ig h t ly concei,·ed."

'

:

.: .·· .. ·. ·


18

T i lE STA TE NO I<.:\J,\L SC IICH>L

:\JE SS J ·: ~c; I ·: J .:

888888888888888ggggggoo888:~uo~o~ggg~ggg~o8888888,

SOLUTION OF

PROBLEMS.

.

88~~:88~~~~8888~~8888888888888 C o n d llcted by }. M . II o H" ic:. l jrofi.·ssor uf .\!:1 lfJt.:rn:ll ic:.-.. .\'c/,,.:,..k : 1 St :tlt· .\'urmn l. ! ; E o.\1 E'l'fl \ ' .

6 . P r o p osed by P . C . C u lk n , p r i nc i pa l sch o o ls Sn lcm , Ne b!'. If th e b isecto rs, t 1·iscctors a nd q u a d ri scctors o f the base a ng les of a t r ia n g le a rc mutua ll y equa l, prove tria n g le is is o sceles.

Soluti o n hy p ro p oser. If the t r ia n g le b e isosce les it is easy to prove bi sec t o rs, t r isectors, etc., a rc equ a l. T he ~ m us t be eithe r isosceles o r scale n e. \\'c w ill prove bisecto rs, t ri secto r s etc. , o f sca le n e t l·ia n g les unequal a nd th n t th ose of t h e s nw ll c 1· a n g le a rc g re a t er t h a n th ose of la rgc 1· a n g le.

s u c h lint:s rad iati11;.: irno11 ]( i11 lar;.:T r ang:k nre s n1allcr than tht~ sc· 1·:,rl i:1t in;.: frnn1 II in :;n l!lllcr a n glc fo r \\'t: ha \'l' fli"CI\'l' d l ha t w h c·n I I E ( II pcrp c ntlic: ula l·) t:ut s oil':.. 11i angle II i t is lnngl.'r t h an tht: line t h at c:n ts oil' : .. ofanglt: 1( .

all lin es cutt ing ofr

1 1 11

i\ow

,f a n ;.:k I I an: incn.:ns ing

whilt: pa s" i ng f ro 111 l i E tow a rd I I A n n rl nil linc·s t utt in;.: oil' 1111 o f angk J( a 1·c dl.'c: t·casing t ill tlwy rc:1c h t h l.' p c rpt' IHiit: u la r K F : li·om t his 011. tht: rc· \·oh· in;.: lin es w hi t: h arc l.' Ut t ing otT 11\ of cad 1 b a s e a n ;.: lc a n d lll o \·in g tow a n l s ides o f lt'i a n g leA J.: an d A l l, an b o t h inc r e a s ing. i\ow le t u s n ot ice h ow these l'c \' o h · ing lines n lwnys co m p a re. \ \ 't: h avt: ]J I'(J\' cn ou1· p ro p osi tion u p t ill 1111 of th t: larger a n g k !.: = a n g le FKII <~I' u p ti ll t he di\'id i n g lin e o f t h e la rgc 1· angk ht:c o nu:s n pc rpc n d ie u l a 1'.

L et A KI-1 h e t h e sca le ne ~ dicula r s K F a nrl H E. Ora w

L et fa ll per pen I-LVI c u tting off

rri th o f V H that w ill lie b et w ee n I-IE an d H 1-: . N ow V AKF= V AH E a n d if 1-Lvl is a l im.-.. c u t_ t ing o ff a cert a in frac tio n o f V I-I , it is C\' ldc n t t h at a line c utting oCT same fractio n of \j K w ill fa ll b e tw een K .li' a n d K 1-I . Bu t K F is less t h a 11 HE a nd the r efo re less th a n any lin e bet ween H E a n d HK . N ow let HM c u t o ff ~ o f V I-I so t h a t II.\1 w ill lie b e tween HE a n d H K, an d d raw K X mak i n g V XKH=MHK, th e n w ill XK be less t h an HM; then t he lin e t h a t c uts o ff 11~ o f V AKH which in th is c ase mu st fa ll bet w ct:n KF a nd K X be less s t ill th a n H M. Then:fo n: a ll lines c u t t in g off 1A o f a n g les H a n d K u ntil t h at which divid es s m a lle r a ng les •·each cs the pel·p endic ula r a re unequ a l a nd t hose t h a t d i v id e · the la r ger a n gles a r e le ss th a n t h ose t h at eli v ide s m a lle r a n g les. No w let u s d raw lines cu tting o iT :n o f a n g les H and K till the line t h a t cu ts off

A, o f

a n g le b eco m es a perp~ ndicu l a•· KF.

l<u ge r

Now all

L et A K I-I IJc t h e o 1·ig in a l tri a 11g c a n d I( I' nnd H :VI ' be t h e posi t ion of t h c n.:vol v ing li m·:< w he n K P t h e pc1· p<:ndi c u lar c u ts o fr ,\, o f angk

1.:, a m i II :VI ' p osi ti o n o f li n e t h at c u 1s o il

1 111

of

a n g le H . I n stead o f al l"w ing K F t o n ·vo!l·e towanl AK imag in l.' .1\ K tn1ns fcrre d t o s irk Al l le tt in l\' K fa ll o n 1.: ' a n d F fa ll on F '. I( 'F'= KF. I t ise vidc n t t h <• t an .~le AKF is grcntt·r t h a n a n !.! lc Al-I .\1 ' a n d i\ K ' F '. L et u s n o w n ~­ s ulll e t h at as K'F ' rev,l vt:s a h o u t K 'cutti ng nil' A, o f a n g le K (if it we lT in its origina l p m;it ionl 9

t o b ecome p a r a ll el t o II :\ I ' : in thi s case it \\'ill h e less th clll 1-Lv l ' bu t i t ca n n ever b ecom e pu ra lie f hu t mu st fa ll hac k n e m ·c1· to t h e p t: r p cndie· u lar a nd b ecome st ill s h o 1·te1·. T h erefore in cve1·y p osi t ion w ill th e hi scc t'lrs t risec t o r s , e tc . , o f t h e sn1a lle r ang le b e g rcatt:r t h a n t h ose o f la 1·gc1· a n g le . Now the base an g les af a trian g le a r c eit her eq u a l o 1· u nequal , a nd in e ,·e r y ca se of unt:qu u l


T ilE ST.\ T E :\0 10 1:\ L ha ~e li ng le~ . ~ u c h l i n e~ n rc un~:q u nl. If the t ria ngle un d '-·r· cli ~c u,..~ i o u w e re scnlcne w e w o uld Ita \" C :t \.':\ S \.' n f hi:<\."C tl ll"$, tri sCC tO~. etC., Of bn:<e ang le:< equa l. w h id 1 we h n ,·c pro \'Cil to be nbs u r·cl. T h '-·refon.: wh '-'" th e h i:<'-'C t On:. t ri::t>eto rs. etc .. of th '-· l>:lsc angle:< o f a t •·in nJ.!lc n rc mutua lly equ a l th e u ·ia n gk i:< i ~o scck•!:. .\ II :'

' 1 ~ 1.1. .\

:->E<H' S .

l ' •·npos<:d II\· f' . C . C ulk-n . ~n km . Fa h n: n heit ' ~ t h c nu n n1c t e r i:< mn rkcd fo r freezi n g :{:.! 0 , b o il in g p o int 2 12 ° : Ce nt i)!rncle th '-· r·rn nr" '-'te r· is 111ar kecl 0 ° fo r frt>eziug . a nd I o o o fo r bo il ing: l<n ur n e r's thcrmo nldcr· is rna •·ked U0 fn ,· freezing nnd 0° fo r bo iling. ·1-.

\V hc n F n h n:n he i t a n d Cc:n l ig-rn dc: re.!:!'i!:le r t he i ,- t h e t c nr1w raturc n:g is t crcd by

" a lii <: w h at :t lln H:r·' s ?

I<

I. S o lu t io n lw H . L . Bn rri <: k , pri n cip n l o f !'Ch o o ls, A in s ,~·o rt h , Nl·hr·. Le t x = rll a t·k ing o f r:'. a nd C. scn lc w hen eq ua l.

( I ) The n ( xF'. -:1 2 )X ~ = xC. ( 2 ) ""-;-,1fi O= x

1:q :l x- 1 GO= t>x . (-1· ) - -1- x = l GO. (f'>J x = - -!-0° F . o 1• C.

( 1 ) - 4-oo C.X;!= x R. x = - a2o [{·~

(2 )

II. Soluti n n h y Ro h c t· t Z tH.'I'C.' h cr , Y utnn , Nl·lwas k a .

'

r

C alcu la t in g fro m t he ft·e(·zing po in t, t he t hcr m o m c t e r s s h ow t h e fo llo w ing- ratio s t o each o t h e r : F. I 0 , C. r,o R. j\ 0 • He nce r. o f F'. nbo ve o r b elow 3 2 ° eq ual s C . a bove o r bdo w re!:pecti '·'-'ly. F . a n cl C. •·cgis t e r t he sa me at n certa in p o in t belo w 0 C. , o r· 3~ li'. L et l!= di s t a nce belo w :12 F . a nd ~= dis t a nce b elow 0 of C. o r F . T h en ::-:~2o= ?.Trans p osing . l!-?.= 32, o r ~ = 32 . ?,= 8 , ancl 1!= 7 2° . IT e n ce 7 '2° he low 32° F'., or 40° belo w 0, a nd <1-0 ° C. a re t he sa m e. R. s ho w !:O ~ of72 o r 32° b elo w 0 .

T IIUO L ~I ES~E NGE N .

19

P ROBLEMS FO R SOLUTION. AR IT H METIC .

Pro p osed by P . C. Cullen , Salem . 11. H o w m a ny acr es in a sq ua r e tract o f land co n t a ining a s many ac'?es a s t here a rc boa rd s o n fence enclosing it iffence is 4 b oa rds hig h a nd each board 11 fee t lo ng . ( d ectcd Mi lne's Ari t hmetic. ) AI. G E DR A.

9. So h ·c, x •= ax- j- by. v ' = av- 1-bx. ( \\ en two r th ' s Com p lete Alg ebra p.225.) The resul t !: gi \·en a re x= a - j-b, or 0. y = n- 1- b. or 0. Do no t s oh ·e by ins pectio n . GEOM ETR Y.

11 . Up o n a g iven po rti on , AE, of the diame t e r , AH, of a semi-circle a nother semicin :le is descri bed. Dra w a line throug h A so th at t he p a r t in t ercep ted b..:tween the se mi-c:irc:lcs rn ny be of n given leng t h . i\I ISCELLAN EOliS.

6 . A a nd B d ig a d itc h 1 20 ro d s lo ng. T he so il a t o ne end is clay, at t he other end s and . If t he whole o f t he d it ch we re sa nd A could d ig t he d itch a lone in 30 da ys, a n d B in 24 d ays. If t he w ho le Ic n <=cr t h wt•re cla y , A could dig t he di tl'h in 4 0 davs,and Bin 60days . A begin s a t t he cla y s~il a n d Bat t he sa n d soil; they tog ether d ig t he · di tch in 1 7 ciays. Wh a t leng t h of t he di t c h w a s clay. n nd w ha t leng t h su n d ? Solu t io ns t o these pro blem s s ho ul d be sent to J. M . Howie not Inter th n n Decem ber 1 . No correc t solutions h a ve been r ecc:ived fo r· a ri t hm etic pro blem No. 8, or a lge bra No 7. No solu ti o ns have b een t:eceived for a lgeb ra problem No. 6 a u d g eometry p r oblems No s. 7 a n d 8. Solut io n s w ill b e g iven later if recei ved .


TH E STATE NO in J,\ L SC II OOL .\I ESSE:\<~ 1 ~ 1< .

20

9/ormal cJchool V/rect or!/. EV I!f! ETT. Mat t Mu rphy ......... .... ........................ f' rcsiclc nl Leah Mark .... ........... ... ........ ... .... . Vice Prc!<idcnl Mabel S mith .... ... ......... .... .. l<ccor d ing Sccrcla r·y Co ra Wilso n ............... Co n cspond ing- Sccrct<u·y Isabelle W ill ia ms .. ......... .............. .... ... T rcasu rer J oyce Ma rklcy : .. ... ... ... ........... .. .. .. .. .......... .. C ri lic W

EIJLI:\G'f 0:\1A:\ .

Ansa M cKerchcr ............ .......... .. .. .. .. ... P resident E d na M it to n ............................... V icc Pr·cs idc n l W ill a rd Davis ....... .... .... ...... Rcco rd ing Sccr·etary Grace T imcr ma n ...... .. .Co r rcsp o nd ing Scc r·c t a r·y Han na h Pricc ....... ............. ............ .. .. .Tr·ca surc r Dw ig ht Go vc ... ..... ....... ... ....... .Scrgeant-at-A r ms F ra nk Smit h ................... ... ..... ...... .. ..... ..... C r itic P IULO~I AT I-II A I\ .

C. E. 1-Iurn phreys ........ .......... .. ............ P rcsid cn t Eva AJlison .......... : .. .. ................... Vicc President NcJl ie H o rn .... ... ..... ....... ...... Ret o rding Secreta ry M apel Bridg cs ....... ... .. Co r rcs po nd ing Scc rctar·y T . R. Richard son .............. ... ....... ....... T reas urer C. M . Buck ley .......... .... ..... ................. .. .. ... Cr itic

\' . ~1. c..:. ,\ . 0 ..H . \\'addell. .... ... ........................ .... l' n::<idcnt J. n. 1\racly ..... .................... ... ...... \' it·c l' rc.s idcnt J. C. !Jill on ........ ... ...... ....... ... ....... ........ ~cc rnnr·y \\'. T. Slc\'Cll!H>n .................. .. .... ......... Tr~·:lsurc r :\. A. 1\cnglso rl. .. .. .... C<> rTcsp <lluli<r g- Sccrclnry

\' . \\'.C..:. A.

l.ucy Lcaming-................................. .. .. l' rcsidcnt Rulh ! Janis ................... .... ......... \ ' icc l' rcsidl'llt .\ la bel Bridgcs ...... ...... ..... ... l-tccording Sec reta ry Ellen l'hil lips ..... .. ... ... .. C o n es po ndi ng Sccrctn ry Jess ie Stebb ins ........ ....... ...... ... .. .. ....... ..Trensurcr C..: I C..:J-: 1(0 :\ I A :\ .

n.

.\I. S t o ne ........................................ President f7c rd C ro w ley .. ... .... .. . .. .... .... .. .... . \ ' icc P resident E . F . S na ,·ely ....... .. .. ... .... ... ... .... .. .... .. S ~.:c rc t a ry \Vm . S hurn a n ....... .. ..... .. ... ......... ......... Trea su n·r A'l ' l I E :\ JA:\ .

E ,·a All iso n ...... .. ....... ........ ...... ..... ..... .. P resident \Vinnifred Neff..... .. ... .. .... .. .. ...... ... \'icc ] 'resident Kate Goci .... ..... ..... .. ... ........ ... ... ... .. ..... Sccret nry M illice n t S la by .......... : ...... .. .. .. ............. ..... Cri tic

normal Sthool 'fatuity . ;

I

.'vV. A. CLA RK , A.:ll., PE D. D., I' ll. o., P resident , ........... .. ....... .. .. ... P ed a g ogy 1 Ji. ~ LLIAN U. STONER, Prcccptrcss, ...... .... .. ........ .. .......... ...... .... .. ....... ... C ivics

H . B. D u :--~CA Nso:-:, A. :II . , .. , ............ ....... .... .... ........... .................. . . .... Bio log y H ERB ER'r Bn o w :-< ELL, n. s c., ............... .. ..... .......... ..... .... . Ph y s ical Sciences E . A. WH ITENACK, A. B. , ..... ........ .... ... Gcr ma n Lang u age a nd Li te rature MATTIE CoOK Er.i.Js , ....... ....... :............ .. ..... .. ..... .. H istory a n d G eog ra p h y ]. M .. Howm, A. n ., .... ....... ..... .... .................. .. .......... ...... ... .. . Ma th cma lics E STH ER A. CrJAR K, A. llf., .. ............ . ...... .. L atin L a n g uage and Lite r a tu re L . W. FrK E, A . llt. , .. .. , .. .. .... .... .......... .. ...... .. ...... P sych o logy and Ped agog y T . J . OLIVER, liL s ., : .......... .. .. ...... ........... ............... Arit hme t ic a n d Algebra ' GEORGE N. Pon·r ER, A. n.,_. .. .... .'..... ..... .. E ng lish L a ng ua g e a n d L it e rature G RACE D. C ULBER'I'SON·, ...... .... ......... .. En g lis h Gr a mm a r a nd Com po s it io n ;ANNE M. GOSHEK, ...................... .S u per in t end ent of Traini ng Depar t m en t P EARL S . KELLEY, ........ .. .. .. ...... .... .... .. .. .. ..... .. P ri mary a nd C r itic T ea c her DORA KREDS, ....... .. .......... ... ........... ... ..... Interm edia tc a n d Ct-il ic Teache r Lou E. Hos :-.JER , .. .. .. ..... .. .................... .. . K ind c rg a rtcn and C t·itic T cac he t· OcEAN K . D AI LY, o. n ., ...... .. ......,. .... .. .. ...... .. .......... . Read ing a nd E lo c utio n H EN R Y H. B AGG, A . DT ; .......... .. .. ... .. ..... .......... .. . ..... Dr aw ing a nd Pai nt ing ELLA M. CLARK, ....... ~................... .. ...... ...... ........ .. ....... .. .. .. ... Voca l M u s ic ELva E . RU LON, PED. 11. , ......... .. ....... ... .. .... ............ .... .. .. . . .... .. .. .. Lib ra ri an


Ti l E

I da :\ 1<.:

~I' .\

ny. 'DI. i!< :tt St.

I'E

~ U t.:~I.\L ~CIIOOL :\ IES'~~GGH .

Edw n nl~ .

21

Julin Pittn m, l 900, teaches a t Burr.

Lob . tn nrll<'y, '91, teaches a t Tnblc Rock .

C. =" · A ld l· tt . 1 ~ lO O . i!< p t·in l· ip:tl at :'\ ioDelln Bor st, '9 , hn:- a school nt Gering, Xcbru slw.

111·: \l ·a .

Lilli ~:

J c wl·ll

l <.: :t <.: hc ~

at

O ak cl:tk . 1'\c-

The registrfl Lion At t he end of t he first w eek w ns nhout -t-60.

ht- ;~ s k : t .

Mat·y S p <.: n ct.T

t'<.: lunt ~

thi :-: Ye a•· t o co m Cyru s "Willia ms is again in school. s is ter is wit h him thi ~ yea r.

plc.:tc h cT <.:out·!"c .

Alice Sa ncl <.:r s o f l a~t y<.·::u·' ::; tt·:tining cl<1 ss will t eac h in T ccu m!-:e h .

His

F . L. Crowley of t he Scniot· clnss came fro m his ho me in Knox county nw ht•cl to Pe ru .

E dith Mn~cs, 1 900 . tl'adt cs S h e ha s 3 cl :111<l 4 th g n1dcs .

[I t

,·n kn t in<.· .

The hlac kh o nnl s in all t he r oom s r ej o ice th e e ye in th e i r n ew coa t s o f bl ac k .

Pro f . B agg's stu d io h as b een fi t t ed u p t o m a ke it a mo r e a ttracti ve , comfo r tab le r oo m .

M iss Juli a L ane w h o was in sch ool fo ur vc: ••-s a go v is i te d in Pe ru a t th e begi nning o f th e t c nn .

Stella Grn hnm. '95, hns the Dept. of Elocu t ion in t he college n t Crcnl Springs, Ill. tht• coming yen r . .J1. M iss Ella Troyer, pleasnntly remembered b v S t a te Norm a l students of six years a 0rro teaches a t Milford. Mattie H . Gregg, '92, was ma rr ied June 23 at Buffa lo, N. Y., to Albert N. Dafoe of T ec um seh, Nebt·., where t heir home is to be.


22 E ll a l! :t rtl cy, ' !J!J ,

r<:lllnl ~

l o ll to\\"l'll ... .

.\1 r

J

.\I :-.lin·\' l' • of I no/. :\,

lo~·: 1-.k:1,

i:- thl·

n t·" 'l'l"l'< tar,. Bessie Major~ , year l o lcath .

