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S MECHANICAL A ENGINEER Aug 2019

Publication of the SA Institution of Mechanical Engineering, incorporating News of Associate Organisations

GOOD OLD ENGINEERING ‘GUT FEELING’ FACTORY OF THE YEAR AWARD LAUNCHES LOCALLY


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VOL 69 August 2019

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AN ENGINEER’S VIEW

The Nano-Mechanical Engineering Future

N

anotechnology has become a future investment in the technology of tomorrow. This world offers advanced computers, smart homes to smart phones, the rise to artificial intelligence, and an innovative Industry 4.0. However, where and how does this new reality become possible? And how do conventional engineering degrees, such as mechanical engineering, manifest themselves into this exciting new field?

into multiple disciplines. Furthermore, they should utilize their unique contribution in the field of mechanical engineering to optimize and innovate from the fabrication process towards equipment and product design.

In 1970 Moore’s law stated that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit will double every two years. This is only possible if the manufacturing process evolves along with time. This requires the use of engineers, researchers and scientists to evolve and innovate methods to make the popular Moore’s law possible. Simultaneously, these methods open up new possibilities and advancements in multiple new technological industries.

Lately, I found myself invested and intrigued when examining the engineering papers and findings of the past.These texts, correlations, and descriptions of numerous phenomena, reveal similarities and parameters that may affect, or describe the unique effects currently found to be unknown in the Nano-Engineering domain. The past works are found to re-innovate the need to re-engineer the current nano-fabrication problems. They embark on the understanding of the fundamental theory, and intrinsically allow counter-arguements to be made to explain previously unknown behaviours.

But industrial growth requires the ability to manufacture. Nanomanufacturing offers a great deal of potential and needs engineers, researchers and scientists of multiple disciplines in collaboration to advance and produce creative nano-material, cutting egedge technologies and efficient products. The manufacturing scale still remains a challenge and requires new innovative studies to investigate the fundamental physics/chemistry and then apply findings to optimize the production process. By doing so the limitations currently faced by nanotechnology manufacturing can be overcome.

Nanotechnology: a multidisciplinary field

Engineers of the past revisited in a modern field

Rigardt Alfred Maarten Coetzee

Progress through innovation

For the continual successful progress of the implementation of nanotechnology, new technologies previously seen as impossible or a fable dream due to their limitations should now be pursued. Mechanical engineers should utilize their unique skills and abilities obtained throughout their years of experience to contribute to dreams becoming reality.

For future implementation, mechanical engineers of tomorrow should adapt and evolve themselves into multiple disciplines

To obtain an understanding of the underlining physics/chemistry of the nanotechnology field, a great deal of engineering across multiple disciplines is needed. In my own Engineering research, I found myself studying and collaborating with multiple departments. In the field of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), an ultra-thin nano film fabrication process, it demands the attention within mechanical engineering design; heat and mass transfer; computation numerical methods across multiple scales (being reactors, chemicals, to atomized scale); chemical reaction mechanism creation; material sciences; among others.

The unique skills that the field of mechanical engineering offers, past or present, truly contribute to the engineering of the future. These skills will play a key role in the nanotechnology field thtough contributions towards nano-manufacturing. And thus the ever-decreasing size of products, the possibility of AI and even smarter technology will become a reality.

These discipline fields are soon to be seen branching to consumer usage related studies, medical equipment implementation, artificial intelligence, micro- and nano-electronics, optics, and so forth. For future implementation, mechanical engineers of tomorrow should adapt and evolve themselves

Rigardt Alfred Maarten Coetzee Atomic Layer Deposition Nano-fabrication Simulation Specialist PhD Candidate: Mechanical Engineering University of Johannesburg

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S MECHANICAL A ENGINEER Aug 2019

Publication of the SA Institution of Mechanical Engineering, incorporating News of Associate Organisations

S MECHANICAL A ENGINEER Aug 2019  VOLUME 69

Contents GOOD OLD ENGINEERING ‘GUT FEELING’ FACTORY OF THE YEAR AWARD LAUNCHES LOCALLY

On the Cover

APE Pumps/Mather and Platt Tel: (011) 824-4810 info@matherandplatt.com

Automation

Nanofabrication

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20 Working at the Atomic Layer

Robots to Take Over Mundane Jobs

Cover Story

Maintenance

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23 Prevention is Better Than Cure

Proudly South African Pumps

Education

Security

11 Racing Robots

26 Password Pains

Mammoth Project

Compliance

12 Without a Hitch

29 Beware of Old Computers

SA Institute of Tribology

Technology

14 Tribology for Space Technology

30 Implementing Artificial Intelligence

Business 16 An All-round Approach for Africa

Alternative Energy

Awards

33 Impressive Solar Heating

17 Exhaust Manufacturer Clinches Factory of the Year Award

Regulars

Women in Engineering

3 An Engineer’s View 34 Market Forum 38 On the Move

18 Driving Change

Service and Training 19 Keeping a Brand in Mind

Copyright

All rights reserved. No editorial matter published in “SA Mechanical Engineer” may be reproduced in any form or language without written permission of the publishers. While every effort is made to ensure accurate reproduction, the editor, authors, publishers and their employees or agents shall not be responsible or in any way liable for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies in the publication, whether arising from negligence or otherwise or for any consequences arising therefrom. The inclusion or exclusion of any product does not mean that the publisher or editorial board advocates or rejects its use either generally or in any particular field or fields.

Produced by: PROMECH PUBLISHING, P O Box 373, Pinegowrie, 2123, Republic of South Africa Tel: (011) 781-1401, Fax: (011) 781-1403 Email: samecheng@promech.co.za, www.promech.co.za Managing Editor Susan Custers Editorial Contributors Liesl Venter/Patricia Holburn Advertising Sales: Louise Cresswell Cell: 071 886 1263 DTP: Sanette Badenhorst Circulation: Netta Janse van Rensburg Subscriptions Please email us at accounts@promech.co.za if you wish to subscribe to “SA Mechanical Engineer” at R550,00 (excl postage and VAT) per year; R1 380,00 per year for Africa/ Overseas. Disclaimer

PROMECH Publishing and The South African Institution of Mechanical Engineering as well as any other body do not take responsibility for the opinions expressed by individuals.

Printed by: Typo Colour Printing, Tel: (011) 402-3468/9 FSC (Forestry Stewardship Accreditation)

Official Publication of

THE SA INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING and endorsed by:             

CONSULTING ENGINEERS OF SA CORROSION INSTITUTE OF SA INSTITUTE FOR CERTIFICATED MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS NATIONAL SOCIETY OF BLACK ENGINEERS NUCLEAR INSTITUTE SA ASSOCIATION FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY SA CAPITAL EQUIPMENT EXPORT COUNCIL SA INSTITUTE FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING SA INSTITUTE OF TRIBOLOGY SA PLASTIC PIPE MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION SA PUMP MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION SA VALVE AND ACTUATORS MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION VALVE & ACTUATOR MANUFACTURERS CLUSTER OF South Africa

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SA INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Council 2018 - 2020

Company Affiliates

Office Bearers

President......................................................Prof D Blaine (Debby) Vice President....................................... H Makwarela (Hangwani) National Treasurer.............................Prof JL van Niekerk (Wikus)

Branch Chairpersons

Autodesk as represented by Worldsview Technologies

Central ............................................................... A Celliers (Alicia) Eastern Cape........................................... G van den Berg (Gideon) KwaZulu-Natal ........................................ Dr J Padayachee (Jared) Mpumalanga Highveld .....................................N Lecordier (Noel) Vaal.............................................................. N Swanepoel (Niekie) Western Cape ............................................... Dr M Venter (Martin)

Babcock Ntuthuko Engineering Pty Ltd

Procedures.......................................................... SZ Hrabar (Steve) Communications and Marketing..................G Bartholomew (Bart) TBC...........................................................MAE Black (Malcolm) TBC..............................................................HG Bosman (Tertius)

Portfolios:

Chief Executive Officer..................... Vaughan Rimbault National Office Manager................ Anisa Nanabhay PO Box 511, Bruma, 2026 Tel: (011) 615-5660 Email: info@saimeche.org.za Website: www.saimeche.org.za Membership Email: membership@saimeche.org.za

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Amoricom

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Eskom Rotek Industries SOC Ltd

Osborn Engineered Products SA (Pty) Ltd Plant Design & Project Services (Pty) Limited (PDPS) PPS Insurance Co Limited Proconics

Esteq Group (Pty) Ltd

Redheads Engineering Services (Pty Ltd)

Exxaro Resources (Pty) Ltd

S.A.M.E Water (Pty) Ltd

Festo (Pty) Ltd

SA Power Services (Pty) Ltd

Fluor SA (Pty) Ltd

Sasol Technology (Pty) Ltd

Kelvion Systems (Pty) Ltd

Siemens (Pty) Ltd

Hatch Africa (Pty) Ltd

Spirax Sarco (Pty) Ltd

Howden Power (a div of Howden Africa)

Tenova Mining and Minerals SA

Howden Projects (a div of James Howden)

Thyssenkrupp Engineering (Pty) Ltd

MBE Minerals (SA) (Pty) Ltd

Vital Engineering (Pty) Ltd

Megchem

Weir Minerals Africa

Mod-U-Flow CC

VOL 69 August 2019


AUTOMATION

Robots to Take Over Mundane Jobs UiPath has welcomed President Cyril Ramaphosa’s intention to introduce automation training at primary school level, saying the Robotic Process Automation revolution is underway, but the necessary skills are lacking.

