Page 1


KIGALI, RWANDA


Kigali


Index

Introduction

House Typology Fabrication

Conclusion

Design as Vehicle, Umusambi 2.0

47% under 17, Brick and Mortar, Umuganda

One Cow/One House, Personalized and Diverse Living

Land of a Thousand Hills, New Rurality, Jerrycan

A New Affordable Village House for Rural Lands, Rwanda

Village Plan

39

25

19

11

03


Introduction


A New Affordable Village House for Rural Lands, Rwanda

This workshop speaks to the lives of the 3.41 billion people still living in rural and peri-urban areas in the world. Traditional approaches to improve the livelihoods of rural populations have typically focused on “urbanizing” families by replacing their environments with large-scale housing projects and displacing communities to peripheral areas of cities. This workshop proposed new village and house models. We suggested to densify the traditional settlements in rural lands and improve the house and public space for livelihood-related practices. Through this approach, we seek to leverage the living conditions of rural residents in their own land, provide advanced planning strategies for the economic and demographic growth of these villages, and re-think the vision for rural modernization, especially in Rwanda. Rwanda offers a unique opportunity. Its spatial and territorial singularities, characterized by one of the densest rural populations in the world; the existence of a single major city, Kigali, that cannot absorb the rapid demographic growth; and an economy that still depends on farming subsistence, demands innovative solutions as well as inter-sector collaboration between the state, private developers, nongovernmental organizations and academia. The Rwanda Housing Authority (RHA) acknowledges this challenge. Their focus is to provide affordable housing for its Imidugudu, or rural communes, targeting the farmers and cattle herders who are spread throughout the hills – to deliver “a house with a cow.” However, despite their innovative intention to link the house with rural livelihoods, the RHA has so far supplied houses unfit for this challenge, replicating generic, single-story, rigid and urban-like typologies with unsophisticated but expensive constructions systems that do not integrate with village life. In July 2017, with support from the MIT TATA Center for Technology + Design, MIT-Africa and the Norman B. Leventhal Center for Advanced Urbanism, students from MIT’s School of Architecture and Planning, led by Prof. Rafi Segal, took part in a 3 week intensive workshop experience with local communities, construction workers and local professionals to co-design and build a new prototype house in the village district of Mageragere. The new prototype of the Umusambi House included:

++ ++ ++ ++ ++

Single-slope roofs that collect rain water more efficiently Shaded semi-outdoor areas that respond to local family lifestyles An advanced brick construction technique (which local villagers were trained in as part of the workshop) Reduction of reinforced concrete and integration of structural components within the walls Flexibility in interior partitioning and designing for change.

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Eight Concepts Eight concepts helped us understand the local context and define the guidelines for our design interventions. In the following sections, we illustrate the workshop process and outcomes through these 8 concepts spanning 3 scales: the design of a new village plan; the construction of a new housing typology: the Umusambi House; and the development of a new fabrication technique, mixing modern innovation with traditional methods. Special attention was given to the co-production process, which involved students, community members, policy makers, and construction workers.


1. Village Plan 1-1 Land of a Thousand Hills The geography of Rwanda, one of the smallest countries with one of the highest population densities in Africa, is dominated by hills and mountains. The population, currently predominantly young and rural, has historically developed communities embedded along the slopes of this landscape and dispersed across the entire country. Rwanda’s topography presents both challenges and opportunities. With concerns of potential landslides and future instability, many houses located on high-risk land are planned for relocation.

1-2 New Rurality: Address People at Risk Only 26% of Rwanda’s total population resides in urban areas. However, its density of population is the highest in mainland Africa. This is due to the structure of the Rwandan economy and the land property redistribution. The management of these spread out rural territories implies a significant challenge. Since 2013, the Rwandan government is in the process of implementing the Integrated Development Project Villages. These new Imidugudu, or communes, provide homes to the farmers and cattle herders, who are spread throughout the hills, while establishing a system of spatial-territorial organization improving the farming population’s livelihood and facilitating the introduction of critical infrastructure and other social services for economic development, such as markets and schools.

