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Publication of the South African Institution of Mechanical Engineering, incorporating News of Associate Organisations


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When demand is down When the economy recedes, there is a temptation to cut back on any activities that appear superfluous, although in any business there should really not be any, unless they are intentionally provided to buffer the business constraint. I guess it becomes evident that when business is bad, the constraint is deemed to be in the market. That being the case, it makes strategic sense to subordinate other activities to that constraint by elevating the resource loading in marketing and sales. Such sub-ordination could include training up other line persons in the organisation to find a supporting role in sales. Sales training should be an existing function in any organisation so the sales team could be extended to include these resources. What about marketing, which is strictly the identification of opportunities, where sales is the exploitation of them? It is often said that everyone should be a sales person for their employer. Involving the rest of the team in the marketing and sales strategy can generate a lot of unexpected new options and get the spirit and drive going across the organisation.


A recent global survey, which included SA, revealed that in these slack economic times, the number of employees actively searching for a new job increases noticeably. In the case of sample SA, the results showed that more than 4 in 10 employees were seeking new positions, and our statistics indicate that this is higher than the global average by some 16%. The quarterly shift is particularly evident. The expectation (following the big strikes and the commodity price collapse) for retrenchments in the industries affected by mining investments has been borne out dramatically. The impact on the value chain from capital investment in new mines all the way through EPCM, EPC, Consulting Engineers, main contractors, suppliers to the small business providing nuts and bolts, is a harsh reality. It becomes even more stark when we realise that SA was effectively built and developed on mining for the last 100 years. Thus the need for a radical strategy shift is urgent. A big, new marketing and sales challenge. Essential to this is the need to define, locate and employ the human capital to operate the business. All business is doing it, but not well. My own research with many industries over some years on identifying the constraint in the business shows, in my opinion, and that of many in the industry, that the current process of recruitment is flawed and has been usurped by the role of HR. HR should focus and interact on the internal resources and keep them happy or at least find out what makes them tick.This might then reduce the frequency of the look-elsewhere-and-lose-staff syndrome. Re-

cruitment is a different process requiring different skills, tools, databases, market knowledge and expertise, especially in engineering.

Chris Reay

Chairman of the Working Committee: Communications (SA Institution of Mechanical Engineering)

On both sides

Until management addresses the human resource constraint with processes that protect and elevate the constraint, things will not change. It should be seen as a strategic issue at board level or it will simply be more of the same. Delays, lack of knowledge within the recruitment process, poor selection in terms of environmental/cultural fit into the organisation will continue. In the days when the line spoke directly to the recruiter who understood their business, appointments were faster, better and more permanent. At least in engineering.

HR should focus and interact on the internal resources and keep them happy or at least find out what makes them tick

I know, I have been on both sides. However, too much emphasis is placed on finding the perfect fit at below market value, and too little on the need for induction and mentoring in the new role. The metrics of selection are outdated and mostly inaccurate. A good start is so often messed up by internal conflict and dubious management skills. Hence the high turnover rate. We are finding that matching by functional auditing is breaking the mould and needs to be seriously considered by management.


VOL 66 January 2016


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VOL 66

January 2016

S MECHANICAL A ENGINEER On the Cover BMG – Bearing Man Group

January 2016  VOLUME 66  NUMBER 1


Tel: (031) 576-6300 www.bmgworld.ne t

Cover Story

10 The Important Role of Maintenance-free Heavy Duty Couplings in Engineering

Power Transmission 12 A Real Insight 14 The Power of Two

16 Electra Mining Africa 17 Launch of Local Tug 18 Propak Africa 2016



30 Engineering Excellence Award 32 Longer Fatigue Life


31 Young Engineering Managers


3 An Engineer’s View 6 Institution News 29 Sait 33 Market Forum

19 M&V Methodologies for 12L Tax Incentive Projects 27 Power Generation News


All rights reserved. No editorial matter published in “SA Mechanical Engineer” may be reproduced in any form or language without written permission of the publishers. While every effort is made to ensure accurate reproduction, the editor, authors, publishers and their employees or agents shall not be responsible or in any way liable for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies in the publication, whether arising from negligence or otherwise or for any consequences arising therefrom. The inclusion or exclusion of any product does not mean that the publisher or editorial board advocates or rejects its use either generally or in any particular field or fields.

The monthly circulation is 3 947 Produced by: PROMECH PUBLISHING, P O Box 373, Pinegowrie, Official Publication of 2123, Republic of South Africa THE SA INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING and endorsed by: Tel: (011) 781-1401, Fax: (011) 781-1403 Email: samecheng@promech.co.za, www.promech.co.za  CORROSION INSTITUTE OF SA Managing Editor Susan Custers Editorial Contributors  SA PUMP SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION (SAPSDA) DTP Lindy Fobian / Anne Rotteglia Liesl Venter and Andrea Müller  SA VALVE AND ACTUATORS MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION Circulation Catherine Macdiva  THE SA INSTITUTE OF TRIBOLOGY

Subscriptions Please email us at accounts@promech.co.za  NUCLEAR INSTITUTE if you wish to subscribe to “SA Mechanical Engineer” at R550,00 (excl  SA INSTITUTE FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING postage and VAT) per year; R1 380,00 per year for Africa/Overseas.  NATIONAL SOCIETY OF BLACK ENGINEERS  INSTITUTE FOR CERTIFICATED MECHANICAL AND Disclaimer ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS PROMECH Publishing and The South African Institution of Mechanical Engineering as well as any other body do not take responsibility for the opinions expressed  SOUTH AFRICAN ASSOCIATION OF CONSULTING ENGINEERS by individuals.  THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY (SAEE) Printed by: Typo Colour Printing, Tel: (011) 402-3468/9  THE SA CAPITAL EQUIPMENT EXPORT COUNCIL FSC (Forestry Stewardship Accreditation)


VOL 66 January 2016



Council 2014 - 2016

Company Affiliates

Office Bearers President................................... KK Nyangoni (Kudzai) Vice President................................... E Zawilska (Ewa) National Treasurer............................... A Roos (Andre)

Branch Chairpersons Central .............................................. C Kruger (Carel) Eastern Cape......................... G van den Berg (Gideon) KwaZulu Natal .............................R Walker (Raymond) Mpumalanga Highveld .......... PJ Jansen van Rensburg (Jansen) Vaal........................................ Prof LM Masu (Leonard) Western Cape .............................. S Pietrangeli (Sven)

Portfolios: Communications/ Strategic Planning/ Specialist Groups . . .................................. CD Reay (Chris)

Autodesk as represented by Worldsview Technologies Ainsworth Engineering (Pty) Ltd Alstom Power Service SA (Pty) Ltd Babcock Ntuthuko Engineering (Pty) Ltd Bateman Projects (Pty) Ltd Bosch Projects (Pty) Ltd DCD Rolling Stock A division of DCD Group (Pty) Ltd

Company Affiliates. . .....................................R Mills (Bob)

ELCIME Engineering (Pty) Limited

To be confirmed.................... Prof JL van Niekerk (Wikus)

Festo (Pty) Ltd

Professional Development Programme........................................ M Black (Malcolm) Technology Programme.. ...................... SZ Hrabar (Steve)

Chief Executive Officer: Vaughan Rimbault National Office Manager: Anisa Nanabhay

GEA Air-cooled Systems (Pty) Ltd Hansen Transmissions SA Hatch Goba (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 511, Bruma, 2026 Tel: (011) 615-5660

Fluor SA (Pty) Ltd

Fax: (011) 388-5356

Email: info@saimeche.org.za Website: www.saimeche.org.za Membership Email: membership@saimeche.org.za

MBE Minerals (SA) (Pty) Ltd Megchem Mod-U-Flow CC Osborn Engineered Products SA (Pty) Ltd PaCMan Projects & Maintenance PPS Insurance Co Limited Rotek Engineering S.A.M.E Water (Pty) Ltd SA Power Services (Pty) Ltd Sasol Technology (Pty) Ltd SEW Eurodrive Siemens Ltd Spirax Sarco (Pty) Ltd Tenova Takraf Africa – a division of Tenova Mining Thyssenkrupp Engineering (Pty) Ltd

Howden Power

Ultra-Flow Engineering Services CC

Howden Projects

Vital Engineering (Pty) Ltd

Industrial Water Cooling (Pty) Ltd

Weir Minerals Africa Winder Controls (Pty) Ltd

John Orr Lecture - Feedback We’re proud to have hosted yet another successful John Orr Memorial Lecture. The lecture held on 11 November 2015 at Wits University was delivered by Dr Steve Lennon, on the topic: “The Power Sector – A mature Industry in its Infancy – Opportunities to Energise a Sustainable South African Economy”. Dr Lennon held the audience captive with an insightful and riveting presentation. The lecture was streamed live, with local screenings at some of our branches.

Vaughan Rimbault (SAIMechE CEO), Anisa Nanabhay (SAIMechE), Kudzai Nyangoni (SAIMechE President), Dr Steve Lennon (Presenter of JO Lecture), Prof Robert Reid (Head: School of Mechanical, Aeronautical & Industrial Engineering – Wits University) and Stephen Murefu (SAIMechE)



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January 2016

You can view a recording of the Lecture via the link on our website or: http://www.saimeche.org. za/link.asp?ymlink=4316017.


1 Day Seminar

Centrifugal Pumps, Systems and Slurry Applications

Heat Exchangers

Expertise by Weir Minerals Africa Featuring: • Different Pump Types • Pump Performance and System Curves • All About NPSH • Series and Parallel Pumping • Pump Testing and Case Studies and Affinity Laws • Principles of Centrifugal Slurry Pumping • Centrifugal Pumps as Amplifiers of Pressure at ‘Constant’ Flow Rate • Total Heads (Static + Dynamic + Pressure) • Slurry Pump Selections by Targeting the Applications • Site System and OEM Pump Curve-six Zones Subject to Adjustments • Investigating the Influence of the Eight Infamous ‘P’ Parameters • Metallurgical Mass Balance - RD Solids, Cm, RD Slurry, Ql/s @ t t/h • Tailings Disposal Systems Hydraulic, Mechanical, Electrical Engineering • Selection of Drives - Wedge Belt, Gearbox, Direct Coupled and VSD • Wet Gland Sealing Utilising Pressurised Gland Service Water • Dry Glad Sealing Utilising Expeller Hold-back Characteristics • Gland Sealing Utilising Mechanical Seals • Comparing Capital Costs versus Electrical Cost of a Tailings System • Exorbitant Factors of Safety Resulting in Oversizing of Circuits • Devasting Effect of Escalating Electrical Cost on the End User TOC • Mineralogy/Rheology • Types of Slurries and Viscosity • Suction Pipeline Parameter, Discharge Pipeline Parameters, Pipeline Intrusion Philosophy, Suction Vessels/ Sumps • Flotation Froth Concentrate Pumping / Hopper, Designs / Installations, Thickener Underflow Pumping / Designs Code EPM16 CPM16 APM16

