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Comprehensive Rural Property Report Riversedge 27th November 2013


Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

Contents List of Figures .......................................................................................................... 3 List of Tables ............................................................................................................ 4 1.

About GrainGrowers ......................................................................................... 5 1.1. Products & Services ................................................................................................. 5

2. Executive Summary........................................................................................... 6 3. Introduction ........................................................................................................ 8 4. Location Information ......................................................................................... 9 4.1. Locality Information ................................................................................................. 9 4.2. Proximity Information............................................................................................... 9 4.3. Topographic Map 1:250,000 ................................................................................... 10 4.4. Satellite Reference Map ......................................................................................... 12

5. Property Details ............................................................................................... 13 5.1. Property Size........................................................................................................... 13 5.2. Regional Property Characteristics ........................................................................ 13

6. Rural Commodities .......................................................................................... 14 6.1. Crops ....................................................................................................................... 14 6.2. Livestock ................................................................................................................. 17

7. Key Biophysical Parameters........................................................................... 18 7.1. Terrain ..................................................................................................................... 18 7.2. Soils......................................................................................................................... 18 7.3. Paddock Configuration .......................................................................................... 19 7.4. Landsat Image ........................................................................................................ 20 7.5. Elevation Map ......................................................................................................... 21

8. Climate Charts ................................................................................................. 22 8.1. Seasonal Rainfall .................................................................................................... 22 8.2. Rainfall .................................................................................................................... 26 8.3. Autumn Break ......................................................................................................... 29 8.4. Spring Break ........................................................................................................... 29 8.5. Temperature ............................................................................................................ 31 8.6. Growing Degree Days ............................................................................................ 32

9. Climate Extremes............................................................................................. 33 9.1. Annual Rainfall ....................................................................................................... 33 9.2. Annual Temperatures ............................................................................................. 34

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge 9.3. Temperature Difference ......................................................................................... 35 9.4. Seasonal Temperature Extremes .......................................................................... 36 9.5. Potential Frost Days ............................................................................................... 37 9.6. Heat Stress.............................................................................................................. 38

10.

Seasonal Soil Moisture ................................................................................ 39

10.1. Soil Moisture Agronomic Thresholds ................................................................. 39 10.2. Historical Soil Moisture Status ............................................................................ 39

11.

Historical Wheat Yield Potential .................................................................. 42

12.

Biomass Production Profile ........................................................................ 43

13.

Crop and Pasture Program .......................................................................... 45

13.1. Crop and Pasture Table........................................................................................ 45 13.2. Paddock Productive Potential Reference Map ................................................... 47 13.3. Seasonal Crop Biomass Profiles ......................................................................... 48

14.

Enterprise Productivity ................................................................................ 50

14.1. Crop Commodity Production ............................................................................... 50 14.2. Seasonal Climatic Conditions.............................................................................. 52 14.3. Crop and Pasture Windows ................................................................................. 54

15.

Enterprise Suitability & Productive Potential ............................................ 55

15.1. Seasonal Climate Productivity Rating................................................................. 55 15.2. Crop Production Productivity Rating .................................................................. 55 15.3. Crop and Pasture Window Productivity Rating .................................................. 55 15.4. Crop and Pasture Yield Potential Rating ............................................................ 55 15.5. Key Indicators for Riversedge ............................................................................. 56

16.

Glossary ........................................................................................................ 57

17.

Other Acronyms ........................................................................................... 58

18.

References .................................................................................................... 59

19.

Disclaimer ..................................................................................................... 60

20.

Contact Us .................................................................................................... 60

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

List of Figures Figure 1: Topographic map ................................................................................................. 10 Figure 2: Topographic legend ............................................................................................. 11 Figure 3: Satellite reference map ........................................................................................ 12 Figure 4: LGA Wheat area and production .......................................................................... 15 Figure 5: LGA Barley area and production .......................................................................... 15 Figure 6: LGA Cotton area and production .......................................................................... 16 Figure 7: LGA Sorghum area and production ...................................................................... 16 Figure 8: Landsat satellite image ........................................................................................ 20 Figure 9: Digital elevation map ............................................................................................ 21 Figure 10: Autumn rainfall ................................................................................................... 22 Figure 11: Significant autumn rainfall events ....................................................................... 22 Figure 12: Winter rainfall ..................................................................................................... 23 Figure 13: Significant winter rainfall events ......................................................................... 23 Figure 14: Spring rainfall ..................................................................................................... 24 Figure 15: Significant spring rainfall events ......................................................................... 24 Figure 16: Summer rainfall .................................................................................................. 25 Figure 17: Significant summer rainfall events ...................................................................... 25 Figure 18: 10-year average rainfall...................................................................................... 26 Figure 19: Annual rainfall .................................................................................................... 26 Figure 20: Annual rain days ................................................................................................ 27 Figure 21: Annual rainfall per rain day................................................................................. 27 Figure 22: Monthly rainfall ................................................................................................... 28 Figure 23: Long-term rainfall forecast .................................................................................. 28 Figure 24: Autumn day of break .......................................................................................... 29 Figure 25: Spring day of break ............................................................................................ 29 Figure 26: Ordinal day number............................................................................................ 30 Figure 27: Monthly temperature analysis............................................................................. 31 Figure 28: Monthly temperature rate of change ................................................................... 31 Figure 29: Annual growing degree days .............................................................................. 32 Figure 30: Monthly growing degree days rate of change ..................................................... 32 Figure 31: Largest annual rainfall event .............................................................................. 33 Figure 32: Annual maximum temperature ........................................................................... 34 Figure 33: Annual minimum temperature ............................................................................ 34 Figure 34: Annual min & max temperature difference.......................................................... 35 Figure 35: Day of first and last heat stress .......................................................................... 36 Figure 36: Day of first and last frost..................................................................................... 36 Figure 37: Annual frost days ............................................................................................... 37 Figure 38: Monthly frost days rate of change ...................................................................... 37 Figure 39: Annual heat stress ............................................................................................. 38 Figure 40: Monthly heat stress rate of change .................................................................... 38 Figure 41: Historical plant available soil moisture ................................................................ 39 Figure 42: Historical May soil moisture ................................................................................ 40 Figure 43: Historical October soil moisture .......................................................................... 40 Figure 44: Monthly soil moisture rate of change .................................................................. 41 Figure 45: Historical wheat yield potential ........................................................................... 42

