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March 2012




March 2012

March 2012


Featured on the cover: Bateman Engineered Technologies Tel: (011) 201-2300



31 Mining in the Green 35 Second Time Around

From the Chairman’s Desk


5 An Exciting Future

38 Market Forum

Cover Story 6 Conveyor System at Lumwana Extension

Endorsing Bodies •

CMA (Conveyor Manufacturers Association)

9 Market Share Spirals 13 New Belt Tensioning System

LEEASA (Lifting Equipment Engineering Association of South Africa)

Harbours Ports & Railways

RFA (Road Freight Association)

SAIMechE (SA Institute of Mechanical Engineering)

SAIMH (SA Institute of Materials Handling)


17 Designing Bulk Dry Terminals

Crushers, Screens & Liners 23 More than Meets the Eye 27 Tag and Trace


All rights reserved. No editorial matter published in “Bulk Handling Today” may be reproduced in any form or language without written permission of the publishers. While every effort is made to ensure accurate reproduction, the editor, authors, publishers and their employees or agents shall not be responsible or in any way liable for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies in the publication, whether arising from negligence or otherwise or for any consequences arising therefrom. The inclusion or exclusion of any product does not mean that the publisher or editorial board advocates or rejects its use either generally or in any particular field or fields.

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March 2012



From the Chairman’s Desk I’m delighted to report that CMA membership continues to grow and we are over the seventy member mark – a feat to be proud of! We extend a warm welcome to Timken, who is the latest member to join the CMA team.


e have a busy 2012 ahead – the CMA general meeting dates have reverted back to a Tuesday, and meetings will take place on 17 April, 12 June and 16 October. Our first meeting on 07 February was extremely well supported – thank you to those who attended the meeting. Simon Curry

Our annual fun on the golf course took place on 22 February at Benoni Country Club. Despite the weather man letting us down in the afternoon, we had a fantastic day and a record number of four balls were entered. Congratulations to Melco who walked away with the CMA floating trophy for 2012.

The publication of SANS 1313 was due on 05 March On a more serious note, new education and training courses are being offered this year. In addition to three Diploma Courses, we are running CMA Certificate courses, CMA Beltsman courses, CMA Belt splicing refresher courses and CMA Belt splicing

training courses. All details were emailed out and are on the website. The CMA handbook is well underway, with key experts in their respective fields sharing their knowledge and experience, to make this handbook an invaluable reference for all of us in the industry. We’ll keep you posted on its progress. Another highlight is that the publication of SANS 1313 was due on 05 March – please check with the SABS office, to obtain the necessary details. This is excellent news for us all! We will convene a new working group for idlers, for which we already have many interested parties. Other 2012 activities include our annual Industry Interact and AGM weekend away from the city buzz - we will return to the Champagne Sports Resort in the Drakensberg from 24-26 August, following on from the positive feedback of our 2011 weekend getaway. Please diarise the date now as space is limited! Simon Curry, Chairman

CMA Members List as at March 2012 All members subscribe to the CMA Code of Ethics ABB Industry Actom Afripp Projects Atlanta Manufacturing Bateman Engineered Technologies Bauer Bearings International Belt Reco BMG Bonfiglioli Power Transmissions Bosworth Brelko Conveyor Products CMG Electric Motors Conveyor Watch CPI Technologies CPM Engineering CT Systems David Brown Gear Industries Delras Engineering DRA Mineral Projects DRA Mining (Pty) Ltd Dunlop Belting Products Dymot Engineering Company ELB Engineering Services



Facet Engineering Fenner Conveyor Belting (South Africa) Flexible Steel Lacing SA FLSmidth Roymec Hägglunds Drives South Africa Hansen Transmissions SA Hatch Africa Horne Hydraulics Hosch - Fördertechnik (SA) International Belting & Marketing Iptron Technology Joy Global (South Africa) Lesa Mining Equipment and Conveyor Belt Lorbrand M & J Engineering Martin Engineering Melco Conveyor Equipment Moret Mining MS Conveyor Pulleys SA Nepean Conveyors OE Bearings Oriental Rubber Industries SA Osborn Engineered Products PH Projects Holdings

March 2012

Protea Conveyors Read Swatman & Voigt Rema Tip Top South Africa Renold Crofts RSV ENCO Consulting Rula Bulk Materials Handling Sandvik Materials Handling SA Schaeffler South Africa SENET SET Agencies SEW Eurodrive Shaft Engineering Shaw Almex Africa SKF South Africa ThyssenKrupp Materials Handling Timken South Africa (Pty) Ltd Transmission Components Transvaal Rubber Company Unitek Engineers Veyance Technologies Africa Voith Turbo Zest Electric Motors


An Exciting Future Well it’s that time of the year again. The institute AGM was held on 29th February and it was used as an opportunity to reflect on the past as well as presenting an exciting future.


t the AGM this year, we were honoured to have as our guest speaker (as part of the Joint Forum series of lectures) a stalwart of the industry Simon Curry, current chairman of CMA, who talked about pulleys with internal bearings as a follow-up from the last successful Beltcon conference. We hope also that by the time you read this article we will have a new, dynamic and committed committee to build upon the recent successes in ensuring the continued viability of the institute. One of the areas that has consumed a substantial amount of time and energy has been the development of our educational division and in particular our ability to provide an e-learning experience to newcomers to the industry. The current courses are being further developed and expanded to provide information on the basics of belt conveying to newcomers to the industry and non-technical staff (accounts, estimators, storemen, labourers). It is our intention to introduce additional courses on subjects such as crushing, screening, feeding and stockpiling of materials. These courses can also be presented at the place of employ on a ‘one to many’ presentation format upon request. All this requires resources and we are in negotiations with suitable candidates to operate our educational division on a professional basis. Of significance here

is the interest shown by personnel directly involved in the institute’s previous educational endeavours, personnel who have capably organised courses from elementary to university masters levels. The next sessions of the Joint Forum will continue to focus on various elements of material handling with (where possible), international speakers. The next sessions, subject to confirmation, are scheduled as follows: • April 25 — Conveyor Belt Technology • June 27 — Precision Loading Systems for Trains and Trucks • August 29 — Guided Flow Technologies • October 13 — Golf Day • November 28 — Topic to be confirmed How can you as a company or individual assist? The one way is to become a member of the SAIMH in either an individual or corporate capacity and get involved in the greater efforts of the institute which is knowledge transfer. Call anyone below who will arrange for you to receive your application form. Tony Pinto: 079 890 3599 Adi Frittella: 082 458 3711 Roy Barbour: 083 962 3492 Melanie van Straaten: 011 772 1570 Email to:

SAIMH Members Afripp Projects cc Bateman Engineered Technologies Bearings International (Pty) Ltd Brelko Conveyor Products (Pty) Ltd CPM Engineering CT Systems cc Conveyor Watch (Pty) Ltd David Brown Gear Industries (Pty) Ltd Deebar Mining & Industrial Supplies East Rand Engineering Services ELB Engineering Services (Pty)Ltd Engicon Systems (Pty) Ltd Facet Engineering cc Goba Consulting Engineers Group Line Projects (Pty) Ltd Hagglunds Drives SA (Pty) Ltd Hansen Transmissions SA (Pty) Ltd Hatch Africa (pty) Ltd Illustech Kimrae Engineering Projects

Macsteel VRN Martin Engineering Melco Conveyor Equipment Morris Materials Handling SA (Pty) Ltd Osborn Engineered Products (Pty) Ltd PD Engineering Services cc PDNA M&I (Pty) Ltd PH Projects Holdings (Pty) Ltd Quadrant PHS Renold Crofts (Pty) Ltd Rio Carb (Pty) Ltd Sandvik Materials Hanlding Africa Screw Conveyors & Material Handling Senet SEW Eurodrive Shatterprufe a Div. of PG Group Pty Ltd Spar Western Cape Super Dock Systems Unitek Engineering Zest Electric Motors (Pty) Ltd


March 2012



Bateman Engineered Technologies is currently executing a contract for the conveyor system on the extension to the Lumwana Copper Mine in Zambia. The contract was awarded in April 2011, with the scope of work including the design, supply, delivery, erection and commissioning of the conveyor system. The scope also includes all the mechanical and structural equipment. General view of the Lumwana Copper Mine by night

Conveyor System at Lumwana Extension


he order comprises the supply of a 118 m long sacrificial and 3 640 m long overland conveyor for an additional primary crusher and a 502 m long stockpile feed conveyor feeding the existing stockpile. The conveyors have a design capacity of 5 140 t/h.

