LIFTING Guide 2017/18
Also publishers of “Bulk Handling Today”
180 x 40mm GLTC Strip AD.pdf
LING D N A S H SING L A I R E MAT WAREHOU AND
SHORT TERM RENTALS REN USED EQUIPMENT
FLEXIBLE FINANCE SOLUTIONS
A proud member of the Goscor Group of Companies
0861 GOSCOR (467 267) email@example.com www.goscorlifttrucks.co.za
Also publishers of “Bulk Handling Today”
180 x 40mm GLTC Strip AD.pdf
How to use this guide
On the cover: Goscor Lift Truck Company 0861 GOSCOR (467 267) www.goscorlifttrucks.co.za
This is the fifth issue of the Guide which is intended to provide the end-user with an overview of the Lifting Industry as a whole. The information is categorised so that readers can find their way through the various equipment and machinery with ease. Each item or product is accompanied by a short description and an illustration for easy reference.
Proprietor and Publisher: PROMECH PUBLISHING Tel: (011) 781-1401 Fax: (011) 781-1403 firstname.lastname@example.org www.promech.co.za Managing Editor: Susan Custers Advertising Sales: Lyn Patricio
Having published the monthly magazine “Bulk Handling Today” for many years, we have a very good idea of who’s who in the industry. As such, this Lifting Guide provides readers with a ‘snapshot’ of the lifting fraternity but it would not have been possible without the assistance of LEEASA (Lifting Equipment Engineering Association of SA), as well as that of Arni Sommer, Ken Greenwood and Piet Otto. We thank them for their professional guidance and assistance in putting this publication together.
DTP: Lindy Fobian / Anne Rotteglia Disclaimer Neither PROMECH Publishing nor its endorsing bodies will be held responsible for any errors or omissions in this publication and no responsibility will be borne by the publisher for the consequences of any actions based on information so published by Promech Publishing cc.
HANDLING BesT IN THe BusINess
“Bulk Handling Today” is the only publication endorsed by: • SA Institution of Mechanical Engineering • SA Institute of Materials Handling • Conveyor Manufacturers Association • The magazine is also endorsed by the Lifting Equipment Engineering Association of SA. As such, “Bulk Handling Today” has the most comprehensive and bona fide readership in the industry.
HANDLING HANDLING Endorsed by: CMA l LEEASA l SAIMechE l SAIMH Endorsed by: CMA l LEEASA l SAIMechE l SAIMH
TT OO DD AA YY
August 2016 April 2017
Promech Publishing continues to be proud of this Guide and we intend to grow it in the years to come, so any suggestions for improvements from readers and end-users would be more than welcome.
Printed by: Typo Colour Printing Tel: (011) 402-3468
Keep this guide in your desk drawer – it’s going to be of invaluable help as you grow your business. Or check out www.bulkhandlingtoday.co.za where you’ll find this guide and our monthly magazine “Bulk Handling Today” in full on our website. Happy and fruitful reading! Warmest Regards,
Copyright All material published in this guide is copyrighted to Promech Publishing . No part of the material may be quoted, photocopied, reproduced or stored electronically without prior written permission. 180 x 40mm GLTC Strip AD.pdf
T O D A Y
Susan Custers, Publisher 1
New V-Type Cranes... Less is More
LUBRICATION AND WIRE ROPES FOCUS ON JUNIOR MINERS TRADING IN AFRICA
24/7 LIFTING CAPABILITY
Cranes and Lifting – Africa At EnerMech we specialise in the provision of cranes and lifting solutions. With more than 40 years’ experience, we are the number one experts in delivering a wide range of integrated services; from design reviews on new cranes to the refurbishment and repair of ageing assets. Our team of multi-skilled experts delivers the complete engineering, operations and maintenance solution. Our clients can be confident that their cranes and lifting needs, no matter where they are in the world, are in safe hands. Services provided • • • • •
Provision of crane operation, maintenance and repair personnel Supply of training services Crane inspection and crane condition evaluation (CCE) Load testing of all types of cranes FEED and detailed engineering packages for crane and major component replacements • Crane obsolescence and beyond design lifetime studies • Crane refurbishments, upgrades and modifications • Material handling studies • Lifting equipment supply, rental and inspection • Wire rope supply, NDT and management • Rigging loft management • Online certification and documentation management (EnerMech Live) • MIPEG RCI sales and service • FROG personnel transfer capsule sales and service • Thern pneumatic winches
Other services offered in Africa: • Equipment Rental • Hydraulic Products & Services • Industrial Services • Process, Pipeline & Umbilicals • Specialist Training • Valve Supply & Services
Contact Us Africa HQ: EnerMech (South Africa) Pty Ltd, EnerMech House, 26D Paarden Eiland Road, Cape Town, ZA Tel: +27 21 512 3160 Email: email@example.com www.enermech.com Angola | Congo | Ghana | Nigeria South Africa - Cape Town, Northern Cape, Johannesburg
1 How to use this Guide 4 About LEEASA 8 LEEASA Corporate Members 10 Lifting Survey 14 Legal Eye Occupational Health And Safety Act, Act 85 Of 1993 - Guidelines For Driven Machinery Regulations, 2015 20 Registration Clarity 22 LMEs approved, May 2016 — Dept of Labour 25 Guide to Lifting Tackle Inspection
30 LIFTING TACKLE
30 Alloy chain slings 30 Balanced fork attachment 30 Clamps or wire rope clips 30 Hooks: Eye type and clevis type 31 Mechanical coupling links 31 Plate grabs 31 Shackles 31 Snatch blocks 31 Steel wire rope (SWR) slings 32 Spreader beams 32 Webbing slings
32 LIFTING RECEPTICALS 32 Lifting bins, buckets 32 Lifting tray 32 Man-cage 32 Palletised water container
33 Considerations and Technical Notes on the Use of Runway Beams and Load Tests 38 UNDER THE HOOK MACHINES
38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39
Bar tong Coil grabs Container handling spreader beams Lifting beams Lifting points or lifting rings Vacuum lifters Magnetic hooks Spreader beams
39 Crane Hook, Hoist Hook and Lifting Sling Hook Requirements 40 CHAIN BLOCKS & LEVER HOISTS
40 Chain blocks 40 Lever hoists 40 Steel wire rope pullers
41 Suspended Access Equipment Chamber 44 LIFT TRUCKS 44 44 44 44 44 44 45 45 45
Counter balance Large lift trucks Order picking lift trucks including all models Pallet trucks Pedestrian controlled lift trucks Truck-mounted forklift Reach trucks Side loaders Tele handlers
45 MEWP (Mobile Elevating Work Platform)
45 Boom type 46 Scissor lifts 46 Specially insulated aerial platforms
46 SAE (Suspended Access Platforms) 46 Building maintenance unit 46 Temporary suspended platforms
46 Industrial Lifting Devices / Jacks 47 CMA Members, The Information and Guidance Offered to the Crane Users and Customers in the Materials Handling Industry 48 10 Tips for Better Mobile Crane Operations 49 Are LMI’s Really Aware of the Risks They Run? 52 Crane Selection 55 MOBILE CRANES
55 Aerial crane 55 All terrain cranes 55 Carry deck cranes 55 Crawler lattice boom cranes 55 Fixed or truck mounted - loader crane, knuckle boom cranes 55 Lattice boom cranes on tyre wheeled carriers 56 Mini crawler crane 56 Mobile harbour cranes 56 Pick and carry cranes 56 Rough terrain and/or centre mount cranes 56 Stacker crane 56 Truck mounted cranes
57 Operator Training - A Legal Requirement 59 OVERHEAD, GANTRY & PORTAL CRANES 59 59 59 59 59 60
Free standing and/or permanently attached jib cranes Gantry cranes Goliath cranes Overhead cranes Rail mounted cranes V-type crane girder
60 WHARFSIDE CRANES 60 SHIPS CRANES 61 TOWER CRANES 63 CONTAINER HANDLING CRANES 63 Containers 63 Reach stacker 63 RTG (Rubber Tyre Gantry) 63 Ship-to-shore crane 63 Straddle carriers 63 Truck mounted side loading container carriers
64 SPECIALISED CRANES 64 64 64 64 64 64 64
Balance cranes Floating cranes Production loader / Scrap metal crane / Cycling cranes Railway cranes Side cranes Sugar cane loading cranes Timber / Forestry crane
45 TAIL LIFTS Lifting Guide
About LEEASA The Association is concerned that their industry, which is inherently dangerous if not well run and regulated, could fall into disrepute and therefore it is important that the engineering team providing the service should be well trained to the correct standards and should at all times be ethical and responsible for their actions. Further the Association keeps its members informed of developments or technological improvements in the industry disseminates by way of media, seminars and training, and other practical information to keep its members up to date. To achieve these ideals, the Association will actively lobby to be represented on all forums where the government’s regulators formulate policy assisted by Association members wherever possible. The Association will also attempt to become involved in international Industry forums and Associations of peers where presently many informal and long term working relationships exist. The Association will also assist wherever possible to create the correct standards for both equipment and the staff who use and maintain it by endeavouring to have staff evaluated and registered by the Engineering Council of South Africa.
From left to right: Piet Otto, Junior Vice-chairperson; Ken Greenwood, Chairperson and Arni Sommer, Senior Vice-chairperson from LEEASA
Safety should be paramount
Lastly, this not for profit association aims to represent all members of this industry at all levels and recognises that any task is performed by a team of interdependent members who together are responsible for their actions. Since its inception, LEEASA has grown and all Lifting machinery Inspectors (LMI) are encouraged to join.
What’s In It For You!
• LEEASA has representation on the Department of Labour committee which re-wrote the Driven Machinery Regulations of the OHS Act No. 85 of 1993. • LEEASA members who are registered LMI’s at the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA), may qualify for a discount on their annual fees granted by ECSA due to LEEASA being recognised as a voluntary association by ECSA which may save you over R1000 a year. LEEASA VA - A0048. • LEEASA awards individual members who are registered with ECSA, one category 3. Continuing Professional Development (CPD) credit each year. CPD is an ECSA requirement to maintain registration. • LEEASA-validated training and seminars, also earn category 1 ECSA CPD credits because of the LEEASA VA – A0048 recognition.
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• LEEASA members participate in education matters with the Education authorities. • LEEASA has representatives serving on SABS Technical Committees; TC110 – forklifts, TC96 – cranes and TC1020 – tackle etc. • LEEASA has an upgraded website which is updated regularly. • LEEASA organises meetings and seminars for its members. • LEEASA needs volunteers to serve on important committees to the benefit of its members as a collective power of our recognised and established association. Become part of the pool. • LEEASA sells a variety of books and aids to assist members and their clients.
Mission & vision
The LIFTING EQUIPMENT ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH AFRICA (LEEASA) was formed by like-minded organisations and individuals ranging from the providers, manufacturers, maintenance, inspection, examination and training sectors of this industry. The Association endeavours to create a responsible forum where the collective voice of its members is formulated and used in all forums where opinions and professional or practical consultation is requested either by government or controlling bodies or the public at large. Please feel free to contact Arni directly on 0749008378 or send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org should you have any queries or concerns about LEEASA.
South Africa has exceptionally high standards in place for the testing of equipment. Ken gives some insight into the process.
very six months and once a year, that is the legal requirement for the inspection and testing of lifting equipment in South Africa.
Six-monthly inspection “In the past, the requirement was simply that machines had to be inspected by a person of knowledge every six months,” explains Ken. “But in 2015 the law was amended and now all equipment must be inspected every six months by a competent person.” According to Ken, the law has also included the definition of ‘competent person’ and advises companies to familiarise themselves with this definition. “Every company and organisation will have a different definition for what comprises a competent person. For this reason,
it is very important that from a legislative point of view, clarity be given and the law now does just that. Not just anyone in an organisation can carry out the six-monthly inspection.”
Annual inspection and testing
The annual inspection and test, he says, has to be performed by an LMI, who in turn can only legally operate if he is registered with the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA). “Cranes are serious business and the testing of equipment is exceptionally important so having registered and competent people doing the job is vital.” If have a crane on your site, please ensure that the company undertaking the testing - the Lifting Machine Entity (LME) – has a registered person – LMI (Lifting Machinery Inspector) - doing the testing. Ken Greenwood, LEEASA
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop Systems Lifting Magnets Overhead Cranes Control Pendant Station Railway Maintenance Products Radio & Controls Load Monitoring Devices Crane Components Conductor Systems Overhead Crane Scales Vehicle Lifts Lifting Equipment 24 Hour Service
Lifting and Rail Equipment
Make sure that the certificate you see looks like the one below to verify its authenticity
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CERTIFICATE This is to certify that
m a Is a member of the
LIFTING EQUIPMENT ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION of SOUTH AFRICA
_______________________ Chairperson. K Greenwood 180417s
_______________________ Secretary. A. H Sommer 18/04/2017
Membership validity may be checked with LEEASA. Membership and this certificate are subject to the rules and regulations of the association. LEEASA is an association not for gain.VA number A0048 www.leeasa.co.za
S ECSA LMI Certificate
LEEASA Membership Certificate - issued annually
e l p S
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LMI Scope of Competence
LEEASA Corporate Members u A A Technical Services
u Cranes Complete & Components
u G. Twaddle & H. Engelbrecht
u Accord Lifting
u Custom Crane Safety
u Gateway Industries
u Ace Hydraulic Services
u D&S Crane & Plant Hire
u African LME
u De Ge Cranes
Tel: 082 497 8547 email@example.com Tel: (016) 933 0885/6 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (011) 902 4308 email@example.com Tel: 058826135660 firstname.lastname@example.org
u African Maritime Services
Tel: (021) 510 3532 Andrewtapping@africanmaritime.co.za
u AJM Engineering Services Tel: (011) 453 0728 email@example.com
u Akhani Electromechanical Engineering Tel: 083 632 2055 firstname.lastname@example.org
u All in One Crane Repairs Tel: (011) 827 7396 email@example.com
u Ammeka Industries Tel: (013) 246 1636 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Anchor Industries Tel: (021) 531 0525 email@example.com
u Anglo Lifting Equipment Tel: (011) 613 8577 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Arc Cranes
Tel: (011) 848 4549 email@example.com
Tel: (0)10 001 0730 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Barlow Cranes
Tel: 081 761 9105 email@example.com Tel: (011) 900 3390 firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: 073 954 7282 email@example.com
Tel: (011) 422 1285 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Delta Crane & Plant Hire Tel: (016) 973 1528 email@example.com
u Demag Cranes& Components Tel: 082 570 1053 firstname.lastname@example.org
u DG Materials Handling Tel: (031) 903 5633 email@example.com
u Dibama Supplies Tel: (016) 933 6926 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Dockleveller Supplies Tel: (031) 700 6993 email@example.com
u Eagle Lifting Equipment Tel: (031) 579 2200 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Echo Crane & Steel Tel: (013) 741 4617 email@example.com
u Electro Mechanical
Tel: (041) 922 4579 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Elephant Lifting Equipment Tel: (012) 661 6105 email@example.com
u Engineering Supplies Ltd Tel: (011) 493 4355 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: 082 556 7118 email@example.com
u Beam Industrial Tel: (014) 533 1399
u Ergon Engineering Tel: (011) 827 0333 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Bellambie Mining & Industrial
u Etis Mvelaphanda Engineering
u CB Lifting Equipment
u Experior Lifting
u Check Lift
u Eyethu Marine & Industrial
u F.B. Mining & Lifting Equipment
u Crane Clinic
u FB Crane Builders & Repairs
u Feat Industrial Forgings SA
Tel: (011) 617 6300 email@example.com Tel: (011) 023 5415 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (014) 596 6535 email@example.com
Tel: (011) 776 6000 firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: (011) 907 2585 email@example.com
Tel: (011) 902 3271 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (011) 394 7400 email@example.com
Tel: (031) 205 7014 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (011) 913 3956 Gary.email@example.com Tel: (031) 464 1171 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (011) 813 4127 email@example.com
Tel: (013) 656 0731 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (011) 626 2936 email@example.com
u Gauteng Rigging Services Tel: (016) 986 0862 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Global Lifting Machinery Inspector Company Tel: (016) 971 2860 email@example.com
u Group 5
Tel: (011) 922 3600 firstname.lastname@example.org
u HP Cranes Consulting Tel: (011) 740 9725 email@example.com
Tel: (021) 511 4131/2/3 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (021) 949 0517 email@example.com
u Ideal Lifting
Tel: (011) 894 1338 firstname.lastname@example.org
u J & C Lifting Equipment Tel: 079 671 7568 email@example.com
u J. Express Crane Services Tel: (011) 868 3492 firstname.lastname@example.org
u JJJ Crane Specialists Tel: 082 862 7902 email@example.com
u Johnson Crane Hire Tel: (011) 455 9263 firstname.lastname@example.org
u JP Crane Hire
Tel: (017) 982 4801 email@example.com
u Kashman Cranes and Hoists Tel: 083 4448 786 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (013) 656 2975 email@example.com
Tel: (011) 864 2800 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Kori Engineering
Tel: (027) 851 8827 email@example.com
Tel: (011) 848 2300 firstname.lastname@example.org
u LMI Academy
Tel: (011) 475 6908 email@example.com
u Load Mass Crane Services Tel: (041) 453 6977 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Project Design and Execution
u Quality Lifting & Engineering
Tel: 083 380 5344 email@example.com
u Marlboro Crane Hire
Tel: (011) 914 3947 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (012) 379 2838 email@example.com
u Merfco Lifting
Tel: (031) 811 9595 RAK@neomail.co.za
u Millwright Technical Services
Tel: (011) 708 4650 firstname.lastname@example.org
u MME Manufacturing Pty Ltd
Tel: (011) 955 3922 email@example.com
u Morris Material Handling
Tel: (011) 824 0410 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (031) 914 0227 email@example.com
Tel: 082 570 1053 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (011) 412 1020 email@example.com
Tel: (011) 882 8301 firstname.lastname@example.org
u R A K Technical Services
Tel: (012) 543 9810 email@example.com
u Renniks Construction
Tel: (031) 301 3898 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Renoko Mining and Engineering
Tel: (018) 788 6674/5/6 email@example.com
u Renttech South Africa
Tel: (011) 748 1000 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Renvest T/a Cross Rigging Services
u Mpumalanga Lifting Tel: (013) 692 3476 email@example.com
u MRB Holdings
Tel: (011) 974 3743 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (016) 423 2069 email@example.com
u RFC Lifting Equipment Tel: (011) 425 6977 firstname.lastname@example.org
u RGM Cranes
u Muringwa Projects &
Tel: (011) 051 7897/056 email@example.com
u Muzi-Lifts Projects Tel: (011) 933 2515 firstname.lastname@example.org
u MXN Electrocon Projects
u RGM Rustenburg u Rhino Lifting Maintenance Tel: (016) 971 2348 email@example.com
u Ridge Steel T/a Gem Steel Tel: (031) 782 1926 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Sudami 19 t/a Sudami Field Services u Supratech Engineering Services u Tech-North
Tel: (014) 592 3680 email@example.com
u Thapo Industrial Rope Access firstname.lastname@example.org
u Thembekile Asset Management Solutions Tel: 083 660 6078 email@example.com
u Titan Equipment Tel: (011) 813 4528/9 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Toco Lifting
Tel: (011) 345 8800 email@example.com
u Toma Equipment Tel: 079 506 9999 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (021) 510 2828 email@example.com
Tel: (012) 661 7287 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Umbogintwini Riggers & LM Inspectors Tel: (031) 904 1778 email@example.com
u Riggers Steeplejacks
u Umholi Steel Wire Rope & Accessories
u Rigging Academy of SA
u Umusa Lifting
u Nelcore Rigging and
Tel: (031) 700 8744 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: 082 925 4511 email@example.com
u SA Cranes and Hoists
u Uni-Cape Equipment
u Scaw Metals Chain Products McKinnon Chain
u Universal Suppliers and Expiditors
Tel: (043) 722 4875 firstname.lastname@example.org
u NASA Industrial Supplies Tel: (033) 394 2020 email@example.com
u Newcastle Hoists & Eng Services (SA) (Pty) Tel: (034) 315 5926 firstname.lastname@example.org
u NewCorr Mining & Industrial Tel: (017) 648 2736 email@example.com
Tel: (011) 902 3470 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (011) 827 3688 email@example.com
Tel: (011) 842 9537 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Scaw SA
Tel: (011) 914 2210/11 email@example.com
Tel: 076 833 131 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (021) 951 6262 email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (013) 656 1567/8 email@example.com
u Ustica Platinum Services
u North Coast Cranes & Lifting
u Searle Hoist & Tool
Tel: (013) 246 2445 firstname.lastname@example.org
u NVN Crane Repairs
Tel: (011) 421 0901 email@example.com
u OJ Lifting Consultants
u Sky Rigging & Equipment
Tel: (034) 981 3710 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (035) 789 0380 email@example.com
Tel: (031) 569 5274/5/6 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (035) 751 1865 email@example.com Tel: (011) 395 1644 firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: (011) 522 3600 email@example.com
u Palfinger Southern Africa Tel: (011) 608 3670 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Park Lifting & Mining Tel: (017) 687 0236 email@example.com
u Premier Loadtesting and Services Tel: (014) 940 0123/4 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (021) 511 2250 email@example.com
Tel: (011) 412 2918 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Soho Consulting and Sales Tel: 082 412 9612 email@example.com
u Special Industrial Supplies Tel: (011) 792 5226 firstname.lastname@example.org
u Specialised Lubrication Services Tel: (035) 789 4774 email@example.com
u V & S Automation u Vryheid Cranes
u Water Weights (Natal) u Welgro Engineering 013 246 1561 firstname.lastname@example.org
u WH Lifting and Handling Tel: (011) 315 0227 info@whlifting.Co.Za
u Yale Lifting Solutions Tel: (014) 577 2607 email@example.com
Yes Subsidiary of overseas principal 8
Elephant Lifting (a FB Crane Machine Phakamisa Jacobs division Builders and Konecranes Moving & Safety Renttech SA Transport SA of Torre Repairs Engineering Consultants Holdings
2 BEE Rating Number of Projects completed in 2016 Size of largest contract 150 tons in terms of weight lifted Number of export 43 orders over past five years LIFTING TACKLE Alloy chain slings Balanced fork attachment Clamps or wire rope clips Hooks: Eye type and clevis type Mechanical coupling links Plate grabs Shackles Snatch blocks Steel wire rope (SWR) slings Spreader beams Webbing slings LIFTING RECEPTICALS Lifting bins, buckets Lifting tray Man-cage Palletised water container
Total Number of Employees Number of years operating in SA Employees with Tertiary Qualifications ISO Accredited
Name of company
Babcock Int Group AJM Sales & - Plant Services Services Division
Torre Stahl Cranes Holdings Shutterlock Terex MHPS & Hoists SA French Division
Verlinde Cranes & Hoists
UNDER THE HOOK MACHINES Bar tong Coil grabs Container handling spreader beams Lifting beams Lifting points or lifting rings Vacuum lifters Magnetic hooks Spreader beams CHAIN BLOCKS & LEVER HOISTS Chain blocks Lever hoists Steel wire rope pullers MEWP (Mobile Elevating Work Platform) Boom type Scissor lifts Specially insulated aerial platforms SAE (Suspended Access Platforms) Building maintenance unit Temporary suspended platforms
Name of company
Babcock Int Group AJM Sales & - Plant Services Services Division
Elephant Lifting (a FB Crane Machine Phakamisa Jacobs division Builders and Konecranes Moving & Safety Renttech SA Transport SA of Torre Repairs Engineering Consultants Holdings
Torre Stahl Cranes Holdings Shutterlock Terex MHPS & Hoists SA French Division
Verlinde Cranes & Hoists
MOBILE CRANES Aerial crane All terrain cranes Carry deck cranes Crawler lattice boom cranes Fixed or truck mounted - loader crane, knuckle boom cranes Lattice boom cranes on tyre wheeled carriers Mini crawler crane Mobile harbour cranes Pick and carry cranes Rough terrain and/or centre mount cranes Stacker crane Truck mounted cranes OVERHEAD, GANTRY & PORTAL CRANES Free standing and/or permanently attached jib cranes Gantry cranes Goliath cranes Overhead cranes Rail mounted cranes V-type crane girder CONTAINER HANDLING CRANES Containers Reach stacker RTG (Rubber Tyre Gantry) Ship-to-shore crane Straddle carriers Truck mounted side loading container carriers
Name of company
Babcock Int Group AJM Sales & - Plant Services Services Division
Elephant Lifting (a FB Crane Machine Phakamisa Jacobs division Builders and Konecranes Moving & Safety Renttech SA Transport SA of Torre Repairs Engineering Consultants Holdings SCAW Metals
Torre Stahl Cranes Holdings Shutterlock Terex MHPS & Hoists SA French Division
Verlinde Cranes & Hoists
LEEASA, LME, LMI, CIDB
SPECIALISED CRANES Balance cranes Floating cranes Production loader / Scrap metal crane / Cycling cranes Railway cranes Ships cranes Side cranes Sugar cane loading cranes Timber / Forestry crane Tower cranes Wharfside cranes service/support Assembly on site Commissioning LMI or LME inspections Maintenance contracts Manufacture and delivery to site On site annual shutdown service On site supervision Refurbishing Repairs Spares Training PRIMARY AREA OF LIFTING EXPERTISE Design Export Import Installation and commissioning Manufacture/assembly Turnkey CMA, SAMHI, CPHA, SAIOSH Professional Affiliates
Name of company
Babcock Int Group AJM Sales & - Plant Services Services Division
SCRA, LEEASA ECSA, LEEASA
LEEASA, Dept SAFA, LEEASA, LEEASA, CMA, of Labour LME CMA, ECSA SABS no: 330
Torre Stahl Cranes Holdings Shutterlock Terex MHPS & Hoists SA French Division
Elephant Lifting (a FB Crane Machine Phakamisa Jacobs division Builders and Konecranes Moving & Safety Renttech SA Transport SA of Torre Repairs Engineering Consultants Holdings
Verlinde Cranes & Hoists
Legal Eye Industry is still getting used to the new Driven Machinery Regulations that came into effect in 2015.
