Gianna Bottema. Housing and Care Cooperatives in the Netherlands, Spatial Diagrams of Cluster Living

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Housing & Care Cooperatives in the Netherlands Spatial Diagrams of Cluster Living

Gianna Bottema Taught Master of Philosophy in Architecture and Urban Design: Projective Cities Architectural Association School of Architecture London


Housing & Care Cooperatives in the Netherlands: Spatial Diagrams of Cluster Living Taught Master of Philosophy in Architecture and Urban Design: Projective Cities Architectural Association School of Architecture London Dissertation by Gianna Bottema Tutors: Sam Jacoby, Platon Issaias and Hamed Khosravi Submission: 24 May 2019 This book is the result of a research developed in the Projective Cities course 2017– 2019 at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London. During the programme I was financially supported by Prins Bernhard Cultuur Fonds, Hendrik Muller Fonds, Vrije Vrouwe van Renswoude Fonds, Stichting Niemeijer Fonds, Marina van Damme Fonds, and the Architectural Association. First of all, I would like to acknowledge my family and Olivier for their observations, key insights and special help. Additionally, I would like to thank those who have been present during my studies, my tutors, and fellow students. Thank you for your contribution during discussions and for challenging my observations and research.

Housing & Care Co-operatives in the Netherlands


Abstract

The dissertation Housing & Care Cooperatives in the Netherlands: Spatial Diagrams of Cluster Living, investigates the typological transformation of elderly accommodation into decentralised models of care in place in the district. Currently, community-led care networks such as Buurtzorg, District Care, and care cooperatives are emerging through new legislation in order to encourage individual care agency and to collectivise care responsibility within the district. The shift in healthcare politics towards care in place emphasises the dwelling as a hybrid of public and private initiatives, linking forms of assistance and dependency with everyday life. The collective organisation of care in the home environment introduces typological questions about the organisation of dwelling according to new protocols, procedures and common activities of care. How can the housing cooperative as a spatial and social framework organise collectivised care work, household activities and social support networks within the district? This dissertation argues for an investigation into the threshold conditions of dwelling according to the social and spatial relations of care activities (therapy, care work, reproductive work, assistance and retreat). By proposing the thresholds as a key design tool, the dissertation aims to challenge the separation, classification and segregation of people according to age, illness and gender. The wellbeing of the human body relates to the different dimensions of space and emphasises multi-scalar relations that stretch from the district to the domestic. Through an investigation of the different parts of the home, the project proposes to translate common activities and tasks into a collection of fragments, zones of interaction and threshold conditions. Accordingly, spatial design principles of cluster living reorganise the parts, and redefine notions of intimacy, privacy and the interior. Through four design variations (hof, tower, atrium and urban villa type), the project challenges spatial separation, private property and family life, by proposing intergenerational forms of living, extended household configurations and a hybrid of district care amenities. As a result, the dissertation proposes design guidelines that reflect on the current legislation and planning strategy of the Dutch government. Key terms: housing cooperatives, protocols, care in place, cluster living, threshold, district

Abstract

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Housing & Care Co-operatives in the Netherlands


Table of contents Abstract Introduction: networks of community-led care

1 5-19

1. The Dutch welfare state: a typological transformation of elderly care homes towards care in place

20-63

2. The housing cooperative: a framework for community-led care initiatives

64-79

3. Designing threshold conditions: spatial diagrams of cluster living

80-129

4. From thresholds to assemblage: district, gardens and types

130-203

Conclusion

204-209

Annex 1: A history of the Dutch housing cooperative

210-229

Annex 2: Typological analysis of the hofje

230-257

Bibliography

258-271

Table of contents

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4

Housing & Care Co-operatives in the Netherlands


Introduction

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Housing & Care Co-operatives in the Netherlands


Introduction Networks of community-led care

In recent years, care work, and especially elderly care, has come to the centre of attention as an alternative response to a crisis in traditional forms of assistance.1 In the Netherlands, the relative and absolute growth of the ageing population, in combination with the increase of life expectancy, has given rise to new questions of care in place.2 The recent report ‘Reorganization of Long-Term Care’ by the Dutch Ministry of Public Healthcare, Welfare and Sports has given a new dimension to the decentralisation of healthcare practice.3 New legislation on healthcare provision, the organisation of care profiles and the allocation of budgets has excluded people with light forms of dementia, mental disorder and psychiatric disorders from the 4

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provisions of the Social Support Act. Against the prospect of potential loneliness, social exclusion and increased vulnerability, this target group has become highly dependent on their home environment, the family and access to district support networks. In contrast to former developments of old age and elderly care homes, the dwelling as a social institution has increased in importance as an answer to activities of care in place, collective care initiatives and district networks. Currently, communal forms of living are being developed in order to collectively organise social care, reproductive work and care work. Located between state intervention and family life, community-led care provides an intermediate scale of assistance. In contrast to segregated communities for those of a particular age, illness, and gender, the care cooperative has emerged as a group based on similar interests, hobbies or ideologies, and encompasses a network of both volunteers and professionals. By collectively organising care work, therapy and reproductive work, the group pools resources, optimises work and customises the experience of illness, ageing and everyday life, in an attempt to design alternative social relations to family life.

Introduction

1. Silvia Federici, Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle (Oakland: PM Press, 2012). 2. The term Care in Place refers to services and care activities performed on an outpatient basis that take place within the home environment. The activities range from assistance (respite care, home care, nonclinical), to forms of therapy or care work (extramural care and ambulatory support). 3. The ‘Reorganization of Long-term Care’ is a translation from the original report ‘Hervorming van de Langdurige Zorg’. The reorganisation shifts intramural healthcare to care in place by adjusting the General Law of Special Medical Expenses, (Algemene Wet Bijzondere Ziektekosten), into two new acts, Act of Long-term Care, (Wet Langdurige Zorg, 2015) and the Social Support Act (Wet Maatschappelijke Ondersteuning, 2015). 4. Mental disorder is categorised within the allocation of healthcare assistance in the Netherlands as ‘Verstandelijk gehandicapt’, indicated as the category VG. 5. People with a form of psychiatric disorder are categorised within the allocation of healthcare assistance in the Netherlands as ‘Psychische stoornissen’, indicated as the category GGZ.

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Community-led care initiatives have come to the attention of municipalities as a driver for efficient care organisation, sharing care work between care professionals, volunteers and family members. Through the administration of the Right to Challenge, the government wants citizens to form cooperatives and to submit initiatives for the contracting of care. In the report ‘Kompas: Right to Challenge in Wmo’, the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport emphasises the Right to Challenge as a ‘useful instrument’ to frame potential initiatives in the district.6 By doing so, the municipality devolves responsibilities to citizens to collectively regenerate neighbourhoods according specific areas such as elderly care, education, talent development or entrepreneurship (image 0.01). The reorganisation of management from the central government to municipalities has changed the logic and technologies of governance, transferring responsibilities to a range of bodies: corporations, primary care workers, support networks and volunteers.7 Within this process, district-level governance plays a significant role in organising primary care through general practitioner assistants, district nurses, healthcare assistants and informal carers. By shifting the emphasis to primary care workers, the Dutch government stresses the importance of prevention, participation and self-management of health.8 The focus on self-diagnosis and outpatient treatment has made care provision an individual responsibility,9 forcing groups of individuals to collectively organise their own networks of care cooperatives, city-villages, Buurtzorg, District Care and neighbourhood circles.10 The emphasis on actively involved citizens as both care providers and consumers illustrates an epistemological shift in our understanding of the human body: from a being that ‘contains’ towards the body as a control mechanism that can be designed to define its own environment.11 The shift in rationalities towards a series of self-managed support networks has resulted in new spatial design questions. First of all, the clear distinction between the home and the social institution has become less apparent. The hierarchical divisions of care work present in healthcare buildings is relocated to the realm of domestic space and family life. The repositioning of such care work as consultation, catheterisation, skin scrapings, venepuncture or physical examination to the home has resulted in a series of problems. On the one hand, care in place influences the functioning of the dwelling, and through practical implications, affects the efficiency of professional care activities. This not only demands a reconsideration of the functional zoning of the house, but also its spatial contours and performance within the neighbourhood. On

Image 0.01 Map of Amsterdam, assigned districts for redevelopment and new housing projects, redrawn by author. 6. Daan et al, ‘Kompas: Right to Challenge in Wmo’ (Den Haag: Ministerie van Volksgezondsheid, Welzijn en Sport, 2016). 7. The government is reorganising the provision, contracting and funding of healthcare through population management per municipality and regional contracting. 8. Rijksoverheid, website, https://www.rijksoverheid. nl/onderwerpen/eerstelijnszorg/grotere-rol-vooreerstelijnszorg (visited on 7/6/2018). 9. Nikolas Rose, The Politics of Life Itself: Biomedicine, Power, and Subjectivity in the Twenty-First Century (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007).

everyday experiences in the home, developing new notions on intimacy and privacy,

10. The networks are translated from their original name: Zorgcoöperaties, Stadsdorpen, Buurtzorg, Wijkzorg and Buurtcirkel.

foregrounding the importance of rethinking spatial divisions within the house.

11. Rose, The Politics of Life Itself.

the other hand, the merging of social activities and clinical procedures is influencing

Introduction

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Furthermore, the current attempt of the Dutch government to regulate the organisation of professional and social support networks through the Right to Challenge is resulting in a series of issues around questions of scale, replicability and standardisation. Operating as self-managed teams, the care cooperatives emerged as a reaction to redesign, and customise existing organisation models of care by joining forces to reclaim autonomy in the home environment. However, the government is putting new protocols in place to regulate and standardise the same initiatives through forms of cluster living, resulting in new design questions about the spatial organisation of domestic space in relation to small-scale care initiatives and the applicability of cluster living as a national strategy to redevelop neighbourhoods. The duality between, on the one hand, the self-organisation of the cooperative, and, on the other hand, the prospect of the institutionalisation of its structure by the government demands a reconsideration of the dwelling in terms of its customisation to new asymmetries, hierarchies and spatial requirements, but also in order to retain its independence in relation to the standardisation of its social relations, financial organisation and neighbourhood integration against prospective models of individual exploitation and mental health issues. The organisation of the Right to Challenge is tied to an understanding of wellbeing in terms of vitality, opening up the organisation of care to new models of financing. The prospective success of collective networks has encouraged alternative models in the financing of care, linking corporations, care organisations, municipalities and individuals to an economy based on the maximisation of vitality.12 As a consequence, wellbeing has become central in the home environment, in which the dwelling links care work, collective administration and the distribution of care services with the larger district. The complexity of the organisation of collective care networks within the home environment captures a multi-scalar condition, whereas the accommodation of entrepreneurial teams, welfare teams, self-management teams, district care teams, primary care teams, social workers, and district support teams not only resembles spatial design questions around the design of domestic space, but also requires the

Image 0.02 Urban plan Amsterdam Oost Watergraafsmeer and assigned infrastructures in the district (redrawn by author). District support point/centre Sport facilities

organisation of local economies through the renting out and managing of shared

Healthcare and care facilities

spaces, services and infrastructures (image 0.03). Key to this process of development

Cafe and restaurants

is a reconsideration of architectural design to organise the operation, logistics and circulation of domestic space according to new demands in the use of facilities, amenities and infrastructures in the district (image 0.02). Within this process,

Finished projects 2019 Under construction Investment decision Exploratory phase

the design of the dwelling can be considered as a strategy to redefine relations of dependency, responsibility and privacy.

Introduction

12. Rose, The Politics of Life Itself.

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Participation Act 2012 & Youth Act 2015

Municipality

District

Individuals

Home assistance (Care assistance)

District circle/care cooperative

Ambulant youth worker

Young carers

Family members

Retired care Professionals

Housing corporation

Social enterprise

Woon coaches

Sports organisations and associations

Sport park

Sport coaches

Charity organization networks

Professional volunteers

Network organisation social exclusion

District coach/ advisor

Well-being coaches

Care coordinator

Social Support Act (Wmo 2015)

GGD

Wijkzorg (PGB/ZIN)

Healthcare professionals

District nurse + nurses

Primary care (GP, physiotherapy, dentist)

Extended team General Practitioner

GP assistant & GP nurse

Healthcare Insurance Act

Healthcare insurances

Social enterprise (Buurtzorg)

Act Long Term Care (Wlz 2015)

Ciz (Care Assessment Center)

Stadsloket

District team

Area managers

City administration

Stadsdeel commisie (City district commitee)

District, executive committee (Political parties)

District practice team

Dialogue leaders

Coordinator pest control

Health advisors

District police teams

District carer/traffic attendant

Neighbourhood company

Neighbourhood adopter

Image 0.03 Mapping of the stakeholders and care organisations in the Netherlands. The administration of legislation (Government), organisations and corporations (municipalities) and networks of stakeholders (district) is organised as a system to provide basic amenities that strengthen and stimulate a self-supporting society. The spaces of operation: sport stimulation, pedagogical infrastructure, volunteering support and social amenities (volunteers, corporations and public sector).

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Social workers

Housing & Care Co-operatives in the Netherlands


Teams Entrepreneurial teams Under the Participation Act 2012 and Youth Act 2015 individuals who are declared not be able to work can do small projects within the neighbourhood. They can provide care by providing services; mechanic, cleaning service, catering service or assistance at home.

Welfare team Welfare coaching retired healthcare workers, advisors/mentors, through organisation, assistance, location and funding for ideas.

Self-management Wmo amenity, run by former care recipients, the organisation is connecting demands and requests of different people and groups; Selfcare coach, Daily Living Assistance (ADL), Elderly workers.

Spaces of use Ambulant youth worker

Coordination information point

Young carers

Temporary stay/Daycare

Family members

GP healthcare centre

Retired care Professionals

District room

Woon coaches

Activity centre

Sport coaches

Community garden

Professional volunteers District coach/ advisor

Sports court

Neighbourhood center

Well-being coaches

Play ground

District care

Care coordinator

Sport dependence

District nurses and Welfare workers (PGB/ZiN) providing domestic help, personal care and nursing, ambulatory support and day care, sleep and wake-up services.

District nurse + nurses

Social workers Wmo-service, run by nursery workers, youth workers/youth care workers, Volunteer coordinators, district psychiatry and debt counsellors.

GP assistant & GP nurse

Social workers

Dwelling

Youth centre

Social Counter (Stads Locket)

Area managers

Study rooms

Dialogue leaders

Learning centre

Health advisors

District service point

District support team

Mapping care demand, providing information and signalizing. Informing rights support plan, RIS District Care. Advisers and managers in work, participation and income (klantmanagers WPI) District care professional, customer holder, Wmo specialist, WPI advisors in work.

District carer/traffic attendant Neighbourhood adopter

Introduction

Schools

Mobile district offices

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Mobility

Physical training

Nursing Education

Hygiene

Privacy

Wellbeing

Body

Unit

Cluster

Building

District

Consultation

Meaning

Nutrition Contemplation

Maintenance Mental well-being

0.04

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Housing & Care Co-operatives in the Netherlands


Design strategy: housing cooperatives to organise care infrastructure The dissertation argues to investigate the housing cooperative as a framework to spatially integrate the care cooperative and organise, customise and design the spaces, services and infrastructure of care work and social support within the district. The current interest in cooperative organisations provides an opportunity to rethink activities of care and ageing in place through shared models of ownership and use. The Dutch government argues in the coalition agreement of 2017–2021 for the recognition of the housing cooperative as a competing urban planning strategy to develop affordable housing, in addition to the private housing market and public housing.13 Moreover, since the establishment of the cooperative in the Housing Act 2015, the municipality of Amsterdam has been allocating public land to cooperatives to develop affordable accommodation and social amenities to renew neighbourhoods. Within the framework of the Right to Challenge, supporting fixed land values, 50-year lease periods and subsidised community organisation, the municipality of Amsterdam is managing housing cooperatives to frame new care initiatives. The dissertation investigates the shared activities and relations of care that exist between households, clusters, the cooperative and the district, and translates these into a series of threshold conditions. By redesigning the thresholds between living spaces, therapy rooms, social amenities, medical infrastructure and district services, the dissertation proposes to challenge the dimensions of family life and to design alternative spatial diagrams of cohabitation and intergenerational relationships.

Research methods, aims and objectives The aim of the dissertation is to investigate how the housing cooperative can function as a framework to organise activities of care and ageing in place, by studying the social and spatial relationships that emerge within the home environment, according to intergenerational forms of living and questions of common use. By the use of a case study method approach, the dissertation analyses the different functions of the housing cooperative, in order to propose the integration of social support networks and intergenerational forms of living. Subsequently, the dissertation researches how the typological shift of domestic space to extended forms of living is part of the transformation of elderly care homes to a housing and care hybrid. The research methods are a syntactic literature review of cooperatives and intergenerational living, social theory on care giving, archival work into the history of Dutch cooperatives and a drawing analysis of architectural precedents. Subsequently, typological reasoning will be used to provide design variations of living arrangements, to study the clustering of dwellings into different zones of interaction.

Introduction

Image 0.04 Diagram of the organisation of the home environment. The well-being of the human body relates to a variety of amenities, spaces and objects that operate from the direct body to the district. 13. VVD, CDA, D66 and ChristenUnie, Vertrouwen in de Toekomst: Regeerakkoord 2017–2021 (10 October 2017) p.32.

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0.05

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Housing & Care Co-operatives in the Netherlands


The objectives of this research are: - to study the activities of the care cooperative, to integrate their daily procedures, spaces and infrastructures into the spatial design of the dwelling, according new requirements in terms of privacy, intimacy and work; - to study the activities of district care workers, to redefine the dwelling according care work activities and threshold conditions; - and to study the home environment in relation to the dimensions of wellbeing, to redefine the dwelling as a multi-scalar concept, considering the arrangement of space into different zones of interaction.

The aims and objectives are framed by the following research questions: Disciplinary questions: How have protocols and legislation on elderly care influenced the typological transformation from old aged and elderly care homes to care in place? - What are the spatial design principles of care organisation, and how do they relate to contemporary questions of decentralised forms of care?

Urban questions: How can the housing cooperative form a spatial framework for care services, infrastructures and amenities within the city district? - What are the architectural design components that organise the care relations between the different scales of dwelling: households, cooperative and the district? - How can the housing cooperative provide infrastructures for the city? - What are the challenges that emerge from intergenerational relationships?

Typological questions: What are the activities, zones of interaction and threshold conditions of care in place? - How can the threshold be instrumental to the design of spaces of social care, reproductive work, therapy and care work? - What are the typological organisation models of cluster living?

Introduction

Image 0.05 Conceptual drawing of dissolved threshold conditions as a assemblage of elements, fragments and space.

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0.06


Dissertation structure The dissertation is divided into four chapters that study the relations and spatial design principles of care in place by illustrating the different mechanisms that formalise, implement and challenge the social diagram of dwelling. The first chapter studies the typological transformation of the elderly care home towards contemporary concepts of cluster living and care in place. The second chapter provides a cases study analyses of a housing and care cooperative in order to investigate to integration of the different scales of care provision. The third chapter will address the spatial design questions that emerge with care in place, and translate those into types of threshold conditions and design principles of cluster living. The fourth chapter illustrates how the design principles can be contextualised at the district level by the use of four design variations: hof, atrium, tower and urban villa type (image 0.06).

Introduction

Image 0.06 Axonometric drawing of the district Watergraafsmeer with the four design variations: hof (green), atrium (orange), tower (blue) and urban villa type (purple).

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Housing & Care Co-operatives in the Netherlands


1.

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Psychiatric hospital 1864 - St. Jacob Gesticht, W.J.J. Offenberg

Independent elderly home ‘Tuindorpen’ (Garden cities) Vreeswijk, 1943

Bed-hall model J.W.H.G Pot en J.F PotKeegstra, Osdorphof Nursing Home, Amsterdam 1962

Small-scale urban development Aldo van Eyck and Theo Bosch, Amsterdam, 1974

Group accommodation Wytze Patijn, Kreilerburcht Rotterdam, 1991

Sanatorium Zonnestraal, J. Duiker, B. Bijvoet, J.G. Wiebenga, 1926-1931, Hilversum

Service flat Architectenbureau Margry & Jacobs, verpleeg- en verzorgingscentrum Amsterdam Buitenveldert, 1969

Woon-Zorg complex WoZoCo Johannes de Deo, MVRDV, 1994 0

10

40

0

10

40

Retirement pension W. Bruin, De Rusthoeve, Purmerend, 1936

Revalidation model Herman Herzberger, Drie Hoven, Amsterdam, 1973

Live-Care complex Levs, Bouwmeester, Woonzorg complex, 2013

Cluster living ADL Schots en Scheef, 2017, Groningen, Focus, Charlotte Schippers

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40

Housing & Care Co-operatives in the Netherlands


1. The Dutch welfare state A typological transformation from elderly care homes towards care in place

Architectural design is tied to technologies, legislation and representations of health, and reflects our understanding of the working of the body.14 Over the course of the twentieth century, the organisation of elderly care (forms of administration, the funding and organisation of programmes) has framed protocols on spatial divisions and circulation space, resulting in a series of building types that illustrate the decentralisation of care from social institutions to house-care zones15 and the home environment.16 The decentralisation of healthcare practice has resulted in new design questions in relation to the spatial integration of collective amenities in domestic space. Therefore, the aim of the chapter is to illustrate the spatial design principles that have given shape to notions of public health, through an investigation into the typological transformation of elderly care homes. This chapter reflects on the disciplinary questions: How have protocols and legislation on care influenced the typological transformation of elderly care homes towards care in place? What are the spatial design principles of care organisation, and how do they relate to contemporary questions of decentralised forms of care?

Chapter 1

Image 1.01 Overview of elderly care homes built in the Netherlands from 1850 to 2017. 14. Beatriz Colomina, X-Ray Architecture (Zurich: Lars Muller Publications, 2019). 15. The term ‘House-care zone’ is a translation from the Dutch term ‘Woonzorgzones’. 16. Theo van der Voordt and Dieuwke Terpstra, Verpleeghuizen en Alternatieven (Delft: Technical University of Delft, 1995) p.39.

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Time line of legislation

0

2

10

0

2

10

1.02 Psychiatric hospital

1.03 Sanatorium

1864 - St. Jacob Gesticht, W.J.J. Offenberg

Zonnestraal, J. Duiker, B. Bijvoet, J.G. Wiebenga, 1926-1931, Hilversum

1901

1919

Housing Act 1901

Invalidity and Old Age Act

1901 Housing Act

1919 Invalidity and Old Age Act

The act combined the National Health Act and Industrial Injuries Act and forced municipalities to develop an integrated housing policy for public health. Through the implementation of the housing act the construction of public housing became a governmental responsibility. Under the new act, housing associations were funded to develop affordable forms of living.

