Grapegrower & Winemaker

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January 2013: Issue 588

Contents features



Vineyard machinery


Rutherglen winemaker sets the pace


Materials handling in the winery


US: wine families forge new tracks


Yeasts and enzymes


A precursor of more to come


Bottling and labelling


Wine photographer embraces vintage




A French perspective on innovation


ASK the AWRI: Is that Brett?


Greg Howell: nitrogen-based yeast nutrients


Optimising yeast rehydration

news 6

My View: Dr Jim Hardie


Celebrating 50 wonderful years


Mildura scientist researches tannin


Wine and tourism gets marketing push



Industry focuses on engagement in 2013


WCA: marketing your winery


Regional Roundup: South Australia


Label Q&A: Josef Chromy's PEPIK

sales & marketing


Media-savvy marketing focus


AWRI wraps up packaging problems


Mobile bottling handled with care

business & technology


2012 SA grapegrower survey released


Retallack: avoid disputes in the vineyard


Average yields and better prices in 2013


Reddaway: employees or contractors?


Precision viticulture experience shared


Innovative wine logisitics move for TWE


Vintage tractor roundtable


Optimism on export growth


Grapegrower in Profile: Amy Richards


Appointments and accolades


United Grower: newsletter


Annual index

The United Grower Sponsored by

29 January 2013

Winemaking SPECIAL


en JPfeiffer


talks wine

Brighter prospects in South Australia





Peter Taylor & Mike de la Haye of Hare's Chase Wines work their vintage magic. Photo by Richard Humphrys

5 14 50 81 82 87

on the grapevine grapegrowing winemaking export snapshot looking forward marketplace classifieds


In this issue January Publisher and Chief Executive Hartley Higgins Managing EDITOR Elizabeth Bouzoudis EDITOR Grahame Whyte Editorial advisory board Dr Jim Fortune, Denis Gastin, Dr Steve Goodman, Prof. Jim Hardie, Dr Terry Lee, Paul van der Lee, Bob Campbell MW, Prof Dennis Taylor and Mary Retallack Editorial Kellie Arbuckle Contributors Mary Retallack, Emma Leonard, Ed Merrison, Denis Gastin, Stephen O'Loughlin, Greg Howell, Gerri Nelligan, Jeffrey Wilkinson, Melanie Reddaway, Danielle Costley, Peter Bailey. Advertising Sales Chas Barter

Our theme of ‘winemaking’ in this issue got me thinking about my experiences with winemakers during my wine journey. I recall the energy and excitement of vintage as a winemaker’s assistant during the 1998 vintage. We set out to craft a nice cabernet with fruit from Great Western, and on tasting the results, I confidently declared to the winemaker that we had produced a gold medal winner. He was very proud when that prediction was fulfilled and that label immediately doubled in value at cellar door. However, I think the grapes from that outstanding vintage had a distinctly golden hue and winemakers merely had to guide the process. But truly, we are blessed in Australia and New Zealand, with a truly remarkable bunch of winemakers, whose sterling efforts mean we are incredibly spoilt for

choice when it comes to selecting a wine to go with our favourite food. So, let’s raise a glass to our winemakers and say thanks for a job well done. This issue also marks the start of a very special year for our magazine – our 50th anniversary. Each month during 2013 we will take a glimpse of the chequered past of our industry through the pages of our archives. I am sure that those of you who remember the ‘good old days’ will find plenty of items of interest. We invite you to help us celebrate this wonderful achievement – 50 years of service to the wine industry.

Grahame Whyte Editor Australian & New Zealand Grapegrower & Winemaker

Circulation: Melissa Smithen Production Chris Nicholls Subscription Prices Australia: 1 year (12 issues) $77.50 (inc. GST) 2 years (24 issues) $145 (inc. GST) New Zealand, Asia & Pacific: 1 year (12 issues) $110 (AUD) 2 years (24 issues) $210 (AUD) All other countries: 1 year (12 issues) $174.50 (AUD) 2 years (24 issues) $339 (AUD) Students (Aus only): 1 year (12 issues) $66 (inc. GST) Winetitles Pty. Ltd. 630 Regency Road, Broadview, South Australia 5083 PO Box 1006, Prospect East South Australia 5082 Phone: (08) 8369 9500 Fax (08) 8369 9501 Printing by Lane Print Group, Adelaide © Contents copyright Winetitles Pty Ltd 2012.

All Rights Reserved. Print Post Approved PP535806/0019 Articles published in this issue of Grapegrower & Winemaker may also appear in full or as extracts on our website. Cover price $8.25 (inc. GST)

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Contributors Ed Merrison is a British journalist specialising in travel, arts, culture and business, Ed read Modern Languages at Oxford University and has lived in Ireland, Spain and Argentina. He recently returned to Melbourne following a six-year absence, during which he served as travel contributor for the Herald Sun and multimedia producer at Sky News and Bloomberg in London. On page 41, Ed talks with winemaker Jen Pfeiffer at Rutherglen.

Mary Retallack is a third-generation viticulturist and the managing director of Retallack Viticvulture. She was recently honoured with the 2012 Rural Women's Award for her services to women in the wine industry. This month, we conclude Mary's series presented around Australia as part of the popular Finlayson’s Roadshow. On page 15, ‘What can be done in the vineyard to manage risk in difficult seasons?’ concludes with a look at being proactive to avoid disputes in the vineyard. Melanie Reddaway is a chartered accountant and is undertaking a PhD in management and accounting at the University of Adelaide Business School. On page 76, Melanie discusses the differences between employee and contract relationships and how an understanding of these differences can help winery management ensure legal requirements are adhered to.

January 2013 – Issue 588

on the grapevine Fine wine guide announced for Margaret River INfLueNtIAL ChINeSe WINe writer Ch’ng Poh tiong will launch a guide to margaret river fine wines in the same vein as his popular Chinese Bordeaux Guide this year. In what will be called The Margaret River Report, the guide will be published as an annual newsletter listing the top 20 or so wines from the region, with a focus on Cabernet Sauvignon-dominated wines and other Bordeaux blends including dry whites. to maximise its market reach, the report will be published in Chinese and english, and inserted as an editorial in the annual magazine, Chinese Cuisine and Wine, which is launched at Vinexpo Bordeaux in odd years and at Vinexpo Asia in even years. tiong said he will make a dedicated visit to margaret river starting from early 2013 to taste about 100 wines in order to write and publish the report. “Since 1999, I have been visiting Bordeaux four to five times every year to write for my publication Chinese Bordeaux Guide, which began in 2000 and is published annually as a magazine. the wines of Bordeaux and the pairing of Chinese cuisine with the wines of the world are my two main areas for specialisation – but beginning in 2013, I will add another layer of specialisation with a focus on the fine wines of margaret river,” he said. “I believe the region and the wine community behind it offer much to the world in relation to quality terroir wines.” A lawyer by training, tiong has also been the publisher of The Wine Review – southeast Asia’s oldest wine magazine – since 1991.

Abel Gibson announced young gun for 2012 the Young Gun of Wine recipient for 2012 has also taken out the People’s Choice Award – the first time a winemaker has walked away with both gongs. Abel Gibson of Barossa-based winery, ruggabellus, proved most popular on all accounts at this year’s awards, now in its seventh year. Chief judge Nick Stock said Gibson’s wines showed a level of poise and class that most winemakers only achieve after decades of experience. “Looking at the wines he is making at this early stage of his career, you can’t help but be excited about the wines he will produce in years to come,” he said. Also judging this year’s event was Young Gun of Wine founder rory Ken, wine writer max Allen, Prince Wine Store director and wine buyer Philip rich, and last year’s winner, mike Aylward of Ocean eight. Gibson grew up in the Barossa and started ruggabellus in 2009 with the encouragement of Pete Schell of Spinifex (the 2008 Young Gun of Wine), who he was then working for.

Buller Wines goes into administration One of Victoria’s longest-standing wineries, Buller Wines, has gone into voluntary administration in what is said to be a sign of the times. Situated in Swan hill and rutherglen, in Victoria, Buller Wines is a fourth generation family winery with roots dating back to the 1920s. the company’s directors last month appointed Deloitte to take over the business’s management for reasons not disclosed at the time Grapegrower & Winemaker went to print. In late December, Wine Victoria chairman Steven Strachan told reporters that the situation was a sign of the times. “We’ve gone through a really tough period of oversupply, we’ve had an exchange rate that’s worked significantly against us and, in the context of the GfC, trading conditions have probably never been tougher, so there are businesses that are really feeling the pinch at the moment and obviously this is one of them,” Strachan told ABC Rural. the Buller family has been making wine in Victoria since 1921. Buller Wines has about 25 employees and sells wine in Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, hong Kong, China, Canada, the uS, the uK and Denmark. January 2013 – Issue 588

what’s online Winemakers told to stop whining Local winemakers must stop whining about the high Australian dollar and back themselves to win their share of global sales, says producer Australian Vintage. The company said it had secured an extra $5 million a year in cashflow by striking new average six-year lease deals on its NSW and South Australian vineyards at a 32 per cent reduced cost. However, Australian Vintage chief executive Neil McGuigan said the industry had been a tough one for local producers to succeed in over recent years, reports the Courier Mail.

China rapidly becoming NZ’s biggest wine market China’s thirst for red wine is pressuring supplies from New Zealand and one New Zealand winery has sold out of its premium Hawke’s Bay labels. Babich Wines general manager David Babich said the company’s total premium label production was spoken for this year because of the growing Chinese market. His comments come as new figures show Cabernet Merlot exports to China passed the one million litre mark for the first time in 2012, reports TVNZ.

Accolade CEO Troy Christensen leaves abruptly Accolade wines is searching for a new CEO after announcing the abrupt exit of Troy Christensen. Christensen left the business on Friday 30 November – the same day that Accolade announced the news. A brief statement by Accolade’s majority owner, Australia-based CHAMP Private Equity, said Christensen was leaving ‘by mutual agreement’. No specific reason was given for his departure, which follows a management shake-up of the group’s key UK and Europe business over the summer, reports Decanter. Australia’s wine industry portal by Winetitles Australia’s wine industry portal by


Daily Wine News is a snapshot of wine business, research and marketing content gleaned from international wine media sources, with a focus on Australian news and content. To subscribe visit Grapegrower & Winemaker


my view Research provides a sound foundation for knowledge Dr Jim Hardie

IT MAY PROVIDE some reassurance to many in the Australian wine sector – grapegrowers, winemakers and those who provide the full range of support services – that we are emerging from a business cycle trough and facing the future in a position of unprecedented technical strength. From a technological perspective, I can see significant advances in knowledge and knowhow that have been the result of our national expenditure on R&D and the international linkages that have brought new thinking and innovative practices to the Australian industry. Australian wine industry researchers and technologists are now linked to the international research community like never before. Moreover, more young people within the industry have been prepared for and engaged in the broad range of leadership challenges that face the sector. It has been said that there is not just one future but many; that it is not possible to predict or even shape any particular future; that all we can be certain about is that the future will be different. And it does seem that the drivers of the business cycles of Australia’s wine sector have been much easier to identify with hindsight. Indeed, the environmental and financial circumstances that led to the growth of the Australian wine exports during the 1990s were not predictable, but fortunately Australia was technologically prepared to grasp the opportunity, having invested proportionately more in R&D on a production basis in the preceding decade than other wine-producing countries. That being the case, and given that the quest for business opportunities will be ongoing, it seems obvious that what we must do is prepare for the future by remaining technologically adept and adaptable at every step along the product chain. That will require not just preserving, but building capacity, in both R&D and education. Given the financial limitations on research and development and the fact that we now have a national regional geographic indications system, I suggest a concerted effort on understanding regional environmental impacts on grape and wine quality and the development of appropriate vinicultural practices to assure sustainability of those

6 Grapegrower & Winemaker

regions. Australian wine businesses encompass a large range in scale of production but the one common interest is in generating value from the diverse range of regional environments. While we must remain at the forefront by adopting leading technologies wherever they are developed, the one thing we have to do for ourselves is understand and sustain regionality. This does put a research emphasis on discovery rather than invention – although invention may follow – but if we adopt that approach I am very optimistic about whatever the future turns out to be. I detect a compelling enthusiasm, creativity and commitment, particularly within the small-to-medium scale wine producers as they respond to challenges and opportunities in innovative ways. We need to be mindful that their knowledge and technological tools have been provided from prior investment by industry and government in R&D of grape varieties, vineyard management practices and vinification technologies that were not on the scene 20 years ago. Furthermore, it is not as if we now fully understand the plant we depend on – the grapevine. Those who closely follow grape research will know that we are still learning much about how grapevines function. The recent discoveries that grape berry cells die during ripening and the implications that has on berry shrivel, flavour and tannin composition, rain damage and harvest date decisions immediately come to mind. I am also mindful of the progress that has revealing the full impact of grapevine

root carbohydrate reserve dynamics on seasonal variability in fruit set and grape yield and even more recent links to leaf stomatal function with implications for water use efficiency. Discoveries such as these are fundamental to industry adaptability and responding to an uncertain future. As ever, it remains true – you can’t properly manage what you don’t understand. I suggest that in 2013 the priority should be to better understand the impacts of regional environments, climate and soil on grape and wine qualities. Achieving this regionally against a background of changing climate obviously presents challenges, but they can be overcome by drawing on parallel research in controlled environments and computer modelling approaches. In any event, the studies need to embrace the most recent advances in knowledge of grape berry physiology and grapevine carbohydrate dynamics mentioned earlier. I make this call having recently attended the National Cool Climate Shiraz workshop in Orange, NSW and having the opportunity to address the issue of Shiraz wine style and regional climatic impacts. In both Australian and international wine flights an impact of regionality on wine style was obvious. And that was for just one of Australia’s important grape varieties. The opportunities for wine quality and valueadding innovation in grape sourcing, site selection and grapevine management practices and regional development were pretty clear, if only we better understood the key factors that create regional differences in grape qualities. In Australia we are endowed with a wide range of viticultural conditions, but it seems to me that regional adaptation in terms of grape varieties and wine style can go much further. Recent research showing how public tastings within our wine show system may be used to indicate changing consumer preferences points the way to closing the adaptation loop by providing feedback on preferred regional wine styles. In my view it is all a part of the ‘think global, act local’ concept that many of us regard as a way to the future.

Dr Jim Hardie is founder and director of Ecovinia International. January 2013 – Issue 588

Celebrating 50 wonderful years The Australian & New Zealand Grapegrower & Winemaker originated back in 1963 with a modest magazine dedicated to serving the nation’s thousands of grapegrowers. Join us in 2013 as each month we take a walk down memory lane and revisit past issues of our magazine. Grahame Whyte

THE AUSTRALIAN GRAPEGROWER – the predecessor to Australian and New Zealand Grapegrower and Winemaker – first appeared in December, 1963 as an eight-page magazine. The publication was well received by industry with congratulations coming from around the country. South Australian grower, 74-year-old Leo Pech, who last month sold his 64ha vineyard at Angaston, recalled the early editions of The Australian Grapegrower, with photos and articles sparking his memory of events at the time. “In the 1960s there was a very strong feeling that growers were not well informed,” Pech said. “The problem was, who would take up the challenge of actually publishing it – the growers’ organisation at the time certainly never had the funds and it came to our attention that Ryan Publications were interested. When the first publication became available, industry was thrilled that we were better informed. “The magazine is now much larger and there is far better information – I enjoy reading it each month.” Intriguingly, the key issues faced by the grapegrowing industry in those days were very similar to today’s issues. Grape

prices and supply and demand were high on the list, while the vineyard area of South Australia was reported to have reduced: Although price negotiations in South Australia were not a Federal matter, the outcome was reflected in prices in other states, the president of the Federal Grapegrowers Council of Australia, Mr R.R. Hollick said at a preliminary discussion between winemakers and grapegrowers on the 1964 vintage. Mr Hollick said his presence at the conference was motivated by deep concern for the maintenance of the basic price stability for wine grapes throughout Australia. The lead article praised the vision of the magazine’s founders: “At long last the aspirations of the men chosen to lead a grapegrowing industry over the 50 years of organisation is being realised in the publication of the first edition of our own journal.” With these words Mr R.R. Hollick, president of the Federal Grapegrowers Council, heralded the publication of The Australian Grapegrower. “Although it may appear somewhat different from the modest newsletter which had been envisaged – we hope it is wider in scope and therefore in appeal. Cost has been the restraining factor in

Angaston grower, Leo Pech with original and current issues of Grapegrower & Winemaker. January 2013 – Issue 588

Goodwill messages Mr I. H. Seppelt, chairman, Australian Wine Board “During the six years that I have been chairman of the Australian Wine Board, I recognised, more than ever, the need to keep the whole industry informed on developments relating to research, marketing, promotion and all other aspects of interest-rate activities. It is pleasing to see that the grapegrowers of Australia have exercised the foresight to produce a publication specially designed for growers. I’m confident the grapegrowers will benefit through this development and will undoubtedly help our industry as a whole.”

Mr J. Penfold-Hyland, president, Federal Wine and Brandy Producer’s Council “I am most interested to hear that the Council has decided to sponsor a monthly journal for regular distribution to members. I’m sure it will prove of great value. It gives me pleasure to send our best wishes for a long and successful life for The Australian Grapegrower.” previous efforts to keep growers informed. “By the same token, it was agreed in council that the federal outlook would be more likely to succeed in solving the major problems of our industry than merely a parochial one. “It has often been said that there are already too many periodicals – all trying to claim the attention of a wider field of readers. “However … until now no publication could claim to be specifically for the benefit of Australia’s 8000 grapegrowers, whose industry can lay claim to considerable importance in the nation’s economy. “Our objective therefore, is straightforward and simple, to weld members of the industry together into a well-informed and unified body and to further their interests in every possible way; also, to glean interesting information from all available sources inside and outside Australia and to present it month by month in a concise form.” Grapegrower & Winemaker



Wine tannin research wins Mildura scientist a Victoria Fellowship TANNINS ARE IMPORTANT to the colour and feel of red wine, however our ability to manage tannin is constrained by a limited understanding of the chemistry. Grape and wine research chemist Dr Rachel Kilmister is investigating tannin interactions involved in the winemaking process to improve our understanding of grape tannin’s contribution to wine quality. Dr Kilmister is one of 12 young Victorian scientists to win a prestigious Victoria Fellowship. She received the Fellowship on 21 November at the State Library of Victoria from the Minister for Innovation, Services and Small Business Louise Asher. “I feel honoured that my work and research in this area has been recognised by the Victorian State Government and excited I have been given the opportunity to work with international scientists who are experts in this field,” Kilmister said. “I hope that ongoing research to understand the chemistry and interaction of grape tannins will lead to the development of tools that provide industry with the ability to measure tannin in grapes and predict their extraction into wine,” she said. The Victoria Fellowships, each worth $18,000, were first awarded by the Victorian Government in 1998 to recognise young researchers with leadership potential and to enhance their future careers, while developing new ideas that could offer commercial benefits to Victoria. Dr Kilmister will travel to the US to work at the Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Centre at Washington State University alongside

“I hope that ongoing research will lead to the development of tools that provide industry with the ability to measure tannin in grapes and predict their extraction into wine,” Dr Rachel Kilmister.

internationally recognised tannin researchers. There, she will undertake a series of experiments that examine the interactions of wine grape tannins during extraction into wine. She will also attend the American Society for Enology and Viticulture national conference before meeting other leading wine industry researchers in California. Dr Kilmister completed her PhD in Sciences at the University of Adelaide in 2012 while working at the Department of Primary Industries (DPI), Victoria. She continues to lead tannin research projects funded by DPI and the Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation at DPI in Mildura to investigate the structures of grape tannin important for wine quality.

Australian organic wine pioneer dies GIL WAHLQUIST, AUSTRALIA’S first organic grapegrower and winemaker, died at age 85 last month. A Sydney-based journalist, Wahlquist escaped the rat race in 1971 to establish Botobolar Vineyard at Mudgee, where he practiced organic viticulture and winemaking. Wahlquist rejected the practice of clean cultivation and believed vines would flourish if there was a choice of weeds about. It took a few years but he eventually developed a system of farming without

8 Grapegrower & Winemaker

pesticides and herbicides. Botobolar was the first – and for many years the only – Australian vineyard accredited by the National Association of Sustainable Agriculture. In 2008 Wahlquist was awarded the Graham Gregory Trophy for his contribution to viticulture and the NSW wine industry. Wahlquist’s son, Roland, described Gil as a great communicator. “He always considered himself to be a journalist, and he loved sharing ideas

and telling stories,” Roland said. “And if he saw something that needed to be done he got involved, joining an organisation or more often forming an organisation that met a need of the community. “He saw this as his duty and never expected anything in return for it.” Wahlquist died peacefully at home with his wife Vincie at his side. He is also survived by his children Asa, Karin, Janet, Roland and Nancy, and five grandchildren. January 2013 – Issue 588

Wine and tourism given a big marketing push A new partnership is set to propel Australian wines to a new level of awareness around the globe. I N t er NAtIONA L m A r K etI NG Of two of Australia’s biggest export sectors – wine and tourism – is about to be bolstered by a new three-year memorandum of understanding (mou) between tourism Australia and Wine Australia, announced last month. the three-year agreement will see the two Australian Government agencies partner to promote wine and tourism in key international markets such as China, the uSA, uK, and Canada as well as Australia from 1 January 2013. Collectively, wine and tourism contribute around $140 billion annually in economic value. As part of the mou, Wine Australia and tourism Australia will engage in a partnership in a range of marketing activities such as advertising and consumer promotions, digital marketing, public relations and special events. Wine Australia’s chairman George Wahby said the obvious synergies between the wine and tourism sectors mean a close alliance is vitally important. “Our partnership with tourism Australia is a very exciting prospect for the wine industry as we move the promotion of wine firmly into the lifestyle sector through a combination of wine, food and tourism,” Wahby said. “Both wine and tourism are sectors of great significance for Australia in terms of exports, their economic contribution and jobs, particularly in regional economies. “Our partnership is an important opportunity, not only for both the tourism

January 2013 – Issue 588

and wine sectors but for Australia, with two government agencies working together to align funds and strategies to support non-mining, sustainable, regional development.” tourism Australia’s managing director Andrew mcevoy said the partnership comes off the back of new research which shows that Australia’s high quality wine and food offerings are key selling points for international visitors. “recent findings from our Consumer Demand research in 11 key tourism markets indicate that Australia’s food and wine are an important part of the visitor experience but are not necessarily something that visitors know a lot about before they arrive here,” mcevoy said. “By partnering with Wine Australia there is a greater opportunity to highlight Australia’s world-class wine experiences as a further motivating factor for people to travel to and through Australia. “regional areas can especially benefit from the tourism opportunities offered by Australia’s wine experiences, especially when matched with our fine food offering.” Wine Australia’s chief executive Andrew Cheesman said Wine Australia will work closely with tourism Australia to generate greater awareness about the quality of Australian wine and our wine tourism experiences. “We are currently developing a campaign together with tourism Australia and our industry partners, to build a higher value premium perception of Australian wine and develop our food and

wine offering to be more relevant to the decision-making process for travel to and within Australia,” Cheesman said. “ultimately, our aim is to excite consumers about Australian wine, activate the trade and see more quality Australian wines on wine lists and retail shelves around the world. “Our partnership with tourism Australia will play a major role in bringing this campaign to life.” the announcement comes at a time when Australia has attracted a record six million international visitors in the past year, domestic travel has seen five consecutive months of growth, and Australian wine exports have increased at higher price points, with a four percent per litre increase in the average value. the Australian wine industry is a $4.3 billion sector that provides an economic value to Australia of $43 billion and creates 52,000 jobs, many of which are based in 65 regional communities. It is the fourth biggest agricultural exporting sector. Almost 30 million glasses of Australian wine that have been produced by one of Australia’s 2400 wineries and 6200 grapegrowers are consumed around the world every day. Australian tourism generates $96 billion in spending annually, employing around one million Australians both directly and indirectly. tourism’s direct contribution to GDP was worth $34.6 billion in 2010-11, or 2.5% of GDP, making it Australia’s largest services export sector.

Grapegrower & Winemaker



Direct Print Industry to focus on Bottles communication and engagement Kellie Arbuckle

Screen printed wine bottles • Associated with luxury items • Can provide savings for both low & high volume runs • Fight against counterfeit labels • Cutler is Australia’s most awarded wine bottle screen printer

AuStrALIA’S reGIONAL, StAte and national wine bodies need to communicate more effectively with each other if they want to hold onto their members, delegates at a regional wine forum have heard. the Winemakers’ federation of Australia and Wine Grape Growers Australia gathered with several regional and state wine organisations in October to discuss the priorities of the industry bodies for 2013. WfA chief executive Paul evans said there was a consensus between the associations of the need to engage with one another to ensure their members were confident they were getting value for their money. “We’re considering feedback from the forum and we’re hoping to come up with some recommendations and activities in the New Year on how we can work more closely,” evans said. About 60 representatives attended the regional forum at the melbourne Convention Centre the day before the WfA Outlook Conference. Langhorne Creek Wine Industry Association executive officer Lian Jaensch said wine organisations need to ensure they continue to be relevant. “Generally, there’s a big disconnect between individual members on the ground and the organisations. for the majority of growers out there, the presumption is that memberships aren’t valuable because there’s no clear indication of where the money goes.” She said overlapping of information

and bombarding members with information they don’t need was another issue in the industry which could be alleviated through the merging of associations. Wine tasmania executive officer Sheralee Davies said state wine organisations could boost membership by adopting elements from Wine tasmania’s model, which represents more than 98 per cent of all wine production in the state. “I think the reason our membership support is so high and strong is due to the fact that wine producers were involved in forming and shaping this organisation,” Davies said. representing tasmanian winemakers and grapegrowers, Wine tasmania has an ordinary membership category for growers and winemakers which provides access to resources, advocacy involvement and technical programs. the organisation also has three marketing membership categories – state, national and marketing – which provides producers with marketing access in those particular categories, regardless of tonnage produced. “the structure of Wine tasmania changes the focus from the individual business to the end audience. It gives producers the ability to look at their member dollars through the lens of marketing.” WfA is expected to respond early this year with a suite of activities to improve its communications with the regions and the states.

Kono acquires Marlborough winery Please support……

10 Grapegrower & Winemaker

KONO BeVerAGeS, AN associated business of Wakatu Incorporation and home to tohu Wines, is the new owner of a winery located in marlborough’s Awatere Valley. the purchase includes a four-hectare Pinot Noir vineyard and a seven-year-old winery that has consent to process 6000 tonnes. Kono Beverages CeO mike Brown said: “We intend to expand the facility to cater for not only our own needs, but also some third-party winemaking”. this purchase enables Kono Group

winemaker Bruce taylor and his team to optimise the quality of the Kono Beverages offering, most importantly the premium, single-vineyard tohu wines. this acquisition adds to current company infrastructure of two marlborough vineyards, a Nelson vineyard, the award-winning tohu wine brand, the Kono export wine brand as well as domestic distribution of Central Otago boutique wine producer, Coal Pit. A single-vineyard Nelson brand will be launched in february 2013. January 2013 – Issue 588

Wine Australia announces global Australian wine forum for 2013 WINe AuStrALIA LASt mONth announced that for the first time it will be undertaking a global Australian wine forum in September 2013, to bring together some of the world’s most influential wine trade partners including retailers, sommeliers, distributors, top Australian winemakers, captains of industry and leading wine and lifestyle media. held from 15-18 September 2013, the event will lay the foundations for the major campaign Wine Australia will launch in key markets in 2014, in partnership with tourism Australia, to build a higher value premium perception of Australian wine and develop its food and wine offering to be more relevant to the decision-making process for travel to and within Australia, including the wine regions. Wine Australia’s General manager, market Development, James Gosper, said the event would be the launch pad for the new era of Australian wine and the way forward for promoting it. “Our global Australian wine forum is a really important opportunity to invigorate interest in and drive sales of Australian wine in the major international markets of the uS, uK and China by sharing the best Australia has to offer, and delivering an unprecedented immersion into Australia’s food, wine, lifestyle and landscape,” mr Gosper said. “Our aim is to activate the trade and see more quality Australian wines on wine lists and retail shelves around the world, by showcasing the nation’s diverse and world leading wines, coupled with our unique blend of culture, food and lifestyle. “We’re currently working with tourism Australia and our wine industry partners to develop a major campaign that will move the promotion of wine firmly into the lifestyle sector. “the campaign will draw out the connection between Australia’s lifestyle, natural beauty and exceptional wine, and promote the unique characters of our wine regions to drive tourism. “As part of this, we need to excite and invigorate our international trade partners about this new era of Australian wine, so we’re calling on the Australian wine industry to get behind the January 2013 – Issue 588

Australian global wine forum to get the most out of this opportunity. “this event is borne directly out of industry demand – a driving desire to connect with their existing and potential trading partners. from retailers and distributors through to sommeliers and international media, they will discover the Australian wine story in a real and meaningful way on our home soil – we’ll definitely be getting red dirt under their fingernails.” the forum will empower attendees with five critical imperatives: Clarity: inform our global partners of the direction of the Australian wine industry, and exciting initiatives planned for the future years. Connect: bring our global trading and media partners together through one of the world’s most vibrant and diverse wine industries, and the connection with Australia’s food and lifestyle. Commercial benefits: hear about the latest research and insights into how the category can maximise your profit and businesses. experience: highly creative and unique food, wine and cultural experiences, highlighting the quality of and diversity of the wine, regions, and the stories and characters behind these experiences. expertise: learn from the experts on all elements of Australia, its wine, produce and culture. We will create global ambassadors and partners that are aligned across borders in their goal to maximise the extraordinary opportunities provided by the Australian wine industry. the forum will include an extensive regional immersion programs for the world’s leading wine trade partners, and lifestyle and wine media. Wine Australia recently signed a memorandum of understanding with tourism Australia that sees the two Australian Government agencies partner from 1 January 2013 to promote wine and tourism in key international markets such as China, the uSA, uK and Canada as well as Australia. Collectively wine and tourism contribute around $140 billion annually in economic value.

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regional round-up

Wineries bring out best of Festival State South Australia works from ground up to produce best practice and performance in wine. Kellie Arbuckle

CLARe Growers target spray drift GrAPeGrOWerS AND fArmerS in Clare’s mid-north have been acknowledged for their efforts in reducing the incidence of spray drift. the mid North Spray Drift Committee, which includes key farm advisers and members of the Clare region Winegrape Growers Association (CrWGA), has worked hard to develop a code of practice for summer weed control and distribution of information to farmers across the region. CrWGA president John Bastian said the collaboration between farmers and grapegrowers had paid off with a significant reduction in the incidence of off-target spray damage seen in the Clare Valley last season. he said extreme care with all herbicide applications was needed from the beginning of September to the end of April during which time sensitive growth stages in the vineyard occurred. “Off-target drift not only reduces vine performance and fruit quality but can also lead to fruit being rejected by wineries, particularly those that export wine if maximum residue limits are exceeded,” Bastian said. “this is a concern for all wine regions in South Australia and is a key reason why our association has been working so

closely with both the broadacre farming community and our own members to ensure that pesticides stay in the paddock or vineyard they are intended for.” the code of practice targets correct weather conditions and time of day for spraying, using the correct equipment and products to achieve optimal droplet size, boom height and tractor speed and monitoring and recordkeeping. It pays particular attention to identifying if a surface temperature inversion exists which can lead to widespread drift with droplets travelling up to 50km under some conditions.

Jim Barry claims top Riesling Jim Barry Wines has won a series of top trophies for its 2012 Lodge hill riesling over the past year, making it arguably one of Australia’s best rieslings. made from fruit from a 33-year-old vineyard, planted by Jim Barry, the 2012 Lodge hill riesling was recently awarded trophies for best wine of show, best current vintage riesling and best riesling of show at the Clare Valley Wine Show. Jim Barry Wines further cemented its reputation as a

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top riesling producer when the same riesling was revealed as the winner of the Len evans memorial trophy for best table wine at Dan murphy’s National Wine Show of Australia. the success continued for the familyowned winery when the same wine won the PCA people trophy for best riesling and Dan murphy’s trophy for best white table wine. Jim Barry Wines managing director Peter Barry said he was proud to have his wine take out so many awards for best riesling. “Clare is acknowledged around the world as Australia’s premier riesling producing region, so I’m proud to claim that by winning the top trophy in the Clare Valley Wine Show, this is the best of the best,” Barry said. “When you win the trophy for the best wine of the show over 129 other Clare rieslings you really know you have achieved something – it’s a very tough competition.” Lodge hill vineyard is one of the highest vineyards in the Clare Valley at an altitude of 480m and is known for producing steely, minerally rieslings. Jim Barry’s award-winning 2012 Lodge Hill Riesling.