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge Figure 46: Annual biomass profile ....................................................................................... 44 Figure 47: Paddock reference map ..................................................................................... 47 Figure 48: Winter crop biomass profile ................................................................................ 48 Figure 49: Summer crop biomass profile ............................................................................. 49 Figure 50: Winter cropping productive potential .................................................................. 51 Figure 51: Summer cropping productive potential ............................................................... 51 Figure 52: Winter climate productive potential ..................................................................... 53 Figure 53: Summer climate productive potential.................................................................. 53

List of Tables Table 1: Key indicators.......................................................................................................... 7 Table 2: Locality Information ................................................................................................. 9 Table 3: Proximity Information............................................................................................... 9 Table 4: Property size ......................................................................................................... 13 Table 5: Regional property characteristics .......................................................................... 13 Table 6: Crop production statistics ...................................................................................... 14 Table 7: Livestock statistics................................................................................................. 17 Table 8: Terrain characteristics ........................................................................................... 18 Table 9: Soil characteristics ................................................................................................ 18 Table 10: Paddock configuration ......................................................................................... 19 Table 11: Soil moisture agronomic thresholds ..................................................................... 39 Table 12: Crop and pasture table ........................................................................................ 46 Table 13: Commodity variability and productivity................................................................. 50 Table 14: Seasonal climate conditions ................................................................................ 52 Table 15: Crop and pasture windows .................................................................................. 54 Table 16: Seasonal climate productivity rating .................................................................... 55 Table 17: Crop production productivity rating ...................................................................... 55 Table 18: Crop and pasture window productivity rating ....................................................... 55 Table 19: Yield potential rating ............................................................................................ 55 Table 20: Key indicators...................................................................................................... 56

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

1. About GrainGrowers Over the past fifty years, GrainGrowers' has advocated on behalf of the Australian wheat and grain industry leading to valuable outcomes for our individual members and the industry in general. Over the years, GrainGrowers has been part of the growth in scale, technological advancement and profitability of the grains industry. GrainGrowers has grown with the industry to become Australia's largest grain industry body. We are the only grower based, independent, member-based, financially sustainable and technically resourced body. We work in collaboration with grain producers, lobby groups and experts in our industry to deliver industry improving submissions and policies, education and events and products and services with the objective of improving the efficiency, sustainability and profitability of the industry while safeguarding its future.

1.1. Products & Services ProductionWise速 This innovative online crop management tool for rural landholders and advisers helps growers enhance their farm efficiency through access to advanced decision support tools. ProductionWise provides an online paddock and silo record keeping diary in addition to functionality that maps and details paddock and grain storage characteristics, rainfall forecasting and paddock specific soil moisture, APSIM yield modelling, satellite biomass tracking, plus much more.

SprayWise Decisions速 Sponsored by Nufarm, this online system assists rural landholders and contractors to better plan and match the timing of pesticide applications to prevailing local weather conditions. This service provides 1km resolution weather forecasts for your farm out to 14 days through a spray planner diary, meteograms, maps and animations, and allows you to best plan your spray applications for the week ahead.

CottonMap CottonMap is an industry initiative which has been designed to highlight the location of cotton fields. The service is provided free of charge with the purpose of minimising off-target damage from downwind pesticide application, particularly during fallow spraying. The map is a joint collaboration between Cotton Australia, Cotton Research and Development Corporation (CRDC), Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) and Nufarm Australia Limited, developed by GrainGrowers to meet industry needs.

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

2. Executive Summary This PropertyWise report for the Riversedge property in the Narrabri (A) Local Government Area (LGA) of New South Wales provides an analysis and evaluation of historical climate, production and satellite biometric data. Methods used to analyse the data include trends, annual rate of change, variability, productivity rating, departure from median and percentiles ranked against all other Local Government Areas within Australia. The results from the data analysis show that the Summer season has the highest productivity rating for crop and pasture production and Cotton is the safest crop to grow. Alternatively the safest crop for the Winter season is Wheat. The productive potential indicators for Riversedge are;

Seasonal Climate Productivity Rating* Season Winter Summer

Productivity Rating 0.37 0.58

Major Contributing Factor Low soil moisture trend High soil moisture rate of change

Crop Production Productivity Rating* Crop Name Winter Wheat Chickpeas Barley Summer Cotton Sorghum Mung Beans

Productivity Rating

Major Contributing Factor

0.53 0.33 0.31

High yield rate of change Low yield trend Low yield trend

0.61 0.50 0.45

High production rate of change High area variability Low yield trend

Crop and Pasture Window Productivity Rating* Season Winter Summer

Productivity Rating 0.49 0.52

Major Contributing Factor High growing season window variability Low green-up window variability

Crop and Pasture Yield Productivity Rating* Season Winter Summer

Productivity Rating 0.88 0.83

Major Contributing Factor Low biomass accumulation variability Low biomass accumulation variability

*The Productivity Rating is scaled 0-1, 0 = low productivity and 1 = high productivity

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge Key Indicators for Riversedge This report highlights several key trends and patterns. Section Parameter Seasonal Rainfall Trends Spring Summer Autumn Winter Climate Extreme Trends Growing Degree Days Heat Stress Days Frost Days Potential Wheat Yield Trends Median Yield Direction Variability Table 1: Key indicators

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Value No Change No Change Decreasing No Change Increasing No Change No Change 3.5 t/ha Decreasing Decreasing


Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

3. Introduction This report was compiled on a fee-for-service basis at the request of Max Power to facilitate the evaluation of Riversedge and its potential value as a viable and productive rural enterprise. The report uses a standardised format incorporating maps, tables and innovative graphics to compare the biophysical settings, productive history and prevailing circumstances of Riversedge against other rural enterprises within the Narrabri (A) Local Government Area (LGA). By way of summary, the report: • • • • • • • •