The Invaliditeitswet en Ouderdomeswet was one of the first social healthcare acts in the Netherlands. The Invalidity Act organised compulsory insurance for wage-earners and voluntary insurance for the self-employed. A small pension was paid at the age of 70-years. Furthermore, the act made family and household occupants responsible to maintain the elderly in case of a low income. As a result, different associations and cooperatives were formed to collectively organise a healthcare system and insurance. The project Sanatorium Zonnestraal (image 1.03) forms an example of a project developed by a cooperative to enforce the health of its employees.

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Housing & Care Co-operatives in the Netherlands


Time line of legislation

0

2

10

0

2

10

1.04 Retirement pension

1.05 Independent elderly home

W. Bruin, De Rusthoeve, Purmerend, 1936

‘Tuindorpen’ (Garden cities) Vreeswijk, 1943

1925

1942

1947

Rapport Oudeliedenzorg

Noodwet Drees

1950

1942 Rapport Oudeliedenzorg, Armenraad Amsterdam

1947 Noodwet Drees Ouderdomsvoorziening (Retirement Act)

In addition to the Housing Act, the article ‘Rapport Oudeliedebzorg’ assigned municipalities responsible for the development of affordable forms of living for the elderly. As a result, retirement pensions were built (image 1.04). Additionally, after the Second World War, the government started constructing small dwellings for seniors in garden cities (image 1.05). These independent homes were built with state subsidies and were designed as a single level terraced house with a garden. The small homes could provide accommodation for single pensioners or couples. The independent homes were both a tool to relieve the housing shortage and a means of allowing the elderly to live independently as long as possible.

The act enables an income insurance for elderly and was established in 1947. The early act of 1947 formed a transitional arrangement to organize a new social and financial welfare system for the elderly based on a premium payment. The monthly allowance was organised through a saving system based on former incomes and the location of living. The system was dividing each municipality into five different classes, and arranged accordingly the monthly allowances.

Chapter 1

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Time line of legislation

0

2

10

0

2

10

1.06 Bed-hall model

1.07 Service flat

J.W.H.G Pot en J.F Pot-Keegstra, Osdorphof Nursing Home, Amsterdam 1962

Architectenbureau Margry en Jacobs, verpleeg- en verzorgingscentrum Amsterdam Buitenveldert, 1969

1950

1956

1957

1958

Law of Elderly homes

Old Age Pension Act

Family Care Act

1956 Law of Elderly homes

1958 Family Care Act

The law Wet op Bejaardenoorden enabled the construction of new types of elderly homes. In addition to the rest pensions and the independent senior homes, the new act enabled state funding for large housing projects for the elderly. As a result of the new construction techniques the bed-hall model emerged as a building type based on an efficient organisation and separation in utilities, services and living spaces. Subsequently the Old Age Pension Act (Algemene Ouderdomswet, 1957) formed a professionalisation of the act of 1947, and installed a state pension for all elderly which increased the demand in elderly homes.

The act Gezinsverzorging enabled an administrative division between support of the family by philanthropic and volunteering organisations and social assistance subsidised by the government. The forms of assistance were assigned to handicapped, elderly and people with a chronic disease.

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1966 Disability Insurance Act Under the development of the Disability Insurance Act the Public Health Council advises to define an administrative division between somatic patients, elderly with physical disorders and psycho-geriatric patients. The elderly homes of the mid sixties were designed based on spatial separation assigned in hospitals (image 1.07)

Housing & Care Co-operatives in the Netherlands


Time line of legislation

0

2

10

0

2

10

1.08 Revalidation model

1.09 Small-scale urban development

Herman Herzberger, De Drie Hoven, Amsterdam, 1973

Aldo van Eyck and Theo Bosch, Rozenstraat Amsterdam, 1974

1964

1965

1966

1968

1970

1971

Hospital Act

Widows and Orphans Act

Disability Insurance Act

Law on Exceptional Medical Expenses

Revision Elderly Policy

Law on Hospital service

1975 Third Note Planning

1968 Law on Exceptional Medical Expenses

1971 Law on Hospital service

The act Algemene Wet Bijzondere Ziektekosten, provided a national insurance for the population against special health care needs. The new act enforced the construction of 25.000 new beds according new notions on nursing and healthcare practise. The elderly homes of the seventies adopted social amenities to integrate forms of rehabilitation. As a consequence new building types emerged based on the integration of social therapy, assistance and district services(image 1.08). In 1970, the Nota Bejaardenbeleid was assigned to reduce the construction of elderly homes and decrease governmental investment.

In addition to the Law on Exceptional Medical Expenses, the act Wet Ziekenhuisvoorziening, makes an end to the construction of nursing homes and enforced revalidation models: social spaces, new types of therapy, larger specialised departments.

Chapter 1

1976 Derde Nota van Ruimtelijke Ordening The new note enforced provincial distribution plans of small-scale projects (image 1.09) to distribute elderly homes across the city. The note was focussed on the development of accommodation in urban environments instead of suburban and integrate district facilities in a service centre for seniors in the neighbourhood.

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Time line of legislation

0

2

10

0

2

10

1.10 Group accommodation

1.11 Woon-Zorg complex

Wytze Patijn, Kreilerburcht Rotterdam, 1991

WoZoCo Johannes de Deo, MVRDV, 1994

1977

1984

1986

1993

Revision act Elderly Homes

National Association for Grouped living for Elderly

Note Care for the Elderly

Note Gerritsen

1977 Revision 1956 Act Elderly Homes In the revision of the act, additional selection requirements were adopted in terms of the required social and medical assistance. The act was a result of the high costs on the construction of subsidised service flats. As a response, the state developed 60.000 independent dwellings and 50 extra healthcare centres within the district in order to reduce the service flats beds to 5600 per year.

1984 National Association for Grouped living for Elderly The establishment of the ‘Landelijke Vereniging Groepswonen voor Ouderen’ emphasised the development of cluster living for elderly people. As independent

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forms of living, the clusters became integrated in the organisation of services of nursing homes. Around 1989, approximately 50 residential groups (consisting of 900 elderly) were established. In 1993, the number of residential groups increased to 147 groups. An example is the project Kreilerburcht Rotterdam (image 1.10).

1986 Note Care for the Elderly The note ‘Zorg voor Ouderen’ provided a new admission policy between elderly homes and nursing homes in order to minimize costs in intramural care. As a result extramural care concepts were developed: Kleinschalig Begeleid Wonen, (Small-scale Guided Living).

Housing & Care Co-operatives in the Netherlands


Time line of legislation

0

1994

2

10

0

2

10

1.12 Care centre

1.13 Cluster living ADL

Levs, Bouwmeester, Woonzorg centrum, 2013

Project Schots en Scheef, 2017, Groningen, Charlotte Schippers

1996

Report Commission Personal Bound Welschen Budgets

2000

2007

2015

Live-Care incentive scheme

Social Support Act

Act of Long-term Care

2016 Right to Challenge

1994 Report Commission Welschen

2007 Social Support Act

The report ‘Commissie Welschen: Ouderen Zorg met Toekomst’ developed by the Ministry enforced the modernization of elderly care and the administrative division between care organisation and forms of living resulting in the WoZoCo (Live-Care Complex) (image 1.11).

The Wet Maatschappelijke ondersteuning enables new forms of subsidised assistance within the home. As a result, primary care networks of nurses were developed across the district.

1996 Personal bound budgets The introduction of personal bound budget (Persoonsgebonden budget) within care organisation enabled the self-organisation of care work within the home environment and enforced the specialisation of nursing homes in care-centres (image 1.12).

Chapter 1

2016 Right to Challenge The reorganisation of long-term care (Wet Langdurige Zorg, 2015) and the Right to Challenge enabled the self-organisation of care in the district through community organisation. The legislation subsidised community-led care initiative through cluster living (Small-scale group living and General daily life operation clusters) (image 1.13).

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From domestic space to social institution From the Enlightenment until today, theories on healthcare practice, hygiene and welfare have emphasised the design of collective forms of living in terms of the classification and separation of individuals. Michel Foucault illustrates in The Birth of the Clinic how the project of architectural modernity is intertwined with the ordering of life, the production of subjectivities and the design of spatial divisions and classifications. As Foucault articulates, over the course of the eighteenth century a series of acts, pedagogical infrastructures and organisational models were incorporated to design social institutions based on collective forms of living (hospitals, asylums and prisons) and to integrate medical perception with domestic space through new forms of governance. Within this process, a welfare state of public amenities and institutions was designed to shape a system of social division and to redefine the human body as a tool to construct attitudes, habits and behaviours.17 The institutionalisation of domestic space and the design of social associations formed an attempt to bring architecture closer to science and to eliminate the irrational and personal in favour of an universal system of principles and rules. The search for an architectural concept of arrangement and systemisation is reflected in the work Précis of the Lectures on Architecture, by Jean Nicolas-Louis Durand. In the treatise Durand reflects on the practice of architecture and proposes a series of design studies that illustrate the disposition of architectural elements and space based on the systematisation of plans in terms of ‘appropriateness and economy’.18 Within this systemisation, the arrangement of the hospital had to be designed both efficiently and as a ‘place for humanity’.19 As visible in Plate 18, the hospital was designed around a concept of hospitality that became reflected in the arrangement of transitional spaces (walking paths, corridors, colonnades and porticos) and the communication between the several parts (image 1.14). In the hospital, the design and disposition of the transitional spaces organised and distributed the wards to assigned individuals, and categorised the living spaces according to a specific disease, age group or gender. Similarly to Durand’s analyses of the hospital, the first Dutch nursing homes (psychiatric hospitals) illustrate how the compartmentalisation of space is used to divide individuals and organise work activities. As is visible in the design of the Roman Catholic Home for the elderly, the Sint Jacob Psychiatric Hospital in Amsterdam, the corridor plan was introduced to separate people according to notions of religion,

Chapter 1

Image 1.14 Plate 18, Part III Principal Kinds of Building, Jean Nicolas-Louis Durand, Précis of the Lectures on Architecture, trans. By David Britt (Los Angeles: Getty Trust Publications, 2000) p.166. 17. Michel Foucault, The Birth of the Clinic (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1963). 18. Liane Lefaivre, and Alexander Tzonis, The Emergence of Modern Architecture: A Documentary History from 1000 to 1810 (London: Routledge, 2004) p.479 19. Jean Nicolas-Louis Durand, Précis of the Lectures on Architecture, trans. by David Britt (Los Angeles: Getty Trust Publications, 2000) p.166.

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disease, age and gender. The plans (image 1.15) illustrate how the corridor functioned to separate men and women into different wings, and subsequently positioned married couples in a separate section at the rear end of the building. Within each wing, the corridor enabled a functional division between sleeping areas, utilities, recreational areas and spaces of care provision and treatment. By doing so, it regulated access to the communal sleeping halls, and, moreover, the logistics of servant spaces: rooms for the wards, wash rooms and refectories. The compartmentalisation of the building was designed to create a sequence of shared spaces only accessible to men or women; dining rooms, washing rooms, educational facilities: a men’s pond and a garden for women. Key to the project are the communal ‘conversation rooms’, ‘reception rooms’ and the central Roman Catholic chapel, a collection of spaces designed at intersection points of the corridor plan to regulate the interaction between men and women under the supervision of the wards. In the psychiatric hospital, the corridor organised daily life according to a separation of activities emphasising differences in gender, knowledge and health. The architect Robin Evans discusses, in his essay ‘Figures, Doors and Passages’, how the corridor plan created distinctions between class relations, servant and served spaces and patterns of use. Similarly to Foucault, Evans argues that the general strategy of compartmentalisation is part of a strategic separation of people according to labour and knowledge relations. Through its functional division the corridor articulated new threshold conditions of access and exclusion, and introduced a distinction between the use of space as a route or as a destination. According to Evans, the introduction of the corridor articulated a significant shift in our understanding of space and transformed the threshold from a regulator of sight (through its separations and openings), into a device of separation (based on access and movement).20

Chapter 1

Image 1.15 St. Jacob Gesticht (1864) W.J.J. Offenberg, Amsterdam, Rooms Katholieke Kerk, top illustration drawing floor plan ground floor level, lower illustration corridor plan, Rijksarchief Nieuwe Instituut Rotterdam. 20. Robin Evans, ‘Figures, Doors and Passages’, in: Translations From Drawing to Building (London: Architectural Association Publications, 1996) pp. 70– 79, p. 78.

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Image 1.16 St. Jacob Gesticht (1864) W.J.J. Offenberg, Amsterdam, Rooms Katholieke Kerk, photograph pond for men, Beeldbank Stadsarchief Amsterdam. Image 1.17 St. Jacob Gesticht (1864) W.J.J. Offenberg, Amsterdam, Rooms Katholieke Kerk, photograph garden for women, Beeldbank Stadsarchief Amsterdam.

Chapter 1

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Image 1.18-1.22 St. Jacob Gesticht (1864) W.J.J. Offenberg, Amsterdam, Rooms Katholieke Kerk, photographs: women recreation rooms, conversation rooms, sleeping hall, corridor towards sleeping hall, Beeldbank Stadsarchief Amsterdam.

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The family as social institution The emergence of the first healthcare institutions played a key role in a shift in the organisation of domestic space. Over the course of the nineteenth century, living environments became submerged in scientific quantifications and mathematical logic resulting into new forms of categorisation as a measure to regulate and stabilise society. Notions on health and hygiene influenced the design of the home through the professionalisation of family life. Accordingly, legislation on work activities such as child labour (1874, Kinderwetje van Houten), contracts of apprenticeship (1851), the Epidemic Act (1872, Epidemiewet) and Factory Act (1875, Fabriekswet) started emphasising the separation of individuals in everyday activities.21 Jacques Donzelot describes in The Policing of Families how the segregation of individuals according to notions of productivity became articulated through domestic relations. According to Donzelot, the family captured the ‘smallest form of governance’ and formed the basis for the design of a new social economy. The contractualisation of family relations enabled a subdivision in population through new forms of administration, and formulated relations of dependence.22 Described by Donzelot as ‘the social’, the family enabled a new synthesis of social divisions tied to household activities and economic imperatives.23 As an act of moralisation, normalisation and liberation, the new legislation merged notions on education, hygiene and work into everyday life. Articulated by Donzelot, as the twentieth century approached, the ‘advanced liberal family’ emerged as a social institution linking private and public life within the realm of the dwelling. The legislation on everyday life shaped new social divisions and articulated housing as a long-term investment framing modes of productivity, waged

Image 1.23 Standard housing plans after the Housing Act of 1901, by the Cooperative Building Association Rochdale (Cooperatieve Bouwvereniging Rochdale) in Amsterdam, Van der Pek, Beuningenstraat, 1909. 21. The cooperative associations played an active role in the contractualisation of labour relations.

labour and private property.24

22. Jacques Donzelot, The Policing of Families (London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977) p. 48.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the social relations of family life

23. Idem, p.x. The concept of the family is described as ‘the social’, forming an intersection of social and juridical relations within domestic culture.

became spatially formalised through the legislation of the Housing Act 1901 (De Woningwet, 1901).25 As a response to alcove dwellings, the act started regulating the compartmentalisation of domestic space. Legislation on spatial division, housing manuals and zoning laws were put into place to emphasise spatial divisions between classes, age groups and family members.26 Subsequently, the act enforced new design instruments: standardised dwelling types, municipal extension plans and expropriations, executed by the board of health to regulate property divisions, dimensions and distribution of living arrangements. Through the regulation of measurements of circulation space—individual entrances, corridors, passages and hallways—household activities became regulated in the housing manuals (image 1.23) while new forms of exclusion were designed.27 The formalisation of family life through legislation emphasised a segregation of people according to relations of age, illness, gender and productivity.

Chapter 1

24. Idem. 25. Herman C. De Jongh and E. Philips, Woningwet en Gezondheidswet 1901: Met Aanteekeningen Hoofdzakelijk Naar de Officiëele Bescheiden (Zaltbommel: Van de Garde & Co., 1901). The act combined the National Health Act and Industrial Injuries Act and forced municipalities to develop an integrated housing policy for public health. Through the implementation of the new acts the construction of public housing became a governmental responsibility in which housing associations played a decisive role. 26. Jan W.J. Weyerman, Het Gewijzigd OntwerpWoningwet (Amsterdam: Undefined, 1901). 27. Nederlandse Instituut voor Volkshuisvestiging en Stedenbouw, De Woningwet 1902-1929 (Amsterdam: Ministerie Volkshuisvestiging en Stedenbouw, 1930) pp. 245–255.

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The Dutch welfare state became articulated through the design of domestic space, on the one hand, by the development of healthcare institutions in terms of optimised and segregated forms of collective living, on the other hand, by the organisation of the home according to family relations. The institutionalisation of domestic space through a rational system of compartmentalisation and hierarchical subdivision mobilised architecture against commotion, distraction and contagion. As articulated by Beatriz Colomina in ‘Illness as Metaphor in Modern Architecture’, the healthcare buildings of the twentieth century not only influenced the design of social institutions, moreover they articulated a new architectural language.28 The home as an agency to construct care relations is reflected in the designs of the first Sanatoria. Similarly to the psychiatric hospitals, the modernist sanatoria of the 1920s incorporated the corridor as a spatial design tool to organise collective forms of living and to separate individuals according to the treatment of tuberculosis. The modern ideology of functional efficiency is visible in the Sanatorium Zonnestraal, a project designed by Jan Duiker, Bernard Bijvoet, Jan Gerko Wiebenga in 1928 (image 1.24-26).29 As a private initiative of the Dutch Diamond Workers, the project had to be built efficiently, and marked clear hierarchical divisions between the different occupants. The accommodation was built in four wings, and organised differences in health, the incubation time and prospective medical procedures. The corridor plan enabled both a spatial separation, and an efficient organisation of circulation space. As is visible in the technical drawings of the passages and staircases, the circulation space was designed with galvanised fasteners to avoid joints, the lodging of bacteria and complex construction details (image 1.26). The significance of the project is tied to the designed relation between the transitional spaces and the exterior as a sequence of corridors and passages that intersect different terraces. The design of the corridor, and its large glass surfaces, adjoining terraces, balconies and folding windows articulates the modern notion of light, air and space. The modern healthcare institutions were not only seen as a project of separation and classification: architectural modernity reflected the design of circulation space, staircases, white walls, window openings and exterior spaces, framing new threshold conditions between interior and exterior.30

Chapter 1

Image 1.24. Floor plan ground floor level, Pavilion B, Sanatorium Zonnestraal, Jan Duiker, Bernard Bijvoet, Jan Gerko Wiebenga, Hilversum, 1928, Rijksarchief Nieuwe Instituut Rotterdam. 28. Margaret Campbell, Imperfect Health: The Medicalization of Architecture (Zurich: Lars Muller Publishers, 2012) p.16. 29. Paul Meurs and Marie-Therese van Thoor, Sanatorium Zonnestraal: the History and Restoration of a Modern Monument (Rotterdam: NAI Publishers, 2009).

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Image 1.25 Section concrete construction main building, Sanatorium Zonnestraal, Jan Duiker, Bernard Bijvoet, Jan Gerko Wiebenga, Hilversum, 1928, Rijksarchief Nieuwe Instituut Rotterdam. Image 1.26 Construction detail staircase in corridor, Sanatorium Zonnestraal, Jan Duiker, Bernard Bijvoet, Jan Gerko Wiebenga, Hilversum, 1928, Rijksarchief Nieuwe Instituut Rotterdam.

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Optimising the corridor After the Second World War, the transitional areas were not only recognised in terms of the arrangement and communication between the parts, rather the corridor was emphasised as a tool to optimise the circulation and logistics of the project. In the 1950’s the construction of elderly homes and nursing homes increased rapidly through new legislation: the Act for Elderly Homes in 1956 (Wet op Bejaardenoorden) and the General Act for the Aged in 1957 (Algemene Ouderdomswet). The acts established state funding for retirement pensions and resulted in new models of care provision, focused on the standardisation of dwellings into ‘service flats’ and the optimisation of the corridor as a tool to separate sleeping areas and services (image 1.27). The authors Theo van der Voordt and Dieuwke Terpstra describe in Verpleeghuizen en Alternatieven how the new legislation encouraged the bed-tower model.31 This building type was based on individual apartments built through construction techniques of prefabrication in a high-rise configuration (image 1.28). Subsequently, the bed-hall model articulated a division between the main amenities on the ground floor, and a multi-storey section with flats. The optimisation of circulation space in a vertical direction emphasised the minimisation of shared spaces, and was driven by the search for a universal building system that could solve the increased demand for homes for the elderly. In 1968 the General Act for Exceptional Medical Expenses (Algemene Wet Bijzondere Ziektekosten) provided general insurance for healthcare costs that resulted in a demand for 25,000 beds. Subsequently, the new act enabled the extension of care work activities into new forms of therapy and revalidation.32 The project De Drie Hoven, designed by Herman Herzberger, forms an example of the revalidation model and integrated a large range of social amenities for the neighbourhood within the organisation of both a nursing and rest home. The design and access of the social amenities became emphasised through extended corridors, intersecting terraces, bridges and view lines across the project (image 1.29-32). With the design the architect emphasised the integration of the project within the city, articulating the duality of

Image 1.27 Rapport Ouderenliedenzorg, Gangplan in de Afdeling van Ouderen (Rotterdam: Rijksarchief Nieuwe Instituut Rotterdam, 1949). The report published standardised measurements and organisation models of the corridor plan. Image 1.28 Floor plan, Osdorphof Nursing Home, J.W.H.G Pot en J.F Pot-Keegstra, Amsterdam, 1962, Rijksarchief Nieuwe Instituut Rotterdam. 30. Beatriz Colomina, ‘Illness as Metaphor in Modern Architecture’, in: Actors, Agents and Attendants: Caring Culture, Art, Architecture and the Politics of Public Health, ed. by Andrea Phillips and Markus Miessen (Berlin: Sternberg Press, 2011) pp.73-90.

overlapping zones, the relations of sight, movement and transition became important

31. Theo van der Voordt and Dieuwke Terpstra, Verpleeghuizen en Alternatieven (Delft: Technical University of Delft, 1995) p.39.

design tools for the architects of the 1970s.

