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ESTP.BL.liStiE O

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a N E BRASKA

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7 ~<"i.brtJSl~A"' ' - ,. r. So1t q. '{,a,/-t:J }/'OJ7~

N ORMAL

SCHOOL.

--------~--==--~--=============== No. I.

EBR . OCTOBER 1892.

S L TATO RY. CO URIER .

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T t o u•· frie nd ' and f 11 w t ud "nt , t o th e mem­ f th t o ur cont mpor a ri to th t he B a rd of Ed ucatio n, and t , w ise judgme n t and kindl · ndde IH ,-e b e n o ur con tan t en co uragem nt, t h cla s f ' 9 3 s en d <>T et ing. I t i b. t h e n rg nt r e g u st of o ur f ri end and fell , ,­ t ndc ut that t h N o 1n1AL CouRIER. is u h r­

d int e x is t n ·c.

m e mb r s of

t h e A lumni ,.,.- e n r

1 ro mi ed con t ributi n f r om t i m e t o tin1. e a n d th r u h th m \Y e e xp ect t o dis::o e miunte the in fl u nc o f A lma Nate r , a u d to e n b au ce t h e cause of e d ucat io n iu ur g re at com m o n wea lt h . T o o ur con t e m po r a ries w e look f o r co -o pe r a­ ti o n . Th r o ugh o ur e x ch a n ge w e h ope t o i ll u mi­ nat o nr colu mn · with e ducatio n a l news of th e day . T o t he p u b lic , w hose g e n e r o u s patr o nage w h a Ye b een p r o m ised , w e w o uld s ay 1nay y ou so t mp er yo ur prais e w it h c rit ic ism t h at. ou fa ul ts ma.} b e di s ce ru e d a n d co rr ecte d ; apd ma · , n so t e mp e r yo nr cri t ic ism wi th ·ug e nn ou · 0 ~o nrtosy t h at o ur fi de lity to a _1ig ll id e a l m ay par ­ t ia ll y miti gat t h e se11te n ce whi c h yo n ns h onest cri t ics are f o rced t o p r o n o un ce. F rom th e Board of E du cat io u , w h ose v ig ihtn ce and untiring e n e rgy ll ase s u pp le m e n ted a ll o ur atte m pts, w e a r e guaran ~ ecd t h e most s ub sta n t ia l

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c u co ura g em e n t. We h er e a c1Fn ow !eclgc o ur ind e b t e d n ess to th e mem ber s of t h e F Hc ul ty f o r t h e t im e ly s uggestio n s a nd fo r t h P­ s ubstant ial in t e r est lllan ife s t e cl i n

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e n terpri sc . T o p ns h t h e w o r k expedi ti o us ly a11d t o g iv e t'o t hi s vo lu m e t h e li t e1·ar} pre s t ige ch a r acte ris ti c of A m e ri c a n J o urn a ls of ed ucatio n i s t h e p urp o se o f its p r esent J csig11 c r s . · W h e reve r ch1Cati o n a1 wor k is in t ru sted to an , ~ . . 1 ) 1 o rg ani .: -·· ' . t : r m et I10c s aw.l ~ - - .n c1p e::; <,f whicl cr. tn th e fullc t <"rrt-i c i rn th or:" 1·8 l <1l' C n at l)p · ~ · at1 .

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rit ic nr • f rc d to pron o unce. F r m th Bonrd of Ed ucnti.on , wh ose v igil a n ce an d un t iring e n 'rgy h as e snp p le m.entcd all o ur ntt mpts we n•·o g uar a n teed th e m ost s ubst a n t ial

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c nconrng m en t. . . W e bore ackno wl ccl O'c our ind e bte dn ess t o the . 0 ]llemb crs of th e F acul ty fo r t he t imely s u ggestio n s, and f or the substanti al inte rest manifest ed in thi s e nterprise. T o push t h e w ork expedi t io usl y and to giYe t o thi s vo lume the liter ary p1:estige chnraeteristic of A m eri can J o urnnl s of educati on is th e purpo s e of its present des ig n er s . \¥h erever edu cational w ork is intrusted t o a ch organiz ation th e m eth od s .and p ri n ,.. ·pl e s of· w 1n·ny, a r e n ot open t o th e f ull est crit i c] 1 1 t h e r e 18 an

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i l:tt ~ecliate protest. Cittal ~l:te

THE NORMAL COURI ER.

.

In view of thts . fact . the dper-

Control of each department IS mtruste to i~ Of the staff, each one of which has v.oluntarily t1."-te . l?a eel h1s ' own d uty, viz~ . , .to g ive to hts.column itt g en erous character and hterary ton e In keep­ \,With educational journalism. . . the he aim of this J ournal is to help d tsstmenate 'i~ experiments, the obser vations and the concln­ \,"'arlt. l:ts of tho e e pecially interested in educational \\>

~ e cal] attention to

p ltlch will have

Practi~e

our D epartme nt eperate space dunng the e nt ire

l:tblication. l?tans and articles from each department of th e tate ormal School will appear fr om time to time ':ll:tcle r the direction of the teach er in charge. t l'he deci ion relative t . sc~ool ruatte r a.nd uhe state questions for exammatwn from the offi ce \ f. th e stat. e Supen'ntendent of Public Inst r uct ion ~tll b e published each month. We believe that education plays an importa nt Part in all the vicissit udes of life ; and that its ab l:ln ce as a motive power is realized not only by the individual but by the common wealth of which t hat indi \'idual is a component part. H owever <:irclltn tance do not permit every person to re­ Ceive a normal training n or a co llege educatio11; but the facilitie for disseminating the t houghts of those who receive the benefits of these ed ucation a l Cen ter are so efficient that these t houghts at on ce become universal. One of the most efficient mediums for this dis­ Ctninat ion is our education al journals. Through tl \is g rea t sys t em of educational· exchange we have J·c.v a 0 n to cxpect defin 1' te res ults from our la bor· . . ' . •SJS t em we may exp ect a W1de dtff u­ ancl b y t 1llS 1.on o·f la 10w1e d g e relative to the SU(;Cessful . teachin g and snccess f u1 study of the bran ches m cludeu in onr public schools. . A t' e the p op ular eel Il.t the present liD h · ncator 'fi · takes 111S . p lace 111 . the f.10 nt ranks of t . e. ClentJ . c m ves­ . t Hrator es his d utres oqutped With . He assnm . . hl.S 0 \\'11 ·CMJ'O'Y an d 1'n berent maa° n ctusm,stJmulatecl · . and rep1en1.s1:1e '1 d by a conscicntiu n m tcre f t km h is Work and his incxbau::;tibl o storc h o u e (J now­ ledge. T lJUt educators are b 01·n ·"1nd n ot created i~ a< co mm<>n ayinO'. H owever fa r in herent qualifica­ t ion lll ay 'uppl~ment the work of the educatoJ·

THE we hall n ot attem 1 t to ' fi n c . 1 be n d ubt a t t I f a ·

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nppl mont t h inh r Th ml ,CCJ I1 litio n in wl1 i ·h t h • scic n · f teaching ca 11 c la im t I1 r .,'\1. · n ee w l11· ·11 1· ~ llt <' i t is that it d evote it c I f· to a 11 I it f . ' ' . . . t(l l ll ll k ( ' re t with t he t u d c n t 11 . <: te n . 1

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good th i lailll. In (>J'Cl •J· Ja t tho r •la t io n of 1· \\ I t t· t <J lJ O' 1l t t·o .b' . t h e thi sci n · t tlte a world at large Jill! ·t be lllad t o f e ' I t j 1a t 1t 18' . :1 . . try of oo I to a II not 1e p t.·1' ··l' t, IJ O S .cs ' I< n, m mt of a fa v red f w t h nt it i.· tl b e ::.t ·xp r <f h uma n intclli g nee and is 11< •y o nd g n or a ! o nt­ p rehe ns i n of all who 1 m s l \'(.) f 1. th 'lt purp se. W e are often c n fr o nt J tJ ti "' (j II C. t1i< 11, why a rc t hor ·o n Hlll.)' fail n 1· t il e pro fe i n f teac h ing whit crowded ? ·u<Yge t io n 1 th i ~ teacher is with t he p eo 1 lc a n d deal in mysteri es t b c my r i private pr p cit y; a nd wltatc ,·cr t ·a ·e h available f or a ll. We need h a rd ly s ay t hat we fi d an j ust ificati un f r .t h e wo l'k in w .h w e a engaged- the w ork o£ bt·i n"'i,,;; h o m e t1 a nd s nre t res ults o f o ut· ab le c~ 11 1t o r s tO tl lar circle of 1·ea.1cr s , and of b rin ,, 0' ~Lb o ut tive n, r lat ion as p oss ibl e b et\V 0 11 worker and t he p ubl ic. To this vo r k · w <' apply o urselve wit h c o nstant 0110r v ll cr~' creases from a q uickc n e u IS 11 80 o( .' He e d (lf . ucL work. Tim e call fo r a ]Ji . '1 f J , j l)fnl ) . l'tt 0 l v J:. and ho pef nlnes<·. l3y t h t · nt e ·tJ t !JG ' \ ' i!l l HJS !:!Olve its proble ms a u u ri s e ..,1 ( ( • • 1 rJ ilc . . . z;atio ll.. '0 \' c tl10 11 that t hreaten 1ts c .tvtlt Still cheri liiug the h ope t·] · nnt ir iD.'>' zoul o f 01.11' mn11v f 1.•l::tt t h ' . . t he hrst .:' .tonq . I wasted , we s ubmit IE; 'll ll o to t he od J~cati o nal public.

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SOC ~~ ~ r: ( HI C S. ll~~()E

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ORM L CO Rl ER.

iuipn 's;;t>d wit h t he thn~ad of eontinnit y w h ic:h lik ·:til <' II d lo ·:" ·L: in thr >1wh th ~li,· of moulcleriJl O' ben ath the nrface n:tl io ll !'i :ti l I ind i\·idna l ' . (' mm 11 11 •c<.l -, desire~ I ngth and br adth of that Ya t mpit· ; th y will t bm"t forth aucl be felt b; t he <I -p i ra tio n> nnit lltnnki11d iu ·imilm· ac ti \·iti n tir wor!J . ud the frightful p e tilen ·e w hich ;lll I p ur~ I II t:-. ThC' d lliHtH.I· ofthc.auimal life m· l1:1 al io-IJ t d ou out· hor rem ind ns that the ;l~ r l':Jd ily r •c· guizt·d by rh rud~·t. a. by th r cl lud J I ilg rim in th fa r the t qua r t r of 111 u:-t refin ed : I h in te ll ·tnal and mot:a l 11 d , nt· ()'lob i' · p BR. TITER . I n the fab ric of 110 I •ss pr " ' lllg b {'an c uot mnt ri~I:. in t L t xt ure f th loom th br ok n i\1n r ality- I·cc· gnitiou of th • l'iO'ht · of ot h I " th rcacl ha' w a keucd th n tire tructure. th ·ubord in:lt.i II of tl1 inJi,·idnal to the Ill:l ' · ­ E<1cb Iif bear , t h imprc f _om e other life , . . 1·· .th' 'l ll whi ·l1 ·oe: icty 1 111 . i · built 1 and th in om degre ' i , mo ulded by oth · r hand:;, d ir cted . 1I •r tii 11101'!11 tai H.Iard , th lllO r nd t11·in<• th }JilT l". I !; I I' ll ·t ill' ' . by intl n n - \Yho r io·in \\·e m ay n ot trac0, ·oc:nl I' . . hidden m ay b in orue clark defile of human ' uffer­ ']'II , s u b >J'( I nnti o~l ot p r •onal g rn t ificat i n, i · , JU <r r wo . t h roa r from the worl d' gr at "' of tlw · pirit in t ril 1)I , b11 t . a Clil'bJuO', or re ·tr·Jiu in I:' bu t th ao·O'r g a te of the

U rgl·andi zt' lll 'llt. l\ t tl lfl t lllllbitiOJt m art of com rn rc f II Jl ( IJ1 C •<.'If . I . my r ia d imp nl orio·inat ing in it:; busy wall.;:' so

0 })c n t11·c y \'<lil t ·h I fr Ill the hnmau h a r t th O'rea t ·o jn l org nnization s as well a iu diYidual

i tt o·O If J!II!Sf· not ·om th e "lit r nb ut '' bie:h 0 Ji,·c a rc t Le ao·oTcO'at of th in tl u n ee minat­ ::b uti1I ·t/1 II. 1l",:r · cl ·c . l 'C\ ' h.·c. T h w hi r hri ud of llll iu O' f rom t he ] j , · , f those m·oun l u -, und f that H wh1 ch d ' tr ." all b fu r it t 1·O II •d de 'lt·c . g roat mul t itu de " ·h ' th ough dca<.l, yet pcak cth . '' ·u n ·J. l l!..,. t h 111 lJJto th \'Or t x ()f it· 0 \\'lJ e lfi · h The d octr ine of t h Conser vation of En e rgy in dr:1 '\ . rocl uy t h nw naec of ur ocinl iwti t n­ OIJ(1::', I :; t·he ph . - icnl wo r ld , find , its p a ra ll el in the in~no· . b tc llcctnal and m ora l wor ld ::;. I< orce o n ce et m • tio !l ~ · :;p 1•1·il' of dc~ ·pot i m nnd o f lcl\d cs ne '1'1 1 . f .J'O JJI ;: coni iii Oil o ur ·c th e o n e n d ea nH·­ m otion n Ye t· ce;:: cs · o th o ught , ·wh en gi\eu wing bY b aid to be e ter nal. Om­ .~ YOice or pen m a }J I'j n{!, orpctra tc t he \' n 1·ab/ iw t it nt"iou · 'of th n i cien cc, al one , ca 11 tr ace i_t t h r ou gh all its g t <J 1 th or t·o O \'C rthrow oxi · t in o· la ws a nd laby rin t h , an d e ve n it cann ot find it s ending. 1'11 0 ( . 't p a t. f rY ) \ ' Ol 'IJJl l nt­ thos ·e •nn ng ly oppo 1 e T h e bo ld e t mission a ry en terp ri e e v e r ex ec ute.d, 1. 1.11 18 Z?nr· in ITlJ th, but d iti'en m t form of ex \Yas t he It-ni ts of a :;imp le ser m on by an obscur e ll -­ · ' I :.ttl·r11 d co o f. 111t , -nmc da n b()' ' ro us clc m e u t-t 10 pa tor iu a remote com er of t h e e a r th ; a nd in­ 1 • 1a, l\IJL . • lnn l e nd:; be fore th · w •/fa r e of p r e ·:.:>.j oJ f 11 stea d of th e imp ul se losiu o· ene rgy w ith t ime, o· 0 Jn the ir lu t fo r . p' owe r, m e n ' .•' j . 1•1:-1 C 1 J I :"' 111I J1 j 1', :. after tb e la p se of m ore th a n h a lf a centmy , it 111 to accomp ! I ~J I tn eu c uI e .z:; , . s u::;ed 1 tl coi . t ll c n ic,u pos esse a g reater m om e n t nw than ever b ef or e , le f} p1 G vet' ' e n d s th e m 'eh·cs, w Jc n f ,,.act ·o }' tiJ(>;;o . a ud is g a.iniu o· power with each su cceed ing year. ,..., ·ti . N o oTancle t· work cnn ·b e cou cei,·e el of t h a n when \viii cJeol t· ,.1] obl i ~>'ati ons .thoug h in so:I.1C . ·C · . ~ Jn ll ·' " b , ~ • . f !I gc11i ns g uid es tl1 e p ea iJt t h e canse (Jf tru t h and 'L t a.JJl ( ·rd;-t;.;. <.1 is yot to be d c vo h ·cd Ill 1ts ~~. h u mani ty . I u t h e n o b l e l ife wh ieh has j ust .,.._Af T l e ' lition of t h e J rjsh labore r Js a n d wh ich h as m ad e tl1e village of , cone · f' closed tl e>g r cc r c . t1I e., ·I ' ·h lord! The oppn' SS IOII o . n: f O !..1l ,Q, ) 5 l f· A nw b nry a cl assic !:! po t· Ameriean soil , it is l'l:l. <t llH I. · q J1 •'S\ rf rJ eC<.1 li Ot tro u~](' t• te •.l ee . • n ot a lo n e th e b eau ty of th o ugh t a nL1 m el o d y of llot hi- .,-., I1 sSJI ri']JC ' "' ·) . .r• 'I· II~crs of t h e d e lud ed f a nati c.: m ) . r hy tl nn , wh ich e nshrin es the p oet, \¥hittie r , in all t h e ·.ic fl.lJ ! 1111 d:3, ';~J] 1 0 toi \1 w~nl' ily o n !1is p~ 111 f~d \:utc !·a n t' -n.l l o sOil u 1I ol;• sb r):fJC­ wlt at 1s t h at to o u r lwart ' , but t h e spirit vf un s elfi. hn --. , loya lty to d nt.y , the r ecogni t ion of 1h o b r oth e r hood ll1. or~ 0'0 t ·' , f r 11 its of Iri ·lt rip p rc::;sio n have ·~ r r JII I l'to Ptt • · 1 of man, which p l aces hi m f o rc iJ JO::;t in th e aff e c­ }II ' "I~ t t llOjI stC~·j by' t 11ose . w h o lu1d f:l,i l(?let I .L> ll t io ns of his coun t ry m en. UH. , , ,,. 1 , . Jtie>uh/ 1'. plm10, cf rom w h e n ce 1.)1'<'11" ·' ,L B nt gen ius per v e rte d, fo rgettin g o r regru·dl~ss !)w n eeds 111 t~c ]v<·~ 11 f.~, til iJIC!i e r oJJCu , c ('oul~l . 0 •1 1 '~- 11 belc w the m \.•t--1:\ ' fires o£ of t b e p o we r sh e w ields , thr o u gh tl1e p rin ted_ pn.gc nudn h s. .. _,1 R . h ns ca st i ts bl ig h t npo n t h e m o t 1 r o mi ing lh e : 1 l r 1 nJisw , dllCI 11SS!:'t ll S ilen tly , this vii p o wer is walking t bro ug l1 ()111. r11 11

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6

THE

THE NORI \ L CO RIER.

ORMAL CO URIER.

land, and we can only trace its pathway, from · , ltiJttl cl udefl\'P l' to lll:lk 1t was all ·r atetl . \ . - · to Lh \\' CI I'! d the wrecks strewn by the wayside . 1 The maraud ­ men l' alizo th II' t i'U l' 1.cl lOll Ill ers of ~he past are among us still, though tho aro un d h 111 an I thu ap] roatlt n ar ·r tit · pages of modern h istory may not record them. nipot nt. Their form, alone, is changed; the material ba rlc I twa a beaut ifu l f a n ,v o f. tl 1 , •' tll ·i ·11t g ro ' , <Jf . t he gi~en place to the intellectual. In the ages past; 1 t 1at the mnrmur Jf th t r c. 111 n t with t h this en emy of society and man, built his retreat El i , wa th \'Oi ·c f <li,·init. ' · ull · tlto. c· ,-i I among inacccs ible cliffs, or in the depth of th . flight f ign ra n ·c an I up rst itto tt 1 , f· . forest, f rom whence he allied forth upon the un­ spirit. wh ·o la rk w in c:r hav · s had w d t 1 :1.11''' n pecting wayfarer. ·1 f I1 :1 t lllfill " 1 ea rt 1 , tb t·c ug h tit • ccntu ri s t • 1· .

He has fortified h im elf in the strongholds f indeed, hoar tit ,. i · =-of hi s ('r at<ll' tll v n the

the intellect; hi a rmor is "freedom of speech and ru tli11 g for t leaYo . p ress" though that freedom b e exercised in opposition to all that i sacred and 'holy; Lis TO OLIVE WE DELL HOLMES. weapon, the pen, that mighty instrum e nt of Snr . 10:-;T11, 29T11, 1 S<J2. modern warfare, with which he inflicts wounds Among the thousands who with hai l a n d h ccr more deadly than the lance of the old t ime Will welcome thy new year How few of a ll have passed as thou n d 1• chieftain . We must combat thi enemy of man with like weapons; with pen dipped in the springs of Eternal Truth, wo may portray the evil powe r of "icious lite rature, and o utline, though faintly, the· the ·wilderness of the soul, windswept by the poisonous breath of corrupting thought. The tree of knowledge of good and evil bears fruit which ripens in the chambers of the sepulcher. But it i not enough to d e pict the ev il onl y, it mn t be di placed by that which is bettor. The lessons of the good and great, contained in the pages of the past and p resent, should be placed within the reach of a ll. The ideals of a pure and noble humanity, should be painted in all

So many milestones by ! We have g row n old togethe r; we ha seen, ur youth and age bctwcen, Two gene ra ti ons leave u , and toda} We with the third ho ld wav

. , ..1 rd tun l:oving and loved . If th uglt mus t ::tel'' ' 1 o those wh o o ne bv o ne In the g reat siJc nce and the da rk bey nd Vanished with fa rewells fo nd, u . ns~e n, not !ost; our g ra teful m em o cs s till

1 heir v~ca nt places fill, , n ew fri

J\nd, wnh the full-voiced g reeting o f man)

A t ender whisper ble nds .

Link~d close in a pa theti c brot herh d

Of m1ngled ill and good

Of·Joy a nd grief of g ra 'nde ur and 1 s n a me

f o r pity m ore th;n b!ame-

T hc gift IS · l h'lne the Weary world to a 1·e ~I '

·•.ore .cheerful! fo r thy sake

\~?th1ng the ears its 1'l iscrc'rc pains

nh the old H ellenic strains ,

their beauty . The common ties, social and indiv idual , physi­ cal and inte ll ectual, which unite mankind in one great famil y, the dependence of each upon every CJther, and of tlte who!'e upon its parts, the cease­ los· t'e\·erl>et·atio ns of our words and d eeds down the endl ess corridors o£ titu •·. speak to us of duties and re ponsib il iti cs, whiclt call neither b e evaded

L~~hting. the sullen face o t di sconte t

\Vnh smiles for blessing sent.

~nough of selfish wailing h as ])een 1 d,

hank God! for notes mo re glad. ~

nor carole sly performed . . L et us aill i.t demolishing the str on g holds of ignorance allll snpe rstitioll, wbiclJ lwv~ al.reacly been penetrated by the re volutions ot sc1e n ce. Th e fierce dragon which the ancients saw iu tlt e tor m-cloud of the " nmmer sky, have retreated to their half-d emolished castl e ; nat nrc is no longer peopled by the foes o~ man; .the ~atund worl 1 1 rl ns is n ot at vanance w1t!J bun, for whom

~·~r off, and fain t as s,rhocs o '.' :: ·:-~ 0 ,

lllTl

Life is ind..:ed no ho li day· the rein of Are want, and woe d '.·

D th d. ' an sm ' ·~ . ea .a_n tls na meless fears, a n u• O ur pltmg tears mus t fall ,

'[h~hf~nd , old friend! the service of urd a Y5 ' • 11 ~- ,1 en~g moods and ways, . 1 l\;a} prO\ c to lhos~ who fo lloW tn or rr::J.' Not valueless or vain.

1..._

J

r e song!' of boy hooj seem . · 'ring, I et on our auturr -1 7 h unfl ·ith s p '1"1 . ' ( ..lOUg s, "n \ l e evemng thr ush <?s sing . • · .• ]a te, T h e h o u r draws nea\r ,· { ' r , wee • a .n·' a nu \\· ·' h e n a t the Eternal' lcatc

'vVe lc?ve tl.H:! Words a ':~rl works / .,;.

And hft Void hands al<~ne

F or love to fill.

O ur r a l<cd nfr so u

Hrt ng.; to th a t Gate no t o ll: 1

Giftl<ss we come to Hit n, w thing&

J\n~/l i ve because He l i ves: j

- J ,lhn Greenleaf \ Vhitth r •0 ber

DR WING .T

GHT I CIDE T LL .

1:\' :'11. E\' ELY::'\

H I ICS.

In orde r to obtain the ood from th p r : ntation of any . ubj ct we mu:L have !early befo re th min I the phases '' hich ha,-e b en . e lected for con ­ H n ee before e n.t rino· upon sic.let·ation . a ny SJ ec ial 1 h ase \\' . hall . peak of the whole su bj ct of dra\\ ino- . th at \\·e m ay 1 r cc d \\ it h a com m. n under tan din o· of it and thu. b b tt r able to o·et the most benefit fr m th e top ic h re pr . nt d, n am ly, Clra,,·ing tau. ·ht incid e ntally. Th ere _is a ' as t d iffe re nce b tween art , nd clra'' in.o·, 'lr tist and tho:e who d raw. rt n.1 ay b . a iel to . prirw fr m poet ic ) ean:tn s a nJ e m otions sugg . ted by a. ­ piratt on. aft r ,..;oocl, t h t rue and the beautiful.