Over the next six years, we will provide every school child in South Africa with digital workbooks and textbooks on a tablet device. Already 90% of textbooks in high enrolment subjects across all grades and all workbooks have been digitised. In line with our framework for skills for a changing world, we are expanding the training of both educators and learners to respond to emerging technologies including the internet of things, robotics and artificial intelligence,” the President says. UiPath, which expects to see one robot for every person in a matter of a few years, says that the move to Robotic Process Automation (RPA) is inevitable, and that future jobs depend on having RPA skills.

Rapid rise of RPA

UiPath head of sales for South Africa, Lenore Kerrigan

South African ICT veteran and new UiPath head of sales for South Africa, Lenore Kerrigan says, “Automation and RPA is a wave of change much like the ones we saw when

personal computers and mobile phones first arrived. The difference is this is taking off much faster. RPA is not like having R2D2 coming in and taking over your job, though. RPA gives you a digital assistant that takes over your mundane, process-based work, and does it better and faster. This leaves humans free to focus on creative problem-solving and innovation.”

RPA gives you a digital assistant that takes over your mundane, process-based work, and does it better and faster IDC associate VP for sub-Saharan Africa, Mark Walker says, “Robotic Process Automation is already among the top three capabilities expected of a company, because of its cost savings, rapid implementation and fast return on investment.” RPA is being deployed across industries, wherever rules-based repetitive tasks are involved. “Every organisation seems to have a different use for RPA,” says Lenore. “We’re seeing it deployed to reduce time to process shipping documents from overnight to a matter of minutes or to support contact centre agents in delivering enhanced customer service. So we’re starting to see a digital workforce and a human workforce collaborating side by side.”

New job opportunities

While RPA promises to free up human capital to become creative problem-solvers, it could also result in some job losses, UiPath concedes. “But what this means is that workers will have new tools at their disposal, allowing them to do their jobs better,” concludes Lenore. UiPath, Lenore Kerrigan www.uipath.com

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COVER STORY

PROUDLY South African Pumps This year marks a key milestone for APE Pumps and Mather+Platt as the Group celebrates its 68th year in business, underscoring its design, manufacturing and project management capabilities.

F

rom inception in 1952, APE Pumps has been an innovator in fluid transfer solutions across industries that include water utilities, mining, petrochemicals, and the energy sector. This is a comprehensive skills set that is aligned with its sister company, Mather+Platt.

Home grown

“As an original equipment manufacturer (OEM), we’ve always prided ourselves on being at the forefront of the market through home-grown product innovation,” says John Montgomery, general manager, APE Pumps and Mather+Platt, “and we focus on continually repositioning our brands for sustained growth within a highly competitive market. This includes the group’s ability to meet the Department of Trade and Industry’s local content provision for pumps. Our products are designed, cast and assembled in South Africa and we are 100% compliant.”

Backed by a history of research and development dating back to the first Industrial Revolution, the group is now firmly entrenched in today’s Industry 4.0 environment In May 2019, the group took this a step further by becoming a member of the Proudly South African family. “Carrying the Proudly South African mark underscores our commitment to local industry and government’s goal of tackling the triple challenge of inequality, unemployment, and poverty. It also aligns us with current and future clients who are already members and dedicated to building a better future for every South African,” says John.

Local is lekker

The manufacturing sector is one of the most important drivers in revitalising the South African economy. “Like most sectors, manufacturing has been in decline and a key contributing factor has been the rise in imported goods. We need to combat this,” he continues. The end goal of Proudly South African is to ensure that private and public sector procurement is spent on locally produced goods and services. This

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will help to foster much-needed employment and the creation and sustainability of SMEs, seen as a critical catalyst for socio-economic transformation. To become a Proudly South African member, companies need to meet the minimum local content threshold, adhere to set quality and environmental standards, and demonstrate fair labour practices. The group is an accredited Merseta trainer, and in addition to pattern and mould makers, prepares apprentices for qualification as boiler makers and fitters and turners. The group recently increased its service and repair facility by around 5 000m2 to cater for current and future expansion. This includes offering an operations and maintenance service for clients.

Product leadership

Backed by a history of research and development dating back to the first Industrial Revolution, the group is now firmly entrenched in today’s Industry 4.0 environment. Mather+Platt manufactures horizontal multi-stage pumps designed for high pressure applications; and split case pumps chiefly for high volumes. In turn, APE Pumps specialises in the design and manufacture of vertical industrial turbine pumps, split case and end suction pumps for most industries. APE Pumps and Mather+Platt also provide an installation and commissioning service. During 2018, the group was responsible for overseeing the maintenance of six 1,6m diameter CW units at Lethabo power station. These units were originally installed by APE Pumps in 1981. Each pump has the capacity to supply up to 7 350ℓ/s of water at a pressure of 116kPa. When inspected, four of the pumps were still in excellent condition after 37 years of continuous operation. The remaining two showed signs of wear and were shipped to APE Pumps’ Germiston facility for refurbishment.

VOL 69 August 2019

Malawi bulk water upgrade

Within the utilities arena, the work carried out by APE Pumps for the


Blantyre Water Board (BWB) in Malawi is an example of how it executes turnkey projects. Divided into two contracts, the scope entailed the design, supply and installation of a range of solutions led by APE’s projects division. The first project entailed rehabilitation and renewal works at BWB’s Walker’s Ferry raw water intake and high lift pumping station, while the second involved the upgrading of the downstream Chileka pump station. At Walker’s Ferry, situated alongside the Shire River some 40km from Blantyre, water is pumped through a water treatment plant via two pipelines to a high lift pump station. After transferring to the purification plant, two further pump stations, each housing three pumps in parallel and one on standby, transfer the water at up to 750m3/h and 550m head to Chileka over a distance of around 26km. From there pipelines carry the water a further 13km to feed reservoirs in the city of Blantyre. The scope of works at Walker’s Ferry was extensive. Critical infrastructure works included the supply and installation of 16m long common header delivery pipes (800NB) and the installation and commissioning of six new raw water pump sets, each with a capacity of 750m3/hr and a head of 350m. At Chileka, the scope included the installation of eight new 750m3/hr pump sets, including con-

nection pipework to existing common suction and delivery headers.

Integrated solutions

Whatever the age or date of installation, APE has the ability to design, fabricate and retrofit. Not an easy task, but one it can successfully deliver thanks to its wooden pattern maker expertise. In fact, APE is one of the few companies in South Africa that provides apprenticeship training in this field and it’s an essential one, especially when tackling retrofits on pumps that no longer have available design drawings to work from.

Our products are designed, cast and assembled in South Africa and we are 100% compliant Standard, customised or retrofitted, the group has a solution for every fluid transfer application, with future performance backed by OEM parts and comprehensive after-sales and warranty programmes. Since inception in 1952, APE has never discontinued a product, so spares are always available. “By supporting our OEM parts and services, clients are also buying local, and that’s Proudly South African,” John concludes. APE Pumps/Mather and Platt Tel: (011) 824-4810 Email: info@matherandplatt.com

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REDUCED DOWN TIME WITH HENFLEX SPLIT FLEXIBLE COUPLINGS ��e ��n��ede���en�e���en��e�� s���� e�as��� ������n� ���� ���� �ad�a� ����e�s ��nne��s a d���e �� a d���en �a���ne. ��e �� ��s �e��n��a� �ea���es� �� a����s e�����en� �����e ��ans��ss��n ������� ��e �����ess��n �� ��e e�as��� e�e�en�s� ����� a�s� a�s��� s����s and ����a���ns ����n� ���� ���� d���e and d���en �a���ne and ����ensa�es an���a�� �ad�a� and a��a� ��sa���n�en��s. ��s s���� ��ns�������e ���� �����des eas� �ns�a��a���n and �a�n�enan�e ��e�a���ns� ��n�������n� �� �ed��e ���e and d��������� �� ��s� s��� �n�e��en���ns and ��e�e���e ��n�������n� �� �n��ease ��e a�a��a������ �� ��e e�����en� �� ���d�����n and �n��eas�n� ��e �e�����an�e �� ���� ���an��a���n.