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BAROSSA Old vine project awarded unique grant A project on the Barossa’s old vines has been awarded the first grant of its kind by the Bruce Thiele Memorial Trust Fund. Administered by the Barons of Barossa, the grant was awarded to the University of Adelaide’s School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, which was responsible for the project. “This is a very exciting project that follows on from the Barossa Old Vine Charter and may finally provide validation of the perception that many winemakers hold about the increase in complexity in wines from old vines,” said Prue Henschke, the wine fraternity’s key contact for the project. The research will take place over three years, with the university team concentrating on the physical analysis of vine performance of 35 to 150-plus year old vines, and will include chemical and sensory analysis of grape and wine characteristics to look for any common attributes, differences or trends with increasing vine age. Henschke said this information could be invaluable to Barossa vignerons and would be an acknowledgement of the great old pre-Phylloxera genetic stock existing in the region. The Bruce Thiele Memorial Trust was established in 2008 to support wine and viticulture projects in the Barossa region.

Seppeltsfield blend food with fortifieds Barossa landmark, Seppeltsfield Estate has created a new cellar door food and wine tasting experience, centered on a relaunch of its fortified wine collection. The new Solero collection brings together Seppeltsfield’s aperitif Sherry offerings and dessert/digestive wines, all of which have been complemented by canapé style food matches, designed by the estate’s chef Owen Andrews. Presented on an oak barrel stave with individual tasting spoons, the Fortified Wine and Canapé Tasting Experience aims to showcase fortifieds in a new

Seppeltsfield has relaunched its fortified wine collection through a unique wine tasting experience. January 2013 – Issue 588

light, encouraging a stronger association with food matching. The experience particularly invites both wine buffs and novices to rediscover Sherry-styles (now called ‘Apera’). “We are aware of a growing public interest of high-quality wine and food tourism experiences, where visitors are seeking new, enriching activities,” Seppeltsfield’s sales and marketing manager Chad Elson said. “As part of our future tourism offer, we will place more emphasis on food and wine tasting flights in cellar door, where visitors can particularly appreciate these styles alongside food – taking inspiration from the Spanish tapas-style culture.”

COONAWARRA Cabernet all the way Cellar doors, wineries and venues throughout the Coonawarra recently opened their doors to wine lovers and connoisseurs alike as part of the region’s Cabernet Celebrations. For four days in October the region played host to an array of events including the inaugural Australian Cabernet Symposium, which was attended by more than 130 delegates. An impressive line up of presenters shared their knowledge and passion for growing, making and marketing Coonawarra’s flagship wine, which prompted hearty debate and discussion throughout the day. Host Greg Clayfield was joined by special guest panelists Huon Hooke and Andrew Caillard MW at a Cabernet Masterclass at Wynns Coonawarra Estate. In this blind tasting of 12 Cabernet Sauvignons, featured in the Langton’s Classification of Australian Wine, Coonawarra held its head high in a powerful bracket of wines from regions across the country with both Hooke and

Caillard selecting local wines as their favourites of the day. Other highlights included a dinner at Coonawarra Hall, where more than 100 guests enjoyed local food and past barrel series wines. Coonawarra Cabernet Celebrations Committee deputy chair Brett Sharpe said the event was a true success. “The people and winemaking community of Coonawarra should be really proud of putting on such a fantastic event,” he said. “The vineyards looked an absolute picture, the cellar doors were a hive of activity and visitors to the region have all commented on what a great experience it is to come to Coonawarra at this exciting time of the year. “And with several new events as part of the Celebrations this year, we couldn’t be happier with the outcome.” The 2013 Coonawarra Cabernet Celebrations will be held on Friday 18 October to Sunday 20 October.

Mount Benson Seafood and Wine Fest returns One of the Limestone Coast’s longest running food and wine events will return this month with new stallholders and more wineries. Now in its 14th year, the Cape Jaffa Seafood and Wine Festival, brings together the region’s best seafood, produce and regionally distinct wines from Mount Benson and Robe. This year’s event will take place on Sunday 13 January and will include live music by Mahalia Fox Trio and wineries Wangolina Station, Cape Jaffa Wines, Karratta Wines, Norfolk Rise, Woodsoak Wines and Cape Thomas. The festival promises a casual, relaxed atmosphere on the foreshore with activities for the kids, too. For more information, visit:

Several wine enthusiasts celebrated as part of the Coonawarra’s Cabernet Celebrations.

Grapegrower & Winemaker


grapegrowing 2012 survey of SA wine grapegrowers released THE WINE GRAPE Council of South Australia (WGCSA) last month released the results of a survey it conducted of South Australia’s 3500 winegrape growers in June 2012. The survey sought to understand how winegrape growers responding to nearly a decade of declining demand for wine grapes and to identify key issues of concern. While virtually all grapes were harvested in 2012 and prices rose for the first time in some years, WGCSA executive officer Peter Hackworth said that this should not be interpreted as supply and demand being back in balance. “Farmgate income for winegrapes has been declining over the last decade and, despite a nearly 20% rise this year, total farmgate income for South Australian winegrape growers is still 44% ($232m) below what they received in 2002,” Hackworth said. Research undertaken by the council in 2011 found that at least 30% of all winegrapes were sold and this rose to 80% in some regions and they expect that situation to still exist.

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SA winegrapes farmgate value 2004-2012 Only a quarter of growers now derive their main income from winegrape growing and around 10% had looked for full or part-time work in the last 12 months. The survey and intensive one-on-one surveys with a sample of winegrape growers earlier this year, found that despite the difficult years, few had removed vines or sold vineyards. Hackworth said that the reasons for this are varied and include the cost of removing vines, lack of alternative crops and the rapid drop in vineyard values. “Those with off-farm income or who also grow other commodities are better placed to absorb losses from winegrapes and we found that many believe prices will eventually rise, that winegrapes were like other commodities in that prices rise and fall over time.” He also pointed to a survey finding that nearly three quarters of SA’s winegrape growers were over 50 years of age. “Finding alternative fulltime work gets more difficult with age and one of the challenges for the wine industry is that nearly half of grapegrowers are likely to want to retire over the next decade and we are unclear what that will mean.” The only substantial removal of vines has been in the Riverland, with about 4000ha removed, but while less than might be expected have been removed in other regions, the survey found that substantial work has been undertaken by many growers to lower their crop yields. “They are doing this in an attempt to achieve higher grades and therefore higher prices for their grapes while others are reducing costs by applying less water and fertiliser,” Hackworth said. The survey found that most respondents felt either more confident than a year ago, or at least as confident, with only 8% feeling less confident. Confidence lifted significantly in the Riverland, Wrattonbully and Coonawarra, with around half of the winegrape growers in those regions reporting they were feeling more confident. The biggest lift was in Langhorne Creek, where almost twothirds reported being more confident. These regions also saw some of the better increase in prices. Ten per cent of respondents reported

Brighter prospects in Sth Australia • confidence building • late payments an issue • few vines being removed despite decade of low prices.

problems getting paid in full and/or on time. Hackworth explained that the result confirmed an increasing number of requests from winegrape growers to the WGCSA seeking assistance with late payments. “This is very concerning, particularly given that South Australia is unique in having the Wine Grape Industry Act, which requires that full payment for winegrapes be completed by 30 September each year. It’s also illegal for someone to buy wine grapes if they owe money from previous vintages,” he said. “This seems to be a particular problem with new entrants to the industry, people who have seen an opportunity to buy grapes cheap because of the glut and try to sell that as bulk wine and then discover that is harder to do than they thought.” However, Hackworth said the problem was not restricted to the ‘carpetbaggers,’ with some well-known wineries known in the industry as being chronically late with their payments. The problem is worst in the Barossa Valley where 16% of respondents reported problems with late payments, while only 3% in the Riverland had problems. The WGCSA has written to Gail Gago, Minister for Agriculture, seeking a meeting to look at how this problem can be addressed. “We’ve reported what appear to be blatant breaches to the Crown Solicitor’s Office but are yet to see any money recovered – we think that’s in part because the CSO lacks sufficient power to investigate,” Hackworth said. “The natural response of winegrape growers is to help wineries that are struggling to make payments and it’s important that those wineries that exploit the goodwill of growers are held to account.” The full report can be downloaded from January 2013 – Issue 588

Being proactive to avoid disputes eventuating in the vineyard This article is the third and final part of the series, ‘What can be done in the vineyard to manage risk in difficult seasons?’ by Mary Retallack, managing director, Retallack Viticulture, presented at Finlaysons Wine Roadshow XX at nine different venues around Australia between 30 July and 31 August 2012. In last month’s Grapegrower & Winemaker, Retallack discussed fruit quality and the assessment of grapes in the vineyard. AVOIDING VINEYARD DISPUTES is possible by taking a proactive approach to managing expectations and minimising risk. There are a number of things winegrowers can do to ensure they are on the front foot when managing risk and expectations: Choose whom you do business with carefully. • Only do business with reputable fruit purchasers – do your homework! • Carry out due diligence prior to entering into a grape sale agreement. This can help alleviate problems up front • Take the time to understand your rights and responsibilities (contractual obligations, terms and conditions of payment) and the needs of your customer (supply fruit that is ‘fit for purpose’). • Ensure there are clear channels for communication. Both parties should encourage frank and open discussion about any concerns that arise so they can be addressed quickly and don’t fester into larger issues.

• Know who your key fruit purchase contact(s) are and develop a good working relationship with them. Involve them in discussions at the beginning of the season, encourage visits at strategic times throughout the season, and seek feedback about your fruit as it ripens in the vineyard and once it has been made into wine. Don’t sit back and wait for someone else to take charge. • Arm yourself with the latest information (factsheets, weather reports), plan ahead, and have a plan for the best and worst case scenarios and be willing to act on them. • Be realistic about the quality of fruit you have on offer, manage expectations, be clear about what is required to grow fruit that is ‘fit for purpose’, have a good understanding about what your fruit is worth in the marketplace and be equipped with the knowledge needed to successfully negotiate the sale of your winegrapes. Work on the basis of a ‘no surprises’ approach.

• If there are any issues that arise during the growing season, raise them first and offer a solution at the same time as identifying the problem. • Take out appropriate insurances. If the risk of an event is too high, it is likely the premium will be high also. However, this may provide peace of mind if something goes wrong. Concentrate your efforts to achieve the best return with limited resources. • Have a clear understanding of the fruit maturity, purity and condition schedule in your grape sale agreement. • If you do not understand how particular parameters will be assessed, ask. If you are uncomfortable with the provisions outlined for the downgrade or rejection of fruit, or if this is not clear, negotiate their change. • Ensure you produce fruit that is consistent with the maturity, purity and conditions you have agreed to. If an issue with fruit purity or condition arises, ensure it is addressed early, so

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grapegrowing you can keep your options open. Seek a second opinion if the assessment is contentious. • Work closely with the fruit purchaser to facilitate the scheduling of fruit in a timely way that preserves fruit quality. Seek constructive feedback at the end of the season. Accommodate reasonable suggestions that will result in improvements.

Rights and responsibilities there are a number of ways the sale of wine grapes takes place, ranging from a verbal ‘handshake’ through to a carefully worded grape sale agreement that is legally binding, with variations in between. for an agreement to become a contract it must have three identifiable features1: 1 An agreement between the parties to do, or to refrain from doing, certain things 2 An intention to make the agreement legally binding, and 3 An exchange of value. this is known as consideration. Agreement occurs when one person accepts the other party’s offer, so there has been both: • An offer, and • Acceptance of that offer. Difficult questions don’t tend to be asked while things are going well. But if the grape sale process falters it is important for both parties to have a clear understanding of their rights and responsibilities, and it is usually at this time that the terms of the agreement come under close scrutiny (sometimes for the first time). If the terms are not clearly defined then this makes it much harder for both parties to navigate the dispute to an acceptable end point. A clearly worded wine grape sale

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Avoiding problematic language in grape sale agreements Problematic language may appear in the grape sale agreement and if this does occur, ideally the terminology used will be renegotiated prior to signing the contract. In practice, this is quite difficult if one party does not understand their rights and/or forfeit their rights as they are unaware, unfamiliar or inexperienced in developing contracts. Ignorance cannot be used as a defence. It is up to both parties to ensure they understand the terms of the agreement. If you feel uncomfortable with the wording in a contract, speak up or ask for clarification, as once you sign the contract it is a legally binding document. examples of problematic language are outlined in the publication A guide to growing winegrapes in the Barossa2 and may include: • Complicated sub-clauses. Be aware of complicated sub-clauses that relate to another part of the contract, they can be confusing to follow and understand. You may end up forfeiting your rights if a particular clause is negated by a sub-clause located elsewhere in the contract. • Consequential loss. Grapegrowers should not be held responsible for any consequential costs, expenses, or losses once the grapes start fermentation, unless the grape grower is guilty of gross negligence or wilful misconduct. • Sole discretion. the term ‘sole discretion’ by either party should be avoided and only used in cases where its application is truly justified. Consider substituting the concepts of ‘reasonable judgment’ or ‘good faith’ in lieu of ‘sole discretion’. • ‘Zero/minimum price’ contracts. ensure that you have a clear understanding of what you will be paid for your grapes and that a minimum or fixed price is stated, or if a ‘market price’ is specified, that the agreement states clearly how the price is to be determined. • Controlling interest. Be aware of statements that imply the grape purchaser wishes to have a controlling interest in future vineyard management decisions, the appointment of a vineyard manager, your assets, or your vineyard finances. • force majeure. the lack of production capacity for the grape purchaser should never be considered a force majeure (an extraordinary event or circumstance beyond the control of the parties) and able to absolve the grape purchaser of responsibility for taking the grapes. • Non-performance. Be aware of clauses that entitle the grape

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January 2013 – Issue 588

purchaser to recover losses sustained by them and any processor as a result of the grape grower’s failure to deliver (where the grapegrower is not liable for any loss due to force majeure). • Vineyard practices. Be aware of clauses that state that if a grapegrower does not comply with the direction given by the grape purchaser with regard to vineyard practices, it shall not be obliged to purchase any of the grapes. Similarly, the grape purchaser will not be liable for any loss incurred by the grapegrower as a result of any advice provided by the grape purchaser. If a dispute does occur and parties are reaching for their grape sale agreements, it is usually a pretty good sign that negotiations have started to break down. If the foundations of the grape sale agreement are lacking or expectations have not been met, this can add to the confusion of achieving an outcome that is acceptable to both parties.

Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) and legal recourse There are a number of avenues available for parties to navigate their way to an acceptable solution if there is a dispute, including: • Discussions directly between the parties to reach a suitable resolution, • Seeking the assistance of an independent third party, such as a mediator (informally or formally with a non-binding or binding outcome) to facilitate the discussion process so each party can reach a suitable outcome, • The engagement of an independent expert who can provide a technical assessment of fruit quality, expert determination, or navigate the application of the grape sale agreement, • Resolution through the mechanisms outlined in the Wine Industry Code of Conduct (should the winery be a signatory), • Arbitration where your dispute is referred to an independent umpire for determination, or • Litigation through the court system. Each option differs slightly in its approach. It is good practice to include a dispute resolution clause in the grape sale agreement so there is agreement ‘up front’ about the avenues the parties are willing to explore if there is a dispute, and whether the decision reached through ADR is binding on both parties.

Mediation and arbitration A mediator can be employed to facilitate discussion between two parties to jointly January 2013 – Issue 588

explore and attempt to reconcile their differences, and reach what they consider is a workable outcome. A mediator has no authority to pose settlement and the parties retain control over the outcome. This approach can be particularly useful in complex matters when the parties have an ongoing contractual relationship and they would like to preserve the relationship. Arbitration is a formal dispute resolution process governed by the Commercial Arbitration Act in which two or more parties refer their dispute to an independent third person (the arbitrator) for determination. The result of the arbitration, known as the Award, is enforceable in the same manner as a court judgment. To search for a mediator or arbitrator, visit the Institute of Arbitrators and Mediators (IAMA) website, http://iama.

Expert determination An expert determination is normally carried out by a suitably qualified third person for disputes that are essentially technical in nature. The expert retains their independence and has a duty to act fairly and impartially between the parties, giving each party a reasonable opportunity to present his or her case. Do your homework if you wish to engage the services of an independent expert, they vary in expertise, reputation, location and cost. It is common practice for both parties to agree on the appointment of an independent expert and to split the cost of their services. It is up to the parties and the expert to ensure that there are no ‘conflicts of interest’ prior to proceeding on a job. It is incumbent on the independent expert to present their findings in a clear and concise way and to provide reasons for their determination. The ‘losing’ party often seeks this detail so they can understand why a determination did not go their way. The decision of the ‘independent expert’ is final and binding on all parties and cannot be appealed or challenged except in the case of a manifest error or proven misconduct.

Australian Wine Industry Code of Conduct The Australian Wine Industry Code of Conduct advocates an early informal dispute resolution process, which seeks to educate parties in the dispute about their rights under ‘the Code’, and to encourage resolution without progressing to formal dispute resolution procedures. Details about the Australian Wine Industry Code of Conduct can be found

at http://w w w.wineindust r ycode. org/ and a current list of independent experts can be found here http://www. Expert%20Panel.pdf.

Documentation If problems start to arise take notes. ‘Contemporaneous’ notes is a legal term used for simply taking notes as events occur; that is, if something happens that you may rely on at a future date, write a note or collate documentation at the time that it occurs and while the details are fresh in your memory. This may include notes after a vineyard visit or activity, emails, photographs etc. Remember to date each entry and include other relevant details such as who were the parties to the conversation etc. If you have been verbally communicated of a downgrade or rejection of fruit, ensure this is stated in writing. You may wish to retain a fruit sample (placed in the freezer) as evidence in case it is needed in the future. If there is poor documentation this makes it hard to reconstruct or demonstrate the sequence of events that may be required to substantiate a claim made at a later date.

Conclusion Disputes can be stressful, time consuming and costly, regardless of the outcome. By following the points outlined in this Grapegrower & Winemaker


grapegrowing article it may be possible to alleviate a dispute eventuating in the first place. If a dispute does occur, keep a cool head, be firm in exerting your rights and follow the avenues outlined above. Seek advice if you are unsure of the best way to proceed. Assistance can be sought from your local, state, or national body (Wine Grape Growers’ Australia) that represents the needs of wine growers, local consultants, independent experts or your legal advisor. A number of publications, tools and technologies are available to help wine growers navigate their way through the growing and selling of wine grapes and these resources are outlined below.

Resources Publications, practical tools and latest technologies A guide to negotiating the sale of winegrapes in the Barossa BGWA have developed a booklet that can be used to assist growers and purchasers to navigate their way through each stage of a wine grape sale transaction. Chapters in the booklet include: • things to know and do before selling wine grapes

• Contractual obligations • Wine grape sale checklist • examples of problematic language and clauses • Vineyard access protocols • Navigating your way through a dispute • Alternative dispute resolution • Grower options if grape payments are outstanding, and • Insolvency procedures to assist their members in successfully negotiating the sale of winegrapes. for more information, see: www.

Wine Grape Growers Australia – winegrape sales grower resources the following resources that can help growers to negotiate with grape purchasers are posted on the WGGA website: • Guidelines for marketing winegrapes, • Guidelines for negotiating grape supply contracts, • Sample spot purchase winegrape agreement, • Winery checklist for negotiating grape supply contracts, • A guide to negotiating the sale of winegrapes in the Barossa, and


• Australian Wine Industry Code of Conduct. for more information, see: www.wgga. /w i neg rape -sa les/w i neg rape contracts-resources-for-growers

Websites the following additional resources may be useful in navigating the successful sale of wine grapes. Wine Grapes Industry Act 1991 terms and conditions of payment, see www.pir. conditions_of_payment, Phylloxera and Grape Industry Board of South Australia South Australian Wine Grape Crush Survey for 2012, see: resources/sa-winegrape-crush-survey/ Wine Australia Winegrape Purchases Price Dispersion report 2012, visit: w w w.w i n e a u s t r a l i a .c o m /e n / Winefacts%20Landing.aspx and click the link, ‘Grape and wine production’ to find the link to the report.

References Modified from Retallack, M (2011) A guide to growing winegrapes in the Barossa, Barossa Grape and Wine Association, Nuriootpa.

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January 2013 – Issue 588

pre-vintage wrap

Vintage 2013 to reap average yields and better prices Associations of Australia’s warm winegrowing regions are confident 2013 will be a year for quality grapes and average yields, following drier conditions compared with the same time last year. Prices for grapes could increase this year, following a surge in demand for particular varieties. Kellie Arbuckle

Riverland RIVERLAND GROWERS AND winemakers are cautiously optimistic in the lead up to the 2013 vintage, according to Chris Byrne, executive officer of the Riverland Winegrape Growers Association. He is also optimistic that grape prices will continue to rise, following a significant increase in demand for grapes and wine from the Riverland over the past two vintages. “There has also been a marked improvement in price over the last two vintages, albeit from a very low base. Early indicative prices are indicating a further improvement in price across most varieties for the forthcoming vintage,” he said. Growing conditions have been “outstanding” with cool nights and very few hot days prior to Christmas. The region processed 411,000 tonnes last year and, at this stage, although the Chardonnay crops appear to be light, the region is likely to produce 400,000 tonnes again.

Hunter Valley The 2012-13 season in the Hunter Valley is a stark contrast to the 2011-12 season, with dry conditions prevailing. Hunter Valley viticulture sub-committee chair David Hook said about 90mm of rain had fallen during the season to date, compared with over 430mm for the same period last year. There was a cool start to the season with budburst being later than last season by 10-12 days. “The skies were clear and sunny for the bulk of spring, and pest and disease pressure has been low, with wingless grasshoppers and katydids being the only significant pest issue to date,” Hook said. Chardonnay appears to have light crops in the Lower Hunter but look more bountiful in the Upper Hunter. Semillon and Verdelho are average with Shiraz potentially slightly lower than average, but looking well balanced. Supplementary irrigation has been applied to maintain canopies and harvest is anticipated to start in late January.

November temperature of 45.5 degrees,” McKenzie said. “Only minor sunburn damage was recorded. With the exception of this event, spring and early summer weather conditions have been generally mild – more in line with the pre-vintage season of last year.” Chardonnay flowering in the Murray Valley was up to

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Semillon vines at Ernest Hill Wines in December last year.

Murray Valley The pre-vintage season in the Murray Valley has progressed smoothly, with good foliage development and fruit set, according to Murray Valley Winegrowers chief executive Mark McKenzie. He says spring conditions have been very dry, with no disease or pests present and clean vines. “The region coped well with a record heatwave event on 29 November when Mildura recorded its highest recorded January 2013 – Issue 588

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pre-vintage wrap a week earlier than last year and the Chardonnay harvest for sparkling is likely to start early this month in the northern vineyards of the region. With the exception of variable crops evident in Shiraz, all other major varieties appear likely to produce average crop levels in 2013. “Pending the continuation of the current pattern of relatively mild temperatures and little rainfall, growers are looking forward to repeating the excellent quality shown in murray Valley fruit in vintage 2012,” mcKenzie said.

Barossa As of mid-December when this report was written, Barossa growers have experienced a very dry growing season leading up to vintage 2013. Prior to a ‘patchy’ 8-9mm of rain on 12 December in areas such in ebenezer, Nuriootpa and Keyneton (none recorded in Angaston, tanunda or Lyndoch), the Barossa has experienced virtually no significant rainfall for the three months from mid-September to mid-December. Nicki robins, viticultural development officer of the Barossa Grape and Wine Association, says canopies are being

monitored carefully, with growers who irrigated in the dry spring months benefiting from healthier shoot growth. Demand for the Barossa’s water scheme is reported to have hit record highs in November 2012, as growers recognised the need for early irrigation. “So far, the Barossa has only experienced short bursts of hot weather, with cool evenings and early mornings allowing the vines to recover from warmer daytime temperatures,” robins said. “As in 2012, the Barossa is on track for another slightly lower yielding – but high quality – vintage in 2013 for key varieties. “As a result of the dry growing season and some isolated late frosts in November, yields are currently ranging from average to 20 per cent down in Shiraz and average to 10% down in Cabernet Sauvignon. Grenache quality also looks high, with low fruit-set reported in many areas.” the impending lower yields are resulting in firm prices for growers, as demand for good quality fruit strengthens, particularly for the Barossa’s flagship variety, Shiraz.

Riverina While it’s too early to tell what the


standout varieties will be in the riverina, early predictions are that most varieties will produce an average yield. “to date, the weather has been extremely variable in the riverina, with heatwaves followed by mild-cool weeks and heavy rainfall in early November that caused for localised flooding events,” says Kristy Bartrop, industry development officer for the riverina Wine Grapes marketing Board. “the vines are performing well and the mild late November/December conditions are perfect for the formation of great fruit quality. We need this temperature to continue right through to January-february, like in 2012 season.” Bartrop said the Orlando Wickham hill site (now known as Wickham hill Wines), which sat idle for the vintage 2012 season site, is set to crush up to 28,000 tonnes this vintage and should solve many local oversupply concerns. She said red varieties are also seen as an opportunity for growers to gain reasonable returns for their fruit. the region has experienced two concurrent vintages where the harvested volume of red fruit has been low due to wet summer weather.

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January 2013 – Issue 588

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Contribution of canopy management and harvest decisions on grape and wine quality in the King Valley assessed Benchmarking in the King Valley continues for the eighth year and again differential canopy management produces excellent grape and wine outcomes. Erika Winter and Stephen Lowe

the 2011-12 SeASON was the eighth year of benchmarking in King Valley vineyards. the King Valley region encompasses a very diverse range of grapegrowing conditions with vineyard altitudes from 155-860m above sea level. the aim of the benchmarking was to provide vignerons with data to achieve the best possible grape and wine outcomes from their sites, valid for hot and cold seasons in the highly variable climate of the future. In the last decade many Australian vineyards have experienced some extreme seasons, from the very hot summers of 2007 and 2009 to the very cold 2011 and the milder 2012, which ended with a cool finish (fig. 1). the long-lasting trials in the King Valley supported by GWrDC, Landcare, and the King Valley Vignerons, have spanned all those years. A farmready grant in 2010 and 2011 allowed the effects of differential canopy management (east/south open, west/north leaf covered bunchzones,

fig. 3) to be compared with the results from canopies with shoot management resulting in open bunchzones, side by side in 15 sites. In the last eight years we could show, on a broad basis of varieties and vineyard locations, that western/




northern leaf cover over the bunchzones (with east-open canopies) produced more time in the beneficial bracket of 15°C-35°C for the bunchzones and was beneficial to preservation of tA, pulp aroma and colour, when harvested at the same time compared to those from




Average 1985-2011







15 OCT







Figure 1. Six years of average monthly maximum temperatures in Edi Upper, King Valley. Courtesy Australian Bureau of Meteorology.

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[mm] Daily totals



[mm] 100 80 60 40 20

100 80 60 40 20 Site ‘Default’ , Probe ‘PI’ , Depth 20 + 50 cm (Sum) Budburst to Flowering

Veraison to Harvest

Post Harvest 90




80 Full point

75 Soil water content

Flowering to Veraison


Full point

Full point

Full point







60 Refill Point 1

Refill Point 1

Refill Point 1

Onset of Stress

Onset of Stress

Onset of Stress

55 50

Refill Point 1 55 Onset of Stress

45 [mm] 01 Oct

50 45

01 Nov

01 Dec

01 Jan

01 Feb


01 Mar

01 Apr

01 May



Figure 2. Soil Moisture at 20cm + 50cm depths under Shiraz 2K remaining below the fully wet (blue) an above the dry (pink) thresholds with short and frequent irrigations before the March rainfall.

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January 2013 – Issue 588

Grapegrower & Winemaker




Maximum residue limits (MRLs) are set by individual governments and vary greatly from country to country. Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) develops and governs our domestic MRLs as per the Food Standards Codes. These include standards for food safety, additives and labelling and helps ensure our food (and wine) is safe and suitable for us to consume (www. Agrochemical product labels state how and when individual products can be applied to crops and the relevant withholding period (WHP) before harvest. Whilst adhering to label directions satisfies domestic markets, most of our grapes are grown to meet the requirements of the most stringent export markets. In many instances this is to have “nil detectable” residue in the wine. This is often not due to technical food safety reasons but rather that the country simply has not set an MRL. A number of our export markets do not produce wine themselves and therefore have no need for their own domestic MRLs for products commonly used in wine production.

east/south and west/north open canopies (Winter and Lowe, 2009, 2011a). this report selects some of the results of this season to highlight the interplay of bunchzone temperature management and harvest decisions in the presence of appropriate general vineyard management practices.

Methods electronic dataloggers recording temperatures hourly were inserted in the bunchzones and in the subsoil (tinytag, hastings, Port macquarie, NSW) and electronic soil moisture probes (Sentek, enviroscan Solo, Stepney, SA) recorded soil water content at two hourly intervals. All sites had differential canopy management. the vine and grape assessment methods were photography and numerical results from canopy score sheets (Winter and Whiting, 2004), Berry Sensory Assessment (Winter et al., 2004) and grape quality laboratory measurements. Seven-month-old wines were judged anonymously by two local winemakers according to descriptors kindly provided by Nick Bulleid mW.

Results Daily rainfall observations and computerised irrigation and soil water monitoring allowed a drying cycle after fruit set and targeted short irrigations prevented water stress mid-season (fig. 2). Some varieties avoided the cool and rainy spells in march due to early harvest. In the season 2011-12 a high proportion of ripening time in the beneficial bracket (in particular pre-veraison, fig. 5) resulted in high anthocyanin concentrations in Shiraz, merlot, Cabernet

This is where individual winery guidelines, the Australian Wine Research Industry (AWRI) Dog Book and the New Zealand Winegrowers Export Spray Schedule come in. These commonly apply tighter “restrictions on use” than the product label, to ensure that relevant export market requirements are met. A WHP or “restriction on use” statement may consist of two parts and it is important to ensure both criteria are met. For instance, the Dog Book “restriction on use” for TOPAS 100 EC states “Use no later than E-L 31 (before bunch closure). Do not use within 60 days of harvest”. This differs from the WHP stated on the TOPAS label for use on domestic crops. It’s easy to remember “use no later than before bunch closure”, although “within 60 days of harvest” could be overlooked. This may not be an issue for many vineyards although grapes destined for sparkling base would be one example where bunch closure may occur within 60 days of harvest.

24 Grapegrower & Winemaker


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5 29/1/12

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Figure 3. Differential canopy management showing eastern exposure (left) and western cover (right) in 2K Shiraz, King Valley.

Temperature ºC

When planning your spray programme and prior to each spray, always read product labels thoroughly in addition to the relevant industry and winery guidelines. For the latest version of the Dog Book refer to agrochemicals or download the handy AWRI Agrochemical Search app for iPhone. Maintaining an up to date and accurate record of spraying operations is important to satisfy regulatory requirements, comply with quality assurance programmes and facilitate the sale of your grapes.

Figure 4. Bunchzone temperatures veraison to harvest as recorded by a Tinytag datalogger in a well-managed Shiraz canopy showing few heatloads in February and the cold spell in early March.