'J~h c m R. t e ri a l m eans fo r xpre. sing . uch fecltn o·s ap pea l t o the imagi nat io n, tJ1rou -h t he cy b y m ;t ns of ex ternal fo rm .·. 1I c nce there are\\ o .-1.;:. o f art "hich b y ;.l! ci :· colo r, ,!roup in n·, 1 .:::>·a nce of fi b ·ure . a nd th e variou s accessor ies, .appeal to these ·hig her asr iratio n. and t hu. m a k e painting, sculptur a n61 a r ch itectu r' very powe rfu l ;Lo·e nts in e le vati n<r m:1.nk ind. In ~ e d ace r lin .s to G re " k t r;t.di ti o n drawt n o· a nd scul pture t oo k th e ir r'ise t o;et h er Wh 11 th e dau ·hte r of Dibutades drew th e o utl ine of the~h adow of h e r d e ­ p<1xtin.g· lo v e ,- up o n th e wa ll, which fig- ure ncl w hil e h e r fath e r 111 oclell ed in clay. this is but trad ition,, sti ll th e s y mp~thy of m a n kind wo u! c[ o-rant i't tru e. f' o r itsee111s ·'::> ~ t fj tti 1W th at these two no bl e a rts sho u ld C~ J e into b e in o- tu perpetuate the exp r e s ­ st o n ofth s e ntim e nt upo n which the fa te of .... n ti 1e n:ui o ns d epe n Is, tha t is, th e e:tab li sh ­ l11 e nt a n d , ecurity of th e h o m e. S o the a n.- ;•;t 1·,;ill ch oose for th e subject of hi s ··r rk r.'ti~o. t "hi ch. will admit of pre­ sc~ 1ltt1 t io n in such a way" as t o appeal to on e 's e m c, t io ns or to o n e's esthetic na ture. l

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,.

7

T he h uma n fo rm i pa inted in all it per­ f ction of ymmetr , propo rtion, rounded lim b and delicate_colo rin o-. Ever mus cl. e m in t inc t with a life o pure sD true, . o tende r, th t he' ·ho look upon it must "him elf g ro\\ more pu re and true, m o r e . t r on -a nd tender, for h avi no- looked there­ o n. r a"' a in the huma n fo rm is pictu r ed in it ru"'· ·e.d stren"' th, a n d delicate line a nd ·rae ful cur v are acrificed to bring out th bra\\'n muscle and m a iYe frame of o n e \\·ho ea rn his bread by the sweat of hi. brow. o·a in exal t ed character is por­ trayed " hich spea ks of sterlino- wqrth, of temptatio n n ohl) met a n d battles b r a ' ely won. O r a bit of landscape is. caught up fr om amo n o· th e everlasting hills with thei r conies in th e r ock. . Th e a rtist deals lar..;e!) with that phase of beau t) called the picturesqu , a n ap­ pr ciatio n of wh ich steals u pon one e re he is a\\ are a nd awakens in him a feeling kindr d to that which prompted the a rti st t o o·i ve t he expressi on. propo. of this wo rd picturesque, in "Lockha rt's L ife of Sir \- alter cott,' occur. thi passage:-•·O n r eaching t he brow of the h ill, on t he eastern side of one of his pla n tatio ns, we came in sight of Mel rose Abbey, o n wh ich there w a s a partial glea m of sun ·s hin e lightin"' up a n a ngle of the ru ins. Straightway we h ad an anecdo te of Tom Purdie, his gam keeper and fac t otum . T om has been m any y ea rs with S ir Walter, and beinoconstantly i n such compa ny, b as ;:, insensibly picked up so m e taste and feeling of a hio·he r order. 'vV h en I came here first,' said ·to m to the factor 's wife, 'l was li ttle better tha n a beast, a nd kn ew I1ae m air th an a cow what was p r e t ty and wha t was ugly. I cui f enough to think that th e bonn iest th ing in t he country side was a corn field e ncl osed in fo ur stane d) kes; but n ow I ken th e difference.

L ook th is way,

Mrs. L ·t iclbw, and I '11 shov\ you what ·the

(

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4

THE

OR

L CO

IE

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Til

immediate protest. In view of tbi fact th p r­ sonal control of each department i intrust d t ne of the staff, each one of which ha v Iuntaril imposed his own duty, viz., to g ive t hi . lumns the generous character and litera1·y ton in ke p­ ing with educational journalism. The aim of this J ournal is to h lp di im nat the experiments, the observati n and tho c n ·lu­ sions of those especially interested in educati nal work. We call attention to our Practice partm nt which will have seperate space during h e ntire publication. Plans and articles from each department f the State Normal School will appear f row time to tim under the direction of the teacher in cbarg . The decisions relative to school matt r and the state questions for examination fr m th f:fice uf the state Superintendent f Public Instruction will be published each month. . t We believe t1Jat education plays au tmportant . aII t he v1.cissitudes of life; . and that its abpart tn not nly .by . power is reahzed sence a a mo t1vc . .v1'd ua 1 b ut bY the common wealth of wlucb the mdt . .vt'd ua11s . a component part. However that wd1

shall n tnt tnpt to d ·fin ·. J. ut

be n d ub a to h • fa ·t hut n ,,,.,tf

uppl 111 ut · h inhC'r ·u cptnlific·nti••" . T h only ·cmditiun in whi ·I• th ·

t acbin an ·laiua th · •· .,. · t·c·IJ · • wl.if·h i •II •· i that it d •\'( t • it. •If to lt nut:llt • ·r\'i ·•·. · "' • r t with tit ml •nt. c,f 1lai. :-.t·i ·11r· • " m. k~ d thi ·lni111. 1n c•rcl ·t· laat 1 h · r ·h i••u tiJi ci n · • tc th · a'· i wh nt it nu~lt tn l, ·. \\ rid at Jar · JllliS I IH' Jn ,ull· t n f ··I thnt ; j.. :& .... . mini try c f ro HI o all not It(• p ri' u · p ....... I"" fa favor d f •w Llaa it i til l' IH·. ' pr · j,., .,( human in t Iii' •11 ·t• a11d i. 1101 IH·,V•• tlll ~,.,

pre) •nsi n fall' Ito ·x·rt tla·tll ''"'~" r.. r purp · .

W • ar · ()fte 11 '(JIIfroll <·d "with h i. •til · 1• .. II . wb ar tit r · o 1n au,v (ailut· ·. i11 h · pr •l\·,.,~in . t f t a ·hing wltil • o h r prCJ f •. iou . 1 n· . '' , , , ... _ c r wdcd, ugg · ·tiou iH thi H: T h · ~IH' • • ul teach 1• i!:l with t il · 1 cop! · an 1 of tlu.• tn. I f I. e d ala in w ·. t •ri ·H tho (' lll.)'Hll' l'i •. i lie• ht :-o 1 ri vat p roperty- n.nd what •v ·1· grtl(: · Ill' yi c·l 1:-. i:o' avail abl fo r all. We nee I hardly H:l) that w fin d nn :tiHIIld: 111 ju tificatiOII fo r t liC w111+ in wh ieh W<.: Ill'· 1w,,. circumstances do not per mit every person t . re- e ngaged - t il • work of Lr ingi ng hont (: llt • IH·:o;t . ·ng nor a college edncat1 · n; an ] ·urest r s uits f ou t· abl ' •d 11 ·tt ors l< J a pnpll ­ ccive a norma I tramt . . . f d'sseminatlllg the thoughts of lar cir ·l c f I"'ader , and of 1 r i 1wi I I " al H•nt H !' a c· but the facilltrcs or 1 ii f these educational tivc a relation aR pos ibl e b e w' ·11 uu1· ai d •st . the bene ts o those who receive 1 e tho uo-bts at once work r o and tho 1ubli ·. To th is wcJJ·k w sha l centers are so efficient that t Ies o apply o urs.Jvcs with c nstant •n •rgy- <.: JJ C'rgy i 1• become ~niversal. ffi . nt mediums for this d is­ crca. c f roul fL qu i ·k ned son s, of a 11 'l' I < ,f j li S f the most e CI C 0 SlW h w< rlc. Tilllc c:n.ll fo 1· a Fl pirit of h vlpf nlu ·s : nc o . nal ·ournals. Through · t' is our educatiO 1 . al exchange we Lave and hOJ cf~tln el::ls. ] .Y t hi s mean ~ doc~ t lw W<l l'l< semma wn tern of cducatton this great sys · . . , Its from our labor ; Flolvc its proL lems and ri .· c aLuv u t·lw iufltt (•J tc· <· ect defimte resu . . .. that threate n its civilizat ion . reason to exp exj)ect a w1de dtfin­ . ystem we may l 8till (;hcrislting the lw pe t hat t h e ttll ~ ·lfi ·It auc and by t us · l t' to the s uccessful teach­ ledge re a 1ve k £ ion o now d f the branches included untiring zenl of our ma11y f ri ut 1d::; h ave no t IJ '<! ll . d successful stu y o ~ wnstcd, we s ubmit the first is::; uu of tlt i · vc I Lilli < mg an l . bl'c schoo s. 1 111 our pu I . the I)Oj)ular educator ta ces to the edncatimtnl public. 'fi . S ent tJme h At t e pre ·anks of the scient1 c m ves­ • d 'th SOCIAL ETHICS. l1is place .Ill the front J l ·a duties cqlllpe w 1 11 . surnes • • 1 tJgator . He as . . t magnct1sm,stunu ate d BY ALI CI!: WALLACE . d IDhei en . 1. his own energy an · ntious interest m 11s "No man liveth to hims'Clf, n11d n one clioth . b a consc1e . and replcm bed Y . lc storeJ1ousc of know­ himself " T o t he sttid ent of socia l ethi cs, t lw . me... . vj)anstlb work and ]11s words are bnt t he {voicing of his own o u servatio ' ledge. nd not created is a One v~' ho studies I thoug htf ull y t h e s truc t u ro born aThat educatcJr · are . f . inherent qnalifica­ society, w110 ther ;n its hig hest fo rm o r i 11 t~1 ~ l . Ifo,vevei m C(Jrnmc n saymg. ork of the educator types of less enlig h tened nntiou s , can n ut fnd t\J ti0n may up! IemeJ1t tM w

o;'

T:\ . liT I. 'C I

I .\ \\' 1:'\

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I ·a uti ful. Th m . t Ill 'a n: r r :. tn :u h f ' · lin th i ma ~ i nat i n th r u6·h th ' m , n: f xt "rn al f rm . . l ·n . th r ~. r r k: f t l' t whi h by th ir I r ()'r ur in ~·. f fi ;:,·ur :, an l t h :t.ri us a e ss n ". , . I t th' hi ;:;, h r a:pirati ns a n I thu . mak 1 :-t intin. , sculpt ur an I a r chi t tur · r) p " ·rful a cre nts in · I ~ at in mankind. Ind e el :t.cc r d in · t r e k tra liti n dra \\ in g a nd . cult ture t k th·ir n· e t o Lr th e r w h n th e dau :-, n-hte r o f ib u tad s Jre w the o utlin e o f th e s h adow f h r d e ­ part in o· lo ve r u po n th e wall, "hi ch fig u re h e r fath e r mod e ll e d in cia). n d whil e thi s is but tradition, st ill th e sy mpa th y of m a nkind \VO tdd g r a nt it true. For it seems but fittin ;::,cr that these t\\'0 n ob le a rts should come into b e in ;:;, o· to p e rpe tuate th e exp r es­ sio n o f th e se ntim e nt up o n w hi ch th e fat e of e ntire n a ti o ns d epe nd s, th a t is, t h e estab lis h­ m e nt and security o f th e h o m e. So th e artist wi ll choose for the s ubj ect of hi s work th a t w hich w ill a dmit of pre­ se n tati o n in s u cli. a way as to appeal to o n e's e m o ti o n s or t o one's esth et ic n a ture. t

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Iim l t. in h ' U'f ' ,\ from h(' pr · · ·nt.Hi n f .ln y . ul _j' m u · t h .t , . . ·I .. rl y I t h • m tml th p h.t 't • • w h i h ha ,. · I · ·n : ·1 ·t.:t ·tl f r n­ : r ·idl' r.ni c n. II ·n · I ·fc r ' ·nt ·ring lll n a ny "l l' ·i.d I ha · ·, w · shall s p •,tk f the wh ,1 · ·ttl ) · o f lr.t win~ : o tha \\' m. Y f 1 rc ' t · ·I with a ()111 11\ 11 llll ll·r:t,tndinL. ~ it and thu · b · I ·t r a hl t 1 g· • th m n t 11 i lwr' 1 r •: nt' I b ·n ·fit fro m th hi: n .\11\ ·lr Jra win ~ t.Htg ht in id ·ntally. Tht; r·i : a ,·, :t diff·rn • h ·t\\' ·n art an I lrawin\!. arti: : and th :' \\'h lr. \\'. \\' :\ n m ay ,· · : a id l :1 ring- fr m 1 ' tt fr y •arnin g: .tnd ·m tit ns :u~.,.g' ' :t 'd I ,. ru an I th · I ir. Li ns aft ·r ~r d th ·

I n c rd·r

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in ·tin t w ith r, th t h wh

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u \\·i th their

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I up n n an w a k n in him a ~.­ th t\\hi ch p r mpted the kindr xpr t of thi rd picture qu e, · m Lif of ir \\ alt r c tt, ur. thi pa sa · '· n r a chin the br ' f th hill, o n th e ast rn s ide of one o f hi la n tati n , " e came in si;:,·ht of '1 el r ose 1 bb ) o n which there was a partial g·leam of su n -shine li o·htin; up a n angle of th e · . Straio·htwa) \\ e had an anecdote of nun Tom Purdie, hi s gam e k ee per a n d facto tum. T om h as bee n m a n y) ears with Si r vVa lter, and being co ns t a n tly in s uch company, h as insens ibly p icked u p some t aste and fee ling o f a hig h er o rd e r. 'Whe n I came h ere fi rst, ' said Tom to the factor's \ov ife, 'l was little b e tte r than a b east, and kn ew nae m a ir tha n a cow ·w hat was pretty and what was u a ly. I cuif e n o u g h to think that th e b~nniest thing in th e co untry side was a cornfield en closed in four s t a n e dykes; but

now I k e n the diffe rence_. Look this way, Mrs. Laidlav\r, a n d I '11 show yo u what th e

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8

THE

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THE

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n·' t•:\h ·d

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hn ~\:-in it· ·h 1l

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11\ gentlefolks likes. See ye there, the sun mea ns fo r convc) in. hnt·h·ri tl di-.P:I-.l'. T h · !!l'rtll t• ll1:-i:<t of t t•omlllll· 1 glinting on Melrose Abbey? It' no \ of ~h'IJit' . :-11 nllllllll' . .111 :<IZt' . n:-: tn r •tpu. re h the • 1I I HlC'tt•rw bright, nor it's no aw shadows ne ith e r, bu t

111 "~1 pt>\\,•rfu l tnkrn:-t'IIJl' 11 l'nalll• 11~ , , . n t< just a bit screed o' light-and a bit daub o

~,.,. an lllltlint• ,f it fnr111. Thl':'l' ~ •r111:' und •r .dl . f·1· ,.,,..n IJ I ,. ·tn·tllll:· · :'IHlrt , au,,!h :•m·t·~ nlll.'' hn· fr llll rh • dark yonder like, and that's what th ey ca '

r lnuuan lnt~h· f 1r lllnllllh:l· and pu:::il h· f r y nrs : c n lu picturesque; and indeed, it maun be confes ­ I in •.ht·y al~u ll;,nri:-h nnd 111111 iply in lll;llbl•r::; nt:nr ed it is unco bonnie to look at!' "

•ul 11'1•111 IIIII' huclil':'. Reflection shows us that it i'~ the speci

'1'1 ll'r · an• lllllllllH'r:lhll· . .Jil'l'it•:; t f 1 · ri:\ nil of p r­ province of art, and the special work o f

whid1 nt·t• miuut!' :-iu~h· · •II •d plnut,;. \ ·t•r y l the artist, to appeal to us in thi. hig he r

hl·<·nrh of nir WI' hrl'!l ht- tun,· •t•ll niu h HtsHllti · spiritual plane.

uf' I h '. t• ~ '1'111:: . l'\' (.'1',\' Ill lllll;fu\ of fot)d \\' • •nt There are some moments so full, so g r e r in IIIII.V ('tliiiHill ]nr!,!t' lllllllht•l·::. 1 h 'l'l' HI'' llt:lli,Y ha rounded, and complete that it seems a pity b rou ht t d i. t·n. ·:: whi <·h t'llll::l•d ly til ' :< ' g•rm· : t t l ' 'i ,. ill :-. to let them go out of sight into th e vas t ]ll l'l i ·1d:1r ~IH'('il•:: prndtH'l':' diplathL•rh . 1111 rh •r r h >ll •·h :-. depths of the by-gone. This th e a rtis t a n ~ Jnall - pox , an otiH·r dlolt•nt. lu large JIIIIIIOl' l'' o f HJW<·il':: nn· p ·rf •t·tly h:tnlllt :-:s. so fn r n ~ \\' t..' knows, and he catches the essence of th ese k 111 '"' at ll'l'::t•nt . moments and makes them live for us in ti n. fr m th \ :-;iat ic· ·hnlt•l·:t i.· ::nid It be a tilth dis e a ,;t• : n11J color and in mar.ble. Such, th e n, 1s a rt, n c ss ity is ll[ n 111 i~h t ~ ay , rhat all lnert>r inl li · •:ts ' :-: nr • tilt h w · hims If a n b ·c m · 111 s t ·r and such the. work of artists. h di l ' ' t l ' ' Ht ' ll\· <ll lgl' l' ' "' 1!It' '1 t ua t ur ' I ~t· n .~ ·..,"·. 'l'l l " " ' ':I I ·, r X { r ' SS I ll But as to drawing, it has long b ee n re­ whi ch a l n w ill g i 11 ' • )H'<W i d l'd fo r rt·nH ,· ing ~rlll' ng • an I ti lth . 1 garded as an accomplishment attain d and th o ug ht w hi ch h (; w is h ·s :t ·t ~ rin 1!:1 \' (' n ot r nly th power < f 'lliT\·iu < n a pur ~ ith thi s s timulu s h · '\ enjoyed by a favored few only, and this 1Itt• pro •t·:~ of th t•i r n wn nu tr it ic 11 ut tht·y· p r ';n r I a:

- v r y lin , ·v · r . . ur after a great expenditure of time, mon ey pose. fo od tor hi ,.,•rl 1 •r f o r·rn · t)[1 11· f •·. ti l !'- \' t nr tc pi •c , , n ut 1 of c lor. s e a k s , a n l 5 1 'aks ' and energy. And drawing as an accom­ in :t ·he mi c-:d ' II ·e, dPad rga u i · mat •ria l, u ' in o· ' unl .· : h plishment has been interpreted as th e ce tain so und~ f r h .ca1nn t · lrr 11 P l-) 11 ·It 1 nrt · of i t a · t h ." 11 •ed for t heir wn au: h , Il < h ]J lll'pt . ,· , , '•Ill () K•t•tf I' 'l' t· lI L' rt•.·t Ill s u I1 f o rm a· to ability to reproduce certain forms posess­ s ees, i mao- s, a nd t 1n <. ; dra ' . f r h l H.' nxni h• .bl • f <l I. t ltt• ll .' l' n (·' nt I l l 'l' I'1\' JII . O' t hin o·" th ey ing a greater or less degree of artistic b ee n so ta u~ ht th a t h wh ~ t h tl'flr t h . WOI'll ) t· d I . . ., d e finite purpo s e o f . - < II au IIH \ t• t o p1L' · C' t-~ aud ,turu th • merit, and demanding on the part of th e sees, images, a nd thinks . mat c rr n l o t· i b ' · 1 · 11 1 rew <'0111 IIHt t l<m ·to o t 1 •r f r ms one drawing no higher form of act1v1ty When drawin is t c u ht in thi s way , n ofli fe . ' than the mechanical copying from anoth e r Tlt e:;c bacteri n. a 1·<•' 0 11 t'1111111 11 \' ] l' LuCrnt ·iJI O' IH) Xl· O I\ The as an e nd but a s a m e ns t o an e n I ; a s d picture the fiD"ures there represen te · . . g R. 'tl f rOill d ocay in O' matter: ll~II.II V < f the e era, ' . s ub· .. o d ately the ong1na1 m edium of e xpression, a nd h e n a b 1hty to repro uce accur ar • t oi:;onon::l. H e ll <.: if \\ e wo t~·l d rid our elv s ordina t e to thou;::. ht, w e s ay it is t a u u·ht in study before him was regarded as ~h e of t ho ·c uupl •a ' au t ' t.lor · w • m nst r mo,·c the . . . d which the a s plra- cidenta lly. How it m ay be d o n , a nd wh rl o bJect1ve pomt towar . deb!·!·" O''l l'b•to·e · ' Asia­ "•' t il([ a' 'o f't'O . m o nr prenuses. The . tions of the student tended, and upon whlc~ bene fits arise from it a re th e two qu s ti tw cholera g erm tlolll'isho b est i 11 a dormJO'ed t1i 0O'es~ . 0 . am b'1t10n . centered A moments with which we a re chi e fly cone rn l, a nd h1s · tlv ~ system. Whe11 Olll' di o-o ·tive ::;yst ms fail to that this is culture of the th ese we shall speak at som e futur e tim th ough t w1. 11 s how assnnil n.te t he f ood we ea t , decay sots i 11, and all . . . ·al character as 1t bnng s mto fi t-he. n atnml conditions are presen t 1111 d er which this most super c1 NOTES ON ASIATIC CHOLERA. lone and leaves dorma nt . . . I T hese an d all ot ber b acterial f orms tlo nrish. pay 1m1tat10n a . . ofobse rva.twn, compa nson, . . . Whil e thi s fata l disease is, c laiming its vi ctiJJI ~ ebol era . germs en ter tbc intestin al can al of om a 11 t h e act1v1t1es · . d t which must be aroused to by the thousand s in Emo p c and grinniug thro uctl: bo.clies a 11d mul tiply w it h such r ap id ity that with in an d JU gmen . th e fu 11 es t ex t e nt in order to put man m the grim j aw s of d eatlt a t H e ll s -g ate f o t· il 1 a f ew bom s onr b od ies may be overwhelnied with . la e in the scale of crea ted en tran ce into t h e M e tro p oli s of A.m.c rica w e s honl poisou ons m aterial "" h ich .they eliminate as they I11s prope r p c m ake a mpl e pre paration t o com bat th e d r e ad 1 \ g t·ow. be~·~g~.i ew of th ese fa cts we choose to look scourge lest in its ·m a d car eer it s w eep o ur l a ud - . Q n arm~tin e al on e may fail to k eep this f earful Inside th e last f e w y e n.rs s :;ic n cn h a~ lifted t b.! chsease from o nr · land . 1-ICliCC, m way of upo n drawing as a la ng uage, t. e. as a

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11

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nd l'al c•ns f Itt' al>l ' · Inc ns .nan e with 3 j 1 int res lution f the- n:lt t! :tnd h use f repres nt ti \·e- f the nitcd St a t 'S nnd with 1 clnmnri n!< i. su by t he p i nt the nited " tot · :tnd g ,·ern r of l\"cbr:tska . th is de rtm nt . mmcnds t all lfi cc~ . teac h rs and patr ns f t he ch Is f t h. ta t , f Neura-ka that th hildren . the pa tr ns a nd t h friends f cdu ·nti n and . merican patri tism be im·ite t j in in a ,: ·hn 1 el bruti n f the 400th anni ,·ersary f th di c ven r of Am ri 3 t be held n the 2 rst day of ct ber , 1 _ in th~ m . nner s nt f rth in the cir ubr issued by t he execut i\·e c m mittee :q p in tcd 1 y the d pa rtme nt f u perintendance of th n t i nal cd u atio nal a· ia ti n f Bro kly n, Februa ry I i . 1 92 . T his is the first a ttem pt to make the sc h Is f the entire c un­ t r\'. the c ~nters f local dem n. trat io ns all \'e r the nited t a te . The e v ·nt to be cele~ra ~ ed 1s g ra nd!): fitted to ins pi re a n obl e and a n intellig<?.nt patnOl l m , the pubh c ch ool, t he o ut crrow t h . f meri can c h·i!izatio n m a y propt:rl\' · claim the right t 1ea d 111 '/',, • ·,.

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th is j ubilee. Wh ile th ~ public schools a re the prod.uct of the America n Spi. n. t the p~qY't.u i~) a nd .t~1e cha~acter of o u r 1nstitut i~n depe nd la rgely . . tnt n"' win ch• t• he ,;chools of • t he state "' a 1ve to th c1t1zen 0 11 the t ra c • of the state, a nd so It IS pec uliarly fitted that in th is festi\ a! t he scho Is sha ll le~~d : so let the schodls lead a n d let call t he people • follow. T he boys a nd g irls . rna) be led . t o feel tha t in this eele b rat .ion they . a rc pa rta kers 111 the ope nmg exercise of th e CoJu111 b'Ia n E . xposition in progress a t the s~1111e time in the city of Chica go. · r trust th at every effort w ill be made in ever" com mumtv--t · .ln • • • J everv. school d1st n ct 111 the st ate-- t o stir u p the peop 1e • t o a · realiza tion of the fa r reac h ing results of the even ts to b e contem plated on th . at d a y., a nd th a t th e local press • so re a d Y at a ll times to do 1ts part 1n a ro u sing and intensifyin g e\'er. . b . } popula r sentiment, m ay e eve rywh ere e nlisted. Full ofllcial programs, encluding the ode; ; ddresses , e t c. , m ay 1 . be had by app ymg to F r ancis Bellamy, Bost o n Mas~ . ' '· ' at th e follo . wmg ~ates; O n e to. 1 0 0 co p ies a t the rate of "'s; 1 per r oo, post patd; 100 to r,o no cop1es at the r a te of 75 cents per 1 00 . pa1'd ; I , ooo a n d u pw a r d s copies at the r ate of 6o ce nts 1 0~ ' pos t 'd c; I .. f ' post pal . ~ an:p e cop1es o the p rogra m may be h ad of M r. Bell a my on apph cat10n ; free of ch a rge. Respectfully . A . K. Gou nv . n. S n peri n te ndent P ublic Insti·u c't Io


10

THE

0

NATURAL READI G. I.