32. Idem.

relations in transitional spaces by designing a variety of ‘in between’ spaces. Designed as

Chapter 1

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1.31

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Image 1.29 & 1.31 Drawing De Drie Hoven, Herman Herzberger, Amsterdam 1964, Rijksarchief Nieuwe Instituut Rotterdam. Image 1.30 & 1.32 Photograph, De Drie Hoven, Herman Herzberger, Amsterdam 1973, Rijksarchief Nieuwe Instituut Rotterdam.

Chapter 1

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A project of decentralising elderly care to the home From the 1970s onwards the legislation of elderly care started emphasising the administration and decentralisation of care amenities towards the district. The economist Robbert Huijsman argues, in Toekomst-Scenario’s Klinische Geriatrie, that the establishment of new policies was focused on enabling elderly people to live longer at home.33 According to Huijsman, a series of acts such as the Nota Bejaardenbeleid, 1971 (distribution plans for small-scale nursing homes within the city), a revision of the Act for Elderly Homes in 1977 (ensuring new administration processes for the assurance of medical indication, subsequently organising the construction of 60,000 independent dwellings and 50 healthcare centres), the Third Nota of Spatial Planning (prioritising the integration of service points for seniors within the neighbourhood) and Personal Bound Budgets (Persoons Gebonden Budget, 1996) have ensured the decentralisation of care to the district. Ultimately, the shift from elderly homes towards independent forms of dwelling became realised through the establishment of the Social Support Act (Wet Maatschappelijke Ondersteuning, 2007) and gave shape to a new building type: the WoZoCo (Live-Care Complex). The WoZoCo is based on an administrative division between care work and apartments, subsequently is organised through home care assistance in self-managed networks. The separation of nursing and elderly homes into intramural and extramural care resulted in a minimisation of communal amenities and circulation space. In contrast to the projects of the 1960s and their large clusters of social facilities, spaces of therapy and communal areas, the collective spaces of the WoZoCo became reduced to a district service point and shared exterior spaces such as a central atrium, large balconies (image 1.33-34) or a courtyard space. Towards the end of the twentieth century, the establishment of district centres, neighbourhood service points and home care assistance has enforced the self-organisation of care work, separating collective amenities from the organisation of the dwelling, resulting in the devolution of governmental responsibilities to the family.

Chapter 1

Image 1.33-1.34 Photograph model, WoZoCo, MVRDV, 1994/1997, Rijksarchief Nieuwe Instituut Rotterdam. 33. Robbert Huijsman, Toekomst-Scenario’s Klinische Geriatrie; Richting Geven aan Vergrijzing in de Gezondheidszorg (Assen: Koninklijke van Gorcum BV, 2005).

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The district: care in place and cluster living Since 2016, the government has recognised the importance of organising implementation models and protocols to regulate community-led care initiatives. Through the legal framework of the Social Support Act and the Right to Challenge, the government wants to control care cooperatives by organising funding for clustered forms of living. Through its support of the clustering of dwellings, the government is stimulating groups to collectively organise assistance, defined as either a General Daily Life Operation cluster (Algemene Dagelijkse Levensverrichtingen cluster), Small-Scale Guided Living cluster (Kleinschalige Woongroep) or an Informal Carer Dwelling (Mantelzorgwoning). By doing so, the government links care indications to spatial requirements, such as: the number of dwellings (respectively: 25, 15, 2), minimal floor area (respectively: 90m2, 45m2, 25m2), available equipment and assigned care profiles. The project Schots en Scheef, a General Daily Life Operation cluster designed by Charlotte Schippers in collaboration with Focus and a collective, illustrates the minimisation of communal amenities and infrastructures within the cluster. In the project, the collective used spaces are reduced to a deck access and a small courtyard, while the circulation space in the personal living areas are enlarged (image 1.35-36). Even though the dwellings together operate as a cluster, each member has its own individual apartment, reflecting a transformation of care organisation from the larger building to the individual apartment. Within this process of transformation, the design of the home—the entrance zone, passages and corridor in the unit—become fundamental parts in organising care work and assistance in relation to the articulation of hierarchy, division and privacy. In the project Schots en Scheef the corridor functions to separate the entrance zone from the personal area’s. The entrance area gives care workers direct access to the bathroom, or to an additional room that can be used as a care room, guest room, bedroom or storage. Subsequently, the logistics of the personal areas can be separated from care work and accommodate an open kitchen with an adjoining bedroom with direct access to the bathroom. The project highlights how the spatial organisation of the home starts articulating a hybrid of relations in care administration, legislation, work, individual preferences and domestic activities.

Chapter 1

Image 1.35 Floor plan first floor, project Schots and Scheef, Charlotte Schippers, 2017, Focus Groningen. Image 1.36 Photograph of deck access in central courtyard, project Schots and Scheef, Charlotte Schippers, 2017, Focus Groningen.

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ing

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cooking cooking cooking washing washing washing undressingundressing undressing stockings stockings stockingslaundry laundry laundry walking Changing stockings, informing undressing stockings laundry walking Laundry Wheel chair height weight bloodblood pressure nail clipping skin scrapings heightheight weight pressure nail clipping skin scrapings weight blood pressure nail clipping skin scrapings & consultation stockings walking measurement measurement measurement measurement measurement measurement measurement laundry measurement 3500 undressing stockings laundry measurementwalking

walking walking venepun ven 3500

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injection injection injection Injection

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height heightheight weight weight weight blood pressure bloodblood pressure pressure nail clipping nail clipping nail clipping skin scrapings skin scrapings skin scrapings venepuncture venepuncture venepunc Heightmeasurement & weight pressure measurement measurement measurement measurement measurement measurement measurement weight bloodmeasurement pressure measurement nailmeasurement clipping skinBlood scrapings venepunctureNail clippings injection wound/ear measurement blood pressure measurement nail clipping skin scrapings venepuncture injection wound/ear management weight blood pressure nail clipping skin scrapings venepuncture injection wound/ear undressing stockings gnt undressing undressing stockings stockings laundry laundrylaundry walking walkingwalking measurement management ent measurement measurement management


The complexity of care organisation in cluster living cannot be reduced to a simple logic.34 As stated by Carol Thomas in ‘De-Constructing Concepts of Care’, the social relations of medical assistance and support in place include descriptive and normative ideas, scientific constructs and an ethical stance.35 The heterogeneity of the concept of care is formed through the interconnection of medical assistance (image 1.37) with domestic activities. According to Thomas, care is a distinct form of social production by virtue of its social relations, whether capitalistic, patriarchal or social-scientific.36 The act of care giving is subject to an internal conflict of competition and power struggle, resulting in the dissolution of autonomy and unequal relations, structures and processes. When care demands increase, district nurses, volunteers and social workers become a contributing factor to the home, changing notions of privacy and personal space. Subsequently, relations of dependency and virtue start to articulate asymmetries between care givers and recipients, waged and unwaged workers, professionals and non-professionals, and, as a result, segments workforce in new hierarchies. This hybrid of asymmetrical relations becomes visible in the complexity of practice. Even though the care cooperative is designed to organise care in a cost-efficient way and independently from care institutions, the cooperatives are experiencing difficulties in the collaboration with municipalities. In the city of Amsterdam, the care cooperative Stadsdorpen is concerned about forms of exploitation, excessive workload and the withdrawal of members as a consequence of assigned social support tasks and the lack in social infrastructure.37 Subsequently, their small-scale operation results in difficulties in the realisation of financing, as they have a weak negotiation position in relation to care corporations, municipalities and healthcare insurers.38 The small scale of the cooperative, in combination with the transparencies of selforganisation, is challenging the limits of individual responsibility. The author Sven Olov Wallenstein argues, in Biopolitics and the Emergence of Modern Architecture, that the capacity of normalisation and institutionalisation today is rendered invisible within the home.39 According to the author, the transformation in visibility of power relations and knowledge results in new spatial demands, whereby architecture has to reflect in a more precise way on the organisations, technologies and forms of measuring and determining health. As described by Wallenstein, former techniques of separation through the organisation of circulation space, today are mobilised into new forms of medical knowledge, and has fragmented the centralised function of control into a collection of systems that monitor daily life. Protocols such as the Right to Challenge have redesigned power relations and employ modes of control in an environment that crosses the physical limits of the house, revealing new forms of exposure. This transformation in rationalities has resulted in a situation that links domesticity, individual agency, the administration of care budgets and the clustering of apartments into a complex and hybrid assemblage.

Chapter 1

Image 1.37 Measurements and minimal dimensions for nursing activities, redrawn from the book, Jeannett Martin, and Julia Lucas, Handbook of Practising Nursing (London: Churchill Livingstone, 2004). 34. Roel van Beest, Verslag Inventarisatie Zorgcoöperaties en Andere Burgerinitiatieven in Zorg en Wonen (Amsterdam: Aedes-Actiz Kenniscentrum WonenZorg, 2014). 35. Paul Leduc Browne, ‘The Dialectics of Health and Social Care: Toward a Conceptual Framework’, Theory and Society, 39.5 (September 2010) pp.575–591. 36. Carol Thomas, ‘De-Constructing Concepts of Care’, Sage Publications, 27.4 (November 1993) pp. 649–669, p.665. 37. Amsterdamse Stadsdorpen, WMO Verordening, Reactie Stadsdorpen op Ontwerp (2014) www. s t a d s d o r p e n a m s t e rd a m . n l / k e n n i s b a n k / w m o verordening/ (visited 3/1/2019). 38. Henri Faun, Marieke Hollander and Susan van Klaveren, Belemmeringen Bij het Opzetten van Woonzorgarrangementen voor Senioren (Zoetermeer: Panteia Ministerie van BZK, 2014) p. 37. 39. Sven Olov Wallenstein, Biopolitics and the Emergence of Modern Architecture (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009) p. 30.

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Mobility

Physical training

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Maintenance Mental well-being

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From house to home environment

To conclude, the decentralisation of elderly care towards the individual dwelling has resulted in a minimisation of shared amenities, circulation areas and transitional spaces, and reflects new protocols that enforce collective organisation in clustered forms of living. While the organisation of central power has been rendered invisible, modes of separation and categorisation have become apparent in the potential of exploitation and mental health issues. The collective organisation of care work and social support through the clustering of dwellings articulates the particularities of fiscal necessity and, accordingly, demands design guidelines for the regulation of privacy, intimacy and intergenerational relations. The composition of the home as a process of division and linkage starts to play an increased role in enabling the collective organisation of care across the various scales of dwelling. Instead of thinking about care in place through the design of the house, the organisation of care work and social support should highlight the integration of domestic space with district amenities, framing a new condition of the home environment. The dissertation proposes to deconstruct the dwelling in terms of intergenerational relations and extended household configurations. Potentially, the design of the home environment can challenge the individualisation of property by articulating an alternative spatial composition of cooperation and divisions in care work. The social re-organization of the home environment provides an opportunity to re-integrate domestic space within the city’s infrastructure, and to design collective forms of living that answer to the prospect of potential loneliness, social exclusion and increased vulnerability. The spatial operation of circulation space—entrances, corridors, passages and exterior space—within a system of shared ownership provides an opportunity to reorganise relations between occupants, care work, reproductive work and social support. The understanding of dwelling in terms of different zones of interaction, use and threshold conditions enables alternative spatial compositions to redesign predefined segregations by age, illness and nuclear family life. Through its spatial organisation the housing cooperative potentially can reorganise social relations on a district level. Therefore, the next chapter will provide a case study analysis of a housing cooperative in an attempt to study the social organisation of the housing & care cooperative.

Design proposition

Image 1.38 Diagram of the organisation of the home environment. The well-being of the human body is reflected in a variety of amenities, spaces and objects that operate from the body to the district.

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From house to home environment Image 1.39 Waking up as the trespassing of space. The drawing illustrates a mapping of the trespassing of space by an informal carer (mantelzorger). A walkway through dreams, bed rooms, windows, doors, kitchens and stair cases.

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Design proposition

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From house to home environment Image 1.40 Care work within the district. The drawing illustrates a mapping of the trespassing of space by a district nurse (wijkverpleger). Movement through the garden, bike storage, meeting spaces, lobbies, living rooms and consultation area’s.

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Design proposition

61


From house to home environment Image 1.41 Home assistance within the district. The drawing illustrates a mapping of the trespassing of space by a home assistant. Trespassing through living rooms, laundry spaces, kitchens and bed rooms.

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Design proposition

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2.

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2. Intergenerational & cluster living The housing and care cooperative as a framework for community-led care initiatives

The aim of this chapter is to investigate the housing cooperative as a potential framework for community-led care initiatives, through a case study analysis of a housing-care cooperative, and literature reviews on the collective organisation of care work, domestic labour and intergenerational relationships. By investigating the design of the dwelling into a series of shared uses, activities and social networks, this chapter is investigating the multi-scalar relations of the home environment within the district. This chapter reflects on the urban questions: How can the housing cooperative form a spatial framework for care services, infrastructures and amenities within the city district? What are the architectural design components that organise the care relations between the different scales of dwelling: households, cooperative and the district? What are the challenges that emerge from intergenerational relationships? Throughout the twentieth century, cooperative projects have challenged social relations within domestic space, through the development of housing manuals, built projects and spatial investigations. As a model of collective ownership, the cooperative has reshaped domestic hierarchies and articulated alternative relations between the public, private, judicial, administrative and family life.40 The current revival of the housing cooperative in city planning41 provides an opportunity to redefine domesticity according to new notions on ageing, family life and care.42 The attempt by the government to integrate decentralised support networks within the organisation of dwellings is raising new design questions on spatial divisions, circulation space and threshold conditions of care work, to regulate forms of privacy, exploitation and dependency.43 As illustrated in Chapter 1, the architecture of healthcare practice is shaped by legislation and theories on health reflected in the separation and organisation of activities. The current debate on the design of domestic space according to collective care activities, shared ownership and intergenerational relationships is challenging existing notions on the compartmentalisation of dwelling. In different European cities, cooperative projects are being developed to challenge the corridor plan through alternative models of circulation space, in which passages, transitional spaces and communal exterior areas form important design instruments to organise the different relations between occupants.

Chapter 2

40. For an extended explanation of the emergence of the housing cooperative in the Netherlands, see the essay in annex 01: A history of the Dutch housing cooperative. 41. In 2015 the Ministry of Housing renewed the Housing Act to integrate the housing cooperative (after its abolition in 1930). 42. Angelika Drescher and Christian Schoningh, ‘Cooperative Models: Die Zusammenarbeiter’, in: Housing for Everyone, Affordable Living, ed. by Klaus Domer, Hans Drexler and Joachim Schultz-Granberg (Berlin: Jovis Verlag GmBh, 2014) pp. 50–58. 43. Silvia Federici, Revolution at Point Zero; Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle (New York: PM Press, 2012).

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An example is the project Bloemkool Burenbond, designed by Bureau Sla, Bart Lammers, Kirsten Hannema, Renet Korthals Altes and Ruud van der Kind, a housing cooperative that aims to organise care work and social support networks for the larger district, through the clustering of dwellings (image 2.01-05). The project is one of the winning design entries for the national competition Who Cares and is currently in development. The project is organised through a cooperative management model that issues membership rights to its members.44 Its organisation structure of a care and housing cooperative is established under the Social Support Act of 2015 and the Right to Challenge.45 First of all, the project proposes to integrate the social organisation of a support network within its development, through the organisation of a ‘Neighbourhood Circle’ (Buurtcirkel). According to the architects, the aim of the Neighbourhood Circle is to spatially link existing social support networks—city-villages (stadsdorpen), wijkzorg and Buurtzorg—with the different inhabitants of the district.46 The network consists of nine to twelve members and is linked to a volunteering organisation that connects people from the same neighbourhood with similar interests, values and activities. Based on volunteering activities , the members of the Neighbourhood Circle are guided by a central care coordinator who is accommodated within the housing cooperative. Joge Boumans and others illustrate, in ‘Zorgcoöperaties een Wetenschappelijke Verkenning Vanuit Drie Perspectieven’, how the care coordinator functions as a central person and key figure within the operation of the cooperative.47 According the authors, in most cases the care coordinator arranges contact between the different members in the district through a social support service point.48 Accordingly, the coordinator groups the members of the cooperative in relation to tasks and activities, ranging from catering services, sports lessons, training, pick-up services and daily walks to forms of assistance. The coordinator is supported by a housing coach (wooncoach) and the general practitioner to assist in care indications. In parallel to the Neighbourhood Circle, the Bloemkool Burenbond has a secondary support network named the KeyRing. This network is focused on smaller clusters of approximately twelve people, with light care demands that live across the district. The professional caregivers work in small self-managed teams of up to five people

Image 2.01 Diagram of social organisation in the Bloemkool Burenbond, Winner Who Care Competition, Bureau Sla, Peter van Assche, icw. Bart Lammers, Kirsten Hannema, Renet Korthals Altes, Ruud van der Kind, 2017. 44. The cooperative is established in the Netherlands under the principle that the members are part of a cooperative association with the aim of providing certain material needs for its members. Since 2015, the Dutch Ministry of Housing has adopted the cooperative to the Housing Act, distinguishing three types of housing cooperatives. First, a buyers cooperative (koperscoöperatie) in which tenants buy their home and organise their management in a cooperative context. This model is very similar to the model of the Association of Owners (Vereniging van Eigenaren). Second, the management cooperative (beheercoöperatie), in which tenants are shareholders and manage the project without ownership. Third, the housing cooperative as collective owner (collectieve eigenaar) of the housing complex. 45. The Social Support Act of 2015 is translated from Wet Maatschappelijke Ondersteuning. Formed by different groups and generations, the aim of the care cooperative is to socialise and collectivise the experience of illness, ageing and care work. Through volunteering and professional work, the group can collectively arrange personal care, reproductive work and leisure activities within the district. Subsequently, the cooperative can organise, provide and rent out amenities, care work services and recreational spaces. 46. City-villages (Stadsdorpen) are organised by municipalities and form a social network of residents that live in the same district. The members support each other to enable ageing in place. The activities are based on mutual forms of assistance and activities to enforce coherence.

teams meet once a month, or every six weeks, to discuss the situation of the care

47. 48. Joge Boumans et al, ‘Zorgcoöperaties een Wetenschappelijke Verkenning Vanuit Drie Perspectieven’, Journal of Social Intervention: Theory and Practice, 24.4 (2015) pp. 23–44.

recipients. These teams work fairly independently, drawing up work schedules and

48. Idem.

and provide ambulatory care, living assistance, daycare activities and respite care. The

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2.04

2.02

2.05

2.03

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determining the order of activities themselves.49 The KeyRing network organises care work in place defined as ‘supported living networks’. By organising the cooperative in different clusters, the architects aim to design a hybrid mix of occupants, each with different care demands. The project provides a variety in dwelling clusters, each providing different types of apartments, amenities and communal exterior spaces. According to the architects, the aim of the Bloemkool Burenbond is to organise the dwellings in the cooperative not by age or illness, but rather according to the characteristics of the neighbourhood and preferences in care, interest or living arrangements. As a result, the cluster of the cooperative consists of members with a variety of demands in care: from people with Downs syndrome, autism and acquired brain injury to seniors, singles and starters. To manage the different demands in care and stimulate direct involvement, each cluster has an assigned care coordinator that lives within the group. The dwelling of the care coordinator is adjoined by a ‘care BnB’, a dwelling shared within the neighbourhood. According to the architects, this additional dwelling can be transformed to provide temporary accommodation: guest rooms, respite care or acute care, to address personal care requirements and preferences. The design of the project is determined by a segmentation of shared spaces. Whereas the spacing of units results in a fragmentation of exterior spaces and amenities, within this distribution of units, the members of the different clusters are interlinked through a labyrinth of shared spaces around a central communal space, the kiosk. The central kiosk can be used for collective activities such as a laundry, a central kitchen, a working shed, bike storage or a coffee bar, depending on the requirements of the inhabitants. Accordingly, adjoining terraces are designed to link the dwelling clusters and to provide gardens where people can meet for social activities. Similarly to the distribution of the dwelling clusters, the design of the units reflects an avoidance of the corridor. The dwellings are designed as a framework to cover a wide range of care demands. While the spatial contours of the dwelling are fixed, the interior can be adjusted to potentially accommodate a variety of household

Image 2.02-05 Drawings floor plan, Bloemkool Burenbond, Winner Who Care Competition, Bureau Sla, Peter van Assche, icw. Bart Lammers, Kirsten Hannema, Renet Korthals Altes, Ruud van der Kind.

raised floor means that water pipes and electricity connection points can be adjusted

Image 2.04-05 Visualisation, Bloemkool Burenbond, Winner Who Care Competition, Bureau Sla, Peter van Assche, icw. Bart Lammers, Kirsten Hannema, Renet Korthals Altes, Ruud van der Kind.

according to prospective care demands.

49. Idem.

configurations: young people, starters, singles and elderly. The incorporation of a

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2.06

2.08

2.09

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Bloemkool Burenbond is an example of a project in which architects collaborate with care professionals to rethink the design of domestic space according to different demands in care, questions of common use and accessibility of services of care for the larger district. Even though the project integrates different dwelling clusters and intergenerational relations between the members of the district, the project is still based on the paradigm of private apartments and the organisation of reproductive labour per household. In contrast to the Bloemkool Burenbond, the Swiss project Building A, designed in 2015 by Duplex Architekten in the Mehr Als Wohnen plan in Zurich, challenges the division into private apartments, through the collective organisation of household work. The spatial organisation of Building A illustrates how the minimisation of private space (a sleeping area, bathroom and small kitchen) can provide extended living configurations to enable a wide range of shared resources, mutual responsibilities and intergenerational relations (image 2.06). Within the project, circulation space is redefined through an extended corridor that provides communal living spaces: kitchens, seating areas, living rooms, study places, balcony spaces. Similar to the distribution of dwellings within the neighbourhood, the spacing of the units in Building A enables a labyrinth space that folds around the different private spaces. This organisation enables a gradient of overlapping areas that organise the different relations in privacy. Within the design of these communal areas, view lines, focus points and elements of obstruction form essential components to define spatial hierarchy and spaces of retreat or exclusion. Not only the communal areas between the occupants of a cluster, but also the central circulation space of the project plays an important role in organising social relations and enabling different modes of habitation. The potential occupation of these transitional areas is a result of the positioning of doors, view lines, daylight, storage and minimal dimensions. Within the project Building A, the organisation of the circulation space challenges the domestic organisation of private family life, through the design of transitional areas that intersect households, stimulate interaction and give shape to intergenerational relations. As illustrated by Dolores Hayden, in The Grand Domestic Revolution: A History of Feminist Designs for American Homes, Neighbourhoods, and Cities, throughout its history, the cooperative movement has challenged the paradigm of the family through its model of collective ownership, socialising housework and community services.50 The theoretical debate about work, class and the differences between genders formed a key argument for the reconsideration of reproductive labour, and resulted into new approaches to the concept of work, care and family life. As illustrated by Hayden, the material feminist movement and its search for economic independence, social equality

Chapter 2

2.06 Floor plan, Haus A Duplex Architekten, Cluster Dwelling, Mehr als Wohnen, More Than Housing, Zurich, Switserland, 2012-2015. 2.07-10 Photographs exterior, laundry room, shared living room, kitchen area of Haus A Duplex Architekten, Cluster Dwelling, Mehr als Wohnen, More Than Housing, Zurich, Switserland, 2012-2015. 50. Dolores Hayden, The Grand Domestic Revolution: A History of Feminist Designs for American Homes, Neighbourhoods, and Cities (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1981).