January 2013 – Issue 588

Sauvignon and Sangiovese (fig. 6). Grapes from bunchzones which had spent a high proportion of time in the beneficial bracket reached above average pulp maturity and aroma. Like last year, grapes with higher aroma ratings had more than 1.5 leaf layer west or north, depending on row orientation. the combination of western leaf cover with unrestricted undergrowth in merlot and in Cabernet Sauvignon again King Valley 2011/12 % of time in beneficial bracket December to veraison 100

% of time in beneficial bracket ripening period

produced attenuated bunchzone temperatures, like observed in the previous years (Winter and Lowe, 2011b). for the third year in a row it was observed that western leaf cover not only resulted in fewer heatloads but also produced lower amounts of cold degree hours, most likely preventing cold airflow. however, it may be necessary to closely observe a possible nitrogen depletion of the soil in the presence of lush

2K-b Shiraz 2012 Colour


Herbaceous 5




Tannin intensity



Tannin softness


Black Pepper


94 93

Green/White Pepper


97 96




Figure 5. Percentage of bunchzone time in the beneficial bracket pre and post veraison (SB=Sauvignon blanc, SZ=Shiraz, PG=Pinot gris, VE=Verdelho, ME=Merlot, MEH=Merlot herbicide treatment, MEU=Merlot with undergrowth, SG=Sangiovese, CS= Cabernet Sauvignon, CSH=CS herbicide treatment, CSU= with undergrowth).

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Figure 8. Characteristics of a seven-month-old Shiraz from grapes harvested 56 days after veraison at 12.7 Be and 5.9 TA.

King Valley Anthocyanins

2.5 2011/12 (mild)

Anthocyanins (mg/g berry fresh weight)



26K CS U

18K ME

25K CS H

17K SG

16K SG

15K SG


12K PG


09K SZ

08K ME

07K PG

04K VE

05K SB

02K SZ

03K PG


01K SB


2010/11 (cold)

2009/10 (Botrytis)

2008/09 (hot)






02K SZ 08K ME 09K ME 11K MEH 14K MEU 15K SG 16K SG 17K SG 18k ME 25K CS H 26K CS U

Figure 6. Anthocyanin concentrations in red grapes from the benchmarking study.

9K b Shiraz 2012 Colour

Herbaceous 5




Green/White Pepper

3 2

Tannin intensity

Black Pepper

1 0

Tannin softness



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Figure 7. Characteristics of a seven-month-old Shiraz from grapes harvested 46 days after veraison at 12.4 Be and 6.2 TA. January 2013 – Issue 588

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grapegrowing undergrowth, which may affect grape N status and YAN in the must. The comparison of the characteristics of two seven-month-old Shiraz wines is one of several examples for the influence of harvest timing with a very similar differential canopy management and undervine herbicide treatment. The wine of the 9K Shiraz vineyard had been harvested earlier (46 days between veraison and harvest with 97% of time in the beneficial bracket) to capture the special pepper aromas possible at this site (Fig. 7), and bunchzones had next to no heatloads during warm spells (Fig. 4). The grapes of the 2K Shiraz vineyard had a 56-day ‘hangtime’, whereby the bunchzones, despite the cold spell in March, were measured to have 98% of the time from veraison to harvest in the beneficial bracket. The wine of the 2K Shiraz vineyard expressed mature fruit aromas and showed more intense tannins (Fig. 8).

water content, vine health, vine balance and beneficial bunchzone temperatures, are important tools to achieve desired wine styles, especially in difficult years. The King Valley Vignerons have, over the last eight years, demonstrated that site and seasonally tailored management practices can, in cold and hot years, lead to consistent quality wines through modern measurement and management of crucial plant and soil factors. Affordable management options like simple differential wire positioning for bunchzone temperature control, water savings through targeted irrigation and also non-herbicide undervine management have been explored. Further studies into minimal input soil and plant management practices are envisaged, always focusing on the production of high quality grapes and wines that the region is known for.

Thanks to Brown Brothers for chemical analysis of grapes and the Bureau of Meteorology for supplying regional climatic data, the participating vignerons for again volunteering their vineyards for this study and the winemakers for their time and expertise.



Modern vineyard management practices, in particular ensuring appropriate soil

This year’s project was supported by funding from the King Valley Vignerons.

Winter, E. and Lowe, S. (2011b) Undervine management research reveals fruitzone temperature controls. The Australian & New Zealand Grapegrower & Winemaker 574, 37-42.

Erika Winter, GrapeLinks, Melbourne and Stephen Lowe, Stony Creek Vineyard, King Valley, Victoria, Australia.


Winter, E. Whiting, J. and Rousseau, J. (2004) Winegrape Berry Sensory Assessment in Australia. Winetitles, Adelaide. Winter, E. and Whiting, J. (2004) Using leaf area to crop weight to determine vine balance. Australian Viticulture Jan/Feb pp 70-73. Winter, E. and Lowe, S. (2009) Benchmarking King Valley Shiraz from 2005 to 2008. Australian Viticulture Jan. /Feb. 2009 pp 63-66. Winter, E. and Lowe, S. (2011a) Canopy management offers solutions to variable climate. The Australian & New Zealand Grapegrower & Winemaker 573, 38-41.

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January 2013 – Issue 588

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Precision viticulture experience shared Precision viticulture has something to offer all viticulturists, irrespective of size or market. Emma Leonard

SPAA PRECISION AGRICULTURE Australia recently presented workshops at the Grampians and Yarra Valley, in Victoria, where viticulturists Hans Loder and Dr Richard Hamilton spoke about the benefits of precision viticulture (PV). Hamilton reminded participants that PV is not a silver bullet, but allows targeted best practice vine management.

GPS accuracy Any data-gathering operation that is linked to a global positioning system (GPS) is geo-referenced. Using a GPS unit that has sub-metre accuracy means any point should be able to be returned to within plus or minus a metre. To be really accurate a GPS system running RTK is required, as this gives an accuracy of +/-2cm. Generally the rule of thumb is to invest in the most accurate GPS. For marking points, such as broken posts or dripper blowout, sub-metre can be used but the greater accuracy of an RTK system is desirable. Both speakers encouraged those interested in applying PV to engage a contractor with RTK GPS to mark the boundaries of each vineyard or block, and to secure the raw data and the maps when they use contractors to collect spatial information.

Vigour mapping At the workshop held at Seppelt’s Great Western Winery, the presenters were joined by Andrew Whitlock, who provided examples of precision tools including on-the-go soil pH sampling and on-ground biomass sensing.

Workshop presenters Richard Hamilton (left), Andrew Clarke of Yering Station and Hans Loder taste the results of split picking.

Ground-based biomass sensors can map variation in vigour when the near infrared measurements are converted to the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI). On-ground biomass mapping offers vineyard managers the opportunity to measure changes at multiple times in the growing season. As part of the next workshop, participants will have the opportunity to compare vigour maps produced using PCD or NDVI.

Split harvesting Ha m ilton demonst rated how differentially harvesting an 8.1 hectare block as two blocks of 3.5 and 4.6 hectares increased the grape value by

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$9000 and the wine value by $150,000. He explained how PCD maps were used to map variation in vigour and that, once the preferred zones had been selected, selective picking maps could be generated and incorporated into split picking equipment (see www. “A PCD map costs about $28/ha, so that is relatively modest investment to achieve these increases in value,” Hamilton said. To pa r ticipate in f uture activities, contact Nicole Dimos on: Emma Leonard is the editor of Precision Ag News, the publication of SPAA Precision Agriculture Australia.


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January 2013 – Issue 588

tractor roundtable

Tractor workload to increase over vintage Stephen O’Loughlin

AS WE ENTER the 2013 vintage season, tractor workload on vineyards is set to increase. Vineyard Consideration machinery may even be made on upgrading for the new season. In fact, after a slow period in the market tractor sales are just beginning to rise. While price is still a major factor in the decision-making, cost of ownership over the long-term use of the tractor is now a driving force behind one’s purchase. This month’s roundtable has vineyard managers and viticulturists talking about the operational needs of their tractors for the upcoming vintage.

What tractor brand/s are you currently using? Keelan: Pellenc, New Holland, Same, Case and Kubota. Schasser: We currently have three Same Dorado 85 tractors and a Braud New Holland Harvester with a Martignani fungicide attachment. Thompson: John Deere, New Holland and Massey Fergusson. Wood: We use John Deere 5 Series, in particular the 5525N and 509RN range.

What is the total area of vineyard under your management? Keelan: 250 hectares. Schasser: We have 173ha under-vine. This is split between two vineyards; Steinhardts Road has 60ha and Clovely Lane has 115ha. Thompson: 150ha. Wood: 165ha.

What grape varieties do you grow? Keelan: Cabernet, Shiraz, Malbec, Sauvignon Blanc, Verdelho, Merlot, Chardonnay, Dolcetto, Lagrein, Petit Verdot and Zinfandel. Schasser: The vineyard has the standard varieties such as Shiraz, Chardonnay, Cabernet and Merlot, along with Grenache, Petit Verdot, Verdelho and Semillon, but we also have a number of Italian varieties such as Barbera, Nebbiolo, Sangiovese and Mourvedre. Thompson: Sauvignon Bla nc, Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gris, Merlot, Syrah, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon. Wood: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Zinfandel, Shiraz, Petit Verdot, Chardonnay, Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc and Viognier. January 2013 – Issue 588

Tom Keelan, viticultural manager, Bremerton Wines, Langhorne Creek, South Australia.

How many tractors do you work on the property?

What implements do you add onto your tractors?

Keelan: Three Pellenc, four New Holland, two Same, one Case and one Kubota. Schasser: There are three tractors that are commonly used on the vineyard, but we also use some of the machinery and tractors from our olive grove when required. Thompson: Across our four company vineyards located in Hawke’s Bay and Marlborough, we are running six tractors. Wood: We have two separate properties with three tractors on each, so six tractors in total.

Keelan: On our Pellenc Tractors, we use a pre-pruner, 3-row fungicide unit, 3-row herbicide unit, summer trimmer, wire lifter, Vibro post knocker, twin row slashers and harvesters, while on our other tractors we have a pre-pruner with saws, herbicide carts (two and single row), fungicide cart (two and single row), slashers, sweeper/mulcher, bin and gondola at harvest time. Schasser: We have the usual herbicide units, one single rower and one double rower and two slashers. Our fungicide units consist of a Hardi double row and Silvan Turbomiser single rower. We also use a Pellenc barrel pruner and a Clemens radius under-vine weeder. Thompson: We attach sprayers, mulchers/ mowers and, recently, a new ERO trimmer and leaf plucker combo, which allows us to trim and leaf pluck in one pass, increasing efficiency. Wood: The following implements are used on our tractors are: Croplands fungicide unit, Silvan herbicide unit, Chris grow mowers, Fisher under-vine mower, Berti mulchers, under-vine sweepers, Collard vine trimmer, Pellenc barrel pruner, power harrows/discs, and Net wizz net machine.

What are the actual tasks you would use your tractor(s) for at this time of year/over the summer months? Keelan: Fungicide, herbicide, wire lifting, trimming, slashing and harvest. Schasser: The main tasks at this time of year include fungicide spraying, herbicide spraying, and slashing while we have also spread fertiliser and mulch. Throughout the year the tractors are used for barrel pruning, both prior to winter pruning and prior to pruning for our double-pruned Shiraz. They are also used for bin chasing at harvest in January. Thompson: Our tractors perform a wide range of tasks over this period, which include spraying, mowing, trimming, leaf plucking and under-vine cultivation. Wood: Slashing/mowing, fungicide spraying, herbicide, vine trimming, leaf plucking and disc/power harrow (firebreaks).

How many hours would you run a tractor during the upcoming peak period? Keelan: 250-400 hours. Schasser: They would run for at least 50 hours per week, possibly more when we are completing a fungicide round. Grapegrower & Winemaker


tractor roundtable

Warren Schasser, viticulturist/vineyard manager, Clovely Estate, Moffatdale, Queensland (right, with tractor operator Stan Baker).

Thompson: In the peak period in December and January, our tractors would each average between 20-50 hours per week. this depends upon what tractor is being used and for what task. Cultivation, trimming and spraying are tasks that need to be completed when weather conditions permit, so appropriate windows need to be taken whenever possible. this often involves very early starts and late finishes when conditions are calm. Wood: Average annual hours are 500-600 per plant.

What performance factors and other considerations do you have in mind when purchasing a tractor? Keelan: reliability, driver comfort, accessible parts, resale value and in terms of the Pellenc tractor – multitasking with pre-pruning, 3r fungicide

unit, 3r herbicide unit, wire-lifting, 2r slashing, trimming and harvesting. Schasser: We look at ease of use and comfort – we also like the Same tractors because of the electronic governors, due to being able to set a speed and know that the tractor will stay at that speed, regardless. there are also local dealers that are able to work on the tractors if required and parts are readily available. they also have an excellent set of gear ratios. Thompson: recognised brands with solid reputations and reliability are very important. A tractor must also be diverse in terms of the functions it needs to perform, therefore horsepower and hydraulic flow is very important to future-proof our vineyards so that when new implements are introduced the tractor has the power to drive them. they also need to be safe, easy to use

and comfortable, as operators spend a lot of time in tractors during peak months of the season (comfortable seat and radio!). Wood: Safety and visibility, efficiency and reliance, operator comfort, options such as front 3pl. and service intervals.

Are environmental and safety concerns a factor in your consideration? Keelan: Safety of operator is a priority while, environmentally, I guess we look at fuel consumption, vineyard footprint, etc. wSchasser: Safety is definitely a consideration as the tractors need to be reliable enough so that the safety features can operate as required, when required. We move the tractors between vineyards and need to ensure not only our workers’ safety, but also the public.

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30 Grapegrower & Winemaker January 2013 – Issue 588

Caine Thompson, viticulturist, Mission Estate Winery, Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand.

Thompson: Definitely! tractors need to be as environmentally safe and operator safe as possible before we will commit to purchasing a tractor. reliability, ease of operation and follow-up service all assist in providing a safe unit for staff to use as well. So this back-up service is very important as a key safety component. Wood: Latest emission standards, economy, tractor size and suitability for task and manufacturers’ environmental awareness.

When (and how often) do you look at replacing a tractor? Keelan: Ideally 4000-5000 hours. Schasser: Our tractors have a few years on them, but we keep a rigorous maintenance schedule and keep the regular services up. Thompson: It depends on its use, reliability and running costs. All of our tractors are under 10-years-old and are all performing very well. When tractors start becoming unreliable and costly to run in terms of repairs and maintenance we will look at replacing them. In general terms, we are getting between 12-15 years out of tractors before they are upgraded. We rotate tractors between tasks so that we spread running hours around units and thus we January 2013 – Issue 588

Ashley Wood, viticulturist, Cape Mentelle, Margaret River, Western Australia.

are not over-using or under-using units. this leads to better overall efficiencies with reduced problems resulting in less down time. Wood: 3000-4000 hours or every six years.

What issues may you have with the maintenance of your tractor(s), especially during busy periods? Keelan: We try and have a preventative maintenance program on all our machinery, which I think gives us more time to react quickly when something goes pear-shaped unexpectedly. Schasser: We haven’t had any major maintenance issues, only a couple of small air conditioning issues but our local repairer has no problems working on them. Thompson: We are fortunate that all of our tractor suppliers have very good maintenance teams. When we do have issues we can rely on these providers to come to the vineyard and fix the problem quickly so we can get it back up and running. If it is a severe problem, we are often offered a loan tractor so we can keep operations up to date across the vineyards. Wood: We are concerned with the availability of parts due to our isolated region and electronic components of our tractors.


$99,000 + GST.

• This grape harvester has always been well maintained and shedded in the off season. • Because we purchased the harvester new in 2006 we are able to provide a full service history. • Has been fitted with new bucket chains and a new full set of picking rods at beginning of 2012 vintage. • Harvester has wheel drive and braking. • Extras - Bucket reverse - 100 water tank with 12 volt pump - 4 colour camera lumes and two near new cameras which have not done a vintage.

Lincoln Grocke – Phone: 0417 818 604. Email: Grapegrower & Winemaker


grapegrowing grapegrower

Amy Richards

Born in Adelaide, has been the regional viticulturist for Treasury Wine Estates in the Fleurieu Peninsula since 2009. After graduating from the University of Adelaide with a Bachelor of Viticultural Science, Amy went on to complete several vintages in McLaren Vale and Gibbston Valley, New Zealand, where she gained experience in both the winery and vineyard. Research is also a passion for Amy, who has previously worked with SARDI where she researched minimal irrigation strategies for Langhorne Creek Cabernet Sauvignon with Dr Mike McCarthy. The project demonstrated water savings but also raised the question of where salt goes. Amy decided to investigate this question in 2008 as part of her PhD. In late November, she was announced Viticulturist of the Year by ASVO for her submission, ‘Developing strategies to sustainably manage salt-affected vineyards’.

What inspired you to work in viticulture and how have you got to where you are now?

I was originally enrolled in winemaking at university of Adelaide, but the viticulture lectures by Peter Dry and Patrick Iland inspired me and I discovered I was fascinated by the science of grapegrowing more than winemaking. I loved the idea of manipulating fruit and therefore wine styles through actions performed in the vineyard, so decided to pursue viticulture. Working with SArDI and my PhD studies further nurtured my interest in viticultural science and steered me into the field of soil science and irrigation in viticulture. I’m still fascinated by the science of grapegrowing and the complex interaction between site (terroir), vine (rootstock and clone), vineyard management and seasonal conditions that work together and produce a particular wine style. In my role at tWe I’m fortunate to be able to combine the science of viticulture with commercial vineyard management. What aspect of your work do you enjoy the most or get the most satisfaction from?

The Grapegrower & Winemaker magazine keeps me up to date with the work of other researchers and wine industry professionals; it’s a great way to stay in touch with the broader Australian wine industry.

What is your favourite time in the vineyard and why?

Christmas time. We’re just starting to see the effects of spring and its influence on canopy architecture and set, and we’re starting to anticipate the potential (yield and quality) for harvest.

One of the most enjoyable aspects of my role is the implementation of research to practice. I also get great satisfaction from identifying problems or knowledge gaps in the vineyard and developing research projects to resolve these problems (practice to research!).

Tell us about your most memorable winetasting experience.

Who do you think is the most influential person in the Australian wine industry today?

Spend time with my husband and son. During the winter months, my husband and I tackle sections of the heysen trail – a 1200km trail that runs from the bottom of the fleurieu Peninsula to South Australia’s mid-north.

I can’t think of a single figure. the wine industry is shaped by its teachers and innovators, from the many talented lecturers at Adelaide and other universities (past and present) as well as researchers. to me, they are the ones that have and continue to push our industry to evolve.

How do you de-stress after vintage?

Vintage is pretty crazy in our house as my husband also works vintage hours from february through to April. fortunately, the end of vintage usually coincides with the end of the fire ban season, so we can get back on the heysen trail for a couple of days and have a proper conversation for more than five minutes.

every time I taste a wine that I’ve had some involvement in producing the grapes for is a memorable moment.

From a research and development perspective, is there one single piece of research in the wine industry that has really influenced you or your directions in viticulture?

What do you like to do when you’re not working in vineyards?

there isn’t one single piece of research that has influenced me. Ongoing research is the key to the development and improvement of our industry. It all compounds to increase our knowledge of the vine, vineyard management and interaction with the environment.

What keeps you awake at night?


The Ark question. The world is flooding... which two wines (white and red) would you take onto the Ark?

french bubbles and a Central Otago Pinot Noir.

The Australian & New Zealand Grapegrower & Winemaker welcomes submissions for our grapegrower and winemaker profiles. Please contact Kellie Arbuckle at or phone (08) 8369 9505.

32 Grapegrower & Winemaker

January 2013 – Issue 588

The United Grower January 2013 The newsletter of Wine Grape Growers Australia

The United Grower

is produced by

for the winegrape industry Sponsored by

WGGA proudly acknowledges its associate members – Advanced Viticulture and Management, AHA Viticulture, Belvino Investments, Red Acre, Retallack Viticulture, SCE-Energy Solutions, Vine Sight, Vitibit and Woodshield.

Address: Level 1, Industry House, National Wine Centre Corner Botanic and Hackney Roads Adelaide, SA 5000 Telephone: (08) 8133 4400 Facsimile: (08) 8133 4466 Email: Website:

Industry foundation data in danger By far the major share of existing foundation data currently available to the industry is either gone or going and in need of industry action for their existence. These data sets are the viticulture statistics collected through the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Vineyard Survey, statistics on wine production and domestic sales of Australian wine also collected by the ABS and finally, the export statistics collected and reported by the Wine Australia Corporation. The viticulture collection was first to come under threat three years ago when the collecting agent, the ABS, sought to double the fee to industry while halving the data it would collect. In response, the industry decided to move to a collection in alternate years over three years while it planned to establish an industry-based collection of these statistics. Then two years ago, the ABS announced it would have to move to a fee-for-service basis to collect the wine production and domestic sales collections (that had been a free service up until that time). The Commonwealth government provided a temporary reprieve on this situation when in the last budget, it provided funds to maintain these collections for two years while the industry worked out what it wanted to do. Finally, up until now, the Wine Australia export statistics were available as a byproduct of the export approval system conducted by Wine Australia. However, with the changes announced this year in the way export approvals will be made, this byproduct will not be available and collecting the data will need to be approved by industry, funded and implemented. The sum result is that what has been a given

in the past, now has to be assessed critically for its value, the value assessed, funds found and collections established. The amount of interest shown will determine the amount of information that will continue to flow. As foundation data, each of these collections is fundamental to understanding the underpinnings of the industry. Without the data, the simplest understanding of the industry’s operations, the parameters that affect everybody, will not be available. The lights will be turned off. Even those who think that they never use the data get benefits indirectly because the understanding that comes from the data is what some know and circulate through the industry such that it becomes ‘common knowledge’. Unfortunately, the fundamental nature of the knowledge that comes from this data, and the fact that it has always been there, also poses a risk to its existence. It now can’t be assumed knowledge and we all have to think about its importance and decide to do something about it. Or not, of course. Thus far, WGGA and WFA have advocated moving from predominantly ABS-collected statistics to industry-owned collections. This is partially recognising the long-term trend for governments to hand responsibility for industry data collections over to industry. The pressure for this is inevitable and will need to be actively resisted if this is industry’s wish. But there are good reasons why industry-owned collections are a good idea.

Continued page 2…

Happy New Year Here’s to… A successful harvest, may Mother Nature be kind, and most importantly good health and happiness to you and your family. We look forward to representing you in 2013. January 2013 The United Grower 1

Committee and staff news

Your WGGA executive committee's views VICTOR PATRICK (CHAIR)


“Forecasts of a global shortfall in wine production and cautious optimism are encouraging messages but growers should focus on their balance sheet and projected cash flows.”

“A dry start to the season in Orange makes grapegrowing a pleasure – finding home for fruit takes the shine off it.” Electoral zone: South Australia (voting member) Electoral zone: New South Wales/Queensland (voting member)

BOB BELLATO Electoral zone: New South Wales/Riverina (voting member)

KERRY SMART Electoral zone: Greater Western Australia (voting member)

“With mild weather up to December, yields appearing to be slightly down and with 2 consecutive years of major losses of red wine grapes, growers should be in a good position to negotiate profitable prices for the 2013 vintage.”

(Kerry is up to his neck in cherries)

KYM LUDVIGSEN Electoral zone: Greater Victoria/Tasmania (voting member)


“WGGA has a significant role to play in establishing a well informed and united industry approach for the successful management of viticultural biosecurity issues. Join with us and make it happen across the nation.” Electoral zone: South Australia (voting member) “Expecting below average to average yields in reds for areas I am familiar with and good potential for whites, with strong canopies to ripen fruit. Enjoy the Christmas break where you can around vineyard activities”.

ANDREW WEEKS Email: Electoral Zone: Riverland (voting member) Electoral zone: Murray Valley (voting member)

“There are some encouraging signs both domestically and abroad, but if Australia is to compete in global markets we need a strong, informed and businesslike grower base.”

“At the time of writing the major wineries in the Murray Valley were due to announce their 2013 indicative prices – we wait with cautious optimism for good news.”



(EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR) (non-voting member) “This vintage will be an important indicator of future prospects. All the best of festive season to our members.”

…From page 1 Cost savings are thought to be likely, data delivery could potentially be more timely and the collections will be more responsive to changing circumstances in the industry. On the other hand, there are some challenges in establishing industry-owned collections if they are to be effective.

Principal among these challenges are compulsion, privacy and confidentiality of the data and finally, knowing who to survey, that is, lists of survey respondees and the maintenance of these lists. Among the data sets under threat, the viticulture collection is a special case. This collection is currently non-existent and there are no plans for one to exist. The instrument

to establish an industry-owned viticulture collection has been termed the National Vineyard Database (NVD) and the concept goes beyond a collection mechanism for statistics. The other purpose of the NVD is to provide the essential knowledge about the locations of vineyards to enable effective biosecurity arrangements. For both of these reasons, WGGA supports a NVD.

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WGGA Opinions

Green shoots need to be nurtured Let me begin by congratulating the Winemakers' Federation of Australia and the conference presenters for an excellent Wine Industry Outlook Conference held in Melbourne in October. The speakers generally agreed that Australia had a good product, a product that was largely competitive and a history of success. Supply is closer to demand than it has been in the recent past and the inventory to sales ratio has reached a more manageable level. There are some emerging grape shortages, notably for “hero” varieties from regions with a history of premium production and a story to tell. There are also many challenges; the UK market remains very crowded, imports into Australia continue to increase albeit at a slower rate of growth and from a grape grower perspective, grape price increases are less than inflation and cost-of-production increases after a decade long downturn. My take-away message was that there are some potentially good signs emerging if we avoid the mistakes of the past, some of which were described as being: easily copied product, scarcity followed quickly by oversupply, export destinations used as

dumping grounds, a weak brand ladder, a loss of focus on sustainable sales and consumers moving on. The glass is half full providing we focus on value growth. Have we arrived at this position because of successful restructuring (probably not) or are improvements related to seasonal adjustments (probably) based on five year average tonnages of 1.6 million tonnes in the last two years? A return to a 1.9 million tonne vintage which is still achievable has the potential to negate any recent progress. Returning home to study recent P&Ls, balance sheets, and projected cash flows based on current production and prices of several vineyards was a sobering experience. I arrived at the same conclusion expressed by Tony D’Aloisio in his conference opening address “The wine industry’s central challenge continues to be low profitability throughout the chain from vine to consumer glass”. Continued low (or no) profitability in Australian vineyards will result in little reinvestment in innovation and new technology, banks will be reluctant to lend for restructure, succession plans will be nonexistent and students will not be attracted to

viticulture and wine science degrees. Consolidation, co-operation and economies of scale should be tools to consider in the quest for greater efficiency and potential profit. Consolidation has commenced with the Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Senator the Hon Joe Ludwig announcing that he would introduce a Bill into Parliament to merge the Wine Australia Corporation and the Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation. Co-operation will be improved with the establishment of a Winemakers' Federation of Australia and Wine Grape Growers Australia Joint Policy Forum to discuss issues that affect both winemakers and grape growers. There is room for closer links between Regional, State, and National industry bodies. We have the opportunity to nurture the “green shoots” in a whole-of-value-chain approach to common issues. Let’s make the most of that opportunity while respecting that significant independent individual issues exist, the order of priorities may differ and that independent bodies are required to address these issues. Vic Patrick, Chair WGGA

Mergers are being talked about The WFA initiated industry discussions about membership organisation reform at a Regional Forum prior to this year’s Wine Industry Outlook in October. The discussion centred around two levels of rationalisation of the membership (advocacy) organisations; first, rationalising the regional/state/national tiers and second, merging grapegrower and winemaker advocacy groups. In the interpretation of the author of this opinion piece, the sentiments were as follows. In regard to rationalising the tiers, it was generally agreed that each of the three tiers had a purpose for existing and the appropriate reform was in what I’d call the three C’s – communication, cooperation and collaboration. On the topic of growers and winemakers merging, there was less of a common view, with growers believing there were good reasons to be separate and the winemaker voices thinking it was obvious that representation of the two should happen through one association. The grower view in favour of separate representation exists, despite acknowledging there are a majority of issues that are in common, because those issues that affect the hip-pocket, commercial dealings and returns, need to be dealt with by means of advocacy from a body that is independent of the body representing the other side of these commercial dealings.

Nevertheless, growers increasingly talk among themselves about merging their advocacy interests with winemakers. There is after all, a logic. A merged statutory services body, now approved by the Minister, which will provide unified and integrated services, needs unified, integrated messages from industry about what these services should be. The distinction between grower and winemaker has never been clear-cut, but is becoming ever more blurred as growers turn to converting their grapes to wine in the absence of sustainable grape sales. And then there is the evidence that regional representative organisations are more often than not, combined grower-winemaker organisations. Changes are already happening. First, the industry now has, through a WGGA initiative, a combined WGGA-WFA policysetting agency – the Joint Policy Forum – which met for the first time in October this year. Second, more regional grower and winemaker organisations are merging. Nevertheless, there are differences between regional associations, where a focus on local branding throws all parties together in common interest, and national associations which deal more with negotiating the terms of commercial relationships (eg code of conduct, market access, objective measures) where it is more logical that there is separate representation of growers from winemakers.

It is interesting to note that it does not bode well for the combined grower-winemaker model that in one of the bigger regions of Australia, which has a combined growerwinemaker representative organisation, a recent survey reported that it over-indexed in matters like growers getting paid in full or on time. Closeness of growers and winemakers does not appear to have paid off here. There is a limit to how long growers can be told of the spill-down benefits of throwing their lot in on promotional campaigns of winemakers – perhaps better the two parties just sit down and agree on how they can partner in ventures where benefits and risks are shared directly, rather than growers being on a promise of hand-me-down benefits from activities over which they have no control. Moreover, the Fact Box in this edition of the United Grower makes the point that growers do not generally engage with regional associations. Is this because there is something inherently anti-membership in growers or is it something about lack of benefits to growers in being members of the prevailing model for representation – growerwinemaker associations? The debate about merging grower and winemaker advocacy should continue. But the WGGA Executive Committee is clear a merger needs to be on an equal partnership basis and not as a takeover. Lawrie Stanford, Executive Director WGGA January 2013 The United Grower 3


Wine Grape Council of SA takes action to make SA terms of payment legislation more effective In response to numerous complaints from SA winegrape growers about late or incomplete payments for grapes in the wake of the 2012 vintage, the Wine Grape Council of SA (WGCSA) has submitted a proposal to the Minister for Primary Industry in SA, the Hon Gail Gago MLC, regarding changes that can be made to the SA Wine Grapes Industry Act so that it provides greater protection over payments to growers. The Wine Grapes Industry Act in SA provides for payments to be made within prescribed periods and prohibits purchases by producers who have not made payments from previous vintages. Notably, the prescribed periods, that require three equal

instalments and which must be completed by the end of September, have been adopted in the national Australian Wine Industry Code of Conduct. In a survey of SA growers, WGCSA found that 10% of respondents stated that they had experienced problems with late or incomplete payments. An estimate of the average amount involved, based on survey feedback, was $20,000 per grower. WGCSA’s conclusion is that the Act is not meeting its objective and it was noted that no civil action had ever been undertaken using the Act or prosecution attempted under its provisions. Recognising that some processors were not aware of their obligations under the Act,

WGCSA has undertaken an education campaign. However, it is also recognised that some producers are deliberately ignoring their responsibilities under the Act. To address this, several suggestions have been proposed to the Minister for tightening up the Act. These include: • providing the SA Crown Solicitor with greater powers to investigate breaches • extending the statute of limitations from 12 months to 24 months • requiring compulsory mediation for noncompliance, and • examining options for growers to gain security over wine made from their grapes until full payment is made.

AWRI provides research guidance to Phos Acid management Disease pressures in vintage 2011 highlighted the urgency to resolve issues around acceptable maximum residue limits for Phosphorous Acid (PA) in Australian wine. This urgency derived from the fact that in two of Australia’s key markets, Canada and China, MRLs for PA didn’t exist and, by international convention, this meant the acceptable level defaults to zero in these markets. While in Australia, the acceptable level is 50 mg/kg in grapes, it is double this in the EU, at 100 mg/kg, and completely exempt in the US. The inability of most wineries to stream incoming fruit into wine batches destined for these markets versus the rest (critically Canada/China), meant that any levels of PA in fruit meant rejection. In turn, this meant that PA use was severely constrained. The significance of this for growers is that half the number of registered curative and control options for downy mildew (representing at the same time low cost and highly effective options) were eliminated. The glaring research requirement was to understand the dynamics of PA application in the vineyard as they relate to residues in grapes and wine. With GWRDC funding, the AWRI responded to the opportunity that 2011 presented to research these dynamics. The AWRI mounted a study to collect grapes from different regions in SA, NSW and Victoria, to analyse the

PA levels in the grapes and the wine that was then made from these grapes. The study aimed to understand the effects of multiple applications and the timing of these applications on grape and wine PA levels as well as the carryover rates from one season to the next and from grape to wine. While the key constraint on the use of PA continues to be the absence of MRLs in key markets for Australia, namely Canada and China, the negotiation of these remains paramount. Success in WGGA’s involvement in such negotiations has been reported previously with Canada instituting temporary MRLs at Australia’s permissible level, of 50 mg/kg, until such time as a permanent MRL is determined by Health Canada, and a promising start made to negotiations with Chinese authorities. The AWRI research assists the negotiators to understand some of the parameters they negotiate. It should be noted that the AWRI research was a preliminary investigation that took advantage of the extraordinary conditions of the 2011 season to collect data on PA applications. As a preliminary study, the findings will not be reported in scientific papers. Nevertheless, the findings provide some important clues to vineyard managers on PA applications and with the AWRI’s kind permission it is worth reporting some key take-outs.

