The Progressive Rancher Jan 2020

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IN THIS ISSUE

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www.progressiverancher.com "They Don’t Produce Income If They Don’t Reproduce" - Full Session Recap of 21st Annual Utah Beef Cattle Field Day A Field Guide for Collecting Native Seeds In Nevada Conservation Easement Articles Differences Between High-, Mediumand Low-Profit Cow-Calf Producers Hard Copy Issues of this magazine are now only available in Nevada, California, Idaho, Oregon & Washington, D.C. so keep up with issues FREE at our website and on Facebook

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3 Riding for the NCA Brand 4 NCA Roundup: Awards Banquet 6 NDA 2019 Teacher of the Year & AG in the Classroom Awards 7 UNR Cattlemen's Update 8 NBC Checkoff News / Recipe 10 NBC Mind of a Millennial 11 Eye on the Outside - New Year 14 Nevada Cattlewomen Update 14 Interview: Irene Smith 16 UNR: Experiment Station & Extension - 2 Vital Components 18 Protect The Harvest: NGOs 19 Protect The Harvest: PACT Act 22 NDOW: Shooting Range Funding & Relocating Bighorn Sheep 23 Remembering Michael Capurro 24 National FFA Convention & Expo - 2019 Nevada Results 24 FFA: Churchill County Chapter 25 National FFA Convention: Nevada Students Get Gold

25 National FFA Convention: Spring Creek Project Places 2nd 26 SRM: A Case for Stockmanship 28 Meet The Grange 30 NFB: Fighting Wildland Fires Before they Happen 30 NFB: Centennial Celebration 35 UNR: Washington-Allen Uses Innovate Research Technology 35 NDCNR: Tim Wilson Appointed 38 University of Nebraska Extension: EPD Basics and Definitions 40 Realtors Land Institute: Bottari to Serve as RLI Chairman 41 Back To Basics: Gestation Length of the Beef Cow vs Dystocia 42 BLM & NDOW to Partner 44 Range Plants for the Rancher 45 BCI: Stocker Cattle for Profit & Getting Ready for Rebreeding 46 Churchill County Cowbelles 48 UNR 6 Year Study: Maternal vs Terminal Crossbreeding Systems

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Published 8 times a year. Viewable at www.progressiverancher.com Readership reaches more than 30,000. The views and opinions expressed by writers of articles appearing in this publication are not necessarily those of the editor. Letters of opinion are welcome. Advertising rates available upon request. Advertising does not imply editorial endorsement. Liability for errors or omissions in advertisements shall not exceed the cost of the space occupied by the error or omission. © The Progressive Rancher Magazine. All rights reserved.

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From the desk of your NCA president By Tom Barnes, President, Nevada Cattlemen's Association Happy New Year! I hope everyone enjoyed a blessed holiday season with family and friends. I’ve never been one to make New Year’s resolutions but it is a good time to reflect back on the past year and make plans for the year ahead. As an industry, we always seem to be a “next year” kind of group. “The market wasn’t too good this year but next year…” “Sure was dry this year, next year will be better!” So once again, we start the New Year with hope and optimism and we will see how it goes. The NCA wrapped up a busy year with another successful convention. Thank you to all our booth and trade show participants for your support and attendance. Our committee meetings were very well attended with a lot of constructive discussion. The marketing session seemed to be a highlight for many. At this year’s awards

banquet, we recognized a number of individuals for their support, service and dedication to our industry. I did heard a comment from a convention attendee not directly connected to NCA that there sure was a lack of younger cattlemen. It is an issue we’ve discussed for many years with no real solution. We are fortunate to have a pool of younger, smart and talented individuals in our state who could be a real asset to our association. We all need to encourage the younger generations to be involved and engaged. We need them for the future and will be stronger if they join us now. The NCA New Year is always busy and starts with the NCBA National Convention in San Antonio. Nevada will be well represented at this national meeting. We are fortunate to have representation on both the NCBA executive committee through Joe Guild and

the NCBA Public Lands Committee through JJ Goicoechea. It is always a great event if you are able to attend. Don’t forget to mark your calendars for the Fallon Bull sale in February. This is a primary fund raiser for the NCA and is always well supported. Our spring board meeting will be held that Friday and I encourage all board members to attend. If you are a fan of New Year’s resolutions, here are a few to consider: • • • •

Recruit new members Be more involved in our association Educate yourself on current issues Be part of the solution

I wish you all a happy, healthy, prosperous New Year!

First Sale of 2020

January 7

Special Feeder Sales

January 14 February 11 March 10

NCA Fallon Bull Sale

February 15

For info about our Team Roping, please visit FallonLivestock.com www.progressiverancher.com

The Progressive Rancher

JANUARY 2020 3


2019 NCA Annual Awards Banquet By Kaley Sproul Chapin, NCA Executive Director During the November 22, 2019, Nevada Cattlemen's Association (NCA) Convention Awards Banquet held in Elko, Nevada, President Sam Mori, announced this year's recipients for the Allied Industry Award, Teacher of the Year Award, President's Award, Cattlemen of the Year Award and the Hall of Honor Award. At the discretion of the organization's President, these awards are given annually to individuals in recognition of significant contributions to the NCA, their community, the land, and the beef industry. In attendance to also present certificates to award recipients were Travis Brewer LaChapelle, Deputy Northern Nevada Director for Senator Jacky Rosen and Martin Paris, Rural Representative for U.S. Congressman Mark Amodei. The NCA Allied Industry Award was presented to Mike Olson of Pro Group Management. Mike provides the type of service and displays the character and integrity we all search out to do business with. In recognition of this NCA sponsored award, Mike was presented a plaque in appreciation to his continued support of the Association. The Teacher of the Year was presented by Sue Hoffman, recognizing Brenna White as the 2019 Award recipient. Ms. White teaches at Al Seeliger Elementary School in Carson City, Nevada. She integrates agricultural learning opportunities paired with education standards in her science and social studies units. She will receive a $1,000 stipend to use on school supplies, donated by the Nevada Agriculture Foundation.  4 JANUARY 2020

Each year, the President honors an individual who they feel has served the industry with dedication and passion by presenting them with the President's Award. This year's recipient of the President's Award went to Neil McQueary for his continuous dedication and efforts on behalf of the Association. The 2019 NCA Cattlemen of the Year was awarded to John Jackson. This award is the most prestigious award that NCA bestows upon one of its own. It was established to recognize NCA members who have made significant contributions to the livestock industry. John has devoted countless hours serving the livestock industry, and the NCA is proud to recognize him as the Cattlemen of the Year. Presenting the award was NCA President Mori and Kelly Barnes from American AgCredit. He was awarded an American Western Hat, compliments of American AgCredit.

Past President Sam Mori (left) and New 2020 President Tom Barnes (right). "This is how heavy the gavel can get!" Said Sam to Tom.

The 2019 Hall of Honor was given to two recipients this year, Harvey Barnes and Boyd Spratling. This award honors those who contributed so much to the industry within their lifetime. Lastly, the NCA Executive Committee was recognized and received a hand-forged steak flipper made by NCA Past President, Ron Torell. These were given as appreciation for the tireless efforts put forth on behalf of the livestock industry. After the program, Sam Mori thanked NCA membership for their continuous contributions to the industry. The leadership gavel was passed into the hands of Tom Barnes of Jiggs, Nevada. Tom and the NCA officer team presented Sam with

a snaffle bit to thank him for his years dedicated to serving the industry. Tom brings a lot of passion, dedication, and knowledge to the podium. NCA is confident he will serve the industry well as he leads our Association over the next two years.

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The NCA Executive Team, left to right: JJ Goicoechea, Dane Stix Jr, Ron Cerri, Nill McQueary, Hanes Holman, Sam Mori, Tom Barnes, John Griggs, Craig Spratling, Boyd Spratling, Steve Boies

Hall of Honor Award - Boyd Spratling

Hall of Honor Award - Harvey Barnes

NCA 2019 Cattleman of the Year John Jackson

NCA Allied Industry Award was presented to Mike Olson of Pro Group Management

Sam Mori gives a special thank you to Lucy Snyder Reckeland and JoeGuild

Sam Mori presenting New Line Up of NCA Executive Board; Front, left to right: Hanes Halman, 2nd Vice President, Tom Barnes, 2020 President, John Griggs, President Elect, Dave Baker, 3rd Vice President

Sam Mori presents Niel McQueary with the 2019 NCA President's Award

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The Progressive Rancher

JANUARY 2020 5


2019 NCA Teacher Award Letter of Recommendation Administration Division To: Nevada Cattlemen’s Association

Dear NCA Teacher of the Year review committee,

NCA TEACHER OF THE YEAR

BRENNA WHITE Nominator Statement Amber Smyer, the agricultural literacy coordinator with the Nevada Department of Agriculture, had the honor of nominating Ms. Brenna White for the recognition of Teacher of the Year at the Nevada Cattlemen's Association Convention, and asked that the following statement be read at the event as she was unable to be present. “In my role with the Nevada Department of Agriculture I'm fortunate to have the opportunity to seek out and work with many wonderful teachers and volunteers to help our youth understand the source and value of agriculture as it affects our quality of life. Ms. White stood out in my mind for a couple of reasons for this particular nomination. First, her enthusiasm. After receiving a science kit to help teach plant heredity from the National Agriculture in the Classroom e-store that I gave to her parents at an industry event, she emailed me the following: ‘I would LOVE all the resources that you have. My kids are excited about it and so am I! I would like to use as much Ag related resources as I can.’ Of course I was more than happy to oblige a teacher willing to uses agricultural concepts to deliver important reading, writing, math, nutrition, science, and social studies lessons to students. Second, I was impressed when Ms. White said four fellow 3rd grade colleagues were now also interested in using Ag literacy tools in their classrooms and requested resources for all 3rd grade classrooms at Seeliger Elementary. As she engages her peers and seeks opportunities to bring agriculturalists to schools events like STEM night, her influence expands beyond just the students in her classroom. Ms. White is truly an agriculture advocate. It was my was my pleasure to nominate her for the 2019 NCA Teacher of the Year Award.”  6 JANUARY 2020

It is my pleasure to nominate Ms. White for your 2019 Teacher of the Year recognition. Ms. White comes from an agriculture family. At the 2018 Nevada Farm Bureau Annual Meeting I was giving away free agricultural literacy resources to members that they could donate to educators in their community or use to go into the classrooms themselves. Ms. White’s parents stopped to visit with me, indicated their daughter taught 3rd grade and asked if they could take a resource back to her. I sent them home with a Pompom Punnet Square kit and lesson plans from National Agriculture in the Classroom that helps students learn about heredity in plants and animals. Later in the year, Ms. White reached out to me directly to indicate that she loved incorporating the kit and lessons provided and wanted to know what additional resources might be available!

At the start of the 2019 school year, Ms. White indicated her colleagues, four additional 3rd grade teachers at Seeliger Elementary, also wanted agricultural literacy lessons, resources, and kits they could utilize in their classrooms, which would impact 100 students at their school. I was able to provide each teacher with kits from the National Agriculture in the Classroom e-store that they could share among the grade level, non-fiction readers from both Nevada Agriculture in the Classroom and the American Farm Bureau Foundation for Agriculture such as “Sheep & Wool in Nevada” and the “Beef Ag Mag”, books, activity sheets, and more. Additionally, Ms. White has been in touch with me as the school has events to inquire if the Nevada Department of Agriculture could participate with an agricultural literacy piece. The latest example is a station on dairy at Seeliger’s STEM night to discuss how agriculture is applied science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) through hands interaction with students and families. As mentioned in the application, I’m nominating Brenna because it’s exciting to see how she’s gone beyond just her own classroom to increase agricultural literacy among the student population at her school! Thank you for your consideration of this outstanding, early-career teacher. Sincerely, Amber Smyer | Agricultural Literacy Coordinator

2019 Teacher of the Year Award and Ag In The Class Room Volunteer Award Left to right: Presenter #1, Presenter #2, Rachel Buzzetti, Breanna White, Sue Hoffman, Tom Barnes

Ag in the Classroom Award The Nevada Agricultural Foundation presented the Elko Ag in the Classroom volunteers with $1,000 for next years' program. Elko Ag in the the Classroom instructed 23 teachers one weekend providing them with lots of ag education materials that they could incorporate into their lesson plans in the classroom. Each teacher also brought their kids to the ranch in early spring as a field day. Elko AITC volunteers are Rachel Buzzetti, Dave Voth, Sidney Wintermote, Jennifer Garrett, Lili Wolf, Jessica Harris, Salli McDermott and Amber Smyer. The Progressive Rancher

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10” x 11”

The University of Nevada Extension, College of Agriculture, Biotechnology and Natural Resources (CABNR) with financial support from local sponsors and the USDA, Risk Management Agency P R E S E N T S

2020

Cattlemen’s Update January 6, 2020

January 7, 2020

Reno

Fallon

Registration 10 a.m. Washoe County Cooperative Extension 4955 Energy Way Reno, NV 89502

Registration 5:30 p.m. Fallon Convention Center 100 Campus WAY Fallon, NV 89406 Dinner Provided

January 8, 2020

Via Interactive Video to:

Ely

Logandale, Caliente, Tonopah, Lovelock, and Eureka. Lunch Provided

Registration 5:30 p.m. Ely Elks Lodge 694 Campton St. Ely, NV 89301 Dinner Provided

January 6, 2020

January 9, 2020

Sierra Valley, CA Registration 5:30 p.m. Sierra Valley Grange #466 92203 Hwy 70 Vinton, CA Dinner Provided

January 7, 2020

Wellington

Agenda will be focused on cattle production

Elko

For additional information, contact: Staci Emm, Mineral County Cooperative Extension

Dalling Hall 600 Commercial Street Elko, NV 89801 Dinner Provided

(775) 475-4227

emms@unce.unr.edu Cost of workshop is $20 per Ranch

Registration 10 a.m. Smith Valley Community Hall 2783 State Route 208 Wellington, NV 89444 Lunch Provided www.progressiverancher.com

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January 10, 2020 Winnemucca Registration 10 a.m. Humboldt County Cooperative Extension 1085 Fairgrounds Road Winnemucca, NV 89445 Lunch Provided JANUARY 2020 7


CHECKOFF NEWS NBC Fall Campaign: Beef and Tailgating With tailgating in full swing for ardent football fans this fall, the Nevada Beef Council (NBC) launched an integrated marketing campaign combining the experience of tailgating with the deliciousness of beef on the grill. Because no matter if they sport blue or red as they cheer on their favorite Nevada football team, all fans can agree on one thing: BEEF is the favorite when it comes to tailgating foods.

able to obtain metrics about those that are engaging with our beef brand and purchasing beef. In years past, the NBC conducted on-pack coupons at the meat case with individual retailers, which was costly and limited to specific retailers.

Ibotta provides a real-time online dashboard that tracks purchases, including brand engagements, impressions The NBC’s “Elevate Your Tailgate” campaign (which and redemptions, as well as demographic info, such as launched in September) featured a variety of elements age/gender. Ibotta has proven to be a very successful designed to encourage consumers to purchase beef, retail element of our beef promotional campaigns. including a $4 rebate on Tri Tip steaks or roasts, 12 ounces or larger, through the mobile retail app Ibotta. Like other integrated marketing campaigns the NBC To unlock this enticing offer, shoppers simply had to has conducted in recent years, Elevate Your Tailgate view a 15 second video sharing information about also incorporated a number of other elements to reach the checkoff-funded “Chuck Knows Beef ”, the beef- consumers on their path-to-purchase, including a centric virtual assistant created using Google Artificial comprehensive radio and digital advertising campaign targeting Nevada consumers, focusing on the Reno Intelligence that is available on smart speakers. and Las Vegas markets. The advertising resulted in over Offering a purchase incentive is one of the best ways 3.9 million impressions by Nevada consumers. to drive beef purchases at the retail level. Pew research shows that 81% of Americans own a smartphone device, In terms of action taken by these consumers as and the Ibotta app is the #5 most-used shopping app measured by engagement through Ibotta, the results (behind Amazon, ebay, OfferUp, and Groupon). Not are still coming in, as a limited amount of funding only has Ibotta proven to be a cost-effective way for was still available for the beef rebates at press time. the NBC to offer a purchase incentive, but we also are However, the initial results were impressive.

By Nevada Beef Council Staff The total number of brand engagements (or the number of consumers who watched the NBC video through the Ibotta app in order to unlock the $4 rebate) totaled 12,528, with over 1.3 million brand impressions through the app as of early December. The total number of rebates redeemed (in other words, the number of shoppers who downloaded the rebate, watched the video, and then went on to purchase a Tri Tip roast) was 3,189, with that number expected to climb as the rebate continues to be offered.

GET CASH BACK REBATES* ON BEEF TRI TIP

DOWNLOAD THE IBOTTA APP FOR CASH BACK REBATES ON BEEF TRI TIP *at participating Nevada retailers.  8 JANUARY 2020

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Classic Beef and Barley Soup

www.nevadabeef.org | www.mybeefcheckoff.org

By Nevada Beef Council Staff

When it comes to planning dinner during the cold Nevada winter months, nothing hits the spot quite like a savory beef stew. This classic beef and barley soup is a cinch to prepare, and will help ward off that winter chill.

INGREDIENTS

• 1 beef Arm Chuck Roast, Boneless, cut into 3/4-inch pieces (about 2 pounds) • 1 tablespoon vegetable oil • 1 teaspoon pepper • 1/2 teaspoon salt • 2 cups chopped onions • 1 cup diced celery • 1 cup diced carrots • 2 tablespoons minced garlic • 2 teaspoons dried thyme leaves • 6 cups reduced-sodium beef broth • 3/4 cup medium pearled barley • 1 tablespoon balsamic vinegar

Courtesy of Beef. It’s What’s For Dinner.

COOKING INSTRUCTIONS • Heat oil in stockpot over medium heat until hot. Brown half of beef; remove from stockpot. Repeat with remaining beef; remove from stockpot, pour off drippings. Season beef with pepper and salt. • Add onions, celery, carrots, garlic and thyme to stockpot; cook 5 to 8 minutes or until vegetables are lightly browned, stirring occasionally. Stir in broth and barley. Return beef to stockpot; bring to a boil. Reduce heat; cover tightly and simmer 1 hour or until beef is fork-tender. Stir in balsamic vinegar.

New White Paper Outlines Minimal Environmental Impact of U.S. Beef A white paper detailing the minimal environmental footprint of beef production in the U.S. was recently published by the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association (NCBA), a contractor to the Beef Checkoff. The white paper, authored by Sara Place, PhD, former senior director of sustainable beef production research at NCBA, highlights why and how the U.S. is the leader in sustainable beef production. U.S. beef production, particularly when it comes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, is often misrepresented with global statistics that fuel inaccurate reports and misconceptions. The new white paper addresses this issue by sharing the most recent data indicating that only 3.7 www.progressiverancher.com

percent1 of U.S. GHG emissions come directly from beef cattle.2 By comparison, globally, beef cattle account for 6 percent of GHG emissions.3 To put U.S. beef production further into perspective, all agriculture, including cattle and other animal/crop agriculture, accounts for 8.4 percent of U.S. GHG emissions.2 Comparatively, transportation accounts for 28 percent of GHG emissions in the U.S.2 On global scale, all livestock agriculture accounts for 14.5 percent of GHG emissions, which is often used inaccurately to represent U.S. beef emissions.3

in the U.S., due to scientific advancements in beef cattle genetics, nutrition, husbandry practices, and biotechnologies, has one of the lowest beef GHG emissions intensities in the world. In fact, GHG emissions intensity in the U.S. is 10–50 times lower than other parts of the world.4

The white paper also details the results of improved efficiencies in beef cattle production in the U.S. during the past several decades. For example, compared to the mid-1970’s, today the U.S. produces the same amount of beef with one-third fewer cattle.5 Furthermore, the U.S. These variations can largely be attributed produces around 18 percent of the world’s to different regional production practices. beef with only 8 percent of the world’s As the white paper notes, cattle production cattle herd.6 These efficiencies are possible The Progressive Rancher

due to improved productivity practices, refined genetics, nutrition and scientific advancements. To read the full white paper or learn more about the findings it includes, visit BeefItsWhatsForDinner.com and click on “Newsroom.”

• Rotz. C.A. et al., 2019. Environmental footprints of beef cattle production in the United States. Ag. Syst. 169: 1-13.

• U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2017. Available at: https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/inventory-usgreenhouse-gas-emissions-and-sinks-1990-2017 accessed August 7, 2019 • Gerber, P.J., et al., 2013. Tackling climate change through livestock — A global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome. • Herrero, M., et al., 2013. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110: 20888–20893 • USDA-NASS Quick Stats Tools. Available at: https://www.nass.usda.gov/Quick_Stats/ accessed August 7, 2019. • UN FAOSTAT database. Available at: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home accessed August 7, 2019

JANUARY 2020 9


In the Mind of a Millennial By Jill Scofield, Director of Producer Relations, California & Nevada Beef Council

Setting the Menu for a New Year I absolutely love the holidays. I love decorating the Christmas tree with my two sons, and seeing the joy of the season through their eyes. I love looking at Christmas lights, watching holiday movies, wrapping and giving gifts. I especially love time spent in Fernley with my family, enjoying an amazing homecooked prime rib that is just so tender and delicious I can’t do it justice describing it.

I must admit, when we enter January, I can’t help but feel a little blue that all these cherished traditions are behind us for another year. But rather than dwell on the sadness of the holiday season being over, I try and make the best of it by reflecting on the past 12 months, and putting in place plans and goals for the coming year.

As my sons get older (turning 11 and 8 this year – slow down time!), one thing I find myself focusing more on every year is quality time with them, and opportunities to help them build a foundation to be happy, healthy, productive young men. Along those lines, one thing we’re going to work on this year is introducing them to cooking. And as you might imagine, the number one thing on our menu is BEEF.

As our kids grow, nutrition is always top of mind for parents. Knowing that just one three-ounce serving of beef provides them the protein, iron and zinc that are so important to their growing bodies – and so lacking in a lot of kids’ and teens’ diets – gives me comfort every time I serve them a dish featuring our favorite protein. What’s more, the nutrients in beef help with brain development and support a healthy immune system, adding to all the reasons why we incorporate plenty of it. Planning ahead for our culinary adventures of 2020, I have a few easy recipes that I’m going to start with. Each of them is fairly simple in prep and cooking instructions, and they offer just enough creativity that the boys can add their “flair.” For example, one dish that I’ve prepared in the past and allowed them to add their own toppings to are Personal Beef Pizzas.  10 JANUARY 2020

The preparation couldn’t be simpler. You take cooked ground beef or Italian-style beef sausage, pizza sauce, and mozzarella cheese, and put the ingredients on round sandwich thins, thin-sliced bagels, or even the pre-made mini pizza crusts you can find at most retailers. And then you provide plenty of additional toppings to allow everyone to add their favorites – olives, red bell peppers, mushrooms, etc.

The inspiration for this is from BeefItsWhatsForDinner.com, which as you probably know has delicious beef recipes for any occasion. I appreciate that the recipes have been triple tested in the Beef Checkoff-funded culinary center in Denver where a trained, experienced team of culinary professionals work together on the common goal of increasing demand for beef. As part of that, they create, test and hone a seemingly endless supply of recipes for every occasion. That’s why, for me, using this resource is a big part of my personal menu planning – and no, not just because I work for a state beef council!

The importance of having this type of information readily available across multiple platforms cannot be overstated. Nearly 60% of 25- to 34-year-olds cook with either their smart phones or tablets handy, with the internet replacing the cookbook as the most important source for cooking recipes, inspiration and ideas. If a consumer is looking for recipe inspiration, they’re going to find plenty of beef-centric options here. As I delve into my own culinary education with my two boys, I have a few recipes in mind to start with, two of which I’m sharing here. But if you have a goal to spend more time in the kitchen this year (or maybe less – there are easy, convenient recipes too), or perhaps eat healthier overall, I encourage you to also check out BeefItsWhatsForDinner.com to find your own inspiration. You won’t be disappointed. Bon appetit!