5


1-3 Jerrycan: Water and Public Spaces In Rwanda, the yellow container is a sign of life. Women and children carry water all across the rural lands in 20-liter Jerrycans. Yellow jerrycans symbolize the central role that water access plays in everyday life in dense rural environments; it is a vital component of domestic and productive activities. But access to clean, safe water is not a given in Mageragere district. A jerrycan full of water can imply hours of daily walks to water sources through lands occupied by crocodiles, and the loss of time for livestock care, school, spending time with the family, or work that could improve their families’ livelihoods. Because women and children are often those most affected by a lack of safe water, facilitating water access is a critical component of the Umusambi House.

2. House Typology 2-4 One Cow/One House: Livelihoods and Subsistence Farming For small farmers in Rwanda, livestock, cows in particular, are an important element of a household, considered as an economic asset as well as a symbol of wealth and social status. The best wedding gift someone can give in Rwanda is a cow. The RHA acknowledges this. Their focus is to provide affordable housing for its Imidugudu, targeting the farmers and cattle herders who are spread throughout the hills, and to deliver “a house with a cow.” In peri-urban areas, cows are replaced by 10 chickens and a plot of 1000 square meters (20m x 50m) for farming. This approach aims to supply livelihood opportunities to people living off the land in a country which is rapidly losing farmable space.


2-5 Personalized + Diverse Living The response to mass housing shortages in Rwanda has been government-financed, homogeneous production of houses on previously undeveloped sites. These suffer from maintenance problems, high initial construction costs, the lack of good quality, centralized management, and a lack of identity and responsiveness to residents’ needs, whose diverse livelihoods and changing demographics are not represented in the design of the housing typologies. Unlike urban populations, many Mageragere families are large and have diverse lifestyles. Sometimes, more than one family share a single home, and in other cases, family members do not occupy the house permanently. Furthermore, Rwanda’s unique climate allows individuals to perform many domestic and work activities outside the house, blurring the boundaries between indoors and outdoors as well as those between public and private space.

3. Fabrication 3-6 47% Under 17: Economic and Demographic Growth 47.7% of Rwanda’s population is under-17. This large and growing youth segment presents both challenges and opportunities. On one hand, the most pressing issue facing Rwandan youth is underemployment – twothirds work less than 35 hours per week, their wages are significantly lower than older workers, and a higher share are employed in informal jobs. To compensate for the poor conditions and pay, many young people work more than one job– 42% of 16 to 20 year old residents hold 2 or more jobs. On the other hand, the youth are committed to development and peace-building in their community, helping their families and neighbors overcome the legacy of mistrust left by the 1994 genocide. Young professionals and workers can be the leaders needed to promote new types of dwelling. They can also improve the brick industry though increased capacity-building and training for the construction of new villages.

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3-7 Brick and Mortar Traditional housing approaches have centered on the well-known “brick and mortar” model which focuses on the built environment and quantitative delivery of houses over qualitative principles. In this project, we proposed to redefine the brick-and-mortar model by incorporating the housing value chain approach to the design of the house. For the construction and development of the house we collaborated with Skat Consulting whose team trained students and local villagers in advanced brick construction techniques. The design also included the use of high-performance wall systems with a core made from compressed agricultural straw fiber for affordable, fast and sustainable housing solutions.

3-8 Umuganda: “Coming together in common purpose to achieve an outcome” As part of efforts to reconstruct Rwanda’s community ties and cultivate a shared national identity, the government drew on aspects of traditional practices to enrich and adapt its development programs to the country’s needs and context. The result is a set of home-grown solutions and culturally-owned practices translated into sustainable development programs. As part of this initiative, once a month, the community takes part in a government-mandated community service called “Umuganda,” a Kinyarwanda word that means “coming together in common purpose to achieve an outcome.” Close to 80% of Rwandans take part in monthly community work, including participating in major infrastructure projects, such as building and paving roads or constructing health centers and schools. Other work includes repairing broken water pipes, painting crosswalks, gardening, weeding, street sweeping and housing. Villagers participate in building new houses. Modern day Umuganda can be described as community work which inspired the implementation model of the workshop.


Introduction

Team

MIT

Collaborators

Film Documentation

MIT Support

Rafi Segal

Rwanda Housing Authority Skat Consulting Ltd. Strawtec Building Solutions

Ben Segal

MIT-Africa MIT TATA Center for Technology + Design

Andrew Brose Monica Hutton Mary Lynch-Lloyd Ching Ying Ngan Taeseop Shin Maya Shopova Danniely Staback Daya Zhang

Photo Credits: Monica Hutton, Ching Ying Ngan, Ben Segal, Rafi Segal, Daya Zhang.