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4 The United Grower January 2013

The key take-outs for vineyard managers include – The study found a strong relationship between PA levels in grapes and the period between the last application and harvesting – with shorter periods meaning higher levels. Periods of 30 days and less since spraying were the most significant for higher PA levels. There was a positive relationship between the number of applications and the concentration of PA in grapes. Notably, three or more applications with a short withholding period (less than 30 days) could attain Australia’s limit for PA in grapes. Combining the findings for the number and timing of sprays leads to the rule of thumb that two applications prior to veraison are the critical parameters for threshold PA levels that meet Australian standards. PA residues carry over from one season to another in vines with the indication that the rate of carry-over, based on a small exploratory sample is under 10%. A direct relationship between the PA level in grapes and that in the resulting wine, suggests that grape residue testing is an effective indicator of wine PA. There was variability from region to region and this needs to be better understood through further research. The primary causes of the differences to be investigated include the effects of rainfall, yields and rates of application.

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The grower behind the brand Grower: lawrence Bordin winerY: de Bortoli Brand: deen de Bortoli petit Verdot reGion: riverina The wine and the wine company Senior winemaker Julie Mortlock explains that the Deen range is all about showing off the unique characteristics of the variety and delivering value for money to consumers. The Petit Verdot is a strongly fruit-driven variety, picked fairly ripe to deliver full flavours and a range of characters including blueberries and blackberries. It is important to the winery that the grower can get the fruit to the required maturity level and keep it free of disease. While other growers have the variety, Lawrence’s vineyard achieves the best flavour development. Julie believes that the ‘two-way conversation’ between the grower and winery is essential to ensuring the best outcome. The winery team assess the fruit several times leading up to harvest to make sure it is picked at exactly the right time. The grower Lawrence has been growing grapes since the 1970s – taking a break to see the world and returning to take over the family farm. Since the 1980s the vineyard, 15km north of Griffith in Nericon, has been 100% contracted to De Bortoli. The Petit Verdot was planted in 2000 – as a “lucky accident” when Lawrence couldn’t get enough Riesling to finish the 130 acre block, so planted the last 10 acres to Petit Verdot. The block is on a slope with good, free-draining soil, meaning that even after heavy rains the water is gone quickly and the vines can still be accessed. The vines are trellised on a two-wire canopy, with an unusually large spacing (60cm apart), giving a very open canopy with more sunlight and air flow. He believes this explains the low levels of disease and better ripening of the fruit. The relationship Lawrence has a written contract with the winery, which gives him security and “keeps the bank happy”. He believes that it is important to work with the winery and listen to their requests, to ensure the fruit meets their specifications. Regular visits from the winemaking team are an important part of the relationship – dating back to when Deen De Bortoli used to drop by frequently for a chat and to offer tips.

Handling the hard times “I try not to be a number,” Lawrence says. “While times are tough for growers, they are tough for the wineries too.” He believes that putting in the hard work is essential to securing a better price for the fruit; however, life still isn’t easy. “If only the whole vineyard was Petit Verdot!” he says.

Congratulations… Vic Patrick for winning the roseworthy old Collegians Association’s 2012 Award of Merit for Services to Viticulture and wine industries. Martin Gransden (Cumulus wines) and Liz riley (VitiBit) for becoming members of wGGA’s decision Support network.


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Winefacts for all…

The Wine Grape Council of South Australia (WGCSA) has released the results of a survey it conducted of South Australia’s 3,500 winegrape growers in June 2012. The following overview is adapted from a media release issued by WGCSA. The survey sought to understand how winegrape growers were responding to nearly a decade of declining demand for wine grapes and to identify key issues of concern. The survey and intensive one-on-one surveys with a sample of winegrape growers conducted earlier in the year, found that despite the difficult years few had removed vines or sold vineyards. The reasons for this are varied and include the cost of removing vines, lack of alternative crops and the rapid drop in vineyard values. The survey found that those with off-farm income or who also grow other commodities were better placed to absorb losses from wine grapes and tended to believe that wine grapes were like other commodities in that prices rise and fall over time. The survey found that most respondents felt either more confident than a year ago, or at least as confident, with only 8% feeling less confident. Confidence had lifted significantly in the Riverland, Wrattonbully and Coonawarra with around half winegrape growers in those regions reporting they were feeling more confident. The biggest lift was in Langhorne Creek where almost two-thirds reported being more confident. These regions also saw some of the better increase in prices for the 2012 vintage. Another important survey finding was that nearly three quarters of SA’s winegrape growers are over 50. This means that at least half of the state’s grape growers are likely to want to retire over the next decade. Ten percent of respondents reported problems getting paid in full and/or on time, despite the existence in South Australia of the Wine Grape Industry Act which requires that full payment for wine grapes be completed by 30 September each year. The problem was found to be worst in the Barossa Valley where 16% of respondents reported problems with late payments, compared with only 3% in the Riverland. Additional Information: The full report can be downloaded from

Wine Australia recently approved free, unrestricted access to their online statistical resource, ‘Winefacts’ for all winegrape growers. On completion of a registration form with WGGA, growers will be issued with a user name and password which will enable full access to winefacts through the Wine Australia website, http://www. Winefacts offers a comprehensive range of statistics, data, analysis and insights to assist business decision making within the Australian wine sector. This detailed website also provides the Australian wine and grape growing community with access to global wine sector intelligence. While the general public has access to a proportion of the online information, Wine Australia has offered us the opportunity to grant winegrape growers unlimited access to all the information. If you are interested in taking advantage of this offer, contact Kelly or Nikki on 08 8133 4400 or to register, or alternatively download the registration form from our website,

Vineyard biosecurity: it’s about saving money Dr Jo Luck from the CRC for Plant Biosecurity attended the recent WGGA AGM and gave a special guest presentation on the importance of biosecurity for viticulture. Her presentation is available on our website. Here are some of the key points: In a nutshell – biosecurity is about protecting our right to export plant products to overseas markets AND about protecting our industry from an exotic pest or disease coming in on an imported product. There are 15 ‘high threat’ viticultural pests recognised in the Viticulture Biosecurity Plan: our ‘blueprint for protection’ against an incursion. The plan includes the identification and risk assessment of these high risk pests, risk reduction activities that need to be taken by industry to minimise the chance of an incursion, surveillance and diagnostic methodologies and contingency plans to reduce the impact of an outbreak. Dr Luck presented a case study (based on 2006 modelling) which showed that an

outbreak of Pierce’s Disease in the Barossa Valley, if not actively dealt with, could be expected to cost $4.2 billion by 2025 – or approximately $200 million per year for 20 years. On the other hand, with rapid detection and intervention by industry and government, in accordance with the Viticulture Biosecurity Plan, the outbreak could be contained to a total cost of $16 million – plus $135 million in welfare costs associated with lost jobs. As industry would be required to bear at least 50% of the costs, this is a very important difference, and highlights how crucial an effective biosecurity response would be. WGGA works with Plant Health Australia, the Winemakers’ Federation and other stakeholders to maintain the Viticulture Biosecurity Plan, and (subject to limited resources) works to ensure that grapegrowers understand biosecurity and their role in protecting our industry from what could be a devastating outbreak.

6 The UniTed Grower January 2013

Changes to WET Tax From 10 December 2012, amendments apply to the WET scheme, which may affect the amount of WET rebate a wine producer is entitled to claim and the required documentation. The amendments mean that producer rebate claims on wine must now be reduced by any earlier amounts of producer rebate attributable to the wine. Suppliers of wine can choose to notify buyers, in the approved form, of any earlier amounts of producer rebate attributable to the wine they are selling. This will enable producers who buy the wine for blending or further manufacture to calculate how much rebate they are entitled to claim. If a producer does not have a notification from the supplier, they must assume the supplier has claimed the full rebate on the wine and the producer must subtract that amount from their total claim. More at

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Regional Associations – combined grower/winemaker organisations prevail but where are the growers? 70











associations account for 54% of the total membership in all associations in Australia while the 17% of associations that are dedicated grower associations account for 38% and the 14% of associations that are winemaker associations account for 9% of the total membership. 7. The 10 biggest regional associations account for roughly two thirds of the total membership of regional associations in Australia. 8. Comparisons of these membership numbers with the conventional understanding of the total industry population (from the Vineyard Survey and the Winetitles Wine Industry Directory) are inconclusive without further research but the broad, inescapable conclusion can be drawn that independent growers as a whole are under-representing themselves in regional associations (about half appear to be members of a regional association) while winemakers and winemaker/growers have taken up representation in sizeable numbers. More about this in the next United Grower.








WGGA’s contact database contains data on the regional associations that assist us with distributing our communications to growers across Australia. To focus our distribution efforts we have asked each regional association in Australia for two descriptions of their association that helps us understand the nature of their membership. The first description is of the ‘nature’ of the association – whether it is a ‘grower’ organisation, a winemaker and grower organisation or a winemaker organisation. The second description is of the member profile – the number who are dedicated winegrape growers (independent growers), winemaker/growers or dedicated winemakers. While the data is not rigorous and there are aspects to the numbers that probably need further research, an analysis of the database provides some insights into the nature of membership organisations at the regional level. The profile as we see it – 1. WGGA has 84 regional associations in its database. 2. There are 68 GI Regions represented by these associations with 10 regions represented by more than one association and 58 regions represented by a single association. 3. There are 6,281 members represented by the 83 local associations (note that some may be double-counted through membership in more than one association). 4. Over half (54%) of the total membership number are described as grower/winemakers, 38% as independent winegrape growers and the final 9% as winemakers. 5. The majority of associations, at 58 of the 84, or 69% of them, describe themselves as grower/ winemaker associations. The number of associations describing themselves as dedicated grower or winemaker associations are about the same – 14 associations (17% of them) as grower organisations and 12 as winemaker associations (14% of them). 6. The 69% of regional associations that are grower/winemaker


Over half (54%) of the total membership number are described as grower/winemakers 38% as independent winegrape growers and the final 9% as winemakers.


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winemaking Rutherglen winemaker sets the pace From fortifieds to table wines, Jen Pfeiffer is dedicated to quality winemaking in north-eastern Victoria’s famous Rutherglen district. Ed Merrison

THE WOMAN AT the helm of Pfeiffer Wines has an old head on her 33-yearold shoulders. It’s a common trait among those immersed in the family business from a young age. But her devotion to the timeless traditions of Rutherglen, her days spent meticulously concocting new wines from aged stocks, make this especially true of Jen Pfeiffer. Her start in winemaking is somewhat at odds with Pfeiffer’s direct, deliberate nature. It was 2000 and she needed a break from studying her Law-Science degree at Melbourne University. The plan was to work vintage, save some cash and go travelling. The experience, including the thrill of a gold medal for the Shiraz she authored, was enough to keep her there indefinitely. As it turned out, it was 2005 when she finally got to scratch the travel itch. By then she had taken the reins at Pfeiffer Wines, so off she went to Beaujolais. The family winery is perched on the banks of Sunday Creek in Wahgunyah, north-eastern Victoria. Established in 1985 by Chris and Robyn Pfeiffer, the winery crushes 450 tonnes a year. About 20 per cent of this goes into fortified wines, mainly Muscat and Topaque but also Port and Sherry (rechristened Apera). Jen pays homage to a host of “wonderful mentors”, such as David Morris and James Godfrey. The greatest of all is father Chris, a former chief fortified winemaker at Lindeman’s. His friendship with the late Chris Killeen was a tremendous influence. “I remember as a kid, every weekend they would get

together and there would be Port drunk at every occasion, so I grew up tasting ‘63s, ‘66s, ‘70s,” she said. Complexity, depth and power are the key virtues of Rutherglen’s Muscat and Topaque, according to Pfeiffer, who believes a unique combination of soil and clone means they can’t be rivalled. When it comes to balance, Pfeiffer feels blessed on the viticulture front. The family’s Sunday Creek vineyard, across the bridge from the cellar door, is surrounded by the creek, the Murray and Lake Moodemere, and comprises sandy soil over river gravel. It’s more humid and two degrees cooler in summer than the nearby Carlyle vineyard, which sits on Rutherglen red loam. “What I love about the sandy soils for both fortified and table wine is that they promote heaps more aroma,” says Pfeiffer. “The wines tend to be a bit more acidic, a little more elegant in their structure and more vibrant in colour. The red loam and the heavier soil naturally produces bigger, denser wines.” Pfeiffer downplays her role in the recent praise enjoyed by her table wines. She says Rutherglen as a whole has moved towards more elegant styles over the past decade, while acknowledging that the trademark dense, tannic reds still have their fans. She conforms to her father’s taste in avoiding overripe fruit, at the same time not overcropping, to ensure that sugar-ripeness and flavour-ripeness go hand in hand. Barrel selection is a priority, as is restraint when it comes to extraction. This is where the pigeage she picked up in Beaujolais often comes

Jen Pfeiffer recalls climbing over the solera barrels as a young child.

in. “We do it religiously on the Gamay and use it selectively on a variety of the other reds,” says Pfeiffer. “When we have a really good parcel and I want to have it open-fermented and foot-trod, I’ll do it because I think it’s really rewarding. Even when we’re using static fermenters and pump-overs, we really take the time to taste the wines on a daily basis to make sure we get the right balance.” Balance is her byword. It’s what she seeks during those hours at the blending bench, as she fuses old and new and writes the next chapter of the Pfeiffer story. “It’s really important to understand the past and its place in the future,” as she puts it.

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Grapegrower & Winemaker



US wine families forge new tracks A novel concept works wonders in California’s Sonoma Valley as families pool resources to take the next step after winemaking. Denis Gastin

there Are COuNtLeSS growers who aspire to have their own wines. But turning this into a viable business can be particularly challenging, especially in regard to sales and marketing – and making a profit. A creative initiative to lower the hurdle for grapegrowers in California’s Sonoma Valley is a model that could be replicated around the globe. the family Wineries concept is a cellar door initiative that allows wine families in Dry Creek Valley, in Sonoma County, to gain better access to the public by sharing in the costs and running of a shared tasting facility for their wines. the concept is the brainchild of Barry Collier, who came up with the idea in the ‘90s, shortly after he and his late wife Susan started producing wine under their own label, Collier falls. In developing the family Wineries concept, the challenge was to find a formula that would work. the opportunity to pursue the idea came when the right production facility, timber Crest farms, came up for rent. With the property in a prime location and already approved for food processing, Barry signed a five-year lease with two five-year extension options, and set about working with other families to join the venture. the tasting facility opened in 2005, as the first and only cooperative

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Barry Collier is the man behind the Family Wineries concept.

tasting room in the Dry Creek Valley, with six local familyowned wineries having their wines presented to cellar door visitors, seven days a week. At the outset, each winery provided 35 per cent of the value of sales of their wines at the cellar door to Collier falls to cover the not-insubstantial costs of running the operation. In 2010 Barry sold the business to the winery tenants: each participating winery, including Collier falls, now owns 1/6th of the business. In addition to fine wines, the tasting room also presents to visitors a range of local food and handicraft products. there are now four separate wineries with their own winemaking facilities and separate tasting rooms as tenants on the site. the site also hosts, among other related businesses, the Dry Creek Olive Company and Grey Creek Viticultural Services, a service-provider to the local wine industry. In this sense it is now more of a ‘wine theme park’– with an attractive food tier – than simply a collection of wine businesses, and provides an attractive critical mass drawcard for local visitors and tourists. Importantly, it also provides visitors with a large and attractive

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picnic spot where they can enjoy wines they purchase from the cellar doors, a bocce court and, on weekends, a gourmet food truck. the family Wineries concept is not just an on-site sales focus, however. It also provides members clubs that people can join, at no cost. membership entitles them to a 25% discount on full case orders and 20% on less than full case orders. Special mixed selections are also offered as semi-annual shipments at reduced prices for members. In addition, there are special private vineyard tours and events for members to keep them familiar with the participating wineries. Barry says Collier farms is now getting around 20% of its gross revenue from sales at the family Wineries cellar door. he acknowledges that many wineries with built-in destinations, like wine caves and kitchens with full-time chefs, do much better, but says he is quite pleased with the results to this point. At the same time, he says he may still opt ultimately to take the next step, to a free-standing tasting room for Collier falls, especially as his business has grown and his son, Josh, is helping in the sales, marketing and social media channels. But for families

Fred Peterson and son, Jamie.

like the Petersons – who centralised all of their winemaking, storage and sales operations in their own self-contained operation at family Wineries cellar door – it is ideal and they are expanding there. Owner fred Peterson has been producing wine in Dry Creek Valley for 25 years but the evolution of the Peterson wine business, and the winemaking,

accelerated when fred’s son Jamie became assistant winemaker and they moved operations from their tiny red barn on Lytton Springs to timber Crest. Now, however, Jamie does most of the winemaking – and fred has more time to entertain visitors at the timber Crest cellar door, with his colourful tales about his “high touch, low tech” wines.

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A precursor of more good things to come Sauvignon Blanc provides an ideal avenue for the study of varietal thiols – and the aromas these volatile compounds produce – since they are more fully expressed here than in any other grape variety. David W. Jeffery

Introduction Dimitra Capone gained her PhD at the University of Adelaide while working at the Australian Wine Research Institute, where she has been a successful scientist for close to two decades. Her PhD project involved the investigation of important wine aroma compounds, including varietal thiols and their nonvolatile precursors commonly found in Sauvignon Blanc, and 1,8-cineole, the Eucalyptus compound present in some Australian red wines. This article focuses on Dimitra's thiol precursor studies. For simplicity, there is no discussion of the stereochemistry of these molecules and they are mostly referred to as if they are single components, when in reality 3-MH and its precursors exist as pairs of enantiomers and diastereomers, respectively.

Varietal thiols Wine contains an abundance of volatile compounds which contribute to its aromas. The origins of certain compounds can be linked to molecules that are present in the grapes, with certain varieties providing distinctive wine aromas. Sauvignon Blanc, with its citrus, passionfruit and boxwood characters, provides a good example of

the concept of varietal aromas. These pleasant traits result from the presence of polyfunctional ‘varietal’ thiols, which are among the most potent food odourants known (perceptible at low ng/L concentrations, Table 1). The key thiols responsible for Sauvignon Blanc aromas are 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4-MMP), 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3-MH) and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3-MHA) (Coetzee and du Toit, 2012). These thiols have also been found in a range of other wines, such as Gewurztraminer, Riesling, Colombard, Merlot, Grenache and Cabernet Sauvignon, although usually not to the same extent as Sauvignon Blanc. Table 1. Varietal thiol characteristics. Aroma detection threshold

Aroma description

Concentration found in wine


3 ng/L

Blackcurrant Box tree Passionfruit

Low ng/L


60 ng/L

Grapefruit Passionfruit

Low ng/L to low μg/L


4 ng/L

Passionfruit Box tree Sweaty

Low ng/L to low μg/L

Thiol precursors While some varietal aroma compounds

exist as their aroma-active forms in the grapes and are subsequently extracted during vinification (e.g. methoxypyrazines), it was recently shown that only minor amounts of 3-MH are present in grape juices from a selection of Sauvignon Blanc clones at different stages of ripening (Capone et al., 2011a). In the absence of other identified precursors, it is generally accepted that the varietal thiols found in wine are liberated by yeast enzymes during fermentation from non-volatile precursors present in grapes (except 3-MHA, which is derived from 3-MH). Having an understanding of the grape precursor concentrations and how they vary is therefore an important aspect to consider for optimising wine thiol profiles. Precursors to 3-MH had been identified as conjugates of glutathione (Glut-3MH) and cysteine (Cys-3-MH) around a decade ago. Over a number of years the AWRI, among other groups working on the topic, had undertaken research on engineered yeasts which led to improved understanding and superior yields of thiols from their cysteine conjugates. Little was known, however, about the relevance of the glutathione conjugates until some collaborative work revealed

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for the first time, using model media, that Glut-3-mh could also act as a precursor to 3-mh (approximately 3% conversion), although the cysteine conjugate seemed to be more easily metabolised by yeast (approximately 14% conversion) (GrantPreece et al., 2010). It was also found that Cys-3-mh arose during fermentation of the pure glutathione conjugate, in all likelihood via a dipeptide intermediate. It appears that yeast first metabolises the glutathione conjugate to its cysteine equivalent before the thiol can be released, but the intermediates for this transformation were not identified at that stage. Other research has subsequently supported the theory that Cys-3-mh is the more easily utilised precursor (e.g. Winter et al., 2011). Around the same time as this novel fermentation study, the first method was developed for analysing both the known 3-mh precursor types in grape juices and wines, using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (hPLC-mS) (Capone et al., 2010). Precursor concentrations were determined using this method for Pinot Gris, riesling and Chardonnay, as well as Sauvignon Blanc, with the latter variety generally containing the greatest amounts.

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Table 2. 3-MH precursors (μg/L) in Sauvignon Blanc juice and wine samples. Capone et al. (2010) Juice

Roland et al. (2010) Juice

Capone et al. (2010) Wine


21 – 55

8 – 40

1 – 35


245 – 696


138 – 142

there was good comparison of the Cys-3mh concentrations in Sauvignon Blanc with those in the literature, but the Glut-3-mh results were far in excess of those reported in another study on this grape variety (table 2). Investigations were continued to determine the reasons for such a difference, along with the effects of viticultural and winemaking practices.

Identification of related intermediates When trying to establish the importance of any precursor contributions to 3-mh found in wine, it certainly helps to have an understanding of all the precursors which can potentially contribute. It was evident from the fermentation work that there could be intermediates in the formation of Cys-3-mh from Glut-3-mh during vinification. the breakdown products of Glut-3-mh may also be present in the grape juice, since Cys-3-

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mh is naturally found in juices and the biochemical pathway in grapes should also involve dipeptide intermediates. Based on the plant enzymes involved in degradation of glutathione itself, it was hypothesised that one likely intermediate was the cysteinylglycine conjugate of 3-mh (Cysgly-3-mh). this compound was prepared in the laboratory from Glut3-mh already on hand, using the same type of enzyme found in plants (albeit a commercially available extract from equine kidney). hPLC-mS experiments identified naturally occurring Cysgly3-mh in Sauvignon Blanc juices for the first time, providing a piece of evidence linking the breakdown of Glut-3-mh to Cys-3-mh (Capone et al., 2011b). this additional component was included in the precursor analytical method, such that Glut-, Cysgly- and Cys-3-mh could now be analysed by a single technique. Another piece of the puzzle was put in place with experiments to determine the

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winemaking that if both of these parts of the Glut-3mh molecule were present and could combine with berry crushing, then additional Glut-3-mh could form during this process. to test this, a synthetic derivative of (E)-2-hexenal that isn’t naturally present (i.e. has deuterium in place of some hydrogen atoms) was added to whole berries which were then crushed using a bench top sample press. Juice samples were analysed for the incorporation of those deuterium atoms, which established the novel concept that Glut-3-mh was indeed formed during berry crushing (Capone and Jeffery, Figure 1. Formation of aroma compound 3-MH from grape constituents glutathione and 2011). (E)-2-hexenal. Enzymes potentially involved are – GST, glutathione S-transferase; ADH, alcohol dehydrogenase; AKR, aldo-keto reductase; GGT, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase; other Importantly, along with this known carboxypeptidases; CSL, carbon-sulfur lyase. The final release of 3-MH is mediated by yeast precursor type, the aldehyde intermediate enzymes but preceding steps may involve plant or microbial enzymes. (containing deuterium atoms) which arises from the direct condensation of glutathione with (E)-2-hexenal was also indentified – it is this extent to which Glut-3-mh forms as a result of crushing grape compound (termed Glut-3-mhAl) that must be enzymatically berries. Previously, it was more or less assumed that 3-mh reduced to yield commonly encountered Glut-3-mh. until now, precursors were present in the grape berry and were extracted this new compound had not been considered as a potential during winemaking. this was intriguing, considering the precursor to 3-mh, yet if it exists in appreciable quantities vastly elevated levels of Glut-3-mh in some other experiments (which is unknown at present) it could provide another source (e.g. freezing grapes as opposed to freezing juice) and the much of 3-mh during vinification. together, the identification of higher Glut-3-mh results from commercial samples compared Cysgly-3-mh and Glut-3-mhAl has raised understanding of to those of roland et al. (2010) (table 2). Knowing that (E)-2the biochemical transformations involved in the formation of hexenal, one of the candidate components incorporated into precursors to the important aroma compound 3-mh (figure Glut-3-mh along with glutathione, is formed as a result of 1). As part of this study it was also shown that minimal Glutenzymatic processes with berry damage, it seemed reasonable 3-mh was present after berry crushing if grape enzymes were inhibited, thereby revealing that only a small amount of Glut3-mh was present in the grape berries themselves. this was somewhat of a revelation and opened the way for seeking new means to manipulate precursor concentrations through postharvest processing operations.



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Precursor accumulation pre- and post-harvest Previous work on Sauvignon Blanc clones in the Adelaide hills had shown a rise in precursor concentrations during berry ripening, especially in the lead up to harvest (Capone et al., 2011a). An additional study was undertaken with more frequent sampling points to verify the importance of optimal harvest timing on precursor concentrations, so potential wine 3-mh levels could be maximised (Capone et al., 2012a). Samples were collected and analysed from veraison to several weeks past the harvest date – fruit was left on the vine longer

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350 Glut-3-MH







200 15 150 10



50 0


Precursor Concentration (nmol/kg)

than usual to determine the effect of additional hang time (figure 2). While Cysgly-3-mh was barely detectable at any stage, the other precursors generally increased in concentration during ripening (especially for Glut-3-mh) until tSS reached around 24 °Brix. this was followed by a slight decline in precursor concentrations, but the results were consistent with earlier findings and highlighted the need to harvest at the correct time. this increase has been explained on the basis of loss of cell membrane integrity coupled with a rise in levels of precursor constituents (i.e. glutathione and (E)-2-hexenal) as grape maturity is reached. the fluctuation in precursors during ripening was not evaluated further, but it appears to be inversely linked to sugar accumulation. future experiments could examine the metabolic changes associated with berry ripening and their influence on precursor accumulation. ultimately, a useful indicator of flavour ripeness may evolve from such work. Other research was conducted on a commercial scale to assess th e effects of machine harvesting, fruit transportation, antioxidants and storage of fruit prior to crushing and pressing.

15/02 18/02 21/02 23/02 25/02 28/02

2/03 4/03 Sampling Date


9/03 11/03 16/03 18/03



Figure 2. Concentrations of Cys- and Glut-3-MH diastereomers (nmol/kg) and TSS (°Brix) during ripening of Sauvignon Blanc fruit from Coombe Vineyard, Waite Campus.

It appeared that precursors could be affected by processing operations, so it was of clear importance to evaluate commercially relevant operations which could impact on precursor concentrations. One such undertaking involved the application of SO2 and/ or ascorbic acid to replicated 2.5 tonne picking bins of machine harvested Sauvignon Blanc grapes (Capone and Jeffery, 2011). the different treatments

(figure 3) were sampled in the vineyard and again after being transported 800km by road. fruit was also hand-harvested two days before commercial harvest for comparison. Precursor concentrations for the samples obtained before and after transportation were insightful (figure 4, page 49). there was a clear effect of SO2, which inhibited formation of Glut3-mh in particular, in both sample sets.




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Precursor Conceentration (nmol/L)

1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0

Figure 3. Diagram of picking bins ready to be transported with a representation of the amounts of antioxidants (in mg/kg) added at the time of harvest.

Of much greater surprise was the drastic increase in Cys-3-mh (and Glut-3-mh to a lesser extent) as a result of transportation, to levels not encountered previously. the results reinforced the concept that Glut-3-mh can accumulate post-harvest and can be explained on the basis of Glut-3-mh formation and degradation into Cys-3-mh in the presence of enzymes from the grape berries (and possibly microflora). this experiment also provided measurable quantities of Cysgly-3mh in the transported fruit, and overall highlighted the dynamic nature of precursor formation and the role of post-harvest processing. Although Cysgly-3-mh did not accumulate to the same extent as the other two precursors, its presence was important as it is an intermediate in the breakdown of Glut- to Cys-3-mh, which


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Cysgly-3-MH Cys-3-MH Glut-3-MH




14h Time Point




Figure 5. Evolution of 3-MH precursor concentrations (nmol/L) during temperature-controlled storage of machine-harvested Sauvignon Blanc grapes.

was clearly occurring in the transported samples. this result is significant, considering that Cys-3-mh appears to be more readily metabolised to 3-mh during vinification, and fits well with anecdotal evidence of increased varietal thiol notes in wine made from transported grapes. furthermore, handharvested samples revealed around 70% lower precursor concentrations, pointing to the impact of machine-harvesting with its concurrent berry damage as being another determining factor in the precursor story. Considering the intriguing results from the transport study, a commercial scale experiment was conducted the following vintage to determine whether time was the critical factor in determining the juice precursor profile. machine harvested Sauvignon Blanc fruit was stored in 2.5 tonne picking bins in a temperature controlled room at 10°C (fruit reached a minimum of 24 °C) and samples were obtained periodically over a 30 hour period (Capone et al., 2012b). Samples from the different time points were analysed for Cys-, Cysgly- and Glut-3-mh, as well as for (E)-2-hexenal and related C6 compounds, and grape reaction product (GrP). these additional analytes, which are related to the precursor concentrations since they involve an alternative route for consumption of Glut-3-mh components (E)-2-hexenal and glutathione, were assessed in order to understand their relationship to the dynamics of precursor formation. the precursors evolved over the time course of the storage experiment, increasing in all cases, especially during the first hours (figure 5). In particular, Cys-3-mh doubled in concentration within 8 hours and had tripled by 30 hours. the other two precursors increased in concentration by about 1.5 times during the storage time, but as with the transportation study, Cysgly-3-mh was found in much lower concentrations compared to its counterparts. Overall, increases in Glut-3-mh concentrations were consistent with the transport results, but Cys-3-mh was not as dramatically affected during storage as it was from transportation. this difference may arise due to the effects of agitation, maceration, temperature and aeration during transportation impacting on key enzymatic reactions. Despite this difference, relatively short term storage of harvested fruit (e.g. 8 hours) still led to important increases in precursor concentrations, providing greater potential to release 3-mh during vinification. regarding the other analytes, these were affected by formation and transformation reactions associated with enzymatic and oxidative processes. As such, (E)-2-hexenal decreased during storage as it was incorporated into precursors and reduced to other C6 compounds, while GrP increased as a result of caftaric acid oxidation, thereby consuming glutathione. Both these aspects had the net effect of diverting the necessary

January 2013 – Issue 588

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200 noSO2_noasc

Precursor Concentration (nmol/L)


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Figure 4. Precursor concentrations (nmol/L) for treatments dosed with antioxidants and sampled in the vineyard at the time of harvest and again after transportation to the winery.

components away from Glut-3-mh formation as storage time progressed. this highlights the need to have (E)-2hexenal (which requires some oxygen to form) available near the beginning of post-harvest processing in the presence of glutathione, so any operation which interferes with this aspect (e.g. reductive handling, excessive SO2) early in the process will likely lead to lower thiol precursor concentrations in the juice. On the contrary, highly oxidative processing at an early stage will allow greater conjugation of glutathione with caftaric acid, potentially also impeding precursor formation. Once Glut-3-mh has formed, however, facilitating its enzymatic breakdown to Cys-3-mh could be encouraged through a period of extended storage.

