Page 1


LIMA, PERU


Lima


Index

Introduction

Rio Lurin: Transect

The River as a Partner The Hacks

The Four Visions and Hack Research

A Manifesto: The River as a Partner

Community Driven Data Gathering

Lurin Valley: Existing Infrastructure Systems

High Altitude Urbanism: Physical and Digital Connectivity

Existing Infrastructure

25

21

13

07

03


Introduction


High Altitude Urbanism Physical and Digital Connectivity

What are the relationships between rapid urban development, informal urban settlement and infrastructure in the digital age? What new intersections and resonances are possible between soft infrastructure (the matrix of social, political and economic institutions that should support collective health, education and advancement) and hard infrastructure (road networks, centralized water and waste management systems, electrical and communication installations) that should enable connections between communities? In areas of dynamic urbanization in the developing world, new residents move to informal settlements at the margins of arrival cities, often constructing homes before governments have the political will, organizational capacity, and funding to install the centralized infrastructure that has been associated with modern city planning practices. As a result, many residents (most often the poor and vulnerable) lack access to basic services while the middle and upperclass residents at or near the center of the arrival city continue to “modernize”. Development specialists, urban planners, and architects have attempted to address this challenge through the design of new types of “slum upgrading” projects, replacing informal settlements with formalized, flexible housing, or by providing de-centralized infrastructure services through partnerships with non-governmental organizations (NGOs). At the same time, governments continue to promise improvements to national systems, stating goals that include providing access to basic services to every citizen regardless of income, origin, or race. The challenges and failures of governments to fulfill these obligations are certainly not new, but despite this – or perhaps because of this abdication of traditional government responsibility – digital communication technology, the Internet, and globalization, have transformed the landscape and procurement of urban services. “Leapfrogging,” or the condition by which societies access advanced technology while surpassing traditional development pathways, has opened opportunities for new forms of connectivity. With increased access to information and communication, the public and private sectors are exploring if and how new forms of urban infrastructure can be developed and implemented – searching for ways to improve access to healthcare, education, and livelihood opportunities through new systems of connectivity that combine physical and digital infrastructure. This shift has profound implications for traditional urban planning.

Rather than seeking to respond to uncontrollable urbanization at the margins, the design disciplines can begin to reconsider traditional conditions of urban ‘center’ and ‘periphery’ as much more dynamic, time-based, plural and elastic. A poly-centric urbanism emerges, where access to opportunity and services has less to do with where one lives and more to do with whether, when and how one is connected both to ‘centers’ and to ‘peripheries.’ The Peru workshop set out to explore possible new forms and linkages of physical and digital infrastructure along a 70 kilometer transect of the Rio Lurin, the last major urban waterway whose upper waters in glaciers of the Peruvian Andes are still relatively clean and wild. By following the Rio Lurin, as ancient Peruvians did from the Pacific Ocean to the Andes, we tried to map and understand the river’s relationship with adjacent urban development. We maintain that natural forces such as rivers, water, earth and rock-fall remain an essential ‘first’ infrastructure that will only become more important in a future of local and global climate changes. These forces are a part of life and livelihood in this region; any infrastructure response cannot operate in isolation from natural systems. In an emergent poly-centric urban structure, Lima has experienced rapid informal expansion upwards along the Rio Lurin, thus creating a high-altitude urbanism that operates across altitudes – making multiple dynamic and temporal connections between the ocean and the Andes. The cross-altitude, poly-centric urbanism presents a complex landscape that is at once social, economic, political, and environmental. Lima, as the capital city, provides access to jobs, opportunities, water, education and healthcare. It also produces places of stark inequality– communities with no access to roads, health or education services, communication infrastructure, potable water, or adequate shelter. Lima has over 1,920,000 households, 45% of which have been built informally along the urban extremities. These settlements exist in a harsh desert climate and steep terrain, and their residents face a constant struggle to access clean water, reliable electricity, safe toilets, affordable food, and data connections. Only 39% of Peru’s total population has access to the internet (World Bank, 2016), the lowest in Latin America after Bolivia; 3,100,000 households are without electricity; and 286,000 are without any basic water or sanitation services (INEI, 2007). In rapidly expanding areas, residents also face large-scale social displacement, inadequate schools and healthcare, job scarcity, and a general disconnection from local government and governance mechanisms.

3


In the greater metropolitan area of Lima, NGOs have stepped in to respond to the growing needs of these informal communities, establishing local programs which bring de-centralized ‘city’ services to those in need. These innovative programs, while attempting to address the urgency of these problems, also reveal the limitations of micro-initiatives. Dozens of de-centralized local projects have resulted in a disjointed network that raises questions on the responsibility of government (the State), the role of community involvement, and the agency of the individual citizen. A more radical approach to infrastructure and urban development is needed – one that can redefine the delivery models of infrastructure and services in the hyper-global context of digital communication networks as well as the particular local conditions of cross-altitude movement, networks and forms of connectivity. This field report on the Rio Lurin Transect represents 3 weeks of student work in partnership with MIT’s Norman B. Leventhal Center for Advanced Urbanism and the La Victoria Lab in Lima, Peru, an Intercorp organization, dedicated to improve the lives of Peruvian families though innovation.

Workshop Objectives ++ Understand the existing forms of connectivity that link the ++ ++

++ ++

movements of people, services and goods in 4 rural and urban communities in the Lima region along the Rio Lurin Transect. Learn, through the participation of selected NGOs in this workshop, how non-governmental organizations are providing distributed services with dry toilets, fog catchers, education and energy programs. Collect information from residents in 4 selected communities to identify the existing forms of domestic and public infrastructure that they access and use. Understand from residents how these services could work better and what services their community needs and does not have. Speculate on future forms of connectivity along the Rio Lurin Transect through relational mapping and diagramming of designs enabled by strategic groups of infrastructure – centralized and decentralized, physical and digital. Open a conversation that imagines how (or if) connectivity might change the need for centralized “top- down” infrastructure programs. If more city services are provided or connected online, how might this inform community housing and public space in Lima’s rapidly urbanizing regions?


Introduction

Team

MIT

La Victoria Lab

Sheila Kennedy

Fiorella Belli Daniela Chong Marcela Durand Oscar Malaspina Alfonso Orbegoso Carola Pareja Daniela Santana

Kelly Main Alexander Wiegering Waishan Qiu Anne Graziano Zain Karsan Alexander Kobald Alina Nazmeeva Rushil Palavajjhala Daniel Heriberto Palencia

5


Existing Infrastructure


Lurin Valley: Existing Infrastructure Systems

In the Global North, access to infrastructure is generally understood as a fundamental human right that should be provided by the state. Yet in rapidly expanding urban areas the provision of infrastructure often exceeds governmental capacity, funding or political will. As governments promise and then fail to provide universal access to the centralized “grid” of urban utilities, NGOs have begun implementing decentralized micro-infrastructure to deliver services to those at the margins. This raises questions about the role of the state, of the private sector, of the urban community, and the agency of the individual. Is urban development in the informal city a series of small-scale interventions to improve the livelihoods of beneficiaries, or is development understood as an overall shift in the quality of life undertaken at a national or global scale? And if so, what interim measures of access and what types of infrastructure can or should be put in place, and through which delivery pathways? Driven by the uneven globalization of technologies, many people in informal urban areas utilize cell phones and the internet before they have access to other types of hard infrastructure such as potable water or sewage connections. This has opened up broad debates around development trajectories in developed and developing countries, on whether or not, and how to, circumnavigate the infrastructural failures of the Global North, which have been built upon the myth of modern narratives of accessible abundant energy for automobiles, electricity, buildings and industry.

Transect

With this in mind, the Peru workshop set out to document the existing infrastructures of Lima and its expanding communities along the Lurin River to the foot hills of the Andes at 3,000 meters. The mountainous, remote territory of this high-altitude urbanism presents a unique set of physical challenges, not the least of which is gravity; there is a point where the road just ends. Peru’s high-altitude topography and small communities (where almost a third of the country’s population resides) does not have the “copper backbone” that has supported the transition from electrical grids to internet networks in other countries. Geographic flatness facilitates centralized urban connectivity. Topography, a single international internet connection point, and other factors limit Peru’s ability to be “fully connected” in the near future. The Peru workshop aims to speculate, create knowledge and document existing infrastructural systems in Peru, and also to extract opportunities from this specific context to imagine urban infrastructure futures that are applicable in many countries across the globe. Students explored the differences between hard and soft infrastructure, the implications of community-managed infrastructure, and the future roles that the strategic design and implementation of infrastructure could play to increase connectivity to ‘urban’ services across long distances, decrease the capital costs of hard infrastructure and brick and mortar buildings, and connect people – both physically and digitally. The catalog of infrastructure systems we found in Lima serves as a starting point to identify gaps and imagine how digital technologies (telecommunications and internet) could be introduced in urbanizing areas across altitudes.

Rio Lurin Valley Transect along the section

7


Catalog of Existing Systems

Energy

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10.07_LM Servicios Básicos Infraestructura de Energía Gas Natural City Gate

Red de Gaseoducto

CANTA

8710000

Red Principal Red Principal en ejecución Red de media presión Red de baja presión

LIMA NORTE Proyección UTM Elipsoide WGS84 Zona 18 Sur. Fuente: CALIDDA, IMP Planos Urbanos Distritales, INEI (población), actualizacion en Google Earth por PLAM Urbano Elaboración: PLAM

8700000

Camisea Gas Field

290000

8710000

Gas Firing Power Plants

Se muestra la ubicación del ducto de Gas Natural principal proveniente del City Gate (Lurín), asimismo la red principal del sistema de gas natural, la red de media presión que es abastecida por una estación de regulación a la cual llega una red de alta presión, según información brindada por CÁLIDDA con su Plan Quinquenal 2009-2013 (actualmente superado por Plan Quinquenal 2014-2018).

