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NCA 2009 President’s Award Recipient

Living in the Now, Preparing for the Future For many of us, our goals in life remain constant: financial independence and providing for family. Striking a balance between saving for goals, such as education and retirement, and allocating money for daily expenses can be challenging. But you can do it.

Range Plants for the Rancher: Tapertip 27

Nevada Rangeland Resource

Priority Weeds Identified...........pgs. 28-29

Eye on the Outside....................... pgs. 6, 8

Coloring 29

Ramblings of a Ranch Wife............. pg. 11

NVSRM: Rehabilitation of CheatgrassInfested Rangelands..................pgs. 30-31 Beef Checkoff............................pgs. 32-34

Dairy Farmers Build Processing Plant in 14

Research Bulletin: Fuel Management......................pgs. 32-35

Financial Advisor

“PAAS”ing the 17

Look Up: The Heart of the 36

2213 North 5th Street Suite A Elko, NV 89801 775-738-8811

Wells 18

Humboldt Watershed CWMA Common 37

Sonny Davidson, AAMS®

Jason B Land, AAMS®



2213 North 5th Street Suite A Elko, NV 89801 775-738-8811

Nevada Cattlemen’s Assn..........pgs. 3-4, 9

U.S. Supreme Court Denies Hage Takings Case 12

Learn how you can redefine your savings approach toward education and retirement. Call or visit today. Financial Advisor

In this Issue...

Air Ambulance 18

Member SIPC

Management Alternatives to Minimize Foothill Abortion......pgs. 20-23

Van Norman and friends Production Sale Adds New 40

Research Bulletin: Economics of Wildfire...............pgs. 22-25

Martin Black: Low Stress 42

Fumes from the Farm................pgs. 23-25

Edward Jones: Financial 43

The Progressive Rancher Owner/Editor/Publisher – Leana Stitzel

Graphic Design/Layout/Production – Julie Eardley

Cover Photo: “Tomera Crew” by Sabrina Tomera Reed Photo taken in the Carlin, Nevada area.

America’s greatness is the greatness of her people. —Barry Goldwater / George W. Romney

Mailed to approximately 7,000 individuals with approved addresses each month. The Progressive Rancher is published monthly. The views and opinions expressed by writers of articles appearing in this publication are not necessarily those of the editor. Letters of opinion are welcomed by The Progressive Rancher. Rates for advertising are available upon request. Advertising in The Progressive Rancher does not necessarily imply editorial endorsement. Liability for any errors or omissions in advertisements shall not exceed the cost of the space occupied by the error or omission. The Progressive Rancher is free to people working and active in the livestock industry. The Progressive Rancher is donated to the agricultural industry. If you are not currently receiving this magazine on a regular basis, and would like to be a part of The Progressive Rancher family, contact us by e-mail at, today, so we can include you on our mailing list. If you have moved or changed addresses, please notify us, by e-mail, so we can keep you informed. All requests for the magazine must be made by e-mail.

Leana Stitzel, Owner/Editor

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2 July / August 2013

The Progressive Rancher



s I sit down to write this article, I have just returned home from a meeting with Nevada Division of Forestry personnel. The topic of our meeting was fire and how we, as state and local entities, are going to work together on fire and initial attack going forward. While there is a drought that is affecting forage production and subsequent fuel loads this summer, there is still a significant danger of fire; and with dry stands of timber and brush, Nevada has the potential to burn acres that have not burned in the recent fire years. While some areas may in fact need burning in order to remove decadent stands of brush and invasive stands of PJ, the loss of any acreage to fire will be used as an argument toward listing of endangered species. I recently sat in on a daylong symposium on targeted and strategic grazing. There was an excellent amount of data presented on how proper livestock grazing is beneficial to rangelands and habitat. There was also a tremendous amount of talk about “targeted and

the Nevada Public Lands Bill. This bill was passed during this last legislative session. It creates an interim group that will study taking back state control of federally managed public lands. I realize that many people view this as the next Sage Brush Rebellion and a way to get out from under complete control by the federal agencies. I want to caution everyone to keep an open mind as we go into this process. Every county will have a representative on the interim committee, and it will be funded by local government and not the state. This can’t be a simple process of drawing lines on a map and saying, “we want this” and moving on. There are many lands in Nevada, that to be honest, we simply don’t want to assume management of. There are other lands that Nevadans are definitely going to want to manage. A first process is going to be identifying areas over which we may want to take control. I encourage everyone to contact their local county governments this summer and make sure you are engaged with them on this process. As I said, there will be one representative from each county, it will be a small group working on this and meaningful input will be greatly appreciated. Beyond selecting the lands we care to administer, the real meat of this process is going to be determining how we will pay for the administration of the lands. I am the first to say that the federal government and its agencies are probably the best at wasting money and mismanaging the land, but Nevada is going to have to be careful going forward and truly gain an understanding of what it is going to take to administer lands within our border. How will a user fee be structured? Who will have the ultimate enforcement power of regulation placed upon the lands? What arms of enforcement do we have within the state to protect our interests on public lands? Are the state and local governments ready to accept all the costs associated with wildfires, floods, etc? These are all real questions that need to be answered. While it is easy to be discouraged by the federal agencies and the processes that they use to hold a hammer over users of federal land, we need to be sure we are cautious going forward and completely understand what we are proposing. I am in complete favor of state control of many of our federal lands. I just want to be sure we get the right lands, can administer them correctly and do it in a financially sound manner. Can those of us on the ground and close to our natural resources do a better job of administering them? You damn right we can. We just need to be sure we get started on the right foot. I don’t want my children talking about the bastardization of the Nevada State Lands Bill in 40 years.

strategic” grazing. I do not claim to be an expert on range science; in fact, my education in this field came from right here on the ground, not in school. I guess I was expecting to go into the discussions and hear about rotational grazing systems, riparian grazing, and fall cheat grass grazing. While we did hear excellent discussions on these matters, I was somewhat surprised to hear us talking about strategically using livestock grazing to create fuel breaks and green strips. I was even more surprised to hear discussions about using livestock to graze unwanted plants in order to control them and stimulate more desirable species to grow. These last two topics are something that livestock producers have known for generations. So, why was I listening to a day long discussion on these issues? It soon became very clear to me. Folks, we have all heard the saying, “we need to get on the same page”. Well, I am starting to realize that producers, educators, and management agency folks are not only on different pages, I am no longer sure we are in the same book or even sitting in the same ————————— Continued on page 9

The Progressive Rancher


uring some recent meetings, discussions over the NEPA process once again came up. So many of the issues that we face today can be traced back to a NEPA document and process it seems. While I completely agree that at times the system is broken, I don’t think that the NEPA process itself is the entire issue. It is the bastardization of the process that is causing problems. NEPA was put into place to help those of us on the ground have input into proposed projects. The intent was to facilitate our involvement and ensure a fair approach was taken and that local governments and affected parties had an opportunity to make sure any activities on our federally managed lands were consistent with plans and policies locally. So where has the process failed us? It no longer truly takes input from cooperating agencies, and it doesn’t allow much of the input to be incorporated into draft administrative documents. Cooperating agencies are finding themselves trying to make drastic changes to documents during the public comment period rather than at the beginning of the process. During a recent meeting involving one such document/plan, a statement was made to the lead agency about what local county governments wanted to see in a certain section of the plan. A contractor in charge of writing the document for the agency spoke up and said, “We will need those recommendations as soon as possible because that chapter is already written!” It is what? We are having a call talking about coordination, and we are told there is no need or time for coordination? This is a prime example of how the NEPA process is flawed. It seems that more and more, there is a predetermined outcome that must be attained by the NEPA process. So many times the NEPA process is merely a check box on a form. The agencies are going through the motions because they have to, and they have already made up their minds about what the outcome will be. So what is the solution? I am not sure we can fix the process from within at this time. We continue to push back on agencies; we continue to write letters asking that the process be followed; and we are often viewed as trouble makers because of this. Like so many federal regulations and policies, I fear NEPA too must completely fail before it will be addressed. As long as special interest groups are making gains through the process, it isn’t going to be deemed a loss or failure; therefore, those of us truly affected by it aren’t going to see any major changes soon. So like many federal land users, I am left asking what next? One possible avenue to give federal land users some more say is


Goicoechea DVM

Nevada Cattlemen’s Association President

July / August 2013 3

Nevada Cattlemen’s Association


he Nevada Cattlemen’s Association would like to congratulate Rick Barnes of Spring Creek High School for being chosen as the 2013 NCA Scholarship recipient. Rick has been highly active within his high school and the community of Elko County, participating as a trainee for the Jiggs Volunteer Fire Department and is an active member of St. Joseph’s Parish. Serving in the industry at a young age, Rick participated in his local 4-H club and later, the Silver Sage FFA Chapter, taking an active

role in leadership. Rick will be competing on the Casper College Livestock Judging Team next fall and pursuing a degree in Ag Business in hopes to return to his family’s operation and continue to build his personal cattle herd and to be an advocate for agriculture. Congratulations again to Rickie! We are very proud of you and have great confidence that you will continue to serve our industry well. Good luck on your future endeavors! Rick’s essay is below.

Public Perception

Paul Harvey’s “So God Made a Farmer” became famous after Dodge used it for one of their truck commercials during the Super Bowl. The video and his words swept the media nationwide for two weeks before becoming one of the most viewed videos on YouTube and one of the top five Super Bowl XLVII commercials. The commercial was a video of pictures of ranchers and farmers working and the struggles we go through. It is videos, commercials, and statements like these that the livestock industry needs to use to fight back against the accusations of PETA, The Humane Society, and environmental groups like Western Watersheds and others like them to protect production agriculture. These groups have utilized the media and social networking to their advantage in creating a negative public perception of the livestock industry. The general public’s perception of the livestock industry is that we abuse our animals and that we are ruining beautiful recreation land by grazing our cattle and sheep on them. In a generation so removed from agriculture by the advancements in technology and an economy that is putting more emphasis on marketing than ever, we as beef producers and agriculturalists need take the next step toward getting our side of the story out to the public through commercials, magazine articles and social networking. In telling our side of the story, we need to focus on the positive benefits of what we do. Instead of constantly defending ourselves, we need to go on the offensive and make them defend themselves. Americans 18 and over spend more than an average of 4 hours a day (28 hours a week) watching TV. They will have seen 20,000 30 second commercials in one year. With all this time being spent watching TV, Americans see thousands of ads for different products and different organizations. For production agriculture to fight back, it would be in our best interest to pull at the hearts of Americans like the Budweiser commercial where the Clydesdale ran back to its original owner after he spent months with the horse. Paul Harvey says in his “God Made a Farmer” speech that he delivered to the National FFA Convention in 1976 “God said I need someone to stay up all night with a new born colt and watch it die and dry his eyes and say maybe next year, so God made a farmer.” Its statements and pictures like these that are going to change the public’s perception of the livestock industry. At the same time, we need to make sure that we are upholding that image and making sure others in our industry are doing the same. In the 1950’s, it took one book and several pictures of meat packing plants in Chicago to send the meat packing industry to the ground and, in a time of need for production agriculturalists, we as an industry cannot afford for this to happen again.

4 July / August 2013

by Rick Barnes Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) is more commonly known to the public as the organization that saved the dog or the cat in the commercial and they ask the public for donations to help save these animals. However, they have openly admitted that working against production agriculture is their main goal. They have even gone so far as to encourage “Meatless Mondays”. The Los Angeles County School District has joined them in meatless Mondays. Wayne Pacelle, HSUS CEO, says in his blog that “We primarily focus on refinement and reduction when it comes to animal agriculture.” He goes on to say “If Americans participated in Meatless Monday, more than a billion animals would be spared.” An important fact that needs to be mentioned is that red meat has all the needed proteins, vitamins, and minerals for a healthy diet, all of which are essential for young developing minds. Western Watersheds has also come out saying that they want to end production agriculture. Their main goal is to end public lands grazing so that the land can heal itself and return to the way it was before cattle. Their primary focus is the negative impact that grazing has on the rangeland. What they don’t want to mention is the positive impacts that cattle have, especially in Nevada. Nevada’s soil is high clay meaning it compacts easily. The cattle keep the ground from getting compacted and they also reduce the amount of fuel a wildfire has to burn. For me and many other ranchers, these benefits outweigh the non-existent negative impacts. We as production agriculturalists can highlight the benefits of cattle grazing on the BLM range and U.S. Forest Service ground. Each year, the BLM shuts down grazing allotments due to fire and they stay closed for two years or until they think they are healthy. One way to prevent these fires is to put more cattle on the range to reduce the amount of fuel such as grasses and brush. The Smoked Bear campaign has been on the radio for a couple years now and they are pushing the BLM and Forest Service to put more livestock on the range to reduce these fires. Another angle we could approach the grazing rights from is the sage grouse issue. To save the sage grouse numbers, it has been proposed that cattle numbers on public land be reduced so there is more habitat for the birds. The truth of the matter is that the cow actually helps the bird by keeping the insects that they eat in the area and helps to maintain a productive sagebrush community. The Sierra Club is another group like Western Watersheds and HSUS. They support both organizations and their main goal, like that of Western Watersheds, is to protect the environment and ensure that public lands will still be around for a long time to come. Although they don’t mention ending production agriculture The Progressive Rancher

in their mission statement like the other two organizations, some of the legal issues they have been involved in deal with production agriculture. For the last ten years, the general public has lost interest in production agriculture. This is due to the fact that the public doesn’t know where their food comes from. Many kids in my area, although fairly rural, think that their food is made in the store. Many don’t know that the big juicy steak they ate for dinner came from a yearling that was cared for by a rancher who spent many sleepless nights checking his cattle to make sure that every calf was born or to make sure every calf lived. They don’t know that the rancher and his family spent many long days moving the cattle to feed and dealing with BLM/Forest Service to make sure that they would continue to have feed. To get our point and information to the public, especially as ranchers and farmers in Nevada, we can’t solely rely on commercials as they cost thousands of dollars for just 30 seconds. So how do we tell our side and share our story with the world? The answer is simple, we use Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and the internet just like these other organizations that we are fighting. According to Facebook, they had 901 million members at the end of December 2012. They predict that they will reach 1 billion members by the end of this year. Twitter has also reported that they have over 500 million members and they predict that they will reach 800 million members by the end of this year. Both Facebook and Twitter report that members spend an average of 7 hours per month on their sites. Knowing this information gives us the opportunity to tell our story. All we have to do as producers is present the facts and the heart melting pictures to the public through these sites and let the public’s heart bring them back to having an interest in agriculture. We as Nevada’s ranchers need to take the fight back to these organizations that claim we abuse our animals, destroy the range land, and lower the population of game animals by showing the public the real story, our story. Our story needs to be shown to the general public through the commercials like Dodge truck’s “God Made a Farmer” which, as I write this, has almost 15 million views. The Budweiser commercial with the Clydesdale that aired during the super bowl has almost 12 million views on YouTube. We need to use the internet and social media to our advantage as well as using the commercials. America’s ranchers care for their animals and we help to maintain the public lands we use, not only for our livestock but for the wildlife that inhabit these areas naturally. America’s farmers and ranchers maintain the beautiful, wide open spaces that so many have come to love. Our story is one that keeps repeating decade after decade and generation after generation.

The Progressive Rancher Celebrates 12 Years


Thank You!

his issue marks the 12th anniversary of The Progressive Rancher Magazine which published its first issue in July, 2001! Thank you to writers, contributors, advertisers, readers, and especially Julie Eardley, the graphics genius who fits a 50 page magazine into a 40 page layout! This magazine has been a blessing to me in so many ways, but the one blessing I can easily talk about is the connection it achieves with thousands of readers who can share the passion for our industry through its pages. We ARE agriculture! We help feed the world! Although we are far apart physically, we possess the commonality which comes with being part of the whole. Each one of us, even if we only tend a small farm or garden or operate a ranch with thousands of acres and run 4000 head of mama cows share a bond because we are using the land to its greatest potential. The fact that we persevere on a daily basis to achieve sustainability whether tending our crops, nurturing our livestock, training our dogs and horses, caring for the land over which we have stewardship and ownership, attending meetings and symposiums in order to broaden our understanding, serving in organizations and on boards, or working to inform and support one another or to educate a pitifully uneducated public—all are a testimony to the love we all have for our industry. Thank you all, we shall prevail!

Nevada Ranchers Caretakers of our


Cowboys and sheepherders produce food and fiber for the nation. Growing food on Open range is a natural biological process.

Grazing actually benefits the land with hoof action and natural fertilization. Plants are healthier and regenerate faster after the herds move to a new range.


Antelope and other game animals and birds take advantage of the improvements made by ranchers.

Nevada Rangeland Resources Commission

What is the Nevada Rangeland Resources Commission?


Grazing cattle and sheep coexist peacefully with native wildlife and, in fact, make a friendlier habitat for many species.

by:Rachel Buzzetti, Executive Director

he Nevada Legislature created the Nevada Rangeland Resources Commission (NRRC) in 1999 to advertise and distribute information and research about the uses and management of public rangeland resources and the livestock grazing industry. The Nevada Legislature mandated that the NRRC be funded by an annual assessment of ten cents per Animal Unit Month (AUM) on public rangelands. The NRRC is governed by a commission of nine voting members. These members are nominated through each of the grazing boards, Nevada Cattlemen’s Association, Nevada Woolgrowers and the Farm Bureau and are then appointed by the governor. The NRRC has one part-time staff person. The NRRC strives to develop and fund effective information and education programs that result in a public that understands and supports balanced, responsible management of Nevada’s public rangelands. The Commission under NRS 563.380 must issue invoices prior to January 15th of each year. We contact and compile the necessary grazing records from the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the US Forest Service (USFS). For example in the current billing cycle, these federal grazing records were obtained in September of 2012, and the first round of invoices were mailed in November of 2012. This invoice was an assessment of the grazing period from March 1, 2011 thru February 28, 2012. The final invoice was mailed in May of 2013. Any delinquent permittees will be turned over to the Attorney General’s office for collection in July 2013. The Commission meets quarterly, and their next meeting will be a conference call in July. For more information about the NRRC, please visit our website at

Sheep often graze on steep terrain and can control cheatgrass, a major fuel for wildfires.