L CO lw ·hill I ·nruins: -. . lk mn ur • ltinkin •. fn h \' ... h

T hi i a

wi h h a lui

BY BELLE THOMA •

Teachers are often confronted with he c plaint from parents that their childr n ar u ·h poor readers, their tones so drawling and unna­ tural that it is painful to li ten t th m in h ir attempts to read aloud. Some g still farth r and are ready to criticise the s -call d n w m th­ ods, at the same time citing th ir wn x as testimony in favor of the "g d-old-fa. bi n d way." Not long si·nce a thoughtful par nt livin und r the very eaves of Harvard College a.pp al d t th public through the columns f the P pular ci n · Monthly concerning the meth ds f tea bing r ad­ ing in oru· public school . H say : "Children are taught to read without spelling , rccogmzmg each word by its appearance, and learning it as a detached facl. * * * * The present natural method of teachi ng reading is in­ deed an absurdity. and it is difficult to understand the reason and authority upon which such a system has been adopted . '

If by "natural " reading this gen tleman m an the practice of teaching chi ldren to r cog niz single words, requiring them ''to learn the as ?etached facts, " then we heartily agree with him 111 calling it an absurdity, and are ready t ra ise a protest agaiq t a practice that is not onl y making poor readers for our school-rooms, but is fastening Upon these. learners a clog which will hinder t hem always in theii· attempt to get thought from a Printed page. The old A B 0 method has been r elegated to the past; but let me ask bow far in advance of this ''good old method " has that teacher gone who f?rces her pupil s to Jearn single word's in p~ace ~f Stngle letters~ What bas been Nature s method In teaching the little child to talk~ Long before h e could utter a word be talked through g esture In complete sentences and those about him , soon le~rncd to interpret ~his wordless language.. During thts time his organs of speech were matur1~g, and When he uttered his first articulate word, 1t als<? Stood for a complete sentence. His outstretched hand and the one word "ball, " meant " G ive m e the ball , " a fnlly as though he had uttered each ound and word. The cntence i the unit of expression; we can­ ll0t exprc 8 a judgment, which ~s the s impl est form of thought, without its talnng t hat form.

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w · t n ·Ia dailcln·ll i .. tnt ·d wor h •, • \ I' hi obj <·<·l. of Jli"I'C' C'J I it oil . :H II FW uun: lt urn) rc·ncliu~ : c·c· ••nJHlll th e drawl iu , l n •fi <'XJ n·. sionl ·:--~ fn · · and wors thall all I' h ilt ''' •ntal lm~i nc·~:-"hi i· h b r. tit •ttghl ful p an·n 1 11 pi IH i 11 t hl' ad v u~t· grad ~ a r · >n stan 1 ·hid •d for tll(·i r I"",,. n·:uli• and in a Lilit. t g t tbuu r!t ft·o111 tla (·it· lti s l•ll'i · g rap lti s ur ramJil:trH. , 'o tll u ,f t ltv .·v ll' 1 !tav a consci •nti us , It •lp f ul t ·n. ·lt <·r wlao ,·:tittl thinks s he wjlJ li ft t h ·m ov ,,. t h <, ha t·cl pl: tc ·t ·:i ~ " read d a ily wi tl1 !1 r ·l a HH mHI di · at·:-; 1 ' tltl th e principa l w rd . . U)JJ o H • b y tit iH 1 n · · ·• t he c.:Llild does 1 a rn t it • fo nn rm cl f those w o r 1 ; f:lt ill , i f It • ·a n11 t look thes symbo ls upo n mi11d pi ctur •s of the ntludearning of t lJC w<wd s m ·r ·I. worse t h a n wa. ted . This unn atural r ead ing, a nd t it will i11 ~ 11 · s 1' t each er and pupil to b e satisfi ed with ll lO t· e w r learning, is th e direct o nt)'L·owth of wor 1- te: t ·lti11. in t h e very beginning o f t h c ltilcl ' · ::; ·!too l Jifr H ,c is forced to learn to r ead a::; soon a s h e •nt school, whethe r r e ady for th e g r eat c h a n g · m· 11ol Pro bably nine ty per cent. of t h e litt l · on es th 11 1 enter school at five, o r even s ix .year s of ago ~ ' tt not sufficie n t ly matu r ed to l ear n to r ead. B ut '' tering sqh ool m e ans learning to read, write, sp oil Parents and School Boards are in exontbl c upn th is p o int; a nd teach er s, ever r e auy to rn e et demands, resor t to vario us d ev ice s t h at will a

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T lu· hi~t·:-:r IIH'nt:tl dt•n•lnptlll'llt t·n n I • twdm· ·d only f rom tiH· pl•rft• ·t phy:;i<'al. Thl' ~r ' L'k ::: 1111 lt· r:;tund thi:; important rdnt io11 ·h ip. \\" L' lind thnr f pre ' •rYiH o­ ll\11 ·elc: an I n n ·"' ' whi ·h :llllong- 1ht•tu r •pn•:;l·nt:ll in• 111 n in . ,.l'r. · l •pnrt­ l lll'llt. P into, 1It· philo~ 1phl·r : P hid i:t:::. thl• rh, mil' ·I ' nn :;c·ulptor : 'ic·t•ro and lh•nttJ:o~ th l•n •s . the n n\fOI" IL•nd ThL'I'' ill'. tIt world in 1h •it· I' ' :-<Jll't·tin• Lll'JHirtm •11t'. ln th pr 1ln tin t h<· ir H ·!tool physi<'nl •d u<'lll i{ n wn:; thl' tir ·t fa ·turcth bl d. •x •r j · inp; tb mu roqu ir ' IIH'Ilt.· illld 1 hi:; wnrk <':!1111 in tht• , ·hool a ·ri,·itY f th ,·itnl orgnu.::. ''a · pa· ·t ic •d throughout rh • Pill in•li fl• 111d th rough f II(' ' l! ·d ing u· 'II ·mti o ll ,'. Tht• l'l'!'<ll lt i ' th L',Y llll \ ' ' nnmb; r of mn · I th' Yi tul wo·nu'. g iv ' 11 tn t it • wmld i t, id •al of n ~·nmif nl form. ~l it ni n1 that nny 8,\' ' tlll l 1f hy ' icnl trniniug whi h \\' 11 't th " 11 r o-y mnnnfa tur d ofth :rital r a f t Kht uld hn.,· i.· t tnmi::;h th l1ighl•t>t Hditi m · lrg;n ns. E ,· ry tim n arm i rai d li ft cl th mn 1 ' n ' d ar nllin · f r bl d ; b u of hL•nlth :md l> •n uty h,\1 •:x r ·i~ ' whi h 1 ro lltOt th · do not mak it tll )~ must d p ud up u th t h fnn ·t io nal act·iYi ty < f the ,·ita! <rgn11 , amlJ r tr · ngth f mu l ;:; IT a du balan · ' I t \\ l' •n tit mu · •1 - thn.t ,· i t<~ I r 0 an f r th ir nppl '. do 11 t in nr 11 a lth. Tb h alth ma · b n­ ::l liJ pi) n ' rP.:. ' and t h • m n ' ·I · that: wa't In t h , ·fir ·t pin ·e in rd r t h nt thi aim may ::;tauti" o·oin c.r down w hil ~h bo r •aliz d , it lt o nll b a rcqnir 111 ~nt and tt in -tr" u th if the "aste is gr a t r than th . -.;· ital r o·an s ar apnbl of uppl in o· Tb centre s p ro,·i.·i n f t h · x ~ ~· ·i - • · that th ,·ita l rgn n b • h ·l d at t h n o t·t nal nltitnd ·in th tor · . m~st b strong if h · alth be ins~u· d . Th pnem:nogastric n er ve controls all actiYities By t l1 is '' ' do n ot m •an that t b h' t b ' throwu o nt a nd tho shou ld r ' back f r th lung b •­ \\:hi lt 1~1auufactnre tho blood . It is b) ·: means . n er ve that the gastric juice is long insi d e th o ch c t and not o ut id , .and th o of this s •cr ted, i t is by th e m eans of it that man.. ::~h onld ors belong on th ~ id es of the body :mel 110t 01,1 t he back; · bn by actiYity of m uscles breath ' S. SeYer the branch of this n en e that about th o waist and chest all the ,·itnl org ans are leads to the hear t and the h eart ceases to beat. h old np in t ho torso. I t is a• fact ntt stcd ·to b) The pneumogastric n er ves .furnish the blood with lending p hysicians t hat a case of d yspepsia or a n ourishment . The sympathetic n er ve controls By chro nic disease of any of t he vital o rgan s has the assimilation of this nourishment. n e ver b een l~nown when t ho 01:gau s were h eld exercise of the muscles overlying the v ital organs hig h. B ut on the oth er hand every case of these n er ves are stimulated and strengthened. d isease of the vital organ s has been attended by a The result is blood ·w ith n ourishment in -it and low altitude of the vital organ s. Some go so far the power to appropriate it . On the one hand as to assert th at with p roper nourishment and are the pneumogastri c anci sympath etic . nerves, rais ing the stomach to its normal altitude the on th e other are th e spinal cord and nerves. of dyspeps ia can .be · ·c m·ed. The From th e spinal cord comes the power to mQve


12

THE

OR

th~ arm, to move the leg. I swing my ar m v i orously. I hang on a pole. I lift a b av weight. The power cornea from the pinal c rd and nerves and in proportion to th e acti n i , blood required to supply the waste tissue. If n ·h movements are in excess of the po wer t app ly blood the result is injurious. There must b a .balance between the activities of the pn u­ mogastric and sympathetic nerves and th spinal cord and nerves. Again, I ay w must strengthen .the centers and fr e t h surfaces. :From first to last, then every, exercise honld bear a certain definite relation to the vita l rga ns. Good health is the result. There can be no beaut witheut health.

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t im to til· ·it! • • •n frl 111 wh nn• ir · 1111 •. rh •r • ri ll •"' 1111£ with :tartlin~ li rincrn • · ~ . whi - t r-will. whit -pt or·-will. Th 11 tlH• r 1 111 ­ Ill ·ur. I II rh • ·i/ntll 1111. h nu. ·w ·•·· t'tHlll' f n lll . , . •r . 1i r i 11 - ·o m ' n 11r tl111t th · guttt•rul " ku " r.lwr pr 'L'd .,. n- 11 t i:-; di tin •tl y It •nr 1. whil<' 1thL•r ' un I lik li ·t nn t •t ho • . Th ·on· rt nr 111 • llr. . lu1, bt•g Hll and h Ht ld it be in th ' mid r f th' 11 ti n unt il th I ird nf dn r fH'' w 1k n d b,· tb <1 f d nwn . tht . 11 ight r •rl'll •r · nwk ' .tb w \ d lnn l ' r i n ~ wi t h tl ll•i r hi~l 1 •nrn in1l L s hull nl wa y r m ' l ll OL' r nt' m irw I .' JJ •n t in ;, rn ,·i n •. I ·t od in t he ' h aJo w ' nn I wut ·h tl th p b irtl · 11 • t he y ti i t('tl b t w •n 111 Hn cl 1"11 • lll oo n. ·at hiu rr th .in t' ·t np 11 wh i h t h ·. · f ' tl. lt· -.· eu tly t w )f th bi rJ alight d Oil It ·uutll II H nnd nbn ut ·ix f ~ t fr m a nd t h ind •s ribn b l • r utte rnl n · rn pnni d with wi ld fa u­ ta ti · tli tr ht nnd ba lun ·in rr iu whi h n f tb ' Ill intlulg •d I bu,· ll C' \'O t' · • n r p at d. Th oth r 011 0 sa t. llliii O')y lllllli O \' d. vVhnt tf t all th g ntt ral s an d fli tti1w mi O'ht llin- pr d u · d I am nu a bl e to prcdi t , fo r in .' hiftinrr m. , p o itio u I cau sed th e bi1·d s to tak fligh t. A s I Wl'itc lfu·rre fl o ks of bin k birds nr in ·ight. As I pnss thro uO"lt t he woods the bird s take tlight in fl ock s iu st: ad of iu pairs , and all of th e ir u otes and a ctio n s g ive to k eu o f th e :flitting of our summer birds. The u ew n otes whi ch '' e accnsionally h ear te ll us that our tmusieu t Yisitor s HJ·e appearing and o m· winter g uests are do ubtless on th e ir way.

.

irt s 'Uii u bav n t 1 hi s S(J Jl , in th uc v r b il e. RAMBLING THOUGHTS ABO U T FLITT W ha a t ran" b ird h . is ! I uf H rtlll ~ t' dai

BIRDS. b can u o t un n ttoo d . T h ·1· • I H • nJHt•thi

weird in bi tha br •nk ortla in llw ~ th

BY A. B. V AN V L EET. ing t wilig h fill t h • lt •u· H of lu· ... "P .

''Nor these alone who!.!! notes t io n · wit h f lin r o f a w an I f 1r hod i ll~ ti , f ·

Nice-fingered art must emulate in vain, Hut cawing rooks, and kites that swim sublime p ndin r v i)· b ot Wh ' 11 <Ht \ : iHit JtiJu in hi~ hn11

In still repeated circles, screaming loud, and sec a s w e ll a s h f\ r him Hill " th · H m h .. d 1i

The jay, the pie, and even the boding owl, s unde d o un a nn ' in t h ~ d iatnH<;: b • ·<•J •H· That hails the rising moon, have charms for me. " Autumn is here. The weather i~; still ~arm, but f raptar us 1 v f r t h · u::; k · m o tt l • I tn 1t there is a coolness in the night air that is a kin,d wh m he s ing s, o r f r t iJ s w · h ' llrt wh o . 1 of premonition of what the breezes will be in the he is try ing to win. 13 s id •s hi s u s u n l S < n g, 1ll near future. The corn and fruit. are ripening and the " click " with whi ·I• it i. so oft •u b · ri 11 • I already the leaves of the trees show signs of the Las a lo ve n ote whicl1 I latve 11' v •r 1:! ·n 1n nti fate so soon in store for them. But none ed by any writer. It is dili1cult to d e s ·ril • of these signs are neccessary to tell us that winter the syllables koo-ah, k o o -a h , u t t r u r ntlt r s l w is approaching., A few evenings ago, as I sat near at first with gradually iu cr e as iu r n pi li t . , gi\' l the window at work I beard a sound, at first faint, som e notion o f th e so nud. I c all i t a Jo 11 t ' ·hut gradually increasing in strength, until it came bec~use I have n e ver hea rd it e x · ·pt d ttrill g tl matmg season. distinctly-whip-poor-will, whip-poor-will, whip­ poor-will. For several days I had been listening It is only by the exe rci se o f O'J'Cnt 1 n t ic 11 c 1111 for it. But what a change from his song of the the los~:~ of much sleep that th o habits of t h e wllil early spring! How long drawn out and melan­ poor-will are ascertained. If y o n r c all.Y wi s h t . Of som e o f th ese we hope to speak through THE cholly! Already the iciness of the approach­ ( 'ouRnnt at som e futur e time. become acquainted with him, s el e ct ·o JJI ing winter has chilled his spirit of song, and · in­ grove where his song is often heard. About 8 uJ 1 stead of the vociferous greeting of the spring, we set, hide in some thicket. As the twilight d e }' ECHOES FROM THE MUSIC DEPART­ hear but its echo- the farewell to his summer ens and the shadows lengthen, the e v e ning soJl!-­ MENT. home. ~ters a.re heard .as .they p o ur forth th e ir very soul ~ It is with pl easure we t ender our little mite to For several years I have listened ·for his song m song; the chtrpmg of the sparrows is heard o the Nebraska. State N ormul School Journal as it of greeting and his song of farewell, and it is every side; the low, plaintive wail of the sere c introduses itself to those interested in the problem truly wonderful bow punctually he obeys the ­ owl is heard, as he pours forth to his lnrge-ey Of educatiOI; , realizing that music plays a very Paternal instincts that prOIJ?- pt him to seek his mate, the ecstasy(?) of his love ; the mournful 11 ot itnportant pat·t as the tide of civilization ad,~ances. northern home and those that prompt him, at the of the d ove are heard in the di s tance, and the in • Th e add age that ''The safety of a building is

'

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l

it f un nti n " i if ,Y OII will ' HI t in th

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th' hnrd . d r;

m ath runt hi ··

uni nt •d with th whi h 11

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nd av r mn h i' ruakiu th m fii i ut in btn in d . in th ntnr: n in th rudim nt ' f

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imp ll'ti n Th f r

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k. tll t kl ' f r d r ill in

l. ar h r brouO'ht in o nt a wi th p r ­ b ' t autho rs of Eur p and Am ri a. and th , anal •ti tud · of th ir omp iti ns i fr 1. ' indulO' d in until th th ughts of th ar­ ti ~ ti pr d nc rs b come their tho twhts !lJld th ir h art ~ b at in mpa thy with the"e 0'1' at m :n t hro ucrh th grand revelations handed d 'wn fro m th eir sublime minds. Thi · las is now well orga nize d with a lar\1'e r I:) m embership than it has had for som e ' j e ars and promises to _d o excellent work. There is also a class of stude nts who decide that th eir success in music finds expression in th eir fingers ends. The doo r to the department' of instrumental music is always ope n, and students can a.t a nominal expense fit themselves to make joyful the ho me or concert hall. Harmony and musical composition are also taug ht in connection with the instrumental de­ partment, and _preparation for the conservatory of music can be made right here, saving at least one year of study abroad. Now we have introduce d ourselves, we trust, to you:· favor and shall be glad to speak to you agam through the school journal, on some · of the phases of this subject, which rank high in the development of mind over music matter. Hai·monically Y oui·s, . E. M. L n•J>IT t' .

I

·J


14

TH E

L·FJ~ ·E ~·

THE NORMAL COURIER .. BUSINESS DEPARTME

F

' ltEI' .

TE.

E .\ t'll om• dt•:-in· :-< n pit • • in .'' ltis w • 111 ·t il l 11o 111 •r •h· lu 1 ~ 1 ·i ty w hn t im nu t! r ic·h ·:- ur •. unforltlllt •1 .'· . d .,.n •d ml · t n fh· u '' 1111111, ' I ll ·11 •• • 1 1t )l t~pl • th •r nt l • i11 111111 1.\ " c·u. • , ··ki n ' ~ :-< •1 "-t• tll tur 1 ut h ir )11'11/-{n'.• i. ll ll \\'car!lt,'" hl' 11 Ill . 'l' h · n • t1 M lf-t· ult ur • is fc uml Ill Hh· \11 ('i li lT j 1\ x p ri c u · , k11nw l l· d ~l . ' ' inin., • l11 · ti ) Jl und 1111d in b v •o tu inu· IJ • t r 11 1 h: r m •n nnd lid :--­

h · 1 rn · .. i.. n .. • · ·h-

h· pr··· ..... ;.... . u nu n ,.• ,rk fnr • •u 1.' : d. tnon b r a)' ·nr hut f r n lif .: iuw. hr ma ,. <>D •I1 ' r tl IH iJtlt-lltl '' •, t•h · l1 • ·lam•l·r '""' \ill li" •.

but th •ir· v r k '" r rn ml •r hn i i

ADVERTISING RATES.

Per inch, single column, ingle in r ti

Special rates furni bed on appl icati

managers.

JAS. E. DELZELL,

JAS. H. HA.,YE , f Bu ine

'E

Ji g wh r f r i i " 'w ·In

T.

0

M, na

r .

STftTf, NORMftL SGHOOL.

rro w an d b

1 tq il.

Faeulty. GEO. L. FAR HAM ' A · ·M., p fU N U' A l ~ c and tl · ·and the Art o f Teacher of Psychol ogy, EUtics • Lo,.; . , . •• tc . cacncc T c.-'lC h mg. ,. '

.

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r

Jl W' i 111 por· llll I I H h '11 I J.n •\' •J'.\

houll b . a u •nr 1 •rf · ·t n . i i 1"'.. jJ,I ·

t b . Il • i th · 1 upi l t11 otl ·1. unrl Itt·.' . in

viii p r du· · o a g r •1 • t •nt .

wa t b ·!ta ra · ,,. f tIt •ir l ·:w h,1t· .

M~ E LIZ A c. MORGAN , PR P..C I'I'R l'.SS, T it iuflu n · ' h i<:lt n t ·:u·lu·a· la:t"' 111 nat

Teacher of Latcraturc, Rhetori c, General His tory a nd P hys ioloJO'. tH ·n lt; a nd all <'ll' ia· Hllll ·111. " ill

H. B. D 'NCA • o:-;.

Teacher of Bota uy, Gco iDg"y and z oo log y.

n m r 1f t It . an · · ·t;H 1r f n i lur ·, w Ia it ·It~·,. t ·•· A. H. VAN VLEET ,

b t han an l1in ' •I H •

tronomy.

Teacher of Chemis try, Ph ysics an d L a t a ·h t' w h i H l ttl( ' ( ll\ 1 h 111 It i~ t ll :l n n

G, W . E LLI , B. A.,

Tcacht>r of ~ a lh e mati cs an'd L:r tin.

wh ·ann ·o n r ,1 h i ~-; t ·111} t•r, . p · tk i tt MlS BE LLE TllO 1AS , v l , aJ d h na n' hi rlt ·r m o l i\' ·i n vi ·w Teacher of chool Economy,, McUtods, and upcrintc nd cnt o f ~'ra i n i ng · .. . MI l\1 . E LLIS, . .J'· h . ar I' ·itati o n aud 'UI'II 1\ lit t I . )li (I JI ' ." . Asststa nt tn T ra ining an~ Ki ndergarten D epartme nt. ') . : sch . Jr o m. Wlta kind c f u H ·ltu(JI w il l lu• h )!J FLOREN CE M. W IHGHT, · It will U ju ~a h is . Tl1 ! pup ii H wi l l I · \ 1 Teacher of Oral and Written Arithmeti c. . I. ·t er ar 1 · and eli <1b<: li ·u t a tt I at· ' MlS JENNIE McbA ' E

T e:tcher of United t;'l t cs 1,,story ,. • y. and 'Geograph anxions to lean~ f o r t h ·ir t at:ll <'t' d "MIS. ::\1ARTHA WINNIE, h lp th em . Teacher of L:t ngua~ e a nd Grammar. -: •.... L~t an 0t he r t a ·h r u t 'I' tlt H ·l10o l ro o tn , wh · ' . MISS ANNA K. TRO CK llf.U

c· · ' · J avtl Government and Bouk · KI!ckang .

· •

J!:VELYN BfRSS

Te.'tch er o~• F ars · tP reparatory. ' •t '

E. ~1 . Lll'PlTT 1 d '

.1"·

Teach r of , . '

O~oi

an

Instrumental Mus ic.

MlS fENNm HOYT Li brarian and I ' · Sten e~ - b - ~tp1cr.

Th · w ho! ,

phere ·is filled w it h pleas antn ss .

]011'!\i BLANKEN . HIP Janitor,

ts.

actions, and may t r eat ]Jim. with d i

t h

Boarrd of Edueat·ton. HON· A. K. GOUDY ....... . ...... . S , . .

ON J. E . HILL ... . ... . .... · · .. upt. ~";b. lnst., e.t··officw, L u1 co ln . ]JoN: B. :E. B. KENXEDY ........·.·.- .·.· . . State frcasurcr, e.t··o.fficio, .Lin co ln. Jl ON· c. w . KALEY .. . ... . . . ... . .. :· · ·· · · .. :· Omaha; term exp.arcs 1882 . ~ON.J. T . PENCE R .. .. ..... .. . .. .:: ·· .. ~ cd Clo~d ; term exp•_res 1893. ~!OS . CHUR CH HOWE. . .. .. . .. . . .. D.tkota Ctty ; t('rm ex pares 1894, ]JON . w. E. MAJOH . ... . . . .. ·· · · ······ .. Auburn ; term e xpi res •89.>· OFF!~;,~·~;·········· Pent ; term expires •896·

..

KE KED¥

Tl11!. llOARD.

B. E. B. .. .. . . . . . . .. .

A K GO DY ... ... . · · · · · · ·· .. . .. .. ..... . . . Preszdellt .

J. ·E .. HILL .... ·. ·. ·.·. ·. ·. ·.·.·. ·. ·.·. .....·. ·.·. ·. ·. ·. ·. ·.·. : ·. ·. ·. · · ·' .. · .. ... : . . ..... . . S ecr etarJ'. · · · ·· · .. . . .... Treasu rer. EXF..CUTJVE 0 MMITT £E •...•.. C J!URC11 HOW E,

W E •

M AJO 1

HS.

.

to learn that which is distasteful to ns.

Perhaps t h e ch il d ren a r c a~ iirst

,

GEO . L. FAll \1 !1 \ '.f

\,

ln t hi w nnt nr ' p lan. 1\ b . Ill' miud f Il ow a.l ik ur \V make rapid p r g rc s -· m · one t n d ) Wtn ' · 11 w " fi n d easy and nttr•:t' t'n . A notu '- r t nd) mn • b ddncnl · ' t and uninvitinO' · H e re I· S menta1 r e 1. tan Then the right a11d natural co ur e i to ''move m t he direction of the 1 ast r sistn,nce. Our ed ucation to. be compl ete must contain some knowledge of everything, fo r we must h ave broad views. But we have n ot t ime life is too short­

aim is t impart kn o w ) •d -r :, b uild up .and aid his fe ll w-lJcin g s. Hi s t r ·ad 11 p ) JI f) or is li g ht, lli s voice js 1 w m I. b nutk • commands, but all requ

HI

I'

u·,

Teacher of Rcadmg ' Draw •n~,

T OS J

the teacher docs not change l1is way· ,

W e h ad

lw

better know that which we enj oy, and k eep our ''u mversa · 1" f acts m · our E~ n cyelopedia. n ear by.

b

W e n eed n ot have teachers to b ecome cultured.

uct .

same from clay to day. · . Tho c hil<.h •n

change, they love the ir teac h e r and at t h • c l o '

'N e have our s ubj ect ; we have b ook s, and we have

the term, there is p e rfect obedicnce , .alld lt a r nJ0 1 prevails. : . ' · · · ·

the will.