·m , goc;.

, ..t.

lto lh·:1l ril'c tlt i.., E l..,it· Hixl•y.

·~ , ,-, ,

\\'il l I"· in tit<' f. ,.n;..: l 'im·

"l'h ""'"' thl'l'lllllin;..: \t':ll'. The sta ndpipe: 1S t'lllll fddt·-nnw so m e firt tse: qH.:s .

·-""

fo r

.\Ji..,.., I k k n \\'hit •ll'\' "' It "" ill''" l'l'llll'lll· ht·n ·rl l, ,· ... tnd ,·nt ...... r ti,.,. ,,.:" . . :•;..:•• h:1 -. !'- )ll'tll t lt t· "-lllll ll ll' l' in I \ ·rn .

The Dnplisl fH.:oplt :l l't• huildin ;_! :1 p:lrs on:.gc next t he churc h .

Thc sea l s in t he Sen io r c::l: 1ss ro om h:an.: been turned to fn tt.: the duor , and a l<.·:lclic r' s p latfo rm i ~ a new fc:1l11rc .

Prof. Fikc e nte r s up on the yea r' s work much improvcd in h ealth from St.:\'l:r:d w ee ks' n·~ l a nd rccuper:1tiou in Lineol n .

Ge t o ne o f t h e Student's Hand Hool<s ishy t heY. M. C . A. a ndY . \V . C. A. Th t.: ,. arcworthy of (ll'l'scn·:•lio n :1nrl ft'l'qucnL refere nce.

T ht· rn· it :1ti1111 )'<· rit~d :- :1n· IICI\\' ftt ny-ti \' L' mi llllll'!'-. Ch:lf'l'l in t ht· :\n n n: tl :-\l'll o nl is :tl H: :IO :111d in t lt l· \l • ~tkl :-\e h., o l :It ,'-::..J..) .

(~l'" · C . :\! ,· ITill . ' !I 1·. \\': Is 111 1\'l'lt :tl w ut the Ia ~ L of' ,\ ngn ,- t . I k \\' :1 s l'llllTL: Iim:d I> \· \ l r . :1nd :\ l r ,- . l lohhs in thl'ir ll l'\\' h · pn rl' h :1scd h Ollll' • 111 S ix l h s t l'l'l'l. .; 1.

C . E . Ord. ca ndid :1lc <~n Lh l· rqn1ltli l·: n1 Lic l\t' l for er n1nty co lntni ssin n l'l' o l :'\em:th:t co u nty . is a g 1·:11l 11 :1 LL' of till' :\on n :tl. c l:1::s of ' H~. and is :1 hl'tl l hl'l'-ilt -1:1\\' of l ' rof. I htll l' :111 so 11.

:Yfiss G rncc Stoulcn horo 11gh, a forme•· st u den t at the State No rm a l . wa~ married .June 27 at he t· home in Plall~mo 11 lh lo Gco . F. Gish of Denve r , Colo rad o.

:\ lctte1· fn1111 I It . l k-:1t tit· tdl s of the s:1k al'l'iv:tl of himse lf :1nd f:1111i ly :tl thl'ir Ill' \\' h u m e in vVcston, ( >reg on, w h L'I'l' hl' :tl lllll'l' e nte red upo 11 hi s dnl i, s n s l'n·s irlL·n t nf th l' State ;'\;o r m:t l Sl'IJnol 1 lt t· l'l'.

TheY. l\1f. C. A . n nd the ir friend s yea r pu t in at consicle mhlc ex pense a show(' r and ~pray hath . All you ng theY. M . C. A. hnve th cs<.· f:1cil i t ies . them.

A c:trd c:ttalngu e h:os hl'l'll put in to tht• Lihmr y that will hold ~ 4-000 <.': 1rrk I t is n b ea utiful piece of fu n1i t nn.: :1nd HII IH' IIIll lcach L·rs :tn d st udents usin g lh L· l. ihr:ll'." c:1n t e ll how nlll c h i l will ltc pri %l'll.

last fine men J o in

u.,. Profcs~or Ccorgc ~. P or t e r nnd \ ! iss :Vln ud M. H aw ley were m nnicd Aug u s t l G las t nt Lincoln . No t o n e unmarried m a n o n t he fnc u l ty of Lhc Stale N orma l now. Pt·of. I'o rtrr an1l wife an' scL ll cd i n their new h ome,

T't·nr. Dunc:1 nson r e:ll'ht·d h onw fr n 111 hi-.: ~ludy :t nrl u ·n \'l' l :t ht·o:1d j u st in tim e l o plungl' at o n ce in to the du t il'~ o f t h<" opc nin g.o f the yea r·. iV[t'"· l hl n l·: ln~nll stoppcclcnrnute tn \'i s il hct· ~ i Sll' r in Tol·on lo.

yc~u ·'"


I Ill

.\ Jl,,., t tht: ~t:lll.'

II

\\ .d t .

, , • I 11 1..! :""-,

..._ I \ I I '

lt>lllll't

ltnt>l, \\

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'\ UIO I.\ 1. -..ttn.tnl

nt'

111,11'1 il·.J

I ll

July l:t-..t

~

' llllt)l.

Flo y E. Hut('hin::o n. '92. nnd :\[r. Am id Wt' n' mnr ril'rl m t he bride's h n ml' in p,.1·u . June :Hi. Thl'\' nre to Ji,·e in

1. "illinn \\';lhnn .

.\n d l'l' \\ .I J .. n,·-.. "h .. · ' ' : 1 -..tudt·n t .It the.• Suntlnt· l· ~,·h , ,., J :tncl ln : ttt.t .:.! l' t' ,,f a r,·:" ·h t:r-.. ' Hun·:tll " :1-.. 111 l',·t·u clt11·in.:.! t It t• ~ 11111 mu·i-. p1·in c.· ip: d :tt .\-..h t~1 ·n n· . .\li ~~ll lll'i . IIi-. wil ~· tl·:c ,· IH·-.. "ith hi 111

~l i -. ....

I 1!11·: • i-:.1·,·1•-.. • >I :'\ ,·li,:.!lt w :l ' dt'' tl'd :tt tht.· .\ ng11 .... t tlll'l' tin;..: (If the Huanl tn tltl• po~itinn n·~i;..:nt· d hy :\1i,.. ~ :\1 e : ll · ~ . .\ t tht•

in .:...: :\1 i~~ Ella :\1. Cl:trk of l'l : tl t :-n l lllll h \\' ;t,.. vk ...·tc.·cl ll':tt·hl' l' of mn~ic.

!-':t ttt l.'

tl l t'l'l

l ' n> f l l <>~ i v ~ J ll' ll l tilt.' \':ll·: t tinll 111 ! \Til . ll l: tl<in g gc>c >cl t t ~l' cd't lt c lil ll·: tt·y ill t.:: tt-ry in .~ Oil ~f lll i L' o r h i:-; l i n es nf ~t u cly . Aftl' t' a fl.' \\' \\'C t: k s : 1t l tc >tl lt ' in T l'L' IInl ~l' h It t· knn.'>' f'o r hi :-; \\' fl t· k i n C h i t·:tg ~> l ' n inT:'it ,. t h e l:t t tl'r p : tt·t o f Sl' Ji lL' ll l h c• t'.

I I

~

{

f

1.t . l'l'!ll l h.': t tt ie : t ncl :\ 1i"':-; l~n s c· :\ l n%l'L' ,,.,. ,-e tn : ttT ie d :t l t h e h n llt L' u f t il L• l ll · id ~..· in ( ~l' ll l'V :t 01L-h l-: t :-; k:t . :\ 11 .!-!' ll ~l I ,), T ill'\' \\' ill li \·t· in l'ul l nt: lll , \\'ot~ h i u gto n \\' ltt·t·e Pro1'~..,..;:-;o l · l k·: t ltic h a ::- h t:l' ll n ·-t·kctt.· l to t he Jl ' ' "' i l ic 111 h t: h : t:-; h e ld in t he Sta ll' .-\ g ri t: ll llu t·: t . c., l kgl·.

:'\nv:-; o f th e dc :t t h o f' D t-.l;en rge L. P: trn h : t til <1 t B i 11 g h : 1m p t 11 11 • N ,. w \' o r k, A 11 p;11 s L ~. w h l'n' h (' w: 1:-; 0 11 a \'i s it , w ill co m e \\'i t h till' :-; h o c k o r " P LT:-;n n:tll o,.;,.; to m a n y I O t'lll l.'l' :-; tuc kn t~ o f t h e Nn n na l. \ Vith hi111 p a:-;:-;e:-; :t n ot h c t· of th t: old tT ~e h no l lll t' n of t h t: C0 1111 l i'Y· n 111<1 11 c>f r ecog-ni zed abi lit y i n tna n_v dinTL i o n ~ . o n e o f t h e m e n w h o :tided i1 1 hu i ld i11 g up t h e n o n na l schoo l ~y~ t~o: m ol' t il L· c o un t •·y <t t la t-gc nnd o f the St:t tc of' Ne b t·n :-; ka i n p :tdit: u la.-. l\lforc ex tc n ck cl n o t ice or h im n n cl h i ~ lo ng ho n nr;c l lk c: t n ·c t· i,.; l'n~t n d e l ~ e \\' h el'l.'.

.\II~~:E:\La·:t< .

~dlrnskn .

Former ::tmknts of t he 'tnte ~orma l will he inll'rt'Stt•d in the nn nount.-enlt•nt of tht• mnrrin!!t' of i\lis,: Florcnt:t• \\'orky to :\d,:on t; . ikmo rl'st at \' o rk . Nchrnsb. . \ 11g 11 ,:t :!!l la::t . Thl'ir home is to be in lkll\·cr. Colornclo.

.\ II "praetit·c" teachi ng is done now by ~cnior,: o nl\' who l'ntcr tt fJOn t his work the sc.:cond .wt'l'k of school nnd contin ue it t hro 11 nhont the \'ca r. H:df t heir time is ••i,·~:n ~ 0 tL'nehin~. T he regular cor ps of "' cri tic tc11 cher:: do a ll other Wtching in t he l\J odd 'chou!, nne! thc~c modl'i lessons nrt: ' 'ob:-;l'n 'l'd" by t hose doing work fo r th e T m in in!! C ln~s Certifirn tes. t he fncts of • n' furnts • • 1ung • tile ntn< t t•rinl for ino bs1· r \':ttl0

.-

>'l r ncl i<Hl in t ht· mtthnds of tenching.

The reception to students nnd tt·ndl~o'rs "in·n h\' t he Y. hl . C. A. a nd Y. \\'. C. A. .~>in tl y in t he Chapel on Snturday en·ni n~ nf t he o pcnin..,. week en llrd toget her ~o mo ring about diffieult. 1111111,. as t o 111 ..1•11:1 t. 80 111 c cl'tcl "' ..,.et c-1bout is indica •ted ll\'• . t r .,,.n rcl in contc~t for t ht• t II t' cI :11111 S pu ••01 ·• of 11 lm n· 11 Jlwnrds ' • \\' a tt•n nclon ul· mectlllg

:J,e

. 1•1,1 " socinl wnv withi n 1 ... l' fl'crcn tones t he t ime n::::<i ~ned . Mr . Moorl', t he stn lc

( t'(' ll ( 1

n

!'cc rct:tt'Y of t he Y. l\'1. C. A.. told in n tn lk of t he pttrpm:es of till' pIl'HSnnt· l.ttlc I c • . t' ,d i\l[ i s~ Ll':tnnng an d Mr. A ssoc1a ' l Oll . nt • Wncldcll gave a cordial. ".rgcn t in,·i.tation to a ll s tu den t~ t o ttnitc With one of the~<' o rg n niznt ion s and attend a ll meeting . M i!'s Cla r k, t he new teacher of rocal mu sic, t·cc•·ivcd CJ'cncrous a ppla tt sl' for her l'Ontrih tt tion to"' the program, ns did i\•liss Daily in her rl'ci tntion ~. Mr. Brady was mn sLt•r o f c't'l'cm onie~ in the g-ra nd ma rch.


24

THE STATE

E li;mbclh Gnrdn er· leaches a t t his year.

~O IOIA L SCIICHJI. Orlean ~

Rh ocla Recu has return ed tn com plete her Kindergar ten course.

~IE~SE ~ t.J ·. I<

~largan·t

.\ nd,·r-."n t,·;a,·hl'' m·:rr lkn·

nington

J. j .

King. '!J.I . i-. -.upnintl·nd\'ltt o n with dl.·\·en H·m·ht· r·-. .

: ll

.\lhi-

..~

Both ClifTo rc.l a nd Wan·en Cn lli n wi ll e nter the Slate University thi s fall.

i:--. ~ l t·a r-. ll':r n·:- r.. r lr t·r \\'nrk in C hil·ago l'ni \Tr-.ity t ht· ~ li t h in :-:t :rnl .

Miss Uln. M. Sanders will l<:ach mus ic in Palm yra, Missouri , t he com ing yea r·.

C . S . .Jom·:-: . '!).-,, i:- teac hing 111 thl.· :\orma l dep:rrtnrt·nt o f Cot ll l." l. l ' ni \'e r:-:ity.

For up-t o-da le cloth ing and furnish ing goods go t o Graha m Bros. & Co. , Aub um, Neb ras ka.

~!i ss Emm :r l l:t\'i:< i:-: t:d;ing :a l.'OII r:<c 111 mus ic: for public sdw o (;.., :tl l>ct r o it. .\lichigan .

Maud Harma n, '98, :t11cl Olive Harm n n , '97, ofJulia n , have bo th been reengngcd to t each in schools ncar· ho me. Their s is ter, Miss Bla nch, is in t he State Norm a l t hi s term.

?\1iss E s th e r Clark h:t s been e:dkd to the beds ide of her m o ther ""h o m et with a very serio us acciclcnt n:ccr:tly rtl her ho rn e in Kan sas. Mrs. C l:11·k teaches her cln :<sl'S \\'hilt s hl.· in :t w:ry .

The part it ion h as hecn t a ken o ut between the r ooms used for primary w o rk, the la rge o pen space in the rear m a king a most welcom e s pace for games a nd other· forms of recreation fo r t he little o nes.

\Ve ca rry a l"ull lin t· o f \\" no lens in o ur Mcr-chnnt T a il o rin g Dcpal'tmcnt. Our work is all clo nt· in our 0\\"11 store hy t hc b est s killecl t ail o n;. (~nA H A ~t B({os. & Co .

.•

~I


. tht

Diam nd Restaurant. •lb

tnn~st

'"

.

.\1 E.\ 1.~ .\~ H l .l' ~CH AI' ALL HOf"RS. :'\EBRASI\A CIT\', NEBRASKA.

1 I'll It ~

Pbotograpbs g~ to tyson ~ Ric~, Nebraska . Citv. . euv.

n~braska n~braska.

Or. E. J. P r c tty rn :tn will be iu Peru :llurda)s of each week,

In Or:;. i'kll & Shellhorn's Office.

·---·-..... .. .......... --. .............·-- ...................-···-··-··...·-·····-·····--···-·........··-: j PicS\~Is, t~¢ _r~otogr~.,b~r~ ~

:·-. ........ -·.