Nevada Rangeland Resources Commission was created by the State of Nevada to promote responsible public land grazing. Representatives come from Nevada state grazing boards, Nevada Woolgrowers, Nevada Farm Bureau, and Nevada Cattlemen’s Association.

4780 East Idaho Steet, Elko, NV 89801 • 775-738-4082 WWW.NEVADARANGELANDS.ORG This ad is funded through the NRRC’s assessment of 10 cents an AUM paid by public land ranchers.

The Progressive Rancher

July / August 2013 5

By Joe Guild


ere is the scene: One of our ancient ancestors is walking along a river bank in what we now call the country of Iraq 10 or 15,000 years ago. You remember this area was called the Fertile Crescent from your school years. This person notices a wild plant with seed heads filled out and about to drop. Hungry, he pulls up the plant and eats the stalk. It is so bitter and tough he spits it out. Then he eats a couple of the seeds. There is a soft texture to the seed which is easy to chew. The seeds taste mildly sweet. Our gatherer ancestor collects a bunch of these plants and takes them back to the clan’s hunting camp where someone gets the idea to boil the seeds with some recently killed meat in a clay pot next to the fire. The mixture tastes good and satisfies all in the camp who eat it. More of the plants are gathered and soon the nearby supply is exhausted. But, the next spring when our gatherer goes back to this same hunting camp he notices there are small shoots of green plants around the camp. Later, after a period of many months he sees the seeded out mature plant and realizes these plants must have come from stray dropped seeds during the fall feasting. He finds more plants seeded out and collects some for eating. However, he also saves some seeds and plants them the following spring. About this same time, someone else, in the same general area, found a way to tame a wild sheep or goat or ass which also became a source of food and clothing and transport for the ancient hunters and gatherers. Agricultural domestication of plants and animals was thus born and mankind started to move in a whole new direction, at a faster pace than had occurred in the previous million or so years. The sons and daughters of our domesticators, who became the first farmers and pastoralists, also began to notice some plants and some types and offspring of certain animals did better than others. They produced more and better tasting seeds with which they learned to make bread and beer. They produced more wool, more milk, and better tasting meat in shorter periods of time and they were able to withstand periods of drought or too much rain and cold better than others of their kind. So, the ancient farmers bred like kind to like kind; they planted more of the better kinds of plants. And, when they achieved the desired results, they made note, mental at first, and later recorded their findings in written language so others would know how to grow and produce better food. With all of this accumulated agricultural knowledge and practice, human civilization thrived and evolved into an ever more complex and collective betterment for the entire human race. They did not have a name for what they did, but in the 19th century an Austrian monk, Gregor Mendel, experimented with pea plants and gave us the science of genetics with theories and laws still used today. The ancient farmers were practicing the science of genetics; they were genetically

6 July / August 2013

engineering plants and animals to feed and clothe more and more people. They did not formally identify certain laws and processes until Mendel came along. Meticulously, through the scientific method, Mendel recorded his experiments 10,000 or so years after people actually started “improving on nature”. The world’s agriculturalists did a pretty good job feeding themselves and us for thousands of years. I will admit that was because most of us were tied to the land growing food. However, it takes a long time for an evolutionary change. This occurred a few centuries ago when more and more people became involved in industrial pursuits and started moving into cities. Our accumulated knowledge and the technologies humans developed began to be shared and used all over the world in varying degrees so more people depended on fewer and fewer farmers to feed them. This, of course, became easier because agriculture had its own technological advancements. However, the naysayers have also been with us for a long, long time. Here is what one of them said in 1968: “The battle to feed all of humanity is over… At this late date nothing can prevent a substantial increase in the world death rate.” (The Population Bomb” Paul Ehrlich). He also said that by 1989, food shortages would result in almost 4 billion people starving to death. In 1952, a scientist named Norman Borlaug took some Norin 10 wheat seed from Oregon to Mexico. Norin 10 is a short straw variety of wheat which grows about two feet, not four feet tall. By 1963, 95% of the wheat grown in Mexico was the variety Borlaug created by crossing Norin 10 with other wheat varieties. In that same period Mexico’s wheat harvest had increased over five times. Overcoming many social and political hurdles, the Borlaug wheat was gradually accepted in the Indian sub-continent. By 1974, after a few years when it was touch and go whether there would be a famine in Pakistan and India, India was a net exporter of wheat. Rice varieties soon followed the wheat into Asia and the so-called “green revolution” transformed Asian agriculture. Borlaug was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970. He has been called the most important man of the 20th century few people know about and is credited with being responsible for saving over 1 billion lives. Borlaug used techniques and technology to genetically modify organisms which resulted in hundreds of millions of people not starving. It has been estimated that these increased yields per hectare saved the equivalent of 3 billion hectares, or enough land to prevent the complete destruction of the Amazon rain forest several times and all of the endangered species habitat in South Asia where animals such as tigers and orangutans struggle to survive.( Some of this information is from an article in the January 14th edition of the Western Livestock Journal at page 13; for another fascinating account of mankind’s emergence out of the depths of privation to a general overall better standard of living, see “The Rational Optimist” by Matt Ridley). The Progressive Rancher

One would think then, there would be a flash of insight in the minds of those opposed to the modification of organisms for our food supply by engineering the genetics of those organisms. GMOs are bad, organic is good is the mantra of these groups who fail to understand the history of mankind in relationship to agriculture. Protesting GMOs contains an irony which is most likely lost on the individuals and groups who are opposed to the use of well- established scientific methods to come up with ways to feed up to 10 billion people in the next 35 years. They communicate their protest to the world and with each other with devices unheard of just 20 years ago which have been developed by scientists for the benefit of us all. The internet, lap top computers, I-pads and smart phones were all unheard of when Norman Borlaug received his Nobel Peace Prize in 1970. Now almost every person on the planet has access to some form of modern communication. Do the opponents of GMOs argue against the technology which gives them access to all known human knowledge and the ability to relay that information to virtually anyone? No, of course not. They use this technology selectively to militate against the technology they don’t understand and therefore, do not like which could help feed and clothe billions more people with the additional benefit of saving precious natural resources which would have been depleted in the past to feed the same number of people. How many sheep ranchers in the American west run bands of Rambouilet/ Merino cross sheep? How many of us grew up in the era of the black baldy, a cross of Hereford and Angus cattle which benefited cattle ranchers with exceptional heterosis? How many ranchers throughout the country are the beneficial recipients of superior genetics within their single breed cattle herds? Indeed, if you look at pictures of the ideal steer in 1913 and an ideal steer today, it is hard to imagine they have the same DNA and common ancestors. Why is the 1913 model steer a less efficient feed to meat converter than the 2013 model? Why does the 2013 model steer produce more lean tasty meat in less time than his distant cousin? Every reader of this publication knows the answer to these questions. Farmers can now choose a seed variety that allows them to harvest at the same time as always but is planted later. Such a farmer might not be able to plant at his traditional time due to excessive rain. This used to result in a very limited number of bushels per acre because the growing season was shortened significantly. Now, however, he can choose a seed variety that produces about the same number of bushels per acre as traditionally planted varieties. He can do this because science has developed seed types which are adapted to more specific conditions. The commonality to all of these questions and situations is today significant numbers of farmers and ranchers all ————————— Continued on page 8

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The Progressive Rancher

July / August 2013 7

Continued from page 6 —————————

across the world are using genetically engineered organisms that are much different than those used by their grandparents. Genetic modification, using proven genetic science developed over the last 10,000 years and resulting in laws identified and recorded by Gregor Mendel, has been at work over the last 150 years in the beef cattle industry. This hard work and practical application of scientific principles has resulted in a superior food protein product, imitated and desired world- wide. And yet, GMOs still have critics and detractors. However, rational minds are starting to see the error of their ways. For instance, one of the biggest original opponents of GMOs has had a recent change of heart. Mark Lynas authored several books on climate change and had a worldwide audience for his “anti-science” criticism of GMOs. He was quoted recently as being troubled by his own views. “For the record… I apologize for having spent years ripping GM crops and that I thereby assisted in demonizing an important and technological option which can be used to benefit the environment… As an environmentalist, and someone who believes that everyone in this world has a right to a healthy and nutritious diet of their choosing I could not have chosen a more counter-productive path… [It is wrong]…that some people think modern industrial agriculture is fundamentally a bad thing…. Without this system… the world couldn’t support 7 billion people. People today are better fed than ever before, and the idea that organic farming could produce the



same amount of food is an illusion.” (Farm Journal February, 2013; page 16). So, how are farmers and ranchers going to feed nearly 10 billion people who will populate the earth in the next 35 years? Will common sense be injected into the debate over food production policy? Will opponents of GMOs realize technology has always been a part of all human progress? Admittedly, technology has also been used in many destructive ways throughout human history. However, I would argue technology, on balance, has benefitted mankind more than it has been harmed. Here is what Norman Borlaug said in 2000: “I now say that the world has the technology- either available or well advanced in the research pipeline- to feed on a sustainable basis a population of 10 billion people. The more pertinent question today is whether farmers and ranchers will be permitted to use this new technology? While the affluent nations can afford to adapt ultra-low- risk positions, and pay more for food produced by the so-called ‘organic’ methods, the 1 billion chronically undernourished people of the low-income, food deficient nations cannot.” (30th Anniversary Lecture upon winning the Nobel Peace Prize at the Norwegian Nobel Institute, Oslo, September8, 2000). Another prominent scientist, the winner of the 2013 Nevada Medal awarded by the Desert Research Institute at the Nevada System of Higher Education put the issue in this

light: “…most of what people believe about GM crops is the exact opposite of what is true… Modern genetic methods of crop improvement are responsible for a significant fraction of the recent yield increases where they are used… Will our interconnected civilization with its globalized food supply so readily available to anyone who can afford it really discard an essential technology based on electronic hearsay?” (Dr. Nina Federoff, “Forum: Science and Society, Trends in Genetics”, April 2013) My answer to the question is to look to the experts for the pathway to success. The world clearly needs people like Mendel, Federoff, Borlaug and Lynas. Mendel created the scientific theory, Borlaug created crops which saved a billion lives and Federoff continues on the research path pioneered by Borlaug. Lynas recognized he was wrong and is now publicizing the benefits of the use of science and genetic theory to create new and more productive crops and animals which can feed more people with fewer resources than in the past. It was said by a very wise man that those who forget history are doomed to repeat the mistakes of the past. Let us use the tools we have created as a people to help future generations enjoy this unique, wonderful planet we are privileged to occupy. Also, I leave it to you dear reader. How many of you want to discard the science available to us to feed our world and which helps us do our best to protect it at the same time? I’ll see you soon.

Lincoln County Fair and Rodeo August 8-10, 2013 Ranch Rodeo

Amateur Rodeo

(Sanctioned by Western States Ranch Rodeo Association)

Wild Cow Milking (Friday night only), Mutton busting (Saturday night only), Bull Riding, Ranch Saddle Bronc, Saddle Bronc, Bare Back, Barrel Racing, Team Roping, Calf Roping Entry fee: $50/event ✮ Team Ropers $50 each Contact: Robin Simmers 775-962-1804

August 8 — 1 PM ✮ Ranch Saddle Bronc 7 PM Team events: Branding, Sorting, Sort/rope/doctor, Trailer race Individual: Stock Horse, Women’s Steer Stopping, Jackpot Ranch Saddle Bronc Entry fee: $75 Stock horse ✮ $50 Women’s Steer Stopping $100 Jackpot Ranch Saddle Bronc ✮ $200/team Contact: Shane Flanigan 435-701-1771

August 9-10 — 7 PM


Jr. Rodeo

August 9 — 8 AM

Ages 5-adult. Entires one half hour before the event. Flag race, Barrels, Poles, Goat tying, Key hole race Entry fee $15/ contestant • Contact Merre Scott 775-962-1789

August 10 — 8 AM All events are open to both boys and girls Chute dogging (12-18 years), Break away roping (8-18 years), Steer riding (9-15 years), Goat tying (8-18 years), Barrels (5-18 years), Poles (5-18 years), Calf riding (60-85 pounds), Mutton busting (60 pounds or less) Entry fee $15/event Contact Merre Scott 775-962-1789

Pee Wee Rodeo August 10 — 2 PM

Ages 3-13. Entries one half hour before event. Mutton busting (60 pounds or less), Goat tail pull Stick horse: Barrels, Poles, Flag race Entry fee: $10/child or $30/family Contact Merre Scott 775-962-1789

Antique Tractor Pull, Mud Bog, Trap Shoot, and More 8 July / August 2013

Panaca, Nevada

For more information call: 1-877-870-3003 or

The Progressive Rancher

UPDATE continued from page 3——— library. I sat and listened to discussions on how we are studying using sheep to create a fire break around some western cities. I listened to how we are studying the use of cattle grazing to eliminate the severity and intensity of rangeland fires. We are studying these things? Have we actually gone so far backwards in our beliefs that we now must study if livestock are beneficial to reducing and eliminating fire? Reno and Carson City didn’t have to excessively worry about fire racing into town several decades ago. Bands of sheep and herds of cattle grazed the forage and produced breaks in the fuel, thus greatly decreasing the risk of catastrophic fire in the urban interface. Now, land managers are looking at PAYING livestock producers to create these same breaks. I am not saying they are looking at permitting grazing; they are looking to pay for vegetation treatments. Vegetation treatments, the practice of manipulating plants in the landscape to achieve a more desirable outcome, can range from herbicides, to mechanical manipulation, to livestock grazing. The American public is more and more concerned with the use of chemicals in our environment and rightfully so. The use of e q uipment to manipulate forage often results in release of unwanted plant species such as cheat grass (of course some Oregon State University authors would say a cow deposited the seed there, so it was actually a cow and not mechanical disruption that is to blame). Livestock grazing is cost effective (permittees actually pay to use the forage) and a desirable source of protein is produced from undesirable fuels. So, the answer, one would think, is simple. Let us use livestock to decrease fuels, remove undesirable species, and protect areas that need protection from fire. Well, this is the page I was reading off of. I was shocked to learn that a federal land management agency is now looking at shifting away from animal production based thinking and into vegetation management based thinking. I was even more appalled to learn that they believe this shift is a drastic shift and will re q uire decreased animal production. It will re q uire what? I was q uick to point out that for generations, producers have successfully managed vegetation all while producing animals and making a living. It is ludicrous to think we are now going to be asked to remove livestock grazing in order to replace it with strategic placement of vegetation management systems. The problem is not too much livestock grazing. It is livestock grazing without the flexibility to do what is right. The agencies are so concerned about litigation, they have painted themselves into a corner and feel the only way to get out of it is to burn the house down and build a new one under a new name. The time to do what is right and stand up as people in charge of managing resources is now. There has been enough of the name games and manipulating policy in order to make things appear different. Livestock grazing is the most effective tool we have for reducing the threat of fire. Livestock grazing is the most effective tool we have to eliminate undesirable species of plants without using toxins. Managed and rotational grazing is the best tool for creating healthy and diverse plant communities in the Great Basin. The next time you drive by a fire station or drive into Reno and read the bill boards that say, “Reduce the Fuel, Reduce the Risk”, pick up the phone and call the federal agencies in charge of most of our lands. Tell them you want the fuel reduced, tell them to provide the flexibility to livestock operators that they need to effectively create healthier landscapes and decreased fire threats. Why don’t we ask the people in the foothills around Reno and Carson City if they would rather have fuels reduced by grazing or be evacuated due to fire. If only we could ask the thousands of animals that lose their homes each year to fire, which they would prefer. We first need to get everyone in the same book, and then we can work on selecting what page from which we are going to read!


JULY 8TH – 10TH Silver Legacy, Reno, NV MONDAY – TUESDAY

AUGUST 5TH & 6TH Little America, Cheyenne, WY Catalog Deadline: Thursday, July 18


SEPTEMBER 9TH & 10TH Ogallala, NE WATCH & LISTEN TO THE SALE on the Web at:

Tired of Waiting for the mailman to deliver your issue of The Progressive Rancher?

DON’T WAIT! Read online! Plus you won’t want to miss the great Extra features the website has to offer

The Progressive Rancher

July / August 2013 9

Nutrition & Health Your success depends on it. Opportunity is knocking. Cattlemen are seeing some of the most favorable market conditions they may see in their lifetimes. More than ever, every pound counts. Loss of gain due to stress, sickness, poor nutrition, late calving, etc. does not have to happen. With good nutrition and animal health, producers can reduce unnecessary performance losses and add to their bottom line. For more than 20 years, Anipro has been designing supplement programs that will help make the most of your herd and feed dollar. Now is the time to work with your Anipro consultant to anyalyze feedstuffs and design a program to maintain cow body condition, calf health and optimize breed-back. Call 800-558-3341 today.

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The Progressive Rancher

The Progressive Rancher Magazine is Proud to announce its 2013 Summer

of a Ranch Wife

J. B. Wh i te l e y


Believe There is Good in the World

The Winner receives their choice of an iPod or Nook*

n an early spring Monday, we were in town to get groceries and cash paychecks which always makes for a long day. It wasn’t a very nice spring day either. It was cold and miserable. So we decided to go to Dairy Queen. Dairy Queen isn’t open year round here. They close for the winter, so when they open back up it is a really big deal and there is always an insanely long line (even in a snow storm!). Most of our town trips can be made a little easier with the promise of Dairy Queen if the boys (Cow Boss included) can just be good for a few more minutes! I was standing in line, it was snowing, and the line was unusually long. I had, of course, left my coat in the pickup and didn’t want to go get it for fear I would lose my place in line. There was only one girl working on the ice cream side of the Dairy Queen, and I think everyone in line was ordering for at least 10 people. Standing in front of me was a beautiful little girl. Long blond hair, bright blue eyes. She was maybe eight years old. She kept waving and blowing kisses to her mom who was waiting in their car, probably with the heater on. When it was her turn to order, she asked how much a dipped cone was. The waitress told her the price, and the girl started counting her money (all nickels, dimes, and pennies). She was struggling, so the waitress said “Here, let me help.” She explained how and why she was counting it out as she went along. She was very patient with the little girl, and was never cross or uptight with her, which was quite a feat since the girl wasn’t grasping the counting money, and there were several people behind me in line. The little girl didn’t have enough money, and before I could dig in my wallet to make up the difference to help the girl, the waitress took what was needed from her own tip cup to cover the cone, and wouldn’t let me or anyone else in line pay for it. I wouldn’t have thought much of it if the waitress was an older, grandmotherly type, but she couldn’t have been more than 15 or 16 years old, and she never stopped smiling. It made me smile. So when she wasn’t looking, I put a couple of extra dollars in her tip jar. I think my sister said it best when she said: “At a time like this, it is easy to condemn our society for the senseless pain it continues to inflict on innocent and unassuming people. It’s nice to be reminded that far more people in this world are good and kind!” I sincerely hope that you have the opportunity to see something as simple and wonderful as this in the next week or month, and can help spread some goodness and kindness along the way. Hometown Solutions_EighthPageAd_sans.pdf








• Cattle in fields

• Range Health

• Cattle turned out in AUMs

• Wildlife on your Ranch

• Sage Grouse on your Ranch

• Ranchers and Crews working together

Contest ends July 20th, 2013

Cindy Sitz one Alex Car

2:21 PM

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Protecting families and businesses in the West since 1894.