280000

8700000

METRÓPOLI DE LIMA-CALLAO

270000

HUARAL

10.07_LM INFRAESTRUCTURA DE ENERGÍA GAS NATURAL

Regional Scale Hydro-Power Stations

250000

8720000

Gas Power Infrastructure in Lima 240000

SERVICIOS BÁSICOS

8690000

8690000

Asimismo, se puede observar en el plano, las redes de baja presión, las cuales demarcan el desarrollo del sector residencial.

Landfill Gas Power

HUAROCHIRI 8670000

Substations

8670000

Natural Gas Pipeline

8680000

8680000

CALLAO

8660000

8660000

LIMA ESTE

LIMA SUR

Wind Farms

10 Km

10 Km

CAÑETE

8620000

ower

Longitud de Red (m) 95497.00 40851.71 279187.03 2914007.61

10 Km

8620000

Red Principal Red Principal en Ejecución Red de Media Presión Red de Baja Presión

8630000

8630000

8640000

Sub-transmission Device

8640000

Solar Farms

8650000

8650000

LIMA CENTRO

N

10 Km

Foggy Regions (lomas)

Fuente: CALIDDA, IMP, Planos Urbanos Distritales, Plano de Zonificación, empleos y establecimientos actualización en Google Earth por PLAM Urbano Elaboración: PLAM

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Además por normatividad, las redes de alta tensión deberán ajustarse a ubicación en faja de servidumbre. Cabe resaltar que esta franja afecta a manzanas y parques de la ciudad, para lo cual se deberá buscar una solución.

290000

300000

310000

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10.05_LM Infraestructura de Energía Eléctrica Central termoeléctrica

8710000

Sub estaciones Línea de trasmisión muy alta tensión

8710000

Central hidroeléctrica

CANTA

Línea de trasmisión alta tensión

LIMA NORTE

Línea de distribución alta tensión (Primario)

8690000

Proyección UTM Elipsoide WGS84 Zona 18 Sur. Fuente: SIRAD, EDELNOR, LUZ DEL SUR, IMP Planos Urbanos Distritales, INEI (población), actualizacion en Google Earth por PLAM Urbano Elaboración: PLAM

8700000

Distribución Administrada por LUZ DEL SUR S.A.

8690000

8700000

Distribución Administrada por EDELNOR S.A.

8680000

El consumo de energía eléctrica per cápita es de 1,469.4 KW.H/hab en Lima y 1,719.8 KW.H/hab en Callao.

280000

HUARAL

8680000

Es necesario señalar que las estaciones de transformación o estaciones de interconexión, y las subestaciones de distribución ocupan áreas de suelo de las habilitaciones urbanas y espacios de la ciudad. Se puede apreciar áreas sombreadas para identificar zona de acción y ámbitos de los concesionarios Edelnor y Luz del Sur.

270000

8720000

260000

10.05_LM INFRAESTRUCTURA DE ENERGÍA ELÉCTRICA

Se muestra la ubicación de las Centrales Térmicas (ubicadas en suelo de Lima), y las Centrales Hidroeléctricas Huinco (con una potencia de 262 MW), Matucana (con una potencia de 120 MW), Callahuanca (con una potencia de 71MW), Moyopampa (conocido como Pablo Bonner, con una potencia de 63MW) y Huampaní (con una potencia de 31MW), ubicadas cerca de la carretera central, en sierra central de Lima y Huarochirí. Estas alimentan la red eléctrica que abastece la Metrópoli Lima – Callao. A estas se suman la línea de transmisión proveniente del Mantaro, y las líneas de transmisión de procedente de estas centrales hidroeléctricas.

Basic Power Generators

250000

CALLAO

HUAROCHIRI 8670000

SERVICIOS BÁSICOS

8670000

Radio and Cell Phone

8720000

240000

METRÓPOLI DE LIMA - CALLAO

Micro Solar Panel

260000

Electricity Power Infrastructure in Lima

Off-Grid Power Car Battery Charging

250000

LIMA ESTE

8660000 8650000

24.00 969850.00 768203.83 33773.71

LIMA SUR

8630000

8630000

8640000

Nro. de Subestaciones Cantidad instalada Cantidad de demanda Cantidad de demanda AP

8640000

Built-in Charging StationLuz del Sur

LIMA CENTRO

10 Km

8620000

10 Km

10 Km

CAÑETE

8620000

Propane Tank

20 1042200.00 719667.91 32000.34

8650000

Nro. de Subestaciones Cantidad instalada Cantidad de demanda Cantidad de demanda AP

8660000

Edelnor

N

10 Km

Fuente: SIRAD, EDELNOR, LUZDEL SUR,IMP, Planos Urbanos Distritales, Plano de Zonificación, empleos y establecimientos actualización en Google Earth por PLAM Urbano Elaboración: PLAM

lular tower represents the challenge of rapid network expansion. The tower requires consistent elecervice (map shown to right), wireless connection to local devices and a backhaul architecture. The

240000

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tions

Chapter 3

rnet & Telecommunications

Chapter 3

nternet & Telecommunications Telecom

Chapter 3

Internet & Telecommunications

Chapter 3

Internet Connection

lecommunications

Fiber Optic Cable

Submarine Internet Cables

Chapter 3

Backhaul Network Architecture

Cell Tower

Existing Infrastructure Systems

Analog Communication

Microwave Transmitter

Chapter 3

ernet & Telecommunications

Chapter 3

Ways of Connecting

Cell Phone

Wireless Data USB

lecommunications

tions

Satellite Dish

Smart Phone

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Internet Connection

Ways of Sharing Wifi Router

Peru’s connection to the world (through the internet) is emblematic of its communication infrastructure at large - highly centralized in urban areas with limited coverage in rural regions. Lima marks the only landfall in Peru Peru’s connection to the world (through the internet) is emblematic of its communication at internet cable network, of theinfrastructure submarine large, highly centralized in urban areas with limited coverage in rural regions. Lima marks the only landfall charging the city in Peru of the submarine internet cable network, charging the city with the responsibility of connecting the with the responsibility country to the world. of connecting the country to the world.

Digital-Physical Lima, Peru Local Area Network

ns

1 South America 1 South America Crossing

Chapter 3

wer Network

Digital-Physical Lima, Peru Digital-Physical Lima, Peru

Pan-Am Network

Cellular Coverage (Lima)

11 Digital-Physical Lima, Peru

a ¢ ¥ a ¥ £

8700000

8690000

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a £ ¥

a £ ¥

* £ a ¥

* a £ ¥

a £ ¥ a £ ¥

1

VSAT

No requiere

Hasta 512 Kbps

a £ ¥

LIMA SUR

8640000

# 0

* # a £ ¥ a £ ¥

10 Km

a £ ¥ 10 Km

Líneas dedicadas, Hasta 2 Mbps WiMax, UMTS, HSPA.

Redes Satelitales

Inalámbrico

LIMA ESTE

* a ¥ £ # 0

10 Km

Redes Terrestres

Torres de Telecomunicaciones y antenas.

a £ ¥

8650000

8660000 8650000

Ductos Subterráneos, Postes.

HUAROCHIRI

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Hasta 1 Gbps

Alámbrico Medios Eléctricos: par ADSL, DOCSIS de cobre, cable, coaxial, (Cable Módem), Hasta 5 Mbps otros. Líneas dedicadas

Central telefónica fija

8660000

a ¢ £ ¥ a ¥

TECNOLOGÍA MAS VELOCIDAD TÍPICAS INFRAESTRUCTURA USADA EN EL PERÚ EN EL PERÚ NECESARIA Ductos Subterráneos, Postes.

Antenas Vsat Central telefónica celular

*

8630000

MEDIO DE ACCESO

Medios Ópticos: fibra Líneas dedicadas óptica

Antena de distribución - Hub Estaciones - Fibra Óptica

a £ ¥

8620000

TIPO DE MEDIO

330000

Proyección UTM Elipsoide WGS84 Zona 18 Sur. Fuente: SIRAD, EDELNOR, LUZ DEL SUR, IMP Planos Urbanos Distritales, INEI (población), actualización en Google Earth por PLAM Urbano Elaboración: PLAM

8670000

1

1

# * # 0 *

CANTA

a £ ¥

Project Loon

320000

10.09_LM Infraestructura de Telecomunicaciones

HUARAL

Ways of Expanding Coverage

1

310000

a ¥ £ *

1

Digital-Physical Lima, Peru

300000

LIMA NORTE

Se puede identificar que la mayor concentración de la infraestructura y medios de transporte de la banda ancha de las telecomunicaciones se ubican en Lima Centro, en contraposición de Lima Este y Lima Sur. En estas últimas áreas se tiene el problema de disponibilidad de suelo para la implementación de infraestructura que permita la mejora de transporte y velocidad de comunicación, al igual que en Lima Norte y el Callao, quienes tienen similar comportamiento y demanda.

gital-Physical Lima, Peru ma, Peru

290000

8630000

La ubicación de la infraestructura de telecomunicaciones, referidos a centrales de telefonía celular y fija, antenas de distribución – Hubs, antenas VSAT, y estaciones de fibra óptica, se muestran en el presente plano, distribuidos sobre la planimetría del área urbana de la metrópoli.