...,.. ·~-

~

:

~~~~9l/eets all competitlon,

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Presented to Col.lege by

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Vol. IV., No. 2 .

PERU, NEBRASKA, OCTOBER, 1900.

Whole No. 25.

THE TNFLUENCE O F PESTALOZZI UPON HERBART. Ht· II". . 1. Clnrk . pr~..-c~cl ing n r cont~mpornry thinker. Hi~ \\'L' : ttl~' lllpl to tt·an· tilL' own t•hicf l'XP~'rtl'IIC~ may be orgn nizcd· inf ht ~ ll LT of llll L' \\·ol'!cJ Je:t cJ..•r 11p011 anot h LT, "· ~ l'l",\' out \\'ith C:tl'!yk: "It i ~ : 1 :d mnl n t: i mnl!t' ~uggcsted by nnother. l ie furni sh~$ the soil nnd quickening coliso rry l>u s i11 ess, thi " :t L'L'llll llting fo 1· g-reat eli t io tt !': in whidt germinntat idcns cil'· nH:n !'' A 111:t11 's l ifi.: is in its l:t s t :tnnly~i !; his 0 \\'11 . \\"h : t ll'\' <..' 1" h e h:t ~ p1·ocluced of n :lop and scn ttl'r thc·ir fruitnge in turn to other!':. C'•liScqucntly ill nn nppreciati,·e di!' l in c..: l i \T c..: h : tJ":tL' ll'J' s h n ul cl he ,.. g-:t rdcd ns his in both su h stanc..:L' and ro ,·m . \\"h ilc studY of n liY ntnll ;; life we should not nt· h e npprop 1·i: tt es f1Tc ly t h e nt : t l<:J'ial~ of tempt to ex.cludc wh:tt had its inception in t he thought of his predecessors. limiting his life fi"O lll the.: J>PHIII<: ti ons of Ol h cn:, and o urseh ·es to that which we cannot nc· c n :n finds the s u ggc..:st i\-c..: s timulus t o h is co un t for from o ther sources; that is. inconstructi\T acti,·itY 111 t h e expt·csscd s tend of endcnyorillg to determine by th oug h ts of o l h en<, h e bu i Ids hi s o wn ('xclusion "the pnrt t hnt he has constt· u ctu t·c up o n hi s O \VIl fo und atio n :tnd t ributed .'' we should generously credit acco t·d i ng to hi s own plan. T hm: whntcYeach ma n with t he whole of his life expresc J· we find in th e life o f any nH itl may witho ut injustice t o o the t·s he c n ·ditccl to him ; sio n . It is not n question of how much of H crbn t·t is not Herhnrt but Pestnlmzi; a ncl , in tntth, i t i s on ly in this way t hn t we ca n do justi ce to a ll. Bu t, o n t h e other we nHl v ack no wledge nil Herbnrt as Hcrhnnd , n o man ' s life i s exc lu s i vely hi s ow n. · bnrt, .nnd nil Pestalozzi as Pcsta lozzi, whil e g iving full weight to the_stiJ~ulntillg The g:r eate!'t ge nius i s l•u t t h e co mpletest centact of the life of PcstnlozzJ wtth thnt ('X JH·cssi o n of' the wo d cl t h ough t into which h <: is hon1; hi s life is sattn ·at<:cl h y t h e (' 0111o f Hct·bnrt. At the tlweshold of any nttempt lo collmon though t of hi s t ime. He gnthet·s i n to nect the li\'Cs of t hese two men we nre imhi s ow n life hi s her i tage fi'(H il mnny so uJTL'S :t nd giY<:s it o 1·gn ni c form in 1110t'l: m cclin td " comciou~ of the rnrl ical ditl"crem·cs of ; heit· resou rces unrl methods. l\•so 1· lcss symmet l' ic: tl complctl'ncss in his ow n cx pn:ssion . In additi o n to t h is gcnhtlo;.:zi wm; ·•nn un ta ught genius," whn!>t' lo,· iug heart o,·crAowrd in gen uin e philntt· l' r:tl :t llSCl l"pli o n nf' t h e <.:onlc n t or co m mon co n se i n u stH.•ss, he tna y h e in occu lalcd th r opy. Hi!: boundless fnith in hum a nity h y Lh c cen~ 1 ·: t! l' xpe t·icncl' in t h e life of :t :t ncl his co nccpliott of t he possibilities of n

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no rm a l dcvd o pmen t to ri gh t~:o u s happy li ving w ere but vag u~:l y conceived in t he prac tica l educatio na l procedure. I lis lo,·e fo r his fello w men fi lled his wh ole hcing nncl so ught ex pressio n in his inco mplete schemes for their ma teri a l a nd s piritu a l a ch ·a ncement . H e wa -: no t , in any t· r itical sense, a student of his o wn aim s ancl me th ods, t ho ug h ma n ifestl y ~tl way s desiring t o br. s uch a nu con t inu a ll y di scoursing in a ra m bli ng wa_v a bo u t them . Wit h brillia nt intu itio ns o f vit<d educatio n:d t t·uths he labo red zea lo usly o nr th ~: det a ils of their realiza t io n w itl-:o ut du e regar d t o their rela t io ns in a la rg er w ho le of a im a nd met hod. There is a n utter lacl< o f phi loso phica l co h e r~:ncc in his pla ns. He appears to ha ve bccn both un a ble an d a nd un wi lling t o inves ti g ate t he fu ndam enta l p rinciples upo n w hich a scien t ific pedag ogy mus t be buil t . T ho ug h a sel fsacri ficing wo r ket·, it. is •·a t he r pa n-mi ning in t he dril t tha n the persis t ent qu a .-ry ing in t he lode. Wi t h full convic ti o n t hat t here mu s t be a psycb ologieal ba sis lo r a ll educat io na l theo r y , he d id not seck to a cquaint himself ratio n a ll y w it h t his fu nd a mental g r o und . Admi tting th a t there w as little psych ology in h is day th a t s o ulcl be m a de directly availa ble in pedag ogy , t here is certa in ly n o excuse, mal<ing a ll p ossible a llo w a nce fo r pro ba ble exagg eratio n . fo r the s t atement t hat ' he ha d no t read a book fa t· t hi r ty years .' W e have i n Pcstalozzi a n ins ta nce of the indiffer ence, a m o u nting a lmost t o co n lcmpt, of t he g r eat refo rm er fo r t he th o ug h t s of other s in the sa me o r rela ted fields. Herb a r t, o n t he o th er hand, w as a t r ue stud en t. Nn less a geni us t ha n P csta lozzi a nd w ith no less of the lo ving ge n t leness of a g rea t so u l, he ca ge.-ly so ug ht m a teri a l fo t· his uw n life in t he cx pct·icnccs o f others a nd crit iea. ly tested every impu lse by t·cfcrcncc to a •·a tio na II y concei ved t heo ry o f life. F ro m his earlies t chilcl hood he co n('Ci,·ed of a pn!'\sihh: an d desir a ble int eg ri ty o f life, a nd b uilt :1 1! his concep tions in to a

!-\'lllllll'tril·:tl whuk .,,-aim-. and procc:-:-1.':: \\' i th tht· pa til'lll fll' r!-i-.tl'lll'l' nf a traim·d sttull:nt he l':trri ~.· d hi-. !-tndil'!-, :t-. in 11111:-il· anclmatht·m:tti•·-.. to !-Oilll' ck...:rl'l' of lo~rtl'­ a l a nd :trti..,tic t'r >ntpklt'lll'""· IJl'sidc:: ::l"t.' king at a ll t illl l'S tn :ttt:tin :1 l'tiiiiJln:li~ n:-i n· p hilo!-ophit·al 'inv ,,f lik'!- t liO \'l' l11 ~n t :: :t ncl JHI!-!-ilJi litio·-.. :\: t lltt·a lly whe n hl• t urn ~:d h i:: t he 11g lt t:: to cdm:at in u hl• ::oug h t fo r t it ~: fnn d :t lltl' ll t:t l p t·im·iplc:: upo n whidt a plti lo!-o pltit.:: tl pl·dagogy could Ill' fo undt.:d in h: trm o n_y wit h pn::tuln t ~:: ~::­ ta hl is h ~:d in o th L· r ::cie n ti fic fil·ld s. Ac tin!! upo n t h~: m o tto of t ht· t r111.: scie n t ist ' to s~:ize upo n t rut h w ltl..' t'l'\'L'r it m :ty hl· fo un d ' he soug h t l 'l's t:d ozzi. w h o ::~: fa m e w ns h~­ g inning t o IH: lnt ow n t o :d l ::tt td t nt:: of educa t iona l prohkm s. lit.: fo u nd hi m st r ugg ling wit h a g~..: r min :tn l t ruth w lt osl' ,·n luc he wa o; qui ck t o r~:c og ni zL· :~nd w hich he seized a nd b ui lt into his O \ V ll o rga nic plan , g~: m: ro u s l_y g iving I 't·::t:d lo zzi c reel it fo r th t• s ugges ti o n . I t w as in 1 7 9D, whe n l let·h :u·t was a tut o r a t 13~: r nc, t hnt he: first vis ited Psta lozzi. lf e w as th(·J1 t we nty -t ltt·ce yea n : of ngt•, a nd P(·stalozzi wa s fifty-t ht·ee. Th e yo unge r ma n hau a lr eady h cg n n to w o r k o ut his t hco t'C t ica l l 'eda gog y in letters w ritten at reg ular in te t·v:tls t n th e fa t her o f his t h r ee pupils , ::o n n t untl ly a ppropriated w hatever seemed to hi m g ood in Pc!'ta lozzi' s a ims and m et hods . He fo u ncl Pe~­ talozzi at w o rk up o n whn t he him self reg a r ded as the fu ndamcn ta I pro b lcm fo r the t ea cher: t o determine t he t rue sequence o f s t ud ies co rn.·spo ndin~ to t he s uccess it'e s tages o f t he child 's dc n ·lopm en t . H e sa ys: ' ' T o di sco vc t· th is Req uencc i~ Pcs ta lozzi 's chief e ffo t· t a nd like wi se my own g t·eat idea l. '' He sa w in Pest a lozzi t he t ru e t eache r n ncl ack no w ledged t he correctness of his a im . th o ug h •·ecog ni zing h is limi ta ti o ns. I n a lcc t n r c a t Bremen o n t he P es t a lozzia n m et ho d he s n id: " In t he ca se o f P estn lozzi w e ha ,·c t o arlrl .- hc was too d eficien t in scien t ific a u x illi a rie~. and pcd 1a ps !'t ill m o r e in cold -b loodcdn ess

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necclt.-cl in h:11ulh11 !..! -.,·tlnt iti,· t<lt\1-.. in pr•'J"~­ crly hc:a ting and '""in:.: da· k.trnnl tlru~::. :tntl in \\' t-it ill;.! nt tkdy n ..·,: ip'-'' l~tr nur imil:ttiun ofhj..., at· t . " But th\.· 11111 .... l cl~.ltni ll' inlhtl' t\\."\.' of 1'1.'$l:\lo7.zi UJH.tl 11 '-·t·han '' ., .... in tht• m ~Hl'-'r of the ' 'An.-.clt:tllt ll t.~ · · II,Th:trt :tl tllll.'l' rc.: ·ogni7.(:d a gn·:tt lt'llth lll'l't: . a truth t"r11cldy n:~di7.cd i11 tit"· \'l.' llt' k t h:t t hl· witll4..':o::,·d hut cnpnh lc of lll·ing nt:tdc..· tit"· ha:-i:: of n r ntiona l \.·dut: atioll:tl pltilo:-:nphy . lk ::pnkt• of An~h:ntllll ).! a~ ''t h at g t·a nd idea nf it:: di:-covcrc ,·. the..: nc>hk l 'c..::-t:\ lnzzi:" hut h~· ~ICltls that " l 'c::-: t:tlo zz i ha:-: only wm·kccl c• ul l h e : 1p pI il·:t t i • >11 of t he..• pt·i tH.· i ph.• within the n : IIT l>\\' :-: ph1.Tc..' n f ~.·kntt.• ntnt·y in:-lrnc:t ion . I t IK·Iong:-: in tt· ll t h tu cchtl':tlion :1~ n \\·ho le. t h o u g h it n n : d fnt· th:tl :1 furthl·r dcvc lo p nH: n L... I t i:-: ll t i:-' "fu l"l. h c:t- dcYclo pm c nt " o f l' e :-: t : tl o zz i' ~ i1.ka t h at c:: n ~l i lu lcs I l c 1·h a t·t's c hid' c..:n nu·ilnt ti o 11 to crl ucn ti o na l phil n~o ph y . fn t· 0 11 L n f " :\n ~c hntllnt :::(' ca m \.' " Af1pc: r C:c..' fJt io n . .. I t :-:h o ulcl thc ,·cfn r c be o ut· c hie f co n clTn h c..T c..' to ::h ow t he r clnt io n o f A p p \.' n : q JL io n t o An !'c: h n uun g . g i\·in g l n cnc h m a n l'f'l'dit fn t- a ll l h at his tcn n s ig n i flcs 111 hi :: u wn th o ug h t. Fo r o ut· pt·cse n t p ut· poses n othin gwo uld h \.' g ain e d h y t t·acin g- t he a ncest r y of Pc~t al ozz i 's iclcn b ne k t hro ug h R oussea u and Co mm e niu s to L ock e n ncl B aco n , o t- b y fo llo w in g L a n g e in s h o wing t h e d csecn t o f "A ppe t·ce p t io n" ft·om Lcibnitz thn n tg h Kant t o Hcd>~ll ·t. Let ns s impl y a s k \vhcn:~in H c rln u-t 's " Apper cepti o n '' clif1"crs ft·o m P cs t n lozzi's "Ansch a uung", a 11 r1 h o "' it m a y IHI \'e g r ow n n at ura ll y ou l CJ fi t . Pcstal ozzi 's '' A n seh a uun g" see m s to he un t t·a n s l atablc; in fact, h e h i m selfu scd t he te rm in vary i ng sen ses. Do ub t less i t s p r im a r y n1canin g w ith him wns''se nsc-pcrcc pt io n " orig in a ti ng i n t h e cli,-ect obset·vation of n atut·al phc n on1e n a, th o u g h t he term ofte n seems to h a vc a fu ll e r m ea n ing t hat i n clu des, by implit.:ntiun at least, t ltcw ho lc o f th e Hc l'l->n r t ia n idea. of ' A pperce p tio n ." Pest::t lozz i t'l h ell e cl aga in st t h e m em o ry

l.'nlture d •trine of educntion common in hi$ llay nnd emphn~ized n first-hand study \lf n:nure O$ the solc soun:e of educational nn\tcrinls. Obst>rmrion of phenomenn, n~rifiea tion of idcns by rcl~rring directly to their source in the senses. nncl a sympnthet it' intCrt$t in life's cn'>ironmcnt nrc tht• dm rnetcri$tic ft>n t ures of his educa tional thcon-. To Ruusseau's dcmm1 d that edul.'ll tio;, should conform to the " nnturl'" of the child ht' nddcd a Jo,; ng npprt>eintion of the po~::ibilities of human life thnt "the pro phl't of the French Re,·olution" could not feel. I hnve j ust said t here wns mo re n t ti mes in Pestalozzi's conceptio n thnn the mere enlarging of life by ~ntheri ng its rnntcrinl ub~ta ncc through ~bscn· ntion . He recognized that this wns not nil; bu t i t would be An unwnrrn ntccl stntl'ment to :~Ay that he ever hap n n ,. clcnr idcn of how his nccumul att•d mnlct:inls were to he utilized in a cnm:trueti r e life process. E,·en hi$ "sense-perception'' itself was bu t a vngue idea to be mcchnnicnlly juggled with in arti ficinl processes as hn rrcn ns t he memory drills which he ~ough t to supplnnt. He frankly confesses that he is unable to sec the proce!'s of which his Anschauung is btit the initial fndo r . It would be idle to speculate upon t he eAcct of a fuller psychology upon hi!' t heo r v a nd practices. Hnrl hl' li ved nfter Herb;rt , or Wund t, or Fechner, he would still have been Pestnlozzi, H man who~l' noble impulses fnr outran his power of eo nstn1ctivc thinkin~. He could Sl' C the end hu t co uld not plan ra ti onally how to reach it. H crbar t asserts that it is not merely this seeing , hearing, and feeling things t hn t is demanded,- but their uuderstancling. t heir realizatio n in life, their evaluat io n in terms of the whole vita l process. T he ma teria ls of life which we get t hrough sense-perception must be det•eloped into the l ifc itself by "ap perception." Apperception is men ta l diges tion, assimilation of the life eleno c:nts o bta ined through the senses. It


28 is n ot a n inde pe ndent proces~; n o r C\'C il : t subseq ue nt s tage o f th e s am c p t·occss: i t i ~ the w h o le pr·occss o f w hi c h " Ansc h auu n;.;' ' is but one phase. W hat b egan in th e ~: m o­ i t io n a ! conce pti on of I 'cs tn lozzi h as clc\'cl oped into scie n t ifi c form wit h ll e rh:tr t. What' Pestalozzi d es ired, I il:rha rt a cco m p li s hed; th a t is, g~tve t o ccltu:a t ion:d t h o ug ht a nd practice a psyciH•I o gica l fo u n dati o n . I t s h ou ld not . ho wc\'e r , ltc t h o ught that llcrhal't 's ed uc ation a l ph ilo so ph y is mere ly thc lo g ical comple ti o n of P cst a lozzi 's i m pc rfel'l co rH:qnion . It is b ot h m o re and les s than this . I[(: clirl co mpktc a nd give· valuc to IJ<:s t a lo %zi' s gcrmi nant id ea in his own way: ln t t he a lso lost s ig ht of o ne phase of hi s prcdcc<:sso r 's though i.-s o mu c h so that th e tw o m en sU~nd as t he o r ig in rrto n ; of two t';IC!it·. a lly opposed t h eo ries o f ed u t·~tti o n . Pcstal o%%i la id s tress up o n the matct·i:d to be acquired as a mutn s o f e nl :u·ging nn cl e111·ic hing the content o f life, g i,· ing but little thought t" t h e already d e n :l o ped men ta l structut·c. H e r·bar·t o n the o th e r hand emphasized the pi'C:sent stage o f d evelopment, the present men tal co n tent, as the o nly m ea ns o f acqu it·ing t h e new materia l. The one wa s c hiefly co n ce rn ed with increas ing the yoJumc of life b y a cCI'etion; the o thet·, with r eo rg anizing th~ life stntc ture sons to admit the new m ntcr in l. 'i'he one dealt w ith matter, t h e o th e r with form ,-the o ne with r·csu lts, th e oth e r w i t h processes. For p ercei,·in g a n d n :membcring H e rb art s ubsti tutes thinking anrl knowing,-no t as o t he r processes hut ns mor·c comprchensi,·c eonceptio ns o f the sn ni e processes. In onle t· t o percei Ye, o ne mu st t hink ; 111 o.-rler to rem e mbct· h e mu st kn o"" , -t hn t ts, perceiving a nd and r e m embering Hre in se perab!e elem e nts in the m o t·e complete processes . The n ew m ate ria l is n ot on ly a dd ed to the existing life, hut t h e add iti o n is m a de by means of t h at life i tsc lf. A pperccpt io n demancls h•>th old mn te t·in l a n d n ew, a m en t ~tl ba sis n ncl an aclcl<:d imTement. The

111\l._l It~· n·:tli1Td IIJII>Il I hl lc>tiiHiatinn rtf tiH: nld ltl·ing 11f ': dtH' " ' tl y in i t:- rdnt ion to th ~· old . I ktlt:tn '' " "ld hu iltl a ~ln t l·tun.: i n w h idt ~·:td t nt·w addition nf m att·ri; tl ftn cl ~ a pl:llT in n ·l:t linn tu t lw • who!~; m: ....... :11 11! 111 h:trt tt <lll\' with t ht• :tn·h i tlTL · ... ck ... igtt li t· w c~t tld hq.:in thl' cxpt·t·icnn· with ... t·n ... t' )'' rn·ptinn . hut WOU ld l'O III)I klt' it itt :1 l'<ltt:-ll'l ll'li \' l' ll lll\'l'· 11ll' 11t of tit l' w h n k I i It· l' nn t t·n t . .\ JI Jll'rCl'Jl· t io n i... ln rt :a <k ... ig n ;atitllt of tlrl· nor ruallift.• pr·ot·t·:-..,t.·~ in w lti l· lr tlt t· org:ani z:tt io n l:t kl',: i t~ food a n d b ui l d ~ it ... ~ u · t a t·tar t ·l·. .\11 npJll't'l'c p t ion in Yo hT~ J'l'l'l'l' jl tict tt . :a nd Jll'l'· ce p t io n l>t'l'llll t t.·~ :al' lllt' nttl y in :ap pt.'tl'l:JI· t ion . The mr1s l r·:r d ic; d ckp:r n urt.· .. r I l t·r ha rt ' ~ \' icw fro m t h; ato r l 'es t:d ozz i. ;a d qr:t r tun: w hich mt.·:tn s a p o s i Li \ 'l' los s . ts 11 1 hi~ tr:tllsfcr of the s tn·s s t't·nlt a rft· n ·ltlfJIIIL'IIL t o COIISL/'1/Cl iun . Fot• tire 111/I;Jirlin,:.:· n f{C:f'tn h c s nhstitu t t·s tlrt: lnn'/r/ing of' 11 s tructure: . ll l' t'l' di \' t·r·gt· tlrl· two t heories ofeclucat io n known :ts " Lh t.· g :t n kn the o•·y" ~·nd '' thc ~ttThitt.Tt t hc o r·y ." t he fctllo w e r s o f' Ft·oeh cl h o ldin g t o the n u c :t11cl th ose of' I ler-l >:tl'L to lite ollt<:t'. \\hill' Froc b el is 111 uch in tl·ri o t· to ll l'l'lt :tt· t i 11 philo sop hicn l ins ig ht, h e has hy :tcl h ering to Pestnlozzi ' s cl nct t·inc of'" rlrt.· u n f'olrling of the gc n 11" inHucncc rl t h e cd u t :t tiona! w o drl to nn (·xte nt tha l the mo st ardent di sciple of' J-lci'IHlt't ca nnot claim for his ma stc t·. Th e p la n t mcla ph o t·, \\'hich d o ubtl ess o ri g in<tlcd wi t h P es t:tlo%%i . was carri ed out in mnt·c philosophical statem e n t by Ft·ochcl and is t odny mot'(' or less conscious ly the ce n tntl id ea in ou t· t y pica l perht g ogica lneecl s. Li fe is :1 "gi'Owth " to b e fostered hy t he te<t e her·; :111cl n il inst ru cl'ion is hut p1·o yidin g m n te t·inl s for t hi s growth a nrl stimuln ling to g n ·n t t.'l' Yi· tality. The fun c ti o n of the t eacltlT a s : 1 '' gard c net·" ts to fut·n ish h is 'humn n plants' w i t h s o il, h ea l. moistu t·c ~1nd light: to pro tee t lhc tender ht·:l n e hcs agn i n~t h a rmful infl uences; a nd to pru nc :1nd t ra in the h eal t hy gnl\\'t h . Th is is t h t' C:t nt ct• p-

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tin tt whidt ll c... .-hart ah a ncl oit~cllil r the k:<:< ration:t l ennc..· c..·JH inn n f huilding : 1 c o ntent wi tit in the ~.·hi lei":-: mind hy prm·icling- :111cl -.· c..-ctt t·in.t l tc :t p p t·n p t·m · tum · r-. n f· nc..•ccssn rv m :t ti.Tia l:-: . !'h e tc..·:tdtc..-r p:tssc..·s ovc..•t· fro t;t :_t g uid~..- Df ,:..!rowt h to :1 mnkc..·r of gn>wth. ft ·ntn :t .:..::tnle ttt:r t o : tn nrchiccct . It is n ot III.T I.'!'S:lt·y . ho\\'C..'\'c..T. t il set tlte:<l.' t \\' 0 co nt:I.' )H i o tt s in :t n t :a).!n ni:<tic ~:ontrn::-t. R uildin/-:' 11/~ ( .\n :-< d eh tt t tn .~) is secured thro u!!h dt.: n : !fJfJin•,.{ l :t ··1· 1uu!..!' ) . Tl tc " c ·n'l' I c.·. o t' ..... • l t "1, thou•YIIl'' tt l ' t\' I · I" l ) \ ' t Ill' n OI',-. • _ ll' .. \\. ·IC , 1:11\.'( III'tl .. r ' ,. .. . . • u n u t 11ag l>f the..: "senti 's pDwc1·s" in t h e..· Jli'IIJlLT l 1!"<.' . ,. , .,. . I .,. ,IC 0 I c.. Ill :I L<.' rt:l :<. . . o ,. ct I tt t::t t'10 11 '. " .111 per ,.cct ·~ l 'flwt h Lit"dl l;. h :t n n o ny wit h ll t: rh:ln's dot.: tt·inco f educn ti ,·c i n st nt c..•t i o n . "