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Cindy Sitz of Oregon was the winner of the first 2013 Photo Contest. Cindy chose a Nook as her prize. All photos become property of The Progressive Rancher Magazine. The Progressive Rancher will have the right to publish and/or use the photos and/ or images in any way, including, but not limited to: editorial content, advertisements, and cover photos. *iPod and Nook are registered trademarks of their respective owners and are not affiliated with this contest.

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3 0 1 S I LV E R S T R E E T E L K O , N V 8 9 8 0 1





The Progressive Rancher

July / August 2013 11

Elko County

Fa i r with the

NEVADA STALLION STAKES & Elko County NRCHA Show ★ Elko County Fair ★

August 24 through September 2 ★ Bull & Bronc Riding ★ Working Cow Horse Events ★ USTRC Team Roping ★ Carnival ★ Team Ranch Doctoring ★ Home Arts

★ Parade ★ Horse Racing ★ Team Branding Competition – 3 divisions:

Women’s, Open & CO-ED with $500.00 added to each division

★ Nevada Stallion Stakes ★

& Elko Co NRCHA Show August 24 & 25 Nevada Stallion Stakes Show Entry deadline: August 1 with late entries accepted to Aug 15th. ECNRCHA Show Entry Deadline Aug 23th, Noon Late entries accepted up to show start time with penalties.

For more information, a list of nominated stallions, and all forms:, or call JJ Roemmich 775-397-2769 12 July / August 2013

U.S. Supreme Court Denies Hage Takings Case Petition

(WASHINGTON, DC) Monday the U.S. Supreme Court denied the Hage family’s petition for certiorari in their Constitutional Fifth Amendment takings case, Estate of E. Wayne and Jean Hage v. U.S. The Hage’s appealed a narrowly worded reversal by the Federal Circuit Court of Appeals to determine if a permit was required to conduct routine maintenance on a vested 1866 Mining Act right-of-way. The 22 year-old case involved the Hage’s seeking just compensation for the government’s temporary taking of their historic vested water rights, rights-of-ways, and range improvements on their central Nevada Pine Creek Ranch. The last procedural step for the Hage’s involves the case being remanded back to the U.S. Court of Federal Claims for a hearing and final order consistent with the Federal Circuit ruling bringing this multigeneration saga to a close. Wayne N. Hage, son of late property rights advocate and author, E. Wayne Hage, commented from the family’s ranch. “We of course are disappointed the Court failed to settle a dispute so central to the road and water way infrastructure of the West. However, the question before the Supreme Court involved only a very small part of the eight published decisions issued by Judge Loren Smith and its impact on our ranching operation is minimal.” Hage summarized by saying, “All of Judge Smith’s property findings and most of the original $2.8 million judgment remain intact. Also important to ranchers is that the Federal Circuit found that we must be guaranteed access to our vested stock water rights.” In a related case, on May 24 Chief Judge Robert C. Jones of the Federal District Court of Nevada issued a historic 104-page ruling in the related case, U.S. v. Hage. Two agencies of the federal government were found to have entered into a “literal, intentional conspiracy to deprive the Hages not only of their permits but also their vested water rights. This behavior shocks the conscience of the Court and provides a sufficient bases for a finding of irreparable harm” to support permanent injunctive relief. The Jones ruling follows a 21-day trial in Reno, NV in the Spring of 2012 wherein attorney Mark Pollot represented the estate, and Hage, unable to afford an attorney represented himself pro se. Pollot, who is the lead attorney for both cases, remarked, “I am unaware of any case in recent history where federal agency employees have been found by a court to have engaged in a conspiracy. In light of the recent revelations about the IRS, Justice Department, Health and Human Services and the State Department, the Jones ruling is truly timely. Unfortunately, the only reason the FS and BLM find themselves in this position is because they repeatedly ignored the rulings from Judge Smith, for what Judge Jones determined to be ‘vindictive’ reasons.” Judge Jones specifically noted in that the Department of Justice, representing the BLM and USFS, brought the most recent case, filed in 2007, because they were “unsatisfied with the outcome” in the ongoing related takings case in the Court of Federal Claims. Fallout from the District Court’s interpretation of BLM and USFS actions is surfacing. Agency officials were found to be in contempt of court by Judge Jones for witness intimidation and referred to the U.S. attorney for possible criminal prosecution. In August 2012 in a three-day show cause hearing for contempt of court agency brass turned up in Reno to defend the agency personnel charged with contempt. FS Regional Director Harv Forsgeren was found by the court to be “prevaricating” and FS State Director Jeannie Higgins was deemed not entirely truthful. Both took unscheduled retirements shortly after the hearing. BLM Manager Tom Seley, specifically found to be in contempt and owning monetary compensation to the Hage’s, retired May 31.

COWBOY LOGIC “It’s alright to take your time in a gunfight – as long as you shoot first.”

The Progressive Rancher

Courtesy PCC Update

Ship ’Em To


MARKET REPORT June 4, 2013



300-400 105.00-161.00 400-500 125.00-158.00 500-600 132.00-151.00 600-700 119.00-131.00 700-800 108.00-114.00 800-900 110.00-115.00 Lite Holstein (under 600#) Heavy Holstein (over 600#)


120.00-137.00 112.00-125.00 110.00-124.00 111.00-122.00 116.00-123.00

80.00-92.00 65.00-83.00

*Single, Small Framed or Plainer Cattle 15.00 to 20.00 less than top offerings


Livestock Exchange, Inc.

Sale Every Tuesday at 11:00 AM Selling All Classes of Livestock: • Cattle • Horses • Sheep • Goats • Pigs

Breakers (Fat Cows) Boners (Med Flesh) Cutters (Lean) Holstein Cows Butcher Bulls Shelly (Thin) Bulls Shelly Cutters (Thin) Young Feeder Cows Heiferettes Holstein Heiferettes Holstein Bulls Feeder Bulls Cutting Bulls Used Roping Steers Preg Tested Cows (3, 4, 5 yr. old solid mouth) Pairs (solid mouth) 3-6 yrs Pairs (older)

70.00-75.00 75.00-80.00 58.00-66.50 35.00-70.00 78.00-85.00 40.00-60.00 20.00-40.00 60.00-68.00 82.00-95.00 80.00-89.00 81.00-85.00 65.00-75.00 80.00-95.00 72.00-85.00

850.00-925.00 900.00-1000.00 NT



10 Annual TH

Summertime Classic SPECIAL CALF



Tuesday, July 16, 2013 • 1 P.M. ALONG WITH OUR REGULAR SALE Ranchers, Remember you can bring in your cattle early Sunday or Monday at no extra charge (only feed). Call Today with your consignments. The Butcher Cow Market is strong right now may be the time to sell the drys and save some feed.

The entire crew at Fallon Livestock Exchange would like to thank all the consignors and buyers alike for your business.

Fallon Livestock Exchange, Inc.

2055 Trento Lane • Fallon, Nevada 89406 • 775-867-2020

The Progressive Rancher

Top Cow Top 10 Cows Top 50 Cows Top 100 Cows Top Butcher Bull Top Holstein Cows

Avg. Wt 981 1263 1350 1300 2005 1860

Avg. Cost 82.00 76.00 72.98 71.00 85.00 71.50


Beef Calves (HD) Dairy Calves Feeder Lambs Fat Lambs Ewes (CWT) Bucks (CWT) Small Goats (under 65 lbs.) (HD) Large Goats (over 70 lbs.) (HD) Weaner Pigs Feeder Pigs Top Hogs Butcher Sows Horses (under 1100 lbs.) Horses (over 1100 lbs.)

60.00-300.00 2.00-35.00 105.00-140.00 100.00-110.00 25.00-60.00 35.00-48.00 20.00-90.00 95.00-160.00 45.00-95.00 60.00-130.00 60.00-75.00 20.00-45.00 8.00-15.00 16.00-20.00

MARKET TREND: Feeder cattle were 3.00 to 10.00 higher on top end with very active buyer demand on same kind and quality depending on fill with Butcher cows. 2.50 to 4.00 higher on same kind. Fallon Livestock is a key market for the livestock industry, where buyers and sellers meet each week with a professional staff with over 50 years of experience in marketing livestock. PLEASE call us ahead with your consignments. It helps us market your cattle. We talk to buyers all the time–they want you to know what’s coming in. We are seeing good demand on weigh up cows & bulls. It sure makes a big difference on how they are sorted. Let our crew sort and class your cows. This will help you receive full market value for your cows.

For more marketing information, or to arrange trucking needs: Call Monte Bruck, Manager, at


July / August 2013 13

Dairy Farmers of America Build One-Of-A-Kind Processing Plant in Fallon, Nevada T

here are 106 workers on the construction site this summer at the Dairy Farmers of America new powdered milk processing plant in Fallon, Nevada. The $85 million plant, originally scheduled to open in May, will now be up and running come December say DFA officials. Construction has been delayed due to weather and common construction hold-ups, but when the plant is completed DFA will put 44 people to work in permanent production jobs paying in the $17 to $20 per hour range. Wesley Clark is the Facilities Manager at the Fallon plant and he says DFA has already begun hiring for some of those jobs, and will continue bringing on new staff with the hopes of starting to train production workers in their on-site simulated training room by the end of July. So far, DFA has hired locally a Quality Control position and two local hires in the Maintenance Department. “Maintenance will be the most important part of this operation,” said Clark. “We have to keep this plant up and running and that department is key.” According to publicity material provided by the DFA, the plant will use a state of the art, highly technical evaporator/dryer process to produce world-class quality powders for domestic and export use. The end product will be packed in 55 pound bags that will be shipped directly to Oakland where they will be exported for use in China. The plant is designed to process just over 2 million pounds of liquid milk each day, which is where Al Trace comes in. As the Director for Member Services, he has the job of finding enough milk to fill that daily quota. Some say he has quite a job to fill in an economic market that has suffered for the past five years due to high feed costs, excessive regulation, unsure markets, and low milk prices. But Trace is optimistic. He anticipates reaching full production capacity of 2.4 million pounds of milk a day from local dairies by 2015. Currently there are 22 dairies in the Fallon area which produce right at one million pounds of milk a day. Trace says they (DFA) have half of what they need right now and are working to encourage dairy farmers to locate to the Fallon area. He is responsible for developing the milk supply that will provide raw, liquid milk to the plant and says it will take 15,000 more cows to reach that goal. “If you know anyone who wants to own a dairy,” joked Trace, “have them call me.” Toward that effort, one of the vacant dairies just north of Fallon was recently purchased out of bankruptcy and will open by this winter milking 1,500 cows. Trace also said there are plans for a new dairy to be built in Smith, Nevada, south of Yerington by a California dairyman who is on a fast-track to be up and running within the year. He is spending close to $8 million and will milk 3,000 cows when completed. According to Trace there is an 80-mile radius of efficiency for dairies to locate near the plant. Once outside of that radius it becomes inefficient to ship to the plant in Fallon. Smith is about 75 miles southwest of Fallon, but Lovelock, another agriculture based community is about 55 miles northeast of Fallon and is another possibility for a good place to locate dairies. According to Alan Perazzo, a local dairyman who also serves as the Chairman of the Nevada Department of Agriculture, there is plenty of ground, feed, water, and

14 July / August 2013

by Rachel Dahl, Special Assignment Writer

desire in the Fallon area to expand and build new dairies. Fallon reads like an economic development dream for dairy farmers looking to start up or expand an existing operation. There is plenty of water, and the natural climate is conducive to cattle and agriculture. Feed costs are relatively low and there is an abundance of desert grown, dairy-grade alfalfa hay in Northern Nevada. Compared to California where it can take years to fully permit a dairy operation, the state and local regulations are friendly to agriculture, and there is a wide range of resources to support development of dairies including state and local government incentives and programs, and a strong existing agriculture economy. The Perazzo Brothers, David and Alan, are optimistic about the milk plant and the future of dairies in Fallon. “To have this plant in this community is a blessing,” said Alan, “I’m not sure people understand what a blessing it is to provide some stability for our local dairies.” Before the plant became a reality the economic situation for dairies in Northern Nevada was tough and had been bad for about five years, explained the Perazzo brothers. According to Alan the industry has suffered because of high feed costs and low milk prices. Add to that the shipping costs to get milk over the hill to the processing plants in California and the politics of the California milk market. He says it has been nearly impossible to make any money in the dairy business for several years. “Because of the insecurity of the market and the costs it was hard to stay in business, we’ve bought the farm twice,” Alan said referring to the proverbial refinancing that has helped several dairies stay in business. Several dairies have gone under in Fallon over the past few years, making it harder for those who are left to get financing to stay in business or to expand. But having the milk plant in Fallon provides a secure market for local milk, even though milk sold for powder brings less money. By selling their milk to DFA at the powder plant, dairymen no longer have to pay the exorbitant shipping costs to get the milk over the Sierras into California. And that will allow dairymen some security; something they haven’t had in a long time. “We haven’t been able to expand up until now,” said Alan, “you know agriculture has always been a roller coaster and there is some skepticism about the plant, but it had to happen. It might not have been the best option for us individually, but as a whole this plant makes all the dairies stronger.” The Perazzo family has just broken ground on a new milk barn that will allow them to expand their existing 400 head operation and eventually milk 1,600 head a day. As one might expect, there are some local dairymen The Progressive Rancher

who are leery of the DFA project. Because DFA is a coop made up of over 13,000 dairies from across the United States, and employs over 4,000 people to run the huge organization, it has been referred to by small family dairyman as “the mafia”. Some see the DFA as a necessary evil that by the nature of the organization limits individual decision making that can grate on the personality of independent farmers. Several Fallon dairymen were openly critical of the DFA and the plant, but refused to go on record because they fear reprisals from the co-op and the dairymen who support the plant. The DFA, which is a national organization, does provide a different structure under which the Nevada Dairymen operate as opposed to the dairymen in Idaho, for example, who have their own statewide organization and can make decisions quickly to benefit the Idaho dairies. According to Lynn Hettrick, Executive Director of the Nevada Dairy Commission, his organization has been trying to bring a milk processing plant to Northern Nevada for the past several years to help stabilize the Nevada milk market. When Chobani, a company that uses 5 million pounds of milk each day to process their yogurt, approached Nevada interests about locating a processing plant in Northern Nevada there was no way to quickly meet their needs through the large, bureaucratic DFA decision making process. Chobani then moved their sights north where the Idaho Dairymen were able to commit to fulfilling that need in a relatively efficient timeframe. Chobani just opened the largest yogurt manufacturing plant in the world in Twin Falls, Idaho in a record 326 days. Another concern for Fallon dairymen is the financial situation they are in after several years of tough economic times. “We have no choice,” said one Fallon dairyman who would only speak under anonymity. “They (DFA) want us to expand but everyone is too broke.” One of the problems cited by some Fallon dairymen is that the DFA hasn’t yet given the dairyman a price for milk they would sell to the plant. “We don’t know, they won’t tell us a price or a structure—just a ballpark figure.” These dairymen echo the concerns that between the high feed prices (corn, etc.) and the high hay prices at the same time it just hasn’t been a normal market for almost three years, and it has been hard to hang on; which in turn makes it hard to make a decision without knowing what the DFA will pay for milk going into the powder plant. “They control all the decisions, so what are they going to do to help us expand?” Even though there are concerns, many Fallon dairymen are optimistic and local leaders believe the DFA plant is a perfect fit for Northern Nevada and the Fallon community. Hettrick says, “the export product will be good for the community and the state.” Additionally, the 44 jobs at the plant and the jobs that come with the expansion of the dairies will only be a benefit. “Our business model is different,” said David Perazzo, referring to the dairymen who question DFA. “This plant will provide the secure market we need for our milk. We’re in this for the long run. Our dad built this old barn in 1972, looking ahead so we could stay in the dairy business. I have sons who want to be in the dairy business, so we’ll build this new barn so they can do that. This plant will provide the secure market for our milk.”

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July / August 2013 15

16 July / August 2013

The Progressive Rancher

“PAAS”ing the Test Linda Drown Bunch ivestock producers, especially those who utilize federal lands, are increasingly being bombarded with studies and data regarding their use of the resource. There are interesting theories out there, but if they can’t “pass” the PAAS Test, they are little more than empty rhetoric When presented with a new method or approach and the dilemma as to whether it would work for you and your operation, your answers to these questions might be helpful:

University of Nevada Cooperative Extension

in conjunction with United States Department of Agriculture present


P – Is it practical?