he new regulations, which are binding in terms of the Occupational Health Ken Greenwood and Safety Act, No85 of 1993, have resulted in some confusion in industry, says Ken Greenwood, Lifting Equipment Engineering Association of SA (LEEASA). The new regulations have incorporated some new content while some of the original legislation has been adjusted, says Ken. It has also incorporated a schedule of safety standards as well as a national code of practice for the training providers of lifting machine operators. “New guidelines (published 31 March 2017) have gone some way to clarify certain aspects, however, readers should be mindful that these are guidelines only, and should not be interpreted as law. Therefore please note that the law still stands.”
Several definitions have been added such as for block and tackle, competent person, hand-powered lifting device, load-path, safe working load and training providers. Anti-repeat device and goods-hoist are two definitions that have been removed while the definition of capstan hoist and lifting machine entity among others have been added. Ken advises that the scope of the regulations have also been adjusted slightly. While the new regulations have now been in effect since 30 September 2015, Ken predicts that some amendments will still be made in the near future but, he points out, the ultimate decision rests with government.
Clauses 18.2 and 18.9
Industry is currently negotiating two clauses in particular with government – 18.2 and 18.9. In Clause 18.2 it states that the user shall ensure that every power-driven lifting machine is fitted with a brake or other device capable of holding the safe working load should the power supply or lifting effort fail, the load attachment point of the power-driven lifting machine reach its highest and lowest safe position; or the load condition be greater than the rated load condition of that machine. Clause 18.9: (9) No user shall use or permit any person to use any power-driven lifting machine unless it is provided with (a) in the case of a power-driven lifting machine with a lifting capacity of greater than 5 000kg, a load indicator capable of indicating to the operator of the machine the mass of the load being lifted: Provided that such device shall not require manual adjustment, from the application of the load to the power-driven lifting machine until the release of that load, using any motion or combination of motions permitted by the crane manufacturer to ensure safe lifting; and /or (b) a load-limiting device that will automatically arrest the driving effort whenever the load being lifted is greater than the safe working load of the power-driven lifting machine at that particular radius, using any motion or combination of motions permitted by the crane manufacturer to ensure safe lifting. “The law as it stands will not work in practice and some of the guidelines need reworking. We believe it needs to go back to the drawing board,” Ken concludes. Ken Greenwood, LEEASA, Tel: (011) 475-5876, firstname.lastname@example.org
Occupational Health And Safety Act, Act 85 Of 1993 Guidelines For Driven Machinery Regulations, 2015
Please note there have been a number of changes to the regulations published in the government gazette of 31 March 2017 (http://www.gov.za/sites/www.gov.za/ files/40734_rg10703_gon-288.pdf) This document consists of explanatory notes on the implications and application of the more important regulations concerning Driven Machinery Regulations. The notes are meant to help and guide suppliers, contractors, service providers, competent persons and users of driven machinery.
1. In these Regulations, “the Act” means the Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993 (Act No. 85 of 1993), and any word or expression to which a meaning has been as signed in the Act shall have the meaning so assigned, and, unless the context otherwise indicates — “block and tackle” means a lifting device consisting of one or more pulley blocks reeved with fibre ropes, used solely for the raising and lowering of a load or for moving it horizontally, but does not include chain blocks, lever hoists or steel- wire rope pullers; Notes: (a) It should be there for clarity to identify the difference between block and tackle, chain hoist and lever hoist because chain blocks and lever hoist were regarded as block and tackle in the old regulation. “capstan-type hoist” means a rotating machine used to control or to apply force to move or raise loads by traction on a rope or cable; Notes: (a) This machine is used generally in fishing industry, harbours as well as pull rolling stock (railway vehicles). “competent person” means a person who has the knowledge, training, experience and qualifications specific to the work performed: provided that where appropriate qualifications and training are registered in terms of the provisions of the South African Qualifications Authority Act, 1995, those qualifications and that training shall be deemed to be the required qualifications and training; Notes: (a) None “hand-powered lifting device” means a lifting device consisting of one or more sheave components reeved with chains, steel rope or fibre ropes, used solely for the raising and lowering of a load or for moving it horizontally and includes chain blocks, lever hoists, hand chain hoists, steel-wire rope
pullers and winches, but does not include hand-powered hydraulic lifting devices; Notes: (a) This definition was introduced to differentiate between lifting machine and hand powered lifting device. (b) Hand powered hydraulic lifting devices are amongst others hydraulic jacks. “lifting machine” means a power-driven machine that is designed and constructed for the purpose of raising or lowering a load or moving it in suspension, but does not include an elevator, escalator or hand-powered lifting device; Notes: (a) The definition listed the exclusions. Power-driven machine means that a machine is powered by any energy source excluding manpower. “lift truck” means a mobile lifting machine, but does not include — (a) a vehicle designed solely for the purpose of lifting or towing another vehicle; (b) a mobile earth-moving machine; or (c) a vehicle designed solely for the removal of a waste bin; Notes: (a) This machine is generally known as forklift. “lifting machinery entity” means a legal entity approved and registered by the chief inspector in terms of regulation 19; Notes: (a) These are commonly known as LME “lifting machinery inspector” means a person who is employed by a Lifting Machinery Entity and who is registered by the Engineering Council of South Africa in terms of the Engineering Profession Act, 2000 (Act No. 46 of 2000); Notes: (a) These are commonly known as LMI and are registered at ECSA on behalf of Department of Labour. “lifting tackle” means chain slings, wire rope slings, woven webbing slings, master links, hooks, shackles and swivels, eye bolts, lifting or spreader beams, tongs, ladles, coil lifters, plate lifting clamps and drum lifting clamps used to attach a load to a lifting machine; Notes: (a) Coil lifters is found at steel industry for lifting hot rolled steel products.
Under Definitions, the clause on ‘competent person’ has been amended as follows: “competent person” means a person who (a) has in respect of the work or task to be performed, the required knowledge, training and experience and, where applicable, qualifications, specific to that work or task: Provided that where appropriate qualifications and training are registered in terms of the provisions of the National Qualification Framework Act, 2008 (Act No. 67 of 2008), those qualifications and that training must be regarded as the required qualifications and training; and (b) is familiar with the Act and with the applicable regulations made under the Act.
“load path” means all the parts of the lifting machine under stress during the lifting operation; Notes: (a) None “man-cage” means a platform enclosed on all sides, whether closed or open at the top, designed for the purpose of raising and lowering persons by means of a lifting machine, but does not include mobile elevated work platforms and suspended access platforms; Notes: (a) None “point of operation” means that place in a machine where material is positioned and where the actual work is performed; Notes: (a) None “safe working load” means the mass load applicable to a piece of equipment or system as determined by a competent person taking into account the environment and operating conditions; Notes: (a) The rigger must determine the Safe working load based on the condition at the time of lifting. “thorough examination” means examination or inspection to determine whether the equipment is safe to use; Notes: (a) None “training provider” means a training provider for lifting machinery operators approved and registered by the chief inspector in terms of regulation 20; Notes: (a) None “transportation plant” means apparatus used for the transportation of material by means of an elevated conveyance suspended from and travelling along a catenary rope or chain where persons may pass or work below the path of the conveyance, or any such apparatus used for the transportation of persons. Notes: (a) None
Scope of application
2. These Regulations shall apply to the design, manufacture, operation, repair, modification, maintenance, inspection, testing and commissioning of driven machinery. Notes: (a) The aim of this regulation is to ensure the safety of operators, maintenance providers as well as inspection and testing providers operate safely. (b) The aim is to ensure that all driven machineries are safe for use.
3. Unless moving or revolving components of machinery are in such a position or of such construction that they are as safe as they would be if they were securely fenced
Note: Safe working load.
Even if a working load limit is marked on the equipment in question, it is most important that a competent person determines the appropriate safe working load, depending on the application. Lifting Guide
or guarded, the user shall cause — (a) every shaft, pulley, wheel, gear, sprocket, coupling, collar, clutch, friction drum or similar object to be securely fenced or guarded; (b) every set screw, key or bolt on revolving shafts, couplings, collars, friction drums, clutches, wheels, pulleys, gears and the like to be countersunk, enclosed or otherwise guarded; (c) every square projecting shaft or spindle end and every other shaft or spindle end that projects for more than a quarter of its diameter to be guarded by a cap or shroud; (d) every driving belt, rope or chain to be guarded; and (e) the underside of every overhead driving belt, rope or chain above passages or workplaces to be so guarded as to prevent a broken belt, rope or chain from falling and so injuring persons: provided that the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply where, in the opinion of an inspector, no danger exists in the case of light belts owing to the nature thereof and the speed of operation. Notes: (a) None
Lifting machines, hand-powered lifting devices and lifting tackle
18. (1) No user may use or permit the use of a lifting machine or hand- powered lifting device unless — (a) it has been designed and constructed in accordance with a generally accepted technical standard; (b) it is conspicuously and clearly marked with the safe working load: provided that when such safe working load varies with the conditions of use of the manufacturer, a table showing the safe working load with regard to every variable condition shall be posted by the user in a conspicuous place easily visible to the operator; Notes: (a) WLL is an international marking that is attached to the machine when it is purchased from the manufacturer (OEM). (b) WLL is part of the design specification. (c) The end user must determine the safe working load (SWL) as per the prevailing conditions. The operator should be able to see the plate as the intention of the sub regulation is for the operator to see. (c) the manufacturer’s identification plate displaying the name of the manufacturer, the design standard, the serial or reference number and the country of origin is affixed to such machine; and Notes: (a) These requirements do not apply to machines that were in use prior to the publication of these regulations. (d) it has at all times at least three full turns of rope on the drum of each winch that forms part of such a machine when such winch has been run to its lowest limit, and that is controlled by an automatic cut-out device: provided that paragraphs (b) and (d) above shall not apply to capstan-type hoists. Notes: (a) An automatic cut out device is a built in safety device. (2) The user shall ensure that every power-driven lifting
machine is fitted with a brake or other device capable of holding the safe working load should – (a) the power supply or lifting effort fail; (b) the load attachment point of the power-driven lifting machine reach its highest and lowest safe position; or (c) the load condition be greater than the rated load condition of that machine. Notes: (a) This requirement only applies to power driven lifting machines. (3)
The user shall cause every chain or rope that forms part of the load path of a lifting machine or hand-powered lifting device to have the factor of safety prescribed by the standard to which that machine was manufactured: provided that in the absence of such prescribed factor of safety, chains, steel-wire ropes and fibre ropes shall have a factor of safety of at least four, five and 10, respectively, with regard to the safe working load of that machine.
Notes: (a) The objective is to maintain the integrity of the load bearing capacity of the machine. (b) When replacing the ropes and you know the safe working load of the machine then the factor of safety mentioned above must apply. (4) The user shall cause every hook or any other load attaching device that forms part of the load path of a lifting machine or hand-powered lifting device to be so designed or proportioned that accidental disconnection of the load under working conditions cannot take place. Notes: (a) We must not look at the hook only but consider the load path. It is about preventing disconnection. The use of disconnecting hooks or latches is not prescribed where the design is of such a nature that accidental disconnection cannot take place. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure he or she states clearly what the purpose of the machine will be when purchasing the machine. (5) (a) The user shall cause the entire installation and all working parts of every lifting machine or hand-powered lifting device, as well as ancillary lifting equipment used with the machine or device, excluding lifting tackle, to be subjected to a thorough examination and a performance test, as prescribed by the standard to which the lifting machine was manufactured, by a lifting machinery inspector of a lifting machinery entity, which shall determine the serviceability of the structures, ropes, machinery and safety devices before they are put into use and every time they are dismantled and re-erected, and thereafter at intervals not exceeding 12 months: provided that, in the absence of a manufacturing standard or a standard incorporated under section 44(1) of the Act, the whole installation of the lifting machine shall be tested with 110% of the safe working load applied over the complete lifting range of such machine and in such a manner that every part of the installation is stressed accordingly. (b ) The lifting machinery inspector of the lifting machinery entity referred to in paragraph (a) must have knowledge of the erection, load-testing and maintenance of the type of lifting machine or similar machinery involved. (c) Notwithstanding paragraph (a), mobile cranes, self-
erecting cranes and mobile elevated work platforms shall be excluded from the performance test after each re-deployment within the 12-month period referred to in that paragraph.
Notes: (a) The lifting machinery inspector must do inspection and test on behalf of the Lifting machinery Entity. (b) Hand powered lifting devices do not have to be tested every time they are attached to an overhead structure. (c) Self erecting cranes includes self erecting tower cranes. (6) Notwithstanding sub regulation (5), the user shall cause all ropes, chains, hooks or other attaching devices, sheaves, brakes and safety devices forming an integral
Clarification of 5 (a):
The whole installation of the lifting machine only needs to be tested to 110% of the safe working load if there is no manufacturing standard or a standard incorporated under section 44 (1) of the Act. It stands to reason therefore that when such a standard exists, the testing will only then have to be tested to the requirement of that standard. These are the standards currently governing the industry and are incorporated as shown below: GNR 541 of 24 June 2015 - Incorporation of Safety Standards EN 14502-1 Cranes: equipment for lifting of persons, Part 1: Suspended baskets. ISO9927-1 Crane inspections - Part 1: General. National Code of Practice for Training Providers of Lifting Machine Operators published under Government Notice No. 38904, Government Notice No. R. 539 of 24 June 2014. SANS 19 Inspection, testing and examination of mobile cranes. SANS 71 Inspection, testing and examination of vehicle hoists in use. SANS 500 Inspection, testing and examination of hand operated chain blocks and lever hoists in use. SANS 522 Inspection, testing and examination of tower cranes in use. SANS 2972 Lifting tackle inspection. SANS 10147 Code of Practice: Refrigeration systems, including plants associated with air-condi tioning systems. SANS 10148 Code of Practice: The installation and operation of cable cranes and aerial rope ways. SANS 10295 Parts 1 and 2: Inspection, test and examination of lifting platforms in use. SANS 10375 Inspection, testing and examination of overhead cranes (including gantries, electric wire rope hoists & chain hoists). SANS 10388 Inspection, testing and examination of lift trucks. SANS 18893 Mobile elevated work-platform safety principles, inspection, maintenance and operation.
part of a lifting machine or hand-powered lifting device to be subjected to a thorough examination by a competent person at intervals not exceeding six months.