• • • •

Identifies the relevant administrative, physical, biophysical, climatic, production and logistics regions within which Riversedge is located Establishes the proximity of Riversedge to the nearest town, regional centre and the distance to significant infrastructure facilities with high agricultural significance Incorporates a 1:250,000 scale topographic map, a satellite reference map and a 25m resolution Landsat image Displays the Digital Elevation Map (DEM) for all land within the farm boundary Compares the size and extent of Riversedge to that of all other rural properties in the Narrabri (A) LGA Summarises the area, yield and production of the major winter and summer crops, sheep, beef and dairy cattle enterprises within the Narrabri (A) LGA Characterises the yield variability, rate of change and productive potential in area and production for major winter and summer crops within the Narrabri (A) LGA Examines the timing, magnitude, seasonality and future trends of key climatic parameters likely to affect productive potential on Riversedge including rainfall, temperature, frost occurrence, heat stress, growing and frozen degree days Assesses the adequacy of plant available soil moisture and resulting impact on seasonal biomass accumulation for cropping and grazing Reviews the cropping and pasture program for each mapped paddock on Riversedge over the last 10 years Profiles growing season conditions, biomass profiles and productive potential of winter and summer crops over the last 10 years Evaluates the impact on productive potential of variations in the timing, duration and prevailing seasonal conditions during planting and flowering windows, biomass accumulation, senescence and growing season phases of cropping on Riversedge Identifies key production factors likely to determine enterprise suitability and productive potential of Riversedge

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

4. Location Information The tables below describe the locality and proximity details of Riversedge.

4.1. Locality Information Administrative

Physical

Biophysical

Climate Production Logistics

Feature State/Territory Statistical Division (SD) Local Government Area (LGA) Drainage Division Catchment Sub-Catchment Natural Resource Management Region Natural Resource Management Body Bioregion Sub-Bioregion GRDC Ecological Zone Climate Zone Class 1 Climate Zone Class 2 ABARES Agricultural Region Grain Port Zone Wheat Receival Zone Nearest Livestock Port

Description New South Wales Northern Narrabri (A) Murray-Darling Namoi-Gwydir Namoi River Namoi Namoi CMA Brigalow Belt South Pilliga Outwash NSW North East/QLD South East Subtropical Moderately Dry Winter North West Slopes & Plains (NSW) Newcastle (Kooragang Is.) Northern NSW Wheat Class Zone Brisbane

Table 2: Locality Information

4.2. Proximity Information Nearest Town Nearest Regional Centre Nearest Major Road Nearest Nature Reserve Nearest Railway Station Nearest Airport Nearest Grain Handling Site Nearest Major River

Feature Name Narrabri, NSW, 2390 Narrabri, NSW, 2390 Kamilaroi Highway Mount Kaputar National Park Culgoora, NSW, 2390 Narrabri Aerodrome, NSW, 2390 Culgoora GrainCorp Namoi River

Table 3: Proximity Information

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Distance 16.8 km (road) 16.8 km (road) 2.5 km (straight line) 28.9 km (straight line) 4.8 km (road) 24.6 km (road) 1.6 km (straight line) 2.7 km (straight line)


Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

4.3. Topographic Map 1:250,000

Figure 1: Topographic map

© Commonwealth of Australia (Geoscience Australia) 2005. The map legend can be found on the following page. Riversedge is located at the centre of the map at co-ordinates -30.28° and 149.64° decimal degrees. The map depicts an area of approximately 1,891km2 (61km E-W by 31km N-S). 10


Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge Topographic Map Legend

Figure 2: Topographic legend

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

4.4. Satellite Reference Map

Figure 3: Satellite reference map

Google maps, Australia, sourced 27/11/2013 http://maps.google.com/maps/api/staticmap.

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

5. Property Details The Property Size and Regional Property Characteristics tables display paddock size and characteristics of the rural land holdings for the Narrabri (A) Local Government Area (LGA) which Riversedge is located within.

5.1. Property Size Property Size Total area of property Maximum extent N-S and E-W Average paddock area Average paddock perimeter

Value 3,652.98 ha N-S 9,240m, E-W 7,565m 45.04 ha 2,847.04 m

Table 4: Property size

5.2. Regional Property Characteristics Rural Land Holdings

Total area of land within LGA Total cropped area Total grazing area Average size of rural holdings Average cropped area per holding

Value

Rate of Change p.a.

1,273,802 ha 250,098 ha 361,020 ha 1,273.87 ha 774.00 ha

1,586.10 ha -9,924.37 ha 1.51 ha 24.66 ha

Table 5: Regional property characteristics

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State Rank (153) 13th 6th 26th 24th 15th

National Rank (565) 86th 22nd 110th 180th 93rd


Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

6. Rural Commodities 6.1. Crops The Crop Production Statistics table displays the production statistics for the Narrabri (A) LGA based on the last 10 years of production. Each crop is ranked based on trended area against the respective number of LGA’s which grow that crop within the Australian cropping belt.

Trended Crop Production Statistics in the Narrabri (A) LGA Crop Type

Winter Crops Wheat Barley Chickpeas Summer Crops Cotton Sorghum Mung Beans

Producers (rank)

Area (ha) (rank)

Yield (t/ha) (rank)

Production (t) (rank)

217 (29/311) 55 (100/289) 48 (10/88)

113,444 (34/311) 15,249 (78/289) 12,713 (8/88)

2.42 (78/311) 2.05 (113/289) 1.80 (23/88)

289,552 (10/311) 31,800 (76/289) 22,751 (10/88)

68 (5/35) 56 (12/91) 11 (10/29)

35,067 (2/35) 16,197 (11/91) 1,279 (10/29)

1.98 (12/35) 3.46 (33/91) 0.48 (27/29)

66,206 (2/35) 57,660 (10/91) 619 (11/29)

Table 6: Crop production statistics

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge LGA Area & Production Charts The following chart(s) display the two most significant winter crops based on trended area in the Narrabri (A) LGA and are compared against the area and production for all LGA’s in the Australian cropping belt.

Figure 4: LGA Wheat area and production

Figure 5: LGA Barley area and production

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge The following chart(s) display the two most significant summer crops based on trended area in the Narrabri (A) LGA and are compared against the area and production for all LGA’s in the Australian cropping belt.