Italian Beef Meatball Sandwich Rolls INGREDIENTS: Italian-Style Beef Sausage (see below) 2 eggs, divided 1/4 cup seasoned dry bread crumbs 12 cherry-sized mozzarella balls (about 6 oz) 12 ounces refrigerated pizza dough 2 tablespoons shredded Parmesan cheese Garnish: Marinara sauce, fresh basil Italian-Style Beef Sausage: Combine 1 lb ground beef, 1 tsp fennel seed, 1/2 tsp salt, 1/4 tsp coriander, 1/4 tsp garlic powder, 1/4 tsp paprika, 1/4 tsp black pepper and 1/8 to 1/4 tsp crushed red pepper in large bowl, mixing lightly but thoroughly. Heat large nonstick skillet over medium heat until hot. Add sausage mixture; cook 8 to 10 minutes, break into crumbles, stirring occasionally. COOKING INSTRUCTIONS: Preheat oven to 400°F. Combine Italian Beef Sausage, 1 egg and bread crumbs in large bowl; mixing thoroughly. Shape into 12, 2" meatballs. Place a mozzarella ball in the middle of each meatball, covering it completely with beef mixture. Place meatballs on aluminum-foiled lined broiler rack coated with cooking spray. Bake in 400°F oven 24 to 27 minutes. Cut dough into 12 pieces, about 1 oz each. Stretch each piece to cover 1 meatball, pinching the edges to seal. Place on parchment-lined baking sheet, seam-side down. Beat remaining egg with a fork. Brush rolls with egg; top with Parmesan cheese. Bake rolls in 400°F oven 10 to 12 minutes or until golden brown. Serve with marinara sauce and chopped basil leaves, if desired.

The Progressive Rancher

Wrangler’s Beef Chili INGREDIENTS: 1 lb Ground Beef (93% lean or leaner) 1/2 cup chopped onion 1 can (15 oz) pinto beans, drained/rinsed 2 cans (8 oz) tomato sauce (regular/low salt) 1 cup frozen corn 1 cup water 2 teaspoons chili powder 2 teaspoons ground cumin 1 teaspoon garlic powder 1 teaspoon dried oregano leaves 1/4 teaspoon pepper COOKING INSTRUCTIONS: Heat large nonstick skillet over medium heat until hot. Add Ground Beef and onions; cook 8 to 10 minutes, breaking beef into 3/4-inch crumbles and stirring occasionally. Remove drippings. Stir in beans, tomato sauce, corn, water, spices and herbs. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat; cover and simmer 20 to 25 minutes, stirring occasionally. Serve over macaroni, if desired. Garnish with toppings as desired (tortilla chips, sour cream, shredded cheese, onions, bell pepper, cilantro, avocado, etc.) www.progressiverancher.com


By Joseph Guild

Happy New Year! I hope 2020 is productive and profitable for all of you. This won’t be a new year’s resolution column. I am going to do a belated “what I am thankful for”. You who know me would not be surprised if I say my family is at the top of my list. I have marvelous talented smart children and adorable grandchildren. My wife is my best friend. This kind of family support is one of the great treasures of my life. I have good health now, but I have had challenges in the past. I really appreciate the good health I now enjoy. It enables me to ride and work cattle, to travel around the state and country working on behalf of the ranching industry and be an active engaged member of my family, my community and my profession.

We live in the greatest country in the world. No doubt America has flaws and, as a country, we have made mistakes in our short history. However, we still enjoy the greatest amount of freedom of choice and pursuit of dreams of any other country and, despite all the naysayers we are the most prosperous and successful country the world has ever seen. Compare the gross national product of the US with any other country including our biggest economic competitor, China, and this country leaves all the others in a trail of dust.

By the end of 2020, the International Monetary Fund predicts the Chinese economy will be almost five and a half trillion dollars. The U.S., by comparison at the end of 2020, will reach more than twenty-three trillion dollars. And let us not forget the US population is only the size of China’s middle class or about 330 I have friends I have known my whole million. life, friends from college I still enjoy seeing and friends I have recently made. Why are we so efficient? We have a All these people add immeasurably to wealth of natural resources in our own my attitude and outlook on the world. country and with our trading partners, I have co-workers I rely on to help me Canada and Mexico, North America be successful in my daily working life. rivals the world in that category. We I count on all these people as keeping also have the most efficient agriculture me grounded and focused on all that is for our region of any other place in the important. Many of them are also close world meaning we can feed ourselves. friends. Plus, we have the freedom to innovate and the profit incentive to be a nation of In my various jobs I am so grateful entrepreneurs. We are not a top down, for the many smart people around bureaucratically controlled economy; me. Their experience and expertise although I sometimes have a bone to make everything I do seem easy and, pick with governmental overregulation. therefore, even when things do not work out exactly as planned it is still For all the above reasons I am thankful. satisfying to know that everything But I am also thankful for the luck and possible was done to try and be privilege of living in the United States of successful in reaching the goals. America. The world is probably looking www.progressiverancher.com

at us now and scoffing at the crazy impeachment drama unfolding in the U.S. Congress, and who can blame them. Our current politics are devoid of good manners and full of shouting matches that probably give great satisfaction to the shouters but quite frankly, in my opinion, are turning the public off. I don’t have the space to delve into each side’s arguments for and against impeachment. What can be said about the public is they are tired of the bickering from both political parties. I get that the parties believe their point of view is the righteous and correct one.

And, if I lived and worked within the beltway bubble that is our nation’s capital, I might have come down on a very partisan side too. But, if I am representative of most of the populous, I think nothing about this impeachment process is affecting my daily life and all I hear is the blah, blah noise associated with it. In fact, I read a recent poll that concluded 30% of the adult US population doesn’t even know the President of the United States is about to be impeached.

about our future as a country. The Trump impeachment is the third Presidential impeachment in our history. President Nixon would have been impeached but he resigned his office before the House of Representatives could vote for him to be impeached. I remember the Nixon scandal and the Congressional deliberations about Watergate. There was a huge crisis of confidence and a malaise in our country. President Clinton lied under oath which is a felony and as an officer of the court, as a lawyer he knew what he did was a crime. President Andrew Johnson was caught up in some very partisan politics of his time which were a direct result of the vacuum of leadership because of Lincoln’s assassination and the unhealed partisan wounds from the civil war. Both he and Clinton were acquitted by the United States Senate after a trial in the Senate. President Trump will also be acquitted by the Senate.

And guess what else will happen? After every crisis: a civil war, slavery, world wars, the cold war other “smaller “wars, a depression, wall street panics, prohibition, incarceration of Americans of Japanese descent, the almost total annihilation of indigenous native Americans, and, yes, even after the terms of Presidents some of us do not like, America still stands as Ronald Reagan said she would, like a shining light at the top of a hill for the rest of the world to admire, emulate, be jealous of and, in However, let us rise above the fray and some cases, despise. from the 30,000-foot level put this We are a survivor among nations; and whole dispute into some historical for that I am grateful. perspective thereby, I hope giving us all some good reasons to be optimistic I’ll see you soon.

The Progressive Rancher

JANUARY 2020 11


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The Progressive Rancher

www.progressiverancher.com


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Jack Payne Cell: 775-217-9273 • Alt: 775-225-8889 Cedarville - Archie Osborne 775-397-3645 Southern Nevada - Cole Reber 702-232-7351 Carey Hawkins 208-724-6712 | Frank Norcutt 775-223-7390

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February 20, 2020 March 19, 2020 Looking back on 2019, we once again realize what an important part each of you have played in our lives. We are grateful for friends and associates who have come our way and who have made this enterprise successful. Thank you! 2020 marks the beginning of a new decade. We look forward with hope for even better markets for your cattle. The staff here at Nevada Livestock Marketing pledge to continue serving you, our customers, with hard work and integrity, and we look forward to seeing you soon!

“Where the Ranchers Shop” NEVADA LIVESTOCK VET SUPPLY, LLC Store Hours: Monday-Friday 8am-5pm 131 Industrial Way • Fallon, NV 89406 ( 775 ) 624-4996 www.progressiverancher.com

TYPE #HEAD DESC. WEIGHT PRICE CWT LOCATION

TYPE #HEAD DESC. WEIGHT PRICE CWT LOCATION

STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR

STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR STR B/C B/C B/C HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR HFR

5 5 17 6 3 2 1 4 35 4 5 5 4 16 6 7 2 6 41 16 10 8 38 65 3 10 23 10 4 1 13 8 5 5 15 7 13 10 15 15 2 1 4 6 2 5 3 1 5 1 53 3 25 15 6 23 12 12 21 15 9 43 5 1 6 6 7 4 13 34

BLK BLK MIX BLK MIX MIX MIX MIX BLK MIX BLK BLK BLK BLK BLK BLK BLK BLK BLK BLK MIX BLK BLK BLK BLK RD BLK MIX BLK BLK BLK BLK BLK MIX RD BLK MIX BLK MIX BLK BLK MIX MIX MIX MIX MIX BLK BLK MIX MIX BLK BLK MIX BLK MIX BLK MIX MIX BLK MIX BLK MIX BLK CHAR BLK BLK RD MIX MIX BLK

358 369 375 379 359 359 375 375 483 388 403 391 385 518 460 497 383 479 483 496 394 435 537 487 418 471 492 534 275 270 275 454 445 430 492 544 508 491 498 552 358 495 495 536 352 537 502 325 502 503 550 487 576 578 580 637 586 586 626 620 613 645 554 490 648 647 622 630 650 775

$1.95 $1.94 $1.93 $1.91 $1.89 $1.89 $1.88 $1.88 $1.87 $1.87 $1.85 $1.85 $1.84 $1.83 $1.81 $1.81 $1.81 $1.81 $1.81 $1.81 $1.80 $1.80 $1.78 $1.77 $1.76 $1.76 $1.75 $1.75 $1.72 $1.72 $1.72 $1.72 $1.72 $1.71 $1.71 $1.70 $1.67 $1.67 $1.67 $1.66 $1.65 $1.64 $1.64 $1.64 $1.61 $1.60 $1.60 $1.60 $1.60 $1.60 $1.59 $1.59 $1.52 $1.51 $1.49 $1.49 $1.48 $1.48 $1.45 $1.45 $1.42 $1.41 $1.41 $1.41 $1.41 $1.40 $1.39 $1.36 $1.36 $1.35

Fallon, NV Eureka, NV Jordan Valley, OR Winnemucca, NV McDermitt, NV McDermitt, NV McDermitt, NV McDermitt, NV Eureka, NV Fallon, NV Enterprise, UT Cedarville, CA Jordan Valley, Or Spanish Fork, UT Jordan Valley, Or Jordan Valley, Or Eureka, NV Paradise Valley, NV Jordan Valley, Or Gardnerville , UT Enterprise, UT Ely, NV Fallon, NV Winnemucca, NV Carson City, NV Ely, NV Austin, NV Cedarville, CA Midas, NV Parma, ID Golconda, NV Fallon, NV Duckwater, NV Winnemucca, NV Jordan Valley, Or Winnemucca, NV Austin, NV Enterprise, UT Enterprise, UT Fallon, NV Eureka, NV McDermitt, NV McDermitt, NV Fallon, NV Nixon, NV Austin, NV Golconda, NV McDermitt, NV Fallon, NV Fallon, NV Wells, NV Eureka, NV Wells, NV Jordan Valley, Or Duckwater, NV Spanish Fork, UT Carson City, NV Carson City, NV Cedarville, CA Cedarville, CA Eureka, NV Ruby Valley, NV Paradise Valley, NV Wadsworth, NV Ely, NV Eureka, NV Ely, NV Silver Springs, NV Austin, NV Carson City, NV

The Progressive Rancher

34 3 20 7 16 16 9 16 6 2 4 3 4 4 2 3 9 2 1 2 1 1 5 2 10 5 4 5 4 9 3 10 2 23 23 6 4 5 5 28 10 6 2 1 2 11 3 9 23 7 11 2 20 14 3 13 6 1 2 8 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 4

BLK 775 BLK 553 MIX 764 BLK 771 BLK 690 MIX 688 MIX 583 BLK 690 MIX 733 BLK 810 MIX 876 MIX 738 MIX 876 BLK 853 RD 618 BLK 707 MIX 575 BLK 643 MIX 690 MIX 690 BLK 340 MIX 408 BCHX 492 MIX 470 MIX 566 BLK 641 MIX 549 MIX 727 BLK 537 MIX 358 BLK 380 MIX 363 BBF 378 MIX 435 BLK 418 BLK 453 BLK 361 BLK 388 BLK 451 BLK 477 BLK 351 BLK 489 BLK 395 BLK 355 BLK 355 BLK 503 BLK 497 BLK 519 BLK 535 BLK 541 MIX 555 BLK 628 BLK 670 MIX 551 MIX 363 BLK 582 MIX 451 RBF 515 BLK 620 MIX 616 MIX 703 MIX 485 BBF 735 BLK 613 RD 460 BLK 610 RBF 545 BLK 805 BLK 840 MIX 1041

$1.35 $1.35 $1.35 $1.34 $1.33 $1.33 $1.33 $1.33 $1.32 $1.31 $1.30 $1.30 $1.30 $1.28 $1.27 $1.27 $1.27 $1.26 $1.25 $1.25 $1.23 $1.22 $1.21 $1.19 $1.18 $1.18 $1.18 $1.12 $1.78 $1.70 $1.65 $1.62 $1.60 $1.58 $1.58 $1.55 $1.52 $1.51 $1.50 $1.49 $1.47 $1.46 $1.46 $1.46 $1.46 $1.45 $1.40 $1.37 $1.34 $1.32 $1.32 $1.27 $1.27 $1.27 $1.25 $1.25 $1.24 $1.22 $1.22 $1.22 $1.22 $1.22 $1.22 $1.21 $1.19 $1.18 $1.16 $1.06 $0.95 $0.88

Carson City, NV Schurz, NV Spanish Fork, UT Golconda, NV Fallon, NV Carson City, NV Fallon, NV Fallon, NV Cedarville, CA Fernley, NV Fallon, NV McDermitt, NV Fallon, NV Eureka, NV Reno, NV Minden, NV Fallon, NV Fallon, NV Eureka, NV Eureka, NV Fallon, NV Nixon, NV Paradise Valley, NV Nixon, NV Fallon, NV Winnemucca, NV Round Mountain, NV Austin, NV Fallon, NV Jordan Valley, NV Duckwater, NV Fallon, NV Nixon, NV Winnemucca, NV Jordan Valley, NV Eureka, NV Silver Springs, NV Jordan Valley, NV Jordan Valley, NV Gardnerville, UT Golconda, NV Jordan Valley, NV Eureka, NV McDermitt, NV McDermitt, NV Austin, NV Duckwater, NV Paradise Valley, NV Wells, NV Reno, NV Austin, NV Reno, NV Carson City, NV Ely, NV Reno, NV Fallon, NV Round Mountain, NV Battle Mountin, NV Austin, NV Yerington, NV Nixon, NV Nixon, NV Fernley, NV Schurz, NV Washoe Valley, NV Fallon, NV Paradise Valley, NV Springfield, Ne McDermitt, NV Wellington, NV

JANUARY 2020 13


InteRview: Irene Smith by Ruby Uhart

I’m Irene Smith, and I have lived on Cottonwood Ranch in O’Neil Basin for almost 67 years.

Successful Convention and Say Hello to New Leadership

I am now 89 years old and my main job on the ranch these days is baking cookies and watering flowers, so I’ll tell about my early days on Cottonwood Ranch.

By Staci Emm Nevada CattleWomen, Inc. held a successful convention in 2019 and a new slate of officers was installed for the next year. The last two years have gone by so fast and now it is time for me to pass the gavel on to our next president, Melinda Sarmon. It seems just a short time ago, when I was president elect and Sidney Wintermote was President. I have learned so much representing Nevada CattleWomen, Inc. and I would not trade it for anything. I am also excited to see our new leadership come on board. I know they will continue to do good work, and I will do my best to provide support as past president. Nevada CattleWomen, Inc. obtained its non-profit status in 2019. The Nevada CattleWomen, Inc. membership meeting focused on approving the 2019-2020 budget; provided an overview of social media and website activities; and highlighted a new membership software system called “Wild Apricot.” In addition, the policies and procedures handbook was updated in the executive board meeting, and new leadership will finalize the changes. Membership was also recognized for years of service. We have women that have been involved in Nevada CattlWomen, Inc. for over 60 years. High school youth participated in the 2019 convention with two different competitions hosted by Nevada CattleWomen, Inc. One competition was in sales where teams had to make a sales pitch to judges on a specific livestock product, and the other competition was identifying the different cuts of meat. We were excited to see Yerington High School, Winnemucca High School, Elko County High School and Spring Creek High School participate. We were also thrilled that the Nevada Agriculture Council would like to support the competitions next year (2020) by providing travel support to the high schools. Nevada Beef Council sponsored the youth to participate in the Nevada Cattlemen’s Association luncheon. We had two different youth from the Elko area provide speeches at the Luncheon, which was attended by over 100 people. Both young women did an exceptional job.  14 JANUARY 2020

Melinda Sarmon (left) Staci Emm (right)

It is now time for me to introduce you to your 2020 Nevada CattleWomen, Inc. officers. They are the following: Melinda Sarmon | Elko, Nevada | President

Madison Bowers | Elko, Nevada | President Elect

Ana Dagenhart | Gardnerville, Nevada | Vice President Keri Pommerening | Smith Valley, Nevada | Secretary Staci Emm | Schurz, Nevada | Treasurer

Janice Connelly | Elko, Nevada | Parliamentarian A special thank you goes out to Ruby Uhart and Sidney Wintermote from the Elko area for their years as officers and supporting the organization. While they are stepping down from officer seats, they will still be providing support to continue Nevada CattleWomen, Inc. work. We also may have a new treasurer out of Fallon, Nevada at the first of the year. What is really exciting is the geography of the officer team. As you see above, there are officers from across the state. What is additionally exciting is the different age groups in the officer team. We have the young, middle age, and older. Melinda Sarmon is planning a leadership development retreat in the spring so that the new officer team can set its goals and priorities for the upcoming year. I am also hoping that the officer team and other Nevada CattleWomen, Inc. members will attend the Region VI meeting in Tempe, Arizona. I always hate to say goodbye. I have enjoyed writing for Progressive Rancher over the last two years as it takes me back to my old newspaper days. I thank the Progressive Rancher for giving our organization the opportunity to write an article in each issue. This will be my last article for Nevada CattleWomen, Inc., unless I need to assist the new President. However, I have been lucky enough to be working with the owner/editor of Progressive Rancher on something new for 2020, which I hope you will enjoy. The Progressive Rancher

My husband and I came to the ranch in 1952. Horace had served 4 years in the Naval Air Force during the Korean War. In 1952 his Grandfather Agee died and left the ranch to Horace and his brother so as soon as we got out of the service we headed for the ranch. We arrived in November of 1952 during a snow storm. I had never been to Cottonwood before and didn’t really know what to expect. I found a three room cabin with a tiny yard surrounded by lots of sagebrush. The current resident was a big black tom cat. We invited the cat to leave and moved in. It was pretty rustic but I loved it from the start. We were home! There were no power lines into O’Neil Basin at that time so there was no electricity. There was a windmill that pumped water into the house so there was a tiny bathroom and a kitchen with running water. I felt lucky because that modern convenience hadn’t been there for too long. We soon acquired a gas refrigerator and replaced the old wood stove with a gas stove. Heaven! That first year we used kerosene lanterns to read at night. That winter I’m sure I read every copy of the “Little Golden Books” there was to our one year old son, Agee. I used a gas driven wringer washing machine to do our laundry. That was a major under-taking since the machine was a little tricky and Horace often had to work on it to keep it going. He didn’t love ‘laundry day’. In the summer I took the washing machine outdoors and did the laundry outside. Except for the horse flies that were drawn to the soapy water I kind of enjoyed that. It provided great entertainment for the kids as they made little rivers out of the water when I drained the tubs. I hung the laundry on a clothes line strung between two poles. It was great in the summer but in the winter there could be lines full of frozen diapers and clothes swinging stiffly in the wind. I improvised with a drying rack or hung the laundry on a line over the heating stove. It worked! We soon bought a generator to provide some electricity when we needed it.

I don’t ride, brand or put up hay anymore, but I have memories of wonderful years spent building a ranch and raising kids.

One of the first things we had to do after arriving at the ranch was get a horse. Horace owned a couple of horses he had trained before he went in the service. His uncle had been using them on his ranch; we gathered them and brought them home. We also had two Thoroughbred mares that we bred to either a Thoroughbred stud or an Arabian stud, both standing on his uncle’s neighboring ranch. We soon got our own Thoroughbred stud and developed a great string of wonderful horses. Now there were colts to break and we spent most of our evenings (weather permitting) working with the horses. We later added a Quarter Horse stud. Some of our kids preferred working with www.progressiverancher.com


the Quarter Horses, but Horace and I always loved the Thoroughbreds and Anglo-Arabs. There was a lot of snow the first winter we spent on the ranch. All the weaned calves from his grandfather’s and uncle’s neighboring ranches were wintering on Cottonwood and they had to be fed. We had a team of work horses and sled that we used to feed the calves. I learned to drive the team as Horace fed the hay off the sled. Our one year old son Agee was tucked in the hay to keep him warm. That was the winter that they had to fly hay into the cattle on some ranches because the snow was too deep to get feed to them. We had our share of heavy snow and blizzard conditions but managed to get hay to the cattle with our hard-working work team. In the 1950’s there were few fences so all the ranchers ran their cattle in common. This meant that it took a lot of cowboys from the ranches to gather the cattle from the range. There were huge brandings at each ranch. I learned to cook for lots of hungry cowboys when they gathered at Cottonwood. This was quite a challenge for a girl who had never cooked for more than two people at a time. I even mastered baking bread and churning butter. It was fun to listen to the stories told around the big table of the day’s adventures on the range. In the 1960s the BLM and Forest service separated the range into allotments so fences were built to separate the allotments. We no longer had the huge gatherings and brandings; each ranch and family worked their own cattle. We raised Hereford cattle and had a yearling operation. In the spring we turned the cattle out in March. In June we gathered the cattle off the range and branded the calves. We had a small branding corral on the range so the herd had to be held while the calves were worked off. This job always fell to women and kids. (My how times have changed!) It was an exciting time as lots of friends would come out to help. It was also a chance for the kids to practice roping and learn to handle cattle. I always cooked a hot meal to take to the brandings. One time I put stew in what I thought was a container for hot food, but turned out to be for cold food, and the stew melted right through the bottom. We had a good laugh over my mistake and I rushed back to the ranch to rustle up something to feed the hungry crew. We used horses to cut and stack our hay. My job was to drive the horse drawn dump rake that gathered the hay into windrows that were then bunched by the buck rakes. We used a beaver slide to stack the loose hay. It was a lot of work for the stackers but I loved my part of putting up hay. We soon started to improve the ranch. Together we drug and burned sagebrush to clear the land. We leveled land and planted www.progressiverancher.com

alfalfa and other grasses and soon had doubled the amount of productive meadow on the ranch. This took several years to accomplish and a lot of hard work. Now we are working toward making not only good meadow land but good habitat for sage grouse and other wildlife.

We also planted trees and lawn and I planted a vegetable garden every summer. Because of the short growing season and frosts every month growing anything was a challenge. I could only grow the hardiest vegetables. Beets and turnips were my best crop but nobody liked them very much. I never did manage to get a red tomato. While we were growing the ranch we were also growing our family. By 1960 Agee had four little brothers and sisters for company. Several of our nieces and nephews were also on the ranch so there was no shortage of kids. Since our family had definitely outgrown the cabin, we built on an addition and created a comfortable home for all of us.

In 1953 we partnered with my father and started a hunting operation. We established a base camp on Camp Creek and a spike camp below Mary’s River Peak. Hunters from all over the country came to hunt the abundant mule deer that the Jarbidge Wilderness was famous for. We met many wonderful people and made life- long friends among the hunters. My mother and I did the cooking. My job was to cook much of the food that we sent to spike camp. I made huge stews to take ‘on the mountain’, and baked more cinnamon rolls and breads than I can count. Horace was hunting from the spike camp so was gone for most of the season. Inevitably the generator would quit working or something would go wrong that I couldn’t fix. Although I enjoyed meeting the hunters and listening to the hunting stories, it was also sometimes a lonely time for me and the kids. We all missed their dad.

In 1955 we built a hunting lodge at lower camp. We cooked on a wood stove and carried water from the creek. It was rustic and a lot of work but it was in a beautiful setting among the quaking aspen trees and beside the creek. It served as a base for both the lower and upper camps. In the evening the big table in the dining hall was always filled with hunters exchanging great stories of the day’s hunt.

We moved the lodge to the ranch in 1964. That October my niece was getting married at the ranch so we were planning to use the lodge for wedding guests that would be staying overnight. A few days before the wedding everybody had gone hunting from spike camp and lower camp. Instead of cooking for hunters I had stayed home to get everything ready for the wedding. I was at the house when one of the kids came running in and said the lodge was on fire. By the time

I got there the building was in flames and there was nothing I could do to save it. It was heart-breaking to stand by and watch it burn. Luckily the hunters that had been staying there were gone so nobody was hurt. In spite of the fire it was a beautiful wedding. The following year we built a new lodge.