Region East Rand Cape Town Durban

Event Date 14-15 March 2016 16-17 May 2016 12-13 September 2016

Closing Date 29 February 2016 29 April 2016 29 August 2016

Expertise by Steinmüller Africa (Pty) Ltd and Front End Technology (Pty) Ltd Featuring: Basic Heat Transfer: • Heat and Mass Transfer: Basics and 1st Principles • NTU versus LMTD • Fouling • Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Types of Heat Exchangers: • TEMA, HEI, Air cooled and Header heat exchangers • Compact heat exchangers • Modular heat exchangers • Bulk cooling systems • Heat exchanger enhancements Pressure Equipment Regulations: • Legislation • Origin of PER • VUP vs PER • Role players under the PER and the position of SANS 347 Mechanical Design of Pressure Vessels: • The Codes in the OHS Act and their unique approaches • Software • In code out of code and the AIA • Method Statements and Construction Regulations Economics of Heat Transfer Technology: • Definition of an economical design from a thermal design perspective • General • STHE • ACHE • Definition of an economical design from an operational / maintenance perspective • Maintenance, Design and Fabrication applied in Heat Transfer • Pipes versus Shells or Forgings or plates • Material Selection • Galvanic Corrosion • Welding and Fabrication Troubleshooting and Maintenance of Heat Exchangers: • Operation / fluid vs. “troubleshooting” and maintenance Code AHE16 CHE16 EHE16

Region Durban Cape Town East Rand

Event Date 23 March 2016 6 April 2016 22 June 2016

Closing Date 8 March 2016 22 March 2016 7 June 2016

1 Day Seminar

Introduction to Adhesives Science Expertise by Pratley (Pty) Limited Featuring: Why Use Adhesives?: • Repair • Design Advantages • Application Examples Adhesive Principles: • Terminology • Testing • Adhesion Science • Surface Preparation Structure and Composition of Adhesives: • Classification • Reactive Adhesives • Curing Mechanisms • Polyaddition • Polymerisation • Polycondensation Selecting an Adhesive: • Requirements List • Candidate Adhesives D.I.Y. Adhesives vs. Industrial Adhesives: • Constraints and Design Examples of Adhesives: • Epoxy • Acrylic • Cyandacrilates • Hybrid • Anaerobic Code CAD16 KAD16 AAD16

Region Cape Town Krugersdorp Durban

Event Date 23 March 2016 14 April 2016 29 April 2016

Closing Date 8 March 2016 31 March 2016 15 April 2016

Bookings and Enquiries for All Events: Carey Evans Email - carey@saimeche.org.za Tel. - 031 764 7136

Kudzai Nyangoni (SAIMechE President) and Dr Steve Lennon, presenter of this year’s JO Lecture

To view workshops available as In-House events check out the Training Events page on www.saimeche.org.za and contact Linda Robinson (linda@saimeche.org.za and 031 764 7136) to arrange a booking on a date that best suits your corporation.


VOL 66 January 2016



Western Cape Annual Dinner Dance 2015 The SAIMechE Western Cape Annual Dinner Dance 2015 took place on Thursday, 5th November 2015. This year the event was one with a difference in that it took the theme of a Western/Cowboys and Indians. It was clear that this change of the conventional Black Tie/Ballroom Gown created an amazing, relaxed atmosphere and initiated much chatter and socialising. Held at one of the many brilliant function venues at the Ratanga Junction theme park, the Smugglers Restaurant complemented the theme well. We were fortunate to have delegates from the SAIMechE Post Graduate Conference, which was held on the same day, in attendance. All in all, an enjoyable evening was had by all.

Most Attractive Cowgirl, Stephanie Adongo and Committee Member and Organiser, Telez Augustyn

Best Dressed Couple - Mr and Mrs Walter Kohlhofer Malcolm Black, Chris Reay, Vaughan Rimbault (CEO), Cillia Molomo-Mphephu, Kudzai Nyangoni (SAIMechE President), Sven Pietrangeli (WC Chairman), and Leonard Masu


VOL 66 January 2016



The Important Role of Maintenance-Free Heavy Duty Couplings in Engineering BMG – Bearing Man Group – works closely with industry to achieve a more efficient and sustainable environment and a highly productive and globally competitive region.

BMG optimises productivity and enhances process plant operating reliability through its critical focus on entire production processes. This encompasses an extensive range of quality branded components, engineering solutions and technical services,” says Carlo Beukes, general manager: Drive Belts & Ironware divisions, BMG. “The company’s commitment to being a comprehensive process solutions provider to all sectors of industry means companies can access all essential production efficient products and services from one reliable supplier. This integrated approach guarantees lower production costs and higher efficiencies. “A cornerstone of BMG’s initiative is reliability engineering – a philosophy aimed at keeping plant in full productive output for as long as possible, without unnecessary maintenance or unplanned stoppages. As a result, output capacities are increased without investment in additional production lines and machinery.”

Important components in the company’s Ironware division, are maintenance-free heavy-duty engineering couplings BMG, which launches new innovative products and systems on an ongoing basis to meet exact market requirements, has secured the exclusive supply, service and distribution agreements with some of the world’s most respected manufacturers of leading engineering components over the last 42 years.

Minimal downtime

Important components in the company’s Ironware division, are maintenance-free heavy-duty engineering couplings. Timken Quick-Flex and Vulkan GBN heavy industrial couplings - available exclusively in Southern Africa from BMG - are designed for efficient performance in diverse applications from light duty, high speed/low torque drives, to extremely heavy duty, low speed/high torque drives. The primary purpose of couplings is to transmit torque from a driving shaft to a driven shaft and to accommodate shaft misalignment within the drive. Couplings also dampen vibration, torque fluctua-



VOL 66

tions and torsional shock loads, even in arduous applications. Through careful and accurate product selection, correct installation and appropriate care of couplings, substantial savings can be made in reduced maintenance costs Timken Quick-Flex and Vulkan GBN heavy industrial couplings – available exclusively in Southern Africa from BMG - are designed for efficient performance in diverse applications - from light duty, high speed/low torque drives, to extremely heavy duty, low speed/high torque drives.

and minimal downtime. These procedures also increase the L10 lifetime of the product. Timken Quick-Flex couplings consist of two steel coupling hubs which are attached to the drive and driven shaft. A urethane element wraps around the two hubs and provides a simple, yet effective, drive mechanism. The only spare part required is a standby element that can be quickly changed when necessary. Inserts, which are resistant to chemicals, are manufactured from different grades of urethane to suit various industries. The red insert is suitable for most high speed applications with high levels of vibration, the stiffer blue insert is designed for January 2016


higher torque applications and the black insert can withstand extremely high torque requirements, replacing grid and gear couplings. An advantage of these flexible couplings over conventional units is direct replacement with virtually all comparable sized couplings. Quick-Flex couplings require no lubrication and are also easy to install and maintain. Due to the high torque capacity of this range, the selected QF solution is often smaller than the replaced coupling. This leads to a major weight saving on the drive and also reduces stress on other components. Three different elements per size are available, each with a different torque rating. The flexibility of this design makes the range suitable for many applications - from high speed/low torque/excessive vibration drives, to a low speed/high torque application.

No re-alignment

Important features include excellent balance allowing for high speed applications up to 12 000 RPM, low maintenance with no lubrication requirements and hugely reduced downtime. These couplings accept angular misalignment up to 2º and parallel shaft displacement up to 7.92mm.

Once the two coupling hubs, insert and cover have been installed and aligned for the first time, the coupling hubs do not need to be moved again for the life of the equipment. Unlike a standard jaw-type or gear couplings, there are no metal to metal contact between the hubs. This prevents any possible damage to the ironware during an element failure. The urethane insert can be easily changed without moving the hubs or shafts and no re-alignment of components is necessary. Quick-Flex couplings are compatible with shaft

sizes from 10mm to 286mm and can accommodate a wide speed range – from below100rpm, to 12 000rpm. Torque ratings range from 43Nm to 188 795Nm, depending on the selected element and cover design based on the blue element specifications. BMG’s Vulkan Flexomax GBN maintenance-free couplings are suitable for applications that include low speed shafts of machinery driven by electric motors. For example, mills, conveyor belts and tippers, as well as all machinery with high loads. These compact couplings allow for compensating axial, radial and angular misalignments and also protect the drivetrain from shock loads. This range has a modular design that enables the integration of brake discs, pulleys, shear devices and spacer shafts within the coupling. Radial removability of the coupling elements is possible, without having to move the connected machinery. No lubrication is required during assembly or disassembly. These torsional flexible couplings have a maximum torque of 1 288 800NM and shaft diameters up to 600mm. This range is equipped with specially-designed elastic elements which work in compression, allowing for maximum torque transfer, heat dissipation and product longevity. These polyurethane elements are resistant to water, oil and dust.

This range has a modular design that enables the integration of brake discs, pulleys, shear devices and spacer shafts within the coupling Vulkan Flexomax GBN couplings, available in 16 sizes with nine designs, have customisable options to meet the requirements of restricted applications.

Field services

BMG now has 140 mobile technicians with specialist technical skills and equipment to conduct breakdown and routine maintenance on site. This team carries out trouble shooting and advises on possible productivity improvements, to ensure the highest level of plant output and reliability. Specialist services include installation, adjustment, replacement and maintenance of components, shaft and pulley alignment, balancing, condition monitoring, oil sampling and analysis and critical equipment inspections and lubrication schedules. Maintenance training and fault diagnosis also form an important part of BMG’s field services. The company is committed to providing a 24 hour customer process support for production efficiency and reliability-centred maintenance. This is enhanced by advanced technical and design support across all functional disciplines. BMG – Bearing Man Group, Carlo Beukes Tel: (031) 576-6300, Email: carlob@bmgworld.net www.bmgworld.net


VOL 66 January 2016



A Real Insight It’s understandable that a company so intrinsically involved in motion would in itself always be on the move. Setting new standards and reaching new heights is all in a day’s work at SEW Eurodrive South Africa. “SA Mechanical Engineer” sat down to meet the driving force behind it all – new managing director, Raymond Obermeyer.


EW Eurodrive has an international reputation for being able to quickly and efficiently solve the most difficult power transmission and motion control challenges. Nothing is impossible and can’t be done. An outstanding product line aside, aspects such as commitment, dedication and reliability are important elements in the mix of their success. It’s therefore not surprising that they found a managing director within their own midst and an operations man to boot. “I think being an operations man gives me a slight advantage,” says Raymond from his Johannesburg office, “because it has given me very real insight into the inner workings of the business.” Having worked for the company for 28 years is a further advantage. There is very little about the hands-on aspects of the business that escapes him.

“I have worked my way through the ranks, have seen the company grow from the very beginning and have been involved in almost every aspect through my career” “I have worked my way through the ranks, have seen the company grow from the very beginning and have been involved in almost every aspect through my career.” For Raymond, you don’t just wake up, wave a wand and become the managing director. “It’s about consistent hard work, dedication and commitment, delivering what we promise to our customers. Saying we can do it, means we will do it.” Raymond has been instrumental in the growth of the company, playing an integral role in the upgrading of facilities across its South African branches.

Tackling the challenge

Having taken up office in July 2015, Raymond’s first and foremost priority was to empower himself with as much knowledge as possible. “Coming in during the middle of a financial year I was not going to change the strategic course that had been set at the beginning of the year,” he says. Having taken the time to visit each branch and to understand the immediate needs and challenges of each of these environments, he believes he is in a far better position to tackle the challenge of 2016. There is no denying the current tough economic environment. “But it really just means that now more than ever we have to buckle down and get busy working.” Developing a solid strategy to make this happen is now a top priority.



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Raymond Obermeyer, new managing director of SEW Eurodrive South Africa

“Due to the current tough business conditions, we have to find ways of working smart, and hard. From sales through to operations we cannot just do business as usual. Markets are flat and opportunities are few and far between. Now we have to be innovative in our approach and differentiate ourselves significantly from our competitors. This does not just apply to staff, but also to me,” he adds.