Figure 6: LGA Cotton area and production

Figure 7: LGA Sorghum area and production

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

6.2. Livestock The Livestock Statistics table below displays the Narrabri (A) LGA statistics for the major livestock classes in Australia. Each livestock class and parameter is ranked against all LGA’s with the specified livestock class.

Trended Livestock Statistics for the Narrabri (A) LGA

Beef

111,609 (65/446)

Number of Grazing Properties (rank) 432 (43/446)

Dairy

370 (179/238)

27 (114/238)

102 (181/238)

13,387.34 (59/238)

Sheep

117,005 (189/368)

104 (146/368)

1,159 (233/368)

3,460.63 (82/368)

Livestock Class

Total Head (rank)

Table 7: Livestock statistics

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Average Head per Property (rank) 254 (160/446)

Average Area per Property (ha) (rank) 836.50 (233/446)


Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

7. Key Biophysical Parameters 7.1. Terrain Terrain Details Terrain Type Elevation Average Elevation Maximum Elevation Minimum Dominant Aspect Slope Average Slope Maximum

Value Low hills 206.9m (AMSL) 215.7m (AMSL) 201.1m (AMSL) NW 0.6 o 5.0 o

Table 8: Terrain characteristics

7.2. Soils Parameter Australian Soils Classification Greater Soil Group A Horizon Texture B Horizon Texture Dominant Regolith Class Regolith Description

Physiographic Name Physiographic Material

Value Sodosol Solodized Solonetz and Solodic Soils; some Soloths and Red-brown Earths; Desert Loams Loams Clays Highly weathered bedrock Thick alluvial deposits: sand, silt & clay; black & some red expansive clay soils. Black soil plains contain deposits of coarse fluvial gravels derived from volcanics & local conglomerates. Upper Darling Plains Alluvial sediments (> 50%), saprolith (< 20%)

Table 9: Soil characteristics

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

7.3. Paddock Configuration Paddock Area Perimeter Number (ha) (m) 1 62.8 3,201.7 2 57.8 3,090.4 3 62.2 3,326.2 4 63.2 3,251.5 5 55.0 3,058.3 6 63.2 3,209.2 7 38.2 3,057.5 8 22.9 1,992.2 9 22.8 1,916.4 10 7.8 1,118.8 11 15.6 1,730.4 12 46.5 3,225.0 13 51.4 3,568.8 14 13.4 1,786.9 15 18.6 1,974.1 16 36.5 2,468.2 17 45.7 2,759.0 18 16.7 1,801.7 19 43.1 2,672.1 20 21.8 2,056.4 21 58.6 3,358.9 22 20.5 1,816.5 23 27.9 2,381.3 24 36.2 2,386.0 25 52.7 2,903.8 26 33.4 2,577.9 27 44.0 2,856.6 28 23.2 1,883.7 29 27.2 2,170.0 30 14.5 1,470.4 31 20.1 1,816.3 32 83.6 4,088.1 33 71.3 3,677.3 34 36.2 2,431.0 35 35.8 2,434.3 36 37.0 2,412.6 37 91.7 4,838.2 38 115.0 5,536.9 39 92.0 5,353.2 40 33.0 2,313.9 41 101.4 5,480.5 42 70.8 3,494.2 43 35.5 2,352.7 44 46.2 2,820.5 45 47.2 2,861.4 46 42.1 2,686.5 47 86.5 3,892.5 48 31.7 2,375.1 49 31.2 2,384.3 50 40.0 4,033.0 Table 10: Paddock configuration

Elevation Mean (m) 202.5 202.9 202.4 203.0 203.6 203.7 204.3 205.0 205.5 204.1 204.8 205.0 205.2 205.3 204.8 204.8 205.2 205.6 205.5 205.5 205.8 205.8 206.0 206.4 205.9 206.4 206.8 206.9 207.2 207.2 207.6 205.7 206.9 207.8 208.6 208.6 207.8 204.9 206.0 208.6 210.6 214.4 213.5 211.7 210.0 214.0 212.5 211.0 210.4 210.6

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Elevation Max (m) 203.0 203.6 203.4 204.6 207.0 204.6 205.0 205.3 206.3 204.7 205.1 205.9 206.2 205.8 205.0 205.1 206.1 206.5 206.0 205.7 206.6 206.7 206.2 206.7 206.5 206.9 207.2 207.5 207.4 207.4 208.4 206.6 210.8 209.5 210.3 210.9 211.1 210.6 209.7 211.3 214.3 215.5 214.6 213.1 211.7 214.9 215.3 212.2 211.8 212.3

Aspect SW SW NW N SW NW N N NW NE S N NE W NE NE E E NW SE SE N W SE E NE Flat W Flat NW N NW N W W N W N W W NW NE N N NW N NE SW N SW

Average o Slope ( ) 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.6

Maximum o Slope ( ) 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.1 2.0 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.1 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.7 1.4 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.7 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.9 1.3 1.1 1.4 0.8 1.2 1.2 1.4 2.8 1.3 1.8 1.7 3.5 2.3 2.4 1.7 3.1 2.1 1.7 1.7 1.4 1.2 3.2 1.2 1.4 1.6


Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

7.4. Landsat Image

Figure 8: Landsat satellite image

© Commonwealth of Australia (Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency) 2010. Landsat imagery at 25m pixel resolution acquired during 2009-2010, depicted in pseudo natural colours. Riversedge is located at the centre of the map at co-ordinates -30.28° and 149.64° in decimal degrees.

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

7.5. Elevation Map 216.00 215.25 214.50 213.75 213.00 212.25 211.50 210.75 210.00 209.25 208.50 207.75 207.00 206.25 205.50 204.75 204.00 203.25 202.50 201.75

Unit = m (AMSL) Figure 9: Digital elevation map

Š Commonwealth of Australia (Geoscience Australia) 2008

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

8. Climate Charts 8.1. Seasonal Rainfall Historical autumn rainfall totals displayed as a departure from the median and a five-year moving average.

Figure 10: Autumn rainfall

Historical autumn count of days receiving greater than or equal to 20mm of rainfall in one single event and a linear rate of change trend line.

Figure 11: Significant autumn rainfall events

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge Historical winter rainfall totals displayed as a departure from the median and a five-year moving average.