System will convey copper ore over a distance of approximately 4 km from the run-of-mine (ROM) tip to a stockpile The conveying system will convey copper ore over a distance of approximately 4 km from the run-of-mine (ROM) tip to a stockpile, which feeds the processing plant. The ground profile that the overland conveyor will be required to traverse has necessitated special design features, including flywheels on the drive side and a brake on the tail side to maintain belt tensions, for preventing the



March 2012

belt from collapsing when the conveyor is stopped. There is also a creek crossing that has to be negotiated on the longer overland conveyor section. Bateman Engineered Technologies, located in Bedfordview, South Africa, is responsible for project management, engineering, all support functions including procurement, inspection, expediting and logistics, construction site and safety management and commissioning.

Onsite challenges

Onsite erection in Zambia is being done by a local company - Karlsons - which also operates as Bateman’s agents in Zambia for the distribution and installation of Bateman process equipment under the Delkor brand. The steel fabrication, totalling in excess of 550 t, was executed in South Africa, after which it was successfully transported to Zambia. Most of the mechanical equipment was also


sourced from South Africa, with erection currently underway in Zambia under Bateman’s supervision. The current project plan of the overall Lumwana Expansion Project, of which the conveyor package forms a part, indicates that the project will be completed mid 2012. One of the onsite challenges, as with many projects close to the Equator in Africa, is dealing with monsoon seasons setting in during construction. Currently, Bateman reports that erection is progressing as planned, with no lost time injuries recorded, whilst managing the challenges associated with higher rainfall regions. Bateman conducts business in an appropriate and environmentally sensitive manner and driven by its commitment to HSE based on the Zero Harm principle, Bateman takes great care to design safe projects for its clients, while at the same time, minimising environmental impact. Bateman achieves this through its people living the Zero Harm principle and through implementation of policies, procedures or systems. The company also demands and shares responsibility for health, safety and the environment from all employees, contractors, customers and the communities associated with their business operations.

Proactive mindset

The ultimate aim is to ensure an HSE culture that moves away from mere compliance, to one of creating an on-and-off-the job culture of preventing accidents and incidents. This integrated approach focuses on achieving this through a proactive mindset, meaningful participation and positive discipline and persistence. In addition, Bateman has a comprehensive management process to enhance execution of daily management of HSE programmes in the workplace, which reflect the core company values of accountability, customer focus, continuous improvement, coaching and mentoring and team work.

Transfer tower construction

One of the onsite challenges, as with many projects close to the Equator in Africa, is dealing with monsoon seasons setting in during construction China, India, Russia, North & South America, South Africa and the United Kingdom. Bateman Engineered Technologies offers bulk materials handling solutions, process equipment supply and specialist niche technologies, all underpinned by a solid track record and the company’s commitment to delivering excellence in all that it does. Philip le Roux, Bateman Engineered Technologies, Tel: (0)11-2012300, Email:, Website:

Bateman was responsible, in a joint venture, for the US$408 million EPC contract to establish the original 20 million t/yr Lumwana Copper processing facilities, which were handed over to the client at the end of 2008. The Chimiwungo Pit is required to supplement ore feed to the process plant as the existing pit, Malundwe Pit, is reaching advanced stages of its current life. Ore production from Chimiwungo Pit is expected to commence during July 2012.


With its more than ninety year heritage as an innovative, leading bulk materials handling solution and process equipment supplier to a range of industries, with a focus on the mining sector, Bateman Engineered Technologies is a member of the Bateman Engineering N. V. Group. Client access is provided internationally through the Bateman Engineering Group’s network of permanent international offices located in Australia, BULK HANDLING TODAY

March 2012




March 2012


Market Share Spirals Heavy industries in South Africa - ranging from construction, to mining and water treatment - can benefit from a range of ‘Archimedes’ shaftless screw conveyor systems, which are used for bulk materials handling in numerous applications nationwide.


piral Tech general manager Bennie Verster notes, “The shaftless conveyor systems are built from highly-durable 350-WA structural steel, which is cold-rolled, for increased strength and tighter tolerances. What’s more, our product is manufactured with the option of hardfacing, in order to increase wear resistance.” He explains, “This manufacturing process enables the Archimedes range to convey hazardous substances, sticky materials, contamination-sensitive products and large abrasive materials.”

As well as swiftly responding to any technical problems regardless of the hours

Walter Ebeling, Pan Mixers director

He points out that Archimedes screws are fully-welded, and have continuous spirals with no bearings or shafts, thereby ensuring that the screws can support their own weight, while operating at 100% capacity. “The continuous spiral of the screw, paired with the shaftless flight, means that the Archimedes flight does not need to be attached to a pipe or a shaft, as it BULK HANDLING TODAY

March 2012



is able to support its own weight, and the weight of the material that it is transporting. This design also makes the screw easy to maintain, as there are no additional parts that need to be serviced or replaced,� he continues.

Ideally Suited

Our range of screws is able to handle larger materials such as coal and waste dust from mines, owing to the fact that the flight is thick, and coated with wear-resistant materials, to ensure that aggressive materials can be transported with ease. Bennie points out that Spiral Tech manufactured a total of 60 Archimedes shaftless screw conveyor systems in 2010. The company also specialises in the manufacture of live



March 2012


bottom systems, which are created by linking a number of screw conveyors together, in order to convey materials such as sludges, wood shavings and greasy and oily materials. Our range of live bottom systems are ideally-suited to moving materials that are prone to bridging and arching. The live bottom systems are manufactured in left-hand and right-hand configurations; thereby, ensuring optimum material flow of large capacities up to 300 m³, he explains.

Ahead of the game

As part of the PMSA group of companies, Spiral Tech was established in 2004, and today employs 12 staff members at its manufacturing facility in Jet Park, Boksburg. PMSA director Walter Ebeling explains that they established the company in order to manufacture a range of top-quality products, which are competitively-priced. “It has steadily-grown its production capacity over the past few years, which is a result of a dedicated workforce, who are committed to providing customer satisfaction through technological innovation and good service.” He adds that Spiral Tech did not feel the damaging effects of the global economic downturn, and he believes that the company has managed to stay one step ahead of the competition, thanks to its

unrivalled after-sales support offered to clients.

Looking positive

In addition to manufacturing top-quality products at a highly-competitive price, the company strives to ensure that its clients are provided with the best after-sales service. “By making regular follow-up calls and visits to customers, as well as swiftly responding to any technical problems - regardless of the hours - we’ve built a strong and loyal customer base that has seen the company grow from strength-to-strength, despite the recession.”

The company has a number of large projects lined up in the mining, water treatment and construction sectors Looking to the future, Bennie points out that the company has a number of large projects lined up in the mining, water treatment and construction sectors. “The future is looking positive, and I am confident that we can achieve significant growth during the next few years, especially as the industrial sector of South Africa shows continuing signs of recovery and growth,” he concludes. Bennie Verster, Spiral Tech, Tel: 086 100-7672, Email:,,


March 2012



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March 2012


New Belt Tensioning System There are mechanical systems to set belt tension, but the only sure way to control varying tension in the belt as loads on it change, is an automated system which controls the tension as belt dynamics vary during operation. However, most of these electronic control systems have shortcomings as belt tension is still a bit of a mystery, mostly because there are so many factors that influence the dynamics of a running belt conveyor.


an Plunkett of Iptron Technology has spent a lifetime working at a solution to this ‘sinister’ problem. “We designed the original system back in 1982,” he explains. “However, over time it be-

Ian Plunkett of Iptron Technology (right) and Stuart Ormerod

We started working on integrating communications, the measuring of tension, the measuring of friction as well as control of the braking mechanisms on the take-up system came clear that there were certain shortcomings so we kept on developing the system to address

the defects. To date we’ve sold over 500 units of our EGT 2420 model, a mature system which has become the industry standard in terms of belt tension control systems.”