The..· c cl n c: t ti o n a ! thc o 1·ic,.: of P c:; t:tl ozzi :and ll c rhc l·t an.· n:ttllt'[tl ct n·nll:-trics o f t ht• eO IIt't:ptions o f the l \\'() Sdt ooJs o f m ethod i n p hi loso phil': t! t h o u ght tha t flouris hed in Euro pe in t h e sevent ee nth l'l.'ll tun·. T h e s c.: hoo l .o f 1All:·I·,e , 0 1. p l T 1lil ps more pt·opcr . 1y · • that o f p~.~o . 1• • n. " ·ns t..'171f>tru.:n. 1 ~ec 1o•ng to get a ll kttowlcd<.!:t.: di1·ccth· fn >m sc:n sntio n : t h c.: ot hc..•t· Sl'h o o l , t h e..· fo ll.owc..·rs o f Dc:;cm·tcs, w:a ~ •·atio n ;tl , dealing w ith idens n ~ the sou t·ee of oth1.·1· ich::;ts . The..· method n f L oc k e was induct ive while that o f nc~ca r­ tc..·~ w:t s dc.:ductivc : hut both \\'et-L' chant c. tc..T ized b y a hn~ak ing a wn,· fnltn t he o ld e r Sc.: h ohst· . an rI a sec I.:tn . ...,. 111 . k·no tne ' d ere • . tt.:.·tsn1 o f' . . . . . ,... o " new source o f hie..- ft·t•ed ft·nm suhorcli n;a t i o n to :t u th o ri ty . I t was t h e t•m p iricaJ m et h o d of t h e..• E ng I ish sc h ool t h:t t mos t di n:ct ly affected ed~t t·ntiomtl n.'fon11s. Con1c niu s. R o ussea u. and Pest::d o:o~ i fi re Ba co ni n ns, o r Loe kians. in their ph ilosop h y of knowl edge. \Vhnt Baco n wns to Comc nin s , L ock e w as to Rou ssea u: an d PcsUtl r> zzi wn ~ infl11encecl bv h ot h Comt·niu s and R o u ~sea u. But Fro.cbcl, t he . disci~lc of Pes tnl nzzi . h1·ou g ht a r at io na listic f::'ctot· in to t hi s se n sationa listic cn nceplt o n ; a n cl I I e l"lJ:t t'l still fa rthe1· :accepted t n1t ~1 ft·o m bot h s ick s. The empi t·ical eoneept t ~ln rtl o n e ;ts :aceepterl h y Pt•stn lozzi w ns 111 c ompletc :and unpn>cluc ti,·c: i t inclic n t cs the S() u rcc of l<nowing, bu t n ot t he In cL h rn l . Th e 1·ation alistic conception

:<npplics t h e mi l"Sing lnctor. Tt dea ls with the me t hod of organi zing a nd using t he nwtt·ri a l~ . fo r the mere accumulation o f whic h the o ther m<'t ho d pro ,·idcs. The crude phil oso phy of Pcstalozzi was wh o lly cmpiricn l: he was concerned educationally with e nl a rg ing life Yolumett;cally by ad rling t o its sensntions. In his ,-i ~w he wh o ncq uirerl t he mos t o f sen!':e-pcrccptio ns li n ·d the most. Hcr bart o n the ot her hn nd. wns b o t h n ra tio nalist a nd a sensnt io n:tlis t; he belieyed t ha t education deal t pr·imarily w ith t he residue o f p as t experit•ncing. rcorg-n ni zing t hem to ad mit new elemc n ts o f scn ~e-percepti on. Star ting with t he life t ha t is , he so ug h t to gi \'1~ it grt•ntcr sig nificn nce by reforming it un der the sti mu latio n <•f new materi a l. His a im wns the fo rmati on of charactct· thro ug h hnhitu ntio n in ,;g ht modes o fli ving. hence he 11ttachcd more importa nce to method in experiencing th n n to the resirluH of experience. ) £e re ~en snt i o n as sueh had no s ig nifi ca nce in his philosop hy: it deri,·ed its mea ning and ,-a lue from t he constt·uctiYe life m m•cmcnt of whic h it was Hn incid ent. H e dealt dirert ly wi t h lit·ing, not with g etting th at which belonged to li fe: and his clea r ideas have been thr source of mu r h t hat is best in t he l'ducn tio nn l theories o f to-d aY. In f~tct, Herbart nwy ns truly he cu ll~d t he founder o f scien tific pedagogy as of mod ern psych ology. ln co nclusio n. it is e no ug h to say t hat Pes talozzi in spired Herha r t to a criticn l studY of t he problems of erlat CfJ ti o n a ud sugg~~ted the fntitful idea whosL' worki ng o ut has give n a new clw rn ctt·r to <til tJIOclcrn ed ucation . It certa in ly would not ht• tr ue to sa v th at wi th on t Pestalozzi there would lw~e heeu no 1-Ierbar t in the crlucntio nn l world , a ny m ore t ha n to say that with out Rousseau neither co uld have been. Each ha s his place nmong t he worlcls teacher s; a nd while we revrrentlv na me the name o f Pestalozzi, we t ha nHully accept o ur heritage from Hcrb a r t. The educatio na l world owes much t o each; a n d we n r c still far from reali zing their irlcals.

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h k. T h t.·l a b o ,·n t o t·ics a r c th e :::cc ncs of m uch o f t hi :-< \\' nt·k . [ 'hysic::-; a n d cht.·m i:-:try nrc t n 11 g hten ti 1Tiy in t h e la h on1to r·y n n d field. T~.:x L book :-< ;11·e u ,.;l'd met·cl y ns rclct-cncl'ti, ln g u idt· t h1.· :-<L u dt.·n l in ~111 cx pct·it11ell t or toe0111 (Ht n : IT SUlts '" h ieh he h ns :tl rcndy : t !"t.:l r l: l i nt:d rn ,. hi ln ~l· l r. "Sc ience,' :-<: ty!-; ~I L Cannan, "n:solve::: i t!-;c \1' into two g; t·eal q u esti ons u nd these HtT: '\Vhat is so ? and, 'lf s u . \\'hy ?' · With t h t· :<l' till' :-: tud vnl:-< en ll Cl'l'll t h emst•h •cs cnLi tTi y. T h l·y o h ,.:lt'\'l' tht·it· sutTn tt nrl ings.

.10d in the l:lhora ton. or lidd rn· to disco ,•L'r cau:-:cs f()r this o r thnt phcnomenn . The lnwl.'r gr;tck·-. lchrtl physit.·s in t hi!' dl.'men t:try way. too. with the exce ptio n thnl till'_\' en nn·n1 tlwmseln~s mo re espec ially with the first q m•st inn. En:rv li ttle tot ka rns to notice the \\'Cnther the ri~ing :111d f:dl of the h:1romcter. a nd lht.·y \{rep n :cnnls of the clouds a nd reg ister the bent so th:tt they h:l\·o: chnrts \\'ith n il these ck-

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t:lii:-: l':t refully m ap ped o ut. ThL' alllll Untnf natun: st udy th at they h :t \'L' is a r·e,·clntion to the uninitiated. FrL'C( IIL'll t \'i,.its tn the pa r k and to l~lrllli' alllllidcb gi ,·c opponunittes f01· ohscn·ntiun that thn· arc not ~lo\\' t n in1pro\'l'. .\ml :tltheso:.f:l L'ts ~trc ofusc w thl' cl1ild at the prcsclll time. --Educ;ttion is not n prq>nratinn for lifi.·.' says the Prc:;idcnt: ·it i:; lik ." So. according to thi~ principle. tht· ch ild knrns o nly that which is of 11:>e to hi nt in hi~ dai ly lifi.•. All hi~ studic~ an· pu r~ cd \\'ilh t hi:-: thoug ht foremo~t in hi~

11

u :ac her'"' mi nd. I<l·r11 ling a nd \\'riting a re the mo_st. int~rL':<ting lts~o ns \\'hich n ,-isito r may \\' It· ·· .,\' J1·.,., Fkmmi no,.:a,·s th at thc!'C suhtll: ~~ . .-..~-, ::::.

ject~ can be t n ug h t wi t hout all the drcury ·ho ur s w hich t hey han: hi t herto been acenrclccl. Tho: essence of t he new \\':I Y i!' t h nt tht:\' cnn he learned a~ readily and in t he ~an;e wn,· tha t a child lcarns to talk . I It: t: dk s becn~t s<: he has a tho ug ht " ·hich hc wa n ts to g i,·c anothcr. or bt·cnusc ht• wHnL!:' to karn nbout so mething him!'etf: Accord in"l)· he i~ furn ished \\'ilh ,.:timu ll a I' thHl w ill encu urnge him to usc rene 1ng ; Hl w r iting t o \\'a rd this enrl L-Ie rends 11 w hat he rt·ally wa nts to kn O\\' nnd writl's what he want:-: a no ther to rcad. A new word i,.: im prc,;scd upo n his mind in e\'ery w ny p ossihk. H e sees it , writes it. pn-,. ncc!' it, d raws it, if possi ble, and 111 11 0 11 s h o r t b r ings all his senses to hea r upo n it. All dminf! the lesson nncl until hl' h as it f-i r m ly lixcd in hi s ,·ocahn lary he rcfi: rs to hi s ndditio n in an u nncc us to med W t l\'. If t his \\' Orrl sl10nld he · n<t il. " for insta llt'l',


the c hild proba bl y wou ld he famili a r wi t h its sound a nd appearance, but n o t with the a cti o n required to write i l , nor wi t h its appen.-nm·c a s a w ri tten word . S o ht· would go to the h oa rd n nd write ' n a il " e ve r y Lime he wish eel lo us c lhe wnrd . If he were hui lcling- tt h o u ~e in the m:tn u a l- training- ro om IH: wo ul d s oon g:t in :1 fami li nritv with th e nni ls in n n ew :t specl. The sloyd r oom in one of the mos t p o pular. Herc :Ill wo rk to le: 11·n that tlwi ,. h a nds mny fas hi (J n m:t ny us efu l objects of wood by the aid c1 f cat·pentcrs' t o o ls. Somet imes they m a l<e aniclcs which <tre dcconuive fo r th<·ir h()mcs. hut ge ner:dl y t hey arc busy with instruments for thcit· other studies. :\atu re study m a kes a g reat demand fo r thes<:. The student<; of the higher classes arc at pn.:scnt makingdin o mctcrs a nd h ygronH.:tcrs to tnkc with them on tht·ir field exc urs ions. Mt·. Mcycr has a nnoun ced his inte nti o n t o take t he train ing class to t h e s loyd s h op to demonstrate m a themati cs in a w :t ,. th at so me w h a t nppallccl th e students a t fit·st. Each o ne is t o constru ct a telescope o f s uch m ag_nituclc t hat thJ"Ough it th e planets an d the ir moons and a lso the m o unta in s on the ea rth's mo o n can be seen . " There is n o way to un det·stand t he pat·ts and uses o f a machin_e s uch as making -it o n e's self,' ' sny s the professor. "So w e s h al l ma ke telesco pes and nu t let o ur knowl edge on t hat sco re he hampen~d." An other way in w hi ch h e is going tomeasut·e th e capa bilities o f his pupil s is in the planning o f m oving va ns, which eac h pttpill is to su bmi t to hi m. The idea of this e xe rcise cam e to Pt·o fesso r l\!Ieyet· as he wa lkerl along the street o ne day. A lo:t dcd Ya n broke do wn in t h e middle o f the s treet. Evidently i t had n ot been pla nned co rrectly , so he is going to make s m·e that if the res p o nsibility of bui ldin g such a van e \'c t· fa lls upon the s houlclcn; of any of hi s pupils n o s uc h disaster wi ll h efa ll the occupan ts of the vehicle.

To thl· un ini ti :t tl·d t h . .·-.t· .... , . . t n .......... m i,L!ht not "C<'tll . . trit·tly nt:tthtttl:tti,·-. hut thry :tn· in full :tl'l'lll'fl:t tt n· wi Llt that -.ttlfly in tlw in-.titntl· ·1 h .... ,... . . .., ..... ,·y t hin .~ h.t n;.!-: II ('" o n w h:t t C ole~ntl I ':t r kl· t· t·:tl b · t ht• grc:nt h ill;.!l.' t: ti!T l l:t tintt ." wit idt i-. t ho..• : all impo rt:ttl t t h l·o r y ol llll' -.l·ltnol ttt : td titl l" ry . :\o nm: " tud y mu ... t Itt· pnrs u ...·d :t,.. :an t•ntin·ty . lntt it ,.. n :l:tt inn .... to l' \'l· ry otlt vr h r :and t ..r !- tucl y n tt t.._l I ll· :t pprn:tcltu l. lklll'l' tl ll'~l.' m :t tlll' m :a ti t·: tl h·-.-.o u s t•tnllt" H'l' physic::. nH:e h:tni l.'' · :tnd ' il<l' t ll pil·s a s t h o r n ug hly :t !- th l' \' do nt : t t lw m:a t i...·,.. propt: r. :tncl that m:t t h t:tn:ttics nt :l\· n ·n ·i\'t· its full l- h:trt: of :tttl'tltion ; t(( rothl.·t· ll'.ll'hl.T"' ,_ (H I\\' tht• ma th c m:ttil·:tl -:i d e: of ~ht·ir u\\' n hranch . I t w:t s o tu:c s:t irl th:t l l'\Try m ...·na hl·r llf t ht• fac ul ty tl·:al·ltcs l'Yt:ry o th e r prcd\:sso r' ,; suhjtct , :tncl :all h :I\T ~at·kno\\'h-c l gcrl th:ll llH.: t·t is :t world of u ·ntlt itt the s tn ;t mcnl . C o lrmd l':t.-i\1.' 1' s pc:t ks of It is 0\\'11 wnrk as follows :Dt·. John lkwc y' ,; f:amotts s :ayin g "Educa tion i,; n ol a pn:p n t·ation for lit\:: it i,; :t li fl· " i<; a succin ct ,; t n t c mcn t. in o ne scnttn cc, o f the Ill'\\' Aml' ri c::tn t•rluca tion . The n e w ed u c:ttion mea ns that c hildren ma y ha ,.e a t·ic h. fu ll lit\:, n life of complt'l.: (i,·ing, a life in which each litlk so ul . a:: 11 membct· :111cl a eiti%l' n in th<· school cotllmunily . exc t-c ist·s to it~ fu ll est capacity :an influcnc·e fo t· goo d . I t goes \\'i t hn11t s:ayill g tit ~, t sm·h :a lite is full of play :ami work. ful l of w o rk t h:tt educates at eYrry s tep, work with a purp ose, wo t·k thnt dcnwnds th e best p hys ica l a n d mcnt:tl co nditi o ns . The n eed s o f present soc·icty dctennim· the t<:nch ing nnd tn ti ning o f the.: sdwnl. To a rg u e t. hat we need good . h ouc~t, th oughtful, pat ri o t ic ci t i;:e m is a wa~tl' of words . The n eed is 1nclcecl a treme n do us o ne to n il t hinkin g Amct·ieans The new cclucati(,n makes the child, so fa r as he is nhlc, n citi7.cn o f his littlc co mmut~ ity . Citi;:ens hip with o u t kno w ledge is vnin, withO itl n manifi:statinn of kn o wledge it is


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weak, wi t h o u t a n i<k:d. a p u rpo~c. n m o li,·c, w i th o u t tntini n g of tlu.: h ig-hc::'t m o r n l fac ullic!4 i t is i 111 po~ ~ i hk·. T o-d n y c i t izc n ~ hip i:-: an nc · id~·nt . n n in c ide n t o f h o m e ~ lit-ro und i ng:-: nnd sm:ic t y . To rn n kc c it i z~.: n ~ h ip th nt whi c h :::tn nd:: in t he fo r e gro u n d t>f n ll~.:du ~.·: tli o n n l w o rk i ~ sou nd C:OlllllH Ht ~ · n :-:~: . I t i ~ m o r·c t h n n c o mm o n se n s e : i t is :111 im p e r a tive n cc c::s it y fo r t h e Jll' e SL'r\·at io ll o f fr~ g o v crn tnc.:nl. T ea c h ing is t h e a rt o f all :t rt ~ . Edm:n ti o n is t h e s c ic Hcc o f ~c i ~.: n c~.:~ . Do th bc.:n r n il over the mark ~ o f i11 fi11 i t Y . The p oss ib ilit ies o f e du c a t io n :H I..' co-o rd in n t c wit h p o ~­ s ibili t ic s o f h um n n g r o wth . The c h ild of t o -d ay is t o put hi m s e lf in t o t h e eternity o f life, a nd put h i m sel f in t o th e e ternity o f life by livi n g t o -d n y in th e b est p o ssi ble ·w a y . T h is ca n be d o ne o nly undt.T t cnc hen; wh o a t·c tn1ined . e duc a ted , d e vo t ed m e n a n d w o m e n w h o s tri ve fo r t h e h ighest id e a ls . Wi 1 c h ild n !n lenrn un de r t hi s hi g lw s t incentive o f c itizen s h i p ? T h e a n s w e r is selfev ident . T h e y w ill lenrn a s t hey ne ver le a r ned b e fo r e. W h e n kn o wledge is u sed as n u tt·i ti o n fo r m e nta l a n d spiri t u a l life t h ere w ill be brea dt h a nd d e pt h o f kn owlcrlge a n d a l o v e fo t· kn o w led g e . I s t here d a n g er o f i n tro d u c in g t oo m a ny s tudies? W h e n t h e t c ac h e t· t a k es fr om t heab un d a nt r e s o u r c e o f m a n a n d n a tu t·e fo r t h <' hea l t hy no rm a l g r o w th o f th e c hild then~ is no dan ge r. W h e n the t each e r r ea ds t he r ccOI·ds of g r o wth , p h ysical , m e nta l, s piri t ua l.

SCHOOL Mil ' ENGER.

33

in the child's being, wntches him fro m day to dny , hel ps him to the best, there is no dnnJ!I!r. When the child feels t hat it is thro ug h self-nctivity that he must work o ut hi~ o w n snln1tion thc.re is no danger. The da nger ha s nlwnys been in a purposele~s education- in nn educa tion that the child d ocs not feel is of immedia te use. W hen t he child belongs to society, is a fact o r in society. mus t work for society, then n il t he capa bilities of his being respond to t he ever-present demands. Will t he child learn to spell? If thought po wer is g r o wing th rough the incentive of helping o thers. then he must lea rn to spell hy t'Ons t a nt practice in expressing his t ho ug ht with the pen. Will he team to r end? \\'hen reading is to him imaging that w hich is nu tritious and necessary to his life. Will he be prepared thoroughly fo r college? If he has t welve yea rs of s uch life in school tht answer is near at ha nd . T here can be no comparison between the products of the new education under the old ideas. We have. o r think we have, educn ted a few in t he past, but today we m us t educate the masses. The ma~ses m us t be reasonable and thoughtf11l and patriotic. They must know how to defend t hemselves by t he might of their work a nd thought. T hey must see how their in· terests are bound up in the in terests of the wh ole, t hat all iniquity is short-li ved, and . t ha t goo dness is t>ternal.

I.. Ed u catio n is t he o n ly in teres t w ort hy t he dee p , co,n t r o lling a n xie t y of t he t houghtful mau .-\Ve n d ell P h ill ips.


THB -~Ti\TB .:\Oin-1.\L SCIHHIL ~IESSE.:\I~LJ.: .

A RIDE IN THE MOUNTAINS.

The fo ll owing is taken from t he E xpre~­ sio n M;tgazine, fro m an a r ticle by ~ l r· . L unnison o n th e Su mm er Sc.:ho()l held in Ashevi lle, :\or t h Cnrolin a:A p:trty o f fi fteen Studen ts look :1 trip of t wenty-th ree miles lo Chimll(:y l<m:k Mouotai11. Thc j ou rn c.:y w illne\·er he forgo tten . Il c re is a clc:serip li o n o f part of the r·idc b y M iss Estelle G r:rh am, c1f :\:l·lw as k>n . "Our road from Hickory l\ ul woun d in and o u t between t wo m o untain ran ges, hnrdcrcd by a beautiful str·ea m w hich r : 1 n tttrbu lt:!ntly. thro ug h i ts stony bed-here br<'lkcn by {t w a te rfa ll or ·mill darn and th er e running s m oothly along lil<c a c r ystal t.hr·ead. " As .nig ht ·c arne o n the sce ne becanH: m o re in teresting. Ever y tu r n of th e rcmd hn:>trg ht us so met hing 11ew to l o ok upon . H er e a· log cabin 'fne t ·o ur g aze, buil t ·u po n th e · shelf o f a rock, with its Ia r·ge s t o ne ehim't'ltys ~tnd vi nc and fl owe r-dad p o rches, so typical ofthe so uth. Th ese qua int li ttle·ca bi'ns , so crude in their s tnretures, a nd the s urro undin gs a nd t he ~11od e o f l iving o f th~ inha bitants, m a d e · art in te restin g p icJ:

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urn:: hu t \\'ht·n "l' Jn., Ja·d c•t rt :r nd up lu tht: m<HIIll:rin ... t11Wl'ri11g "'" f:rr :dwvc u:> we wc:rc: in-.pin·d with gr:rnch-r Llroughb. ".\Jif)tlH·J· lrt•Ju l in th<' ru:rd. :11Hl thl' lll<Hlll ;rt it~ fnll \\':1" aw:riting u~. Then h e r· ..,oft lig ht w:t ...... lr l'd c1 11 tlrl· muunt:tin~. m :d<in•r ht·:tuliful. ,..., :all tlw Jli c:t ur·c 111\'...,lit·. . s ulrlimc:. Tlu: ll·!l ing of funny ~loril·~ ami guc:~..,ing of collulldrtll ll ~ wlriclr had whilcrl Thl· r o:tr of thl' the: time: :1 \\':ty l'l': t.... c: d s t rc::rm "'""'(Jill" <Jill \' rnu ~ it· : r ~ \\'l' wcnl 0 11 . E<t c h oc.:c trp:rn l of . o ur c:r ni :rgc: p11 r~ucd hi ~ own phanlolll :r11 cl buil t Ir is 0\\' 11 nir· castle from tht· \\·c-l r of f:11rc:y :r11d im :tg in nt ion h o n owc:d f'n llll t ire ~l'l' J H.: IJe fo rc II ~. "\Vc \\·c:rc aw: rkc: n cd fror n or 11· l'l: \'C rie nt l:t s t hy th e: dri\'c:l·s crtllin g ' wlr o :r' :rncl o ne of the oc.:c 11pn nls of' the fir·~l c:r ni ngc c: tlling out. ' l l ow is :\c:h•·:r~lw ?' We hnd rc:: tc hcd o ur a b o d e fo r· tir e: 11i gh t - :t qua in t o ld Su ullrc r·n f'an11 lrc)IJ Sl', c::al lcd the L og:tn h ome , w hidt sc: n ·c:s <tS n h otel fm· s ig h t-

sec•·s like o ursc l,-cs. "Th e la ndl o rd wa~ n o t prepared for s uc h [I large pa r·ty, hut a number or bed s an ~! cots wen~ pu l up nnd finr~ 11 y we we re al1 s t o w e d away fo r· t.he nig ht.''