Satellite

280000

CAÑETE

a £ ¥ a ¥ ¢

N

* a £ ¥

10 Km

a £ ¥

Fuente: SIRAD, EDELNOR, LUZDEL SUR,IMP, Planos Urbanos Distritales, Plano de Zonificación, empleos y establecimientos actualización en Google Earth por PLAM Urbano Elaboración: PLAM

ular communcation network is similarly concentrated. The city of 1 Lima enjoys consistent 2G, 3G wireless connectivity, with each of the era’s of networks developed as seperate, concentrated phases.

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METRÓPOLI DE LIMA-CALLAO

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10.09_LM INFRAESTRUCTURA DE TELECOMUNICACIONES

1

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250000

8670000

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SERVICIOS BÁSICOS 1

al-Physical Lima, Peru

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Internet Cafe

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Server

l-Physical Lima, Peru

3

Tele-Communication Infrastructure in Lima

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Catalog of Existing Systems

Water & Sanitation WasteWater Treatment& PlanSanitation Sewage Centers Water & Sanitation Water & Sanitation Water & Sanitation Water & Sanitation Water & Sanitation Water & Sanitation Water & Sanitation Water & Sanitation Water and Sanitation

260000

10.03_LM INFRAESTRUCTURA DE ALCANTARILLADO

320000

330000

PTAR

PTAR Caudal 91 - 400 l/s PTAR Caudal 0 - 90 l/s

8710000

PTAR Caudal 401 - 910 l/s

CANTA

Red Primaria

LIMA NORTE Proyección UTM Elipsoide WGS84 Zona 18 Sur. Fuente: SEDAPAL, IMP Planos Urbanos Distritales, INEI (población), actualizacion en Google Earth por PLAM Urbano Elaboración: PLAM ANCON

8690000

VENTANILLA

CALLAO

8680000

Pipes

310000

10.03_LM Infraestructura de Alcantarillado

8710000

Se muestra la ubicación de las Plantas de Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales (PTAR) existentes, y diferenciados por rangos de caudal de tratamiento, sobresalen la PTAR Taboada (primera etapa construida) y La Chira (en ejecución). SEDAPAL cuenta en la metrópoli Lima - Callao con 20 plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales tratadas (incluyendo Taboada), actualmente tratando el 13.6m³/s del total de las aguas producidas según informa SEDAPAL. Cabe señalar que la capacidad de la Planta de Taboada es de 14m³/s pero actualmente trata solo 10.5m³/s. En el 2015 se espera que Taboada opere al 100% de su capacidad y además entre en operación la PTAR La Chira, con lo cual se trataría el 100% de las aguas residuales de la ciudad. En el presente plano también se muestra el recorrido de las redes primarias (810km) que recolectan las descargas de aguas residuales de toda la ciudad.

300000

8700000

Plastic Tanks

290000

HUARAL

8680000

Fog Catcher

280000

8690000

METRÓPOLI DE LIMA - CALLAO

270000

8700000

8720000

250000

8720000

Drinking Water Infrastructure in Lima

240000

SERVICIOS BÁSICOS

! CARAPONGO

PUENTE PIEDRA SEDE ATARJEA

Tarp

HUAROCHIRI 8670000

Out House

8670000

Distribution Truck

TABOADA

LIMA ESTE

San Juan de Miraflores

Lagunas aireadas, sedimentación y Secundario lagunas de pulimento Laguna anaerobia, lagunas aireadas Secundario y sedimentación Lodos Activados Secundario Lagunas aireadas, sedimentación, lagunas de pulimento, emisor Secundario submarino Lagunas anaerobias, lagunas aireadas, sedimentación y Secundario pulimento

910

1,000

500

454

500

422

535

1,290

400

430

1,350

LIMA CENTRO

CIENEGUILLA LA CHIRA MANCHAY

Secundario

134

57

152

Cieneguilla Lodos Activados Secundario Laguna anaerobia, lagunas 8 Huáscar-Parque 26 Villa El Salvador aireadas, sedimentación y lagunas Secundario pulimento Villa María del Reactores Anaerobios, lagunas 9 José Gálvez Secundario Triunfo aireadas y sedimentación 10 Manchay Pachacamac Lodos Activados Terciario Laguna anaerobia, laguna aireada y 11 Julio C. Tello Lurín Secundario sedimentación Balneario San 12 San Bartolo Lodos Activados Secundario Bartolo Sur

117

24

7

13 San Pedro de Lurín Lurín

Laguna anaerobia y laguna aireada Secundario

24

25

0

14 Pucusana 15 Nuevo Lurín 16 Ancón Balneario San 17 Bartolo Norte 18 Santa Rosa

Pucusana Lurín Ancón

Lagunas de Oxidación Lagunas de Oxidación Lagunas de Oxidación

Secundario Primario Secundario

24 21 20

26 72 30

31 0 75

Landfill

San Bartolo

Lodos Activados

Secundario

13

2

12

Santa Rosa

Filtros Percoladores

Secundario

12

3

12

19 Punta Hermosa Nueva Sede 20 Atarjea

Punta Hermosa Lagunas de Oxidación

Primario

10

18

25

Secundario

1

1

1

Lurigancho

El Agustino

Lodos Activados

Lodos Activados

Spigot

44

117

100

98

100

64

102

101

60

29

60

25

29

25 24

LIMA SUR SAN BARTOLO

PARQUE 26 HUASCAR JULIO C. TELLO

NUEVO LURÍN PUNTA HERMOSA BALNEARIO

10 Km

10 Km

400

JOSE GALVEZ

8640000

242

San Antonio Carapongo 7 Cieneguilla

Borewell

Underground Community Cistern 280

6

Ventanilla

8630000

5 Ventanilla

8620000

Canal/Aqueduct

!

SAN JUAN

Water & Sanitation ter & Sanitation Water & Sanitation nitation Water & Sanitation Trash Bag

8660000

1,700

8650000

SMP

4 San Juan

Caudal PTAR mejorada (L/s)

Caudal

8640000

Ate Vitarte

3 Puente Piedra

Actual (L/s)

Caudal Nivel de tratamiento Diseño (L/s)

8630000

2 Carapongo

Lurín

Procesos de tratamiento

CAÑETE PUCUSANA

8620000

1 San Bartolo

Ubicación (Distrito)

10 Km

PTAR

8650000

8660000

SAN ANTONIO DE CARAPONGO

N

10 Km

Fuente: SEDAPAL, IMP, Planos Urbanos Distritales, Plano de Zonificacion, empleos y establecimientos actualizacion en Google Earth por PLAM Urbano Elaboración: PLAM

er & Sanitation

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290000

300000

310000

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330000

10.02_LM Cobertura de Agua Potable

HUARAL

Área con servicio de agua

Tank En síntesis del presente mapa,Water se muestran las áreas urbanas que cuentan con cobertura del servicio de agua potable, la cual supera el 71% del área urbana en total, los cuales están en el orden del 91.3% respecto a población atendida, según informa SEDAPAL.

8700000 8690000

8700000

LIMA NORTE

CALLAO

8680000

Collection Truck

Proyección UTM Elipsoide WGS84 Zona 18 Sur. Fuente: SEDAPAL, IMP Planos Urbanos Distritales, INEI (población), actualización en Google Earth por PLAM Urbano Elaboración: PLAM

8690000

Las áreas sin cobertura del servicio de agua potable obedecen a una ubicación en cotas superiores a zonas de presión de las redes de SEDAPAL. En el caso de Lima Este, en los distritos de Lurigancho y San Juan de Lurigancho; en Lima Norte, como se puede observar, parte de Carabayllo no cuenta con el servicio y lo mismo sucede con Lima Sur en Lurín y Balnearios.

Área sin servicio de agua

CANTA

8710000

METRÓPOLI DE LIMA-CALLAO

Dam/ Reservoir

280000

8720000

8720000

270000

8710000

Water Sink

270000

260000

10.02_LM COBERTURA DE AGUA POTABLE

No obstante, el área de Lima Centro prácticamente consolidado cuenta con más del 96% de cobertura del servicio respecto a área urbana.

Wind Farms

250000

8680000

nitation

260000

Sewage Infrastructure Coverage in Lima 240000

SERVICIOS BÁSICOS

Water Treatment

250000

!

!

8650000

LIMA CENTRO

8660000

8660000

LIMA ESTE

8650000

Área con cobertura de Agua Potable a nivel interdistrital (ha)

LIMA SUR

LIMA SUR

53.9%

63.1%

96.8%

LIMA NORTE

71.9%

ÁREA TOTAL

8640000

8640000 8630000

18930.00

14241.04

LIMA CENTRO

13601.93

13787.74

LIMA ESTE

ÁREA CUBIERTA

8620000

89.4%

10 Km

CALLAO

CAÑETE 10 Km

0.00

10 Km

8620000

5000.00

11203.60

10000.00

10890.79

15000.00

13709.39

20791.17

20000.00

21706.35

25000.00

8630000

Truck Filling Station

9738.36

Waterless Toilets

8670000

8670000

HUAROCHIRI

N

10 Km

Fuente: SEDAPAL, IMP, Planos Urbanos Distritales, Plano de Zonificación, empleos y establecimientos actualización en Google Earth por PLAM Urbano Elaboración: PLAM

240000

250000

260000

270000

280000

290000

300000

310000

320000

330000


Transportation Chapter

Private Service Plays A Significant Role Component Array

Existing Infrastructure Systems

Transportation Chapter

Private Service Plays A Significant Role Public Service

Transportation Chapter

Langa | Poor Accessibility

Component Array

n Chapter

metro

Service Plays A Significant Role

Transportation Public Service

Transportation Network The accessibility to Lima city for people in Lurin Valley is very poor. It can take up to 3 hours to get to the facilities in Lima’s urban area.