Real problems

It took several prototypes, lots of patience and determined perseverance to arrive at a model which the industry accepted, but still Ian wasn’t satisfied. “In spite of reaching maturity over the past 15 years, the EGT 2040 system still exhibits some shortcomings when in actual use,” says Ian. “In a survey of 20 installed systems at a colliery, we found 17 out of action, but only one was due to an actual problem with the system. The rest were all out of order due to mechanical problems with the take-up system such as take-up trolleys with seized wheels, for example. We soon realised that mechanical problems are the principal cause of failure of all tension control The heart of the tensioning system systems. BULK HANDLING TODAY

March 2012



“Encountering real life problems like this proved that we had more work to do,” adds Ian. “We realised that our system did not provide the enduser with enough information regarding the state of the take-up system. Back at the drawing board we started working on integrating communications, the measuring of tension, the measuring of friction as well as control of the braking mechanisms on the take-up system. Most people said this couldn’t be done, but we were determined to find a way to do it.”

Until this model we’ve had logic in our controller, but now we also have intelligence Revolutionary technology

The latest version of Ian’s conveyor take-up tension controller, the Iptron EGT-28AX, is a breakthrough development which not only controls the tensioning system, but also measures and records the mechanical condition of a take-up system. “In essence we’ve now added the monitoring of the take-up winch and fitted a load cell system which we manufacture ourselves specifically for this application. This not only allows us to see tiny variations in the tension, but most importantly we can see the hysteresis loops, clockwise or anti-clockwise, from which we can derive an exact friction figure. This can now



March 2012

The system reacts about 10 to 15 times faster than a PLC controller, providing very fine tension control


be relayed via the built-in communications to a central control room. “However, we’ve included a whole lot more in the new version,” adds Ian. “We can now record the tension variations. This data is then compared with a reference map built into the software of how the winch should behave. If the live data is outside the reference graph, we know something is wrong. For example, in terms of safety, if one of the ropes on the trolley snaps, then the system will automatically shut down.”


This new product is the result of a team effort. Ian designed the hardware while his right-hand man, Stuart Ormerod, is responsible for the software development of the tension controller. “Until this model we’ve had logic in our controller, but now we also have intelligence,” says Stuart. “Similar to the winch behaviour reference, there is a whole string of data which the system compares in order to be able to make ‘decisions’ such as shutting down, releasing or applying the brakes and so on. “Despite the high level of sophistication of the main controller board inside the unit, the user interface isn’t too complicated, keeping the operator in mind,” adds Stuart. “The interactive menu system allows

operators to easily find their way around the menu to set the system up. Operators also don’t have to search for a fault; the system will tell them what is wrong if a problem arises. If the system is connected to a network, we can in fact dial into the unit remotely, check what’s wrong and in future, possibly even correct the problem remotely.”

If one of the ropes on the trolley snaps, then the system will automatically shut down Quick response

PLC systems have been used to control belt tension, but none of them have been very successful in terms of covering all the aspects which influence a tension control system. “PLC systems are not fast enough to provide the necessary split-second control,” Ian says in conclusion. “In terms of brake control, for instance, our system reacts about 10 to 15 times faster than a PLC controller, providing very fine tension control. Although we will continue to improve the product, the new controller is very close to the ultimate in belt tension control, it’s what the industry has always needed.” Ian Plunkett, Iptron Technology, Tel: (011) 477-7122, Email:


March 2012




March 2012


Designing Bulk Dry Terminals Dry bulk terminals are used worldwide as a buffer between an incoming flow and an outgoing flow of bulk solid materials, referred to in this paper as respectively the import flow and the export flow.


n order to enable a proper analysis of the logistic control of dry bulk terminals, the terminal as a system is modelled as a black box following the Delft systems approach. In Figure 1 this approach is depicted schematically. In the bulk terminal system input and output such as orders, products, and resources go in and handled orders, delivered products, and used resources go out. In this paper only the product flow is considered, hence the single arrow at the input and output side of the black box.

arriving at the terminal and/or the supply of material to the export process. As in the model shown in Figure 3, each sub-system has it own physical control system. In other words, the quay cranes have their own control system, the equipment used in the internal terminal system have their own control system, and the ship loaders of the export system have their own controller. On top of that, each physical control system is controlled by the overall logistic control system of the terminal. In

Figure 1: A black box approach towards the dry bulk terminal as a system

If one zooms into the black box then in the dry bulk terminal two layers can be distinguished: the operation system layer and the control system layer, (Figure 2). This model is called the proper model. The control system layer monitors the results of the operation system and adjusts the operation if the results deviate from the expected results or standards. The control system layer communicates with the environment that expects a certain performance from the total system and that provide the requirements to the system to meet the expectations. If the black box operational system is opened further then three sub-systems can be distinguished: the import system, the internal terminal system and the export system, (Figure 3). The import system concerns transport modes arriving at the terminal and/or supplying material to the terminal and the import interface to the terminal. The internal terminal system concerns the acceptance of material in the internal terminal process at the import interface, the process of handling, stacking, storage, reclaiming and/or supply of material at the export interface. The export system concerns the export interface to the terminal and the process of transport modes

Figure 2: Proper model of a dry bulk terminal

Figure 3: Proper model of a dry bulk terminal with sub systems


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this paper, two aspects of the logistic control are discussed in particular; the controllability of the import flow and the maintenance control. The transport modes available both on the import side as well as the export side are discontinuous transport systems, like vessels (all sizes), trains and trucks, and continuous transport systems, like belt conveyors. In this paper three examples of dry bulk terminals will be presented with different transport modes used for the import flow. These three examples are:

What length can be accepted assuming that costs are associated with waiting time • Railway system: On the import side of the terminal bulk solid material is supplied by trains. The import interface is a train load-out station, here a tippler system. On the export side of the terminal a marine system utilising vessels is used. The export interface therefore consists of ship loaders. • Belt conveyor system: On the import side of the terminal bulk solid material is supplied by a belt conveyor. The import interface is a transfer point used to discharge the belt conveyor onto a yard conveyor of the internal terminal system. On the export side of the terminal a marine system



March 2012

utilising vessels is used. The export interface therefore consists of ship loaders. • Marine system: On the import side of the terminal bulk solid material is supplied by a marine system utilizing vessels. The import interface consists of ship unloaders. On the export side of the terminal there is also a marine system utilizing vessels used. The export interface therefore consists of ship loaders. These three systems are used to investigate the effect of the logistic control on the performance of a dry bulk terminal.

Terminal design

When designing a new dry bulk terminal, further referred to as bulk terminal in this paper, a number of conceptual design issues come up. The first design issue is the determination of the actual terminal size, either in terms of m2, in tons of material stored, or in percentage of the annual throughput. The size of the terminal depends, among other things, on the question of whether the export flow needs to be decoupled from the import flow. The export and import flows are coupled if situations occur and a request for material on the export side is held up because that specific material is not available on the terminal at the time of request.


The request is then put on hold until the material arrives in the import flow. The result of it is that, whatever transport mode is used to accommodate the export flow, it has to wait in a queue. In the case of the three examples mentioned in the introduction, this means that a queue of vessels will appear, (Figure 4). If the terminal size is large enough to ensure that all materials are available in sufficient quantities, regardless of the export requests, then the export flow is decoupled from the import flow and queues caused by insufficient material on the terminal do not exist. The terminal size also affects the import flow. If the available free storage area is not sufficient to offload a discontinuous transport unit, like a train or a vessel, then a queue will appear on the import side of the terminal. As far as the logistic control of the terminal is concerned, what matters is the question whether or not a queue of transport equipment on the import side is acceptable. If it is acceptable then it has to be determined what length can be accepted assuming that costs are associated with waiting time.