"Cattle Free by 93”. As a rancher I found that very troubling. I heard about a program called Holistic Resource Management from one of the range cons and how well it was working for ranchers that were practicing it. My husband, son Agee and daughter Kim all took the HRM course that was offered and we decided it would be a great program When the kids got old enough to go to school for Cottonwood. In 1995 we formed a team I drove them to the ‘one room school house’ consisting of many BLM, Forest Service and at the Gibbs ranch. It was 25 miles, much of Fish and Wildlife representatives as well as it through a rough canyon road. There was no other folks who were interested. The program home schooling at that time so I drove them includes the frequent movement of cattle to school in the morning and picked them over the range and requires a rider or riders up and drove them home when the school checking and moving cattle almost every day. day was done. It was pretty challenging when Over the years the improvement to the range the weather was bad. In the spring when the and the streams has been phenomenal and creek had washed part of the road away I Cottonwood Ranch has won several awards would have the kids get out of the car and in recognition of our efforts. walk to the other side of the wash out while I gingerly drove through. We always made My husband Horace passed away in it safely and made the time in the car go by November of 2014. We would have celebrated our 65th wedding anniversary in singing songs and watching for wildlife. December. His passing left a hole in my life, The kids all loved going to the O’Neil school. our family’s life and the life of the ranch. They made close friends with the Gibbs and Knudson children who were actually all My son Agee and his wife Vicki, and my related to them. They shared a great-great granddaughter McKenzie and her husband grandmother. The road was often closed Jason now manage and run the ranch. I spend because of snow in the winter so at those my time visiting my other children in the times I was their teacher at home. They didn’t winter, traveling, gardening and enjoying my seem to suffer from their country schooling. hobby of miniature painting. I also am happy They all graduated high school and went on to have two of my 17 great grandchildren to college or established successful businesses. living on the ranch. The two boys are a source of constant wonder and delight to me. In 1964 we celebrated our oldest son Agee’s 8th grade graduation with a roping and Ranch life isn’t always easy and often square dance. After that we continued having financially challenging, but it is always a ranch rodeo with roping and arena games rewarding. I have wonderful memories of for the kids on the 4th of July for the next riding down the mountain from below 20 years. It grew from a few ranch families Mary’s River Peak in the moonlight and to over 200 folks from all over. We joked along the high trail under God’s Pocket that some of our guests came for the 4th Peak, watching Horace and the kids break and stayed for several years. In the summer and train horses, fishing local streams, and through the years that our kids were growing sharing our beautiful ranch with so many up, we had ropings every week-end. We people from all over the world. I am proud were lucky that a couple that worked on a of what the ranch has achieved in healing neighboring ranch were square dance callers the land and streams. I feel lucky I was able so after the ropings and a barbecue we square to raise my family on this wonderful place danced. Everyone from the youngest child and for having shared this life with so many to the grandparents joined in and we had a young people who are very dear to me. My proudest accomplishment is raising my great time. children, nieces and nephews and seeing Through the years most of our nieces and them grow into good, kind adults. I have 9 nephews spent the summers with us and grandchildren and 17 great grandchildren. some lived with us and went to the country They are all my greatest joy. I am truly blessed. school with their cousins. There were always other young people with us every summer. Most of them came just to be on the ranch and learn to ride horses and help out on the ranch. Later, as adults, many have said that the memories of their time at the ranch were the best time of their lives and that it made a positive impact on the rest of their lives. I worked at the Humboldt National Forest office from 1991 through 1996. While I was there I was surprised at the negative feelings many people had about cattle on public lands. In fact I often heard the slogan

The Progressive Rancher

JANUARY 2020 15


Experiment Station and Extension: Two Vital but Under-Invested Components of Nevada’s Land-Grant University

by W.A. Payne, Dean, College of Agriculture, Biotechnology & Natural Resources Nevada established the State University of Nevada in Elko in 1874, several years after President Lincoln signed the Morrill Act of 1862. This act created the United States’ unique system of land-grant universities, which originally focused on agriculture and mechanics. In 1866, the Morrill Act was applied to Nevada. At this time, there were less than 45,000 people in the state, and less than 100,000 acres under cultivation. Mechanics at the time was easy to justify within the context of the burgeoning mining industry. However, even though a training program in agriculture was promoted by the Morrill Act and mandated by the state constitution, it remained an open question at that time whether Nevada had sufficient agricultural potential to justify a higher education program in agriculture. Except for its rangelands and livestock, Nevada was seen as one of the poorest states in the Union in terms of agricultural productivity and resources. In such conventional areas as horticulture, grain production and dairy, the state ranked last in the nation, and the combination of desert topography, low humidity and short growing seasons seemed to render most of the state as sub-marginal for any kind of agriculture except grazing. What, it was occasionally asked, would be the purpose of a College of Agriculture in such an environment? In 1884, the New Orleans Times-Picayune opined that Nevada “has no agricultural resources to support any considerable number, and in the meantime the people of the other States are irritated.” Two key additional acts of legislation that, along with the Morrill Act of 1862, make up the foundation of the U.S. land-grant university system are: - the Hatch Act of 1887, which provided federal funds to states to establish agricultural Experiment Stations under the direction of each state's land-grant college to conduct scientific research, and, - the Smith–Lever Act of 1914, which created a Cooperative Extension Service, a partnership between land-grant universities and the USDA, to disseminate information produced by research at the Experiment Stations and universities. These acts were particularly important to Nevada because in the early days of the College of Agriculture, there was much more emphasis on experimental work and Extension Service than on resident teaching. This was because there was barely a history of agriculture in the state, let alone any agricultural research. In 1887, when the Hatch Act began providing an annual appropriation of $15,000 to the state agricultural Experiment Station, the first Experiment Station director, who was also the university’s first president, funded research on grasses, tree cultures and horticulture. The second Experiment Station director, also president of the University, supervised variety trials for several crops, including wheat, sugar beets, flax, buckwheat, sorghum, barley, “corn millet,” hemp, vetch, potatoes and several other vegetables. There were also studies related to  16 JANUARY 2020

agronomy, insect pests, plant disease and animal diseases, and in particular, anthrax in cattle and horses. Since those early days, the Experiment Station has conducted countless agricultural experiments related to livestock and crop production, as well as natural resources, and forest and range ecology and management. But just as society has changed dramatically since the late 1800s, so has the research portfolio of the Experiment Station. Biotechnology, molecular biology, human nutrition, genetics, remote sensing, environmental toxicology, food safety, economic development and children’s literacy are just some of the areas in which the Experiment Station makes research investments. For example, the current Experiment Station director, Chris Pritsos, spent his career researching carcinogenic effects of second-hand smoke, environmental impact of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and other aspects of environmental toxicology. The Experiment Station has had wide-ranging impact in the state of Nevada that has been documented in voluminous federal reports and scientific publications, and couldn’t possibly be captured here. A sample of that impact is given in Table 1. More can be found at its website, https://naes. unr.edu/. Similarly, in its earliest days, Extension in Nevada focused almost exclusively on agriculture, and indeed was named the Agricultural Extension Service. Its first director Table 1. Examples of recent impactful research financed by University of Nevada, Reno Experiment Station. • Determining the vulnerability and resilience of urban water systems under changing climate conditions, and how elasticity of demand varies with vegetation and weather • Analyzing impacts of Clark, Nye, Lincoln and White Pine’s rural-to-urban water transfers on rural and urban economies • Predicting water supply and groundwater recharge under future climate scenarios • Growing low-water-use prickly pear cactus in Nevada for food, forage and biofuels • Determining the exposure to second-hand smoke of Las Vegas and Reno casino employees to ascertain their risk factors for cardiovascular disease • Identifying sources of ozone and mercury that can have detrimental effects on vegetation and wildlife • Identifying the most pressing nutrition and physical activity needs of low-income Nevadans • Selecting grapevine genotypes for drought and salt tolerance • Studying factors related to survivability and habitat for Desert Bighorn Sheep and sage-grouse • Developing ranch survivability impacts from altered public land management scenarios for Nevada ranchers • Analyzing factors contributing to and hindering the adoption of the trichomoniasis vaccine by Nevada ranchers • Monitoring post-fire riparian environments for return of livestock grazing • Studying the sustainability of mowing fuel breaks and the resilience of sagebrush rangelands • Monitoring pinyon-juniper projects for adaptive management

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launched a program in dairy breeding and management in 1914, and prepared a number of bulletins on crop and livestock production for distribution throughout the state. It launched its 4-H youth development program throughout the state in 1914 under the supervision of Norma Davis, who was recruited from the University of Wisconsin. Just as the Experiment Station’s research portfolio evolved with society over the years, today’s Extension provides for education, research, outreach and service that pertain to six broad, state-mandated programs throughout the state: agriculture, community development, health and nutrition, horticulture, personal and family development, and natural resources. Extension is currently led by Ivory Lyles, who received his doctorate in agricultural education, community and rural development, and has held Extension leadership positions at Alcorn State University and the University of Arkansas. Since 1914, Extension has provided statewide education programs, workshops, research and publications to help Nevada residents and communities solve problems and address local issues. It remains the unit of the University of Nevada, Reno that is engaged in Nevada communities, statewide, both rural and urban, presenting research-based knowledge to address critical community needs. It would be impossible to capture here all of the impact that the more than 100 educational programs conducted by Extension have had throughout the state, but recent examples are given in Table 2. More can be found at its website, https:// extension.unr.edu/Default.aspx. Land-grant universities in the United States represent a unique partnership among federal, state and local governments. As part of that partnership, state Experiment Stations and Extension are subject to federal oversight and regulation, ranging from budgeting to civil rights, and receive federal capacity funding based on a formula that uses number of farms and number of rural citizens in a given state or insular territory. Because Nevada tends to have a small number of rural citizens compared to other states, and its ranches tend to be few but vast, the formula puts the state at a distinct disadvantage. In 2017, the Experiment Station received $1,057,862 via the Hatch Act, which was less than all Experiment Stations, except those in Rhode Island and Washington D.C. Even the insular territories -- Puerto Rico, the Northern Marianas, Virgin Islands, Guam and Micronesia -- all received more in federal capacity funds for their Experiment Stations and Extension programs than Nevada. The various capacity funds received by Nevada for Experiment Stations, Cooperative Extension, Multi-state projects, animal health and renewable resources in 2017 amounted to $1.69 million for the Experiment Station and $1.63 million for Extension. In addition to federal and state funds, Extension receives county funds based on property values to implement its numerous programs. Those county funds must be expended in the county from which they are provided. www.progressiverancher.com


Table 2. Examples of recent impactful programs by University of Nevada, Reno Extension.

• Nevada 4-H Youth Development (statewide) ◊ 5x more likely to graduate from college ◊ 4x more likely to contribute to communities ◊ 2x more likely to engage in science out of school • Nevada Radon Education Program (statewide) ◊ more than 26,500 homes tested ◊ 25% with elevated levels ◊ 1,179 homes mitigated to reduce levels ◊ 457 new homes built radon-resistant • Living With Fire (statewide, where wildfire is an issue) ◊ In 2017, 18,426 publications distributed, 19,427 online visits ◊ 43 different publications, 9 in Spanish ◊ 25 states and 25 countries adapting and using Living With Fire • Master Gardeners (southern and northern Nevada) ◊ contributed 44,913 hours, valued at $1,084,200 • SNAP-Ed Programs (statewide) ◊ $1 million+ to help Nevadans choose nutritious food • Lincoln County Workforce Development ◊ Since 2016, more than one-half of participants became employed • Heart and Shield ◊ Its law enforcement field guide for responding to domestic violence incidents is now the recommended tool by the Attorney General’s office, statewide • Nevada's Federally Recognized Tribal Extension Program (FRTEP) ◊ Helps Native American farmers and ranchers manage their land ◊ Provides nutrition and youth programs • Herds and Harvest (statewide) ◊ Supporting over 1,100 agricultural producers ◊ More than 160 workshops since 2011 • Nevada Naturalists (southern Nevada) ◊ Since 2008, 242 completed the 60-hour environmental training ◊ In 2017, volunteered 2,610 hours, valued at $63,005 States must provide an approximate 1-to-1 dollar match for every federal capacity fund dollar received. The exact match varies by state, and for insular territories the match is closer to 1-to-2. In Nevada, state appropriations in 2017 for the Experiment Station were $6.9 million, and for Extension $3.8 million, hence the state match for federal funds were about 4-to-1 for the Experiment Station, and 2.3-to-1 for Extension. While these ratios surpass the minimum required match, they are much lower than in many other states. Kentucky, for example, received $5.1 million in Hatch funds, and has a state match of more than 20-to-1. Nevada fell woefully behind in its state funding of the Experiment Station and Extension as a result of the Great Recession. In 2009, the state contribution to the Experiment Station was $9.7 million. Because many teaching faculty also have research appointments through the Experiment Station that funds part of their salaries, several tenured faculty and staff were terminated, leading to the closure of two academic departments and termination of five degree programs. www.progressiverancher.com

Table 3. State appropriations for Extension in 2018 and nonfederal research and development expenditures in Agricultural Sciences in 2017 for similarly populated Western states. Extension data are from various state reports. Agricultural expenditure data are from the National Science Foundation.

State Montana Idaho New Mexico Utah Nevada

2018 Population 1,062,330 1,753,860 2,090,708 3,159,345 3,056,824

2018 $ 6,146,816 $12,609,434 $12,491,400 $17,264,200 $ 3,722,030

2017 Nonfederal Agriculture Research Expenditures by Land-Grant $29,550,00 $31,709,000 $22,376,000 $18,292,000 $8,290,000

In 2013, Extension’s budget was cut by a whopping 72%, ($5.5 million) resulting in huge losses in faculty, staff and programs. Lost specialist positions in the northern part of the state included those in weed science, livestock, water quality and conservation, nutrition, child & youth development, and community development. Those lost in the southern part include specialists in children, youth & family development (3); water; health & nutrition; and grant administration. Currently, more than 40 % of Extension’s budget comes from county government support.

only one-third of Nevada’s, invests 1.65 times as much into its Extension program as Nevada, and 3.6 times as much into agricultural research by its land-grant, Montana State University Bozeman. If the growing state of Nevada values its citizens and wants to improve their well-being through impactful research and Extension programming, it will need to reinvest in these two vital components of the state’s land-grant university, which have continued to serve, evolve and transform in Nevada for more than 100 years. As seen by the pie charts in Figure 1, the Experiment Advocating for these two entities within the larger Nevada Station and Extension have tried to offset these dramatic System of Higher Education is not easy, due competing state cuts in various ways. Both Experiment Station and interests within the System, a lack of familiarity with the Extension faculty have been successful in bringing in Experiment Station and Extension among some citizens, competitive grant dollars. The Experiment Station can also legislators and regents, and the mistaken perception that benefit from sales and services, e.g. from its farms, ranches these state entities only benefit one university or one or analytical services. In the case of Extension, counties part of the state. In fact, both have statewide missions, have stepped up when possible to offset massive cuts to the providing research and programs across the state in youth state budget, a testament to the high value they place on development, community and economic development, Extension’s faculty and programs. But the fact remains that range resources and wildlife habitat, nutrition and neither the Experiment Station nor Extension will be able food security, food safety, water resources management, to provide the same high return on investment that they animal science and health, biotechnology and work force did previous to the dramatic cuts in state budgets without development, environmental sciences, and much, much some restoration of the lost state funding. more. And, as demonstrated in Table 3, both are woefully To put this into perspective, data for state investments in underfunded. Extension and agricultural research are shown in Table 3 In other states, directors of Experiment Stations and for four similarly populated Western states -- Montana, Extension can directly interact with state legislators to Idaho, New Mexico and Utah. Utah, which has about the make their case for state investment and resulting high same population as Nevada and only receives slightly more impact on citizens and high return on investment. In in federal capacity funds, nonetheless invests five and one- Nevada, however, the case for reinvestment will likely half times more into Extension, and more than twice as have to be strongly supported politically by the countless much into agricultural research by its land-grant university, Nevadans who benefit from Experiment Station research Utah State University. Montana, which has a population and Extension programs.

Figure 1: TOTAL BUDGET (FY 2017)

The Progressive Rancher

JANUARY 2020 17


MANY ENVIRONMENTAL NGO’S DO NOTHING TO ACTUALLY PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT www.protecttheharvest.com

Environmental NGOs Abuse the Equal Access to Justice Act and the Endangered Species Act

for attorneys' fees and other expenses when they prevail in both administrative and judicial proceedings involving the federal government, when the action by the government cannot be substantially justified;” Over the last number of years, 400 lawsuits have been filed by the WildEarth Guardians and similar non-governmental organizations (NGOs), targeting livestock grazing permits, according to a 2013 report by Karen Budd-Falen. Budd-Falen is an attorney and now serves as Deputy Solicitor for Fish, Wildlife, and Parks.

than that in assets. The normal attorneys’ fee schedule set forth in EAJA puts a cap of $125 an hour, however, many environmental groups argue that specialized environmental lawyers are necessary and are often receiving a higher hourly fee (Baier, 2012, p. 34). Karen Budd-Falen found that environmental lawyers are getting reimbursed at rates as high as $750 an hour (Budd-Falen, 2013). Collusion To Swamp Agencies

Wild Earth Guardians, Center for Biological Diversity and Westerns Watershed Project work as a group to purposely overwhelm government Abuse of the agencies with petitions and lawsuits, Endangered Species Act abusing acts like the Endangered Species In 2011, two settlements were recorded Act, the Clean Air Act, & the Clean between the Department of Justice, US Water Act and then collecting exorbitant Fish and Wildlife Service, and WildEarth fees under the Equal Access to Justice Act. Guardians and the Center for Biological Due to the incredible volume of petitions, Diversity on petitions for over 1,000 the US Fish and Wildlife Services and additions to the Endangered Species other agencies are unable to keep up with List. For reference, the list at that time their demands. This then provides these Western Watershed Project, WildEarth from government grants, which is contained just over 2000 species. Meaning, groups with the basis to file lawsuits for Guardians, and the Center for Biological essentially taxpayer money they use to sue WildEarth Guardians and the Center for slow compliance under regulations listed Diversity as well as other similar non- the government. In many cases, fees are Biological Diversity were petitioning to in these acts. Once non-compliance with governmental organizations (NGO’s) partially or fully reimbursed to them upon add over 50% to the list in one year. These timeframes as outlined in the Act happen, have very misleading names. They winning or simply settling a case under the two settlements, including processing the lawsuits are filed, and the organizations don’t actually protect the environment Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA). This is filings, conducting the scientific studies, collect their legal fees and other or “biological diversity”. Instead, via summarized well by the website STRATA: and designating proposed critical habitat settlements under the EAJA. their collusion and actions, these non- “It seems that EAJA has created a system cost the US Fish and Wildlife Service governmental organizations harm where groups like WEG jump much too over $206,000,000 (Budd-Falen, 2011). WildEarth Guardians, Center for American families, American taxpayers, eagerly into legal battles and are rewarded In addition, WildEarth Guardians and Biological Diversity and Western and American businesses, as well as our for it. These groups supposedly want to see Center for Biological Diversity were Watersheds Project are openly colluding species protected, but the results show that awarded attorney’s fees. Those amounts to overwhelm the federal government as valued wildlife. evidenced with their petitions and lawsuits. they are backlogging the system, and the were not released. The fact that they have filed thousands of Google “Sue and Settle” money shows that they are getting paid to According to reports produced by Karen petitions and hundreds of lawsuits shows to Learn the Truth do so.” Budd-Falen, during the span of 2007- that these activities to take advantage of The three groups we named frequently Staggering Numbers of Lawsuits 2011, WildEarth Guardians and Center both the Endangered Species Act, etc., work in concert with each other in lawsuits. for Biological Diversity submitted 90% of and the Equal Access to Justice Act are Filed by Environmental NGO A quick Google search with the keywords, the petitions to Fish and Wildlife Services not a one-time occurrence and have been Attorney Members “Sue and Settle” produces hundreds regarding the Endangered Species List. very lucrative for the organizations. of articles about non-governmental One-third of the staff and board of 46% of the cases filed by WildEarth environmental groups abusing processes WildEarth Guardians are attorneys. Guardians, 30% of the cases filed by This collusive and repetitive behavior has put into place to protect and support Therefore, they are well versed at Center for Biological Diversity, and 25% been going on for decades. Americans. These articles also outline how submitting lawsuits and can churn filings of the cases filed by Western Watersheds the groups have made millions from filing and petitions out at an alarming rate. The Project are ONLY to force the federal We believe these activities clearly qualify overwhelming numbers of lawsuits. The intention of the EAJA was not to pay government to comply with Endangered for a Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt activities of these groups bog down the lawyer members of non-governmental Species Act timeframes. Organization investigation by the Depart­ governmental agencies that they target by organizations that already have millions ment of Justice. diverting valuable staff time and budget in their bank accounts. The Department Reimbursement of Legal Fees to resources towards their frequent and of the Interior has reported that over Environmental NGO Attorneys $800 million per year had been spent incessant filings and other lawsuits. are Almost Seven Times Higher in such settlements under the previous Abuse of the Equal administration. On their own website, The exact cost of EAJA to taxpayers Access to Justice Act the Center for Biological Diversity states is unknown due to a lack in reporting mandates. Judgement funds are used in These groups are abusing the Equal they have filed over 147 lawsuits against statutes like the Endangered Species Act, Access to Justice Act (EAJA), using it to the Trump administration alone, since he The Clean Air Act, and the Clean Water fill their coffers with government funding. took office. Act, thus giving these NGO’s further Under the EAJA, the US Government is According to the U.S Government protection from scrutiny. Additionally, paying these groups to sue governmental Accountability Office the EAJA was, “… their 501(c)(3) status exempts these agencies. A substantial portion of the intended to reimburse individuals and groups from the $7 million net-worth WildEarth Guardian’s income comes small businesses with limited resources cap, despite having many times more  18 JANUARY 2020

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www.progressiverancher.com


The PACT Act Raises Major Concerns Subject Matter Experts Will Not Decide What is Customary Animal Husbandry As the PACT Act reads now, veterinary medicine and livestock are exempt. However, since rule-making to determine what is “customary” is falling on the judiciary instead of actual subject-matter experts: farmers, ranchers, animal owners and veterinarians, there is a legitimate concern that animal owners, no matter what category they fall into are going to be subject to federal criminal charges for simply following animal husbandry practices. Critical Shortage of Rural, Large Animal Veterinarians In addition to the rule-making concern, there is concern regarding what falls under the purview of veterinary care. States have different regulations in regard to procedures and treatments that can be administered by non-veterinarians and what is considered “under veterinary direction or under the direction of a veterinarian”. Add to this the fact that there are simply not enough large animal veterinarians in the country to meet the need. According to the USDA, there are about 500 counties in the U.S. underserved by a veterinarian in 2019. The vast majority are in rural areas. There are shortages this year in 44 states, the highest number reporting shortages since tracking began. The shortage in large animal veterinarians has to do with many factors, including student debt and low pay for rural veterinarians. According to the AVMA, 2018 graduates from veterinary colleges averaged $143,000 of debt. This severe shortage has been recognized by the USDA, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) as well as various state veterinary associations and pharmaceutical companies. There are now veterinary loan repayment programs offered by states and pharma companies. The Federal Government has stepped in as well via the Federal Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLP) which has been launched to help fill positions in areas where there are veterinarian shortages. Will Animal Owners Be Committing Federal Crimes When Providing Basic Treatment or Lifesaving Care? What can't be ignored is how this shortage in veterinarians impacts owners and their access to veterinary care for their animals. It leaves many animal owners in rural areas in the position where they must provide their own care to animals on emergency basis, or until the time when a veterinarian is available. Under the PACT Act, animal owners could be committing federal crimes when they are simply working to follow basic animal husbandry practices or providing other sorts of life-saving care. www.progressiverancher.com

Animal Cruelty is Wrong, but that does not make the PACT Act RIGHT.

WHY ANIMAL CRUELTY LEGISLATION IS CONCERNING We often share information about legislation that has implications for animal owners. The facts we share can surprise our followers as they know our organization is centered around animal welfare and they don’t always understand why we don’t show some of that legislation in a more positive light.

Use of words like “customary and normal” are very subjective. While there is a wide range of “common practices” in veterinary medicine and animal agriculture, not everyone agrees on all those practices being customary and normal.

and treatment by veterinarians, owners, or farm/ranch employees. A chute helps keep the animal and people working on it safe during procedures or treatment. Squeeze chutes are essential when working with livestock that often weigh 500 to 1500 pounds or more. It allows handlers to treat hundreds of animals in a day.