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Administration

Housing Corporations

City district Committee

Area managers CIZ, care allocation

Primary care

Volunteering organisation

District services

Well-being coaches Services

Social amenities

Sport Facilities

Socialised care

Commercial

Social Workers Care Coordinator

District nurse

Health advisors

Clustered Households

GP + assistants

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and alternative forms of family life became reflected in the spatial organisation of the cooperative in the minimisation of private space. Shared ownership enabled the maximisation of shared amenities while simultaneously challenging the divisions in household activities. As articulated by Hayden, what becomes important is to consider the underlying structures that give rise to new experiences.51 While the collectivisation of household activities enabled new thinking on hygiene, sexuality and education, it redefined domestic space in terms of efficiency.52 Within the collective organisation of care work and household activities, intergenerational relations start to play an important role and define new hierarchies between households through models of giving, dependency and virtue.53 The sociologist Pierre Bourdieu describes, in Pascalian Mediations, the ambiguity of the practice of gift relationships and how they form a political instrument of moralisation. According to Bourdieu, the nature of gift giving is paradoxical: it appears to be disinterested or gratuitous, yet it creates obligations that have to be reciprocated. As an act of concealment, the gift relationship implies both a communicative act and an economic exchange. Bourdieu articulates how this masking of interests is of ethical and political relevance, and enhances civic virtue and solidarity.54 According to Bourdieu, gift giving forms an ambiguity tied to a maximisation of interest while forming relations of dependence.55 Within intergenerational forms of living, initial moves of care giving might be motivated by a norm of beneficence, which the recipients may feel obligated to repay. What becomes important in Bourdieu’s reading of gift exchange is that it cannot be seen as a separated and isolated event: rather it is always a political matter, through its transformation of state initiatives to individual power.56 The Right to Challenge is stimulating intergenerational and giving relations. However, its legal framework does not provide protocols to organise the social implications that emerge within the care cooperative. Joge Boumans and others illustrate, in the article ‘Zorgcoöperaties een Wetenschappelijke Verkenning Vanuit Drie Perspectieven’, the challenges of the care cooperative in relation to forms of dependence and exploitation.57 Even though the members recognise the various benefits, such as the personalised form of assistance, accessibility and the high degree of autonomy, the care workers also describe their negative experiences of the working conditions. An example is the merging of work and personal life, as most care providers live in the area they work. In contrast to professional care networks, the members of the cooperative do not

2.11 Organisation diagram of the coop: clustered households, care coordinator and area managers. 51. Dolores Hayden, Redesigning the American Dream: The Future of Housing, Work and Family Life (London: W. W. Norton & Company, 1984). 52. Margaret Kohn, ‘Space and Politics’, in: Grand Domestic Revolution Handbook, ed. by Binna Choi and Maiko Tanaka (Amsterdam: Valiz, 2009) pp. 44–51, p.48. 53. Bernhard Nauck and Anja Steinbach, ‘Intergenerational Relationships’, in: Building on Progress; Expanding the Research Infrastructure for the Social, Economic, and Behavioral Sciences (Leverkusen: Verlag Barbara Budrich & Budrich UniPress, 2010). Even though most of the time situated around familybased care and solidarity in the later stages of life, intergenerational relationships encompass any form of exchange between generations: structural, associative, affective, consensual, normative and functional solidarity. 54. Pierre Bourdieu, Pascalian Mediations (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000) p.152. ‘(…) gift exchange, a collective hypocrisy in and through which society pays homage to its dream of virtues and disinterestedness (…)’. 55. Camil Ungureanu, ‘Bourdieu and Derrida on Gift: Beyond “Double Truth” and Paradox’, Springer Human Studies, 36.3 (Fall 2013) pp. 393–409. 56. Bourdieu, Pascalian Mediations, p. 201, ‘(…) through the personal appropriation of a clientele, distribution of gifts, livings, honours, grace and favours’.

the subdivision and spatial separation of activities can enhance the performance and

57. Boumans et al, ‘Zorgcoöperaties een Wetenschappelijke Verkenning Vanuit Drie Perspectieven’. The study reflects three care cooperatives: cooperative A has 75 members, cooperative B has 234 members and care cooperative C has 305 members. The cooperatives are organised around, respectively, 1, 5 and 48 professional care providers, and 21, 60 and 5 volunteers.

experience of the cooperative.59

58. Idem.

have fixed working hours. In cases of emergency and high demand, the care givers provide twenty-four-hour assistance, resulting in mental health issues.58 As described by Joge Boumans and others, within these processes the success and coexistence of the care cooperative is dependent on the spatial organisation of its work activities:

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1 Household

household household household household

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2 Household

Per cluster

2 households 2 households 22.12 2 households households1 cluster 1 cluster 11 cluster cluster

Multiple clusters

2 clusters 2 clusters 22 clusters clusters

buildingbuilding building building

Housing & Care Co-operatives in the Netherlands

wheel chair pushing

dining dining dining

ping pong

ping pong ping pong ping pong

sun therapy

sun therapy sun therapy sun therapy

gaming gaming gaming

watching television

watching television watching television watching television

consultation

consultation consultation consultation

Hydro-massage

Hydro-massage Hydro-massage Hydro-massage

physical training

physical training physical training physical training

painting

painting painting painting

watching outside

watching outside watching outside watching outside

exercise/sports

exercise/sports exercise/sports exercise/sports

heat therapy

heat therapy heat therapy heat therapy

reading

reading

reading reading

cross training

cross training

cross training cross training

seating/resting

seating/resting

seating/resting seating/resting

sitting outsidea

sitting outsidea

sitting outsidea sitting outsidea

playing instruments

playing instruments

playing instruments playing instruments

garden exploration garden exploration

working space

working space working space working space

contemplation contemplation contemplation

bike charging and storage

bike charging and storage bike charging and storage bike charging and storage

dancing dancing

waiting

waiting

waiting waiting

garden exploration

garden exploration

remembering

remembering

administration administration

administration

dancing

contemplation

dining

gaming

showering, washing showering, washing

dancing

dining dining

remembering remembering

showering, washing

burshing teeth washing burshing teeth washing

training training

bird spotting bird spotting

toilet chair

dishwashing

watering plants

animal feeding animal feeding animal feeding

harvesting vegetables harvesting vegetables harvesting vegetables remembering remembering

AED AED

remembering

AED garbage collection garbage collection

AED

garbage collection

garbage collection

laundry laundry

laundry

laundry

dishwashing dishwashing

dishwashing

watering plants

watering plants watering plants

consultation consultation

consultation

consultation

toilet chair toilet chair

lifter lifter

lifter

lifter

shower assistance shower assistance

shower assistance

animal feeding

gardening gardening

gardening

gardening

Proffesional visit Proffesional visit

Proffesional visit

Proffesional visit

sweeping sweeping

changing stockings changing stockings

height/weight measurement height/weight measurement

toilet chair

changing stockings

shower assistance

changing stockings

height/weight measurement

harvesting vegetables

water drinking water drinking

water drinking

water drinking

cushion fight cushion fight

cushion fight

sweeping

sweeping

training

bird spotting

cushion fight

training

injection or venepuncture injection or venepuncture

injection or venepuncture

injection or venepuncture

blood measurement blood measurement

blood measurement

bird spotting

day dreaming day dreaming

day dreaming

day dreaming

wheel chair pushing wheel chair pushing

wheel chair pushing

height/weight measurement

remembering

bbq-ing bbq-ing

bbq-ing

bbq-ing

dining

dining

digestion digestion

digestion

digestion

burshing teeth washing

administration

showering, washing

burshing teeth washing

changing changing

sleeping sleeping

wandering wandering

walking walking

changing

sleeping

wandering

walking

blood measurement

tasks tasks tasks

changing

sleeping

activities walking activities activities wandering

tasks

Tasks

activities

Activities

beekeeping beekeeping

beekeeping

beekeeping

closing curtains closing curtains

closing curtains

closing curtains

examination examination

examination

examination

undressing undressing

undressing

undressing

opening/closing windows opening/closing windows

opening/closing windows

opening/closing windows

key storage key storage

key storage

key storage

cooking cooking

cooking

cooking

informing informing

informing

informing

medication collection medication collection

medication collection

medication collection

skin scrapings skin scrapings

skin scrapings

skin scrapings


As the article reflects, the zoning of spaces of care work and personal areas can organise work relations and operate as spatial contracts. More precisely, in ‘What Can We Expect from Paid Carers?’, Gabrielle Meagher argues how different forms of care may be negotiated through a contract that regulates the exchange of services and activities.60 If a contract could provide different requirements, aspects could be specified in type and quantity of services defining mutual exchange: laundry duties, meal preparation, cleaning rounds, gardening and assistance with routines. According to Meagher, it is important to understand that often the contract exists to avoid misunderstanding, misinterpretation or ignorance of agreed tasks. Contracts exist as a means of channelling self-interest into the realisation of an exchange that is mutually beneficial, instead of being a competition in which interests are fulfilled at the expense of the other. Within the contractualisation of social relations in the use, duration and types of services, the architecture becomes instrumental in organising relations of division and linkage. Whereas the typological organisation of amenities, infrastructures and dwelling units can give shape to care relations, organising different forms of exchange.

Network of common activities and tasks from the household to the district To conclude, the world of care relations is fragmented according to the division of forms of labour, assistance and giving, articulating hierarchies in gender, age and health. Visible in the case study of Bloemkool Burenbond, care in place exceeds the scope of the dwelling. The agency of design is to spatially organise the relations that

Image 2.12 Grid of common tasks and activities, from the household to the city district.

operate across a network of bodies, organisations and corporations, and to integrate

59. Idem.

the different scales of the district. This multi-scalar condition of care in place illustrates

60. Gabrielle Meagher, ‘What Can We Expect from Paid Carers?’, in: Politics & Society, 34.1 (March 2006), pp. 33–54, pp.38–39. The author defines a contract as ‘a chosen interaction between autonomous equals mediated by commodity exchange, and underpinned by trust in the generalized other’.

the importance of architectural design and the composition and arrangement of shared amenities, circulation space and communal terraces to organise the activities between household, cluster and neighbourhood.

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Building

2 clusters2 clusters

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building building

District

2.13 neighborhood neighborhood

Housing & Care Co-operatives in the Netherlands

heat therapy

heat therapy

playing instruments

playing instruments

hair dressing

sleeping over

basket ball play

basket ball play

play climbing

play climbing

recreation cafe

cooking workshop

pedicure/beauty salon

swimming

swimming

water jumping

water jumping

cooking workshop

pedicure/beauty salon

steps climbing

hair dressing

sleeping over

remembering

remembering

bbq-ing

bbq-ing

working space

sand ground

bike charging and storage

waiting

working space

steps climbing

bike charging and storage

waiting

garden exploration

garden exploration

sun therapy

sun therapy

Hydro-massage

Hydro-massage

ping pong

consultation

sand ground

contemplation

dancing

recreation cafe

contemplation

dancing

Activities

exercise/sports

sitting outsidea

soccer play

soccer play

yoga/clinic

yoga/clinic

water drinking

water drinking

bird feeding

bird feeding

moving service/delivery

moving service/delivery

training

training

hospitality/consultation

hospitality/consultation

food delivery

food delivery

educating

educating

animal feeding

harvesting vegetables

monthly meeting

monthly meeting

news paper production

public space sweeping

public space sweeping

examination

examination

beekeeping

beekeeping

news paper production

changing/storing

changing/storing

consultation

consultation

AED

garbage collection

animal feeding

AED

garbage collection

laundry

laundry

harvesting vegetables

gardening

gardening

Tasks

Proffesional visit

Proffesional visit

catering

catering

medication distribution

medication distribution

informing

informing

key storage

key storage


As articulated by Hayden, the home merges public and private dynamics, and as a hybrid place articulates asymmetrical relations of social production. In addition, Bourdieu emphasises how the social construction of giving is not only shaped by practical experiences, rather it is defined by political and economic interests, identities and ideologies that arise in the different parts of (care) administration. The challenges that emerge within a housing and care hybrid emphasise the significance of spatial organisation in relation to particular threshold conditions of required forms of separation, exclusion or linkage. Through its spatial organisation, the housing cooperative provides a framework to design ideas of care by regulating the use and types of space, and duration of activities within contracts. As a model of shared ownership, the cooperative can rethink the separations and connections of dwelling in relation to mutual forms of exchange. The spatial configuration of the dwelling units in forms of cluster living provides the possibility of redefining domesticity in terms of the collective organisation of care work, social activities and reproductive work. The organisation of the dwelling ranges from the household, the cluster and the cooperative to the district, emphasising a variety of shared activities and tasks (image 2.12-2.13). By deconstructing the individual apartment into a grid of communal care activities, the different dimensions and scales of wellbeing are emphasised. The next chapter will illustrate how the activities of care in place can be translated into a range of threshold conditions and spatial design principles to formalise, organise and design forms of cluster living.

Chapter 2

Image 2.13 Grid of common tasks and activities, from the household to the city district.

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3.

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Point

Line

Opening

Space

Contour

3.01 82

Housing & Care Co-operatives in the Netherlands


3. Designing threshold conditions Spatial diagrams of cluster living

By investigating the threshold conditions of care in place, the aim of this chapter is to give shape to the activities and intergenerational relations of community-led care initiatives through a series of design principles of cluster living. Therefore this chapter reflects on the typological questions: What are the activities, zones of interaction and threshold conditions of care in place? How can the threshold be instrumental to the design of spaces of social care, reproductive work, therapy and care work? As described in Chapter 2, the housing cooperative has the potential to provide a framework to organise activities of care in place by its integration of shared amenities, social support networks and intergenerational forms of living. The typological transformation of elderly homes to intergenerational forms of living results in new questions of cluster living in terms of the zoning, circulation and adaptation of space. Within models of intergenerational living, the architectural composition of the threshold becomes important as a design tool to enable and regulate the entry and separation between two spaces as a measure of relations. The threshold forms a transitional space and can be seen as a conceptual device that links different realms: the interior and exterior, the imaginary and the real, the cooperative and the district or the body and its absence. The design of the threshold can be recognised in different configurations (image 3.01) as both a compositional element, experienced space and assemblage.

Chapter 3

Image 3.01 Diagrams types of thresholds

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Threshold: a spatial contour of objects, architectural elements and surfaces

Framework: customisation of the unit to care demands The typological transformation of care towards the home environment articulates the importance of the customisation of space to changing care demands. Over the course of ageing, the dwelling should answer to personal demands arising from aspects of cognitive failure, decreased visibility, mobility and deteriorated spatial orientation.61 The authors Laura N. Gitlin and Mary Corcoran argue, in the article ‘Managing Dementia at Home: The Role of Home Environmental Modifications’, that the possibility of the modification of objects and measurements in the home Image 3.02 Volumetric study of unit customisation.

forms a significant strategy to accommodate the different stages of life.62 As we get

61. Eckhard Feddersen and Insa Lüdtke, Living for the Elderly: A Design Manual (Basel: Birkhäuser Verlag GmbH, 2009).

older, the design of edge conditions are important to facilitate the various aspects of

62. Laura N. Gitlin and Mary Corcoran, ‘Managing Dementia at Home: The Role of Home Environmental Modifications’, Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 12.2. (December 1996) pp. 28–39

question is therefore: How can the design of the threshold accommodate a customisation

63. Carmen de la Cuesta, ‘The Craft of Care: Family Care of Relatives with Advanced Dementia’, Qualitative Health Research, 15. 7 (September 2005) pp. 859–860. 64. Alzheimer Nederland, ‘Cijfers en Feiten over Dementie’, (published 8/11/2018) website, www. alzheimer-nederland.nl (visited 6/3/2019). In the Netherlands one to five people will experience a severe deterioration in cognitive skills leading to forms of dementia. 65. Eckhard Feddersen, ‘Learning, Remembering and Feeling Space’, in: Lost in Space; Architecture and Dementia, ed. by Eckhard Feddersen, and Insa Ludtke (Basel: Birckhauser Verlag GmbH, 2014) pp. 14–23, p.15. 66. Alison Bowes and Alison Dawson, Designing Environments for People with Dementia: A Systematic Literature Review (Bingley: Emerald Publishing Limited, 2019).

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daily activities (occupation, communication, routines, autonomy).63 The main design of space according to different demands in care? Spatial limits Daily activities within the home become more challenging as time progresses, as a result of changes in the visual, tactile and auditory experience of space. The degree of modification of the house depends largely on an individual case’s physical status, type of illness, progressive cognitive failure and finances. However, a decline in cognitive function is an integral part of the process of ageing.64 The transformation in cognitive faculties influences the interpretation of sensory experiences, and people may experience a loss of sight, depth and orientation.65 Alison Bowes and Alison Dawson discuss how different gerontology studies have illustrated the loss of distinctions between elements, walls and flooring under the loss of sight. As articulated by the authors, people with a loss of cognitive functioning cannot perceive abrupt changes in floor textures, height differences between levels, and dead end corridors, and might suffer therefore from forms of disorientation, distraction and anxiety.66

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Edge conditions and objects As a result, the articulation of edge conditions: walls, flooring and objects, plays a key role in spatial orientation for the recognition of differences in height, width and length, and for the indication of the margins of individual or shared domains. The spatial contours of the dwelling can be designed to indicate clear differences in tones to articulate surfaces, objects and elements, to provide visual clues in relation to time and identity, to use colours to identify important elements, objects and activities within the house and to use bright lights to enable orientation and visibility.67 Spatial elements such as railings or furniture can be used to assist moving around. Subsequently, differences in textures can be applied as visual and material clues to indicate height and programmatic differences, or to guide inhabitants through space. By providing 67. Dia Soilemezi, Living Well with Dementia at Home: Understanding the Role of the Home Environment (Doctoral thesis, University of Portsmouth, 2017).

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the potential to customise the spatial contours of dwellings, new demands in visibility and orientation can be matched to the different stages of life.

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Windows: focal points, framing time, movement and associations.

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Kitchen counter: smells, taste, associations and memories.

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Railings: elements of guidance.

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Walls: spatial divisions, repository for objects and elements that reflect values and time.

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Lights: focal points, spatial orientation and centre points.

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Mirror: reflecting, monitoring and elements of control.

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Colour: guidance and remembering.

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Stairs: segmentation, privacy and division.

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Door: modes of retreat and exclusion.

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Garden: seasons, vegetation, memories and associations.

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changes. Furthermore, the design of the unit in terms of to the bed position should incorporate a free space of 900x1800 mm for assistance, and a space of 1800x1800 mm for medical equipment such as a bed lift, measuring station, or other devices of assistance. Moreover, within the design of the bedroom the distance between bed to bathroom becomes important with decreased mobility. Sliding walls, moving walls or flexible doors can enable easy access (image 3.05-06).

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Image 3.05 Drawing of unit configuration (6900x6900). The unit can be designed in different zones: entrance area with a small kitchenette and storage space, a large bathroom with direct access from the bed (green) and a quite room (purple) that can be used as a space of retreat, work space, storage space or additional bedroom.

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Image 3.06 Drawing of unit configuration (6900x6900). The unit can be designed with a large object in its centre that divides the space into different sub-compartments. This piece of furniture enable free circulation through the unit, and provides storage space, washing equipment a kitchen and a large cupboard.

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Cluster plan: collectivising household activities and extended households The cluster organisation of the dwelling units forms a strategy to collectivise daily tasks such as dish washing, laundry duties and cleaning, or communal activities such as cooking, sports, learning and care administration. Within the organisation, communal spaces can function as a structure for social support, additional facilities and the potential to relocate care activities from the private unit to separate clinical activities from everyday life. In order to enable care-work in the dwelling, the layout should be designed to accommodate extended household configurations and a potential clustering of units in indicated and assigned care clusters, as described in the previous chapter: a General Daily Life Operations cluster (Algemene Dagelijkse Levensverrichtingen cluster), Small-Scale Guided Living cluster (Kleinschalige woongroep) or an Informal Carer Dwelling (Mantelzorgwoning). Furthermore, additional cluster configurations can be designed to enable the allocation of temporary accommodation and acute care services. The latter can be developed as additional service for the district and rented out to professional care organisations or to individuals as guest rooms. In addition, each cluster in the complex should provide accommodation for a care coordinator. The unit of the coordinator can be accompanied by additional services: social support service point, laundry services, central kitchen or a sports room. Each of the types of unit organisation allows for different models of support through their adaptation to amenities, floor area and the number of occupants(image 3.01). Zoning: organisation of clustering The design of the cluster is based on the spatial organisation of the individual units (spacing of units, entrance positions, composition of adjoining spaces, transparency and materiality of surfaces). The space in between the units can be designed as a linear extension, central space, enfilade or a labyrinth to organise different relations of privacy. The forms of clustering each enable a specific type of use, answering to demands of privacy between occupants. Within the design of the cluster plan, the position and access of objects, elements and furniture becomes important in organising relations of privacy and intimacy. The design of the cluster forms shared living areas, articulating different zones of use and therefore scales of sharing; from two family members, two households or Image 3.07 Diagrams of different types of cluster organisation. The personal unit (grey) versus a collective used space (white). The organisation models: extended corridor (linear organisation) central space (parallel organisation) diffuse space (labyrinth) and segmented space (enfilade).