Second design

The second design issue is the analysis of the import interface. On the level of the black box approach shown in Figure 3, this analysis starts by determining an appropriate offloading capacity, assuming a discontinuous transport mode, and the number of offloading positions. The actual number of pieces of equipment per offloading position is not relevant in the initial design stage. The number of offloading positions together with the offloading capacity determine the offloading position occupancy. The offloading position occupancy indicates the percentage of time an offloading station is occupied by an import transport unit. In general two types of waiting time can be distinguished. The first is due to the unavailability of offloading positions. This may also be caused by malfunctioning of the offloading equipment. The second, mentioned before, is due to insufficient free storage area on the terminal. Once an appropriate number of offloading positions, as well as their offloading capacity, has been determined, the actual number of offloading equipment units can be determined. It should be noted that in practice the actual offloading capacity (throughput as a function of total available time) is less then half the design capacity of the offloading equipment. In case of a continuous transport mode the internal transport capacity has to match at least the capacity of the import interface.

Figure 4: Vessels waiting offshore to be loaded with bulk solid material

The third type is caused by the inability of the internal terminal system to supply material due to the unavailability of equipment to supply material. The fourth design issue is the analysis of the internal terminal system. During this analysis the storage capacity and position per material will be determined as well as the actual lay-out of the terminal in terms of equipment and redundancy, [2] and [3]. In particular, redundancy and reliability

The third design issue is the analysis of the export interface. Similar to the import side, this is initially a matter of determining the number of loading positions and their loading capacity. After this analysis the actual number of the loading equipment can be determined. On the export side three types of waiting times can be distinguished. The first type is caused by the unavailability of bulk solid material, as mentioned before. The second type is caused by the unavailability of loading positions. BULK HANDLING TODAY

March 2012



Figure 6: Wagons filled with iron ore waiting to be offloaded

control issues per sub-system. Figure 5: Railway system on the import side and a marine system on the export side of a bulk terminal

of equipment will be analysed in this phase.

Logistic control

The previous section discussed four design issues and started to address some logistic control issues. Considering the three sub-systems mentioned in Figure 3, being the import, the internal terminal and the export, this section discusses the logistic



March 2012

In the next three sections the three examples mentioned in Section 1 will be discussed. The purpose of showing these three examples is to show the effect of the logistic control and the transport mode used to handle the import flow on the performance of the bulk terminal. The focus will be in particular on the controllability of the import flow and the maintenance control.

Railway system

The first example mentioned in the introduction


is a dry bulk terminal with a railway system on the import side. This implies that bulk solid materials are supplied to the terminal by trains, see example in Figures 5 and 6. The import interface is a train load-out station, also called a tippler system. On the export side of the terminal a marine system utilising vessels is used. The export interface therefore consists of ship loaders. An example of a terminal supplied by trains can be found in Chennai, India, (Figure 5 and 6). In this case it is a iron ore exporting terminal. For this specific terminal the incoming flow cannot be controlled. Trains arrive with material at times controlled by the mines supplying the ore. One key performance indicator is the total time that the export vessels have to wait before they are completely serviced. A simulation model has been made that is based on the model shown in Figure 3 that was used to study the effect of the ship load- Figure 7: Belt conveyor system on the import side and a marine system on the export ing capacity, maintenance policies and side of a bulk terminal bypassing options on the times export vessels are at the terminal. These times are the sum of the time a vessel has to wait before it can be serviced, the time it takes to moor and leave the harbour, and the time a vessel is effectively loaded.

Figure 8: Marine system on the import side and a marine system on the export side of a bulk terminal

Belt conveyor system

The second example mentioned in the introduction is a dry bulk terminal with a belt conveyor on the import side. An example of a bulk terminal that is supplied with bulk solid material, in this case coal, by a belt conveyor on the import side can be found at the Kaltim Prima Coal Mine and terminal in Indonesia. The Kaltim Prima coal mine is connected to a bulk terminal by means of a belt conveyor system. Figure 7 shows a schematic drawing of the terminal system. The material flow is directed either to a stockpile via a stacker system or can be by-passed for direct loading into a ship. Stacking is done if there is no ship available or if the downstream line is blocked by disturbances of the downstream equipment. BULK HANDLING TODAY

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An initial study was performed into the performance of the bulk terminal. The equipment reliability played an essential role in the performance of the terminal. The first step was to investigate what terminal size was required in order to decouple the export side from import side as discussed before.

Marine system

Figure 9: Three ship unloaders working simultaneously on one CapeSize vessel

The third and last example announced in the introduction is a terminal with a marine system on the import side (see the Figures 8 & 9). The terminal shown is the EECV terminal in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, handling primarily iron ore and coal. A similar terminal was studied with a simulation model based on the model shown in Figure 3. It was assumed that the terminal has a throughput of 30 MTPA and one import berth. The study was aimed at the determination of the effect of the logistic control of the import flow of bulk material on the performance of the terminal. The key performance indicator in this case is the waiting time of vessels.


The logistic control of bulk terminals, in particular the controllability of the import flow and the maintenance control, has a significant impact on the performance of a dry bulk terminal. Key performance indicators used in this respect are waiting times of transport equipment used on the import and export side of the terminal. Also the design of the terminal has a significant effect on the performance of the terminal. In particular the terminal size, in terms of percentage of the annual throughput, and the capacity of the handling equipment affects the terminal’s performance. The effects of both the logistic control and the design on the terminal’s performance are of the same order and should be studied together when designing a new or upgraded terminal. The utilisation of logistic simulation tools in the design process is a prerequisite for the design of a logistically sound terminal. By G. Lodewijks, D.L.Schott, J.A. Ottjes Note: This paper has been condensed due to space constraints. This paper was first presented at Beltcon 15. Copyright is vested with the IMHC.



March 2012


More than Meets the Eye into consideration towards the end of the project when everyone is trying to cut costs. This is when the contractor starts choosing lining materials which only last for the duration of the warranty of the project. “To overcome this problem we’ve started a drive to enlighten end-users directly to make them aware of the importance of protecting high capital equipment properly for optimum periods of time from the outset,” adds Ronald. “Apart from selecting the right type of rubber lining for an application, the selection of the correct thickness and placing of the linings is crucial in achieving the best performance and should, by rights, be carried out by an expert.”

Size and weight

Ronald Govender of Weir Minerals Africa

Let’s protect the steel surface against abrasion, impact and corrosion’, says the guy in materials handling, storage and processing equipment. The first thing that comes to mind is rubber. However, in the ninety years that rubber has been used for this purpose, rubber compounds and the methods of application have become an exact science rather than just a matter of covering the steel with any old rubber material.


ulk Handling Today” speaks to Ronald Govender, product manager of rubber products at Weir Minerals, the manufacturers of the Linatex range of rubber products for wear protection. “We still get instances where the lining of chutes, tanks and processing equipment

Make them aware of the importance of protecting high capital equipment properly for optimum periods of time from the outset is an afterthought,” he says. “From a value point of view, linings are such a small percentage of the cost of the whole plant that they usually only come

To select the most suitable rubber lining product for an application, many critical factors need to be understood in order to make the right selection. “In terms of the material being handled there are factors like particle size and weight, velocity and the angle of impact which have to be considered,” says Ronald. Then, as far as the rubber itself is concerned, you have to understand rubber hardness and its physical properties, consider the operating temperatures, think of the chemical environment and also look at noise and vibration characteristics of the protective material.” To achieve the best possible economy and the longest service life it naturally follows that the thickness of the lining determines its lifespan. “The impact of particles from an increasing height requires a thicker rubber in order to absorb the compressive forces,” explains Ronald. “As the particle hits the surface, the rubber deforms to absorb the kinetic energy of the particle. The resilient nature of the rubber returns the energy to the particle, causing it to rebound, protecting the steel surface from deformation and wear. However, if the rubber layer is too thin, all the forces cannot be absorbed and the rubber will tear resulting in a bond failure or rapid wear, leaving the steel surface prone to damage.”