Figure 12: Winter rainfall

Historical winter count of days receiving greater than or equal to 20mm of rainfall in one single event and a linear rate of change trend line.

Figure 13: Significant winter rainfall events

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge Historical spring rainfall totals displayed as a departure from the median and a five-year moving average.

Figure 14: Spring rainfall

Historical spring count of days receiving greater than or equal to 20mm of rainfall in one single event and a linear rate of change trend line.

Figure 15: Significant spring rainfall events

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge Historical summer rainfall totals displayed as a departure from the median and a five-year moving average.

Figure 16: Summer rainfall

Historical summer count of days receiving greater than or equal to 20mm of rainfall in one single event and a linear rate of change trend line.

Figure 17: Significant summer rainfall events

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

8.2. Rainfall Historical 10-year average rainfall displayed as a departure from median and rate of change per annum.

Figure 18: 10-year average rainfall

Historical annual rainfall displayed as a departure from the median and rainfall rate of change per annum.

Figure 19: Annual rainfall

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge Historical annual total of rain days displayed as a departure from the median and rain days rate of change per annum.

Figure 20: Annual rain days

Historical annual rainfall per rain day displayed as a departure from the median and rainfall per rain day rate of change per annum.

Figure 21: Annual rainfall per rain day

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge Historical average monthly rainfall totals and rate of change per annum.

Figure 22: Monthly rainfall

Long-term rainfall forecast based on Global Climate Models (GCM) that have been published in scientific literature and incorporated into CSIROâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s OzClim forecasting system. Three models representing wet, moderate and dry scenarios have been selected.

Figure 23: Long-term rainfall forecast

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

8.3. Autumn Break Historical autumn day of break and the rate of change in the day of the break. Displays day of year when â&#x2030;Ľ15mm rainfall fell within a 10-day period between 1st April and 30th June. Refer to the following page for a table of Ordinal day numbers.

Figure 24: Autumn day of break

8.4. Spring Break Historical spring day of break and the rate of change in the day of the break. Displays day of year when â&#x2030;Ľ15mm rainfall fell within a 10-day period between 1st October and 10th December.

Figure 25: Spring day of break

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge Ordinal Day Number The ordinal day number is provided as a reference for the Spring and Autumn Break charts. The day number is given in the table relative to a calendar date for non-leap years. Day

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Day

1 1 32 60 91 2 2 33 61 92 3 3 34 62 93 4 4 35 63 94 5 5 36 64 95 6 6 37 65 96 7 7 38 66 97 8 8 39 67 98 9 9 40 68 99 10 10 41 69 100 11 11 42 70 101 12 12 43 71 102 13 13 44 72 103 14 14 45 73 104 15 15 46 74 105 16 16 47 75 106 17 17 48 76 107 18 18 49 77 108 19 19 50 78 109 20 20 51 79 110 21 21 52 80 111 22 22 53 81 112 23 23 54 82 113 24 24 55 83 114 25 25 56 84 115 26 26 57 85 116 27 27 58 86 117 28 28 59 87 118 29 29 88 119 30 30 89 120 31 31 90 Figure 26: Ordinal day number

Jan

Feb

Mar

121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181

182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212

213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243

244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273

274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304

305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334

335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

8.5. Temperature Historical mean monthly temperature variation and extremes.

Figure 27: Monthly temperature analysis

Historical rate of change in mean monthly temperature since 1955.

Figure 28: Monthly temperature rate of change

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

8.6. Growing Degree Days Historical annual growing degree day (GDD) totals displayed as a departure from the median and the rate of change in total growing degree days per annum. The base temperature used to calculate GDD is 0째C.

Figure 29: Annual growing degree days

Historical average monthly growing degree days and rate of change per annum.

Figure 30: Monthly growing degree days rate of change

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

9. Climate Extremes 9.1. Annual Rainfall Historically most significant single rainfall event per annum with rate of change and five-year moving average.

Figure 31: Largest annual rainfall event

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

9.2. Annual Temperatures Historical annual maximum temperature displayed as a departure from the median, rate of change and five-year moving average.

Figure 32: Annual maximum temperature

Historical annual minimum temperature displayed as a departure from the median, rate of change and five-year moving average.

Figure 33: Annual minimum temperature

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

9.3. Temperature Difference Historical annual difference between highest maximum temperature and lowest minimum temperature.

Figure 34: Annual min & max temperature difference

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

9.4. Seasonal Temperature Extremes Historical annual first and last heat stress day â&#x2030;Ľ30°C and rate of change per annum (see Ordinal Day Number reference table).

Figure 35: Day of first and last heat stress

Historical annual first and last frost day and rate of change per annum (see Ordinal Day Number reference table).

Figure 36: Day of first and last frost

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

9.5. Potential Frost Days Historical number of potential frost days per annum displayed relative to the median, as a rate of change and as a five-year moving average.

Figure 37: Annual frost days

Historical average monthly frost days and rate of change per annum.

Figure 38: Monthly frost days rate of change

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

9.6. Heat Stress Historical annual heat stress days ≥30°C displayed as a departure from the median and heat stress days rate of change per annum.

Figure 39: Annual heat stress

Historical average monthly heat stress days ≥30°C and rate of change per annum.

Figure 40: Monthly heat stress rate of change

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

10. Seasonal Soil Moisture 10.1. Soil Moisture Agronomic Thresholds Parameter Average Plant Available Water Capacity (PAWC) Average Readily Available Water (RAW) Average Soil Rooting Depth Average Plant Available Water mid-May Average Plant Available Water mid-October

Property Average 75mm 41mm 900mm 20mm 14mm

Table 11: Soil moisture agronomic thresholds

10.2. Historical Soil Moisture Status Historical soil moisture (SM) variability and soil moisture rate of change per annum.

Figure 41: Historical plant available soil moisture

39


Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge Winter Crop Sowing Soil Moisture Indicator Annual average soil moisture in May displayed relative to the median, as a rate of change and as a five-year moving average.

Figure 42: Historical May soil moisture

Summer Crop Sowing Soil Moisture Indicator Annual average soil moisture in October displayed relative to the median, as a rate of change and as a five-year moving average.