A – Is it appliable? A – Is it affordable? S – Is it sustainable? I recently attended a grazing symposium sponsored by Northeastern Nevada Stewardship Group. It was a full day featuring 12 presentations concluding with a lively panel discussion. A broad spectrum of topics was covered ranging from detailed explanations of how a plant grows, to “training” cattle to eat sagebrush. As we moved from presentation to presentation, I would turn to my rancher neighbors seated on either side and whisper or scribble, “Could you do this? Could this work in your situation?” Often the response was a sigh of frustration or resignation. In discussing the day’s events with a rancher friend that evening, he commented that as ideas and approaches were presented, his brain was whirling trying to place himself and his family ranch into each situation and its implications. He shook his head and said, “There’s no way we can make that work! And there is a hell of a lot of risk involved.” The fact that these people took an entire day in May, one of the busiest times of year, is an indication that they were approaching the topic with an open mind and an eagerness to hear about alternative grazing practices and their consequences. It is worth noting that many of the success stories, especially in regard to riparian repair, were accomplished by corporate-owned operations rather than the family-owned and operated ranch who often must choose between keeping their cowboy on the swather as $200+ per ton hay “burns up” in the field or sending him up on the mountain to push cattle out of the creek bottom. As we progressed through the day, a common thread emerged that was finally addressed in the panel discussion, which is the shift in the grazing paradigm from domestic livestock consumption of vegetation for the purpose of producing food to the use of domestic livestock as a means of controlling or eliminating a particular type of vegetation in a targeted area. While these two approaches are not by nature contradictory, the shift can be seen as a “red flag” to those who graze the public lands for the purpose of producing food and making a living for their families, as most have done for generations. Rather than viewing livestock grazing as an important, logical, and sensible use of a renewable resource with the residual benefits of fire-feeding fuel reduction, many in the “range science” community see grazing as an unpleasant, secondary, but effective tool to be used in a targeted and selective manner to advance another agenda. One would also logically conclude that more rather than less flexibility is essential to the implementation of nearly every one of the ideas presented. Adjustments to management plans such as numbers, duration, turnout and removal dates all need to be determined at the ground level without the risk of litigation for noncompliance. This is by necessity a two-way process in that permittees have to also exhibit the flexibility to deviate from practices entrenched by time and tradition. In any case, “the Sonny Davidson times they are a changin’” and how we Jason B. Land choose to deal with those changes is criti2213 N. 5th St. , Elko, NV 89801 cal. Don’t forget to apply the PAAS Test in 775-738-8811, 800-343-0077 your decision making: Practicality, Appliability, Affordability, and Sustainability.

Call or Stop By!


to the NSHSRA National Team 2013


Prices a nd Drought Workshop Tuesday, August 20, 2013 9 am – 4 pm Focused on providing information on agricultural economic trends and financial assistance that is available to mitigate drought impacts on agricultural production. topics • National Economic Trends • State of Nevada Agriculture Trends • Drought Assistance through Farm Service Agency and Natural Resources Conservation Service

• USDA Overview and New Farm Bill • Ag Lending and Interest Rates from American AgCredit • Governor’s Office of Economic Development Targets for Agriculture

Originating from

Washoe County Extension Office in Reno to compressed video sites

at the following Cooperative Extension office locations:

• Caliente

• Carson City -

• Fallon -

Western Nevada College

Western Nevada College

• Elko –

Great Basin College

• Hawthorne

• Lovelock • Tonopah

• Winnemucca

• Logandale

• Yerington

• Other locations as requested, if available Registration Cost:

$30 per ranch for up to three people or $10/person Registration Due Date: August 2, 2013

For more information or to register for the workshop, contact Heather Steel 775-934-8021 or

The Progressive Rancher

July / August 2013 17

The Angel of Air Ambulance by Becky Lisle


few years ago, I got a phone call that every ranch wife dreads: “Rolly’s hurt bad, get the helicopter.” (Not “the” helicopter as in “our” helicopter. As in air ambulance helicopter.) Rolly and our good friend, Randy, had gone to check out our winter horse pasture. It’s really big country, and a long way from anywhere. Rolly was riding a motorcycle in order to be able to cover more ground and get the job done. Randy was waiting at a gate with the pickup while Rolly made a tour, checking water and fences. Rolly was looking away from his path, maybe going a little too fast, and he hit a rock. The bike stopped; he didn’t. Later, he would tell me that he didn’t know how long he laid there, just wanting to go to sleep, but he knew if he did, he would die. I know in my heart that angels were with Rolly that day. He was several miles from the pickup, in the middle of nowhere, on a rocky, two-track dirt road. He somehow got up, got the bike up, got it kick-started, and rode back to Randy and the pickup. We would later find out that both his neck and his back were broken, but the spinal cord was miraculously unhurt– and remained so. Randy got him in the pickup and made the long drive back to the ranch, keeping him awake. They met a neighbor on the road, who went home and made the phone call to me, telling me to get the helicopter. I called 911 and explained the situation. I gave them the best directions I could, but what they really needed were the actual map coordinates. We did eventually get the helicopter, but it took much longer than it should have. #1: Find out the coordinates of your ranch. Post them in several places where they are easy to find. The helicopter came and took Rolly the 45 miles to the local hospital, where they found that his injuries were too extensive for their limited capabilities. Rolly was then taken via plane to a trauma center 200 miles away. #2: Buy a membership with an air ambulance service. Membership with ours is only $50 a year, and thank God, we had it at the time of Rolly’s accident. The total cost of the helicopter transport and plane transport would have been nearly $30,000. #3: Invest in a personal satellite tracking device. If we had had one at the time of Rolly’s accident, all it would have taken was the push of a button, and the helicopter would have been summoned right to his location. We have one now, and while thankfully we haven’t had to use it to call for help, it’s been very handy for other purposes. Here’s the model we have. The unit cost about $100, and yearly service runs about $100. You can get them through most sporting goods stores. It is very simple to use, and has several functions. The “911″ button is for incidents like Rolly’s accident. You have to hold the button down for 2 seconds to

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18 July / August 2013

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send a message, so there is little chance of accidentally calling for the cavalry. The “Help” button is for non-life threatening emergencies. Pushing it will send an email to designated contacts, if you are broke down, for example. You can specify what you’d like the email to say. If you don’t, a generic message will be sent that would say something like “A Help message has been sent from your SPOT device.” There will be a link in the email that takes you to a map, so you can see the exact location from where the message was sent. The “OK” button is for checking in. For example, if you were on an extended hiking/ camping/stock gathering trip in the back-country, you could push the button to check in with your family. This function alone makes a SPOT worth having. Now, I can just hear the grumbling of the hard-core traditionalist cowboys about some of the aforementioned, but let’s face it, on a list of dangerous occupations, cowboying probably falls somewhere between king crab fishing and logging. I too would hate to see the day that cowboys don’t leave the barn without a SPOT in their pockets, but in some instances, it’s flat stupid not to have one. So, friends, next time you are shopping for a gift, give some serious thought to air ambulance memberships and/or SPOTs. Someone’s life could depend on it.

Wells FFA by Rachel Johnny, Wells FFA Reporter

On May 1st, 2013, the Wells FFA nominating committee elected new chapter officers. Since then, the officers have made a goal to get more involved on the community, school, and chapter levels. Since day one, we acted upon our own motivation to accomplish this goal especially during a particular time segment of three days. The Wells FFA Chapter helped the people of the Wachtel Ranch provide the opportunity for the second grade students of the Wells Elementary School to expand their knowledge of agriculture and the FFA; put on an eighth grade orientation; and accomplished our goal of doing a community service project every month. On Tuesday May 22, the newly installed officers and one of our amazing advisors, Mr. Noorda, drove out to the Wachtel Ranch in Starr Valley. There, the second graders got to go on a scavenger hunt, be a part of the “pony express”, play multiple games, pet and learn about all of the animals present (goats, pigs, horses, sheep, and a cow), and learn about the FFA and how great it is! We all had a good time, and were very reluctant when it was time to go home. The next day, Wednesday, May 23, the officers and guest speaker, Hailey Swan, prepared for the eighth grade orientation. Hailey talked of her first year experience in the FFA, and how much she fell in love with it. After her speech, the eighth graders ate the complimentary root beer floats, while the rest of us presented a “power point” that contained all of the perks of being in FFA, and all of the things that we do in FFA. These things included meeting people/making new friends, traveling, conventions/camps, and, my personal favorite topic, competing. We also talked about, and made very clear, how much dedication, time, and effort it takes to be as good as our chapter is. The overwhelmingly agriculture filled days of the Wells FFA Chapter finally concluded on Thursday May, 24, when we did our community service project, and held our chapter meeting. For our community service project, we removed waste from the highway that the chapter “adopted” (referred to as Adopt a Highway). Next, at the chapter meeting our community, school, and chapter development committees discussed how we could get more involved in the three prior listings. The next thing on the agenda was SLC (Summer Leadership Camp). It is a camp located at Lake Tahoe, and is highly encouraged to our members for the purpose of learning how to expanding their leadership skills. Finally, after every meeting, we have recreation, which happened to be a game of kick ball. Recreation is a time for our members and advisors to bond, and just have fun! The Wells FFA, still, has not rested! As of this moment, we have sold over 650 packets of jerky to help us send five teams to nationals. Another fundraiser is also in the process of completion. The Wells FFA held a tri-tip dinner on June 5th to, once again, help fundraise for nationals. We want to raise as much as money we can!

The Progressive Rancher


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The Progressive Rancher

July / August 2013 19

Management Alternatives

To Minimize Foothill Abortion Mike Oliver1, Glenn Nader2, John Maas2, Myra Blanchard 3, Jeff Stott3, Mike Teglas4 and Robert Bushnell1 oothill abortion in cattle, also known as Epizootic Bovine Abortion (EBA), is local deer populations several years ago. Observing protected areas where cattle bed in hot caused by a bacterial infection acquired from the bite of the Pajaroello tick on non- weather that would allow deer activity and tick survival. Ticks have been found under oak, immune heifers or cows that are 2 to 6 months pregnant and the result is either abortion or pine (including pinyon pine), juniper trees or manzanita, high brush, and protected outcropweak calves at birth 100 to 145 days later. The impact of tick exposure between conception pings. Wet areas or irrigated pastures are usually free of the pajaroello tick unless they have and 2 months of gestation is unknown but could potentially result in early embryonic loss trees or brush on dry areas that are fenced in with the irrigated pasture. or term abortion; therefore, the authors would suggest minimizing tick exposure any time Tick presence can be determined by using dry ice to attract ticks and identify their presearly in pregnancy. The tick has been found in foothill areas of California, Northern and ence. This method works best in the warmer months, and in areas that cows have not grazed Central Nevada, and Southeastern Oregon (Figure 1), as well as in Mexico. It has been for at least the last two (2) months. The dry ice gives off carbon dioxide (CO2), simulating a found at 600 to 8,000 feet in elevation. The disease occurs wherever the tick is present, but host animal’s breathing. Ticks come to the dry ice from many feet away prepared to feed on may not be recognized, either because tick numbers are not high enough to cause obvious a host. They can be seen while moving, picked up and stored in plastic pill vials. Here are losses, fetuses are not recovered or the disease is not diagnosed. Foothill abortion (and therefore the tick) appears to be moving further north and east based upon disease outbreaks being reported in Southern OR. Reports of term abortions (diagnosis has not yet been confirmed) that could potentially be foothill abortion have been noted in Central and Eastern Oregon and Southwestern Idaho. The reason(s) for the apparent range-expansion of foothill abortion is unclear but may be due to a combination of warming climate, increased seasonal movement of cattle or ranchers now becoming aware of the disease. Any arid regions in the West with a thriving deer population could serve as potential habitat for the Pajaroello tick.


Tick bites 2-6 month pregnant heifer

100 to 145 days later Abortion 

Weak calf at birth

• Ticks feed every 60 to 90 days • Tick exposure = Cows rest under trees or brush (where ticks are) due to hot weather There are three management approaches to minimizing Foothill Abortion. Because each ranch is unique, management alternatives to minimize Foothill Abortion should be clearly thought out by considering all factors involved in the economical production of cattle. 1. Avoidance a. Not grazing tick pastures when heifers are under 6 months pregnant b. Graze stocker steers through the field first 2. Changing Calving Dates or Season 3. Exposure a. Pre-exposure b. Post-exposure For these methods to be successful, tick pastures must be identified. This can be done either by using dry ice to identify the existence of pajaroello ticks in bedding areas, or by using past abortion history to determine the pasture that tick exposure occurred in. The latter is accomplished by subtracting the disease incubation period of three to four months from the date of abortion in order to identify the field cattle were in at the time of exposure. Define the non-tick pastures and tick inhabited areas by: Observing places where deer bed, and where deer activity is obvious in your pastures. If deer numbers are down in your area, you may need to ask others about the 1 –UC Cooperative Extension Retired; 2 - UC Cooperative Extension; 3 – UCD School of Veterinary Medicine; 4 – University of Nevada -Reno

20 July / August 2013

The Progressive Rancher

some tips for optimum collection. Collect during the peak tick activity period for your location. Collect before livestock are placed in the area. Remember that ticks only feed every 60 Ac'vitySuscep'ble Suscep'ble   with  to Dec   1  Bwreeding ith  March   breeding to 90 days. Thus, if cattle have Tick   been in the area prior collection, the1  ticks may already be January 0 1 0 won’t find ticks fed and not attracted to dry ice. Field experience indicates that you probably Feburary   0 1 0 in areas where ants are numerous. Ticks probably aren’t there because animals do not bed March 0 1 0 there or possibly because Wear gloves to handle April ants may prey 0 on the tick. 1 1 the dry ice, this will prevent the freezing fingers. from a variety May   of dry ice to your 1 1 Dry ice can be obtained 1 0 of stores and marketsJune   or directly from 2ice distributors. Schedule dry ice1 deliveries since it Julyon demand. Take 2 an ice0chest to store the dry ice 1 during transport is not always available August 2 0 1 and collection. Dry ice can be stored in2 your freezer overnight if needed. Remember good Sept. 0 0 ventilation of the dryOct ice is required because it 0can be dangerous to humans in a confined 2 0 area such as a car or small Nov   room without1 adequate0 air circulation. Place dry 0 ice in areas, such Dec. grounds under 0 brush 0and trees. When working 0 on hillsides, the as deer and cattle bedding down-hill side of trees or shrubs is best. Avoid creek beds, flood plains and wet areas. Wear protective clothing (high boots, long sleeved shirts) to avoid personal tick exposure. Use of a tick repellent on your socks and pant legs may also be advised since the aftermath of a pajaroello bite can be quite painful. 30  day  breeding 120  day  breeding  

January Heifers exposed Breed Two Methods for Capturing Ticks Breed Feburary   Pajaroello safe One method requires of a 1 inch deep pie pan. Bury the pan so the edges are March the use Suscep'ble Breed Suscep'ble level with the ground April surface. Place the dry ice on no   topsuscep'ble of an inverted paper cup in the center May  of theSuscep'ble some   suscep'ble of the pan. The slick side pan prevents the tick from crawling out after being attracted Suscep'ble  &  exposed  tAll   'sck uscep'ble and falling in. Leave June   the site for 30 to 60 minutes o  before checking the pan for ticks. If you July irrigated  pasture irrigated  pasture place the dry ice in theAugust bottom of the pan, the ticksirrigated   may actually irrigated   pasture pasture crawl on to the ice and die. The second method isSept. a faster procedure that is useful for screening a wide area of the ranch. irrigated  pasture irrigated   pasture Oct the debris Abor'on Abor'on   eak  Cdiameter alves Under suspect trees, clear from the ground in anand   18Winch and place a 3-4 Nov   Abor'on Abor'on  ain nd  aWcircular eak  Calvesor looping pattern in inch piece of dry ice in the center. Repeat this procedure Dec. Abor'on

Even moving fall calving up can minimize exposure as the graph below illustrates.

Tick Ac'vity  and  Fall  Calving  Pregnancy   2   1.8   1.6   1.4   1.2   1   0.8  

Tick Ac'vity  


Suscep'ble with  Dec  1  Breeding  


Suscep'ble with  March  1  breeding  

0.2 0  

An Important Disclaimer Regarding “Tick Activity” Tick Ac'vity  and  Fall  Calving  Pregnancy  

the pasture to allow you to check the dry ice every 10 minutes or so. Select the next location while you can still see the last placement of dry ice. The looping circle will help you relocate the dry ice you put out. Ticks will be observed crawling toward or resting near the ice. This requires good observational skills. The ticks may stop moving when you first walk up to a dry ice site. Be patient. Remember movement is best detected by looking slightly to one side of the suspected area--not directly at the area. Tick Ac'vitySuscep'ble  Suscep'ble   with  May  1  bwreeding ith  Dec  1  Breeding

When we talk about peak tick “activity” what we are really referring to is the season when ticks are most likely to transmit the bacteria if they bite our cattle or when it is hot enough that the cows bed in shade where ticks are i.e. the warmer months of late spring through early fall. However, experienced personnel have collected the pajaroello in every month of the calendar even when there were still patches of snow on the ground. Anecdotal information strongly suggests that ticks begin transmitting the causative bacteria whenever day-time temperatures consistently reach 70 degrees or higher. This situation has unfortunately resulted in cattle aborting as the result of tick exposure that occurred during an unseasonably warm February. Pre-exposure of heifers

January 0 0 0 Heifers can be pre-exposed to the tick and develop immunity. Anecdotal evidence Tick Ac'vity   Feburary   0 0 1 suggests that heifers must be at least 6 months of age, leading to the thought that they must March 0 0 1 Suscep'ble   with  Dec  1  Breeding   have reached puberty in order to become immune. While this is a good rule of thumb, sexual Avoidance April 0 0 1 Suscep'ble   w ith   M arch   1   b reeding   maturity may not be the key. More likely, it is a combination of when calves lose their maAvoidance can beMay   accomplished by1 grazing 0the cattle in non-exposure fields (irrigated, 1 June   by tick trapping) 1 1 the susceptible months 0 (less than 6) of ternal immunity (which appears long-lasting) in conjunction with how much tick exposure wet meadow or identified during July 1 a better method to implement. 0 pregnancy. A short breeding season will2 make this The other they receive after this point and prior to breeding. Pre-exposure has been used in the coastal August 2 1 0 is to run stocker cattleSept. in the pasture first to graze off the best forage and get bit by the tick. area with a great degree of success. The degree of success of pre-exposure depends on the 2 1 0

Cattle Ma n agement Strategies

Given that ticks usually only feed every 60 to 90 days, you then have a two month window for grazing heifers or cows with a likely reduced exposure. Based upon molecular biology, only a small percentage of ticks carry sufficient numbers of the bacteria to infect cattle; this concept is supported by the difficulty to transmit foothill abortion following artificial feeding of ticks on individual pregnant animals. Thus, a total elimination of hungry ticks in your fields is unlikely to be required to reduce foothill abortion losses.