Velocity and angle

In impact and sliding abrasion situations, there is a critical speed above which rubber is unable to recover or absorb energy. “In this case the rubber’s resilience cannot be used to its full potential and the surface will deteriorate very fast,” explains Ronald. “As a rule of thumb; for any velocities above 10 metres per second the calculations should be done by one of our design specialists BULK HANDLING TODAY

March 2012



Special panels manufactured for a specific application

who may incorporate other means of reducing the velocity before the material hits the wear surface. For instance, we’ve just completely re-designed a chute for a mine using baffles in the chute channel to reduce the impact on a localised wear area which previously wore away very quickly.”

For any angles below 50º, highly specialised liners like moulded impact bars, profiled liners and even flat sheeting liners are used to protect surfaces The angle of impact of the material relative to the rate of wear on the wear surface is very important in designing chute hoppers and rubber linings in general. “For example, at a 90º angle, resilience is the major factor in resisting wear, but as the angle goes down to around 50º, tear resistance becomes more important. For any angles below 50º, highly specialised liners like moulded impact bars, profiled liners and even flat sheeting liners are used to protect surfaces.”


The angle of impact has to be considered



March 2012

The key is to select the best combination of rubber properties to suit each particular application. “In broad terms, harder rubbers are preferred for the high impact and cutting


forces of coarse materials,” Ronald says. “Our premium Linatex rubber product, for example, is a low durometer rubber which gives excellent results when used in abrasive slurry applications or sliding abrasions”. Other physical and chemical properties often play a significant role in optimising performance. Good resilience with the correct blend of rubber chemicals and fillers, for instance, is also excellent for the handling of very sticky materials. “Anyone who wants to extend the service life in terms of wear on their equipment should get us involved right from the beginning,” Ronald remarks in closing, “especially as we don’t want our products to fail in the field because they’ve been incorrectly specified by a third party. We’re always available, even if it’s just for a second opinion. First prize, of course, is for clients to use our expertise and experience to go out and do audits on their plants to determine the optimum solution for each application.” Ronald Govender, Weir Minerals Africa Tel: (011) 929-2928 Email: Website:

Rubber selection is a critical factor


March 2012



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March 2012


The SmartTag system utilises Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags and detectors to track ores as they flow from the blast to the downstream processes and beyond. The insertion point of each SmartTag is registered using a PDA.

Tag and Trace SmartTag is an RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) based technology designed to allow tracking of ore from its source through blasting, run of mine (ROM) pads, crushers, intermediate stockpiles and finally into the concentrator. Here we look at current developments and the future direction of the SmartTag ore tracking system.


etso’s Process Technology and Innovation group is a world leader in mineral processing consulting. A significant amount of this consulting work involves process integration and optimisation (PIO) studies, which includes investigating the effects of drill and blast design and implementation on downstream processing. Critical to these studies is the ability to track specific ore into and through the plant.

Drastically reducing the size of the tags from a diameter of 60 mm to 20 mm Extending its reach

To increase the accuracy of this ore tracking, Metso Process Technology and Innovation (PTI) developed a system to track ore using RFID transponders called SmartTag. Since its commercialisation in 2007, SmartTag has been used in the majority of PTI’s consulting projects and several permanent systems have been installed worldwide.

The benefits of using this tag include: linking spatial mine data to time-based processing data; increased confidence in ore blending; proactive process changes for known ore types; and accurate measurement of residence times in stockpiles and bins. Since 2007 there have been significant advancements in RFID technology that have allowed PTI to extend the reach of SmartTag beyond secondary crushing to tertiary crushing and beyond. This has been achieved by drastically reducing the size of the tags from a diameter of 60 mm to 20 mm. The new smaller RFID tags have been successfully used in several studies.

How it works

A SmartTag RFID tag travels through a mine and mineral processing plant in a series of simple steps. Initially, the tag and insertion location is logged using a hand-held computer or PDA, then it is inserted into the ore (eg, into a blast hole). The tag travels with the ore through digging, transport BULK HANDLING TODAY

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the maximum possible read distance is achieved at all times. In the SmartTag system the reader then transmits the ID using serial communications.

Figure 1: Normal and mini-SmartTags

and processing, before being detected at detection locations (on conveyor belts), when the time and specific tag is recorded. The RFID tag data is then loaded into a database and analysed as required. To achieve this, the SmartTag system requires five main components. The first component is a PDA, which allows the initial RFID tag insertion process to become more efficient and accurate. Each RFID tag is added to the database using one of three options; it is associated with a GPS coordinate; it is associated with a predefined point (such as a blast hole); or it is associated with a new point, which can be accurately located later.

The database, located on a dedicated server, stores all the information about the detection points, detected RFID tags and original locations Nearest point

At present the system does not allow for high precision GPS but it can locate the nearest point in a series of predefined points, such as blast holes, and allow the user to associate RFID tags with these points. The next component in the system, the antenna, is located at the conveyor belts. The antenna both induces a charge on the tag and also receives a transmitted signal back from the tag. The design of the antenna is decided by two parameters, which are its size and its robustness. The size of the antenna dictates the size and the strength of the field it radiates. For this application the area of field strong enough to charge the tag should be as large as possible; therefore, the antenna used for the SmartTag system is the largest available for this frequency of RFID system.

Maximum distance

An RFID reader then decodes the signal from the antenna and determines the ID of the RFID tag passing the antenna. Later versions of the readers also have auto-tuning capabilities which ensure that



March 2012

A data logging or buffer stage improves the reliability of the systems and also makes movable systems possible. The data logger receives data directly from the RFID reader, stores the IDs with the time they were detected and monitors vital system parameters, such as the tuning state of the antenna. The data logging stage also makes SmartTag less reliant on communication links (such as wireless) as the data is stored at the detection point until a link is established to the software applications. The critical communications links, like the one between the antenna and the reader, are all wired and very reliable. The core of the software is an SQL (Structured Query Language) database. The database, located on a dedicated server, stores all the information about the detection points, detected RFID tags and original locations. There are several software applications which either input data into the database or use the data to output information. These include the SmartTagServer, which reads data from the data loggers, the SmartTagPDA, which exchanges data with the PDAs and translates site blast hole layout diagrams, and the SmartTagRes, which calculates the residence time between two detection points.

Adding mini RFID tags

To expand the applications of SmartTag through and beyond secondary crushing, a mini RFID tag was required. To incorporate the mini RFID tags into the system, PTI faced two significant challenges; firstly, the reduced read distance, and secondly, making the mini tags robust. By reducing the size of the RFID tag, the size of the antenna in the tag is also reduced. The size of the antenna in the tag is directly proportional to the amount of charge that is induced, for a given field strength. Therefore, the read range of a tag will be reduced as the size of the tag is reduced. Through investigation, the 20 mm tags were found to have an insufficient read range for the standard SmartTag installation. PTI trialed two methods for fixing this issue; one method was to use two antennas while the second method was to place the antenna closer to the RFID tags. Both systems were tested at an iron ore mine. Both approaches, dual antennas or closer antenna distance, were found to have similar detection capability. However, based purely on the ease of installation, a single antenna located under the belt, was chosen as the new standard installation method.

Protecting the tags

The second challenge faced when incorporating the mini RFID tags into the system was how to protect them sufficiently to survive a blast. A method previously used by PTI to achieve this was to encase


the tags in a two-part epoxy. The method works well for protecting the tags, and although it is time-consuming and expensive it is currently the preferred method for protecting the tags. Different encasing materials, such as reinforced nylon, are still being investigated. After encasing in epoxy, the mini-tags have a diameter of 20 mm and are shown, with a standard SmartTag as reference, in Figure 1. The size of the mini RFID tags allows them to pass easily through screens with apertures down to 25 mm.