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towards a cluster of 10 households. The position, view lines and composition of the spatial elements—walls, curtains, tables, vegetation, windows, cupboards—become important tools as focus points or elements of obstruction to subdivide and inhabit the space.

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Thresholds regulating access Circulation space: infrastructures for mental health, exclusion and retreat Over the course of ageing, the increase in cognitive impairment, disability and behavioural changes (delusions, agitation, day-night disturbance and restlessness) creates a shift in social relationships between family members,69 highlighting the importance of spatial divisions of privacy within the home. Caring is a complex process and can come at the cost of the health of the care provider.70 Various literature has indicated that caring for someone with cognitive failures potentially leads to caregivers’ depression, early institutionalisation, disability and increased medical costs.71 Especially in cases of cohabitation, care provision by family members can influence social interactions, mobility and the quality of life, with caregivers experiencing forms of depression.72 The increase in care provision by relatives and informal carers indicates the need for social support infrastructure and spaces of retreat for care providers. Particularly, the integration of extended district services run by volunteers and intergenerational forms of living reflects the importance of clear separations between activities. This leads to the design question: How can the design of the dwelling ensure the mental health of care providers and recipients? 69. Ladson Hinton, Yvette Flores, Carol Franz, Isabel Hernandez and Linda Mitteness, ‘The Borderlands of Primary Care: Physician and Family Perspectives on Troublesome Behaviours of People with Dementia’, in: About Dementia: Culture, Loss, and the Anthropology of Senility, ed. by Annette Leibing and Lawrence Cohen (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2006) pp. 2–22. The shift in social relations between family members takes place in particular in cases of Alzheimer’s disease and Vascular Dementia.

The design of the dwelling can incorporate different strategies of adaptation to the

70. Richard Schulz and Paula R. Sherwood, ‘Physical and Mental Health Effect of Family Care giving’, Journal of Social Work Education, 44.3 (Fall 2008) pp. 23–27.

and removal of elements within the house such as mirrors, barriers and alarm systems.

71. Hinton et al, ‘The Borderlands of Primary Care’.

relocating objects, distractions can be reduced to improve spatial orientation and to

72. Rachel Mahoney, Ciaran Regan, Ch.B. Cornelius Katona and Gill Livingston, ‘Anxiety and Depression in Family Caregivers of People with Alzheimer Disease: The LASER-AD Study’, The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13.9 (September 2005) pp. 795– 801.

avoid exposure to visual stimuli. Furthermore, additive strategies are focused on the

73. De la Cuesta, ‘The Craft of Care’.

stress.73

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requirements of care providers and recipients. First of all, gerontology research has indicated how the spatial adaptation of elements (image 3.13) can prevent or manage behavioural symptoms (wandering, confusion, agitation) and maintain familiarity, occupation patterns and habits within the house. Examples include continuous walking routes, the positioning of regular resting points and clear view lines. Moreover, modifications can enhance surveillance and safety control, through the replacement Within this process, storage for medical equipment becomes important, in order to exclude medical activities from domestic life (image 3.14). Moreover, by hiding or

introduction of materials and elements to compensate or stimulate the senses: colour, lights and vegetation. By adjusting the living environment’s materiality, the quality of everyday life and the performance of care providers can be improved to decrease

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3.13 Dividers and bridges The spatial elements frame particular openings and regulate sight and privacy as focal points in space. As objects of separation and linkage, the elements should provide minimum and adequate space to support the inhabitants for wandering safely (wider doorways and extending landings).

3.14 Storage space The home as the centre of personal objects and activities forms a place of autonomy, control, familiarity and constancy. As a repository of personal interests, possessions and achievements the dwelling can be reckoned as a storage place of values and memories of life. Within the design of the house, cupboards, closets and storage space forms a key role to activate daily activities and illustrate the appropriation of space.

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Spaces of retreat, care rooms and therapeutic spaces New requirements for privacy and retreat can be translated into spatial separations in living areas. As Robin Evans argues in the essay ‘Figures, Doors and Passages’, the search for privacy, comfort and independence within the house is defined by the social relationships that occur within the household.74 The role of architecture is to construct new social relations between its occupants, enabling spaces of ‘retreat as exclusion’. The necessity to retreat emerges from the desire to escape, and the necessary spatial separation between individuals that it entails.75 As stated by Evans, the mode of self-isolation is an urge for privacy and autonomy to enable self-stabilisation.76 An important example is a care room (image 3.15). The care room excludes care work, such as changing stockings, consultation, injections, catheterisation, skin scrapings, venepuncture and physical examination, from personal areas to emphasise selfauthority. Another example is the design and incorporation of a silence room, play room, vegetation room or work space. These spaces can be recognised as private storage spaces for personal elements, or as a place of retreat for a care giver where he is precluded from activities related to care. As an interstitial space between household and care activities, the therapeutic spaces form threshold conditions as an entry point of personal decision, authority and self-regulation. The design of the spaces of therapy are defined through the activation of sensory experiences. The spaces of retreat emphasise modes of access and articulate two types of space: the inhabited room and the surrounding circulation space. Within this division, circulation spaces can be categorised into different areas of use, linking communal activities of retreat, leisure and therapy with personal spaces. Even though the circulation space might be experienced as a transitional area, the spatial composition as a process of subdivision is fundamental for the possibility of a variety of activities: conversations, work preparation for nurses, educating on prevention by district nurses, communal 74. Evans, ‘Figures, Doors and Passages’. 75. Idem, p. 39. Cited as: ‘In such situations the ethos of the retreat would doubtless change, though the desire for escape and the necessity for the erection of frontiers and thresholds between man and man would remain.’ 76. Idem, p. 42. As described by Evans the personal right of retreat reflects ‘the corporate rite of exclusion’. 77. Idem, p. 56.

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dinners, sports activities, etc. Within the design of circulation space, the walls, construction elements, doors, windows, stairs and furniture are essential components to divide and define differences in atmosphere. Simultaneously, these spatial elements as a composition reunite the particular parts of space as a way of inhabiting space.77 By categorising a collection of communal spaces of retreat, recreation, contemplation, elements of division and circulation cores, modes of visibility can be designed to regulate principles of privacy and intimacy.

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3.15 Spaces of retreat: care rooms Within the organisation of care work, separate and personal rooms become important places for retreat. Ranging from the bed, a quite room or reading room to a small kitchen or a neighbourhood cafe.

3.16 Therapeutic spaces: sensory experiences The physical aspects of domestic space, its materialisation and furnishing, can be seen, touched, smelled or heard. As a total composition the home relates to subjective relations; meanings, memories and hierarchies. These relations within the dwelling form an existential space relating to self-hood. The design of a series of therapeutic spaces challenge the sensory experience to define new subjective relations.

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The threshold as a displacement of form: separation and connection Transitional space: intermediate scale care The collective organisation of social care forms an intermediate scale of assistance that lies between family relations and care organisations. The intermediate forms of care do not necessarily happen in assigned spaces, on the contrary, these activities might be incidental, taking place in the transitional areas of the dwelling between communal kitchens, gardens, guest rooms, storage spaces and staircases. The related design question is: How can the design of transitional spaces give space to intermediate forms of care? Particularities of openings Articulated as an extended space of both household activities and collective life, the interstitial areas form thresholds that both unite and divide individuals. The sociologist Georg Simmel describes, in his essay ‘Bridge and Door’, the ambiguous dimension of the threshold as an element that simultaneously connects and separates.78 According 78. Georg Simmel, ‘Bridge and Door’, in: Simmel on Culture: Selected Writings, ed. by David Frisby and Mike Featherstone (London: Sage Publications, 1997) pp. 170–174. 79. Idem, p.171. 80. Idem. For example, the bridge is a composition that links a spatial separation by connecting two parts. The visual act of connecting forms, according to Simmel, has ‘an aesthetic value’, as it exemplifies the connection between what is separated. On the other hand, the door shows how the acts of separation and connection form two sides of the same performance. In contrast to the bridge, the door forms an arrangement of space according a ‘single meaning’, in which the door demarcates the difference between interior and exterior. The door is not only a linkage between two sites, it forms a configuration that connects the ‘bounded with the boundaryless space’ as a potential of permanent exchange.

to Simmel, the transformation of materials into a composition brings the different elements around it into relationship. On the one hand, the composition forms a unity as an assembly of the different parts. On the other hand, the elements mediate in the separation of space, in which the diverse cannot be united spatially.79 As stated by Simmel, ‘things must be separated from one another in order to be together’.80 Within his essay Simmel highlights the importance of the compositional characteristics of the threshold. 81 The particularities of the design of the threshold —the compartmentalisation of space, formal aspects and volumetric characteristics — give shape to transitions between households, clusters and urban life. The dimensions and composition of the transitional spaces emphasise the characteristics of space as a passage, room or hall. Daylight, obstructions and viewing lines become important attributes for the experience of space. Subsequently, the position and design of the door acts as a direct linkage,

81. Idem, p.172.

guiding flows and intentions between entering and exiting.82 The particularities of the

82. Idem, p.174.

composition of the door formulates interactions through its measurements, radius and

83. Idem.

techniques of opening, regulating movement and sight.83

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3.17 Halls: multifunctional space A collection of halls provide intermediate spaces between the neighbourhood and the cooperative. The halls are multifunctional spaces and allow for different activities to emerge, from exhibition space, to workshops and meeting spaces, and can potentially be rented out for events.

3.18 Observatories: landmarks The observatory spaces function as areas that allow for new lines of flight and modes of observation. They can be positioned as individual objects or integrated within larger structures.

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Grid of activities and tasks: inhabitation of the project Moreover, the organisation of programme throughout the project can articulate places for intermediate scales of care. Within this process a customised schedule of weekly activities and tasks can stimulate inhabitants to participate in a variety of undertakings to break routines defined by age, illness or gender. By designing a schedule of medical, therapeutic and domestic activities, mutual forms of exchange can be organised: such as laundry duties, subdividing space, closing of curtains, opening of windows, distribution of medicines, gardening, cleaning, dish washing, kitchen shift and night duties. In addition, by positioning, intersecting and distributing the common activities across the project and clusters, the relations between inhabitants can be designed. Within this process, free circulation and the distribution of communal spaces across different levels makes it possible to extend the social and therapeutic spaces to the entirety of the project. Beyond singular rooms, all areas within the project should be understood as locations for occupation. Within the use of the building, a series of events and workshops can become key to provide a multiplicity of exchanges and to allow inhabitants to discover new spaces and new ways to inhabit the project.

Threshold as a moment of remembrance Memory and remembrance: a heterogeneity of atmospheres By distributing the programme throughout the project, the process of trespassing between the areas of occupation forms an important tool to redefine identities, associations and memories. Over the course of ageing, the decline of cognitive functions articulates a fragmented experience of space as a collection of relations, parts and compositions. This raises the design question: How can the design of the home activate memories, associations and identities? Andreas Kruss discusses, in ‘Dementia as a Cultural Challenge’, how the coherent cognitive-emotional construct that establishes the core of a person’s personality begins to become less coherent when dementia develops, prioritising the importance of a wide range of activities.84 According to Kruss, when dementia develops, the person will be less able to reflect on relationships to themselves and their surroundings, in which the body might become less distinguishable from the environment. Within this 84. Andreas Kruss, ‘Dementia as a Cultural Challenge’, in: Lost in Space, ed. Feddersen, and Ludtke, pp. 54–61, p.56.

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process, participation in a wide range of activities of everyday life becomes crucial to the ability to self-relate and to remember previous moments and interests.

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3.19 Cores: intersection points The cores incorporate circulation space and places to rest. As recognisable objects within a project the cores form intersection points between horizontal and vertical movement organising view lines, sight and moments of obstruction. The integration of care rooms and amenities within the organisation of the core enables overlapping of care workers and residents providing an intermediate scale of care spaces.

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Sensory experiences Furthermore, over the course of ageing, new interests, ideas and preferences might be developed, emphasising ageing as a process rather than a fixed identity. Lynne Segal illustrates, in Out of Time: The Pleasures and Perils of Ageing, how the question of ageing should be understood in terms of a heterogeneity of identities.85 The self never ages, although the body changes and the culture evolves. Old age is a time, and Segal suggests that we acknowledge the value of our lifelong mutual dependence, as well as defend our independence. Instead of thinking about issues of care and dependency as a relation defined by age, Segal advocates recognition of the notion of dependence as an intricate, interactive phenomenon, in which carers and receivers may be both invested and dependent upon the presence and the needs of the other against age or condition. Therefore Segal argues for a rethinking of care and dependency as a time when we may well still be learning new things, deepening existing relationships amid material deprivation. Within this process the home start to illustrate its therapeutic aspect as a collection of identities, associations and memories, in which its design can enable a variety of experiences through the design of atmospheres. Within the spatial composition, the linking of sensory experiences (flavours, views, smells and sounds) with particular associations can aid a process of self-reference. Places such as the kitchen, laundry and flower gardens become important instruments to enable memories and relate to important moments, to provide a sense of security, self-identity and wellbeing.86

Assembling as a tool to construct identities By articulating space as a place of reference, the threshold as a moment of transition between different memories becomes important as a process of reassembling and reterritorialisation. Within this process the compositional characteristics of the architectural elements play a key role. The author Walter Benjamin describes, in The 85. Lynne Segal, Out of Time: The Pleasures and the Perils of Ageing (London: Verso Books, 2014) p. 36. 86. Soilemezi, Living Well with Dementia at Home.

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Arcades Project, the different threshold spaces of nineteenth-century Paris and their importance in concealing and exposing intimate interior compositions, dreams, personalities and associations. Articulated as a collective dream, metropolitan Paris is

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3.20 Play grounds A number of play structures are located throughout the project. Enabling places to play and the possibility of different games to emerge.

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described through the trespassing of space referred to as a ‘threshold magic’.87 Within this continuous interior landscape Benjamin describes the house as a continuous passage, activating conditions of remembering and identification linked to notions of privacy, the intimate and the public. As illustrated by Benjamin, the architectural composition of the façade, the ‘shell’, plays a significant role in the experience of space. The spatial performance of the individual parts give shape to an exteriorised interior. Within this process each element mediates between the inside and the outside, regulating relations through modes of transparency, visibility and exposure.88 87. Walter Benjamin, The Arcades Project (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002). Threshold magic is translated from ‘Schwellenzauber’.

The exterior space shaped by the facade, garden, terrace, portico’s or balcony, forms an

88. Idem, p.220. Cited as: ‘The original form of all dwelling is existence not in the house but in the shell. The shell bears the impression of its occupant. In the most extreme instance, the dwelling becomes a shell. The nineteenth century, like no other century, was addicted to dwelling. It conceived the residence as a receptacle for the person, and it encased him with all his appurtenances so deeply in the dwelling’s interior that one might be reminded of the inside if a compass case, where the instrument with all its accessories lies embedded in deep, usually violet, folds of velvet.’

particular types of plants and the programming of the garden by architectural elements

89. Annette Pollock, Meaningful Outdoor Spaces for People with Dementia’, in: Lost in Space ed. Feddersen and Ludtke, pp. 146–153.

important place to enable associations and memories. The materialisation of surfaces, can be used as design tools to articulate a heterogeneity of activities to encourage processes of remembrance.89 Within the design of the home environment, the arrangement of the elements is an important design tool to construct an atmosphere and relate to a required spatial performance. As a topology of intermediate zones the threshold constructs an ‘imagespace’ that forms a moment of temporality through its lived experience.90 As a conceptual space, the threshold negotiates relations between the imaginary and the real, enabling a multiplicity of everyday life activities. The threshold as an intersection

90. Georges Teyssot, A Topology of Everyday Constellations (London: MIT Press, 2013) p. 93. Cited from: ‘The History Benjamin writes does not categorize eras, forms and styles, or even types, but rather accumulates a constellation of intermediate zones for which he provides a topography.’

and remembrance of identities can be used as a design mechanism to link, activate

91. Benjamin, The Arcades Project, p. 217. Cited as: ‘(…) indeed, precisely after such dialectical annihilation – this will still be an image space (der Bildraum) and, more concretely, a body space (der Leibraum).’

of atmospheres and programmes, the arrangement of elements and their spatial

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and construct memories. Through the design of body moments and, accordingly, experienced images, a heterogeneity of atmospheres can be designed to emphasise self-actualisation and former or prospective identities.91 Within the distribution composition can be used as a design tool to organise the clustering of dwellings, daily activities and relationships with the neighbourhood.

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3.21 Gardens: memory and associations The spatial composition of the exterior space—balcony, central courtyard, garden or terraces —can articulate view lines and communal activities. Moreover, as a place of reference, the garden can indicate the changing of seasons and recall memories through the presence of plants and fruits, laundry hanging, the playing of games, family parties, work sheds or a bicycle storage. Furthermore, the presence of different animals— chickens, rabbits, birds and bees—may relate to childhood memories. Within the design of the garden, a good climate should be considered in terms of sun, wind and noise, to be conceived as a protected environment.

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Concluding, this chapter provides different design principles to redefine the threshold conditions of dwelling. On the one hand, the design of the dwelling can be recognised as a spatial contour of a variety of elements, objects and surfaces that operates as a framework to incorporate prospective transformations in care demands. Moreover, the design of the unit can also be seen as a threshold composition that regulates access, modes of exclusion and spaces of retreat. In addition, the threshold can also be designed as an intermediate space, mediating between household and collective life, giving shape to a variety of social care activities and spaces for inhabitation. Furthermore, the threshold can also be recognised to encourage a larger process of trespassing through a heterogeneity of atmospheres to enable remembrance. By deconstructing domestic space through a series of collective activities and tasks, the design of the threshold plays an important role in organising the relations of reproductive work, social care, forms of therapy and care work. The design principles form an attempt to rethink domesticity by formulating the importance of the design of transitional, circulation and intermediate spaces. As guiding spaces, they formulate relations between the different household members, care workers, dwelling clusters, cooperative members and district residents. These spaces become essential to link activities of care in place with the operation of the district. The integration of the support networks within the district (care cooperatives, Buurtzorg, Wijkzorg and Buurtcirkel) is dependent on the contextual relations and questions that emerge. Image 3.22 Taxonomy of thresholds: elements, fragments and space.

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The next chapter will provide design variations that illustrate the translation and application of the design principles to specific contexts.

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4. From thresholds to assemblage District, gardens and types

This chapter translates the design principles of Chapter 3 into four design variations that relate to the particularities of the district within the context of Amsterdam. Subsequently, the design projects illustrate how the contextual relations can be translated into typological arrangements that relate to specific requirements of the cooperative in terms of transitional spaces, local economies, types of recreation and the design of exterior spaces. The main questions of this chapter are: How can the design principles be translated to the contextual conditions of the district? How can the typological arrangement become instrumental to frame particular relations of inclusion/ exclusion, support/autonomy and similarity/difference?

The organisation of the district Through the allocation of public land and the Right to Challenge, the municipality of Amsterdam is framing housing cooperatives as a national planning strategy to develop affordable housing and to organise care initiatives within the district. Within the current framework of the Right to Challenge, cooperatives are recognised by the Dutch government to stimulate support networks, frame potential social initiatives and to redevelop neighbourhoods. The organisation of the housing cooperative according to a variety of threshold conditions provides an opportunity to emphasis the different relations that exist between the scales of the cooperative, municipal requirements and the district. As a process of translation, the arrangement of spatial forms, objects, fragments and transitional areas can be used as a strategy to design specific intersection points and separations between the stakeholders of the district: informal carers, district nurses, social workers, sports coaches, care coordinator and catering managers. The integration of decentralised forms of governance to redevelop neighbourhoods

Image 4.01 Urban plan Amsterdam Oost Watergraafsmeer, infrastructures in the district. District support point/centre Sport facilities

finds its origin in the history of district administration. After the Second World

Healthcare and care facilities

War, municipalities redeveloped neighbourhoods by decentralising authority into

Cafe and restaurants

independent districts through a series of programmes, agencies and technologies of governance. Within the process of redevelopment the district was established (approximately 20,000 residents) and as an administrative body enabled the

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Participation Act 2012 & Youth Act 2015

Municipality

District

Individuals

Home assistance (Care assistance)

District circle/care cooperative

Ambulant youth worker

Young carers

Family members

Retired care Professionals

Housing corporation

Social enterprise

Woon coaches

Sports organisations and associations

Sport park

Sport coaches

Charity organization networks

Professional volunteers

Network organisation social exclusion

District coach/ advisor

Well-being coaches

Care coordinator

Social Support Act (Wmo 2015)

GGD

Wijkzorg (PGB/ZIN)

Healthcare professionals

District nurse + nurses

Primary care (GP, physiotherapy,

Extended team General Practitioner

GP assistant & GP nurse

Healthcare Insurance Act

Healthcare insurances

Social enterprise (Buurtzorg)

Act Long Term Care (Wlz 2015)

Ciz (Care Assessment Center)

Stadsloket

District team

Area managers

City administration

Stadsdeel commisie (City district commitee)

District, executive committee (Political parties)

District practice team

Dialogue leaders

Coordinator pest control

Health advisors

District police teams

District carer/traffic attendant

Neighbourhood company

Neighbourhood adopter

Image 4.02 Mapping of the stakeholders and care organisations in the Netherlands. The administration of legislation (Government), organisations and corporations (municipalities) and networks of stakeholders (district) is organised as a system to provide basic amenities that strengthen and stimulate a self-supporting society. The spaces of operation: sport stimulation, pedagogical infrastructure, volunteering support and social amenities (volunteers, corporations and public sector). 134

Social workers

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Teams Entrepreneurial teams Under the Participation Act 2012 and Youth Act 2015 individuals who are declared not be able to work can do small projects within the neighbourhood. They can provide care by providing services; mechanic, cleaning service, catering service or assistance at home.

Welfare team Welfare coaching retired healthcare workers, advisors/mentors, through organisation, assistance, location and funding for ideas.

Self-management Wmo amenity, run by former care recipients, the organisation is connecting demands and requests of different people and groups; Selfcare coach, Daily Living Assistance (ADL), Elderly workers.

Spaces of use Ambulant youth worker

Coordination information point

Young carers

Temporary stay/Daycare

Family members

GP healthcare centre

Retired care Professionals

District room

Woon coaches

Activity centre

Sport coaches

Community garden

Professional volunteers District coach/ advisor

Sports court

Neighbourhood center

Well-being coaches

Play ground

District care

Care coordinator

Sport dependence

District nurses and Welfare workers (PGB/ZiN) providing domestic help, personal care and nursing, ambulatory support and day care, sleep and wake-up services.