New sectors

“I have to ensure we reach new heights and remain at the top of our game. Moving into new markets is one of our foremost strategies. Our African expansion drive will be at the top of the agenda in 2016. There are several regions that we are focusing on in particular. We believe we can significantly increase our business in several sectors on the continent and are working towards establishing a presence in this regard.” At the same time growing the company’s local footprint is just as important. Raymond comments, “Some of the local market segments are not doing too badly, such as food and beverage, and automotive. Focusing on these sectors that we are strong in, remains a key target.” Industries under pressures such as mining and agriculture need to be worked. “But we must also broaden our reach into other sectors which we are going to attack in order to get some business going there.”

Setting goals

Raymond is under no illusion that it’s an easy road ahead. “There are some big hurdles but if we keep doing what we’ve been doing to date, January 2016


Wowing the Judges The University of Stellenbosch has been named as the winner of the 2015 PneuDrive Challenge, after submitting its concept of the innovative BottleBot: an automated solution that enables micro-breweries to transport empty beer bottles to a capping machine with greater efficiency. The annual PneuDrive challenge aims to provide mechanical, electrical and mechatronic students with the opportunity to combine theory with the latest drive engineering technology. The 2015 theme was “Revolutionising the food and beverage industry.”

we are confident about reaching the goals we’ve set for ourselves. And here customer satisfaction is key. Delivering customer solutions to customer specifications means that we cannot just have one set of rules which is applied unilaterally to all our customers.”

“We believe we can significantly increase our business in several sectors on the continent and are working towards establishing a presence in this regard” Technology has made a major difference to operations, while allowing companies to find the perfect solution for each and every customer. “Often this means looking at our own internal workings differently and tackling that hurdle which prevents us from giving the customer exactly what he or she wants. There is no uniform way of operating that can be applied to everyone.” Finally, Raymond’s major goal is to ensure that SEW Eurodrive South Africa delivers innovative solutions rather than a good price or a good deal. “Delivering solutions that work is what good service is about and is where companies are going to differentiate themselves. In this regard, we are simplifying our strategies as we move ahead, streamlining operations and investing more in training our staff. It’s all about increasing and improving efficiency that will result in a better service to our customers and the delivery of improved solutions.” SEW Eurodrive SA, Raymond Obermeyer, Tel: (011) 248-7000, Email: info@sew.co.za, www.sew.co.za

The Stellenbosch team consisting of Reghardt Pretorius, Johannes Leuvennink, Madeli du Toit, Josua Blom and Jean Swart – has won a ten-day, all-expenses-paid trip to the European headquarters of lead sponsors, SEW-Eurodrive and SMC Pneumatics. BottleBot has a low energy consumption of 24.474 kWh per year, and can be controlled by a smart phone or tablet device. The BottleBot can increase efficiency and accuracy through complete

automation and elimination of human error and contamination. One cycle involves picking up 12 bottles on one side of the production line and placing it onto the capping machine on the opposite side. The duration of one cycle is a minimum of eight seconds. The BottleBot’s retail price will be significantly lower than the price of similar products available on the market, meaning that the initial purchase cost of the solution will be fully covered within two-anda-half years. The runner-up prize went the University of the Witwatersrand’s (Wits) team, for its ‘Potato Game Changer’ concept, which transforms waste into usable energy at a potato chip factory. Third place went to another Wits team, for its ‘Autonomous Warehouse Floor Cleaner’ concept, involving an autonomous cleaner which is able to separate liquid waste from solid waste on brewery floors without assistance. This team was also the recipient of the ‘Innovation Prize’. www.pneudrive.co.za

Co-sponsor SMC Pneumatics (South Africa) recently stepped forward as cosponsors with SEW-Eurodrive of the 2016 PneuDrive Challenge. This is an engineering design competition that has been providing South African mechanical, electronic and mechatronic engineering students with a bridging experience into business reality since 2008. Adrian Buddingh, general manager of SMC Pneumatics, strongly believes that the competition is an important platform for strengthening the quality of South African engineering qualifications. He

points out how system integration is not often fully realised at a university level. “This competition offers the student an opportunity to get exposed to, and consider, other engineering disciplines apart from those covered in their separate faculties. Showing how unusual pneumatic and drive components can be pulled together in a competition type experience is, in reality, a first taster of what they will experience when they get into industry”. SMC Pneumatics SA Tel: (011) 568-2407 www.smcpneumatics.co.za


VOL 66 January 2016



The Power of Two The decision by Transmission Components to merge with international power transmission component manufacturer, Ringspann, has boded well for the business to ensure long-term stability and entry into new markets. “SA Mechanical Engineer” speaks to assistant manager Rudi Jeggle to find out more.


ith the company now officially known as Ringspann Transmission Components, the internationally-renowned Ringspann group has brought some significant changes in the past year to the small South African business. “It has really brought security and stability to our business as we’ve always had to deal with the volatility of the local market,” says Rudi from the company’s Kempton Park office. “Although we’ve had a long relationship with Ringspann, the decision to sell made a lot of sense and

really only takes the partnership one step further. At the same time it has allowed us to focus on what we do well, designing and manufacturing world class products.” The liaison between the two companies is hardly new. Transmission Components has represented Ringspann in the African market since the early 1980’s as an agent. “We also became suppliers to Ringspann manufacturing for many of their special types of locking elements and shrink discs, as well as well as rigid couplings.” Transmission Components becoming a 100% wholly owned subsidiary of Ringspann, has been easily accepted in the local market. “The biggest changes have been internal and all for the better,” Rudi asserts. The company now holds far more Ringspann stock and distributes a wider range of their products.

Focussed on quality

Being German-owned itself, the more than 45-strong team at the company has easily adapted to the new environment where there is major focus on quality. Rudi adds, “We have always manufactured to the highest standards of quality, but when you’re talking manufacturing for a German company that is distributing not only across Europe but also Asia and the Americas, there is constant pressure to deliver only the best.” It’s a challenge the team is thriving on. “Through this move we are now able to enter markets with our locallymanufactured products that previously might have been harder to do. We have a testing facility on site and have introduced higher standards of quality control and inspection ensuring that we deliver only the best. The USA is one market we now ship to directly and we are seeing ongoing interest and demand for our products globally.”

Major support

As a long-standing manufacturer locally of flange couplings and shaft-hub connections, there are great expectations of what is still to come despite the local market’s uncertainty. “There are oppor-



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January 2016


Rudi Jeggle, assistant manager of Ringspann Transmission Components

tunities across Africa that we are investigating to complement our local growth. “With Ringspann’s backing, and our decision to combat any threat of stagnation, not only is substantial growth on the cards but our aim of becoming a market leader on the continent is a reality,” Rudi says proudly. One of the biggest challenges facing local manufacturers remains the importation of mass- produced products inferior to the local products on offer. From a price perspective it is very difficult to compete. “Our Ringspann deal proves that locally-manufactured products are of world standard and are in demand in some of the biggest markets out there with the most stringent of quality controls in place. “The injection of major support from administration to financial to infrastructure support, further enhances our ability to grow our operations significantly,” Rudi concludes.

Ringspann Transmission Components, Rudi Jeggle, Tel: (011) 394-1830, Email: rjeggle@transmisssion.co.za, www.transmission.co.za, www.ringspann.co.za

find out if you qualify to #joinourtable at pps.co.za PPS is an authorized Financial Services Provider.


VOL 66 January 2016


Electra Mining Africa The biggest mining, industrial, machine tools, electrical and power trade show in Southern Africa and ranked as one of the world’s largest mining shows, Electra Mining Africa will be taking place from 12-16 September 2016 at the Expo Centre in Johannesburg, South Africa. The world-class trade exhibition will again enjoy the support of leading industry associations including SA Institution of Mechanical Engineering (SAIMechE), the SA Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (SAIMM) and Women in Mining South Africa (WIMSA). A new association on board supporting Electra Mining Africa is the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA). It has also been announced that the South African Capital Equipment Export Council (SACEEC) will be organising an Inward Buying Mission to coincide with Electra Mining Africa which will assist mining companies from South America to attend the show. This has proved extremely popular in previous years. “We are delighted to again partner with leading industry associations SAIMechE, ESAIMM and WIMSA and also welcome ECSA,” says Gary Corin, Managing Director of Specialised Exhibitions Montgomery. “We look forward to finalising discussions around the various conferences and initiatives that they are planning to take place alongside the show.” “The Inward Buying Mission is also really important to us. It is a partnership that has continued over many years and we have previously been host to a high number of senior mining representatives from South America, Russia, USA and Canada.” Visitors will have the opportunity to view the latest machinery, equipment, products and services and will benefit from the interaction offered through daily live demonstrations and simulation booths. Over 850 local and international exhibitors will be showcasing a broad range of products and their latest technology offerings. International Pavilions have been confirmed for China, France, UK and Turkey. Specialised Exhibitions, Leatitia van Straten, Email: leatitiavs@specialised.com, www.electramining.co.za



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Launch of Local Tug Transnet National Ports Authority celebrated a milestone in its R1.4 billion tug building contract in November last year when the first of its nine new, powerful tugboats was ceremonially launched at the Durban premises of contractor, Southern African Shipyards. “This is the largest single contract TNPA has ever awarded to a South African company for the building of harbour craft,” says TNPA chief executive, Richard Vallihu.

almost instantaneously while guiding large vessels safely into our ports,” he concludes. Transnet National Ports Authority, Eugene A Rappetti Email: eugene.rappetti@transnet.net Southern African Shipyards, Lucinda Hippolyte Email: lucindah@sa-shipyards.co.za

Mvezo is expected to be handed over to the Port of Port Elizabeth in February 2016, followed by handovers every three months until the last one is launched in early 2018. TNPA had 29 tugs in service nationally, but the requirement for bigger, strong tugboat fleets was increasing in line with bigger commercial vessels calling at South African ports more frequently.

Bigger and stronger

“TNPA’s new fleet will include nine tugs that are 31 metres long with a 70 ton bollard pull. The older tugs have 32.5 to 40 ton pulls,” Richard adds. “The increased bollard pull of these new generation tugs meets international standards and they also feature the latest global technology. The tugs have Voith Scheider propulsion which makes them highly manoeuvrable and able to change direction and thrust

TNPA’s new Mvezo tug which was launched and named at the Southern African Shipyards premises in Durban, South Africa. Lady Sponsor, TNPA GM: Commercial & Marketing, Lauriette Sesoko, officially named the vessel, flanked by Charles Maher, Southern African Shipyards GM: Marketing.


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Propak Africa 2016 The importance of packaging and related industries will take centre stage at Africa’s largest packaging, food processing, plastics, printing and labelling trade exhibition, which will afford hundreds of local and international exhibitors the opportunity to showcase their latest products, equipment, machinery and services. Propak Africa, taking place at the Expo Centre, Nasrec in Johannesburg, from 15-18 March 2016, will offer visitors state-of-the-art equipment as well as a vast array of machinery, auxiliary products and services. Visitors can expect to see many South African companies in the packed halls, as well as high-profile international exhibitors from countries such as India, China, Belgium, Austria, Portugal, France, Turkey, Greece, the UAE and the United Kingdom. Says Joshua Low, Propak Africa event director, “Research confirms that Propak Africa, with its co-located shows, is the largest show of its kind in the southern hemisphere. We are expecting high visitor attendance in 2016 and believe that it will be a successful and enjoyable event for all participants.” More information is available at www. propakafrica. co.za including conference updates and costs. Visitors can also pre-register for free access to the show.