Practices can differ for many different Protect The Harvest firmly and reasons including climate, operating wholeheartedly believes that all animals expense, education, and experience, that deserve to be treated using best welfare does not make any of those practices cruel. • Branding livestock – burn. Branding is necessary to identify animals’ owners, practices. This belief is part of why we work There are often many ways to accomplish a especially in western states where so hard to defend animal owners’ rights to task. Depending on what a person’s beliefs and expertise might be, their idea of what thousands of livestock are turned out own and use animals. is customary and normal may change, on tens of thousands of acres. Pastures Anyone that cares about and for animals especially if they are animal rights leaning. are often only separated by a wire fence. feels animal cruelty is wrong, and it deserves Animals must have a permanent, easily to be punished under existing laws. It is In (f ) Definitions, H.R. 724 states: visible identification so they can be cared important to remember, there are already “(1) the term ‘animal crushing’ means for properly by their owners. The process felony animal cruelty laws in all 50 states. actual conduct in which one or more living of branding is done in one of two ways: Many times, concerns about certain non-human mammals, birds, reptiles, or hot-iron branding or freeze branding. legislation will arise when the curtain is amphibians is purposely crushed, burned, Both cause only quick, temporary pulled back and the supporting groups and drowned, suffocated, impaled, or otherwise discomfort, much like a vaccination. subjected to serious bodily injury (as defined language used is analyzed. in section 1365 and including conduct that, • Neck roping a calf to doctor in a pasture – suffocate. In places where there are PACT Act – Preventing Animal if committed against a person and in the immense, open fields, it is not practical Cruelty and Torture Act (H.R. 724) special maritime and territorial jurisdiction or humane to move a sick animal H.R. 724, a bill that passed the House of the United States, would violate section sometimes miles to a corral and squeeze of Representatives on October 22, 2019, 2241 or 2242)” chute to administer care. The stress reads like so many other animal rights Reading the definition brings several that could cause the animal usually far pushed bills. Vague language allows for concerns to mind. In someone’s uneducated outweighs the benefit. It is much more a wide spectrum of interpretation. We “customary and normal” interpretation efficient and effective for the animal to see this situation frequently in proposed many everyday actions could be a felony be roped and “doctored” immediately legislation concerning animals. So, can we under this law. out in the field. A good cowboy can surmise it is done on purpose? doctor many animals in less time with Impact on Safely Handling Animals less stress than it would take to drive On the surface, this bill looks good, it them to a handling facility. looks like it prevents animal cruelty. In The following examples are all humane section (d) Exceptions it looks to exempt and good animal welfare practices used • Applying ear tags to livestock – impale. veterinarians, animal husbandry, slaughter by veterinarians, farmers and ranchers, Ear tags are an important part of for food, hunting, and scientific research and pet owners across this country every livestock identification, often used to and testing. This is why it was such an easy day. They are standard, necessary practices match females with their offspring. sell to the majority of the lawmakers who that could be easily misunderstood by This ensures that pairs are kept together someone uneducated in animal handling signed it. when moving pastures. and husbandry. Making these actions Home health care for household Cruelty is wrong easy targets for animal rights groups to • pets involving subcutaneous fluids so what’s the problem? use to spread their cruelty message to the or medication – impale. Leaving an unknowing public. When considering the ideology of animal animal at a veterinary hospital or office rights and the steps they have taken • Putting livestock in a squeeze chute for extended recovery is not always for years to sway public opinion and to vet, or to provide treatment – crush. in the best interest of the pet and is a legislation, the use of certain words can Squeeze chutes are used to safely ... continued next page raise a red flag. immobilize livestock for examination The Progressive Rancher

JANUARY 2020 19


... continued from previous page

large financial burden for pet owners. Veterinarians often instruct owners on care and send animals home to save on animal stress and owner expenses. This care can encompass many actions performed by pet owners including home care for diabetic pets or the administration of subcutaneous fluids for pets with kidney failure.

Even more concerning than the vague definition of the term ‘animal crushing’ are the three additional sections used in that definition. These three sections were written specifically for people and should not transfer directly to animals, the implications are huge. Impact on Breeding Animals In section 1365 the definition of bodily injury includes “(D) impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty”. The mention of this opens a door very wide for interpretation of what an animal’s mental status may be. It is a common animal rights goal to liken animals to humans in this way. Who’s to say the standard animal care practice of castration might not end up as a felony, depending on the opinion and beliefs of those tasked with enforcing this proposed law. It obviously physically affects a “bodily member or organ,” and it also changes the behavior of the animal. Sections 2241 and 2242 define sexual abuse with regards to people. The cause for concern here is the increased frequency of animal rights groups claiming that any purposeful breeding and artificial insemination of animals is akin to rape. They label breeding stock as sex slaves, attempting to convey these animals have human thoughts and feelings. This is done specifically to play on the uneducated public’s emotions. Under this law, would a rancher or dairyman or horse breeder end up a felon? Who would be in charge of deciding what is “customary and normal”?

20 JANUARY 2020

THE PACT ACT WAS “HOTLINED” ALLOWING FOR NO DEBATE

Artificial insemination has been key to the massive increase in efficiency in livestock production. It allows breeders access to the best genetics. Producers are now able to generate greater yields and higher quality products using fewer resources than in past years. This is vital to the sustainability of animal agriculture and the ability to provide for an ever-expanding human population.

happen to be the authors of H.R. 724) using words like “depraved”, “gruesome”, and “inhumane” to paint a picture in the uninformed minds.

There Are Already Animal Cruelty Laws in Place in All 50 States

The PACT ACT passed through the House and the Senate with lightning speed. The fact it happened without Let us not forget, that time and time again, debate should alarm every American. It animal rights groups have stated that in seems it wasn't officially voted on in either their opinion, simple animal ownership the House or the Senate. The process used is the same as slavery and they consider to push the PACT Act through without that right an act of cruelty. Their opinion debate is called “Hotlining” and it raises of “customary and normal” may differ as many red flags as the legislation written drastically from your opinion. Animal and sponsored by animal rights groups. rights has nothing to do with animal Hotlining Bills – welfare and everything to do with the end Bypasses Regular Procedures of animals in human care. Hotlining is the practice of bypassing Need a recent example? On the same day regular Senate procedures and moving H.R. 724 passed the House, Newsweek legislation through to a vote with little or no published an article reporting on a letter floor debate. This is done in an attempt to from PETA asking Dictionary.com to pass the legislation through the unanimous change its definition of the word “animal”. consent of all Senators. It’s intended use They claim the current definition creates is to quickly move noncontroversial bills a distinction between humans and other or simple procedural motions through the animals that they believe to be “speciesist”. process. Unfortunately, it is used for much Carefully consider who is educating your more than that. lawmakers. Keep those facts in mind when According to an article in Roll Call, a reading about new legislation that touts Capitol Hill News Source since 1955, the itself as preventing cruelty. If you would process is as follows: “In order for a bill to like to voice your opinion to lawmakers be hotlined, the Senate Majority Leader and effect change, review S. 479 using the and Minority Leader must agree to pass link below and contact your U.S. Senator. it by unanimous consent, without a roll-

The passing of this bill seems to set a precedence that will eventually criminalize animal breeding and ownership.

All 50 states have animal cruelty laws in place, meaning there are already set standards held up at the state level. This law, because it is Federal, has the potential to damage many yet unmentioned industries. For example, would transportation of these “abused” animals across state lines make the list of potential felonies? That may interest livestock transporters. Why Do You Need To Educate Your Lawmakers? Laws like this are aiming to chip away at animal ownership on a federal level. If you are an animal owner, you have cause to be concerned and it is time to look at the big picture of what animal rights groups are working to accomplish.

Animal rights groups take advantage of the fact that most lawmakers are often not experts in animal care or welfare. Usually, lawmakers listen to the loudest voices or the organization that recognizes them with awards or contributions. Organizations like The Humane Society of the United States work hard to foster relationships with lawmakers using these tactics. The PACT Act is just another example of “wolves in sheep’s clothing”. In the media, articles quote muckity mucks from the HSUS and the Humane Society Legislative Fund patting the backs of their “award winners” (who also

Who will decide what is inhumane or not? What are their credentials and experience? Animal rights groups work very hard every day to anthropomorphize animals, changing the narrative as to what is generally considered cruel or abuse. It is clear many stakeholders, including veterinarians and livestock experts, were left out of the conversation about this proposed federal law. Animal Rights Has Nothing to Do With Animal Welfare

Please read our supporting information:

H.R. 724: https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/ house-bill/724/text/ih S. 479: congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/senate-bill/479/text Our article educating on Anthropomorphism: https://protecttheharvest.com/what-you-need-to-know/ anthropomorphism-is-the-greatest-threat-to-animal-welfare/ Newsweek/PETA: https://www.newsweek.com/petadictionary-com-animal-definition-speciesist-humans-1466953

The Progressive Rancher

call vote. The two leaders then inform Members of this agreement using special hotlines installed in each office and give Members a specified amount of time to object — in some cases as little as 15 minutes. If no objection is registered, the bill is passed.

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Critics also point out that hotlining is often done during “wrap-up” at the end of the day — which can occur well after Members’ offices have closed for business — and is particularly popular in the runup to recesses.” An Aggressive Move Several excerpts from the September 2007, Roll Call article elaborate on the hot lining process and how often it is used to pass legislation. It lists concerns and statistics. Quoting Senator Tom Coburn (R-Okla.), the article states:

“Sen. Tom Coburn (R-OK) said hotlining bills is not necessarily a bad thing but Members have increasingly seen the process as a right. “People think they can hotline [a bill] and you have to agree,” Coburn said, adding that “a lot of Members are offended” if anyone raises an objection or wants to offer changes to a bill." The Threat of Bad Press and Fake News In addition to lawmakers taking the attitude that hot lining is a “right” there is the very real threat of bad press. This is done by intentionally turning reasonable questions or objections into fake news. We have experienced these sorts of false assertions when we bring to light the true motives and consequences of animal rights based legislation. A good example of this is when we opposed Prop B in Missouri. The animal rights groups that proposed the bill attempted to slur our organization by making the claim that since we were against Prop B, we were against animal welfare protections for animals. Nothing could be further from the truth. In the article Roll Call Article about hotlining,

Overview of the PACT Act and its Consequences

Senator Coburn addresses this as well:

“Coburn also said that because of limited floor time, “we don’t have time to debate everything ... but if you object, they ought to be willing to negotiate with you. But usually, they put the press after you.

“They accuse you of being against veterans, of being against breast cancer patients ... I’ve been accused of so many things,” Coburn lamented. But he insisted that when sponsors of bills he has objected to take his concerns seriously, they often are able to work out an agreement. “

Link to Roll Call Article: https://www. rollcall.com/news/-20011-1.html The Consensus Calendar – New Rule for the 116th Session

The Consensus Calendar is a new Asking Questions About the PACT rule effective this year for the 116th Congressional Session in the House of Act’s Language Certainly Would Representatives. Referring a bill to the Be “Asking For It” Consensus Calendar removes a legislative “PACT Act” is an acronym for “Preventing step that is designed to give the public an Animal Cruelty and Torture Act”. The opportunity to inform members of the name is strategic and it is one of the committee (that discusses the merits of a tactics used in the animal rights lobbying bill and amends it as needed, or keeps it bag of tricks. Based on experience and from moving forward) of concerns about the commentary from Senator Coburn, a bill prior to it being sent to the floor for imagine the headlines that animal rights a vote. To date, 9 bills have been referred organizations can use as a weapon to the Consensus Calendar, 2 of which are against lawmakers who might have asked concerning animal rights related bills. questions about the language, and opposed it altogether if time had allowed. What Happened with the PACT ACT in The House of Hotlining Creates a Gross Representatives Lack of Transparency On 10.16.19, the sponsor of H.R. 724, Rep. In the same Roll Call article about Deutch (D-FL-22) referred the PACT hotlining the lack of transparency is ACT bill to the Consensus Calendar. discussed. Bill Allison is quoted: Doing that allowed the PACT ACT bill to “Bill Allison, a senior fellow at the bypass any Committee hearings and move government watchdog group Sunlight to the floor vote. On 10.22, Mr. Deutch Foundation, said the process of hotlining moved to suspend the rules and pass the has added to the lack of transparency and bill as amended. After a short 40 minute accountability in Congress. “Hotlining debate, a motion to suspend the rules and bills diminishes the accountability of pass the bill, as amended, was agreed to by Congress. Senators are forced into an voice vote. Our Concerns with the PACT Act • The authors of the bill are HSUS award winners. This fact alone demonstrates the underlying motivation is to further the animal rights agenda, not animal welfare as they hope the public believes.

President Trump signed the Preventing Animal Cruelty and Torture (PACT) • Vague language allows for a wide spectrum of interpretation, especially Act into law Monday, November 25th, when it comes to what is “customary 2019. We were certainly disappointed, but and normal”. The use of the phrase, not surprised. The animal rights groups “customary and normal” in the behind this bill presented it in a highly exemption list is very concerning and deceptive way, allowing for its speedy certainly opens doors to vastly different progress through the House and Senate, interpretations and future changes in and the eventual signing by POTUS. what practices may be exempt. Protect The Harvest has published 4 • According to the language of the bill articles about the PACT Act covering our the term ‘animal crushing’ means actual concerns and what happened in detail (see conduct in which one or more living website under the Initiatives tab). non-human mammals, birds, reptiles, The following is a high-level overview: or amphibians is purposely crushed, www.progressiverancher.com

‘all-or-nothing’ posture — place a secret hold on legislation and negotiate in the back room or keep their objections to themselves. The Senate is supposed to be a deliberative body, and those deliberations should occur in the light of day and be part of the public record,” Allison said.”

burned, drowned, suffocated, impaled, or otherwise subjected to serious bodily injury. Depending on the opinion of the yet to be named decisionmakers, could the below humane practices end up changing farmers, ranchers and animal owners into felons?

• Putting livestock in a squeeze chute to vet, or to provide treatment – crush. • Branding livestock – burn.

• Neck roping a calf to doctor in a pasture – suffocate. • Applying ear tags to livestock – impale.

• Home health care for household pets involving subcutaneous fluids or medication – impale.

• In section 1365 the definition of bodily injury includes “(D) impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or

The Progressive Rancher

The PACT ACT was Hotlined If the process used in the House of Representatives wasn’t concerning enough, the way the identical bill, S. 479, passed the Senate is also something we should explain. Proposed legislation takes many forms and there are many processes in making a bill law. Bills like the PACT Act, that are not exactly as they seem on the surface, need time and open communication with all types of stakeholders prior to a vote. That did not happen in this instance. This bill was hotlined. The PACT ACT Did Not Receive a Unanimous Vote Many media outlets are painting the passing of S. 479 as a unanimous vote, in truth it was not. S. 479 was hotlined out of the Judiciary Committee to the Senate floor on November 5th. At that time there were only one or two Senators present. The PACT ACT was brought forward and passed with no vote because no one knew it was on the floor, and consequently there was no one to oppose the bill. This is the most deceptive way to pass a bill. Animal Owners Should Be Alarmed at the Speed In Which Animal Rights Legislation Made Its Way to The President’s Desk We, as the supporters of animal owners and producers of all kinds, need to ask ourselves how a bill with such dangerous language was able to work its way through the process all the way to the President of the United States’ desk in a matter of 2 weeks. Almost completely unnoticed by many in DC.

When will it happen again?

mental faculty”. The mention of this opens a door very wide for interpretation of what an animal’s mental status may be. It is a common animal rights tactic to anthropomorphize, which is applying human characteristics to animals. For example, who’s to say the standard animal care practice of castration might not end up as a felony, depending on the opinion and beliefs of those tasked with enforcing this new law. It obviously physically affects a “bodily member or organ,” and it also changes the behavior of the animal. The Animal Rights Groups Pushing this Bill Whether President Trump and his advisors knew he was supporting the animal rights movement or not, unfortunately he

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validated these groups and their ideology and agenda. Those present at the signing included known radical animal rights ideologues like Kitty Block, President and CEO of the HSUS (and past PETA employee), Jack Hubbard, the COO of American Humane, Sara Amundson the CEO of the Humane Society Legislative Fund, and Marty Irby, the Executive Director of Animal Wellness Action, an organization founded by former CEO of the HSUS, Wayne Pacelle. We can’t help but point out the folks standing around President Trump during the signing of the PACT Act are not members of the base that helped to get him elected. In fact, they are likely Progressive Democrats who fight against him at every turn. There Are Animal Cruelty Laws in Place in Every State It is important to know there are felony animal cruelty laws in place in all 50 states. This means there are already set standards held up at the state level. This law, because it is Federal, has the potential to damage many yet unmentioned industries. For example, would transportation of these “abused” animals across state lines make the list of potential felonies? This may interest livestock transporters. How The PACT Act Made it to the White House Seemingly Unopposed The PACT ACT passed through the House and the Senate with lightning speed. The fact it happened without an opportunity for discussion and debate should alarm every American that owns animals. Many media outlets are painting the passing of S. 479 as a unanimous vote, in truth it was not. In reality, there was no official vote in either the House or the Senate. Consensus Calendar in Congress On October 16, 2019, the sponsor of H.R. 724, Representative Deutch (DFL-22) referred the PACT ACT bill to the Consensus Calendar. A new rule effective this year for the 116th Congressional Session, the Consensus Calendar removes an important legislative step. Representative Duetch’s action allowed the PACT Act to bypass any Committee hearings and move to the floor vote.  22 JANUARY 2020

Hotlining in the Senate The process used to push the PACT Act through the Senate without debate is called “hotlining” and it raises as many red flags as this piece of animal rights sponsored legislation. Hotlining is a practice of bypassing regular Senate procedures and moving legislation through to a vote with little or no floor debate. This is done to pass legislation through the unanimous consent of all Senators. It’s intended use is to expedite noncontroversial bills or simple procedural motions through the process, for example: renaming a post office. S. 479 was hotlined out of the Judiciary Committee to the Senate floor on November 5th. At that time there were only one or two Senators present. The PACT ACT was brought forward and passed with no vote because no one knew it was on the floor, and consequently there was no one to oppose the bill. This is the most deceptive way to pass a bill.

Ultimately, the PACT Act then landed on President Trumps desk in the course of two weeks, completely unnoticed by much of Washington DC. He subsequently signed it into law days later.

these activities became a federal crime. The world would change as we know it, which is the goal of the animal rights ideology. Don’t be fooled into thinking this cannot happen, there are animal rights ideologues currently in public office. • Our other main concern is one we have voiced since the beginning. What are the qualifications of those who will decide what is considered ‘customary and normal’ as it applies to exemption (A) for veterinary, agricultural husbandry, or other animal management practices? Considering the make-up of the group standing behind the president while he signed the act, we should all be very concerned about them positioning themselves to be our decision makers. It was the who’s who of the Humane Society of the United States and Humane Society Legislative Fund. Protect The Harvest Will Always Support Animal Welfare

We had hoped the tens of thousands of emails, calls, and letters sent in opposition of the PACT Act would impact the signing decision. Despite the PACT Act Rules signing, it is important to continue to feel Will Not Be Written empowered in your ability and rights by By Subject Matter Experts voicing your concerns to the government. Everyone who owns animals should be Protect The Harvest will always work extremely concerned with the next step to protect the rights and freedoms of – rulemaking. The consequences of the farmers, ranchers, sportsmen, and pet rulemaking process are far-reaching. owners. We will not give up on our efforts It is extremely unfortunate that the to educate others of the consequences of rules for the PACT Act are being the activities of animal rights and other written by the Department of Justice – non-governmental organizations, as well people familiar with laws, not familiar as their impact on animal welfare and our with animal health and welfare. As American way of life. we outlined previously, this law could Protect The Harvest firmly and have enormous implications on animal wholeheartedly believes that all animals ownership and breeding in many ways. deserve to be treated using best welfare Below are two main concerns: practices. This belief is part of why we work so hard to defend animal owners’ • Since this is an act instead of a rights to own and use animals. bill, it can be easily amended in the future. A simple language www.protect theharvest.com change could make felons out of those now listed as exempt in (d) (1)(B-F) of HR724. Currently, slaughter for food, hunting, scientific research, protection of property, and euthanizing an animal are exempt. Imagine if animal rights ideologues changed the rules so that and The Progressive Rancher

NDOW Provides Funding to Nevada Shooting Ranges The Nevada Department of Wildlife (NDOW) funds improvements at shooting ranges across Nevada to make them safer and more accessible to the community. This funding also allows for more facilities to host Hunter Education classes. Ashley Sanchez and Aaron Keller sat down with Conservation Education Division Administrator Chris Vasey to talk about the importance of having safe, accessible shooting ranges in Nevada, NDOW's involvement in the funding process, and how communities can apply for a grant for a shooting range near them. Listen to the podcast here: soundcloud. com/user-934973730/nevadasshooting-range-program

Relocating Bighorn Sheep The bighorn sheep herd in Nevada's Stillwater Range is so healthy, NDOW has relocated 51 wild sheep to establish a new herd in unoccupied habitat in the Mineral Mountains of Utah. Last week we captured sheep in Nevada, and then transported them to Utah. Ashley Sanchez and Aaron Keller sat down with NDOW Staff Specialist Mike Cox to talk about this project, the work and planning that goes into it, more projects coming up, and how you can get involved. Listen here: soundcloud.com/user934973730/movin-bighorn-sheep

For a list of volutneer oppportunities with NDOW, visit tinyurl.com/NDW-Volunteer Download Nevada Wild from SoundCloud and iTunes. It airs on 99.1 FM Talk at 10 a.m. every Sunday a.m. and is live online at www.991fmtalk.com www.progressiverancher.com


In Loving Memory of M ichael L eonard C apurro Michael Leonard Capurro passed away November 6, 2019 at his beloved home, Big Canyon Ranch with his family and his ever faithful Australian Shepherd “Ivy” at his side.

This is a song we feel describes Mike very well.

Mike was born on March 6, 1959, to Herbert and Dolores (Dalton) Capurro at St. Mary’s Hospital in Reno, Nevada.

He knew more about life than I ever will He rarely left the ranch up on that red dirt hill He never had a whole lot to say But when he did, you bet you could take it to the bank To a kid, he seemed just like old John Wayne He worked from sun to sun, I never heard him complain

He attended the last one room schoolhouse in Washoe County, Bonham School in Flanigan, NV until it closed in 1969. He graduated from Reed High School in 1977. Mike was a lifelong cattle rancher who worked alongside his family at Big Canyon. The footprint he left on the ranch by his devotion and many talents will be a challenge to fill. As a rancher he had many responsibilities and no job was too much for him to handle. Mike loved his family and everything he did was for his family, he always put them first. He was smart and quick witted with a great sense of humor which made him a joy to be around.

“The Kind Of Man He Was” by Colby Yates

That's the kind of man he was, that's the man I grew up with That's the kind of tough he was and that's the kind of life he led And I'll spend the rest of mine workin' every day Tryin' to become the kind of man he was He taught me how to get up when I got knocked down At an early age, I learned how to stand my ground And I still don't know the meaning of the word "quit" That's just because he wasn't gonna have none of it The last time I saw him, he just shook my hand Said, "Don't worry 'bout it, son, someday we'll meet again" That's the kind of man he was, that's the man I grew up with That's the kind of tough he was and that's the kind of life he led And I'll spend the rest of mine workin' every day Tryin' to become the kind of man he was.

Would you like to ADVERTISE with us? Do you have an ARTICLE you would like to submit? Please submit your advertising inquiries or your article for consideration to: progressiverancher@elko.net

Mike was a beloved husband, father, brother, “Papa”, uncle and friend. He leaves behind his wife of 39 years Cindy, daughters, Tawny Van Brouwer (Blake), Sara Victor (Sean), Jaimee Benjamin (Daniel), brother Steve (Cookie), sisters Rita Armstrong (Tom), Judy Crosby (Fred), Uncle Donn Dalton, his grandchildren, nieces, nephews and close friends, many of whom are considered family. He was preceded in death by both parents. A celebration of his life will be held in the spring at Big Canyon Ranch. In lieu of flowers, please make a donation in his name to Rope for Hope, PO Box 328, NV 89446. Heaven just got a topnotch cowboy.

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The Progressive Rancher

JANUARY 2020 23


National FFA Convention & Expo 2019—Nevada Results American FFA Degree Recipients Hunter Drost, Oasis FFA Magalli Flores, Ruby Mountain FFA Walker Fowers, Silver Sage FFA Cody Gibbs, Diamond Mountain FFA

Agriscience Fair—Environmental Services/Natural Resource Systems,

State Delegates Dionne Stanfill, State President Weston Noyes, State Vice President Makae Pulsipher, State Secretary Sarah VanNest, Past State Reporter

GOLD

Agricultural Issues Forum Winnemucca FFA, 2nd in the Nation

W. Noyes | A. Aitken | D. Patterson | M. Coleman | B. Feraro | I. Mori | T. Hoyt

Agricultural Sales—Silver Sage FFA D. Stanfill - Gold | A. Barnes - Gold | S. Lamb - Silver| D. Albisu - Bronze

Conduct of Chapter Meetings— Silver Sage FFA

A.Openshaw| E. Mauer| E. Borg| M. Borkman| N. Harris| S. Watkins

Creed Speaking M. Wilson, Wells FFA Extemporaneous Public Speaking E. Petersen, Silver Sage FFA Livestock Evaluation Moapa Valley FFA

R. McMurray – Silver | M. Kephart – Bronze | A. Stratton – Bronze | S. Matheson - Bronze

24 JANUARY 2020

100% State & Growth State Awards Nevada was recognized for being a 100% membership state and for growing in numbers of students.