District nurse + nurses

Social workers Wmo-service, run by nursery workers, youth workers/youth care workers, Volunteer coordinators, district psychiatry and debt counsellors.

GP assistant & GP nurse

Social workers

Dwelling

Youth centre

Social Counter (Stads Locket)

Area managers

Study rooms

Dialogue leaders

Learning centre

Health advisors

District service point

District support team

Mapping care demand, providing information and signalizing. Informing rights support plan, RIS District Care. Advisers and managers in work, participation and income (klantmanagers WPI) District care professional, customer holder, Wmo specialist, WPI advisors in work.

District carer/traffic attendant Neighbourhood adopter

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Mobile district offices

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participation of citizens in their community. Described as the ‘district-concept’, the integration and policing of amenities by a central District Board (Wijkraad) was realised at the different scales of the home: the dwelling, the neighbourhood, the district, city district and city.92 The district was used as a planning instrument to distribute sub populations to education facilities (schools, libraries, play gardens), care amenities (pharmacy, general practitioner, dentist, social amenities) and vegetation (parks, plantation, gardens)93, and became recognised by municipalities as a pedagogical project to regulate welfare over the population.94 Over the last 50 years, the district as a spatial concept has enforced decentralised forms of governance, prioritising the realisation of independence and self-reliance. Since 2018, the district has been extending its performance and scope through the assignment of two administrative bodies: the City District Committee and District Care.95 The City District Committee is formed by the residents of the district and gives advise to the central board of Amsterdam and the City council ​​ about the potential future of the district (design of public space and the management of collective infrastructure and amenities). In parallel, District Care forms an administrative body that regulates the distribution of social support in the district: ambulatory assistance, daycare, housekeeping assistance, respite care and temporary accommodation. Central to the operation of District Care is the collaboration between professionals and nonprofessional workers, in which requests for care are measured against the potential of present social networks. Within the organisation of these two bodies, groups of collectives can initiate the development of the district according to its potential prospects in education, care, social support and sports amenities, and can be used by care cooperatives to initiate new projects. Care cooperatives, municipalities and care organisations can propose the housing cooperatives to contribute to local economies, amenities, care networks and existing infrastructures within the district in return for the allocation of public land. Subsequently, as a heterogeneous set of bodies (collection of care amenities, service points, gardens, storage spaces, places of retreat and water infrastructures), the housing cooperative becomes part of a larger assemblage of relations. As a continuous project, the cooperative can redefine social relations and hierarchies between the different members of the district through the design of its boundaries, margins and limits.96 Within this process, the architectural composition articulates the relations, preferences

Image 4.03 Diagram of the Woon-Zorg Zone (LiveCare Zone) design criteria for distances and proximity between district amenities and site. 92. Pieter Jacobu Oud, De Stad der Toekomst, de Toekomst der Stad (Rotterdam: Municipality of Rotterdam, 1946) p. 49. Cited as: ‘’Van het wijkverband kan de gehele zo uiterst opvoedende taak uitgaan, om de bevolking lichamelijk, medisch en hygiënisch op peil te brengen en te houden en haar sociaal en pedagogisch behoorlijk in te lichten en te steunen.’’ Transl. ‘’The district forms a pedagogical task to enforce the physical, medical and hygienic conditions of the population and to socially and pedagogically educate and support them. Selfmanagement and individual agency became tools to enforce safety, waste and risk management.’’

and requirements of the cooperative as a point of reference. Depending on the context,

93. Idem, p. 50.

the programme can be integrated or excluded from the organisation of the cooperative

94. Idem, p. 51.

as a set of design criteria (image 4.03). In the process of translation, the cooperative

95. Gemeente van Amsterdam, Wijkzorg 2018 (Amsterdam, 2018). Translation of ‘Stadsdeel Commisie’ to City District Committee and ‘Wijkzorg’ to District Care.

can choose to frame relations of inclusion or exclusion and support or autonomy. In response to forms of exploitation the cooperative can position itself through the spatial separation of care work activities or by renting out services, amenities and spaces.

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96. Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia (London: Athlone Press, 1992) p.6.

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The contextualisation of the cooperative in the district can be addressed through a series of design categories and criteria (access, area surface, distance, proximity and adaptation) that relate to the different threshold conditions of the district (image 4.03). The design categories: transitional space (vegetation, water infrastructure, mobility) temporary use (local economies, care amenities), temporary appropriation (recreation, sports), trespassing (mobility) and adaptation (unit types).

Design variations: four building types in Watergraafsmeer, Amsterdam The design variations are positioned within the neighbourhood Frankendael in the district of Watergraafsmeer. Currently, the municipality of Amsterdam has assigned plots for the development of housing cooperatives and prioritised the redevelopment of the neighbourhood Frankendael according to questions of ageing in place. Its demographic composition includes a relatively large population of the elderly.97 The municipality, in combination with the District Committee, has prioritised, in the ‘Area Development Plan of Amsterdam Oost Watergraafsmeer 2018’, the development of new social support infrastructures for the ageing population. Within the plan, the municipality outlines the potential of forms of cluster living and intergenerational living for new housing developments.98 The four design variations are part of an urban strategy to redevelop Watergraafsmeer by increasing its social support network and infrastructure. The design principles are contextualised into four design variations (hof, atrium, tower and urban villa) in different locations within the neighbourhood, and propose the integration of care work, services and facilities within the district. As a composition, the variations investigate how the cooperative can become spatialised through different typological arrangements and threshold conditions. Within each of the building types, the garden forms a central space of reference and, as a constellation of structures, façades and surfaces, the garden organises surrounding activities towards the district. The programming and spatial design of the exterior space—enclosed garden, atrium, perimeter balcony and terraces—organises the type according to communal activities, articulating a variety in levels of privacy and view lines. By recognising the garden as a materialised mediator between the different residents, workers, volunteers and visitors, each type operates as an interplay between, on the one hand, the material components and, on the other, the external dynamic of its transparencies. Through the composition, the garden and its terraces, plants, balconies, façade and structures regulate access, programmes, visibility and associations.

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Image 4.04 Axonometric drawing of the district Watergraafsmeer with the four design variations: hof (green), atrium (orange), tower (blue) and urban villa type (purple). 97. The demographic condition of Frankendael: 0-17 year: 14.6% (17.6% in Amsterdam), 65+: 14.5% (12.1% in Amsterdam), 80+: 3.6% (2.7% in Amsterdam), Nonwestern: 24.6% (35.1% in Amsterdam), Households: 6.561 (455.987 in Amsterdam), Couple + children: 12.6% (16.0% in Amsterdam), Single parent: 6.8% (8.9% in Amsterdam), Single person: 60.6% (53.1% in Amsterdam). (Amsterdam: Centraal Bureau Statistiek, 2018). 98. Gemeente van Amsterdam, Gebiedsvisie Amsterdam Oost: Watergraafsmeer 2018 (Amsterdam, 2018).

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Design variation 01: Hof

Description: The design of the hof type is organised around a central enclosed garden that forms a large playground. The garden operates as an interstitial space between the different clusters of the hof. As a shared living space, the garden is a controlled environment accessible through two gates. In this way, the garden provides a protected living environment for people that require secure surroundings. The project is comprised of different structures that operate as memory gardens, consisting of a variety of herbs, rosemary, thyme and apple trees. The garden dissolves with the faรงade as a collection of double height spaces that bring the garden inside the communal living spaces. As a collection of memory gardens, green houses and structures, the hof articulates the garden as a central enclosed space.

Position: The project enables a new economy within the neighbourhood through a series of multifunctional spaces on the ground floor that can be rented out to external parties; commercial spaces, storage, catering facilities, social support organisations, hairdressers, beauty salon or office space. Through a network of cycling routes, communal kitchens and storage places between the project, community gardens, allotments and city farms the project directs a catering service by bike. Subsequently, the typological arrangement articulates the autonomy of the building within the neighbourhood. A linear segmentation of space follows the perimeter of the plot, clustering dwelling units into three layers that organise levels in privacy and use.

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Image 4.05 Hof type: axonometric drawing of project in neighbourhood.

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Wooden beam + infill

Catering, central kitchen and commercial space

Bathroom + silence room

Extended corridor

Care coordinator + guest room + common rooms

Play & memory garden

Gate + under-passing

Image 4.06 Hof type: axonometric drawing of project in neighbourhood with elements in colour.

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Image 4.08 Hof type: section and typical floor 1:500

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Image 4.09 Hof type: worms-eye perspective of garden.

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Image 4.10 Hof type: worms-eye perspective of layering of elements in the cluster organisation.

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The first layer consists of the personal dwelling units. Between the private space and the communal living areas are private bathroom, spaces of retreat and quiet rooms located. The second layer forms a transition zone between the units and the communal living areas. As an undefined zone, the area is shared between two households and can be appropriated for different uses such as sport, work or storage. Subsequently, voids are positioned between the different levels to articulate prospective vertical connections between clusters. The architectural composition of the second layer is designed as a temporary structure that can be adjusted to group different floors together by internal bridges, ramps and staircases to extend the clusters over time. The third layer forms a distinct threshold conditions from the garden towards the perimeter faรงade, and organises communal living areas, kitchens and relaxation areas shared between three to six households. The third layer is connected with vertical circulation points located in the corners of the project that enable intersection and access points. The communal living areas provide shared kitchens, care rooms, guest rooms and play rooms to collectively organise reproductive work and social care activities. Performance: As an enclosed space, the hof provides a confined space for people with a care need. The hof is only accessible through a gate and a passage or via the neighbourhood functions on the ground floor. As an enclosed entity, the hof can be developed as an independent project, articulating interiorised ambiances and atmospheres. In the project, the garden articulates a spatial division between the surrounding neighbourhood and the cooperative. Even though the project is providing programme for its surroundings, the spatial composition of a centralised enclosed garden articulates its independence as a complementary place within the city. The physical separation of the project from the neighbourhood emphasises the interior of the project as an open condition with minimal physical segmentations and obstructions, in which view lines expose activities and deconstruct the clusters. For people with a care demand, the open space might be disorientating, exposing and perceived as providing too much visual stimulation.

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Image 4.11 Hof type: axonometric perspective of cluster organisation.

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Design variation 02: Tower

Description: The tower type is organised around a perimeter balcony that operates as a buffer-zone between the city and the inhabitants. This balcony forms a lookout point towards the district, providing different types of observation—from seating areas towards the neighbourhood to astronomical observation devices and bird nesting places. The small plot organises the cooperative in a vertical direction, ensuring the stratification and division of the programme. The ground floor level provides a variety of collective facilities and amenities, varying from respite care, educational spaces for district nurses and a social support point, to a collection of wellness and sports facilities, hereby intersecting inhabitants, care recipients and district nurses within the neighbourhood. The central balcony has a collection of stairs that connect the different floor areas. The stairs provide a continuous walkway that follows the perimeter of the tower providing a wide variety of view lines across the district.

Position: The tower type enables the redevelopment of the waterfront into a series of recreational areas, water collection points, water basins, changing rooms, storage space and walking paths that construct a larger network of water infrastructure through the district. As a height accent in the neighbourhood the tower forms a point of reference that indicates the cooperative within the district. Through its programme of basins and pools, the tower enables different forms of recreation, articulating the collective organisation of care around activities of bathing.

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Image 4.12 Tower type: axonometric drawing of project in neighbourhood.

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Wooden construction

Core, cupboards, sliding walls

Truss

Perimeter balcony

WMO assistance and cafe

Wellness, spa and baths

Storage, changing rooms, toilets and electricity

Image 4.13 Tower type: axonometric drawing of project in neighbourhood with elements in colour.

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Image 4.16 Tower type: worms-eye perspective of truss structure.

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Image 4.17 Tower type: worms-eye perspective of amenities within the district.

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The circulation between the different levels is organised through a central core with an infrastructural wall that regulates partitions, utilities and services to enable an open plan. As a result, every floor can be designed differently: a large open communal living area, two to four dwelling units (ranging from small-scale guided living clusters to temporary accommodation and live-work dwellings for care workers) or recreational programme. In this way, the central core organises a vertical division in the use of space, segmenting private from communal activities. In the private units, the space in between the dwellings forms an extension of the unit and can be shared and inhabited by two households. As an interstitial space, the area can be used as a care room, consultation space, sport area, guest room or reading room. Likewise, the perimeter balcony can be appropriated by the different households, and as an extension of the communal and personal living areas, the balcony can be used for recreation, storage and gardening. Performance: In its vertical orientation, the tower forms a point of reference within the district. As an observation point the cooperative can oversee the different areas of the neighbourhood. The balconies are designed as a continuous space following the different levels of the tower. However, the height of the tower limits the use of its exterior space on higher altitudes. Moreover, the use of the open floor plan is also limited. The position of the core in the centre of the plot breaks the space into segments, restricting larger spaces, elements or objects. The segmentation of the space by the core articulates the living areas as a continuous space. Within this composition, the articulation of edge conditions becomes fundamental for safety and privacy: not only to ensure the distinction between floor, ceiling and wall, but equally to highlight the private living and sleeping areas of the occupants. The personalisation of the edge conditions can take place by the customisation of walls, doors and window in order for the residents to recognise their living areas, balconies or apartments.

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Image 4.18 Tower type: axonometric perspective of cluster organisation.

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Design variation 03: Atrium

Description: The atrium type is designed around a central open space that articulates body movement through a collection of ramps, staircases and elevators. The centre of the atrium has a balcony that regulates access and circulation between the different clusters. The circulation elements in the atrium enable different speeds of movement, articulating the circulation of bodies and a variety of vertical, horizontal and diagonal view lines. The atrium is accessible to the neighbourhood through three passages. The passages are positioned parallel to neighbourhood facilities, activating the ground floor level. As an inclusive space, the atrium intersects activities of dwelling, care work and social life between the different residents of the neighbourhood.

Position: The atrium type forms the centre of the neighbourhood, on the one hand, by articulating a continuation of the park and its recreational spaces into the district, on the other hand, by providing a variety of amenities focused on educational facilities. Its position next to the neighbourhood Amsteldorp, Frankendael, nursing home Open Hof and the district service point Hoekhuis illustrates the intersection of a variety of district workers. Within this constellation, the central atrium forms an open space towards the neighbourhood, linking surrounding infrastructure through a series of landscape elements including sports amenities, walking paths and gardens. The project forms a link with a running and sports parkour that crosses the district of Watergraafsmeer. The adjoining spaces in the atrium are designed according to a heterogeneity of atmospheres: double height spaces, covered terraces, open spaces. Each of the spatial compositions articulates a type of programme: from performances, meetings and sports classes to a series of music, silence and stimulation rooms that encourage the different dimensions of the senses.

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Image 4.19 Atrium type: axonometric drawing of project in neighbourhood.

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CLT system

Atrium organising performance, sound and silence rooms

Medication distribution and service point

Care coordinator and cluster

Entrance

Sport facilities

Image 4.20 Atrium type: axonometric drawing of project in neighbourhood with elements in colour.

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Image 4.22 Atrium type: section and typical floor 1:500

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Image 4.23 Atrium type: worms-eye perspective of atrium organisation

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Image 4.24 Atrium type: worms-eye perspective of cluster organisation (enfilade).

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The inclusive character of the programme is articulated in the organisation of the dwelling clusters. The units are arranged according to an enfilade system. This organisation stages movement by framing the rooms through viewing lines. The enfilade organisation enables a continuous process of movement, in which the thresholds are reduced to sliding screens. While trespassing the project, personal living space, communal areas, play rooms, music rooms and care rooms are interlinked. The enfilade as a design system forces the intersection of space, enabling new modes of visibility and exposure of therapy and care activities. The organisation of the enfilade collectivises all the living areas, articulating the walls as areas of appropriation. Cupboards, counters and closets become important spaces to store individual goods and to indicate ownership of space.

Performance: The organisation of the atrium type articulates dwelling as a collective project through the absence of doors and the composition of openings on all sides of the unit. In order to enable the continuous trespassing of space the unit has to be designed according to the central positioning of furniture in space. Not only does this organisation obstruct view lines within the unit, also the variety in layout designs of the unit might be limited. The accessibility of all spaces of dwelling might lead to the intersection of care work and daily life, raising questions of mental health for care workers and informal carers. Simultaneously, the exposure of different activities might lead to forms of distraction and disorientation. Subsequently, the performance of the atrium space has to be taken into consideration according to potential use beyond circulation. In the atrium, the stairs, ramps and elevator use a large area, as a result only a small space can be used for communal activities, recreation or vegetation. Simultaneously, by positioning the circulation points in the exterior, the exchange of contact between dwelling clusters over different floor areas is not stressed.

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Image 4.25 Atrium type: axonometric perspective of cluster organisation.

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Design variation 04: Urban villa

Description: The urban villa is organised as a vertical labyrinth of communal spaces, terraces, care rooms and greenhouses intersecting spaces of conservation with activities of dwelling. The terraces are organised throughout the building, connecting the ground floor level to the different interior spaces. The central area of the building is designed according to a sequence of vertical connections, and interior greenhouses, with adjoining terraces that connect the different dwelling clusters by the use of stairs. The intersection of the dwelling clusters with the terraces and gardens provides an interstitial zone of areas of relaxation, contemplation and recreation.

Position: The urban villa is part of a green corridor that connects the waterside with the surrounding park. As a strategic point within the neighbourhood, the urban villa forms an important link within the network of the ecological main infrastructure (EHS), providing breeding places and nesting points for insects, bees and mammals. The conservation of specific species and vegetation, in combination with study and play rooms, provides a series of educational facilities for the surrounding neighbourhood. The project is integrated with the neighbourhood through a series of walking paths that follow, link and strengthen the network of the main ecological infrastructure. The distribution of care rooms, conservation houses and educational facilities across the different floor levels of the building emphasises exchange between the different dwelling clusters.

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Image 4.26 Urban villa type: axonometric drawing of project in neighbourhood.

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Wooden beams and sliding walls

Sequence of stairs

Labyrinth of bird houses and botanical gardens

Care rooms, guest rooms, meeting and laundry space

Play structures

Perimeter garden

Image 4.27 Urban villa type: axonometric drawing of project in neighbourhood with elements in colour.

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Image 4.29 Urban villa type: section and typical floor 1:500

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Image 4.30 Urban villa type: worms-eye perspective of interior gardens and stair cases

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Image 4.31 Urban villa type: worms-eye perspective of the sequence of care rooms

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The conservation gardens are part of the everyday activities of the residents and need to be taken care of on a daily basis. Different tasks and activities are organised to sustain and maintain the vegetation. The different dwelling units are organised typologically around the central gardens as a labyrinth of spaces. Three units frame a communal living area by the spacing of entities. The position of the units provides diagonal viewing lines and, simultaneously, privacy. The private dwelling unit can be linked with the shared living areas of the clusters though sliding windows and panels. The opening and closing of both panels and windows form part of everyday activities, regulating daylight, exterior and interior views and privacy. The interior space forms a continuous walkway. Beyond their function as a circulation space, the areas in between the stairs, dwelling units and conservation spaces form communal living areas that can become inhabited as living rooms, kitchens, sports areas or storage rooms. The space in between the private dwelling units are designed to accommodate a variety of activities—from kitchen to seating space, reading rooms and sports facilities- and functions as an extension of each dwelling unit.

Performance: The design of the different areas of the urban villa emphasises the integration of the exterior into the dwellings. Through a collection of terraces on the ground floor level, the building is emphasised as a single entity in the neighbourhood, however, simultaneously the project provides play infrastructure for its surroundings. The organisation of a sequence of enclosed interiors forms an exclusive space for the residents. The physical separation between the interior and exterior highlights a transitional zone primarily for the members of the cooperative. Within the organisation of the project the continuity of the circulation space between the different clusters may be experienced as disorientating, especially for people suffering from advanced loss in cognitive abilities. The various corners, view lines and the absence of an overview or distinctions in spatial contours, may lead to forms of distraction and disorientation.

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Image 4.32 Urban villa type: axonometric perspective of cluster organisation.

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Type as a framework for transformation

The four building types each propose a consistency, articulating spatial divisions, transitional spaces and interstitial relations. They can each be considered as tools to discuss the different demands, preferences and particularities of a cooperative. Within this process the type can be used as a reference model for prospective transformations, in which the geometry can be redefined to produce new types as an instrument of speculation. The significance of the type lies in its capacity to isolate the built environment ‘into a formal consistency’.99 The composition of the architectural fragments, clusters and architectural elements within the project can be considered as single entities, and can be arranged or assembled in alternative configurations. However, as argued by Rafael Moneo in ‘On Typology’, when relations of assembling become dislocated, the type becomes merely a configuration of images transcending contradictions.100 This fragmentation shifts the question of the typological from an internal ideology of architectural history towards external relations of use, highlighting the significance of the type as an architectural object. In the context of the dissertation, the significance of the architectural object lies in its potential capacity of transformation, and the actual instrumentality of the design as a design tool for prospective projects. Therefore, the image of sub-clusters, elements Image 4.33 Floor plan transformation: disposition of the different types, from building types to an assemblage of clusters.

and parts potentially can function as reference models to articulate, differences and separations within the organisation of the cooperative. As a spatial mutation, the parts extracted from each type can articulate new focal points within the project to enable

99. Rafael Moneo, ‘On Typology’, Oppositions: A Journal for Ideas and Criticism in Architecture, 13 (Summer 1978) pp.22–45, p.27.

a hybrid of sub-clusters, groups and individuals (image 4.33). As a result, the project

100. Idem.

applied in prospective projects.

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proposes a series of design guidelines that emphasises design principles that can be

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Design guidelines

The design variations address the typological organisation of communal relations through the composition of the exterior spaces, circulation space and threshold conditions. Each design variation proposes a building type in a response to the economies and requirements of the location. The sequence of thresholds, explores the spatial segmentation and clustering of households forming specific interior conditions, emphasising particular transitions from room, cluster to the neighbourhood. As a composition of zones of interaction, transition space, partitions, exterior-interior and part to whole relationships, each of the type performs according to relations in privacy and intimacy. The four types illustrate their instrumentality as a potential model that can be transformed to specific requirements. Concluding on the performance of the four design variations the project proposes three main guidelines that redefine the home environment and can be used as design principles. Furthermore, a series of additional design guidelines are proposed.