Conclusion this insightful series of studies has provided deeper insight into biochemical aspects of 3-mh precursor formation. the work has yielded unique knowledge about the dynamic nature of thiol precursors during berry development and post-harvest operations and has foreshadowed the ability of winemakers to control precursor profiles in the juice in order to realise quality improvements through modulation of varietal thiol concentrations in wine. this is a precursor of more good things to come, with further challenges to be resolved in the varietal thiol/precursor research space. David W. Jeffery, Lecturer in Wine Science at the School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, Waite Campus, The University of Adelaide – david.jeffery@adelaide.


Capone, D.L., Sefton, M.A., Hayasaka, Y. and Jeffery, D.W. (2010). Analysis of precursors to wine odorant 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol using HPLC-MS/

January 2013 – Issue 588

MS: resolution and quantitation of diastereomers of 3-S-cysteinylhexan-1-ol and 3-S-glutathionylhexan1-ol. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58, 1390-1395. Capone, D.L. and Jeffery, D.W. (2011). Effects of transporting and processing Sauvignon blanc grapes on 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol precursor concentrations. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59, 46594667. Capone, D.L., Sefton, M.A. and Jeffery, D.W. (2011a). Application of a modified method for 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol determination to investigate the relationship between free thiol and related conjugates in grape juice and wine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59, 4649-4658. Capone, D.L., Black, C.A. and Jeffery, D.W. (2012b). Effects on 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol precursor concentrations from prolonged storage of Sauvignon Blanc grapes prior to crushing and pressing. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60, 3515-3523.

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Capone, D.L., Sefton, M.A. and Jeffery, D.W. (2012a). Analytical investigations of wine odorant 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol and its precursors. In Flavor Chemistry of Wine and Other Alcoholic Beverages. Qian, M.C. and Shellhammer, T., Eds. Washington, DC, American Chemical Society; Accepted. Capone, D.L., Pardon, K.H., Cordente, A.G. and Jeffery, D.W. (2011b). Identification and quantitation of 3-S-cysteinylglycinehexan-1-ol (Cysgly-3-MH) in Sauvignon blanc grape juice by HPLC-MS/MS. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59, 1120411210. Coetzee, C. and du Toit, W.J. (2012). A comprehensive review on Sauvignon blanc aroma with a focus on certain positive volatile thiols. Food Research International 45, 287-298. Grant-Preece, P.A., Pardon, K.H., Capone, D.L., Cordente, A.G., Sefton, M.A., Jeffery, D.W. and Elsey, G.M. (2010). Synthesis of wine thiol conjugates and labeled analogues: fermentation of the glutathione conjugate of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol yields the corresponding cysteine conjugate and free thiol. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58, 1383-1389. Roland, A., Vialaret, J., Moniatte, M., Rigou, P., Razungles, A. and Schneider, R. (2010). Validation of a nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the identification and the accurate quantification by isotopic dilution of glutathionylated and cysteinylated precursors of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol and 4-mercapto4-methylpentan-2-one in white grape juices. Journal of Chromatography A 1217, 1626-1635. Winter, G., Van Der Westhuizen, T., Higgins, V.J., Curtin, C. and Ugliano, M. (2011). Contribution of cysteine and glutathione conjugates to the formation of the volatile thiols 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA) during fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 17, 285-290.

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Vintage is an exciting time for this passionate wine photographer Adelaide-based commercial photographer, Richard Humphrys has become famous for his iconic images of the historic cellars where Penfolds Grange quietly matures. Grahame Whyte

SOUTH AUSTRALIAN photographer, Richard Humphrys has spent a lifetime creating an enviable collection of iconic winery images. “I love it – I couldn’t imagine doing anything else,” Humphrys said. “Every day brings a different creative challenge,” he said. “People have very high expectations – and I go in and work it out for them.” Humphrys has been creating photographs for a huge range of commercial clients for more than three decades. “Over this time, I have come to realise that my specialty and passion is to create images that best satisfy the diverse needs of my customers,” he said. “In the beginning I started my business in the studio, working on wine and other products. To satisfy the needs of my wide client base I have since taken those studio skills on location into wineries, into office environments and even into the vineyard. “I am regularly commissioned to create a wide-ranging library of images for my winery clients. From the vineyard to the winery, these images capture the unique story behind each brand. Creative portraits of winemakers are a critical part of the mix as well – often these photographs become the iconic images for the brand.” “I aim to give them at least 10 different hero images – strong images. During the course of two days I might shoot 300 frames of 20 different things from which they may choose 10. “If it’s a portrait of a winemaker there are probably three different variations of really nice portraits. “And I love photographing the vineyards, the grapes, the vines,” Humphrys said. “Getting in close to the grapes is just beautiful – the leaves often create beautiful patterns and shapes. It’s a labour of love, I’ve been doing that for 15 years now.” Humphrys’ early inspirations included Irving Penn – a New York-based commercial photographer at his peak in the 1960s and 70s.

50 Grapegrower & Winemaker

Richard Humphrys

“His work is beautifully themed. He was in the magazine trade and his commercial work was stunning.” Humphrys’ images have been selected and commissioned for several prestigious projects, such as the Australia Post ‘Wine Stamp’ series and the last four Penfolds Rewards of Patience books. “The first one was in 1994 and was shot over a couple of days,” Humphrys said. “It started a very long association with Penfolds. It’s fantastic – it’s like a family.

“The main reason I focused on the wine industry is that everyone loves what they are doing.” The technical expertise gained in the studio is invaluable. When he is working at wineries, Humphrys’ takes his own lighting to ensure he can control the look of the final image. For over a decade he has also run his own photographic stock library. “At James Halliday’s personal request, many images were selected from my library and used in his superb coffee table book the Wine Atlas of Australia,” he said. “My website has over 2300 wine related images online in my wine image library. Using keywords, my clients can use the search engine to find the photographs they need and then license them for use in their own publications. There are an additional 1000 wine images that are soon to go online and I can search through these for clients if needed. “I exhibit my work too – I have four collections of limited edition fine art exhibition prints.”

More information Contact Richard Humphrys on 0408 885 551, email to or see

January 2013 – Issue 588


Winemaking is such a hands-on craft. I love focusing in on the action – there is so much of the wonderful story of winemaking that the average wine lover doesn’t get to see, such as the worker’s stained hands and ripped jeans that speak of the passion of the winemaking team – it is hard physical work. Above: Peter Taylor and Mike de la Haye of Hare’s Chase Wines - making people comfortable in front of the camera is half the art of a successful portrait. Left: I love the romance of black and white in the photo of Tom Barnes and I keep an eye out for simple but powerful graphic images like the rake. This image represents a calm moment in the controlled chaos of vintage. Top right: Kym Schroeter at work.

Marketing plus: See page 66 for the first article in our new series, Winery marketing.

January 2013 – Issue 588

Grapegrower & Winemaker



Innovation in winemaking – a French perspective The American Chamber of Commerce in Australia recently held a business luncheon in Adelaide where three prominent winemakers discussed innovation in winemaking. Among the panellists was French-born Emmanuelle Requin-Bekkers, winemaker for Chalk Hill Wines in McLaren Vale and director of Oenologie-Requin – a freelance winemaking and project management business. To tie in with Grapegrower & Winemaker’s special winemaking issue, journalist Kellie Arbuckle spoke with Bekkers about her winemaking experience in Australia and France, and what she perceived to be the biggest innovations of the Australian wine industry over the past decade. You travelled to Australia nearly 20 years ago after working for Hardys in France. What inspired you to visit Australia and what were some of the major differences in winemaking at the time?

I wanted to see what the Australians did differently. I worked a lot in cave cooperatives, with big wineries that made huge amounts of bulk wine, trying to develop specific products for the English market. The differences 17 years ago between France and Australia was that Australia had already put in place very stringent processes on how to make consistent wine, year in year out, and that was their major success. In France, a great percentage of the cave cooperatives were lacking processes to keep the place clean and sanitised while Australia already had this in place. This was a major lesson for me when I came to Australia: if you clean things, you don’t have to fight bacteria later on. You’re always ahead. That’s changed now; I think nowadays there is very good consistency across the world on understanding the importance of having a clean work space. How does Australia’s perception and uptake of new winemaking technologies compare with that of France?

I feel that France, Italy and Germany are the leaders in developing technology and products for winemakers. For me, the main difference is that in Australia, the technology is in view – if you walk into a winery, all the technologies are there for everyone to view. Whereas in France, the equipment will be used but it’s more behind closed doors. Australian winemakers are very good at sharing their knowledge and technology. In terms of uptake, Australia is embracing technology a lot quicker in France, but there are more regulations in France that don’t allow you to use those technologies. In the main bulk range of the $15-20 bracket where you need consistency for your product, the use of technology is a great tool. In Australia,

52 Grapegrower & Winemaker

Emmanuelle Requin-Bekkers of Chalk Hill Wines.

you have too much volatile acidity, which you can easily remove by using reverse osmosis technology. In France, you can’t use the technology without special permission. The regulations are so old and restrictive which means the uptake is a lot slower. With screwcap, it’s a different story. It’s not that winemakers don’t want to use them – they know it’s much better than cork, which can damage wine – but consumers in France are so old fashioned and less educated than those in Australia or the UK. They drink local. It would take a huge amount of resources and marketing to change French consumer perceptions on screwcap. Attitudes in certain regions are slowly changing, such as in Alsace, but it won’t happen overnight. In your opinion, what have been the top five winemaking innovations in Australia over the past decade and why?

In my view all technologies are useful as they help winemakers create consistent wine. At the same time, technology will never replace attention to detail and astute observation throughout the winemaking process. When aspiring to make outstanding wines, I believe that nothing is more important than the

vineyard site and its soil (or to keep it French, its ‘terroir’). Cross flow filtration: This filtration enables the winemaker to obtain brilliantly clear wines (with turbidity of less than one in most cases) with only one pass through a membrane. The wine will suffer from ‘filter shock’ but will recover rapidly. This type of filtration eliminates the use of diatomaceous earth and reduces wine losses significantly. Micro Ox units: These units have been useful to help polymerise tannins in young wines making them ‘bottle ready’ earlier than if maturing in a more conventional way. This technique is also a great tool used in combination with oak alternatives to simulate the use of oak vats in a more economical way. It is particularly useful for higher-volume commercial products. Reverse osmosis technology: This has been a great addition to wineries to help control alcohol levels in commercial wines, not to mention its positive use to reduce or remove some taints ensuring that otherwise unusable parcels remain of use. Yeast and bacteria development: In recent years winemakers have had access to a greater range of yeast, developed specifically to enhance certain characteristics of wine. Whether it is a non-saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast used to enhance palate mouth-feel or a more conventional yeast used for its thiol-type varietal aromas there is a wide range of products available to help winemakers better express some of the varietal aromas. Sorting table: For me, the sorting table – manual, mechanical or optical – remains one of the most important technologies. Australia may not be as affected by disease as some parts of Europe but there are always bit and pieces to be removed from grapes. Snails, caterpillars, leaves or petioles to name a few … a clean harvest will display more vibrant aromas. January 2013 – Issue 588

ask the Rowe Scientific

What’s that smell – is that Brett?


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With frequent winemaker inquiries about Brett, it is timely to look at this important subject in detail. This is the first in a two-part series on Brettanomyces.


there hAVe BeeN a number of queries lately to the AWrI regarding Brettanomyces, or ‘Brett’, in wine particularly the perception of Brett in different wine styles and at levels close to the sensory threshold. here are some of those questions. 4eP, or the Band-aid aroma, is the main contributor and is considered the general ‘marker’ for Brett. Wine with Brett presents with more than just a Band-aid aroma, however, with 4-eG adding smoky and spicy notes, and 4-eC adding savoury, sweaty/cheesy and barnyard/animal nuances. the palate can also be affected; with diminished fruit flavour intensity and a drying and metallic aftertaste. In a french Cabernet, Chatonnet and colleagues (1992) reported that the sensory perception threshold for 4eP was 605mg/L. In AWrI studies we found a lower threshold of 368mg/L for Australian style Cabernets. Work on Brett at the AWrI has shown that the threshold of 4eP depends very much on the style and structure of the wine, with the intensity of other wine components able to mask Brett character. for example, the 4eP threshold in a ‘green style’ Cabernet wine, and in a heavily oaked Cabernet wine, increased to 425 and 569µg/L respectively. Also remember that as a wine ages, primary fruit flavours reduce; this can also start to reveal more strongly any Brett characters that might have been hiding away.

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Why does Brett smell different in different wines? Brett compounds are usually always present together, albeit in different amounts or ratios to each other. these amounts have been shown to be proportional, or based on the different levels of their hydroxycinnamic acid precursor compounds present naturally in different grape varietals. Some typical ratios in varietals, and likely sensory effects compared to 4-eP alone, are shown in table 1 (page 54). thus while a Bretty Shiraz might smell like pure Bandaid, Bretty Pinots will possibly smell more animal, barnyard and spicier, perhaps akin and often confused with savoury characters of Pinot Noir varietal and heavily toasted or spicy oak flavours.

Are we becoming better at detecting Brett or am I just super sensitive? Brett has become the new tCA in terms of tasters wanting to show-off their Brett detection prowess. As discussed above, Bretty wines usually contain both 4-eP and 4-eG. When present together there is an enhanced effect, and a lowering of the threshold. this was reported by Chatonnet and colleagues in 1992. Originally reporting the 4-eP threshold alone as 605µg/L, this reduced down to 369µg/L when present with 37µg/L of 4-eG (9:1 ratio). AWrI studies have shown the 4-eP threshold alone, as 368µg/L. Sensory studies at the AWrI have shown that when combined with 4-eG the threshold is much lower than this. So if you are smelling Brett in wines and having them January 2013 – Issue 588

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Grapegrower & Winemaker


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Table 1. What does Brett smell like? Brett compounds Sensory descriptor

4-ethylphenol (4-EP)

4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG)

4-ethylcatechol (4-EC)


Band-aid® medicinal

Clove, spicy, smoky

Horsey, cheesy, smoky bacon


Metallic, phenolic, excessively drying

overtly Bretty; yet a quick smell, and analysis if needed, reveals the wine to be Brett-free. more and more, Brett is labelled as the culprit for other wine faults – the most common being responsible for dirty sulfidic characters (sewerage, sweaty, rotting onions); sometimes low levels of oxidation that reduces fruit intensity and adds a savoury note; and sometimes for smoke-affected wine. Often this is also because Brett sensory knowledge is often passed down from one taster to another. If someone shows you a sulfidic wine and says it’s Brett then that becomes your benchmark. It is important to know what 4-eP and 4-eG smell like for your own sensory memory bank. Wine aroma kits are available for purchase, or come along to one of AWrI’s tastings.

analysed at levels <200µg/L then you might not be supersensitive, it might be just the real threshold for the combined Brett compounds in that wine style. In addition, as with many aroma compounds, there is a learning effect and with repeated exposure to the aroma of Brett, it will be noted more easily. In consumer testing, levels of 4-eP of 600µg/L with 4-eG of 200µg/L were sufficient to strongly reduce consumer preference, even though consumers would not have been able to describe the flavour and in fact only 4% of consumers had heard of Brett.

Misdiagnoses of Brett Often the AWrI problem-solving team receives wine samples suspected of being

Table 2. What is the sensory detection threshold for Brett compounds? Aroma threshold (µg/L)1 4-EP







Australian green Cabernet Sauvignon




Australian oaky Cabernet Sauvignon




French Bordeaux Cabernet Sauvignon Australian Cabernet Sauvignon




1. ASTM three-alternative forced choice method, ascending concentration series. 2. Chatonnet et al. 1992. 3. Bramley et al. 2007 Variety

4-EP:4-EG ratio

Likely Brett sensory effect

Pinot Noir


More leather and barnyard, spicy

Cabernet Sauvignon, Nebbiolo


Similar to 4-EP alone, but with a pungent spice



Similar to 4-EP alone, pure Band-aid



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January 2013 – Issue 588

Materials handling is made safer with anti-slip forklift covers Avoid costly damage to wine barrels and their stillages, loss of valuable product and improve site safety with new DAGS magnetic fork covers. CASCADe AuStrALIA, ALONG with Cascade New Zealand, are subsidiaries of the Materials Glob a l C a s c ade handling Corporation. Cascade national sales manager rob Whitmore said the company designed and manufactured a variety of products that enable conventional lift trucks to become a more versatile and efficient materials handling tool. “these products enable a lift truck to pull, push, clamp, lift, sideshift, position, tilt, extend and rotate practically any load imaginable,” Whitmore said. “Cascades DAGS magnetic fork covers protect surfaces which are subject to scratching or wear, and prevent slippage on steel on steel situations, such as wine barrel stillages,” he said. “essentially they have been designed for use for anywhere forks are used to lift products that could be damaged from contact with bare forks and where loads are considered a slippage risk. “these versatile magnetic covers are ideal for handling a wide variety of loads, and are used to protect painted/powder coated metal, anodised aluminium, and wood products.”

Stillage’s, metal boxes, cages and other materials that are slippery when handled on forks can all be handled with a greater degree of safety by using this versatile product. the lift truck operator can install the covers in seconds, improving stability and decreasing the chance of load slippage. When not in use the fork covers can be stored on the lift truck or other machinery via a magnetised underside. Options include natural rubber for food industries, while Cascade DAGS are available in several lengths and can be used with a variety of lifting devices. they are also available with fork edge protection and in a version suitable for telescopic forks. “Cascade is represented in all Australian states and territories and New Zealand,” Whitmore said. “Our staff are available to assist with all materials handling problems,” he said. “Cascade’s website details many of our products available to solve materials handling issues – for local assistance, contact your preferred lift truck provider or contact us.” See or contact Cascade Australia 1800 cascade (227 223) or; Cascade New Zealand +64 9 273 9136, fax: +64 9 273 9137.

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January 2013 – Issue 588

Without DAGS

With DAGS Grapegrower & Winemaker



Adaptalift Hyster provides durable materials handling solutions to wineries The correct forklift can significantly enhance winery operational efficiency. the LArGe SeLeCtION of materials handling equipment made available by Adaptalift hyster enables the company to assist a diverse range of industries. It is, therefore, little wonder that AAL hYSter is able to provide a variety of materials handling solutions across the Australian wine sector. With another busy vintage coming up, the Agria All-terrain and the hyster fortis h170-190ft enforce the usefulness of AAL hYSter forklifts within this challenging industry. Wineries can consist of rolling hills, mud, gravel and potholes which most forklifts are unable to navigate. the Agria All-terrain forklift provides an efficient solution to this problem. the robust 4WD machine features an advanced hydraulic system and soft tyres that excel in any rough terrain application. the ergonomic cabin provides operator comfort and boosts

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SAVE BIG DOLLARS Cliff Chadwick of Chadwick Forklifts Pty. Ltd. Australia has over 20 years experience in the forklift industry, he can supply the right forklift for you. Any brand, any model. LPG, Electric, Diesel, Counter Balance, Reach Trucks, Walkie Stackers, Pallet Trucks & Stock Pickers. Any price range, from “low budget” units through to “as new” machines. Cliff has a large range of equipment available for inspection at his Moorabbin facility or via this website. Cliff can also arrange for an obligation FREE demonstration at your premises.

Hyster offers efficient solutions to material handling problems.

productivity through features such as the adjustable suspension seat with recliner. the cabin also provides all-round visibility, allowing the operator to take extra care when handling valuable goods. the Agria All-terrain forklift is a minimum fuss machine that can cope with a variety of day-to-day challenges. from the summer heat of margaret river to the unpredictable weather of the Yarra Valley, the hyster h170-190ft provides the solution to any outdoor applications. the h170-190ft offers the power of the 110hP Cummins 3.3L turbo diesel engine with full tier 3 certification. It also features oil-cooled wet disc brakes which not only provide excellent stopping power and a long service life, but are completely sealed from water and dirt, making them ready for any environment. the h170-190ft also includes an auto deceleration system, controlled power reversal and an optional cab with heater, front and rear wipers, removable doors, sliding windows and fan. the Agria All-terrain and the hyster fortis h170-190ft forklifts are productive, durable and efficient machines that allow winery staff and winemakers to carry out their work with ease.

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January 2013 – Issue 588

essential oenology

Which type of commercial nitrogen-based yeast nutrient is best for you?

Greg Howell

Introduction YeAStS hAVe AN essential need for nitrogenous compounds during fermentation of grape juice. most grape must is deficient in nitrogen and so supplements are normally added to increase the level of nitrogen compounds in the must. By having a sufficient level of nitrogen, the yeast can ferment the must to dryness with no deleterious side effects, for example sulfide formation. this article investigates the commercial products that are used to provide the extra nitrogen needed and the source materials of these nitrogen compounds.

Nitrogen needs of yeast in fermentation the main metabolite in grape juice that yeasts ferment is sugar. this is very plentiful in grape juice – in the 20% range (~200g/L). the main nutrient required so that yeast can perform these fermentations trouble free is nitrogen. the level generally accepted that is needed is in the order of >200 parts per million, that is 0.02%. As can be seen, the difference between these two parameters is huge with the sugar concentration approximately 1000 times the amount of available nitrogen. Yeast nutrient needs have been discussed previously in this journal (October 2011, G. howell). As previously stated, the main nutrient that needs to be supplemented is nitrogen. And as seen above it is obvious that nitrogen is the metabolite that is in much lower quantity in the original must. Other nutrients are also required in trace amounts but in much lower quantities than the nitrogen compounds. these trace compounds won’t be discussed in this article – the main focus is to discuss how nitrogen can be added to provide the ingredients for a good fermentation.

but do not contain any DAP. Again anecdotally, these products are becoming more popular and this is certainly the case for those winemakers who are interested in using natural materials instead of industrial chemical materials such as DAP.

Complex yeast nutrients Although this expression is widely used, there does not appear to be a formal definition in the literature for it. A loose definition that can be used for a ‘complex yeast nutrient’ is a product that contains both DAP and yeast by-products. the DAP provides ammonium and the yeast by-products provide the amino acids. Yeast hulls may also be used – not as a source of nitrogen compounds but to help the fermentation in other ways.

Commercial nitrogen-containing yeast nutrients Simple inorganic the simplest source of nitrogen for yeast fermentation is diammonium phosphate (DAP). It provides ammonium as a nitrogen source. this has been and is still widely used throughout Australia as a simple and cheap source of ammonium, however, anecdotally it appears that winemakers are experimenting with other nitrogenous materials and using less DAP. this may be because DAP is a chemical product and one that is produced in fertiliser operations. the source materials for producing DAP are phosphate rock and sulphuric acid.

Simple organic Organic nutrients contain materials from living matter, in this case from yeast by-products. the nitrogenous compounds provided from these yeast materials are predominantly amino acids. there are some products on the market that are yeast-based derivatives that contain yeast metabolites and or yeast hulls January 2013 – Issue 588

Grapegrower & Winemaker


winemaking Rehydration conditioning products there is at least one product on the market that can be used to protect yeast during the rehydration step. from the literature available on this product, it appears that although the product does strengthen the yeast prior to fermentation, it does not provide nitrogen during fermentation which is when it is required.

It is these soluble ammonium ions that are utilised by yeast. the ammonium supplement that is used in Australia and New Zealand is diammonium phosphate (correctly known as diammonium hydrogen phosphate) and known usually as DAP. When this is added to aqueous solutions such as grape juice the following occurs: (NH4)2HPO4 => 2NH4+ + HPO42—

Yeast assimilable nitrogen Yeast has an essential need for nitrogen during fermentation. that is, it must have access to some form of nitrogen that can be assimilated during the fermentation process. this nitrogen can come from two main sources: ammonium ions and amino acids. the ammonium ion is an inorganic compound, the amino acids are organic. Both forms and definitions are discussed on page 58. As previously discussed (howell, October 2011) the yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) content of a juice is now easily measured by using a spectrophotometer and ammonia and amino acid nitrogen kits. the YAN result so obtained can then be used to determine the level of nitrogen supplement required to achieve a trouble-free ferment.

The forms of nitrogen that yeast can assimilate Ammonium the main inorganic nitrogen compound needed by yeast is ammonium. this is formed when ammonia is dissolved in water and forms the inorganic ammonium ion: NH3 + H20 => NH4+ + OH -

that is, two ions of ammonium and one ion of hydrogen phosphate are released in the solution when the DAP dissolves and the ammonium ions are metabolised by yeast during the fermentation process. this is an inorganic molecule (inorganic in the chemical lexicon refers to any compound that is not organic – and an organic compound is one that contains carbon).

Amino acids Amino acids are organic compounds; that is, they are compounds of carbon. the use of the word ‘organic’ in chemistry should not be confused with the other popular use of that word – ‘organic farming’. (Wikipedia defines ‘organic farming’ as the technique of farming that ‘uses fertilisers and pesticides but excludes or strictly limits the use of manufactured or synthetic fertilisers and pesticides’). Amino acids contain nitrogen that is available to yeast (the amino acid proline being an exception). the general formula for an amino acid is rCOOhNh2, where r is a carbon side chain of varying formula. for example one of the simplest amino acids is glycine (aminoacetic acid). Its carbon backbone is two carbons long; so in this case r = Ch3

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58 Grapegrower & Winemaker

As can be seen, glycine contains the -Nh2 amino and the – COOh carboxylic acid functional groups. By definition this is an alpha or primary amino acid, a very important group of compounds in biochemistry. It is this amino group in amino acids that can also as a source of nitrogen by yeast. the main source of amino acids used in yeast nutrient supplements is from yeast itself. typically the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is autolysed and the resultant extract contains metabolites that include a high level of the amino acids that can be used by the yeast in the fermentation process.

Conclusion the main nutrient that needs to be supplemented during fermentation is nitrogen. It comes in two main chemical forms that can be assimilated by yeast: ammonium ions and amino acids. there are various commercial products that are used to supply this nitrogen, and they can be classified as either simple inorganic, simple organic or complex yeast nutrients. the correct type of nutrient product that is most suitable for individual applications will vary depending upon the needs of the winemaker. Greg Howell is managing director of Vintessential Laboratories. Vintessential operates consulting wine laboratories in Victoria, Western Australia and Queensland. He can be contacted by email on A number of articles on related topics can be accessed on the website.

January 2013 – Issue 588

Organic yeast nutrient boosts aroma in wines WINemAKerS WhO WANt to make more aromatic wines could stand to benefit from a new organic yeast nutrient. Natuferm is a new product designed by Yeasts & Oenobrands – an french-based company enzymes that makes and distributes products for winemaking. unlike most yeast nutrients, Natuferm is an organic nutrient, which means it does not contain diammonium phosphate (DAP). It is a fully autolysed yeast, meaning the ‘insides’ of the yeast are more ‘exposed’ and therefore more readily available to live yeasts. Being autolysed also means the yeast is no longer a living organism and cannot ferment sugars. “Autolysis is the process of the yeast cell being degraded by its own enzymes. this self digestion releases a number of helpful compounds, particularly amino acids, that assist the fermentation,” explained Greg howell, managing director of Vintessential. What is unique about Natuferm is that it is very high in aromatic amino acids – aroma precursors to fermentation esters, which form a very important part of wine production. fermenting yeasts can only take up amino acids from the must during the first third of fermentation. Natuferm allows yeast to take up enough organic nitrogen in the form of amino acids within this first third of fermentation, before adding DAP, since DAP suppresses amino acid uptake. Natuferm can only be added during the first step of alcohol fermentation. Despite its very high concentration in amino acids, Natuferm has been specifically formulated to avoid increasing undesirable compounds, such as biogenic amines and ethyl carbamate in wines. Bodgea of La mancha, in Spain, said Natuferm provided consistency in the ferment and aroma qualities in the wine. “I added Natuferm to my white wines right before yeast addition. I was positively impressed by the effect this nutrient had on fermentation consistency and wine quality. In our Sauvignon Blanc, Verdejo and macabeo, we noticed a great difference in terms of aromatic intensity and mouthfeel.” Vintessential is the sole Australian supplier of Natuferm, which retails for $34 plus GSt per kilogram pack. for more information, visit:

natuFerm summarY Composition: • 100% autolysed yeast • rich in organic nitrogen: ~ 40 % total amino acids (free, peptidic and protein) ~ 1/3 free amino acids • microgranular, easy to suspend into liquids • unique composition: High content of aroma precursors amino acids Low concentration in biogenic amine precursors.

How to use: • add Natuferm immediately after yeast addition in any case not after the first third of fermentation dose: 20-30 g/hl • dilute it in 10 volumes prior to addition.

Aromatic booster: • more phenyl ethanol: rose, floral • more ethyl esters: fruity • addition recommended at same time as yeast inoculation in order to have a stronger and more complex aromatic profile in the wine, in combination with yeast strains able to produce aromatic compounds.


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Ensuring high quality wine production through optimising yeast rehydration The performance of Dynastart is assessed to determine how useful this product can be for a smooth, trouble-free ferment phase. Maryam Ehsani, Victor Puente & Tertius van der Westhuizen

Introduction WIth effeCtIVe YeASt protection and appropriate nutritional management, the winemaker can ensure a regular and complete alcoholic fermentation (Af), produce quality wines and avoid organoleptic deviations or adverse effects on the onset of malolactic fermentation (mLf). Good fermentation management begins at the yeast rehydration step. the temperature of the rehydration water has a significant impact on cellular viability; the use of specific rehydration products based on inactivated sterol-rich yeasts also has an important positive impact on yeast viability and the organoleptic quality of the wine. to ensure good yeast growth and vitality, specific nutritional formulations are added during alcoholic fermentation to remedy potential deficiencies. this article will define in detail the importance of providing different protective and nutritional compounds and demonstrate the impact of specific products on the fermentative and aromatic quality of the wine.

Yeast structure Yeast is made up of a cellular envelope,

Figure 1. Structure of the yeast cellular envelope. The cell wall is composed mainly of mannoproteins and beta-glucans. Ergosterol is the main sterol component in the plasma membrane.

Certain enzymes of oenological value, particularly beta-glucanases, are located within the periplasmic space. the yeast’s plasma membrane plays an essential role in exchange regulation between the cell and its surrounding environment. It comprises a phospholipid bilayer, which contains proteins. It also contains ergosterol which is particularly important for membrane efficiency and

a cytoplasm containing organelles and a nucleus. the cellular envelope contains a cell wall and a plasma membrane; between the two is the periplasmic space (figure 1). the cell wall is essentially made up of chitin (1-2%), mannoproteins (25-50%) and glucans (30-60%). the cell wall protects the cell, especially against external attacks and thanks to a slight filtering effect it blocks macromolecules.

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winemaking Alcoholic stress and the importance of sterols

permease activity transferring substrates and products. The content of sterols and long chain fatty acids is dependent on the yeast’s growth conditions. Under anaerobic conditions, the yeast will only synthesise a small amount of sterols. Membrane fluidity and consequently sugar and amino acid transportation are progressively altered with the accumulation of ethanol during alcoholic fermentation. Furthermore, in the absence of oxygen the cells will synthesise medium chain fatty acids (C8 - C12) which have an inhibiting effect on the yeasts and bacteria.

Figure 2: Development of the cellular population of Zymaflore X16 rehydrated with and without9/3/12 Dynastart. 190x130.fh10 11:09Fermentations AM Page 1 were carried out on a must with 200g/L sugar and C <140mg/L assimilable nitrogen.


The accumulation of ethanol during alcoholic fermentation is a genuine source of stress, called ‘alcoholic stress’. Ethanol acts as a solvent on the yeast’s cellular membrane and disrupts its lipid architecture. Unless sufficient aeration is done during AF, the yeasts are unable to synthesise sterols. To encourage their resistance and performance for coping with alcoholic stress, it is essential to provide the yeasts with protective compounds as early on as rehydration. The most


Figure 3: Development of sugar degradation by Yeast B rehydrated with and without Dynastart. Fermentations were carried out on a must with 280g/L sugar and < 140mg/L CM MY CY CMY K assimilable nitrogen.

important of these compounds are sterols. Providing them allows the yeast membrane to be restored and reinforced, having been weakened following the drying process. Inactivated yeast-based products can provide the sterols required by live yeasts.

Figure 4: Quantities of negative sulphur compounds in a Cabernet Sauvignon wine at the end of MLF with a yeast rehydrated with and without Dynastart.