Figure 43: Historical October soil moisture

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge Monthly Median Soil Moisture Historical median monthly soil moisture and monthly soil moisture rate of change per annum.

Figure 44: Monthly soil moisture rate of change

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

11. Historical Wheat Yield Potential Historical potential wheat yield calculation based on the Potential Yield Calculator (PYCAL) model displayed relative to the median, as a rate of change and as a five-year moving average. PYCAL is a water limited, maximum potential yield calculation. It incorporates estimated soil moisture at sowing, growing season rainfall, evaporation losses and water use efficiency inputs to determine the likely wheat yield potential assuming nutrient, pest, weed and disease stresses are managed correctly. It provides a way to assess the impacts of seasonal rainfall changes against potential winter crop production.

Figure 45: Historical wheat yield potential

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

12. Biomass Production Profile The following chart depicts the variable seasonal conditions and biomass regimes from moderate resolution satellite imagery (LP DAAC, 2011). Calculated from a 10-day (decadal) time step averaged Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) each year for the specified location back to 2001. It represents a starting point for assessing the overall productive potential of a farm enterprise. It is also a guide to crop and pasture growing seasons, operational management opportunities and constraints.

How to Read the Biomass Charts There are three major components that make up the Annual Biomass Profile chart. Understanding how to read them together is necessary to getting the most out of the chart. Rainfall The chart displays the monthly average rainfall calculated from 1955. Ideally rainfall should peak during the growing season(s) for your location which are defined by the peak(s) in biomass. Biomass (NDVI) The 10th, median and 90th percentile biomass values are calculated from over 10 years of satellite data for the specified location and averaged to profile annual and seasonal farm biomass. Biomass values greater than 0.6 indicate significant crop or pasture ground cover, values between 0.4 and 0.6 indicate early crop growth or sparse vegetation. Values less than 0.4 are indicative of bare ground or stubble. The variations between the 10th and 90th percentile lines indicate the potential seasonal variation between poor and good years. Temperature Max and min temperature probabilities are displayed as indicators of summer and winter cropping windows. For example, the winter sowing window falls between the points where max temp drops below 0.1 and before min temp reaches 0.1. Winter crop senescence begins when max temp increases above 0.1. Flowering should occur when there is neither a risk of max or min temp greater than 0.1.

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

Figure 46: Annual biomass profile

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

13. Crop and Pasture Program 13.1. Crop and Pasture Table The following table summarises the reconstructed crop and pasture history of each mapped paddock on the property by analysing historical satellite imagery (LP DAAC, 2011). A tally of individual winter, summer and double cropped years are used to characterise rotation patterns. The rank is determined by assessing the biomass fluctuations in cropped years of each paddock. The paddock reference map is on the following page. Paddock Paddock 2001 2002 Rank ID S W S W 25 Yes No Yes No 20 Yes No Yes No 16 Yes No No No 19 Yes No Yes No 43 No Yes No No 27 Yes Yes No No 18 Yes No No No 35 No No No No 34 No No No No 6 Yes Yes No No 7 Yes No No No 11 Yes Yes No No 48 No No No No 15 Yes No Yes No 13 Yes No Yes No 36 No No No No 45 No Yes No No 1 No Yes No No 14 Yes No Yes No 50 No Yes No No 3 Yes Yes No No 49 No Yes No No 38 No Yes No No 39 No Yes No No

2003 2004 2005 S W S W S W No No Yes No No No No No Yes No No No Yes No Yes No No No Yes No Yes No No No No Yes No No No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No No Yes No Yes No No No Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No Yes No Yes No No Yes No Yes No No No Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No Yes No Yes No No No No Yes No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No No

2006 2007 S W S W Yes No No No Yes No No No Yes No No No Yes No No No No Yes No No No No Yes No Yes No No No No Yes No No No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No No Yes No No No No Yes No No No No No No Yes No No No Yes No Yes No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No No Yes No No No Yes 45

2008 2009 2010 S W S W S W Yes No No No Yes No Yes No No No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No Yes No No No Yes No No Yes No No No Yes No No No Yes No Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No No No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes No No Yes No No No Yes No No No Yes No No No No Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes No No No No No No Yes No No Yes No No No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No No No

2011 2012 S W S W No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No Yes No Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes No Yes No No Yes No Yes No Yes No No No Yes No Yes

Tally S W Double 7 1 1 7 1 1 8 4 3 9 3 2 0 3 0 6 3 3 7 2 1 0 5 0 0 4 0 10 2 2 7 3 3 7 5 5 0 4 0 8 3 3 8 2 1 0 5 0 0 5 0 6 3 2 10 2 1 0 6 0 7 2 2 0 9 0 0 6 0 1 5 0


Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge Paddock Paddock 2001 2002 Rank ID S W S W 17 Yes No Yes No 33 No Yes No No 2 Yes No Yes No 9 Yes No Yes No 21 Yes No Yes No 37 No No No No 32 No No No No 47 No No No No 12 Yes No Yes No 24 No No Yes No 44 No Yes No No 26 No No No No 40 No No No No 41 No Yes No No 5 Yes No Yes No 30 Yes No Yes No 8 Yes No Yes No 29 Yes No No No 42 No Yes No No 28 Yes Yes No No 10 Yes No No No 4 Yes No Yes No 46 No Yes No No 22 Yes No Yes No 23 No No Yes No 31 No No No No

2003 2004 2005 S W S W S W No No Yes No No No No Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes No No No Yes No No No Yes No No No Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes No No Yes No No No Yes No No No No Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No Yes No No No Yes No No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No No No No No No Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No No Yes No No No No Yes No No No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No No No No No No

2006 2007 S W S W Yes No No No No No No Yes No No Yes No No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No No Yes No No No No Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes No No No Yes No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No

Table 12: Crop and pasture table

46

2008 2009 2010 S W S W S W Yes Yes No No Yes No No No No Yes No Yes No No No No Yes No No No Yes No No No No No Yes No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No Yes No No No No No No No Yes No No No Yes No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No No Yes No Yes No No No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No Yes No No Yes No Yes No No No No Yes No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No No

2011 2012 S W S W No No Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No No No Yes No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No No No No No No Yes No No Yes No No No No No No Yes No No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No Yes No No No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No Yes No No Yes No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No No No

Tally S W Double 7 2 2 0 6 0 7 2 2 7 3 2 8 3 3 0 6 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 7 3 3 6 1 1 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 4 0 0 2 0 6 4 2 6 0 0 11 3 3 7 0 0 0 1 0 6 3 3 6 4 4 8 1 1 0 6 0 7 3 3 6 2 2 0 0 0


Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

13.2. Paddock Productive Potential Reference Map The Paddock Reference Map below displays each mapped paddock with its identification number and coloured according to its productive potential rank as determined in the Crop and Pasture Table on the previous page. A Landsat satellite image at 25m resolution displayed in pseudo colour is under laid as a background reference.