1. Redefining the corridor (intermediate space of care activities) The corridor as an organisation tool defines strict separation between properties, spaces and usage, and as an elements it guides direction based on efficiency. Through its functional division the corridor articulates conditions of access and exclusion, introducing a distinction between the use of space as a route or as a destination. Within the organisation of the housing cooperative, the deconstruction of the corridor in a variety of spaces provides an opportunity to rethink the living environment as a collection of overlapping area’s that can be used in various ways. By recognising the circulation space as a transitional area between the various activities of the cooperative, the space forms an intersection point that potentially can provide intermediate spaces of care. As an interstitial space between personal space and communal living area’s the circulation space should be designed in considered dimensions and with access working.

Image 4.34 Drawing of a dissolved corridor condition from the exterior (street) towards the different living spaces.

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to daylight in order to perform sufficiently as a place for resting, sports, reading or


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2. Care room (storage, retreat and doors) The care room forms an important place within the project in sustaining authority of the inhabitants over their home environment. The room forms an additional space within the organisation of the dwelling, and is shared between the different residents. The room forms an enclosed space and can function in two ways. On the one hand, the room performs as a place of care work (from virtual consultation to examination) and separate activities of assistance from everyday life. On the other hand, the room can be used as a place of retreat as a silence room. As a quiet place the space can accommodate forms of therapy and modes of relaxation as a reading, wellness, or sleeping room. The design of the care room should consider dimensions and materialisation appropriate for its specific function: from relaxation to the arrangement of infrastructure. Its layout should be designed to enable storage space to avoid distraction. Furthermore clear view lines and focal points can be considered as design tools. Moreover, the door forms its most important element to enable division. Within the design of the care room the rotation and modes of opening of the door (sliding, rotation, folding) can be reconsidered to enable a variety of use of the space.

3. Window (exterior, optical frame, occupation patterns) Throughout the history the window formed an important place in the home as a focal point and place of daylight and through its opening framed different activities (from letter writing to dining). The window, can be considered in two ways. On the one hand, as an optical window it enables view lines towards the exterior forming a reference to everyday life activities, the changing of seasons and the time of the day. As a linkage between the house and the exterior, the design of its operation: the closing of curtains, ventilation and the act of opening of the window in itself constitutes direct relations with the environment and forms an act of control over one’s own life and daily occupation patterns. On the other hand as an architectural window, its compositions and dimensions are part of a larger system of measurements and dimensions. The spatial composition of the window can be considered in providing elements that enable the activation of space (lower cupboards, storage and a window sill).

Chapter 4

Image 4.35 Drawing of the organisation of the care room. The room can provide different infrastructures for resting, work or consultation activities. As an enclosed spaces the frame forms a separation between the interior and the exterior of the room. Image 4.36 Drawing of operation of window, sliding of screens to obstruct daylight as a body movement that connects the start of the day with the exterior.

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Additional recommendations:

4. Frame: The project can be recognised as an architectural frame that allows for the customisation of space according to preferences in doors, curtains, walls, screens and potentially can accommodate future extension of the unit types. Within this process the measurements of the frame play a crucial role to enable access in all stages of life (respectively 1200mm for doorways, and 1000mm for passages, adjacent to the bed a free space of 900x1800 mm for assistance, and a space of 1800x1800 mm for medical equipment such as a bed lift, measuring station, or other devices of assistance). 5. Clustering: The clustering of apartments is depending on the allocation of care profiles. In order to receive the assignment of a General Daily Life Operation cluster (Algemene Dagelijkse Levensverrichtingen cluster), Small-Scale Guided Living cluster (Kleinschalige woongroep) or an Informal Carer Dwelling (Mantelzorgwoning), the cluster configuration should be designed according number of units (respectively: 25, 15, 2), minimal floor area (respectively: 90m2, 45m2, 25m2) and provide available equipment. In contrast to the institutional allocation of care, the cooperative could provide an alternative organisation of clustering through its model of shared ownership. Within the process of rearrangement of the clusters, the dimensions in spacing between and adjacent to the units should be considered as important design parameters to provide areas for appropriation and a variety in levels of sharing (between two to six households). 6. Care coordinator: The accommodation of a care coordinator in the complex is part of a larger network of social organisation in activities between the district nurse, general practitioner and volunteers. The care coordinator, a volunteer or retired healthcare professional, advices residents on their process of revitalisation, recovering or revalidation and provides additional infrastructures and services. The dwelling unit of the care coordinator should provide an additional guest room in order to provide respite care, acute care or temporary accommodation.

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7. Enclosed living area, perimeter balcony and enclosed garden An enclosed living environment provides a protected space for its residents and articulates modes of privacy. Moreover as an internalised space, and enclosed courtyard, perimeter balcony or terrace emphasises free circulation throughout the complex. The spatial elements enforce the autonomy of the project within the neighbourhood and functions as a space of reference. 8. Heterogeneity of programme: The distribution of programme across the project enforces modes of appropriation throughout the project. As a collection of different atmospheres the trespassing of space enables memories and associations, moreover, a variety in programme provides opportunities to redefine the self and former identities as a process of regeneration. Schedule: A schedule in tasks and activities can enforce mutual exchange between residents, providing possibilities to contribute in various ways to the organisation of the cooperative: from care assistance, to laundry duties and gardening activities. By the use of schedule, household activities can be organised collectively and assigned within a series of spaces: communal kitchens, laundry spaces, storage space for services. Renting out surface area: The project should provide spaces for potential lease to enforce the autonomy of the cooperative in the district. As a series of multifunctional spaces, social amenities, commercial space, catering, work areas, wellness space and socialised care services can be rented out and become a contributing factor to the organisation of the cooperative . Infrastructure: In extension to the financial organisation the project should incorporate district infrastructure (changing rooms, key storage, play gardens, water collection, district kitchens) to enable care work and volunteering activities across the district.

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Conclusion

The research question: How can the housing cooperative form a spatial framework for care services, infrastructures and amenities within the city district? Aims to address the threshold as a design tool to deconstruct the dwelling into a series of design components that potentially can answer to new spatial demands in care work and intergenerational relations. Through the articulation of the threshold within the operation of the housing and care cooperative the dissertation intents, on the one hand, to relocate and redesign care infrastructures within the district, on the other hand, to construct spatial relations of the intimate, private and the personal in the home environment. The threshold as a conceptual space between individuals, organisations and realities emphasises both modes of separation and linkage, and illustrates the role of architecture as a framework to arrange the different parts. As a design tool it relates to the spatial performance (modes of adaptation, measurements, zoning of activities), the experience of space (trespassing, movement, view lines, memories and associations) and as an assemblage forms a structural frame to arrange particularities in spatial use. The temporalities of usage (the duration of activities, daily rituals, sequence of interactions and the appropriation of space) can be further investigated in collaboration with cooperatives, care workers and volunteers. The inhabitation of space forms a complex process that simultaneously links district tasks, domesticity, daily schedules, individual responsibility, care budgets and relations of dependency. In order to design integrated care & living environments, the design principles need to be customised in collaboration with the actual users. With the implementation of the design principles in relation to the protocols of the Right to Challenge and the Reorganisation of Long-term Care, the housing cooperative is facing challenges to sustain self-organisation, authority and independence. The integration of care and district infrastructures in the housing cooperative implies the acknowledgement of current systems of legislation (care administration, subsidised cluster living, district services, allocation of public land, funding of community organisation, personal bound budgets). In response to the systemisation of healthcare politics and institutions, the housing cooperative has to develop a position (preferences, protocols and hierarchies) in order to sustain its control and avoid modes of exclusion, work exploitation and mental health issues.

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The dissertation demonstrates the role of circulation space in healthcare institutions as a design element to control domestic, healthcare and work activities, and to arrange the different part as a measure of communication and to construct relations. Within the further development and implementation of a hybrid care and housing cooperative the means of circulation space (corridor, passages and hallways) can be extended towards transitional elements, fragments and spaces (faรงade, walls, doors, windows, rooms, cores, exterior spaces) in order to emphasis the role and organisation of the cooperative in relation to healthcare practise. As a response, the dwelling should be articulated as the home environment, in which the sequence of space can be used to emphasise, redefine and exclude modes of care giving and cohabitation. Within a prospective customisation of care preferences to municipal initiatives, the design guidelines prioritise the organisation of: transitional spaces (redefining the corridor), professional care activities (retreat & care room) the exterior space (windows and optical frames) as important design tools. As a response to the research, the dissertation proposes how the main design principles can be further investigated in collaboration with cooperatives, municipalities and care organisations: Design principle 1: redefining circulation space. Against the linearity of the corridor and the nuclear family, forms of cluster living allow for a rearrangement of domestic space through the design of a variety in zones of interaction to accommodate intermediate forms of care. The advantage of cluster living lies in the articulation of intergenerational and extended household relations as a form of social support. However, within the organisation of the cluster, relations of dependency and virtue start to play a role and might articulate new asymmetries between care professionals and non-professionals, waged and unwaged workers, and age differences. Therefore, spatial divisions, weekly schedules and social protocols should be assigned by the cooperative in order to avoid mental health issues (care givers depression, forms of anxiety, early hospitalisation). Design principle 2: arranging care activities. In addition, the cooperative model of shared ownership enables the customisation of the dwelling unit (enlarged measurements, personalised bath rooms, furnishing, composition of walls, system of doors/windows, materialisation of surfaces) to the different phases in life, and enables a prospective transformation (medical equipment, potential cohabitation of a carers

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or the subletting of space). However, the particularities of care organisation within the cooperative should be articulated, in order to enable specific use of the dwelling unit and define the range of prospective adaptations. Within this process, spatial elements (curtains, furniture or movable screens) or a collection of shared care rooms (quite rooms, examination, treatment, reading and consultation spaces) can be used to address spatial segmentations (linear, diffuse or central) and articulate hierarchies in programme and levels of sharing. Design principle 3: articulating optical windows. In response to contextual particularities (plot size, edge conditions and surface area) the arrangement of the exterior space and the openings in the facade can be applied to frame a relation between the cooperative and the district. As areas of observation, gates, under passing’s, courtyards, balconies and terraces play an important role in providing protected living environments and enable view lines towards the neighbourhood. As a point of reference for both the cooperative and the neighbourhood, the transitional and exterior spaces should be designed strategically (exclusive/inclusive, accessible/enclosed, supportive/autonomous space) to enable the control, management and logistics of the complex. To conclude, the project opens up larger questions around the organisation of domestic space in terms of intergenerational living, care organisation and new legislation. The future aim of the project is to start a larger discussion between municipalities, care organisations and cooperatives on the organisation of housing in order to address the implementation of new legislation on transitional spaces (Bouwbesluit) and to enable alternative configurations of parts, programme and separations within the dwelling and the larger complex. Therefore the dissertation ends with a question: What are the instruments and technologies that regulate the thresholds between living spaces, social amenities, medical infrastructure and district services? As a result of the research, the dissertation proposes further investigations in the instruments of spatial divisions in domestic space (housing acts, public housing requirements, fire regulation and safety passages) in order to investigate the potential integration of cluster and intergenerational forms of living within the current framework of housing legislation.

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Appendix


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Annex 1 A history of the Dutch housing cooperative: challenging family life.

Throughout the nineteenth and twentieth century, the cooperative movement has both encouraged and challenged the scope of family life. Tied to economic imperatives, the cooperative movement articulated extended household relations, care amenities and district services, through the design of collective forms of living. Currently, in Zurich, Barcelona, Berlin and Amsterdam, housing projects based on a cooperative management structure are established to develop affordable forms of living and integrate collective household amenities for the neighbourhood. As a response to the collective organisation of care amenities, new spatial design questions are emerging in terms of the scale, reach and types of infrastructures that can be embedded within domestic space. Through a historical analysis of housing cooperatives in the Netherlands, this essay reflects on the possibilities of social organisation within the cooperative in terms of reproductive work, district services and social amenities. The main questions addressed are: What is the role of the housing cooperative in providing extended family relations? What are the spatial parameters and architectural components of the social organisation of the housing cooperative?

The family as an agent for the establishment of the liberal state The history of the cooperative movement is part of an ongoing debate focused on the development of affordable housing and the reorganisation of household activities. The first associations were established in the context of the Enlightenment ideals and formed an attempt to elevate the working class, fight epidemics and improve work and housing conditions. Over the course of the eighteenth century, wholesalers, manufactures and bankers organised themselves into associations, such as the Society of Usefulness (Maatschappij van t’ Nut van ‘t Algemeen, 1784) and the Society of Benevolence (Maatschappij van Weldadigheid, 1818) to argue against the living conditions in the alcove houses. Influenced by the Rochdale Society from Manchester, the first cooperative associations in the Netherlands was the Cooperative for the Benefit of the Working Class of Amsterdam (Vereniging ter Behoeve van de Arbeidsklasse van Amsterdam) established in 1852.1

Annex 1

Image 5.01 Front image of the Pamphlet ‘Twintigjarig Overzicht 1908-1928’, Amsterdamse Cooperative Woning-Vereeniging Samenwerking, Amsterdams Stadsarchief. 1. Nederlandse Instituut voor Volkshuisvestiging en Stedenbouw, De Woningwet 1902-1929 (Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, 1930) pp.245–255.

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Around the mid-nineteenth century, the cooperative organisations expressed the family and the home as the central focus point to articulate the improvement of living standards. Under the abolition of the Code Penal in 1886, the cooperatives were enabled to establish free trade unions and housing associations. As a result, groups of citizens, notaries, civil servants and workers, started to organise themselves within cooperative structures to develop affordable forms of living, for example the Construction Company to Acquire your Own Houses of Amsterdam (Bouwmaatschappij ter Verkrijgen van Eigen Woningen, 1868).2 The cooperative associations played a significant role in the formalisation of family relations and the establishment of a series of acts that enforced the productivity of everyday life: laws concerning child labour (Kinderwetje van Houten, 1874), the distribution of epidemics (Epidemiewet, 1872) and factory employment (Fabriekswet, 1875). The contractualisation of education, hygiene, and labour, redefined domestic relations in terms of waged labour and the separation of work activities according to age and gender. Within the process of reorganisation, the cooperative movement recognised the family as an agent to redesign housing as a long-term investment. Through its spatial separations, the home is a site of household obligations, honours and favours, and acts as a source of reproduction framing the potential future of its offspring. The sociologist Jacques Donzelot describes in The Policing of Families, how the family acted both as an agent of normalisation and liberation.3 According to Donzelot, the family formed an important construct to merge private and public life in a ‘social economy’.4 Within this ‘hybrid’ of social and economic imperatives, the family functioned as the ‘smallest form of governance’ to define new relations of dependence. According to Donzelot, the professionalisation of the family articulated private

Image 5.02 Systematic Research of Housing conditions in Amsterdam between 1897-1900 by the Municipal Health Association of Amsterdam (city districts: the Jordaan, Utrechtsestraat , Jodenbuurt, Kattenbrurg). The housing associations started to play a significant role for public health within the cities by their analyses of living conditions and the advertisement for the importance of improvement of sanitary conditions. The research report of the Municipal Health Association in the period 1897 till 1900 the city centre of Amsterdam (city districts: the Jordaan, Utrechtsestraat , Jodenbuurt, Kattenbrurg) calculates 5367 dwellings of which are 953 enclosed courtyard houses. The average of the occupation is 4,5 residents. A majority of the dwellings is a single room, with a floor to ceiling height between 2,00 and 2,5 meter. The dwellings are contaminated by moisture, leakage and the potential of fire hazard.

liberation.5

2. The first co-operatives were legally enacted as a cooperative association (coöperatieve vereniging) under article 53 to 63 in Book Two of Dutch Civil Code. A housing cooperative is a legal definition for collective home ownership. Within the cooperative each member is shareholder.

The family as a concept for social criticism becomes visible in the writings and work

3. Jacques Donzelot, The Policing of Families (London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977) p.58.

property, and therefore played an important role in the establishment of the liberal state. As the centre of social organisation the family formed an agent of exploitation, power and control, while simultaneously it provided new potentials for resistance and

of the cooperative housing associations of the nineteenth century. In collaboration with the cooperative associations, architects such as Hendrik Petrus Berlage, Karel

4. Idem, p.x. Donzelot describes the concept of the family as ‘the social’. The social forms an intersection of social and juridical relations within domestic culture.

Petrus Cornelis de Bazel and Willem Kromhout criticised the living conditions in

5. Idem, p.69–70.

the alcove dwellings and proposed legislation on the ‘normalisation’ and regulation of measurements.6 The architects emphasised the importance of new spatial configurations to enforce family life through a set of improvements: no residential fat racks, direct connection to the outside air, separate living spaces and the possible ventilation of both front and backside of the house.

Annex 1

6. Hendrik Petrus Berlage, ‘Over Normalisatie in de Uitvoering van de Woningbouw’, in: Normalisatie in Woningbouw (Rotterdam, 1918). The Dutch architect Hendrik Petrus Berlage emphasised normalisation as a tool to improve the organisation of domestic space for the larger population, and to enforce the ‘psychologicalaesthetical values’ within the design of domestic space.

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5.04 Image 5.03 Standard floor plans of housing typologies by the ‘‘Cooperative for the Working class’’ (de Vereniging ten behoeve der arbeidersklasse) built between 1865 and 1888 in Amsterdam. Image 5.04 Standard floor plans of housing typologies by the ‘‘Amsterdam Association of the Building of Working Class Houses’’ (Amsterdamsche Vereeniging tot het bouwen van arbeiderswoningen) built between 1877 and 1882.

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5.05

Image 5.05 Standard floor plans of housing typologies without alcoves built by the ‘‘Cooperative Building Association Rochdale’’ (Cooperatieve Bouwvereniging Rochdale) in Amsterdam, Van der Pek, Beuningenstraat, 1909.

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The spatial recommendations by the architects became formalised in the first Housing Act (De Woningwet, 1901). The act was a combination of the National Health Act and Industrial Injuries Act and forced municipalities to develop an integrated housing policy for public health. The implementation of the new housing act enabled governmental responsibility for the construction of public housing, and facilitated the cooperative associations with governmental loans for the funding of housing.7 The act enforced new instruments: standardized dwelling types8, municipal extension plans and expropriations executed by the board of health, to regulate storey heights, front and rear gables, light surfaces and minimum floor area.9 The housing manuals were to encourage the affordability and standardization of the working class dwellings.10 As a result the Workers Dwelling (De Arbeiderswoning) was developed. Its organisation, designed by Arie Keppler in 1911, was based on the dwelling designed by Henri Robert for the World Exhibition in London in 1851. From the end of the nineteenth century towards the beginning of the 1920’s, a typological transformation of domestic space illustrates the development of standardised types. In contrast to the alcove dwellings, the standardised dwelling types were articulating a range of transitional spaces based on different types of use. Functional divisions were spatially established in the dwelling: sleeping areas of parents and children, separation between relaxation and household activities, entrance space and living areas. Established trough legislation considering minimal measurements, the corridor, an individual entrance and a passage were to ensure the zoning of activities according to redefined modes of health and hygiene, while simultaneously defining new relations in privacy, intimacy and the usage of space.

Annex 1

7. H.C. de Jongh, and E. Philips, Woningwet en Gezondheidswet 1901: Met Aanteekeningen Hoofdzakelijk Naar de Officiëele Bescheiden (Zaltbommel: Van de Garde & Co, 1901). 8. The housing manuals were published under the Dutch government by the Vereninging van Democratische Ingeniers en Architecten in 1905. 9. J.W.J. Weyerman, Het Gewijzigd Ontwerp Woningwet (Amsterdam: Hygiënische Bladen, 1901). 10. Nederlands Documentatie Centrum voor de Bouwkunst, Het Nieuwe Bouwen: Previous History (Delft: Delft University Press, 1982).

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Reimagining the working class dwelling The arrangement of the standardised working class dwellings received criticism from different architects and cooperative associations.11 According to the cooperatives, the standardised types emphasised private ownership instead of collective developments by their distribution of property, zoning laws and spatial divisions. In 1911 the Coöperatieve Bouwvereeniging Rochdale developed alternative models to the working class dwelling through a series of projects. Designed by the architect Jan Ernst van der Pek, Rochdale completed dwellings in the Van Beuningenstraat, respectively in the Atjehstraat, characterised by a series of communal spaces such as a shared garden, library, laundry and dry room. In addition, the cooperative assigned a female housing manager (woningopzichteres) to collect weekly rent, conduct housing inspections, sort out the tenants and advice on repairs. The housing manager played an important role in the cooperative movement as a social management structure to organise activities and tenements within the complex. Additionally, through weekly home visits the managers were assisting, controlling and managing domestic activities.12 As described in the Pamphlet ‘Twintigjarig Overzicht 1908-1928’, the Amsterdamsche Cooperatieve Woningvereeniging Samenwerking (Amsterdam Cooperative Housing Association Collaboration) established in 1908, was to provide affordable housing designed by architects, offering an alternative to the standardised types, the speculation and high rents. As a result, the cooperative designed dwellings that were 13

‘entirely different from the existing types’, and were larger in width and had smaller dimensions in depth.14 Subsequently, the cooperative movement became active in the organisation of extended services, such as a collective distribution service for potatoes, dairy products, fuels and furnishing for houses. The cooperative Samenwerking became one of the first associations that was reimagining family relations through intergenerational forms of living. In October 1912, the cooperative developed the project Het Nieuwe Huis, a cooperative association for ‘unmarried Amsterdam’. Het Nieuwe Huis was designed around a cooperative kitchen for the city of Amsterdam (Amsterdamsche Co-operative Keuken). The project was designed with 169 apartments for singles and small families, and had additional facilities on the ground floor, a central kitchen, restaurant, café, ateliers, public reading

Annex 1

Image 5.06-07 Photograph and plan ground floor, Het Nieuwe Huis Roelof Hartplein, Bernhard van den Nieuwen Amstel, 1928, Amsterdams Stadsarchief. 11. Jan Kruseman, Woningwet: Toegelicht en Voorzien van Aanteekeningen ontleend aan de gewisselde stukken en gevoerde beraadslagingen (Haarlem: Tjeenk Willink, 1921). August 1905, a group of 600 architects meet for a study in Rotterdam to define alternative regulations for the Housing Act of 1901. In the report the group states that the standardised floor plans provided by the Government reduce architectural design to facade design. The architects argue in the report for the incorporation of psychological requirements within the act to enable improved principles on privacy and hygiene. The following opportunities were stated: the importance of an enclosed living environment for family life, the possibility for each family member to withdraw from family life, the possibilities for contact with natural aspects/sky, the daily experience of dwelling in the terms of meaning and to provide the opportunity for young people and elderly to meet fellow residents in the area. 12. The Association of Housing Managers was established in 1903 by Johanna ter Meulen and Louise Went. 13. In 1919 the Ministry of Labour established national legislation on public housing. This meant that the housing associations were tied to a fixed ratio between the construction costs covered by the rent and the size of the house. Subsequently, the revised act considered minimum measurements of the height of the living room (2,7m) and bedrooms (2,4m). The adjustment of the Housing Act was followed by a publication of a collection of standardised typologies known as ‘Vijftig Typen Album’ (Fifty type album) published by inspector W. van Boven of the Ministry of Labour. 14. Amsterdamsche Cooperatieve Woningvereeniging Samenwerking, Twintigjaig Overzicht 19081928 (Amsterdam: Amsterdamsche Cooperatieve Woningvereeniging Samenwerking, 1928) p.7. Citation translated from: ‘’(…) geheel afwijkende van het oude sleurtype.’’.