Private Service

Service Plays A Significant Role Role vate Service Plays A Significant

Public Service

Private Service

Metro

Coaster

Personal

metropolitano Component Array Component Array

metro

omnibus

Accessibility to Lima City Center

Component Array

hapter sportation Chapter

lic Service

metropolitano

omnibus coletivo

Camioncoaster

combi

taxi

mototaxi

Transportation Chapter

Private Service Plays A Significant Role

metro

metropolitano

omnibus

Lima City Center

Private Service

Component Array

c Service Public Service

Individual Modes

nificant Role gnificant Role ate Service coaster

metro

metropolitano Component ArrayArray Component metropolitano

metro

coaster Metropolitano

e Service Private Service

coletivo

Coletivo

coletivo camion

omnibus

Public Service

combi

Privatetaxi Car

metro

metropolitano

3 h 42 min 120 KM

Omnibus

metropolitano

Component Array

Combi

taxi

goprivate kartscar combi

walkingmoto taxi

Go Karts coletivo

coaster

camion coletivo

metropolitano

Private Service

omnibus

gocombi karts

combi

walking

taxi

mototaxi

moto taxi

Digital- Physical Lima, Peru

Physical Lima, Peru

moto go karts

camion

Digital- Physical Lima, Peru

Transportation Research | 2

Digital- Physical Lima, Peru

to Lima Center go karts

moto

private car

camion

taxi

go karts

taxi

moto

moto

combi

walking

go karts

mototaxi mototaxi

private car

private car

Langa

walking

mototaxi

Digital- Physical Lima, Peru

Transportation Research | 3

Transportation Research | 3

Accessibility to Surrounding Villages Digital- Physical Lima, Peru

Transportation Research | 3

Transportation Research | 20

The accessibility in between the villages in upper Lurin Valley is also bad due to the difficulties walking of maneuvering huge altitude differences in topography.

walking

Productive Corridors mototaxi

taxi Digital- Physical Lima, Peru

Transportation Research | 2

Transportation Research | 2

walking private car

taxi

Transportation Research | 2

Transportation Research | 2

Individual Modes

Transportation Research | 3

walking

private motocar mototaxi

Motobike combi

coletivo

Digital- Physical Lima, Peru

private car mototaxi

taxi

Shared Service Between Rural Clusters

a, Peru

Transportation Research | 3

Transportation Research | 2

go karts combi

Mototaxi coaster

Transportation Chapter

combi

mototaxiprivate car

omnibus

Individual Modes

camion coletivo

aster

on

3 h 8 min 153 KM

mototaxi

Digital- Physical Lima, Peru

metro

er

Taxi

moto

Transportation Research | 2

Digital- Physical Lima, Peru

omnibus

combi

Transportation Resear

Public Service

ima, Peru dual Modes Individual Modes

s

Digital- Physical Lima, Peru

Component Array

go kartscoletivo camion coletivo omnibus omnibus

metropolitanocoaster

mion

walking

omnibus

Transportation Research | 2

Private Service

Component coaster Array camion

i

mototaxi

private car

mototaxi

Individual Modes DigitalPhysical Lima, Peru Private Service Plays A Significant Role

nt Array

o

taxi moto

Transportation Chapter

vidual Modes

metro

combi go karts

omnibus

Digital- Physical Lima, Peru

Digital- Physical Lima, Peru

Matucana

Transportation Research | 3

Population: Amenity: Public Transit

Transportation Research | 3

3 h 39 min, 102 km Transportation Research | 2

moto

private car

Cocachacra

Digital- Physical Lima, Peru

Transportation Research | 3

Population: Amenity: Public Transit

walking

Surco District, Huarochirí Population: Amenity: Public Transit, Community Center

3 h 5 min, 79.2 km

Chaute private car

walking

3 h 22 min, 92.7 km

Population: Amenity: Church

2 h 32min, 69.6 km

on Research | 2

Digital- Physical Lima, Peru

moto

private car

Santiago de Tuna District

Transportation Research | 3

walking

Population: Amenity: Church

San Damian District

2 h 7 min, 59.4 km Digital- Physical Lima, Peru

Transportation Research | 2

Population: Amenity: Concert Hall

San Andrés de Tupicocha District

Transportation Research | 3

42 min, 28.5 km

Population: Amenity: Church, Hotel

Sunicancha Population:

1 h 31 min, 45.9 km Digital- Physical Lima, Peru

Amenity: Pharmacy

Transportation Research | 3

37 min, 22.8 km

Antioquia District Population: Amenity: Restaurant, Church

54 min, 21.7 km

Lahuaytambo District Population: Amenity: Hospital, Church

29 min, 13.2 km

Productive Corridors Langa Population: 1181

Chorrillos Population: Amenity: Hospital, Goods Store

54 min, 21.7 km

Lanchi Population: Amenity: Supermarket, Church

38 min, 14.8 km

Amenity: Hospital, Church


Rio Lurin: Transect


Community Driven Data Gathering

‘Big’ Data & ‘Small’ Data

Flocktracker Future

Planners and policy makers rely on data to inform their decisions. Data collection has become an essential component of our daily lives, our activities are monitored, and our views are polled, in order to create large data sets of public opinions. “Big Data”, which relies on massive data sets collected by large companies, networks and government institutions, is increasingly a topic of interest and concern.

In the future, Flocktracker could be used to demonstrate how local communities could collect and analyze their own data to help inform local priorities and initiate new infrastructure projects. Data awareness and decision-making can start through educational campaigns focused on community-led data collection. Workshops on the use of tools like Flocktracker can help people identify and prioritize essential information that they care about in their community and would like to regularly collect and monitor. In the Rio Lurin Transect, this might include the quality and amount of river water, public safety in the event of landslides and road wash-outs, weather conditions, farming related variables such as seasonal yield correlated with weather and water levels, and variables related to community-based eco-tourism, such as visitor revenues, satisfaction surveys and visitor metrics for community-based accommodations and local services.

Although some of these data sets are collected with specific objectives, such as large-scale medical research or satellite imagery of particular places or spectra, many others are byproducts of other data-intensive activities, such as social media and cellphone usage patterns. While these datasets can provide insight into some activity patterns, they are inherently biased in favor of users of these technologies; they exclude those who don’t use them and cannot provide nuanced insights about individual users. Researchers and community organizers who seek more specific and selective data collection must still rely on traditional data collection methodologies. These techniques are often limited to existing survey methods and site visits, using pen, paper and photographs to collect data in the field. These methodologies are often time consuming, labor intensive, and require translation into digital formats if the information is to be shared or analyzed.

The Flocktracker Platform As residents in informal and developing communities, the people of the Lurin Valley lack access to the tools to gather and use data. This decreases the ability of community members and service providers to make informed decisions about the need for infrastructure projects. To gain information about the people who live along the Rio Lurin Transect, the Peru workshop set out to gather data using Flocktracker – a data collection platform being developed at MIT that aims to democratize data collection. Flocktracker is a cloud-based, mobile phone-based software application that is designed to allow for flexibility and collaboration for a wide range of data collection tasks, making it a good fit for the unique needs of individuals and communities. Flocktracker leverages smartphone technology to provide an adaptable, low-cost platform that is easy to manage and use. Questions can be entered via the cellphone keypad, and data can be collected with or without internet connectivity. A tool like Flocktracker enables high-resolution field data collection that is both quantitative and qualitative. Users can collaborate on every step of the data gathering process, including devising questionnaires, conducting surveys, and analyzing results. Since data is digitally stored as soon as it is entered, it can also be easily collected and shared with a wider audience. The ubiquity of cellular devices today, even in poor and remote communities in Peru, means that almost everyone can participate in data collection and sharing of the gathered information.

This “Small Data” approach prioritizes place-based and content-specific data collection, since the way in which information is collected is deeply tied to the responses that are given. Big Data mining projects may not be interested in micro-scale or community-level initiatives – even if these kinds of projects improve the quality of peoples’ lives and support community self-sufficiency and self-determination. The process of Small Data generation enables communities to reflect on their current activities and surroundings to better understand the underlying interactions and processes that govern their livelihoods. With very basic training, cellular platforms such as Flocktracker can enable communities to lead and monitor their own exploratory data collection processes. If desired, this self-driven community process can be supported with statistical experts and additional training, so that a more thorough analysis and understanding can be achieved.

Community Driven Data Gathering Once communities work together to gather and monitor information, they have taken a first step towards responding autonomously to a given set of shared concerns and interests. Local communities and officials might not have to wait for the central government census to be released to reflect their numbers and needs. The information collected by the community could be shared through social media, community websites and official publications to raise awareness, plan next steps in community led programs, and push forward community improvement agendas with local government officials. Although many believe that the more data the better, it is important to acknowledge that data cannot solve every problem of urban infrastructure in informal settings, nor should data be used as the exclusive metric for determining the accessibility and success of a given infrastructure initiative.