Notes: (a) The user of a block and tackle must ensure that it is examined prior to use. (b) The user is free to use an in house competent person or an LME for six monthly thorough examination of a lifting machine or hand powered lifting device. (7) (a) Every user of a lifting machine or hand-powered lifting device shall at all times keep on their premises a register in which the user shall record or cause to be recorded full particulars of any performance test and examination referred to in sub regulations (5) and (6) and any modification or repair to such lifting machine or hand powered lifting device, and shall ensure that the register is available on request for inspection by an inspector. (b) Every user of a leased lifting machine or hand-powered lifting device shall at all times keep on their premises a register in which the user shall have the latest applicable performance test and service records not older than 12 months. Notes: (a) A user of a leased lifting machine or hand powered lifting device is a lessee of that machine? (b) The owner and the lessor of leased equipment shall keep and maintain full service history records on their premises for at least 10 years. (8) No user shall require or permit any person to be moved or supported by means of a lifting machine unless that machine is fitted with a man-cage designed and manufactured according to an approved SANS standard approved for that purpose by an inspector and after a risk assessment has been done. Notes: (a) None (9) No user shall use or permit any person to use any power-driven lifting machine unless it is provided with â€” (a) in the case of a power-driven lifting machine with a lifting capacity of greater than 5000 kg, a load indicator capable of indicating to the operator of the machine the mass of the load being lifted: provided that such device shall not require manual adjustment, from the application of the load to the power-driven lifting machine until the release of that load, using any motion or combination of motions permitted by the crane manufacturer to ensure safe lifting; and/or (b) a load-limiting device that will automatically arrest the driving effort whenever the load being lifted is greater than the safe working load of the power-driven lifting machine at that particular radius, using any motion or combination of motions permitted by the crane manufacturer to ensure safe lifting: provided that such device shall not arrest the driving effort when the power-driven lifting Clarification of (8): A risk assessment has to be carried out every time the mancage is moved, even within one site. Only after the risk assessment has been carried out in this manner, can approval be obtained by a government inspector. Lifting Guide
machine is being operated into a safer position: provided that power-driven lifting machines manufactured or refurbished prior to the commencement of these Regulations shall be deemed to comply with these Regulations. Notes: (a) This requirement only applies to a power driven lifting machine with a capacity of 5 000kg and greater (b) The intent is that a Load limiting device is compulsory for all power driven lifting machine. (c) This requirement only applies to power driven lifting machines manufactured or refurbished after the 30 September 2015. (10) No user may use or allow the use of any lifting tackle unless â€” (a) every item of lifting tackle is well constructed of sound material, is strong enough, is free from defects and is constructed in accordance with a generally accepted technical standard; (b) every lifting assembly consisting of different items of lifting tackle is conspicuously and clearly marked with traceable identification particulars and the safe working load that it is designed to lift with safety; (c) the ropes, chains or woven webbing have a factor of safety with respect to the safe working load they are designed to lift; the safety factor being â€” (i) 10 for natural-fibre ropes; (ii) seven for man-made fibre ropes or woven webbing; (iii) six for steel-wire ropes, except for double-part spliced endless sling legs and double-part endless grommet sling legs made from steel-wire rope, in which case the factor of safety shall be at least eight; (iv) five for steel chains; and (v) four for high-tensile or alloy steel chains: provided that when the load is equally shared by two or more ropes or chains the factor of safety may be calculated in accordance with the sum of the breaking strengths taking into consideration the angle of loading; (d) all lifting tackle is inspected and discarded if such items show any sign of damage, defect, wear or distortion that would make them unsafe for use, as per manufacturerâ€™s specification; and (e) such lifting tackle is examined at intervals not exceeding three months by a competent person, appointed by the user in writing for this purpose, who shall record and sign results of such examination. Notes: (a) Lifting tackles marked with a Working Load limit are also acceptable to be complying with requirements of this sub regulation. (b) In practice it is not always possible to ensure equal load sharing and persons performing this work must take into consideration the possible unequal loading in determining the capacity of the lifting tackle. (11) The user shall ensure that every lifting machine is
Even though the user may purchase safe machinery and equipment, it is equally important to operate such machinery or equipment safely.
operated by an operator specifically trained for that particular type of lifting machine: provided that in the case of a lifting machine listed in the National Code of Practice for Training Providers of Lifting Machine Operators, the user shall not require or permit any person to operate such a lifting machine unless the operator is in possession of a certificate of training, issued by a training provider accredited by the Transport Seta approved for the purpose by the chief inspector.
Notes: (a) Certificate of training here refers to certificate of competence. Training providers in possession of a valid approval certificate signed by Chief Inspector are allowed to train operators of lifting machines listed on the National Code of Practice for Training Providers of Lifting Machine Operators.
Approval and registration of lifting machinery entity
(1) The chief inspector may approve any legal entity that has the competency and operational ability and that is involved in the examination and performancetesting of lifting machines, hand-powered lifting devices and ancillary lifting equipment used with the machine or devices. (2) An application for approval and registration as a lifting machinery entity shall be made to the chief inspector in the form of Annexure A. (3) The chief inspector shall furnish an approved lifting machinery entity with the appropriate certificate of registration and shall enter such registration into the national database. (4) An approved lifting machinery entity shall on request produce a certificate of registration to an inspector or to any person to whom it intends to render an examination or performance test. (5) An approved lifting machinery entity shall inform the chief inspector of any change affecting its approval and registration under these Regulations within 14 days of such change.
Notes: (a) None
Approval and registration of training providers
20. (1)The chief inspector may approve and register any training provider that has been accredited by the Transport Education and Training Authority as an approved training provider. (2) An application for approval and registration as a training provider must be made to the chief inspector in writing and must be accompanied by (a) a certified copy of the accreditation letter issued by the Transport Education and Training Authority; and (b) a cancelled company letterhead. (3) The chief inspector shall furnish an approved training provider with the appropriate certificate of registration and enter such registration into the national database. (4) An approved training provider shall inform the chief inspector of any change affecting its approval and registration under these Regulations within 14 days of such change. Notes: (a) None
Withdrawal of approval and registration of lifting machinery entity or training provider
21. (1) Subject to sub regulation (2), the approval and registration of a lifting machinery entity or training provider may be withdrawn if – (a) a lifting machinery entity no longer has the necessary competency or operational ability; (b) a training provider is no longer accredited by the Transport Education and Training Authority; or (c) they are convicted of an offence referred to in regulation 22. (2) The chief inspector may not withdraw an approval and registration unless – (a) the holder of such approval and registration has been informed of the intended withdrawal and of the grounds upon which it is based; and (b) such holder has been afforded a reasonable opportunity to make representations. (3) The chief inspector shall inform the holder concerned in writing of the reasons for the decision. (4) Any holder adversely affected by a decision of the chief inspector may appeal in writing to the Director-General: Labour against such decision. (5) An appeal referred to in sub regulation (4) shall – (a) be lodged within 60 days from the date on which the decision was made known; and (b) set out the grounds for appeal. (6) After considering the grounds for appeal and the chief inspector’s reasons for their decision, the Director-General: Labour shall confirm, set aside or amend the decision as soon as practicable. Notes: (a) Appeals must be lodged to Labour Court
Offences and penalties
Any person who contravenes or fails to comply with any of the provisions of regulations 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17(1), 17(2), 17(5), 17(6), 17(7), 18, 19(4), 19(5), 20(4) and 20(5) shall be guilty of an offence and liable upon conviction to a fine or to imprisonment for a maximum of 12 months and, in case of a continuous offence, to an additional fine not exceeding R200,00 or to additional imprisonment of one day for each day on which the offence continues: provided that the period of such additional imprisonment shall not exceed 90 days.
Repeal of regulations and transitional provisions
23. (1) The Driven Machinery Regulations, 1988, and subsequent amendments are hereby repealed.
(2) A user of a goods hoist as provided for in regulation 17 of the Regulations referred to in sub regulation (1) above shall within five years of the publication of these Driven Machinery Regulations comply with the provisions of the Lift, Escalator and Passenger Conveyor Regulations, 2010, in which “Access Goods only Lift” is defined.
Short title and commencement
24. These Regulations shall be called the Driven Machinery Regulations, 2015, and shall come into effect on 30 September 2015
Back To School!
hen it comes to the lifting environment, safety is critical. Linked to this is the importance of training and skills development, says Ken Greenwood of the Lifting Equipment Engineering Association of South Africa (LEEASA). “Recognised prior learning has become the norm in the industry,” he says. “We are working hard towards introducing an academic qualification through an institution like Unisa that will be recommended but at present is not yet available.” He says the current process in place for LMI’s is to either do a course through one of the various colleges and academies or on-the-job-training. “The current system for LMI’s applying for registration is open to abuse as there is no compulsory course that they have to do.” LMI’s apply for their registration with the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA) and the only requirement around education and experience is via an affidavit. The affidavit declares that the applicant is telling the truth with regard to his or her education and experience. “On checking the validity of these affidavits, it is only feasible to do so via accredited establishments anyway. It would be laborious and costly to verify every applicant’s complete education and history of work declaration. Although to date there has only been one incident where someone was found negligent in their declarations, verification can nevertheless be a thorny issue.”
In the past tradesmen were trained via the NQF system ensuring competency and ability on different levels. “There is no doubt that as an industry we need a formal and recognised training route. We cannot allow for a system where anyone can just do a couple of quick courses and be registered,” says Ken. “It is important that we introduce a good solid education system for our industry.” South Africa is the only country in the world that has statutory safety inspection and tests on lifting machinery in place. All equipment by law has to undergo testing annually as well as inspections every six months.
Ken highlights that an industry workgroup has been established to identify the education requirements for registration for LMI’s as well as identifying training providers who will support the current needs for LMI’s training prior to registration. The group is also tasked with drawing up a proposal around the sequence of training. “So if an applicant already has a relevant trade, he needs to know what requisite courses need to be done to ratify his knowledge. If the applicant has no relevant trade, he needs to know what training needs to occur in order to be able to ‘sell’ his services.” Ken concludes, “Industry at large – and also government – are starting to understand the value and importance of this process and having the right education in place.” Ken Greenwood, LEEASA, Tel: (011) 475-5876, Email: info@ lmi-academy.co.za
ifting machinery inspectors (LMI) must be registered as individuals with the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA) to legally practice in South Africa.
“This registration is for the inspector and not the company,” explains Ken. “LMI’s are individuals who are required to apply by law for registration. LMI’s who have not applied to ECSA as yet must do so immediately.” Without this registration, a LMI may not sign load test certificates. “These certificates require the LMI’s registration number and so if you are not registered, you are breaking the law.” In turn, companies have to apply to the Department of Labour to be registered as Lifting Machine Entities (LME). “To be registered as a LME, a company must employ one inspector. The necessary documentation that is required to apply for LME is on the Department of Labour’s website.” Should an LMI leave an
LME, then the company will not legally be able to offer an inspection service as only the LMI can sign load test certificates. “Companies that inspect cranes and load testing only need to be registered with the DoL, but the actual testing has to be conducted by an LMI registered with ECSA. The LMI does not have to be registered with the DoL,” Ken explains.
Repairs and modifications
Ken adds that a registered LMI may witness and/or supervise an inspection by a trainee, “But this must be stated on the certificate that requires both signatures – the LMI as well as the person who did the testing.”
There are a total of 18 different categories that LMI’s are registered for. Currently only three people in the country are registered for all 18. “Category 1 is compulsory for everyone. The other categories are then simply applied for, based on competency by the individual LMI applying for registration,” Ken advises. “There must off course be proof of the qualification and experience in each category.” Registration as an LMI does not apply to people who only examine lifting tackle just as registration as a LME is not required by companies who only carry out repair work of equipment. Ken Greenwood, LEEASA
Appendix B: ENGINEERING COUNCIL OF SOUTH AFRICA Standards and Procedures System Sub Discipline-specific Training Guideline for Specified Categories
Status: For Approval by the Specified Category Registration Committees Document : R-05-APPENDIX B-SC
5 June 2015
This guide is written for the recent graduate who is training and gaining experience toward registration (“Benchmark Route”). Mature applicants for registration (“Alternative Route”) may apply the guide retrospectively to identify possible gaps in their development Synopsis: A specified category practitioner should achieve specific competencies at the prescribed level during his/her development towards registration, at the same time accepting more and more responsibility as experience is gained. The outcomes achieved and established during the candidacy phase should form the template to all engineering work performed after registration regardless of the level of responsibility at any particular stage of an engineering career: 1. Confirm understanding of instructions received and clarify if necessary; 2. Use theoretical training to develop possible approaches to do the work: select the best and present to the recipient; 3. Apply theoretical knowledge to justify decisions taken and processes used; 4. Understand role in the work team, and plan and schedule work accordingly; 5. Issue complete and clear instructions and report comprehensively on work completed; 6. Be sensitive about the impact of the engineering activity and take action to mitigate this impact; 7. Consider and adhere to legislation applicable to the task and the associated risk identification and management; 8. Adhere strictly to high ethical behavioural standards and ECSA’s Code of Conduct; 9. Display sound judgement by considering all factors, their interrelationship, consequences and evaluation when all evidence is not available; 10. Accept responsibility for own work by using theory to support decisions, seeking advice when uncertain and evaluating shortcomings; and 11. Become conversant with your employer’s training and development program and develop your own lifelong development program within this framework. Specifically-defined engineering work is usually restricted to applying standard procedures, codes and systems, i.e. work that was done before within the narrow field of application.
Overhead and Gantry Cranes - SANS 10375 These constitute: Overhead cranes Gantry cranes Rail mounted cranes Free standing and/or permanently attached jib cranes Goliath cranes
Tower Cranes - SANS 522 All top or bottom swivelling tower cranes
Ships Cranes All ship cranes including Scotch Derrick cranes
Wharfside Cranes Used to travel on rails and load railway trucks which travel on rails underneath the cranes
Reach Stackers Mobile cranes specially designed to move and stack containers, including the forklift counter balance types where RCI must be fitted, whether the spreader is manual or automatic
Straddle Carriers All mobile self-propelled tyre type machines similar to gantry cranes
Container Cranes Constituting: Container cranes - Large dockside gantry crane fixed on rails at container terminals for loading and unloading containers from container ships or inland, and road to rail cranes Container handlers Reach stackers (9 above) Truck mounted side loading container carriers Straddle carriers (10 above) Rubber tyre gantries
Aerial Platforms - SANS 50280, 16368, 18893, BS EN 61057, Ansi A92.2. They constitute the following: Boom type (cherry pickers) Special insulated aerial platforms Scissor lifts (mobile or fixed)
Suspended Access Platforms - SANS 51808 and 10295 part 1 and 2 Units that are hang from suspension anchors/points, and constitute: Temporary suspended platforms Building maintenance unit (permanently suspended platforms) Mobile elevating work platform (MEWP)
Industrial Lifting Devices (Jacks) - SANS 687 and others All special industrial applications (usually heavy lifting devices)
Under The Hook Non-fixed Attachments - EN 13155 Mechanical, electrical or hydraulic devices, manual or remote, like: Magnetic hooks Vacuum lifters
Tail Lifters - SANS 1055 All tail lifts fitted to a mobile vehicle
Vehicle Hoists - SANS 71 All hoists designed to lift vehicles of any capacity or design, constituting: 4 posters 2 posters Scissor lift type (excluding dock levellers) Hydraulic type
Other Categories More and more specialised cranes are used, like: Side cranes (e.g. bull dozers for pipe laying) Floating cranes Sugar cane loading cranes Railway cranes Timber cranes Production loaders/ Scrap metal cranes
SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT TYPES RECOGNISED FOR REGISTRATION AS A LIFTING MACHINERY INSPECTOR No
Description of Equipment Type
Lifting Tackle (Applicable to all ECSA registered LMIâ€™s) Generally to SANS 2408, 7531 and EN 13155. Lifting tackle includes all slings, fittings and other devices that attach the load to the crane or hoist. All lifting tackle must be supplied with manufacturerâ€™s test or conformance certificates and properly marked for traceability as well as the products WLL. Lifting tackle must not be periodically load tested but only inspected, at intervals not exceeding 3 months, by an appointed lifting tackle inspector to conform to the OHS Act, DMR 18 requirements. Lifting tackle constitute: Steel Wire Rope (SWR) slings - Generally to SANS 813. Alloy Chain slings - Generally to SANS EN 50818 and SANS 7593 Webbing slings - Generally to SANS 94 and EN 1492 Parts 1 and 2 Hooks: Eye type and clevis type - Generally to SANS 8539 and SANS 1595 Snatch blocks - Generally to SANS ISO 8539 Mechanical Coupling Links - Generally to SANS ISO 8539 Shackles - Generally to SANS 2415 and US Fed Spec RR C 271 Clamps or wire rope clamps - Generally to SANS 813 Lifting points or lifting rings Lifting beams Spreader beams Plate grabs Balance fork attachments Coil grabs Bar tongs
Please note: Category 1 is compulsory for everyone, the remaining 17 categories are applied for separately according to demonstration of competence 2.
Chain Blocks and Lever Hoists - SANS 500 These portable lifting machines are also known as hoists or included as hand powered lifting devices in draft DMR 2014 definitions. They are included in the DOL requirements for annual load testing. They also include Cable pullers.