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13reathcs l here a man with so ul so dca<l, Wh o ne ver t o him self hath said, This is my own, my native land ! \\'h ose heart hath ne'er "'i t hin him b tu·nc:d, As h ome hi s foo t s teps h e h a th t urned From wand ring- in a fOl·cign lan d ! -Scolt.


33

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~.:<>ltl,· n. tl rt·amful w~nth,• r. H:- tlw h i n l-: th.lt 1\y tu~~t h er. I l:n~ ·'!-!·' in :-t t h ,• r a dinn t :<ky. 11:- t h,· -.ill•tll'l', gn,wiug tll"<.'per. H:-· t h e r,:-tin~ ,, fthl' l'l'Hpt.•r, \\'in tl'r tl t\ y :< n n• <l rn wiu~ n i).!h.

Hy t h t.• ,.,,g ,·:\lll wny :<itle h ri,•r. F li11g i11;.! f:t,· it::: tan~k tl fir·e . H y th e fnr,·:< t' :< tllo t !ey liUl'. l~ " ya l n a l' :111cl tn :1ple :<pkudicl. l l n ldi11g :<t:ndy .:n u t·t. n llcndctl .\ :< fo 1· p n).!,•nnt. ··ir h n ud fin e: I\_\'

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A 11cl t h e ::: pi cy frn).!rtt ncc shed P t'O III t h e grape whoRe purple clus ter, Ca pti Yc h o lds t he Yi Yid lu::: ler , O f the :<UIIItn c•· :<cnrccly fled, \\'in tc•· d a y::: n n : cn min ~ nenrer. JOays whe n h o m e w ill see111 t he dea rer, Tha t it s ci rcle, s m a ller g ro wn I n its h :t p py talk :t nd lnug h tcr, Q ,· its i-ig h:.:, low slcn ling a fter, ~:1 n n w s l o enfo ld it s own. Blith e, for 111\tRie, w o rk o r s t udy, Th c11 w ill g-low t he hcnr t h-fl n me rui:ldy. \V h n t t h o ' wild th e winds may blow! r\ Iways t hc•·c is gold en w en t her \\' h e re true h cnrts a rc met toget her. · Th o' wi t h o u t h e s torm nud snow. A ll t h e a u t umn's w o ndrous s!Ja ding, Ripene d line n nd g-entle fa ding, r\ II the birds 1 h nt fly tog ether, Spc:1k t o u s w it h. s ig n ::Utd token, Say in wor ds w e henr u ns poken, \\'in t e r d nys nrc d raw in::r nearct·.

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N U l<MAL SC II UOL :\1 E SS E .' \(;EH .

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THE STATE NORMAL SCHOOL MESSENGER.& ., ., ., A hUgazlne devoted to the Interests of the State Normal School ol Nebrll!ka. ' oo o ~~~~~ o ' cr> o: o ~~~ ') , u " ~~ :> ~~ ?

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Published by the Faculty o n the fifteenth o f the m o nth.

W. A. CLARK, Editor. ]. D. Bishop,

Business Manager.

Entered at the po.~ tomcc a t seco n d -class mnil nw ttc r.

J~crt t •.Vcurll sktt

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Terms, 50 cents a yea r.

Education is a m at t ct· of a ffirmative g uida nce. I t is the teac her's functi o n to direct t he chi ld's life by stimula ting t o uch. E,·cn in m at t ers o f ·•govern m ent" a ll t h a t is repressive a nd negative is :lcstructive of true life and a violatio n of a fund a menta l principie of pedagogy . To teach is t o determine t he no rmal spon taneo us activities o f tht· pupil's life to their m ost fruitfu l expr essio n . The t eacher is a g uider of life, a director of prescn t life as a pa rt o f the continuous whole o f th a t life. Wit h a w ide c· view o f the possibili ties oflifc he scel< s to a id his pupil in such present experiencing as w ill contribute m ost t o com plete living . He r ecognizes the fact th a t he cannot mRke hfe wher e n o ne exis t s , and that he ca nnot even fl,r ce t he life into chan nels th a t it is n o t led t o seek for itself. H e ca nn ot by a ny trick or dev ice o f' m ethod " crea t e interest wher e n·o ne c~ i s t s ; much less can he clt·i ve his pupil to a ny fruitful activity by d e mand~: a nd tht·ea t s. Like t he ex perienced physician he watc hes fo r t he flutter of wea k Yital m ovem ent Rnd pncourages th e faintes t begin nings of life. H e carefully ot·cl ~ t·s the n o ut·ishing m ateria ls and st imu l :=~ tes t o ac tive n ppro priation of t h at for which he find s a healthy n o r-

m n l a p petite. li e ~cd<~ t o k :tcl hi s pupil thro ug h life int o life. I t fo ll o w ~ m:ce!<sa r il y from t his c.:oru:epti o n of th e n attll-c of edu ca ti o n th a t the scho ol cann ot ht· m e rely a plan : in which t o pre pare t o li ,.c . a pl: tc.: e in which to gather life m ateria ls :tnd t o n· ht·nrse fm· life 's ~ tag<:. The !<ch n ol life is true life it self, w ith i ts intc,·c.:s t s a n d p lc:ts tll·cs. In th e school t he c hilclt·cn li n :. t h o ug h often in s pite of t he anific.:i: tl hin cl .-an ces o flcrcd by th e t ea c her . li e wou ld h:t vc th em s tore up unli vcd materinls fo r fu tun: usc . Ho w diffe rent arc the a t·ithnH.:t ic o f t he hoy nncl t h a t o f hi s t each er. O u t o f th e grea t mnss o f dead m n ttc1· hav ing n o n·lat io n t o t he bo y 's present life w hic h h is teac her scrl<s to force into his li fe h y bribes ami t hreats he appr o priates h er e a nd thct·e a fact that he feel s has so m e vital s ignifica nce fo r him. The pupil gets a fe w kc nH.:ls of lifegiving grain a n d rejects bushels o f t•ha fr. He lives into himself a fe w facts fmm common conscio u s ness; these-and these a lo ne constitute t he boys "arithm(·tic ." The teac her is t hus the ins piring leader o f th e social life o f the sch ool. He livl's well an d a ids ot hers in r ig h t living.

T he ques tion o f additio n a l equipmen t of the S t a te No t·mal Sch ool concerns the people o f the whole s ta t c. It is n ot to be r ega rded as a peti t ioning o f the school for 11 g ift at t h e hands o f th e legislature; i t is a questio n of the st ate's doing what is bes t fo r the int eres t s of a ll the citizen s. In t he con s tructive p atc1·n a l functi o n of government the eon s idt."ratio n constantly is how t o employ t he r esour ces sons t n he,.:t prom ote tht• comm o n w elfare a nd to incr ensc the o ppo rtunities a nd b lessings of individu a l li ves . The State Norm a l Sch ool is :tn im po r ta nt factor in o ur comm uni ty life, an age ncy perfo rming an impo rta nt g o vernmenta l function . T h at it is seri ously hindered in its w o rk bv a lack of m nter inl equipmen t is un q uestioned by n nyo t.e ,.,·ho


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it-.cnnclitinn-.. The.· -..dtonl i~ ~r,n,·­ in~ rapid!)·. hoth in nutnhc.·r:' anti in ch.tr:lctcr o f its work. It h :t-.. n·:tdu:tl the.• limits of it~ unhindc.·t·c.·d dc.· ,·dnpnH.'Ill C\11 !'-cn•ral ~itlc!'; hut n n·a~on:t hk c.·nl:tq!t.'mc.•nt would t:n:thlc.: tiH: -.. ~.:hnol l\l nH.'t:t thl..' 1\c.'l..'d:' of t h e !.tnu: fn r· tn :ll l\' \' c.• nt·~ to cnntl..'. \\'1th n n e w C h : tpd b ui ldi n g am i the.· rc.•arranging o f th e nHH n ~ in t h e pre~cnt lmil<lings thu ~ m a d e p o~:- i h l c.·. :t th o u ~:tnd stu · de n ts co uld h e : te(:nulll HHI:ttc.·d " · h ere 11n w fi ,·c:: hundre d :tl l.' pt'o\' ickd for with di llic ult y. That t here !"hould Ill· :1 n e w fire- proof Librn ry hu ildiu g u e c.•cl!" 11 0 :t r g um c llt . F ifteen l h o u ~ :tnd ,· :tlu :thlc h on k s n r c- ~.·x p nsc d t o th e dnnge t·!" of fir~.· iu a ft·:tm c huilcli11g. Be:: ·ides , the t·eacliu g -r·oo m i ~ 1.:11ti rdy ill ndcq u alc t o pn:~ l· nl dt:lll:tnd!" . Sl tHll..'ll l :> nrc hindrc d in th e it· wut·k 1,_,. t h e mc.•rc limi tation!> o f Ono t· !" pa<.:e . Th1.· ~lu: l \'c!" arc fill ed t n ove t·Oow in g. and \':du :1hlc th.' \\' book s arc nHHlc ill <.tt:CI.'!"sihl e fo t· w ~111 t of propct· s h e lf spncc . ~c hra !" ka mu st d o for h ~: r Non n ~d c h ool wh at s he h : ts s o geni.TOusly done for he t· U niven;ity. : llld t h e t·cs ul t wi ll be that h e r Norma l Sc h o o l \\' ill ~ta n d nmon g; oth er No rmnl Sch o o ls as h e r U ni \'er~ily ~tnnd!' among other U nin:n; i t ic..·!".

In yea t-s past , the g enera l pu b lic look ed u po n tcae hin g ns a professio n o nl y ft-om the college professot-'!" heig ht. E,·ery kind of fm·m a l tcnehing bel ow thnt level w a s n m e t·e occup;:t tion open to any one o nt of a job. Many people failed t o sec a ny dcg t·ees in t h e te;:tehing p r C>fcs sion . Aspct·sion s· in 'vhnlc sale l ot!-<, \Ve t-c ca~t u po n t h e fa it hful pers evering wot·ke r s of t h e rural s c h ool s . Mos t people con sidc t·cd the pettifo gger of the j u stice cout·t a m emher ofthc h a r. :ts w ell ;:tS the la\\·_ye r lic<'nsed to pr·nctice in the s u p r e m e cour t . Lcl a m~n on ee \.v t-ite l\11. D. after hi s nnmc anrl h e \YA S a me m her of t h e profes s ion n lthough he li,·es ln the cou ntry tow n a nd

IIOOL M BS

E~GER .

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:;dl:-: o nly t wo boxes of pills per week. The pnticnt , cnmest worker in the ntra l ~dtnol, s u pplied with but f~w of the neces· sitk:- for suc~.-essful tenchin"', i as much n ntem her o f the prolessiou a the president of n grent collcbrc. Ench teacher of Nebrn~kn o ug ht t o f~.-cl that everything pert ni ning to lcnching interests him. There t\1'"1..' pr oblems thnt he nloue cnn sol\'eand it is his duty to ponder o,·er it until the corn.: · t r esul t is o btniued. I t mny be t hnt teachers themselves arc r espo nsible for t he opinion so many people h n Y C held nnd s till hold in regard to teachin).!. Mnke no npology for your profes~i o n: it m.-cds no ne. Defend your co-lobore r:' when altncked by unthinking persons or t hose who fnil to apprecinte theseriousn ~s~ of the calling . Public sentiment is ch nr1gin o-; help it along by your effort to m n kc the teacher's influence felt.

The m an -y 0a ood letters rL'Ceivcd from the Alumni indicate a revi,·nl of interest in the wclfnre o ftheir Alma Mater. Ifthethou!'nnch; of men a nd women who have been hlest by their life in the school will lend a hnnd in t he present mo,·ement to enlarge nnrl impro,-e their comm on ''nourishing m other" there~nl t will be most g ratifying. W lw s hould not those who have heen student~ in Nebmska 's Normal School unite to plncl' the school in the front rank of institutin ns for the tra ining of tea< hers? It i ~ a m ntte 1• in which ench one hns a pcrm 1111en t in terd~t. One is uot n stndl nt in a school fo r a few months or ycnr~. then to rlrop wholly ont of its life. Once n "member" of n school, nlwn ys n member. He who hns t ruly shMccl in the life of a school is always afterward s n part of that life. Let ns l{ecp n li vc our love fo r our school ho me, and let 11 s use acti,•c nleflsurcs to promott• t he interest and strengthen the work of thnt home.


THB STATE NOI<:\1AL SC I I OOL ~ I ESSE ~! ~ EH

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A GLIMPSE OF THE INDIAN SERVICE. :vrr. W a ddell, w h o wa~ a 111 Crnh c r o r u;c prcsc n l Sen io r C laSH , h u l w h o nrin n " t. one q f·o u r lndia u Sch o o l!!, wri tes tl;lc fo llow in g- intcrc!l lin-" lt:llcr

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F;r. UEJ> J A :-;c~-: ••• A ioz u:-; A , November 1 2, 1 900 . !•

SVh~!,. ,~.. he ,.._ ~oct ~ ro.te,

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"Sbtlt in fro m a ll t l_1c world w i t ho ut. "

he mig ht hav·e · m eant F o rt Defiance, but o ther t hi ngs mentioned in th a t poem a re s o contr a di ctory t o co nditions her e, I conclude he w as th inking o f a m o re p leasarh ' p lace. ' ., • ., Vole a r e, indeed, s hot in fro m the · vvo rld, no t by Sl1.0 \v-drifts however, for but li ttle :-:now fa lls ·hde, l) u t' b')hnilcs of- m o un ta ino us desert ,,;h'ich 's hctches a\-v ay o n every hand .' 'TH~rt~·~five mil es of ba rren co unt1·y li e~ bctwce h us'''an·d 'hil r nca n .ist mil way :-:Uttfo n, Galhtp : • ~c~ •Mexico. To tmvcl t his d t.;;ta r:cc' is a lmost a vv h ulc Clay's employm ent ~-t·e'~ ~Y ith'a very g'ood tea m . It i s 's:-~i'i:l fnat ·~, N~V'a1l o Indi a n, w ith the ])tOSlj(i(:-t 'of'- a 'drin Jt ·o f Whi tc . man 's whi<;l<c_Y befofctl{iri; ;can ~gcj'· thro'ug h · in a day, hut ,l1c\"ftb- IJ,c fHlS o h Uti ned it i:ogcther 'wit h a tit"i:le sfc)d{'oPS'tl·pplies. fo u•· da ys are occu pieel 'iii t li"e ret'itrn t •·i p. ·· ·we·a& J(Httle ' wt>rid or ·~ ursel ves sl1at·ing' ea'cfl oh\er's j·o ys and SO ITOW S ·a .r]Cl 'enjoying e~t ch "o th er's company a s w'e ll a s ,.v e can afte•· hei ·~·g t r a n s pla n ted i nt o nc\ov s ur·ro u.n dings. ' Our w o'rld is not d is t\.i rbcd b'y t he bool< agcn fo r the p o litica l spea ker fc> r tHe expense of getting h e•·e is 'g reater th'a 'n HS

\\"II~ L11

r cccnlly appo inte d n is ciplinhi ,. fr icncho.

nn_v pr o fit w hic h cou ld po:-:s ih ly be derived fro m a vis i L Th e go n :n1 m c nt ins pector is lh~ o n ly per so n who C\·cr pu ts in to o ur hearls fen •· and tro u b le. !l c is a lmosl mcrcikss in his ct·itic is m , but yet we renlize t ha t o ne in h is p osi t io n co uld not he o the r wi se and do hi s clu ty t o th e govern m e n t a t a ll t imes. Alt h o ug h we ming le with t he lnrgest tribe o f Indi a ns in th e Uni ted S t ates we arc n o t n hit savage, hut , to th e con t rary we a r c rept·csent ~ttiv cs of tl1e civiliza tion o~ thes e nine s tates : Kan sas, Ncbraslut, I o w a, Ca lifo rni a , Ne w Y01·k, Id a ho, M a ryla nd , Min neso ta and Wi scon sin. Those w h o are lo ya l t o yo ur n ative ~ tate would enj oy the r•·a isc w e each g i ve o urs, a nd the well meant ,·i diculc to a ll othcn,;. Despite the fact that we do n~t lwve intercnun;e with peo ple w it h w ho m we I . might_discuss the t opics of nati o nal and internationa l in te1·cs t , we h ave d a il y mni l, w h ich, evet;t th o ug h it is b t·ought ns in n r ickety o ld wagon be hind a t eam of do ub tful Hge o r in a h ag t ht·nwn over th ~ buck o f n Mexican pony w h ose riclet· is heavily annecl, we welcome it a nd find the contents as in tc r c"ting a s t h ough it was tnkcn ft·om a nicld c-platecl lock-h ox . The p er s on w h o enj oys his own comp a ny can s urely fin d her e a place where he would n o t he molcstccl in hi s ·r everie!'


T il E S T .\ TE ~( IOf AL SCHOO L :\ IE~ ' c:-JGE I{.

wh1.·t h c.: t· t h ~.· v i cil:n .

h t· n f a h a c hd o r o r o f n

prriods of sc,·cra l hours length. T heir kno w led "ge of dis tnnce is o nl ~v tha.t it is fa r O u r •·~.·~c.: n· a t io n lic.:s m o~th· in no rth-e:t::: t o r nen r . a nd is sometimes compu terl by t\ri%o n a. hu t p:trl~ o f il I.' Xt.c nd into ~CW t he lengt h of time ta ken in riding fas t o r .\lc.:xicn. Cn lor: ttl n a nd L't a h . In thi R re:::- slo w . If a na tiYc tells yo u it is fa r to· a c n .. L. · .t lOti · ~ t h l' n uly pi:tcl.' in the l ' nio n neig-h b o ring hogan . bewAre fo r it ma y be " h c.:n· fo u t· ~l:llt·~ co rn e r . The soil in t he but a s ho rt distance nnd n 'ce 1·ersa. \'a lky o f l h 1.· S o n .J u n u is pro d nc ti \·e . fr ui t When a yo ung Nn ,·a ho ~vn n ts a wife he n ncl g t·a in llu·i,· in g \\'C II th e r e . hut o n t~ i dc must co nfer wi t h the girl 's father , ma king t hi ~ o n e f'<: n il c.: s p o t t h e Nn Yn hos h n ,·e : 1 yo ws a nd pro mises to hirrl, a nd perha ps ve r y c1 ~.·~o h ll.' •·eg io n . ne w o n de rs wh er e !!i \·ina him a po nv o r some other remu nereb ... s n m a n y h c n ls o f s h c~.· p a n d g ants obt ni n ::1 tio n. He ma y t hen t a ke the gi rl of hts fo o d · fo t· t llc.:t'l.' ts . app n r c n t 1y •ll (Hiuug • u u t choice to his hoaan. which. like a n o thers, 0 . " s ago.: h n t ~ lt a n d •·oc k . is buil t o f s tones, mud a nd sticks, \Yith a Tl h :· .tv . nh o s a n ! bl n u ket wenYcr·s. lf fireplace in the corn er a nd a dirt fl oor. 011 T he dress o f t hese I~dians is s imila r 't o ~ c.: n tc t·~ n nali yc's mud h o use ( h o'g:tn ). h e.: I ·S ~· u n: t o sec t h e r e a b l u nkct in pro cess others, t he bla nket being the most ,imporfo f Wt•av in g . T o sec t he rleft ness of t hl.' n nt pa rt a nd w orn whether warm or col_d. T he ha ir of the men is ~ llo wed to grow sq u a w · ~ fin ger~ n s !" he p lic!' t he t hread in W(•a vin g it in to t h e m ost UCt\ ll t ifuJ and ex- d o wn to the neck, 't hen <-:ut .:.sp-;11~~~: ·' wo . . n), .bitt a red p en s ive b l a nk et~ in t lw Am ct·ica n m a rk et, across. No hnt or cnp 1s d . r . · o n e a lm ost e n Yies he r t he accomplis h- r a a is tied a r o und th e hend , a s would ) e m e n t. cl oone by o ne w ho hns t he bca d a~ he. The wo m en's ha ir is t ied ih a li t tle... k~ot beThese bl a n kets m ·c t n kc n to t he trad ing hind. M occasins of ra whide ar1~l bucks"kin post a n d th t· t·cs ult o f wee ks o flnb o r t rad. a do rned wit h silver b utto ns or perh aps cd fo r n cces!'i t ics-chi ef o f which is tobae ' I ·'· . . If, c o. I n tim e t h e y ::u·e sl'n t t o east ern mar· Pieces of mo neY a rc wo rn r xc usn el) · ~' 't ..t h ~ ns . lcets wh e r e t h e;, b t;ng e n o rm o us pril'cs~ o ne sees a squn w wh ~se ~n K .e~, ~.e r .· ~a1 , •·an g in g fro m $5 to $ 175 ncco r cl ing to limbs ha lf wa ,· to the kn ee, are wrapp 1, · I . • y ¥l 'h ' 1)' . . w e ig ht a nd des ig n. w ith bucks kin he may 'kno w ~h!~ 1 s c : 11 lon rrs to t he " upper class" an~ . tnk~~ th•,; l\ f any o f t he m en arc skilled silvct·s miths. b • ' 'I )! I t is H comm o n s ig h t to sec eit her a m nn method of s howing it. , •. J ' l' , .. ' . I , 1. I ' • l Or We are lcii:a ted oetween two . ~aes~s_, .. •• . o r a w o m a n a rl o rn ed w i t h s ilver which ·is ca 11 ed ' w !itch , . ex·. h ea vy en o u g h to hn vc been w orth $25 o r such t he lo w r a nges a r•·c ''· ' · •·' ·dtli of· o ur 1 $30 befo r e t he n .•cent elel'tio n , a nd in de- tend north a nd sout h. Tlte ' ": 1, t valley is abo ut 11 qua rter of a mi~e, 81.!~1• ~,t~ ~ i gn s h owing delica t e wo rkm a n s hip nnd days o flnb o r. A Na v a h o will t a ke a dime lengt-h o ne m il~. The mesa ,,to}'\h ~ ,ca st, ~f 1 o t· a qua r tet-, m a ke of it a fa ncy bu t t o n o r us furnis hes a ll t he buil~~r.9 1 ~t?.r~~~ ~~~?. : here • c-a g ra)' sands tone, very d ur~,.. able, •Jtyet oth e t· <•rnn m cn t a nd ~t ill sell o r tra de it t. eHsily w o rked.' The on.c t o ~ ~]~...:ve1;;.,,'.~·' fo t• i ts race va lu e be fo r e he fa s hio ned it. T ogct lH:r wi t h so m e o f t heir acco mplis h- co ,·ered with sage brush and pm o n H s pcm e nts t h ey h a Y C a co mm o n evil, fo r th ey cies of th e pine whose secc~s· !'I re ccltb c. At t he foot of t hese mesas a rc m a ny hoa r e a ·t t·ih e of g a m b ler s. Me n . wo m en a nd h a l o' f c hild r en w ill a sse mble in a neig hbo r 's ho- a nns a nd w it h them the sheep' corr b . I t'l . I gan a nr1 t he r e, n s d o Am eri ca ns of th at pino n log s. In t he gn:n·el .,Qn..., ~ 1 ~ , surfac.c , cl ass spen d t h e w ho le nig h t in this a bo m- of these mesas, if one hns sharp C'ycs, he ni. b lc p t·ac lice . m ay fi nd rubi es, gnrncts a nd pe~.i ct(l ts. th e To r ec k o n t ime th e rl ay is cl ividecl into latter a g reen tin ted sto ne, qu ite 'jwe~i ou s, 111 a