Figure 5: The effect of Dynastart on gene expression. Classification of genes affected by the addition of Dynastart rehydration product in the MIPS functional categories. The bars indicate the percentage of genes affected from the total number of genes in the category.

62 Grapegrower & Winemaker

January 2013 – Issue 588

Table 1. Chemical analysis of a Cabernet Sauvignon at the end of AF. Alcohol (%vol)

Residual sugar (g/L)


Volatile acidity (g/L H2 SO4)

Total acidity (g/L H2 SO4)

Yeast A












Dynastart1, developed, patented and produced by Laffort, contains a significant quantity of these protective compounds. they are of particular interest for their high capacity to ensure cellular survival during the final stages of alcoholic fermentation. A study comparing Zymaflore X16 rehydrated with and without Dynastart demonstrates a clear positive impact of Dynastart on cellular viability during the final phases of fermentation (stationary phase) (figure 2). the study was carried out on a must containing 200g/L of sugar, and demonstrates the importance of yeast protection in relation to fermentation efficiency. for the control, in nitrogen deficient conditions, fermentation gets stuck (37g/L residual sugar) while the fermentation using Dynastart completes (results not shown). the same observation is made in the case of a must with a higher sugar content (280g/L) fermented with yeast B, rehydrated with and without Dynastart. In this experiment, the fermentation speed of the control significantly slows down after the first 100 hours of Af, in comparison with the Dynastart fermentation, and finally stops with 32g/L of residual sugar (figure 3).

Apart from the stress factors mentioned above (the presence of ethanol, yeast drying), Dynastart also helps the yeast to improve its resistance to inoculation into the must, which carries many stress factors including sugar content, low ph and the presence of SO2. using Dynastart helps to reduce the quantity of volatile acidity (VA) (table 1) and negative sulphur compounds produced by the yeast during Af (figure 4). Indeed, in a comparative study conducted on a Cabernet Sauvignon deficient in assimilable nitrogen (150mg/L), the use of Dynastart at the time of the yeast rehydration, led to a significantly lower VA production and a wine with a marked aromatic cleanness and fruity expression. Another benefit of Dynastart is the increase in volatile thiol levels, which brings notes of grapefruit, passionfruit and boxwood to the wine2.

Dynastart and the formation of sulphur compounds Sulphur compounds exert a strong influence on the aromatic profile of a wine, due to their extremely low detection threshold and their high reactivity. these compounds can be classified in

Figure 6: Schematic representation of the sulphur metabolism pathway and the impact of the two treatments on its regulation (rehydration with Dynastart: N, addition of DAP: D). January 2013 – Issue 588

Grapegrower & Winemaker


winemaking two groups according to their impact on wine quality. Among those with a positive impact are volatile thiols, which give wines their fruity aromas.1 the second group of sulphur compounds has a detrimental impact on wine quality, bringing undesirable odours to the wine 4, such as h2S, characterised by an odour of rotten eggs. furthermore, h2S is highly reactive in wine and can generate the formation of other undesirable sulphur compounds: mercaptans. recent results have revealed the significant effect of Dynastart on the sulphate assimilation pathway in yeasts (figures 5, 6)5 with a significant drop in the activity of this pathway when the yeast is rehydrated using Dynastart. While the precise mechanisms underlying this effect are still under investigation, it is clear that the use of Dynastart allows the yeast to improve its exchanges with the outside environment, which in return improves balance and leads to a decrease in h2S and SO2 production under stressful conditions. It is important to note that each inactivated yeast-based product differs in terms of its protective (long fatty acids and sterols) and nutritional (nitrogen, vitamins, minerals) composition. figure 6 illustrates the differences in sterol

64 Grapegrower & Winemaker

contents for two products recommended for yeast rehydration and a product for yeast nutritional management. the two protective products intended for the rehydration of yeasts are clearly richer in sterols than Nutristart OrganiQ, a 100% organic nutrient intended for the yeast nutrition during Af.

Conclusion to ensure optimal yeast viability and vitality, it is essential to provide the yeast with lipid compounds (long chain fatty acids and sterols) during rehydration and to nourish it in a reasonable and well-balanced manner during Af. the rehydration product Dynastart is a specific sterol-rich formulation, particularly rich in ergosterol, which allows the yeast to better withstand the stress factors it encounters, especially those linked to alcohol. It enables the yeast to undergo Af in an improved physiological condition. With this protection, the yeasts have a higher viability, the transport system for nutritional compounds functions better, production of VA, h2S and SO2 is reduced and the wine’s aromatic quality is improved. moreover, the nutritional elements (assimilable nitrogen, vitamins and minerals) allow the yeast to multiply,

thanks to the construction of sugar and enzyme transporters that are required for the different metabolic activities and for generating energy. table 1 summarises the role and the consequences of the different protector and nutritive/activator products with oenological value. 1 Dynastart, Nutristart OrganiQ and Zymaflore X16 are registered trademarks of Laffort.

Maryam Ehsani, Laffort Bordeaux – maryam., Victor Puente, Laffort Espagne –, Tertius van der Westhuizen, Laffort Australia -

References 1. Dubourdieu D, Tominaga T, Masneuf I, Peyrot des Gachons C, Murat ML (2006). The role of yeasts in grape flavor development during fermentation: the example of Sauvignon Blanc. Am J Enol Vitic 57:81-88 2. Ehsani M, van der Westhuizen T (2011). Optimisation de la réhydratation des levures sèches actives oenologiques et impact sur la production des composés soufrés volatil. laffort-info 3. Lonvaud-Funel A, Renouf V, Strehaiano P. Microbiologie du vin. Lavoisier (2010). Paris. ISBN: 2-7430-1252-6. 4. Swiegers JH, Pretorius IS (2007). Modulation of volatile sulfur compounds by wine yeast. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 74:954-960 5. Winter G, Henschke PA, Higgins VJ, Ugliano M, Curtin C. (2011). Effects of rehydration nutrients on H2S metabolism and formation of volatile sulfur compounds by the wine yeast VL3. AMB Express 1:36.

January 2013 – Issue 588

Sacred Hill celebrates its biggest year ever From vineyard to winery, this New Zealand brand has reached for the stars. Grahame Whyte

NeW ZeALAND’S SACreD hill Vineyards, which has estate vineyards in marlborough, hawke’s Bay and Central Otago, celebrated its most successful year ever in 2012. Sacred hill wines, which include ti Point and Wild South labels, won more gold medals, five star ratings and international critical acclaim in 2012 than in any previous year. Chief winemaker tony Bish said the success was a tribute to the passion and dedication of the whole Sacred hill team, from vineyard to winery.

Fruit quality a top priority “I guess it’s a combination of many, many things. It’s really looking to get the right crop load onto the vines, so that there is enough crop to balance the vigour of the vine but not so much that you’re diluting the potential concentration of flavours that can result,” Bish said.

“We’ve got a great team, so when I am not travelling I tried to get out there in the vineyard and have a good look around. Winemakers always wish they were in vineyards more, but I’ve got a team I can trust – we’ve worked together for a long time.”

Gold medal spree the 2011 Sacred hill Orange Label Sauvignon Blanc won gold medals in the New World Wine Awards and royal easter Show Wine Awards, with the 2012 vintage winning gold on release at the New Zealand International Wine Show. “It’s reductively handled. As with most marlborough Sauvignon, it’s machine harvested. We harvested at night when the temperatures are pretty cool. marlborough has this big zonal variation – the fruit can often coming to the winery in the April period at under 10 degrees, which is great.

“So it’s straight into the de-stemming and pressing operation, without any additional skin contact time other than what it has received between the vineyard and the processing plant. “We use sulphur addition in the field to protect the fruit and then we protect it all the way through.” Bish said a significant change in recent times was the move to flotation rather than cold settling. “I think that’s been quite beneficial in that we are able to receive a load of grapes and within 24 hours we have that batch clarified and inoculated,” he said. “that’s great in terms of managing reductive potential quite tightly. “to ferment, we use Dynastart to ensure a good healthy yeast population and we use selected yeast strains that work well with releasing thiols from precursors.”

Like many of the world’s great wines, we’re made here too.

Maurivin is proud to be a part of Australia’s winemaking landscape. Our complete range of yeast and fermentation aid products (including ) are developed and manufactured on the same soil as our outstanding vineyards – Australian soil. At Maurivin we look forward to continuing a tradition of innovation and partnership with Australia’s winemakers and the great wine they produce.

January 2013 – Issue 588 +61 (0)2 9684 8691

Grapegrower & Winemaker


sales & marketing

Media-savvy marketing is all about being prepared for an opportunity Winery marketing

Marketing your winery is an integral part of ensuring its success, and arguably as important as the quality of the wine you produce. Opportunities to promote your brand often arise at unexpected times. Do you have the resources on hand to make the most of them? In Part 1 here and in following editions, we’ll look at the potential for marketing through media opportunities: how to identify them, the materials you need to utilise those opportunities, and how to get them in place and organised.

Gerri Nelligan

The call JACK JONES IS in a rush, finishing off a few last bits of paperwork before he heads to the airport. He’s flying out to the London Wine Show in three hours. The phone rings. It’s a journalist from a national publication, wanting to do a story on his surprise Best White Wine of Show win at the previous night’s regional awards. Free press – great opportunity, Jack thinks, but he’s got a plane to catch. Jack: “Look, I’d love to but I’m just heading off to London, so I really don’t have time now.” Journo: “I just need five minutes and a couple of quotes. Then if you email through some background and product information, and some good high-quality images, I can get whatever else I need from that.” The five minutes and quotes were easily provided. The rest just wasn’t going to happen. He’d long been meaning to put some background information on the winery together – but there’d always been something else to do, so it just didn’t seem that important. And he’d actually taken a few pictures now and then around the vineyard and winery but they were somewhere in the huge folder of downloaded images on his computer, unidentifiable from the 1000plus others in there. Along with the ones of the kids, holidays and other life events, each was just another JPEG file number. Jack: “I’ve got some photos somewhere but it’d take me hours to trawl through and find them – and I haven’t got anything written down about the winery, except for some tasting notes. How about I give you a call when I get back next week and tell you all about us then?”

Time is of the essence Unfortunately for Jones, the journalist was three days from deadline. He hung up and called the winner of the

66 Grapegrower & Winemaker

Best Red Wine of Show – by chance another previously unknown boutique winemaker, so an equally interesting subject – who provided not only the five minutes and quotes, but also background and product information via email and a link to access the downloadable photo library on his website. When the next edition of the publication arrived in Jones’ letterbox a few weeks later, the Best Red winner was the front cover feature story – and all Jones got was a mention in the listing of major awards.

I’ve got some photos somewhere but it’d take me hours to trawl through and find them – and I haven’t got anything written down about the winery, except for some tasting notes. A busy winemaker

It was the ultimate missed opportunity, and is a perfect example of the marketing opportunities which constantly bypass so many in the wine industry. So why did Jones miss out? Firstly, he wasn’t organised and secondly, he’s not a media-savvy marketer, so he didn’t identify his show win as news. If he was, he’d have spent whatever time he had available getting details of his win out to as many sources as possible. And

with a bit of luck, he would have ended up with media coverage which provided him with both brand recognition and – most importantly – increased sales.

What IS news? When it comes to promoting your business, the simple rule is that when you’ve got something happening, get it out there. You may not think it’s ‘news’ but it may well be of interest to consumers or others in the industry. And the quirkier the better – yours may just be the “left of centre” story a journalist or publisher needs to add some spark to the next edition. Alternatively, they may be feeling nostalgic for the old days and ways, and the retirement of your cellar hand after 50 years in your family wine business might be right up their story idea alley.

Providing information Most importantly, keep it succinct – send them a tome with 13 attachments and they’ll relegate it straight to the recycle bin. Most publications are understaffed now, and journos are too busy to wade through waffle. They’re also constantly on deadline. But they’ll skim a decentlooking release and, if they decide it’s a newsworthy story, chase further details. So send out a brief media release, including the basics about your achievement, innovation or whatever, a few salient, relevant (and preferably eloquent) quotes, and contact details for further information and images. Nothing may come of it, or you may be inundated with journos wanting to do a story, but either way it’s worth a try. And if you’re organised, with information and a mailing list on hand, it’s not going to take a big chunk out of your day. And ‘media release’ doesn’t mean you have to format it as one or officially call it that. If it’s more your style then just send out a friendly email with the information – your job is wine after all, not PR. January 2013 – Issue 588

Contact details

Best practice For the media-saVVY marKeter:

Provide contact details for the relevant person/people for media to speak with and if it’s not you, check their availability and provide those details too. then let those people know they may be called and why – no one likes to be caught on the hop. Giving them the chance to prepare the facts or information they need – or even the way they’d like to word something – will make everyone more comfortable, and provide a far more valuable outcome. It’s a team effort so make sure everyone’s in the loop and happy to be a part of the process.

You may not think it’s ‘news’ but it may well be of interest to consumers or others in the industry.

The details Once you’ve got someone interested in telling your story, you need to be able to follow through with more detail. Generally the full history of your winery falls in the ‘too much information’ basket. On the other hand, it may be relevant if the set up (dry grown, organic/ biodynamic) is integral to the news issue, or if that retiring cellar hand was the

• • • • • • • • • •

know your brand profile and marketing messages have background information on winery, brand, key players and products keep the information up to date and accurate when you achieve, put it out there when you have a story to share, put it out there relevance is all-important: provide information specific to each situation provide dot point information and quotes, don’t write the article yourself accumulate a library of high-quality images of your people, products and property faces need names – keep a record of the people in your images file it all with easily identifiable names in a media or marketing folder.

first employee when your father and grandfather started the business 50 years ago. focus on the ‘news’ topic and let relevance be your guide. Provide the information as dot points, don’t try to write the story yourself. It’ll take a lot of your time and it’s rare they’ll use much – or any – of it: every writer will take a different bent for their article and may want to emphasise different elements than you would. And let’s face it, most wine producers do what they do because they’re good at producing wine, not at writing. So provide the information and leave the creative writing aspect to the professional you’re working with. Which is another important point: a good article is the result of a team effort between the subject and the writer. You need to provide them with the information they need, and they need to represent you and your products and business in a way that truly reflects what you do. It’s therefore important that the information you provide is relevant to

the subject, not just general promotion of your business. Again, relevance is allimportant. We hope this has got you thinking about your business and the marketing resources you have – or don’t have. We’ll bring you Part 2 of this feature, focusing on images as part of your marketing resources, in the next edition. And in the meantime, here’s something to contemplate when you’re weighing up how relevant what you’ve just read is to your business: What’s more important: the quality of the wine or the quality of the marketing? You can make the best wine in the world, but to sell it, you have to bring it to the attention of the consumer – and the right consumer. the reality is that a three-star winery with a great marketer and a high public profile can achieve far greater success than a five-star winery nobody knows about. Next month: We take a look at how to create an image library to enable speedy access to photos for marketing purposes.

“Turkey Flat’s release of three singlevineyard, parallel vintage Shiraz, each sourced from a different sub-region of the Barossa GI, could have been just another product launch, if owner Christie Schulz hadn’t drawn it to the attention of Grapegrower & Winemaker. Instead it gained national coverage for the ‘terroir trio’ and promotion of the Turkey Flat brand.” January 2013 – Issue 588

Grapegrower & Winemaker


sales & marketing

Vinisud promotes Mediterranean wines to Asia BOASTING SOME OF the world’s oldest vines and producing more than 50 per cent of the world’s wines, the Mediterranean is not a wine region to be overlooked. Next month the majority of Mediterranean wine producers and professional buyers from all continents will come together for Vinisud – the leading exhibition of Mediterranean wines. A highlight on the world wine calendar, the event aims to provide a platform to promote wines from the south of France and more widely those from the Mediterranean, Italy and Spain. In 2012, 32,880 visitors and 1664 exhibitors attended Vinisud in Montpellier, France. From February 26-28, Vinisud will launch in Shanghai, China – a market which is set to become the world’s sixth

biggest wine consumer, according to recent research from Wine Intelligence. More than 300 exhibitors and 4500 visitors – predominantly importers, distributors, wholesalers, retailers, restaurateurs, sommeliers and journalists – are expected to attend the Vinisud Asia debut, at the New International Expo Centre. Franck de Paepe of Cave du Marmandais is among the wineries exhibiting at the event in Shanghai. He said the focus on Mediterranean wines in Asia was a great idea. “Vinisud France is one of the biggest wine events ... the knowledge and the professionalism of the organisers make my winery want to start this story in Asia,” Paepe said. “We are already well established in Asia, especially in China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. But I believe there is also

big potential in other countries as South Korea and Japan.” China has seen a major rise in its wine imports in recent years. In 2011, mainland China imported wine to a value of €1.038bn, up 72 per cent compared with 2010. With €539bn of shipments, French wines are in pole position, holding a 52 per cent market share of 2011 wine imports. The market is growing rapidly with the explosion of the affluent middle classes, which is expected to expand from 100 million households in 2009 to more than 600 million in 2017. Between 2010 and 2011, the share by value of French wines imported into China rose by 94 per cent, while the share of Spanish wines rose by 97 per cent and that of Italian wines by 82 per cent.

The Great Southern: a celebration of 40 years THE WESTERN AUSTRALIAN wine industry prizes the production of high value wines of distinctive regional and varietal character. Forty years since the first vintage, wine industry pioneers and appreciators of Great Southern wine have reflected on the region’s formative years in a series of events at select locations across the region and Perth. James Halliday, a long-time supporter of the region’s cool climate wines, ventured west to host and feature in the series. Halliday hosted a luncheon at the Chamber of Commerce and Industry Western Australia in Perth, framed around a discussion of the Great Southern’s international profile. He also encouraged wine producers to secure a share of the China market in a message that was coloured in both optimism and measured caution. Key industry personalities and wine consumers united in the second CBDbased event to celebrate the region’s four founding pioneers over a five-course degustation, each course paired with world-class Great Southern wine. To honour the region’s foundation, guests were treated to a pre-dinner tasting showcasing exceptional Riesling from the pioneer Mount Barker sub-region. Halliday applauded the Riesling

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produced at Great Southern for its straightforwardness and remarkable ability to showcase terroir so clearly in aroma and palate at the end product. Mount Barker suitably played host to the first of the regional events, featuring a panel of industry representatives led by Halliday and Peter Forrestal, in a discussion of current issues pertinent to the region and its place within the domestic and international markets. Halliday advised industry to shun popular consumption trends and stay the course with its local hero: Riesling. He recommended “laying the wine down” before release as a possible method for attracting increased interest in the variety and identified the Asian as an idea market for the variety due to its capacity to pair with Asian cuisine. The issue of sub-regional divisions was also discussed, with respected industry leaders regretting the initial suggestion of the five denoted sub-regions within the greater region. Forest Hill took guests back to where it all began that evening, with a special event celebrating those who discovered the industry and fuelled its formative success. Dorham Mann, together with Bill Jamieson, planted the first government sponsored experimental cuttings, was in attendance together with Betty Quick, the founder of what is now Forest Hill, the

first Great Southern regional association president Tony Smith of Plantagenet Wines and Judi Cullam and Barry Smith, founders of the Frankland Estate. Guests were treated to a series of vignettes from regional founders describing the formative years of the 1960s and early 1970s. Dorham Mann delighted guests with a taste of a prized bottle of the 1972 Rhine Riesling, the first vintage of wine produced in the Great Southern. The final event of the series saw key trade representatives from premium Perth restaurants and independent retail outlets gather at Singlefile Wines in Denmark for ‘A Sense of Place’ – a tasting through the five sub-regions of the Great Southern. Participants came away with a broader understanding of sub-regional diversity and also character similarity. “For the Great Southern region and the Western Australian industry as a whole, this is a milestone that demands celebration,” said Aymee Mastaglia, general manager of Wines of Western Australia. “James Halliday has long been an advocate of Great Southern wine and we were honoured to have had him attend all events and lend his expertise and passion to the celebration.” January 2013 – Issue 588

Telling a good yarn is crucial to marketing your winery Jeffrey Wilkinson

ONE OF THE wonderful things about wine communication is that consumers are genuinely interested in a well-told story of a winery’s commitment to winemaking. Amongst the membership of Wine Communicators of Australia (WCA) are professionals who help some of Australia’s leading wineries com municate t heir winema k ing messages to consumers and the wine trade. They would all agree that it is the human interest elements, together with a few appropriate facts and figures, that excite wine drinkers and lead them to making an emotional connection with a winery, its people and their wines. Some of the important elements to consider when communicating your winemaking story are: • winemaking philosophy • personal or family’s commitment and involvement in the winery • winery’s history • winemaking region • awards and achievements • the winemaker • the vineyard • the network of grapegrowers • viticultural practices • facts and figures about the wines • in summary – an authentic story at a personal level. It is imperative to be able to clearly communicate your winemaking philosophy. Express it in language that is understandable by regular wine drinkers, rather than in technical terms.

Clearly communicate your winemaking philosophy

one of the last bastions of family-owned, or owner-operated businesses. Explain why you have made a commitment to doing what you do and the history associated with that commitment. Wine lovers are fascinated to learn how a winemaker or producer got to be doing what they do.

Share your passion through sharing your wine Your regional detail may be an extremely important element in your winemaking story. If it is an historical region, you are able to draw on decades of investment made by others in communicating the quality, tradition and historic reputation of the region. Conversely, if it is a new region, this provides an opportunity to discuss the excitement and dynamism in pioneering a new frontier, and what led you to be a part of it. If you are in a region that is neither of the above, you may decide to elaborate on other aspects of your story that are more motivational for consumers – for example, your continued success in wine shows. With regard to awards and reviews, remember that at its heart, wine is a ‘people business’. By elaborating on your well-regarded reputation for winning awards and your consistently high ratings from key influencers, you are providing the third-person endorsement that many wine consumers are looking for prior to making a wine selection. This also gives your customers more confidence in recommending your wines to others. Word of mouth is extremely important in relaying your winemaking saga.

Make the most of your winemaker The story of your winemaker is an interesting and exciting element in your winemaking communication. Perhaps your winemaker is regarded as a leader in the industry, recognised for innovation or for having an intimate knowledge of the region and its classic varieties? Perhaps they have worked overseas and have become one of Australia’s most knowledgeable winemakers in a particular variety or technique? One element that is completely within your control, that is unique and cannot walk away overnight, is your vineyard and the viticultural techniques you employ to support your winemaking philosophy. Items that are desirable, accompanied by a rarity or scarcity driven by unique geography and geology can command consumers’ attention when the story is told. They can also command superior prices in the marketplace. Technical details of your winemaking story should usually be placed in the fact sheet of the individual wines, not as a feature in the story. We all acknowledge that the wine business has never been more competitive. So when considering the elements above, it is important to select and emphasise those that will set you apart in a tangible and positive sense. Select unique aspects of your winemaking that will excite consumers – items that cannot be easily replicated by others and will give you a clear and positive point of difference leading to increased sales at higher margins. Jeffrey Wilkinson, executive officer, WCA

Many consumers regard winemaking as

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January 2013 – Issue 588

Grapegrower & Winemaker


sales & marketing label design


Label evokes larger than life


Mark Smith graduated from Monash University in 1993 with a Bachelor of Arts in Graphic Design. He has more than 18 years experience in corporate and brand identity design. Before forming the studio Hexagon Design in 2000, Mark developed his craft on some of Australia’s largest national and international brands, creating, evolving and building great identity programs within some of the largest design studios of Australia. His passion for crafting great communication ideas was the catalyst behind him starting up Hexagon Design. What inspired you to work in design, and what aspect of label design do you enjoy the most or derive the most satisfaction from?

What are the most important labelling concepts to impact on wine sales and marketing success?

Growing up I was always inspired by typography, illustrations, art and packaging. My favourite brand and package has to be Coca Cola. The bottle and the script are beautiful objects; I adore how complete they are as a total package. As a child I collected Coke bottles and cans. Label design has a similar feeling to that of a Coke bottle. It’s an object of beauty when done well – they can sit in the wine cellar for a couple of years or decades. Crafting such a fine object and inspiring others to want to own it is what motivates Hexagon Design.

Great brands should engage through the power of personality and a point of difference. Great brands are memorable. At Hexagon Design we have a philosophy, ‘ideas first and then the aesthetic’. Ideas engage a consumer to buy a product, often leaving a memorable impression by putting smiles on faces. The aesthetic for the label needs to sit comfortably with the intended audience yet complimenting the conceptual idea. Marketing and sales success is about leading the marketplace with image, product and innovation. Be true to oneself as an organisation, deliver the brand promise and then back it up with your voice, your service and your great product.

What was the inspiration or key branding message behind this particular wine label?

The inspired idea behind PEPIK derives from the unique life story of Josef Chromy. PEPIK is his Czech nickname. The brand wordmark was created to reflect two elements of Josef’s heritage: his trade as a butcher and his influence as a business man (pioneering the meat and wine industries in Tasmania). The lines within the wordmark and in the background represent the lines on a butcher’s apron and the lines of a pinstripe suit. The expression is larger than life, bold, confident and masculine, capturing his unique personality. What are the technical specs used in the production of the label, i.e., printing technique, processes and colours?

The PEPIK label prints four spot colours, all offset, with a high build varnish utilised to accentuate the PEPIK wordmark. The front label is a two-part label system, which is endorsed by the Josef Chromy wordmark. Back label is a one-part label, with common colours to the front label.

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Have you seen many changes in label designs over the past decade and what labelling trends do you see emerging in the future?

We have gone from contemporary forme cut labels, with modern graphics and illustrations, to traditional wine labels that are trying to appear historical and authentic. Recently there has been a move to some bold and thought-provoking illustrations. These are backed up with creative and unique name developments. Design trends come and go. What makes a brand successful is a classic, thought-provoking image that engages the marketplace and inspires people to purchase. Idea generation is what all future designers and future labels should be striving for. To what extent do countries respond differently to labels and/or wine marketing images?

Different countries generally have a style and aesthetic to reflect their unique culture.

In Australia, we generally have an open minded approach to wine labels. We are less focused on traditional elements and more focused on being fresh, with a personality which is modern in label expression. France is quite conservative and traditional. Spain can be thoughtprovoking and expressive. Italy is traditional with a handcrafted detail that reflects the craftsmanship of the country, while the US is a little more like Australia: fresher and more youthful in its thinking and less focused on tradition. How can label designers overcome the challenge of helping a wine bottle stand out as the market becomes increasingly congested?

All wine brands need to tell a story that is true to their origins. New wine brands must create distinctive elements that they can own. Older wine brands must tell the story of their heritage. Brands and labels should try and own a colour or a device. People will pick up a label that they connect with. The designer’s role is to find an emotional connection for the purchase. The winemaker’s role is to make sure the customer buys the wine again. January 2013 – Issue 588

AWRI workshop wraps up packaging problems The all-important packaging process can leave winemakers searching for answers to the many questions that arise during the crucial phase of getting wine to market. Geoff Cowey

W HETHER YOU AGREE great wine is Bottling, made in the vineyard or in the winery, one labelling & very important part of packaging wine quality is often overlooked – getting it into the bottle and delivering it to the consumer in its intended condition. Packaging can be expensive, up to 50 per cent of wine production costs. Statistics from the Winemakers’ Federation of Australia (accessed 2010) show that the direct costs of bottling, from large to smaller producers, is about $5.69-13.56 per case of wine, or about 13-18% of total revenue per case. Despite this, it

January 2013 – Issue 588

can be quite difficult for a winemaker to find information about best practice packaging. It is generally not a major part of Australian university winemaking curriculum and the information publically available is not often of a practical nature; being a packaging winemaker is something generally learnt on the job. Unsurprisingly, information on packaging is a constant request from Australia’s winemakers to the AWRI. The AWRI’s Troublefree Packaging for Winemakers workshop was launched in November 2009 in McLaren Vale to address this greater issue. Broad consultation with researchers, wineries, wine bottlers, suppliers and wine

industry partners across Australia occurred to develop realistic and practical information that can be easily adopted. Delivery to Australia’s winemaking regions is now complete with the last one held in Tasmania in October 2012. In total, 28 workshops were held with over 500 participants and feedback from attendees has been overwhelmingly positive. It’s possible that some regions would like the workshops re-presented in their area, due to people not being able to attend the previous workshop. If you want the workshop presented or repeated in your region please contact The aim of the packaging workshop is to provide practical information right from preparing wine for bottling to wine storage and transport. Below are some insights into topics discussed at the workshops.

Heat stability Ten per cent of all wine hazes sent to the AWRI for identification each year are related to wine protein instability. Bentonite fining is the main tool to remove wine protein. The amount of protein expressed by the grape is affected by ripeness, Botrytis and other

Grapegrower & Winemaker


sales & marketing infections, heatwave events and other parameters and thus winemakers shouldn’t assume to add the same amount of bentonite each year to the same batch of fruit. In the workshop, the heat stability test is dissected and some of the more common mistakes are explained along with new recommendations made for the temperature and time of the heating and cooling steps; the variety of bentonite fining options are detailed along with new alternatives, as is the timing of bentonite addition: to juice, ferment, post-ferment or during cold stabilisation.

Cold stability Harmless potassium bi-tartrate crystals found in the bottom of bottled wine is the most common wine deposit observed. As Rankine (1989) put it: “The deposit is harmless but the customer’s reaction might not be.” Why this occurs when wines have been cold stabilised is discussed, looking at the range of cold stability predictive tests available and the pros and cons of each. The cold stabilisation contact process is explained along with importance of filtering the wine cold, off tartrate lees.

Avoiding sulfide development The assumption that a wine will become reductive if sealed with a screwcap closure is dispelled. Formation of sulfides in wine, the different sulfide forms and determination of the sulfide form to determine the appropriate treatment is covered. The risk of preemptive copper additions to wine, or why copper additions on the day of the bottling are discouraged, and why winemakers should ensure copper levels remain less than 0.5mg/L are explained.

Packaging preparation For most producers, a minimum of four weeks is generally needed to prepare a wine for packaging, whether you are bottling your own wine, using a mobile bottler, or a specialised contract bottler. In some regions, however, so much advance notice is needed that some need to book in a bottling date six months in advance. Pointers are given for bottling in each scenario. The WFA Packaging Specifications are also summarised, highlighting benchmark analysis specifications, along with detailing what analysis should be undertaken at each stage of the bottling process.

Wine composition – how much SO2?

The AWRI’s closure trials have provided much more information other than just closure performance, such as sulfur dioxide loss over time and respective sensory effects on wine. How much preservative to add to different wine styles is discussed, to prevent oxidation and microbial growth, with respect to wine pH, along with other chemical preservatives measures including dimethyl dicarbamate (DMDC) and sorbic acid.

Sanitation and filtration To avoid post-bottling fermentation, sanitation procedures of filtration equipment and the bottling line are required. Depth and surface filters, appropriate filter selection based on wine composition (for example turbidity and sweetness level), filter performance tests, along with monitoring options for sanitation and filtration effectiveness are covered.

Packaging operation There are a lot of wine movements to get a wine into bottle, with a wine possibly having its highest dissolved oxygen content just before bottling. Dissolved oxygen management by wine sparging is explained along with the large contribution of headspace oxygen which has led to the adoption of the new gas measurement: Total Packaged Oxygen (TPO). Expected fill heights, filling temperature, typical wine loss during packaging small and large volumes of wine, and typical QA checks required are detailed. A dissection occurs for each type of closure application: pros and cons and QA requirements.

Wine storage and wine transport As more than 60% of Australian produced wine is now exported, knowledge of the implications of storage and transport of wine has become much more important. Horizontal versus upright storage of wine, wine storage temperature and humidity, critical or minimal levels of SO2 preservative below which a wine starts to display oxidative characters, and SO2 levels that are needed at bottling for ageing wines two, five, and up to 10 years are discussed. Heat and extreme cold temperature effects on wine development are detailed with appropriate measures and controls. The AWRI’s roadshow workshop program is intended to provide technical personnel employed in the Australian wine sector with practical hands-on training to develop and enhance quality management and general work practices, in order to minimise quality loss during processing and packaging, and minimise processing costs to wine producers. During delivery of this workshop feedback from industry has led to a number of areas where more research and information is required, particularly in relation to the effect of storage temperature on wine development. There has been a large amount of interest during these workshops in wine transport in general, particularly transporting wine in bulk for bottling offshore both for quality and sustainability reasons. Further research will be conducted in this area from this industry feedback. Geoff Cowey, AWRI, PO Box 197 Glen Osmond SA 5064.