13


Site Visits and Interviews The Lurin Valley

Las Palmas

Rio Seco

AntioquĂ­a

La Pedrera


Questionnaire Household Q 1: Where were you born? Where are you from? Q 2: What do you do? Q 3: Who do you live with? (household) Q 4: Since when do you live here? Q 5: How did you get this house? (Are you the owners? Did you build it?) Q 6: Do you have plans to move? Q 7: What are the most important parts of your house? What makes your house a home? Q 8: How do you get clean water? Q 9: What fuel do you use for cooking? Q 10: What type of kitchen equipment do you have? Q 11: Where do you get your food from? Q 12: Are you satisfied with the current condition of your bathroom? Q 13: How do you dispose of your garbage? Q 14: Would you expand your house, if you could? Q 15: How do you light/power your house? Q 16: What’s your primary means of communication? Q 17: Do you use the internet? Q 18: How many times per week? Q 19: Do you have a cell phone? Q 20: Does it get signal in your community? Q 21: What does your service provider offer (app)? Q 22: If yes, how do you power it? Q 23: What is the brand and make? Education Q 24: What level of education do you have? School? Technical? College? Q 25: Do your children study? Q 26: What do you think about the education your children receive? (quality/trust) Q 27: Where do your kids go to school? Q 28: What do your children do on holidays? Q 29: What would you change about your education? Q 30: What would you change about your children’s education? Q 31: Would you want your children to stay and live here? Q 32: How do they get to school? Q 33: At what time do they start and leave school? Q 34: At what time do they get home? Q 35: Homework? Q 36: Vacations? What do they do? Health Q 37: Is there a farmacia or posta medica? In your community? Q 38: What are the health services you use? (private/public) Q 39: What do you do in case of a medical emergency? To whom and where are you going? Q 40: What do you think about the quality of the health services you receive? (public/private/quality/trust) Q 41: Could you tell me about any time you had to go to post/clinic/ hospital? Q 42: How long did it take to get there? (personal car/ambulance/ other) Q 43: Who took care of it? (doctor/nurse/other) Entertainment Q 44: Do you have a television? Q 45: What do you watch on television? Q 46: What other technological device (cell/radio/tablets) do you have?

Q 47: Q 48: Q 49: Q 50:

If you have a cell phone and/or landline: is it prepaid or postpaid? How do you pay for it? If phone: Do you have internet access on your phone? If not: Where do you go to access it? Could you tell me how does a typical family weekend go? (since you wake up until you go to sleep)

Livelihood Q 51: Journey for work (day/week) Q 52: How do you get to your job? /Hours Q 53: If you have a farm: how to transport the products of your farm? Q 54: Are your kids involved in your daily work? Q 55: Do you have a bank account? Q 56: How much do you trust in banks? Q 57: How do you send and receive money? Q 58: Where do you get groceries? Q 59: Where do you get hygiene items and medicines? Q 60: How do you feel about the presence of public services (water, sewage, health…) in your town? Q 61: Among all of the public services, which would you say makes you feel more comfortable in you town? Why? Q 62: Which would you say makes you more uncomfortable? Why? Q 63: Do you feel safe in your town? Why? Q 64: If someone robbed you, who or where would you go to report it? Lima and Community Q 65: Do you go to Lima? When was the last time you went? Q 66: How would you describe the city of Lima in 3 words? Q 67: Do you know anyone among family and friends who has moved to Lima recently? Q 68: What are some of the things you like about living here? Q 69: What’s the most valued community asset? Q 70: Where does your community gather? Q 71: Do you actively participate in your community? Q 72: If, yes: What role do you have? Q 73: Would you say you identify with your community? Why? Q 74: Do you know everyone in your community? Q 75: How would you describe your town? Q 76: Where and how do you spend your leisure time? Q 77: What do you do for fun? (leisure) Q 78: Which buildings in your community have mobile internet? Wireless service? Aspirations and Future Q 79: What does it mean for you to succeed? Q 80: Tell me a little about your biggest dream Q 81: Currently, what do you think limits you from achieving this? Q 82: What fears you the most? Q 83: Where do you see yourself in 10 years? Q 84: If there was one thing that is currently missing in your house that you could add, what would it be? Q 85: If there was one thing that is currently missing in your community that you could add, what would it be? Q 86: If you could, would you move closer or further from the city center? Q 87: How has the internet changed your way of life? Q 88: If you had internet access, how do you imagine it change your way of life? Q 89: What or who would you like to be more connected to? Q 90: If you bring any type of service to this area, what would it be?

15


Site Visits

Rio Seco

Las Palmas Type of Settlement: Condition: Altitude:

Formal Peri-Urban 0-125m

Type of Settlement: Condition: Altitude:

Informal Peri-Urban 350-850m


Rio Lurin: Transect

AntioquĂ­a Type of Settlement: Condition: Altitude:

La Pedrera Formal Rural 1300 - 1800m

Type of Settlement: Condition: Altitude

Informal Rural 2200m

17


125 m

350 m

875

125 m

350 m

875

125 m

350 m

875

Lurin Valley: the transects Interviews

Las Palmas

Las Palmas

Avila Family Name: Romulo & Teofila Location: CP Lurin Family Size: 4

Occupation: Greenhouse Farmer

“Everyone is growing the same crops. This competition makes it hard to get a good price.”

Beranales Family Name: Juan Carlos & Angela Location: CP Lurin Family Size: 3

1

“Experience has taught us that medical services cannot be trusted; they Occupation: depend on informal Freelance Handyman W EIVRETNIcommunity scale solutions.”

Elderly couple (Romulo and Teofila), in their 60’s, with a younger child and a grandchild at home. They live in a gated community in Lurin with controlled access. The neighborhood has good quality services (water, sewage, internet and trash pickup). Overall the couple was happy with their situation, they enjoy their quiet community and have no interest in moving to Lima (described as “shit, shit, shit”). Their major concerns are security and safety, specifically traffic in Lima and the threat of robbery/ assault.

Rio Seco

rodavlaS le alliV ,4 rotceS :​ noitacoL )alegnA & solraC nauJ( ylimaF selanreB​ :seeweivretnI fo semaN 1 :yaD alecraM ,lihsuR ,niaZ ,anilA ,xelA ,nahsiaW ,osnoflA ,inah C​ :sSeco eman maet gniweivretni puorG Rio

Lapa Family Name: Walter Lapa Location: CP Rio Seco, Cieneguilla Family Size: 4

Young couple with a newborn son; house is in a semi-formal settlement which was previously invaded but has been formalized. Electricity and water are supplied, as well as daily trash pick-up. They both use data for their cellphones and use smartphones. He is a handyman who works on referrals from his friends and paints houses. He uses Whatsapp and Facebook to connect to jobs. They have a dream of selling clothes and having a house of their own but believe they are too busy with day to day survival to invest time in this dream.

Occupation: “Art Professor”

“The patio in the house serves as my own therapy site.”

Durand Family

community is very ---------“The -

connected because of Name: Elva Durand :weivrevOthe church; clothing is Location: Occupation: donated between families CP Rio Seco, Cook dCieneguilla lohesuoH/dnuorgkcaB/noitcudortnas I hand-me-downs” Family Size: 4

ylsuoiverp saw hcCame ihw there nemlooking elttesforlaamcommon rof-imeplace, s a ni si esuoh ;nos nrobwen a htiw elpuoc gnuoYHer home was donated by the municipality; i gifted services, furniture, and yltnerruc yeht dnanother a ,aerprovince a eht nthat i dewas lttesmore yllaaffordable nigiro rehtom siH .dezilamrof neeb sah tub dedavnthey than Lima. He moved here 3 years ago, he appliances. The community pays collectively si hcihw ,leugiM nalways aS nidreamed esuoh toa live sahhere. rehThe torcloser b sih dna ,ybraen sevil osla rehtaf siH .reh htiw evifor l food, which she prepares. As cook for nos rieht nehw esuyou oh are ehto t othe tniriver devthe ommore yehexpensive T .llew sa semoh eseht sredisnoc eH .tropria eht raenthe neighborhood, she is afforded a phone yehT .yliad pu kcipbecause hsart the sa river llewoperates sa ,delike ilppaunatural s era retaw dna yticirtcelE .oga shtnom 6 nrob sawto coordinate groceries from Lima. highway. Walter had an accident where Her husband used to work at a mine nearby, no skrow ohw namydnah a si eH .senohptrams esu yeht dna senohpllec rieht rof atad esu htob his left leg was broken and his ankle was but since works as a handyman. Her family ot tcennoc ot koo becinjured aF dnin a apcar pasaccident. tahW sHis eswife u eH .sesuoh stniap dna sdneirf sih morf slarrefeis r recovering from the theft of their property badly secivres tenretwas ni ginniaevery b saterrible ppAsaccident. tahW dShe na was koobecaF etaitnereffid ot mees t’nseod dna ,sboby j invaders. hit by a car 2 years ago and was dragged .secivres ralullec naht rehtar

for a very long time. He wants to make this place nicer, he got the land for cheap but yehT .seussi yad ot the yadlifenhere o suiscexpensive, of dna ecbetween nalahcthere non fo tirof ucwork es fand o kcthe al services a etipsed ecilop ro erutcunot rtsbeing arfniaylot being poor.

edutitta na tcejorp yeht elpuoc gnuoy a sA ecnedifnoc dna ytiruces fo esnes a tcejorp yllausu ,ylimaf dna sdneirf htiw gnieb tuoba si mih rof sseccuS .doohrobhgien rieht ni ecneserp gnuh dna sllaw eht lla detniap eh :flesmih esuoh eritne eht detaroced eH .strops ro doof revo dna )sehtolc gnilles( ssenisub liater llams a gnitrats fo maerd a evah yehT .revo lla sgnitniap

8,000 8,000 8,000 mmm 8,000 m

16,000 16,000 16,000 mmm 16,000 m

24, 24 2 24,


Rio Lurin: Transect

Rio Seco

Antioquía

Baldarrago Family Name: Nelida and Roberto Location: Rio Seco Family Size: 4

Occupation: Welder, DIY

“He is a self learner through Youtube, constantly looking at innovation”

Cabanillas Family Name: Angel Cabanillas Location: Cochahuayco Family Size: 9

Occupation: Apple Farmer

They sell beers, Roberto does a lot of things in the community but mainly operates gardening tools, he is more like a handyman (mil oficios). He has an official job on the community with payroll, they have insurance for the kids. He wanted to be in the military and went to the army. His family makes tamales and he found a design on YouTube to make them faster. He has an innovative septic tank. They have been living her for 29 years. At first there was more solidarity because it was a small community and everyone knew everyone, but now there are many more people that live here, so they are less familiar with everyone. They have 2 kids. The father had acquired the land due to agricultural reform.