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EDUCATION

Racing Robots The annual TUKS robot race day recently took place and saw more than 70 autonomous robotic vehicles take to the track to compete for the top spot.

Our annual robot car race provides a platform to stimulate curiosity and creativity, which is crucial for the innovation and entrepreneurship that a career in engineering demands. The

project guides aspiring engineers through a carefully planned process to develop a fundamental set of engineering skills, which include hardware and software design skills, systems integration skills, the ability to work and function in a team, time management skills, perseverance and the good old indispensable ‘engineering gut feeling’ which comes only with experience in the execution of engineering projects,” says Professor Tania Hanekom, Function Head for Undergraduate Studies at the University of Pretoria.

Good old indispensable ‘engineering gut feeling’ which comes only with experience in the execution of engineering projects Gerhard de Clercq and Herman Lombard beat 78 others with a winning time of 22 seconds “I would like to extend a thank you to RS Components SA for providing some of the main components we needed to complete our robot. The right resources are the absolute key to any successful project,” says Herman.

Nurturing the next generation

Mellisa Govender marketing director of RS Components SA says. “We are also very proud of our DesignSpark website which is an online technical community for engineers around the world with more than 750 000 members, who can be of assistance to students and engineers working on real-world applications.” RS Components Vishal Ramphal Tel: (011) 691-9300 Email: vishal.ramphal@rs-components.com www.rsonline.co.za

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MAMMOTH PROJECT

Without A Hitch In what has been described as the largest winding installation ever conducted in South Africa, Marthinusen & Coutts, a division of Actom, has completed a major repair at Eskom’s Ingula pumped storage hydro-electric plant.

Complete rewind of a 373 MVA stator for one of Ingula’s four 14-pole motor generators

A major repair at Eskom’s Ingula pumped storage hydro-electric plant

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T

he contract involved the complete rewind of a 373MVA stator for one of Ingula’s four 14-pole motor generators. According to Richard Botton, managing director of Marthinusen & Coutts (M&C), the 342 MW unit is among the biggest in South Africa with a core diameter measuring 5 metres, a core length of 3,2 metres and a rotor mass of 500 tonnes. “As the stator was located deep in the turbine floor, all the winding was required to be conducted on site,” says Richard. “In this complicated repair, each replacement coil set was fitted, connected and brazed on-site from pre-manufactured and pre-packed components supplied by the OEM. The most painstaking process, conducted to the highest standards, was the resistive brazing on 1 824 joints.” M&C carried out the work with a 14-man team, completing the work in November 2018 after 100 days on site. Their extensive preparation included the establishment of training jigs at its Johannesburg facility, allowing customised training for all technicians involved in the mammoth project. “We also conducted detailed testing, and refurbishment where necessary, of all the winding equipment we would use on site,” he adds. “This contributed to smooth and uninterrupted operations, making us self-sufficient in rolling out the contract.”

To spec

Working closely with OEMs and Eskom, Marthinusen & Coutts took full ownership of the rewind project from start to finish, he notes. The contract was successfully completed on-time with all test criteria well within specification.

M&C is the only company, outside of Rotek, able to undertake both electrical and mechanical work. Having cut its teeth in traditional mining (gold, platinum etc), M&C is represented broadly across all industries such as sugar, steel, petrochemicals 50 mine winders are stored at their premises. Refurbishment is undertaken at a fraction of the cost of replacement while M&C stores these items on behalf of some mines. One of the largest lathes on the African continent was commissioned at the company’s power generation equipment repair facility in Benoni in August last year. With a 3,2 metre swing, it has the capacity to handle workpieces with a mass of up to 40 tonnes and ten metres in length. As rotating machinery experts, a technician can be on-site within 8 hours – a service unique to South Africa. The more remote the customer in Africa, the more they need a turnkey maintenance solution with their staff being trained by M&C on-site, complete with check boxes, manuals, sign-off sheets etc. In this light, M&C estimates that in five years, about 60% of their staff will be deployed elsewhere in Africa. One of M&C’s noteworthy strengths is its logistics expertise enabling the company to move staff and equipment efficiently and timeously within the country and over the border. A further strength resides in the engineering and technical skills of the company’s personnel. The design team is capable of tackling any problem and coming up with a workable solution. Rather than placing rewind contracts overseas, M&C is fully qualified to undertake the work locally, as evidenced by the contract placed on the company for the Ingula project.

The Future

• 300 megawatt machines • Full-service maintenance contracts • More and more work in Africa

“With our in-country expertise, supported by our Centres of Excellence in Benoni and Cleveland, the project highlighted the world class capability. We could also contribute our specialised equipment and supply chain – elements that often present a challenge to foreign service providers trying to conduct this kind of project work in South Africa.” Marthinusen & Coutts Richard Botton Tel: (011) 607-1700 Email: support@mandc.co.za www.mandc.co.za

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TRIBOLOGY

Tribology for Space Technology The solid lubricating films deposited by physical vapor deposition have been used to decrease the friction and wear of space mechanisms. For the WS2 and MoS2 films, sputtered pure MX 2 films normally exhibited poor wear resistance due to porous microstructure even in vacuum. Over the last decades, new methods of multilayer and multicomponent designs have been introduced to modify the MX 2 lubricant film structure.

I

n the application, the capability of tolerance to space environment (especially the high active atomic oxygen) is important for maintaining the tribological performances of the film sand so the reliability of the whole mechanism.

Satisfy the long-life operation of different moving parts in space station, lunar rover and various high-tech equipment models in China

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Adding metal elements (Au, Ag, Ni, Cr, Cu, Al, etc.) can significantly improve their wear resistances in vacuum environment. Due to the atomic oxygen irradiation, the oxidation and deterioration of lubricating property are inevitable either for transition metal disulfides (typical for MoS2 and WS2) and soft metals (Ag, In, Zn, Pb, etc.). Adding reactive metals (such as Ag) is invalid to enhance the anti-oxidation from the atomic oxygen

VOL 69 August 2019


irradiation. Therefore, two kinds of MoS2 based films, separately composited in the composition and structure by inert metal (Au) were developed for the space application. WS2 has higher thermal stability than MoS2, which may provide a wide range of application as a lubricant in films. Nevertheless, the studies on the structure and tribological properties of WS2 based films are much less as compared with MoS2.

First, second and third

The evolutions in microstructure, composition and tribological properties of the WS2 based films after storage in humid air or energetic atomic oxygen (AO) irradiation are systematically studied. There were significant differences in structure between the WS2 based films with different kinds of metaldopants. The inhibitory effect of dopants on the matrix columnar WS2 crystal growth possibly depended on the values of Ts/ Tm, where Ts was the substrate temperature and Tm was the melting point of the film materials. Secondly, the growth of WS2 cr ystals with edge-plane preferential orientation were completely prevented by incorporating the nanoscale Cu layer in the WS2/Cu multilayer films. All the nanoscale WS2/ Cu multilayer films showed high hardness and high bearing capacity. The highwear resistance and low friction coefficient of the multilayer films were obtained. Thirdly, even after a large dose of AO irradiation, the dense WS2-Al composite film with compact structure still possessed good AO irradiation resistance due to the formation of protective thinner WO3 cladding layer in the compact sub-surface layer and restricting the diffusion of AO into the films. WS2 films with open structure also kept unchanged ascribing to crystal plane dependence of oxidation and huge platelet size of the coarse WS2 columnar platelet. After long period storage in moisture air environments, the moisture erosion and oxidation of WS2/Cu multilayer films was restricted in the surface layer due to the protective effect of the compact structure itself,

however, both the film and its substrate suffered severe moisture erosion.In light of these results, the WS2 based films with modified structure and improved tribological properties may have potential applications in motion mechanisms of spacecraft.