We have then onl y to study, think and

observe:

The cultur e this brin 0O'S to us will be an

So it would be well to r emembei· tlwt snc<.\1 .

"open sesame," to th e society of the best men

I

in teach ing r1epepds great ly upon tho intll~ G I ~c

1

and women. This we can have only by b eing

the teacher, for i,ntl nencc is tho co ntr.oling . p~:n"V c worthy.

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ry .

T h " ni l' Ia thi nnd fl n w r itati n r a , · m m dat th n1. 'h' l hil mn t h 11 11 and E Y r t t

tu th in r st.

f th

tan~h t in th

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Th bat tlli

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f th Yi itinO' at th N wmal.

Mr.

l'Dl

t in th rly .

f

T

las

f .

ba b

ll

. A . f th TheY. M. and Y. W . haY arrau()' d to h ld th ir ann ual r ec pti n in t h N rmnl buildi1w on atnrda ' e' eninO' the u±. Mi u an B. Authou will d liver a lecture in the chap 1 on Monday evening the 24th. n

Th El ctric lig h t plant is underrroinO' b b some nece sn ry changes.

CHANGES IN THE FACULTY. For three years past the ranks of our faculty have r emained unbroken, but during the summer vacation .several changes have occurred. Prof. W. E. Tay lor, whoforthepastfiveyears, has had charge of the d epartment of Biology and Geology, has r esigned his p ositon to enter the Chicago ~ niversity. His purpose is to further his researches in Science work. Mrs. Taylor accompanies h er husband and · will enter Halmeman Medical college as a student. Their fri ends will find them at 552 55th, ' St. Chicago.


16

TH E

0

Prof: H. B. Duncan n wb wa ,t he vacancy cau ed by P t· f. Tayl r rmal ch I in graduate d from the erving one -yeat· a prin ipal f th Hampton, he enter d th tat ating with the cla f 0 he served a ch · · nu t t tb xnard ' ugar fa · 01' • • ~t Grand I land , and wa there 10 • the Indu trial D p t f t!J His Norm al trai ning r ·ci v ·i ntifi c t rain i n toge:ber with his thor ugh rece!v~d ~t the tate n ivcr itJ' a. ur II ·n work m hts depar tment. H ubbard ha pl ~nned t hav a ar f r ~e ·t and tudy. 'he cxp ct t pend thi t im · m New York City.

Mi.

. For eight ) Cat.. pa t

Mi

Hubba1·d had b ad

m charge the department of bi.'t r) n11 d , o ­ raphy. All who are so fo rtunate a to bav IJ n pupils in this department will lon g hold Mi . Hubbard in plea ant remembr ance b th a teacher and friend. .The above mentioned vacancy i.l n w fi ll d b Iorad . MI s J ennie McLain , of :B ort 'ollin , after graduating at the Colorad State Agricultural College. Mi · McL ain taug ht i n t he P ublic Schools of Ft. Collins. This position she r sig n­ ·ect ·rn order to go ab wad fot· travel and study. She pent month in Germany an d Switzerl an d, ~n equal length of time in F r ance, an d some tim 1 ~ England. During this time she b ecame profi­ Cient in the German and F rench languages and on her retum to D enver was teacher in the Denver public schools which position sh e r es ig ned to take the one she now occupies. H er former training supplemented by this r ecent travel and experience prepares her to do effi cien t Work in her department.

co li.

T HE . E lli

"

h . ( .... •· ·

h r uru ·rl fJ t ·a hin ffJr h · In fh h r nt hu. inJil nnrl all h • prurnr, i 111 "ran ·1l x ·c pt ha o a p ri tH'iJ nl hip. l h a h t'll n ('OII\'it·tiou ,.; h s 111 irn · hat u tlnf·(· in n • · or111:al • ·I a tf rd em t n npJ r urai y for n·l~ nn•l in th ' 1 1· J ff' ion h 1t uo pul,fi•· !o<r·lt•·.. l ·aw 1(I ttibl.'· .;,. ·.

1 11 E

II\

'IIJE OnJanual'y 1: . J, !J l n Kf w idy kw•wn n~ .. lJra k a A ·a I m , 1f , • ·i •n (· ':i wn . oq.~: u a i/. •tl. 'I b fir t tJ1 in , w JH h ·ld in IH· l · rr in·n~i ." II at L in · l11 brtu~ka a ' hi <·h t i111 · l i f l y - w 1 s ns w r d ·J ar · ·h a r t r 111 •~tllJ(•J' . ,f tl t i.· l\ • ati o. 'in · tll iH t iu w Ia • 111 ·111h ·r lti 1 hn~ · cr a d a u d th w ork w lti ·h h u~ b · • tt 1\(· ·o m pli, d b th in th fi. ld H.l tcl I · ·t ur ·- r o 1111 i .· ' ·t·y • · 01·agin t th c in r •s d i11 n a t u ntl .· ·i • Jl • The field rn tin g ftr' w II n.tt •ttd ·d 1n I inter c t manif st d Ly u lil Jllb •1·:-; in att ·tt 11111 speaks w 11 f0r t h e pr g r ~s w lti ·h <. hnt ::;k :t h .mauo in t h e p r ..ocnti n of ·i ntifi. · 1· ' H" nrc l1. •in.ti n n r · t it T he obj ct of tltis a and diffus iop f kn owl •d ' r latin g t <, scien ces in their wid est xt n t . T he following . per so n · co n s t it u t • t h ' the present t ime. P res.- Ch a rle s E . Bes:::;ey .. . . . . . l .. i n c It V ice P r esid e n t- Goodwi11 D . "w e ;, y . . . . . Or I

Miss J ennie R. Faddis who for the past f our year bas been one of the critic teachers in the Secret ary & ( A . H . Van V l e e t . . . . . . . . .. l>er Practice D epart ment of the Nebraska State Nor ­ · Treasure r l mal School resigned her position last J nne and Cust'o dian - .L awr e nce Brun e e . . ........ . . in lf Will make herself still more pro~icient by taking Directors { E . T. H a rtl ey . . .. . . .. . . . . . T .incolr1

H . B . Lowr~' ...... . ... .. .. I..iu ·ol a course of tudy at Oberlin Ol1io. The publications of this socie ty m ay b o btttjJli by applying ~o the Sccr ot a t·y . T h e n e xt m e ti•1• . The Vaeancy occasiened by Miss Fadd is r es­ Ignation is filled by Miss Mattie E llis of A ustin of the society will b e at L inco l n d nri!1g t h o }Jolt Miun " days.

I

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11-'1~:-0 :0. ,

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1\ ' 'X •tul to onr n ·w tf• wlwr n It ·ut· .' ,.,.1 ' nd ·an UH m· • h .111 h nt tlw.' will litul i • ,. pl.t vlt•r h ' ·uu },p Cl' n·nli~c· tit ·ia· J.i:.:la i 1•. th an in tit · ka , ·tn · ·unnnl S r·ls•" .t .

Yol · .·t, W< . J.\ .".' .'0 1.\ TJ

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17

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!Itt• S mu:ll. .. T iu " ' w ere th i nys in whi b I

ll'~:lll :-rrnJ nall y . i I " •n:-;il ly

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hrist. · ·

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w ith it ~ hu ll ' ar 11~ ' 1 t li i.' W It'

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rre r st ntl 11 s in :::ht rt. hdt r \Y( 111 n . ~ t m ·:dl

t l' :-i( \ ll llilllpt)J't:lllt ::: tt

x luI i f t'L rn that ' ·\\. hilt"< ,,. r , .. which 1' f r · •th glnr.v d .·· au I h 1 e fr )l\l r h f h \ s"<W intit u w rk . i bl -~ ud y kly l t:: m ti ng m tim ~1n d a Ill •ti u,... . ur L e·:td r w ' an n y r f ail nl is "r t rn; ' ·1\ t .r mio-bt nor in ' ' hi " w nt by my ' ] irit, nith th . f b, . l \Y ' I' 111

Tno fn•tJ IH' Il ly . _Y tlllll !! Inti it•:: w htl h•:l\· • hnm 1 att •nd :·who~ •I. fir: t m·;.d t•d llwir tH.·t·ustonH' I 'n •l i ~ intJs duti •s hl'('Hil:-<t• p f rh • un fnmil inr ::utTOI1 11 1­ i~tgs . T IHy tf,, !tot wi:-:h £\1 tn h • aeri'"l' p :trl in • a l,l :ti It :-: ·lt~>nl n11d prayl'r llll' •t ing wh 'l"l' ' " ' n · ta('t• will ht• . t rangt•. I .nl •r. w h •11 th •y 1 •. 111. • at·q uaintt•cl , t il ' sc·hool dmil'" :w 'Ill :-<o ur~• n t ll::; tt d l'Jt l;llt I uud i,·i I ·d :111 ' llt i, 11 n nd 'lll'l'gi ' :-< . Thl• H t ' ... t· '!'Hi lt i H <L g r:\ l unll y in ('!' '•t:-<iHg iniH:ti,·ir r nl 11 o· t it ' li11 ~ of I'<' Iip;ious w rk . ' ~ ,H RI. ' 'I I ~~ TllE N n l •r n •nth tit t l II ' I· ll tl l l' I ll ad \\" rt tl \\" l'B a r , f.o ttnd : t·l•' ~rn ::; , i. ,n •ll w an d intpe r f •ct , nnJ .11 <~ 1,' 1 P~' ::; • tL· ' 111.1~ in to th • e ·:u-t-h tt) '.J ri no· f tth • hri -t nuthoriz d h i · f ll w ·r ~ to p r a h

_a g nut tn t~ Jl ·w It t •. , > t hn t 1 nr t f m· llfltui· \\• lti. cl t li · tlllcl •rn <•·t t h ' o JWI t h pla d in th ir

., t l' t l1 • I1 •n ,· y ·t o n • of i n n ·­ :tn ,ty 1n u ·t < f .11 c l •. ·'I t • . I' lll:llll . · k e "ping t h l n n, \ · ll th at \vn ~ to be hi l d ll de p in llll d . , . ' ' OI c I. 1 h n ' •J of '111 . · · • ur bnnuw u atnr t o r emain nntil it in tl nen c 'II < 01cran tzntH n wl11 h ' ll urn; ~Jitri s1 i<Lll ffo rt o 11 t it , plt I' t 0 f '0 1111 o· W Olll ll l. ' ho nld p r m at t he w h ole . He left t h m to ::;o w Til a i nt- f t·]1' a · · ·tH.tiOu. · · ~ >bvio tJ::i. 1 ·, t h m to t h good s d of th e Kin o·d om, whi h should 11 n.ke t lt e t nd H t ::; a q un intccl " i tl1 p ri 1w n1 aud bring f or th f rni t unto life t rn al. u au th •r ·<' f urn ish t·he m w ith r ,11•0 •1• 11. ::; 'i\. I'I\: \\ lll. C 1.u I• t; The, · w r ~ to b e t h e sal t of t h e ea r t h. The) wer e .c .nli_nrl y t he it· o w n , nucl to sup].>l m on t , n ot a n - to 1 t t h -ir l ig h t shine b efor e m e n. <L•ro iuzc , a ll o th er r e li o-io tiS ,vo I'1C Tl1C Cl'VICeS . As mni•y and as v a ried as the m etaphors use d hrist m·c th e fo r ms a n d m eth ods of Chr istian by 'f t he Y o nng · \"¥o m an 's Chri stia n Association ca n ry n o m e am; Utkc t he p lace of t h e Sab ba th school, work. A silent influe n ce is like leaven . A quiet . . ho ch lll'ch s orYi,co, o r t he p r ayer m cotiu o·. I n d ed word , spok en in season , is a se e d that will b e ' som e da.), a test of t h e so il that r eceives it. A '11 0 of t.h e chief in dicat ion s t h at th e as:ociat ion is Ccomplishiug on e part of it s a im is £ound in the g ent le admonit ion w ill often stimulate t h e n oblest ~tct that its m embers a re t h e b est wor kers in all l)urposes of a f altering soul ' whi le the w or d s ,. t h e acts, the life of e ver y t rue b eliever will be a~ a <1o ~l epartmen ts of christian service.

) Th e Yo un g W oman s Christian Associn.tion of lig ht t h at cannot b e obscured . I~ all t h e fi eld s of u sefulness ope n t o t h e lo .N e brask a State . Normal sch ool has for i ts .bj oct the spirit uaL a d van cement of t h e y ourJ.O' of Christ, the Young M en 's Christi an d isciple . b o:men of t ]u,,t in stit ution an d the uni on of their A ssociation finds employment for the talen ts a nd 1) .; "ltian effoJ'ts. energ ies of its mem b ers. A s a f actor of t h e

..

. I


18

THE

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lu church, this organization is proving m t ffi ·i n tJH•lll ill :111 t· f 'l'li\'(' 1i1: 1111\'1' l :\11: uJit•llt'l' . .. in reaching many who otherwi e w uld n v r b CJ ·i . ) . T lw tlr:1111:\ it· ,idt• n · IJi, IHI ur • i: lt \'l•lnpl' I brought under religious influence. h · Phil ... : r • fn•lll iuu· " tiull·. 1., It in~~~~~ :w~l pnn ,,. I . .. ·h· ••• - The work of the association in the rmal ha till 11·-. Ita .In· l'alh tl fnr \\ ltt•Jil•\'t•r hl' lill• ran· <'flllllni ,,.,. ,.,.,., fi. Th · :h~ ... IH' it· 11atur • i:; pltn:'­ begun well, owing partly to he teady d t rrni­ nation of its members and in great m a tlr t th vd J,, lw \ ~tt•,d and i 1 I'IIIIH'Il :II lllll"it• I lt11t i:' lll'artl :tt ,., t·n tnvt• i 1!!. and loy ln.• ht•nu iful compact organization effected at the annual 1 ·ti o last spring. The officers of th e as ciati n n , l:tl.!t·:tll\ that :u·t· ::i't·ll nnl.' ''l't':l .... it•ll:llly. Pn·~~~ n·<'i at ina..; . in <·n•.. in~ Jl:lrr:u j, t' and t'amilin r constitute the executive committee. Ea<:b m •m­ 1'"''111'- :u·p gi' t'll :t:: dt•d:uu:ltinll" . In- thl• lll\. lllh •r:: . ber of the executive committee is the cbainnan f :IIIII rl~t·y !'nil. t i lilt• :\ 1 t·:o-n·lh 111 a.nd in l1 1'l 1 ~ intr a separate committee, whose duty it i t att n fva 111n· nf lw litt·rary prtl!!l':llll. E::::ay" and ho 1k ll tb to some special department of the w rk. I'<'\ it·w..; :1r • :d"n lllllll\ 1 1'1111~ . and tht'y e: II i111n committees are composed of men who hav 1'\ t'l'!•i:-:v I ht• h<'::l judgl'llll'll t. t'lll'l' and t:l:-'!1 nf t •fill nf their devotion; consequently no int r t tlrl' :-111dvnt . association is permitted to suffer tbr ugh n g l ·t. T lrc· l' ltilo ,'nt•idy IIH'vt:: 1'\'l'l'\' Frida ,· t' l' l'llinn· f 111 • iu ~ i H l We owe much to our principal f r hi wi during tit • :'l""'iou of ::dllull :1 ::.t'\' l'll tl .'<'l< t'k . ~ m i11 sc·ll ,oJ - buiJ,Jin~. counsel and for his active sympathy and a i ­ <'OIIII l l<'ll ·t• d work t lti.· lt' l'lll wit h :th H t -!0 lllt'lli­ hi s puq o H •. Jt Hi · ·1 _,. tance. Other members, als of the faculty have IH·r:' , llll vxc·Pilt·nt l'llllit· of ntliet'l'~ . 1111 I ht' f nrn i It • I HO 11 shown us many favors for which we are thankful. 1'h • ~cH'i •t \" l IJrigh t ·:-:1 pn•:-:p t~c· t :: IJl~fo n~ it. It:: doH':: •1 r ' b As a means of increasing the effectivene f alway s (l}l l' ll tn 1·i:: it lr:: . E1· •ryonl' i::: · nlinll:· llll 1 !'till ll the association work, one of our memb r was ill \' if<'d to nflt' IHI its 111 •ting~ . a HI th ( Il L' \\' o n · ,f It · pl sent last summer, as a delegate to the W e t rn .-t 11 dt•11 t:: a r t ' spt't·i·tlly \\'( 1 ·o t nL· . \r , hnJ- l' th t•y ros i11 It buildin, u.11 I .,. •ry ou ,.h College Conference at Lake Geneva, Wise nsin. w ill al l Jll l ll witl t li S in lhi • int ' r t' -'tiwr Hill Ill' fitn a m llll •r f th · fi > ·i w i II l k l This gathering afforded a rare opportunity f r nU l \ \ V r k. t"' a or It " '"· :-; p ' l l th studying the methods of christian work employecl ne will in r joi n <•d i h · 1 1 in a hundred different college fields in the nitcd ''l'h t• f •II wing- ar • thC' fU st i lll , f ,. th . x ­ f r many b n fit f:l will b ] •ri v <l tit.,. •1 y. States and Canada. • anlitlH t i o n of t t• a<'hl'r::; in tlw ~ ( ' \ ' <'1"11 brn u eltc. a , Lite rary ad vau •m 11 t u nd The Young Men's and Young Women's Associa­ I' 'l' i \' d fr OIll th nie( (. I f \. . 1-'-· (:':l O ll (1\.. s up Irin ­ _ tions unite this year with the faculty in holding practice are th e principal t· <~ n ll'll t of p ub Ii : in ·t rn ·tio u. . the usual joint reception. September 24 has been society wa. rganized . It i g v •r11 • 'lll 1 ' B .<b ·rt LITER :\ l T RE. selected as the time and preparations are being Sti'tuti'on, a set f by -l a"vu, • "' • I. \ ':llue f p ~.: ri odi .. I I' of tit \\'' r mpnred with b o k"') In Ol·der." Th1's pat•lt'"mCJituJ' .... ... ' Y li"J't r ._.. w h a t ce ntury ct'1d peri oc.tlicallte . rn_ture . . ? co \\ - · made to render the occasion pleasant and profi­ s a 11 e. ho were th e rigi n a tors. interesting and instructive , and by parti it :'l in , .· • . . table. -II. 1\ame u I tern lead h ITie!IC..tn o r E n~lt s h r \'1 IV S o r m agaZl!l e ' th tlf n ce r ln e t Ose )' ll rea d . Altogether, the year's work opens favorably. in it, a StUdCllt may l'eCe iVC JTill h b 11 fi · d · b } ·1 · TTl. Wh a t ca n be d o ne 11,- 1 d . l ld cou 1ave gatne Ill n t or WLLY \V ll 1n . It 1 a tl y o r weekly newspa pers in We hope to improve our opportunities, and, un­ th e schoo lroo m? Can th <·r t 1 He will receive good discipline and 1 •urn )e c a ssed as liter a ture? \Vhv? der our Divine Leader, ~o accomplish some good lV. Lea din g d is tin c ti o ns o f · · ' to enable him to take an active part iJ l Ul matt c r, e nd 111 - v1e - w, l Ies 1red . .eff o, ra ti o ns and essays as to ­ subject that shall endure. 'd . ec t Upo n hea re rs , la ngu age employ• of deliberative assem b lies . Tho b oys en j c • lll o de of delivery. work especially. THE PRILOMATHEAN SOCIETY. . V. Nam e fiv e Ame ri can essay· ist s u~ n d fi ve ora tors a n d l he By joining the Philomatbean Society an d1 ~~-ntury in whi ch th ey li ved; Dante, Ce r va ntes, Gaeth~, C hauce r? 1Cto r Hugo, Ca rl y le, Mo tle)' , I 1• • For a number of years there has been connected \1" the work care f ully, a student will gain skill jll Thoreau, Goldsm ith. Vtng, ·vordsworth , Emerso n , with the. Nebraska State Normal School a useful, bate and thus develop his oratoricn.l powers. VII. In wh a t way d oes the politi cal or soc ial condition of a interesting and highly commendable organization, co great political and scientific questions of thO untry a ffect ·its literature? Give some illu strat io ns.. known as the Philomathean Society. The name are discussed freely and fr equently' and iu o\ VIII. How in teac hin g do you co nn ect literature and history? of this society teaches something of its character. to talk intelligently on these occasions the stll D y ou think it practicable t o a ny exte nt? Why? Philomathean! Let us analyze the word and see is led to extensive and careful reading. ''It I rx . . c o mpate- D'ld:ens a nd Th ac keray as to 'style . taste, plots, what it means. We find that it is derived from him in the habit of canvassing a subject, of r ,~:Ineati on of -~tha~act,~;h· ~,iews of life. Whi ch do you consider · · · 1 f · · · 't . g reate r WI! er. ,, yr two Greek words that signify "love of learning," mg It reflective y, o Investigating I .-systemntl 1 ' x Name th e Ii vi11 rr A . . · . · th '1 f t 1 ' 1 1 ' o , m e n can novelis t that you most adm 1re, and we think it an appropriate name, for it was of extracting e essentl ac s, lt~lC presen and the characte risti cs of their ge nius. 1

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\\' hat ri_rht ha1·c the nati IllS •xistin ·I ·i l'iliz 1':' \\' hat wa · th ~· I , di n id , why:

Ill. .\ n: · uch occurn:nce: a, the H o me::t :;t ri 't.'l> ·x nt.·nt. of a hi:h or I w uc,.-re, \\'h. t n ·w principle of cil·iliza i n In wh,lt ways t1 ·s th · il'ili ,, i cuJtury llirl· ·r fr, m that of the .r · ·_ : I \'.

(; n.~·

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\ ' . :\ !a ~ma h;rta--{a ate : (b) wh 'n sine ·. whnm ~ lt.lill ·d: ( I) Ry wh m'. \C) wh, I did it !':lilt: r ~ · r led? g) E.tTc ·t upon c i1·iliznt i n. \ ' I. \\'h, lis meant I y t he " ~ tat-s· ystn11.. t r ·• :11. n ' I o we r" ? The , r..l \\' th i whnt C{ untry 11 :t .,. •I H

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·tl Eur 1 an hist ry?

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\ ' Il l. \\' hat w:l!- the R , ,. lut i n f 1 · ltnplis h? IX. \\'h a t is t h pr>-cnt g- ,. rnm ~ nt due ·d? wh i a t t h head f affa irs: X . \\ hy w liberty?

Fra nce a ce nt u ry beh ind

S?

wha t did

f Fr, n E n ~l·

?

it

wh en in tr ­

nd in

p lit i al

I'll \' . I .\ 1. GEOtat .\ l'll Y.

f. O •s rib i'arly the cause f sur bce <:p ri n fi n int nnittent pring , mi neral , pring.

I I.

Tr ' :tl f cycl nes -Their

ri o-in,

f w ater.

m t ion, pe u liarit i s

etc.

III.

\

unt !carl) f r the dir cti n o f tr de w ind -.

IV. _ ta t bri fly them t importa nt facts rel itti1· t rn a netm. . D · cribe a nd account for the climate of 1\[ic h iga n ; of a h ara· of reg n: of La bl'ador. \ 'I. De crib th e U. · signal service. H o w is it able t o judge o f weather probabilities? E xpl a in the principles e n volved.

VII Descri be a nd ex plain the ph n o m e na of th e tides. Use the terms, 'spring, ebb, fl o w , neap, conjunction , oppositio n, q u ad­ rature. " Give rela tive heig ht o f tides a t Brooklyn a nd at Buffalo. Why?

\ Ifi.

Desc ribe the surface and dra inage of Africa .

IX. Tell wha t you can of the fl or a of the Amazon b a sin, and th e faun a of Austra li a. X. U se eig ht diffe re nt t e rm s applied t o the various forms a nd conditio ns of wa ter, explain the formati o n a nd n a ture of each. GEOLOGY,

I.

Gi ve as complete an o utline as you ca n sh ow ing th e order a nd relatio n of th e geo1ogical period and ages fro m the earliest to th e most rece nt. III. Defin e din and strike. of mount a in fo rmation.

State the m ost probable theory

IV. Describe th e flora of th e Carbonife rous Age; the a nim a l life of the T e rti a ry P e ri od ; th e formation of limestone. V. (a) Explain th e uniform occurren ce of course sand and gravel a lo ng the upper p o rti on s of rive r va lleys, while deposits


ES TABI..a i St-(EO BY Tt-(E C laASS OF '93.

20

THE

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of fine siflts and mud are fou nd instead near the rh·cr's mou h. • (b) Accou nt for successive terraces at different e lcvati in large river valleys. VI. Explain tbe following terms and show the geological i~e­ nificance of each ; (a) unconformable strata , (b) a com preh:n ivc type, (c) a tra nsition pcriqd.

VII. Describe fully a nd locate in geological time a11y jive o f the following: the rnegatherium, the trilobite, the plerodactyl , the lohthyosateu n, the mastodon, the orthoceratite, the g raptolite. VIII.

5· lmpro\· d:pcnd ? (,

X State briefly the geological history of Niagara Fails.

11\TELLECTUAL PH I LOSOPHY.

I. State the orde r of development of the mental faculties and show how a knowledge of this subject is of practica l im portance in teaching. Mention other ways in whi ch a knowledge of men­ tal science may be of use to a teacher.

\ hal is a

9 1'amc a fined cla · . Criticise it char to Odi taut,JIOfO'• pi

·' n' m, ,. riot i &y •

RHETORIC.