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GENERATION PROMECH PUBLISHING Tel: (011) 781-1401 Fax: (011) 781-1403 Email: samecheng@promech.co.za Website: www.promech.co.za Managing Editor: Susan Custers Editorial Contributors: Liesl Venter and Patricia Holburn Circulation: Catherine Macdiva DTP: Lindy Fobian/ Anne Rotteglia Disclaimer PROMECH Publishing does not take responsibility for the opinions expressed by individuals.


All rights reserved. No editorial matter published in “Power Generation Today” may be reproduced in any form or language without written permission of the publishers. While every effort is made to ensure accurate reproduction, the editor, authors, publishers and their employees or agents shall not be responsible or in any way liable for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies in the publication, whether arising from negligence or otherwise or for any consequences arising therefrom. The inclusion or exclusion of any product does not mean that the publisher or editorial board advocates or rejects its use either generally or in any particular field or fields.



M&V Methodologies for 12L Tax Incentive Projects The regulations on the allowance for energy efficiency savings in terms of Section 12L of the Income Tax Act came into force in November 2013. The 12L regulation clearly indicates that the quantum of energy efficiency savings must be determined by a transparent and reliable measurement and verification (M&V) process before claiming the proposed tax reduction. In order to facilitate the success of the 12L tax incentive scheme, this study aims to developed robust and standardised M&V methodologies for various 12L tax incentive projects. In the proposed M&V methodology, the involved DSM programmes are firstly classified into five general categories, namely energy conservation, load management, fuel substitution, load building and self-generation; and then the proper brownfield or Greenfield M&V methodologies are chosen for the savings quantification in each DSM category. The proposed M&V methodology complies with both the national and international M&V standards and protocols. The effectiveness of the proposed M&V methodologies is illustrated by three M&V case studies that contain either single or multiple DSM categories.


easurement and Verification (M&V) is the process of using measurement to accurately and reliably determine the savings delivered by an Energy Conservation Measure (ECM). The existing M&V practices continuously offer valuable feedback to the energy efficiency and demand side management (EEDSM) projects from the following perspectives such as: £ £ The M&V results contribute to better ECM designs and operations, which will ultimately increase energy savings for future EEDSM projects;

£ £ Transparent reduce the financing in and budget projects;

and credible M&V process project risk and enhance terms of both investments managements for EEDSM

£ £ The M&V process enhances the value of emission reduction credits and the energy saving certificates. Given the great importance and benefits of M&V, it has gradually become an indispensable process in various international capital incentive EE programmes such as clean

development mechanism (CDM), tradable white certificate (TWC) scheme [9], EEDSM programmes, and performance contracting, in order to accurately and reliably measure and verify the project performance in terms of energy or cost savings. Apart from different types of international capital incentive EEDSM projects, the M&V process is widely applied by local governments in South Africa to quantify the programme/project impacts for various energy efficiency initiatives, such as the ESCo model, standard offer programme (SOP), standard product programme (SPP), performance contracting (PC), and national mass rollout programme, etc. Most existing capital incentive EE business models are hosted by Eskom integrated demand management (IDM) and several local municipalities. In order to further promote the efficient use of energy, which consequently reduces the emission of greenhouse gas (GHG), the South African government introduces the 12L regulations on the allowance for energy efficiency savings. The 12L Regulation is a subset of the Income


VOL 66 January 2016



Barry Bredenkamp

JJ Karel Steyn

Tax Act of 1962 and it sets out the process and methodology for determining the quantum of energy efficiency savings, and requirements for claiming the proposed tax allowance, which stipulates a prerequisite that energy savings reports have to be compiled by M&V professionals performing M&V under the auspices of a SANAS accredited M&V Body and the savings certified by South African National Energy Development Institute (Sanedi) through issuing of a certificate. As the first tax incentive energy efficiency scheme in South Africa, M&V is compulsorily required to support the quantification of energy impact of 12L tax incentive projects. Although massive experience has been gained from the M&V practices of the various capital incentive projects, there is still a lack of specific M&V guidelines for 12L tax incentive projects. In order to fill this gap, this study aims to developed robust and standardised M&V methodologies for various 12L tax incentive projects. As the 12L tax incentive energy efficiency programme is open for savings in all energy forms other than only electricity, the EEDSM measures under the 12L tax incentive scheme can be classified into five different categories, namely energy conservation, load management, fuel substitution, load building and self-generation.


M&V protocols and national M&V standards. These M&V methodologies are illustratively presented under the energy savings evaluation examples of the captive power plants with different DSM categories involved.

General fact sheets of 12L tax incentive projects The general fact sheets of the 12L tax incentive projects are summarised in Table 1. £ £ Energy carrier: All forms of energy, ie, electricity, gas, diesel, waste heat, etc. will be considered under 12L tax incentive but exclude energy generated from renewable sources or co-generation. The renewable sources excluded are biomass, geothermal, hydro, ocean currents, solar, tidal waves or wind, etc; £ £ Impact indicators: kWh energy savings, and equivalent kWh energy savings; £ £ Tax incentive tariff: the tax incentive will be 45 cent per verified kWh (or equivalent) of energy efficiency savings; £ £ Savings reporting period: The tax incentive will be applicable to the energy savings over a period of 12 consecutive months; £ £ Effective 12L programme duration: The duration of Phase one 12 L tax incentive is from 01-Nov-2013 to 31-Dec-2019;

These DSM measures are adopted either in new-built (Greenfield) or existing (brownfield) facilities under 12L. In order to develop robust and standard M&V methodologies for the 12L tax incentive projects, we propose that the involved EEDSM measures must be correctly categorised and the measurement boundaries must also be clearly distinguished in terms of Greenfield or brownfield, especially when one 12L project involves single or multiple DSM categories, in which both the Greenfield and brownfield EE interventions are observed.

£ £ M&V requirements: The 12L regulation requires that energy savings reports have to be compiled by M&V professionals performing M&V under the auspices of a SANAS accredited M&V body. The general requirements for M&V must align the following 5 criteria:

Then applicable Greenfield/brownfield M&V methodologies need to be designed separately in terms of different baseline development approaches and metering plans for the Greenfield/brownfield boundaries. The proposed M&V methodologies are more complicated than the inappropriately applied M&V methodologies in some of the existing M&V practices.

2. Standard M&V procedure from SANS 50010 must be followed;

But without the proposed M&V methodologies, the project savings cannot be correctly quantified in a manner that complies with both the international


Prof Xiaohua Xia

Xianming Ye


VOL 66

1. The M&V professional must perform M&V under the auspices of a SANAS accredited M&V body and all M&V related deliverables need to be signed by SANAS accredited signatory;

3. The instruments applied for M&V must be calibrated by SANAS accredited labs, and the data for M&V purpose need to be measured within the valid calibration period; 4. The people, standard, and measurement January 2016


Figure 1. Roadmap for the 12L tax incentive project.

and instruments used for 12L M&V must be traceable; 5. The entire M&V process for 12L M&V must be carried out in a safe manner; £ £ 12L project participants: Generally any person as defined in the Income Tax Act of 1962 is applicable to participate in 12L projects. The National Treasury implies the tax incentive act is applicable to business but not individuals.

Procedure of 12L project There are three key roles, namely business organisations (Clients or ESCo), M&V inspection bodies, and Sanedi, who are involved in the business model of 12L tax incentive projects. A brief roadmap for the 12L project is illustrated in Figure 1. The progress of a typical 12L tax incentive project is generally managed by Sanedi’s Energy Efficiency Tax Online System. The entire tax claim process can be demonstrated as follows:

STEP 1: The project under consideration of 12L

needs to be registered on Sanedi’s Energy Efficiency Tax Online System. The tax allowance claimants (Client) are expected to complete this step. But the Client sometimes contracts the ESCo or even M&V professionals to conduct this step.

STEP 2: M&V professionals from SANAS accredited

inspection bodies need to be appointed for the M&V of project impact. Once the agreements of M&V service between the organisation and M&V inspection body are reached, the M&V inspection body starts the standard M&V process such as project activation, project stakeholder meeting, site visit, project scope study,

M&V plan design, and baseline reporting. All these M&V activities must be done before the implementation of the 12L EE project, if it is a brownfield project. The M&V processes for Greenfield are slightly different from the brownfield projects, which are discussed later.

STEP 3: M&V inspection body submits the baseline to Sanedi for approval and the ESCo starts the implementation of the EE project. The newly installed or retrofitted energy system can only be commissioned after the approval of the M&V baseline;

STEP 4: Once the baseline report is approved by Sanedi, the client can commission the newly installed/retrofitted energy system. M&V inspection body performs the post-implementation measurement and verification of the project impacts in terms of kWh savings, and then submits the performance assessment (PA) report to Sanedi for approval.

STEP 5: Once Sanedi approves the PA reports, an EE tax incentive certificate will be issued to the organisation for tax allowance claim.

Discussions on 12L project eligibility and captive power plant As discussed, all energy carriers (fossil or renewable), are eligible under 12L as the regulation focuses on generating energy efficiency savings of an activity. However, one should not confuse the project eligibility under 12L with the ability of the project to generate eligible energy efficiency savings because of the following 12L provision “A person may not receive the allowance in respect of energy generated from renewable resources or


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co-generation other than energy generated from waste heat recovery”. In order to add clarity on the eligibility of the 12L projects, this article briefly summarises the types of projects that are not eligible for 12L tax incentive instead of repeating all the contents. £ £ There will be no tax incentive under 12L for load shifting projects as they are usually energy neutral; £ £ The useful process heat generated by an industrial solar water heater is not eligible and the electricity generated by a photvaltaic power plant or a wind farm is also not eligible; £ £ Avoided energy use generated by free-ridership is not eligible. For instance, turning off inefficient lamps due to cancellation of night shift is not eligible; £ £ Combined heat and power plants (CHP) that do not run on waste energy are not eligible; £ £ Captive Power Plants (CPP), whose energy generated is less than 35% of the energy inputs are not eligible. A captive power plant (CPP) means where generation of energy takes place for the purposes of the use of that energy solely by the person generating that energy. The self-generated energy for users own use but not fed into the grid qualifies for a tax allowance should the “kWh or the equivalent kWh of energy output of the captive power plant” in respect of an assessment year be “more than 35% of the kWh or the equivalent kWh of energy inputs”.