Liquid

For lubrication of long term running mechanisms, liquid lubricants have to be used. Compared with those on ground, liquids for space lubrication have special requirement, ie low volatility, low temperature fluidity, anti-irradiation etc. chlorine containing silicone oil has long been used for space lubrication in China. More hetero-elements are introduced to enhance its boundary lubrication and antiwear life for long term applications. In recent years, the development of polyolefin-substituted cyclopentane, polyalkylated cyclopentane, silicon hydrocarbon, silicone oil, perfluoropolyether, polyphenylene oxide, fluorine bromine oil and corresponding greases are developed to satisfy the long-life operation of different moving parts in space station, lunar rover and various high-tech equipment models in China.

Significant differences in structure between the WS 2 based films with different kinds of metaldopants These oils can meet heavy load working conditions such as the lubrication of the moving parts in the environment of -70oC~250 oC, hot vacuum environment and vacuum overload conditions. Meanwhile, we have explored potentials of ionic liquids as the additives in base oils.

Ions

The key is to tackle the oil solubility by constituting ionic liquids with large volume ions. Minor concentration of ionic liquids can significantly enhance the friction reduction and antiwear property of base oils. For a similar reason, the anti-irradiation property especially by atomic oxygen has to be considered for low earth orbit spacecraft. The molecular structures more tolerant to atomic oxygen are optimized and some atomic oxygen resistant functionality are introduced to additives to improve the performance of lubricants. We are designing a lubricant between lubricating oils and lubricating greases. It looks like lubricating greases, but performs like oils. This can apparently obstruct creep of oils along sliding pairs, holding great potentials for space application. Finally, we have combined both solid lubrication and liquid lubrication to pursue an even longer lubrication service for space mechanisms for China’s future space exploration. State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics Weimin Liu*, Lijun Weng, Dapeng Feng, Feng Zhou Email: wmliu@licp.cas.cn

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BUSINESS

An All-Round Approach For Africa Economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is expected to remain subdued for 2019 on the back of enduring uncertainty in global and domestic markets which continue to influence political will, macroeconomic stability and market fragility. It’s also well documented and understood that doing business in African markets can be complex.

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ackling this debate, experts from WSP who operate in Africa share their insights on changes to attitudes and approaches necessary to successfully invest, expand and do business in today’s advancing African markets.

Africa is estimated to reach a collective gross domestic product (GDP) growth of $2.6 trillion by 2020 and have the largest workforce in the world by 2040 Mathieu du Plooy, Managing Director of WSP in Africa, suggests that there are burgeoning opportunities to do business sustainably in Africa. “From our experience, we are certainly seeing a significant shift in global attitudes about Africa which is also directly influencing a changed approach to entering and doing business in African markets. “In particular, the historical attitude is certainly becoming a thing of the past, as international governments, funding institutions and private businesses increasingly look for opportunities across African markets to partner and invest for mutually benefitted growth.”

Scoping the prospective

Despite slower than expected economic growth figures, opportunities in Africa are abound. The continent boasts a land mass larger than India,

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China, the US and Europe combined and a third of the planet’s mineral resources. SSA is often rated as the fastest urbanising region in the world, where currently the 143 cities across it generate a combined $0.5 trillion. Furthermore, looking at projections for the continent, Africa is estimated to reach a collective gross domestic product (GDP) growth of $2.6 trillion by 2020 and have the largest workforce in the world by 2040. “There is no denying the massive infrastructure needs in Africa, to keep up with demand of rapid population growth and urbanisation, as well as to support existing and establish new industries, that will all contribute to economic activity and social development needs, and drive more inclusivity,” says Mathieu.

Challenges

“One challenge that many African states and industries face when trying to secure funding is ‘how do we make projects bankable?’. The reality is that with slower economic growth, sovereign budgets are often strained even further. States, however, can look to unbundle key sectors and open markets up for donor and private investor funding. “Public-private partnerships for example have proven to be very successful in a number of African markets. And, if the procurement contracts are properly structured, this offers immense opportunities to shift the balance between state versus investor priorities,” concludes Mathieu. WSP Mathieu du Plooy Tel: (011) 361-1300, wsp.com

VOL 69 August 2019


AWARDS

Exhaust Manufacturer Clinches Factory of The Year Award The first Factory of the Year (FotY) awards was held in Johannesburg with factories being evaluated on customer satisfaction, quality, value creation, cost management, personnel productivity, asset productivity and resource efficiency, agility and innovation.

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he judges acknowledged Eberspächer South Africa, a manufacturer of exhaust systems, as being a highly efficient manufacturer, with a balanced score across all dimensions assessed, scoring within the top quintile of global benchmarks within the “Quality” dimension. In addition, Eberspächer South Africa’s advanced use of robotics and automation has brought about efficiency gains for the factory in recent years.

Other winners

Four Excellence awards were given to participants which performed exceptionally well in a specific dimension of the FotY competition. Columbus Stainless was recognised for excellence in large scale Production with Nyamezela Metering acknowledged for excellence in small scale production. The excellence in digitisation award was given to Atlantis

Jury members of the competition

The winners of the competition were selected by an independent jury comprising of: 1. Ilse Karg, Chief Director of Future Industrial Production Technologies, the Department of Trade and Industry (the dti) 2. Mr Pieter de Beer, Senior Industry Development Manager of New Industries, Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) 3. Philippa Rodseth, Executive Director, Manufacturing Circle 4. Martin Sanne, Executive Manager, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) 5. Anton Grutter, Executive Director, Lean Institute of Africa

Foundries and Nampak (Bevcan Rosslyn) won the award for excellence in resource efficiency. The Factory of the Year awards are a global annual benchmarking competition that has been running for over 25 years and is recognised as the toughest benchmarking test for companies in the production arena. The competition has benchmarks and best practices from over 2 000 factories across all industries and over 30 countries. This initiative was launched in 2018 in South Africa by A.T. Kearney in partnership with the Department of Trade and Industry, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Manufacturing Circle and Manufacturing Indaba.

Finding the right balance

Igor Hulak, partner at A.T. Kearney, says, “More than ever, companies have to find the right balance in their manufacturing footprint and global value chain design. To successfully sustain and grow production, achieving and maintaining world-class excellence requires every manufacturer to relentlessly and continually pursue efficiency improvements. But nowadays, that is not enough. The 4th Industrial Revolution is not a theoretical term any longer. As such the local manufacturing community can no longer shy away from the pace of adoption of 4IR technologies on shop floors, which has been dramatically increasing over the past three years. Though the South African sector in general has a relatively wide performance gap to close, we have been very pleased to see that the top awardees in this country can withstand direct comparison with world class performance and standards on the evaluated dimensions.” A.T. Kearney Igor Hulak Email: SouthAfricafoty@atkearney.com www.atkearney.com

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WOMEN IN ENGINEERING

Driving Change There remains a serious shortage of women in engineering. According to the Engineering Council of South Africa, only 11% of the total number of engineers registered with them are female and only 4% of those are professional engineers. Portia Magongoma (32), AVK PVE Production Foreman, is making a difference and inspiring other women to pursue careers in engineering.

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aised in Pinetown, KwaZulu Natal, Portia has a Bachelor of Technology degree in Mechanical Engineering and recently graduated with a BA in Business Administration, from the University of Johannesburg. She also has a National Diploma in Mechanical Engineering, a Certificate in Operations Management, and is a trained forklift operator. A registered member of the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA), this mother of

two says: “It is possible to have both a successful career and a family.”

Portia combined engineering with business administration and management because she wants to know everything there is to know about valves and the business of them A difference experience

When Portia moved to AVK Valves, her experience was not much different. “I had already worked with men and gained confidence in that space,” she says. “AVK Valves funded Portia’s BA Administration degree and she says she been seen and treated as an individual and not just an employee. “Some people think women can’t do this and can’t do that”, she says. “AVK Valves and Gunric never had those stereotypes. Women can do anything men can.” Portia was drawn to engineering because of its diversity. “I want to be an expert in valves, every aspect from design to production and quality assurance,” she enthuses. “I love working with my hands and really enjoyed my time on the shop-floor.” Now she has her sights set on bigger things. “I have combined engineering with business administration and management because I want to know everything there is to know about valves and the business of valves. From all the engineering to HR, labour law, finances, all of it.”

Portia Magongoma has high hopes for the future

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AVK Southern Africa Sayuri Naidoo Tel: (011) 908 3760 Email: sayuri@avkvalves.co.za www.avkvalves.com

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SERVICE AND TRAINING

Keeping a Brand in Mind Sew-Eurodrive’s ability to offer on-site training and service not only familiarises clients with the drive automation specialist’s complete range, but also gives it a foot in the door for electronics and automation products like variable speed drives.

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aving an on-site presence means that the brand is always top-of-mind. “It is good to be able to show our face on-site, and to advise our clients wherever we can assist them,” says head of exports, Marcio Sicchiero. Depending on visa requirements for individual countries, an engineer or technician can be dispatched within 24 hours if need be. “We also assist with on-site training and commissioning,” Marcio highlights.