Province and aim of Rhetoric. H ow a ll ied t o Gra rpm a r and Logic? Importa nce of the study of Rhetori c. I.

2. Define paraphrase, abstract, translation. O f wha t benefit are such exercises to the student? What advantage have they O\•er orignal composition?

3

Literary invention-(a) Is it an art possessed by few or

all? (c) H ow may it be improved and strengthened?

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gra m s o f II. be xpI C)(I ecJ

H ow would you

Vll

Name 5 Alkalo ids.

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a m e f ur c ppcr a lts a n write the reactio n.

IX

X

What is aqua regi na?

Fo

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II

In above tri angle g i ven A '· I prove, Cos A=Sin B .

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if V W ha t is the a ng le o f e l ·va tr· n o ( a n ·I n • li n ·d 1 lan rises 6 feet in a distan e o f 4° fee t. . h t he ho rd H·r ._ p nt VI fn a un it c ircle wh a t IS t c 1cngt 11 or ing to the a ng le o f 45° at the ce n ter. . . 1, P rove, t he "• idt.:s o f a tria n g l · a r c pr p c r t1 o n~l VII & VIII the sines o f t he oppqsi te a n g les. IX As t he angle c h anges, s h ow w h at

ha n !} s

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f t i\' zc al num ·arri' r~ ri ~ . nml. th ' r •fon.' . harmfnl t i\1.\Y I A Y I Et', . . . . f ' ' UlTi\• ttJ Tn hi ' primiti,· "'t!lt , wh n ,J \ ~ . E. I ELZl... LL. 1

th fi tt ,,_f · pr d minn l lik all rh 1 w r f nn .} \ ,' .11.11 \ YS, 1

ltrni m <md n f I if . man f )n,..;ht f r xi t u •· . 13.\(" ; l l:\l \ ~ . . .. . . ..... . ... 1 HE.\ :::Lt E lL phil:1nthr py nr w rd ~ w hi h Lad n nt nt t th mimi f the primitiY man . T ERMS O F S U B SC R I PTI O N : it If int Tt ·th p r Indian · lif r ( ll . to py p •r Hc·h H>l _\"l'111", . . .. . . . . . •. . . ~·1. U. a,d ult pi a f r u _\..n d t t h ' i ngk en pi • · .. .. .. .. .. .. . 1-. 11 ud Indi:1n p·t thi ~ t SOC lET DI ECTOR:t Jn~tJy an b d -mand d . adnl Indian· bn th PHIL i\TATllA E l\. · · ·ic ty ·very I· ri day n:nin g d uring .· ho I tenns at 7 : ~ . attitud f India n' uth di pla. · ,Jec ial a ttcnt i n g 1\ · ·e n t t 1e 1)a ll· ng and ng· ·lll::! l wo rk 1· n ra to ry. th tn1 Am ri an ;:-pir it, ( nr lib r ti ~ w priz , J 1n1 Es E. DEI .ZE LI. , I rc!'ident. .w d nr righ t~ w will m aintain. · For thi EV E RETT 'OC IET \".

r :l n many are l "d to beli \·e t hat w ba,- th Fverv F r id ay e\·~n 1· d · ·

· e ng unng scho I term s. •e w st udents are ly in vited t J· 0 · . · . e ,")JCdal A m ri­ t,v o ]"," s-the 'Poor Indian and th ' 1n us 111 o ur li terary wo rk. cmt Indian. '' FR:\:\K i\I :\JLlR,;. Pr sident. y 0 11 ma ' exp ct m e to t oll yon that the Indian CO R PUS ELITUS.

Eve1·y f rid av even in or clu · 1-1 · · ·

on e of those idealized and e nvied few who a re · "' nng o lllday:; and sp n n g ,·acat JOn . H ARRY CAR.'Ol', P~esident. fi t onl to ser ve a lllorlels f or the . sculptor, to P l-IILLIPPJ\Nsoci E T\. po e f~r the artist, or to b e the heroes of the lyrist. . Every fr iday evening d u ring the s u mmer. Especiall y fo r Ou t he othe r h and , yon may expect m e to tell h1g~er st ude nts a nd m embers of the A lumni using the library yo n t hat the I ndian is th e prototyp e of all that is d u nng vaca ti o n . JosE PH G II .I.l i.A:-.1, President. base and £ endish , and is moved only b y the T H E NO R l'vT A L MILITIA. passi~n of r evenge. B ut I shall tell you that , as PR( F. H . B. D tl\ C:\ !\S0:-1 .. • .. . •. •• • • • .• •••••• . Comm andant. T. S . \ ' AN VLE ET.. .. . . .. ... . . . . . .. ... . . . . .. . .. . ... Adjuta nt. fa r as I can discern , the Indian is like any oth er A. Q UI VE \' . • . ... . . . . • • . . • . . . ..• • .. • • .• •. .. . • Capt a in Co. A. man un d er the same cir cumstan ces. H e looks D IC K N E:\ 1. •.. . .. •... . . . . . . . . . . . .•• • . .• • .. • . Capta in Co. B.

a ronnd h im and pronounces judgment upon w h at TH E NOR l'viAL MILITARY BAND. comes to h is vi~Siou . H e listen s, a nd his hear t P RoF. A . H. VAi\' Vt.EET ... .• •• . • . . • . ... .•. •. •.•• • •• Leader. swells or sinks as t h e immediate e n virons woul d HART SHEI.LHOJU\ .... . .. . . . .. . . .... .. . . . . . ..... . . Presid e nt. insist u pon . He has his discou ragements and THE ATHLET IC ASSOCIATION. H e lang hs w ith th e joyf,ll and R . D. MOR IT Z . ...... .. . . .. ...... .. . .. . . . . .. . ... Presiden t. h is en joym e nts. DA \ ; E:'\PORT . . . . • • .. . • . . . . . . . . . . • .. . . . . . . . .. Sec retary . weeps w ith the sorro wful; and \Vhile his breadth . . . • \ ~:-t>l'l.\Tr:

ive the chara :n u C>f Cl. . . . I &w Civ the a naJogte'l cxa un >c:

group. 1

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mental science involved in becoming a skillfu l pia n ist.

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How are binaly com und n m df

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isc • ctuan 1va nr ·

11 • . ltr rc:.•• l j, •II .

Ill Describe how Ct. i macJ"• an I 1{1\

8 Describe the i~tellectual proceeses, an d sta te the facts o f

9. Name several great scholars, a ncient or m odern, who have lllade important research in menta l scei nce or important con tri ­ butions to it. What authors have you read u pon the s ubject, or Under what teachers have you studied it?

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CliV.II

Deline conscience, conciousness, a ttenti on, volition.

7 Treat of the followi ng : (a) Socratic method: (b) proceed- · ing from the concrete to the abstract.

riJ '

Which form would Y u

' ' hy?

3. Disting uish clearly between the Smsibilities a nd thefacul­ ties of the Intellect. Give severa l ill ustrations of each.

6. State the distinction between concepts a nd precepts. Show how they are related to each other.

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tio n?

What is meant sense perception? By ded uct ive reasoning ? By an •l priori arg ument:

s.

U, r E

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2.

4. Describe the states a nd actions of the m ind o f Columbus, \Vhich led to the discovery of America, in such . a way as to show your knowledge of the mental condit ions envolvcd and their scientific classification.

I. I.

you

Describe the formation of soils; of salt heels; of coal.

IX Treat of the g lacial epoclt-its phenomena and effec , and where these effects a re observed in the United tates.

CHOOL .

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ESTABLIIStlED BY TtlE CLIASS OF '93.

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NEBRASKA. STATE

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T. S . VAN VLEET, .... .... .. .. . . . . . EnrroR. MAY w'f:NE, As I TANT EnrroR. 0

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No.2

PERU, NEBR., N OVEM BER, 1892.

Vol. I.

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NORI'VIA.L SCHOOL.

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TALKS ABOUT INDIAN EDUCATION. BY T .

STANTON VAN VLEET. I.

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The care of self has always been the primary S s. JON~S, \ motive of human action. In his unthoughtful HLAI.A. woNT, CE · · · · · As ociATE EmToRs. zeal man carries this to a degree unneccessary, J E w.ALLA , and, therefore, harmful to his contemporaries. ALly D.A.VIES, ECRETARY. In his primitive state, when the "survival of }!(A. DELZELL } J _A.S. E. H.A.YS, : · · · ·BusiNEss MANAGERS. the fittest' predominated, like all the lower forms :£C J .A.S ]3..A. GB~lAN, TREASURER. of life, man fought for existence. Altruism and philanthropy are words which had no content to S--~====~~~~~==== the mind of the primitive man. ~~AMS OF SUBSCRIPTION : ·To "the poor I ndian" life resolves itself into per s Cbool "'vear· , ........ . . . .. .;, ~1.00 . one copy,. s 15 a plea for existence. And to the average adult Singl e cople , . .. .. .. . . Indian passive existence is satisfaction. And why~ B ecause he has come to believe that this soCI ETY DIRECTORY. petition is m ore than JUStly can be demanded . pHILOMATHAEN. I say this is an average adult I ndian; but the ' fri daY eveni ng . during s~h~ol terms, at 7 :Jo. attitude of the thousands of Indian youths displays SocietY eve~Y iven to debatmg and ongm al work in oratory. ·al a ttenuon g JAME • E. DELZELL, President the true A merican spirit, "Our liberties we prize, SpeC! • a~d our rights we will maintain." For this EVERETT SOCIETY. reason many are led to believe that we have the ·ng during school terms. New students are "d event . .,. ry frt ay . in us in our literary work. two classes- the " P oor Indian" and the "Amerir.-ve "t d to JO . llY inV1 e F RANK MAJORS, President. can Indian. " e5pecta coRPUS ELITUS. . You may expect me to tell you that the Indian . g during H ollidays a nd spring vacation. ls one of those idealized and envied few who are frl"d a.v eventn _.., HARRY C ARSON, p rest"dent. EverY _.....fit only to serve as models for the sculptor, to PH ILLIPPIAN SOCIETY. . pose for the artist, or to be the heroes of the lyrist. / evening during the summer. Especially for ·daY h l" b f! 1 rs a nd mem bers of the Alumni using t . e ' rary On the other hand, yon may expect me to tell EverY ruden J osEPH GII.LIJ.AN, Prestdent. you that the lndian is the prototype of all thM is h e/ 5 ti OO• base and fiendish, and is moved only by the ·ing vaca THE NORMAL MILITIA. passion of revenge. B ut I shall tell you that , as p lJl'cA!\SON ... . .. . . .. . . .. ........ CornAmda~dant . . '"' }3. . . . . . • • • • • . . . . • • . • . • • • • • . . • . . . . .• JUtant . far as I cari-'discern, the Indian is like any oth er • P• j!:J;.1•• · c . ........ . ... .... .. . ...... Captatn V "-" VI.. " co. A. man under the same circumstances. H e looks UJV E Y •• • • • • • • .• ••• • ••. •• . • •••••• •• •.. •• Captain o. B. around him and pronounces judgment upon wnat N EAl· . . . ... l'JOKMAL MILITARY BAND. 'frl £ . yJ.EET ....•••..•............ . . .. •• Leader. comes to his vision . H e listens, and his lleart A B. vxr< . . ..... . .... .. ... ...... President. swells or sinks as the immediate environs would 'Ill~ 1. I.I·IO JH' • • • • • • • •• insist upon. He has his discouragements ann---" . j\THLETlC ASSOCIATION . ~HE .. . .... . ... ... ........... .... P r'o2ident. his enjc~ ments. lie laughs dRI'TZ · · · · · . ... . . . . . .. . . ...... .. .. .. ~·e~ r.::tary . weeps w :th the sot·rowful; 0

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of contact with E sthetics d n . ,, ' • • Ia •• p rmi 11 itilll:-ll·Jr' lll hi;-. Ill'\\ :-lll'l'lllllldin r:; willt II l'l'll JinL•:'::: Ill '· 1 readi y to detect the delicat llad f tlan·.lcJrin in wJ.idt i:-1 lilt>)'(· dt:tll \\'l' ('1111:- i. I •tH Jy t' II d llHlll J. the sun et or the prism n r t . \ ' H ,, •ll ' appr· ·1at t h • In 1111 ·wt·r 111 lu· third qtw::rion l :;hnlln~k y Ht '... . softe t notes of the weet- tbroat d ·II r· h , 111 ,·i:-il 1 r ·:-~·n· Hinn I clltrditw, 'ei11H I : ltll dl'tid' lll · 11 · h wa• ) sums It a m t e word b autif nl for yunr:-1·lf. Tltt•n· you wi ll :: •1• •ueh t•ntplc)y Do you ask why I tell you tbi~ l B . I diligt·Jtlly npplyin!! t'\'t•ry 111 •nn:- to h:tn• hi::: pupil · in the American Indian of today . t h F JU w a do 1h1• work . ll'i1·1l\' llt'l'nrdiJw 111 dirt•t·tilllt::l. .:"""' and I would have been under t1·ke :1r ·urn tan \\' hilt• lhl• t'111plnyt•:: n•1· •in• fnir t'•Hllpl'll:llti n Pic~ure yourself born and r a1· d with th aw 1111r :tl.!ra for IIH·ir lubor tltt• :~nlnry i:' no ~n·t t imlut• 'Ill 'Ill. enV1ronments, and you have pictur d a wbit _ '" , I • Ill I h 'l'l' i~ 11 ~uti:::f:trt iu11 i11 kuowin~ tlwt IHIL' man. The Indian is the " raw material · uwk · IH·•I... i:- 111 iliY.i Jt~ f ,.. n dl'liuitt• purp t:-'l' u ,·u::r Hlllt>lllll white man is the "manufactured artie! . lit hn· - IIH ll c)f poll' ll li ul t' ll ·r~.'' whi ·h . wht•ll ll'ft t<• it ~t·lf. ince returning from the . 'lndiau 'C'JUn tr-y th •y rna) • IJr •tul HH' d whic·h ·ith1•r i. wn :~tPd .... lil·.· ::utnld •riu~ ll'm•·nh barIll • ... I ... I . . often I have been a ked uch questi n a th hun ' I')' rnan \'ould r · f t1 ·mn<· :iii Jll'l'l'l ll. tJous. 1, Can the Indian be ed ucat d . 2 , . 0 08 L wa h I n d ir JIH.:d ·I Jtll ·., piny ·d 1-!" pa·l h . · m T ht• pri111nry .t •p to wnrd · initi1ti11~ th • ehil d readily take to industrial w rk o, ) y 1l b - 0 11 tlt or ., ·r JtlaN ·cJ. urHI fli t d · fai•· J•aiutin i111o tht• '' ll •w li fv" is 1 l•ssnn in lis •i1li tH'. II lieve t~at the enthusia m display d and h p 111 11 :-lt r i. · lit s ix u· ·lot·k. perform IJi ::: .. d 'tlil :~ ' ' cJf h • • ·hil lr ·n Jt .,. ·r ll\\ ' n \'lait•· 1 entertarned by those engaged in I nd ian Ecl ucati 11 1 r ·vi OR to h •ir l JJ •Urflll('' nt th' iud 11 "" 1 r·i I HJtd wa. lt nud ·cnub r ady fo r :i l' ' ' n l . •In •k are evolved from ingenuou principl 8 I n a 11 w r part rn n t. l,r •nkfu. t. 11 • lllll st t•llt. s.l(•t•p. aud piny ar · rto the first que tion I wo uld say, tb I ndian ·a 1 W b 11 h ' 1:1 ' ·ltildr ·u fir t ( •UIII • Illicit·•· ••ur· c• lai n hou r. dtu·i nu th • lay. \ uol h •r phase >f t he be educated; and more than t bi h mu t b th aud lJa. t. ul. T h ·y h lei hu r· l 'II " II <w life•" i. c·l 'lluliu ss. educated! tb wi 1t v r • II ri'OI' o f n. \'}Ji • u ' lutt nnt.·t l)l' tlt t• thuu O'Itt ' f !l hild whl Although the advancement in the sch olr tlt a a ·h ild J il d i · 'llJ abl ,f ltn.-l H••·i 11 ~· l h fo nn •r Ii f~ 11. ,. •r,. trd,• li ·eiplin '. ha ~ b u1 n is not as rapid as in the w rkshop, it is c m- pat·ent , 1 r I a n· · hn I p i · ut· ·d to t lt ' '" h t·llll o. \ h ' 11 ' 11 ld n l. · h · i.· bro ught iuto the ·c mensurate with the means employed. I have 1 11 fu l hazard(Jus lif a th<} g •n e. ·- f q t· ut ? F r ftll th ' ·e 111: c:n n i ·d nt ,r ith Indian youths with ix months schooling who kn w Ind ian u fa hun lr d ' m tts lt iH ('hi 1 1c l, · · h pn,ntpt ll ·. ' nnd pr 'C i ·i<11 of 1uilitnr · li. ipl iuc. American name of all the pupil , t he name c,f pi as d witlt ' ·h 1-l if •. ,. h · ·b i l<_1 t'<'g n t· d ~ ,. t h• · tr atlllC'Jt t th ' d ' \'(' ) pm ut f th the objects both in the different b uildings and on approa ·h wit} au's pi ·i n and illl ng li H' • . • , . · •·. • \1 a ·e •I l'llt 'd th a t n f \\ 111 nt h b ri 11 o· l the playgrounds, the names of the animals t he int llig ibl • w rd a 1 nrt uf a p ic t f o l· i ll , tt l t i ul. ll Jar k l cLa n..,. ·. r. bird , the in ects, and the flowers common to' their d st ructio11 . 'o, wh •n t h par •Jl t w k(· H l t i ~ I n I hopo to P nk mo r · f ull v of thi ' phn c in locality. The e sa10e pupils co uld interpret t he th e ch il d sc .8 v ' I'Y h 1 . v a n iHh an d 'V t: t·y d •:- t tH n t h •r art·i •l e. ' details" to the le s experienced ones, and could fo r living fad e awn ' · Aft ·r t h ' w Hutl . o u thll I lnt\' e 0 , 11 asked to a , om 'thiJt ·. abont count one hundred stick , counting by 1 's, 2's, of a nger and d is pair a fit of w e la n c·IH) ) ta ' fu dia Jt Ji teratnr •. ' o I shall sa , t his : Th 3' , 4's and 5's. They weig hed article on the chil d and nothing s ui t . }J i rn (•tt ' I ' t-h a lt torie · th at are •·ifo an tOu o· t ho n11 ini~in t d r la.ti' e grocer's scales, bought and sold articles, maki ng feet iso l;tion t hat h e m ay b r <o cl j n . i I ' n . • o of tlte· tg . nora nr e an d . t he . wh ite m . an ' s aLnse · change up to five dull ars in toy money, knew the hi uumi tigat d mi sfo r t un e . B u t (l f t· (' lt Onfid enee of t ho Indian sh oul d bo all o wed a. vast 1 ' 1 )ti s h a d I l eoTee ·· 11U' l time of day by clock or watch, and distiug uished " two seeps I 0 f colo 11 1 ~ 5 tave pasAeu ove r · o• l ite to th e ab uor ma lly p hilanthe prismatic colors. They wrote their own fc Uow sees th e abs urdity of hi s p r j l.t dg •d lt oti(' ~ 1l!:op ic mood::; of the a ut hor s. I should be as··umname and the names of their brothers and sisters abo ut school lifo, an d aqapts hi m s ·If to ltiH tJ I' 11 g .too m uch were I to ·ay th at sncl1 hooks arc intell igently. Reading s.hort stories written either environmen ts wit h en coura g iHg nlae 1·i t·y . f<'rtl ~ t·ne an d such other books are n ot t n w B nt I by themselves or their teacher was easily accom- this t ime 0 11 _ we have but to d e a l wit h 11 i1.n n ::; 11 111 t:lafo in saying tl tat many of the .books 011 pli hed. These pupils were in the / school room would .~eal .. wi.t h any . ch.il d . W 0 In tt ·t h 111 ltd iau id iosy ncrasies are m ade to sell. For this but tbr e hours each day, half of the time being patience · · h h'IS c111'ld'1s 11 emo t 1' o n s '· a t·• t' w1t -uncs ' t 1tey appeal to th ose e motions whi ch , clevoted to industrial work. m ust rest ra in, aucl at time s we n nls t ::~t tntu ln t •: 10 ug lt exactly incoitoTnons are most easily 0 · ·t· 0 lll:leC1, VI·.Z . , ptty . I have free-hand drawing and work in penman- all t1mes we m ust (·1·u.ect , a ·a l ' a nd ex pl a in · and r cven'o-e · There J. S n o . hip which you and I wonld not be ashamed to When· we think of t h e ir hav in g to. l e a t·p t () nbt h nt t hat many of t he '~e\~il ways" of t'h e 0 Wn. ways an d t h e langnagc of a p e o pl e _wlll c l? in evr tclian were t a~1ght him by Ji is wh ite brot her. ·'ext let u notice what the Indiau is doing in way is incong ruo us wit h eve ry prc vwn s lldi u en his i s. simply the I n dian ' s misfort une. T o those th line of industrial work, and the contraventiorps we are .forcod to say tha t t h e Indi a n J Ollth a drt )gaged in ed ucating the Indi~n it makes bnt {">

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lirrl(• dill'l'l'l'llt'l' if rh ."(' l' \' ih: :tn• d m, r ) inh •r 'llt ' tHlcn •i ::. o•· if tiH'Y nr ncqnir d y • tlf:l t \\'i t h tht> whir • m \II : th n' ~ i s tn n cr nlll::>t e 1lll d i r r 11 r · u p n tIt · 1 m m :l i at t: h· to mnk • g t) l t hi::: ·lni m. t

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l h·w ::;ra r• l th a t :tlll l'Clll ('h ~~ sh ul s htup-hr rh a t h child \Yill f~ l th ' n l' t't I' a dl'<1 \\' ill g;. L d ll~ t ·l k ' ~ )111' ' I' a-.. •~ l't r i llu s t m t i ) 11 . l n rh i:::.. ·1 ' rlt i ng:-;. Wt p n l'l't' fn m tht: :::i.mpl ·ompkx: ;md n~ 1 i.ctnr ~ f 1) 'l'~ n s an anilll;11 s ;11' ' m n· d iflicuH than th " f plnu Hllll li.fl' il.'~::; bjl'l't:S. \\' th nt t h l: I ll' d f r a dr;l w in,..: i. ' r t>a t rii-e nm ::d·Hu '::- " -h r thi:s u e d m a.y rl i •d: [\ ::\ it i::; ll ~p r i f n nelty t a. h ungt r an d. npply n 111->an f f)) d. , ,,- .m n ~ b -' g ,-,rnedb)- thi s wh •n.: n •r w introduc thi \\·ork. t:t k <:• a, c::1 ::; in a, primar.• rh l. thL~

litt} On e n a.r \\" rkin ' with pC< I. , l H:' 1.1 Jls, t th-pi •]\. sq na,l't';3, bl u;" n,nd t.ria.nn·le i.n th ir numb "l' l e.:; ::scms l et. them ru:n.w tll bj ->cts in e llll cti.ou with h pr bl 111 . For -'x ample 'iYhen a ch ild h ·1" th re<: p ea.s b for him let him t ell b y m ean ~ of a pktur ho" mn.ny h e h a :s. H e m a.y mak P t hree yer)' indi:ffl ren t cird<:>s b ut e,-el'y one of t h em n.lls to his m ind a pea . H e will tell -ou hi.;; number of tooth -p icks l)y mean of 1in "S . He will v.-n,n t m·ab inst ead of cirele " for t he ·be<-1.11 . H e h as b een led t o a comparison of form through his drawing . H e i s n ot satisfied to m ake the b ean s and p eas al ike in .]lis pictur e, b ecause th e teach er cannot tell wh ich ones n.re p ea s a n d wh ich ones . a.re b <:'a.ns; and t h e ch ild i s a nx iou s t o m ak e it n .ry plain th a.t h e knows just how many of e~wh h e has on h i s desk. Very soon h e will indicate the h ilum b y a. dot, and then he will want to know wh at makes th e h i.lum . W ha.t a mine h a s b een op en ed I Tlw sk ilfn l tea ch r now b egin s a series of \\ lH Jl


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proceeding, t h 1 ft unh d d. quare , oblong a nd Yari. u 1j · : j I t group ,- and al o group · in r la t ion t 0 lH r group . Thus ar pi tur -d ·l u. t<'1·. f ·h 11i •.• ba k et of appl , b ox f! of b eni. . lJir 1. ne t with gg(j in th •m, th b ird 1t _ . f•h H in group. or ingly- a h f t b •: · aC" ' M li 1 g to th natur of t h prohJe . P lant life affords u ·h a va 't fi'>] d nts of all age that w · h all · a k f -.; r k in that lin and y ou may ap1 ly i t a .· y ou li k . It will serv t o show h ow th w rk i. nri ·h by th ag ncy of drawing which lJ w '\: r oc·r ur but incid ntally . L t a class of stud nt. .·oak . om h an ~; r mov the testa, lay op n th cotylt·dcm .· . What g roups of word. can · o w()ll 1'. eril what i · seen a.· a iropl drawing~ 'J.1h b Pa.n p ri hes; th picture remain.· t o t "ll tlw .·tory . Let the t eacher but cr ate an ent hn.·ia .·m ill the art of look in(f, and th cieuc of. · -'eing and the art of <"XPP·'· i n '"ill foJlow. P lant ·om ofthe b -ans. D ig s om e of th ~m th follO"\"-d JlO' day. W ords may b ·t a. Tib th e r hang . r;:0 by refer:ing to t h e ·o~di.tion s rep1· :-:f'nted by a drawmg made pr "vlOus t o th planting . On the se:ond day th.e st n de1~ t doe ._o w ~mt a drawing t o show .J U t h ow 1t ha. changed . And when the l "av H st art ~tp­ ward and th e root: downward, wh y , a dl'awlllg ·1Jecome. . 0 much of a uere.·sity t hat th(~ •tud nt fet->l R that word. almw c·a nn ot ten t l1 •

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'J'h 1· --. a.r e 413 p ci s of tree found wit hin the limit f h e n i.t ed Sta t e . Of th -'f'; :sixt ee n . wh en p •rfect.l y s eason e d ar o h e m·y t h at t h e)r ink' in wa t er .