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40 a nd m ore valuable thnn rubi es. The Indi ans s pend much time in sea rchin g fo r th ese s tones . T he whites buy th em or tra de supplies fo r them. ' The climate here is lovel y, t he day '''n r·m s a nd the nights cold. We ha vca ln::•dy had ice two inches thi ck which melted hcfo r·c nigh t. There is a canyon breeze almost co nstantl y which r im ag-ine w o uld h(· pleasant in s ummer , but which al t his season o f the :year makes o ne feel the need o f an overc oat. The s ky is o f a deeper n nd m o re beau tiful blue tha n in lower a lti tu des 01nd th e evenings are g rand, cspccially the m oo nli g~t o nes. Stars wh ich in Ne braska nppear s m a ll a nd dim arc· here \'cry p lainl y visible. It o nly the you ths wh o so delight in star gazing could be here they might be able to discern m o re eas ily th~· co ns tellntion s after wh ich they arc seekin g. Our water supply com es fr·om a fine spring a bout o·ne mile to the west in a beautiful canyon whose p r ecipitous, rocky sides t ower many hundrcd feet abl)vC the creek M ucb trouble h as been ex pericncecl in obtaining water, not from a lack, hu t from a poorly la id pipe lin e. Im agine o ur shout ofjoy when after weeks of work we dis covered and remedied the fault a nd immedi ately t here gus hed fo r th fro m cvct·y hydrant on every floor of ou r· b uildings a supply s ufficient for a city. Irrigation h as been carried on to such a n extent that one man ntisrd thn:c acres o f sweet corn . another a garde n , and th e public s quare h as been lccpt clamp enough to produce a lf;:o lfa. There a re six buildings connected wit h sch ool work. besides t he necessary b arns and s heds, ris.: girls' building or d o rm itory. h oys' building, ch ~t pel , dining r·oom a nd empl oyees' quarters. la undry , and the heHutiful new boys' h ome not yet o ccuP.ied. The hit ter would h e a so u rce of pride to ;qny town ns H schoo l for white children . The cost of it s erecti on wns $28,000. I f l 1nde Sam could on ly ca re fo r the p oot·

whiH· c hildn:n : 1:-. \\T il what : 1 hk--~ i ng it w o uld h e. As e mpl oyee:-. Wl' h :I\T :1 :-.ttpcr·intcndcnt, an d Jti.., wife i:-. JH·inc ip:tl tc.::tc her , (:t :..Jr. ;~nrl :\1- :-.. L:1111: t r. nfO nt :tlt:t). :111 in ll' rlllC· di <t le tc.::t c lw r· , a k indc.: rg:trtn l· t·. :1 l:tunclrc::s who O\'er:-.cl·s t he l·h ild rl·ll w lt o wa~h the :-.choo l c: lotiH:.., : 1 :-.l·:11n :-. tn::-.s w h o sec~ lhnt thc g irls makc tltl·i·· o)\\"11 clothing and pa tch thc h oys' w lt cn lll"Cl":-.s:t r·y. :1 matro n who contr·ob the g irl s . :111 :t ssist:tnl m:tlro n w ho lonl<s :1fU.T the lwc n ty-lin: li t tle b o y s in s h ort p:tn ts , :1 c hildn·n's cc.>Ok,-a l\1 is s Wadd ell hy the wa y . -:1 me~!> cook w h o prcp:tn·s the c mpl oyccs' mc: tls, n ucl n di seiplin : tri nn. :t ccl"l:tin :\t!J". \Vatldell who loolcs afte r· the l:trge ho ys,- niu ety of them t·:tn g ing- in <~gc ft·o tn len to e ightceu ycn rs. The buildings nt·c : til of IH·iek o t· slonc, two s tm·ies hi g h, w i t h one ex cep tion, n nd located con,·cnicntly lll':tt· l':tc h ot her·. Dur·ing the yenr school ts he ld ten mont hs aftc t· which th e ehildr·en go h o me fo r vacation a nd the t.:mp loy ees t:tke turns in caring for· the propcr· ty while the others ta ke t hcit· mon t h 's vacation . While in sch ool the ch ildr·cn nttend rccitntion s o f the common b.-rtnchcs one h:1lf day n nd do manna! wo.-1< t he other hnlf. eithet· in the kitch en, l n u nclr·y. dormitories, or oth ct· n ecessa ry work. An indus trinl tcnchcr tntim; t h e b ovs in the methods o f work done b y w h ite m en so thn t w hen t hey len ve sch ool they will he better nhle to s uppor·t thc m se lv c~ by labor nmong the whites . Whe n childt·cn a r c ach·nnccc1 here they are sent awny to ot her ~chools s uch ns Ca .-l is le, Pen n syh·ania , w h ere they may h ave hettc•· advantages, especia lly in mnnunl t ra in in g. To he s ure n o t n il advanced pupils go n way, fo r· p cr· h ~t ps they ha ve no t the inclinntion o r· t heit· parents o bject. The g irl s of thi s tribe arc marr-ied very you ng . hence so few in school, only fo rt~·­ threc n t prl'scn t. My duti es ns cl isciplin n .-i a n nrc not nrrluo u s . Twice a rl ay I cnll the roll o f boys.

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41 r i n~ :-O IIll' n f thl.· hd J:- . c..' ::)ll'Cin lly the ri:::illg' h l·ll a t(; a . 111 . a n d the..· n .'t it·i ng- o ne..• n t • p. Ill : :O.C. ' l.' t l· n t t h e..: ItO\' :' :t r c..· at n il cxc rci ~c:- or t he..· d ny , in c..· h u li ng ~n l':tl ::: ( whid t i::: seld o m \ ' I.T .\' h a n ! ): lw n : th l'lll d ri lled i n m a t-chin..., h y th e..· Dld c..T h o y :- wh o It a ,.ch a d som e d r ill t h c..· n t~l·l \' l·:- . :t ncl i:-:-tt c.'. th l'it· c lothin g-. O n Stt ndn y :t il ptt pi l:: n tlcnd , ~ un dny Sch o o l in t he..· m o t•tting n nd n ta lk h y t he nti ~~ i o n: tt·y 111 t h e e \·cn ing-. T hi::: i:- a y o u n g lll : l l l :- t: t ti o nc..•d h e n~ h v th e C h ri:::li :t n l{c..:fo nn cd C hurc h . H <.: n.ls o t.n lks t o t hc..·nt Tht tt·:-d :ty c vc ning :::. P ri cl a y c \·cning t he..· " :'\:tva h o i\Jan n licto " oeic tv" meets. It i ~ :t n ·g ul a r·ly o t·gn ni zerl soci-ety. wi t h ~ l ud c nl o fli cc t·s . The Na ,·: th o Ag e n cy is n ll'o locn lcd het·c ::t ncl i t~ huildin bn-~ t o ..«dhc t· wi t h t hose o f t h e sc h o o l m :t kc n li t t le vi ll age kn o wn as P t. Ddi ~tn cl' . so named bccn u sc it w as a r c:tl fo t·t in t h e..: dav ~ o f h os ti le Indians . O n e la cl y o f o ut· .numhct· is a p ia nis t , o ne g c ntl c.•. mnn a co t·n t·tist, and n n o thct· a vi olini st. ~u y o u sec w e a t·c l'li o-htl v mu sical. T e we nt. y- 11 Yc..: w hite p eople d o n ot m a ke a Yc t·y l n q~c c las s , but ·w e nrc co ntent wi t h q u a lity . ~

J

Tntly t his is a str a n g e pl a ce when co mpa t·cd wi t h cnst c t·n Neb ra s ka . No lowin a f o o ca t t le , fa t· a co w is a curi osity in this imm e di ate n eighbo rh ood; n o pigs t o s q uea l, n o barn ya rd fo w ls t o gob ble , qu ack o r cluc k . The o ld r oost er is n o t here to :t wa ke n o ne with his enrly ct·o wing. The o ld h e n is n o t a nati ve he re fo r there a t·c n o gar d ens fo r h er t oscmtch . P erfec t qui-

reig ns except when 15 1 y o ung Nn va hos lift up t heir ,·oit:es in s ho ut or song. \\'hen o ne considers the o ppo r t unities the Ind ia n ha ve. he '(\·onders , •· Ho w do t. hev do so wdl?' ' fo r cer ta inl y na ture it· prog r ess. No Sl'l f. is a rra yed agains t t 11Ctr g-cw ernmen t a id is g i,·en them only in time o f son · need . nn d ho w so ma ny li ve in s uch :1 bnr n n r egion is n pro blem I have no t yet so h·cd. The go,·ernment schools are doin~n- fo r t he Indi n n t ha t which a fter. a fe w genera tions sho uld m a ke them a ll tndependent a nd self-suppor ting as well as in telligent cit izens. The r o ving , la zy disposit io n o f the old India n can no t be chnngcd, but his children's children should c t:

be ind ustri o us. l\Ja ny little things interesting to m e ha ,·e occurred s ince my a rriv a l a mong this tnbe with which I wi ll n o t tire you . I a m s ure t he kn ,...wledgc I will ga in of the India n in his nntive ho meand of his trcntment a tthe h nnds ofth e whi te ma n will put me mo re in sympathy wi t h him . There a re many thinas concernincr the Na va hos of which I o e . . ·ies will be h a ve n o t spoken but a ny mqun g la dl v a ns w er ed . . . . s k·etcI1 w t·11 Prove interesnng H o -pmg tl11s · c1osmg · t o sa' J.,.• t o y o u , allo w m e tn made? Wha t tho ug h the h o me b e ru delv J 7 ·wh at th ou a b the skin of da rker s ha de. Wi t hin each b reast t here beats a heart \'V hich o f God's mercy cla im·.; 8 pa rt . Yo urs sincerely,

OscAR M.

I

If hum a n ex p erience proves a nything, it is t hat every life needs the perso na l a nd practical h elp-t he rli t'ec t t o uch and wo rd-of one wh o is di vinely p ow e rful a nd d iv inely paticn t .- E . P. R oe .

WADD J.ILL.


9/ormal Sch ool V/rectory. Soci~tv Dlr~ctorv. EI' IW WI T .

\'

.\ I . \..

,\ .

:\1 att :\lurph y . ........ .... .. .... ........ .......... f'rcsidc u t Lea h :\l a r k .. .. ...... ...... .. ................ \ 'i<:c /'1·c;-;id c ul :\'la b el Sm i lb .... .. .... ...... ...... l ~ ccon l i ~~~ ~cc rcl a 1'.}' Co ra Wi lsc)n .............. . Corn:s po ndi u~ l-lecn :lary Isabelle Wi lli a m s . ....... .. ........ .. .... .. ...... Trcas urc r joyce ::\l a rkley ...... .. ...... . ...... ...... .. .. ... .. .. .. ... C I·i l it·

\ \': u lc h-11 .......... .... ...... .. ............ !'resident .J . I !. B rady ................ .. ................ \ ' icc l 'n:s iden t J . C. I JiJI ,. u ................ .... .. .... ....... ......... Sccrctnry \\' . T . Stl'\'l' ll""ll .. . .. .. .. .... . ... .. .. ........ .. . Tn·n s u r..:r ::\. A . l kn~l!-o ti ...... .. . Co l 'l'<' " l " lll cliu~ S ccn :tnr.1·

WEI.J.I ;o.; r:Tro ;o.; IA;o.; ,

l .u cy L c:uni n~ .. .. .............. ...... .. .... .. ..... )'res id ent l<u t h ll :uTio.; .. ..... .... .. ........ .... ...... . \ ' icc l' rcsid ent :\ l: docl 1\t·id gcs .. ..... . . .... . .. . ... l\ n·c•n lin g- Scct·e la r.l' Ellc u l ' hillips .. ... .. . .. ... . . C < o i'I'C S J II>II d i n .~ Scc rcl:try J ess ie Steb bin s .. .. ............ . ... . . . . . . .... ....... T rcasun:r

Ans a "i\lcKc rc hc r ..... . .. .......... ... ..... .... ... J>rcs icl cnl Edn a M it to n ............................ .. . \' icc / 'n:sid c n t W ill a rd Da v is ......... .. . ......... l<cco nlin ~ S cc 1·ctary G race Ti merma n ......... COITCS JlO IIdin~ ~cc rcla l'l' Ilannah Pricc ...... ... .......... . ..... .. ..... ..... T,·ca s ui-~1Dw ight Govc .. .. ... ......... ...... ... .Sc rgc:1n l-al-i\ nu s Fra t1k S m ith ... ................. .. ..... .... .... .. ..... .. . C I'i l ie 1' 1 1 11.0 ~ 1 AT IJ I A;o.; .

C. E. £Iu mphrcy s ................................ P rcsicl cnt Eva A llison .... ...................... ... .. ... \'ice Pres id e nt Kcllie H o m ......................... Rcc.o n li n g Sec n: tary l\1ab c1 Briclg cs ......... ... C o JTcsponding Sec retary T. 1~ . R ichardso n ....................... ........ Trcas u1·cr C . :vr. Buckley ........................................... C 1·itic

( ! . •\/.

\'. \\' . l ' . . 1 .

C IC

El« l =' l A :-; .

II . :\1. Sto n <: ................................ ...... .. P 1·cs iden t Fc l'() C ro \\' l cy ...... .. .......... ...... ..... \ ' icc Presid en t E . F. S na ,·cly ....... . .. .. .......... . ... .......... Sec retary \\'111. S hu• n au ........... ... ..... ................. .'1'1·cn s urcr .\'I'll E :-: 1.\ :-: .

E 1·a Allis o n ......................................... l'1·esidcut \V in ni frecl 1\cl'f'.. ........... .......... ... ... \'icc P 1·csickut Ka te Col:I .. .......... .... ..... .. .... ... .. ........ ... S cc rct:'ll'y :v1illi cc n t S la l>y ....... .............. ..... ... ..... .... .. .Critic

normal School ;:acuuv. \V. A. C I. Ar<K, A.~J., I'ED. n., I'll . D., l'rcs irlcnt, ............ ... ............ Pccl[l~ogy L lLLIAX u. STOI\ER, PrcccpLrcss , .......... .. ................ Civ ics a nd nco~t·aphv H. B. D ~,;xcA;o.;sox, A. ~r. , ................................................................. J3 i o l og~ HERUJ::wr Bnow;o.;ELL, 11. sc . , ................ .. .... ................. . .. J'hys ica l Sciences E . A. \VriiTE;o.;Ac·K, A. n., .. .. ................ Gcnna n Lan~uagc an d Litc1·a lurc .MA·rrm CooK ELLIS, ..... ....... ... .... . .. .. ........... ...... ............. ......... ..... I l iston· j. M . 1-IO\\'IE, A. u., .. ..................................... ......... .. ...... ...... i\lathcmati~s E STHER A. Cr.AR K, A . .II. , .. .. .............. .. ... Latin Lan g u age and Li t c ratu1·c L. \V . F rK E, A . .1r ., .. ......................................... P sych olo~y and P cd ;tgogy T .j. O LI \'En, ~I. s ., .................. ...... .......... .. .. ......... i\ 1·it hm ctic and A l.~c l)l'a G EOI<GE N. l-'ORT IW, A. B. , .................... E ngli s h Language nnd Litc nt tn rc GnACE n. C n . rmwrs ox, .. ....... .......... .. E nglis h Gntlll111:tl' and Cn mpos it io n A:-:XE :\1. G OSI IE:-:, .... : .. ... ............. Supc rinLend e n l o fT1·ainin g Dcp:u· t 1ne n t LIZZI E CHA\\'FORD, ...... .... ...... .. .. .... ........ .. ...... .. ................. . i\ l odcl Tt:[lc h c r PEARL S . KEL LEV , .. ... .. .... ... .... ....... ..... ... .... . .......... 1'1·im a ry Critic Teach er DORA KHEns, ..... ......... ...... ... .... .......... . ... ........ Tn tc n 1Jcrliatc C t·itic T ea c h e r L ou E. Tl os ~ r ER, ...... .. ....... .. .... ........ .............. Kin d et·gartc n C1·i Lic Tcac h c t· 0C£A;o.; K. DAH, v, o . n. , .. .. .. .. .................................. H ca ding and Eloc ution HEXRY H. BAGG , A. n., .. .... ...... ........ .......... .. .... .. ..... Drawing r111cl Pain t ing E LCA :VL C I.ARK, .. ................ ................. .... .................... ........ \'oc a l .:\!us ic E1.VA E. R u Lo:-:. PEn. n., ..... .. .. .... .... .. ..... .......... .. ......... . .. .. .. .. .. ... l ,ihnl t' inn


TilE ST.\TE :\OlniAL SCII OOL

:\I E'~ E:-\GER.

43

Notes and Locals. Eu,!.!t' llt.: I low~·. '!Hl. lc:u:ht•, n t Hu hhel l. Lhi , ~l: 1 l<.· .

Cla 1·a Dea n , 1 900. teaches t he eig hth .QT:Idc at H oldrege.

: 1L

Eli7.: 1 :\l'l~o n . '8H, 1::; [lssi::;tan t princi pa l ti o ld1·l'gl'.

l\1 isscs fb r t , a wyr r and Edna Neff a re n o w at t he Do rmito r v.

L :t n-; h S he l' c nhc l·gcl· tea c hes n t Ba m cy , n o r t h n f l'tT ll .

Nina Kin caid a nd Bridget MrAr dlc have bee n ,·is i ted by t hci r sisters.

E . E. 1,oc ke 1· n ncl his ~i s tc 1·, S us ie L ock..:r ,

t e a c h lll':tl· St1·n tto n .

The Bible study classes ha,·e begun t heir w o rk a nd g rent in terest is mn nifcstcd.

<.:I ns~

E mma l\1o n e l n nd K at icSIH'phe1·d of t ht• o f ' fl 9 n1·e t eaching in Lincoln t hi s ye:u·.

A feature o f t hcchapel excrci cs th istenn a r c th e t a lks gi,·cn by member s of the foe· ulty.

Et h el B eat tie is in stntc t o t· in in stn tmental mu s ic in th e S tate No r m a l at vVest o n , 01·cgo n.

E xci tcmen t ra n hig h a mong t he yo ung la dies ofM t. Vern o n Ha ll 011 the nig ht follo wing 1clcctio n . .JI.

;

t

Miss Edi t h Cln rk of Kan!"as C ity visited C ly de Fill ey , ' 99 , is principal a t Ge noa, w i t h Miss Daily. T he rec itatio ns gi ,·en by reva cl n nl $80 0, a nd is ct o ing hig hly s·atis-. her were mnch app t·cciated hy n il '"ho fac t o r y w o d .: . hNu-cl th em . Th l' s ing in g in Cha pel is n ow led by a e h o it· fro m t h e st ud e nt b ody. Thev occup y t h e 1·n isecl seats.

M 1·s . J. i\11. P il e . ...vile o f P t·esiden t Pile of t h e Ncb t·as k a Nor m n l o f Wayne, Nebnts ka, vi s i ted M iss Ston e r· A fe w cla ys n ·cc11 t ly.

The Bosto11 Ln di es' Symphony Orehcst rn opened t he lec ture course of t he ycnr 'ovcmbet· 20. The Chn pcl \\'as crowdccl to its utm ost ca paci ty, nncl the sol..: of t ickr:ts had to be li m iter! . Single tickets had hcen put a t fifty cen ts. Upwn rds of600 season cickcts h n~·e been sold.


TilE STATE :-.: o 10 1A L SC II OOL

~I E~~l ·.:-\1

. 1.1\

~ I :an· ~I 11nn·.

I !II HI . t<·:edH·-. i11 t hl· pubof 1\ I l l , ht· a hrllll\'

Nona M. J o hns o n , '9G , lca d11:s at F a irm o n t.

lic

Zeno b ia Do ty ha s re turned to he r h o mt· a t S u t t o n, Ne bra s ka .

'!HI , eiiH:n:d thl· St:tll' I ' nin'l'-.it \' th is ycn r .

Mattie l ngo l<.ls by m a d e.: n s ho r t vis it 111 Hamburg , I o w a , som e t ime :a•.,:-o .

a s H::tchl·r in the l k: af : and l> u 111h l n::titutc,

-.diiH . !'-

L c.\ ! ~Jntt·

Ch:a -.l· . '! lli . :and .\ l a ud

Cor:a .J :et·lc, '!lH . h:a !- a'l' t lll'lll'd

lfl

(~ I n:::: .

hl·a· work

Om :a ha . Fra nk M unday of t he Seco nd Yc.:ar class of last yea r tea ches a t Edi so n , his ho nH: t own .

Mi ss E liza C. M o 1·g a n , so lo ng Prece ptrcss here, w ill s pend the co ming w i11 lc r i11 W as hing t o n.

J ennie M a r<.lis, '9 0 , h as s pent mul'11 t ime in tra vel the pas t fa ll in the west , in<:luu ing a trip thro ug h Ycllews to ne P a rle .JI. All of the roo m s in th e Do rmit o r y arc ful l. Abo ut o ne-th ird of the numbe r arc stud ents wh o ha vc fo rm erly boa rdcd there .

M r s . Va nM iddlcs w o rth s pen t several days with her d a ug htct· in P cnd cr rccentl y; s he a lso a ttended th e W o m a n 's ~ nffrage Conventi o n at Bla ir, Nebr.

E11gc nc ~ ! : a xc.: y, 1 !100. l'l'Cl'i \'cd t he a ppo in tm en t h y til l' .\1. E . C o 11fi.T l'll l'l' l o t he S a lem c lt :arg e .

.\ li ~s .\lu tc h n 1o 1T lt :as :t prim :er·y ck- p:trl m c lll of' scho o ls.

p o~ i ti o 11

t he

111 t he \ ':al cn l inc

..~

Dr . C lrad( l c:~·l tJt·c d hcf'o rc t he T eachers ' Ass t>t: iot Lio n of IJi xo n Co .. :t t (>o lh::t , Nov e m lJCI' 10. n nd hc f<>a·l· lhl· Doug las Co . tea c her s, ~ c ) \'cmh c l · 17.

Go ,· e rn o l· P oy nte1· acldrcssl'll t he school in C hape l r cec n ll y . It \\' :l. S an earnest, hel pful ta lk t o y o un g peo ple fitt ing t hemselves fot· t ea c hing. lie will . be heartil y w elco m e t o come a g nin.

A lnt·ge <.lcleg n ti o n o f stud en ts wi t h m emhe n; o f t he Fac ulty m " t a nd g reeted Prof. H osie a s he passed t hro ug h P eru, Mr. Humphrey o f th e Senio r Class was . Septe mber 2 7, o n his w ny t o C hicago visited, Oc t o ber 1 8, by his j'~a n·n ts , the Rev. w here he wi ll complete h is s tudies in t he and Mrs . Humphrey, of At la n t ic , I o w a. U ni \'CI'Si ty. A very plea sant talk \<v a s g i \'en by Rev. Humphrey in leadin g Chapel. / Tclhc r t R ich n nls o n o f t he Seni or Class .JI. h as h a cl his fa ther f1·om O ld a h o m n T err iDr. C la d e w a s calkd to th e deathbed o f t o r y w ith him for n visi t . C ha s . R icha rdhis mo t her a t his b ro t her 's ho m e in Gr eat son, ' 98, h as a qu a r ter section n dj oi11ing Bend , K a ns a s, i11 t he la tt e1· p a rt o f Sep - h is fath er 's, a nd sees m ore at t r actions in tember . H e r etu rned Sep te mber 25, Mi ss i ts improvem en t than in wielding t he E sther C la rk reT)1 Hining a fe w da ys longc t·. hi1·ch.


rilE SI'.\TE :-,:ol{ :\1.\L SCIIOOL :\IESSE:-.:GEI<. Cl