Wide footprint

The Johannesburg regional office is currently responsible for 23 countries, from Southern to Eastern Africa. Tanzania also falls under the ambit of the local head office. Industries served range from food and beverage to cement and mining, giving the company an established footprint in a diverse range of markets and sectors.

Depending on visa requirements for individual countries, an engineer or technician can be dispatched within 24 hours if need be In Zambia, Sew-Eurodrive recently supplied a multimillion-rand order of 42 units, including geared motors, planetary units, and Industrial Gear (IG) units, ranging from 7.5kW to 250kW. A total of 15 customised IG units are being supplied by Sew-Eurodrive of Finland, while other units are also being sourced from Germany, testament to the company’s internationalization and global capabilities to meet the specific requirements.

Export head, Marcio Sicchiero

Sew-Eurodrive Marcio Sicchiero Tel: (011) 248-7000 www.sew-eurodrive.co.za

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TRACE In is a glo antio leading party ri

TRACE due diligence solutions are based on internationally accepted best practices and our experience and familiarity with the compliance needs of multinational companies. Services range from a denied parties screening to enhanced due diligence, including TRACE Certified Due Diligence.

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nternational, Inc. obally recognized bribery business organization and provider of third isk management solutions.

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NANOFABRICATION

Working at The Atomic Layer The University of Johannesburg (UJ) aims to lead the world’s research and development on nanomaterial fabrication technology. A major nanofabrication facility housing world class ALD reactors at the School of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering broke ground for construction within the Department of Mechanical Engineering Science at the Auckland Park Kingsway Campus (APK).

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he establishment of the Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) cleanroom facility will assist in providing academics with the ability to manage material properties at an atomic level. The desired materials with preferred nanostructure can be assembled by applying layers of atoms or molecules on the substrate to simultaneously achieve the required level of performance and precise parameter control. Practical applications of nanotechnology include the use of ALD ultrathin films in photovoltaics, optical coatings, barrier coatings to protect against tarnish and corrosion, and in a variety of semiconductors,

Special ‘sub-nano-scopic’ techniques that allow the manufacturing of individual ultra-thin films on the surface with atomic scale deposition precision and nearly prefect comformality

superconductors, and flexible electronics. The project, scheduled to finish in four months, is one of the country’s major mega engineering facilities in Africa.

Growing research enterprise

“This additional laboratory space, designed specifically to encourage the kind of interdisciplinary research UJ, is known for will be critical to growing the school’s research enterprise,” says Dr Daniel Madyira, acting Head of Department (HOD) for Mechanical Engineering Science. Professor Tien-Chien Jen, the Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering who spearheads the project says, “The ALD cleanroom facility features two state-of-the-art reactors (R-200 and R-200 advance supplied by Picosun, Oy) which are funded by the NRF NEP (National Equipment Program) and the IBP (Infrastructure Bridge Program) with a total funding of around R18 million. This project is a critical step in the institution’s vision of Industry 4.0, providing the technological basis for the construction of a cleanroom laboratory, which will assist our engineers when they use special ‘sub-nano-scopic’ techniques that allow the manufacturing of individual ultra-thin films on the surface with atomic scale deposition precision and nearly prefect comformality. This facility will illustrate a better understanding of the way that atoms/molecules move together to synthesise the new and functionalised materials, that may have major impacts on our ability to design and use these new nanostructure materials for vast applications in the fields of energy, materials, medical devices and semiconductors.

Vibration free

This ALD cleanroom facility will provide an ultra-low number of particle (ISO7) and nearly vibrationfree environment for the two ALD reactors (Picosun R-200 and R-200 advance), which allow the engineering squad to study numerous states and properties of various unique new nanomaterials at the atomic scale. University of Johannesburg Dr Daniel Madyira Tel: (011) 559-555 www.uj.ac.za

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MAINTENANCE

Prevention is Better Than Cure The significance of preventative maintenance in the capital equipment equation cannot be reiterated enough. Benefits abound and include operator and machine safety, machine efficiency and time savings, among others. All these point towards one direction – optimal total cost of ownership (TCO).

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ne of the key drivers in the TCO calculation is the frequency and costs associated with unplanned maintenance, or as everyone experiences it, breakdowns. Modern equipment is becoming increasingly complex, and with this increase in complexity, comes increased risks associated with breakdowns.

Regular monitoring a must

While breakdowns can often not be planned for, following a regular welldocumented maintenance schedule will allow the equipment owner to establish bestpractice preventative maintenance actions. For example, regular monitoring of the oil condition in a hydraulic system will show a wear trend, and when there is a sudden increase in wear materials, it will allow the equipment maintenance team to remove the relevant component and inspect it to ascertain the reason for this sudden accelerated wear.

Smith Power Equipment, Eugene Brown

This type of intervention and repair has proven to be cost-

effective, as opposed to blindly allowing the component to self-destruct, and then having to pay for an expensive replacement. The ‘if it’s not broken, don’t fix it’ approach is still commonplace across many industries, but one thing is for sure, it is not a sustainable approach to equipment ownership.

As opposed to blindly allowing the component to self-destruct, and then having to pay for an expensive replacement Meanwhile, a strict preventive maintenance regime means that you are assured your equipment is operated under safe conditions, both for the machine and the operators. Possible issues can be nipped in the bud before they have a chance to cause harm. Health and safety of employees is also a business priority across industries, but it perhaps takes greater precedence in mining and construction, where the risk of serious accidents and injuries are significantly higher. In terms of machine efficiency, normal wear and tear can result in lower machine efficiency. Preventive maintenance assures optimal working conditions and conserves the lifespan of the equipment.

Time is money

The old adage, ‘time is money’ still holds true. Planned preventive maintenance may cause small hindrance in terms of production, but that is nothing compared with actual downtime caused by a breakdown. Because it is planned, production can propose the optimal time and can factor in the nuisance. Preventative maintenance procedures take less time than emergency repairs and replacements. Smith Power Equipment Eugene Brown Tel: (011) 284-2000 Email: mail@smithpower.co.za, www.smithpower.co.za

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“THE LINK FOR AFRICAN TRADING”

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TRANSNET FREIGHT RAIL

www.transnetfreightrail-tfr.net

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SECURITY

Password Pains Password breaches are all too common nowadays and the biggest challenge is to keep a different complex password for every website or app.

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ost people use the same passwords on multiple sites and when one of those sites is compromised, hackers test the login information on other sites. This means having one password compromised can lead to one’s password being compromised on many other sites. The truth is that for every system, cloud storage, app and network we place our information and login credentials, into we increase our risk landscape. When you use a single password for every platform, a breach of one is a breach of all of them. You may practice safe cyber activity and still have your credentials compromised in a third-party app that has poor security measures.

Passwords are not secure, but until there is a practical alternative, let’s all take the steps to not make it easy for the cybercriminal to pounce Passwords not secure

J2 Software CEO, John Mc Loughlin

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The use of a password is not ideal, but let’s be honest, most people, systems and organisations across Africa have no other means of remaining

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secure. It is not ideal, but until there is a practical alternative, let’s all take the steps to not make it easy for the cybercriminal to pounce. Human behaviour is to make things as simple as possible for ourselves and sometimes by making things simple for you, it becomes simpler for those with ill intent. The excuses are mostly around the inability to remember multiple passwords. If you cannot write it down, or store it on your mobile device it is just too difficult. This element of human laziness needs to be addressed, in years past people would remember 10, 15, 20 plus telephone numbers and lock combinations. Today we remember none as we use a phone to do all our thinking.