Farm & Agribusiness Management Wells FFA

Div. 6

L. Smith & E. Petersen, Silver Sage FFA, 2nd Place

National Officer Candidate Heather Lacovara, Diamond Mtn. FFA

Agricultural Technology & Mechanical Systems Silver Sage FFA, 10th in the Nation

H. Johnson – Gold | M. Wachtel – Gold | L. Ballard – Silver | I. Sprattling - Silver

C. Fowers – Gold | K. Syme – Gold | J. Cashell – Gold | E. Carlson - Silver

SILVER

Horse Evaluation—Ruby Mtn. FFA

Environmental & Natural Resources—Silver Sage FFA

L. Smith – Gold| T. Reynolds – Silver| Z. Glenn – Silver| M. Wines - Bronze

Floriculture—Diamond Mtn. FFA

D. Mears – Gold| S. Merritt – Silver| J. Protani – Silver| J. Dominguez - Bronze

BRONZE

A. Flores – Gold| K. Ross – Silver| S. Auge – Silver| A. Craven - Bronze

Veterinary Science Smith Valley FFA

E. Lopez – Gold| R. Urton – Silver| H. Horton – Bronze| T. Balda – Bronze

Poultry Evaluation—Capitol FFA

Milk Quality & Products Smoky Valley FFA

B. Christensen – Silver| L. Mock – Bronze | E. Gines – Bronze | M. Sarmiento – Bronze

M. Meza-Moreno – Silver | J. Kahue – Silver | Z. Belcastro – Bronze | B. Tureson - Bronze

Churchill County FFA By Bethie Ikonen Every year in August the first thing the Churchill County FFA Chapter will come together and participate in is a Fallon favorite known as the Cantaloupe Festival. Every year our FFA Chapter has a booth we set up and work so people from our community come down to learn and visit with our members, including buses of elementary students on field trips from all around the area. This year we had many fun activities including; goat yoga, Moolissa, World of Corn, and then our Barn of Farm Animals. Following the Cantaloupe Festival the chapter had its first meeting of the year, where we established committees and a plan for the year. Following that was the Farm to Table dinner, where members assisted in serving food and keeping guests accompanied. September started with the Labor Day parade where the Churchill County FFA members rode on our very own float. The Churchill County FFA Rangeland team participated in the State Competition in September in Ely, NV. The team consisted of Marie Lawson, Audrey Renfore, McKay Winder, Emma Akins, and Savana Mahna. They are coached by Chris Bernau and placed 3rd in the State. They will travel to Elko for the National Rangeland Competition in November. Throughout the school year FFA members attend Eagles Hall breakfast every other Sunday to help serve guests. Then came October where the chapter went on its traditional trick-ortreating for canned food drive. This November we have already had our monthly meeting, and are sending our range team to range nationals in Elko the 10-12. We plan to stay on track, keep attending community dinners and events, and remind the community the importance of agriculture in our everyday lives. Churchill County FFA is driven to keep Farming and Agriculture alive and continue to recruit members and teach children the importance of our way of life.

Prepared Public Speaking K. Hatch, Pahranagat Valley FFA

The Progressive Rancher

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Nevada FFA Students Achieve Gold at 92nd National FFA Convention That One Time a Sage Grouse flew from Winnemucca to Indianapolis: Winnemucca FFA’s Agriculture Issues Forum Team Places 2nd at National FFA Convention The sage grouse from Winnemucca traveled 1,873 miles with the Winnemucca FFA’s Agriculture Issues Forum team to compete at the 92nd National FFA Convention in Indianapolis on October 30 - November 2, 2019. It served as a prop for the team’s presentation about livestock grazing on sage grouse habitat. Similar to characters in an Aesop’s fable, this grouse and the students went on a journey that taught them lessons about personal and team growth, determination, hard work and the gift of an amazing support system. The journey started in October of 2018, when twelve students decided to put together a team for the Agricultural Issues Forum Leadership Development Event to be held at the Nevada FFA State Convention. This competitive event requires students to choose a controversial topic, research it and then create a presentation that shows multiple perspectives on the topic. After some brainstorming and discussion with community members and professionals, they decided to tackle the difficult topic of whether sage grouse should be listed on the endangered species list which could result in limiting actions like cattle grazing.

This is an important topic in Nevada that has been discussed for many years. Countless hours have been committed by government officials, landowners, agriculturalists and many others to address practices and policies to keep the bird off the endangered species list. Eighty seven percent of Nevada’s land is owned by the federal government. If the bird was listed, then thousands of acres of that land would not be allowed for multi uses like grazing, hunting

and recreation. This could have a huge financial impact on Nevada’s economy. This is definitely a daunting topic that can only be compared to the challenge that the Tortoise faced in his race with the Hare. The students applied lessons they learned in their agricultural science classes as well as the knowledge they gained from meeting with countless industry representatives to perfect their presentation. It resulted in students taking on the following roles: ranchers, sportsman, wildlife activists, and teacher. To be eligible to compete at the Nevada FFA State Convention they had to formally present their presentation three times. The students packed up the sage grouse in March to travel to Reno for the Nevada FFA State Convention. It was there that their hard work paid off as they placed first and qualified to compete at the National FFA Convention. The work didn’t stop there as they had to present more times before they could compete on the national level. Throughout the whole process, the Winnemucca FFA students estimate they spoke in front of over 20 groups that included the Nevada Cattlemen’s Association and the Nevada Department of Agriculture’s Board of Agriculture. Each of those groups plus many more became part of the students’ support system. In addition, Leah Mori and Denise Cerri were some of their biggest supporters as they volunteered to coach the students. Finally, fast forward to October 2019 where Weston Noyes, Allison Aitken, Dillon Patterson, Mick Coleman, Brett Feraro, Isaac Mori, Taylie Hoyt, Coach Leah Mori and the sage grouse flew to Indianapolis. The students and sage grouse stood proudly as they presented and waited for the results after each round to see if they would get to present again. After three rounds, they were announced on the National FFA Convention stage as the second place team in the nation!

Students stand with National FFA’s Agricultural Issues Forum sponsors from Elanco and Cargill during the awards banquet. From L. to R.: Students Isaac Mori, Taylie Hoyt, Alison Aitken, Mick Coleman, Dillon Patterson, Weston Noyes, Brett Feraro and Coach Leah Mori.

Team members prepare to present to a panel of judges in their roles as ranchers, sportsman, wildlife activists, and teacher.

“It was special to see an issue, unique to Nevada, educate hundreds of people across the nation. I had no idea we would go that far,” said team member Weston Noyes. And that is how a sage grouse flew from Winnemucca to Indianapolis.

The 2019 qualifying Agricultural Issues Leadership Development Event at the Nevada FFA State Convention was sponsored by Nevada Farm Bureau and Wells Auto & Hardware. To learn more, visit: www.nvaged.com.

Spring Creek Students’ Research Project “Effects of Fire on Soil Productivity” Places 2nd at National FFA Convention

Lindey Smith & Elena Petersen of the Silver Sage FFA Chapter (Spring Creek) receive second place in the Agriscience Fair’s Environmental Services/Natural Resource Systems category at the National FFA Convention. The students display board communicated their research and conclusions to thousands of people attending the National FFA Convention in Indianapolis.

After witnessing the devastation of the Owl Creek fire in the Ruby Mountains and the spread of invasive plant species in the burned area, Lindey Smith and Elena Petersen decided to research the effects of the fire on soil productivity. They wanted to understand how the chemical properties of the soil had been negatively affected for better future rehabilitation. Prior to the fire, the land had a diverse population of native grasses and shrubs used by local ranchers for grazing and by the public for recreational activities.

This scenario served as the foundation to the Silver Sage FFA students’ success in placing second at the National FFA Convention in the Agriscience Fair’s Environmental Services/Natural Resource Systems, Division 6 category. Before reaching this achievement, they first had to compete at the Nevada FFA State Convention in March 2019. There, they submitted research and answered questions from a panel of judges. They qualified to submit their work to National FFA. However, this didn’t guarantee that they would qualify to compete at the 92nd National FFA Convention. Their research had to first be reviewed in order to determine if they would become national finalists in their category.

The duo became national finalists, so they packed their display board and flew to Indianapolis for the 92nd National FFA Convention. It was there that they had to explain their research and again answer questions from a panel of judges. They displayed their board for thousands of people to view and learn about the effects of fire on soil as it relates to some of Nevada’s native and invasive plants. www.progressiverancher.com

The Progressive Rancher

This project and experience helped them develop valuable skills and exposed them to a variety of career areas. They tested the Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium, pH, and Nitrate levels of soil from the burned and unburned areas. In addition, they grew Arrowleaf Balsamroot and Sandberg Bluegrass in the soil samples. These actions required the students to apply previous lessons learned as well as rely on guidance from their agriculture teacher and industry representatives. As in any research project, they had to be precise and thorough in all of their actions. They determined that the fire had an impact on the chemical aspects of soil. It released nutrients into the A horizon of the soil, making it readily available for invasive species. The pH levels slightly increased, while the Nitrate levels significantly increased. They had expected the increase in Nitrate levels due to the increase in soil temperature which accelerates bacterial activity resulting in increased Nitrate production. The students predict eventually all pH and chemical levels will return to pre-fire conditions. However, native species may have a harder time re-establishing due to the initial establishment of the invasive plants. Lindey and Elena hope that their research will help others understand the exact affects that fire has on soil and decrease any misconceptions that private land owners have about fire on their property.

The 2019 qualifying Agriscience Fair event at the NV FFA State Convention was sponsored by Drs. Dave Shintani and Christie Howard. To learn more, visit www.nvaged.com. JANUARY 2020 25


An Economic, Ecological, and Social Case for Stockmanship

By Dave Voth, Society for Range Management, Nevada Section PresidentElect and Chris Schachtschneider, Assistant Professor Oregon State University

Define Stockmanship

fences. The grazing area (or use area) is the area that has been designated to be The Stockmanship Journal defines grazed intentionally. Whit Hibbard, the stockmanship as; “The knowledgeable editor of the Stockmanship Journal and and skillful handling of livestock in a an astute student of the late Bud Williams safe, efficient, effective, and low-stress has taken Bud’s teachings and compiled manner.” Stockmanship is a broad topic of them into 12 principles that represent the something that has the potential to increase foundation of LSLH profitability, herd health, rangeland health, and carbon sequestration, while 1. Keep animals in a normal frame of mind potentially reducing fire risk, invasive weeds, litigation, and overall stress in beef 2. Animals should not be forced to do production. Stockmanship is based on anything that they don’t want to do or Low-Stress Livestock Handling (LSLH), they are not ready to do which is effective communication between 3. Set up every situation where our idea stock and handler. Pressure and release are becomes the animal’s idea the fundamentals of this communication 4. Animals want to avoid pressure, and and good stockmanship takes this to the the need to experience release from extreme. Cattle are sensitive to all kinds pressure to understand what pressure of pressure that we often don’t realize we means are putting on them. Stockmanship is the recognition of the subtle cues cattle 5. Livestock want to be in a herd express to the handler. These cues can 6. Livestock want to move in the tell the handler many things about the direction they are headed situation at hand. Cattle will express if they are receiving too much pressure, 7. Livestock want to follow other animals not receiving enough contact from the 8. Good movement attracts good movement handler, fearful of external objects or pressures, or are uncomfortable in the 9. Animals want to see what’s pressuring herd. One of the goals of stockmanship is them to lower the amount of pressure it takes 10. Livestock want to see where you want to get an animal to do what is asked. Just them to go like a bridle horse, slight but very specific cues are given to achieve the desired result 11. Livestock want to go by you or around you and when those results are reached an immediate release of pressure is necessary. 12. Under excess pressure, livestock want to go back where they came from Stockmanship can allow us to “place” cattle; to take a group of cattle and place them in a specific area for precision Ecological Factors grazing management. The cattle go to Everyone can agree that healthy, resistant water and return to the comfort of the and resilient ecosystems are important. herd where they were placed. Cattle While we generally agree on the end result, can stay in this use area until they are the means to get there are hotly debated. intentionally moved to a different location This is especially true on public lands and the process starts all over again. This where the general population has become is the ultimate goal of stockmanship, to more and more against livestock grazing. be able to place cattle. To be clear, a herd Because of these discussions, debates, and is not necessarily all of the cattle that are litigations, public land managers have in your care put into one group. The herd created blanket standards to mitigate is a group of cattle that are intentionally the “multiple use” requirements within put together as a group. And a grazing their guidelines to appease this rising area is not all of the land in between the voice. Two standards that are often used  26 JANUARY 2020

Figure 1. The use of drones has become invaluable for teaching. Here students learn to apply these techniques in a rodear type setting. The cattle handled so well that students could sort calves off of cows and they would quietly lay down at the other end of the arena.

are stubble height and utilization, with the goal to eliminate “overgrazing.” But, overgrazing isn’t simply grazing too much. Overgrazing can be defined as repeated bites of the same plant without enough recovery time in-between. Stubble heights and utilization levels can’t measure how many times an animal defoliates each plants. One bite that takes more than 70% of the plant’s photosynthetic material, with adequate time to recover, is much better for the plant than repeated smaller bites of the same plant throughout the growing season. It all comes down to recovery time for the plant to regrow after grazing. High intensity-short duration grazing systems can be a great strategy for reducing the amount of time that animals are able to re-bite the same plant. Unlike season-long grazing, where animals are free to choose the choice parts of each plant repeatedly throughout the year, high intensity-short duration grazing encourages animals to graze everything and move on. High intensity-short duration isn’t just applicable to small, electric fenced paddocks, placed cattle will often respond as if they were confined in an electric fence. Instinctively, herd animals know that they depend on each

The Progressive Rancher

other, which translates into a migratory herd that grazes and moves on regularly. Why is it then that our cows don’t all stay together? What happened to their instincts? What happened to an individual cow that would make her think she is safer to brush up in the willows by herself, as opposed to getting gathered with the rest of the bunch? Stockmanship is all about rekindling that herd instinct, through strategic pressure and release, and using it to our advantage.

Economic Factors How much easier could life be if your cows were always together? We mean together; all together, as one herd, where you find one, you find them all. Again, the herd may not be defined as the entirety of your cows, but a group you intentionally put in a location. From a production standpoint; how much better would conception rates be if bulls didn’t need to search for cows across big landscapes? And how many fewer bulls could be used when all of the cows are in the same place? How much could you reduce labor costs by not reriding the same allotment looking for those cows that didn’t feel comfortable with the rest of the herd? www.progressiverancher.com


Steve Cote has spent most of his life dedicated to stockmanship techniques and education. He has now written two books on the topic, Stockmanship; A powerful tool for grazing lands management and Manual of Stockmanship, to help producers understand the subtle details of this topic. His latest book outlines the collective benefits he has seen on ranches he's worked the last 20 years. Some of the benefits include increased conception (5%) and calving rates while reducing total bull battery (25%), improved weaning weights, increased efficiency when processing cattle, and decreases in overall maintenance/ infrastructure to achieve these same goals. One key piece he highlights is that overall, with all of the secondary benefits, the value of range riders can have a return on average of 6:1, meaning that for every dollar invested into stockmanship they brought back an additional $6 to the ranch. This value came in decreased costs as well as increased performance from the benefits described above. One member of the Tom Miner Basin Range Rider Project in East Yellowstone has talked to producers around the country about stockmanship and predators. When wolves, and now grizzlies, become more prevalent in their area, they knew the status quo they had used before was not going to work with the new threats. Through implementation of the stockmanship principles mentioned above and a lot of trial and error, they have a predation loss of less than 0.5% on average annually. This is occurring despite an even larger wolf and grizzly population than when they started. They specifically stated that even if these top predators were eliminated, they would still implement these practices because they have demonstrated that their new management practices have increased both forage quality and quantity.

our industry is continually under the magnifying glass. Meatless Mondays, continual blame for environmental concerns, and the animal rights movements are examples of the threats we see, not only to this industry, but to good stewardship as well. The people who make decisions and influence policy at a large scale also take notice of what the public thinks, and they think that we are the problem. We have been an easy target because we are vastly outnumbered and strive to maintain a rich culture that is generally misunderstood. Improving our stockmanship, and the perception thereof, can improve our public image from an animal welfare and environmental standpoint while maintaining that rich culture. Once understood, we gain opportunities to be a part of the conversation on difficult topics and a valued part of the solutions. When we give presentations or hear people’s perception of what stockmanship is, we are surprised to see how many

producers roll their eyes at the idea of making cattle comfortable. It sounds touchy-feely, but this is exactly what the general public are looking for. They want to know that the meat at their dinner table lived a “happy life” and was treated well in the process, all without causing destruction to the environment. Most of what we teach at our schools is the focus on the little things. The majority of the time, producers are already doing a good job, and our focus has been refinement of that foundation. Just like most things in life, stockmanship is a journey, not a destination. Each day gives us an opportunity to become a little better for our cattle. Using the principles defined above, each one of us can achieve impressive results with

our stock and truly utilize them as a landscape management tool. Chris and Dave often work together throughout the west teaching stockmanship principles at hands on schools and advocating for livestock grazing management as a primary tool for rangeland management. For information on upcoming schools, contact Dave Voth at davemvoth@gmail.com. References: Stockmanship Journal: https://stockmanshipjournal.com/ Cote, Steve. 2004. Stockmanship: A powerful tool in grazing lands management. https://www.blm.gov/or/ programs/nrst/files/Stockmanship_Book.pdf Cote, Steve. 2019. Manual for Stockmanship http://tomminerbasinassociation.org/ Stockmanship Journal https://stockmanshipjournal.com/ Bud Williams Stockmanship https://stockmanship.com/

Figure 4. The 2019, Third Annual Cottonwood Stockmanship School. Featuring Whit Hibbard, Steve Leonard, Roger Ingram, and Dave Voth. Participants traveled from all over the country for this school, including Canada and Hawaii.

Social Factors We are in an industry that is under constant scrutiny from the public. Between climate change and animal welfare concerns, www.progressiverancher.com

The Progressive Rancher

JANUARY 2020 27


MEET THE GRANGE Answers to Frequently Asked Questions & How You Can Join

WHAT IS THE GRANGE? The Grange is a community-based national organization that offers its members the opportunity to lead, the opportunity to learn and the ability to make a difference through community service, grassroots legislative advocacy and educational programs.

IS GRANGE ONLY ABOUT AGRICULTURE EDUCATION?

Gatherings, however, Granges may choose another service as long as it provides a background check that is comprehensive.

No. The Grange’s roots are in agriculture and during the early years of the organization, being a farmer or part of a farm family was a requirement of membership. Today, DO GRANGES CARRY the Grange supports agriculture education, but also keeps INSURANCE POLICIES? its finger on the pulse of a number of topics ranging from Each Community Grange should carry their own rural infrastructure to healthcare to taxation. general liability insurance policy that covers their HOW LONG HAS THE GRANGE meetings and events. The National Grange offers DO GRANGES HAVE BYLAWS BEEN AROUND? any chartered Grange the opportunity to purchase THAT THEY FOLLOW? bonding insurance through a large group program, The National Grange was founded December 4, Yes. Each Grange at each level of the organization has however you may select your own policy or provider. 1867 in Washington D.C. There have been Granges their own set of by-laws. These by-laws are available to any in Nevada since 1873. Current community Granges WHERE ARE GRANGES are finding a resurgence in Nevada, with several new member who requests a copy. Community Granges follow the by-laws of the National Grange and if applicable, the LOCATED IN NEVADA? Granges established in the state over the past 5 years. chartered State Grange of which they are a part. Currently there are six active Granges in Nevada WHO CAN BE IN GRANGE? with more in the works across the state. Granges DO GRANGE MEMBERS are found in Fallon, Lovelock, Yearington, Tonapah, Grange membership is open to anyone who seeks FOLLOW A CODE OF ETHICS? Winnemucca and our most recently chartered to develop a better and higher manhood and Yes. When a person joins the Grange, they give an Grange is in Elko County. To get information about womanhood, is of good moral character and is looking obligation to their fellow members that they will support local Grange meetings and more, contact State to work to improve their community, state and the organization, and work to make the Grange and Deputy Gloria Montero at (775) 427-8210. nation. Membership at the Subordinate/Community themselves better. Any youth that participates in the fair Grange begins at age 13½ and there is no maximum THERE’S NO GRANGE NEAR ME. age. A Junior Grange program is available for children program is also required to adhere to a code of conduct that is set out by the National Grange. CAN I START ONE? age 5 to 14 (13 years & 6 months).

IS GRANGE ONLY A YOUTH PROGRAM?

DO GRANGE VOLUNTEERS HAVE BACKGROUND CHECKS?

No. The Grange is a family organization with Yes. Any Grange member who works with youth under membership in the Community Grange beginning the age of 18 is required to have a background check at age 13½ with no maximum age for membership. conducted. We recommend using the program Safe There are specific programs and contests at a national level for youth age 13½ to 35 and a Junior Grange program for children age 5 to 14. The Grange also sponsors a youth fair program that is on an equal standing with 4-H and FFA.

Yes! It takes 13 or more people committed to bettering their community and being part of a national organization to start a Grange. To learn more and establish an informational meeting, contact Joe Stefenoni at membership@nationalgrange.org or Gloria Montero at (775) 427-8210.

IS GRANGE PART OF 4-H OR FFA? No. The Grange is a private, member-based organization supported entirely though members annual dues. 4-H and FFA are public programs administered through the federal government. Both 4-H and FFA were founded with the help of the Grange and Grange members.  28 JANUARY 2020

The Progressive Rancher

www.progressiverancher.com


15th Annual Production Sale

JANUARY 25, 2020

US COME SEE SS W N AT THE 1515 N E P , R E V IN DEN LLS U B E S E WHERE TH L P N DIS AY WILL BE O

SALE AT: 12:30 PM • LUNCH AT 11:30 WESTERN LIVESTOCK AUCTION – GREAT FALLS, MT

Sires represented:

SELLING 180 BULLS • 90 YEARLING BULLS 40 FALL YEARLING BULLS • 50 2 YEAR OLD BULLS 30 - 8 YEAR OLD REGISTERED COWS 150 BRED 2 COMING 3 YEAR OLD COWS 500 COMMERCIAL BRED HEIFERS

Bobcat Blue Sky

Reg:18880272

BOBCAT BLUE SKY G120

Musgrave Big Sky x EXAR Denver 2002B CED +7

BW +3.4

WW YW MK CW MB RE +87 +146 +24 +64 +.82 +.67 Introducing our newest Herd Sire Purchased by ST Genetics in our 2017 sale.

FAT +.035

Musgrave Big Sky Bobcat Blue Sky Bobcat Lass 411 #

Circle L Gus

Connealy Black Granite # Bobcat Queenall 363 Bobcat Quenall 894

Sons sell!

Reg:17993084

$M $F $G $B

+90 +125 +24 +150

S Chisum 6175 x HARB Pendleton 765 JH CED +14

BW -1.8

WW +62

YW +102

MK +22

CW +63

MB +.14

RE +.70

FAT +.069

Vermilion Re-Ride

CED +10

$M $F $G $B

Connealy Spur x CCA Hay Buster 846T BW WW YW MK CW MB RE +2.4 +81 +138 +18 +54 +.35 +.45

Pre-Register: 1-866-616-5035 Sale can be viewed at: www.cattleusa.com

www.progressiverancher.com

CED +6

BW +3.1

WW +94

YW +154

MILK +34

CW +68

Lot 4

MARB +.72

RE +.47

FAT +.025

$M +73

$F +107

$G +54

$B +157

RE +.75

FAT +.002

$M +56

$F +108

$G +53

$B +161

BOBCAT BLUE SKY G51 Calved: 03/15/19 • Reg: 19526478

Musgrave Big Sky Bobcat Blue Sky Bobcat Lass 411 # Sons sell!