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Village Plan


1-1 Land of a Thousand Hills

The geography of Rwandan villages requires strategies that can adapt to different elevations and slopes with multi-layered connections between critical parts of the community. Community gardens, organized in stepped linear bands, incorporate natural water filtration. Linear routes allow for pedestrian movement and connect the village to surrounding agricultural fields.

Principles of the Urban Village Plan Agricultural Fields

Woven Typologies

Stepped Gardens

Communal Ridge

A strong connection is maintained between the village and the surrounding agricultural fields in the valley that are managed by the villagers. Adjacent space for villagers to tend to cattle is required to sustain rural practices.

Neighborhoods stitched together by shared gardens interweave single- and 2-story typologies that are attached in groups of 2 and 4 households.

Community gardens, organized in stepped linear bands, incorporate natural water filtration. Linear routes allow for pedestrian movement and connect the village to surrounding agricultural fields.

A central linear open space with communal public buildings serve the village and surrounding areas. These include elements such as a playground, sports field, market, craft center, ICT hub, administration buildings and nursery.

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1-2 New Rurality Address People at Risk

The workshop investigated the living conditions of rural populations to establish design principles for the new model house unit and the master plan for Mageragere Village. The proposed master plan allows the existing fabric of the community, including their materials, forms and expressions, to mix with the new development, and facilitates the connection with the surrounding agricultural territory for the movement of villagers and their cattle.


Elements of the New Urban Village Plan

market space

shared gardens

sports fields

cow sheds

agricultural fields

walking fields

Principles of the New Village Urban Plan

Communal Spine

A central linear open space with communal public buildings that serve the village and surrounding areas. Includes playground, soccer field, market, craft center, ICT hub, administration and nursery.

Shared Gardens

Community gardens, organized in stepped linear bands, incorporate natural water filtration. Linear routes also allow for pedestrian movement and connect the village to agricultural fields.

Agricultural Fields

A strong connection is maintained between the village and the surrounding agricultural fields that are managed by the villagers.

Neighborhoods of Mixed Typologies Neighborhoods between shared gardens with combined single and 2-story typologies that are attached in groups of 2 and 4 households.

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Community Buildings

Administrative Building

Health Center

Multipurpose Hall

Handcraft Center

Market

Nursery School

Cowsheds


1-3 Jerrycan Water and Public Spaces

The house design includes water catchment systems to allow the family to collect their own rain water and keep it safe and clean for domestic and productive purposes. Single-slope roofs that collect rain water more efficiently along with collective drainage from each rooftop can be combined in a joint water retention system.

Village Plan


Housing Arrangements

Village House 4 Households

Topo House 2 Households

Attached 2-Story

Attached Single Story

Square House 4 Households Attached Single Story


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House Typology


2-4 One Cow/One House Livelihoods and Subsistence Farming

Elements of the Traditional Village House

COMPOUND semi-public

A

“Urugo” (home, household, enclosure, compound)

“IREMBO” front yard access to compound SHEDS domestic animals

“URUGANIRIRO” “where conversations take place”

C E

SILOS

B

PRIVATE C

GUEST ROOM

storage

PARENTS’ BEDROOM monitor front + court yards C

F

kitchen

CHILDREN’S

C

BEDROOM CHILDREN’S BEDROOM

G

D

COURTYARD TOILET

The new design maintains a strong connection between the village and the surrounding agricultural fields that are managed by the villagers. Adjacent space for villagers to tend to cattle is required to sustain rural practices. Shared community spaces allow neighborhoods to be stitched together by shared gardens, market spaces and social service buildings.

PUBLIC

private laundry, dish washing, cooking, drying

Topo House: 2-in-1 Model The prototype house was designed for future application as a 2-household model. This would allow for further efficiencies to be found in the construction of structural components, material use, and continued building performance.

Unified ventilation

The chimney construction for both households is combined into a single structural component.

Collective drainage

Water from each rooftop can collect in a joint water retention system.

Shared masonry wall

Material efficiency can be found in shared masonry walls.