Figure 47: Paddock reference map

Š Commonwealth of Australia (Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency) 2010. 47


Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

13.3. Seasonal Crop Biomass Profiles

Figure 48: Winter crop biomass profile

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

Figure 49: Summer crop biomass profile

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

14. Enterprise Productivity 14.1. Crop Commodity Production The long-term productivity rating is calculated by comparing all available history of statistics for the area, yield and production against all other LGAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s in Australia. The values are normalised then combined into one indicative Long-Term Productivity Rating. The higher the rating the more suitable and productive the crop is in your LGA.

Commodity Variability & Productivity Rating for Narrabri (A) LGA Area Crop Type

Winter Wheat Chickpeas Barley Summer Cotton Sorghum Mung Beans

Yield

Trend (ha)

Rate of Change (ha/p.a.)

Variability Trend (t/ha)

113,444 12,713 15,249

-335 612 119

0.28 1.50 0.24

35,067 16,197 1,279

-266 215 21

0.31 0.34 0.80

Production Long-Term Productivity Rating* (%)

Rate of Change (t/ha/p.a.)

Variability

Trend

Rate of Change (t/p.a.)

Variability

2.42 1.80 2.05

0.04 0.05 0.03

0.35 0.43 0.31

289,552 22,751 31,800

4,399.7 1,154.6 617.4

0.47 1.77 0.46

52.62 33.29 31.38

1.98 3.46 0.48

0.03 0.09 0.00

0.19 0.38 0.45

66,206 57,660 619

458.0 1,908.5 9.0

0.32 0.68 0.93

60.69 49.98 44.57

Table 13: Commodity variability and productivity

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

Cropping Profile Charts The cropping profile chart(s) show statistics for cropped area, yield and production ranked against all other LGAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s in Australia, the higher the value the greater the productive potential.

Figure 50: Winter cropping productive potential

Figure 51: Summer cropping productive potential

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

14.2. Seasonal Climatic Conditions The Seasonal Climatic Conditions table displays a statistical analysis of three indicative climatic parameters. Each climatic parameter is analysed through the summer and winter growing seasons to calculate an overall productive potential rating. The LGA which Riversedge falls within is displayed for reference. Growing Season Rainfall Season

Trend (mm)

Riversedge Winter 277 Summer 360 Narrabri (A) Winter 282 Summer 346

Growing Degree Days

Soil Moisture

Rate of Change (mm/p.a.)

Variability

Trend (째C)

Rate of Change (째C/p.a.)

Variability

Trend (mm)

Rate of Change (mm/p.a.)

Variability

Season Productive Potential Rating

-0.33 0.69

0.39 0.37

3,238 3,792

2.54 1.60

0.04 0.03

24 60

-0.15 1.37

0.42 0.42

0.37 0.58

-0.36 0.24

0.38 0.34

3,150 3,728

2.42 1.51

0.04 0.04

33 85

-0.25 1.96

0.46 0.46

0.39 0.58

Table 14: Seasonal climate conditions

52


Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge Climate Profile Chart The winter and summer climate profile charts below shows statistics for growing season rainfall (GSR), growing degree days (GDD) and soil moisture (SM) normalised to 0-1, the higher the value the greater the productive potential. Your farm is compared against the LGA average it falls within and the nearest neighbouring LGA.

Figure 52: Winter climate productive potential

Figure 53: Summer climate productive potential

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

14.3. Crop and Pasture Windows The Crop and Pasture Windows table uses moderate resolution satellite imagery since 2001 (LP DAAC, 2011), and a computed Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to determine the variation in crop and pasture windows for both the summer and winter seasons. The windows are defined by the duration of the window in days and rainfall received during the window. For each window the table displays the average, minimum (Min) and maximum (Max) range of values likely to be experienced. A rating is determined for each of the windows and yield potential to provide a final productivity assessment of the growing season segment. The rating is calculated between 0-1, with 1 being the highest productivity. Crop and Pasture Windows Planting Window Unit Winter Average Min Max Rating Summer Average Min Max Rating

Green Up

Flowering Window

Yield Potential Senescence

Growing Season

Peak Biomass

Growing Season Biomass Accumulation

Duration Days

Rainfall mm

Duration Days

Rainfall mm

Duration Days

Rainfall mm

Duration Days

Rainfall mm

Duration Days

Rainfall mm

Timing Date

Magnitude NDVI

50

72

119

154

30

40

84

112

193

266

Aug 26

0.83

114.26

50 50

7 249

40 230

30 346

30 30

4 189

40 150

18 227

90 300

59 573

Aug 1 Oct 1

0.70 0.97

61.76 174.63

0.26

0.63

0.25

0.63

0.71

0.88

60

107

101

240

50

84

113

156

204

395

Feb 16

0.84

78.72

60 60

11 269

40 240

72 595

50 50

2 388

40 170

26 569

100 350

149 790

Jan 11 Mar 11

0.70 1.00

38.24 180.92

0.49

0.54

0.22

0.62

Table 15: Crop and pasture windows

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0.72

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

15. Enterprise Suitability & Productive Potential The following enterprise suitability and production profile of Riversedge has been generated by quantifying the metrics of four primary enterprise productivity factors.