Reg:18508640

Calved: 03/19/19 • Reg: 19526409

+65 +108 +37 +145 FAT +.009

Bobcat Consent Bobcat Miss Angus 510 Bobcat Miss Angus 2051

CED +11

BW +.5

WW +74

YW +127

MILK +24

Lot 5 CW +56

MARB +.28

Bryan Ratzburg: (406) 937-5858 Cell: (406) 788-3272

Ernie Ratzburg: Cell: (406) 788-3244

265 Bobcat Angus Loop, Galata, MT 59444 • Email: bobcatangus@northerntel.net

www.bobcatangus.com

The Progressive Rancher

JANUARY 2020 29


NN evada Farm BF ureau evada arm

Bureau

Fighting Wildland Fires Before They Happen By Doug Busselman, Executive Vice President Actions have been underway over the past year and will continue to take shape over the early months of 2020 to deal with protecting Nevada rangelands from devastating landscape-scale wildfires.

this point anyway, the expectation is that momentum is building to eventually find ways of implementing on-the-ground and meaningful changes to reverse the current course of ignoring proper resource management and then pouring massive Mid-November, Nevada Governor Steve amounts into putting fires out and then Sisolak, the United States Forest Service, possibly pouring more money into the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) rehabilitation of landscape scale charcoal and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife service and ash-scapes. completed a state-federal agreement called the Nevada Shared Stewardship 2019 seems to have been a lucky break Agreement. This agreement is aimed at in the fire destruction that has been the having state and federal agencies teamed experience of more recent years. National to identify priority landscapes, coordinate statistics through mid-December share investments and carry out projects that that Nevada’s 2019 wildfires totaled improve resistance and resilience of 82,269.6 acres – compared against 2018 Nevada’s lands. totals that exceeded 1 million acres. January 7, 2020 the Nevada Legislature’s Committee to Conduct an Interim Study Concerning Wildfires will hold their first of four planned meetings to follow up on the direction provided by Assembly Concurrent Resolution (ACR) 4. ACR 4 outlines these areas for consideration in their study: • Methods of reducing wildfire fuels; • Issues related to early responses to wildfires; and

• The economic impact of wildfires on the State and local communities Somewhere in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process BLM plans are being considered which, if implemented, would put in place an expanded fuels break system, using existing roads and rights-of-way. Another NEPA process that is underway involves a project where livestock grazing projects for fine-fuel load reduction could be implemented, using livestock grazing for the specified purpose of meeting fuel reduction objectives rather than the livestock grazing be carried out to provide forage. While all of these actions aren’t actually making a difference on the ground, at  30 JANUARY 2020

The reduced amount of 2019 wildfires was more related to luck than changes in conditions of natural resources. Travel throughout the state this past fall provided windshield observations of abundant to over-abundance of fine fuel loads. Beyond the cooperative spirit between Nevada government agencies and federal agencies who are responsible for management of over 87 percent of land, actual on the ground actions are necessary to make a difference. Priorities and directions need to be changed. Farm Bureau policy supports increasing numbers of domestic grazing animals for decreasing fuel loads and reducing catastrophic wildland fires. The organization’s policy also supports land management planning which incorporates fuel reduction plans with mandatory triggers which take away the ability of federal land managers to ignore or avoid – when fuel loads of fine fuel triggers are reached, livestock grazing will be automatically be increased to reduce those fuel loads. Based on Nevada Farm Bureau policy, steps for advancing improved management and applying meaningful protection include:

• Pre-fire suppression program funding and implementation of these programs; • Empower local first-responder fire fighters through training and certification to launch into action immediately; • Reject the ineffective current obsession with exclusive native seed mixes and include fireresistant plant seed, which will grow, in the mix for reseeding projects; and, • Replace the present moratorium of allowing livestock grazing after fires and use appropriate grazing to be used for rehabilitation. There may not be smoke in the air right now, but it is still the best time to be fighting fires. Fighting fires that will not ever start is the best plan to avoid the devastation that comes after the spark gets things started. Meet with federal land managers in your area bring the neighbors or have a neighborhood meeting where you invite the federal land managers to meet with you and press to learn from them when and where pre-fire suppression activity is being planned and how you can participate. Those who care about the landscape need to get involved by showing up for the legislative meetings that will be held, sharing their stories. If your range has burned, be there to tell the impacts of dealing with closed allotments as well as the loss associated with the fire. If you are aware of projects that are underway to reduce fuel loads or implement safeguards that are being installed to reduce the spread of wildfire, show up to give credit for these proactive actions.

The Progressive Rancher

Centennial Celebration By Brittney Pericoli Director of Communications 100 years supporting farmers and ranchers. The Nevada Farm Bureau is happy to have celebrated the 100th Annual Meeting at the Silver Legacy Resort and Casino on November 10 - 13. The Centennial celebration included policy development sessions, a variety of breakout sessions, guest speaker American Farm Bureau President Zippy Duvall and a musical performance by Trinity Seely. Policy development is an important part of the annual meeting. The policy development process includes amending, deleting and adding new policies to not only be used in lobbying efforts in our own state, but on the national level as well. 2020 Policy Books are now available please contact Brittney Money at brittney@nvfb. org for your copy of this year’s Policy Book. This year’s breakout sessions included a variety of hot topics featuring Value Added Agricultural Ventures, Nevada Water Law/ Policy, Federal Land Management in Nevada, Nevada’s Newest Agricultural Crop-Hemp and Legacy Planning. Value Added Agricultural Ventures included a panel conversation featuring: Woody Worthington from Bently Ranch, Holly Gatzke Northern Area Director for Cooperative Extension, Kari and Jordan Brough from Brough Ranch and Cameron Andelin from Andelin Farms. This group of individuals have all been involved in start-up agriculture business outside the typical commodity-producers model. Bently Ranch has expanded from a traditional ranch into the distillery business growing all their own wheat, rye barely, hops and oats used exclusively in their spirts. Kari and Jordan Brough are a direct to consumer wagyu beef operation. Both wagyu meat and meal delivery services are rapidly growing in today’s society. Andelin Farms does a variety of family fun activates including pumpkin patch, zombie paintball, scarecrow paintball, corn maze and baby animal days. www.progressiverancher.com


The conversation focused on challenges and opportunities they all have faced as they try to grow and expand each of their businesses.

Duvall also presented Nevada Farm Bureau President Bevan Lister a pin to acknowledge Nevada Farm Bureau’s gain in Farm Bureau membership in 2019.

Another hot topic in Nevada is water. The next breakout session featured a panel discussion on the future of Nevada Water Law/ Policy. The panel included: Nevada Senator Pete Goicoechea, Nevada Assemblywomen Heidi Swank, Nevada Senator Melanie Scheible and Bradley Crowell of the Department of Conversation and Natural Resources.

We also had the pleasure of listening to Trinity Seely preform. Seely’s style of music is a blend of Western, Folk and traditional Country. The audience really enjoyed her musical performance and her stories as she played.

All involved in the water policy panel are directly involved in shaping Nevada water law. This was a very informative discussion to help structure Nevada Farm Bureau water policy for the future.

Each year Young Farmers & Ranchers (YF&R) compete in the Discussion Meet and this year we had a total of eight competitors. The lucky winner of this year’s Discussion Meet was Lewis Mendive from Douglas/Carson City Farm Bureau.

Women’s Leadership also held their annual Silent Auction raising a total of Another great breakout session featured $1,341. This year’s Silent Auction pulled Jon Raby the Nevada State Director for in $495 more dollars than last year. The the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). annual quilt raffle was also a huge success Raby’s speech focused on the 50 positions bringing in a total of $1,100. Moving being added in the State of Nevada, because forward this year Women’s leadership of the national BLM’s re-organization and hopes to participate in schools on Ag Day relocation out of Washington D.C. Other and other agriculture literacy programs. points included fire and fuel management, livestock grazing and over-population of The Nevada Farm Bureau President and Vice President are annually elected Wild Horses and Burros. positions and we are happy to announce A growing industry in not only Nevada, President Bevan Lister and Vice President but across the U.S. is the growing of Darrell Pursel won reelection. Hemp. A breakout session including a panel of Nevada hemp producers. The Other board positions up for reelection panel featured: Ashley Jeppson Division included Women’s Leadership Committee Administrator for the Nevada Department Chair and Vice Chair. Marlene Shier of Agriculture Plant Industry, Joe Frey and is now the new Women’s Leadership his business partner Adrienne Snow who Committee Chair and Vice Chair is now are involved with Western States Hemp, Wendelyn Muratore. Rodney Mehring a Lincoln County producer and Elar Jenkins of Big Creek The new District 1 Director is now Katie Combs. Combs will be replacing Jim Gardens operation of hemp. Hardy who previously held the District 1 This breakout session included information Director position. to help members understand the everchanging hemp regulations, while learning We look forward to the coming year and more from individuals who have ventured thank you for the support over the years. into the hemp growing business. The final breakout session featured David Bindrup speaking about Legacy Planning. The legacy planning workshop included tips for passing agricultural assets on while you are still alive, ideas to help better protect your assets and how to properly write a will.

All American Farm Bureau County Presidents

Participants enjoyed a Hemp Panel, an Estate Planner, Marketing Panels & more

American Farm Bureau President Zippy Duvall (left)

One of the biggest highlights for the 100th Annual Nevada Farm bureau meeting was having American Farm Bureau President Zippy Duvall speak at our opening dinner. www.progressiverancher.com

The Progressive Rancher

JANUARY 2020 31


32 JANUARY 2020

The Progressive Rancher

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UPCOMING SALE Thursday, January 23 Red Bluff, CA Consignment Deadline: Wednesday, January 15

Friday, March 6 Cottonwood, CA Consignment Deadline: Thursday, February 27

WATCH & LISTEN TO THE SALE on the Web at:

For details call (530) 347-3793 or the representative nearest you: Gary Nolan

Mark Venturacci

(775) 934-5678

(775) 427-8713

Elko, NV

Fallon, NV

Steve Lucas

Paradise Valley, NV

(775) 761-7575

Brad Peek — (916) 802-7335 or email us at wvm@wvmcattle.com Look for the catalog and video on www.wvmcattle.com

Market your cattle with the professionals!

www.progressiverancher.com

The Progressive Rancher

JANUARY 2020 33


AG I S O UR MIDDLE NAME

Susan Church & Brent Glaser Glaser Land & Livestock Elko, NV

We see things from the ground up, all of the small details that go into the big picture of ranching. Because agriculture is what we know, it’s all we do.

34 JANUARY 2020

The Progressive Rancher

Call 800.800.4865 today or visit AgLoan.com A part of the Farm Credit System. Equal Opportunity Lender.

www.progressiverancher.com


CONTACT: Claudene Wharton | whartonc@unr.edu

CONTACT: Samantha Thompson | sthompson@dcnr.nv.gov

Associate Professor uses Innovative Technology for Dryland Research

Tim Wilson appointed as Nevada State Engineer, Administrator of Nevada Division of Water Resources

Robert Washington-Allen joins the College of Agriculture, Biotechnology & Natural Resources

The Nevada Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (NDCNR) is excited to announce the appointment of Tim Wilson to serve as Nevada State University of Nevada, Reno welcomes Robert Washington-Allen to the Department Engineer and Administrator of the Department’s Division of Water Resources of Agriculture, Veterinary & Rangeland Sciences in the College of Agriculture, (NDWR). As State Engineer, Wilson will lead NDWR in its mission to protect, Biotechnology & Natural Resources as an associate professor, graduate program manage, and enhance Nevada’s limited water resources for the benefit of current and future generations of Nevadans. director for the department and Range Club advisor. Along with teaching and advising, Washington-Allen researches the sustainability of drylands using innovative technologies, including drones, laser scanning, groundpenetrating radar, virtual and augmented reality tools, geographic information systems, and remote sensing. His research focuses on the past, present and future sustainability of drylands at both local and international scales, with a particular interest in Nevada’s drylands.

Wilson was named Acting State Engineer in January 2019, when the previous State Engineer, Jason King, retired after 28 years of State service. Wilson’s promotion to permanent State Engineer will help continue the Division of Water Resource’s efforts to reform and enhance the Division’s application of Nevada’s water laws, regulations and policies. Having worked in all aspects of the Division, Wilson has acquired vast knowledge and robust experience during his tenure with NDWR.

Washington-Allen was a U.S. Peace Corps volunteer in Lesotho in southern Africa, and he recently organized and presented a joint workshop on the sustainability of drylands in the U.S.-Mexico Transboundary region with the National Academics of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine, and the Mexican Academy of Science. Currently, he and his colleagues and students are working with the U.S. Forest Service and local ranchers to use remote-sensing technologies and targeted grazing to reduce invasive annual grass fuel loads in Nevada.

Over the years, Wilson has held multiple positions within NDWR, including Hydraulic Engineer, Administrative Hearing Officer, Manager of the Well Drilling and Adjudication Section, and Deputy Administrator. In his many roles, he has collaborated with numerous water right surveyors, contractors, professionals, researchers, attorneys, and regulators on a wide variety of water issues throughout Nevada. Wilson’s deep knowledge and leadership will be instrumental in managing Nevada’s precious and limited groundwater and surface water resources.

“I’m excited to be here at the University, being able to pursue my passions in the rangeland sciences,” he said. “I hope I’m able to instill the same kind of passion for innovation and application of science in our students.”

“We are fortunate to have Tim lead our Division of Water Resources during this critical time of water management in Nevada,” said NDCNR Director Bradley Crowell. “As both the driest state and one of the fastest-growing states in the nation, coupled with the current realities and impending risks our State faces from climate change, Nevada’s State Engineers plays a pivotal role in advancing an innovative and forward-looking management of our limited water resources in all corners of our great State. Tim’s leadership will play a vital role in the State’s capacity to solve complex water challenges, while ensuring a sustainable water future for all Nevadans.”

Washington-Allen plans to develop courses for students with an interest in drylands to train them in using these new technologies, as well as the powerful open-source software and data archives that are available to them.

As Nevada’s leading water regulator, Wilson will focus on addressing key water resource issues statewide, including over-appropriated and over-pumped groundwater basins, recognizing ground and surface water interactions, population growth, proliferation of domestic wells in areas with limited water supplies, the impacts of prolonged drought or floods, dam safety plans, sustainment of our wetlands and freshwater ecosystems; all within the overarching impacts of climate change already occurring throughout Nevada. Robert Washington-Allen uses virtual and augmented reality technology to study Nevada dryland systems. Photo by Robert Moore. www.progressiverancher.com

To learn more, visit water.nv.gov.

The Progressive Rancher

Tim Wilson JANUARY 2020 35


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ST

annual WinnemuccA R HR Ranch Hand Rodeo Weekend Mark your calendars for our 31st annual event

Feb. 26 - March 1, 2020 Winnemucca Events Complex

Join us at the Winnemucca Events Complex to experience Nevada’s largest & most exciting Ranch Hand Rodeo and Horse Sale! Over 30 teams compete for prizes and bragging rights!

Ranch, Rope & Performance

Horse Sale

2019 Top Ten Average ~ $11,030 High Selling Horse Pretty Boy Rapp ~ $19,750 This premier sale will feature top quality ranch, rope, and performance horses, both finished and started prospects. The Winnemucca Horse Sale has become well known for quality horses and an efficient crew year after year!

Tentative Schedule Wednesday & Thursday, Feb. 26 - 27, 2020 Winnemucca Cow Dog Trial and Finals Friday, February 28, 2020 Stock Horse Challenge & Horse Sale Preview Winnemucca RHR Barrel Bash Saturday, February 29, 2020 Ranch Hand Rodeo Winnemucca RHR Barrel Bash

s of y a D l l u 5F nt! Exciteme

Ranch, Rope & Performance Horse Sale Sunday, March 1, 2020 Ranch Hand Rodeo Winnemucca RHR Barrel Bash

Winnemucca RHR Barrel Bash Open 4D, PeeWee, Youth, and Senior Races *NEW This Year - Pole Bending*

$12,500 ADDED MONEY!!

Feb. 28 - March 1, 2020 Winnemucca Events Complex

For More Information Call: (775) 304-2977

2019 Winning Team - C7 Ranch - Gooding, ID

For More Information: (775) 623-5071 or www.RanchRodeoNV.com  36 JANUARY 2020

The Progressive Rancher

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SHAW CATTLE CO.

Annual Bull Sale Wednesday, February 19, 2020

450 Angus, Hereford & Red Angus Bulls • 12 noon

MST,

at the ranch, Caldwell, ID

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JANUARY 2020 37


NebGuide

University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources

EPD Basics and Definitions

G1967 (Rev 3.11)

by Matthew L. Spangler, Extension Beef Genetics Specialist

Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs) allow animals within a breed to be compared for their genetic potential to produce a specific trait. Introduction Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs) allow for the comparison of animals within a breed for their genetic potential as parents for a given trait. EPDs have existed in the beef industry for decades and their use has produced intended genetic change in many traits. However, some producers are still reluctant to rely on EPDs when making selection decisions; presumably because of a general lack of understanding of how EPDs are derived and their interpretation. Basics of an EPD

Many traits (weaning weight, yearling weight, ultrasound measurements, etc.) must be recorded within certain age windows (ranges when it is acceptable to measure animals). Animals measured outside of defined age windows will not have their own record incorporated into an EPD calculation. This allows for a fair comparison of animals. Specific age windows can be found on the corresponding breed association website. Too often seedstock producers and bull buyers get caught up in the actual weights, ultrasound data, etc., when selecting sires. EPDs provide a measure by which animals within a breed can be compared to one another for their genetic potential as parents for specific traits. EPDs incorporate multiple sources of information, including full pedigree, an animal’s own record, and progeny information. As additional sources of information become available, the accuracy of the EPD value increases. Prior to a National Cattle Evaluation (NCE), animals are given interim EPDs. During a genetic evaluation, all pedigree information would be included. Pedigree estimate: Sire EPD = 0.20

Dam EPD = 0.10

Progeny EPD = (0.20+0.10)/2 = 0.15  38 JANUARY 2020

2010 Adjustment factors for comparison of EPDs across various breeds1

Pedigree estimate + animal record: EPDI = (0.5*EPDS) + (0.5*EPDD) + (0.5 *Mendelian Sampling Effect) Where EPDI is the EPD for some individual I, EDPS is the EPD for the sire of animal I, EPDD is the EPD for the dam of animal I. The phenomena of Mendelian sampling arises due to the fact that each parent passes a sample half of its alleles to its offspring and every allele has an equal likelihood of being passed on. This effect can be quantified using contemporary group deviations and is a measure of how much better or worse an animal is compared to the average of his parents. One could envision a scenario in which an animal could receive only the most desirable alleles from both parents, resulting in a favorably large Mendelian sampling effect or the exact opposite, which could result in an unfavorably large sampling effect. Perhaps the best example is a set of flush mates. Although all of them have the same pedigree estimate, they differ considerably in terms of performance and consequently their EPDs, once they have a record, differ due to Mendelian sampling. Current methodology behind the estimation of Mendelian sampling effects can be found in the Beef Improvement Federation Guidelines at www. beefimprovement. org/library/06guidelines.pdf. When using EPDs, it is important to understand that the role of EPDs is to provide a measure of comparison within a breed. To compare animals across breeds, estimates from the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) can aid in determining differences between EPDs of different breeds (Table I). These across breed adjustment factors, adjusted to an Angus basis, are updated annually and can be found at www.beefimprovement.org/ proceedings.html.

Adapted from Kuehn et al., 2010. More breeds and more traits are available in the full results from the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Also available at www.beefimprovement.org.

1

Example: If a Hereford bull has a birth weight EPD of 1.5 and a Simmental bull has a birth weight EPD of 1.0 we can use these adjustment factors to approximate what these two bulls’ birth weight EPDs would be on an Angus basis so that we can compare them. On an Angus basis, the Hereford bull would have a birth weight EPD of 4.2 (1.5+2.7) and the Simmental bull would have a birth weight EPD of 6.4 (1.0 + 5.4). So, we would expect that in this scenario the Hereford bull would sire calves that are 2.2 pounds lighter at birth. Breed Average and Percentile Ranks Table II illustrates a percentile rank table. These will be different for every breed and will change yearly with the addition of new animals with performance information recorded. The 50th percentile represents breed average. If an animal is in the top 1 percent for a given trait, it can be said that 99 animals in a hundred are “worse” for that trait. Conversely, if an animal is in the 95th percentile, it can be said that 94 in 100 animals will be better than him/her for that trait. Knowledge of percentile table gives you an idea of how an individual ranks within a breed for a specific trait or index. However, it may not be beneficial to choose extreme animals. For instance, even though a sire might be in the top 1 percent of the breed for milk, his milk value may be too extreme for your production environment.

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Birth weight — Bull B’s calves would be on average 1.5 pounds heavier at birth. Many producers mistakenly place more The objective of buying a bull is to purchase Normally, producers should select bulls for emphasis on raw measurements than an animal that will enhance the genetics of use on heifers that are at or less than the EPDs. Raw measurements include his offspring. Selection based on a raw scan breed average for birth weight. Depending the confounded effects of genetics and values places selection pressure not only on on the breeds involved, you may need to environment, and consequently, the genetic the genetic potential of an animal but also limit use on heifers to bulls significantly ability of the animal is unknown. Below is on environmental influences (herd, year, below breed average. Keep in mind that a very simplistic equation describing the season, management, etc.). If you look when crossing breeds, heterosis or hybrid at two drastically different management vigor can increase birth weights 10 to 15 phenotype of an animal. scenarios: 1) forage tested bulls, and 2) percent over a straightbred average. P=G+E high concentrate fed bulls, it would be expected that the high concentrate bulls Weaning weight direct — Calves from Where P is the phenotype, G is the genetic would have greater IMF figures. The Bull B should average 2 pounds more effect, and E is the environmental effect. question remains, are the more desirable on adjusted weaning weights because of additional growth. Because of the low The phenotype is what is seen, or measured, IMF scan figures due to genetics or the accuracy associated with yearling bulls, fact that they received more feed? We such as the actual scan data for REA or the amount of emphasis placed on such a IMF. Both genetics and the environment know that the environmental benefits will small difference should be limited. These not be passed from parent to offspring, influence these values, and because we are EPDs are virtually the same even if the interested in identifying animals based on only the genetics. Consequently, selection accuracies were high. their potential as parents, the environment based on EPDs will help sort the wheat should not be included in the tool used from the chaff in that EPDs eliminate Yearling weight — Bull B’s calves should to select animals. Furthermore, actual environmental differences and quantify average 12 pounds heavier at 1 year of age. scan figures are not comparable from genetic differences. Yearling height — Bull B’s calves should animal to animal since they have not been EPD Definitions be 0.3 inches taller on average at a year adjusted nor do they provide any clue as BULL A BULL B of age compared to the offspring of Bull to how much better or worse an animal Calving ease direct 10 6 A. Height measurements are taken at the is compared to others. A contemporary hip. Height (the actual measurement and Birth weight +2.0 +3.5 group ratio does allow for comparison not the EPD), along with age, is used to 20 +22 of animals and provides an idea of how Weaning weight direct calculate frame score. +40 +52 much better or worse a particular animal’s Yearling weight adjusted record is compared to others Yearling height Milk — Daughters from Bull A should .3 .6 within the same contemporary group. Milk produce calves that are 5 pounds (the +3 - 2 The problem is that a ratio is not useful in Maternal weaning weight +13 difference between +3 and -2) heavier at +9 comparing animals across herds or outside weaning. This is not a measure of pounds Gestation length -.1 +1.1 of the defined contemporary group. of milk but rather weaning weight due to Calving ease maternal 4 6 milk production. This 5 pounds, unlike the The genetic and environmental com­ Mature daughter height +.5 +1.0 weaning weight figure attributed to growth ponents of phenotype can be further Mature daughter weight from the bull, is the result of differences 0 +30 divided into additive (A), dominance in the daughters’ milk production and Scrotal circumference +.1 -.45 (D), and epistatic (I) genetic effects and mothering ability. Excessively high milk 6 9 both permanent (P) and temporary (T) Heifer pregnancy levels in low input environments should Carcass weight +2.0 +20 environmental effects. be discriminated against due to increased Percent retail cuts 0 +.2 nutrient requirements of cows. P = GA + GD + GI + EP + ET Marbling 0 -.3 Total maternal (maternal weaning +.06 +1.6 Generally speaking, we only become Rib-eye area weight) — Daughters from Bull A will -.01 -.09 concerned with permanent environmental Fat thickness produce calves that are 4 pounds heavier effects when we think about the Tenderness -.1 .1 at weaning because of their combined environmental influence a dam has on Days to Finish 15 10 genetics for growth and milk. This is a her offspring (e.g., a young dam develops Residual Average Daily Gain -0.1 0.05 calculated figure of one-half the bull’s mastitis and loses function in one quarter, weaning weight direct EPD plus his milk 10 6 resulting in reduced weaning weights of Stayability EPD. For example, Bull A has a maternal 0 10 subsequent offspring). Contemporary Maintenance energy weaning weight value of 13, which is equal 6 2 groups account for some of the temporary Docility to half of his weaning weight direct EPD environmental effects. In genetic (20/2=10) plus his milk EPD (3). evaluations we are able to predict the Calving ease direct — Bull A should have additive genetic component. This is used 4 percent more unassisted births from Gestation length — Calves from Bull A in determining the heritability (h2 ), which first-calf heifers than Bull B. While birth should have a one-day shorter gestation. is simply the fraction of the variance in weight is an indicator of calving ease, it Calving ease maternal — Bull B’s phenotype (σ2 P ) that is explained or does not tell the whole story. Calving ease daughters should calve as first-calf heifers caused by variation in additive values is an economically relevant trait. Producers with 2 percent more unassisted births (6(σ2A ). The heritability can be thought of should not use both birth weight and 4) than the daughters of Bull A. as the average phenotypic differences or calving ease EPDs together since the superiority that is likely to be passed on birth weight EPD is already used in the Mature height — Bull B’s daughters calculation of calving ease. should be .5 inches taller at maturity. genetically to the next generation. EPDs Compared to Raw Data & Ratios

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Mature weight — Bull B’s daughters should be 30 pounds heavier when mature. Scrotal circumference — Bull calves from Bull A should have .55 centimeters larger adjusted scrotal circumferences. Scrotal circumference is an indicator of the age of maturity of a bull’s daughters. Bulls with larger scrotal circumference should have daughters that reach puberty earlier. Heifer pregnancy — Daughters of Bull B are 3 percent more likely to become pregnant as heifers. Carcass weight — Bull B should produce calves that have 18 pounds more adjusted carcass weight.