Changing Calving Dates Calving dates were traditionally oriented to match the range resources. Generally this evolved from cows conceiving during the highest nutritional phase. Altering the breeding season can reduce tick exposure of pregnant cattle before they are six months in gestation. An example in some areas would be going from spring to fall calving, and in others moving to a September - October calving schedule. Spring calving, as portrayed in the graph below, positions cow susceptibility during the peak tick activity.

Tick Ac'vity  and  Spring  Calving  Pregnancy  

Intermountain Area   2   1.5   1   0.5   0  













Tick Ac'vity   Suscep'ble  with  May  1   breeding  

density and feeding habits of the ticks. Pre-exposure may also require a change in grazing patterns, reserving the worst tick pastures for use by heifers. Operations with both spring and fall calving have incorporated a switching of replacement heifers from one herd to the other and breeding at eighteen months of age to minimize Foothill Abortion. Heifers from the spring herd are kept and bred at eighteen months of age in the fall herd, which has the previously mentioned advantages of avoiding tick activity in the intermountain area during the susceptible period. Heifers from the fall herd are kept and bred at eighteen months and exposed during the summer prior to breeding in the fall. This system has the advantages of decreasing Foothill Abortion, but requires six more months prior to a return on investment. This cost should be clearly evaluated to compare the six month longer investment versus the losses from Foothill Abortion in heifers.

Post Exposure Using the last three months of pregnancy, in which the cow is not susceptible to abortion when bitten by the tick, to develop protected immunity is another strategy that has been 2 used to minimize the impact of Foothill Abortion. Keeping heifers and/or cows in non-tick areas until all of the cows are beyond the sixth month in pregnancy and then placing them 1.5   in high tick exposure pastures can increase natural immunity to Foothill Abortion while not being detrimental to the fetus. Again, this strategy may not meet vegetation goals on public 1   or private lands. The amount of success of this strategy depends on the tick activity during the period of exposure and the number of 0.5   ticks that are within your rangeland. Typically, both pre- and post-exposures 0   have been more effective in the valley and coastal areas than in the mountainous areas. The number of ticks in a pasture can be determined by the degree of previous abortions and/or by placing dry ice in the bedding or loafing areas to determine the amount of ticks present. Successful management to minimize Foothill Abortion requires research and consideration by each operation. Immunity Can Be Lost As with vaccinations that require annual booster shots, immunity to the bacteria that ————— Continued on page 22

The Progressive Rancher

July / August 2013 21

Research Bulletin

Management Alternatives

Ranching, Invasive Annual Grasses, & the

— CONTINUED FROM PAGE 21— causes EBA requires the cow to be exposed to tick feeding annually (boostered) in order to be assured that immunity continues. Studies have shown that immunity lasts at least 1 year but will likely wane over time unless the cows are re-exposed. Tick density undoubtedly impacts “length of immunity”. We would emphasize that only a small percentage of ticks carry sufficient numbers of bacteria to transmit disease; therefore, movement of cattle through tick habitat does not guarantee exposure. Cattle that aborted in the past may produce a second EBA abortion upon being returned to pajaroello habitat. An Intermountain Area Management Example A Lassen County ranch, near Susanville, had 50% Foothill Abortions. These cows calved in February and March and were grazed on Forest Service permits in the mountains. This ranch had a four pasture system on their Forest Service summer range. By subtracting the three to four months from the abortions period and dry ice tick trapping, one pasture was found to be the major tick source. They then created a September to October calving herd to run in this pasture that would be over six months pregnant, when they were exposed to the tick. The spring calving herd grazes the other three pastures with lower tick populations. It is interesting to note that the tick free pastures are comprised mostly of meadow and the tick infested is predominantly timber/brush with rock outcroppings. Also, the spring calving herd calving date was moved from March to April. The spring calving cows went on the Forest Service pastures on June 1. The bull turnout was moved back one month. Thus, in the highest tick exposure month of August, these cows are only 30 days pregnant. However, pre-exposure to the tick to develop immunity is not as successful in the intermountain area as it is in the coastal or valley foothill situation. This ranch, through these combined efforts, has reduced their Foothill Abortion to near zero. Since each ranch is a unique operation, you may want to discuss different solutions and their financial impacts with your local veterinarian and U.C. Livestock Farm Advisor.

Ranching, Invasive Annual Grasses, & the Economics of Wildfire in the Great Basin E

Ecologically-based Invasive Plant Management

Economic ramifications of infestations of annual grasses Ranchers and public land managers have many considerations when making decisions about land and livestock management. Invasions of annual grasses and the associated changes in wildfire activity add yet another level of complexity to the decision-making process. Ecologicallybased invasive plant management (EBIPM) is a decision framework developed to help managers to identify and understand the critical linkages among ecological processes, vegetation dynamics, management practices, and assessment in order to begin to focus on strategies to repair damaged ecological processes. Putting dollar values on the costs and benefits of land management will help land managers make important decisions on how they can get the best value of limited resources. Being able to predict financial ramifications of management strategies helps to strengthen the EBIPM process.

While the financial ramifications of land management decisions are among the most important drivers of decision -making, economic analyses of land management decisions are notoriously difficult to find. The following information is designed to provide decision-making support when land managers are faced with invasive grass infestations. It has been developed from research conducted to better understand the public and private incentives for wildfire fuel management on rangelands in the Great Basin. As a way to better understand the financial aspects of land management decisions involving invasive species, we developed a mathematical programming model of a cowcalf ranch. The rancher in our model has two decisions to make each year: 1) the number of cattle to buy and sell, and 2) how many acres to treat for fuel management. We recognize that ranchers have many more decisions to make each year, for a mathematical problem we chose these two important decisions. Wildfire is a random event in the model, though the rancher can reduce the size and cost of the wildfires that do occur through fuel management. The model is designed to accommodate different rangeland conditions found in Wyoming Big Sagebrush systems in the Great Basin, as well as different ranch sizes.

The authors would like to acknowledge the University of Nevada, Reno for their important role in Foothill Abortion research and the California Cattlemen’s Association’s Memorial Livestock Research fund for financial support.

22 July / August 2013

Mimako (Mimi) Kobayashi ( Kimberly Rollins ( Michael H. Taylor (

The Progressive Rancher

Reprinted with permission. Originally appeared on

Economics of Wildfire in the Great Basin Page 2 - Ranching, Invasive Annual Grasses, and the Economics of Wildfire in Great Basin Rangelands

How does rangeland ecological condition influence the rancher’s herd management and fuel treatment decisions? Figure 1. When rangeland is healthy (sagebrush and perennial

Fumes From The


For the purposes of this examination, parameters are set to where range condition influences three aspects of the system: 1) the amount and nutritional quality of rangeland forage, 2) the probability that a wildfire occurs, and 3) the size and cost of a wildfire. Three range conditions, typical of Wyoming Big Sagebrush systems, were considered as this model was developed: 1) Sagebrush and native perennial grasses, 2) Sagebrush with invasive annual grasses, and 3) Invasive annual grass monoculture.

Number of Cattle

grasses), average herd size and ranch profits are higher.


Time in years Figure 2. When rangeland is a moderately infested with annual

Number of Cattle

Number of Cattle

Rangeland condition influences ranch operations in two grasses, a rancher maintains a smaller but more stable herd size as a result of more frequent wildfire. Note: the yearly oscillation in the ways. First, ranchers compensate for lower rangeland graph is the result of heifer calves sales in one year and retention in productivity with supplemental feed purchases. Second, the next to compensate for reduced herd size. rangeland condition influences wildfire size and frequency. The model was able to predict the following about how rangeland conditions would influence the financial decision making of a rancher: 1) Average herd size and annual ranch profits are higher for healthy rangelands than for rangelands with some annual grass infestation (Fig. 1). It is optimal for the rancher to maintain a larger but more volatile herd size on healthy rangeland. Wildfire occurs infrequently on healthy rangeland and the rancher maintains a large herd, so that herd size must be reduced substantially after a wildfire event to meet the grazing land Time in years availability. Figure 3. When rangeland is a monoculture of invasive annual 2) When rangeland is moderately invaded with annual grasses, ranching is not profitable and the herd is sold. grasses, a rancher maintains a smaller herd size, thus herd size reductions after wildfire events are smaller (Fig.2). The differences arising between condition 1 and condition 2 are because the more frequent wildfires decrease the overall value of the ranching enterprise and increase the expected opportunity cost of heifer retention. All else equal, heifer retention increases feeding and herd maintenance costs leading to herd expansion. When fire occurs more frequently, attempt to expand the herd through heifer retention would be met with forced herd reductions due to fire events. In the face of more frequent fire, maintaining a small but stable herd size is an attractive strategy. Time in years 3) Ranching is not profitable on rangeland dominated by invasive annual grasses. Ranchers operating on rangeland dominated by annual grasses sell their herd and close their operations. (Fig. 3) The figures above right illustrate optimal herd dynamics for a 5,000-acre ranch for the three range conditions.

by Hank Vogler

ust when you thought it was safe to go outside, up jumps the anti common sense gang. There must be a parallel universe out there that is infiltrating our planet and burning the brain cells from the masses. I am not sure that wrapping your head with aluminum foil will deflect the gamma gamma anti-common sense rays, but it couldn’t hurt. After some twenty-nine years of miserable phone service, we finally got a new above ground modern service that is far more reliable than the old pole line. Simple enough???? Wrong!!!! After battling tooth and nail to get one pole planted on public land to accommodate the new system in a “sage hen area”, you would think this would be good for all the right reasons The anti common sense gamma gamma rays were released. It seemed a near death experience for the protectors of all the fuzzy critters to do a math equation that included removing 45 above ground telephone poles and replacing these poles with one pole that would mean a net gain of forty four less predator perches from the landscape, not to mention better phones and a poleless view of the valley. All the statistics indicate that the major reason for the demise of the sage hen is predation. Ravens are the number one culprits, followed by other predators. The fuzzy critter, fuzzy math folks conclude removing livestock and mining is the answer to protecting sage hens. Even though these activities have been going on for 150 years alongside the sage hen, their minds are clear. We folks that that live out here on the high wide and lonesome know full well that if a whale fails to conceive off the Oregon coast, it is because we are running livestock in the Great Basin. If you put that truism aside for a moment, it is almost impossible to imagine why the old telephone poles are still up? I hope you are setting down. The reason the poles are still up, is, it is sage hen brooding season!!!!!! Yes, removing a pole or predator perch will not be allowed dur————— Continued on page 24

————————— Continued on page 24

The Progressive Rancher

July / August 2013 23

Research Bulletin continued Fumes From The Farm — continued —

Ranching, Invasive Annual Grasses, and the Economics of Wildfire in Great Basin Rangelands - Page 3

How ranch size affects the ability to adjust to a catastrophic wildfire? As part of this research we were interested in predicting how a rancher might be able to respond to the loss of grazing capacity due to a wildfire event. We considered three ranch sizes: 1,500-acres, 5,000-acres, and 240,000acres. A 5,000 acre ranch corresponds to a typical ranch operation in northern Nevada, while the 240,000-acre ranch corresponds to the smallest firefighting decision-making unit in the Western Great Basin Coordination Center. Even though 240,000 acre ranch units are rare in the Great Basin,

we ran the model to see how per-acre herd size, profits, and fuel treatments decisions would change if a large area of the Great Basin were managed as a single unit. The model predicts that larger ranches have a greater ability to adjust production in response to wildfire than smaller ranchers, and that this greater ability allows larger ranches to have larger pre-acre herd sizes and annual ranch profits than smaller ranches.

What are a rancher’s private incentives for fuels treatments? Optimal Cow Stock Dynamics for a 5,000 Acre Ranch

Number of Cattle

Figure 4. Stocking rate on healthy rangeland without fuel reduction treatment results in large herd reductions after a wildfire.

Time in years Figure 5. Stocking rate on healthy rangeland; regardless of ranch size, a rancher will realize a benefit in higher, more stable herd size from any fuel reduction treatments initiated.

Number of Cattle

ing brooding. If this makes sense to you, please get some help, and do not operate motorized equipment. The phone company asked me if I could use the poles after they were removed. To me having 45 treated poles for fence work and gateposts was a sheepherder’s equivalent of winning the lottery. I even foolishly offered to do the removal work, but this is not possible due to rules and regulations and all. You have to put it up for bid with licensed contractors as sheepherders removing poles from the county right of way and private land are bonding issues. Very few of these poles are really on the hallowed ground. Even where they are on the sacred sage hen ground, few are far from the main road that could prove more deadly to broods crossing the road than the pole removal. So a few weeks ago, an engineer from Winnemucca arrived on scene. I assume to get an exact location of each pole. I am sure that was not a freebie. It was Sunday and all. The review must happen in a rapid manner, as the window to remove the poles was to close May 1. Can’t disturb nature. Evidently the raven holiday of feasting on sage hen eggs is as important to the world as trying to remove humans from the West. This thought process would be a little adverse to the sage hen broods, however. I can only assume that the poles were all located to the exact interplanetary coordinates, as the engineer from Winnemucca has not been back. The next thing I know, the phone company calls and asked if I would be interested in the poles if they were sawed off at ground level. The treated part is in the ground, and they would last better if that part were included. I suggested that as the poles were removed, I would fill in the holes as not to cause the earth to suddenly reverse itself and forever shift on its axis and lose its present orbit. The phone guy said he would get back to me. From the point of environmental purity, recycling a telephone pole would save other trees in the forest and make the world a better place to live knowing that our atmosphere would have one more tree to suck up carbon dioxide. A few days later a “ project evaluator” showed up to write a report on the impending doom of global climate, reverse osmosis and inter galactic travel, oh and yes, is it feasible and proper to remove the poles. The answer please!!!!!!!!!!! NO, NO and H E double toothpick NO!!!!!!!! It is sage hen brooding season and removing these poles could have an adverse effect on rearing success. Not to mention the Annual Feast of the

Infestations of annual grasses create heavy loads of fine, dry fuel. These altered fuel loads set up much more frequent fire regimes. In the sagebrush steppe, fire regimes have decreased from 50-70 years to every 4-5 years where invasive annual grasses have become dominant. Frequent fire facilitates the conversion of rangeland from a perennial-dominated to an annualdominated system by permanently removing sagebrush and other critical vegetation for wildlife in these systems. With this economic model, when rangeland is in good condition, regardless of ranch size, a rancher will realize greater benefits from any fuel reduction treatments initiated. Fuel management benefits the rancher by reducing the size of wildfires, which secures them a larger and more stable grazing acreage each year For the 5,000 acre ranch , a treatment is optimal at a cost of $2.00 per-acre or less in the healthiest condition, but treatment is optimal at only $0.25 or less per-acre in the moderately-infested rangelands. We showed earlier with the model that ranching is not profitable on annual grass dominated rangelands. Because the rancher has no resources to put toward improving the degraded lands, they will never, and in fact can’t, undertake fuel management on these lands.

Time in years

The figures at left illustrate herd size and fuel stock dynamics for a 5,000-acre ranch operating on healthy rangelands when treatments cost $1.00 per acre. For (...continued (...continued on on page page 4) 4)

————— Continued on page 25

24 July / August 2013

The Progressive Rancher

Reprinted with permission. Originally appeared on

Fumes From The Farm — continued — Page 4 - Ranching, Invasive Annual Grasses, and the Economics of Wildfire in Great Basin Rangelands

(...continued from page 3) the 240,000-acre ranch , fuel treatment is never optimal, even at a zero cost. This is because fuel treatments have two costs in the model: the direct cost of treatment application and the indirect cost of temporarily halting grazing on treated rangeland. Because the 240,000 acre ranch has more flexibility to adjust production in response to the loss in grazing land after a wildfire, the benefits from fuel treatment for the private rancher, in terms of lower wildfire size, are low relative to the opportunity cost of treatment.

Are there public incentives for fuels treatments? In this scenario, in addition to considering the costs to a producer in lost grazing land after a wildfire, we also consider the cost of wildfire suppression. These costs are typically paid by taxpayers through public agencies such as the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service. What would happen if the 240,000 acre ranch accepted the cost of wildfire suppression where the landscape is managed for both public and private benefit? The model indicates that when the rancher bears the cost of wildfire suppression, fuel treatment is optimal for the 240,000-acre ranch at costs in excess of $20 per acre, and that the benefits from fuel treatment are highest when the range is dominated by annual grasses. The latter is because fuel treatment in this case results in large reductions in wildfire suppression costs. A fuel treatment that costs $20 per acre is not typically a financial option for most ranchers.

What do these results mean from an economic perspective? For private ranchers who do not take into account the public cost of wildfire suppression expenditures, incentives for implementing fuel treatments are highest on healthy rangeland. On the other hand, when the land manager takes into account both ranch profits and wildfire suppression costs, incentives for fuel treatments are the highest on annual grass dominated rangeland because of high wildfire frequency and cost. From these results, it can be implied that subsidizing fuel treatment would encourage private ranchers to undertake more treatment, but that it would likely lead to the greatest increases in treatment on healthy rangeland where the benefits to society are the lowest. For this reason, an efficient policy may be one that promotes treatments on

degraded rangelands where the social benefits of treatment are the highest. In addition, our results imply a potential source of increasing returns to scale for ranches operating in the presence of wildfire risk. We find that that larger ranches exhibit a greater ability to adjust production in response to wildfire events because the downside shock from the loss in available grazing land after a wildfire is proportionately smaller for larger ranches. This, in turn, allows larger ranches to maintain a larger herd size per acre and earn larger profits per acre. However, this result suggests that while having a few large ranches instead of many smaller ranches may achieve higher system-wide efficiency in terms of profits per acre, it may also lead to less fuel management and larger and more costly wildfires and, as a result, may not be desirable from a societal perspective.