Forklifts - SANS 10388 These lift trucks include attachments and special equipment and constitute: Counter balance forklifts Side loaders Rail or tyre type stacker and reach lift trucks Pedestrian controlled lift trucks Order picking lift trucks Pallet trucks Tele handlers Rough terrain forklift trucks Large lift trucks Truck mounted fork lifts
Mobile Cranes - SANS 19 Include fixed adaptations of the superstructure and constitute: Truck mounted cranes Fixed or truck mounted loader cranes, knuckle boom carrier Pick and carry cranes Mobile harbour cranes Crawler lattice boom cranes Lattice boom cranes on tyre wheeled carriers Rough terrain and/or centre mounted cranes All terrain cranes Carry deck cranes
Please note: Category 1 is compulsory for everyone, the remaining 17 categories are applied for separately according to demonstration of competence Lifting Guide
LMEs approved, May 2016 — Dept of Labour 4D Industrial 600 CT Manufacturing 600 SA Holding Accord Lifting Co Ace Crane Services ACSC Rigging Advanced Technical Support Africa National Cranes AJM Engineering Services Akhanani Alco Cranes Ale Cranes Alfa Africa Testing All in One Crane Repairs Allied Crane Hire Alpha Hydraulic Lifting Services (Pty) Ltd Amandla Lifting Ammeka Industries Anchor Crane Hire & Rigging Services Anchor Industries Andries Athena Labour Consulting Enterprises Anglo Lifting Equipment Anglo Operations Anglo-V3 Crane Hire AP Crane Services Arc Cranes Arcelormittal South Africa Arlona Engineering AS Crane Repairs Astro Cranes Atlantis Load Testing Solutions ATS 2000 Automotive Equipment International Axsuss B McNeaney Babcock Plant Baison Lifts Specialists Bartlett Construction Basil Read Bayside Aluminium BB Cranes BD Sarens Bellambie Mining and Industrial Ben Jen Inspection Services Big Sky Trading 394 Bika Eng Bloemfontein Hardchrome Blue Alley Trading 24 Blue Cranes Blue heat projects Border Mechanical Services Brake Safe Mining Bri-ton Liftmaster Brokor Technologies Budgie Shearer Enterprises Burnie’s Industrial Supplies
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Burntech Crane Services C and F Rigging Secunda C&F Rigging - Repairs and Supplies Caldon Repairs & Maintenance Campbell Bruce Scott Cape Overhead Cranes Cargo Control Systems Carl Rosieur Castlehill Trading 189 CB Lifting Equipment Checklift Cherryllene Brokers & Agents Chiefs Hydraulics City Cranes CJ Lifting Equipment Condra Cooper and Cooper CPP Engineering Crane & General Engineering Crane Accessories & Services Crane and Materials Handling Crane Breakdown Services Crane Certification and Repair Crane Clinic Crane Inspection & Repair Services Crane Load Technologies Crane Maintenance Services Crane Tech Crane Tech Industrial Lifting Services Crane World Cranelec Cranemec Group SA Cranes Complete & Components Cranetec Craneworx CRM Cranes CRS Cranes Systems Cruz Rigging Culmen Wes-Kaap Custom Crane Safety D & D Lifting & Cranes Services D & M Load Testing D & S Lifting D & W Lifting Supplies D.E. J Cranes c D.S.R Mining and Industrial Dannie Geldenhuys Datona Crane Services De Lloyd Demag Cranes & Components Den Draken Cranes and Automation Deon’s Rigging Services DG Materials Handling Dibama Supplies Diesel and Auto Services & Maintenance DJD Ropes and Engineering Dynalift E Dickson Crane & Plant Hire
281 293 82 177 189 171 11 150 229 57 132 304 300 266 214 2 154 243 186 67 250 187 259 268 146 324 31 315 49 223 118 178 399 22 263 205 332 114 158 240 400 213 422 90 107 71 138 38 149 9 253 206 251 65 40 302 83 258
LME as per certificate printed
E Leach Eagle Lifting Equipment East Rand Cranes EC Load Testing & Repairs Services Echo Cranes and Steel ECJ Rigging and General Engineering Services Econo Crane Services Econoflex Edge to Edge 1014 Elcon Crane Hire Elec Mech Engineering Services Electric Crane Services Electromechanical Repairs & Installations Elephant Lifting Equipment Elerect Lift & Cranes Elite Mechanical Repairs & Services Elite Squad Consulting Emalini Enterprises 185 Engelbrecht lifting equipment Era Rigging Services Ergon Cranes & Engineering Ernest Barendse Ernie’s Tower Crane Services Eskom Holdings Limited ETIS Mvelaphanda Eng Eugene Nortje Experior Lifting Eyethu Marine & Industrial FB Cranes Builders & Repairs FB Mining & Lifting Fixtron FND Crane Services Forklift Testing Services Forktech Free State Cranes G Lesar G Twaddle & H Engelbrecht G. T. B. Industrial Services Garage Equipment Service Gauteng Rigging Services Genrep Engineering GKB Genset Maintenance Global Lifting Machinery Inspector Company GLR Trading 014 t/a JJ Hydraulic maintenance services GM Technical Services Goscor Access Equipment Gravtech Material Handling Grenco SA Grinaker-LTA Building Cape Grinaker-LTA Limited Group Five Plant & Equipment Growth Point Engineering Corporation GW Lifting and Engineering Supplies H & A Cranes H.P. Crane & Sons
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H2C Engineering HABPS Enterprizes Harald Scheel Harpco Heartland Leasing Heath Engineering Heavy Lifting Consulting Engineers Hetronic South Africa Hiab HJH Crane Repair and Services Hlanganani Cranes Hoistech Engineering Hugo Ernie Hydralift Hydratech Hydraulic Fleet Maintenance Hydraulic Repairs & Field Services Hydrenco I.D Inspections Ideal Lifting Imac Crane & Hoist Specialists Independent Cranes Industrial Crane Engineering and Site Services Industrial Marine Testing Industrial Stech Exports Inspection and Load Testing Services Integrate Lifting Specialist Africa (Pty)Ltd Interproject Engineering J Express Crane Services J Silva Trading J&C Lifting Equipments J.D Hydraulics J.V. Testing Projects Jade Crane Services and Lifting Equipment Jamadja Mining Supplies JJJ Crane specialists JLS Mobile Crane Services Jo & Zan Engineering & lifting Johnson Crane Hire Juli Lifting Equipment JV Rigging & Lifting Specialists K Lifting and Construction Karbochem Kelmeg Lifting Services Kelran Keystone Equipment Keystone Technologie Kiltor Properties Kimhydraulics Kingwood Trading Klerksdorp Mining & Engineering Supplies Konecranes Kori Engineering L & R Electrical L.J. Crane Services La Cranes & Hydraulics Lasch Ledibohong trading Leviâ€™s Trio Engineering Lezmin 1314
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Lift and Shift (Cape) Lift Rite Lifting Tackle Training Academy Lifting Warrior Solutions Liftmec Linetex LK Hydraulics LMH LMI Academy LMI Mining Resources Load Mass Crane Services Load Moment Testing & Training Services Load Test Centre Load Test International Loadmax Lowveld Cranes M & S Trading M.G.F. Hale Crane Services M.M.E. Manufacturer Co. M.V. Cranes & Hoist Machine Moving & Engineering (Pty) Ltd Makhunga Cranes & Engineering Mammoet SouthernAfrica Mandirk Margisia Marine Equipment Supplies Marlboro Crane Hire Marlim Services Masakane Services Max Lift Mckinnon Chain Mechanised Equipment Sales (Pty) Ltd Mechnet Maintenance MFN Lifting Systems MH Dawood Plant Services Middelburg E7 Technical Mill & Mine Spares Millwright Technical Services MJ Frameworks MN Crane and Forestry Equipment Monaphon Mondi Business Paper Morris Material Handling Motrade 405 Mpumalanga Crane Services Mpumalanga Hydraulics Mpumalanga Lifting Mpumalanga Load Testing Services Multiquip Murray & Roberts Construction Muzi Liftâ€™s Mvusi Barry Technologies MWB Industrial Supplies Natal Crane & Hoist Services Nationwide Load Testing & Inspection Nelcore Rigging & Construction Nelesco165 Netech Distributors New Castle Hoists & Engineering Services SA
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Newcorr Mining & Industrial Nkwe rigging Nobopro eleven t/a Nekor Nu Quip NVN Crane Repairs Obelisk Energy OJ Lifting Consultants P & D Cranes & Engineering Palasteel Eiendomstrust Palasteel Eiendomstrust Projects Palesa Rail Academy Palfinger Southern Africa Park Lifting & Mining Phakamisa Load Test Services Phoenix Industrial Welding and Services Pietersburg Hydraulics Plant Service and Maintenance PND Rigging Services Premier Loadtesting Services Prime Spot Trading 24 Pro Crane Services Progressive Crane Maintenance Pro-Rig Pro-Rig Trading Enterprises Quadrant Training Quality Cranes Quay Marketing R. M. Chain Hoists R.G.M Rustenburg Rack Technical Services Randwater Raytoko Electrical & Mechanical Realle Cranes Reef Crane Services Rekatle Reliable Overhead Crane Services Renniks Construction Rentech SA Renvest RFC Lifting Equipment Rhino Lifting Maintenance Ridge Steel Riggers Steeplejacks Rigging Services Risk Management Services RJ Williams Robert & George Maintenance Services Rosalyn Engineering - Bay Rigging Services & Equipment Rotek Engineering (Pty)Ltd Ruma Plant and Crane Rusren Enterprises Rutpin General Dealer S.E.P.C Load Testing S.T.S. Inspection and Load Testing Services SA Cranes & Hoists SA French Safe-Tech Services Saficon Industrial Equipment SANDF (SA Navy) Sappi Kraft
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Sasol Infrachem Sasol Secunda Shared Services Scaw Metals South Africa Second lifting equipment Secure Lifting SGB-Cape SGS SA SGS South Africa Shandu’s Technical Services She Pro SA Training Centre Shutterlock Simo Rigging Solutions Sishen Iron Ore SITEECO Six Bar Trading 392 Sky Rigging and Equipment Services Smith Capital Equipment Sonhar Projects South African Load Test Services South African National Load Testing Authority Southern Erectors SSA Acoustic & Specialised Inspections Stanbar Aindustries Steel ropes Stefanutti & Bressan
116 117 301 376 299 113 342 346 415 398 330 402 363 78 228 277 246 225 165 139 36 188 167 377 126
Steinmuller Eng Services STR Materials Handling Sudami 19 Sugarberry Trading 761 Superfecta Trading 209 /SFU Engineering Supratech Engineering Services T Timm Taka Lifting Techno Engineering Tech-North Rustenburg The Crane Crew The Rigging Academy of SA Thuthuka Crane Maintenance Toco Lifting Tower Crane Services Transnet Limited Transvaal Training Truck Crane Training Specialists Tylou Sales & Service Umholi Steel Wire Rope and Accessories Umthombo Load Testing Services Under Pressure Trading and Projects Uni-Cape Equipment Universal Suppliers & Expenditers Uplift Quality Solution
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Ustica V & S Automation
Welgro Engineering & Mining Supplies White Waters Crane Services Witbank Hoisting & Electrical Yacht Transport Yale Industrial Products Yale Lifting Solutions Yellowtail Trading 49 Zero Defect Construction Zintozami Rigging & Labour Hire
SOUTH AFRICA LME 017 NAMIBIA AIA APPROVED
Blue Cranes offer the services of our highly experienced lifting equipment technicians who are registered with the ECSA as Lifting Machinery Inspectors, to inspect, service, load test and maintain your lifting equipment, as laid out in the Occupational Health and Safety Act, with no exception to the make or model. We do servicing at set intervals, respond to breakdowns or we can place a technician on your premises on a full time basis. Our Technicians are on 24-hour stand by. We provide: Servicing / Repairs of cranes / hoists Load Testing / Inspecting equipment Manufacturing of special application lifting equipment Supply / Testing of Rigging Equipment Manufacturing of Overhead Cranes, and jib cranes Spares for Cranes / Hoists LOLER offshore inspections Refurbishing of old model cranes and hoists Load Testing of stage equipment
Vaal Lifting Services VD Merwe & Supra Lifting Consultants Verlinde Cranes & Hoists VNS Training & Construction Volkswagen of SA Water Weights Natal Water Weights WC Waterweights Tvl Wattmans Testing & LMI Services WBHO construction Weighload Testing & Inspection Services Welfit Oddy
MATERIALS HANDLING LIFTING EQUIPMENT
Blue Cranes, established in 1990, with the head office in Killarney Gardens, Cape Town with strategically placed service outlets in Saldanha Bay, Vredendal, Swakopmund and Windhoek Namibia.
Contact details: Tel: 021 556 0498 Cell: 082 490 5453—AH Email: email@example.com www.bluecranes.co.za
242 311 175 54 18 48 397 335 88 395
423 151 287 169 279 201 233 42
Guide to Lif ting Tackle Inspection There is a lot of confusion in the work place, including on major construction sites, regarding the legal requirements for the inspection of lifting tackle. The terms power driven machines and ancillary equipment are also referred to in the new 2015 DMR 18 but not specifically defined.
in DMR 18. This definition is similar to the definition of a Competent Person in the Construction Regulations of the OHSA. It is also clearly stated in DMR 18 that a registered ECSA LMI has to conduct, or supervise the periodic load testing of lifting machines. The 6 monthly mandatory thorough examinations can now be conducted by a “Competent Person” who does not have to be a LMI.
n an effort to provide guidance to users, inspectors, safety and management staff on this issue, we hereby submit the following information. It must be stressed that the information supplied is the writer’s opinion and provided without any malice or prejudice towards any manufacturer, supplier, user or service provider.
Must lifting tackle be tested annually?
The answer is an emphatic no! It must be stressed that a person who inspects lifting tackle (LTI) does not have to be a registered LMI. This was regulated in Government Notice GNR. 257 of 7 March, 2008. There are still LMIs claiming that to inspect LT, you had to be a LMI.
It must also be noted that the new updated DMR 2015 Regulations have been published and came into effect September 31, 2015, together with the guidelines which were Government Gazetted 31 March 2017. These new Regulations now also incorporate certain SANS and other Standards, as well as new contents and new definitions. Mines as such, need to comply to the Lifting Equipment Regulations which are published in Chapter 8 of the MHSA.
It can be assumed that all LMIs can inspect lifting tackle, but that a person who inspects lifting tackle does not have to be a LMI as such. The main function and responsibility of a LMIs is to conduct load testing on lifting machines. It is important to note that LMIs have to be qualified or competent to inspect lifting tackle as well but their main function is to test, or supervise testing of lifting machines, for which they are registered for by ECSA.
LME/LMI load testing
As a start, it is common knowledge that all lifting machines, which are classified according to different Codes in the OHSA, DMR-NCOP must be load tested (performance tested) at intervals not exceeding 12 months, by a DOL registered LME. This load test must be conducted, or be supervised by an ECSAregistered LMI. The LMI would have been assessed and been found competent by ECSA, to test only the specific types of machines that he has been registered for by ECSA, as a LMI. Note that ECSA do not print the scope of competence of the LMI on his LMI certificate and the only method for the user to establish whether the LMI is competent to load test a specific category of machine, is to request a copy of his ECSA letter of confirmation of registration which reflects his scope of competence. Who is competent to inspect lifting tackle? There is now a clear definition for a Competent Person to inspect lifting tackle
Damaged wire rope slings
It is also important to note that a lifting equipment supplier does not have to be an LME if that supplier does not conduct load testing on lifting machines. Therefore, an importer of hoists can send his hoists to a LME to load test on his behalf and the supplier does not have to be a LME. All Lifting tackle has to be inspected, at intervals not exceeding three months, by an appointed LTI, who should keep a register of these inspections on site. This is a specific requirement in terms of DMR 18.10(e). It must be noted that inspections can be conducted at more frequent intervals if so required by the user. Although it is not a legal requirement for chain blocks Lifting Guide
and lever hoists to be inspected at 3 monthly intervals, it is highly recommended to be done. There are no specific inspection periods specified in the MHSA Regulations and mines have to specify in their written operating procedures, all relevant issues affecting the use of lifting equipment, including inspection requirements. See Chapter 8.5(2). This Procedure should include not only inspection methods and periods, but also inspector qualifications, certification, markings, traceability etc. Persons who inspect LT are suitably qualified persons, who by virtue of their “required knowledge, training and experience” are appointed in writing, by their employer, to do so. This also applies to service providers who conduct inspections as a service to the user There is currently no DOL requirement to register LTI’s, although this is anticipated in future. Nothing has changed and these inspections can be conducted by in-house appointed LTI’s or inspections can be conducted by contracted service providers, most often the supplier, obviously at a cost to the user. If the user is using a service provider to conduct these inspections, the user should insist on the contractor’s staff providing proof of training and experience, and that they have been appointed, in writing, by their employer.
Periodic load testing of slings?
sling must not be subjected to a load in excess of this WLL. If it can be proved by the manufacturer of a sling that it was proof load tested in excess of the WLL, and it fails later in service, any claim against the manufacturer, by the user may be repudiated. The practice of issuing a separate inspection report for every sling or shackle inspected is also a waste of time, money and paper! The results of sling inspections have to be recorded in a register. Although not specifically stated in OHSA DMR, but stated in the MHSA it is illegal to overload a sling in use and therefore it would be illegal to proof load test a sling to a load above the WLL. It is also important to take cognizance of OHSA Section 15: “Duty not to interfere with, damage or misuse things” when load testing slings in use to more than the rated WLL of the sling. Also, for example to proof load a webbing sling which must have a FOS of 7:1 a load test to 2 times the WLL proves nothing. The test can only damage fibers in the sling resulting in the sling being weakened. For the record webbing slings must conform to SANS 94 / EN 1492 which specifies a factor of safety of 7:1 To test a 2 ton sling to 4 tons proves nothing as this sling should not fail at a load of less than 14 tons to conform to SANS 94. Even an inferior quality 2 ton sling should withstand a proof load of 4 tons.
The answer is an emphatic NO Over the last few years the practice of load testing slings and shackles in use has become popular, mostly as a result of the user’s ignorance. This is exacerbated by a lack of knowledge due to lack of training. Service Providers who do load testing on slings are doing this for commercial reasons only and therefore promote it.
Damaged webbing slings
A Certificate of Test must state the actual test load, the date of test and other relevant details, whereas a Certificate of Conformance must state the Standard, such as SANS, DIN, EN etc. to which the product has been manufactured. This certificate is regarded as the “birth certificate” of the sling and must be kept on record till the sling is scrapped, after which the certificate can also be cancelled.
This practice does not apply to the periodic testing of chain blocks and lever hoists. See SANS 500 requirements. It must be stated that manufacturers of chain, wire rope and webbing slings, are totally against load testing of slings in use. It is not a legal requirement in terms of OHSA or MHSA Regulations to conduct periodic load testing on slings.
Slings must be marked with the relevant certificate number, brand name or logo of the manufacturer, for traceability back to the supplier. The rule of thumb is “where does it come from and what can it lift?” If a sling or sling component is not marked with this information, do not use it!
It can be detrimental to the service life of a sling or component as it can develop a “weak spot” or defect in the sling that could cause it to fail later on, under repeated loading. For example, to subject a sling with a WLL of 5 ton, that is 5 years old, to a static test load of 10 tons( which is equal to a 100% overload) can be detrimental or damaging to the sling, or to certain components of the sling such as hooks and coupling links etc. All manufacturers specify a WLL for the size and type of sling supplied. This WLL is specified in the Standard (such as a SANS) to which the sling or product is made. The Standard as well as the manufacturer will state that the
The word “Test Certificate” does not appear in the DMR 18 or MHSA Regulations. It is common practice, and the user should insist that suppliers issue Certificates of Test and or Certificates of Conformance to a specific quality manufacturing Standard, when purchasing lifting tackle.
It is also important that users have a written scrapping procedure that specifies the steps to take when scrapping Lifting tackle or hoists. This Procedure must include cancelling all documentation such as suppliers certificates, removal from inventory and from inspection registers, as the item is no longer in service.
Spreader and Lifting beams Damaged chain slings
A spreader beam is a strut or pipe that spreads the two legs of a sling, and the spreader itself
does not carry the load, whereas a loose lifting beam actually carries the load itself and is subject to bending and twisting forces. A lifting beam is normally suspended from the crane hook with a two leg sling, or attached directly to the crane hook in the centre of the beam through a lug on the beam, or attached with a shackle. The new DMR 18 lifting tackle definitions now includes “lifting and spreader beams”
blocks, lever and electric hoists, must be fitted with proper functional latches, as per the Standard to which these units are manufactured.
These products are not lifting machines and therefore are not subject to annual or periodic load testing. It is however the prerogative of the user to insist on load testing, if he or she so wishes and this load test applied should not be in excess of 10% of the marked SWL of the beam.
Must sling hooks be pop marked?
Visual inspections on loose lifting and spreader beams should be conducted in accordance with proper inspection check lists. Loose lifting beams and spreader beams must not be confused with a permanently-installed overhead runway beams to which a hoist is attached with a trolley or crawl.
Even crane hooks do not necessarily have to be fitted with latches as DMR 18.4 specifies that hooks “ shall be so designed or proportioned that accidental disconnection of the load under working conditions cannot take place” The practice, of applying marks to a hook for inspecting the throat opening, is also not a legal requirement for sling hooks but recommended for crane hooks. Sling hooks can be damaged as a result of incorrect methods of marking and the manufacturer will dispute any subsequent claim for damage etc. Chain blocks and lever hoists will be supplied with a proper operating manual in which the OEM will specify how the hook must be inspected. It also does not make sense to pop mark a used hook as it could already have opened!
Certain Standards are now mandatory
What marking should be on shackles and sling hooks?
Generally accepted Standards?
Once again, if the shackle fails, a supplier can dispute that they supplied the particular shackle, unless the shackle can be traced back to them.
As mentioned certain SANS safety Standards are now incorporated in DMR 2015 in terms of Section 44 of the Act, and therefore are now mandatory or legally binding. This should end the current confusion caused by the SABS creating Standards for industry and these Standards only remain a guide and are not mandatory. The DOL, by including these Standards in the DMR, are now insisting on quality and safety Standards to become compulsory. DMR 18.1 (a) as well as 18.10(a) specifies that all lifting machines and tackle must be constructed in accordance with a “generally accepted technical standard. The MHSA Chapter 8.5(6) specifies compliance to “an appropriate standard” It must be noted that this does not necessarily have to be a SANS, but can also be a DIN, ISO EN, BS or JIS Standards etc. Proof of conformance to a quality Standard must be supplied in the form of a Certificate of Conformance to a Standard, issued by the Supplier or OEM.
Must slings be colour coded?
This is not a legal requirement but can be stipulated in a company’s written procedure or COP. It is very important to note that a sling is not always safe to use, simply because it is colour coded, and operators should be trained accordingly.