.I

St:1nc!ky.

·u J..

i~

pt·incipal at :-.:a -

Jennie n.;dcnbaugh

w as called h o me

< n nccount of the serio us illness o f her

pt~n~T .

m other. F :t.\'l' I..:idt:tnl-., aftl.'l' :\ !'>~lll't', is :l.~:tin in ~di!Hll.

l\\'tl

\\'1.'1.·k~ nb-

....-~. K :t tt.· \\'t·t·d tt·al.'ltt::-< 111.: a r Baily and Bc t·th:l 1\ull:t tH:: 11· St. Edw:ll'(I:<. ..o~.

F: tnn_, Hn:t't't: h:ft : 1 few "·eck~ ngo tn =-'Jil' IHI tla· yt.·a a· in J>oa·tland , Orcg'<lll.

:\1 a·=-- . .I :tek:-<ou :t n d :\li~~ .\cl:tm~ of L ' n <:ol u \\'l'l'l: th t.• g lll':O:t:< nf :\fi~~l'~ Kclly a nd Kt·t·h=--.

$ Laura E . Reynolds, •g, . was m a ni t:d Scptcmht.•r :.?7. at ht:r ho me in Creig h t on. t o I knry R. :\Inn ning. They nrc to [i,·e

:n Ca rro ll. ~cbraska.

:\[ rs. Lizzie Cm wfo rd, fo r sc,·en years te:tche r at \ 'alcnlinc. has been eng:.~ged as ntc111hcr o f the Faculty fo r the ;\.[odcl ~chool, the new nrnwgc mcnt as to p ractice a nd m odel teaching m a king necessary the added tcachc L

..-"

Parcnt~ \\'hose chilclren arc in the State

~'ch ool n rc w ell pleascrl · cl" t '·tu "" a ht .b,· t Itnt ttI c d nsscs :trc now 1ntg · . I · .J cl tc::nchu1a cxpc n c necd tea chers c 01 11 g m o... . . c r · 1 ·I ·sin tn:urnng, tCW o h sen·a tton bv t JC tea < 1c1 . . , an d that the Seniors wh o a lo ne ·•prncttcc ·c·tr The nrc to teach throu uh o u t tl tc ) ' · "' 1 de inchn t·,.,.c of tuition fo r this hig1 g rn "' '·I, th in u. stn 1<·ti o n seems n m o re r caso nau c " Ko nn nl Pr:H.:tice

i\ l i :-<:<t::-< S lnl,y. B [ll'll t::-< , Ba·idgc~ :wei J o y. a·t.·pn::-:t.•n k d t ht.' \'. \\' . C . .\. } I t t h e s t ntc c o n \'l' ltt io at held u t Fn: m o nt. 1\o ,·cmbc t· ~ltol:! .

.:J. T h e :tppt: :ll·: t n ec of the dinin g hall hn s h t:c n n1u c h intpt·o ,Td by the p11 t'Ch:tsc o f n c w c lt :1 i n.: :tncl :t ~icle-bo::u ·d. The p l:111ts l:ttcly pln ccc1 in th e \\' est and south \\'ind o w s add nb o t o t he cfl'cct.

Til e fit·:<t numhc 1· or the Ncmaha CountY Tca c h t: t· , with Supl. \V. C. Pani ott. 'DG. its c.:clito t·, m ~tclc.: i ts nppenntn cc so111e time SIII Ct:. [t i s ;, magazine d evoted to the in t<:n:sts or the pub lic schools of Ne m a h a Cou n t y. and is [t t:rcclit b o t h to its edi to r :1n d to t h c in tt.'l't:s ls it s ccks to se n·c.

\

Du1· ing the \\'Cek w h ile the P1·acl icc St· h on l \\':1~ t· l oscd hecau~e of siekn ::ss j)l'c_:v: t lcnl llt t: Lenclt c r s took the oppo1·t tni t y Ln ,·i;< i t in o ll11.·1· 11 0 1· 111 al sch ools. i\1 i s~ \~ u~ h e n nnd i\ ! 1·~. C t·awfonl \\'L'Ill to t h e l<: :tn :<:t ;< Stn l c :-\ o nunl at Emp o t·i n , \\'ltih: .:\'li sses K e ll ey and Kn.. h s \\'l' l l t to \ V: tl' l'l'llS· hu1·g . i\1isso u t·i .

J-tclics o f . rt<>'O Ill t h e sd 1ool was a i,·cn so me ,,·cc"- ' "' c. · . . The the clittino· ro o m o f the Do rmtlOt)'· . ,.... I h tcs"l's of l:ldics in lhc bu ildiotg- \\' L' I'C t te os · ' f Li ncoln. t he C\'Cning. Miss Ha rt 1l' ,V 0 cl who has t·cccn l l\' retu1·ntd from a n exten . d ~~~ l'd Yisit to the Phi lippine Is iHn s . C l . . 'tl1 .1 descnp' l:tinccl th e lat·gc gathcnng WI •. . . f I pco ple tllustHm O f lh c CU!'tOtnS 0 t I C'SC ' ... b h tfrom Lhc Istnt ltd bv cu n o!'t t 1c>' r o ug ·c ex]lt:ricn('C~: In nrl s. S h e has har1 so me rm · . I tl lwr t,· under fo r in1'tnncc, ~h e was wtt 1 1e - , , · d l 1te '-' (,e n . nu:tlcs lhnt \'I· SitC _.., 11 l tnc n of Su lu, .· .r of th l' fam:tnrl was pt·cscnt at t h c ntn 1' 111,.. . o11 s treaty with t h a t ruler. .\nd ~lt ss H ·u·Licv most cntc r ta iniu g 1'pt·nkcr \\'it hal: n nrl h erself and moth.:•·. whn wns \\'i th h L·1·, nrc clcli g-h lful persons to mcc:l. l\liss H artlcy :-: p oke h1;cfiy in Ch:1pcl thc :\ l nnd EI\' m lrtt ing folldw in~ upnn tht•snn te :-. uhj td~ rr

r\ n .:ccptio n for a ll o f t he youn,- · , I.e;

is a


41j

TilE ~T AT J ·: ;'l:()i,::I,JAL ~CJICJIIL .\JI.~~L"C ~ EI<. ,

The S hakes pc:a re c.:lass, re-orga ni zt:d fur t he year unrl c: r t h e rl in~di on of l' rof. l ' o r lc r, w ill h o ld its m eeti ng s twi tT t· :l<: h m() n t h in t he Do rmi tory n :cc: p t iflll roo lllli kc:w ise t he i\ rt C lu b, w ith :\ liss E lli.., a ... inst r uctor. ~o man y new h oo ks a re be ing p ut 111 tht: libra r y th a t seve ral Ill: \ \' sec tion " h an· been fo und necessa r y. Am o n g t he many va lu a ble o nes arc so m e of pcc u lia1· in ll:n~:- l. One especiall y is "The \ l c m oi rs of Europe," a \'O lume w ri llt:n h_v t h e secre ta r y to C ha rlc: m ag ne , a nrl pu bli s hed in 171 I .

•;-1IJro p in to C hapc:l o f a ~:1Lurcla y c: vc: ni ng t o the de bates of th e C ice roni r1n S()<: icly. The y o un g m e n ha ve a full m e mhc n:l :ip o f t h irty, a nd ap plica nts a rc in w aitin g w hc: n a ny vacancy s h a ll o cc ur, in s pite of t h e fact th at fa ilures to n llend m ee tin gs or di sch a 1·g c th e duti es cJe,· ol vi ng upo n th e 111 fo rfeits membe r s hip. T h e young m e n a rc in cn rnest in th is m ost he lpful w o d c

I ' r11f. :onrl \ I r -. . l ' J,·nt " ' '' ' " n· c.· ntc.·rta i11 t·d f'nr :• fi.·\ \' d :'.'' t< n 11tl.' lo\ l lr . a nd \ ( r .... Cl :11·k .

.\ 1111o11;.! t he.· ,-i ... it<o 1'' ;1-. p :oJl'lll ... hrllt h<.' l'' :111d :- i .... tt·1· . . ,.r t he.· -"" '111 .:..: I:o cl ic.· ~ in th<' llll l'l ll it n r v 111:1\· 1... 111 ol<'d thv fo llo wing ~ inn· ... ,·huul l!l';_!:J ll : \ Jr .., IJ ,·n·c.·y . \ l r~. S 111i t h. \ Jr . IJ illn n . \11·. Ll'l ll l<' h, \ l i :-~ \lcEiroy , \ Jr-.. \lini c.·k. \ Jr-. . J.;: n :op p . \ l r~. l lidrid1 . \li ....... \1. 1·: . l ~ r itli t h . \Jr . 1 1: 1\\'k ~­ loy, \ I r~ \1 :d n nvy. nncl \1 r. nncl \ 1r s . l >:J i1y. )J :1 n ·n l .., "r \ I i ... .., ( )n·: I 11 l ); I i I \' . l l': I d H.' r () r de ot' 11 l io n . Fro m l h t· dircl'l or\' i11

c he

\c n J: dJn L'u u n-

ty T e:J t·h e r <Jl'l' g k :l ll l'l l 1 h e~<: n :snJ <.'S o f u:~ach e r~ . f'o n ne 1· ... tn dl' ll t ~ oft h e ~t: o tl.' \ o r-

m a l w i t h th t:i1· :Jdd n·sscs : \Jo lli e T y n o n . '!JH. l 'c ru; F . 1'. \l:ojo r s . '!Hi , 1' <: 1'11 : \ l nry :VI(HJ re . ·oo, fJcrn ; l':11sli n c l~ o dl s t c >rlT, l 'eru; !'en d l':1rkt-r, ll1·oe k: t·:fli<.· l::d,,·n rd s . Au hu1·n : .\lt:t 1\i s lwp. ( ~kn l{ o c k ; Lettie lligg in s . J\ 11h11rn. Edith l lu tdJin s on, ·~)(), Pcn1; :VLs me ~p i ce r , 1'<-ru; Corn l l an lon , T he sen io r kinch~~-gru·te n cla ss cntert~ lincll 11rown\'Jllc; l\ i:s b t· l \ I :ojo1·s . I 'cn1: C n rldic the firs t yca 1· kincl eJ·g ar t ne1·s in a very hilp· \clso n : i\tdou1·n; Ccrtrucl c.• \\';stkin s . G len py m a nner, Hall o we'e n ni g ht. The room R ock, Ed. C. \\'ittwcr. ~ outh ,\uburn ; F 1·:1ll k :\ ld\own, Aubur n ; l( :Jt c ~mi t h, Auw a s m a de appro p1·iatc fo1· the o cca s io n h y au t u mn <l eco 1·ati on s and dim ly lig hted burn, Loretta !~rid ge. '!)7, t\J Jh un1; B. J. w ith c a nd les and j a c k -o 'l<~nle m s. T he Mcl; rew, '97, Auburn; Ell : s J. Il u s t o n , 'D!"l, g ues t s w e re m e t b y t he e n te r taim~ r s ar ra yAubur n ; \ ·I y rtlc McC1T w, ' DX. Auburn; e d as g h osts a nd csconcd bac kw a rd d o w n Bessie: Fi ~ ht'l' . Johnsnn; i\l :s ry ~ tcutc \'il ll'. t h e cl u rk n a rro w. tairsa nd c o ni do r t o the ·no, ll owc; \Vm . iVI e tc:Jif, '00, ll owc; Lulu kincl c1·g art en r oom. P1·ofound s ilence ~ hu m:1n, H u m b ol d t. :VI :or\' O' C o nne ll , reig n ed sa ve for an occas io n al s hr ie k Ede n ; Jennie I li.~gins, Slluhe1·t; Frank wh en som<:thin g too w ic rd a nd sc pulch J·:d :\ Im·tin. l'c n1 . .J . R. \ 1l cadc1·, :\ u hu n 1; Luelm a d e its a ppca ran ee. ~u c h fro lics as g- h o~t la \\'o rric k , 13rock: Pres to n C :1rr, As p inwall; M:suc.l \\":otkins, Ju linn; M a tt ie cl nnces. fo r t un e te lling. h o bhing fo r :1 pplcs , Barnes !l owe; Fr:tnk Ritch ey . S h ube rt; etc ., \\'Cn: indulge d in unti l ni l wc1·c g ive n Bess ie Il :olk-niJeck, St. D<.· 1·oin: Do rn C. ~ cat s at a lo ng tab le, w here a b o untiful R oy~ . Juli a n: \ l yr t lc J o nes, .\uhurn: \leisp1·eacl of cat::~ hies w as in w a i t in g . I 1<:1·c wen: some.· ('a 1T f'ull y p 1·epa r cd sou venirs fo s· l ie Minni c k, \ e sn :1lw : FloJ'l'lll'C J n n e~. Bro\\'n v ille; O;oisy Dicbsson. Auburn ; J e~­ cvc1·y one, in w hi c h t h e brownies fi g ured sic S t c utc ,' illc . B r o \\" nvil lc; Tel va Dn·s s lc r, c.· onsp i eu o u ~ l y . g iving m n n y pvn ;onnl hits Il o\\'e; l\ l jTllc l'al'l<c J·, S ,>tJth .\•u b urn ; Jenwi t h occas iun a l co mpli men ts, th a t mn de a nie Crum , Ju : ian. p leasi ng c lilllax to the c \·e n i n g '~ fest ivities .

I I


4-7 Fn1· up tn-d;lll' dothin!_! and funli:'hin•T .:..! n t11 <~1-: 1h:1t11 Bn;:-'. ~ · ' o . ..\uhun~ :\l·ltl":l-.k:t

got~d-.

Thl· ~la ll' :\onn:tl i:-' \\' l'll n .'Jll"t::'L'IIlt:cl in lhl· ~l' ll<)(>l ~ or~ o uth 0111nh:t. Lillit• Scn$!cr "!Hi. i:-' Jl l i lll·i p :d of l>llL' or the w ant :'l' h ouls. :tt $~0 p v1· month. :tncl thl· li~ t inclu cks t he ll :lllll'~ or .\1111:1 1\ o r :-'l. ·n k l\::lrl :\l atLlt<.:·w~ :111d l ,tJl:ll :t :\latthcw~. of the clns:< or '!IIi; :lllcl :\ill:l :\I.:C IIII"l'. :\lac Balllford. :lnd (~l" lt n· i l·v<.: :\ l:1cld ox. nrlltt: clnss of '97.

.

seyernl han~ rccei,·cd injuric:< s u fficien t to require meclicn l nttcn tio n .

\\"e carry n full line o f w oolens in our .:\Ierchn nt Tailori ng Department. Our w o rk is a ll done in o ur ow n ~ ton· by t he best skilled tH ilors. GR.\11 .\~t BRos. & Co.

Auburn . ~ebr.

A MAMMOTH ESTABLISHMENT•

_-~.

O sc:11· :\ 1. \\" :1d rkll o r t h e Seni o r Clnss It :I . ·" k- ft "l' • l I ( Hl I t o nct·<.:·pt l I tl' pn:-'t. lt. o n o f.

The Department Jewelry and

Music

House at Auburn .

cl 1 ~c ip li11 : 1t· i : ln

in t h e :'\ ~t,·ajo f ncli nn sc h ools a l Ft. I h: fi : t 1 11.:~.:. 1'\ ~.:w i\ l c~ i ~.:o . und c 1· c:i,·il s<.:..- ,· ict• :tp p o i n tttH.: nl. In losing him t he ~<.:· h oo l l o~<.:·s :ttt n <.·: ti vc :tncl m ost w o rtltv 111 L' nl h~.: t·. l'~JllTi :tllv 111 ··clig io u s c irc:lc-s Wlt <.:..-c h e will h e -g t·e: t t ly mi s:::crl. His l"t·iend s w is h h im :' n ccc:'S in his c h osen \V o d c

.:1PI·e~ icl c n t ~u 11liH.: dnnrl of G t-:lll cl Tsl:111 d a ncl 1 'n: ~ id <.: n t Clem o ns o f t h e f'n:m o n t No n nn l s pent so m e tim e in lattc t· Octo bc1· h t:n: in look ing over Lh c wnrk o f t he S tntc I'\o nnal. O n e o f the m os t n pt stot·ics to ld ns :tftc t·-s p c e-.: h was in C h npc l by P t·cs ident ~<> tt lltc .-lanrl ; i t s eemed nlm ost too bnd to l o se 1: h e g o o d i m p 1·ess ion nwd c Prcsiclc n t C lem e n' s s p eech b c l"o 1·c, in th e repealed hu1·sts o flau ~h tc t· 111 r 11 ·kin c:r t h e applicati o n nr the slo t·y ~o ld . b

unu s utd b : tll h a~ c laimed n n A game am o nnt o f attention thi s fa ll. C i ty hig h p l ayed h e r e wi t h th e Nc lw as lat A return sc h oo l b oys w:t ::- ensil y w <) n. ,!.!,':1 l11 L' "·a s nrr:tngcd n nd a special train lno k Lh l' Nn t·ma l b oys n nd llt c it· frie nd s t o the ~.:i ty o nl y t o find t lt n towing to a misund c t·stn ndin g n o ga m e was arh · is<thlc. ln so m e u f t it <.:· ga m es o n Lh c h o m e g r o un d s Poot

S. H. Avey & Co. Make a Wonderful Showing in their N ew Quarters.

\\'i1i lc iu Aub urn t his wee k a rcprcscnialiYc of the P t·css w ns s hown t hroug h t he new n n d h:wdsomc dcpartmen t jewelry :111cl mu sic h o use of S. H. An'y & Co., tlu·o ug lt th<· co u rtesy of t he gcm·a 1 sc ni o r m cmbe t·, l\ir. S. H . i\\"l'Y, and to say we wct·c a strJllis hed nt the .growth and prospcl·ity 0f t hi s wdl kn o wn firm is putting it mild ly . They have n lw n_vs h ad t he rcputn tio n o f ha vi ng t he la rgest n nd best stock 111 thcit· line in t his pnrt o f t he slate, but t h ey ca n n ow tru t h fully ad ,·crtisc [IS large a nd ,.n 1·ied stoc k n s any in t he ln rge cities. On Tul v lO t It of t.his ,-car t hi!' fir ntll1 ° 1·ccl h n lf ~ bl~ck cast uf t h~ir o ld loca ti on in to w h a t i s kn o wn ns the Thomas hui ldi ng n t'tcrt hc lnttc r had bet·n completely OI'Crha ul ed a nd fitted up with new and clcgaul fix tu res. Mt. Avcv had ll) ng desircd a 1·oo nt in wh ic h he co-uld diYi dc his httsi ncss into pnlper ckpartmcnls. n nd t his wns clon e wh e n he c: hn n_ged his Joe: a l io n. As o ne en te rs tlte cloo r ,Ht the left the eye t·ests o n a lo ng line of t he lnte~ l imp1·o ,·cd jewelers' a ll g lnss s how cnscs. the to p hcin g o flH' a,·y plnlc g bss nnd lhc b ase of


T il E ST,\TE :\ {)J\.\ 1.\ L "LI I I HIL .\11.~~1~:\l,f~J\

4S

o..pan·t11 tlwnl'·t·ht·o..anol in tlti ... , ]j,· i-.i• •ll_\""11 willo..tT the ti111o..t ~>lut:IIHI•.Jiu-.._:.!ttit:lr-.and J.anjosllllol tl~t· lta nd-."nll-.t rol ,.J, ,, J. .., Tltl·

mnr iJlc:. Thc:sc: arc (jflc rl w i t h t r:tvs l·o n taining t; uc h s trtncl:lrcl m a iH·s of w:ttdu·s a s the ll a miltt,n , E lgin :tnd \\':d t h :tn l , in <d m o s t :tny kin d of a cas~: a p~: rso n r o n lei

in trtttlllllts 11n· t·xt·•lknt in lllllt':llt•llini ... h a n d lil T ... ., :trr:tugtd ;, ... tro t111tla· 11 n·ry

dr~:am o f, from s ih c rin c to 1 H·l':t rct g nlcl :

al ~o up-to-date n ovelties of a ll kind s. Right he re i ~ mi~ht h e well to s la u· t h: t l S . 1£. A vcy & C o . ha n: h~:<.· n made o fli c i1d ins pectors of w<tt <:hts fc JJ· th ~: .\lis so uri P:tci fi~: rai l way . .\Jr. \\". 1' . .\ lcCa ll. w l111 ha s hccn with thi s firm fo r y~:a rs , is 'it ill in ch a rge of Lit~: r cp:tiring cl<:parllnc nt. ';"h is gentlC'm :111 is n o 1 :t' watc h link~:r" in t h ~: comm o n a cce ptance o f t he t e rm, but is :tn e x pe rie nced watc hmaker , h a v ing s~: r vcd an a pp re n lit:esh i p in t he h cs t f:tclori l·s of the ca s t , :1nrl hi s al• ilit y in this lin e is un qu est io ned. llc <><.·c upi~:s t h e fro n t ~::1 s t w i ndow w it h hi s b en c h , :1ncl is a pkn s :111l ge n t lema n l o m eet eith e1· i n a ln 1si ncss ora s ocia l w:1 y

Jll't•tt y .... It" w ing T l~t• 1'1 • w I,..... 11111. lilT :1 rr:t ngl·d wi th 11 \' ivw t • • :tJI i-.1 iv vt'lt·vt: :1n d a n t~tll;.! .... ., 1111111\' IJl':lntifllltinH 1'""''" it i-< cli tlicn lt i n d n·d 111 :-t·l,·c t III II' tlllln· l•t·:ltlti t'u l

th1111 i t ... lt·ilow .... \\'t· Ji ll\\' Jlll'"" tltrtlll.:.! lt 1111 IIITJt i111 11 ;t ll lotlt c r clq,; lrtllt<· n t .. r t lt i-. ,·s t :d.J i .... llln vn l.

I I c rt·.'' " <.·n·ry han d , t ill' ' '.\ l' i" g n Ttl·d by pi ;III O", m ·g:l ll S :t lld Sl' \\' iiiJ..: 11 1:1clt ill l'!-' . .\lll CI Ilg t lt t• pi :ll llo:- \ \ T lind tltt..• f11111111 1!-' 1\:r:dwttcr, Krt~v~t· r :111 d :\ l 11llttt !-' lt c k 111 tlt l· ht·a u t ifnll ll tl r- w: dnttt 1111d ll tl d to ;..:n n y c:t !-'cs . :1n cl t l11: B rl ltt n t!.:tclt . S in gtT : tnd K i n g s lnt t·y piano:- an· al s o !'howl! . In n rga n s. th e :\IiiiL·r . l':td; :: nl :111 d C lt iv:I.!..!,O C ~t ll:• g~:. nil i n lt a n cb~t lll l' c:l :- ~: s 1111 11 :tl l m:11k· fr otll tit ~ hl· St ll t:t ll' ri : tb h y t it <: II IOS L t•x p c rl wn rlu n ,· lt. :\ I r. ,\ \T \' i:-; no t :t fr :t id let rct·om m t· ntl It is llltt :-ic: d ilt !-' 1 rt tnt<: tt t!-' h~.:­ c nu !-'1: he IIII _"S t h e lt<.: ·· lth :tt c :111 I ll' h :t d f'o t· the mon t:y . Tit<: se wi n g; •n :tt: ltin <.:!-', \\' l ' o h~c n•cd , w e r e tlt l ' \\'h e ckr & \\'il,.: o n, Stltllclanl, \\' hit~:, n ncl :\~.:\\' ll o111 <.: , :til o f whic h arc n ta cl c b y reliable fir111 s and \T ry ptTt ti-

Bn ck of the j ewelry cases a nd <tg :1 in s t the wa ll is a fi n e 11<: w g la ss a nclm a h ogo n y ca se: w ith slidin g d oo r s , fi ft een fl:et in hi gh l , fill ed w it h eve r yt h ing in m o ue rn s ih·crw o rc fr o m a bull<. r k nife t o a "Old lin ~:d ,.., tC'a set.

On th e rig h t a s Yo u e n ter t he s t o r e is t h e optical di v is io n . - This is diviclecl fr o m t he mai n roo m a n d co n t ain s all the in s t ru m e nts n C'cessa t·y for th o r ough exa min at io n of th e eyes u n d t heir ~cie n tific fi tt in rr w ith the 1·w o p"t' le n ~cs . to In . s ure pe nrt~: t ,..,\' !!;to n . ~

Thi~ d epartm e n t

is presid ed ove r b y

~.11-.

Em . Avey who h a s ta ke n a ~pecial co n n;e un der n o ted opticians in t h e 1\: nn s as Cit y ~chool of O pti c~. a nd h ns ha d muc h e xpc riIn thi s . t ncc in h i~ cho ~e n lin e o f w o rk. as in nth(' r lin es, goo d rC's t!l t . ca n o nl v he o b tni n cd by a comb in a t io n of scien t ifi~n lly acc ura te appnrat u s nnd t he ~ k i ll anrl j ud g em ent o f an optic ia n . The ap p am tu s u scd hy :\It· . .\ \'e \· is t he bes t kn ow n to sc ience a nd his lcn sc~ n r c a ll co ns t r m·ted w ith mnth cmalit a l p r eci s io n fr om t h e best m a teri a l. The s tringed mu s iUl l inst r u m ents . s l1 ec t m u~ tc

and cl ock s ha ,.e b een a ll o tte d

a

l y ea s t:d. S till fa r th e r

lwei, is

the

t-cp:t it· s h o p

w h c r<.: S . C. frcneh :tnd C. A . Jo n <:!', gt·n iu!-'cs of l it e gl u~: pot :tnd tuning fo rk. ITincnrnalc lite wreck s of mu s i t::tl in s l n tm c n ts with tlw dukd ton es o f w h ich yuu s of u sage IHL\' C le ft n o tra ce. Thes e ge ntlem e n , lik<.· cv<.:ryonl' in i\ l r . ,\ ,·c_v ·!-' empl o y. nt-c ex pnl s in th e ir lint'!'. I t w o u ld h e :1 h a d cas <: ind eed lh :t l j\1[1·. French co ul d n ot fix up a nd b y t h e t int <: th e in sL ntnt en l h :1!-' pa ssed throu g h i\•lr J o t t c ~-:' h :111 rl s i t is :t h o u t a!' go od :ts Il l' \\' . \ \' h e n th e w r ilc-1· flni !-' h c d h is t t·ip thr o ug h t h e cst:l bli!-' hm e nl h e <:t lltld lnt t lt full y !-'HY t h n l it h n d h t•t' ll a n.·,·elat iP n to h i m, fo r h C' lw ei n o id c:i thnt !-'lll' h <t co n ce rn L" x istl· d o u t s icl c :1 ~:i t\· o f th e 111'!-'l ci<t !-'!-' -S t d la l'n.'!-'S.


'

Diamond

th~

l

l :\ c n (llh •n•i 11th ~l .,

~• Ill )

\\1 . - ·nu \

~~ F \ I.~ \:'\P l.t':'\Cll .\ T .\LT. HOrRS. :\EBRA ' i\A t:IT\', NEBRASKA.

.

R.~stauran1.

the--

tin~st

Pbotograpbs ga 10 tyson ~ Rict,

ThcJ r :cd\'crl Twn nnld I •hntu~ ra plw t..,. .\

- - - - --

~t cdub

nt the

~"'IHO:lll\ inn u(

Nebraska City.

~l.l le

l!l\)tl ,

euy,

n~braska

9rettyman !Jlros. ., Ve11tists,

n~braska.

Dr. E. J . Prettyman will be iu Peru Snturdn)s of eacb week. In Drs. Ncnl & Shellhorn's Office.

:~H ··--' -·'~··' ... ' ---~ · ~·---· H oO H~.-

I: Pitk~IS, ~

,

~

. . . . . ._ . . . . . . . . .

. . , , _ . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. ..

~b~ Pbotogr~b~r,~