Identify with the platform

If you choose not to keep unique passwords for different platforms you cannot complain when thousands are taken from your bank account or when you are reprimanded for allowing your company network to be taken down in a ransomware attack. Identify with the platform and add in something

If you choose not to keep unique passwords for different platforms you cannot complain when thousands are taken from your bank account from your list of favourite things, a phrase or a lyric. If you associate Facebook with school friends and family, use an incident at high school that you associate with and a family joke name then add a lyric from a song. It will be a long password, pretty much impossible to guess. You should remember this and giggle every time you log in. For additional security, you should add two-factor authentication to any account that supports it. This means you will have to enter both a password and a code that’s emailed or texted in order to log on. This will certainly prevent hackers from accessing an account even when they have the password. J2 Software John Mc Loughlin Managing Director Tel: 0861-00-5896 Email: john@j2.co.za

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WORLD-CLASS performance requires speed, agility and endurance

STRATEGY

INFRASTRUCTURE

OPERATIONS

Planning strategic direction benchmarked to world-class standards

Development of world-class infrastructure from concept to realisation

Development of operations to best practice and world-class standards

Supply Chain Strategy

Facility Design & Development

Process & Operations Design

• Supply Chain network analysis & design • National & Regional DC strategy development • Facility Sizing and OPEX estimates • On-line fullllment • Slow vs. Fast movers network set-up • A Supply Chain that supports business strategy • Site development strategies • Technology, IOT and digitilisation strategy

• Greennelds site development

• Operations assessment and benchmarking • WMS / WCS review • WMS / WCS functional requirements • Process and operations optimisation • Long term operational development strategies • Process audit • Labour standards and incentive programs

planning • Brownnelds site development planning • Functional building requirements speciication • Technical liaison to professional / development team • Facility sizing requirements (short to long term) • Design to execution • Procurement, program and vendor management

In today’s competitive business world you need to focus on every opportunity to advance your company mission

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Cape Town: (021) 816 2000 | ils-ct@ils.co.za Johannesburg: (011) 656 1100 | ils-jhb@ils.co.za VOL 69 August 2019 www.ils.co.za


COMPLIANCE

Beware of Old Computers Disposing of old computer equipment used to be a mindless process, but those methods of the past are no longer an option with the introduction of new laws and regulations. The days of piling it up in storage or simply selling it off to staff or second-hand retailers or even dumping it in a landfill, are over.

CEOs should be concerned about non-compliant old PCs that are piling up in storage, especially since the Protection of Personal Information (PoPI) Act came into being. All those old hard drives usually contain vital client information and must be removed in a manner that is compliant with the Act,” says Bridgette Vermaak, head of the ITAD department at Xperien. Simply pushing the ‘Delete’ button also won’t do it nor will running a magnet over the old hard drives in an attempt to erase data. Even using the old hard drives for target practice or drilling holes in them will not satisfy the prescriptions of the PoPI Act.

Bridgette Vermaak, head of the ITAD department at Xperien

“A PoPI Act violation landed executives in jail and left the company with a R10-million fine. Scores of old hard drives were found being sold on the street in downtown Johannesburg, they were either stolen by

company insiders or disposed of by the company itself. What the buyers were actually looking for was client data: ID numbers, credit card information, bank account details and anything else that might be of value,” she continues.

Hidden costs

Many companies are disposing of old computer equipment by putting it in storage. The problem with this is that storage costs money, the longer the equipment is in storage, the more it costs. Then there are the insurance expense. But the biggest potential cost is the risk of falling foul to PoPI and exposing client or company information.

Even using the old hard drives for target practice or drilling holes in them will not satisfy the prescriptions of the PoPI Act “The PoPI Act is designed to ensure that all South African institutions conduct themselves in a responsible manner when collecting, processing, storing and sharing another entity’s personal information by holding them accountable should they abuse or compromise your personal information in any way,” says Bridgette.

The solution

Companies like Xperien have a track record in the refurbishment and disposal of old computer equipment in a way that is fully compliant with the PoPI Act. The safe erasure of data is carried out using specialised tools like Blancco, which is recommended by IT consulting firm Gartner as one of the most suitable tools for this purpose. “This is done either on site or removed under strictly supervised and secure conditions for off-site handling. Once the data is safely erased, the client company is issued with a PoPI-compliant certificate,” concludes Bridgette. Xperien Bridgette Vermaak Tel: (011) 462-8806 Email: itad@xperien.co.za www.xperien.com

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TECHNOLOGY

Implementing Artificial Intelligence In the manufacturing arena, people and machines tend to have a symbiotic relationship, they depend on each other for their performance and for future improvements. People are increasingly making better machines, most recently through the use of affordable and innovative automation solutions, based upon more powerful hardware and software.

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wo technological advances that are playing a vital role in the improvement of machines are cloud computing and edge computing.

line? Recently, another promising alternative has emerged: edge computing.

Cloud computing

Edge computing enables data storage, applications and analysis to be carried out at the edge of a machine. Lines and devices are monitored with real-time sensors, and data at the machine level can be processed in microseconds.

The storage, management and analysis of data that is stored remotely on a server either locally or on the Internet has become commonplace in a relatively short time. Although it has proved invaluable in many circumstances, is it always the best solution for businesses and in particular, for the production

The company has demonstrated how AI can be incorporated into machines by developing Forpheus, the world’s first robot that can play and train people in table tennis

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Edge computing

Industrial manufacturers need to think carefully before deciding on which of these two options will be the most effective, taking into account the recent arrival of new solutions involving artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML). Although AI offers some great potential benefits, care needs to be exercised before incorporating it

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into industrial applications. All too often, companies can be eager to start implementing and using it without being fully aware of the challenges they could face. So, what are the key issues involved in deploying AI and in determining how AI can improve a production line or a process, and if cloud computing or edge computing should be implemented?

Issue 1: What’s your problem?

The biggest challenge that many face is that they often don’t know what problem they want to solve. Some of them aren’t measuring any data yet, so even though they might be keen to implement AI, this will prove difficult without the necessary data. The solution is to start collecting and cleaning data first, before even thinking about introducing AI. You can then start trying to obtain information from the data and then begin visualising this in a smart way. This is basic data science and will help your company to start realising a range of benefits. The next step is to consider implementing AI. You can apply AI at various levels, depending on the problem you want to solve. For instance, if you want to compare the performance of two factories,

you can gather the data and put it into the cloud, and compare and analyse the data to start to draw conclusions.

Issue 2: How can you access and make the best use of your data?

The machines within a factory are a potential source of valuable data. But how can users access and analyse the data that a machine could provide? How can a manufacturing plant then make the most effective possible use of this data, especially when introducing AI to enhance its capabilities?

Using the cloud can cause problems in terms of security, particularly in relation to compliance with the latest cyber security standards Some manufacturing facilities might decide to send all data to the cloud. Large IT companies are promoting the cloud as the solution to everything. However, it isn’t a complete panacea, as it doesn’t show or respond in real time to what is actually happening in the machines. There is no way of looking inside the machine to see what is happening. However, in edge computing within an industrial manufacturing environment, you can look at the actual process within the machine. Realtime data processing at the edge enables an immediate response to an abnormal situation in a process. With AI at the edge, manufacturers can control complexity and security. To translate information into action, manufacturers need efficient control and monitoring for a more natural, proactive relationship between operator and machine.

Issue 3: How secure is your data?

In terms of understanding what is happening in machines in a manufacturing environment, cloud computing is a simplistic approach that is often insufficient to meet the needs of the latest technology and machines for several reasons. Using the cloud can cause problems in terms of security, particularly in relation to compliance with the latest cyber security standards. These are becoming increasingly important in industrial situations, and relate to the security, safety and integrity of the components and systems used within industrial automation programmes. In contrast, edge computing within the factory provides another level of security, as the data resides within the machines. The whole industrial automation process can be secured using solutions such as intruder detection, video monitoring and access control systems. Omron Electronics, Tel: (011) 579-2600 Email: info.sa@eu.omron.com www.industrial.omron.co.za

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ALTERNATIVE ENERGY

Impressive Solar Heating The Austrian Ambassador recently launched two of the largest sub-Saharan solar systems in Johannesburg. These Soltrain projects, a district heating plant for Wits University residences, and a solar process heat plant for the Klein Karoo International (KKI) tannery, will save millions in energy costs over the lifetime of the plants.

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oltrain in South Africa is managed by the Centre for Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies at Stellenbosch University, and the South African National Energy Development Institute (SANEDI), in partnership with the AEEInstitute for Sustainable Technologies (AEE INTEC) from Austria.

The KKI tannery section has installed a 600m 2 solar collector system to reduce costs and increase competitiveness, since fuel costs are highly volatile Southern African Solar Thermal Training and Demonstration Initiative Soltrain is a regional initiative on capacity building and demonstration of solar thermal systems in the South African Development Community (SADC) region. It is funded by the Austrian Development Agency and co-funded by the OPEC Fund for International Development.

Wits Junction

The Wits Junction district heating project combines solar, co-generation and gas heating technologies, servicing 14 student residence buildings with hot water from one centralised hot water plant room. The installation includes 600m2 solar heating plant with 10m2 Austrian collectors.

There are 1 103 students in the 14 buildings, with an average consumption of 94 000 litres of hot water per day. Since the system was commissioned, the estimated costs savings will be R40 million over the next 20 years and already the university has seen substantial electricity savings over the trial period of ten months. As the electricity cost from the cogenerator is equal to municipal cost, the thermal energy is free and the centralised plant requires a lot less maintenance, hence less costs.