Antioquía

They live really close to Antioquía, everything below the water pipes is verdant and green. The farmers here have a calendar to distribute water between different communities. There used to be an agroindustrial plant there, sponsored by an NGO; but many people took the knowledge and went to build their own businesses. The family have very pure natural products, but the standard for delivery products is hard for the community to meet. They have trouble finding customers and distributors, due to poor quality of service.

La Pedrera

Ramirez Family Name: Heinner Ramirez Location: Espiritu Sancto, Antioquía Family Size: 4

“People here use their cell phones to call people who have access to the internet, exchanging information over the phone.”

Occupation: “Tourist Hotels”

“They’re disconnecting from Lima, but the kids can’t be hermits. They should know places to learn to love them”

“People from Lima want to come here!”

Rosado Family Name: Venilda Rosado Location: La Pedrera Family Size: 4

Occupation: Quince Farmer

3

Context Map

Castro and Heinner live somewhere in between Antioquía and Lima; spend 4-5 days/week in Antioquía and go to Lima because they have a business there. They started the practice of chirimoyas for 25 years. The entire family is involved in the fruit and vegetable business. Heiner’s wife manages the online presence of their family business. In Espiritu Santo, they want to host large families and activities, build touristic amenities like swimming pools, hiking and trailing.

ove

When she was 5 years old, Vevilda Rosada and her parents moved from the high parts of the Lurin Valley to a large piece of agricultural land bought by her grandparents in La Pedrera. Every week she would attend school in the mountains and help her aunt with her sheep, then return to La Pedrera on Saturdays and Sundays to help her family with the quince farm. The house is her parents’ house and she is very proud of it. She left her studies in Lima and came back because she is the eldest child of 6 and needed to be responsible to help her mom and take care of the family. She took care of her grandfather’s crops and built the house with adobe.

Context Section

Castro Ramirez and his son Heinner have a farm in Antioquilla. Overall, the most important improvement in their life would be the devleopment of a better road network which could bring tourists and development to the local economy outside of agriculture.

Question 1: Where were you born/where are you from? Born in valle del Rima. km 54 central road. cocachacra. was birn there. 20 or 21 drove as a car driver and brought

Question 4: Since when do you live here? A very long time, moved after got married. ( The wife is from the region

Question 2: What do you do? he’s been since 80s working with chirimoya. his kids

Question 5: this land came from his father in law. they bought it from him and his wife’s sister. now with tourism

19


The River as a Partner


A Manifesto: The River as a Partner

La Victoria Lab gave the participants of the Peru workshop an exciting challenge: to imagine the year 2030 as a moment of “full connectivity” in the future of the Rio Lurin Valley. To imagine “full connectivity” in 2030, we took on the larger question of agency in the design disciplines. We recognize that in this context of Peru, there is neither the political capacity, the will or the funding for top down, equitable solutions for connectivity – physical and digital. How might connectivity change the daily lives of people in this territory? How might it impact their services, housing and built environment?

City Dwellers

Vulnerable Streamgauge Communities Systems

Recreation

Tourism

There is much at stake in the act of thinking ‘big’ in design. The forces of globalization, digital technology, and geopolitical transformations characterize the present moment and future of Peru and demand new projections of the disciplinary imagination. Yet will the design disciplines continue to be satisfied with modes of thought sited in some unspecified moment ‘of the future’? For designers such projects ‘of the future’ give license to think differently, yet they can also displace the specific needs and problems of the present. Will we as designers get our hands ‘dirty’, so to speak, in creating specific, strategic and socio-material projects that could jumpstart a digital ‘future’? Is there a way forward even today without needing to ‘wait’ for a future of digital connectivity that without intervention might never arrive? Agency, as foreshadowed in the speculative project of full connectivity in 2030, needs to meet its own test of reality on the ground. To respond, we are creating a way to shift the conversation back and forth between two modes of thought and action in design: a precise understanding of existing infrastructure – physical, natural and digital – on the geo-political scale of the Rio Lurin with much more local, specific, and materialistic responses that can be actualized. Less like technology “solutions” and more like “hacks,” the design interventions of this workshop amplify what people are already doing – with existing objects, infrastructures and conditions of daily life. The “hacks” shift the tone of design by acknowledging the ad hoc nature of innovation, and the ingenuity of a rich local culture and history of present and past practices that are deeply connected with any imagined future of this Peruvian landscape. This workshop proposes designs that are disruptive, ‘dirtier,’ and even compromised or imperfect with respect to mainstream top-down practices and policies. Yet they offer specific and actionable design proposals and open up a conversation on possible new futures. The seasonal changes and temporal dynamics of the Rio Lurin, and the coming future of extreme floods, mudslides and droughts make the River a central actor in this project. We know we can’t control the River (as modern planners once sought to). Therefore, we accept the Rio Lurin as an equal partner in this design project, with all of the good and bad that it brings.

21


125 m

350 m

875

125 m

350 m

875

125 m

350 m

875

Lurin Valley: The Transects

8,000 8,000 8,000 mmm 8,000 m

16,000 16,000 16,000 mmm 16,000 m

24, 24 2 24,


125 m

350 m

875 m

1,180 m

1,390 m

1,550 m

1,825 m

2,290 m

125 m

350 m

875 m

1,180 m

1,390 m

1,550 m

1,825 m

2,290 m

125 m

350 m

875 m

1,180 m

1,390 m

1,550 m

1,825 m

2,290 m

24,000 24,000 24,000 24,000 24,000 24,000 24,000 24,000 mmmmmmmm 24,000 m

32,000 32,000 32,000 32,000 32,000 32,000 32,000 32,000 mmmmmmmm 32,000 m

56,000 56,000 56,000 56,000 56,000 56,000 56,000 56,000 mmmmmmmm 56,000 m

64,000 64,000 64,000 64,000 64,000 64,000 64,000 64,000 mmmmmmmm 64,000 m

Lurin Valley: the transects Interviews

Las Palmas

Las Palmas

Avila Family Name: Romulo & Teofila Location: CP Lurin Family Size: 4

Occupation: Greenhouse Farmer

“Everyone is growing the same crops. This competition makes it hard to get a good price.”

Beranales Family Name: Juan Carlos & Angela Location: CP Lurin Family Size: 3

1

“Experience has taught us that medical services cannot be trusted; they Occupation: depend on informal Freelance Handyman W EIVRETNIcommunity scale solutions.”

Elderly couple (Romulo and Teofila), in their 60’s, with a younger child and a grandchild at home. They live in a gated community in Lurin with controlled access. The neighborhood has good quality services (water, sewage, internet and trash pickup). Overall the couple was happy with their situation, they enjoy their quiet community and have no interest in moving to Lima (described as “shit, shit, shit”). Their major concerns are security and safety, specifically traffic in Lima and the threat of robbery/ assault.

Rio Seco

rodavlaS le alliV ,4 rotceS :​ noitacoL )alegnA & solraC nauJ( ylimaF selanreB​ :seeweivretnI fo semaN 1 :yaD alecraM ,lihsuR ,niaZ ,anilA ,xelA ,nahsiaW ,osnoflA ,inah C​ :sSeco eman maet gniweivretni puorG Rio

Lapa Family Name: Walter Lapa Location: CP Rio Seco, Cieneguilla Family Size: 4

Young couple with a newborn son; house is in a semi-formal settlement which was previously invaded but has been formalized. Electricity and water are supplied, as well as daily trash pick-up. They both use data for their cellphones and use smartphones. He is a handyman who works on referrals from his friends and paints houses. He uses Whatsapp and Facebook to connect to jobs. They have a dream of selling clothes and having a house of their own but believe they are too busy with day to day survival to invest time in this dream.

Occupation: “Art Professor”

“The patio in the house serves as my own therapy site.”