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2-5 Personalized + Diverse Living

The new design considered the need for incremental expansion for growing families, functional commercial space, and wall systems promoting natural ventilation and variable indoor/outdoor spaces. A great deal of the house design was devoted to finding ways to make the house as flexible as possible, by allowing changes in interior partitioning, shaded semi-outdoor areas that respond to familial lifestyles, and, at the same time, maintaining traditional elements of dwellings such as the “uruganiriro” (“where conversations take place”) and the “irembo” (the front yard access to compound).

Principles of the Village House Prototype Students and masons worked on the ground, in collaboration with the Rwanda Housing Authority and Skat Consulting, to finalize a culturally and economically viable design, and a material palette that fit within the context.


Lot as House / House as Lot

House Typology

Open space is integrated within the house plan to form 2 open-air rooms – a covered porch at the front of the house, and an exterior court at the back of the house.

3

2

1

4.40

4.40 0.57

3.83

0.57

3.83

0.13

1.10

0.66

A

B

TOP PLAN

1

2

1 EQ

EQ

4.40

4.40

0.513.83

0.51

EQ

EQ

3

2

4.40 0.73

TO BE PACKED WITH DIRT

3

4.40 0.57

0.57 EQ

EQ

EQ

EQ

AXONOMETRIC DIAGRAM (NOT TO SCALE)

3.83

0.73

A

B

0.12

B

TO BE PACKED WITH DIRT

0.13

0.43

0.12

1.10

0.43

0.12

0.54

0.66

A

TOP PLAN

PLAN

1

2

3

4.40 0.73

1

EQ

2

EQ

EQ

A 4.40

0.51

EQ

0.51

EQ

3

EQ

EQ

The large bench lining the front porch activates the front facade and provides a buffer between MIT_RHA_SKAT public and public-private space.

0.54

4.40 0.57

0.57

3.83

0.43

0.385

0.12

0.32

0.43

0.0

TO BE PACKED WITH DIRT

11.1

0.12

B

porch bench

AXONOMETRIC DIAGRAM (NOT TO SCALE)

0.73

0.12

3.83

TO BE PACKED WITH DIRT

4.40 EQ

PROTOTYPE HOUSE

BRICK BENCH DETAILS

ELEVATION

SCALE: 1:50

DATE: JULY 25, 2017

PLAN

1

3

2 4.40

4.40 3.83

3.83

0.57

0.57

0.385

0.32 0.0

4

5

4

5

11.1

MIT_RHA_SKAT PROTOTYPE HOUSE

BRICK BENCH DETAILS

ELEVATION

SCALE: 1:50

B

DATE: JULY 25, 2017

B

A

0.68

1.01

4

5

C

4

5 AXONOMETRIC DIAGRAM (NOT TO SCALE) courtyard bench

EQ

C

EQ

The bench in the back courtyard is integrated into the gradient brick wall and allows for activities to spill out into the surrounding site.

EQ EQ EQ

D

D

0.44

D 0.12 0.32

0.06

C

21

EQ

PLAN

0.10

B

C

4.41 EQ

0.32

3.30

TOP PLAN

1 06

AXONOMETRIC DIAGRAM (NOT TO SCALE)

2 05

4.41

0.12

TO BE PACKED WITH DIRT

0.06

D

0.10

0.44

EQ

C

D

0.68

EQ 1.01

EQ

3.30

C

B 2 05

4.41

B

4.41

B

TO BE PACKED WITH DIRT

1 06


Self-Sized

2

1

3

5

4

13.71 4.50 4.30

0.21

0. 40

15.2-01 08-3A

0.73 3.18

0.73

08-1B

0.34

0.27

08-3A D-11

15.2-03

3.20

0.18

BEDROOM 2 9.7 sqm

0.21

STRAWTEC COLOR: EGGSHELL WHITE

BEDROOM 3 9.9 sqm

08-3A

0.50

0.70

0.21

0.70

2.90

0.70

08-3B

0.21

09-03 09-04

0.70

08-3C

2.75

ROOF EDGE see "02 ROOF PLAN"

1 Large Storage 2 Large Bedrooms

3 BEDROOM 1 Small Storage Room 1 Large Bedroom 2 Small Bedrooms

4 BEDROOM 1 Small Storage 4 Small Bedrooms

3.00

0.80

0.43

BRICK BENCH see "11.2 BENCH DETAILS"

08-1A

- 0.20

SLOPE DOWN TO FOOTING HEIGHT 08-4A

3.09 3.30

10.41

2 BEDROOM

0.46

WATER COLLECTION

BRICK WALL

1.55

08-4B

D-12

PATTERN BRICK WALL WITH OPENINGS see "05 ELEVATION"