Klein Karoo tannery

The KKI tannery section has installed a 600m2 solar collector system to reduce costs and increase competitiveness, since fuel costs are highly volatile, moving its production to a more renewable base. Stellenbosch University approached various tanneries for process heat application viabilities and this tannery was the most forthcoming and had the budget to contribute to the study. The process heat infrastructure is an oil burner and the feasibility study design was that solar would displace the local fuel, indicated as 60% solar fraction. Stellenbosch University predicted a payback over 6.5 years, based on a financial model analysis from the feasibility study, which includes maintenance, finance costs and all system-related expenses. SANEDI Tel: (011) 038-4300 Email: nformation@sanedi.org.za www.soltrain.org or www.sanedi.org.za.

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MARKET FORUM

Demolition duty A turnkey demolition contract is underway at a chrome pelletising plant in Rustenburg, after being secured by Forte Demolition Solutions.

Forte Demolition is one of few companies in South Africa with the necessary assortment of fit-for-purpose machinery and attachments.

A subsidiary of surface materials handling expert SPH Kundalila, Forte Demolition Solutions is tackling the project with its specialised range of mechanical dismantling and demolition equipment.

These ensure that the cutting and breaking process is safe and efficient. It also allows many components to be carefully dismantled for resale purposes.

“Our investment in this equipment is substantial, making us the ideal partner for mines and other operations who need to address closure in a safe and sustainable manner,” says Graeme Campbell, group commercial operations manager at SPH Kundalila. The plant to be demolished includes several multi-storey structures, conveyors, steel frames and concrete work, as well as large, heavy componentry. Graeme emphasises that

Each project is planned and monitored by a skilled professional team, which takes the safest demolition approach. This is also aligned with customer standards to ensure full compliance with corporate and regulatory requirements. The company is also experienced in asbestos removal. SPH Kundalila Tel: (018) 787-2010 www.sphkundalila.co.za

Forte Demolition Solutions has secured a turnkey demolition contract at a chrome pelletising plant in Rustenburg

PALIFENCE Salient Features

• Difficult to Climb: The spaces between the Horizontal wires are too narrow for fingers to have grip • Impregnable: Extremely difficult to cut with a hand cutter as the beak of a wire cutter will not be able to penetrate the horizontal wires • Excellent Replacement option to Solid Wall as: 1. More economical than a solid wall What is High Security 2. Faster to install than a solid wall Weld Mesh 3. CCTV Camera has a clear view HIGH Security Weld Mesh is wire • Further upgrade possible with electric security system fused and welded at a Horizontal • Anti-corrosive & low maintenance distance of 76.2mm and a vertical Standards distance of 12.7mm also known • Manufactured according to BS EN 10016-2 as 35B/3510 where 3 denotes • Wire Sizes in accordance with BS EN 10218-2 3”(distance between vertical wires), 5 denotes 0.5” (distance • Tolerance on Mesh Size in accordance wiht EN 10223-7 between horizontal wires), and • Tolerance on Panel Size in accordance with EN 10223-4 B or 10 denotes gauge of wire • Welding Strength in accordance with BS EN 1461 • Zinc Coating in accordance with EN 10245-1 • Anti Corrosion in accordance with BS En 3900 E4/F4

Tensile Strength

• Wire has a tensile strenght of min 550 MPA

MARK: 083 454 6488 Email: mark@palifence.co.za

www.palifence.co.za High security welded mesh

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Pallisade

Gates

Gate Automation

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER

Razor wire and more ....

VOL 69 August 2019


MARKET FORUM

Counterfeit Merchandise Further to the seizure of 23 000 counterfeit NSK packages and labels in Hebei Province, China, a follow-up raid has led to the discovery of yet more fake NSK merchandise. Located at a different factory belonging to the same offender, over 90 000 counterfeit bearing boxes and 10 imitation printing plates covering four major bearing companies (including NSK) were found within. Following the discovery, the entire batch of package boxes was confiscated and taken to the warehouse of the Market Supervisory Board (MSB), the local trademark infringement office handling the case, pending the final penalty decision. In the meantime, MSB officials involved in the early morning swoop, interrogated the offender, who was caught red-handed. He confessed his wrongdoings and exposed the unscrupulous trader who ordered the fake packages. The range of machinery and equipment found within the factory indicates the level of capability many counterfeiters have at their disposal. Several machines for printing, laminating, die-cutting, creasing and cutting were discovered. Aside from the 90 000 fake boxes, officials also found several stacks of uncut packages, most of which were NSK. Due to its market reputation for quality, NSK has become a target brand for counterfeiters. However, NSK’s Global Aftermarket department continues to proactively protect the company’s brand image, working closely with local authorities around the world.

Law and order must be enforced on counterfeiters to protect companies from being misrepresented in bearing markets. Fake bearings not only ‘dupe’ end users into thinking they are purchasing quality products at reduced prices, they carry the risk of premature, and potentially dangerous, failure. N S K South Africa Tel: (011) 458-3600 Email: nsk-sa@nsk.com Web: www.nsk.com

VSD Systems Vert Energy’s Leroy-Somer LSK direct current (DC) motors provide cost-effective solutions for variable speed applications.

produces non-standard motors, providing a range of power from 0,06kW to 18,5kW.

“Leroy-Somer has a depth of experience with AC and DC variable speed drive systems and designs its standard motors to withstand the new demands being imposed by frequency converters and variable speed operation,” says Grant Robertson, managing director of Vert Energy, exclusive distributors for Leroy-Somer in Southern Africa.

Vert Energy Ryan Robertson Tel: 086 111 VERT (8378) Email: ryan.robertson@vertgroup.co.za Website: www.vertgroup.co.za

“Motors are thus able to withstand frequent speed or torque changes and reversals, running at overspeed (up to 6 000rpm for the standard four pole machine) and at lower speeds with full torque, without drawbacks like overheating, loosening of stator windings and damage to rotors or bearings. “The major advantage of direct current motors is the ease of effecting accurate speed control and LSK’s advanced technology enables motors to respond to electronic controllers which place great demands on the performance of DC motors. “Smooth running has been achieved by the introduction of an advanced frame design, incorporating the largest dimensioned shaft.” LSK square laminated frame DC motors, which have been designed by LeroySomer to the latest European standards for industrial requirements, have ratings from 2 to 750kW. The company also Direct current (DC) motors provide cost-effective solutions for variable speed applications

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MARKET FORUM

Froth pumps The value of Weir Minerals’ Warman AHF pump range in pumping frothy, high density and viscous slurries has been successfully proven at two mines in South Africa’s Limpopo province – one in platinum and the other in phosphates. Handling froth in some process circuits can be very challenging, as froth will air-bind a conventional slurry pump. In froth applications, the Warman AHF inducer impeller solves this problem, producing far less surging. The inducer impeller and oversized inlet enhance the movement of the froth, high density or viscous slurries into the impeller, facilitating effective transportation. In addition, its higher efficiencies mean a smaller pump will deliver the required results. At the platinum operation, a Warman AHF 2 pump was commissioned in early 2016. It has met the specified flow rate of 40m3/h with no pump-related stoppages, repairs or replacements. A 12-month trial period showed that the unit saved the mine over R200,000 when compared with the cost of a competitor pump installed previously. Given this performance, the mine replaced another eight competitor products with these pumps. It has also approved the AHF 3 pumps as standard for all frothy applications at the plant’s first flotation section, and Warman AHF 2 pumps for the second flotation section. The Warman AHF pump also extended the underflow pumping boundaries and the overall reliability of the thickener underflow pumping system. Other field and laboratory tests have proven that the Warman AHF pump has largely overcome the problem of high density viscous underflow slurries, with negligible effects on head at slurry yield stresses up to 200 Pa. “The approach to solving any thickener underflow pumping problem must be based on a thorough understanding of the

The Warman AHF inducer impeller solves the problems experienced with pumping froth with a conventional pump.

entire application, the mineralogy and rheological behaviour of the slurry,” says Jacques Pretorius, Weir Minerals Africa’s pump product development specialist. “Successful thickener underflow pumping projects are only achievable through involving a team of thickener engineers, pumping engineers and rheological consultants. Weir Minerals’ pump trial campaigns confirm the successful operability of the Warman AHF pumps in viscous slurry applications,” he concludes. Weir Minerals Africa Tel: (011) 929-2600 www.minerals.weir