M&V for 12l energy efficiency tax incentive projects

on the 12L tax incentive scheme emphasise that the standard M&V procedure from SANS 50010 must be followed. In order to provide guidance on the M&V practice for 12L projects, the following key components of the general M&V process such as the definition of savings, measurement boundary, measurement period, baseline and baseline adjustments, metering plan, and discussions on M&V uncertainties, etc. will be discussed. The general M&V process is illustrated by Figure 2, in which the entire M&V process is typically divided into two periods by the time of the ECM installation, namely the baseline period and the reporting period. Before the installation of an ECM, a project baseline needs to be established for the purpose of savings quantification. Project boundaries need to be decided for the measurement of baseline/ reporting period data. There are four measurement options available to measure the baseline/reporting period energy use, such as: £ £ Retrofit isolation with key parameter measurement: key parameter refers to the energy governing factors or the baseline energy use; £ £ Retrofit isolation with all parameter measurement: all parameters refers to the measurements of both the energy governing factors and the energy use; £ £ Whole facility measurements; £ £ Calibrated simulation: this option is typically used if baseline or reporting period data are not available for measurements. By using any of the four options, the baseline/ reporting measurement periods should be chosen by the following criteria to:

General M&V process for 12L projects

£ £ represent all operating modes of a facility, which should span a full operating cycle from minimum to maximum energy use;

The general M&V process is provided in this subsection for 12L projects. The special requirements

£ £ represent all operating conditions of a normal operating cycle;  include the time period for which all energy governing factors can be identified;  coincide with the period immediately before/after the installation of the ECM. Assessment periods should not be confused with measurement periods. For instance, the typical baseline and performance assessment period of 12L projects is restricted to 12 consecutive months. But it is unnecessary to require the measurement duration for both the baseline and assessment period to be 12 months as the measurement period shall have at least one normal operating cycle of the equipment or the facility, in order to fully characterise the savings effectiveness in all normal operating modes. As shown in Figure 2, the tax incentive energy efficiency savings are reported under the reporting period conditions, where the baseline period energy shall

Figure 2. The general process of M&V



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be adjusted to the reporting period conditions. Normalised energy savings reported under any other fixed-conditions are not applicable for accessing 12L tax incentives. When the energy governing factors change routinely after the installation of an ECM, routine adjustments shall be performed to the baseline energy use by applying energy governing factors measured postretrofit in the baseline model. In case of changes in facility size, number of regular shifts and occupancy rates, non-routine adjustments need to be adopted for baseline adjustments. The energy savings reported at the reporting period may be uncertain as they are not directly measurable. The SANS 50010 clearly states that exact quantification of uncertainties is not required, but uncertainties shall be managed to ensure that reported savings are most likely to be conservative. A detailed M&V savings uncertainty handling approach can be found.

M&V for Greenfield projects Greenfield projects are big concerns under the 12L tax incentive scheme. In order to meet the potential urgent needs on the M&V of Greenfield 12L projects, SANS 50010 is currently under review to be more informative on performing Greenfield M&V projects, in which the Greenfield projects are defined as “Energy saving measures integrated into the design, construction and operation of new systems or new facilities, or for new energy carriers”. Henceforth, any non-Greenfield project will be called brownfield project in this study. The general applicable sources to establish the Greenfield project baseline are: £ £ Regulations, Codes and Standards; £ £ Common Practice, which refers to the use of “standard practice” or “market standard”; £ £ Documented performance of similar systems (or buildings) without any of the proposed ESMs implemented; £ £ A benchmark as determined by a national policy, regulation of administration and/or jurisdiction. When using any of the above approaches for baseline development for Greenfield projects, transparency and repeatability of baselines are critical. However, the 12L tax incentive scheme defines a Greenfield project as “a project that uses wholly new and unused assets” and further requires “to construct the baseline from comparable data in the relevant sectors” [18, 23], which infers that only “common practice” approach given in [25] is allowed to build baselines for 12L projects. Generally, only the baseline establishment approaches are different between the Greenfield and brownfield projects. Once the project baseline (model) is determined, the general M&V process can be followed to calculate the energy savings for both Greenfield and brownfield projects.

DSM categories and programme definition The DSM programme can be generally classified into the following five categories, namely conservation, load management, fuel substitution, load building and self-generation. Conservation programmes contribute to the reduction of electricity and/or other type of energy consumption. ‘Conservation’ in this context includes all energy efficiency improvements and reduced waste energy use. An energy efficiency improvement reduces energy use for a comparable level of service, resulting from the application of energy efficiency measures or the adoption of energy efficiency practices. Level of service may refer to temperature levels, production output of a manufacturing facility, or lighting level per square foot, or any other relevant measure. A typical example of reducing waste energy use is to switch off office lighting devices that are not necessary during night time. Load management programmes may either reduce electricity peak demand or shift demand from on peak to non-peak periods. Typical load management techniques are £ £ load levelling, ie, peak clipping, valley filling, and load shifting, etc; £ £ load control, ie, demand response, etc; £ £ tariff incentives and penalties, such as time-ofuse rate, power factor charges, and real-time pricing, etc. Fuel substitution and load building programmes share the common feature of increasing annual consumption of either electricity or other types of energy usage relative to what would have happened in the absence of the program. Fuel substitution includes the choice of one fuel over another, which either contributes to a lower GHG intensity or results in energy efficiency improvement.

Thermal needs

Typical fuel substitution applications can be found. Load building, sometimes called load growth, is usually implemented with the intention of improving customer productivity and environmental compliance while increasing the sale of kW for the utilities. This increases the market share of the utility and enables an ability to fill valleys and increase peaks. Self-generation refers to distributed generation (DG) installed on the customer’s site that serves part of the customer’s entire electric load, that otherwise would have been provided by the grid. In some cases, self-generation products are applied in a combined heat and power (CHP) or CPP manner, in which case the power and heat produced by the self- generation product is used on site to provide some or all of the customer’s electricity/ thermal needs. In some cases, self-generation programmes installed with incremental load are also included. For example, suppose a commercial customer installs


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a new facility with a peak consumption of 2 MW, with an on-site CPP with the capacity of 1.5 MW. The combined impact of the new facility is load building as the new facility can draw up to 0.5 MW from the grid, even with the CPP running. Basically, the conservation and load management programmes are more likely to fall in the brownfield group. The fuel substitution is usually Greenfield. The load building and self-generation programmes can be either brownfield or Greenfield. Under the 12L scheme, Co-generation projects are typically brownfield while the CPP is Greenfield.

STEP 3: Apply the general M&V methodologies

for the savings verification of brownfield ECMs and Greenfield M&V methodologies for the savings verification of Greenfield ECMs. The project savings will be the summation of the savings obtained for each sub-boundary.

The following example is given to briefly illustrate basic M&V methodology for a project with a single DSM programme.

CASE 1: The promotion of electric heat pump water

heater (HPWH) can and should be treated as part of a conservation programme if the HPWH device is to replace an existing less efficient electric resistance water heater. And this ECM will produce a certain kWh of electricity savings.

Under the 12L scheme, Co-generation projects are typically brownfield while the CPP is Greenfield M&V methodology for 12L project with different DSM categories

CASE 2: If the 12L tax incentive induces the installation of a HPWH instead of a gas water heating (GWH) device, then the programme needs to be considered and evaluated as a fuel substitution program. It is reasonable to draw two sub-boundaries for the fuel substitution ECM, one boundary (brownfield), in which the GWH is removed and with no further gas consumption device installed; the other one is a Greenfield sub-boundary, in which a HPWH is installed.

As the 12L tax incentive scheme includes EE projects that may include different forms of energy carriers, it is possible that one 12L project involves one or several of the DSM programmes. Categorizing programmes is important because in many cases the impact generated by same specific device can be and should be evaluated in more than one category. In order to perform M&V correctly on any 12L projects with single or multiple DSM categories, the following M&V procedure needs to be followed.

STEP 1: Clearly distinguish the involved DSM categories;

STEP 2: Identify sub-boundary that includes solely

the brownfield ECMs and/or Greenfield ECMs under each DSM category. Properly chosen measurement points over different sub-boundaries help to isolate any interactions between the Greenfield and the brownfield ECMs, which will further avoid over-/under-estimating the project savings.

Baseline period

Post-implementation period








19.79 7.52







Case study


Table 1. Meter readings with ECM 1 (GWh or GWh equivalent) Baseline period

Post-implementation period

















Table 2. Meter readings with ECM 2 (GWh or GWh equivalent) Baseline period

Post-implementation period

















Table 3. Meter readings with ECM 3 (GWh or GWh equivalent)



Therefore, gas savings will be obtained from the brownfield sub-boundaries. In the Greenfield boundary where the HPWH is newly installed, Greenfield M&V methodology applies for the savings determination. As a 12L project, the savings for the Greenfield boundary depends on the water heater energy consumption of the relevant sector. The savings might be positive, when the relevant sector uses inefficient electric resistance water heaters; or zero, where the relevant sector uses the same type of HPWH; or negative, when the relevant sector uses higher efficient HPWH than the one installed.

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In this section, M&V case studies on 12L projects with multiple DSM categories involved are given to illustrate effectiveness of the proposed M&V methodologies. As the load management programme is usually energy neutral and not eligible for 12L tax incentives, only projects with the conservation, fuel substitution, load building and selfgeneration programmes are considered here. Without loss of generality, consider a facility with annual production A. The energy system configuration of this facility is shown in Figure 3. During the baseline period, the facility only draws electricity from the national grid for normal operation. The electricity consumption is 17.52 GWh per annum. The facility is willing to participate in the 12L tax January 2016


incentive scheme by installing the following ECMs.

ECM 1: For the first year of assessment, the

facility plans to install a new coal-fired CPP, whose overall efficiency is 38% and the national coal-fired power plant average efficiency is 35%. After installation of the CPP, the production level of the facility remains unchanged.

M&V solution for ECM 1: The electricity output of the CPP is 7.52 GWh, which is 42.9% against the fuel equivalent kWh inputs. Therefore, the CPP qualifies for the 12L tax incentive. In addition, ECM 1 falls into both the selfgeneration and fuel substitution categories. Therefore, we need to draw two sub-boundaries for M&V. One is the selfgeneration sub-boundary (brownfield) that covers the electricity impact by self-generation. The other is the fuel substitution sub-boundary (Greenfield). Once the project boundaries are determined, we assume that power meters are installed and meter readings are available for Figure 3. The energy system configuration both the baseline and reporting periods. The meter readings are listed in Table 1. M&V solution for ECM 3: To quantify the impact The project impacts can be calculated as follows: for ECM 3, the actual energy use of the second £ £ For the self-generation sub-boundary (brown- year of assessment is taken as the baseline of the field), the baseline energy is 17.52 GWh; the third year of assessment. The electricity output of actual energy is 10 GWh; then the impact is the CPP is 10.34 GWh, which is 60% against the fuel equivalent kWh inputs. Therefore, the CPP 17.52-10=7.52 (GWh); £ £ For the fuel substitution sub-boundary (Green- qualifies for the 12L tax incentive. Now ECM 3 field), the baseline can be established from the relevant sector data. Then the baseline energy is 7.52/35% =21.49 (GWh equivalent). The actual GWh equivalent energy consumption is measured by the meter M2, which is 19.79 (GWh equivalent). Then the impact is calculated by 21.49-19.79 =1.70 (GWh equivalent); £ £ As the facility’s total production remains unchanged, there is no need for baseline adjustment. The total impact of this project is 7.52+1.70=9.22 (GWh equivalent).

N I I K A C o nve r t i n g Products

ECM 2: For the second year of assessment, the facility plans to replace all inefficient lamps by energy saving lighting systems. The rest of the facility remains unchanged. If the installed meters are not removed, then the meter readings are listed in Table 2.

M&V solution for ECM 2: To quantify the impact for ECM 2, the actual energy use of the first year of assessment is taken as the baseline of the second year of assessment. Now the CPP is part of the facility, we can even ignore its impact and easily draw an isolated boundary around the lighting system. The baseline energy consumption is 0.48 GWh and the actual energy consumption is 0.20 GWh. Then the impact is 0.48-0.20=0.28 GWh. ECM 3: For the third year of assessment, the facility manages to improve the CPP efficiency to 40% and the CPP is able to produce more electricity, which results in an additional electricity consumption from the grid. The meter readings are given in Table 3.