Percent retail product — The calves from Bull B should yield 0.2 percent more closely trimmed, boneless retail cuts from the round, loin, rib, and chuck. Some breeds may report a Yield Grade (YG) EPD. The same factors (back fat, ribeye area, and carcass weight) would be included, but a lower YG is more desirable as opposed to percent retail product where a higher value is more desirable. In either percent retail product or YG fat thickness contributes the most to these two calculations. Consequently, selecting for decreased YG or increased percent retail product will lead to leaner animals so caution should be used to avoid extremely lean replacement females. Marbling — Calves from Bull A should have a .3 higher marbling score. Marbling scores range from 1.0, which is devoid of marbling and a utility quality grade to 10.9, which is abundant marbling and a prime + quality grade. For example, if calves sired by Bull B had a marbling score of 5.0, then we would expect calves sired by Bull A to have a marbling score of 5.3. Ultrasound EPDs were calculated for a number of breeds for traits of rib-eye area, fat, and intramuscular fat (IMF), which is correlated to marbling, but now the majority of breeds use these ultrasound measurements in the calculation of carcass EPDs. So, instead of seeing both an IMF EPD and a marbling EPD you just see the marbling EPD, but it has ultrasound measurements included in the calculation. Rib-eye area — At a given end point, calves from Bull B should have rib-eye areas that are 1.54 square inches larger than Bull A’s calves.

Fat Thickness — At a given end point, calves from Bull A should be .08 inches fatter when measured at the 12th rib. This would be less desirable on a carcass animal, but extremely lean females going back into a cowherd may also be undesirable. ... continued next page JANUARY 2020 39


EPD Basics and Definitions, continued Tenderness — Calves sired by Bull A should produce meat that is more tender than that of calves sired by Bull B by 0.2 pounds of shear force. Tenderness is measured by Warner Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF) that is reported in the pounds of force required to cut through a 1-inch thick piece of meat. A lower value is more desirable. Days to finish — Calves sired by Bull B should spend five fewer days on feed to reach a constant fat endpoint. Residual Average Daily Gain — Claves sired by Bull B should gain 0.15 pounds per day more than those sired by bull A when fed the same amount of feed during the postweaning phase. Stayability — A measure of reproductive longevity. Daughters of Bull A are 4 percent more likely to stay productive in the herd to age 6. Maintenance energy — The Red Angus Association of America calculates a Maintenance Energy (ME) Expected Progeny Difference (EPD) that indicates differences in the Mcal/month needed for maintenance due to mature size (corrected for body condition score) and milking ability (The Rancher’s Guide to EPDs is available at www.redangus.org). A much simpler way to think of it is that a bull with a ME EPD of +10 compared to one that is +0 will produce daughters that will require approximately 11 more pounds of average quality forage per month (assuming average quality forage = .86Mcal/lb).

3. Nervous Typical temperament is manageable but nervous and impatient with a moderate amount of struggling, movement, and tail flicking as well as repeated pushing and pulling on the headgate; exits the chute briskly. 4. Flighty Wild, jumpy, out-of-control, quivers, struggles violently, bellows and/or froths at the mouth, continuous tail flicking, defecates and urinates during processing, frantically runs the fence line and might jump when penned individually, exhibits long flight distance, and exits the chute nervously. 5. Aggressive Similar to Score 4 but with added aggressive behavior, fearful, extreme agitation, continuous movement that might include jumping and bellowing while in the chute, exits the chute frantically and might exhibit attack behavior when handled alone. 6. Very Aggressive Extremely aggressive temperament. Thrashes about or attacks wildly when confined in small, tight places. Pronounced attack behavior. Summary

EPDs represent the genetic component of an animal’s phenotype that is expected to be passed on to the next generation. Studies have shown that using EPDs are seven to nine times more effective than selecting based on actual phenotypes. While most producers think of increasing the economic efficiency of their operation by changing management systems (i.e., grazing schemes, calving dates, etc.) or Docility — Bull A should sire 4 percent utilizing different nutritional programs, more calves that have a temperament the importance of correct genetic in the most docile score than Bull B. selection is all too often overlooked. If The actual measurement of docility is selection is based on nongenetic factors, recorded either at weaning or yearling as is the case when selecting on actual or (depending on the breed association) and adjusted measurements instead of EPDs is categorized as the animals’ behavior as or economic indexes, then an inefficiency they enter, are restrained in, and exit the is automatically built into the cow/calf chute. Beef Improvement Federation enterprise. It is critical to understand how (BIF) temperament scoring system. to interpret EPDs and to know breed 1. Docile Mild disposition; gentle and averages, and be able to use percentile easily handled. Stands and moves slowly ranks in order to identify potential sires during processing, undisturbed, settled, that fit the desired breeding objective. and somewhat dull and does not pull on the headgate when in the chute; exits the chute calmly. This publication has been peer reviewed.

2. Restless Quieter than average but slightly restless, might be stubborn during processing, might try to back from the chute, pulls back on the headgate, some tail flicking, exits the chute promptly.  40 JANUARY 2020

UNL Extension publications are available online: extension.unl.edu/publications. Index: Beef Breeding & Reproduction 2009, Revised March 2011

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Bottari to Serve as Chairman of Government Affairs Committee for the Realtors® Land Institute Nevada Real Estate Broker, Paul Bottari, Accredited Land Consultant (ALC), of Wells was recognized during the Realtors® Land Institute (RLI) members meeting last week in San Francisco as a new member of their Board of Directors and their new Chairman of the RLI Government Affairs Committee for the 75 year-old organization which started in 1945 as the Farm and Ranch specialty group of the National Association of Realtors® (NAR). Bottari will be serving under 2020 RLI National President Kyle Hansen, ALC, of Hertz Real Estate Services in Nevada, Iowa. Bottari will also serve on the NAR Land Use, Private Property Rights and Environment Committee representing RLI in that capacity. Bottari had served on that committee for eight years in the past but had to sit out at least one year as part of the committee rules. Bottari has been aggressive in support of grazing rights and issues such as the proposed listing of the Sage Grouse as an endangered species, and has been instrumental in getting the support of NAR on these issues in the past. NAR, through this committee, has been aggressive in support of keeping the federal government from gaining control of waters that are not navigable and which should remain in control of the States. Key RLI members testified in support of retaining the 1031 Exchange rules for tax deferred exchanges and were successful in doing so recently but are gearing up again to help keep this tool, which many who are unfamiliar with it think that it is giving a tax break when in fact it just defers the capital gains tax. Bottari has also served as Public Policy Committee chairman for the Elko County Association of Realtors® for many years in the past. The Elko County Association of Realtors® has brought many issues to the attention of the State and National Association of Realtors® that effect rural small town citizens and property owners. Paul was the Executive Secretary of the Nevada Cattlemen’s Association from 1978-1983 and served as the Secretary/Treasurer of the Nevada Outfitter and Guide Association for approximately 16 years, beginning in 1981. He is a self-proclaimed environmentalist and brings an on-the-ground perspective to debates about such issues as Rangeland fires, endangered species, and Federal controls that affect private property rights.

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Back to Basics by Ron Torell

Retired UNR Extension Livestock Specialist

Gestation Length of the Beef Cow vs. Dystocia Everything is based on an average, but there is no average. For example, when was the last time we experienced a year with average precipitation? Gestation length of a beef cow is another example where the average is seldom the rule.

The gestation length for all breeds of cattle averaged together is 283 days. The range is 279 for Jersey to 292 for Brahman. On the average, the Continental breeds of Charolais, Simmental and Limousin exhibit gestation lengths of 289 days. English-bred cattle such as Angus, Shorthorn and Hereford exhibit, on the average, shorter gestation lengths of 281, 282 and 285 days, respectively. Within those breeds the average gestation length can vary an additional 12 days on either side of the average for the breed.

decreases in birth weight and dystocia, says association executive Wayne Vanderwert.

The curve benders

We hear about curve benders, those calving-ease bulls that also produce calves with small birth weights yet defy the antagonisms of low birth weight and growth potential. Many of these curve-bender bulls are short-gestation. This would explain why they have the smaller birth weights, yet the calves explode and grow like a longgestation growth bull. Conversely, highgrowth bulls are oftentimes long-gestation sires. This might partially explain the larger birth weights often associated with progeny of growth bulls.

> 23% were born between 279 and 283 days of gestation. > 13% were born between 284 and 291 days of gestation.

The average gestation length on all 140 of these calves was 279 days, four days less than the 283-day breed average. The range was from 272 days to 291 days. By the time we reached our 283-day due date, calving was 87% complete for the AI calves of CE sires. If you place the data for these CE sires on a graph (see Fig. 1), it shows a bell-shaped curve with the peak of the curve around 277 days of gestation. According to Fort Keogh researchers, this data mirrors the Miles City data.

The bell-shaped curve for gestation length is present for all bulls, it just peaks at different levels. For example, the peak for long-gestation growth bulls might be at 287 days. However, the bell-shaped curve of the data is similar to that shown with shortergestation bulls. The range of gestation will still be 10 to 12 days on either side of the peak of the bell-shaped curve.

were due to abnormal presentation of the fetus and not to excessive birth weight. Ninety-one percent of the calves weighed less than 80 lb. at birth. As birth weights increased to more than 80 lb., so did the assistance rate. When a first-calf heifer experiences calving difficulty, we often cast all the blame to the immediate sire of the calf. We often forget that the immediate sire contributes only half of the genetic merit. The pedigree of the dam determines the other half. If the dam’s pedigree is stacked with growth and large-BW sires and dams, this is likely to influence calf delivery as a first-calf heifer. Conversely, if the dam’s pedigree is stacked with CE sires and dams, one would expect shorter gestations, lower birth weights and less dystocia. This theory held true with the study cattle. Second- and third-generation shortgestation and CE-sired cows tended to have even smaller calves at birth with shorter gestations. This would support the idea that true CE sires are stacked with calving ease in their pedigree, not simply the immediate sire.

% calving

Research shows that there is an 80-pound Case Study: Twelve years of data on (lb.) birth-weight (BW) threshold relative There are several variables that contribute Gestation length is an issue because it is high-accuracy calving-ease AI sires in to dystocia in first-calf English-bred to calving ease other than gestation length. Back to page and 1) dystocia heifers. Sires listed in Table 1 and utilized Many of the CE sires are so partially associated with dystocia, and it affects the relation to Basics gestation(from length in this study are obviously short-gestation, because they are short-gestation sires. It postpartum interval. Bob Bellows, retired Most ranchers know the breeding interval, CE and low-BW sires, for only a light pull makes sense; you do not want to leave a Miles City, Mont., researcher at the U.S. Case study: Twelve years of90-day data ontime high-accuracy calving-ease AI sires length and dystocia in other words the 60or was required on less than 3% inofrelation the AI-to gestation cake in the oven too long ,orcontinued it will get Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) period when cows were exposed to bulls. sired calves studied. Many of these assists overdone. Perhaps this is true with a calf. Fort Keogh Research Center states, tion of the fetus and not to excessive birth With this information, they can calculate “During the last 10 days of gestation, 1 to weight. percent of the calves 60- toNinety-one 90-day time interval to expect Fig. 1: Gestation length of 140 Angus Cows 11⁄2 pounds of birth weight can be added whatweighed less thanto 80occur. lb. at birth. Asisbirth their calving season There no 40 to the size of the fetus. This means that weights increased to more than 80 lb., so for a calf that had a five-day extended way to track gestation length with this did the assistance because rate. individual breeding gestation, you could be adding as much as information 30 When a first-calf heifer experiences dates are unknown. 8 pounds to the birth weight. This might calving difficulty, we often cast all the mean the difference between an unassisted When breeding dates are known and blame to the immediate sire thewith calf. birth or a dystocia situation.” calving dates documented, suchof as 20 We often forget that the immediate sire Sally Northcutt, director of genetic research artificial insemination (AI) programs contributes only half of the genetic merfor the American Angus Association, says or pasture-breeding situations in which it. are Theobserved pedigree for of the the dam actualdetermines breeding 10 breeding to short-gestation bulls can cattle the other half. If the dam’s pedigree is dates, some interesting information about shorten the postpartum interval and assist gestation length specific bulls is revealed. stacked withon growth and large-BW sires in earlier breed-back of the cows. 0 Takeand fordams, example the calving data on the this is likely to influence calf 272-275 276-278 279-283 284-291 “Research clearly shows that young author’s Angus cattle. delivery as a first-calf heifer. Conversely, Days of gestation cows and cows that have difficult and if the dam’s pedigree is stacked with CE slow deliveries require additional days of During the past 12 years I have used AI to sires oneregistered would expect shorter breed 710and of dams, my own cows and postpartum interval to cycle and rebreed. Table 1: EPDsa,b and sire birth weight of bulls evaluated in study gestations, lower birth weights and less heifers. Two hundred and three of these If a calf is born at 275 days gestation vs. bred to calving-ease (CE) sires. I was BW EPD the breed average of 283, that cow will weredystocia. successful 140 held AI pregnancies CE Thison theory true with theto study (accuracy) CED (accuracy) Actual BW CED ranking usually have an easier delivery and will This resulted in anand average conception top 1% breed Secondthird-generation Bull A +15 (.58) -3.5 (.75) 60 automatically have an additional eight- sires.cattle. rate shortof 69%. I monitored the actual gestation and CE-sired cowscalving tended Bull B +12 (.94) +0.5 (.94) 74 top 3% breed day postpartum interval advantage.” datetoand compared that to the 283-day Bull C +11 (.78) -1.8 (.90) 72 top 5% breed have even smaller calves at birth with The American Gelbvieh Association has gestation table: Bull D +10 (.87) +1.0 (.94) 85 top 10% breed shorter gestations. This would support the an expected progeny difference (EPD) for Bull E +10 (.62) -0.4 (.84) 78 top 10% breed > 37% were born between 276 and 278 idea that true CE sires are stacked with gestation length and has used that EPD Bull F +8 (.88) +0.6 (.96) 79 top 30% breed days of gestation. calving ease in their pedigree, not simply to reduce the average gestation length of Breed average +6 +2.2 50% the immediate a the breed from 289 days to 284 days, and > 27% were bornsire. between 272 and 275 CED = calving ease direct, BW = birth weight. b are several variables that conthat trend has parallelled within-breed daysThere of gestation. Numbers are followed by accuracy levels in parentheses for each trait. www.progressiverancher.com

tribute to calving ease other than gestaThe Rancher tion length. I feel that many of Progressive the CE sires are so partially because they are short-

JANUARY 2020 41


BLM and NDOW partner to rehabilitate wildfire-damaged public lands CONTACT: Chris Hanefeld, Public Affairs Specialist | 775-289-1842/chanefel@blm.gov The Bureau of Land Management and Nevada Department of Wildlife (NDOW) are working together to improve fish and wildlife habitat, and restore watershed health to public lands burned in the Goshute Cave Fire. BLM Ely District and NDOW staff last month transplanted in Goshute Creek willow cuttings taken from a nearby state park. The creek is home to a population of Bonneville cutthroat trout, a BLM sensitive species and State of Nevada protected gamefish.

Heath Korell, NDOW fisheries biologist, said the willows will help to stabilize the streambank and improve water quality. “Stabilizing the habitat is key to the fish’s persisting in Goshute Creek. The creek represents an out of basin population that provides redundancy in the Pine Creek/Ridge Creek strain of Bonneville cutthroat trout that are found in Great Basin National Park,” Korell said.

McVicars extolled NDOW for its collaboration on this and other eastern Nevada projects. “We work closely with the Nevada Department of Wildlife. Agency staff assists in planning and implementation, and the department provides funding and materials, and labor for projects,” he said. BLM Ely District Fire Management Officer Tye Petersen echoed McVicars’ sentiments. “We could not accomplish what we have without participation from the Nevada Department of Wildlife. It’s partly due to that agency’s hard work and commitment to Nevada’s public lands that our projects have been so hugely successful,” he said. Other elements of the Goshute Cave Fire’s emergency stabilization and rehabilitation plan were fence construction and repair, hazardous tree felling, soil stabilization and noxious weed treatments, and reconstruction of the Goshute Creek Campground.

The agencies last winter partnered to aerially seed more than 15,300 acres of BLM-administered land blackened in the 2018 wildfire. The lightning-ignited fire burned 32,215 acres of the public lands in and outside the Goshute Canyon Wilderness in White Pine and Elko counties, about 60 miles north of Ely.

Chris McVicars, BLM Ely District natural resource specialist and fire rehab program manager, said initial monitoring indicates that the burn area is recovering well. “Natural recovery is occurring earlier than we normally see, especially in the higher elevations,” McVicars said. BLM Ely District Wildlife Biologist Nancy Herms transplants willow cuttings in Goshute Creek. BLM and NDOW employees in two days harvested and transplanted approximately 1,400 cuttings along a little more than half-mile stretch of Goshute Creek.

Nevada Department of Wildlife Habitat Biologist Moira Kolada plants the now-dormant willows in mud to keep them moist. When they take root, the willows will stabilize the streambank, and improve water quality and watershed function. The agencies in February aerially seeded approximately 15,337 acres or nearly half of the public lands burned in the Goshute Cave Fire. The approximately two-week seeding required 138,243 pounds of grass, forb and brush seed.

42 JANUARY 2020

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JANUARY 2020 43


RANGE PLANTS FOR THE RANCHER Littleleaf Mountain Mahogany By Paul T. Tueller, Ph.D., CRMC

As we roam around Nevada it becomes very clear that most of the vegetation is shrub dominated. Some of these woody plants are very common and are found over large areas. Others are not widespread but are still part of our vegetation resource. For this issue I describe a less common woody plant for you interest. The plant is Littleleaf Mountain Mahogany or dwarf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus intricatus S. Watson) a member of the Rose Family (Rosaceae). Related species in Nevada include Curleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius) and Alder-leaf Mountain Mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus).

Plants are very drought tolerant and slow growing. The habitat is often exposed, rocky slopes, ledges, bluffs with shallow soil, often cracks and crevices, alluvial slopes of limestone, dolomite, sandstone, or granite. It is given that plants have low water needs and are very tolerant to drought. Associated species are snowberry, various sagebrush Associated species include Artemisia, Coleogyne, Ephedra, Purshia, pinyon and ponderosa pine, oaks, juniper woodlands in Ariz., Calif., Colo., Nev., N.Mex., Utah, Wyo.

Littleleaf Mountain Mahogany is often considered to be a sub species of Curl-leaf Mountain Mahogany. It is a sprawling shrub that, upon close inspection, looks very much like the more tree-like Curl-leaf Mountain Mahogany, but in miniature.

Littleleaf Mountain Mahogany is a fairly common component of vegetation communities in dry, welldrained gravelly areas on bajadas into the lower mountains in the Upper Sonoran (Pinyon-Juniper Woodland) and higher in elevation into Yellow Pine Forest, Pine-Fir Forest, and Bristlecone Pine Forest) life zones. They are often found on rocky soils and slickrock.

This shrub is native to the Southwestern United States, from California to Colorado, where it grows in mostly dry habitats. They are found in rocky places and mountain slopes.

Littleleaf Mountain Mahogany is a very dense and rounded shrub with stiff intertwining branches and tiny, almost needle-like evergreen leaves. Flowers are either solitary or in clusters of 2 to 3 flowers on

44 JANUARY 2020

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short spur branchlets. They are tube-shaped, greenishyellow in color, and lack petals. They have one seed and a feathered plume per flower. Its leaves are small, fine textured, and needle-like. They have a shiny, dark green coloring. The leave edges curl inward, but in miniature (5–13 mm by × 1–1.5 mm vs 13-30 mm), and the fruits are elongate with a feathered plume, but again, in miniature (plume 30–45 mm vs. 75 mm). Plants are intricately-branching reaching heights of up to 7 feet tall. The fruit is a plumed, spiral achene. In Nevada it is found commonly on limestone soils in eastern Nevada. Plants are found in many dry regions at elevations between 4,000 and 8,500 feet. Plants are most abundant on well-drained soils. Littleleaf mountain mahogany is a browse for wildlife but is not used much by livestock. Some call the plant a Rocky Mountain Beauty for small spaces or as an accent to rocky sites. This is a delightful unique shrub adding variety to the Nevada vegetation landscape.

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Getting the Herd Ready for Rebreeding Fall-Calving Cows In a deadline driven world, often it is our past successes and failures that carry us forward and that is true of the cow herd as well. Now is the time when fall cavers are in the breeding cycle.

Managing Stocker Cattle for Profit Cow-calf producers, stocker operators and feedlot managers all have the same end goal in mind: raise a high quality product profitably. Beef Cattle Institute experts Dr. Bob Larson, Dr. Dustin Pendell and Dr. Bob Weaber recently discussed ways to successfully raise stocker cattle. Stocker cattle are typically newly weaned calves that weigh between 300 and 800 pounds, and are developed in a forage-based system with some feed supplementation before moving to the feedlots for finishing.

To be profitable Larson, veterinary medicine professor, says, "Successful stocker operators do a good job of buying and selling the cattle, while keeping them healthy at an effective cost of gain. Pendell, agricultural economist, advises that stocker operators buy the calves at a low price, watch the markets and target the calves for sale at a profit. He says, "There are a lot of considerations to include such as pricing inputs, output price and marketing strategies. Producers need to have a risk management strategy system when purchasing inputs and selling calves."

Identifying appropriate feedstuffs is also key to a stocker operator's success. "It is not just pricing feed on a per pound of feed basis, but looking at how much growth can come from that feed source," says Larson. "Depending on the situation, I might desire a slower rate of gain with a forage-based diet because that is the cheapest cost of gain, or I might offer more supplementation to provide adequate nutrients for faster gain." Weaber, professor and cow-calf extension specialist, adds, "Following a higher rate of gain may also allow operators to meet a marketing window due to the seasonality of feeder calves."

"There is a lot of momentum from one breeding season to the next in beef cattle reproduction. On average, cows calve about the same time each year," says Dr. Bob Larson, veterinarian and BCI faculty member. He cites the example of how there are 365 days in a year and cow gestation length is 283 days with a postpartum interval of 60-70 days as the reason why it is hard to move up a cow in the calving cycle. One factor that is critically important is nutrition, according to Larson and Dr. Brad White, veterinarian and BCI director. "Cows need to calve in good body condition and maintain that condition through the start of breeding," White says. "When she is in peak lactation she has a lot of calorie drain making maintaining or adding weight difficult." Larson says when a cow is thin going into calving and then loses weight with lactation, her body's natural response is to delay returning to fertile estrus cycles. Along with the cows, Larson and White stress that it is important to make sure the bulls are ready for the breeding season as well. Larson advises that bulls need to have passed their breeding soundness exams prior to being turned out with the cows. White adds, "Bulls are like athletes; they need to be ready to go at the start of the breeding season because, hopefully, there will be a lot of cows in heat those first 21 days." Tips for Getting the Herd Ready for Breeding Season

1. Focus on the management details needed for good reproductive success because each year's outcome impacts the next year's advancements. 2. Breed heifers to calve at least 30 days before the cows.

3. Provide adequate nutrition to the cows maintain weight going into breeding season. 4. Make sure cows have an body condition score of 5 or greater.

5. Have the bulls ready to go for breeding season by making sure they've passed their breeding soundness exams.

Tips for Managing Profitability in Stockers

Listener Question: Why do I need to pick the early born heifers for replacements rather than just using synchronization?

2. Sell high. Have a marketing plan that optimizes the market price.

"We do have some tools that we can nudge puberty a little bit or get the cows to come back in heat a little earlier after calving, but you can't move mother nature very much," says Dr. Bob Larson.