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Image 5.08 Photographs of Potato shop/merchandise of the Central Cooperative, Dining hall in the Cooperative Cafe and Restaurant, Central Kitchen, Interior Cooperative Cafe and Restaurant, Het Nieuwe Huis, B. van den Nieuwen Amstel.

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Image 5.09 Photographs: Bathroom in apartment Nieuwe Huis, Styling room of the Central Cooperative for domestic furnishing, One of the rooms in Het Nieuwe Huis, B. van den Nieuwen Amstel.

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5.10 Photograph of district post office Zuid and the public reading room in Het Nieuwe Huis. Bernhard van den Nieuwen Amstel.

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room, library, shops, office space for the board of the cooperative and a post office for the south of Amsterdam.15 Within the project, extended services such as household work, staff, and catering facilities were to provide forms of assistance to the inhabitants. The project Het Nieuwe Huis forms an example of how the cooperative was reimaging family divisions by providing a series of extended household services and amenities. Dolores Hayden argues in Redesigning the American Dream: The Future of Housing, Work and the Family, how the cooperatives movement played a significant role in the collectivisation of domestic work and encouraged the optimisation of household activities.16 According to Hayden, the search to eliminate the hierarchical division between spaces of domestic work was, on the one hand, redefining hierarchical divisions and power relations between the family members, while on the other hand, proposed a question of efficiency in domestic activities.17 Described by Hayden as ‘Home Economics’, the practises and principles that govern domestic space are defined by dynamics embodied within a broader context: notions on health and hygiene, construction industry , design manuals and legislation policies, zoning laws, mortgage deductions and property devaluation. These technologies enables a particular form of living focussed on the ideology of privatization and individuality.

From the crisis of the family towards collectivised individual agency The cooperative associations formed an important role in the reorganisation of domestic space in terms of individual agency. The crisis of the family in terms of the external regulation of social requirements and the individual resistance to relational norms, was seen both as an obstruction of one’s own welfare, as a resistance to analysis.18 Emphasised by developments in psychoanalyses, the reorganisation of family life was transferring individual responsibility and formulated a new understanding of each individual as an ‘entire psychosomatic being’.19 Through collective amenities, services and living arrangements, the forms of living established by the cooperative movement were formulating potentials to self-define interpersonal relations, and to reintegrate sexuality into the different dimensions of domestic life.

15. Amsterdamsche Cooperatieve Woningvereeniging Samenwerking, Dertig Jaar Arbeid 1908-1938 (Amsterdam: Amsterdamsche Cooperatieve Woningvereeniging Samenwerking, 1938) p.10. 16. Dolores Hayden, Redesigning the American Dream: The Future of Housing, Work and the Family (New York: Norton, 1984) p.101.

The cooperative association today has broadened the agency of the dwelling as tool to

17. Margaret Kohn, ‘Space and Politics’, in: Grand Domestic Revolution Handbook, ed. by Binna Choi and Maiko Tanaka (Amsterdam: Valiz, 2009) pp. 44–51, p.48.

redefine relations of sexuality, gender and health, through extended forms of living,

18. Donzelot, The Policing of Families, p.211.

intergenerational relations and the integration of both recreational and care amenities.

19. Idem, p.218.

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The project Vrijburcht designed by Casa Architekten in Amsterdam (2001-2007), is an example of a housing cooperative that has reorganised social relations through shared amenities. Vrijburcht is a mixed housing complex accommodating 151 inhabitants based on a cooperative structure that manages a theatre, cafĂŠ, children daycare, workshop areas, meeting areas, guest rooms, a public harbour and assisted living facilities for handicapped youth. The cooperative consists is governed by a board that organises every Monday an event for a collective drink and to discuss the organisation. Similar to Het Nieuwe Huis, the social amenities in Vrijburcht are organised by the guidance of non-profit organizations. Subsequently, the housing association De Key acted as guarantor for the land lease (50 years) and arranges the organisation of both the cafĂŠ and the assisted living apartments. Private funding was arranged with the bank by means of communal mortgage registration. Vrijburcht Amsterdam illustrates how an extramural care facility can be implemented within a cooperative organisation through the assistance of a housing association. Within this process, collective guidelines, voluntary commitment and self-determined goals became important tools to formalise social and work relations between the care organisation, the housing association and the cooperative. As a response to the organisation of reoccurring activities and tasks, the architects organised the complex around a central courtyard. The central garden arranges the dwellings in terms of the maximisation of daylight, and the direction of movement and circulation towards a central shared space. In the project the courtyard plays a central role in the zoning of programme. The strategic location of service spaces, workshop areas, cafe and a theatre space activate the courtyard as a central connection point. Accordingly, the circulation space towards the dwellings is positioned adjacent to the courtyard, and provides a variety of seating places on different heights. In response, the living space of the dwellings are oriented towards the perimeter of the block ensuring privacy within the dwellings. The spatial composition of the project Vrijburcht articulates the intersection and overlapping of activities between the cooperative and the neighbourhood. The programme enables a variety of public activities that take place across the project, activating the edge conditions for shared use: communal diner areas, performance places, swim and bathing areas and seating. In the project, communal use is primarily defined through a sequence of transitional spaces that circulate from the street towards the elevated terraces around the courtyard. As a result, the courtyard is designed with a variety of plants and trees to obstruct view lines and enable privacy between the dwellings.

Annex 1

Image 5.11 Floor plans ground floor, first floor and second floor, Vrijburcht, Casa Architekten, Vrijburcht Stichting (2001-2007).

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Within Vrijburcht the notion of care is understood as a hybrid concept that consists out of various activities: from work spaces and assisted forms of living to performance space and communal swimming areas. The cooperative management structure of shared ownership of services and amenities articulates the architectural composition of a central courtyard that operates as a place of reference. Accordingly, the circulation space is addressed as a tool to enable a variety of adjacent communal spaces in which individuals can shape their direct environment through undefined types of use. Vrijburcht enables a living environment that provides integrated forms of living, working, care provision, recreation and collective initiatives.

Redefining domestic asymmetries To conclude, throughout its history the housing cooperative has articulated the role of architectural design in the reorganisation of domestic relations. The housing cooperative has formed a critiques on family life and emphasised the importance of extended household relations by the use of house managers, catering services, furnishing manuals, food distribution, care amenities, work infrastructures and recreational facilities. The emphasis on intergenerational relations has become visible in the spatial arrangement of programme, circulation space and shared areas as measures to organise social activities and redefine domestic hierarchies. However, as articulated by Hayden, the collectivisation of domestic labour and amenities within cooperative associations reflects the optimisation of domestic activities. The crisis of traditional forms of assistance has resulted in the implementation of social amenities based on individual agency. The shift in responsibilities from the family as a social institution towards the individual reflects prospective asymmetries in the communal organisation of resources, care work and domestic labour. This transformation opens up new design questions: What are the challenges of intergenerational and extended household configurations? Moreover, how can the design of the dwelling operate as a framework to redefine social relations? Chapter two will reflect on the social organisation and management of the cooperative as an integrated model for intergenerational relations, care amenities and social support.

Annex 1

Image 5.12-15 Photographs of Vrijburcht, Casa Architekten, Vrijburcht Stichting (2001-2007).

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Annex 2 Het Hofje: a social and spatial diagram of cluster living

The hofje, is one of the oldest forms of elderly accommodation in the Netherlands. The first examples emerged in the seventeenth century in the city centre of Amsterdam, Haarlem and Rotterdam. Through a sequence of transitional spaces, a small gate, passage, alley and central garden, the hofje was designed to provide protected living environments for Lutheran elderly women. Within the organisation the central courtyard played an important role to provided daylight, ventilation and space for shared activities. Currently, the hofje is still a popular spatial organisation of collective forms of living and has developed from a segregated community of elderly women towards a model that accommodates a hybrid of household configurations: from students, starters and small families to seniors and elderly. Through a case study analysis this essay illustrates the typological organisation of the hofje, in order to define the historical and compositional characteristics of collective forms of living in the Netherlands. Accordingly, the essay reflects on how the compositional elements of the hofje can be applied within the contemporary context of cluster living.

Annex 2

Image 6.01 Alexander Cranendoncq, prenten Maatschappij Nut van t Algemeen Nederlandse Weldadigehid Munster & Zoon 1840-1899.

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Social organisation; the distribution of food, amenities, care and work Developed by the governors and regents of the Netherlands, the hofje formed a charity organisation to enable accommodation for elderly women of the Lutheran Church. Only widows and single women were allowed to life in the complex. The dwelling units were situated around a central courtyard, mostly an ornamental, vegetable or bleaching garden. In the garden, a pump, rain well and toilet, enabled common activities and formed a central meeting place for the elderly women. In return to accommodation, a monthly allowance, fuel, clothing and food supply, the female residents of the hofje were assigned to bleach sheets and fabrics in the inner court. Subsequently, the cellar had to be rented out by the women as storage space to provide additional income. The daily activities within the hofje were organised through a series of protocols and regulations. The protocols established by the regents (image 6.01) were controlled by two house keepers, binnen-vader and binnen-moeder, which formed a couple and lived near the entrance of the complex. Similar to the elderly women, the couple was provided accommodation and a yearly allowance of approximately 250 guilders. The couple was not allowed to have children, if one of the two would past away, the remaining party had to remarry within one year with the approval of the regents or alternatively leave the complex. Furthermore, the two had to be part of the Lutheran congregation, and each have reached the age of 45 years. The dwelling of the house keeping couple had to be positioned adjacent to the main entrance, and a small hatch opening directed to the front hall allowed the house keepers to control the incoming and departing residents. Subsequently, the couple was responsible for the closing of the entrance gate, cleaning of the regent’s room, the serving of the regents during meetings and they had to ensure that the residents followed the rules.

Annex 2

Image 6.02 Photograph of protocols of Christoffel van Brants Rus Hofje, Amsterdam Stadsarchief.

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Karthuizerhof, Daniel Stalpaert, Amsterdam, Municipality of Amsterdam, 1650 In the complex lived 100 widows, elderly women, unmarried. Provision of accommodation, fuel, bread, cheese and a monthly allowance.

Occo hofje, Jan Luyten, Amsterdam, Cornelia Elisabeth Occo, 1758-74. 33 Elderly Roman Catholic women. Provision of accommodation, goods and facilities such as a central bleach area, vegetable garden, central clock.

Fontainehof, de Gebroeders Van Gendt ALzonen, Amsterdam, J.C. Knapp jr. Mr. Joan Fontaine, 1912-13. 12 apartments for elderly women. Provision

of

accommodation, turf, water well.

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Brants Rus Hofje, Amsterdam, Daniel Marot, Christoffel van Brants, 1733. Luthersche Elderly women. accommodation, fuel, food.

Provision

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Lutherhof, Amsterdam, Diaconie van de Evangelisch-Lutherse Gemeente Amsterdam, 1903-09. 66 apartments for elderly women. Provision of accommodation, care from diaconessen and food supply, medicines, assistance and funeral costs.

Joost Swarte & Henk Doll, Haarlem, Ymere, Amsterdam and de Regenten van De Bakenesserkamer Job Thรถne en Ok de Lange, 1999-2003. 10 dwellings, 5 two-stories apartments and 5 apartments 3 stories. Provision of accommodation and shared kitchen and washing space.

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6.03

Karthuizerhof, 1650, D. Stalpaert, Amsterdam

The Karthuizerhof is one of the oldest examples of a hofje. In the beginning of the seventeenth century, the city council of Amsterdam commissioned the city architect, DaniĂŤl Stalpaert, to design housing for approximately one hundred widows. The complex was designed for unmarried women without children. The Karthuizerhof would provide accommodation, and in addition the residents would receive fuel, bread, cheese and some pocket money. The complex is constructed out of four brick buildings arranged in a square around a central garden.

Image 6.03 Ets drawing, Twee Voorstellingen van het Karthuizerhof of Huiszitten Weduwen,1765, Beeldbank Amsterdam

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6.04

Brants Rus Hofje, Amsterdam, Daniel Marot, 1733

When the Amsterdam merchant Cristoffel van Brants passed away a part of his fortune was dedicated to a foundation of the Lutheran Church, and to the design of an elderly hofje. The design of the Brants Rus Hofje was based on a central courtyard with 27 dwelling units. Twenty-one of the units were shared between two people and six units were designed for single occupation. The house keeping couple was living in the house adjacent to the central entrance. In addition to accommodation, the women received food and a yearly contribution in clothing and other necessities. The courtyard gave access to the houses, which were located in the side wings. The back house in the complex gave access to a spacious garden, with a garden house.

Image 6.04 Ets drawing, Van Brants Rus Hofje, 1733, Beeldbank Amsterdam.

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8.05

Occo hofje, Jan Luyten, Amsterdam, 1758-81

The Occo hofje was developed from the inheritance of the unmarried Cornelia Elisabeth Occo (1692-1758), the eldest daughter of Jan Lucasz Occo and Maria Agnes Barbon. The inherited capital was invested into a foundation trading bonds, and shares of the Compagnie des Indes. After her death, in 1752, the foundation was invested into the construction of the Occo hofje. In 1781 the project was completed and accommodated 33 widows without children, and of catholic religion. The inhabitants would receive accommodation, peat, butter and cheese, medical care, medicines and treatment and a monthly allowance. The Occo hofje is designed in three wings around a central inner court. The front facade is partly design with blocked sandstones corner details, trygliefs and lisene. 8.05 Ets drawing, Gezicht van het Nieuwe Armen Huis, Occohofje, 1709, Beeldbank Amsterdam.

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6.06

Lutherhof, Amsterdam, Diaconie van de Evangelisch-Lutherse Gemeente Amsterdam, 1903-09

The Luthershof was designed by the Diaconie van de Evangelisch-Lutherse Gemeente and formed a complex of 66 apartments for elderly women. The hof provided accommodation in small dwelling units comprised of a private bathroom, a small kitchen and a living room. During the residency the women were to receive care from the diaconessen and monly food supply, medicines, and forms of assistance. Furthermore, when passed away the complex would also sustain funeral costs and arrangements. Image 6.06 Photograph, Courtyard Luthershof Amsterdam, Arch D van Oort, Beeldbank Amsterdam.

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6.07

Fontainehof, de Gebroeders Van Gendt ALzonen, Amsterdam, 1912-13

The Fontainehof was established by J.C. Knapp and Joan Fontaine in 1912. The hofje accommodated apartments for twelve elderly women, and additionally comprised a Regent room an storage spaces for turf. The complex is decorated in red roof tiles and has a low stepped gabled roof. Originally, the hofje was designed for the servants of Joan Fontaine. Nevertheless towards the twenties the hofje became accessible for other elderly women from the Lutheran church. Every Sunday morning the residents had collective Bible class and were supposed to read scripts. In contrast to the other hofjes, the Fontainehof is not organised around as a courtyard type. The central garden is positioned adjacent to the building. The difference in organisation is tied to the size, measurements and dimensions of the urban block. The depth of the urban block does not allow perimeter building due to the adjoining gardens and buildings. Therefore the project is designed as a double oriented building.

Annex 2

Image 6.07 Photograph, Courtyard Fontaine Hofje Keizersgracht Amsterdam, Beeldbank Amsterdam.

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6.08

Hofje, Joost Swarte & Henk Doll, Haarlem, 1999-2003

The project comprises senior housing in Haarlem, forms a collaboration between the housing association Ymere Amsterdam and the Regents of the Bakenesserkamer Job Thรถne ans Ok de Lange. The project is composed out of 10 dwellings, 5 two-stories apartments and 5 apartments 3 stories. Additionally, the complex has a shared guest room, kitchen and washing space.

Image 6.08 Photograph, Courtyard Hofje Haarlem, Beeldbank Amsterdam, De Architect.

Annex 2

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Gate and under passing

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Spatial organisation: collective forms of living around an enclosed garden The case studies illustrate how the design of an enclosed garden enables a protected living environment and separates private activities from public life through a series of spaces and thresholds. Within the organisation of the hofje the garden played a central role. On the one hand, the courtyard ensures a subdivision in space between the interior and the exterior, on the other hand, the court forms a central point of reference articulating clear view lines between the different dwelling units. In each of the case studies, the access is organised by the use of an entrance gate, an arch, a narrow alley or a perimeter fence.1 Subsequently, the configuration of transitional spaces define relations in hierarchy enforced by the location of programme. In most cases, the regent’s room, meetings space and the house keepers dwelling are situated adjacent to the street, additionally, the chapel, shared kitchen and dwelling units are located towards the courtyard.

Annex 1

6.09 Photographs Hofjes in Amsterdam from Collectie Nationaal Archief: Hofje Bussenschot, Hofje Bussenschot, Hofje Concordia Noord, Hofje Concordia Zuid, Swigtershofje, Swigtershofje, Rozenstraat hofje, Elandstraat, Hofje van Bussenshot. 1 Jonkees, E., De Leidse hofjes en hun bewoners, (Leiden, 1954) p. 4. Cited Frans van Mieris; ‘Die tuin ‘dient tot vermaek, en voor bleekveld tot gemak, zijnde oversulks seer veilich tegen alle stoornisse en overlast van buyten.’

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Alley

6.10 Photographs Hofjes in Amsterdam from Collectie Nationaal Archief: Swigtershof, Swigtershof, Egelantiershof, Egelantiershof, Hofje van Venentie, Prinsenhof, Angelilershof.

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Enclosed garden

6.11 Photographs Collectie Nationaal Archief, Hofje aan de Goudsesingel te Rotterdam, Karthuizer Hofje, Hofje Heidemij

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Windows

6.12 Photographs collectie Nationaal Archief, Anjeliershofje, Anjeliershofje, Weteringsdwarsstraat, Grillshof.

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6.13 Drawing Anjeliershofje Amsterdam, Beeldbank Amsterdam

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Different zones of interaction through the layering of spaces: the window The design of the dwelling units in the hofje are often arranged single sided, oriented towards the court. The composition of the entrance, passage and window in the dwelling formed an important characteristic. The arrangement combined multiple entrances and by doing so controlled the entering of the different individuals through different view lines towards the inner courtyard. Within this composition, the window adjacent to the court formed an important threshold space, as an intermediate zone that guided sight, and a variety of activities. Visible in the well-known paintings of the Delftse Meesters: Pieter de Hooch and Johannes Vermeer, the window framed inner and exterior activities, and provided a focal point and a source of light for daily activities such as letter writing, dining or knitting. The author Georges Teyssot writes in his essay ‘Windows and Screens: A Topology Of the Intimate and The Extimate’ about the role of the window in the eighteenth century, in articulating relations of vision. According to Teyssot, the window can be seen as an apparatus of vision, the embodiment of the human eye, composing spectacles and appearances. By its frame, the window articulates the world as a picture.2 As Teyssot illustrates, within the composition of framed relations and views, the separation between inside and outside emphasises notions on exposure, privacy and intimacy. Through its constellation the window forms an optical device, and embodies a conception of both privateness and publicness. Its spatial composition enables the obstruction as the guidance of vision, articulating forms of intimacy and observation. In the design of the hofje, the optical window is formulated through an assembly of elements and spaces. As a layering of spaces, the optical window formulates a series of thresholds working as complex filters to inform social relations. Within the hofje, the gate, alley and courtyard compose an optical window towards the exterior, enabling a private life that articulates different modes of hierarchy as a form of social organisation: control and regulation. Subsequently, the architectural window is centred towards the courtyard, emphasising the garden as its main focus point. Not only as a space of occupation, moreover, the window articulates daily activities on the threshold between private and collective life. The arrangement of transitional space - from the entrance to the individual unit - forms a sequence of space that shelters a secluded life, and simultaneously regulates modes of vision, control and enclosure. The walls of private life ensemble an interior climate that through protocols, windows, gates, alleys, thresholds, and viewing hatches regulate daily occupation patterns.

Annex 2

Image 6.14 Paintings (fltr): Pieter de Hooch, Woman Peeling Apples (London: Wallace Collection, 1663), Pieter de Hooch, A Woman With a Pair of Scales (Berlin: Gemäldegalerie Berlin, 1664) Johannes Vermeer, A Lady Writing a Letter with her Maid (National Gallery of Ireland, 1670) Johannes Vermeer Het Melkmeisje (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, 1657). 2. Teyssot, Georges, ‘Windows and Screens; A Topology Of the Intimate and The Extimate’, in Log, ed. by Laurent Stalder, 18.4 (2010) pp. 75-88. p.76

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Historically designed as a single room unit with an alcove bed, the hofje has evolved as a model that arranges housing units based on two or even three stories. As a consequence of this transformation, the complex has decreased in number of residents and communal spaces. Whereas, the regent rooms, Chapel, meeting spaces and housekeepers dwelling have disappeared, and have made place for a communal kitchen, individual storage space and a guest room with laundry facilities. To conclude, the architectural constellation of signs, view hatches, windows, alleys, gates and courtyard embody remnants of a former regime of social regulations. Moreover, as a spatial contract, the trespassing of space and the adjoining elements, programme and thresholds have defined the historical and compositional characteristics of the hofje. Even though, the protocols on daily occupation patterns have devolved over the years, within the contemporary context the hofje embodies a significant form of collective living through its shared courtyard. As a designed sequence the enclosed garden forms a protected living environment, and forms a place of exchange between the residents of the complex. The layering of space in different zones of interaction and levels of sharing can be used as a design strategy within contemporary forms of cluster living. Moreover, in the organisation of transitional spaces, bodily movement, view lines and edge conditions become contributing factors to the experience of enclosure.

Annex 2

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