Shackles should be marked with the WLL, size as well as either a traceable manufacturer’s logo or brand name. Shackles can also be stamped with a number of the corresponding supplier’s certificate. Shackle manufacturing Standards do not specify individual numbers on shackles but traceable batch numbers
Sling Hook markings
Sling hooks should at least be marked with the brand name or logo of the OEM as well as size and grade of steel and not with the WLL as this can differ on the method of use of the sling. Lastly, in the writers opinion, the “CE” mark on a sling hook is actually irrelevant in RSA as it does not state traceability to a specific supplier. It only confirms that the hook is suitable for use or to be imported in to the EU and made to a EU Machinery directive To conclude, it must be stressed that the above information supplied is the writer’s opinion only and should not be construed as legal advice or legally binding, but as a guide to promote lifting equipment safety in the work place. Piet Otto, Phakamisa Safety Consultants, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Also note that if this is a company requirement, the company will be audited accordingly and if not properly done, a finding can be recorded during an audit. Proper colour charts must be placed in the workplace etc. The practice of using paint is no longer recommended as repeated coats of paint can cover defects and paint is messy, does not last and can be confusing when different colours are applied on a component. Cable ties, polyurethane or colored washers etc, can also be used. Do not colour code a sling if it has not been inspected properly!!
Must sling hooks be fitted with safety latches?
This is not a legal requirement but, should be insisted upon in a company’s written procedure or COP. Certain hooks, such as foundry and grab hooks are not designed to be fitted with latches and these hooks fully comply with international quality manufacturing standards. Note that hoist top and bottom hooks, which include chain Lifting Guide
Lif ting Tackle (Supported mainly by SANS manufacturing spec. documents) - The inspection standard is SANS 2972
Lifting tackle includes all slings, fittings and other devices that attach the load to the crane or hoist. Lifting tackle quality manufacturing specifications, as well as safe use is covered by various SANS and other international standards such as DIN, ISO, EN or US Federal specs. All lifting tackle must be supplied with manufacturers test or conformance certificates and properly marked for traceability as well as the products WLL. Lifting tackle must not be periodically load tested but only inspected, at intervals not exceeding three months, by an appointed lifting tackle inspector to conform to OHS Act, DMR 18 requirements.
Wire rope clamps (wire rope clips) (Generally to SANS 813)
Alloy Chain slings (Generally to SANS EN 50818 & SANS 7593) Chain, used for slings, is manufactured from high grade alloy steel. Grade 8 and Grade 10 short link chain is flexible, easy to use, wear and abrasion resistant and can withstand a lot of abuse in lifting operations. Chain slings have oblong master links at the top and various types of hooks, such as sling hooks, foundry hooks and self locking hooks are normally fitted. Chain slings are adjustable in length and therefore fewer slings are needed to do a variety of lifts. Chain slings are easy to inspect as all damage to chain or components is visible. Chain slings are used at mines for surface and underground lifting, lashing and pulling applications as well as at steel and manufacturing plants, factories, oil rigs, power installations, transport, stevedoring, rigging and slinging applications and practically for any type of lift. Chain slings can withstand more abuse than SWR or Webbing slings.
These fittings, commonly referred to as “Crosby or bulldog clamps” must not be used to assemble SWR slings. In use, they will snag, slide loose and the short end or dead end will pull out from the clamps. Clamps are used to join rope ends, as crane dead end attachments and for various other applications such as attaching sling hooks to cable puller ropes, when thimbles must be inserted. Clamps must be attached with the bridge or saddle part of the clamp attached to the live end of the rope and not to the dead end. From there the old saying “You do not saddle up a dead horse!’ Lastly only drop forged clamps and not commercial cast steel clamps must be used for any rigging application.
Balanced fork attachment In essence, a balanced fork attachment converts your forklift into a mini crane. It simply attaches to the crane’s mast either by means of screws or with the assistance of a safety strap. The loads you are able to pick up are determined by the capabilities of the forklift and of the fork attachment. Various fork attachment load options are available.
Hooks: Eye type and clevis type (Generally to SANS 8539 & SANS 1595) Hooks are used as bottom attachments on all types of slings to attach the load to the sling. Sling hooks can be fitted with safety latches and modern safety hooks have self locking latches. Foundry hooks with wide bowls are not fitted with latches and were designed for moulding boxes and loads fitted with large trunions. Grab hooks and shortening clutches are used to shorten chain sling legs and are also fitted to chain load binders and chain lever binders for cargo securement and lashings. If hooks are fitted to SWR slings, thimbles must be used to protect the rope. Hooks must never be point loaded or side loaded as this reduces the hook strength dramatically. Hooks must be marked with their size, quality grade, WLL and traceable supplier marks. Hooks can be eye type and then attached by a coupling link to the chain or clevis type where the hook is attached directly to the chain with a load pin inserted into the clevis.
Mechanical Coupling Links (Generally to SANS ISO 8539)
Snatch blocks (Generally to SANS ISO 8539)
These components commonly referred to as â€œhammerlocksâ€? are used to couple chain and fittings to each other. The pin is hammered in to lock it, therefore the nick name hammerlock. Coupling links must be compatible in size, quality grade and strength as that of the chain used and the pin must be securely knocked in. A clip or spring or other locking device is used to secure the load pin. The pin must be free to flex freely and any form locking is an indication of overloading or elongation.
A snatch block is essentially a pulley mechanism encased in metal. They have numerous lifting and pulling applications and as with most devices in the lifting industry can be dangerous if not lethal if not applied properly. According to research, snatch blocks and the amount of pressure exerted through them should never be underestimated. Experts warn that load exerted on a snatch block should never exceed its rating. The rule-of-thumb in the snatch box market is that you should buy the most expensive one you can afford. Although snatch blocks are used in many situations, they are especially common on boats and sailing ships, or where motorised aids are usually not available and the task must be performed manually.
Steel Wire Rope (SWR) slings (Generally to SANS 2408, 7531 & EN 13155) A steel wire rope is manufactured from wires that have been twisted around a core to form a strand. Six of these strands, normally each containing 36 wires are in turn wound around a fibre or steel core to form a steel wire rope, described as a 6 x 36 SWR. Eyes are formed by a method known as splicing, either by hand or by pressing a steel or aluminium ferrule in a large press to secure the ferrule. The eye can be protected by inserting a thimble, when fittings such as hooks or eye bolts are attached permanently. SWR slings are favoured by Riggers for large and heavy lifts and used on construction, mining, off-shore drilling, oil and gas installations, petrochemical, power generation, pipeline and for maintenance projects.
Plate grabs Lifting large pieces of sheet metal is no easy task. The problem becomes more difficult when the sheet metal needs to be lifted up metres into the air. However, a device for just this application has been developed and comes in the form of a clamp. Clamps are available for either hoisting the metal sheet up and down or are available for moving the sheet metal horizontally. The clamps are available in various configurations with different jaw sizes and different load capabilities and many clamp manufacturers state that the gripping force applied by the clamps is more than double the load being lifted.
Shackles (Generally to SANS 2415 & US Fed Spec RR C 271) There are 2 shapes of shackles, namely Dee and Bow types. Dee shackles must only be used for straight line loading, whereas Bow shackles can be used for angular and straight line loading. Two types of pins, namely screw pin, and bolt and nut types are common.
shackles, compared to untested and unmarked shackles, must be used for any lifting or rigging applications. Special application shackles are also available and supplied as part of machines or mining plant and equipment. Shackles must be traceable to the supplier and marked with the shackles WLL and size.
Screw pins are favoured for rigging and slinging and bolt type for use on permanent structures such as beams where constant movement is required. The original pins or bolts and nuts must never be replaced with normal bolts and nuts. Shackle pins must be tightened and pin thread and body thread must be similar and not damaged. It is also very important that only tested, properly marked and certified Lifting Guide
Lifting and Spreader beams Spreader beams are compression beams which separate two slings (or similar devices), that are picking up a load.
Lif ting Recepticals
Lifting tray (carried by forklift truck) A lifting tray is a seemingly simple device. It attaches to a lifting machine, thus allowing the load on the tray to be moved and placed where needed.
Lifting bins, buckets When it comes to moving or lifting materials such as sand, stones and rubble, nothing will do it better than a bin or a bucket.
The lifting beam is usually lifted from a single point or set of points on the top of the beam.
Dozens of different shapes and sizes are available on the market – it is just a matter of selecting the correct one for the job at hand. The disadvantage with a lifting bin or a bucket is that when clearing debris from a construction site, you often end up collecting loads of valuable soil in the bargain.
Palletised water container Forkliftable water and liquid storage tanks are designed for light-duty transport (non-D.O.T. regulated) during indoor or outdoor applications. The base of the pallet frame is designed for forklift transportability
Webbing slings (Generally to SANS 94 & EN 1492 Parts 1&2) Webbing slings are manufactured mostly from polyester fibre and two types, namely endless round (ERS) and flat eye type are available. Webbing slings are load and user friendly but must be protected from sharp cornered loads as webbing is prone to cutting. Protective sleeves can be used and slings can also be permanently bonded with polyurethane for permanent protection. The Standard requires blue labels to be fitted, reinforced eyes to flat webbing slings and traceable markings, WLL and supplier details. Webbing slings are most suited to loads that may be damaged if chain or SWR slings are used, or loads with highly polished surfaces.,SANS 94 also requires that all webbing slings must be different colours to indicate their WLL. Pictured here are SANS 94 Part 1 Flat Slings and Part 2 where 1 ton slings are violet, 2 ton slings are green, 3 ton slings are yellow etc.
Man-cage (EN 14502) “Man-cage” means a platform enclosed on all sides, whether closed or open at the top, designed for the purpose of raising and lowering persons by means of a lifting machine, but does not include mobile elevated work platforms and suspended access platforms
Clarification of (8): A risk assessment has to be carried out every time the mancage is moved, even within one site. Only after the risk assessment has been carried out in this manner, can approval be obtained by a government inspector.
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Use of Runway Beams and Load Tests
Considerations & Technical Notes on the Use of Runway Beams and Load Tests an existing building structure, for lifting equipment to be attached to it. Each one of these cases have unique problems. However, it must be predetermined by a design engineer what structural requirements would be required for a runway beam or what an existing structure could support. However it is handled, the runway beam is part of the building and is not a dedicated component specially designed, supplied and installed by the crane manufacturer. According to DMR 18 (Driven Machinery Regulation), regulation 5, hoists or chain blocks (types of Lifting Machines) have to be load tested to the manufacturer’s specification prior to first use. In the absence of a manufacturer’s spec, a proof load test is done at 110% SWL (safe working load). Hoists can be tested off site or mounted onto their supports. If a hoist is permanently mounted to a runway beam, it is good practice to test it mounted onto its runway beam, but this is not prescribed. The DMR does not prescribe specific standards to which beams need to be tested
When an I beam is used as a girder / crawler beam, either on an overhead crane, a gantry crane or a portal crane, and the beams are used as girders, they are then regarded as part of the crane. EOT (Electric Overhead Traveling Crane): An overhead crane would be designed by an engineer who would design an overhead crane according to the requirements of the duty cycle of the unit. The crane would be classified according to an appropriate classification (SANS, BS, EU, ISO etc.), typically from A1 through A8. The design would be for the manufacture of the crane, and the design would start at the long travel wheels and up. The engineer would also specify the structural requirements of the supporting long travel support and rails on which the crane would travel on. This structure is part of the building and is the responsibility of the owners’ civil/structural engineers to take care of. When a LMI (Lifting Machinery Inspector) does deflection tests on this type of crane, he has to be aware of the deflection of the runway beams’ deflection behaviour, which would possibly influence his outcome and might make necessary adjustments to compensate for this. However, the support is part of the building and not part of the crane. The crane manufacturer can only advise and make the owner aware of these requirements.
●● DMR18 (2015), sub-regulation 1: “(1) No user may use or permit the use of a lifting machine or hand- powered lifting device unless — (a) it has been designed and constructed in accordance with a generally accepted technical standard; (b) it is conspicuously and clearly marked with the safe working load: provided that when such safe working load varies with the conditions of use of the manufacturer, a table showing the safe working load with regard to every variable condition shall be posted by the user in a conspicuous place easily visible to the operator;”
Similarly, a runway beam is traditionally part of the buildings’ structure and it should be dealt with and understood like the overhead crane. There are three things to consider;
●● DMR18 (2015), sub-regulation 5: “(a) The user shall cause the entire installation and all working parts of every lifting machine or hand-powered lifting device, as well as ancillary lifting equipment used with the machine or device, excluding lifting tackle, to be subjected to a thorough examination and a performance test, as prescribed by the standard to which the lifting machine was manufactured, by a lifting machinery inspector of a lifting machinery entity, which shall determine the serviceability of the structures, ropes, machinery and safety devices before they are put into use and every time they are dismantled and re-erected, and thereafter at intervals not exceeding 12 months: provided that, in the absence of a manufacturing standard or a standard incorporated under section 44(1) of the Act, the whole installation of the lifting machine shall be tested with 110% of the safe working load applied over the complete lifting range of such machine and in such a manner that every part of the installation is stressed accordingly.”
●● The building is built using an I beam frame, and … ●● A runway beam could be incorporated into this structure for the specific purpose of using it as an under-slung support for lifting equipment, and lastly … ●● A runway beam could be added as an afterthought to
When a hoist is tested while mounted onto its runway beam, it has to be verified that the test load does not exceed the design load of the beam. If the test load exceeds the design load of the beam, the hoist will have to be removed and tested separately. Lifting Guide
Neither the Mines Health and Safety Act nor the Occupational Health and Safety Act defines the supporting structure onto which a lifting machine is mounted as part of the lifting machine or hand powered lifting device installation. If a hoist is tested while mounted on its travel beam, a test certificate is issued for the hoist only, to the specification to which the hoist was designed / manufactured. Hoists and chain blocks, like all lifting machinery and hand powered lifting devices, further require annual load testing. The moving of a hoist from one beam to another doesn’t constitute re-erection, and a hoist would not need to be retested if it is moved within a year of previous test, provided that no alterations have taken place, like dismantling the crawl.
●● The legislation governing the use of lifting machines hand powered lifting devices and lifting tackle, which are supported by runway beams is the Occupational Health and Safety Act, amended in 2015 relating to the design, construction, marking, examination and testing etc. ●● There is no regulation in the DMR that deals with the construction, marking, examination, testing and certification of runway beams ●● The recently revised (October 2011) and reissued British Standard, BS2853:2011 (British Standard Specification for the design and testing of steel overhead runway beams) is the most recent and applicable code. This standard specifies the requirements for the testing of fixed overhead runway beams made from rolled steel sections and applies to the runway beams and their components. It does not apply to the supporting structures, trolleys (crawls) or lifting appliances (chain blocks, lever hoists and electric hoists) operating on the beams. These are dealt with by DMR18.
Proposed procedures for documentation, inspection, testing and certification of overhead runway beams: Design And Documentation:
A data sheet with the following information should be maintained for each runway beam: ●● Unique serial number and/or plant or asset register number of beam ●● Location of beam ●● Layout drawing of the beam • Signed by Professional Engineer if possible ●● Type of beam ●● Size of beam • Width, height, flange thickness and weight per running metre of beam ●● Grade of steel of beam if known ●● Date of original installation of beam ●● SWL of the beam or load capacity of the beam ●● Calculated deflection of the beam • At the tip of the cantilever or overhang • At mid span, in the longest internal span, between supports
Testing to be done in accordance with BS2853:2011. Runway beams are to be load tested to their proof load as follows: ●● After installation of the beams ●● Before the first use of the beam (commissioning) ●● If / when the beam is modified / altered in design
●● If / when the beam is repaired ●● If / when the beam is removed, relocated and reassembled ●● If deemed necessary by the certifier, following an inspection
Beams should be inspected by a competent person before the use thereof in order to confirm the following: ●● The SWL (safe working load) is indicated on the beam • Clearly visible from both sides • Clearly visible from the ground ●● The end stops are installed on the beams ●● The ID (identification plate or unique serial number) is indicated on the beam • Clearly visible ●● There is no signs of recent visible damage to the beam ●● There is no signs of excessive corrosion to the beam ●● The bolts are tight • Torqued to the manufacturer / supplier’s recommended setting • The correct grade of bolts and nuts are used • The correct washers are used
Issuing of Load Test Certificates:
Only LME’s (Lifting Machinery Entities), which are companies registered with the DOL (Department of Labour), can issue load test certificates, and only for the type of lifting machines listed in their “Scope of Approval”. The certificate is issued by the LME company, in the name of the company, and signed by a registered LMI (Lifting Machinery Inspector), registered with ECSA (Engineering Council of South Africa) of which this individual is supplied with a letter of “scope of competence” for the specified discipline (field of work) No LME’s are registered with a “scope of approval” specifically for the load testing of runway beams (crawler beams), as these are not considered lifting machines by themselves. Therefore, if or when a discretionary load test is carried out on a runway beam, the LME can theoretically only provide a load test report on the electric hoist, crawl, chain block, lever hoist, wire rope puller etc. No testing of runway beams is required by legislation unless it forms part or becomes part of lifting machine.
Independent Lifting Points (Pad Eyes, Lugs etc) on Structures:
These are not part of lifting machines, and as such do not need to be load tested. They also do not need to be marked with a SWL. Such lifting points need to be made to a design
and / or drawing, and visually inspected, however they should be marked and tested.
Normal Engineering Approach To The Design Of Runway Beams: Strength design is according to SANS 10162-1.
According to DMR18, lifting tackle does not require load testing after being put into service. It does however need to be inspected prior to first use and thereafter every 3 months; by a LTI (Lifting Tackle Inspector). LTI’s are appointed by the user of lifting tackle, who needs to be trained, experienced etc., but doesn’t need to be a LMI.
Account is taken of the combined long and cross flange bending (which is not specifically covered in SANS 10162-1) by checking that the stress resulting from the factored loads is less than 0.9 times the yield strength of steel used for beam. The resulting design is then also checked against BS28531957, for strength only.
Lifting tackle includes but is not limited to slings (webbing, chain, steel wire), shackles, spreader beams and lifting beams (classification of lifting beams as lifting tackle is inferred in the current version of DMR.)
The “un-factored” load on which the strength check using a chain block, is based on the (weight of the crawl) + (chain block plus 1.25 times the SWL of the chain block).
Note: Spreader beams used for the first time would probably need to be inspected prior to next use by a competent appointed person. It would make sense to use the services of a LMI or train site mechanical supervisors or safety officers and appoint either to carry this out.
Requirements for Marking SWL (Safe Working Load) Onto Runway Beams, Lifting Beams And Spreader Beams:
The SWL can be marked onto runway beams, lifting beams and spreader beams, based on their engineering design, combined with a visual inspection and maybe a NDT (non-destructive test), like MPI (magnetic particle inspection)
Deflection tests carried out on lifting machines are always carried out at the SWL, not the proof load. At the first load application some “settling in” of the structure will take place. Deflection measurements should be taken only on the second or later applications of the SWL. The deflection measured must be for the lifting machine only. Deflection of the supporting structure (namely compound deflection) has to be appropriately deducted from the total measured deflection. “Spiking or shocking” of the deflection can occur and has to be compensated. Deflection readings will differ between: ●● Manually operated chain block, lever hoist or wire rope puller • Forces induced on the beam to lift the proof load are limited (low torque). One has to rely on the pulling effort of a reasonable person (limited by manufacturer) ●● Electrical operated hoist • Forces induced on the beam to lift the proof load are not as limited (high torque). One relies on the torque setting of a motor (limited by the manufacturer)
Deflection criteria is typically as per: “Design Criteria for steel structures”, being L/300 between supports (allowable 1mm deflection per 300mm span). This is checked for the SWL only, and applied to the beam. Deflection from other members in the support system can be compounded.
• BS 2853:1957 — Crawl beam design and testing. (Including deflections) • BS 2853:2011 — Crawl beam design and testing. (Including deflections) • SANS 10160-6:2011 — Basis of structural design and actions for buildings and industries. Part 6: Actions induced by cranes and machinery • SANS 10162-1:2005 — structural use of steel; Part 1: Limit state design. Deflection. (This covers the use of I beams in buildings) • SANS 2001-CSI:2005 — Construction works – Structural steelwork • SANS 500 — Inspection, examination & testing of manually operated chain blocks & chain lever hoists in use. • SANS 10375 — The inspection, test & examination of overhead cranes in use. • SANS 1599-1 — Cantilever/slewing jib cranes.