STRAWTEC COLOR: EGGSHELL WHITE

0.21

08-3B

08-1A

SHOWER 1.3 sqm

PATTERN BRICK WALL WITH OPENINGS ABOVE 2.3m see "07 SECTION"

0.00 09-02

0.21

08-4C 08-4B

- 0.10

2.37

BEDROOM 1 9.7 sqm

3.26

0.18

BRICK WALL PERFORATED ABOVE 2.3m see "04 ELEVATION"

1.11

0.00

D-05

0.90

2.25

D-10

D-09

BRICK WALL WITH OPENINGS ABOVE 2.3m see "05 ELEVATION"

D

WC sqm 0.00

D-07

BRICK WALL WITH 1.6 OPENING ABOVE 2.3m see "07 SECTION"

2. 30

08-4B

0.21

0.21

3.30

08-4B

1.58

2.19

D-04

0.00

08-3A

STRAWTEC

08-1B

0.21

0.90

LIVING ROOM 18 sqm

3.03

C

3.51

KITCHEN 4.9 sqm 0.21

15.2-01

STRAWTEC COLOR: EGGSHELL WHITE

CAP EXPOSED STRAWTEC EDGE

08-4B

0.80

0.99

0.80

2.25

D-13

08-3A

0.21

PATTERN BRICK WALL WITH OPENINGS see "03 ELEVATION"

D-03

0.21

0.33

1.13

0.21

15.2-01

08-1A

1.00

D-08

0.90

1.66

7.41

1.90

15.2-02

CAP EXPOSED STRAWTEC EDGE

2.36 GATE see “10 D-01"

1.40

STORAGE ROOM 2.55 sqm

4.23

08-5

1.13W x 1.6H WINDOW: SET TOP OF FRAME TO 2.1m EL.

FIXED GATE PANEL see “10 GATE DETAILS"

08-1A

BRICK BENCH see "11.1 BENCH DETAILS"

0.33

FAMILY PORCH 13.5 sqm

15.2-01

D-01

1.13

4.23

08-4A

0.90

0.00

3.69

B

15.2-01

1.13

2.24

2.00

BRICK BENCH see "11.1 BENCH DETAILS"

08-2

0.21

08-4A

15.2-01

BRICK WALL

PATTERN BRICK WALL WITH OPENINGS see "03 ELEVATION"

FIXED GATE PANEL see “10 D-02"

D-02

0.21

1.62

EQ

0. 40

GATE see “10 D-02" 08-4A

A

4.29

EQ

0.66

EQ

3.30

1.20

1.00

0.21

3.30

Self-arranged interior partitions allow for flexibility in the number and size of rooms, accommodating different household structures. Strawtec panels allow for lightweight divisions that can be painted differently in each house.

4.50


Field to Panel Strawtec combines heat and compression in a dry extrusion process to produce straw board panels from agricultural waste products such as cereal straws and grasses. Sealed with high-strength, recycled paper, the panels are a substitute for imported cement and gypsum products. This production supports local farmers who supply the raw materials for processing into building materials.

09-01

0.06

PLAN

EXPANSION SCREW SLEEVE

SCREW ATTACHEMENT TO BRICK

0.06

0.06

SCREW ATTACHEMENT TO STRAWTEC SPACER

0.06

09-02 PLAN 15cm WIDE VERTICAL STRAWTEC SPACER

0.15

DIAGONAL SCREW SEE STRAWTEC SPECS

6cm STRAWTEC PANEL

09-03 PLAN

15cm VERTICAL STRAWTEC SPACER

SCREW ATTACHEMENT TO STRAWTEC SPACER

09-05 09-06


Fabrication


3-6 47% Under 17 Economic and Demographic Growth

Students and young masons worked on the ground, in collaboration with the Rwanda Housing Authority and Skat Consulting, to finalize a culturally and economically viable design, and a material palette that fit within the context. Young masons from the Mageragere commune were trained by master craftsmen from Skat Consulting in the construction of a row-lock brick wall system which was used to test 2 meters of walling. Following the design-build workflow, masons and students built physical mockups of breeze walls, and integrated reinforced concrete columns and a kitchen chimney, demonstrating that housing production should be intrinsically linked with community building.