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January 2013 – Issue 588

Mobile bottling handled with care Stephen O’Loughlin

theY treAt theIr customer’s wines as carefully as they would a patient. that’s the philosophy of paramedics turned wine bottlers, Ian Angel and Stephen Chapple. the pair took over ownership of mobile Wine Processing two years ago, after several months of training and learning the business while alternating with shifts in the medical profession. Based in Geelong, Victoria, mobile Wine Processing covers a vast area of wine regions across Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia. mobile Wine Processing offers winemakers the benefit of fulfilling all of their bottling needs on-site at their own winery. mobile Wine Processing can complete a range of solutions for wine bottling and packaging including filtration, filling, bottle closures, capsuling and labelling. this mobile service brings the latest equipment and skilled personnel to the winery’s production environment and

keeps the winemaker in full control of the bottling and packaging process. “With us on site, we encourage the winemaker to be active in the process and decision making,” Angel said. “Being owner and operators, if there are any last minute changes by the winemaker, they can come straight to us and we can implement them immediately.” the service has the capacity to do 3000 bottles an hour for cleanskins and 2800 per hour for labelled bottles. With no minimum charge, it has proven to deliver a cost-effective advantage for wineries and vineyards alike. mobile Wine Processing offers all types of closures, including Stelvin screwcaps, LuX, WAK, 31.5mm caps as well as cork. Sterilisation of the equipment occurs on site daily and they filter and recycle water to 0.5micron. If needed, the team can also supply their own electricity by way of a threephase generator.

testimonials “There are many benefits and the reality is that bottling equipment requires a great deal of knowledge and expertise to maintain and troubleshoot. To have this complicated machinery turn up at your winery and have clever operators ensuring a quality finish is very reassuring at this crucial and stressful stage of winemaking,” Mark Hunter, winemaker at Sanguine Estate, Heathcote, Victoria . “We’ve been using them for two years now. They’re versatile, flexible and extremely professional. I can’t recommend them highly enough really,” Greg Dedman, managing director at Vintage Services of Australia, Bendigo, Victoria.

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Perth Sydney (08) 9437 1033 (02) 9722 9400 January 2013 – Issue 588

Grapegrower & Winemaker


sales & marketing The wineries do need to provide all dry goods, such as bottles and labels and staff for handling the wine, but this allows winemakers to utilise people they know and trust.

One of the beauties of this job is that we never stop learning. From its base in Geelong, Victoria, Mobile Wine Processing covers wine regions across Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia.

With its well-equipped mobile facility, Mobile Wine Processing offers winemakers the benefit of fulfilling all of their bottling needs on-site at their own winery.

The business has remained busy even though the last few seasons have been very tough for winemakers. Angel and Chapple have maintained a strong client base since taking over the business and look forward to increasing it over the next few years. Angel said they even try to work closely with the Australian Wine Research Institute (AWRI), to assist in best possible practise of improving their industry, offering their services to partake in any trials, while also gaining ideas from AWRI’s preferred methods of bottling, sterilising and like. “One of the beauties of this job is that we never stop learning,” he said. Though Mobile Wine Processing is a fulltime business, the pair still maintain their paramedic qualifications by doing a few shifts a year. However these days, processing wine has become as much a passion as saving lives. More at

Use the full range of our services or just one specific component Our Services With the ability to offer flexibility in all contracts, Best Bottlers can cater to every and any aspect of your wine packaging requirements. Beginning with the storage of bulk wine, our services include Keg filling

Secure, insulated warehouse

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Stelvin closure

Self-adhesive label applicators

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Sparkling wine (Charmat and carbonated)

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Best Bottlers P/L PO Box 4088, Mildura VIC 3500 P: (03) 5018 7100 • F: (03) 5018 7132 • • 74 Grapegrower & Winemaker

January 2013 – Issue 588

business & technology Solar power: understand the benefits WIth eLeCtrICItY COStS expected to soar over the coming years, many Australian wineries are looking for ways to lower their power bills and carbon footprint. One of the best ways to do this is to invest in solar power, according to national solar power installation firm, energy Aware. “We are seeing more and more interest from the wine industry of late,” said Daniel maloney, energy Aware commercial sales manager. “It’s apparent that wineries have large electricity requirements associated with their refrigeration, lighting, irrigation, packaging and bottling machinery. fortunately, we seem to have reached a tipping point, whereby winemakers are now starting to realise high power prices and reduced solar equipment costs make solar economically viable,” he said. “Payback periods can be as low as three to five years. the size of installations will vary from property to property and depend on available roof space and prevailing power rates. Where roof space is limited, ground mount systems are available.” “the challenge for us is to overcome the misconception that solar power

is complicated and very expensive,” maloney said. “As soon as we speak to people, we can show them investment returns that are compelling, as well as provide a turnkey service that makes system design, installation, metering and processing of government and regulatory approvals easy,” he said. many businesses in the wine industry are not aware they are eligible to receive grants for up to 50% of the cost of energy efficiency initiatives, including solar. A number of major players have already benefited from this scheme, called “the Clean technology Investment Program”, but many are missing out. De Bortoli Wines, for example, was awarded a $4,829,405 grant to implement energy reduction projects at five sites in eastern Australia across its winemaking, packaging, warehousing and site services areas. the initiatives include the more efficient use of grid power, replacement of old equipment and use of solar technology. Aside from the financial benefits, many organisations are also adopting solar power to help develop an ecofriendly brand image for their business.

solar snapshot: • solar systems convert sunlight into electricity • systems comprise three main components: solar panels, an inverter and a roof or ground mounting system, some systems incorporate battery backup. • each 10 kW of solar panels will require approximately 80m² roof space. • designed to last 20-30 years • payback periods as low as three to five years • hedge against rising electricity prices • government subsidies for up to 50% of the system cost • enhanced eco-friendly brand and image.

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411 or for more

Winebiz Weather offers growers free local weather service WINetItLeS hAS COLLABOrAteD with leading commercial weather information provider, Weatherzone, to create an invaluable weather service for Australian growers. housed on popular wine industry web portal, www.winebiz., growers will be able to search for current and forecast weather conditions.

January 2013 – Issue 588

Apart from temperature, details such as frost risk, dew point, humidity and wind speed are included, making it a very useful tool for managing crops. “Being informed on key aspects of growing conditions is critical for ensuring a maximum crop yield. Providing this customised weather service for growers

is another Winetitles’ initiative aimed at providing solutions to the wine industry,” Winetitles’ publisher, hartley higgins said.

For more information on Winebiz Weather contact 08 8369 9500 or email

Grapegrower & Winemaker


business & technology

Do you have employees or contractors? Understanding the differences between employee and contract relationships can help winery management ensure legal requirements are adhered to.

Melanie Reddaway Business columnist

IT’S THAT TIME of the year where businesses are starting to think about their vintage labour requirements, so I figured now is a good time to ask: do you know the difference between employees and contractors? Some businesses prefer to engage workers as contractors, presumably in an effort to avoid the administrative burden associated with ‘pay as you go’ (PAYG) withholdings and the cost associated with meeting superannuation and WorkCover obligations. However, attempting to hire a worker as a contractor where the reality is really an employment relationship can mean a business is breaking the law and risking the imposition of penalties, interest and charges by the Australian Tax Office (ATO). In determining whether a worker is an employee or a contractor, there is no hard and fast rule. The ATO considers six different factors:

Ability to sub-contract or delegate Contractors usually have the ability to sub-contract or delegate their work, while an employee is expected to personally perform their duties. To illustrate, Winery A engages Frank to prune a vineyard. Frank has a team of workers at his disposal and Winery A is not fussed who it is that actually does the pruning, as long as the work is performed to the agreed standard. This suggests Frank can be a contractor to Winery A. Winery B engages Betty to prune a vineyard. The expectation is that Betty will perform the work herself; it would not be acceptable for Betty to assign the work to another person. This suggests that the nature of Betty’s arrangement with Winery B is employment.

Basis of payment Employees are often paid with reference to time or on a per-item basis, whereas contractors are usually paid to provide an agreed result, in accordance with an accepted quote. For example, Winery A

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pays Julie, their cellar door cleaner, $25 per hour. This is characteristic of an employment relationship. Winery B got quotes from cleaners and engaged Bob, who quoted $100 to sweep and mop the floor and empty bins. It doesn’t matter whether it takes Bob 15 minutes or five hours, if he performs the agreed tasks to an acceptable standard, Winery B pays him $100. This is characteristic of a contractor relationship.

Contractors usually have the ability to subcontract or delegate their work, while an employee is expected to personally perform their duties. Equipment, tools and other assets A contractor can usually be expected to provide most or all of the equipment or tools necessary to perform their work, while an employee is usually provided with necessary items. Consider the case of haulage. Winery A engages Angus to haul their grapes to the winery. Angus supplies the truck he uses to perform this work. Winery B engages Annie to haul their grapes to the winery. Annie drives a truck that is owned and maintained by Winery B. Angus supplies his equipment, suggesting he is a contractor, while Annie uses equipment supplied to her, suggesting she is an employee.

Commercial risks As a contractor is running his or her own business, they bear the commercial risks associated with their actions. This means they take legal responsibility for their actions, can be expected to rectify faults or damage caused by them at their own cost, and will not be paid for the time or materials associated with rectifying the defect. Winery A engaged Max as a contract winemaker. One night, towards the end of vintage, Max was too exhausted to think straight and added some chemicals to the wrong batch of

wine. The wine was ruined, but luckily for Winery A Max was a legitimate contractor and was fully insured.

Control over work A contractor can be expected to have control over how and when their work is performed, while an employee is more likely to be subject to requirements of the employer. Harold is the bookkeeper at Winery A. He is required to produce monthly reports by the 14th of the following month, but it is up to him which days he works to meet this deadline, and it is also up to him whether he spends his time at the winery office or at his home office. This is characteristic of a contractor relationship. Lucy is the book-keeper at Winery B. She is also expected to produce monthly reports by the 14th of the following month. In addition, there is a company checklist she must work through while preparing the reports, and she is required to be present at the winery between 10am and 4pm, Monday through to Thursday. This is characteristic of an employment relationship.

Independence A contractor operates independently from the engaging business, operating their own business. In contrast, an employee is a part of the engaging business. Chloe looks after event planning for Winery A’s function centre. People who are interested in having an event at the winery are referred to Chloe, who also organises events for a few other function centres in the region, suggesting she is a contractor. Penny organises events to be held at Winery B, where she works exclusively. This suggests Penny is an employee. I’ll reiterate at this point that there is no single determining factor as to whether a person is an employee or a contractor – it is important to consider the nature of the relationship as a whole. The examples provided are intended to illustrate the factor they are provided in relation to. Since they only consider one factor, the outcome suggested in the example cannot be a definitive answer. If you’re confused or concerned about any of your relationships with workers, you should consult your accountant and/or check out the ATO’s website: January 2013 – Issue 588

Treasury Wine Estates makes an innovative move in wine logistics TWE takes a new approach to wine logistics, warehousing and distribution, with a new national distribution centre to be built in Adelaide, along with a series of satellite state warehouses around Australia. Grahame Whyte

LeADING AuStrALIAN WINe company treasury Wine estates (tWe) has formed a joint venture with Scandinavian firm, trebuchet Logistics, to manage tWe’s Australian domestic and export warehousing, distribution and logistics requirements under an innovative fourth party logistics (4PL) model. the 4PL model is a business arrangement where a firm outsources its logistical operations to two or more specialist firms (the third party logistics) and hires another specialist firm (the fourth party, in this case trebuchet Logistics) to coordinate the activities of the third parties. tim ford, tWe’s global director logistics said he was confident that the new model would prove to be superior. “Absolutely,” ford said. “It provides us with an opportunity to offer a more collaborative logistics solution for other manufacturers in the industry,” he said. “even as a standalone solution for treasury, we believe it will be far better on all cost and quality measures than what we have today – it’s right for us. “We were the foundation customer for trebuchet in the Nordics in 2008 and they’ve been testing out the business model for four years. It’s been pretty successful. “they’ve actually rolled it out across three different industries, not just alcoholic beverages – they’ve done it in hardware and fashion as well. It’s a proven model from the Nordics point of view. “there are two key reasons why we went down this path,” ford said. “firstly, in future we will have just one single relationship to manage across all of our domestic and export distribution,” he said. “We believed we needed to increase our competency around looking a total network, from bulk wine and packaging materials into our plants, right through to end customer delivery. to have one business that’s an interface, looking across the total network, we believe that’s where a lot of the efficiencies come from, rather than just focusing on every little piece individually. January 2013 – Issue 588

“In future we will have just one single relationship to manage across all of our domestic and export distribution.” Tim Ford, TWE’s global director logistics

“Secondly, for us to operate a strategy around collaborative logistics, you really do need an independent layer, an independent business that can deal with multiple manufacturers as well. “the key aims for the process include having a built-for-wine service for all our customers, whether that be a consumer at home, or a corner bottle shop in the inner city, or a retail distribution centre in Australia, or our export customers. “that’s a big difference from what we have today,” ford said. “We have separate, managed supply chains for our imported and export products and for domestic distribution. You don’t get any synergy across the lot

– you’re pulling from the same pool of inventory for all those different customer bases. “When it’s not one integrated supply chain, it is more inefficient. “We think the new model will help the quality of our product as well. “When we demerged from foster’s and became a pure-play wine business, we became very focused on ensuring that we enhance and manage the quality of our products, particularly our luxury and masstige range. “this model, given it is built and designed and specified to manage wine storage and movements – whether it be temperature control or different service offerings for the different product tiers – we’ll be able to do that.” treasury currently handles annual wine volumes of 17-18 million cases and the new network will cope with growth to 25-28 million cases. As a result, a new national distribution centre will be built in Penfield, in the northern suburbs of Adelaide, and a series of satellite state warehouses will be established and managed via trebuchet Logistics and their 3PL service providers. Knut Oksby, one of the founding partners of trebuchet Logistics Pty. Ltd., has moved to melbourne to implement the 4PL model and manage the joint venture operation. “I’m really excited to continue our relationship with tWe and introduce a new fully integrated supply chain management model to the Australian wine industry,” Oksby said. “We have seen how this model delivers efficiencies and value to all participating companies in Sweden, finland and Norway and we are keen to develop this business model in Australia.” the 4PL model will replace tWe’s existing domestic and export warehousing and logistics service contracts with CuB and macKenzie hillebrand, which expire in the next 12- 18 months. A phased implementation is scheduled to begin in July 2013, with all logistics services and the 4PL management model to become fully operational by April 2014. Grapegrower & Winemaker


business & technology

Export growth delivers cause for cautious optimism Danielle Costley

IN RECENT YEARS, the Australian wine industry has certainly been dealt its fair share of Export challenges. But the good news is that finally we are starting to see some ‘green shoots’, with double digit growth in bottled wine exports to China and growth at higher price points. Australia’s top 10 export markets are the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, China, Germany, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Singapore, Japan and the Netherlands. Our total value of exports is at $1.835 billion, equating to approximately 708 million litres of wine shipped annually. This represents a 2% decline in the year ended September 2012. While the value of wine exports has been declining since 2006-07, the average value per litre for Australian wine has actually increased. Bottled wine is up 4% to $4.42 per litre and bulk wine is up 4% to $1.03 per litre. “In the UK, we continue to outperform the market and remain the number one category in the off-trade. Australia’s strongest growth in the UK off-trade was in the above £10 per bottle segment –

up 42%,” says Wine Australia’s Louisa Aherne. “In the US, double digit growth was recorded in some of the higher priced segments, and in Canada, while overall exports declined there was 5% growth in the $10-$15 per litre segment, driven by sales growth in Quebec. Australian sales in Quebec alone have increased by 17%; more than three times the market rate of growth.”

“The number of Australian exporters sending wine in bulk to then bottle in-market, rather than in Australia, has increased from 14% to 52% in the past 10 years,” says a DAFF spokesperson. “One of the impacts of the increasing share of bulk exports has been the decline of the per litre export price, which has fallen by 60% in 2011-12 dollars between 2001-02 and 2011-12.”

Exports to Asia double in five years

Growth opportunities

On top of this, there has been a doubling of Australian bottled wine exports to Asia in the last five years. A decline in bottled wine exports was offset by an increase in bulk wine exports. For the first time, bulk exports have exceeded bottled – and the gap since then has continued to widen. Two key drivers of this are the strength in the Australian dollar and the growing presence of buyers-own brands. According to the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF), this shift towards bulk wine reflects a fundamental change in the way many exporters are now shipping wine to key markets.

As well as the growth at higher price points and the ‘green shoots’, Aherne says the Asia Pacific region presents growth opportunities, particularly in Singapore and South Korea. “Russia, Brazil and India also offer the potential for long-term growth, but there are currently many tariff and non-tariff barriers to entry, which Wine Australia is actively trying to address through government forums,” she includes. Other smaller markets to record growth in Australian exports include Thailand (up 10%), Switzerland (up 10%), India (up 151%), Russia (up 7%), and the Philippines (up 44%). With exports of five million litres, Singapore is Australia’s fourth biggest

We need to continue to evolve the positioning of Australian wine in our key export markets to build a higher value, premium perception. Louisa Aherne, Wine Australia

Wine is loaded onto a container for export.

78 Grapegrower & Winemaker

January 2013 – Issue 588

Overseas-bound containers are stacked high on this vessel.

destination in Asia. While the volume of exports declined by 10% in the latest period, the average value increased by 12% to $9.11 per litre. Exports to South Korea have increased by 2% and the average value increased by 9% to $6.93 per litre. Interestingly, just over three-quarters of the exports were red wine. Russian exports increased by 7%, however, the average value declined by 10% per litre. In Brazil, exports declined by 33%, but the average value increased by 18% and volumes were also the second biggest on record. Over 80% of the exports were red wine.

Producers urged to be ready Aherne says that while we have some way to go to address the challenges impacting on profitability, some of which are largely beyond the wine industry’s control, producers need to be in a position to take advantage of some of the emerging sustainable opportunities, such as growth at higher price points. “We need to continue to evolve the positioning of Australian wine in our key export markets to build a higher value, premium perception,” she states. There is no doubt that China has become a very attractive market for Australian wine exporters in recent years. China has consolidated its position as the biggest destination for Australian bottled wine exports above $7.50 per litre, ahead of the US and Canada. “China’s demand for premium wine continues to drive strong growth in the January 2013 – Issue 588

higher price segments, with the above $10.00 per litre segment a stand-out, up 37%. The average value per litre of Australian bottled imports to China is now for the first time higher than the average for French wines,” says Aherne. “China is therefore seen as a source not only of potential export growth but also as an opportunity to inject some profitability into the wine supply chain. “These opportunities, however, are not without contingent risk. More often than not the risk is of a technical nature. For instance, the commercial environment in China may be promising but, at the moment, the regulatory environment could best be described as somewhat unpredictable.”

Exports to 125 destinations South Australian wineries are currently exporting to 125 destinations. “We estimate that up to 100 of these could be considered ‘lesser known’ destinations for South Australian wine. There are still export opportunities for businesses, but it is worth noting that not all markets are right for each business. What might be the right export market for one business and its product might not be for another,” says the South Australian Wine Industry Association’s Olivia Bristow. Two Hands winery has been building a presence in Russia since 2010, where it has formed an alliance with Moscow’s Simple Wine. Export volumes have been steady, despite the fact there was a hiatus with imports to Russia for several months

in 2011 due to a change in government regulation and licensing in the liquor market.

Challenges of new markets “There are always challenges in setting up new markets. We are fortunate to be working with a company that provides us with good market communication to facilitate our understanding of the opportunities and challenges they are presented with,” says Tara Sullivan, Two Hands sales and marketing manager. “It was important for us to meet with and feel comfortable with the company that we selected to represent our brand and establish good lines of communication before we began exporting to Russia. “The next step will be to build on our success in the capital to reach consumers in other parts of the country.” In contrast, WA boutique producer Wine by Brad says its export markets have slowed considerably on the back of the strong Australian dollar. “Our distribution partners in each country urged us to adjust our pricing accordingly, however we were not in a position to offer substantial discounts to match the dollar’s rise,” says CEO Brad Wehr. “If I thought the Australian dollar was a short-term anomaly, we might’ve been able to take a temporary hit. However, I took the view this was a long-term trend and therefore could not entertain the idea of significant discounting for export when we were getting a better return in Australia.” Grapegrower & Winemaker


appointments & accolades Wine Victoria appoints executive officer

Mud House appoints new group winemaker

THE BOARD OF Wine Victoria has appointed Rachael Sweeney as the new executive officer of Wine Victoria. Sweeny joins Wine Victoria from Regional Capitals Australia Secretariat, an organisation working for the development of regional capitals across Australia, where she works as project director. She brings deep experience in membership engagement, stakeholder communications and media relations to Wine Victoria. “Rachael combines her passion for regional communities with a strong background in government relations and the board looks forward to working closely with her to make sure the industry’s voice is heard,” said Stephen Strachan, chairman of Wine Victoria.

THE MUD HOUSE Wine Group has appointed Ben Glover to the role of group winemaker. CEO M.J. Loza described the appointment as a significant step forward in continuing to develop Mud House Wine Group into a company recognised not just for outstanding wine quality, but also as an industry-leading, New Zealand-owned wine business. Glover joins Mud House Wine Group from Lion New Zealand where he held the role of director of winemaking and chief winemaker of Wither Hills Vineyards.

Winetitles’ GM joins wine supplier committee THE WINE INDUSTRY Suppliers Association has welcomed Elizabeth Bouzoudis – general manager for Winetitles, publisher of the Grapegrower & Winemaker magazine – to its committee for 2013. Bouzoudis said she was excited to be part of the WISA committee. “Product and service suppliers are critical to Australia’s wine industry success and development. Too often suppliers are the unsung heroes of some fantastic Australian-produced wine. This is why I see WISA as playing an important role in supporting and recognising this industry segment,” she said. Bouzoudis joins several wine industry professionals on the committee, including re-elected members Robert Pelton of Tarac Technologies and Hamish Black of Classic Oak, and new members Pamela Campusano of Bibber International and David Evans of Scholle Industries. The incumbent committee members are Matt Moate (WISA chair) of JMP Holdings, Tim Duval (WISA vice-chair) of Donaldson Walsh Lawyers and Emily Fraser of Pellenc Australia.

Jimmy Watson winner joins Shaw and Smith ADELAIDE HILLS’ WINERY Shaw and Smith has announced Adam Wadewitz (pictured) the maker behind the 2012 Jimmy Watson trophy-winning wine, will be joining their team early next year as senior winemaker.

80 Grapegrower & Winemaker

Kirrihill appoints new winemaker Adam Wadewitz

Wadewitz, 35, is a University of Adelaide Oenology graduate and has worked in the Adelaide Hills, Werribee, McLaren Vale, the Hunter Valley plus stints in France, Chile and the USA. Over the past six years he has made a reputation for himself in Great Western at Seppelt and Best’s where he made the 2012 Jimmy Watson trophy winner, the 2011 Best’s Bin 1 Shiraz. Wadewitz said he was excited about joining the team at Shaw and Smith. “It’s terrific to see cool climate varieties coming of age in Australia so to be joining Shaw and Smith, who excel in Shiraz, Chardonnay and Pinot Noir, is really exciting,” he said. Wadewitz was Joint Dux of the Len Evans Tutorial 2009 and Gourmet Traveller WINE Winemaker of the Year Finalist 2010.

New chair for Australia’s First Families of Wine MITCHELL TAYLOR OF Taylors Wines has stepped into the role of chairman of Australia’s First Families of Wine. Based in the Clare Valley, Taylors Wines is one of the 12 founding members of the AFFW which, up until recently, was chaired by Ross Brown. Taylor said he was determined to embrace opportunities in important export markets, including China. “As chairman, I hope to continue to build on the reputation of the AFFW, taking this Australian association to even greater heights by strengthening the ties made both here in our own backyard as well as overseas,” he said.

KIRRIHILL WINES, FROM South Australia’s Clare Valley, has appointed Hamish Seabrook as its head winemaker. Having most recently left Dorrien Estate, Seabrook previously honed his winemaking skills at Brown Brothers’ Milawa vineyards and winery and Best’s Wines in Great Western. Seabrook also has international experience, having worked in both California and New York State. “I am excited to be joining a winery whose ethos and approach is so closely aligned to the way I like to make wine. I love the Clare Valley and am looking forward to seeing what we can create together,” Seabrook said. Seabrook studied Oenology at the University of Adelaide and in 2004 won the Qantas Scholarship Dux at the Len Evans Wine Tutorial.

New chair for Margaret River Wine Show FOUNDER AND PARTNER in Melbourne’s Prince Wine Store, Philip Rich, has been announced the new chair of the Margaret River Wine Show. Rich joins an illustrious group of previous judging chairs, including John Hanley, Brian Croser, Huon Hooke and Iain Riggs. Rich has written the monthly wine column for the Australian Financial Review since 1999 and is judges regularly at wine shows around the nation. The association has announced international author and award-winning wine journalist Stephen Brook from the UK as its international judge for the Margaret River Wine Show (MRWS) this year. January 2013 – Issue 588

Australian Wine Export Market Snapshot The Australian Wine Export Market Snapshot is prepared by Wine Australia and provides the latest key statistics on exports of Australian wine. Updated monthly, the snapshot looks at the movement in total volume and value

for the past 12 months and then drills down into more detail such as the top five destinations by value growth, movements in container type, colour, winestyle, and price point, and the top five varietal and regional label claims on bottles.

The main purpose of the report is to provide some high-level trends for the Australian wine category. For more information please visit www., email to info@ or ring 08 8228 2010.

Highlights – year ended November 2012 Key statistics Total



Volume ML



Value $AM (fob)



Destinations (by value growth)


Growth ($Am)

China, Pr






Hong Kong



Germany, Federal Republic







% point change

Glass bottle

Container type (by volume)









Alternative packaging1




% point change


Still wine by colour (by volume)







% point change

Red still wine



White still wine












Price points (by volume)


% point change

Wine style (by volume)

$A2.49/L and under 2



$A2.50/L to A$4.99/L



$A5.00/L to A$7.49/L



$A7.50/L to A$9.99/L



$A10.00/L and over



Top five varietal label claims on bottles (by volume)



Shiraz and Shiraz blends



Chardonnay and Chardonnay blends




Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Sauvignon blends



Merlot and Merlot blends



Sauvignon Blanc and Sauvignon Blanc blends



Prepared: December 2012, updated monthly 1 Alternative packaging includes flagon, tetra, PET and other packaging types 2 The growth in this segment is due to growth bulk shipments as more Australian wine is being packaged overseas for a combination of reasons, including economic, environmental and scale rationale together with meeting the requirements of some customers. The change in share represents percentage point change in share between the current twelve month period compared to the preceding 12 month period. Based on data compiled from the AWBC Wine Export Approval System. Average Value ($AUD) calculated on FOB value. Free on Board (FOB) value includes production and other costs up until placement on international carrier but excludes international insurance and transport costs. Data is based on wine shipped from Australia to the country of destination - in some instances, wine is then transshipped to other countries for consumption.

Top five regional label claims on bottles (by volume)



South Eastern Australia



South Australia






McLaren Vale



Barossa Valley



January 2013 – Issue 588

Disclaimer: While Wine Australia makes every effort to ensure the accuracy and currency of information within this report, we accept no responsibility for information, which may later prove to be misrepresented or inaccurate, or reliance placed on that information by readers. Provisions of the Copyright Act 1968 apply to the contents of this publication, all other right reserved. For further copyright authorisation please see the website

Grapegrower & Winemaker


looking forward 2012 Australia & New Zealand January

8-9 Mornington Peninsula International Pinot Noir Celebration. Mornington Peninsula, VIC.

January-March 2013 Leeuwin Concert Series. Margaret River, WA.

9-10 Love Langhorne Creek Weekend. Langhorne Creek, SA.

14-18 (JD) Tasmanian Wine Show. Hobart, TAS.

9 Taste the Limestone Coast Festival. Naracoorte, SA.

18-20 Gold Coast Food & Wine Expo. Gold Coast, QLD.

10 Mornington Peninsula Pinot Showcase. Cape Schanck, VIC.

20 (JD) South Coast Wine Show. Ulladulla, NSW. 22 AWRI Tannin & Brett Workshop (Mudgee). Mudgee, NSW. au/industry_support/courses-seminarsworkshops/events 24 AWRI Tannin & Brett Workshop (Canberra). Bungendore, NSW. www. 27 Crush '13 Adelaide Hills Wine & Food Festival. Adelaide Hills, SA. 28-31 Pinot Noir NZ 2013. Wellington, NZ.

International January 15-17 SIVAL. Angers, France. 28-30 Millésime Bio 2013. France. 29-31 Unified Wine & Grape Symposium. USA.

February 6-8 Wine Industry Workshop Viticulture 2013. New York, USA. http:// enology

28 (CD) Royal Easter Show Wine Awards. Auckland, NZ.

8-9 Washington DC International Wine & Food Festival. Washington, USA. www.


13-16 Biofach 2013. Nürnberg, Germany.

1-2 Nelson International Aromatics Symposium. Nelson, NZ.

14-16 Texas Wine & Growers Association Annual Conference & Trade Show. Texas, USA.

2 The Donnybrook Wine & Food Festival. Donnybrook, WA.

JD = judging date CD = closing date

4-7 (JD) SYDNEY 2013 Macquarie Group Sydney Royal Wine Show. Sydney Olympic Park, NSW.

For a comprehensive list of events, visit

Winebiz Calendar Australia’s most comprehensive list of wine industry related local and international events and courses – available online FREE! Search for conferences, trade shows, competitions, courses, festivals & Australian & international wine shows. 82 Grapegrower & Winemaker

looking back We step back in time to see what was happening through the pages of Grapegrower and Winemaker this month 10, 20 and 30 years ago. February 1983 The chairman of the Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation Robert Hesketh has moved to encourage public debate of evidence submitted to the Australian Broadcasting Tribunal’s current review of the advertising code governing alcohol commercials on television. Options the Tribunal is considering range from freeing the code of anomalies which restrict alcohol advertising to introducing a total ban on all alcohol commercials. He said submissions made to the Tribunal by a large number of special interest groups, including the AWBC, should be subjected to the “hard, cold light” of open examination.

February 1993 Australia and the European Community have finalised negotiations on a bilateral wine agreement which recognises the legitimate basis for each other’ winemaking practices and aims to foster trade in wine between both parties. The finalisation of the agreement was welcomed in a joint statement on 6 December by the Australian Minister for Primary Industries and Energy, Simon Crean, the chairman of the Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation, George Paciullo, and the president of the winemakers’ Federation of Australia, Brian Croser.