• Some of the points raised by “others” can only be resolved by a directive from in the law or in an incorporated dedicated SANS standard. • The law says that the complete installation shall be tested therefore is this applicable to runway beams? • Does a crawl attached to beam become a crane? If so when? • Maybe these items need to included in SANS 10375 to give direction to the LMI’s. • Some of these items are covered to a degree in SANS1599-1
Application Of Test Loads:
Should runway beams be tested by applying a load by means of a beam clamps or a trolley (crawl), other than the trolley for which the beam has been designed, the application of the load should correspond to how the trolley for which the beam was designed would load the beam. Particularly the extreme position of the load should correspond with the centre of the trolley for which the beam was designed, when positioned against the beam end stops. Lifting Guide
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Under the Hook Machines Bar tong (Generally to EN 13155) These tongs are specifically designed to lift round or cylindrical loads such as pipes, tubes and bars. A conformal leg engages below the centre-point of the load where not only is the load cradled by the legs, but also securely clamped on the outside diameter.
(EN 13155 - non fixed lifting attachments)
Mechanical, electrical or hydraulic devices, manual or remote
Container handling spreader beams Driven by hydraulics, this automatic spreader provides high efficiency, especially for large container loading and unloading yards.
Lifting Points or lifting rings
For every job, there is the correct tool and lifting coils are no exception. A coil grab is basically that â€“ a rig that allows you to safely and easily lift a coil of wiring or tubing. The coil grabs use telescopic legs that will fit snugly over the coil to ensure that it wonâ€™t drop once being hoisted. Also, many of the coil grabs let you rotate the coil while hoisted â€“ meaning you can spool cabling or tubing on or off the coil while it is in the air.
Lifting beams are beams which actually pick up the load from one or more lifting points under the beam which are positioned in such a way so as to hold the load in a specific or balanced position. The beam in turn is usually lifted from a single point or set of points on the top of the beam. These lifting points are connected to the crane hook.
Each tong is designed for a specific size range and some tongs use multiple legs for lifting long, slender materials, thereby reducing deflection and improving handling. It is also possible to lift multiple cylindrical components as either stacked bundles or in parallel.
Coil grabs (Generally to EN 13155)
The practice of using lifting points instead of eye bolts or eye nuts is increasing rapidly. These units are manufactured from Grade 8 or 10 alloy steel and all have one thing in common, namely that they can be bolted on, or welded permanently on to a load. The units can rotate 360 degrees and swivel in the direction of the sling leg to which it is attached. The units are made to stringent quality standards such as EN 1677 and in accordance with European Directive 2006/42/CE Various brands are available with conformance certificates and these items should be regarded as lifting tackle and inspected accordingly. It is important that OEM guidelines for incline loading and relevant reduced WLL according to a specific angle be observed.
Vacuum lifters Vacuum lifters consist of a below-thehook frame with a large vacuum pad or several smaller suction cups for grabbing large sheets, rolls, plates, or other smooth-surfaced products. They are driven by pneumatic, hydraulic, electric, or mechanical power. Pneumatic or airpowered vacuum lifters are equipped with air cylinders or motors that provide lifting action. There are many different types of vacuum lifters. Choices include heavy-duty lifters, vertical-horizontal lifters, coil lifters, battery-powered vacuum lifters, and products with mobile attachments. Battery-powered lifters are similar to electrically-powered devices, but have a rechargeable battery.
Magnetic hooks Magnetic lifters are versatile work handling devices that can be used to move a variety of ferrous metals, ranging from small bundles of rod or scrap to large, heavy blocks. When used to replace slings and chains, lifting magnets can improve overall productivity by allowing a single person to lift a load that may have required two or more people the old way. Magnets eliminate the need for drilling and tapping holes in parts so that eyebolts can be attached to move them. In many cases, these holes need to be filled and the surface needs to be refinished, adding cost to the product. There are two basic types of lifting magnets: permanent magnets and electromagnets. Permanent magnets are exactly that; permanent. These magnets use permanently magnetized material to build up the magnetic field. One disadvantage is that permanent magnets have a restricted lifting capacity. Electromagnets employ electricity to charge the magnet and hold the material to the magnet face. Unlike permanent magnets, electromagnets require a constant power source.
Crane Hook, Hoist Hook and Lif ting Sling Hook Requirements Following the recent failure of a 5 ton “crane hook” at a mine, there have been various reports, recommendations and instructions issued by various parties to mines and plants. As the Chamber of Mines have also issued a statement, LEEASA (Lifting Equipment Engineering Association of South Africa) have felt obliged to inform industry what the applicable standards are for hooks attached to cranes, hoists and slings, albeit these are viewed as separate equipment in industry.
he hook that failed was part of a 5 ton electric chain hoist and not part of a 5 ton crane as stated in reports. To clarify, there are different SANS and other International Standards that apply to hooks used on the different types of lifting equipment.
1. Chain block and chain lever hoist hooks
Chain blocks and chain lever hoist hooks are covered in SANS 1594 - 2007 edition for Manually operated chain blocks and by SANS 1636 -2007 edition for Manually operated chain lever hoists, which are the relevant manufacturing standards. The requirements for “chain hoist hooks” in terms of yielding, markings, design, manufacturing process (forgings), method of marking by the OEM, safety latch design and testing to determine conformance to standards, are clearly stated in these Standards. SANS 1638 – 2008 edition for Pneumatically powered chain hoists which covers pneumatic hoists, mostly used on mines have the same requirement as SANS 1594 -2007 edition Section 4.6 on hooks.
Spreader beams Spreader beams are compression beams which separate two slings (or similar devices), that are picking up a load.
2. Electric chain hoist hooks
There is no published SANS Standard for electric chain hoists. However, SABS TC 1020 is currently drafting a national standard for this equipment (SANS922). Presently, ASME B30.10, ASME B30.16, JIS8815, EN14492-2 and DIN 15400 refer to the requirements for hooks on this type of equipment. It is strongly recommended that users confirm that all electric chain hoists comply with at least one of the abovementioned or similar standards.
a. The manufacturers name, trade name or logo or trade mark for traceability. b. The WLL/SWL c. The batch number to allow traceability
3. Chain sling hooks
The requirements for hooks that are attached to Grade 8 alloy chains are covered in SANS 1595 – 2003 edition and SANS ISO 8539. Another possible standard for consideration is EN 1677.
4. Crane hooks
The current acceptable standard for crane hooks is DIN 15400. ISO TC96 Cranes is currently developing a new standard. (ISO CD17440)
NB. Hook Colours.
There is no requirement for hooks to have any specific colour. The various OEMs paint their hooks the same colour as the body of the hoist, mostly, yellow, orange, blue or red.
NB. The latest editions of SANS standards are always the applicable standards. Ken Greenwood, National Chairman, LEEASA
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Usually the minimum requirements for markings are as follows:
Chain Blocks & Lever Hoists
Note: Ensure that you use the correct size of hook for the application.
These units, now referred to as hand-powered lifting devices, are portable lifting machines, as per DMR 2015 definitions. These units are included in the DOL requirements for annual load testing and SANS 500 specifies the inspection and load testing requirements of these hoists in use, whereas SANS 1637 and 1640 apply to the reconditioning of chain blocks and lever hoists respectively. SANS 1636 and SANS 1594 covers the manufacturing requirements for lever hoists and chain blocks respectively.
Chain blocks (SANS 500 and 1637) Chain blocks are normally used in a production environment in a work shop, plant or mine. Manufacturers recommend that chain blocks be used for vertical lifting only and the load must never be lifted with a chain block, at an angle. In practice these unite are most often abused leading to damage and even failure. As these items are critical safety items It is essential that price must not be the deciding factor and that only proper certified, branded and superior quality chain blocks must be used Chain blocks must be supplied with certificates of test and conformance to a Standards, be branded with a unique serial number and other details as required by the Standard Modern chain blocks can be fitted with overload protection in the form of a slip clutch built in to the hand wheel to prevent overloading. Although regarded as lifting machines and therefore only legally required to undergo thorough six monthly examinations, it is highly recommended that these units be visually, inspected, at least at three monthly intervals Inspections should be recorded, by the appointed inspector, in a proper inspection register.
Lever hoists (SANS 500 and 1640/manually-operated lifting device)
Steel wire rope pullers (manually-operated lifting device)
Lever hoists are normally used for maintenance operations and on construction sites to lift, lower, drag or tension loads. Lever hoists can be used for vertical as well as horizontal and incline lifting but the load must always be in a straight line from top to bottom hooks.
The steel wire rope puller has come a long way from its humble beginnings, which consisted mainly of blunt force by the operator. But with the advancement of technology, cable pullers are now offered in a variety of styles and range in capabilities. Easy to use, reliable and safe, cable pulling has never been more convenient.
In practice these unite are most often abused leading to damage and even failure. As these items are critical safety items It is essential that price must not be the deciding factor and that only proper certified, branded and superior quality lever hoists must be used Lever hoists must be supplied with certificates of test and conformance to a Standards, be branded with a unique serial number and other details as required by the Standard
The steel wire rope puller is ideal in a range of industry segments, from heavyconstruction all the way down the chain to DIY home projects. As with all lifting or hoisting equipment, the cable puller is available in a variety of sizes, and with different load capacities. Many of them are manufactured from heavy duty steel with an automatic or notch-by-notch release mechanism.
Modern lever hoists can be fitted with overload protection in the form of a slip clutch built in to the lever hoist handle to prevent overloading. Although regarded as lifting machines and therefore only legally required to undergo thorough six monthly examinations, it is highly recommended that these units be visually, inspected, at least at three monthly intervals Inspections should be recorded, by the appointed inspector, in a proper inspection register.
Did you know Registered Lifting Machinery Inspectors (LMIâ€™s) are persons registered by the Engineering Council of South Africa in terms of the Engineering Profession Act, 2000 (Act 46 of 2000), for specified categories with a defined scope of competence.
Suspended Access Equipment Chamber The Suspended Access Equipment (SAE) Chamber of the Institute for Work at Height Professional Body [IWH (PB)] represents the practitioners involved in working at height by using temporary suspended platforms or permanently installed building maintenance access equipment as the primary means of positioning and fall protection. The following practitioners for the SAE industry will get SPECIAL RECOGNITION from the IWH (PB). The recognition will be in the format of a PERMIT TO OPERATE, stating that this person is recognised by the IWH (PB). (NOTE: Training and assessment must be conducted by a SETA accredited and IWH (PB) recognised training provider)
1. TEMPORARY SUSPENDED PLATFORM USER The person responsible for the safe use of Temporary Suspended Platforms has to be medically fit, competent in conducting the work to be performed whilst on the TSP and must be trained in compliance with Construction Regulations 2014 Section 17(12)(c). Criteria for obtaining recognition In order to be recognised with the IWH (PB) as a TSP User, the permit holder must complete an IWH (PB) approved LNQ Programme. Outcomes of this programme will be set by the SAE Chamber and submitted to IWH (PB) recognised training providers.
2. TEMPORARY SUSPENDED PLATFORM ERECTOR The Temporary Suspended Platform Erector must be able to: • describe the components of the platform and roof support system • assemble (and dismantle) the TSP from its major constituent parts in a safe and efficient way at a work site • relocate the TSP under supervision when necessary • understand that safety must be an overriding concern for his/her own and others safety for the duration of the erection, dismantling and moving phases Criteria for obtaining recognition In order to be recognised with the IWH (PB) as a TSP Erector, the permit holder must have completed an IWH (PB) approved LNQ Programme. Outcomes of this programme will be set by the SAE Chamber and submitted to IWH (PB) recognised training providers.
3. TSP USER SUPERVISOR The TSP User Supervisor is the person appointed by the contractor making use of the TSP in terms of Construction Regulations 2014 Section 17(1). This person is responsible for the safe use of the TSP and carries out all the operational duties defined in section 17 except for sub regulations (8) and (9).
Criteria for obtaining recognition To be recognised with the IWH (PB) as a TSP User Supervisor, the permit holder must have completed the IWH (PB) approved NQF Programme US 243271 and be uploaded to the AQP as well as to the Professional Body as a permit holder but does not need to complete the requirements of the Professional designation linked to US243271. Outcomes of this programme will be set by the SAE Chamber and submitted to IWH (PB) recognised training providers.
SAQA REGISTERED DESIGNATIONS The following designations for the Suspended Access Equipment industry have been registered with SAQA:
4. TEMPORARY SUSPENDED PLATFORM ERECTION SUPERVISOR A registered Temporary Suspended Platform Erection Supervisor is a professional responsible for satisfying the requirements of Construction Regulation 17 (8) and 17(9). The Temporary Suspended Platform Erection Supervisor ensures the safe erection of temporary suspended platforms and the initial training of operators in compliance with these regulations. The purpose of the Temporary Suspended Platform Erection Supervisor designation is to recognise this person as a professional in its own realm of activities and to ensure the safe use of temporary suspended platforms by employers / contractors involved in construction, maintenance, cleaning industries, etc. www.ifwh.co.za
“How does industry combat the importation of inferior quality equipment?”
“The user is protected by the OHS Act in this regard. Section 10 of the act clearly indicates that the importer of goods has to ensure that the goods are of an acceptable standard.”
Is the DoL aware of companies sending people out to do tests and an office bound LMI then signing the test certificate documentation off at the office? This is illegal and should be reported.
Does there have to be a load test each time the ropes on a crane are replaced?
The answer is a definite yes in order to check the rope as well as correct installation procedures. Lifting Guide
YOUR PARTNER IN PORTS THE WORLD OF SENNEBOGEN
Balancer 130-300 t
Babcock International Group Tel +27 (0)11 230 7300 Fax +27(0)11 230 7892 email@example.com www.babcock.co.za
Material Handling 20-160 t
Duty Cycle Crane 30-300 t
Telescopic Crane 8-120 t
Crawler Crane 80-300 t
LIFTING SOLUTIONS TO MEET ANY PROJECT CHALLENGE
Massive steel fabrications and powerful diesel engines matched to state of the art hydraulics and controls, make TADANO cranes ideal for all lift applications and rugged heavy duty work. Contact Babcock for a solution to your lifting needs. Tel +27 (0)11 230 7300 Fax +27 (0)11 230 7892 firstname.lastname@example.org www.babcock.co.za
Lif t Trucks
(Supported by SANS 10388)
All forklifts including attachments & special equipment
Counter balance The counter balanced forklift is probably one of the most commonly used tools in the materials handling market. It can be found in just about any storage facility or factory. The forklift carries its load on the outside of its wheelbase and relies on a counterbalance weight and the weight of the engine to stop it from tipping over its front wheels.
Large lift trucks All rough terrain forklift trucks
Ruggedized for outdoor conditions and difficult-to-traverse surfaces, these models transport loads that might exceed 7 000kg. They can also be used as the transportation interface between a storage yard and warehouse.
Many forklift trucks are available, each one designed to suit a certain application and to carry a certain load. The trucks vary from a 1-tonne pallet handler to heavy-duty 40 tonne diesel trucks used for large sea containers.
Pallet trucks Powered Pallet Trucks (PPTs) are sometimes referred to as a Walkie, Walkie-rider or Rider motorised truck. They are basically motorised versions of the pallet jack. The PPT is designed for the operator to walk along with the truck as he or she moves loads. The PPT also includes a platform on which the controller can stand. PPTs are great for the frequent moving of loads over extended distances within warehouses and manufacturing operations. They are fast and highly manoeuvrable. Minimal controls result in short learning times although precision turning does take some practice.
Large lift trucks
These trucks are available in capacities ranging from 5 000 to 60 000kg. They are commonly used for container handling and very heavy loads. Types of trucks in this category include: Counterbalanced FLTs; Reach stackers; and Straddle carriers.
Pedestrian controlled lift trucks
Order picking lift trucks including all models This truck is designed specifically for the manual handling of less-than-pallet-load quantities in racking. The order picker design has fixed forks attached to a platform which elevates the load and the operator to facilitate manual loading and unloading from racking. Order pickers can operate in narrow or wide aisles. These forklifts are also very useful in cycle counting and physical inventory.
These forklifts are very common in warehouses and factories. They are designed to be a highly efficient method of storage as they operate in fairly narrow isles. Admittedly, they are not as robust or as fast as their reach truck counterparts, but their manoeuvrability makes them an ideal choice for many applications.
Truck-mounted forklift Handy for deliveries, this lift truck offers flexibility and portability for on- and offloading on site. It’s “piggy-backed” on the rear of any truck or trailer combination.
The pedestrian stacker is commonly used to handle pallets with no bottom stringer. This is because the outrigger legs would get in the way of a pallet with bottom stringers.
Reach trucks Reach trucks are most commonly used for the storage and retrieval of pallets in a warehouse. They differ from the standard counter balanced forklift in that they contain the load within their wheelbase. This ultimately results in them being able to operate in smaller spaces while at the same time, being able to lift to great heights. The main advantages of reach trucks is that they are very efficient in small spaces, are commonly available and are relatively simple to use.
Tele handlers A telescopic handler, or tele handler, is a machine widely used in the lifting industry. It is similar in appearance and function to a forklift but is more a crane than forklift, with the increased versatility of a single telescopic boom that can extend forwards and upwards from the vehicle. On the end of the boom the operator can fit one of several attachments such as a bucket, pallet forks, muck grab, or lift table. In some cases, it can even be converted into a crane.
Tail Lif ts (SANS 1055)
Side loaders The side loader and four-way reach trucks are forklifts that are designed to carry their loads parallel to their direction of travel. They come in handy when long loads need to be transported â€“ such as pipes, and lengths of timber. Diesel side loaders are often used in rough terrain whereas the electric powered models are used indoors on smooth surfaces.
The new tail lift picture. A tail lift is a mechanical device fitted to the back of a van or a lorry, which is designed to facilitate the materials handling of goods from ground level or a loading dock to the level of the load bed of the vehicle, or vice versa. Tail lifts are hydraulic in operation, although they can be mechanical, and are controlled by an operator using an electric relay switch. The use of a tail lift can obviate the need to use machinery such as a fork lift truck in order to load heavy items onto a vehicle, or can be used to bridge the difference in height between a loading dock and the vehicle load bed. There are four main types of tail lifts available, namely column lifts, cantilever, tuck aways, and underslider lifts.
(Mobile Elevating Work Platform) (Supported by SANS 50280, 16368 & 18893. Also BS EN 61057 & Ansi A92.2)
A mobile elevating work platform is a mechanical device used to provide temporary access for people or equipment to inaccessible areas, usually at height. MEWPs are designed to lift limited weights (usually less than a tonne), distinguishing them from most types of cranes. They are usually capable of being fully operated (including setup) by a single person. MEWPs may provide additional features beyond transport and access, including being equipped with electrical outlets or compressed air connectors for power tools. There are distinct types of MEWPs, the key difference is in the drive mechanism which propels the working platform to the desired location. Most are powered by either hydraulics or possibly pneumatics.
Boom type (cherry pickers) A cherry picker (also known as a boom lift, man lift, basket crane or hydraladder), is a type of aerial work platform that consists of a platform or bucket at the end of a hydraulic lifting system. It is often mounted on the back of a large vehicle such as a truck (in which case it may also be called a bucket truck). It can also be mounted on a flat-back pick-up van known as a Self Drive, or sometimes on a stand-alone trailer or self-moving platform. Cherry pickers were originally designed for use in orchards where they are still heavily used. It lets the picker pick fruit high in a tree with relative ease. Similar devices, also known as â€˜cherry pickersâ€™, are used to service telephone, cable television and electrical equipment on utility poles.
MEWP Scissor lifts (mobile or fixed) A scissor lift is a type of platform which can usually only move vertically. The mechanism to achieve this is the use of linked, folding supports in a criss-cross ‘X’ pattern. The upward motion is achieved by the application of pressure to the outside of the lowest set of supports, elongating the crossing pattern, and propelling the work platform vertically. The platform may also have an extending ‘bridge’ to allow closer access to the work area (because of the inherent limits of vertical only movement). Contraction of the scissor action can be hydraulic, pneumatic or mechanical (via a leadscrew or rack and pinion system).