JHB: 011 452 1415

DBN: 031 304 9757

C T: 0 2 1 5 1 1 8 1 4 3

w w w. s t o n e s t a m c o r. c o. z a


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falls into the self-generation, energy conservation and fuel substitution categories.

equivalent). Then the impact is calculated by 8.06-7.05=1.01 (GWh equivalent);

Then three sub-boundaries need to be drawn for the M&V of each DSM category involved in this project, namely self-generation sub-boundary (brownfield), energy conservation sub-boundary (brownfield), and fuel substitution sub-boundary (Greenfield). The project impacts can be calculated as follows:

£ £ The total project impact is 2.82+0.98+1.01=4.81 (GWh).

£ £ For the self-generation sub-boundary (brownfield), the baseline energy is 9.72 GWh; the actual energy is 6.90 GWh; then the impact is 9.72-6.90=2.82 (GWh); £ £ For the energy conservation sub-boundary (brownfield) that refers to the energy efficiency improvement of the CPP, the baseline energy is the fuel energy consumption that would have been consumed had the energy efficiency not been improved. Therefore, the baseline energy is 19.79 GWh equivalent; the actual energy is 7.52/40% =18.80 (GWh equivalent); then the impact is 19.78-18.80=0.98 (GWh); £ £ For the fuel substitution sub-boundary (Greenfield) that refers to the increments in electricity production by CPP, which is 10.34-7.52=2.82 (GWh). This part should be taken as a Greenfield and the baseline fuel consumption is calculated as 2.82/35%=8.06 (GWh equivalent); the actual fuel consumption is 2.82/40%=7.05 (GWh


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Conclusion In this article, we proposed an innovative M&V methodology to quantify the project impact under the 12L tax incentive scheme. The major contributions of this approach are 1) to categories the involved DSM programmes into five categories in terms of energy conservation, load management, fuel substitution, load building and self-generation; and 2) to choose the proper brownfield or Greenfield M&V methodologies for the savings quantification in each DSM category. The proposed M&V methodology complies with both the national and international M&V standards and protocols. The effectiveness of the proposed M&V methodologies is illustrated by three M&V case studies that contains single or multiple DSM categories. Presented at the Southern African Energy Efficiency Convention (SAEEC) 2014, www.saee.org.za Tel: (018) 293-1499 Presented by: Barry Bredenkamp, Sanedi, Karel Steyn, Eskom, Xianming Ye, University of Pretoria, and Xiaohua Xia, University of Pretoria, Tel: (012) 420-4111, www.up.ac.za

January 2016

2015/12/04 1:59 PM


Hydro-power Industry The Leroy Somer Power alternator range, which is available exclusively throughout Africa from Vert Energy, has been designed especially for hydraulic turbine drives. LS Power alternators, with power ratings between 1 MVA and 20 MVA, are based on a modular design, with standard components, and can be adapted to different turbines. They can also be modified to suit exact site characteristics, including environmental and mechanical constraints. LS Power alternators, which are an essential link in hydroelectric installations, conform with stringent international quality and safety specifications. This range is designed for horizontal or vertical mounting and has Class H insulation with F or B temperature rise class, a speed rotation 333 to 1 800 min-1 and

voltages from 400 V to 15 kV. These units withstand demanding operating conditions, including high overspeed and high axial or radial forces. Vert Energy’s alternators, generator controls, changeover switches and heat exchangers, which are installed in hydro power plants throughout Africa, are enhanced by a technical advisory, repair, maintenance and spare parts facility. The company’s support service includes assistance with inspections, diagnostics and repair procedures; re-assembly, installation and commissioning, as well as the implementation of preventative and predictive maintenance programmes. Vert Energy, Ryan Robertson Tel: (011) 453 9669 Email: ryan.robertson@vertgroup.co.za www.vertgroup.co.za

World’s First Permanent Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository Upon the approval of the construction licence for the spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto 12 November 2015, Finland is now the most advanced country in the world in spent nuclear fuel repository planning and implementation. Onkalo, the underground rock characterisation facility, will be a part of the first spent nuclear fuel repository worldwide. The application for the Olkiluoto construction licence was submitted on 28 December 2012 by Posiva, the organisation responsible for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. If the project continues to progress according to schedule, the disposal operations at Olkiluoto will begin in the early 2020’s and the final closure of the facility will be in the 2120’s. The total estimated cost of the project is 3.3 billion euros. Spent nuclear fuel will remain radioactive and harmful for over 100 000 years and so a primary task of the project was to conduct extensive planning and safety analysis. In this way, the safety of humans and the environment is ensured for thousands of generations to come. S&R became involved in the early stages of the project in the 1980’s providing expertise on site selection, rock engineering, layout-design and cost estimates for the project and in the 2000’s provides the expertise in long-term safety and production of the safety case for the construction licence application. After several decades of design planning and long-term safety analysis, S&R is proud to see the deep geological repository project advance to the next level.

Machine Tools Africa 2017 Machine Tools Africa 2017 has been launched in association with the Machine Tools Merchants’ Association of South Africa (MTMA). Says Hans-Peter Neth, MTMA Chairman, “It’s exciting for us to be launching a stand-alone Machine Tools exhibition. The machine tools market has grown significantly over the past few years. The potential marketing and sales exposure for our exhibitors is significant and, as a visitor experience, it will offer great value. “Quality tools and machinery are the backbone of the South African manufacturing industry. This important sector will take centre stage at Machine Tools Africa 2017 with all

the latest innovations, products, services, technologies, trends and developments in machinery, tools, spares and technical support,” he adds. “We are planning to run the show every three years, which matches the general cycle of new machinery and equipment to market.” The show will take place at the Expo Centre from 9-12 May 2017 in halls 6 and 7. Specialised Exhibitions Montgomery will provide a full exhibition service support structure in the organising of the show, including operations, logistics, marketing and sales support. Specialised Exhibitions Montgomery, Leatitia van Straten, Email: leatitiavs@specialised.com

According to Finnish legislation and regulations, the responsibility for waste management and decommissioning of nuclear power plants lies with the waste generators themselves. In 1988, a fund was established for collecting nuclear waste management costs under the Nuclear Energy Act. Waste generators pay into this fund annually according to the fund target. There is no set fee per kWh like in other countries, rather, the fund is recalculated systematically every year based on the liability of waste producers. In Finland, spent nuclear fuel is currently being stored in spent fuel pools. In the future as the project progresses, the spent nuclear fuel will be disposed of in the deep geological repository. The spent nuclear fuel will be encapsulated and deposited deep in the bedrock of Olkiluoto and the repository will be backfilled. Saanio & Riekkola Oy, Tel: +358 44 275 1851, www.sroy.fi


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Pumping Solutions Sulzer Pumps South Africa has been awarded contracts to supply full solutions for local solar power plants that are currently planned or under construction. “Sulzer Pumps is a company with a global footprint and its branches from Spain, Germany and India will make a contribution to bringing these projects

to a successful conclusion,” says project manager Henno Raaths. “Sulzer Pumps South Africa will however take the full lead in terms of engineering and supply of the highly sophisticated equipment.” The recent rise in local renewable energy projects include advanced solar

power plants using CSP technology. CSP operations require a special heat transfer fluid (HTF) or molten salts to be circulated around a solar heat absorber and pumped to a special heat exchanger which converts water to steam and effectively makes up the conventional steam cycle. HTF pumps specifically, are manufactured for high temperature applications that include thermal transients and sealing of flammable and hazardous fluids under extreme cyclic operating conditions. HTF and solar heat transfer pumps will be based on the company’s new HZB range which is able to pump liquids at temperatures in excess of 400°C, pressures of more than 50bar and flows in the region of 4000m³/hour. In order to provide fully engineered pumping solutions covering entire solar power plants, the company is also supplying feed water pumps, HTF overflow pumps and water condensate extraction pumps complete with sealing systems, drives, motors and instrumentation. Sulzer South Africa further has the expertise to assist with installation, commissioning and service support across the complete range of pumps. Sulzer Pumps, Vanessa Backhouse Tel: (011) 820-6021 Email: vanessa.backhouse@sulzer.com www.sulzer.com

www.promech.co.za S MECHANICAL A ENGINEER * * * * *

Easy navigation through the site Comprehensive archive Free to users No registration Searchability

Nov/Dec 2015

Publication of the South African Institution of Mechanical Engineering, incorporating News of Associate Organisations




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January 2016

Torrefied Biomass PelleTs for indusTrial Boilers


What Next After Wits? My name is Refiloe Sekabate and I am a fourth year/honours metallurgical engineering student within the carbides and cermets research group of the DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials at Wits, and a member of the SA Institute of Tribology.


y supervisor was Associate Prof Natasha Sacks, also from the School of Chemical and Metallurgical engineering. I am interested in physical metallurgy, specifically welding, failure analysis and the use of tribological knowledge for material design and development. My honours research project which was on the ‘Friction and dry sliding wear of WC-Ni based cold sprayed coatings’ resonated well with what I enjoy and exposed me to other engineering disciplines such as mechanical engineering and mechanics as my main application for the coatings was in the use of bearings in rotating machinery.

The title of Refiloe’s poster presented to SAIT: Friction and Dry Sliding Wear of WC-Ni-based Cold Sprayed Coatings

I always aspire to achieve excellence in whatever I do and I am enthusiastic to develop my career and learn more about the field I am in. I want to be

an engineer of note and one who will not just learn but also impart knowledge to others and make a difference in the industry. My plans for the future are to work at Transnet as an engineer in training, under Transnet Freight rail and Technology management. I feel it is a space that will allow me to grow and enhance the knowledge and skills I have gained at the university to make an impact in the metallurgical world. I have had experience with them during vacation work and have already learnt quite a lot.

Giving back

In the next two years my aim is also to pursue a Masters part time in Metallurgy and Materials science. I am also greatly interested in community development hence I am part of Engineers Without Borders, an organisation which will allow me to use the knowledge and skills obtained in the classroom, to make a difference and develop a community.

“understanding friction & wear through materials & lubrication”


“LUBRICATION ENGINEERING” Five day course - 5 CPD credits 22-26 February 9-13 May 23-27 May 25-29 July

Johannesburg Johannesburg Durban Johannesburg

22-26 August 12-16 September 7-11 November

Cape Town Johannesburg Johannesburg

In-house courses will be considered on request.

“CLS, OMA, CMFS EXAMS” June 2016

PO Box 1240 Tel: +27 11 804-3710 Kelvin 2054 Fax to email: +27 86 719-2261 South Africa Email: secretary@sait.org.za VAT Reg No: 4220144317 Website: www.sait.org.za


VOL 66 January 2016



Engineering Excellence Award Royal HaskoningDHV was the proud recipient of three Consulting Engineers South Africa Engineering Excellence (CESA) Aon Awards which they received at a gala event held on 12 August, in Johannesburg.


he company won the category of ‘Engineering Excellence’ with a value less than R50 million for the new microbiological laboratory for the National Bioproducts Institute (NBI). The NBI is the only company in South Africa that manufactures lifesaving plasma-derived medicinal products. Royal HaskoningDHV was one of the few companies which could provide it with specialised cleanroom services for the upgrade of its laboratory, a R3,7 million project. The upgrade was required to provide a reliable and uncontaminated testing environment for products which save thousands of South African lives includ-

ing those who suffer from rare diseases. Through its specialised expertise in cleanrooms, Royal HaskoningDHV also ensures protection of NBI personnel and the environment.