1. Buy low. The goal is to buy the cattle at the lowest price for the greatest value. 3. Develop a supplementation plan.

4. Establish a health management plan.

5. Manage risks to include price risks with forward contracts, hedging, etc. 6. Develop a grazing plan to optimize forage utilization. Establishing a Treatment Protocol

Co-mingling of cattle and winter weather both increase the odds of sickness in the herd. BCI's Bob Larson offers strategies for managing cattle illness for positive outcomes for both the animal and the producer. "It is important to establish a logical plan of first and second treatments," Larson says. "The veterinarian is going to help you select an antibiotic that is a good match for the bacteria that is causing the disease." Larson says the common health challenges for cattle this time of year are respiratory disease and foot rot. Part of the treatment plan is outlining treatment frequency and establishing a second protocol for those that don't respond to the initial treatment. Record keeping is important in this treatment process. Once a plan is in place, it is important that cattle producers stick with it. Larson says, "This is a protocol. Treat every animal the same so we can evaluate if this protocol is working." To learn more on this topic, check out the podcast link below:

https://ksubci.org/2019/11/29/dustin-questions-ag-credit-survey-listenerquestion-tips-for-managing-profitability-in-stocker-cattle-health-protocols/ www.progressiverancher.com

He shares the example of targeting the cowherd for an April 1 calving date for mature cows and a March 1 date for heifers. In that system, the earliest the potential replacement heifers could be born is April and they need to be bred for a March 1 calving date. "They are getting pregnant at the very oldest 13 months of age. This is about the time that they reach puberty so there isn't a lot of extra weeks to work with." He adds that using a progesterone-based product will induce some heifers close to puberty, but that will only move them forward about 10-14 days in the cycle. Larson sums up his thoughts by saying, "I will stay with my recommendation that you need to pick replacement heifers born fairly early in the breeding season. If I use a progesterone-based synchronization program, I will probably get a few extra heifers to conceive, but I won't change my protocol." To learn more on this topic, listen to the podcast link below: https://ksubci.org/2019/12/20/ economic-impacts-listenerquestion-top-tips-for-earlycalving-changes-in-cow-calfherds-breeding-season/

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JANUARY 2020 45 


We support and promote the beef and agriculture industry by:

Churchill County Cowbelles INTRODUCING COWBELLES PRESIDENT Hi, I am Sue Van Patten. Like many people I am not a native of Nevada; I was born in Lander, Wyoming. I grew up on a small cattle ranch about ten miles out of town. I moved to Fallon in 2003 to teach Special Education at the high school. In 2009 I took over the culinary program at the high school and retired at the end of the 2016 school year after teaching for thirty-three years in Wyoming and Montana as well as Nevada.

Nearly all of neighbors were involved in the beef or agriculture industry, and many were members of the local Cowbelles Association. I remember thinking how “cool” that was. I was a member of the local 4-H organization for ten years; my favorite projects were cooking and market beef. Growing up in this environment it was easy to understand the importance of the beef industry and its role in the world. After teaching the culinary class I learned that numerous students had very little connection to agricultural community in their area.

• Assist with refreshments for the Cattleman’s Update • Sponsor the Bull Sale Dinner to support activities over the year • Support the Junior Churchill County Livestock Show by providing side dishes and serving the Buyers Appreciation Dinner • Sponsor the Junior Cattleman’s Award associated with the Livestock Show with a cash prize • Sponsor the Young Cattleman’s Award for young cattlemen in the community with support for them to attend the state Cattlemen’s Conference. • Sponsor three scholarships for graduating seniors majoring in a beef or agricultural related field of study. •

Sponsor the beef carcass contest at the Fallon Cantaloupe Festival and County Fair with organizational assistance and financial support.

Joining Cowbelles enabled me to make personal connections, assist an organization that supports the local community, and keep busy. Cowbelles mission of supporting and promoting the beef and agricultural industry in Churchill County aligned perfectly for me. Throughout the year we keep ourselves busy starting in January and continue throughout the year.

• Sponsor an informational static display at the Fallon Cantaloupe Festival and County Fair.

for more information, message us at  / Churchill County Cowbelles

• Sponsor other youth activities that are related to our mission and are brought to the group’s attention

Sarah Fuller

208-731-3371  46 JANUARY 2020

safcattle@filertel.com

• Provide financial to offer lunches for lower elementary students touring the Fallon Cantaloupe Festival and County Fair • Sponsor the Teacher of the Year Award with a cash prize.

Dennis Boehlke

208-989-1612

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bellkeyangus@digis.net www.progressiverancher.com


Churchill County Cowbelles

Annual Bull Sale Dinner & Dance Friday, February 14 Fallon Convention Center 5:30 PM Doors Open | 6:30-8:00 PM Dinner 8:00 PM - 11:00 PM Dance $20.00 Dinner& Dance | $5.00 Dance

DINNER

Santa Marie Grilled Tri Tip Cowbelles Potatoes Mixed Field Greens Salad with assorted dressings Green Beans with caramelized onion & bacon Assorted Cowbelle Desserts

This Dinner Dance supports the Nevada Cattlemen’s Fallon Bull Sale and is the major Fund Raiser for the Churchill County Cowbells community activities. • • • • • •

Provides Three Scholarships for graduating Seniors Sponsors the Junior Cattleman’s Award associated with the Livestock Show Sponsors the beef carcass contest at the Fallon Cantaloupe Festival and County Fair Sponsors the Teacher of the Year Award Sponsors the Young Cattleman’s Award for young cattlemen in the community Sponsors youth & educational activities that support & promote our area’s beef & agriculture industry

Remember to support FFA by purchasing a raffle ticket for the heifer at the Bull Sale!

Fallon: 8-5:30 M-F Gardnerville: 8-5 M-F Snyders Pinenut Livestock Supply

800-513-4963 • www.pinenutlivestocksupply.com Complete selection of animal health products, feed, and equipment for beef, dairy, equine, sheep, goat and small animal. Well-trained staff help make the right decision for any size herd. Our Fallon & Gardnerville stores can ship next-day. www.progressiverancher.com

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JANUARY 2020 47


Maternal Versus Terminal Crossbreeding Systems: A Six-Year Study at University of Nevada Gund Research and Demonstration Ranch Ron Torell, Retired UNR Extension Livestock Specialist | Dr. Ben Bruce, State Extension Livestock Specialist | Ken Conley, Former Gund Ranch Manager Jon Wilker, Former Gund Ranch Manager | Vern France, Owner/Manager Triangle Feedlot, Gooding, Idaho INTRODUCTION

and terminal traits when selecting herd sires. The result has been the production of a light to moderate muscled, medium framed, average performing feedlot steer and a slightly over fat, light to moderate muscled, higher percentage of choice carcass. The obvious questions of how to maintain and manage the maternal cow herd on a terminal crossbreeding program and how to be properly compensated for the superior terminal cross calf is discussed in two separate papers included in this proceedings: "Sources for Maternal Replacement Heifers When Using a Terminal Crossbreeding Program," and "Three-tiered Marketing."

The Webster dictionary defines terminal as "the end." Terminal crossbreeding for purposes of this paper, means that all heifers and steers from a group of maternal cows, sired by a heavily-muscled, non-maternal bull are destined for the feedlot. No replacement heifers are held back. In a terminal crossbreeding program, producers select herd sires based entirely on terminal traits such as average daily gain, feed conversion, muscling, external fat, marbling, tenderness, carcass weight, quality and yield grade. When selection criteria, such as maternal traits are eliminated, cattlemen can purchase bulls, perhaps even full brothers. These bulls can produce a uniform, consistent, predictable SELECTION CRITERIA FOR and hopefully profitable feedlot and MATERNAL AND TERMINAL SIRES rail calf. These traits are preferred by the feedlot industry and demanded by the There is a saying that goes, "there is more genetic variation within a breed than consumer. between breeds!" Bulls exist within all breeds that have good maternal or terminal THE MATERNAL STEER traits. Identifying those bulls that sire Selecting for maternal traits when calves that produce females who match purchasing herd sires can pay big dividends your ranch resources and simultaneously in the production of replacement heifers. sire male calves that work in the feedlot Maternal traits are counterproductive on and on the rail, is a challenge. EPD's are the steers, and for heifers that are not an excellent tool to help identify those replacements. Unfortunately terminal sires, however, many breed associations traits are often antagonistic to many of the and many bulls within those association maternal traits desired in a cow. For years registries do not have enough feedlot and cattlemen have tried to balance the maternal carcass data to truly identify the best sires to

48 JANUARY 2020

use. Additionally, balancing maternal and terminal EPD's within all breeds usually compromises performance at the ranch, in the feedlot or on the rail. An alternative to balancing maternal and terminal traits within one breed is to select breeds that excel in a particular area. For example, Table 1 lists the latest information on 19 breeds compared for milk production, growth rate, mature size, percent retail product and age at puberty. This is a germ plasma study initiated in 1969 that is continuing at the U.S.D.A. Meat Animal Research Center (M.A.R.C.). The study indicates that out of 19 breeds researched, Charolais, Simmental, Limousin and Chianina ranked the highest in growth rate and mature size, percent retail product and have the longest age at puberty. These breeds were in last place for milk production.

marketing system as a means to optimize profits through marketing alternatives. 5.) To explore risk-management futures and options as a method of reducing risk when marketing cattle. Performance and profitability of the terminal cross Limousin calves produced in 1996 to 1998 are compared to the maternal bred Angus steers produced in 1993 through 1995. Steers were pre-weaned and vaccinated prior to shipment to Triangle Feedlot in Gooding, Idaho each year. Only the heaviest calves were retained each year. Data across years for each treatment group was pooled for analysis. RANCH PERFORMANCE – MATERNAL VS. TERMINAL CALVES

A weaning weight advantage for terminal cross calves due to heterosis and the added growth potential and frame was expected. Hereford and Angus on the other hand, However, no significant difference in had moderate milk, growth and mature weaning weights between the maternal size. This would indicate that cows and terminal cross calves was observed from these breeds would have a lower (Table 2, 430 maternal vs. 428 terminal). nutrient requirement, thus matching our rangelands resources better. Hereford and This can be partially explained by Angus had the lowest percentage retail comparing the available feed resources to the cow’s nutritional requirements product yet the earliest age at puberty. during lactation, and the calf 's growth By selecting the bulls within the Hereford requirements during the first seven months and Angus breeds for the maternal of life. The UNR Gund Ranch rangeland cow herd and selecting bulls within the is primarily a high desert shrub zone. Mid Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, or and late summer forage quality does not Chianina breeds for terminal sires, one meet the cow’s lactational requirements can more easily match a bull with your or the calf ’s genetic growth requirements. The end result is added frame, however, production goals and resources. weaning weights are equal to the maternal bred calves. Other researchers have CASE STUDY: reported weaning weight advantages MATERNAL TO TERMINAL for terminal cross calves, however, feed In September 1993, a research project resources in those trials were significantly was initiated at the UNR Gund better and the milking ability of the cows Ranch, which converted the 300-head, significantly higher. Based on UNR Gund English-bred rangeland operation to Ranch results, producers should not expect a terminal crossbreeding system. The an increase in weaning weights when project objectives were five fold. 1.) To implementing a terminal cross system determine if converting a range livestock under limited feed conditions. operation of this size to a terminal crossbreeding system was feasible and The distribution of weaning weights was economical. 2.) To explore ways to changed with the terminal cross program. retain replacement heifers of sufficient Slightly more calves, 2.98 percent weaned maternal quality that matched the cow over 500 pounds and 11.7 percent more to the environment when implementing weaned less than 400 pounds. Fewer a terminal crossbreeding program. 3.) To terminal calves (14.7 percent) weaned collect baseline performance data for the between 400-500 pounds compared to ranch relative to ranch, feedlot and carcass the maternal bred calves. This would performance. 4.) To explore a three-tiered indicate a less uniform set of calves with

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more than the terminal heifer groups. “Realizers,” (those cattle that did not perform in the feedlot and were sold at auction to realize salvage value), followed the same pattern as death loss. The maternal bred groups had realizers of 1.56 percent while the terminal groups had zero. For any retained ownership program a sound and thorough weaning program enhances the probability of success. The average processing out date for the maternal bred steers was June 8, two days later than the June 6 date for the terminal cross steers and six days earlier than the June 14 date for the terminal cross heifers. The maternal bred steers were on feed one day longer (243 vs. 242) and remained on the grower ration 59 days longer (138 vs. a terminal crossbreeding program. This is Angus steers weighing 517 pounds entered 79) than their terminal cross counter part contrary to results of other researchers. the feedlot on approximately October 3 steers. The maternal steers were on feed No significant difference was observed for of each of the three years, 1993 to 1995. 12 days less and remained on the grower cow conception rates or birth date. Upon These placements were two days earlier ration 52 days longer than the terminal semen evaluation of bulls, fewer terminal and 54 pounds lighter than the terminal heifers. Limousin bulls passed fertility tests each cross Limousin steers. The terminal cross year in comparison to maternal selected steers were fed during the years of 1996 Due to the genetic makeup and smaller to 1998. Compensating for heavier in frame of the maternal bred cattle, more Angus bulls. weights, the in value of the terminal cross days on a grower ration were required. placed steers was $0.0432 per pound less This added time on a grower ration adds FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE – MATERNAL VS. TERMINAL CATTLE than the maternal steers. Terminal cross frame prior to being placed on the finish heifers were fed during the years of 1996 ration. Research shows that English bred Yearly feedlot performance for maternal and 1998. Terminal heifers entered the “calf fed’s” that do not remain on a grower bred Angus steers and terminal cross feeding phase on October 3, the same date ration for an adequate time period will Limousin steers and heifers are presented as the maternal steers. The terminal heifers finish at lighter weights, result in smaller in Table 2. Data between years for posted an in weight of 515 pounds, two carcasses and higher yield grades. Price each group was pooled for comparison pounds lighter than the maternal steers. penalties on the rail are severe for these purposes. Performance data between years The terminal heifers in value was $0.7880 types of carcasses. Terminal cross cattle was mathematically adjusted to simulate per pound, $0.0984 less than the maternal entering the feedlot at approximately cattle being fed during the same year using steers. The lower in price is adjusted for sex 500 pounds and 210 days of age require identical feed costs and market conditions. and weight difference. minimal time on the grower ration. It is In values were determined using a $90/cwt important that terminal bred cattle (steers base weight for 500 pound steer calves, a A death loss of 1.56 percent for the and heifers) be placed on a finish ration as $8/cwt slide with heifers priced $10 back maternal bred cattle was 0.75 percent soon as possible after arrival at the feedlot. of the steer base price, using the same $8/ greater than the 0.81 percent death loss cwt slide. for the terminal steers and 1.56 percent Due to a management error, the 1998 terminal cross steers and heifers remained on the grower ration for 123 days, approximately 60 days longer than necessary. Dry matter feed conversion was 6.86 pounds of dry matter to one pound of gain for the maternal steers. The terminal steers converted at 6.32:1 or 0.54:1 better than the maternal steers. The terminal heifers converted at 6.71:1, 0.15:1 better than the maternal steers. Average daily gains were 0.23 pounds per day better for the terminal steers (2.72 vs. 2.95) and 0.05 pounds per day less for the terminal heifers (2.72 vs. 2.67) when compared to maternal steers. Total feedlot gain was 667 pounds for the maternal steers versus 709 pounds for the terminal steers and 680 pounds for the terminal heifers. The added feedlot gain is explained by the higher average daily gain www.progressiverancher.com

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of the terminal steers during the feeding period and longer days on feed for the terminal heifers. Total cost of gain was $5.78/cwt lower and feed cost of gain was $3.38/cwt lower for the terminal steers versus the maternal steers. Total cost of gain was $3.83/cwt less and feed cost-of-gain $0.65/cwt lower for the terminal heifers than the maternal steers. The 1,281-pound live finish weights for the terminal steers was 97 pounds heavier than the 1,184 pounds posted by their maternal bred counter parts. This can be attributed to heavier in weights, increased feedlot gain, larger frame size, and heavier muscling for the terminal cross steers. Terminal cross heifers finish weight of 1,195 pounds was 11 pounds heavier than the maternal steers. This can be attributed to more days on feed for the heifers. Research shows that when heifer mates of the same genetic background are fed along side their male counterparts, you can expect a 10 percent reduction in feedlot performance of the heifers. This data suggests that feedlot performance of terminal cross heifers will equal the performance of maternal bred steers. CARCASS PERFORMANCE – MATERNAL VS. TERMINAL CROSS Yearly carcass performance for the maternalbred Angus steers and the terminal cross Limousin steers and heifers are presented in Table 4. Yearly data for each group was pooled for comparison purposes. Research shows that continental breeds (terminal) of cattle usually have less intramuscular fat (marbling) resulting in a lower percent choice grading, less back fat, larger rib eyes, heavier carcass weights, lower yield grades, and a higher dressing percentage. This scenario was repeated in this study. Choice grading on the maternal steers was 5.3 percent higher than the terminal cross steers (57.5 percent vs. 52.2 percent). The maternal steers had 0.03“ less back fat at the twelfth and thirteenth ribs (0.51 vs. 0.54), 1.51 square inch smaller rib eye (14.08 vs. 12.56), and 78 pounds lighter carcasses (818 vs. 740). The maternal steers posted 0.42 higher yield grades (2.59 vs. 3.02.), and 1.50 percent lower dressing percent (62.50 vs. 64.0). The terminal cross steers produced 20.68 percent more carcasses that fell into the more desirable yield grade 1 and 2 categories. ... continued next page JANUARY 2020 49


...continued

Relative to the terminal cross heifers in comparison to the maternal bred steers, the heifers out graded the Angus steers by 2.5 percent (60 vs. 57.5). Research shows that heifers will usually out grade steers due to the earlier maturity of the females. Back fat was 0.06” more on the heifer carcasses (0.51 vs. 0.57). Rib eyes were 1.27 inches larger on the terminal heifers than the English-bred steers (13.84 vs. 12.56). Research shows rib eye areas and muscling is usually smaller on heifers than steers. Carcass weights were 35 pounds heavier for the terminal heifers versus the maternal-bred steers (775 vs. 740). Yield grades were very similar yet 0.06 better for the heifers versus the maternal-bred steers (2.96 vs. 3.02). Research shows that yield grades are usually superior for steers. Dressing percentage was 2.29 percent better for the heifers than for the Angusbred steers (64.81 vs. 62.50). More heifers (8.7 percent) fell into the more desirable yield grade one and two categories than the English-bred steers (56.2 vs. 47.5). The terminal cross heifers out performed maternal-bred steers on the rail. Other researchers have found similar results. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS MATERNAL BRED STEERS VERSUS TERMINAL CROSS STEERS AND HEIFERS 1993 TO 1998 Table 5 presents the economic analysis of maternal versus terminal cross relative to breakeven and profit loss during the feedlot phase. The terminal cross heifers posted the lowest actual breakeven price of $60.43/ cwt. The terminal cross steers breakeven ($61.88/cwt) was $3.66/cwt less than the $65.54 posted by the maternal bred steers. This can largely be attributed to the better feed conversion, average daily gain and dressing percent of the terminal cattle. Feed conversion, average daily gain  50 JANUARY 2020

and in values are the most economically important traits relative to the feedlot phase. These traits influence breakeven price significantly in this study. The break even figures suggest that the terminal heifers were under valued entering the feedlot phase. The historical $10/cwt discount behind steer counter parts is too much of a discount for terminal heifers.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

Converting a maternal group of range cattle to a terminal crossbreeding program when limited summer grazing feed quality exists, did not increase ranch weaning weights or net profits. Producing and retaining quality replacement heifers with Relative to sale price, all cattle were sold the terminal cross breeding program was on the same market based on a rail grid costly and difficult. Value was added to presented in Table 6, adjusted back to the terminal cross calf through feedlot a live price. The grid used represents the retained ownership. Terminal cross steers typical mid June price spread between gained 0.23 lbs./day better, converted 0.54 choice select carcasses and various yield pounds of feed/lb. of gain better, required 59 days less on the grower ration, and grades. posted a finish on the hoof sale weight Finish price received of $66.42 was of 97 pounds heavier than Englishbred greatest for the terminal heifers. This can maternal steers. Terminal cross heifers largely be attributed to the high percentage performed equally to English-bred steers choice carcasses, heavier carcass weights, in feed conversion, average daily gain, the wide price spread between choice and finish weight. Relative to carcass and select carcasses, the high percentage performance, maternal steers graded 5.3 yield grade one and two carcasses and the percent better than the terminal steers. added dressing percentage of the terminal The terminal steers posted a 1.51 square cross females. The same held true with the inch larger rib eye, 0.42 better yield grade, terminal cross steers ($64.34) relative to a 1.5 percent higher dressing percent, a 78 the English-bred steers ($62.38). pound heavier carcass and 26.68 percent more carcasses fell into the more desirable Terminal cross heifers resulted in an yield grade 1 and 2 categories. Terminal average of $71.58 per head profit, $108.99 heifers graded 2.5 percent more choice more per head than the English-bred carcasses than the maternal steers, a 1.27 steers. The terminal cross steers made a square inch larger rib eye, 0.06 better profit of $31.51 per head, $68.92 more yield grade, a 2.29 percent better dressing per head than the ($37.41) per head loss percent, a 35 pound heavier carcass and posted by the maternal bred cattle. The 8.7 percent more carcasses fell into the advantage for the terminal cross cattle more desirable yield grade 1 and 2 carcass can largely be attributed to the better categories. Terminal cross heifers made an feedlot performance, heavier carcass average of $71.58 per head profit, $108.99 weights, higher dressing percentage, more per head than the English-bred higher percentage yield grade one and two steers. The terminal cross steers made a carcasses, and adequate percentage choice profit of $31.51 per head, $68.92 more carcasses. per head than the ($37.41) per head loss posted by the maternal bred cattle. The advantage for the terminal cross cattle The Progressive Rancher

can largely be attributed to the better feedlot performance, heavier carcass weights, higher dressing percentage, higher percentage yield grade one and two carcasses, and an adequate percentage choice carcasses. REFERENCES: Cundiff, L.V., Keith E. Gregory, R.M. Koch, M.E. Dikeman, and J.D. Crouse. Breed Comparisons in the Germplasm Evaluation Program at MARC. USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Roman L. Kruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, Nebraska. DeRouen, S.M., D.E. Franke, T.D. Bidner, and D.C. Blouin. 1992. “Two-, Three-, and Four-Breed Rotational Crossbreeding of Beef Cattle: Carcass Traits.” Journal of Animal Science, 70:3665-3676. Effertz, Nita. 1990. “From Bulls to Bunk and Back Again.” Beef Today, November/December. Effertz, Nita. 1994. “The Economics of Weight: In a battle with traits such as muscling and leanness, quality grade loses.” Beef Today, September. Gregory, K.E., and L.V. Cundiff. 1990. “Crossbreeding in Beef Cattle: Evaluation of Systems.” Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 51, No. 5. Gregory, K.E., L.V. Cundiff and R.M. Koch. August 1992. Composite Breeds to Use Heterosis and Breed Differences to Improve Efficiency of Beef Production. USDA, Agricultural Research Service. Gregory, K.E., L.V. Cundiff, and R.M. Koch. 1992. “Effects of Breed and Retained Heterosis on Milk Yield and 200Day Weight in Advanced Generations of Composite Populations of Beef Cattle.” Roman Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, ARS, USDA, Clay Center, Nebraska. Journal of Animal Science, 70:2366-2372. Harris, Dewey L. and Scott Newman. 1994. “Breeding for Profit: Synergism Between Genetic Improvement and Livestock Production (A Review).” Journal of Animal Science, 72:2178-2200. Kress, D.D., D.E. Doornbos, D.C. Anderson, and K.C. Davis. 1993. “Breed of Dam and Breed of Sire Effects for Hereford and Tarentaise Cattle and Estimates of Individual Heterosis for Traits of Calves.” Proceedings, Western Section, American Society of Animal Science. Vol. 44. Lamb, M.A., M.W. Tess, and O.W. Robinson. 1992. “Evaluation of Mating Systems Involving Five Breeds for Integrated Beef Production Systems: II. Feedlot Segment.” Journal of Animal Science, 70:700-713. Lamb, M.A., M.W. Tess, and O.W. Robison. 1992. “Evaluation of Mating Systems Involving Five Breeds for Integrated Beef Production Systems: I. Cow-Calf Segment.”Journal of Animal Science, 70:689-699. Lamb, M.A., M.W. Tess, and O.W. Robison. 1992. “Evaluation of Mating Systems Involving Five Breeds for Integrated Beef Production Systems: III. Integrated System.” Journal of Animal Science, 70:714-722. Laster, D.B. 1/17/76. Management to Minimize Calving Difficulty. U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, 10th A.I. Conference, NAAB, Denver, Co.. Notter, D.R., B. Tier, and K. Meyer. 1992. “Sire X Herd Interactions for Weaning Weight in Beef Cattle.” Animal Genetics and Breeding Unit, Armidale, NSW, Australia. Journal Animal Science, 70:2359-2365. Reynolds, W.L., J.J. Urick and B.W. Knapp. Birth and Weaning Traits of Calves from Charolais and Tarentaise Sires Mated to Red Angus Dams. Fort Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory.

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