Keeping it clean Goscor Cleaning Equipment (GCE), through its Nigerian dealer, recently supplied two Tennant M20 combination sweeper/scrubber/driers to Sagamu Brewery of Nigeria, part of AB InBev. The two Tennant M20 combination sweeper/scrubber/driers are being used in the Sagamu warehouse to sweep and scrub floors. The machines have already proved their worth and George Jolly, sales export at GCE, who was part of the team that commissioned the machines in Nigeria, says the customer is very happy with their performance thus far. “The Tennant M20 is a fully integrated scrubber/sweeper which can scrub or sweep a large area or simultaneously perform both functions. The M20 is ergonomically friendly for operators as the operating compartment is safe, comfortable and the unit is easy to operate,” explains George. Goscor Group Debby Marx Tel: (011) 230-2600 Email: dmarx@goscor.co.za Web: www.goscor.co.za

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THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER

Goscor’s Janet Troskie and George Jolly - Export Sales Team for Goscor Cleaning Equipment

VOL 69 August 2019


Bolting Technology BMG’s Nord-Lock bolting solutions now include Boltight hydraulic bolt tensioning tools, which are used to tighten bolts simultaneously, ensuring even preload in industrial applications and extreme environments, where bolt load accuracy is critical. “Advanced bolting technology in large machines and equipment eliminates the risk of loose or over-tightened bolts and is critical to ensuring optimum performance and safety on industrial sites,” says Maryna Werner, business unit manager, BMG’s Fasteners division. “As bolts increase in size, so the load critically increases and operators are faced with the challenge of achieving the correct bolt elongation, to ensure bolt load accuracy. “When tightening a bolt using traditional torque methods, it can be difficult and sometimes impossible, for the operator to achieve the correct bolt elongation, due to friction.”

Boltight hydraulic bolt tensioners have been engineered for many applications on OEM turbines and are used by construction and installation contractors and for inspection and maintenance on offshore and onshore wind turbines, as well as associated structures.

Boltight hydraulic bolt tensioners, manufactured to stringent global quality and safety specifications, use high-pressure hydraulics and a pre-determined pressure to make on-site bolting jobs safer, faster and more efficient. These tools have been specially developed to axially stretch the bolt. The nut is then rotated down the joint face, accurately locking in the bolt load.

“These tools provide continuous performance, without the need for frequent maintenance and repair. Added to this, the fast and efficient turnaround and reliability of these tensioners is vital to saving time on site and for the controlling of running costs,” Maryna concludes.

“BMG specialists work closely with customers in numerous industries to meet challenging bolting requirements. The company offers a wide range of standard and customised bolt tensioning tools to optimise bolt tightening during the construction of new plants and equipment, or for maintenance operations.

BMG, Maryna Werner Tel: (011) 620-7317 Email: marynaw@bmgworld.net Website: www.bmgworld.net

RELIABLE PRODUCTS & SOLUTIONS for the entire industry.

Overhead Lines

Motor Control Centres, Panels & Distribution Boards

Standby/Emergency Generator Sets Motor Protective LV Switchgear

Electrical Construction

Direct Online Starters (DOL)

Motor Scan Power & Distribution Transformers LV Motors, Drives, Softstarters & Switchgear MV Drives, Softstarters and Switchgear

Steam Turbo Generation Set Solutions

MV Motors

Invicta Vibrator Motors Mini Substations

Zest WEG Group is able to offer a range of standard off-the-shelf products as well as end-to-end energy solutions by leveraging best practice engineering and manufacturing capabilities. All products are engineered to facilitate a safe and reliable environment with operational stability and the highest possible production levels as an objective. Reduced maintenance and ease of serviceability assist in lowering the total cost of ownership.

ZWG_general_130mmx180mm.indd 1

Tel: 0861 009378

THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER

www.zestweg.com

VOL 69 August 2019

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2018/12/04 10:28


MARKET FORUM

Changes at Invicta The Engineering Solutions Group (ESG) business segment of Invicta Holdings Limited has implemented changes recently within the ESG group. “Our primary objective of the restructure is to improve efficiencies, reduce costs and add even more value and focus to our stakeholders across all businesses within the group, at the same time centralising support service functions,” explains Gavin Pelser, Chief Executive Officer, ESG and Director of Invicta Holdings Limited.

On the Move ESG has announced its new executive team:

Gavin Pelser is Chief Executive Officer

Bennie Groenewald is Chief Financial Officer

“As part of this programme, we have restructured key divisions – Payroll, HR, IT and Marketing - which will ascend into ESG from BMG.” ESG, a distributor of engineering consumable products, technical services and solutions, encompasses BMG (Africa’s industrial leader in engineering consumables); the Man-Dirk Group (specialists in the tool and equipment sector); Screen Doctor (vibrating equipment and materials handling solutions); Autobax (ESG’s reach into the automotive aftermarket); OST Africa (vibrator motors, tensioners and suspension systems) and Hansen Transmission (industrial gearbox units). Belt Brokers (manufacturers and suppliers of quality conveyor components),

Ruth Black is Group Human Campbell Fuller is Group Resources Executive ICT Executive

ESG Exports (offering exclusive rights to export BMG):Man-Dirk; Autobax; Hyflo; and Kian Ann products into Africa and other continents); Driveshaft Parts (propshaft and cv joint component specialists); and Rustenburg Engineering (major

Darryn Wright is Group Marketing Executive.

players in the foundry industry); also form part of ESG. BMG, Lauren Holloway Tel: (011) 620-7597 Email: laurenhy@bmgworld.net Website: www.bmgworld.net

Africa’s largest wind farm Kenya has launched Africa’s largest wind farm project in a bid to boost the country’s power generation capacity and reach its goal of 100 percent renewable energy generation by 2030. Set to contribute 310MW to the national grid, the $680 million privately-funded Lake Turkana Wind Power project will increase the country’s power supply by approximately 13 percent, reducing the country’s reliance on thermal generated electricity. With an energy mix that consists of 85 percent renewable energy, Kenya is considered one of the world’s leading countries in the development and implementation of clean energy –particularly in the geothermal sector. Kenya’s installed capacity increased from 1 768MW in March 2013 to 2,712MW in 2019 through renewable energy proj-

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ects including the Garissa solar power and Ngong wind power plants. Further, in the last eight months, the country has saved its citizens over KES 8 billion ($77 million) as a result of a decreased reliance on diesel-generated thermal power. The African continent is increasingly tapping into its wind power potential in efforts to close the significant power gap. With world-class developments coming online in countries including South Africa, Nigeria and Ghana, Africa is expected to considerably improve power access through the further integration of clean energy. Africa Oil & Power (AOP) Email: sales@africaoilandpower.com https://africaoilandpower.com

VOL 69 August 2019


Invincible Valves (Pty) Ltd was established in 1982 and since has grown to a medium sized enterprise located in Knights, Germiston Invincible Valves prides itself on service excellent and flexibility by striving to enhance our customer’s bottom line. Our 6,500m² facility in Knights is made up of 4,500m² under roof being our stores and workshop. The facility is fully equipped to offer a one-stop resource for valves and ancillary equipment which we transport globally. As an approved BBBEE Level 4 supplier to all major industries within South Africa, we maintain expertise and experience across a broad spectrum of industries and applications with a wide range of products. We offer a comprehensive range of local and imported valves and accessories for the mining, petro-chemical, power generation, water, sewerage and general industries. We have agents in all major centres around the country and service all four corners of the globe. We offer an in-house rubber lining service for valves, pipes, fittings and vessels which is utilized by many of the country’s major valve manufacturers. In addition we offer complete service, repair and valve reconditioning services for all types of valves. Our Core Values: We believe in treating our customers with respect. We grow through creativity, invention and innovation. We integrate honesty, integrity and business ethics into all aspects of our business functioning. Our Mission Statement: Build long term relationships with our customers and clients, to provide exceptional customer services by pursuing business through innovation and advanced technology. Our Purpose: To be a leader in the Valve Industry by providing enhanced services, customer service and profitability. Our Vision: To provide a quality service that exceeds the expectations of our esteemed customers. Invincible Valves is a proud supplier of quality valve products and ancillary equipment backed by service excellence around the globe. It is the combination of these values that allows us to form lasting business relationships.

Invincible Valves (Pty) Ltd

If it's not INVAL®, it's not Invincible

33 Shaft Road, Knights, Germiston TEL: +27 (0) 11 822 1777 | FAX: +27 (0) 11 822 3666 EMAIL: enquiries@invalve.co.za | WEB: www.invalve.co.za THE SOUTH AFRICAN MECHANICAL ENGINEER VOL 69 August 2019 39


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