Raven and international treaties and earth day, stone henge ceremonies and possibly whale breeding season. You can’t make this stuff up. I am not sure that the removal gyrations will not cost more than the original pole line cost times ten. Now that you know how well your tax dollars are being spent, please get your aluminum foil helmet on before entering the great out doors. This is the same logic as the Nevada protectors of wildlife use when it comes to predator control. Studies indicate that a mountain lion kills a deer a week. NDOW claims there to be three thousand lions state wide. That means that the lion alone, not counting other predators kill in excess of one hundred fifty thousand deer annually. NDOW’s answer is remove livestock, stop predator control and takes away other uses of our states lands for habitat improvement. I guess the math that lions alone take almost four times more deer than NDOW issues tags for hunting doesn’t concern them. Math should rule; not fact less-science and no common sense. Hang and Rattle! Hank


LIVESTOCK SUPPLY INC. 263 Dorral Way Fallon, Nevada Reno Highway across from A&K Earth Movers

For more information on this research, please see: Kobayashi, Mimako, Kimberly Rollins, and Michael H. Taylor. 2010. “Ranching, Invasive Annual Grasses, and the External Costs of Wildfire in the Great Basin: A Stochastic Dynamic Programming Approach.” URL: To learn more about EBIPM and how we can help you with your invasive species infestations, visit

The research for this bulleten was funded in part by the USDA Agricultural Research Service’s “Area-wide Pest Management Program for Annual Grasses in the Great Basin Ecosystem.”

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Stop by and see us, we look forward to seeing you!

PHONE: 775-423-5338

July / August 2013 25

Oldest Amateur Rodeo in Nevada - Since 1898

lund pioneer days Lund, Nevada


18, Saturday – July 13

19, 2 0

• 3:00 PM Queen/Princess contest -

Brothertons Arena Contact Jalyn Bundy, (775) 238-0547

Thursday – July 18 • Ranch Rodear Style Branding & cutting/corraling – 9:00 AM -

Added Money Contact Denny larsen (775) 238-0234 for information Contact Kathy neal (775) 761-4933 for entries

• neW WSRRa Sanctioned 3 head events: contestants will compete Thursday, Friday, and Saturday -

Ranch Bronc Ride-off – estimated purse $5000 Ladies Steer Stopping – estimated purse $2000 Contact Denny larsen (775) 238-0234 for information Contact neva horsley (775) 238-5387 for entries

entries close July 13th for ranch and rodeo

Several events including Mutton Bustin 8 yrs & under, 65# weight limit (top 20 compete in the rodeo) Age groups 7 & under, 8-10, 11-14, 15-18, 18 & over

• Rodeo 5:00 PM -


• neW aW4D open Barrel Racing 8:00 AM -

Bull riding ($1000 added), Sr. Barrels, Jr. Barrels, Team roping, Saddle Bronc ($1000 added) , Calf roping, Steer riding 1015yrs, Mutton Bustin (top ten each day from Gymkhana) Call neva horsley (775) 238-5387 for entries

• Western Dance 9:00 PM - Firehouse

($500 added) Contact lora hyde, (775) 426-8378 for entries and information

• 5K Run 6:30 AM – sign-up at 6:00 AM -

• Gymkhana 8:00 AM, Signups at 7:30 AM -

Saturday – July 20

(Pre-registration preferred) Contact heather Sabaitis (775) 238-5315

• Parade 9:00

Friday – July 19


• • • •


– sign up at 8:30 AM

Parade Theme “Pioneers Sang as They Walked ”

Pioneer Program 10:30 PM – old Grade School Bar-B-Que noon children’s Games and adult horseshoes 1:00 PM cow Pasture Golf 1:00 PM


Contact norris hendrix (775) 238-5234

• Vendor Booths at the square – contact heather Sabaitis • Rodeo 5:00 PM • Celebration closes with an outstanding fireworks display at dark

Team Roping: Lanes 318 arena; July 19-20, 9:00 AM, Sign-up 8:00 AM -

26 July / August 2013

Top 10 teams daily will qualify for lund Pioneer Days rodeo Contact Ben noyes @ (435)691-2536 Capped at #6 pick 1/draw 2 - $60 • Pick partner #10 - $30 • Pick partner #12 handicap - $30

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Range Plants for the Rancher By Paul T. Tueller, Ph.D., CRMC

Tapertip Hawksbeard


common forb found on Nevada Sagebrush rangelands is Tapertip Hawksbeard a member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) or sunflower family with the scientific name of Crepis acuminate Nutt. A second common name is Longleaf Hawksbeard. The sunflower family is the largest family of flowering plants comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion. This is a native perennial forb and is widespread throughout the western U.S. This forb grows from 8-28” (20-70 cm tall arising as 1-3 stems from a woody caudex branched above. Plants flower from May to August and consist of a loose, flattish or round-topped cluster of 20 – 100 or more narrow flower heads of yellow rays. The flowering head is about 1/2-1” wide. The flowers are all rays, with 5-10 per head. The inner bracts are each 3/8-1/2” long, and

at least twice as long as the outer bracts. The bracts are smooth. The fruit is a yellowish or brownish achene, with slender white hairs at the tip. The leaves of this species are mostly basal, 4-16” long, pinnately lobed, with the edges often having teeth. Stem leaves are few and reduced. Both the basal and stem leaves have a grayish-cottony pubescence. The stems are 1-3 branched leafy and covered with a grayish-cottony pubescence. The sap is milky. The plant grows from a taproot. Specimens are found on open dry sites in sagebrush communities and coniferous forests. They prefer well drained soils. Some common plants found with Tapertip Hawksbeard include big sagebrush, arrowleaf balsamroot, Indian paintbrush and other associated species. This plant, while not providing considerable forage is fair to good forage for deer, pronghorn, cattle, sheep and horses. It is preferred forage for sheep and is most palatable in late spring and early summer. Leaves are reported to be consumed by pre-laying sage grouse hens and make up a large portion of their diet. As a good member of the sagebrush ecosystem this plant is one that each rancher should be familiar with.

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July / August 2013 27

Priority Weeds Identified by Agricultural Producers and Public Land Managers in Nevada Brad Schultz, Extension Educator, University of Nevada Cooperative Extension, Winnemucca, Nevada.


n 2010, the University of Nevada Cooperative Extension published the results of a Statewide Needs Assessment about Weed Management (available at: http://www. This report identified the 26 most problematic weeds for agricultural producers in Nevada (Table 1). An additional four species; spotted knapweed, diffuse knapweed, Camelthorn, and Dalmatian toadflax were identified by weed managers working for the public land management agencies. The top two education priorities for weed management among Nevada agricultural producers were: 1) weed control using herbicides, and 2) weed control using alternative methods. This article is the first in a lengthy series that will look at herbicide and alternative methods of weed control for the priority species identified by agricultural producers (Table 1) and public

Table 1. The most problematic weeds on lands managed by agricultural producers. Species are ranked from those with the most to least concern.

Scientific Name

Concern among Nevada Agricultural Producers

Hoary cress

Cardaria draba


Russian thistle

Salsola iberica


Downy brome

Bromus tectorum


Lepidium latifolium


Foxtail barley

Hordeum jubatum



Tribulus terrestris


Xanthium strumarium


Brassica spp.


Russian knapweed

Acroptilon repens


Canada thistle

Cirsium arvense



Cenchrus spp.



Kochia scoparia


Bull thistle

Cirsium vulgare


Onopordum acanthium


Convolvulus arvensis


Euphorbia esula


Curlycup bindweed

Grindelia squarrosa


Yellow starthistle

Centaurea solstitialis


Cuscuta spp.


Erodium cicutarium


Halogeton glomeratus


Carduus nutans


Conium maculatum


Tamarix ramosissima



Taeniatherum caput-medusae


Dyers woad

Isatis tinctoria


Common Name

Perennial pepperweed

Cocklebur Winter annual mustards

Scotch thistle Field bindweed Leafy spurge

Dodder Redstem filaree Halogeton Musk thistle Poison hemlock Saltcedar

28 July / August 2013

land managers. Before we delve into the specific species, everyone needs to understand some of the basics of plant biology. The first basic division of weeds is into grasses (monocots), and broadleaf species (dicots). Most, if not all readers probably know a grass plant when they see one, but a brief review may be beneficial. Grass plants are nonwoody herbaceous species, which have relatively long, narrow leaves, with parallel veins and a fibrous root system. Some grass and forb species have rhizomes or stolons. These are laterally growing stems that extend from the root crown and can produce new plants. Rhizomes are below ground stems that have a bud at each node. The plant can activate the bud to develop a new tiller (stem and associated leaves) that grows upward and can ultimately develop into a separate plant. A stolon is similar to a rhizome, except it occurs above the ground surface. Fortunately, none of the Figure 1. Buds (white fleshy material) grasses we will discuss in this series poson the root crown and top of the root sess these plant parts because the presence system. of rhizomes and stolons usually makes weed control more difficult. The broadleaf plants include the forbs, shrubs and trees. Common features are leaves that are relatively wide, with veins that look like a net. Forbs are predominately herbaceous flowering plants that are not a member of the grass family. The colorful, non-woody wild flowers you see each spring are forbs. Shrubs are woody plants that typically are distinguished from trees by having multiple stems at or near the ground surface and a relatively short height when mature (<20 feet tall). Trees are woody plants that typically have one primary stem (the trunk) and usually reach heights of 20 feet or more when mature There are three basic life-forms exhibited by weeds: annual, biennial and perennial. An annual weed is a plant that completes its entire lifecycle (germination through maturity, seed production and death) in on growing season. Depending upon the annual growing conditions and the specific species, the growing season may last only a few weeks, or as long as six months or more. The annual weeds that germinate in the fall typically overwinter without going dormant, and reach maturity the following spring. Their single growing season occurs across two calendar years. Annual weeds can be further classified as either cool season or warm season species. Cool season annual weeds germinate in either the fall or early spring when temperatures are cool and the soil moist. These plants complete their lifecycle before the summer heat occurs. Warm season annual weeds germinate from mid spring to early summer as soil temperatures are warming, and growth continues through the summer, with seed production occurring from late summer to early fall. A very important concept to understand about annual weeds is that they only reproduce from seed. Long-term control of annual weeds weed requires control of existing plants before they set viable seed followed by decreases in the size of their seedbank. Biennial weeds are similar to annual weeds, except that they complete their lifecycle over two consecutive growing seasons. During their first year of growth the plants remain vegetative and often develop a basal rosette of leaves. After the first growing season the plant goes dormant and resumes vegetative growth the second growing season. At the end of the second growing season the plant sets seed and dies. The end of the growing season for any weed may occur well before the end of the potential growing season (based on frost), because of low amounts of soil moisture. All biennial weeds, like all annual weeds, only reproduce from seed. Biennial weeds, however, exhibit vegetative growth in two growing seasons; therefore, biennial weeds often have a longer period, compared to short-lived an-

The Progressive Rancher

Figure 2. New nual weeds, during which effective control may occur. Understanding which growth from buds weeds are short-lived annuals, and which are longer lived biennials that about 1.5 inches produce seed only in their second year of life, can help prioritize weed manapart on the agement efforts. This is especially true when multiple farming and ranching lateral creeping tasks compete with one-another for limited time and resources. root of a Russian By definition, perennial weeds live at least three growing seasons, but knapweed plant. almost all typically live several decades or longer. They plants typically go dormant each year after they produce seed, which typically occurs from midThis root was summer to late fall, depending upon the species. Perennial weeds resume obtained from growth the following year from buds the plant set the previous growing about 12 inches season. Understanding the location and abundance of the buds on perennial deep. weeds is important for developing a successful, long-term weed control program. To kill a perennial plant one has to kill the buds from which the plant can regrow. Some species only have buds on the root crown or the very top that allow individual plants to regrow year after year. of the tap root (Figure 1). Severing the root below the buds and allowing the root crown to For each of the species addressed in this series (Table 1) there will be a discussion of desiccate rapidly on the soil surface can control these types of weeds fairly easily. Other the plants biology and lifecycle, and how these affect the potential methods of control with perennial weeds, however, have buds on nearly every inch of their entire root system (Fig- herbicides, mechanical methods, cultural approaches and biological agents. Integrated ure 2). Their root systems can reach depths of several to ten or more feet, and can spread weed management programs that use two or more of these approaches typically result in laterally 10 to 20 feet or more. Severing these root systems ultimately results in more, not better long-term success, than management programs that focus on only a single control fewer plants, because each root segment with a bud may produce a new plant. Like annual method. The information provided is intended to help you develop and/or refine the weed and biennial weeds, all perennial weeds can produce seed every year, but control of existing control and management program best suited for your specific situation. The next article plants, and ultimately the population, requires killing or preventing formation of the buds will feature information about hoary cress, also known to many as short whitetop.

The Progressive Rancher Coloring Page

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July / August 2013 29

SOCIETY FOR RANGE MANAGEMENT Rehabilitation of Cheatgrass-Infested Rangelands: Concepts by Charlie D. Clements, James A. Young, Dan N. Harmon and Robert R. Blank.


Range Scientist, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service 920 Valley Road, Reno, NV 89512 Range Scientist, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (retired) Agricultural Research Technician, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service Soil Scientist, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service

his paper is the first of a three part series addressing the issue of rangeland rehabilitation, specifically cheatgrass-infested rangelands. We use the term “rehabilitation” rather than “restoration” because “restoration is the intentional alteration of a site to establish a defined indigenous, historic ecosystem” which implies an ecosystem with no cheatgrass. Rehabilitation, on the other hand, is an effort to “repair damaged ecosystem functions”. Producing an environment free of cheatgrass and numerous other introduced weeds is not realistic, rehabilitation recognizes this and opens the tool box to more options not available in restoration. The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass throughout millions of acres of Intermountain West rangelands has resulted in astronomical changes to many plant communities. Cheatgrass is native to the cold deserts of central Asia where humans are first thought to have domesticated animals. These native habitats are very similar to the big sagebrush/bunchgrass and salt desert ranges of the Intermountain Area of North America. Cheatgrass was first collected in Pennsylvania in 1861 and thought to be accidentally

Figure 1. Look at the enormous amount of forage produced on this given year and the astronomical fire danger provided by this cheatgrass dominated community. introduced in contaminated wheat and then dispersed from farm to farm through equipment and stock. By 1902, cheatgrass was identified in Nevada and reported to occur along railways, roadsides and croplands. By 1935, cheatgrass was abundant throughout the Wyoming big sagebrush/bunchgrass communities. Cheatgrass has the inherent potential to outcompete native perennial grass seedlings for available moisture and nutrients therefore truncating succession. Whether 1” or 12” in height, or in stature, cheatgrass has the ability to produce many more seeds than is needed to sustain the population. The seeds of cheatgrass are highly germinable at a large range of constant and alternating temperatures. The USDA, Great Basin Rangelands Research Unit Wildland Seed Laboratory tests

the germination potential of numerous native and introduced species. In our testing of 55 constant or alternating temperatures from 0° C – 40° C that cover Great Basin seedbed temperatures, cheatgrass germinates in all 55 regimes, whereas native perennial grass species do not have that potential. Even though cheatgrass has this ability to germinate at a wide range of temperatures, a portion of seeds acquire a dormancy which allows cheatgrass to build persistent seed banks. In our investigation of 100 sites from northeastern California to eastern Nevada we measured 1,000 seed bank samples. Cheatgrass was present in the seed banks of all but one site, and ranged from 0 seeds/ft² to over 1,000 seeds/ft², averaging 252 cheatgrass seeds/ft². It is a rare event to record native grass and shrubs in these measured seed banks. Raymond Evans, early Range Scientist with USDA, Agricultural Research Service in Reno Nevada pointed out in the 1970’s that as few at 4 cheatgrass plants/ft² could outcompete our most competitive perennial grasses in then seedling stage. Cheatgrass is an annual grass that provides a fine-textured, early maturing fuel that increases the chance, rate and spread of wildfires. Wyoming big sagebrush/bunchgrass habitats that were estimated to burn every 60-100 years are now burning every 5-10 years, simply too short a period of time to allow for woody species like big sagebrush to return. Controversy exists as to how to manage these degraded big sagebrush communities with an understory of cheatgrass as well as those communities dominated with this annual grass (Figure 1). One of the myths that exist and is still taught on college campuses today is that “cows do not eat cheatgrass” or that “cheatgrass only provides forage during the green period.” We have witnessed cattle foraging on cheatgrass all 12 months of the year (Figure 2). Charles Fleming, pioneer range scientist with the University of Nevada, Agricultural Experiment Station wrote in 1942, “Bronco grass (sic cheatgrass) has become a permanent source of feed on many of our most important rangelands and it will necessarily have to be taken into consideration in the determination of seasonal use and in making grazing capacity estimates.” The lack of understanding by agencies and scientists to recognize the abilities of cheatgrass, as well as not recognizing it as a forage species, may very well have exacerbated the problem by allowing cheatgrass fuels to increase which has resulted in large astronomical wildfires. What is frustrating is that these early pioneer researchers and their work are often discarded as out of date, done without state of the art equipment, etc., yet their words ring more true today than they did decades ago. A. C. Hull and J. F. Pechanec published a paper in 1947 titled “Cheatgrass: A Challenge to Range Research” in which they point out “…we have tried grazing management for 20 years to aid perennial grasses and have increased cheatgrass seed production and dominance.” Howard Leach, a wildlife biologist with the California Department of Fish and Game during the late 1940s to the late 1970s, reported to us an interesting story concerning cheatgrass as wildlife forage. Howard told us that in the mid 1950s he was collecting mule deer stomach contents from road-killed deer in the Doyle area of northeastern California. He informed his supervisors mule deer were consuming sagebrush and was reprimanded. The next year he reported mule deer were consuming cheatgrass, and he was transferred. These biases still exist today. The problem is, that even though cheatgrass is a nutritional forage, it provides many more empty plate than full plate scenarios through its sporadic yearly growth/production patterns and its promotion of frequent wildfires. In 1994, we presented a paper at a scientific meeting where we showed a slide of sage grouse in dense cheatgrass at the edge of a degraded Wyoming big sagebrush/bunchgrass community (Figure 3). We pointed out that we met with the land managers and all involved parties, and discussed that simply protect-

The Society for Range Management (SRM) is “the professional society dedicated to supporting persons who work with rangelands and have a commitment to their sustainable use.” SRM’s members are ranchers, land managers, scientists, educators, students, conservationists – a diverse membership guided by a professional code of ethics and unified by a strong land ethic. This series of articles is dedicated to connecting the science of range management with the art, by applied science on the ground in Nevada. Articles are the opinion of the author and may not be an official position of SRM. Further information and a link to submit suggestions or questions are available at the Nevada Section website at SRM’s main webpage is www. We welcome your comments.