THE DR.AnL-\. OF GREECE. BY C. S . .TON ES.

Th e most ca sual observer w ill note the 0oTeat d iffer en ce l)etween the toni? of th0 ci -.;-ilization which prevailed in Hti ca a nd of that -.;~ h i ch Sparta d evelope d. Athe n s r ecog nized th e fact that t h e prestige of arms d oe s not, n e ce s sarily , make a nati on gre at. V\Thile Sparta vva s e ssentially a milita r y scho ol , and other stat<:> i mitated h er to a certa in d egree, Attica ch er i ~h e a an i(l.ea of nati ona l li f e whicl1 hl<'nfl c.. rl

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f -~r<-tn y f l wr iu mu. j · a nd ar t. 'Jl1 • prit:P.' Ll C • s. f nl eomp .otitor · w ·n · of ·u ·b a nature a t o in.'I iP t h !Ill t o . np1· ' llH' j fort. Honor wa .· th c vd •rl n :wan l. ·ut I wh th r b etok n d y tb ... · bnplc~ ,,.,.Path >r'th impo. ·ino- monwnent, wa . th • ·nd Hough t "·it'l l ,. ry fa ·ultJ"" It '"a · tmcl r th infl.uencc f f h •, c· cnn t ·.' t. ', , th at tlt Greek cl.ramati 't.' · mpo::wd tl H' p lay .' whieb "-ou th m th ·il: fam ·: A h\.1·•rc• m nnlw r wrote, and many with SUC' · •• · . \ " . h al l c n. i der a f =>w a~ r epr ·· ntative 0f th e ·h . .' . 1E chylu wa. born 412 B . 1. ; ,' ovh oc-1<' .- , 405 B. C.· Euril_)jdes, 480 B. 1 - Th t>.'<' fOl'IIH:!U tb ' GrPat Tra ric 'l'ri o." rrhey \-\'(']'(' (' () 11 (' nl p orarie. i n l ife, th ough no t in writ in o·. JE '('h rlu. is sa id to h ave h e 11 t il .o OJ'i o·iwLt or of GP 'k tra edy . Befor ~ h iH t im<· tlw :tage was ocC' upi<-'d by a cho r u.· a.ml one tL(' to r. The cha n tin · of th e choru · was t h .. priJwipa l 11art of the perfonn anc .. , occa.' ion ally nLJ·i c.oc1 hr a ·ort of nanatin! monoloo-n hy t l l! l a c·tor , or a. dialoguP betw n th e <:w tor aJ td t il <: lf·acler of th_e c·hom s. 1E f'hylu s. incr ea f;c d tl1 o number of artor. , and, by , uhor cliJ Jati.ug t lte ('born . . ehang"d tl1 P l yri ~al Pnt er tai mnen t int o th e dramati.l' . H e ''-Tote ·e\·entr tragPdie.· , of whic·h .'e \'(•n :"till mTivC' . "PromPthens Bound ' i s ou e of the bf' ·t. Ar ·ordin o· t o t he play , P r om eth e tt.' h ad ofi'e udr d th ~ c·hi ,f dei-ty, Zens, by r eveal incr to ma.n tlt • . eer t of fin•. Fm t lli.s h e wa.· c· ndemued to bf chained to a cliff in t h e Oan ra::-:u~, w lH'P h " should ·uff'er terrible t ortnr<' . \\.,.bile endtnino· t lri:'i . 11 _. wa. · Yi .·it ecl b y c t~l'­ tain mytllif'al h ing t: . int o wh o e ear fi h e pomPd ..;nr h d ..fi <:t nte of Zen . t ll at h is words haw hN'll t·mHpan•cl to the HC01''11 f nl boa t ing. · r ·att' r p<t l'

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done .., Th t-' \\·onckl'fnl energy of t hC' man a lm os t. l >n.sses b ·lief. I n t h t: ~addl e for cla !"1 1on t food o1· l'e:s t , 1w wa ..:; t' \.E!l')'\d wr e, direc t ing, <'lH'Om ·aging . l1rl p :n in g· f or a victor y which sl'lclom fai h~ d to :follow. As a m ilit ary g<'nius ]J t' i:-: 11 o t t.o b e compa.r ecl ·w it h au}ot.h er ma.n. I nspi1·ing i n his ~ol di ers such l on• tlta.t t.h P.\' ·would follow him a ny wher e. t h oug h into th e m outh of h PlJ its elf, h e ·w~t::;

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Yet even in the heat of th e battle with th ti n En rrl an 1-j 1mng- ha ndt-' shouts of victory ringing in h~s ears, hi bu y inhun-1an Turl in r 1 •r tIt a r brain wa planning government and law ' h 1 ' .·a 111<• L n JJ(· • 111 r · o11 a which should make m n free, nt rpri ' · which should make them rich, and insti ution. which should make them happy. In the midst of the carnag , this unf lin , ambitious tyrant(~), undisturbed by th bullets falling like hail about him, could find tim to pen to his wife in far away P ari word of love and esteem, with the b'f.l t wi. hes of hi ' heart that hi me age might find her aliv l n .·.·ia - .· •J tti - hat ·and well. Je t u • ha v t' ] W a f' •:' ' Enf,!· In the plague ho pital of Acr , wlt n hi. men were dying by hundred. unatt nd d by •,· j ] fi' O I I I IJ j ~ friend or phy ician (for all th · had fl. d fi·om a] 1< o n. p la<" the dread di ase,) t)lis "inhuman butch r "(?) d at th lt " PrPn r·l1 n ::-~,; i 11 J,,- ~ went from man to man comforting, n onra- majority of a million ·vot • , wa . · n tor< h.•. ging, aidin in every pos ible way th ,·uff r- . ov r i n f F ra n(·e t han L o ui ~ c._ pd h.,. 'lt'f'i . . er ·- an exampl of elf-forgetfnln R and d nt of b irtl1. ~~:~_: - elf-sacrifice seldom equal d. • :Napol onJov <1 lm·. ·, h-11 wa.· i t 11 f \\'t il Did ·pace suffice, . incident after in ident for Jhanre th at h · di l ·ine ], " h op ·rl t·o : tl'c.lin might be related to how that so far from b - glory by making h r tll ~ . r 11g <, t, I 1<:q>l ieM ing a cold, heartle s, inhum an wretch as he i b t da at d nation in t hP v;orld. ? H •f· g l or.'so often pictured, Napoleon wa. a large was hi.;hi h r ;b hw "r .: ti. ··fi_ e . hearted, ympathetic man, never wounding B->tter a tho u and tim · hav a t Ta,11 · \\·h< where it wa not nece s_ary ; never forg tting i lov d by all hi p •opl an L w i1 o ~<'! r i gn to repay a kindnes · or reward on who had brin O'S p a c , pl nty , happ in , , •q 1 a li ,,-. helped him in his hours of need. The friends than a c1 mocracy \Yith 1' 'Yolution l>louds)H' l. of Napoleon ob cure and poor, were till t1J e mob vi olen ~ . Franc e x<:ha11g -•d. t l1" ·la tt 1· friend of Napoleon, the victorjous gc~neral, for the form er wh n N a1 le n lwcam<-! 1on s lll: Fir t Con ·ul and' Emperor. who will , a y she cho. not wir-; ly? Napoleon has been charged with ambition. One gaz ,s l ost in wonder and a::;tonisl nn<'lltHe was ambition . but his ambition was to upon this extr aordinary man. R a i '<·<l fnnn better the conditi; n of his fellow men. 'TiF; obscurity to -a throne b .r hi · ow 11 g-~.:·nin t4 ; < tru he ought to conquer Egypt and to found conqueror no less ·o f annie:-· than of h ~ar t· ~; =n_· in the east an empire of unexampled magrtifi- master equally of th e art~ of war <-tnd peac·( ; c nee. He had already begun the work by a s tLldent amid th e labors of a ca~ 11 p ai gn, w i h freeing the tyrant-ridden Egyptians, by giving a library always by hi .· side; a m.arv J of inth em a free govennent., good laws and by r e- tellectual ability, mastering in an honr what ,.i ring th ir trade and commerce till they ~ost m en ] ab~r upon for c1ay~; cleeicling up on. b gan once mor to call t.hem.·elves a p eople; lns course w1th the rapidity of ]i o·ht ni11 g , then, turning to yria, he was_ just in. the act h e never varied from it ti]l his end wa~ of stricldng the hackle fmm another oppress- accomp1i.shed; unk1:o\vn' at twen ty, ~vm:lcl r e eel peoplr when England, aristocratic England noun ed at twenty-fwe, h e stands b efore thP -ev r the foe of progre s and th menace of v,ror] d a monument to wonclerfrlll o·e 1 1i n Jiberty- interpo eel her cannon at Acre and eonpl ed with indefatigabl e en ergy. Im_pm:.·toped JJis nobl e proj ect w ]J (-'ll almo t erown- fect, and wh o js not, still his own word~ Pd with , li CI'f't=:Fi . A grand Rpertacle , nr ly, will donbt-Je::;R h e realiu.. cl. \ V h en l:\· kP<.l to

lih ·1 . <·in·ulntl· I l .-,in:. him . he . ly '' il·lori ·:; und my work ,f publi · imtn It r II • f•lll _,. n •.. pnn, • whi ·h i hl' · 1111 • 1111 kc•. \\'IJpn th •n• :.hnllnu l · 1 ntt·' , f Iii I to lw found , -h' •n·u llHHllllll 11 n u iii y wl.idt I lui\· ' n •nn•d . dtt' t·c I •:- ,f I w • •hic:l 1 ltu\'t' funJll·d will dl•. t 't'll I 11 h • mn~t r . 11 I fu un· hi, tnrinn. will ,. •n ,....~.• he don 111 : l y '"." ·o11 t'll l pun ri ·~- · · ·oull · •r 1i11ly It,,. • uo mur • til luriut? rn num nt h 11 th t• hPnr f •It ~rn i ml •, ml ln. tin \'l•\f

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kn wn. tnu r w ho had nt 11 • tim 11 It m tltnt hi .· 1t11 ' t r ' hnd ha11ui rnft f ,. s \' ' rnl 0' ncmti ns. oluo)b u was t il ' old ~:~t < f f nr having tw I r th and n sister. Havi11g, at an ady a()' , viu · d 1111 inclinati u for t he s •a, hi s ducati ou was mniul directed to fit him for maritime life. 'W b 11 b was old enoug h he was sent to th e uui versit,) of Pavia, where he studied Lati11, ~ ometry, nstl·onomy, geography and navigation . After leavin g the uHiversity he went to en wl1en only fourtce11 years of age. Columbus was very thoroughly educated in all the arts and sciences that were necessary fo1· n great discoverer to know. For, in n letter written to ] erdinand and Isabella, he says: "Most Serene Princes: I went to sea very -young and have continued it to this day, and I have dealt and conversed with wise people, Latins, Greeks, Indians, and Moors, and our Lord has, made me very skillful in navigation, knowing enough in astrology, and so in geometry and arithmethic God bath given me a genius and t, •

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olumb u wa w nt t li\· "ith hi m th r-in-la'" n a mall tat n P rt th r hnlldr d mil s ut in the m • t an ,,h r t h y li ed for a whil in qui t n. H r th ir on Di go was b rn. oua E lipa was a g r at fa\ orite of h r father n.nd wa hi · on tnnt companion. She accompani d him ou man v . ages, and inherited l1is love of ad \ enture. he kept her fa~h e r 's journal , wrote man, 'aluable papers, and drew maps and charts r lative to her fath er 's voyages. As Felipa was , ery ambitious, h er fath er, at his death, left to her all of his valuable papers, journals, and chart:s. '.l;hese all fell into the hands of Columbus at his marriage. Here, on this little isla~d, while studying the voyages of his father-in-la~ and talking with his wife in regard to her father' s ide~s . ' he first conce1ved the idea of sailing westward to th <t Indies. · His good wife · shared his opinions nnd encouraged him in all his undertakings. Columbus now felt himself divinely called to open up new ways to undiscovered lands. But he was I . poor and must have royal aid. He made his first application for help to King


!2

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THE NORMAL CO URIE R.

John II, of Portugal. The King was greatl y interested in rna n't·rme enterprises and took kindly . to the 1dea of reaching the Indies by a . we tern rout~. He referred the proposition to a co un el of WISe me~ ?ut they ~reated the p roject as extravagant and ~ls:onary . Still., King John th ought that Columbu vrews might be correct and seer tly dispatched a ves et to ascertain whether th ere wa · a~y foundation for hjs theory. Althoug h tb p1lot was armed with the charts and map of . Columbus he lacked his courage, and soon return d ridiculing the idea. - In 14 4, he left Li bon with his motherl ess son, and went to Spain. At th e same time he mad application to the courts of Genoa a nd V enice, bnt ~oth refu ed to aid him. He stop.red at La Rabrda convent, which is only one -and a 1.1a1f mi l from Palo ' to beg for bread and water f r his little on, Diego. H ere he became acquainted w ith th e superior of th e convent, J uari Perez, to whom h unfold ed bi cheme. T~e monk was so well pleased with the grandeur of hrs scheme that he used all hi influence to procure for him aid from th e King and queen. Columbus left Diego at thi convent for the next eight years. From La Rabida Columbus went to Cordova, where Ferdinand and Isab ella were ' but th e ove rergns · . were preparmg to fig 11 t the Moor and had no time to listen to Columbu s. But here he al o gain ed friends. H'e followed the colflt .~o Salamanca. Here, through· the influence of fr~ends, Columbus had his first inter view with Ferdmand · I sab e1la was not presen t. Th e King .was mu.cb impressed with the proposition of reaclung lndra by g · . . orng we t across the Atlantrc, and ordere~ th e mo t learned astronomers and cosmograp ers of Spain to hold a conference with him and report their· op · · · . No lllron to the Kmg. report was made fo 1• th . ey pronounced it a v iswna,ry sc1l eme. H ere is a h' question th ey asked tiD; b '1 t ere anyone 80 fool'1 1 . . h t . 1 a to beh eve t a there .are anttpode with tl . terr feet opposite to ours, peopl e w bo walk with tb . . h . · en· fe et upward and their ]lead angmg down ~ That th · t. of the worl d' in whi ch all ·thin{)' : ere rs a par 1 . . . o are topsyturvy- w 1e1e tbc tree g row, w1th branche d · ' h . . dh . ownward and w e!e jt r:un. an ad upward ~ ' A · ·· ~ · gam Colu mbus m.aoe \'a!uable fn end, . R e now aided .tl~~ Sp~ni~? ~~my

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n a · ' n n t a I• by .am c ug r w bo f und t h lJ c r •c.; •i ,. · l i Jf ' ntiHtd a . e ngag d in t lJ •( Ill' a kindly r pl y in vit in ]Jim to •ra n nd a . That v ry nig ht l1 f ri a r it wa ~ H e lJ ad a ·onf r n ee w it h t h d ecided th a t 'ol um b u b r · 'OIIJ't . The qu e n , r rn e mu rin g J, i. p u v ·r t y ··c n seve nty d ollar to him t b a r hi s t rav ·l lin g ·x p en es, to fmni h him wit h a mul f or hi~ jo urn ey , a nd t p r o vid e h im with a n w ·uit· cl th es that h e m ig h t mak a r p ·tabl e ap p ea ran ce at the court. Colu mbus r eache d th e C ln·i ~:> tian amp, 1 · · • 1491,. the v e ry day of the surrende r f 'ntnn.d On the 2d day of January t h e Moors marc h l. out of the city , and the fo r ces of Ferd in a n d ani]_ Isabella to ok p o session of it. Thi~:> was a t inJ u f great r e joicing among the Spaniar d s , m1 d p O O t· Columbus was again neglected. He, dishea rtened , had just l oft G r anaJa with. the intention o f going to F r ance, but hi s fr ie n d p er suaded Isabell-a not to a llow him to go t h o r . She dispatched a courie r, w h o overtook Col nn1b1.1 when only s ix m iles frorn G r anada. lie r ct nrn a ct to Santa Fe and had · an immedi ate a udi e nee with the court. Ferdin and pleaded the lack of f nud s but I sabella said , " l ~md e rtak e -th e enterp ri se fo 1~ my own cr own of Castile and w ill pledge rn ~ jewels to rais e the necessary funds." He r eceived his commissio!l to make his cxped i -

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<•i!!hh·t·n .' '':tr .. -.inn• '••h 111h11:: had •Jt t l' r p r i.. l' . l'i!!ht .' l·:tr:- "· \\ hi ·It It • pen iu .'pnin p h·ndin~ f.,r hdp . . · .. w . in hi ~ :- jth y ·nr. a ft · 1· t lw pr iuu• nf hi:: Iii\• w :t:: :')Wilt . W • find hiw 1111 t lu· \ · r~t· nf :-111'1' ' "'~' · I Ul ' olu111lnt ~ W lh 11!--!lli n t'nltfruntl.·d wit h d itti·ul i • . \ \' hvtt hi ~ int .. tt in n.: Wt·n• lll:ttll• knn wn . h • ·ity ,,f l' ulu~ w:t ~ I h rn w u i 1111 till• wiltlt-::r •x<"i •rn nt. th · t,.,Jdt •...,t n f :<t> :lll ll ' ll :-:h ra nk f t ont t h t Ulll•rtaking . .\ II kind :-: nf dn·adful t nl t•:-: \\"l' l'l' hid ul CJIIt tht• unkntJWII d t• t•p . and in :1 ('t>ltllllllnity ·c ll t p O. •d of tfll' l lltt :O: I lltf\'(•JIIIII'IIII:-: :O: l':lllll' ll lf th ' a' · i wa : d 1: 111~1 irnp11:-::-: ihl' to fit 1111 th<.• xP •clitiOJl. I t ~l'l' II H' d :t:-: if ir would ht• a ~ 1 ·ri fiee lf L It li f• Hll d :-:h ip ~ . 1a r lo n wali uii'Ln•d to t h1.• 1 ri:::t tll' r:-: wh Wonld g o o n t. l: iH c n t t' rpr i:-it' . 1 ut a ll p n fl' IT •d tt r·ouHtin in th •ir d un gt•o n:-: nt tht•r 1k tn r i=-k tht'i r )j \' II II ·h :t Jll' l'iloll :-i j o lll'll l',"· W k · l:tp:·H' d nnd no n· ~:t·l ~ hnd 1 C' n pr ,.i led. T he ·it .!v ofli ·t·r · Wl'l' l' o rckn•d t n pr -: · Ill 11 and hip. in to :-;u rv i ·e . fntlll t' din tl' ly t h hips that WCJ' in t it <' ltHI'h())' of P:tlos ld t in rU t' !' to av() id t hi t> p crih HIH ,·oy:tg T h ' Pinta nml ·1 v ~u; t of h r Cl' ·w w 'I' \ I res ·cd in tc li t: n ·i .. J nan P e rez 11 w 11 1:1 II hi t> inHuc n · to h lp Colnmb ns fit o nt hi s e xp edition. .H p c r~:> nad cl llla1t in A lo11zo Pinzon nnd hi s b rot h r, in c u t P inzon, to c1wag e in t h e ntorpri se . Th e, r we r experi en ced navigator. · o f co nnwe and nbility , owners of v essels, aml hnd seam e n in th eir employ . Th ey wore r elated t< m a ny o f t ho eafaring inhabita nts of t hat place a nd exer cised g r eat inftu 3nco through o nt t h e n eig hb orh ood. The .Pinzo n broth e rs gave t he Nina, and, t hro ug h their influ ence, th e ·city appropriate d a third vessel whi ch Co lu mbus call ed San ta .Maria in h onor of the B lessed.Virg in. This was th e Hag ship , ·which olumbns cowmam~ed, and tho on ly 011 e that \\' II

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· io n c n • ·pti 11 t ha t wn t x·r ,,. n , th y tltnrt r d f r an tt•n tl t h b un d ' r titi on ">t 1111ku w11 , · :1 v ' il d in th dark nrri d t b y 1'1 1' ug •- . \\ hith r th .Y w nll b t h it· r hn·u w a s - d in ly kn ow n t 1 :mel d o u btfu I. Th 1 r pnrati n ' \\ c r ompl ot b y th, e \ elliuo· of \ 1wu t ::; o n cl . A ll night Colnmbn \\ ntcb d 0 from t h It ig ht of th e m ona ste ry f o r a fay ri1w wind. Th ,-e s Is tood in f nll sai l at the e nd of tlt pi r. Th cre \v h ad b een ord e r ed to e mbark but tb ey first r epai r ed to th e chapel to impl or e th e s n tni ning hand of P r oviden ce, and to seek fo r t he cont'nge and r esolution to bid, p erhaps, a l ast far ewell to all t h at man h old s de ar-friends~ n.nd hnm e and conn t ry . At three o'clock in the morning the awaited breeze sprang up . The roads from Mog ue r and La Rab ida wer e t eeming with life, . and throngs bad gathered at t h e w h a rf. There vvas scarcely on e pr es en~ b ~1t h ad a friend or relati ve ani ong t he adventurous band. 0 Columbus, after returning t hanks to the ''Give r of A ll Good,' ' r esolutely


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TH E NORMAL COURIER.

boarded the Santa ,Mar·ia, and amid weeping, and blessings, and waving of adieus, the little fleet sailed out of the harbor of Palos on Friday morning, August third, 1492.. There were, in all, about ninety persons. On the Santa Maria were, besides the Admiral, the owner and commander of the vessel, a Biscayan mariner, and his pilot, a nephew of Columbus by marriage; a royal notary to register proceedings; a physician well versed in the experience of the times; a Christianized Jew; a scrivener, and others, but not one from Palos. The Pinta carried the most expert seamen, all but one being from Palos. Among those on board. were a brother and a cousin of Martin Pinzon, the commander; a noted physician, and his nephew who served him as secretary; and others, simply adventurers or representatives of commercial houses anxious to extend their trade with Cathay. The N ina, commanded by Vicente Yanez Pinzon, the youngest of the brothers, had on board a surgeon, a silversmith, an Irish and an English guide, and several workmen and farm laborers from inland provinces. Col urn bus had marked the route on a map sent him by Toscanelli. On this map Cipango, Japan, lay directly west of the Canaries; so he first directed his course to those islands, that h~ might sail due west on the twenty-eighth, parallel to Cipango without changing his course, and from there to Cathay. The first three days of the voyage were uneventful; but at the end of the fourth the rudder of the Pinta had become badly damaged. . Columbus felt certain that this had been done purposely b'y the owner, in order that his ship might be left behind. They reached the Canaries on the sixth day, and landed at Gomera. Columbus first thought to fit out a new caravel, but none could be found; so they immediately set about repairing the Pinta. R epairs here were made possible through the fact that the Canaries were Spanish colonies. Of all the African groups, these alone belonged to Spain. While the work was going on, report came from a caravel just landed at Ferro, the most western of these islands, that King John, of Portugal, through jealousy of Spain, had fitted out a fl eet to overtake and capture Columbus. This hast-

ened th ir departure but it wa a full m n th fore they wer again n fl h )' To increa the f ar f tb l l o f th were about t i l an <.l .' .

finnl l. · overcame th ir familiar e rupti n \'it bad long inc c a omen . W I' L ]IJ1•l an l TLe first tw da s th hird h n th bu made but lit le pr g re breeze ft· shened. F and tnan hearts of the men fail like little childr n. Columba had d eclar d that ' ipn.n o wnH nbou twenty-one hundred mil fr m t it annri · · · for fear he h ad underrated the di tn uc h k journal s : ne f r him lf in which h 1· eac h day v nts and tLc xact dl tan ' the other f r the in pecti n f tho r w a h night, in which the daily run wa mn ·h On Sept. 10, the run wa o n e hundr d, jo-hty miles; but it was giv n t the men a s ul y hundred , forty-four. This meth d, t h ugh v r questionable, probably saved his life )at r n 111 the j ourney. . At nightfall o f September 13, the magncti needle of the compass, instead of pointing a 1ittl to the right of t he pole star, pointed a little to th left, the variation incr easing with the distanc, . This sorely puzzled Columbus who could n ot ke P it from the sharp eyes of the pilot, and soon th crew were greatly excited and alarmed; but ~h Admiral was enabled to give t h em an explanatiOn which somewhat subdued their fears. On the sixteenth, they struck the vast sea of floating grasses, known as the Sargasso Sea. Here abounded tunny fi sh and crabs. This wa. a strange phenome non, and again they b ecame frighte ned; for two days the wincl was ve r y light and their progress sl ow. Some wet:e certain of an entanglement that. meant destruct! on~ others, more practical, were afraid of runnin oaground upon sub-marine islands; but s~unding failed to reach the bottom. It was ~ix days b fore they r eached the limit of the sea of vegetation. Then the unvarying w ind ' b ecame the