Metso PTI has successfully incorporated a smaller, or mini, RFID tag into their system. The changes to the system installation are minor and increase the reliability of the system as a whole. In several examples the mini RFID tags have proven to be, on average, more robust than normal sized RFID tags. The PTI team envisage that with the successful incorporation of the mini RFID tags into the system, it will allow applications to be expanded. These new applications could include a wider use in the iron ore industry where size is the critical material quality. PTI is now working on proving the reliability of the next size of RFID tags, the even -smaller micro RFID tag, which can pass through a 10 mm mesh screen. With the decreasing size of RFID tags and the development of SmartTag into a truly distributed system, it can be extended past the mine to cover the whole minerals supply chain. Detection points can now be located in the plant, the port and even at the location of the customer, such as a blast furnace.

Case Studies The two case studies presented here demonstrate applications where it is advantageous to use the mini RFID tags rather than the normal size RFID tags.

Case Study 1 - Secondary Crushing Circuit

As part of a wider PIO study, a secondary crushing circuit was surveyed while being fed with a particular ore type. To determine the origin of the ore at any particular time and, most importantly, during the surveys, SmartTag detection points were set up at three locations around the circuit. The three locations were primary crusher product, secondary crusher feed and secondary crusher product. A total of 384 mini RFID tags were placed on eight polygons (a polygon is defined as different ore zones within the mine block model) after the blast, the ROM pad and trucks as they tipped ore into the primary crusher. Of the 384 tags placed onto either the muck pile or on the ROM pad 45 percent were detected. However, if this is compared with the percentage of each polygon that had been

excavated by the end of the trial, it is a fair conclusion that many of the RFID tags that weren’t detected were also not excavated during the trial. To determine the survival rate of the tags during secondary crushing, the number of tags detected before and after the secondary crusher were compared. Of the 128 tags detected before the secondary crusher, 97 were also detected after secondary crushing. However, as there were 52 tags that were detected after the secondary crusher but weren’t detected before the secondary crusher, the real survival rate is difficult to determine. By just comparing RFID tags detected at both detection points, it can be concluded that at least 76 percent of the mini tags survived secondary crushing, although this number is likely to be much higher. The screen immediately following the secondary crusher uses panels with 55 mm apertures and, as expected, none of the tags were recycled back through the secondary crusher. The primary application for SmartTag was to determine the origin of the ore being processed during the plant surveys. In this application, where the plant feed included ore from ROM mixing and stockpiles, the tags were essential for determining which materials were processed in the plant at the time of the surveys. Mini tags were required to enable the ore source to be tracked all the way through secondary crushing, and proved to be robust enough to survive both blasting and secondary crushing.

A total of 384 mini RFID tags were placed on eight polygons (a polygon is defined as different ore zones within the mine block model) Case Study 2 - HPGR Circuit

PTI was contracted to assess the performance of a circuit at a mine located in South America. The SmartTag system was used in this application to allow the PTI engineers to know exactly when a surveyed blast was being processed. For this reason, detection points were located on conveyor belts carrying the product of the primary crusher, the output of the stockpile and the HPGR (High Pressure Grinding Roll) feed. As the blast was being audited RFID tags were deposited into 68 blast holes, using an even split of 34 normal tags and 34 mini tags. A further 50 tags were later added into the trays of 25 trucks at the primary crusher, using one of each of the two different types of tags in each truck. A total of 68 tags were identified at the primary crusher product detection point, 23 at the stockpile output detection point and 41 at the HPGR feed detection point. The blast occurred on the 22nd of January and the excavation of the muck pile took place between BULK HANDLING TODAY

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the 15th and 17th of March (two months later). The system monitored the material passing through the process over a period of 30 hours. During this period, a total of 67 different tags were detected; 33 were of normal size and 34 were mini tags. For the stockpile and HPGR feed detection points, the recovery was calculated with reference to the 64

The survival of the mini tags in the circuit is higher than the normal tags distinct RFID tags detected at the primary crusher. Of the normal tags detected at the primary crusher detection point, 42.4 percent were then detected at the HPGR feed detection point; whereas for the mini tags 67.6 percent of tags detected at the primary crusher were also detected at the HPGR feed. This shows that the survival of the mini tags in the circuit is higher than the normal tags. In a hypothetical situation, where the secondary screening mesh is smaller than 50 x 50 mm, normal tags certainly would not reach the HPGR. The detection of tags at the primary crusher was also affected by the removal of the SmartTag system before the entire blast was processed (for logistical reasons). The tags were used to track the material during an optimisation campaign at the plant. During the plant survey, the material that fed the plant, originated from the central portion of the blast. An unexpected result was that three of the mini tags were twice detected at the HPGR feed detection point. An explanation for this is that they survived the HPGRs and returned with the circulating ore (screened to +5 mm). Darryl Moss, Metso Mining and Construction Technology, Southern Africa, Tell (011) 961-4000, Fax: (011) 397-5084,

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March 2012


Mining in the Green European truck manufacturing giant, Scania, is taking the fight for off-road truck dominance to the boardroom where its offering will be pitted against rivals on the balance sheet rather than the colour of its paint.


or too long the South African mining industry has deemed the yellow metal of the articulated dump truck (ADTs) to be the only kind tough enough to work in mines and quarries in South Africa.

Their huge tyres are great for getting them out of stickyunderfoot conditions in some parts of the world, but here in Africa they can impede the ability to travel long distances on hard surfaces due to heat build-up But, argues Scania’s Chris Swanepoel, “nothing could be further from the truth. South African soil conditions are often hard and rocky making these sites ideal for rigid bodied trucks to ply the routes more economically without sacrificing production. ”

Huge savings

He continues that in future off-road trucks should be purchased based on a real business case rather than preconceived ideas. The rigid Scania mining trucks are every bit as tough as their big-footed

Chris Swanepoel heads Scania South Africa's mining division

yellow-metal cousins, but do not suffer from the drawbacks associated with operating ADTs on long hard ground routes. “Their huge tyres are great for getting them out of sticky-underfoot conditions in some parts of the world, but here in Africa they can impede the ability to travel long distances on hard surfaces due to heat build-up. “They are expensive to buy and operate when compared with our Griffon off-road trucks and we plan to prove just that to mines in southern Africa. Buyers should remember that by definition neither the ADTs nor our Griffon is a mining truck, but rather bulk materials handling vehicles that BULK HANDLING TODAY

March 2012



For coal, with its low specific gravity, the full 35 tons can easily be accommodated in an oversize “lightweight” load body

transport materials from point A to point B.

Simple proposition

“That is all there is to it - nothing more, nothing less. Our aim is to show mine managers that our vehicles will move their materials from one point to another more efficiently and at lower cost than other vehicles. “That means using less fuel, spending less on tyres and running a more reliable and seamless materials handling operation. In mining operations where underfoot conditions are right and where travelling distances are greater than 2km we know we have the right vehicle for the job and we are prepared to prove it.” Chris heads up the sales of Scania South Africa’s Mining Division and is currently travelling the southern part of the continent introducing the new vehicles to mines and mine managers. With 20 Griffons already plying the gravel roads of the Mopane Gold Mine in Francistown near Gaborone and others doing duty in Namibia the potential case studies are starting to mount up for this tough newcomer.