Durand Family

community is very ---------“The -

connected because of Name: Elva Durand :weivrevOthe church; clothing is Location: Occupation: donated between families CP Rio Seco, Cook dCieneguilla lohesuoH/dnuorgkcaB/noitcudortnas I hand-me-downs” Family Size: 4

ylsuoiverp saw hcCame ihw there nemlooking elttesforlaamcommon rof-imeplace, s a ni si esuoh ;nos nrobwen a htiw elpuoc gnuoYHer home was donated by the municipality; i gifted services, furniture, and yltnerruc yeht dnanother a ,aerprovince a eht nthat i dewas lttesmore yllaaffordable nigiro rehtom siH .dezilamrof neeb sah tub dedavnthey than Lima. He moved here 3 years ago, he appliances. The community pays collectively si hcihw ,leugiM nalways aS nidreamed esuoh toa live sahhere. rehThe torcloser b sih dna ,ybraen sevil osla rehtaf siH .reh htiw evifor l food, which she prepares. As cook for nos rieht nehw esuyou oh are ehto t othe tniriver devthe ommore yehexpensive T .llew sa semoh eseht sredisnoc eH .tropria eht raenthe neighborhood, she is afforded a phone yehT .yliad pu kcipbecause hsart the sa river llewoperates sa ,delike ilppaunatural s era retaw dna yticirtcelE .oga shtnom 6 nrob sawto coordinate groceries from Lima. highway. Walter had an accident where Her husband used to work at a mine nearby, no skrow ohw namydnah a si eH .senohptrams esu yeht dna senohpllec rieht rof atad esu htob his left leg was broken and his ankle was but since works as a handyman. Her family ot tcennoc ot koo becinjured aF dnin a apcar pasaccident. tahW sHis eswife u eH .sesuoh stniap dna sdneirf sih morf slarrefeis r recovering from the theft of their property badly secivres tenretwas ni ginniaevery b saterrible ppAsaccident. tahW dShe na was koobecaF etaitnereffid ot mees t’nseod dna ,sboby j invaders. hit by a car 2 years ago and was dragged .secivres ralullec naht rehtar

for a very long time. He wants to make this place nicer, he got the land for cheap but yehT .seussi yad ot the yadlifenhere o suiscexpensive, of dna ecbetween nalahcthere non fo tirof ucwork es fand o kcthe al services a etipsed ecilop ro erutcunot rtsbeing arfniaylot being poor.

edutitta na tcejorp yeht elpuoc gnuoy a sA ecnedifnoc dna ytiruces fo esnes a tcejorp yllausu ,ylimaf dna sdneirf htiw gnieb tuoba si mih rof sseccuS .doohrobhgien rieht ni ecneserp gnuh dna sllaw eht lla detniap eh :flesmih esuoh eritne eht detaroced eH .strops ro doof revo dna )sehtolc gnilles( ssenisub liater llams a gnitrats fo maerd a evah yehT .revo lla sgnitniap

8,000 8,000 8,000 8,000 8,000 8,000 m 8,000 m 8,000 mmmmmm 8,000 m

16,000 16,000 16,000 16,000 16,000 16,000 16,000 16,000 mmmmmmmm 16,000 m

40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 mmmmmmmm 40,000 m

48,000 48,000 48,000 48,000 48,000 48,000 48,000 48,000 mmmmmmmm 48,000 m


Lurin Valley: The Transects

Rio Lurin: Transect

Relationships

Las Palmas

Rio Seco

Antioquía

La Pedrera

Rio Seco

Antioquía

La Pedrera

Rio Seco

Antioquía

La Pedrera

Fixed Connectivity

Las Palmas

The Hacks

Antioquía Type of Settlement: Condition: Altitude:

La Pedrera Formal Rural 1300 - 1800m

Type of Settlement: Condition: Altitude

Informal Rural 2200m

Mobile Connectivity

Las Palmas

17


5m

5m

5m

,000 m ,000 m

The Hacks

1,180 m

1,390 m

1,550

1,180 m

1,390 m

1,550

1,180 m

1,390 m

1,550

In colloquial terms, a “hack” refers to the practice of finding new ways to use an existing tool or system that modifies, alters and expands its original purpose or use. With the Hacks we seek to shift the tone of our project in the Lurin Valley by acknowledging that innovation in design is not limited to the “new”; it builds from a diverse culture and history of past practices of communication and prediction through complex systems of messengers, pathway and stone tatuajes and petroglyph, of adroitly managing scarce water with extensive infrastructures of amunas, stream diversions, cisterns, water gardens and plantings. During our site visits along the Rio Lurin Transect, we learned about the multiple ways that residents use – or hack into – existing infrastructural systems to access goods and services. In the urban informal neighborhoods, this may be splicing a single digital cable line to serves 5 households or working with an NGO to receive free dry toilet services in exchange for weekly pick-ups of compost materials. In agricultural communities, it may mean calling a friend in a community downstream to have her enter questions through her internet connection or using public transportation twice a week to ship quince to the wholesale market in Lima. These practices and modifications to the formal infrastructure link disparate communities in a socioeconomic ecology of the Lurin Valley. As practices that share and conserve resources, these modes of “making do” that residents described offer an unexpected glimpse of what may become, by necessity, much more generalized urban practices in a future of climate change. The use of dry toilets in this desert climate (instead of installing “modern” urban water-based plumbing systems), the ability to collect water for crops from fog in thin air – polyfunctionality, adaptability and an increased understanding of times of use represent ideas and strategies where a future (that we don’t yet recognize) is being tested and produced in the present.

32,000 m 32,000 m

The Lurin River is a unique agent in this territory. It is an unpredictable force that becomes a necessary partner in this design effort; a natural system that itself can be hacked by design but is never completely controllable. The agency of the river comes from its many ebbs and flows, acting a catalyst for growth and new livelihoods as well as destruction. By utilizing and embracing these flows, we propose a set of hacks for 4 paradigmatic urban conditions along the Rio Lurin Transect. The hacks proposed in the workshop share strategic characteristics. Since many residents that we interviewed have smart phones, but lack internet access, many of our hacks propose new ways of providing internet connectivity to the Lurin communities through the design of new relationships of digital, physical and ‘soft’ infrastructure at the scales of housing and community public space. The hacks are scalable and adaptable. The hacks are designed to engage the Lurin River in different ways that create short cuts and cross cuts between the intractable vertical administrative structures that ‘govern’ the jurisdiction of rivers in Peru. These cross cuts make it easier for communities to make decisions and take actions concerning the health of the Rio Lurin as an essential first infrastructure. The hacks pair new and ancient forms of connectivity to create stronger connections among residents of the Valley and between communities and the River that provides water to sustain life and gives identity to this territory.

40,000 m 40,000 m

25

48, 48,000


The Four Visions Las Palmas The Water Truck Hack

Rio Seco The River Gauge Hack

This hack leverages the regular travel patterns of water trucks that operate along this arid territory to deliver potable water to Lurin Valley communities. The hack grafts different infrastructure to the truck itself, providing a local Wifi and server hub to the houses it already services. The delivery of water is supplemented with the delivery of offline, asynchronous internet service.

The river gauge is a network of primitive remote sensors that take stock of the changing seasonal dynamics of the Lurin River. The network is self-powered - it harvests energy from moving water and enables distributed valley communities to partner with the river and access information on water levels and contaminants.

AntioquĂ­a The Room Hack

La Pedrera The XXIst century Tambo Hack

The Room Hack operates at domestic and public scales. It leverages the temperate climate and the traditional open-air, enclosed domestic courtyard or community soccer field. Coupled with 3G connectivity, the “empty� space of house (or community) becomes a programmatically flexible void that can serve as an open-air restaurant, a venue for cultural events or a school.

This hack provides shade, steps to the river, a Wifi hot spot and containers for recyclable plastics that clog the river. The Tambo, a traditional Peruvian resting spot, activates the riverfront as a new public space, providing connectivity in exchange for recyclable materials. Privately of publicly operated, a network of Tambos links communities to the river and creates a first step in the development of a public floodplain zone.


La Pedrera

AntioquĂ­a

Rio Seco

Las Palmas


Las Palmas Site 1 A New Agenda

Las Palmas A New Agenda

Las Palmas River Front Ecology


The Hacks

1. Sacrificial Urban Stream River diversions to support washing and waste removal, filtered and remediated separately. Attributes: Bioremediation Municipality Sedapal Management

Waste Management Local Workers

Description: Taking stock of urban water use reveals a gradient of polluting practices. By organizing these in order of intensity, these urban water uses that range from car washing to industrial waste can be arrayed along a sacrificial diversion of the Lurin River. The end of this sacrificial stream is a constructed wetland tailored to remediate the industrial pollutants. This diversion frees the main trunk of the river to reach the ocean unharmed.

2. Hardcoded Agriculture Soft network of stone workers to construct agricultural hard infrastructure Attributes: Irrigation Online Community App

Trades/Crafts Workers Community Construction

Description: Connectivity allows the soft infrastructure of master stone nibblers in the region to combine their efforts on a large-scale infrastructure project. In this case, the re-creation of an extensive Incan irrigation system in the Lurin region, cultivation, and protection of industrial agricultural land from the increasing pressures of Lima’s urbanization.

3. Streamgauge Agriculture Remote river sensing, monitoring quality for specialized agriculture and beach tourism Attributes: Sensor Manufacturer Sensor Monitor Server Cellular Network

Satellite Amphitheater Water Channel App

Description: River sensing at the mouth of the Lurin provides data collection and awareness of water content to dual industries that rely on its health - agriculture which is supported by community led cultivation projects, and tourism sited at the beach.

29


Rio Seco Site 2 Cross Altitude Informal Urbanism

Rio Seco Cross Altitude Informal Urbanism

Rio Seco Public Amenity Ecology


The Hacks

1. 21st Century Tambo Wifi hotspot, working on recyclables, placed on Rio Lurin waterfront in Cieneguilla Attributes: In floodplain Site Owner Community Cell Provider App developer Local Workers

Recycling Recyclables’ Delivery System Water Management Government

Description: Currently privately owned site can be acquired with the community, or negotiated with the help of the municipality to turn into a place for Tambo. Located in a floodplain in Cieneguilla, it will secure the access to Rio Lurin for the Rio Seco community.