In an effort to promote mentorship of young engineers, CESA recognises the contribution mentors make to the industry and the future of the profession. Colin Andrews from Royal HaskoningDHV was the 2015 winner in the category of ‘Mentor of the year’. Colin exudes a passion for mentoring that has produced impressive results for his company and now much-needed mentoring expertise for the KZN’s Department of Transport’s Mentoring Programme for Candidate: Engineers, Technologists and Technicians. The programme is aimed at the professional registration of 280 technical staff from the KZN Dept of Transport with ECSA, and is now a technical requirement for their employment. Colin’s commitment to mentoring led to his full-time secondment to the Department’s Technology Transfer Centre in April 2014 for the implementation of the programme. To round off the evening, Royal HaskoningDHV was announced as runners-up in the CESA Job Shadow Initiative. The aim of the Job Shadow Initiative is to expose learners not only to the engineering environment but to the Consulting Engineering experience in particular.

Abe Thela, CESA; Colin Andrews, Royal HaskoningDHV; Terence Williams, Aon

Hillary Erasmus, Royal HaskoningDHV Tel: (011) 798-6000, Email: hillary.erasmus@rhdhv.com www.royalhaskoningdhv.com/za

Dr Andre Germishuizen,NBI, David Stubbings,NBI, Dr. Jeh-han Omarjee,NBI, Adrian Kelfkens, Royal HaskoningDHV, Rochelle Bleeker,NBI



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Young Engineering Managers The boom in African economies is creating immense opportunities for young engineers who venture into engineering management, said Dr Tom Marshall, Chief Operating Officer Africa for SMEC, at the launch of the Post-graduate School of Engineering Management (PSEM) at the University of Johannesburg (UJ). Dr Marshall holds a PhD in Engineering Management from PSEM.


he boom in Africa creates a gap young engineers can take advantage of: there is a shortage of graduate engineers in Africa and the rest of the world. Specifically, there is a corresponding shortage of African engineers who can manage highly complex infrastructure and technology projects within timelines and budgets.

Formal training

“We see large new opportunities for graduate engineers who are equipped and willing to fast-track their careers and take on higher level management responsibilities at a relatively youthful age,” said Dr Marshall. The opportunity is there, but can young engineers successfully take on the challenge of the engineering management of large projects?

“Engineers in South Africa have a short technical life span,” says Prof Saurabh Sinha, Executive Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment at UJ. “Graduate engineers are required to manage once they are on the job. While this works out in some cases, without formal training it’s an ineffective way to develop managerial capabilities. It is often costly, resulting in long or even indefinite delays.” In addition, engineering managers usually find themselves managing complex technical projects and technically inclined staff, he adds. In these environments, pure managers find it difficult to gain buy-in from their technically-oriented peers. At the same time, engineers may lack the commercial acumen to deliver economically-feasible solutions. So it is imperative the engineer heading for management transforms his or her ability to manage engineering activities, develop judgement on people, process and technologies, and take responsibility for decisions both technical and economical.

Number of graduates

The number of engineers from Africa studying engineering management through PSEM is growing exponentially, said Prof Jan-Harm Pretorius, Head of School of PSEM. “From 2010 to 2014, our Master’s and Doctorate students from Africa have more than tripled from 56 to 185. Among our D.Ing students, 46% are from Africa, as are 35% of the D.Phil students.” He explains that the PSEM approach makes use of lecturers from the industry and a 50% research component, with students studying part-time or full-time on research topics matching with projects they are delivering at work. To meet booming opportunity with robust engineering management skills is now the challenge for young African engineers. Prof Jan-Harm Pretorius, PSEM at UJ, Tel: (011) 5593377, Email: jhcpretorius@uj.ac.za. Prof Saurabh Sinha, UJ, Tel: (011) 559-2114, Email: ssinha@uj.ac.za

The African continent is the home of big opportunities: Africa is more than three times the land area of the USA. Put differently, the USA, China, India, Europe and Japan can all easily fit inside the African surface area.


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Thomas Stenberg, a PhD student at KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, has won the Swedish Steel Prize University Challenge 2015 with a quality assurance method for weld joints. “Good weld quality affects the fatigue strength of components, especially important for the use of highstrength steel. The winning application is a new method for assuring high quality in the form of longer fatigue life of weld joints,� says Gregoire Parenty, chairman

of the jury and Executive Vice President and Head of Market Development SSAB. Thomas Stenberg is now a PhD student at the department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. His work will contribute to the development of software and measuring equipment for use in future industrial production lines. SSAB, www.ssab.com

Longer Fatigue Life



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Wear Patterns According to Rhodes Nelson, managing director of Multotec Manufacturing, one of the driving forces in screening at the moment is the ability to determine wear of screen panels and to plan for maintenance and replacement schedules. “By being able to establish wear patterns before they cause a shutdown, process plants save substantial amounts of labour and money on downtime. As a result, we have seen an increasing demand for our online monitoring system, Hawkeye, as well as for enhancements in recording processes.� Visual wear indicators is another technology that is seeing an increased demand as it provides a major advantage in terms of monitoring screen panels. This is a system with a visual indicator that shows the incremental wear rates that occur on screening media. As the aperture wears, the visual dots become clearly visible and the changeout criteria cannot be misinterpreted. The end result is far more accurate determination of screen panel changeouts.

Rhodes cautions that the use of visual wear indicators does, however, require active field service participation, with attention to visual observation and monitoring of screen panels to provide feedback. If correctly implemented,

however, visual wear indicators can further optimise screen performance. Multotec, Bernadette Wilson Tel: (011) 923-6193, Email: bernadettew@multotec.com www.multotec.com

Plug Valves for Slurry In 2007, AZ-Armaturen South Africa Pty Ltd (AZ) supplied plug valves to a mineral sands operation in South Africa, where they were used to control sand slurry being pumped from the pit to the plant. Now, the initial mine has reached the end of its life, and a new deposit is being brought into production. AZ has supplied the mining company with new valves ranging in size from 50mm to 500mm nominal bore for the sand slurry application. The plug valves comply with

an ANSI 300 - 600 pressure rating to a maximum of 100 bar. As the valves will be used in a corrosive coastal conditions, the exterior of the plug was covered in a special heavy-duty, corrosion-resistant coating. All AZ plug valves are fitted with a PTFE sleeve. This allows them to operate in the harsh sand slurry environment without failures. An important factor in the reliability of AZ plug valves is the absence of internal cavities, which eliminates

damage to moving parts. The absence of cavities in the design of the plug valve also ensures a smooth slurry flow. As the PTFE sleeve is self-lubricating, the plug will not seize, even if not used for extended periods. In these instances, the valve can be operated without risk of damage. AZ-Armaturen, Erich Ermel, Tel: (011) 397-3665 Email: erich.ermel@az-armaturen.co.za, www.az-armaturen.co.za


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Synthetic Hydraulic Oil

ExxonMobil is launching Mobil SHC Hydraulic EAL (Environmentally Acceptable Lubricant), a new readily biodegradable synthetic hydraulic oil that protects equipment and can help improve energy efficiency of hydraulic equipment by up to 3.6 percent. The high-performance lubricant also has low toxicity, making it ideally suited for equipment used in sensitive environments or industries where EALs are required, such as off-

shore oil and gas applications. The product delivers a balanced technical performance, meets EU Ecolabel standards, and is non bio-accumulating. It also features properties that can increase equipment durability and extend oil life, meaning it can even protect machines operating in rugged environments where deposit build-up may be an issue. Mobil SHC Hydraulic EAL has a shear

stable, high viscosity index ensuring it can perform in a wide range of temperatures. The lubricant’s cold start capability can also help to protect pumps and reduce energy consumption at start up. Strong filterability and an ability to tolerate water contamination help to extend a machine’s oil filter life, leading to longer drain intervals. ExxonMobil, www.exxonmobil.com

Seven Milliseconds The new DECV servo valve (Direct Electronic Copy Valve) from Voith Turbo represents the latest development of this product, which has already proven itself in countless hydraulic control systems. Impulse response and accuracy means that the valve is responsive to demanding drive tasks. A step response of only seven milliseconds places it firmly in the class of highly dynamic valves. A hysteresis of under one percent is achieved thanks to the direct actuation. Derain Pillay, vice-president: power, oil and gas, explains that the development of the DECV is focused on applications with high mechanical loads. “It’s extraordinary parameters are also confirmed outside laboratory conditions in its daily work environment.” For example, this servo valve has already proven itself in punching/nibbling machines that clock

up a g-force in the hundreds (>2 000 m/s2). It is unaffected by oil impurities, and can be used with oil of cleanliness class 19/17/14 as per ISO 4406. This oil-quality level can be achieved by means of a common bypass filter system. Comparable servo valves often require higher purity levels, which means using expensive pressure filters. The Voith Turbo DECV, on the other hand, plays a major role in helping to reduce operating costs. Voith Turbo, Terry-Lynn McIntosh Terry.Mcintosh@voith.com

SIL3 for SA Valve Manufacturer Industrial valve manufacturer Gunric Valves has achieved the highest level of safety, the SIL3 (Safety Integrity Level), for their metal seated butterfly valves. The SIL3 for all electrically-operated components that operate within a system in a plant, such as a refinery, is assessed for safety and reliability as well as the impact on the system if it fails.

in obtaining the SIL Certification IEC 601. The certification process took four months at a cost of half a million rand. TLIU is an initiative of the Department of Science and Technology (hosted by the CSIR), mandated to assist state-owned companies in realising their localisation programme by improving the competitiveness of strategic suppliers.

This certification enables Gunric Valves to offer the oil, gas and water industries a guarantee that when they need to close a particular section, the valve will close, and will close safely.

By obtaining the SIL3, Gunric Valves can now supply locally-manufactured products to the industry, and bypass the traditional use of non-tariff barriers that allowed imported products with similar certifications to keep local products out of the market.

The Technology Localisation Implementation Unit (TLIU) assisted Gunric Valves



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The company is a leading manufacturer and supplier of cast and fabricated industrial, high performance butterfly valves in South Africa, and exports to Australasia, as well as into Africa. Gunric Valves provides customised butterfly and check valves for unique industrial applications. The range is built for extreme pressure and temperature applications and is ideally suited for the water, oil, process, mining, power generation, petrochemical, gas, sugar and steel industries. Gunric Valves, Mark Wilson Tel: (011) 474-6180/4 Email: mark@gunric.com


Increased Drive Train Performance Bosch Rexroth’s Hydrotrac GFT 8000 gearbox enables an approximate 10% increase in drive train performance for larger mobile working machines. These transmission units are based on a modular design. Ideal for use in harsh, rugged environments including African mining operations, they have two- and three-stage combined planetary gearing with axial piston motors to match the needs of heavy and bulky mobile working machines such as trucks and excavators. An optional internal brake reduces the installation space needed, but adheres to the safety specifications for worldwide roadworthiness certification. The mechanical planetary drives in these transmission units transfer the torque from the hydrostatic drive to the wheels or tracks. Bosch Rexroth uses the newest versions of variable axial piston motors or fixed-displacement axial piston motors, which operate in either an open or closed circuit. Travel capacity is significantly improved as the higher fluid capacity of the motors and the higher hydraulic pressures, along with the exact matching with the two- and three-stage planetary drives, boost torques, and therefore performance by approximately 10%. At the same

Industrial pump manufacturer and distributor Verder Pumps South Africa now offers a new, FDA-approved highpressure, double-acting diaphragm pump, suitable for filter-press applications where the discharge pressure is higher than the available compressed air pressure.

time, vehicle manufacturers can sometimes select a smaller nominal size to achieve the same output which saves installation space. The optional integrated multi-disk brake inside the unit requires minimal maintenance and is designed for protection against soiling, an added advantage when working in demanding environments. Also, when used in conjunction with

Bosch Rexroth’s High Level Braking System, they satisfy the exacting safety requirements for speeds up to 50 km/h. Hytec, Willem Gijzelaar, Tel: (011) 979-4630 Email: willem.gijzelaar@hyhold.co.za www.hytecgroup.co.za

Filter Press Applications

In addition to traditional advantages associated with high-pressure pumps, some features that are unique to this pump include the same maximal flow rate as a standard Verderair VA25 diaphragm pump The VA25-HD (DA) is double acting, therefore producing stable and efficient flow and has a low to high-pressure switch that allows for it to be more efficient. It is, therefore, the ideal pump for filterpress applications. The existing range of high-pressure diaphragm pumps, which are single-acting pumps, can deliver fluid pressures of up to double the supplied compressed air pressure. This results in a pulsating flow, high compressed air consumption and a 50% reduction of the flow rate. Verder Pumps South Africa Email: info@verder.co.za


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Improve Efficiency and Reduce Waste

Faster Pipe Routing An innovative Autodesk Revit MEP addin increases drawing productivity, solves troublesome pipe routing problems and enables the creation of construction and fabrication documentation within Revit. Victaulic Tools for Revit allows users to route pipe twice as fast to increase efficiency and productivity. The productivity tools allow users to design virtual, intelligent models with all mechanical or pump room details in half the time compared with current routing techniques within Revit. The enhanced routing and editing tools enable the creation of complex piping systems with fewer clicks.