Suspended Access Platforms (SAE) (SANS 51808 & 10295 part 1 & 2)
Units that are hung from suspension anchors/points
Building Maintenance Unit (Permanently Suspended Platforms) Building Maintenance Units or BMUs are permanently installed units for maintenance workers to safely access all areas of a building’s façade for window cleaning, regular maintenance and minor repair work. BMUs can be manual, semi- powered or fully powered and are generally installed onto a tracked runway system that is in turn fixed back to the roof structure. Depending on the design of the BMU, either a dedicated cradle or a separate cradle set can be suspended from the jib.
Temporary Suspended Platforms A temporary suspended platform is much the same as a building maintenance unit except for the fact that it is easily attached or detached from the building. They usually consist of aluminium cradles of various sizes from which the workers can lower themselves down the building’s side. This cradle is attached to the building via ropes.
Specially insulated aerial platforms An electrically-insulated aerial platform assembly is for use by a lineman on or around utility poles. The assembly usually consists of a work platform presenting an elongated, substantially flat upper work surface where a lineman may stand, sit or kneel, together with means for temporarily attaching the platform to the utility pole with the platform being electrically insulated from the pole during normal working conditions.
Please refer to (17) Suspended Platforms under the Construction Regulations.
Industrial Lif ting Devices / Jacks (SANS 687 as well as others)
All special industrial applications (usually heavy lifting devices) Hydraulic lifting machines have been in use for many years. Originally driven by water, hydraulic equipment has found endless uses in industry today. Because of the nature, versatility and compact nature of hydraulic equipment,
Working at height has the biggest number of fatalities while the lifting industry comes a close second. It is not the fall that kills, but rather the sudden stop, especially when using a static line or lanyard to arrest a fall of more than 3 metres.
more and more demand for special applications have arisen. To make things work more efficiently in small places and to develop the same or more force, hydraulic pressures have increased to normal working pressures of 700 bar.
CMA Members, The Information and Guidance Offered to the Crane Users and Customers in the Materials Handling Industry The CMA was established by crane OEM’s for a number of reasons with the main objective being to establish a much closer harmonious relationship between the CMA, the DoL and all crane users and customers in the material handling industry. The CMA’s objective is to ensure that all the members, in execution of their trade, apply their knowledge and skills in the interest of the industry as a whole and ensuring that crane and hoist users are kept abreast with technical information and manufacturing guidelines in an unbiased position without favouring one OEM over another, but providing guidance as one voice to assist all customers. Having said this, it is the aim of the CMA to also educate and inform all crane users and customers in the industry in a direct manner, that will endeavour to eradicate as best as possible any incorrect or misleading information that is passed on to them by unregulated and non CMA/OEM companies for their own gain, that not only tarnishes the reputation of the CMA/ OEM’s but also the materials handling industry as a whole. It has been a subject of contention for many years in the crane industry, that some service providers misinforms customers on certain technical and commercial aspects, and provide product information with the intent of financial self-gain and improved market position thereby taking advantage of the customer’s lack of basic crane and hoist knowledge. It is for this exact reason that the CMA was founded by crane OEM companies with the aim of reflecting a more professional and regulated professional code of conduct that was previously ‘seen’ by the crane users and customers in industry as a whole. Each CMA/OEM member has its own technical and product information respectively that is shared with crane users and customers representing their own product’s qualities and manufacturing capabilities, however, there is some basic critical information that the crane users and industry customers has to obtain, irrelevant of the name brand or country of origin (where the equipment is manufactured). Such CRITICAL information and questions asked by the customer to the supplier would have to include the following for example: ▪▪ How many years has the name brand/crane and hoist manufacturer been in existence (actual years of manufacturing experience) ▪▪ Is the customer dealing directly with the OEM or through a reseller and if through a reseller, does the customer have direct access through the supplier to the OEM if needed, which is with whom the product liability ultimately lies (too often the resellers will refer to the OEM in cases of warranty claims, problem solving etc, trying to avoid their responsibility towards their customers after having received the order and the pleasure of supplying new equipment, now ‘washing their hands’ and avoiding the
required after sales service commitment expected by the customer). ▪▪ Does the OEM have product liability insurance in place (this is different from contractor’s insurance) and if so, what amount does it cover? This is to ensure that the customer will not suffer any financial or production losses in cases of purchasing inferior equipment from resellers or third parties that import such inferior equipment, with these cases becoming more and more evident, and therefore one of the important reasons for establishing the CMA? ▪▪ The manufacturing experience of the exact type of equipment that the crane user intends to purchase (a customer needs to establish that should he for example require a specialised or purposely built crane or hoist, obtains this from a supplier that can provide a reference of a similar type of project previously;y completed successfully, locally or internationally and be able to provide the back-up service for such type of equipment). ▪▪ What is the name brand’s ‘operational performance and longevity/life expectancy’ experienced by other crane users in the industry, based on actual references provided by the supplier to the customer for verification? ▪▪ What are the spare parts availability (lead times)? ▪▪ How long after a crane/hoist manufacturer has implemented a new model crane/hoist in its range will there be spare parts available for the current cranes/hoists in service (in many instances there are suppliers that have only been in existence for short period of time in the industry and importing unfamiliar and low cost manufactured equipment, and when the customers need spare parts, they are informed that the equipment is now obsolete, rendering the customer in a difficult position however, was ‘initially sold’ based on lower pricing structures but now lacking in product longevity/availability in which cases unfortunately ‘the damage has been done’ without any recourse by the customer to the supplier). Lifting Guide
▪▪ What international manufacturing standards are applied and what OEM certification is provided with the equipment supplied. ▪▪ In cases where cranes/hoists are supplied by a reseller or third party, how long has this reseller or supplier’s company been in existence, what quality system and maintenance certification can the reseller provide in general; if the supplier/reseller can provide a valid confirmation certificate from the OEM stating that they are trained and proficient with the equipment supplied and what OEM backup is provided etc. The above are only a few basic examples for the customer to ask when confronted with decisions to make when purchasing new equipment, assigning new maintenance service providers. The CMA encourages market related competitiveness but as stated in the CMA Code of Conduct, members must discharge their duties to their employees, clients, associates and the public with integrity, fidelity and honesty at all times. The CMA invites and encourages all crane/hoist users and customers in all industries to visit the CMA website for more details regarding the CMA, its objectives, code of ethics as well as a list of OEM members that customers are encouraged to make contact with for the purpose of engaging in a meaningful business relationship which will enable and assist you, the industry’s valued users and customers the confidence to be able to make more educated decisions when purchasing and maintaining your critical capital and production equipment. Steven Claase, for and on behalf of the CMA
10 Tips for Better Mobile Crane Operations 1 Never override the mobile crane’s computer.
Be aware of all overhead hazards – specifically close-by buildings and any power lines that are within the zone of operation.
Read the load charts – prior to turning the key in any new mobile crane.
Cell phones in the cab – while the crane’s key is on the cell phone is off.
Always note the changing conditions on the jobsite – from personnel to weather to surroundings.
LMI ACADEMY cc. Merseta Accreditation No: 17-QA/ACC/0637/11 Reg. No. 2001/075895/23
P.O. Box 5907,Weltevredenpark 1715 E-MAIL: email@example.com website: www.lmi-academy.co.za Training offered at the LMI Academy or on site. • • • • •
Lifting Machinery Inspector Qualification (LMI). Registered CPD Training. The Rigging trade. DMR 18 training. Tackle training.
Sometimes in a working situation, the crane operator needs to stop, evaluate, and find a safer lift plan.
Check ground conditions – before crane setup, ensure that the site is suitable to support your mobile crane and the future suspended loads.
Use appropriate pads & cribbing – mobile crane operators need to make sure they are using correct pads or cribbing to avoid having an outrigger fail or sink when they are making a lift.
Before starting your crane, always double check the oil, gas, and other fluid levels.
For further details contact: +27(011) 475 5876
At the beginning of your shift, walk-around your crane checking for mechanical, electrical, structural, and hydraulic issues (MESH).
Member of: LEEASA No. 810051
Also remember your lift plan rigging study (including a site specific risk assessment) and ensure qualified supervisors are present. www.iti.com
Are LMI’s Really Aware of the Risks They Run? At a meeting between the Department of Labour and representatives of the Crane Manufacturers Association, extensive discussions took place relating to the subject of the safe working period for hoists and lifting equipment. Hoists are designed to have a maximum capacity for a determined duty cycle. This results in a safe working period for a lifting appliance. As the law stands, at present each lifting appliance has to be load tested annually. Part of this procedure is to subject the lifting machine to 10% overload. This is intended to indicate defects which are not apparent and could lead to a failure
But does this system really work??
An overload test only proves that the lifting machine will lift the overload at that given point in time, it is no guarantee that it will continue to function properly for the next year. Moreover by overloading the hoist, the safe working period is further eroded beyond the OEM design norm. This is particularly relevant when the lifting equipment being tested is 10 years old or more. Very often by the time a crane has reached an age of 10 years, it has had a number of owners and a number of different operational conditions. The aspect of safe working period is of vital importance to be able to guarantee the continued overall safety of the lifting appliance. The Department Of Labour made it quite clear that the responsibility for the education of the Lifting Machinery Inspectors lies with the Original Equipment Manufacturer. It is for this reason that the Crane Manufacturers Association of South Africa is actively encouraging the Lifting Machinery Inspectors (LMI’s) under its influence to familiarise themselves with the criteria which influence the safe working period. Many LMI’s are unaware of the risks they run when signing off on a load test on a lifting appliance which has reached its safe working period. If the load test certificate is issued with no reference to the need for a general overhaul, then the LMI carries the responsibility in the event of a hoist failure. If the LMI has noted on the test certificate that the safe working period has been reached and a general overhaul is required, and the end user does not take heed of the Original Equipment
Alan O’Hara, CMA Chairperson
Manufacturers recommendation that a general overhaul should take place then the responsibility passes to the end user. The new Driven Machinery Regulation 18 for lifting machines together with the soon to be adopted SANS 10375 The Inspection and testing of overhead cranes takes care of the scenarios which can arise due to the safe working period being reached. The development of sophisticated computer based design programs has resulted in the more accurate prediction of an item of lifting equipment’s safe working period. Many of the association’s members have defined overhaul programmes which can extend the safe working period and in fact give the lifting appliance a new lease of life. They also have data logging devices which are able to track and record a lifting appliance’s duty cycle and load handling history thereby giving the end user total confidence regarding the future remaining safe working life of the crane or wire rope hoist. All of the end user’s responsible persons must question the lifting machinery inspector when a certificate is issued without any interrogation of the history of the lifting appliance being tested. It is the responsibility of the lifting machinery inspectors to determine the remaining safe working life of the equipment he tests and to recommend the need for a general overhaul. It is the responsibility of the end user to ensure that the overhaul is carried out. Written by Alan O’Hara, 6 August 2016 Acknowledgement to the CMA
x 40mm GLTC Strip AD.pdfare1 installed, 2017/05/04have 10:13 Where180 multiple lifting beams an AMengineer check the effect of simultaneous use on the building structure C
The agenda, emphasis and objective of the Crane Manufacturers Association is to align the market to the standards both local and abroad and to use this information and research to educate our users from a neutral platform. A decision about the type of crane to choose will be heavily influenced by where it is to be installed. There are three main situations: • an indoor crane for a new building, • an indoor crane for an existing building, • an outdoor crane. If an indoor crane is to span the whole width of a building, the most likely choice will be a top running overhead crane. This type of crane can be designed as an integral part of the building structure. If the crane is to span only part of the width of the building, there are other options.
clearly much will depend upon the design of the building and whether there is an existing gantry. If there is, it will be necessary to establish its loading capacity which may require a design review. Also it may need to be surveyed for accuracy of alignment and adjusted if necessary. In any event, there are four critical dimensions which need to be taken into account: • the span between the centrelines of the gantry rails • the distance between the centreline of the gantry rail and each side of the building • the headroom above the gantry rail and,
• The first is a semi-goliath crane. This is only suitable • the height from the floor to the top of the gantry rail. if the crane span is to reach one side of the building. These dimensions should be taken at several points along the Consideration must be given to the gantry and particular at any transition possible hazard arising from the points such as where the building or Whichever option is chosen, it crane leg and the floor-level track. gantry has been extended. There are • The second option is a goliath crane, again consideration must be given to the possible hazard arising from the crane legs and the floor-level tracks.
is essential that it is decided on early in the building design process so that the required capacity, span, travel and height of lift are provided for
• Finally there is the option of a top running gantry crane with one or both sides supported on a free standing gantry. This has the disadvantage of the gantry obstructing part of the floor but may be suitable if a short travel run is required. Whichever option is chosen, it is essential that it is decided on early in the building design process so that the required capacity, span, travel and height of lift are provided for. The loadings imposed by the crane on the building, gantry and ground must be determined and allowed for. It is also essential that the building designer is familiar with designing structures for use with electric overhead travelling cranes. The design must incorporate the facility to accurately adjust the line, level and span of the gantry rails or crane tracks. Many buildings will be subjected to movement over time which will make it necessary to re-align the gantry or tracks.
other more detailed dimensions which may eventually be needed to ensure the crane will fit, but these are the basics. These options remain essentially the same as for a new building.
However if the building was not designed to accommodate an electric overhead travelling crane, it is highly unlikely that it will withstand the loads imposed without considerable strengthening or the installation of an independent gantry on new foundations. Also the available headroom may not accommodate a crane of the required capacity spanning the full width of the building. These factors may limit your options. Another common situation is where an outdoor crane runs alongside a new or existing building.
The main options are a top running gantry crane and a semigoliath crane. The decision mostly depends upon whether the building will support a gantry on that side and the length of travel required. For It is highly unlikely that the length of travel, it is a balancing act it will withstand the between the more expensive semi-goliath loads imposed without crane and the cheaper ground level track. Consideration must be given to the possible considerable strengthening hazard arising from the crane leg and the or the installation of an ground level tracks.
independent gantry on new foundations
The type of building structure is also important. Many modern building are a portal frame design. These can flex considerably under the influence of wind, rail and even hail and other imposed loads such as internal services, water tanks, solar panels, etc.
Having considered the type of crane most suited to the location, it is time to consider those matters influenced by the applications the crane is intended for. These will determine the choice of the following:
This flexing can result in an unacceptable variation of span. It is possible to introduce ties to limit the effect but this should preferably be done at the design stage.
• Hoist and travel speeds
Turning now to an indoor crane for an existing building,
• Duty rating • Type of control system The duty of the crane is a measure of how frequently it is used and the amount of load it lifts relative to its maximum capacity. Clearly a crane required to lift the maximum load
every time and working continuously on a 24 hour shift sysAn additional crane tem is doing a lot more work than one used only a few times When purchasing an additional crane to partner an existing a day, only occasionally lifting a load close to its maximum crane, consideration should be given to integrating the concapacity. The duty for which the crane is rated must therefore trol system, particularly if the application is a frequent one. be appropriate for the application. If the crane is subject to It is often possible to carry out tandem lifting operations a duty higher than it is designed for, it with two cranes which are separately will affect the safety and reliability of the controlled, but this will involve careful crane, require more frequent inspection If the operator is slinging planning, training and procedures to and maintainance and ultimately shorten the loads as well and needs control the associated risks. the life of the crane. the control to be within easy
It is therefore essential that the current reach, then pendant control Environmental and foreseeable duties of the crane are may be the best option Environmental conditions should always carefully considered. The hoist and travel be provided to a potential supplier. speeds are equally important. If the crane Cranes designed for use outdoors is to be used for applications requiring precision placements incorporate features not usually found on those designed of the load, a variable speed or slow speed is required. Equally for indoor use. They are designed to withstand the forces of if high lifts or long travel distance are involved, productivity nature and have weather protection for critical components. may depend on the availability of high speed. There are options which can provide for both situations giving an optimum The materials used are selected to provide corrosion resistance and the thickness of structural elements may include an alcombination of precision and productivity. lowance for corrosion. Storm anchors Control system are required to prevent the crane from The type of control system will depend being blown along the gantry or track An integrated control system upon where the operator needs to be, by high wind. These points should be of this type will eliminate the and how far he or she must travel. If considered when purchasing a secondpotential risks arising from for example, the work involves frequent hand crane for outdoor use or relocating a malfunction of one of the long travel distance, cab control may be an indoor crane for this purpose. the best option. If the operator needs to crane control systems and lack Power stand back and get a broader view of of coordination between two Electric power must be supplied to the the work area or needs to operate from crane operators crane. For cranes running on a gantry or different levels, then remote control may high level track, the usual choice is an be the best option. If the operator is enclosed conductor system. However, slinging the loads as well and needs the control to be within for short runs, a festoon cable feed, or cable feed, or cable easy reach, then pendant control may be the best option. reeling drum are viable options. For goliath type cranes runIn tandem ning on ground level tracks, a popular solution is a powered Electric overhead traveling cranes are sometimes used for reeling drum which lays the cable into a ground level trough. tandem lifting operations where the load is shared between two cranes that operate in unison. Each crane must have a Collision safe working load equal to or in excess of its share of the For obvious safety reasons every crane gantry or track must have end stops or buffers to prevent the crane from running load taking into account any possible variations. off. Nevertheless collision at speed is potentially dangerous They must also be able to operate at the required distance as is collision with another crane on the same gantry/track. apart, taking account the load rating of the gantry or tracks Modern control systems can incorporate anti-collision features at that proximity. and these should be considered. The speeds of the cranes should be compatible particular if Maintenance the operation involves particularly if the operation involves Finally once installed, the crane will need regular maintenance long travel movement, in which case the long travel speeds and inspection, both of which require close-up access to all must be matched. parts of the crane. Cab controlled cranes will require access When purchasing new cranes for this for the driver and the provision of suitapplication the two cranes should be able walkways across the crane bridge The materials used are regarded as a single machine. There will extend this facility for maintenance selected to provide corrosion should be the facility to control both and inspection. resistance and the thickness cranes from one control station using a However as driver access is not required single set of controls. The crane system of structural elements may for pendant and remote controlled should be linked so that when any motion include an allowance for cranes, they are not normally fitted command is given, they communicate corrosion with such walkways unless specially to verify that both cranes are executing requested. Furthermore the position the same movement. of the hoist on single girder cranes is An integrated control system of this type will eliminate the not conductive to walkway access. If site conditions permit, potential risks arising from a malfunction of one of the crane the best solution may be the use of a mobile elevating work control systems and lack of coordination between two crane platform or a portable scaffolding tower. operators. This arrangement does not prevent the cranes from Written by Ken Watridge , Published: 06 August 2016 having the facility to be used independently. Acknowledgement to the CMA Lifting Guide
Mobile Cranes Aerial Crane Aerial crane or ‘Sky cranes’ usually are helicopters designed to lift large loads. Helicopters are able to travel to and lift in areas that are difficult to reach by conventional cranes. Helicopter cranes are most commonly used to lift units/loads onto shopping centers and high-rises. They can lift anything within their lifting capacity, (cars, boats, swimming pools, etc.). They also perform disaster relief after natural disasters for clean-up, and during wild-fires they are able to carry huge buckets of water to extinguish fires.
(Supported by SANS 19)
All mobile cranes and fixed adaptations of the superstructure of a mobile crane
Carry deck cranes Carry deck cranes are designed for both indoor and outdoor jobsites and feature telescoping booms and a load deck for materials handling. Because of their low profile, they are able to clear many overhead obstacles. Furthermore, their compact design allows for easy manoeuvrability in tight spaces, and they are thus the perfect alternatives when other cranes cannot fit.
Some aerial cranes, mostly concepts, have also used lighter-than air aircraft, such as airships.
All terrain cranes All terrain mobile cranes are used for lifting very heavy items, or for lifting items over great heights or large reaches. These are not for carrying, stationary operations. All terrain cranes can travel long distances at reasonable speeds conforming to axle loading requirements. Once on site, the crane can negotiate rough terrain similar to construction sites and open cast mines. They use telescopic boom configurations which can include lattice boom luffing fly jibs. The job does not come to them, but they go to it.
Fixed or truck mounted - loader crane, knuckle boom cranes A knuckle-boom crane or articulating crane is a hydraulically driven articulated arm fitted to a truck or trailer, and is used for loading/unloading the vehicle. The numerous jointed sections can be folded into a small space when the crane is not in use. One or more of the sections may be telescopic. Often the crane will have a degree of automation and be able to unload or stow itself without an operator’s instruction. Unlike most cranes, the operator must move around the vehicle to be able to view his load; hence modern cranes may be fitted with a portable cabled or radiolinked control system to supplement the crane-mounted hydraulic control levers.