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Training

Masons from the Mageragere commune, as well as MIT students, were trained by master craftsmen from Skat Consulting in the construction of a rowlock brick wall system. A 2 meter high prototype of the wall system was constructed during the MIT team’s visit to Rwanda. Following the design-build workflow, masons and students built physical mockups of breeze walls, and integrated reinforced concrete columns and a kitchen chimney.


Masonry In Process

Masonry work continued to progress beyond the training period. Transitional patterns between solid and perforated brick became apparent as more courses of brick were set in place.

Fabrication


3-7 Brick and Mortar

Skat Consulting supplied the bricks used in the construction of the prototype house and hosted a series of tours of the brickyards and kilns operated within the region. The quality of the bricks allowed for increased stability of construction and more efficient use of mortar that was mixed manually on site for the construction of the prototype. Masonry work continued to progress beyond the training period. Transitional patterns between solid and perforated brick became apparent as more courses of brick were set in place.

Gradient Brick Brick walls frame all indoor and outdoor living spaces. Courses transition between solid bricks and void spaces to accommodate varying levels of ventilation and privacy needed for the spaces on each side of the walls. All voids are sized to the space of a single brick for ease of assembly


Dry Stack Testing

Fabrication

A series of brick patterns were tested to meet varying degrees of ventilation and privacy. Bricks were dry-stacked directly on the house foundation in collaboration with a mason to confirm dimensions and coordinate the placement of structural components and critical openings.

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Embedded Structure

Cavities formed within the brick patterns allow for rebar to be set in place and concrete infill to be poured once masonry work has been completed. Steel ties connected to embedded structural columns are placed within the mortar joints of the wall system. This creates welding points at several coursing levels for the steel door and window frames to be connected, once fabricated.

Embedded Structure Vertical structural components are integrated into the brick walls by forming continuous cavities for rebar and concrete to be poured as cast columns.


0.090 0.090

0.090 0.090

0.090 0.090

0.215

0.030 0.030

08-1B 08-1B

CORNER SINGLE COLUMN

0.215 0.215

CORNER SINGLE COLUMN

0.090 0.090 0.090 0.090

08-3B 08-3B 08-3B 0.215

08-3B

0.090 0.090 0.090 0.090

0.055 0.210

0.215

0.210

MID WALL 0.210

08-4B MID WALL 08-4B

MID WALL CORNER REBAR

08-3B T STRAWTEC PANEL

0.215

0.210

0.210

MID WALL

0.055

08-4C

0.1050.105

0.210

0.090 0.090

0.215

0.330 0.090 0.090

0.090 0.090 0.105

0.105

0.090 0.090

T STRAWTEC PANEL

0.330

0.1050.105

0.090 0.090

MID WALL CORNER REB

0.210

0.090 0.090

END WALL

0.210

0.210

0.090 0.090

0.215

MID WALL CORNER REB

08-4C

0.090 0.090

08-3B

0.330

08-5 MID WALL CORNER REBAR 08-5 STAND ALONE COLUMN (NOT CAST) 08-4A 08-4C STAND ALONE COLUMN (NOT CAST) END WALLMID WALL CORNER REBAR 08-4A

08-4C

0.055

0.330

0.090 0.090

0.055

08-4B

0.090 0.090

0.090 0.090

0.055

MID WALL

0

T STRAWTEC PANEL

0.215

0.215

08-4C

90 0.090

08-4C 0.215

08-4B

0.330 0.330

STAND ALONE COLUMN (NOT CAST)

08-3B 08-3B

MID WALL T STRAWTEC PANEL

T STRAWTEC PANELMID WALL CORNER REBAR

0.090 0.090

0.215

0.215

08-4B 08-4B MID WALL

0.055

0.105

0.055

0.090 0.090

0.105 0.105

08-3C

STAND STAND ALONE STAND ALONE COLUMN ALONE COLUMN COLUMN (NOT(NOT CAST) (NOT CAST) CAST)