Black gold

Some trials have taken place in South Africa too according to Chris, and more are planned in coal



March 2012


mining areas especially in the near future. Like most other manufacturers, Scania has a keen interest in matching their vehicles with suitable coal mining applications in Mpumalanga, Limpopo and some of the other rich coal belts that feed our power stations, as well as the burgeoning export market. For these applications the loading capacity is up to 35 tons and the vehicles can be fitted with almost any style of tipper body depending on the application and loading equipment being used. For coal, with its low specific gravity, the full 35 tons can easily be accommodated in an oversize “lightweight” load body. Another advantage is that the underfoot conditions of most of these mines is right for rigid bodies, particularly where corners are not overly tight. Even so, the stub-fronted chassis-over-engine configuration of the Scania allows it to turn wellenough to negotiate most tracks with ease. Added to this, the Griffon’s 11 litre engine can lug the full load up steep gradients of up to 21° with the greatest of ease.

Not over specced

The Griffon represents modern-age thinking when it comes to hauling on mines. It incorporates Scania’s philosophy of using the right amount of power to

Instead of using a massive engine with brute-force horsepower, we believe in using a simple hub reduction and a smaller more economical high-torque output engine to do the same job do the job effectively - no more and no less. “Scania calls it running in the green, where we specify our trucks to do a job using adequate power and torque for the conditions and load. Instead of using a massive engine with brute-force horsepower, we believe in using a simple hub reduction and a smaller more economical high-torque output engine to do the same job.


March 2012



Strong case

There is no doubt that the new Griffon is set to become a tough contender in the mining and offroad truck market. At less than half the price of a comparable sized ADT, with further savings in running costs, it has the potential to make major inroads into this market.

Huge load bay made from Hardox steel

This Swedish contender has already begun cutting a swathe into the mining market “In that way the truck is able to run at the lowest possible engine revolutions and highest efficiency. It spares the engine from straining and results in far less wear-and-tear overall. That’s why a Scania Griffon on test at a local mine recently recorded overall fuel consumption of just 15 litres per hour over the duration of the test period,” says Chris. Rock ejectors This truck has what it takes to operate in the harshest conditions in pits and quarries in Africa. Its double-skin super strong chassis will not buckle under the strains of heavy loads, nor will its proven 380 or 420 hp engines let the operator down. Its 4-axle configuration can be operated in 8X4, 6X4 or 8X8 configuration for traction in any conditions. Servicing and maintenance is available throughout the region. Scania technicians are able to undertake repairs in the field or from fully-kitted Scania workshops in all major centres throughout southern Africa. Added to this benefit is the assurance that all spares are freely available as the Griffon shares components with its construction and highwayclass brothers.

Viking heritage

One has to be brave to walk straight into opposition territory and start making claims about your products and services. Fortunately for Scania the brand name carries enough clout and firepower in this part of the world to allow it some leeway. Luckily its Viking heritage also means the company relishes the prospect of a good fair fight. Not armed with battleaxes this time, but rather with a solidly built, powerful off-road truck this Swedish contender has already begun cutting a swathe into the mining market. Scania South Africa, Chris Swanepoel, Tel: (011) 661 9600, Email:, Web:



March 2012


Second Time Around Mercedes-Benz South Africa, has turned the first sods and kicked-off its plans to bring the popular TruckStore concept to South Africa.

MBSA has commercial vehicle solutions from light panel vans to monster-sized Western Star trucks

a rolling stock of around 4 000 vehicles, selling more than 20 000 vehicles annually. The model concept has been adapted to suit the southern African market and will become one of the largest used-vehicle dealers for commercial vehicles - vans, trucks, buses and trailers – in the Southern Hemisphere. The store will be situated in Centurion, Pretoria off the N1, on a 30 000 m² stand.

The concept

According to Dr Martin Zimmermann, CEO and


ruckStore is one of the largest used commercial dealer networks in Europe and will now officially be launched to the southern African marked by the middle of 2012. It will be

Has a rolling stock of around 4 000 vehicles, selling more than 20 000 responsible for the used truck business, involving trucks of all brands and ages, and with all body types. TruckStore in Europe is growing constantly and already has 30 locations in 14 European countries and has MBSA CEO and President Dr Martin Zimmermann BULK HANDLING TODAY

March 2012



Mercedes-Benz and Sandown Motors management teams at the sod-turning of the new TruckStore premises in Centurion

President of MBSA, trading-in and buying vehicles is a easy and transparent process. When buying a vehicle the condition is immediately clear as

Buyers will also have access to MBSA’s full financial services product offerings including finance, insurance and warranty offerings

MBSA will introduce its Truck Store concept to South Africans later this year

each is thoroughly checked and assessed on the basis of uniform standards. These vehicles are then subdivided into the product categories gold, silver and bronze according to their condition, mileage and a number of technical factors. This ensures that every vehicle delivers what is promised. TruckStore will also have a dedicated reconditioning centre based at Zandfontein, which will ensure that all vehicles sold meet TruckStore benchmark standards. Buyers will also have access to MBSA’s full financial services product offerings including finance, insurance and warranty offerings. For sellers the TruckStore service offering will be geared towards speed of service and payment of a fair price for the trucks whether on a trade-in basis or outright sale. By speeding up the process it will be possible to improve turnaround times on fleet renewals customers who want to buy MBSA products.

On the Web

Once the TruckStore facility is officially opened the website will be upgraded to an Internet platform that will enable used-commercial vehicles customers to find their ideal vehicle faster. The new website will be user-friendly with clearly structured sections, simple controls and contact functions. In addition to the new design, users will also have a photographic gallery of the used commercial vehicles together with full specifications. Mercedes-Benz South Africa, Shirle Greig, Tel: (012) 677 1904, Fax: (012) 677 1682, Email:



March 2012



March 2012



Belt Tracking System A

sgco has announced a new addition to their line of Tru-Trainer conveyor belt tracking Idlers. The Tru-Trainer idlers react as the conveyor belt moves off centre, maintaining the belt's original position, minimising belt wear and conveyor downtime. The dual return Tru-Trainer conveyor belt Tracker is now available in a V-return style, developed to accommodate the v-return conveyor systems that see excessive forces encountered when utilizing high tension, overland style conveyor systems, which often operate with wide conveyor belts to accommodate heavy loads. The V-return Tru-Trainer is best for vreturn overland conveyor systems. An

external central pivot mechanism was designed, obviating the need for a single, large drum, and enabling a concentric and balanced rotation to be achieved. This results in extended bearing life and

a very fast and effective conveyor belt tracking system. Tru-Trac Rollers, Tel: (012) 661-9531, Email:, ASGCO, Email:,

Fine Coal and Sticky Material The same advantages of the Weba Chute System cascade effect, whereby material, runs on material are being achieved with lined chutes and transfer points. Mark Baller, managing director of Weba Chute Systems, says that lined transfer points and chute systems designed and manufactured by the company are proving successful in a number of applications both locally and internationally. Commenting on the decision to use liners in these applications, Mark says that this is generally a material specific application and is applied where the characteristics of the material being conveyed means that the internal angle of friction results in a bonding effect


that will inhibit material flow or blockages will occur. Mark explains, “By applying the Weba Chute System principles we have been able to achieve excellent control of the material being conveyed and virtually eliminate blockages even with the stickiest materials.� Belt loading is an area which is known to create problems in the movement of sticky material and it is essential that the outlet configuration is engineered to achieve optimum belt loading and minimal impact. Each Weba lined chute system is custom designed for the specific application taking into accounts factors such as belt width, belt speed, material sizes, shape and throughput. Mark Baller, M & J Engineering, Tel: (011) 827-9372,


March 2012

By applying the Weba Chute System principles excellent control of the material being conveyed is achieved


Banana Screen Ludowici Meshcape was officially established in August 2011, following the acquisition of South African screening media manufacturer, Meshcape, by global mineral processing equipment manufacturer Ludowici Limited. Ludowici Meshcape technical manager Henri Robertson notes that Ludowici Meshcape has supplied vibrating screens and feeders to a number of large projects in Southern Africa since 2006. “The Ludowici Meshcape range of vibrating equipment sets itself apart from the competition, thanks to a superior design. The company currently employs four engineers in South Africa plus a total of 16 engineers in Australia and 16 engineers in India, who focus solely on vibrating equipment. The end result is a flexible and reliable range of machinery that can cater for any application or special requirement.” Henri points out that the largest heavy-duty vibrating screen in the Ludowici Meshcape range is the BRU horizontal vibrating

or ‘banana’ screen, which is available in single or double deck configuration with flat modular screen surfaces.“The Ludowici Meshcape banana screen allows for high capacity and efficiency for either wet or dry screening. What’s more, high G-forces produce efficient operation, with linear motion being produced by Ludowici gearbox exciters, which incorporate a revolutionary internal design that reduces gear noise to around 72 dBA.” Henri notes that the banana screen is ideally-suited to mining applications. “Banana screens have proven to be highly-popular in mining operations in Africa, particularly in the coal, manganese, chrome, gold and iron-ore industries.”