~~~91/oots

-1

~i all competilton, l ,

i In Quality or Style, at .h16dcrate Price. Upeto·dntc, nnd Constantly Adding New Features. i f ··--··.. ,... ·---·.................SOUTH . ... .. ..,..,. ..... . .AUBURN, --..······-·.....NEBRASKA. ·-·-···--··········-.................-.........J _..

.._

r·-··-·~--····---~~--.. -, ...~.~····~···-··t "i:::,.~~"'il~

i W. )V. ! · ··

MARDIS,

nGALBn m

~ General ~ Merchan~1se.

l ·· t

t 1

i

FRE~ DELIVERY..

:

CLOTHING, L'DRY & DYE WORKS.

t

:•

Pr_jces

reasonable.·

:f

} Laundry called for Tuesday· and de-

i:

I

' l live.r,e d F ~ida y ,_ J. C. ¥-ARDIS, Ag't t --·-~- · ~·-·------·1 I

,

~~~

-

. !lJusinesS· 0oqs a $qnoral !1lanxmg

-

"'

f

;.

~

.i

I~'<

·~

Art ~ Goods. '

Out~idc o f 0111aha.

If you \.-vish• to s pend an hou1· Q t' two .' pleasa n~ly. c.1111. -A r c <tlwnvs ~welco·mc wlu~ th c-t· you buy or not.

W. S. · HY.E~1 BOOKSELLER, ~

'

roo/ s.if•·

OFFICERS,

JACOB GOOD, Pftl&IDtNT,

MoADAMS,

R . T.~••"'"'o'"'

ELLIS E. GOOD. CA$ t41[R

.

L arge_s t l39ok_ Store · · · . ~ In·Nepraska,

·

T'KI

Fir,· procf vault mk1 b:t " ,zr Fd ro/I!Jiry. Fully msur.-d agnritsl burj.ary an

. .·-·-·....-...-...- . . . . . .

. J?.~~tut~s, l?iotut~e Framing I

Ct't/.zens ~tate !/Jank

Nebraska City, Nebr. .

]. D. BisbOP i €O. PRINTERS and pUBLISHERS,

Peru, Nebraska,


T. F. DOBBS,

E. J;. Dort,

HARDWARE, FURNITURE,

~

and CARPETS. .r

'

,

r'

~

DR UGS,

BOOKS, FINE STATIONERY.

Funeral Director. Undertaking and Embalming a Specialty.

PERU, NEBRASKA.

ARTILCES. AUBURN, .NEBR. I

J

Profile for Peru State College Library

1900 The State Normal School Messenger - Issues 1-2  

1900 newspaper issues 1-2 for now Peru State College, Peru, Nebraska

1900 The State Normal School Messenger - Issues 1-2  

1900 newspaper issues 1-2 for now Peru State College, Peru, Nebraska

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