0.215

MID WALL

MID WALL CORNER REBAR

0.1050.105

0.090 0.090

08-5

0.105

0.210

0.090 0.090

0.055 0.105

0.105

0.105

0.055

0.090 0.090

0.210

08-3C T STRAWTEC PANEL 08-4B

08-4C

0.215

0.1050.105

MID MID WALL WALL MID WALL T STRAWTEC PANEL

0.030

0.210

0.1050.105

0.090 0.090

08-4B 08-4B 08-4B 08-3C

0.210

T STRAWTEC PANEL

0.215

0.090

0.215

0.055 0.055

0.215

08-3B 08-1B T STRAWTEC PANEL 08-3BCORNER SINGLE COLUMN

0.1050.105 0.1050.105 0.1050.105

0.055

T STRAWTEC PANEL

0.090 0.090

0.055

0.215

0.220

08-5 08-5 08-5

0.055

0.055

0.090 0.090

0.215

0.215

0.090

0.215

08-3C

0.105

T STRAWTEC PANEL

0.090 0.090 0.210

08-4B MID WALL

0.055

0.215

08-3B 08-3B T STRAWTEC PANEL

0.055

END WALL

CORNER SINGLE COLUMN 0.215 0.055

0.090 0.090

0.090 0.090

0.090 0.090

0.105

0.325

0.220 0.090 0.090

08-4A

0.215

T STRAWTEC PANEL

T STRAWTEC 0.215 PANEL 0.215 0.215

0.210

0.215

08-1B

0.030

0.090 0.090

0.090

0.090

0.090 0.090 0.090 0.090

0.215

0.105

08-3C 0.210

0.215

0.090 0.090 0.090 0.090

0.105

0.105

T STRAWTEC T STRAWTEC T STRAWTEC PANEL PANEL PANEL

0.220

ENDEND WALL WALLWALL END

0.220

0.090 0.090

0.090 0.090 0.105

08-4A 08-4A 08-4A

0.325

0.090 0.090

0.325

T STRAWTEC PANEL T STRAWTEC PANEL T STRAWTEC PANEL

0.210

0.105

0.220

0.325

0.090 0.090

08-3A 08-3A T STRAWTEC PANEL 08-3B

08-2 08-3B T WALL

10

0.215

0.215 0.215 0.2150.215 0.215

T STRAWTEC PANEL

ALL

0.220

0.105

0.105 0.220

0.325

0.105

0.215

AWTEC PANELMID WALL

B

0.325

0.215

0.090 0.090

08-3C 08-4AT STRAWTEC PANEL 08-4A END WALL 08-4B 08-3A 08-3C END WALL WALL PANEL TMID STRAWTEC T STRAWTEC PANEL 08-3A 08-4B PANEL B T STRAWTEC

EL

0.030

0.090

0.215

0.220

0.090 0.090

0.090 0.090 0.090 0.090

0.215

0.215

0.325

0.090 0.090

0.090

0.030

0.105

08-3A

0.105

0.215 0.215 0.2150.215 0.215

0.215

0.210 0.210

0.220

0.090

0.105

T STRAWTEC T STRAWTEC T STRAWTEC PANEL PANEL PANEL

T WALL

0.090 0.090

0.325

08-3A 08-3A 08-3A

08-2

08-1B

0.090 0.090 CORNER SINGLE COLUMN

08-2 08-2 T WALL

0.090 0.090

CORNER SINGLE COLUMN

CORNER SINGLE COLUMN

T WALL

B 0.090 0.090 CORNER COLUMN ER SINGLE COLUMN

5

0.090 0.090 0.105

0.090 0.090 0.090 0.090

0.105 0.105 0.220

08-2

08-1A T WALL CORNER COLUMN 08-1A 0.105

0.030

0.325

08-1B 08-1B CORNER SINGLE COLUMN

0.220

08-1B

T WALL T WALL T WALL

0.220

0.105 0.105

08-1B CORNER SINGLE COLUMN

0.090 0.090 0.090 0.090

08-2 08-2 08-2

0.105

0.325

0.220

0.090 0.325 0.030 0.325 0.220 0.105 0.220 0.105

CORNER SINGLE COLUMN

0.325

0.220

0.325 0.090 0.090 0.090 0.090 0.090 0.090 0.105 0.220

08-1B

0.220

0.220

0.325

CORNER COLUMN CORNER SINGLE COLUMN

0.105

0.325 0.105

0.105

08-1A 08-1A CORNER COLUMN 08-1B

0.220 0.105 0.325

0.325

CORNER COLUMN

0.220 0.105 0.325

08-1A

08 08

SCALE: 1:25

0.09

08-3C MIT_RHA_SK T STRAWTEC P PROTOTYPE

MIT_RHA_SK COLUMN TYP PROTOTYPE

DATE: JULY 2


Foundation

The initial stage of construction on the Mageragere site included excavation for the stone and concrete foundation. All of the rebar required to be placed within the wooden form work, for the continuous poured grade beam, was cut and formed on site.