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hif hi· <·• 111':-1'. . \ 1 hi.. jt m· un• lw "iml udd •lll,v \'(' 'l'(•d '" lu· -. nil '"' , .., . T h llll •ntit>ll ••f the· C'l't'\\ \\:1" 1\tl\\' Ul'lh'tl to i t uf lnnrl. n11d on ~ "I' ~"IHII\•r :?.• . th · t·hit•f •Jifticul .' lny in tl11· irupnli\·IH'l' n · lh• nwn at n \I find in Inn I. On 1hnt d:l\ 11 tuirn~t· ":t.: nk 'II R tt urt• ·i •n of lnnd nnd h.' 11111. u( prni..:,• "'''~''' un . )n tire· IIIC>IT••W it lwei ~·11 in.·l.' ,Ji~npv·ar d. Flil!hl:-< of:-< r:tngt· io't·d:- 111111 I I lwr ::i.~n :: nf lunl kC'pt t·ai. ing- llw hopt·. nf thl' t·n•w. only t h • 11 udd •ttly di:'pvll,••l. T im:- "''·'· \\'l'l't' nl ernnt ·ly in fit~ of l'\. 111 n1i1111 n11d di::pnir. I aily tlw JH •·i I o f ( 'ol u rn hu:: g-n·w ~l'l': ,, ,.. }' rhnp nug iiJ t•nt ·d by t lrt• fnc·t 1 hat It, wn::: 1111 Jtalia n ·o Jl l lllllll li u ~ . · pnu iar 1:'. Jt wn:-: hint' I hat it 1nigl1t bc· w<•ll In tiii'C w him o ,· rl , nrtl . 1'1. ·n1tnin nf 1'11 • J' int:t m g- d h im t• ehnng: hi · c: ur • n did all' u tilt' pi lo t:' : bu t rlti::: lw ,. fu •d to do. On ( ·tob r 7 tIll'." l1ad t·o tlll' O \ ' l' r t wt> nt\· -~·K'' '' 'll hn n lr·ecl1uil H, ~tat·Pd :IH nnly I w t• nty -t w n h;HHl rPd, an l ' lum bus, fe ar ing th e y Wl' r e a lit t l , tntl far north t rea ·h Oipungo , Hl1i ft ·d :lightly to t h nuthw t. It was w "II tltn t 1t did ·o, f m tit fi ' I'Y temper of th · <:rl'W in <~1· ·n:-;c I with n h tln Y " l and had h ko1 t du . w est· h wonld Ita,· h c1 ov •1· two lnmu r d mil o: fnrl'h N t:< gn bt'fnr rea ·Itin, land, as he w nld l11n l' lan d d in Floridn. Oct ber ] ·1, signH of lan d wer unnti t akab l . mall bird s indi c•tto<l lnml tn th e so n thwe ~t and two cnrio usly carved stick wo1·' · n tl onting on tl1e watc1·. Th willl est 11 t lp1sin:sm pi·e n1il -d. Ten thousand HHlr nvodis, abo ut_'thirty dollnrs, had heen offered to the o no wb b ·h onld fir t ight laitd. About nine o'clock in. t he evening the ad miral ·d eclarcd tlt at he saw a d istan t light movino· ....., 0 · about. At first t hi s was doubted, bnt was COl!~ fi rmed a few hom's later 'by a sail9r on tho Pint a·:' · Soon a long, iow coast was visibl e to all. Columbus fell on hi s knees aud · offered fe t·vent thanks to God : It was two o' cl ock in tho m orn-

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Pinzou on the '~'ay d esert ed him, which was an easy task, as his ship was much swifter- Befm::e he had had time .to explore much of this .isl ~nd, Hay ti, a g rave · misfortune overtook them. By ·a careless disobedien ce ··of ordei·s, the flagship


I6

THE NORMAL CO URIE R.

was stranded on a rock-ribbed coast. Being un- to tit o ut a h u1ig h t r ·n h able to dislodge her the waves soon beat her to athay, . a h u bn to l h pieces. This brought to Columbus very forcibly eastern extr nu 1 H aY t i the fact that Europe did not 'kn ow of his success, be liHi. ·u l · 1 11 and he immediately prepared to return. H e hardly understood Pinzon ' s mysterious deserti on . V li t ' II It might bode no good to him. a il f r )Ill The Nina was the only vessel left, and being h wny 1m I I (' ' ll h o nl d a r i:-; ' l too small to accomodate the whole nu mber, some n in n begged to be left behind; so Columbus left a a n d lJHl . t · n l i ~ h t •n ·d th n. year's P.r ovisions with them and saw a blockhouse of the wrecked timbers of the Santa Maria undei· construction and departed, January , 1493. Two 'IIJ E FlF 0 D ITI days later they encountered the Pinta. P inzon r Y. excused his actions by saying the weath er was such that he could not prevent th e separatio n. l:I Y ' AR R JE E :'I1 1£ R N. On F ebruary 12, they encountered a severe [Thi s paper was read be fo re the t ud ·n ts f th · N b ras k ~ storm which separated them the rest of th ~ voyage. Sta te No rm a l School as pa rt o f the progra m fo r o lum b i , n l n y . This lasted four days, and ' it is a m ystery how By permission it is pr inted in t he C R I F. R . J those two littl e crafts ever reached land . On the 1 th they landed on one of the Azores. Th e v i let gcm m d witlt t h • li s t uill g d '" This being a P ortugese island they were very drop s of mo rnin g, n estling t h · f oot f rudely received. A party of fi ve, sent by Columbus the searching chil d , is b e a ut if ul t him. to the chapel to offer up thanks for their delive rT o th o scienti st, h w ve r , wh J r ·ocr niz. ' ' m ance from the storm, were seized and imprisoned the fl o wer a ll t he t ages o f d v lo p m 'li t w hi h for several days, but finally the threats of Colum- lie b e hind a nd t h e p s ib ilit ics whi c h a r w it hin bus effected their release. it ; wh o k nows th e a ss imil :..tio n which hus tn k 11 Another storm took them up the mouth of the place in o rd e r t h at it rn ay b pr du ·ed, - t·o him river Tagus off the rock of Cintra; but they were the ft dwer is m o re th a n a m e re p lc as nr . It i · very. kindly received by the Portug uese and invit- grand, far-re a ching, oven illimi ta ble t h o u g h t . ed to attend comt. On March 13, they again So to us w h e n, a s chil d r en, w e h ear < £ t h set sail and reached the harbor of Pal os at noon bumbl e Gen oese ; hi s p e rse veran ce a nd co urag of the 15th. All business was suspended for the his final conquest of all diffic ul t ies , th e r e co m es a ~ay and a genetal holiday prevailed. That even- thrill of wo nd e r a nd admiratio n. mg the Pinta hove in sight. Pinzon bad stopped • Yet o ur full e st, truest ple a s ure in th e s tud y Ot at Bayonne and from there dispatched messengers his career com es t o u s as w e trace t h e e nviro nto the King and Queen. But word from Colum- m ents which smTo und ed him back t o th e ir o ri g iu ~ bus ~eached them before they replied to the r eport as wo note the civilization of th e early nati o n s of Pmzon , which gave credit to himself f or the and the evolution f_rom them of those p eo pl e s success of the voyage, and then their reply was contemporary with C olumbus himself. col ~, and forbade an entrance into their presence. Far back in th e centuries in the f e rtil e vall e y of Columbus was ·at once summoned to attend the Nile there dwelt the mig hty race or th e Egyp comt at Barcelona, and give.n a seat in the pres- tians. T o the fe w of this natio n, kn o wn a s th ence of the sovereign s, usuall y reserv ed f or royal IIJ.agi, $Cience rev e aled many of h e r tre a sures. personage . They were greatly interested in his In th e structure of the massive pyramids and fron:t six dueky-bued peopl e, the tame parrots, the the treas ures they discl os e we le arn so mething O:f herbs supposed to contain medicinal qualities, the their advanc em ent along the se lines . This pro few pearls and gold trinkets. Without waiting gress was, h o wever, limited to the very f e w. It for the sanction. of the P op e they at on ce agreed never touched and awakened the common p e opl •

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h<• p in lll'P r~ o n ' ur •ly I ht• J ht n• ni C'i un i~ 1u un impnr nn t fa · r iu hi l(l ry. \ n I nt lust CJ II n I'CJII~h . l lll l llllt Li 111 u,· p •nin::; uln 111of u h ' I' ll Eu ro pl' t he r ' . prir ~ ' t 1 n 11 tti HI unt a n d b r fw t arall I •d in t h t•ir ·ttl lltr ' · Tn ' r gl ' :111 I fr 111 d in t h . :;y r inu fi t• ltl :; tit 1 ' ::1 d.' wlt i h pran UJ :lll d l>ro u ~lt t for t h nn hundr •d f )1 i in 1 d tail 1 h•r st1· tt r t:m il. ll •r philn.' )j ltl•r · Ii' I adi ng ma n f lt (J f un d am •ntal t ru t h th labor f t it • (7rr k ] Hin tt•t· nud s ulp r nr ' n t ur. '. n prod n d fr m th aliti n 111arv I f harm o n.· a nd br til t .Y to- in v. R man A ng lo- a xon a nd ::N ' id U)' id e w it·lt t !t iH Jl C 1p J ' 0 11 th ndja • nt p ninsul a spm ng up th ' i{ o m:1n rn •c : t ha t nnt i 11 m n t . Th d min atin_?" harn c~e ri t ic wh sc prn. 'e l· wa s fo r po w •r: wh o · ' name f r 0 ~ It w m t tronO"I t h "ig r and d t r mi nation many years wa l:l n te rro r tu th w ak ~ r natio n . of t h A n()'lo- ax n. The n atio n ha ad van ced , t p b t p, tbr 110'h wars and difficul ties t a Whil e R nt nd o pt d so m ·thin g o ' t h tal •ut nnd amo n()' th I ading nation s of the world. cul ture of ' I'C co, he r chi ef a sp irat io ns w •r in pi n military anrl po li t ica l diroct iou s. ' h sci ct d H r oO' OV rnm nt is m o narchial and in fact tyr a n h bows submissively and ·unquestio nft·om all precedin g na t io n s that which made her ni a l. the invincible con q ueror of t ho civ iU zed world f or · itwly to the will of th e P o pe, tho ugh premonition s of the coming r ef ormation may already b e so many y ears. The religion of H o m o, like th a t of G reece was discovered. . In England this see.m s t o b e the quiet ho ur, polytheisti c prev io us to th e establishm ent of t he ChTi sti an reli ()'io u. Thi s system b ecam e the precedin g the great educational dawn which is to uati onal re lig ion of H o me in the fourth century, break over the world during the sixteenth century . and, whil e fo r · a time the re lig io us rig hts of the True, there are name s which give f orth to the individual were regard ed, fr o m the · first the future a stead y light. Roger Bacon, educated Uhristians were pre ferred in imp erial affairs . at Oxford, tread s · the b ord er-land b etween the 1'hus was originated th e amalgamation of church and state which afterwards b ecame so striking a ignorant superstitio~ which surrounds and finally epgulfs him, and the gre at physical and mathefeature of the European nations. The great revolution during the earl y centuries . ' matical discoveries of later period s. In comTJroduced by the transmigration of the Germanic mercial and maritime affairs England has b een \

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I8

THE NO RMA L CO URIER.

the disciple of the Mediterranean nations, a!ld her naval power is not unknewn . Leaving the British island, the next nation which comes to our attention is Fvance. In th French people are uBited the Celtic, Galli c, Roman, and Norman elements. , Am0ng them the Gallic .ha left impress mo t plain ly. F rance for many years weakened by feudal strife, ppo ed by England at every. tu rn, ha finally become an independent kingdomi and has ta~en her place am on g nation . Her religion i a! o that of R omanism, and its influe:c-Ge i identical with that f til e state. .The U niversity of Pari~ stand high among educational institutions of the time Germany, a monarchy of much power, includ es a large territory in central Eu rope. H er re lig ion i.s intol erant Romanism, a shown in th e death of Hass and that of J erom e. The Univ e~· ity of Prague i to Germany, what Oxford and P ari are to En~land and Fran ce. It is about this time that the u e of gunpowder changes the mode of warfare, . and the city of Mainz is made fam u for the fir t practical application of th e art of ·· printing. Spain, the battle-field of Moor against Chri tian, rendered weak by sectional divisions, at Ia t united by the marriage of Ferdinand and I sabella, who repre ent the H ouses of Aragon and Castile. H ere, too, the Catholic rel ig ion hold way. Th e art ~nd sculpture of Spain bear th e impre s of a Moorish hand . U nited Spain !ri ves unrelentingly and in 1492 the :Moorish ' ' ' king turn over to Ferdinand the keys ·to th e beautiful Alhambra, and surrenders tl)e g randeur his hand has reared. Truly Spain is a wealthy nation an d is destin ed to do a w0nderful work. P ortugal, adjacent to .Spain; part icipated in many ·of het· truggles. Lisbon is an importaNt · ·port. Comm erce and navigation claim the cL ief attenti on of t;he Portugese. And n ow we turn to that country once t he home of th ~ 9aesar ·. Italy, for some t ime a part of the d 1reat Empire, which also incl uded G-ermany i~ ~ ow .a separate kingdom. Within her border ab1de the P ope, that ruler of nation s who. probably littl e .dream : of the great insnr~ rectwn o oon to d.i turb b1s sway over E urope. Italy lead and teac~ es aU .nation in the art . of navigation. The Mediteranean is the scen e of gr at uiaritimc trade · and two of Italy ' s I

c a t cit ie are V e oic

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beca u e of th burn ing z n whi ·h lay b t w wh ere the wat rs f th an · e th I a nd lJo i I d con stantly , a11 d hum an xi t e n " w a . im ] s . ib l · .. b l T Le condition of t lJ ·<mm n 1 e npl is 1 Jt l!l "in the extrem e . :Meager in d e ed a r t lt • o p] o r ' .~ m . a c a.b 1n ' b ni lt· t um.. ttes of a man wh e horne 1s of stick s ·plaster ed ove r w it lt m'ud, h i s ti r e ·hi m -. n eyless , hi s fu el , p eat; wh ose f ood con s is t s ")£ vetch es, f ern-roots and e veu bark s of t r s ; w lt o s insufficient p rotection places him at t h e 10 e r cy o f cold and damp . E ntire l ack of comme rce m akes Lim to t~d ly d ep en den t upon the season f or h is s us t e n aiiCC , an l the result of fam in e may be imagin e d. . H ighwaymen infest the road s and p ir ~t es fr e quent every ri ver. P estile n ce rages con t in ual1 .) · and no physician e v er v isits the dwe ll iu g of t h poor. By his d e ath-bed is found the mo n k to sm ooth his passage to th e i1e xt w o rl d, but n o effort is mad e to save him fo r ser v ice in t h is o n · . JJark, in deed, is t ])e picture, yet ev e n in t~i s g loom forces are at work w hich i n their indomitable perse verance sba11 lift man k ind t o t h e b road er, hig h e r p lain of e t e rnal, u n chan g e abl e truth .

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Boarrd of Edueation. llON . A . K . c;o t D\' .... . . ... . . . . . . . . . S up t. l' nb. ln ~ t.. r.r -nflir io. L im·oln I ION. J. 1;; . lll L L . .. . . . . . . . . . .. • . . . . . . . St:lle Trc :l , llrcl", i'.l" · o.tJirio , Lin <·nln li ON. E. H. KE N ":-I E DY . .. . .... ... .. . . . . . . . Om:~h:~ ; t e r m n : pi r es •S9• li ON . C. \ V. KAL E Y .. . ... .. . . . . . . . . . .. ·. .. l"{c t\ C ln tul ; te rm o.:x ph·es tS!J.l II ON .J . T . S I'E:-I CER . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ..... . Dak ota il y; tl'nn cx pil·cs tS94 li ON. CH lJ R Cll H O \\"E . . . .. . . . ..... . . . . ..... Anhnrn ; tt: nn cx pirc s 1 S9~ 11 0 . W . E . l\•[ AJO H S . .. ... . .. . . ..... . .. .. . .. . . . . l'c ru; t c n n e xpires •895

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nf IT d hn f ~ r man r d r of t h d 0 T C of th r tnfo r " t h e onnf s p li .Y on HOt pure ly G rma n.

It i . nnd rstooJ t h at Harp er s h a ve off ere d t b ditorsllip of Harpe rs W eek ly , l eft v aca nt b:• t he d ath of G e orge W i11iam nrtis, t o E . ]~ H \"\ rC'n · , God kin of th e :New York En~ ning P o::;t. I n dian Commissio n er Mo rgan has alwa.ys strongly advocated compul sor y e d ucat ion fo r poor ttL o. " At t h e Indian confere n ce h eld at L ake Mahonk, N ew Y ork , h e made a long a nd eloquent add ress on t h e snb je ct .

ll, E. 11 . KENN E DY . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . .. . Pr~.,·id~ut

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G E O. L. FAlt N .HA:vi

A t im ely s ng gesti on com <:;s to ns from Michigan. T h e R egents of Ann A rb or U n iver sity h ave


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The v illage of El i , J'<ebi·asks, is building a

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dramatist, bas ph Jlattou , the great 'The Scarlet Mr. Jo his latest effort in submitt d L tter . ]I!J·. Gladstone is s author as well as • favorite statesman. !lis pen stimulates an in·

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~~~~==========~======

P r intrd by O- H.

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Printl r, A u bt< r ll, ". ebr .

come of 15 000 a year. ~ h· A eries of picture representing t e ,mport»nt event of the French invasion of 1 819, are soon to be submitted by \T erescbsgin, the ce)ebrated

5Tf\Tf. 1"\0KM.f\L 5Gt\00L. Faeu.lty. rt

GEO. L. F AR!'\HAM. A. M., Pn t"cu•,,L, T ach cr o f P 5ych o\ogy, Ethics , L og ic, a n d the

------------=::

of

Russian p~l.inter The queen regent bas conf e•·red the grand collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece upon the Duke of Veragua, the last lineal descendant of

icnce nnd the

P~t.:cEPTRf.SS•

T :tchin g li!ISS ELIZA C. MORGAN , Tc:>ch cr of Litcr:ttm·c, Rhetoric, Gcncr:tl Hi storY

:~nd Physiology.

H. B. D NCAN:ON . A. B. Tc"cl"' r o f Jlotany, Geology :~nd z oology.

==-------=---.,nstr~roen

Christoph er Columbus.

· ]\.H. VAN \ LEET, Tc:tcher of C hCnlis tr y, P h ys ics and Astronom y. G, \V . ELLIS , B. A ., ·reach er of Mathcn~:>tic> and J,:otin.

t f The photo-chronograph, an or m easuring st ar-transits and determining latitude a nd l ongitude, h as been invented b y Pro!. G eorge

l\IISS BELLE THOMAS . Teach er of Sch ool Ji.conotnY, Methods, and S uperintendent of T raining· M I SS l\1. ELLIS, A ssis t>lnt in Training :tnd I<.in<lcrg artcn Dcparttncnt. MIS FLORENCE \\'1. \nUGHT , T eacher of Oral and \\'rittcn ;\ri\Jnnctic.

---------

A. Fargis, of G eorgetown College .

• 1JSSJENNlE McLANE, n . s. Teacher of \]nitecl St:lteS History a nd Geograph Y· M I SS MARTHA WINNIE, Tc:lchcr of L:~.ngual{ " :m el Gr<"""'" r . MISS ANNA K. STROCK , T eacher of R cacling, Drawing . Ci,·il Gm·enune nt :tnd u ook-Kcckin!!:·

Emperor Wil\i&Ul of Gerrnany h .. conferred upon Count von Taafe the degree ·of the order of t h e Black Eagle. g eretofore the count's policy h as b een r egarded as one not purely Ge"uan. It is understood that .llarperB h ave offered the editorsl•ip of .llOrpe•·s Weekly, left vacant by the death of George W illiatn C urtis , to E. Lawrence Godkin of the York Eve ning

ISS T;: VELYN RIRSS. ·reac h e r of t~~ i.-st l:lt·e parator y .

,.

E. 11'(. LIPPITT 1 cach cr of Vocal and lns t rm;,cntal Music. . !VU SS n -;;NN l E HOYT, Llhrat"i a n and Stenogrn.phcr.

:!~•"'

----------

JOHN nLANKENSJ-tlP, ]anitor,

~

13oat"d o~ -edu.eation.

o' . " . "'' ' ,_,..

LADIE S'

D 0R J1ff .) R¥.

' " . A • K• . GO Up'{ ·· "" .. .. · . ..... .•S t 1' b I o/fic<"' 1-IO"T · 1·"""'" . IO N. J. E. 1-Il.LL ··" ··" ··; · · · .. · ·-- .. State Treas urer , ex-officio, Lincoln .ON. n. E. B . !<.EN r<Ji.0 " · · · · · · · · · · · · . ... . ... Ontaha; ten;, ex pires 1892 HON.C.\V.l<.ALE . . .................... R edCicmd ;tcrn•c"Pires •893 l ON. J- T. gpENCER ; ·" · · · · • ·" · · · · · ... Dllkota City; tenn expi res •894

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GEO. L . FAR NHAM

Post. . bdian commission• ' )\{organ h as always st,·ongl) advocated cornpulso<Y education fo< poo< "Lo. " At tbe Indian con!el'ence held at Lake Jviahonk, N ew York, h e made a 1ong i:lnd el oquent

---

add ress on the subj ect.

A time1y suggestion co1nes to us from M.ichi-

r•n.

The R egents of Ann A.•·bor University have


,. . 20

adop ted a suggestion made by P residen t A ng ell that the salaries of the prof essors be rai ed to prevent other institutions from calling a way his best assistants. The October FoRuM: contains the first of a series of ar ticles upon the American school y stero . The writer, Mr. J. M. Rice, has made an extensive tour among the cities of the U nited tates from B oston to Min neapolis, for the p mpo e f studying their ed ucational institutio.n . In fiv e months he visited twelve hundred teach r a t their work, be ides looking into the m thods f appointment and the con d net of B oards of Ed ucation. After this examination of th e sy tern h e decide that it may be discribed quite fitting ly by the word "chaos. ' T his "chaos" receives the influence of fo ur elements : that of the p ublic, which i largely n egative ; th at of the board of education in which we can too often , se e vi' dence of political bias; that of the s uper inten dents who at·e generally over-worked ; and that of t he teachers, some of whom h ave but s l ig bt knowledge of the underlyi n D" p rincip les of t heir profes ion. Mr. Rice is a deep stud ent of t he scien ce of education, and the r eaders of the For um have a n opportunity of accompanying him thro ug h a to ur of inve tigation, which cannot f ail to b e p rofitable. While his criticisms are k een and earching, there i no rea ·on to believe that they a re prompted by other than dis interested motives . He i certainly to be commended fo r th e simple directne s with which be discha rg es th e t hankless ta k he has undertaken, of calling attent ion t o tho e hind rance which have prevented t he s nccess of our chool ·y t ern. Many of hi criticisms apply with eq ual f orce to school other than those he v i ited in his to ur, and among these chools, the p ublic, t h e school board. , the uperintendents and t he teach e rs , Cotl. titnting the fom element before m en ti on ed, hould gi-..·e this erie of articles careful stud y . Tbe pe imi t tell u that society is deterio rating : that the socia l pl'estige which d ipl omati c circle of today will tender t heir successors is an omino ns one. Indeed , this question has b ecome so per tinen t tbat not a fe~' h ave ?orne to l o_ok upon it a a poten t facto r lD presagmg th e dest.:_:'J."

I

a n d f r . •. . If th tb ·o t·,· . Jl tain. a s ha low o f I rut h . b a n . t d, it fon• unl e li . olu t iotl. I; ut b c1 •1 n c ur in d , ·t r ill · of t ht• we . nvin<: 1 t hat I h r. is :-;\It liP p e s im i t un t i I w a r h a d w f t ru th in hi · ·tat m •n t · d ·t r ior atin ' · f t is . i11 tpl y Th ~ p r in ·ipl•.· of t r uth nr · ju:-.t t l~ · chang in a m a tu , w r a th 1 •gi11n i ng < f utall ~ x is t n . b ut ur iu t •rJ r ·t~ i 111 <1f thus · p1·i 11 cipl s a rc f a r f r rn b •in, i I ·u t i ·nl witlt tJ~<, :-i<' ul' th e oa rli r . n t 11 ri . . An l why h o u l l I h(·y b ·' t he ame? J ill' aH J ira t itHI H t l \11' 11 · ·d~ 111• wa n t. o ur be lief a nd ur fa ·ilit i ' li ft1t· knowin g _ ~~~ (' t r ntlt a r n t t h am ·. \V · b ·li '\' (' w · n r c· It \'ll1:•· i n a progr . 1v ··g "' ·. y it·h o u r lt o 1n P ' 11 ' · i run f bilJI I .·. o n . c u r p u l p it :t 11d m nt , c hap 1 loctm· nr i >Jtt ifi · j l UI'IlH i s o11r p at 1·i otic s p ee c h and ur d a il ' t raini t t ~ i n IH· .· c-hoo l o r c !leg w in v itabl y d •v lo p .'L s n ·ial 11 11 <"1 "ll ' I re em ine JJ t ly li.IJOr io r t o a~l Y p r ' \' tiJ tt. d (·c·n_d . W or w to Ha ·' t Ita t '< · t •t 1·. <lc·.t·"'"' r t'ornt tll v!! \\' <• slt o ul d 1 • (':l t ing r fl • ·t i()J tH u p o n our lHtn•nt. , o nr m ot loy,a l s tat m 11 , o ur pu bli H ·lt u(ll ~ . <,m· ]t o m es, and ur cl ri s h •d I ib ·rt i •s. H i ·t o ry t eac h -s th a t a · t h e in e n u o n . n <' sl':l ( ) f in divid ua ls p e n ·a los t h ·ir d ' liue rati o n · Ho g() ,. t' n m ents ri se in b oni ·n nu c·y , a 11 d ra · · a A ·t•n d t it ~ la dd e r of ci vili z atio n . Vv · lt av bn t t o look h a c+ over ur· cen t ury o f h e r o i · stn w g l · f o r n aJ i ~ n n l exi t en ce f o r a n ob j e<;t ]cSSOil in this Ui l'lH:tt O!l. The n ew cen tury w ill h ave but to lou k b rwk to l'l w p rese nt o n e f o r experi e n ce np o n w lti e lt hnildi ng

nt

is po s ibl e . \lif 0 do n ot c la im t lt at tlt e p r e s e nt d e c acl e h a s solved a ll of t h o Hocia l p r o b le m s t h a t l ta ve ari tl Cil cl nr ing t h is time; b nt t h e solut i01i R wlt iclt }tn ,· been wo rke d out a rc co ll s is t on t w it lt t-h e in te r p r <' tat ion s of our b roadest in t o Jie c t H. ac:ic n t i ti ' know ledge ch e ri sh e s t h at oxplamltiu ll of a n y ph en omen on w h ich b e a rs th o g r e atest scm l>l a n e • of having b een evo lv e d fro m p r in c ipl cH a l r c a d.Y establish e d . T h e Uni ve r se is g ove r n e d by n at ura l l a w s . Whe n th ese a r e under stoo d th e prove n t i ve w ill rep lace th e r esto r a tiv e . T hi s is a con s nrn m atio n wh ich in o ur brig h t e r mome n t s we b e li e v e w e have ;ar t ia ll y r ealir-e d , a nd in o t; r dark.e r · I HOm e nt s we still lto ld t o b e worth y of o m · ctlor t ·.