30 July / August 2013

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Figure 2. Cheatgrass has become a major forage source for the livestock industry throughout the Intermountain West. ing this site was not going to be the answer. We explained to them that the policies and management guidelines in place concerning sage grouse included no range improvement practices within two miles of a strutting ground, nesting, brood rearing or critical wintering area. This basically covered the complete upland community. With no range improvement practices being applied, we described this habitat as “a future sage grouse mortuary”. The site burned in 2012 in a 320,000-acre wildfire. Our goal is to provide land managers with the information and tools necessary to reduce cheatgrass densities and fuel loads, therefore reducing wildfire risks and frequencies, and allowing critical browse species to return to the site. The best-known method at suppressing cheatgrass is through the establishment of long-lived perennial grasses. You simply cannot fence off an upland site or remove livestock and have the area magically return to a pristine picture in your imagination or some site description of a previous time. To do this would be a failure to recognize the many attributes that cheatgrass possesses from seed production, persistent seed banks, seedling competition, and fuel to

Figure 3. These small big sagebrush islands will not exists for future sage grouse and other wildlife species simply by protecting them, integrated range improvement practices must be part of the equation. promote itself and be successful throughout the Intermounatin area. Early range scientist, R. F. Daubenmire, pointed out as early as 1940 that cheatgrass had the ability to invade native perennial grass communities that had never been grazed and were in excellent ecological condition. Cheatgrass truly is the “Babe Ruth” of weeds in the Intermountain West! In our next series we will tackle the issue “Rehabilitation of Cheatgrass-Infested Rangelands: Application,” lessons we have learned over four decades.

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The Progressive Rancher

July / August 2013 31

Research Bulletin


odel? ...continued...

News From the Nevada Beef Council:

When Does It Pay to Conduct When does it pay to conduct Fuel Management?


KWNR’s Country in the Park, Las Vegas

As part of the Nevada Beef Council’s (NBC) June sponsorship of the Jr. Iron Chef, Las Vegas competition hosted by Clear Channel Media, the NBC consumer communications department negotiated participation in a second event put on by Clear Channel Media. The KWNR Country in the Park Festival is an annual one-day outdoor country music festival that kicks off the summer concert season. Held May 11 at Mountains Edge Exploration Park inside the Mountains Edge outdoor festival area, this familyfocused event featured country artists Chris Cagle and Chris Jansen. As part of the sponsorship package, the NBC aired a schedule of 30-second commercials on Las Vegas country station KWNR featuring one of the new “Above All Else—Beef: It’s what’s for Dinner” radio spots (see “New Beef Ad Campaign Premiers”). The NBC was also included in promotional exposure about the concert event, and consumer ustrates average cumulative costsbeef for treatment materials and fun over “Beef.the It’scourse what’sof n with and without treatment for Dinner” tattoos were ears using a 3% discounttemporary rate. handed out to event attendees.

hest by prioritizing individual parcels of land in average benefit-cost ratio is 13.1 in state 1 of the state 1A of the Mountain Big Sagebrush system. em should be given priority for pre-fire fuels Jr. Iron Chef, n Big Sagebrush system. Las ment programs that the mostVegas efficient use of esiliency on healthy Therangeland. NBC’s participation in this year’s Jr. Iron Chef, Las Vegas cook-

ds and data used in the simulation model, see: ing competition marks the second J. Tausch. 2011. “The Economics of Fuel year that beef is the center of the plate h Rangelandsforinthis the high Western United States.” school vs. high school

you with yourcooking invasivechallenge. The event, June 1, 2013 at the Las Vegas International

Ecologically-based Invasive Plant Management Should we spend more money on fuel management? Public agencies spend almost a billion dollars a year fighting wildfires and in post-fire landscape restoration yet they spend very little on pre-fire fuel management. Despite this enormous disparity, there has been little economic analysis to date to support decisions regarding where public resources are more effectively utilized.

Michael H. Taylor ( Kimberly Rollins ( Mimako (Mimi) Kobayashi (

What is a simulation model and how can the information obtained from a simulation model help land managers make decisions about pre-fire fuel treatments?

We developed a model to simulate long-run wildfire suppression costs with and without fuel treatments over a 200 -year time period. The benefits of fuel treatment are measured as the difference in the expected present value of wildfire suppression cost with and without treatment. These benefits This research bulletin reports results from recent research are then compared to treatment costs to evaluate economic efficiency. that considers the economic efficiency of pre-fire fuel treatment relative to wildfire suppression and post-fire restoration on Great Basin lands. The results are intended The model takes into account: for use in evaluating economic trade-offs of scarce public cumulative treatment costs over time resources for Great Basin land management. the likelihood of wildfire with and without treatments the costs of wildfire suppression How do pre-fire fuel treatments help reduce the the costs of post-fire restoration chance of wildfires occurring? the combined influence of fuel treatments and wildfire on ecological conditions and ecological services over time. The U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) spent more than a billion dollars per Wildfire occurrences, treatment success given that treatment is year fighting wildfires in four out of the seven years leading up to 2006. This steady increase in wildfire undertaken, and per-acre wildfire suppression costs are suppression costs has occurred in part because of a random variables in each year of the simulation model. Each century of U.S. federal wildfire policy that has run of the model considers the evolution of the landscape emphasized wildfire suppression over pre-fire fuel with and without vegetation treatments over 200 years with treatments. This wildfire policy has resulted in a buildup different randomly-generated realizations of these random of fuel on the landscape. variables in each year. Pre-fire fuel treatments conducted on Great Basin lands are designed with two considerations in mind: 1. Treatments aim to reduce the probability of severe wildfires, which in turn reduces expected costs of damages and suppression if a fire did occur. 2. Treatments attempt to restore ecosystem health and resiliency that will reduce fuel loads and the spread of invasive annual grasses. Pre-fire fuel treatments are recognized as effective at reducing probability of severe wildfires, which will reduce the expected wildfire suppression costs.

To generate our results, 10,000 runs of the simulation model are performed. The results are reported on a per-acre basis. Assumptions and parameters are chosen so that the per-acre estimates of benefits and costs of fuel treatments are scalable to larger spatial scales. The results must be interpreted with caution because the model considers only wildfire suppression costs averted and not additional benefits of fuel treatment such as reductions in wildfire damages and improvements in wildlife habitat, forage for livestock, recreation opportunities, and erosion control.

————— Continued on page 33

32 July / August 2013

The Progressive Rancher

Reprinted with permission. Originally appeared on

Fuel Management?


Page 2 - When does it pay to conduct Fuel Management?

What were the ecosystem states used for this model? We modeled the Wyoming Sagebrush Steppe (4,700 ft - 6,500 ft) ecosystem as existing in one of three ecological states: State 1. Perennial grasses and sagebrush with a small presence of invasive annual grasses characterize the “healthiest” state. Wildfire and fuel treatment maintain the system in state 1. Without moderate disturbances, such as prescribed fuel treatments, the system will transition over time to a new ecological state.

state 1

state 2

State 1. Nevada Pre-fire fuelDietetic treatment results in Association expected benefits of $272 per acre. Treatment is economically efficient when th The Nevada Dietetic Associaecosystem in statemeeting 1 because it is 100% tion held theirisannual April successful, relatively inexpensive, 12-13 at the Peppermill Resort and and prevents transition state 2 or 3. Casino in Reno. There to were approximately 100 nutrition professionals in

State 3. In state 3, invasive annual grasses are the dominant species, wildfires occur frequently, and restoring the system to state 1 is expensive and carries very low success rates. We modeled the Mountain Big Sagebrush (6,500 + ft) ecosystem as existing in one of three ecological states with the first state having two phases:

state 3

attendance all over theeconomically state. State 2. Fuel from treatment is not The NBC sponsored breakoutthe sesefficient in state 2 abecause appropriate sion with speaker and “Wine Coach” treatment is expensive relative to expected Laurie Forster. provided a expected benefits from Forster treatment ($133 in hands-on wine and beef pairing for wildfire suppression cost savings). Expected the attendees and explained the nucost savings are low because treatment in tritional implications for those comstate 2 is successful only 50% of the time an binations. The dietitians were very the consequence of treatment failure is that responsive to her information. The the also system transitions to state 3, which NBC sponsored an exhibit booth entails more frequent wildfires. where Director of Food and Nutrition

state 1 phase B

State Fuelattendees treatment state 3 is not with3.the andin distributed economically efficient even though repeated beef nutrition materials. application of fuel treatment is effective at reducing wildfire suppression costs ($139 in expected wildfire suppression cost savings). However, given the low probability of New Beef(2.5%), Ad fuel treatment in treatment success state 3 isCampaign cost prohibitive.

state 2

When land in state 1 has pre-fire fuel treatments Theremain new “Above Else” con- treatmen it will in thisAll state. Without sumer advertising campaign from the model predicts after 200 years the system the National Cattlemen’s Beef Aswill have transitioned to state 2 7.3% of the sociation (NCBA) premiered in May, time and to state 3 92.7% of the time (NOT and the NBC was among one of the GOOD!). first state beef councils to take ad-

Outreach, Katy Tenner, interacted

state 1 phase A

State 2. This is a closed-canopy pinyonjuniper state with minimal to no native perennial grasses and invasive annual grasses dominating in the understory. Wildfires are less frequent but far more expensive than in state 1 and restoration is costly and the success rate is uncertain. With the lack of perennial plants and the presence of annual grasses, wildfire or treatment failure in this state will transition the system to state 3.


state 2

vantage of the new materials.

On theThe other hand, while treated land in state 2 campaign targets the criti3 can be restored of to state it is still calor “next generation beef 1, eateconomically efficient for ers”—the older Millennial andsociety to leave lands in these states thanapursue Gen-Xer aged 25 torather 44 — with thought-provoking empharestoration whenmessage only wildfire suppression sizing unique package of taste cost beef’s savings are considered.

State 3. In state 3, invasive annual grasses are the dominant species, wildfires occur frequently, and restoring the system to state 1 is expensive and carries very low success rates.

state 3

————————— Continued on page 34


In the Wyoming Sagebrush Steppe ecosystem

State 2. This state is characterized by overgrown “decadent” sagebrush with reduced perennial grasses and increased annual grasses. If wildfire occurs in state 2, it is more intense and more expensive to suppress than wildfire in state 1. The transition back to state 1 from state 2 is reversible only with restoration effort, and the success of this effort is uncertain. With the loss of perennial plant vigor and the presence of annual grasses, wildfire or treatment failure in state 2 will transition the system to state 3.

State 1. Perennial grasses and sagebrush with minimal presence of invasive annual grasses characterize this “healthiest” phase of state 1. Wildfire and fuel treatments maintain the system in phase A; however, without moderate disturbances, such as wildfire or prescribed fuel treatments, the system will transition over time to the early stages of pinyon-juniper expansion, or phase B. The transition back to phase A can occur with wildfire or be made with treatment effort.

Culinary Art School, features East Side, Las Vegas Career and Technical schools teams against West Side, Las Vegas competitors in a hot foodsWhat were competition. The expected net benefits of treatment The NBC’s sponsorship in- are calculated as the difference in the value cluded an advertising schedule present of of 30-second cumulative“Above wildfireAll suppression costs, with Else” radio and without treatment, 200 years, minus th commercials, Web andover social media present value of cumulative treatment exposure and other audience engage- costs over 200 years, averaged over the 10,000 runs of the ment opportunities.

The Progressive Rancher

and nutrition.

————— Continued on page 34 July / August 2013 33

Research Bulletin continued

or this model?


When does it pay to conduct Fuel Management? - Page 3


Why Are Millennials So Important?

If you’ve been reading consumer communications updates from the NBC, you’ve doubtless noticed our state 1 strong focus on the “older Millennials.” While the Millennial generation spans 1980 through 2000, the older h Millennials, born between 1980 and 1990, are establishing their own n homes and families. Not only are tate they today’s potential beef consumion ers, but they are also teaching statethe 2 succeeding generation how and what in to eat. The Millennial generation, at 80 million people, is bigger than the Baby Boomer generation and cures rently makes up about a fourth of all s Americans and about a third of all adults. Recent studies funded by the ting Beef Checkoff have found thatstate Mil3 lennial parents are limiting their children’s beef consumption. For many, they’ve found cooking beef to be a disappointing experience, with the beef they cook not coming out “just right” in terms of taste and tenderness. In addition, the studies show that Millennial parents perceive chicken to be easier to prepare and something their children will enstate 1 state 1 joy. With chicken strips and chicken phase A phase B nuggets widely available and now a familiar taste and texture to their children, Millennial parents use the convenience aspect to avoid a battle at the dinner table. In boiling down the study results what becomes clear is that beef has an opportunity to provide positive information that addresses the state needs 2 state 2and concerns of Millennial parents. Making Millennials more confident about beef from pasture to plate— and more confident in their ability to prepare delicious and nutritious beef meals for their families—is a top priority. While this generation lacks es knowledge and confidence about s beef, they are consumers and parents who actively seek information, es3 pecially as it relates to recipe state ideas, easy preparation methods, nutrition and meals their whole family will enjoy.


What were the results when we ran this model? The expected net benefits of treatment are calculated as the difference in the present value of cumulative wildfire suppression costs, with and without treatment, over 200 years, minus the present value of cumulative treatment costs over 200 years, averaged over the 10,000 runs of the model. In the Wyoming Sagebrush Steppe ecosystem: State 1. Pre-fire fuel treatment results in expected benefits of $272 per acre. Treatment is economically efficient when the ecosystem is in state 1 because it is 100% successful, relatively inexpensive, and prevents transition to state 2 or 3. State 2. Fuel treatment is not economically efficient in state 2 because the appropriate treatment is expensive relative to expected benefits from treatment ($133 in expected wildfire suppression cost savings). Expected cost savings are low because treatment in state 2 is successful only 50% of the time and the consequence of treatment failure is that the system transitions to state 3, which entails more frequent wildfires. State 3. Fuel treatment in state 3 is not economically efficient even though repeated application of fuel treatment is effective at reducing wildfire suppression costs ($139 in expected wildfire suppression cost savings). However, given the low probability of treatment success (2.5%), fuel treatment in state 3 is cost prohibitive.

*The graphic above illustrates average cumulative costs for treatment and wildfire suppression with and without treatment over the course of 200 years using a 3% discount rate.

When land in state 1 has pre-fire fuel treatments, it will remain in this state. Without treatment, the model predicts after 200 years the system will have transitioned to state 2 7.3% of the time and to state 3 92.7% of the time (NOT GOOD!). On the other hand, while treated land in state 2 or 3 can be restored to state 1, it is still economically efficient for society to leave lands in these states rather than pursue restoration when only wildfire suppression cost savings are considered.

—Source: “Seize the opportunity with millennial parents” by Wendy Neuman, Beef Issues Quarterly, winter 2013

34 July / August 2013

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Reprinted with permission. Originally appeared on

Page 4 - When does it pay to conduct Fuel Management?

What were the results when we ran this model? ...continued... In the Mountain Big Sagebrush ecosystem:

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Very nice farm just minutes from Battle Mountain, Nevada. 169 acres of which 130 are in production. Feedlot, corrals, new shop & equipment shed. New 3 bed, 2 bath mobile with mature landscape.

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State 2. Fuel treatment is not economically efficient in state 2 because the appropriate treatment is expensive relative to expected benefits from treatment (-$217 in expected wildfire suppression cost savings). Expected cost savings are negative because treatment in state 2 is successful only 50% of the time and the consequence of treatment failure is that the system transitions to state 3, which entails more frequent wildfires.

Unique fenced 1,104 acres on Boulder Creek bordering U.S. Forest Service Ecologically-based Invasive in Starr Valley, Nevada. Water-righted with nice meadows.

Should we spend more money on fuel mana

Public agencies spend almost a billion dollars a y Diamond Springs Ranch fighting wildfires and inlocated post-fire landscape resto Beautiful private ranch at the North of Diamond Valley, 45 milesfuel manage yet theyend spend very little on pre-fire from Eureka, Nevada. Fully fenced.there has been Despite this enormous disparity, 995± acresanalysis of land, to with 220toacres economic date support decisions r underpublic pivots. resources 35,000 acres BLM land, where areofmore effectively utiliz

with 2124 AUMs. 2 natural spring fed ponds. 1 million gallon reservoir. 3 This research bulletin results from recen Houses. Beautiful viewsreports of mountains that considers the economic efficiency of pre-fir all around. $1,600,000

State 3. Fuel treatment in state 3 is not economically efficient even though repeated application of fuel treatment is effective at reducing wildfire suppression costs ($554.00 in expected wildfire suppression cost savings). However given the low probability of treatment success (2.5%), fuel treatment in state 3 is cost prohibitive.

treatment relative to wildfire suppression and po restoration Cattle on GreatRanch Basin lands. The results are forSouth use in evaluating economic trade-offs of scar of Eureka (Duckwater) resources for Great Basin land management. 4851 deeded acres, of which 600 acres

*The graphic above illustrates average cumulative costs for treatment and wildfire suppression with and without treatment over the course of 200 years using a 3% discount rate.

The benefit-cost ratio suggests that, given a fixed budget, benefits are highest by prioritizing individual parcels of land in descending order of benefit-cost ratios until the budget is exhausted. The average benefit-cost ratio is 13.1 in state 1 of the Wyoming Sagebrush Steppe system, followed by 9.0 in state 1B and 5.7 in state 1A of the Mountain Big Sagebrush system. This suggests land in state 1 of the Wyoming Big Sagebrush Steppe system should be given priority for pre-fire fuels treatments, followed by land in 1B of the Mountain Big Sagebrush system. The results from this model provide scientific support for land management programs that the most efficient use of resources are those that maintain ecological health and resiliency on healthy rangeland. For more about this research, including detailed information on methods and data used in the simulation model, see: Taylor, Michael H., Kimberly Rollins, Mimako Kobayashi, and Robin J. Tausch. 2011. “The Economics of Fuel Management: Wildfire, Invasive Plants, and the Evolution of Sagebrush Rangelands in the Western United States.” To learn more about EBIPM and how we can help you with your invasive species infestations, visit

The research for this bulleten was funded in part by the USDA Agricultural Research Service’s “Area-wide Pest Management Program for Annual Grasses in the Great Basin Ecosystem.”