Henri Robertson, Ludowici Meshcape, Tel: (011) 609-1120, Email: h.robertson@,

1962 2012

BULK HANDLING TODAY mMEL069 - Corp ad Bulk Handling Today January 2012.indd 1

March 2012


2012/01/10 02:36:02 PM


Dense Media Cyclones Following full implementation of its local fabrication capability for manufacture of its new Cavex ceramic dense media (DM) cyclones, Weir Minerals Africa (WMA) is now poised to ship the first orders for this innovative alternative technology specifically designed for dense media applications, with specific focus on coal processing. A Cavex 650CVXT DM cyclone was dispatched at the end of November 2011 to a fluorspar operation, while a colliery on the Highveld has received eight 500CVXT and five 400CVXT units during the month of November. The Cavex DM cyclone, that will be available in sizes from 250 mm up to 1450 mm, features a unique laminar spiral inlet geometry that delivers sharper separation, maximum capacity and longer wear life than conventional involute or tangential feel inlet DM cyclone designs. “We believe our ceramic radius tiles offer the coal processing industry benefits which are not found anywhere else,” says JD Singleton of WMA. “Turbulence is reduced by the Cavex feed chamber design, where the tiles follow the same radius of the inner profile of the rubber feed chamber, achieving a monolithic wear rate that could significantly exceed wear capabilities currently possible in the industry.” Rene Calitz, Weir Minerals Africa Tel: (011) 929-2622,



March 2012

High alumina content tiles are used throughout the new Cavex dense media design


New blade wheel profile

Lifting Guide “BULK HANDLING TODAY”, will be publishing its second LIFTING GUIDE in July 2012. This guide will be distributed together with the May 2012 edition of “Bulk Handling Today” and from our stand at Electra Mining in September 2012 and at various seminars and conferences throughout the year. We are offering advertisers a golden opportunity to put their product or service on the map. The guide will advise industry users on how to choose, use and maintain lifting equipment that is ‘tailor-made’ for their specific needs and applications. Generic types of cranes and their specifications are discussed in detail, along with other useful information on chains, hoists, slings, etc. But any machine is only as good as the person who operates it, so we will also discuss driver training, daily checklists to ensure proper maintenance, health and safety requirements, inspections and much more.

New TurboBelt fluid coupling on the Voith Turbo test field in Crailsheim, Germany

Open-pit mining belt conveyors often transport the extracted raw materials over long distances. Voith Turbo has developed a new coupling, the TurboBelt 780 TPXL, for the drives of these belt conveyors. At the heart of the new development is the profile of the blade wheels in the coupling. Voith’s fluid engineers have optimised this profile using modern numerical techniques of flow simulation (computational fluid dynamics - CFD). The blade wheels transmit double the power with the same diameter. To be precise, the TurboBelt transfers 1 100kW at 900rpm, 1 500kW at 1 000rpm and 1 900kW at 1 200rpm. Power transmission is wear-free, as with all hydrodynamic couplings. Power density is further increased thanks to the direct attachment of the TurboBelt to the motor flange, combined with two flow circuits operating in parallel. Compared with traditional couplings, the TurboBelt requires only half as much installation space and is also significantly lighter. Installation and alignment are both simple and quick. Overall, the entire drive is lighter and

more compact. This can be beneficial when moving the conveyor system, for example.

The publication is endorsed by LEEASA: CMA (Conveyor Manufacturers Association); SAIMechE (SA Institution of Mechanical Engineering) and SAIMH (SA Institute of Material Handling).

The optimised, hydrodynamic power transmission with the TurboBelt offers many advantages to operators of belt conveyors: The very precise control of torque transmission protects the belt, as well as extending its service life. Longitudinal dynamic tension waves in the belt can be effectively avoided. The drive motors run under less strain, so oversizing them is not necessary. Even overloaded belt conveyors can be safely started using this coupling. Unloaded conveyors can be run at creep speed. The Voith TurboBelt itself offers availability of up to 99.8%. An L10 bearing service life of 80,000 hours helps to achieve this high level of availability. The maintenance required is very low – for example, the first overhaul is due in approximately 10 to 15 years. The supply of spare parts is also guaranteed throughout the entire product service life. Hans Voshol, Voith Turbo, Tel: (011) 418-4000, Fax: (011) 418-4080, and Roy Webster, Email: roy.webster@voith. com,,

Contact Surita Marx on Tel: 011 781 1401 Cel: 083 281 5761 E-mail:


March 2012



Subscription - 2012

Demolition Robots

Please fax us if you wish to subscribe to “Bulk Handling Today” at R405,00 (incl postage, excl VAT) per year; R1020,00 per year for Africa/Overseas (incl postage). We will post you an invoice on receipt of your fax.

PROMECH PUBLISHING Fax No: (011) 781-1403 Email: From: (insert your name) ................... ............................................................ Title: .................................................. Company: ........................................ .......................................................... Address: ........................................... ........................................................... ........................................................... ...........Code: .................. Telephone: (.......) ........................... .......................................................... L-R: Seen at the Husqvarna Demolition Robot launch in Pietermaritzburg were Pieter Smuts, general manager of Husqvarna SA Construction Products, and Dylan Lane, managing director of Husqvarna South Africa

Husqvarna South Africa has taken demolition to a whole new level with its new range of high tech DXR remotecontrolled demolition robots. Incorporating software that is designed in-house, the DXR range has a host of unique new features that offer construction companies better solutions to on site challenges whilst ensuring greater efficiency and cutting costs. “A Husqvarna DXR provides huge freedom in selecting a demolition method. With its compact, convenient design, these robots can reach virtually anywhere and are ideal for demolition and light excavation work both indoors and out. Even in tough settings like the process industry, they are highly efficient and can take on most types of materials and handle demolition of pipes, courtyards, stairwells, roofs, balconies and even oven linings with ease,” says Pieter Smuts, general manager of construction products at Husqvarna South Africa. The user-friendly remote control is the heart of the DXR demolition robots. Most functions are carried out using the two ergonomically-designed joysticks. The control box has an easy-to-read 3.5 inch colour display. With one-hand control, the tower and arm can be operated whilst the machine is being moved.



With a system that is based on a thoroughly tested steering module used in other tough applications such as mining, the DXR range marries functional design and innovative assembly. Each robot moves into position quickly and is ready to start work without time consuming preparation. Individual control of the outriggers enables stable placement on uneven surfaces, stairs and up against walls. A low profile provides operators with good vision whilst working, creating a safer and more efficient working environment. Husqvarna,, Trident Refractory Specialists,

Book Now for June 2011 • • • •

Lifting equipment Power Transmission Earthmoving & Plant hire Mining

Contact Surita Marx Tel (011) 781-1401, Fax: (011) 781-1403 or to book your advertising space

March 2012

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March 2012


from design, to supply, to installation to commissioning and hand over... as well as after sales service and support. • Drum reclaimers • Stackers • Spreaders • Transfer cars • Conveyors • All associated civil works



March 2012

Bulk Handling Today Mar12  

"Bulk Handling Today" is endorsed by the SA Institute of Materials Handling, the Conveyor Manufacturers Association, the Lifting Equipment E...

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