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11 ·nr.\' \\' nrd n ,.,.,·Jwr .. a.' . . ; . ..\ hnn::h 'ul tn'nd, wit •u ir :.t·t· -. n 11:1 i"ll · .. 1 a:: . .. ,.,., nn h • t n~ nly, hut lw u nr inn i .. ,.! ·: anti \\It: ,., •r mny 1 ~·ml, ,J., it.. iu .. i!! ni:l . In· r••:lll"' ·hi •I .' in til\• fl th · .J.!m t•rn nH·u r. ltl' r11 Jt... It· hi:-t r." • J1i ·Ia ht•luiJI' I!• t ill· II :II j, •II rlt:ll " 1'1:- tlu•IJI . •rth . .. r,JCJII ~ •t·iu, rill' I !I!! rlut ··rill!! in tin llh rn ill~ h • z • nf ( c·t11 lwr. :! I . I !•:! . nil I' tl11•11::h ' \\ :lncl·r •I hnc·k to )(- t .. h\' r. :! I . I I !I :!. wlH"n • lll' ~ :l ll Ht r lt:l\ in!!' ht-,•n :- t> npnrr h.' till' tu gi' ,. t il\' pul dic· :-•·lttlltl:- ami l'nll ·~ ·~ :11\ ''PJKirtuuity to ('('lt• IIJ':II•' IIH· r.. ur hll udrt•thh : nni\'(•r r v of tit . di ~{ ' ( l\' \' 1'\. .\ llll' l'ic·a hv . 'nltu nlHJ:'. nor F:wulty lnok 11 11 IH·I·d .,f tru11 llt> in Jll't' )Hlrin; a UllifJ II• 1\ll cl l' lt i('J'I:I illillg )'l'••gr:llll . whit•h \\'11:' )Hil'tic·i}Jat('(} in l,y l'tlldt•n l ~ frotn tli tl\•n•nr dn~:'t':'. Tit • c·llllp(· l w n:-< d n r kt•nt·d ' '-" han·it•r:: bl'ing )'Ia · •d at ltl• w iudo w:' . :t nd liglttt•d Hl imPn·nl · l y ·I· t ri ·ity, nnd , :1f1v r I h l• t~lll - d,l u· •x t•r 'i:'<l'~. tc•a ·het·. . tud t> nl :-< a nd friPll d:' ga hPrl' I t lan t l njoy tftp ' It t<•r t a i llt l ll'lll . f' Jl! l\v i n~ il4 tl u' p rt•~rtttn:

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Excrci~s began, 9 o' ·lo ·k :\ . :'I I. . l usic hy the lla no . Ba ta lion D re~s l'a rad e. At Bugle all, the S ·hool f ·II i n lin · in 'l:i,:se~ . in \>rd ·r. o n t he walk fa cing StlUt h , Se ni o r "Ja,.s <> II l h · ld t. Salute of Flag by lla u a l iu11 . Singing of "Ame ri ca " l•y Se houl. · chuolthc n m arc hed t o C ha pel i11 fo lln w ing- orde r : Ba nd . R t t alion, Sehoul. 1:-; ( "11.\ I ' EL .

Tn voca ti o n. Mu!>ic. I{C4ldi ng of P resi de n t ' s and _Gm·e rn o r' s P ro ·Iam nti us .

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n o· t r h aY flown . i ·Itt, illl uo- l <W fl w n f o r,. l i t - n ' n. • r nth r · 1 -. t it r i:s an nnd r to n e of vo1 e m I IU< l' ' tit thi ];: t' nn d a r n tling of d e ad lea>es. ApI fnlh· a n d von wi ll sec, per hap in the pro ne 1 h J ' ·' • midst of n flock of S parrow s, a s lnn, gr~~eful

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Music. R _,. f p-1 pcrs by M i s~es C a rr ie Em ·r o n , l'vfay 'l a rk , 0 eaumg ' n , •aud 1\:o na J ohnsto l r. C. F . Leh r , ill ust ra t ert by m eans of

Stereoscopic \ ie ws. Music.

Tlto ex or <;i.·ot> wor e lw an t if n l l,' r eHd r eel nnd a<:h 0 11 0 pre ·ont dcc nH' d it o n ?..9f th e HlOst in ter er;ting leRsOit s of hi .· li fe . '['l 0 p a p er.' we r e p r<'pat:t\l] w1' t l 1 t] 10 n t t~1 os t'. cnr c and were ux cel lt>lttly d oltv e rod , e a c h h c lllg 1llnstratcd by Hto rooseop ie ,·ie wH, whielt were of tho most nn iq no c lt a raet ot·. , T he mus ic w nA, t o Hay t h e lol:st , o n e of tl:c moHt pl casillg fe a t ure :,; of th e e~ttcrta.:~n,n~llt 0 '!~eclnl ly t ] 1e Solo an d ( 'l lllrn:-; , 0n tt tl cd, Sat! Ul) .

Lird . w itll upper par ts, head a nd b r east nmfor m · 1· d 'f tl b] ,. P 1,· . the ideS rufous, beJly W 11te, an l ' le

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bird m o Ye yo n likel y see tho white markiu o· . on the quills and tail fe ath er s . T his is the T ;vhee, and he cer t ainly deser ves a p lace among o m· songsters. In a n other p a r t of the wood s w e ti 1 of R ob 1·11 .,, and 110 one quest io ns startle a oc \: ~ .., • f th e ir standing in mnsical c ircles. A tinge o blue reveals the presen ce of t he B luebird, "~hile a fl ash of vermili o n amoug t h o b u shes betray s t h e )rcsen ce of t he C nrd iunl Gros b eak. 1 The 1:\<'t din fi'l .G~o~~(3~l~ is a __ per ma11en t r esi-

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THE NORMA L COUR IE

dent, an d on brig ht . not uncommon to h m?rrungs in Feb r ua ry it i T he others a . ear hr clear ring ing wbi tl e . re more or 1 . of each k ind . ess m1gratory, but me remam du .· . birds and R b' nng wmte r· , and th e B lueT he T h o ms. are · 0 ft en seen on m ild days. ow ee bem f low ground ' . g a r equenter of th ickets and ' rs not so often· een W e hear a great d 1 . b' d . c ea about the ret urn f t h e 8 1 . rrt ~ th e pring, but little is aid ab ut their I e urn m the fall B. mer in th · rrds that pend th eir urne north a re . t . . 1 . grants Ora · ' I eu rm ng, eJtl · raSlU I' wmter SOJOurners. One of the fir t t b . , 0 north i th M rmg u gr e ti ngs f rom th e ' . e y rtle Warbler, or Yell ow-r ump . It Co me m Septe b weatbe I m er, and lingers until c ld may be ea ily r ecogn ized as it dar t · r . t b a·h·out among the b ran c h e , utteri ng it ' low, har p c rrp, by the colo·1 0 f · laty-bl rts pl umage. It is , ab v , ue, treaked w1't}1 b l k L bounded b tb ac ; tmoat pure w h ite, brea t.

R;mp, e mrddle ~lack of the h ead and of the of crow n and sid s of

b reastb bright Jveil ow . T he p l umage ' ·d varie co n sr era ly acco r d mg ' to the season of the year age d an. sex of t he b rr · d , b ut th e yell ow marking ' a r d ragno tic. Thi Warbl e r 1s · sue h an erratic c reature that it can hardl y b e ca [l ed a true r ep'r csentative . f rom I t 1e north I t 1· k the W · nown to b reed as fa r sou th a. d e t I ndie , and from ·, orth ern . ' . nortb wlathr · With u , I th ink, it i .stri ctl y m i <Yrator y a ongh a f . . o . , . ew may lrnger through t h e m il d e r wmter . Among the H arn. , Sparro

-4.. parrows, the Fox Sparrow and r w are mo t likely to attr act atte u · s .rze, p l umage, · nlOn,b becau e 0 f th en: song an d um .er · Th e Wh 1te-throated ' Sparrow i a la rge 1 >eautrful Spa.J row, and m . the sp ring is quite a'

noted . more r etiring i n its . .ong· t er , b ut, bemg d. . 1 pos1t1on 't · ' · . ' 1 1 not so often een dur ing t h e fa ll m1grati n. · The Fox ' pan ow and llarri 's Spar row both a r J'tv ']tb ~ au.~,r part of October , and are abu ndan t unt1 dnven fa r tller Ollt h by the cold weathe r . A few r ema·lll over . · wmter, and they become .abundant again by th e fir t of M r. B tl middle of A ril .t f h arc L y le P mo s 0 t em have disappeared but . . I bave .·een Fla , n .·IS parrow as late as t h e' fit· 't f May. Tlt c Fox

· h t 11e po · ible exceptio1 1 pan· w wtt

tno. t a ·c·oJJIJ>Ii,-1!(• 1 In I t· It • i~ al"''·c· , >II rh • tai I a11 I w i 11 roo· ":-. • t H I! 1 :-;i I . t hi<·kl,,1' :d . I t. I :lJ·~ . p (.'( lot·, ~i \' · it m r th app ara n · fa r"hr u. h tlta 11 , ,f a . ' par·r w. I r 'J ll ain mu ·h f th · ttut · (J tt t ht· ~1'1,1111 1 sc r atc hin t h I •a · · ·. \\ h · 11 , wrtl ·d , i tr' • ot· ot h · 1· ·I ,_

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l a rg numb r in 1< w hi ·k s . It i a n i y It n ·oH si t < f th long draw11 on t ca k l ·B ides th e r ., t Jlllll t lJ r of La11d 1 ird s l H w passin g th r ough ur ·tat t h J u ·ks ' . ·s • 1 •li caHs, U r a n . , :md ,· :u- i ou~ Wat •r B ir Is ar. journ . · i ng so ut h ward. W ith in a f w w · h; the . ·w ill have d iRtri b nted t l1 m · lv vvc 1· t h • ' un nv Soutl1 , a n d our winte r jo nr n ' I' w ill lt aV • g011 into w inte r quar t r ·. In In li a and South Am ri ca t h r iH a u ,au t i fu l littl e tree wb icl 1 b a r rongh 1 •av e ~u t cl v r y sweet sce nte u flower s t ll at ope n in t h e cvo n in ::-; !ln d fall off at t lt c b r eak of day. T hi :,.; ]J a::; e a u :-> d tl1e t r ee to be l ook ed upon as t l1 s ig n of: Jn onrn ing, and to be g i ve11 t h e Hame of t lt e '•sorr ow f n 1 t ree:" . I t seems s::td t h at th-u I r etty sweet flow ' 1' , sh o l1l d b loom on ly fo r a night a 11 d Rh o n l J f1 d I ott bef ore th e day come· tn show t h e ir bea n ty .- N ('\\~ York T e legn:un . · The m ic roscope 'exhi b its 4,000 w n scl o · in n common cater pill a r ; 1 , 000 min or s jn t h e eye o.f a d r o n e bee , b~s i des p r oving t h at t h e l a r ge eye of a dr agon fl y I S r eal1 y a coll ectio n o f 28 000 pol is h ed l e n ses.

'

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Queen Victoria is going t o se n d sampl es of h r own spinn ing a n d weavi ng, done whe n s h e wl.•s ~ girl , to th e woman 's sectio n o f the Col u m b i an fa ir .

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with blackis h. and w in ., with tw > ' hit ban I . I t i. r ·<·u ' ll iz 1 b. tL · l r f t h h a.d . Th' l >f h acl lc t· ' , , ·hin, and t h r a a r ' u ni f o nn bla ·k . J t iH f o m1 l

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Hi f.·ltl•t·r . c,, ... ~· -·••· <·l.,t :.. 'II · ·1· l' Ill\ "1111 , \\:1::: r· ·tor nf ~011 11' 1'"1 '.'. l.i lli'IIIOI hin· . Et.~laml. :1111 :\lfn•d was ''"I'll i11 .II ••· , ,(ol ''!till' r,.,.,,;r.' . .\ u~ll:ol 1 :J 1 0 .1 . ll 1· l'l' <'t' l\t 'd lti ''arh trainin•r fn)ll\ hi. fatiH'r , a \ ' ('!'." intt'lligt·tll :tJ.td wvll t•tlm·:ttl•d mall . T hv ~~i r nf ~ I•<· p).) ltnu:-:~· was fullnf ptH.' try : tit • de III'H ol t hl' ldt•:tl wnrld Wl'l'l' up<'lll'd 111 him ,. ry ·arl y; a nd till· t:dvn t tlt:lt g:titu•d f 11r him t h t• .tit! • f P o ·t Lal ll'l':t t l' ln•gaJ l tu dt• \' l'ln p it sl'lf in lti. ·n rl,v ' (llft l1. In J ' 27 a lll"d <·,;t a nd t tn :t · sllmi 11 ~ littlt• " ' lum, •nti t l d 1 T.ll (: 1'() <'.!It s of Tw o Dr(lt hl'l's" :tpj t' !1l't·d. and tit • bn l'f p rt·l:t ('<' ('lo sl' d with th e ,,·urd:::: .. '\r , Ita ,· pa s. ·d t·lt(' I~ ul •i<'nn :t nd \\' t• lew· tit<. l' l' ·t to Futr , t hn ng lt t IH· t•d id nwy t':tus t• :t frui th.•: : s r ~ ­ '1' ·t that w e t: \' l'r l' llll'rg ·d fron t th l' ::; lta.d e, :tnd CQllt'tcd No t·or il' t·y." !\(It' (' \' l' ll t·lw 11 ;111\ ::::or th \ yo uthfu l a : p ira n ts \ \'l'l'l' g in ..·n; nniY :t r '\\' inti mat , frie nd · kn s: w t l1 nt t he two b rM h · r s \\' Ill) ·t· ppc cl <•ut t h us lt a nd in lt :llld , \\'l' l' l' C lt a rl (•s and A l fr ed T nn yso n . I n l'lt e ·an ic li tt le Yo ln m ', nn d searc ly di s ti ng tti HhaLiu fr o nt t h e s prin g ~ f t h :1t· twiu -r iv nl ct of v on.; u t ha t m n so Lri ef a ~·O ll!"O in the " ' n11 c:ts of C lt a rl C's 1\m n ys< m ," lie t> t h o foLmtai t)lteru l of tlt at de op c r , sw ifte r , ' ]carer str·ai n , w lti <.: h lu·lH i·lowu <l fo rth in :1.bn nd a n cc , 0o·i,·iog th e wo rl d wonl-p id nr cs, : nc h n .. n eve r b efo r e hung in t lt o ga l lo ry nf E n g ! i::; h. son g . Th ese att r:tct<• d g r onJ ntto11t io n fo r a ,t ime . Tltey ·w e r e , p e rlt npH, t oo lwr::;lt ly cri t ic ised, fo r mn,ny a n ogre of a e r it ic wJ10se app etite fo r you ng poets was iltsatinLl o mad e a hnsty and s a vl

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'l\•nny: 11! ,\ ft1..r hi~ lir~t :ur •mpt . 1 ~ nl en '" u :1111l wnill'tl , pr llil ing y th • ·riti ·i ·m ll had r <'l'i ' l'd : ml tli:.:ph1 yi ng h is · u in • ) u ly n f w in I imtltl' fri 'll 1· : but i11 1~ -.l: :. h :1 ,_;:1i11 \' ntl r d. fnrth . :md 1 'lHH tl et •diti 11 t hi · w r -· wn s pnbli~h d . lt h ug h l Htb t· , d l:ty · nud li • urngt'lllt'll l' Ill t him . thi • d iti u "' t · li · h d. hi· n•pu l :tti ) It 111 l det r mi n d hi ' fntt r . f r l.t ~ W ''tnC 8 '-', tL' llll'rn S ' , b :mty , an:l · tr ' nath fth y •r:::~..• w " r ' r ·~..,.;ni :~. el ·:t uc b~· all. Tcn11 ,.:.: 11' · li t(' wa · qui t and un ,. ntf ul ; f n;::hi ) tHl b l :tri ' tl r a t i ir l ' kn ' w him hu !itt!· · h sn rr n11d cl him self with an atm ~ ph l'

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Yidually ., n,y · 11' f hi s bi ooTaph rs • it"' a th itl l':d lif wbi ·h \\' \\' nld nl l b c · tow if ' onld u p )1\ oT •at o t · a a trib ute of ur ndmirati n nnu rc:::p t nn d a · l ight r t nm f r th pl a nr th e.'· g i,- us. ' P nro mim1 d, u nse lfis h , indu trion ·I · ntt n t i,- • to h i w o r k and ' e r y fond of . ' ·t nd. , h wa ' q ni t o i u d itio r "ut to exter nal appea r a n s rwd fo nn d fa r g r e ate r e n:ioyment in internal •ul t nr , th a n e xte rn a l adorn m e nt. A u un cont ro lbbl pow e r urge d him o u \var d-an insati abl e ' nmitw

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ex istouco . H e possessed o\·cr y poetical an d intell ectu al q ua lity , t h o h eart aud oye to descern w isdom, and th e ~o ,~er to e xpr ess h is t h o u g h ts cl earl y, disti :~,lc!­ Jy, fo rCib ly, p.nd b eau t if ully . Extr emely mo d est as to h is own a cquirements, w it h per fect sin~eri ty and u nsw er vin g l oyalty to h is convi ctions of r ight, tru tb , m1cl d uty, he was a man of l arge attainments


THE NORMAL COURIER. a-9-d eminently fitted for the position of Poet Laureate. At his death every one of his countrymen experiences a feeling of personal, irreparable loss; and connected, as we are in so many ways with England and her literature, we have a kindred feeling. We shall love him better as the year roll on", and shall turn from the perusal of his poems with the feeling that our time has not been wasted, but that we are wiser and better than we were before. From his peaceful, quiet life we can learn that all the pleasllfes ·that can be purchased are not to pe compared with the delights of a cultivated mind. We shall remember also that it is the ' ' . fruitless branches of the trees and the worthless he~ds_ of grain that t~ss high and emptily above their fellows, while the more fruit the branches bear, the richer the grain beads, the lower they droop.

ORMAL

A Swedish lady has for years been the engraver of medals at the royal mint at ~tockholm, and many of her 'Countrywomen are · celebrated engraver on wood and gJass. . ·

'flfF

TE .

hancellor anfield f gave an intere ting Jectm· "Education and the tat . was well filled, and a th e han · heartily applauded. He b g an p aking in hi free and easy way, and aft r a l:lh rt intr ducto ry began on his subject proper. The bancell r fir t compared nr g v rnm nt to the governments f f r ign nati 11 • It JWing that a government, to be in tab! g uil ibt·i nm must have tlte inte re ts f tL p p l at lt a r t and every governme nt 11 t f unu d m tl tl t , sooner or later, fall. Russia wa taken a a t 1 i ·a] m 11ar ·ltial cr , ._ ernment, a governm ent in wh i ·h u man h o i Lthe lives of his subj ects a t will. II ha nl . · t bend his finger and the p e pl tr 'tn bl f<w th result. The speaker then ref n d t ur wu government, a governm nt for th g ve rn d, t h foundation of which is laid broad an 1 d e p in t lte eternal principles of right. He t it 11 ·tat ·d t hat our school-bouse doors a re open to all , and proved conclusively that ignorance is the \vor t enemy of this country, and that education is her only safeguard .

The physican said that Lord T ennyson's death was the most glorious he had ever witnessed. The sun of his existence slowly declin~d , and he waited peacefully, patiently, hopefully for that blessed change, when, ·like a tired child , he could ink to rest. There was no light in the room, and the chamber was in darkness save where a broad flood of moonlight poured in th rough a western window. The moon's rays fell aCI·os. Columbus Day was a fine day for the Athleti? the bed on which the poet lay, bathing him in their soft, pellucid light and forming a Rembrandt- Club to exercise in the field. A game of footlike background to the scene. ' All was silent ball was the principal game, R . D. Moritz beiug sa....-e the murmur of tl:Ie autumn wind as it gently captain of the first eleven and W. J. Sme dley played though the trees surrounding the ]1ouse,-a captain of the second. The game was closely fitting requiem for the gentle poet who sang of contested and to an observer it would seem as though the sides were· eve~1ly matched, but. Caplove and the beauties of nature. The tide of life gently and slowly ebbed out tain Moritz, by a few skilful maneuvers, won the into the ocean of the infinite, and no rocks of pain game, the sc6re. standing 12 to 2. or sorrow checked its cour e or caused a rippl e Monday night Oct. 24, W .•T. Bryan addressed upon the out-going tide. the students and citizens of Peru. His speec!1 "That solemn tide, with its voicelel!s roll, contained many good points, and many times Shall bear on its wings t hat weary soul during the evening 'the speak e r was heartily T~ the ~~~sed la~d where the angel th;ong Will hall Its com1ng with holy song. applauded. And the home of that faithful heart shall be A place of rest by the crystal sea."

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ll

Elliot Martin and Adelbert Towusend vis ited the Normal F;iday, Oct. 21, and remained over Sunday. When they were about ready to r e tu rn, Sunday evening, th ey found t,hat their team had deserted them, and t'hey were obliged to rcmaiu Monday.

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1n ' llll) e r :o~ thi~ y 'ar ~.r ' c in · ~ " l' t h ::tn c·c mm on tlw,t w' t x11 -'d t n1a.k · o ur band a ,· tin ,.!.Tt'at r uchan.cv<'r. O ur 1(•adn Pr f . \ a.n \ 1( e i · doing all wit'lrin hi.' pmn'r to brin n· t.1t-> hand o . n ·h a. .·h1.11c\ard , a.nil with th ' h m-t.y eo-op rati n of a.llmt'ntlwr:::; h no su ·h word a fail. n

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Th • instrumentation at pres · nt i. n; follo" s: 'J 11 a, •rm . McMillin; Barit one, Jam -' ood] (Je; First 'J~enor, 0. P. Palestine; Seeond 'r n or Marion h ellenburgh "r; First Alto, H rma.n R •ynolds; Seconcl Alto, S. Cra.nn'le; Sol o Alto, J. Miller; First Bh Cornet, Ecbvard UptegroY ; Jtir t Bb Cornet, Clw.s. Canon ; Solo Bb Cornet , HartL. Shellhorn; Solo Bb Cornet, Prof. Van Vle t; Bass Drum, E . Klot z.; Snare Drum, John Handol. . BART L. SJn<:r.LIIOl~N, Pres. of Ba:.n d·.

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RKER. A~TD HIS IDEAL.

Ul o-r a.t u c ·s I fan y , n1.ust b e surpris ~ t o th m en '' h o ma.k tl1 em , for the dis·out nt f th artist ·with his pai nt ing, of ~~~e po t ,vith his ver ' f t11e play wright with his play, i the p enalt.y exa.eted b y the ideal for v;rhich men strive, and which all tb.e m or e surel) eludes the greatest., whose im;_gina~ion is the most fa.r r eaching. When a man is satisfied v.rith. what h e has done h e has r ea ch ed his limit; from that point h e goes down hi).l, .imper ceptibly it may b e ~t first, b ut none t~e l ess Rnrely. ·


â&#x20AC;˘

TH¡E NORMAL COURIER We take pleasure' in announcing to the read ers of the

0

RIER that

there will be substituted for the December number a Special Holiday

um -

ber containing original Christmas Stories, Popular Articles on Ed ucati

11 ,

Educational Announceii~,ents for the Holiday Vacation, and Item s of Int r st to the former students and the Alumni of the State Normal. There is no reason why our State Institution cannot furnish the lead ing Educational Journal of the state.

Some of the best writers on ed ucational

subjects have agreed to contribute to its c~lumns during th e year. In view of these facts no student or teacher in the state can afford to :Io witho.n t the Journal sent out from this Institution. Send $1.00 and obtain the only Normal School J ournal in the State. Address

THE NORMAL COtJRIER_, PERU_, NEBRASKA.

Profile for Peru State College Library

1892-1893 Normal Courier Issues 1 & 2  

1892-1893 newspaper issues 1 and 2 for now Peru State College, Peru, Nebraska

1892-1893 Normal Courier Issues 1 & 2  

1892-1893 newspaper issues 1 and 2 for now Peru State College, Peru, Nebraska

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