2. Composting Hack Human waste processed into fertilizer for the agriculture in Rio Seco Attributes: Septic Tank Users/ Owners Farmers Community Biodigester Supplier

Microbiologist Truck Company Community XRunner

Description: Working together, owners of septic tanks, existing community of large scale farmers and emerging community of cloud precision farmers create a waste reuse economy. The network starts between Cieneguilla and Rio Seco and potentially can grow into a regional scaleinternetwork.

3. Cloud Precision Farming Public “rooms” within the community, integrated for multiple uses and risk mitigation Attributes: Community Precision Agriculture Specialists Grey Water Reuse Plant Community Kitchen

Cell Provider App Developer Equipment Supplier Trucking Company Communities Compost Hack system

Description: Farmers in Rio Seco initiate this practice and it can potentially grow into larger scale regional cloud farming. Small scale farmers from Cieneguilla can join them. Larger scale farmers can rent out their equipment and become a part of the network

31


Rio Seco Site 2 Cross Altitude Informal Urbanism

Master Plan

21st Century Tambo

Compost Hack septic tank users Streamgauge Hack monitoring

Room Hack placed closer to “urban edge� or between different conditions

Streamgauge Hack connection to Rio Lurin Compost Hack septic tank users

Compost Hack micro-farmers

Million Chambitas distributed network across communities

Cloud Precision Farming distributed network across communities Room Hack on slope


The Hacks

Cross Altitude Section

Compost Hack

Room Hack intersection of two conditions

21st Century Tambo

Floodplain private houses, hotels, restaurants

Cloud Precision Farming distributed network across the community

Room Hack on slope Room Hack on slope

Room Hack on slope

Million Chambitas distributed network across communities

Streamgauge Hack connection to Rio Lurin

Streamgauge Hack monitoring

Agriculture

Room Hack on slope

“Formal” Rio Seco

private houses, community center, community kitchen, bodegas , sports field

“Informal” Rio Seco

private housing, construction materials pop-up store

New Development boxes, securing development

Rio Lurin

Floodplain

commerce on major highway

33


Antioquía Site 3 High Altitude Tourism

Antioquía Tourism Ecology

Antioquía Tourism Ecology


The Hacks

1. Garbage Truck Internet Hack Geotagged garbage truck provides asynchronous internet and trash service Attributes: Garbage Truck Service Local User App Geotag Kiwisat 202

Server Company Data Network Telecom/ISP Sponsor (Google)

Description: Geotagging the garbage trucks allows individuals to know exactly when the truck is in the neighborhood. An internet app or Ushahidi style notification could provide explicit notification that insures that garbage pickups function more smoothly.

2. Rooms for Rent Hack Distributed hostelry consisting of vacant, private rooms organized through digital platform. Attributes: Vacant Rooms Local Commerce Tourists App

Server Room Host

Description: These sheds can be repurposed as multifunctional, prefabricated architectures. In the context of Le Pedrera, they can take the form of mini-posta medica’s that serve the communities’ health requirements in case they are cut off from Antioquía and Lima during the Huayco season. In the context of Antioquía they can take the form of micro-Airbnb’s to serve the local tourist industry.

3. Streamgauge Water Plaza Hack Public use of water enabled by river sensors. Outdoor amphitheater becomes water plaza. Attributes: Sensor Manufacturer Sensor Monitor Server Cellular Network

Satellite Ampitheatre Water Channel App

Description: A collection of primitive sensors placed along the river can measure the river elevation and contaminant level on a regular basis. This data packet is very small and can be sent via cellular or satellite connectivity to a central data set that can then be visualized to show how the level and health of the river in the public domain.

35


La Pedrera Site 4 High Altitude Agriculture

La Pedrera Agriculture Ecology

La Pedrera Agriculture Ecology


The Hacks

1. Quince Trading Transit Hack Multi-tasking transportation ships agricultural goods to private users and public markets. Attributes: Local Farmers Agricultural Goods Combis Buses

Restaurants Lima Markets Compensation Goods Container

Description: These transportations can be hacked and used in site specific contexts. In the case of AntioquĂ­a, buses that make trips 3 times per day to Lima could be used to also deliver Quinces from the rural farms to the cities, eliminating the need for dedicated agricultural transportation.

2. Ladybug Hack Replacing pesticide use with natural preventives adds crop value and reduces river pollution. Attributes: Local Farmers Organic Goods Ladybugs Ladybug Collectors

Restaurants Lima Markets Compensation App

Description: Ladybugs naturally prey on aphids. Adopting ladybugs in the Le Pedrera context would allow all the formers to reduce their dependence on imported agricultural supplies and allow them to market and sell their crops as organic. These crops are potentially worth more money and have a larger market in the city.

3. X-Runner Hack

Community composting X-Runner program that upcycles waste for neighboring farms. Attributes: X-Runner Truck X-Runner Installers Swedish Dry Toilet Waste/ Waste Sack

Geotag Kiwisat 202 Compost Plant Compost Local Farmers

Description: Use/tweak septic system to support agriculture, develop waste economy where compost is made from dry toilet contents and used for farming. This system hinges on the collection and composting of waste and the redistribution of compost to agricultural communities at a community and regional scale.

37


Hack Research: Studying Existing Digital Services

United Villages

USGS Streamgauge

Asynchronous

Satellite/Cellular Phone/Data Data Storage Device (USB Drive)

“Rather than send emails and surf the web, villagers prefer to email their questions to someone who will do the surfing for them and return the answers in a pdf file.� Essentially mixing wireless technology with readily available transport. About creating a local digital network.

Solar Panel Oxcart

Satellite/Phone Connection

Streamgauge is an active, continuously functioning measuring device in the field for which a mean daily streamflow, or a complete set of unit values, is computed or estimated and quality assured for at least 355 days of a water year. This basic functionality can be found in constant monitoring form, flood alert form, or highest crest form.

USGS Streamstat Page

USGS Database

School Bus/Motorcycle

Water Elevation Gauge

Computer Kiosk

Ushahidi

WeFarm

Cellular Phone/Wifi and Data

User

U is a cellular/internet-based peer-to-peer knowledge platform, allowing farmers from different villages/regions/countries to share knowledge of best practices and risk mitigation.

Cellular Phone/Wifi and Data WeFarm is a cellular/internet-based peer-topeer knowledge platform, allowing farmers from different villages/regions/countries to share knowledge of best practices and risk mitigation.

User

Cellular Phone

Local Server

Cellular Phone User

User

Network of Farming Experts

World Wide Web

Server

Lab

Aquagenx Offline (Chemical Package) AquagenX is a mobile water testing package designed for field use by amateur users. It does not require a lab for basic water analysis and can provide a basic reading of the water quality using a chemical indicator.

Flocktracker

Kit Distribution

Water Source

Collapsible Bucket Sample Bag

Color Chart

Cloud Storage

Data/Internet Flocktracker is a crowd-sourced data collection tool that pushes surveys and questions to users and records their response with a geotag. This model allows for wider ranging canvassing of informal populations. This data collection is done primarily through a smartphone app, with data processing happening on a central server.

Information Visualization

Cellular Phone

Data Connection


The Hacks

MOJA (BRCK)

Wireless Internet Connection

Public Lab

Internet Cafe

Wifi, Cellular Connectivity

Moja is a comprehensive network of Wifi hotspots in Nairobi that allow free access to the internet for those who can’t afford data coverage on their phones. The service pays for itself by allowing local ads and selling local tracking information of the users.

Public Lab is a open network of community organizers that is seeking low cost options for monitoring environmental conditions (water, air and land) to inform local initiatives while giving them a global platform. The model is to create ‘citizen scientists’ - an informed local who is not dependent on the distant ‘expert’.

Water Sensors

Public Building Wifi Router

Cellular Phone

Turbidity Sensors

DIY Microscopes DustDuino

User

Project M

OraQuick Rapid HIV Test Kit

Rhine-Streaming

Cellular Phone/Physical Packet

Internet Data

Project M is an awareness and local testing platform. By using the communication potential of mobile phones and a kit allowing for home testing, Project M seeks to raise Server awareness and empower citizens to test themselves for HIV/AIDs. (add portable Cellular Network light, electricity and power via empowering, misinformation regarding AIDS spreading (shower example), at home diagnosis).

A river pollution monitoring system was created that measured the quality of water in the Rhine and communicated it through visual examples of living things in the river to the public domain. It fulfills a technical river remediation as well as a psychological awareness function.

Cellular Phone

Live Feed Video & Audio

Sedimentation Basins

Testing Devices

Pumps to feed water

Fleas

Software Platform

Underwater Microphone

Local Retailers

Biosensors

M-Pesa

Wire

Data/Internet

SMS Service

Cellular Phone Anode

Biosensors use a biological recognition element combined with a physical transducer to convert a biological response into a signal. These sensors are potentially compact, cheap and do not require an electrical power supply.

Cathode

Energy Microbes

A text message based, bankless banking system. M-Pesa began as a means of bartering using phone credit to replace cash. Today M-Pesa uses local retailers as the point of exchange between M-Pesa credit and cash while leveraging SMS services to transfer credit between users. Users are charged a micro transaction when sending or withdrawing funds with the service (timesharing/trading of mobile credit).

Cellular Phone

Cellular System

Form of Identification

39


Lima


This publication is a preliminary summary and accounting of work conducted by graduate students in a workshop held at MIT. This report is not intended to be read as a comprehensive peer-reviewed document.

41


HOUSING + High-Altitude Urbanism in the Lurin Valley, Peru  
HOUSING + High-Altitude Urbanism in the Lurin Valley, Peru