Users can create construction details and fabrication drawings, including labour estimates and manufacturer information, without the need to switch software. “The software features an intuitive, userfriendly interface that simplifies training and usage for both new and experienced Revit users,” says Barry van Jaarsveld, Victaulic Regional Manager Africa. “The add-in works in all views, comes preloaded with more than 100 Victaulic product families and template designs, and allows users to route with our as well as other manufacturers and joining technologies.” Victaulic Tools for Revit, www.victaulicsoftware.com

A Truck for the Young at Heart There is no better way to live out that inner-child than getting bogged down in a challenging bout of Lego-play. Lego, working together with Mercedes-Benz Trucks, has tapped into this love for toy construction by following up its Unimog with a further Mercedes-Benz model. “When we looked at all the new products that Mercedes-Benz Trucks had launched, going back to 2011, there was one particular vehicle that stood out as a potential subject for a further collaborative project: the new Arocs 3245 tipper,” according to Michael Dietz, Head

of Marketing for Mercedes-Benz Trucks. With a total of 2 793 separate parts, battery-operated power functions that allow electronic control of the Lego model and various pneumatic components, the Arocs 3245 tipper constructionsite vehicle is one of the most complex models in the Technic range. In order to ensure that the developers did justice to the actual Mercedes-Benz Arocs, Lego senior manager Niels Henrik Horsted and his team visited the Mercedes-Benz Trucks manufacturing facility beforehand to see the production line for themselves. The model is 31cm high, 14cm wide and 54cm long and incorporates many of the key features of the real-life Mercedes-Benz Arocs 3245 tipper. The bucket-tooth design of the radiator grille, the handrail, the steps, and many other features all add up to give the Arocs its unmistakable look. Mercedes Benz SA, Sibusiso Mkwanazi, Tel: (012) 673-6864, Email: sibusiso.mkwanazi@ daimler.com



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Volkswagen Group South Africa’s (VWSA) Paint Shop has introduced advanced automated robot technology in the base coat interior painting process which has resulted in a massive reduction in hazardous waste and led to a dramatic improvement in painting efficiency levels. This fully automated interior painting process has yielded cost savings due to a more controlled paint application process which reduces overspray and waste. Improved quality, consistency and productivity are also beneficial advantages of this new process. “Last year, the maintenance team drastically modified the spray booths by installing steelwork structures needed to support the new robots as well as installing and testing a new high transfer conveyor system,” explains Nico Serfontein, Head of Paint Shop. While the new process has only been running for a short while, the savings are already evident. Not only is VWSA improving their efficiency and productivity levels but they are also improving their energy efficiency. Nico adds, “Since the installation of the new system, we have seen improved paint transfer efficiency and also need less airflow in the Base Coat Interior area, leading to a decrease in waste and energy usage. “So far, in the area, we have seen a reduction in energy usage by 8.8 %, a reduction in hazardous waste by 39 % and improved paint transfer efficiency to levels above 65 %.” Volkswagen Group, Matt Gennricjh, Tel: 082 570 5761, Email: gennrich@vwsa.co.za


Controlling Grinding Mills

ABB is launching an advanced control solution embedded within a variablespeed drive. Called SmartMill, it utilises real-time data for continuous control of individual grinding mills, thereby removing the onus on the operator’s experience and judgment. Traditionally, operators face limited flexibility in optimising grinding operations, an example is adding balls to the mill load and waiting for load reduction when the mill is overloaded. These adjustments are usually performed with only rudimentary control automation, or none at all. ABB’s SmartMill optimises the process by adapting the actual mill speed and feed rate to current conditions in real time.

De-dusting Contract Actom Group business unit John Thompson Air Pollution Control was recently awarded a multi-million rand contract by cement producer PPC Ltd to replace the original finishing mill 6 electrostatic precipitator (ESP) with a bag filter at its De Hoek factory in the Western Cape.

ensure that dust emissions from finishing mill 6 are maintained at less than 30 mg/Nm3 in accordance with the current environmental regulations. The contract was awarded in November last year for completion in March 2016, with a phased implementation due to cement demand.

The reverse-pulse bag filter will reduce dust emissions to the required legislative limits.

The new bag filter, which will have a design air-moving capacity of 41 000 actual m3/h, will incorporate a variable speed drive induced draft (ID) fan and materials handling equipment consisting of a screw conveyor and rotary valve that will discharge the collected dust into an existing product conveyor.

The replacement of the ESP with a higher performing dust control system is similar to an upgrade John Thompson APC performed at De Hoek three years ago to enhance the de-dusting system of its kiln 6 and raw mill 6. As with the earlier upgrade, the new contract has been commissioned to

John Thompson Air Pollution Control, Gerard Pretorius, Tel (011) 478-0456 Email: gerard.pretorius@actom.co.za

The speed is varied according to an advanced control concept that keeps the mill’s solid feed as high as possible, while monitoring signals such as power consumption, motor torque and bearing pressure and mill speed. This automatic selection of optimal set points means that operators can focus on more important tasks. Having full control of a mill helps improve the process control strategy. ABB offers advanced process control (APC), which increases grinding efficiency, decreases energy consumption and extends equipment life throughout the entire grinding circuit. SmartMill is a standalone solution for individual mills and incorporates a variable-speed drive system as standard, while accessing all mill operation and maintenance features, such as automatic positioning, creeping speed and the frozen charge protection and remover function. ABB, Emmanuel Chabut Email: emmanuel.chabut@ch.abb.com www.abb.com

Micro-manufacturing Solution RS Components (RS), has announced the availability of the first 3D printer from CEL. The Robox offers professional-quality specifications and exceptional print speed with future-proofing adaptability that is unprecedented in the rapidly-developing 3D printer market. The Robox is suitable for a wide range of users including electronics, mechanical, and product engineers. The key differentiator that makes the Robox exceptional and unique is its proprietary dual-nozzle system, which prints objects faster with high resolution and can improve print speeds by

up to 300%. This can be achieved as a single material feed and can be directed out of one of two nozzles: either via a 0.3mm-diameter extrusion nozzle or a larger 0.8mm nozzle. This enables the Robox to produce a highly detailed visible exterior surface and quickly fill the object using the larger nozzle, multiple layers at a time, without affecting part strength or detail, and enables a very-high-quality exterior finish with a much faster print time. Other high-level 3D print specifications include a build volume of 210 x 150 x 100mm and maximum layer resolution

of 20 microns. Very importantly, the head is also replaceable using the company’s HeadLock System, which allows the head to be removed to change the function of the Robox quickly and easily. The replaceable head therefore transforms the Robox into a future-proof multifunctional micro-manufacturing platform, rather than just a 3D printer. RS Components, Tanya Erasmus Tel: (011) 691-9345 Tanya.Erasmus@rs-components.com www.electrocomponents.com www.za.rs-online.com


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World’s Largest Grinding Roll With the HRC3000, the largest fully operating high-pressure grinding roll (HPGR) in the world, Metso provides an energy efficient solution with an impressive range of industry-leading features, aimed at getting more value from every ton of ore. The HRC3000 was the result of a close collaboration between Metso and

Freeport-McMoRan Inc. The goal was to develop a highly efficient HPGR crushing circuit for the newly-constructed Metcalf concentrator at Freeport-McMoRan’s copper mine in Morenci, Arizona. In approximately four years, the team went from a design concept to the largest fully operating HPGR in the world. The HRC3000 started operating at

Freeport-McMoRan’s copper mine in May 2014. The installed unit allows for fewer lines of equipment which reduces the amount of ancillary equipment. To date, the unit has operated for over 8 400 hours and has crushed more than 34 million tons of porphyry copper ore. Metso’s solution has provided the Morenci mine with several benefits, including an estimated 13.5% increase in energy efficiency over traditional HPGRs based on pilot scale testing. The HRC3000 is the first full scale HPGR to incorporate revolutionary design features like the flanged tire design and the patented arch-frame. Depending on the application, the total capacity of this HPGR can exceed over 5 400 tph of ore. Metso, Victoria Herman, Email: victoria.herman@metso.com www.metso.com

On the Move!

Lynne Pretorius

Wolfgang Demmler

Sven Baumgarten

Kaniki Tshibwabwa

Consulting Engineers South Africa (CESA) has appointed Lynne Pretorius from ITS Engineers as President of the organisation.

Wolfgang Demmler has been promoted to head up the KSB Pumps and Valves group’s iconic GIW slurry pump company in the USA.

Dr. Sven Baumgarten has taken over as Managing Director at KSB Pumps and Valves South Africa

Voith Hydro has appointed Kaniki Tshibwabwa as sales engineer: service.

Index to Advertisers Afzelia Inside Back Cover BMG Outside Front Cover, Outside Back Cover CT Hydraulics Inside Front Cover Electra Mining 16 Engineer Placements 16 ILS 18 PPS 15



Propak Africa 18 QS 8 SAIT 29 SSAB 32 Stone-Stamcor 25 Timken 26 The Peartree 4

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January 2016

► EIA Process

► Environmental Risk Assessments

► Geographical Information Systems

► Agricultural Assessment and Advise

► Project Managment

► Wetland and Riparian Services

► Natural Resource Services

► Visual Impact Assessments

► Ecological/Biodiversity Services

► Public Participation Process

► Application Assistance

► Game Ranch Management

► Developement Research, Monitoring and Evaluation

N2 Mnini ECO Duties

Plant rescue

Durban Coal Terminal Site Inspection

Ohlanga Pump station ECO Duties

Freightpak Warehouse Site Audit

Public participation Makhabeleni

Ballito Interchange Botanical survey

Site assessment Sundumbili pipeline

l Tel: (031) 303-2835 l Fax: 086 692 2547 l l Email: info@afzelia.co.za l www.afzelia.co.za l Skills on Site VOLSeptmeber THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER 66 January2012 2016

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VOL 66

January 2016

Profile for Promech Publishing

SA Mechanical Engineer January 2016  

SA Mechanical Engineer January 2016  

Profile for promech