2. 4.41 3.81

Elevations

2.06

Fabrication

WATER COLLECTION

0.30

D 4.15

GUTTER see "07 SECTION 2"

10.81

4.7

SLOPE 1:8 1 07

4.0

1 04

30

02

CHIMNEY OPENINGS

MIT_RHA_SKAT PROTOTYPE HOUSE ROOF PLAN

BATHROOM VENTILATION OPENINGS

2.7 SCALE: 1:50 2.3

24 2.3

DATE: JULY 25, 2017

RING BEAM BELOW

18 W-01

W-02

W-03

W-04

12

6 0.32 0.0

0 BENCH see "11.2 BENCH DETAILS"

4.50

5.70

3.30

13.71

1

2

3

4

40

SLOPE 1:8

4.0

36

04

30

MIT_RHA_SKAT PROTOTYPE HOUSE BACK ELEVATION

24

D-02

2.3

SCALE: 2.3 1:50

RING BEAM BELOW

DATE: JULY 25, 2017

18

12

D-03

6 0.32 0.0

0

3.30

5.70

4.50 13.71

4

3

2

1

4.71

4.15 3.9

03

4.0

MIT_RHA_SKAT PROTOTYPE HOUSE

FRONT ELEVATION SCALE: 1:50

24 2.3

2.3 2.1

2.3

RING BEAM BELOW

18

18

12

12

6

6

RING BEAM BELOW

DATE: JULY 25, 2017 2.3

D-01

0.38 D-06 0.0

-0.1

3.30

1.90

2.00

D-05

3.30

1.90

7.41

D

C

2.00

2.00

2.00

3.20 7.40

7.41

B

D

A

C

0.0

0.0

A

B

B

A

C

D

33


3-8 Umuganda “Coming together in common purpose to achieve an outcome�

The design for the Umusambi House was not one offthe-shelf, but rather a unique idea developed through a collaboration between the students and faculty, local builders, and community members. A critical component of the construction process was the daily activity directly surrounding the building site. Many people from the surrounding community were involved throughout each day through activities such as collecting water and preparing material mixtures.


On-site Collaboration

Off-site Working Sessions

Conversations on site played an important role in finalizing design decisions. Through working directly with masons, it was possible to find solutions quickly and effectively. The rare opportunity to develop an idea and see it physically built during a short time frame is powerful in its implementation.

The design development included a continual process of taking daytime lessons learned on site back for digital translation during the evenings. The construction set evolved through several consultations with engineers, discussions on site, and through physical mock-ups of construction strategies with builders.


Umusambi House


Fabrication


Conclusion


Design as Vehicle This rare opportunity to develop an idea and then see it physically built during a short time frame is powerful in its implementation. The new prototype of the Umusambi House involved a learning-by-doing and an in-situ design process with community participation and local experts, including the young generation of Rwandan urban planners and architects. When the immediate solution was not one from a hardware store, but rather a unique idea developed through collaboration between designer and builder, the construction process became a learning experience for all involved. Even with a short time in the local context, the workshop attracted a great deal of attention with the Nyarugenge district mayor and the head of the Rwanda Housing Authority both visiting the site to discuss future applications of the Umusambi House.

Umusambi 2.0 This project aims to continue developing these initial steps by creating and formalizing innovative solutions in housing and a model of intervention capable of scaling-up this experience to other countries that face similar challenges. This begins by acknowledging that changes in transitional urban-rural areas are profound and will affect people on a scale never seen before. The ultimate goal is to establish a new village model where housing becomes a tool for territorial organization in the rural areas in Rwanda, and to support the development of the brick industry by scaling-up the production from small family establishments into mid-sized, environmentally responsible factories.

39


Kigali


This publication is a preliminary summary and accounting of work conducted by graduate students in a workshop held at MIT. This report is not intended to be read as a comprehensive peer-reviewed document.

41


HOUSING + A New Affordable Village House for Rural Lands, Rwanda  
HOUSING + A New Affordable Village House for Rural Lands, Rwanda