Crawler lattice boom cranes Crawler lattice boom cranes are used for heavy lifts, mostly on sites where there are short distances between lifts, for example, at construction sites. They are slow moving, but can travel with loads. They are fitted with lattice booms consisting of lacings and stringers which are lightweight and strong. Another feature of the crane is that it travels on crawler tracks which makes set up quick.
Lattice boom cranes on tyre wheeled carriers Lattice boom cranes on tyre wheeled carriers are similar to crawler cranes and are used for lifts including heavy lifts. After dismantling these cranes, they can be moved by their carrier, which is similar to an all terrain crane on normal high speed roads. They are fitted with lattice booms consisting of lacings and stringers which are lightweight and strong.
Mobile harbour cranes Traditionally, a cargo ship docks at the container terminal and off-loads the containers. Once these have been removed, the ship disembarks and re-docks at another berth, where the hold hatches are opened by more conventional cranes, and then the cargo is discharged into the hold with specialised devices. When this process is complete, the hatches are closed and the ship disembarks and re-berths at the container depot. Docking fees are paid to re-load its containers. The mobile harbour crane does all three functions in one, reducing docking time, money and turnaround time.
Mini crawler crane The mini crawler crane range extends to nine different models, starting from the MC104 with a capacity of .995 ton and 5.5m lift height to the larger LC1385B with a capacity of 6.0 ton and a lift height of 16.70m. With this range of cranes, some narrow enough to fit through a standard doorway and others large enough to lift up to 6.0 ton, work can take place safely both indoors and outdoors without compromise. Adding to the versatility of the units is their power source with the option of petrol, LPG, diesel and electric. A further advantage in some models is the diesel/ electric alternating power source.
Stacker Crane A crane with a forklift type mechanism used in automated (computer controlled) warehouses (known as an automated storage and retrieval system (AS/RS). The crane moves on a track in an aisle of the warehouse. The fork can be raised or lowered to any of the levels of a storage rack and can be extended into the rack to store and retrieve product. The product can in some cases be as large as an automobile. Stacker cranes are often used in the large freezer warehouses of frozen food manufacturers. This automation avoids requiring forklift drivers to work in below freezing temperatures every day.
A major feature of the mini crawler cranes is the boom construction. The pentagonal shape of the boom increases the strength and prevents unnecessary flexing in extreme conditions. The smaller units are fitted with a four stage boom while the larger units have an additional fifth stage.
Pick and carry cranes A pick and carry crane is usually fitted onto a rubber tyred vehicle with a built-in control station. Sometimes it is just too difficult or impossible to reach a spot, with conventional cranes. In such cases, a pick and carry crane can just be the right solution. Other features that make a pick and carry crane more powerful are its advanced hydraulic boom derricking and articulating operations of chassis. A pick and carry crane may also have a water-cooled diesel engine. The amount of weight that a pick and carry crane lifts may range from 9-12 tonnes or even more, depending upon the model. They are sometimes called yard cranes.
Truck mounted cranes
Rough terrain and/or centre mount cranes Rough terrain and/or centre mount cranes are cranes that have to be moved on low beds from site to site because they do not conform to road ordinance requirements. These cranes can work on rough sites in mud, snow and adverse conditions. They are highly manoeuvrable on site and are available up to 100 tonne capacities.
These are mobile cranes either fitted with a lattice boom or a hydraulic telescopic boom, mounted on a conventional truck chassis. They are used as jobbing cranes and are limited to accessing places where there are good flat surfaces. They are not suited to rough terrain like construction sites.
Operator Training - A Legal Requirement There are a number of very real risks involved in operating a crane. Whether crane operators operate mobile or stationary cranes to lift, and place objects, potential danger is always present. Through proper training, crane operators will be able to operate a variety of cranes safely and efficiently. These range from gantry cranes used to move shipping containers, tower cranes mainly used on large building projects, overhead cranes in factories, or even mobile or truck-mounted cranes.
efore climbing behind the controls, the operator needs to make sure that the crane is ready for use by checking the instruments and gauges.
The law requires all crane operators to be formally trained. Training is carried out under the auspices of the Training Education Transport Authority (TETA). The training must meet education training quality assurance (ETQA) requirements for Provisional Accreditation, and have been recommended to the TETA Quality Assurance Standing Committee for approval of its status. Operator training may only be given by accredited training providers who are registered with the TETA and the trainers have to be qualified facilitators or assessors also registered with the TETA.
Basic computer skills needed
With new technology, cranes are becoming more computerised.
The new generation of operators will need to have some basic computer skills and have the ability to read, and interact, with a computer screen Therefore, the new generation of operators will need to have some basic computer skills and have the ability to read, and interact, with a computer screen. The operators must pass a theory and practical test before they receive a valid certificate of training, which entitles them to operate the crane on their own. They are required to be re-tested every two years to ensure they remain competent as crane operators.
Although the work of the crane may look simple to the outsider, many aspects of this work are quite complicated. For example, if material is hoisted too quickly, the strain might
result in a snapped rope or the sudden movement could cause the cargo to shift. As soon as the material is lifted from the floor, the operator has to manoeuvre the crane in such a way that the material is lowered onto a specific position. In addition, some cranes run on rails. This means that the operator also has to regulate the forward and backward movement of the crane on the rails. Moving a crane while it has a load suspended from its hook takes extra skill and good coordination.
Good hand-eye coordination
With an overhead crane, the bridge of the crane serves as a substitute for the boom on a tower crane. The hoisting platform and its suspended hook, can move backwards and forwards across the bridge. This means that line of sight has to be maintained to position the load right above the place where the load has to be picked up or deposited. Where a mobile crane has to be brought to a construction site, the operator must check the condition of the ground before setting up the crane. This may involve placing timber blocks or steel plates under the outrigger pads (blocking). Before attempting to lift a load, it is essential to check that the mobile crane is level on the outriggers. Every crane has a safe working load (SWL). The driver needs to be aware of what weight of material can be safely hoisted in each load and must check the craneâ€™s cabin instruments to make sure that the load is within safe working limits. This has to take into consideration the crane's capacity and the weather. For example, high winds can pose a danger to a suspended load.
Working with ground crew
While operating, the driver must observe and follow the signals given by doggers who direct the moving and positioning of the loads. The operator has to position the crane and its hook so that doggers can attach loads by means of slings, shackles and chains.
Obviously, people who want to become crane operators should not be afraid of heights. They may be required to mount a vertical ladder to reach the cabin which is situated high above the ground. Furthermore, operators must have good depth perception to judge distance and heights accurately while manipulating a number of complex controls. This requires good hand-eye co-ordination. A responsible attitude towards the work is also important. Persons who easily become nervous or impatient can cause considerable damage by snapping cables or dropping material, thus endangering the lives of others.
At times crane operators may have less than a clear view of what is happening on the ground. In these circumstances, ground crew will assist with the process of loading and unloading. Often, because of noise and distance, the worker on the ground shows the crane operator what to do by means of hand signals according to SANS10296, or by using a two-way radio or telephone. Specialised accredited training is required for this.
Operators must have good depth perception to judge distance and heights accurately A varied skill set
Although modern cranes have comfortable cabins ensuring maximum protection, outside the lifting work has to continue in all conditions. For this reason, it is essential to maintain the equipment by inspecting it for defects or wear. Ropes and winches must be lubricated, and worn cables replaced.
Prospective crane operators are also subject to a strict selection process prior to appointment. The minimum educational requirement is a Grade 7 to 10 Certificate. The Occupational Health and Safety Act and the Mine Health and Safety Act requires crane operators to be at least 18 years of age and in good physical health.
Training for persons doing legal compliance inspections and tests Legal statutory 6 monthly and annual inspection and/or load tests have to be undertaken by people who are appointed for this function. Future Lifting Machinery Inspectors (LMI) will have to undergo formal training to be able to qualify prior to registering to obtain a licence to practice as a LMI. This is now in place and will become compulsory in the future. After the new generation of LMIâ€™s has gone through this process, the quality and safety of lifting machinery should be better and improve the industry.
SAFETY THROUGH INNOVATION The use of Water Weights for proof load testing is recognised worldwide as the most safe, efficient and cost-effective solution. With over 30 years experience, we have established our name with a highly skilled team of personnel, standing above the rest in Inspection and Testing. Our customer base includes marine, mining, industrial and traditional applications, both off-shore and land based. Not only do we have equipment all over Sub-Saharan Africa, but we offer equipment rental and testing using solid weights; all of which solidifies our core commitment in the provision of products and services for all our customersâ€™ needs. Peace of mind, quality assurance, reliability, performance and above all else, SAFETY, is what puts us head and shoulders above our competitors and foremost in the minds of our clientele. To make a booking, please contact one of our branches closest to you or visit www.waterweights.co.za for more information.
We at Water Weights, look forward to serving you! NATAL +27 31 572 4940 / GAUTENG +27 11 425 0015 / MOZAMBIQUE +258 843 989 386 firstname.lastname@example.org / email@example.com / firstname.lastname@example.org 1047 Waterweights 1/2 page landscape ad.indd 2
2017/02/06 1:35 PM
Overhead, Gantry & Portal Cranes Free standing and/or permanently attached jib cranes Free standing jib cranes are engineered to stand by themselves on a concrete foundation without building support. They allow for 360˚ rotation and can be base plate mounted, foundation mounted, or sleeve insert mounted. Standard capacities are from 1/2 to 5 tonnes. Other types of jib cranes include a mast type and wall mounted jib crane. Mast type is where the mast is supported at the top and bottom by the overhead building steel and floor. Wall mounted jib cranes only offer 200˚ of rotation and their design can be either cantilever or tie rod supported.
Gantry cranes A gantry crane is a type of crane which lifts objects by a hoist that is fitted in a trolley and can move horizontally on a rail or pair of rails fitted under a beam. Workstation gantry cranes are designed to lift smaller items around a working area in a warehouse or workshop, whereas rail-mounted gantry cranes are commonly found in steel factory applications such as steel yards, paper mills or locomotive repair shops. The rail-mounted gantry crane functions similarly to an overhead bridge crane, but has rails installed on the ground and gantry-style legs to support the crane. The picture shows a wall mounted gantry crane.
(Supported by SANS 10375)
Goliath cranes Goliath cranes are adapted to applications where overhead runways would be very long, costly to erect, and difficult to maintain in alignment. Where the installation is only temporary, a Goliath crane can be moved to a new location with less trouble or expenses than an overhead crane and its runway. Also, it is comparatively easy and inexpensive to extend the length of the runway and thus, increases the working area of the crane. Most gantry crane installations are outdoors. The initial cost of a Goliath crane, which may be double that of an overhead crane, must be equated against the additional cost of an overhead runway. The picture shows a cantilever overhang crane.
Rail mounted cranes Overhead cranes An overhead crane, also known as a bridge crane, is a type of crane where the hook-and-line mechanism runs along a horizontal beam that itself runs along two widely-separated rails. Often it is in a long factory building and runs along rails along the building’s two long walls. It is similar to a gantry crane. Overhead cranes typically consist of a hoist to lift the items, the bridge, which spans the area covered by the crane, and a trolley to move along the bridge.
Rail-mounted gantry cranes (RMG) are specialised yard container handling machines. An RMG travels on rails to lift and stack 20 or 40’ containers in the yard area. The container is lifted by a spreader attached to cables. Rail mounted cranes come in a variety of models with different spans and overhangs. This crane is specifically designed for
intensive container stacking due to its automation and less need for human handling. Compared to the Rubber Tyred Gantry crane (RTG), the RMG has the advantage of being driven by electrical power, it’s cleaner, has bigger lifting capacity, and higher gantry traveling speed with cargo. Rail-mounted gantry cranes are particularly effective for rail/ road transhipments of large quantities of containers.
V-type crane girder 17 percent lighter than regular crane girders, this girder can easily manage more than 500 000 load changes â€“ over double the service life of a conventional boxsection girder. The V-Type girder can be easily adapted to any building shape, and is the ideal solution both for existing buildings, as well as for new construction projects. The girder allows 30 percent more light to pass through, enabling personnel to better see their surroundings, while brightening the workspace. It also has a shorter time cycle, helping to increase productivity and overall output. It boasts several lifting points for safer installation of the load and has more clamping and attachment points for lamps. Tapered diaphragm joints accommodate pressure and tensile forces more effec-
tively to reduce resonant frequency by 30 percent. On average, the V-Type crane is 17 percent lighter than comparable cranes that have box-section girders. This not only reduces the forces transmitted to the existing support superstructure and provides architects with greater freedom when planning new building
Wharfside Cranes Wharf cranes were the backbone of the materials handling lifting industry in years gone by. It is difficult to formulate an exact definition for these cranes because they have evolved
(no SANS std. yet)
In medieval Europe, crane vessels which could be flexibly deployed in the whole port basin were introduced as early as the 14th century. In 1920, the 1898 built battleship USS Kearsarge (BB-5) was converted to a crane ship when a crane with a capacity of 250 tonnes was installed. Later it was renamed Crane Ship No.1. It was used, among other things, to place guns and other heavy items on battle ships under construction. Since then, ships cranes have come quite a way. Their applications are no longer limited to just placing weapons on battle ships,
The girder features bolted connections for gentler loads on the entire crane system, including the crane runway. Parallel alignment of the machined connecting surfaces forms the basis for secure connections with high-tensile bolts.
into modern state-of-the-art cranes. An example of this crane can be seen in the adjacent picture. They are used to travel on rails and load railway trucks which travel on rails underneath the cranes. Their lifting capacity has been increasing, but when they were in abundance, they generally picked up relatively small loads compared to todayâ€™s standards.
(no SANS std. yet)
layouts, but also improves the relative deadweight-to-load-capacity ratio.
All ship cranes including Scotch Derrick cranes but are now also used in many major construction jobs around the world. As a definition, a crane vessel, crane ship or floating crane is a ship with a crane specialised in lifting heavy loads. The largest crane vessels are used for offshore construction. Conventional monohulls are used, but the largest crane vessels are often catamaran or semi-submersible types as they have increased stability. On a sheerleg crane, the crane is fixed and cannot rotate, and the vessel therefore is manoeuvred to place loads.
Tower Cranes Tower cranes are a modern form of balance crane that consist of the same basic parts. Fixed to the ground on a concrete slab (and sometimes attached to the sides of structures as well), tower cranes often give the best combination of height and lifting capacity and are used in the construction of tall buildings. The base is attached to the mast which gives the crane its height. Furthermore, the mast is attached to the slewing unit (gear and motor) that allows the crane to rotate. On top of the slewing unit there are
(Supported by SANS 522)
All Top or Bottom Swivelling Tower Cranes
three main parts, namely the long horizontal jib (working arm), shorter counter-jib, and the operatorâ€™s cab. The long horizontal jib is the part of the crane that carries the load. The counter-jib carries a counterweight, usually of concrete blocks, while the jib suspends the load to and from the centre of the crane. The crane operator either sits in a cab at the top of the tower or controls the crane by radio remote control from the ground. Luffing crane
Bottom slewing cranes
Container Handling Cranes Containers With ISO containers weighing specified weights, lifting them manually is just not an option - no matter how many employees you have willing to show off their strength. For lifting a container onto a truck you need a container lifter. There are many variations of these, some of them attached to trucks, and some of them freestanding. The idea of a container handler is to move a full sized laden or full containers around a warehouse. These are found in the export and import materials handling depots.
(no SANS std. yet)
Cantilever or fixed or on rail/s either inland or at a harbour
Reach stacker (no SANS std. yet)
Mobile machines specially designed to move and stack containers, including the forklift counter balance types where a RCI must be fitted, whether the spreader is manual or automatic A Reach stacker is one of the most flexible handling solutions designed to operate in small or medium sized ports. Reach stackers are able to transport a container over short distances very quickly and pile them in various rows.
Ship-to-shore crane A container crane is a large dockside gantry crane found at container terminals for loading and unloading of containers from container ships. Container cranes consist of a supporting framework that can traverse the length of a quay or yard, and a moving platform called a ‘spreader.’ The spreader can be lowered down on top of a container and locks onto the container’s four locking points using a ‘twistlock’ mechanism.
Reach stackers have gained ground in container handling in most markets because of their flexibility and higher stacking and storage capacity when compared to lift trucks.
Straddle carriers RTG (Rubber Tyre Gantry) Rubber-tyred gantry cranes (RTG) are the specialised equipment for yard handling of standard containers. They are the most common yard handling system at the world's largest container terminals and specialized container storage yards with annual capacity requirements up to millions of TEUs. RTG’s are an economical solution when straddling multiple lanes of rail/road and/or container storage, or when maximum storage density in the container stack is desired.
(no SANS std. yet)
All mobile self propelled tyre type machines similar to gantry cranes
Truck mounted side loading container carriers A truck mounted side loading crane is used for the loading, unloading and transport of ISO standard containers. The truck is usually fitted with balancing arms to prevent it from rocking over in the process of loading or unloading the container.
A Straddle Carrier is a non road-going vehicle for use in port terminals and intermodal yards used for stacking and moving containers. Straddles pick and carry containers while straddling their load and connecting to the top lifting points via a container spreader. These machines have the ability to stack containers up to four high and are capable of speeds up to 30 km/h with a laden container.
Specialised Cranes Balance cranes Balance cranes can effectively handle bulk material, general cargo, scrap metal and containers, energy efficiently. The balance crane is based on a unique counterbalancing principle. The boom, stick, connecting link and counterweight form a parallelogram. This ensures that the weight of machine and a portion of the lifted load are balanced at any point in the duty cycle.
As the lifting industry grows, more and more specialised machines are being added to the lifting machine list.
Production loader / Scrap metal crane / Cycling cranes Production Loader or Scrap Metal cranes are designed to operate efficiently, uninterruptedly and safely in continuous use, these cranes are designed for long operating hours and can be mounted on vehicle chassis or stationary mounted in a yard, these are equipped with a scrap grab which is designed specifically for this purpose.
Sugar cane loading cranes In the sugar and timber industry special mobile cranes are used to lift and transport sugar cane or timber bundles. These cranes are often modified agricultural tractors with long booms or three wheel special cranes fitted with forks, grabs or booms.
Because the crane is so closely balanced about the slewing ring, foundation requirements are minimised. Cranes have routinely been mounted on a single large diameter pile or small cell. The crane is easily adaptable to crawler mounting or on railmounted undercarriages.
Timber / Forestry crane
Railway cranes These cranes are mounted on railway lines which are used as railway recovery cranes to clear the lines after a derailment and also for special track maintenance.
Floating cranes A crane vessel, crane ship or floating crane is a ship with a crane specialized in lifting heavy loads. The largest crane vessels are used for offshore construction. Conventional monohulls are used, but the largest crane vessels are often catamaran or semi-submersible types as they have increased stability. On a sheerleg crane, the crane is fixed and cannot rotate, and the vessel therefore is manoeuvered to place loads.
Side cranes Most side cranes are lifting machines that are specially adapted bull dozers for pipe laying and similar operations. They have become very popular over the years because they can work in adverse conditions. Some models can lift in excessive of 70 tonnes which is achieved by adjustable counter weights.
Timber cranes are specially designed to handle cut timber and are mounted onto vehicles used for hauling timber. The crane is equipped with a timber grab which is designated specifically for this purpose.
THE GLOBAL STANDARD IN CRANES AND HOISTS DESIGN • MANUFACTURE • SERVICE • SALES As a global manufacturer and provider of cranes in varying industries, Condra provides high quality engineering, ﬂexible inhouse design and an impressive range of products to mining, shipping, steel, fabrication, robotics, railways and ports. Since 1966, Condra has mastered the engineering, manufacturing and installation of cranes all over the world to large, medium and small industries. We are constantly innovating to provide manual, electric and combo cranes that provide solution to lifting, hooks, grabbing, magnets, ladles, buckets or stacking duties.
Overhead travelling cranes Wire rope hoists Portal or semi-portal cranes and bridge cranes Cantilever cranes (pillar, jib and wall)
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