15.1. Seasonal Climate Productivity Rating Season Winter Summer

Productivity Rating 0.37 0.58

Major Contributing Factor Low soil moisture trend High soil moisture rate of change

Table 16: Seasonal climate productivity rating

15.2. Crop Production Productivity Rating LGA Crop Winter Wheat Chickpeas Barley Summer Cotton Sorghum Mung Beans

Productivity Rating

Major Contributing Factor

0.53 0.33 0.31

High yield rate of change Low yield trend Low yield trend

0.61 0.50 0.45

High production rate of change High area variability Low yield trend

Table 17: Crop production productivity rating

15.3. Crop and Pasture Window Productivity Rating Season Winter Summer

Productivity Rating 0.49 0.52

Major Contributing Factor High growing season window variability Low green-up window variability

Table 18: Crop and pasture window productivity rating

15.4. Crop and Pasture Yield Potential Rating Property Crop Winter Summer

Productivity Rating 0.88 0.83

Major Contributing Factor Low biomass accumulation variability Low biomass accumulation variability

Table 19: Yield potential rating

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

15.5. Key Indicators for Riversedge This report highlights several key trends and patterns. Section Parameter Seasonal Rainfall Trends Spring Summer Autumn Winter Climate Extreme Trends Growing Degree Days Heat Stress Days Frost Days Potential Wheat Yield Trends Median Yield Direction Variability Table 20: Key indicators

56

Value No Change No Change Decreasing No Change Increasing No Change No Change 3.5 t/ha Decreasing Decreasing


Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

16. Glossary Term

Definition

Australian Soil Classification (ASC) Average Aspect Biomass Biophysical Bioregion Day of Break Decadal Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Elevation Flowering Window

System to characterise soils by material and principal profile The sum of a data set divided by the number of observations The direction in which a slope faces Total volume of plant matter generated by a crop or pasture Information about the physical basis of biological systems Unique association of terrain, soils, climate, flora and fauna First time in a calendar year that daily rainfall ≥15 mm Ten day period at the start, middle or end of a calendar month Grid of spot heights used to profile elevation, slope and aspect Height above mean sea level The ideal period during the year for crops to flower based on frost and heat stress probability o Accumulated days when minimum temperature <2 C o Sum of daily minimum temperatures that are <2 C A mathematical model of the general circulation of a planetary atmosphere or ocean Discrete biophysical regions across the Australian cropping belt Period during growing season between sowing and flowering o Sum of average daily temperatures >0 C during any period Period between sowing and harvest of a crop o o Accumulated days when max temperature ≥30 C or ≥35 C US family of satellites for capturing remote sensing imagery Shire, Municipality or Council for local administration of land Arithmetic average of a data series The middle value in a ranked series of data Parameters or measures of quantitative assessment used for measurement, comparison or to track performance Coherent region of Australia for environmental protection Satellite derived measure of greenness/chlorophyll reflectance on a scale >-1 to <1 Amount and time of seasonal crop or pasture biomass maxima Relationship between physical process, pattern and landscape Measure of soil moisture which is available to plants (mm) Total plant available soil moisture when soil is at field capacity (mm) The ideal period during the year to sow based on frost and heat stress probability Potential Yield Calculator is based on the French & Schultz equation and incorporates soil moisture at sowing, growing season rainfall, evaporation losses and water use efficiency inputs. Productivity or profitability scaled from 0 (low) to 100 (high) Difference in magnitude or direction of a parameter over time The portion of the PAWC instantly available to plants Background level of biomass reflectance in a bare ground scenario Weathered material, including soil, that overlies bedrock Maximum depth of soil that plant roots can potentially explore Period of time in a plant between flowering and maturity Difference in magnitude or direction of a parameter over time Period when heat stress and frost risk probability is <20% Intermediate statistical region for ABS commodity data Smallest statistical region that ABS publishes commodity data Shape and position of surface features within the landscape The current value of a linear trend line Year to year or season to season changes in magnitude

Frost Occurrence Frozen Degree Days (FDD) Global Climate Model (GCM) GRDC Ecological Zone Green Up Growing Degree Days (GDD) Growing Season Heat Stress (HS) Landsat Local Government Area (LGA) Mean Median Metrics Natural Resource Management (NRM) Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Peak Biomass Physiographic Plant Available Water (PAW) Plant Available Water Capacity (PAWC) Planting Window Potential Yield Calculator (PYCAL)

Productive Potential Rating Rate of Change Readily Available Water (RAW) Reference Biomass Regolith Rooting Depth Senescence Slope Sowing Window Statistical District (SD) Statistical Local Area (SLA) Topographic Trend Variability

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

17. Other Acronyms Acronym

Description

ABARES ABS ASRIS AMSL BOM CSIRO GRDC MODIS PYCAL USGS

Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics and Sciences Australian Bureau of Statistics Australian Soil Research Information System Above Mean Sea Level Bureau of Meteorology Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Grains Research and Development Corporation Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Potential Yield Calculator (Developed by Department of Agriculture and Food WA) United States Geological Survey

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

18. References •

Australian Bureau of Meteorology (2013). Daily rainfall and temperature climate data. (Published 1km data has been derived from source point data). Distributed under Creative Commons Licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/) © Commonwealth of Australia (Bureau of Meteorology) 2013

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2013). (Published LGA data has been derived from source Agricultural Statistics and Census data). Distributed under Creative Commons Licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/au/) © Commonwealth of Australia (Bureau of Statistics) 2013

Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (2010) Continental Landsat Mosaic 2010. Distributed under Creative Commons Licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/) © Commonwealth of Australia (Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency) 2010

Geoscience Australia 2005. TOPO-250K RASTER, 1:250,000 scale raster data (DVD). Geoscience Australia: Canberra. This Topographic Map 1:250,000 incorporates Data which is © Commonwealth of Australia (Geoscience Australia) 2005 The Data has been used in Topographic Map 1:250,000 with the permission of the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth has not evaluated the Data as altered and incorporated within Topographic Map 1:250,000, and therefore gives no warranty regarding its accuracy, completeness, currency or suitability for any particular purpose.

Geoscience Australia (2008) GEODATA 9 Second DEM Version 3 (data displayed has been resampled to 3 Second DEM (90m)) Distributed under Creative Commons Licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/) © Commonwealth of Australia (Geoscience Australia) 2008

NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC). MODIS (MOD09GQ). USGS/Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. 2011.

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Comprehensive Rural Property Report for Riversedge

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