February 2003 The Board of the Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation has agreed to investigate the prospects of a merger with the Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation. In his address to the annual meeting of the AWBC, held recently at the National Wine Centre in Adelaide, AWBC chairman David Brownhill said that the merger had been one of the recommendations of the Federal Government-funded report, ‘Pathways to profitability for small and medium wineries’, released in October. January 2013 – Issue 588

annual index A catalogue of the major articles published in the Australian & New Zealand Grapegrower & Winemaker during 2012: Nos 576 to 587. Login to the Grapegrower & Winemaker Article Archive at to search for articles by keyword. Analytical Services Wineries embrace sensory analysis. Kellie Arbuckle. 580: 69-70. Non-invasive spectroscopic screening: a new approach to assessing damaged wines – Part 1. Neil Scrimgeour, Wies Cynkar and Eric Wilkes. 582: 77-78. Non-invasive spectroscopic screening: a new approach to assessing damaged wines – Part 2. Neil Scrimgeour, Wies Cynkar and Eric Wilkes. 583: 70-73. Wine analysis during crushing and pressing. Greg Howell. 584: 91. Testing for acidity and pH in wine made easier. Stephen O’Loughlin. 587: 76-78. Bird Control Trapping helps eradicate Indian mynas from vineyards. Kellie Arbuckle. 585: 58. Don’t be scared when it comes to dealing with birds. Kellie Arbuckle. 587: 47-48. Bottling, Labelling and Packaging Label Q&A – Motiv; Chalk Hill Wines. 577: 75. Label Q&A – Mammoth and Elefont Design; Cape Jaffa Wines. 578: 77. Glass wine bottles here to stay. Chris Herden. 578: 78-80. Programming better production. Kellie Arbuckle. 578: 81. Label Q&A – Graphic Language Design; Bridgeview Wines. 579: 85. Sydney bottling line to cut freight costs. 579: 87-88. Preparation is paramount for mobile bottling runs. Danielle Costley. 580: 93-95. Label Q&A – Design Energy; Dinny Goonan. 580: 96. Taylors forges its future in Australian wine. Danielle Costley. 582: 82-85. New Barossa bottle provides increased regional identification. 582: 83. Regional reputation is all in the bottle. 583: 94-96. Label Q&A – Heine Jones; Tar & Roses. 583: 97. Covering the full spectrum in packaging. 583: 98-99. From bud to bottle. 583: 100. Wineries benefit from shared bottling facility. Kellie Arbuckle. 584: 119-120. Label Q&A – TypeSpace; Chaffey Bros Wine Company. 584: 124-125. Label Q&A – Fifty Design; Deakin Estate. 585: 115. Label Q&A: Saunders Design Group; Chalmers. 586: 99. Mildura bottling facility puts its best foot forward. 586: 100-102. Portavin expands sparkling capacity. Kellie Arbuckle. 586: 103. Label Q&A: Amplify Industries; Hungerford Hill Collection. 587: 83. Branding of a difference stands out on the inside. Stephen O’Loughlin. 587: 89.

Covercrops Native perennial grasses reap both cost and environmental awards. Kellie Arbuckle. 582: 19-22. Education and Training Bucher Vaslin at the heart of Waite winery. 578: 14. Wine scholarship a memorial to German daughter and friend. 579: 81. Wine business philosophy. Chris Herden. 580: 98-99. New push to connect students with industry. Kellie Arbuckle. 582: 90. Today’s students, tomorrow’s workers. 584: 129. Adelaide Uni to replace undergraduate wine marketing course. 584: 130. Riverina embraces young talent. Kellie Arbuckle. 584: 131. Environmental Management Global forum focused on climate change. Drs Cassandra Collins and Roberta De Bei. 576: 23-25. Environmental management systems in New Zealand wineries: is SWNZ the answer? TracyAnne De Silva and Sharon L. Forbes. 582: 75-76. Climate variability the main challenge. Mike Stone. 584: 28. Warming enlarges stomata in Shiraz. Victor Sadras, Amelia Montoro, Martin Moran and Pedro Aphalo. 584: 41. Study explores warming effect on grapevine yield in the Barossa. Victor Sadras and Martin Moran. 584: 42-43. Climate change and the Tasmanian Wine Cluster. Dr Jeremy Galbreath. 584: 82-84. Wineries awarded for commitment to environment. Kellie Arbuckle. 585: 14. Crop forcing improves winegrape quality in warm climates. Jon Tourney. 585: 34-36. Treasury takes sustainability to new heights. Kellie Arbuckle. 586: 25-27. Wineries demonstrate leadership through green credentials. Grahame Whyte. 587: 8-9. Yalumba winery leads the way in climate action. 587: 15. Adapting to drier and warmer conditions in the vineyard and winery. 587: 16. Innovative region sets new benchmarks for sustainable viticulture. Kellie Arbuckle. 587: 23. Investment in renewable energies allows wineries to enhance their green footprint. 587: 51-55.

Business and Technology (see also Information Technology) Eastern Europe opportunity complex but growing. 576: 82-83. Fixed and variable costs of gidgets, ridgets and widgets. Melanie Reddaway. 577: 76-77. Interest rates: comparing oranges and apples. Melanie Reddaway. 579: 86. Green shoots to build on. Peter Bailey. 582: 89-90. Quality wines expected from 2012 crush. Peter Bailey. 583: 102-103. Bulk asserts its place as most dynamic wine segment. 583: 106. Clearing stocks for cash (without cannibalisation). Melanie Reddaway. 584: 128. Sales trends reflect variety. Peter Bailey. 584: 132-133. Live-streaming events can turn your brand website into a virtual cellar door. Dr Roberta Veale. 586: 105-107. Email and internet crucial for wine business. 587: 90-91. 2012 vineyards survey data – removals. Peter Bailey. 587: 95. Canopy Management Root pruning and covercrops combine to control vigour. Ask the AWRI. 576: 29-30. Pre-flowering defoliation as a vineyard management tool for cool climates. Mark Krasnow. 579: 49-51. Mixed cost and quality effects from thinning. Ask the AWRI. 579: 52. Addressing fruit exposure in Granite Belt Chardonnay. Ursula Kennedy and Dylan Rhymer. 579: 55-58. Crushing and Pressing Basket presses offer intuitive technology. Danielle Costley. 577: 48-49. Europress delivers flexibility and savings for small winery. Kellie Arbuckle. 581: 75-76. January 2013 – Issue 588

Crushing the myths about pressing. Gerri Nelligan. 584: 98-100. The world in a basket. Kellie Arbuckle. 584: 102-103. Making wine ... or making a winery? Chris Herden. 585: 70-71.

Export Wine export approval panel scrapped. 578: 7. Will new necessarily mean better? Jeni Port. 578: 75-76. Canada promotion delivers big results. Peter Bailey. 578: 89-90. Export figures support high expectations. Peter Bailey. 579: 90-91. Glimmer of good in tough export report. 581: 90. Bulk shipments no longer carry ‘cheap and cheerful’ tag. Kellie Arbuckle. 581: 92. Bulk of the issue is cost-savings. Peter Bailey. 581: 93-94. The great export boom: lesson learnt. Jeni Port. 583: 91-92. Bulk wines overtake bottled exports. Danielle Costley. 583: 104-105. South Africa’s bulk exports soar as cost cutting promotes bottling offshore. Sharon Nagel. 585: 113-114. Fermentation Top tips to help select fermenters. Blair Hanel. 576: 60-62. Inoculation for MLF reduces overall vinification time. Caroline Abrahamse and Eveline Bartowsky. 578: 41-46. Reduce vintage costs and improve process control with new ferment simulation tool. Richard Muhlack. 582: 62-665. Constant observation key to avoiding dilemma of stuck ferments. Ask the AWRI. 582: 66-67. Malolactic fermentation issues explored. Ask the AWRI. 584: 86-90. Fertilisers and Nutrition Organic fertiliser reaps high yields with consistent quality. Kellie Arbuckle. 579: 53-54. Composting marc onsite for economic and environmental gains. Kellie Arbuckle. 580: 36-38. Biodynamic Paste helps fight dying arm disease. 583: 63. Plant tissue analysis can assist growers. Ben Rose. 586: 54.

Grapegrower & Winemaker


annual index Stoller beams some light onto the crop production debate. 586: 55-56. What are the benefits of nutritional analysis and how do I get the most from the results? Ask the AWRI. 587: 49. Filtration and Clarification Brettanomyces removal with BECOPAD filtration. Dr Paul K. Bowyer, Blue H20 Filtration. 578: 62. Filtration and the problems it can cause in wines. Greg Howell. 578: 64-65. NTU vs wine filterability index – what does it mean for you? Paul Bowyer, Greg Edwards and Amelia Eyre. 585: 76-80. To filter – or not to filter. 586: 88-93. Frost Protection Frost threat puts Marlborough wineries on alert. 580: 49-51. Vineyard planning and management must address frost hazards. Max Marriott. 582: 41-42. Grapegrowing Limestone values unearthed. Chris Herden. 576: 20-21. Long-awaited volume of knowledge in print. Ben Rose. 576: 22. Tasmania lifts sparkling wine research. Mark Smith. 577: 16-18. OctoKopter spots quality from above. Kellie Arbuckle. 577: 28-29. Do past mistakes continue to haunt industry? 578: 23-26. Growers to benefit from new forecasts. Kellie Arbuckle. 578: 29. High temperature disrupts anthocyanin: sugar balance in reds. Victor Sadras and Martin Moran. 578: 30-31. The light touch on wine quality. Professor Brian R. Jordan. 580: 21-22. Growers flock to sheep workshops. 581: 33-34. Young Vine Decline is studied closely in NSW. Dr Melanie Weckert. 583: 33-34. Winegrowers seek harmony through biodynamics. Max Marriott. 583: 36. Is the Shiraz berry the biggest loser? Steve D. Tyerman, Sigfredo Fuentes, Cassandra Collins and Sue Bastian. 583: 42-44. Significant variations in iconic Coonawarra vineyard lead to radical solutions. Grahame Whyte. 584: 18-23. Vineyard management in spring – Margaret River. Danielle Costley. 584: 30-31. From TLC to chainsaw. 584: 44-45. Improved vineyard biosecurity and hygiene practices. John Whiting. 585: 44-46. What can be done in the vineyard to manage risk in difficult seasons? Part 1. Mary Retallack. 586: 30-37. Let it hang – fruit thinning not needed? Dr Mark Greenspan. 586: 38-39. Creating resilient landscapes in the Barossa Valley. 587: 24. What can be done in the vineyard to manage risk in difficult seasons? Part 2. Mary Retallack. 587: 30-34. Harvesting How and why identify matter other than grapes. Ask the AWRI. 580: 77-78. Timing of harvest is a key decision for winemakers. Ask the AWRI. 585: 38-39. Planning provides for a successful harvest. Gerri Nelligan. 585: 52-56. Machine harvesting vs handpicking. Paul Kilmartin. 585: 81-86. Information Technology What do online search engines know about me? Paul Williams. 576: 80-81. Data: why do I have so much and where should I put it all? Paul Williams. 577: 78-79. Demystifying content management systems. Paul Williams. 579: 89. Going mobile to reduce errors in the winery. 580: 100. Vineyard data is all in the clouds. Kellie Arbuckle. 582: 48. Wine club operators benefit from new e-commerce technology. Kellie Arbuckle. 585: 122-123. Irrigation Vineyard irrigation efficiency and management can be enhanced by understanding of soil evaporation losses. Belinda L. Kerridge. 582: 36-39. Irrigation – don’t leave essential planning until it becomes a last minute rush. Ben Rose. 582: 40. Tracking lost irrigation water. Eve-Lyn S. Hinckley. 584: 34-38. DELTA technology provides vital boost to Aussie grapegrowers. 586: 58. Wine and Shows, Expos and Trends Great Southern targets Taiwan, Hong Kong. Elizabeth Reed. 577: 50-51. Variety driving innovation in vineyards. Peter Bailey. 577: 72-74. Expo puts focus in innovation. Tony Hoare. 577: 80-82. US trade show positive for Australian exhibitors. Hartley Higgins. 578: 84-85. More national wine shows change judging system. 581: 15.

84 Grapegrower & Winemaker

South Australia gets latest consumer insights. Kellie Arbuckle. 581: 20-21. ProWein expands to meet strong demand. Grahame Whyte. 582: 73-74. Conference reveals renewed faith in industry. Kellie Arbuckle. 583: 24. All set for Bordeaux’s upcoming Vinitech show. 583: 29. Challenge more than just country rivalry. Kellie Arbuckle. 587: 58-59. Legal and Insurance Advice Relationship key to contract confidence. 577: 57-60. Rocky relationships hinders industry future. Jen Barwick. 578: 19-22. The contract is just the beginning. 578: 51-53. Rules and regulations on the move. Ask the AWRI. 578: 60. Team effort needed for happy resolutions. Jen Barwick. 579: 47-48. New legislation for securing rights over fruit. Lawrie Stanford. 580: 33. Facing up to possibility of total recall is recommended. 583: 108-109. Vineyard owners can lodge an objection to rating values when values have decreased. Ben Rose. 584: 40. Law and trade changes may help organic wine. Andrew Rosenbaum. 587: 56-57. Personal property securities – how these will affect you. Sandy Donaldson and Tim Duval. 587: 92-93. International Wine Law Association conference a success in Canberra. Will Taylor. 587: 94. Materials Handling Improving winery maintenance by low cost, effective condition monitoring. Ian Jeffery. 576: 70-72. Hygiene practices keep you in business. John Whiting. 582: 30-31. Springtime brings life to vineyards. Chris Herden. 584: 62. News Australian wine to benefit from nine-way trade agreement. 576: 9 National body looking to cut costs. 576: 10 Director shines light on Oz wine evolution. Kellie Arbuckle. 577: 10-12. Council considers funding restructure. Kellie Arbuckle. 577: 12. Industry champions prepare for the future. 578: 8-12. More US and local interest in wine properties. 578: 13. Vale Trevor Mast. 578: 7. Tasmanian wine set for ‘substantial growth’. Kellie Arbuckle. 581: 7-8. Orlando announces big job cuts. 581: 8. Budget delivers welcomed dollars to industry. 581: 10. New chief executive named. 581: 11. Canada gets competitive. 581: 15. Transparency and security needed in Murray Darling Basin Plan. Kellie Arbuckle. 581: 19. Low-alcohol trend risking Aussie terroir and naturalness. Kellie Arbuckle. 582: 7-8. Carbon tax set to change business. Andy Chambers. 582: 10-13. ‘Drip fed’ payments fail to nourish grapegrowers. Kellie Arbuckle. 583: 17-20. Vintage results reveal extraordinary opportunities for Aussie wine. Kellie Arbuckle. 583: 22. Of grape and wine: history captured as it was made. Kellie Arbuckle. 583: 23. Industry backs GWRDC plan. Kellie Arbuckle. 584: 7-9. Ex-WFA chief to guide Wine Victoria restructure. Kellie Arbuckle. 584: 10. Industry slams DrinkWise audit as false and misleading. Kellie Arbuckle. 584: 10. Funds of $200k needed to secure industry against disease. Jen Barwick and Kellie Arbuckle. 584: 12. Change agenda includes new thinking. 585: 10. Wine industry pays tribute to inventor. Kellie Arbuckle. 585: 12. South Australian Winegrape Crush Survey State Summary 2012. 585: 16-17. Rabobank reveals latest global wine trends. Kellie Arbuckle. 585: 18. Time for a new national body to oversee biosecurity. 586: 7. Wine, health and the Australian context. 586: 8-9. Wine shows strong growth on home front. Kellie Arbuckle. 586: 10. Wineries hurt by online discounting. Kellie Arbuckle. 586: 12. Customer-value pricing for better returns. Kellie Arbuckle. 586: 14. Supporting women in wine. Kellie Arbuckle. 586: 20-21. Chinese consider phosphorous acid wine limits. Kellie Arbuckle. 586: 56. Pioneer winemaker Ray Beckwith dies at 100. Grahame Whyte. 587: 7. UK overcomes grudge against Aussie wine. Kellie Arbuckle. 587: 10. Great Southern Riesling is top regional drop. 587: 60. New Zealand’s young winemakers dominate awards. 587: 61. Oak What’s new in barrel racking and washing. Blair Hanel. 578: 66-67. Wine industry feels the pressure. 583: 88. Oak alternatives – what’s new out there? Blair Hanel. 584: 104-108.

January 2013 – Issue 588

Winemakers Xoak up soft wine. Kellie Arbuckle. 584: 109-110. An alternative approach to measuring dose rates for wood pieces. Andrei Prida and Benoit Verdier. 584: 111-114. New developments create impressive result. Danielle Costley. 587: 66-67. Oak deserves its fine environmental credentials. 587: 68-71.

Refrigeration and Cooling Capitalising on tartrate stabilisation. Dr Vince O’Brien. 577: 62-64. Right tools deliver the most out of low cost, effective condition monitoring. Ian Jeffery. 577: 66-67. Designing a low-carbon refrigeration system makes good sense. Rocky Moyes. 585: 101-104. Benchmarking a continuous tartrate stabilisation system. Warren Roget. 585: 106-108.

Pest and Disease Management Developing a targeted detection approach for grapevine phylloxera. Rebecca Bruce, David Lamb, Ary Hoffmann and Kevin Powell. 576: 15-18 Crush snail problem with targeted approach. Michael Nash and Linda Thomson. 576: 26-28. Floor management practices to reduce pest-nematode in vineyards. Loothfar Rahman, Melanie A. Whitelaw-Weckert, Gregory Dunn. 577: 20-23. What’s bugging grapegrowers in Britain? Chris Malumphy. 577: 24-27. More strobilurin-resistant powdery mildew detected in vineyards. Dr Trevor Wicks and Doug Wilson. 580: 24. New research looks at matching spray program to vineyard variability. Jen Barwick. 581: 24-28. Phylloxera concerns stall cross-border quarantine changes. Jen Barwick. 582: 23-25. Vinevax Bio-inoculant trichoderma treatment for Eutypa shows promise in Henschke Vineyards. Mike Roberts. 582: 26-29. Grapevine resistance to rootknot nematode, Meloidogyne fallax. G. Walker and M. Russ. 583: 38-39. Biopest offers grower options for powdery mildew or mealybugs. 583: 43. Strobilurin resistance to powdery mildew in a vineyard. Ask the AWRI. 583: 46. Survival and spread of downy mildew. Trevor Wicks and David Braybrook. 583: 47-48. Sustainable pest control – now and in a changing climate. 584: 48-55. Awl nematode discovered in South Australia. G. E. Walker. 584: 56. Top 10 tips for effective spraying. Marcel Essling. 584: 57. drumMUSTER acts to save the last drop. 584: 64. New-approach fungicides for Australian viticulture. 584: 65. New fungicide offers exciting alternative for viticulture. 584: 66. Understanding vineyard chemicals. Trevor Wicks and David Braybrook. 585: 42-43. Phylloxera outbreak simulation – an education for Barossa growers. 586: 19. Highlights from the international workshop on grapevine trunk diseases. Mark Sosnowski. 586: 40-43. Using Biopest to control powdery mildew in the Riverina. 586: 45. Tendrils – should you remove them? Tessa Nicholson. 586: 46-47. Growers urged to review fungicide strategies. 586: 48-49. Spray application in vineyards – still the key to successful pest and disease management. Mark Krstic. 587: 28. Strong anecdotal evidence of Latania scale being a vector for grapevine leafroll associated virus. Diana Fisher and Stewart Learmonth. 587: 35. Symptoms and management of bot canker. Wayne M. Pitt and Sandra Savocchia. 587: 36-39. Victorian phylloxera exclusion zone launched with confidence. 587: 41.

Sales and Marketing What influences a distributor’s decision on who to represent? Part 1. Dr Steve Goodman. 576: 73-77. Brazil opportunities beckoning. Jen Barwick. 577: 68-69. Templates to help growers step up and stand out. Kellie Arbuckle. 578: 27-28. Wine communicators, the new wine writers. Kellie Arbuckle. 578: 72-73. Wine regions dig deep to promote unique identity. Danielle Costley. 579: 67-68. What influences the Chinese distributor’s choice on which winery to represent? Part 2. Dr Steve Goodman and Teagan Altschwager. 579: 79-80. Wineries get on board event management. Kellie Arbuckle. 579: 83-84. Author reveals first steps to marketing magic. Jen Barwick. 580: 88-89. Wine trade gets serious with online forums. Kellie Arbuckle. 580: 91-92. What influences the Chinese off-premise market choice? Dr Steve Goodman and Teagan Altschwager. 581: 81-84. It’s still about the message, whatever the medium. Angie Bradbury. 582: 88. Co-creation and engagement key to wine club success. Kellie Arbuckle. 583: 89-90. Aiming for effective international communications. Jeffrey Wilkinson and Rosemary Scott. 583: 93. How do country of origin, closure type and label style affect purchase decisions? Dr Roberta Veale, Pascale Quester and Dr Michael Proksch. 584: 115-117. City sellers. Kellie Arbuckle. 584: 126. Wine education for consumers. Jeffrey Wilkinson. 584: 127. Why Chinese on-premise choose the wines they carry. Dr Steve Goodman and Teagan Altschwager. 585: 109-110. Horses for courses gives Sirromet Wines a win at Birdsville. Grahame Whyte. 585: 111. Wine science: do we really need to know? Jeni Port. 585: 112. The iron (III) tartrate photochemistry of wine: impacts of bottle colour and weight. Dr Andrew C Clark and Dr Daniel A Dias. 585: 118-121. Recovering Australia’s prominence requires key marketing thrusts. Mike Paul. 587: 11-12. Outlook conference provides a springboard to success. 587: 82. Nurturing and protecting our environment makes sense. Jeffrey Wilkinson. 587: 84. Turning your one-time customers into long-term members. Michael van der Sommen. 587: 85. Selling wine online. Adrian Mullan. 587: 86.

Profiles Paul Smart. 576:30. Liam Heslop. 579: 78. Bart Molony. 582: 50. David Lloyd. 585: 94.

Dan Swincer. 577: 61. Victoria Leeke. 578: 32. John Schiller. 580: 35. Fiona Donald. 581: 74. Chris Tyrrell. 583: 82. Matt Duggan. 584: 46. Prue Henschke. 586: 44. Justin Purser. 587: 80.

Pruning, Training and Trellising Picking pruners. Kellie Arbuckle. 578: 33-34. Old tool gets a modern makeover. Ben Rose. 579: 59-60. Forcing fruit quality in hot climates. Frank Smith. 580: 39-40. A new grape training system to suit machine pruning. Cesare Intrieri and Ilaria Filippetti. 580: 41-48. Simple invention takes risk out of pneumatic pruning. Kellie Arbuckle. 582: 34-35. Casella Wines switches to steel trellising system. 583: 60. Environmentally friendly trellising is here to stay. 583: 62. 130-year-old Grampians vineyard delays pruning. 584: 47. WoodShield post gets innovation award. Kellie Arbuckle. 587: 43-44. Pumps Winery pumps need consideration. Gerri Nelligan. 586: 94-96. Italian pump manufacturer puts quality first. Grahame Whyte. 587: 62. Recruitment and Salaries Investment in people crucial to agribusiness. Kellie Arbuckle. 578: 86. People definitely make the business. Jeffrey Wilkinson. 586: 98.

January 2013 – Issue 588

Smoke Taint Centre opened to combat smoke taint. Mike Stone. 582: 49. Smoke taint in wine unchanged by differences in vegetation. David Kelly. 582: 59-60. Smoke taint symposium unveils some exciting new developments. Dr Mark Krstic. 583: 40. A burning issue: the impact of vineyard exposure to smoke. Kerry Wilkinson and Renata Ristic. 585: 47-49. Special Reports My View: Impacts of the Murray Darling Basin Plan. Di Davidson. 576: 6. My View: Agriculture leaders key to Australian future. Major General Michael Jeffery. 577: 6. The year ahead. Jeni Port. 576: 78-79. Serve size and cheap drinks fire alcohol debate. Jeni Port. 577: 70. My View: Creating a national dialogue. Angie Bradbury. 578: 6. Overseas vintage opportunities await. Sue Caloghiris. 578: 87-88. My View: Defining cool climate. Andrew Pirie. 579: 6. Top 20 Australian wine companies: Industry reading cautious path to optimism. Tony Keys. 579: 16-34. Sauvignon Blanc, no more? Jeni Port. 579: 82. My View: Family history with an eye on the future. Rebecca Dolan. 580: 6. Passion, patience and a little ingenuity helps small players achieve big. Jen Barwick and Kellie Arbuckle. 580: 61-68. Foreign love affair. Jeni Port. 580: 90. My View: Industry now has clear goals to map own success. Stephen Strachan. 581: 6. Rhone, home on the range. Laurie Martin. 581: 12-14. Assessing sun-smart protection. Ask the AWRI. 581: 36-37. Alcohol and health research under the microscope. Danielle Costley. 581: 55-56. My View: Winegrape sector recovery could stall without further cool region removals. Mark McKenzie. 582: 6. Plenty of action in India’s wine sector. Part 1. Denis Gastin. 582: 68-69. Tall poppy syndrome strikes Casella Wines. Jeni Port. 582: 81. My View: Federation is in listening mode. Paul Evans. 583: 6.

Grapegrower & Winemaker


annual index Small players the big winners for tomorrow’s vineyard. Kellie Arbuckle. 583: 64. New WFA president optimistic about a bright future for wine. Tony D’Aloisio. 583: 65. Plenty of action in India’s wine sector. Part 2. Denis Gastin. 583: 66-69. My View: An agenda for pleasing people some of the time. George Wilcox. 584: 6. International guests at wine tastings. Jeni Port. 584: 118. My View: Time to inspire consumers to discover value and enjoyment in Australian wine. Terry Morris. 585: 6. Selective science – from the vineyard to the winery. Kellie Arbuckle. 585: 8-9. My View: The rise and rise of process at the expense of outcome. Robin Day. 586: 6. Celebrating the people behind the wine. 586: 76-80. My View: Capturing the value of R&D with a greater emphasis on extension. Hon Rory McEwen. 5887: 6. Soil Management Mulching, soil amendments and management in a commercial vineyard. David Hansen. 581: 38-41. Soil is not just dirt. Frank Smith. 582: 32-33. Growers gain significant savings from use of award-winning Observant soil moisture monitoring solution. 584: 68. Removing vine soil mounding is first step to redirecting beneficial rainfall. Rob Stevens and Tim Pitt. 584: 69-70. Tanks, Catwalks and Storage Winemakers explore best options for oak and tank storage. Blair Hanel. 583: 83-87. New maturation technologies deliver award-winning wine. 587: 64-65. Taxation Tax and your end-of-vintage party. Melanie Reddaway. 581: 89. R&D and liquor licensing for wine industry. Tim Edgecombe. 582: 15-16. Tax office targets wine producers with audits. Kellie Arbuckle. 585: 7. New WET rules to reduce rebate on blended wines. 586: 18. Vine Improvements and Rootstocks Fresh calls for national clean plant network. Kellie Arbuckle. 579: 44-46. Recovery of grapevines from fire damage. John Whiting. 580: 25-31. Researcher to decode key Australia rootstock. Kellie Arbuckle. 581: 22-23. Integrating biodiversity in and around vineyards. 581: 29-32. Illegal plantings raise nursery concern. Kellie Arbuckle. 581: 42-43. Monitoring water stress in vineyards. Guido D’Urso, Mario Palladino and Anna Staiano. 583: 48-49. Research body considers consolidation of germplasm collections. Kellie Arbuckle. 584: 14. Soil nutrients essential to nurture the vines through summer. Danielle Costley. 586: 50-52. Vineyard Machinery Grower field day attracts big crowd. Kellie Arbuckle. 576: 32-34. Field day hailed as relevant for industry. Kellie Arbuckle. 577: 30-32. Revolution begins in the vineyard. Kath Gannaway. 579: 62. New tools for the vineyard. 581: 44-48. Dominique Portet invests in new destemmer. Blair Hanel. 581: 79-80. Tunnel sprayers – the ultimate precision sprayer for the vineyard. Andrew Landers, Tim Gale and Kathy Evans. 582: 44-47. Articulated quadtrack is a showstopper. 583: 51-52. Vineyard manager savours performance. 583: 54. Tractor purchases require planning and assessment. 583: 58-59. Electrostatic sprayer hits the spot. 585: 62. Demand remains high for vineyard data services. 585: 63-64. Amadio Vineyard’s investment still delivering quality four years on. 587: 25. Electrostatic sprayer to benefit smaller growers. Kellie Arbuckle. 587: 46. Vintage Report Yields down, demand up. 576: 7-8. Vintage confidence grows. Kellie Arbuckle. 577: 7-9. Quality outweighs quantity in vintage 2012. Kellie Arbuckle and Jen Barwick. 580:7-16. Outstanding vintage expected to counter ongoing oversupply issues. Grahame Whyte. 583: 7-15. Wine closures Sparkling screwcap to rival pop and bang of cork. Kellie Arbuckle. 578: 82. Screwcap offers new twist on sparkling closures. Kellie Arbuckle. 581: 85- 86. Cork wins on sustainability. Stephen O’Loughlin. 587: 88.

86 Grapegrower & Winemaker

Winemaking More to the story of alcohol consumption and cancer. Creina Stockley. 576: 45-49. Malic acid uncovered. Rachel Gore. 576: 50-53. WA Cabernet Sauvignon clones focus of new research. Danielle Costley. 576: 55-56. Having faith pays off for Protero. Kellie Arbuckle. 576: 57-58. Unravelling the future of genetic modification in winemaking. Jen Barwick. 576: 64-66. Time to begin planning the Winery of the Future. Roundtable. 577: 41-44. Bung: the smart route to wine quality. Kellie Arbuckle. 577: 46. Genomic technology focus on WA’s elite Cabernet clones. Danielle Costley. 578: 47-48. The pH influence on micro-oxygenation. Nikolaos Kontoudakis, Elena Gonzaiez, Mariona Gil, Mireia Esteruelas, Francesca Fort, Joan Miquel Canals and Fernando Zamora. 578: 54-58. Experience leads to innovation. Kellie Arbuckle. 578: 67. Series seeks human touch over terroir. Kellie Arbuckle. 579: 73-74. Building presence in US wine market. Laurie Martin. 579: 76. The addition of bentonite at different stages of white winemaking and its effect on protein stability. Matteo Marangon, Ken F. Pocock and Elizabeth J. Waters. 580: 71-73. Modulating wine style with DAP: case studies with Albarino and Chardonnay. 581: 57-63. Is the drinking water at your winery safe to drink? Greg Howell. 582: 70-72. Save money and wine by choosing the right bentonite. Simon Kinley and Darko Obravovic. 583: 74-77. Bottle shock: what is it and what are the causes? Lance Cutler. 583: 80-81. Using your egg is a natural for this down to earth winemaker. Grahame Whyte. 584: 96-97. WineCloud provides future direction for winemakers. Neil Scrimgeour and Eric Wilkes. 585: 65-69. Cabernet explored during Margaret River workshop. Danielle Costley. 585: 72-74. Building a new winery is a labour of love. 585: 91-92. Wine from the backyard. Kellie Arbuckle. 585: 116-117. US north coast gets access to flash extraction. Andrew Adams. 586: 67. A story of renewal in an ancient land. Adam Montefiore. 586: 68-72. Developing countries join ranks of participants in 2012 World Bulk Wine Exhibition. 586: 73. By Jingo – it’s good. Kellie Arbuckle. 586: 74. Eleven countries participate in 4th World Bulk Wine Exhibition. 587: 72. Call for lower alcohol content in wine. 587: 79. Winery Waste and Wastewater Wineries embrace funding to reduce waste. Kellie Arbuckle. 578: 68-69. Tarac invests in renewable energy. Jen Barwick. 578: 69-70. Managing winery wastewater for vintage and non-vintage periods. Mitchell Laginestra. 584: 92-95. Yeast, Additives and Enzymes CMC – the bean counter’s friend. Keith Treadwell. 576: 59. Direct inoculation with a difference. Chr Hansen. 576:67-68. Mixed bacteria started culture launched. E. Lerm, L. Malandra, P. Pellerin and M. du Toit. 577: 52-56. Laccase and rot: is it there or is it not? Adrian Coulter. 579: 69-72. Is there too much residual copper in your wine? Greg Howell. 580: 74-76. Yeast selection impacts phenolics in Pinot Noir. Anna Carew, Paul Smith and Bob Dambergs. 581: 70-72. Is there value in adding tannin to wine? Rachel Hanlin and Mark Downey. 584: 79-81. Comparison of effect of four commercial Pectolytic enzyme preparations in Muscat Gordo. Simon Kinley. 585: 88-90. Innovations sought in wine microbiology. Vladimir Jiranek and Paul Grbin. 585: 96-100. Yeast based wine additives. Greg Howell. 586: 81-83. Mannoproteins and their use in winemaking. Greg Howell. 587: 74. Major New Zealand Articles in 2012 (others included above) New Zealand seeks framework for industry future. 576: 12. Cool summer has New Zealand preparing for late harvest. Kellie Arbuckle. 579: 8-9. Top five NZ wine companies: Savvy, successful but not without a few bumps in the road. 579: 35-43. Characterising regional New Zealand Pinot Noir. 581: 64-68. New Zealand records a fine harvest in 2012. 583: 16. Vineyard management a challenge during 2012 growing season. Stuart Dudley. 584: 58-60. New Zealand Winegrowers annual report reveals strength of industry. Stuart Smith. 585: 20-25. Annual review – Organic Focus Vineyard Project. Max Marriott. 585: 59-60.

January 2013 – Issue 588

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