Real Estate J and M Farm

State 1. Pre-fire fuel treatment results in expected benefits of $90 per acre for phase A and $358 per acre in phase B. Treatments are economically efficient in both phases of state 1 because they are 100% successful, relatively inexpensive, and prevent transition to state 2 or 3.

The model predicts that when lands in phase A and phase B of state 1 have pre-fire fuel treatments, those systems will return to phase A 100% of the time. However, without treatment or wildfire, the land will transition to state 2 and, eventually, state 3 within 200 years.

Allie Bear

The Progressive Rancher

are hayable & 410treatments irrigated How do meadows pre-fire fuel help redu pasture meadows from year-round chance of wildfires occurring? springs. 3820 acres of native grazing lands willForest run 830 head of(USFS) cattle. FamThe U.S. Service and the Bureau ily owned for generations. 807,954 Management (BLM) spent more BLM than a billion d acres out the gate for spring, summer year fighting wildfires in four out of the seven ye & winter grazing. Also, 134,865 acres leading upForest to 2006. This$3,500,000. steady increase in wildf summer grazing.

suppression costs has occurred in part because o century of U.S. federal policy that has Sherman Hillswildfire Ranch emphasized wildfire suppression over pre-fire fu All Private. Approx. 1,259 acres, six treatments. This wildfire policy has resulted in a pastures, with corrals, shop, garage, ofnewer fuel on the landscape. 2040 sq. ft. perm. man. home, landscaping, nice BBQ deck. Year-

Pre-fire fuel treatments conducted round creek. In Osino - within 15 minon Great Bas of designed Elko! NEWwith PRICE are two$1,500,000 considerations in mind: 1. Treatments aim to reduce the probability of s Flying wildfires, whichMinRanch turn reduces expected cost damages a fire did occur. Great ranch,and Justsuppression minutes fromifI-80 NV) & not far from Winnemuc2.(Imlay, Treatments attempt to restore ecosystem hea ca.resiliency Approx. 23,000 acres of deeded that will reduce fuel loads and the s ground with over 23grasses. miles on the river. invasive annual Winter outside-no feeding. Pre-fire fuel treatments are recognized as effecti reducing View probability compleof listsevere ings at: wildfires, which w the expected wildfire suppression costs.

775-738-8535 Allie Bear, Broker/Realtor 775-777-6416

July / August 2013 35



his has got to be the most beautiful spring day that I can remember. Trees look and smell good, grass is growing, and there are flowers here and there. Cows are fat; calves are getting big. The horses are sunning themselves; no flies yet to bug them. The weather is perfect, not too hot, not too cold. Life is good. God reveals His love for us through the beauty of His creation, doesn’t he? God’s love for us is also revealed throughout the Bible. Like any good treasure, you find it when you dig. Jesus often taught in parables. I enjoy reading them and really chewing on them. If you are a sheep herder, you may enjoy reading the parable of the lost sheep (Luke 15:1-7). In this story we see the heart of the Father revealed. Jesus is hanging out with tax collectors and other sinners. They are drawn to Him. Of course they are; they need Him. Who gets their noses out of joint? The religious folk, the Pharisees and Scribes. They are offended because Jesus is eating with sinners. Luke 15:4-7 NAS — What man among you, if he has a hundred sheep and has lost one of them, does not leave the ninety-nine in the open pasture and go after the one which is lost until he finds it? When he has found it, he lays it on his shoulders, rejoicing. And when he comes home, he calls together his friends and his neighbors, saying to them, ‘Rejoice with me, for I have found my sheep which was lost!’ I tell you that in the same way, there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents than over ninety-nine righteous persons who need no repentance. Who brought joy to heaven? To the Father? The repentant sinner. Who hounded Jesus throughout the gospels? The so-called righteous, religious folks. And Jesus hammered back at them (Matthew chapter 23). Now if you’re a banker you may enjoy the parable of the lost coin (Luke 15:8-10).

— 600 Black Heifers —

AI’d with Angus bulls Final Answer 2 and Cedar Ridge (both calving ease)

The Heart of the Father by Pastor Diana Gonzalez

There is only one coin lost, but the heart of the Father is revealed as the woman takes The Light and searches carefully until what was lost is found. Jesus says in verse 10, “there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner who repents.” God’s heart is tender toward the sinner. If we were all perfect, Jesus wouldn’t have had to die on a cruel Roman cross. He came for the sinners. God sent His Son to die for us, the sinners (John 3:16). He loves us that much. If you were ever a jerk that liked to drink, gamble, run around and use people, you may or may not enjoy the parable of the prodigal son (Luke 15:11-32). Do you see the heart of The Father? The sins didn’t matter. What mattered was that the son came back to his senses (verse 17). He came back to The Father. We see the prodigal’s repentant heart in verse 21. We also see his brother’s self-righteous heart in verses 28-30. Don’t ever think that you have sinned beyond what Jesus’ Holy Blood can forgive. We can come to Jesus with all our filth, all our secret sins (He knows them anyway) and ask forgiveness in His Holy Name, and the Father will forgive gladly. So stir up things in heaven today. Jesus said in Luke 15:10, “there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner who repents.” NAS I John 1:5-10 NAS — This is the message we have heard from Him and announce to you, that God is Light, and in Him there is no darkness at all. If we say that we have fellowship with Him and yet walk in the darkness, we lie and do not practice the truth; but if we walk in the Light as He Himself is in the Light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus His Son cleanses us from all sin. If we say that we have no sin, we are deceiving ourselves and the truth is not in us. If we confess our sins, He is faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. If we say that we have not sinned, we make Him a liar and His word is not in us. Let’s not let the burden of sin weigh us down. Life is hard enough without carrying unnecessary grief with us. As we celebrate Father’s Day this year, let’s honor our heavenly Father by coming clean with Him and living godly, Christian lives. Then when the devil tries to bring up your past, tell him to shut up and get out! Scripture reading: Luke 16:19-31 Luke 18:9-17 Luke 21:1-4 Romans 7:14-8:1 Join us in Lovelock, NV every third Saturday of the month at 7:00 p.m. Across from the two stiffs on the main drag. Happy trails. May God richly bless you. We love you and would love to hear from you. If you would like someone to pray with, or just have a question, please give us a call at (775) 867-3100. ’Til next time….

Will ultrasound June 2nd. For sale immediately after.

You are invited to COWBOY CHURCH!

Are you having a Rodeo or Livestock event? Give us a call.

1st Saturday of every month Standish, CA @ 6:00 p.m. Hwy. 395 /A3 — Standish 4-H Hall

We would love to come to your event or ranch and host Cowboy Church for you.

Harmony Ranch Ministry 3767 Keyes Way  Fallon, NV 89406 

36 July / August 2013

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Tom J. Gonzalez Diana J. Gonzalez, Pastor 

(775) 867-3100 Cell (775) 426-1107

Common R eed


ello from the Humboldt Watershed Cooperative Weed Management Area! This month we would like to introduce you to another state listed noxious weed, Common reed or (Phragmites australis). Common reed is native to the every continent in the world except Antarctica. It is a perennial grass that can grow as tall as 20 feet. It has been called an ecosystem engineer because when it becomes established, it changes the entire ecology of a site including plant diversity, structure, soil properties, hydrology, habitats and other ecosystem processes and functions. Native Americans used the plants for food (roots and seeds), as well as other plant parts for medicine, spiritual ornaments, tools, boats, shelter construction, snares and weapons. The plant can provide habitat to terrestrial and aquatic wildlife in the form of food, cover, and nesting habitat, though only when it is not dominating large areas. There are 11 native variants in the US and 1 non-native extremely aggressive European variant that is the culprit of the current invasions occurring in the United States. The non-native variant was introduced in the U.S. at an Atlantic Ocean sea port in the 19th century when cargo ships threw their packing materials overboard in the harbor during cargo off-loading. The migration of this invader has been moving from the east coast to the west coast ever since. Closer to home, the 34,000 acres around the Great Salt Lake and associated wetlands are currently dominated by common reed, as well as isolated riparian areas and wetlands in eastern and southern Nevada. The reed forms such dense stands that its persistent shading excludes all competing vegetation, resulting in monotypic stands. It spreads locally through stolons (above ground) and rhizomes (underground) horizontal roots that can reach lengths of greater than 70 feet and grow up to 20 feet per year. Eighty percent of the biomass of the plant is located in the roots, so manipulating the upper part of the plant will have little impact on plant health. Two thousand seeds per reed are generally produced, though only a percentage of them are viable. Wind, water, human, and wildlife transportation of seeds are the regional vectors for the spread of the species. Seeds can germinate whether they have been floating or have been submerged in the water. Science indicates that grazing, mowing or haying can reduce population size and density. Control Methods: Grazing has to occur when the plants are younger and nutritious. Fire alone generally top kills the plant, which can then re-sprout in as little as 5 days after the burn. Lethal heat penetration into the soils to kill the roots is almost impossible to achieve given the moist soils in which they live, though burning when soils are dry can affect some additional kill if a peat-like fire is conducted. If this is the case, then residual native plant seeds will also be killed and post-fire planting of the site will be required. Re-spouts will generally be less dense and shorter following a burn, though recovery to pre-fire conditions will occur usually within 3 years. Once a fire occurs or a burn is conducted in a reed infested area, it will take at least a few years to carry fire in the same location due to lack of litter build up. To effectively control the plant, fire must be used in conjunction with other physical, mechanical, or chemical control methods. Flooding following fire causes significant mortality by drowning the roots. Burning should occur prior to the nesting season as migratory birds use the sites. Utah and Nevada are taking similar approaches to control, which includes an

herbicide treatment in mid-August through September (when flowering, but before the first frost) using aquatic formulations of glyphosate (3qt/ac.), imazapyr (being studied), and a surfactant (2qt/100gal.) was used aerially at 6 gallons per acre, combined with a follow-up prescribed burn at least two weeks after treatment. This generally reduces populations to a point where spot spraying can be implemented by gridding for areas missed by the aerial application. After that, monitoring the site and spot spraying every two to three years is reasonable for maintenance. Although the herbicides used are non-selective (kill all plants), it has been experienced that residual seeds from natives sprout following the removal of common reed and re-occupy the site. More about Utahâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s treatment plan can be found here: As always, please notify the HWCWMA if you see Common reed growing within the Humboldt River watershed. Our staff can provide the property owner or appropriate public agency with site-specific advice on how best to remove it. We have an opportunity to stop it from spreading if we act quickly. We map all known locations of regulated noxious weeds in order to help us and others locate new infestations in time to control them. The Humboldt Watershed CWMA has also developed a website to serve as a clearinghouse for information on weeds in the Humboldt Watershed. Our website (http://www. contains fact sheets for state listed noxious weeds in Nevada, Board of Directorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s information, funding partnerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s links, and many more features including a detailed project proposal packet that you can print, fill out and mail back to us at your convenience. We are looking to expand our project area outside of the Humboldt River and always welcome new funding opportunities and partnerships. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact Andi Porreca, HWCWMA Coordinator at (775) 762-2636 or email her at Or you may speak with Rhonda Heguy, HWCWMA President at (775) 738-3085, email: hwcwma@

NORTE TRAILERS Call Mitch, to get your Norte Horse Trailer! Mitch Goicoechea

775-224-0905 hounddogs2010.@hotmail

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July / August 2013 37

38 July / August 2013

The Progressive Rancher

The BLM Management Supports Wild Horses To Increase by 20% per Year by Becky Lisle

The recent release of a study by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has sparked health of free-ranging horse and burro populations, and, interestingly, suggests “intensiveeven more controversy in the already embattled BLM Wild Horse & Burro program. Titled ly managing individuals according to their genetic makeup,” and possibly moving animals “Using Science to Improve the BLM Wild Horse & Burro Program: A Way Forward,” the among herd management areas. The report goes on to recommend the surveillance and report lambasts the agency for its management practices. recording of diseases and genetic conditions that affect the population health. Commissioned by the BLM, the NAS report has been several years in the making, The committee found fault with the manner in which data is selected and interpreted and focuses on four key aspects of the Wild Horse & Burro program, including monitor- to be put into the computer program (WinEquus) that is used to simulate and predict the ing populations of horses and burros, estimating effects of management decisions. and managing population growth, maintaining In addition, the committee found that the BLM genetic diversity, and improving management and handbook regarding goals, allocation of forage, The study states that maintaining genetic transparency. and habitat considerations “lacks the specificity diversity of herds is key to the long-term health The 14-member NAS committee concludneeded to adequately guide managers on established that, while improvements have been made, ing and adjusting Appropriate Management Level of free-ranging horse and burro populations, and, the BLM’s population monitoring practices were (AML)s…does not provide sufficient detail on inconsistent and poorly documented. Lacking how to monitor rangeland conditions…(and) does interestingly, suggests “intensively managing standardized, consistent monitoring procedures, not clarify the important legal definitions such as population counts are “products of hundreds of “thriving natural ecological balance” related to individuals according to their genetic makeup, subjective, probably independent judgements and implementing and assessing management strategies assumptions by range personnel.” Reported populafor free-ranging horses and burros.” tion statistics are also based on the assumption that all animals are counted, and probably Further, the report recommends that “transparency, quality, and equity” are needed in underestimate the actual number of animals on the range, according to the report. the process of establishing AMLs, and that the public be able to not only access the data, While the methods of counting wild horses and burros are points of contention, the but understand the methods utilized. It states that “AML should be adaptable based on fact that populations grow 15 to 20% per year is not. Perhaps the most controversial finding environmental change, changes in social values, or the discovery of new information,” and of the study is that the BLM’s current management practices are actually facilitating high that an iterative, participatory process between the public and the BLM be developed for rates of population growth. Wild horse advocacy groups are applauding the NAS findings the decision-making process. that align with the idea that removals result in compensatory reproduction. Such groups More information and the full report are available through have fought for years fought for more hands-off management practices by the BLM, which would allow more horses to run free in their natural environment. The caveat is, of course, that the decreased removal of healthy equids from the range would result in increased suffering and starvation. The report states, “If population density were to increase to the point that there was not enough forage available, it could result in fewer pregnancies and lower young-to-female ratios and survival rates.” BLM spokesperson Tom Gorey responded by posing the question: “Do the American people and does Congress support changing the law so that BLM would carry out a IT’S YOUR LIVELIHOOD laissez-faire management policy that would subject horses and burros to mass starvation or dehydration by letting Mother Nature work her will?” Purchase livestock, machinery, real While the study seemingly supports the reduction or elimination of round-ups, the estate and more with our intermediate committee advocates the use of wide-spread chemical fertility control, which would of term loans. We’ll design a plan that’s course require the gathering of animals for administration of vaccines. (The patent for one right for you. such vaccine, a porcine zona pellucid (PZP) with the brand name ZonaStat-H, is owned by the Humane Society of the United States.) The cost of fertility control vaccine is substantial, and thus far, there is no permanently effective single-dose method. The study states that maintaining genetic diversity of herds is key to the long-term


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The ProgressiveAAC_ProgRanchr_cattlefinancing_4.8x5.425_bw.indd Rancher


1/22/2013 12:34:24 PM July / August 2013 39

it’s in the bone Jake Telford on Nabisco Roan (full brother to Frettin)

Boonlight Dancer x Crackin

2007 Red Roan Stallion

Van Norman and friends Production Sale Adds New Features

Van Norman and friends Production Sale which has grown into one of the most reputable horse sales in the west will add another dimension to the already stellar program with the addition of their Pre-Catalog Timed Internet Sale on www.horseauctionslive. com. Beginning on Monday, July 15 and running through Wednesday July 24, prospective buyers will have the opportunity to place their bids online very similarly to the format of a silent auction. Approximately 30 head of horses will be offered from Van Norman Quarter Horses and Van Norman Ranches as well as one or two from Matt Mori and Linda Bunch. Broodmares, weanlings, started two-year olds, one riding horse, and one stallion will be available for viewing online beginning approximately June 20 at Prospective buyers must preregister with This is a very userfriendly process with great tech support if needed. Previous users need not re-register. For additional information contact Linda Bunch at 775-756-6508 or 775934-7404 or For information on specific horses contact Ty Van Norman at 775-756-6584 or 775-397-2132 or This is not a substitute for the 17th Annual Van Norman and friends Production Sale which will be held at the Elko County Fairgrounds September 14, 2013 and will feature 95 head of weanlings, yearlings, two-year olds and started horses as in the past. Another addition to the Van Norman Sale weekend in September at the Elko County Fairgrounds will be a low stress cattle handling clinic presented by noted clinician Martin Black of Bruneau, Idaho. It will take place in the arena beginning at 6:00 pm on Saturday, September 14. Admission is free to the public. Local ranchers and cowboys are invited to participate with a limit of 12 due to time constraints. For information contact Linda Bunch.

Fret’s First Foals

Zollinger Quarter Horse Ranch 25th Annual Production Sale


Saturday, September 14, 2013 • 10:30 AM at the Ranch 1994

with Cory Shelman

S 100 E, Oakley, ID 83346

standing to a limited number of mares

PRIVATE TREATY Linda Bunch Tuscarora, NV

40 July / August 2013


The Progressive Rancher

Watch Them Compete. Be Amazed.


Saddle-Trained Wild Horse Adoption Western States Wild Horse and Burro Expo: August 2-4, 2013 Douglas County Fairgrounds in Gardnerville, Nevada Watch 10 horses and 1 burro with up to 120 days of intensive training by the Northern Nevada Correctional Center Saddle Horse Training Program compete on Friday and Saturday, and bid at the adoption on Saturday to take one home!

Com es ee Mo the U un . ted S. Ma Col rine Co rps or G uard !

View info about the event and available horses and burro at:

Directions from Reno: Travel south on US-395 through Carson City. Take the Fairview Drive exit and turn right onto Fairview Drive. Take a left onto US-395/Carson Street, and go through Minden and into Gardnerville past the Carson Valley Inn. At the 7-11 at Pinenut/Riverview Road, make a left onto Pinenut Road, then right onto Dump Road and follow the signs for the fairgrounds.

Training competition sponsored by:

Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t miss the amazing clinics and shop the great vendors!

The Progressive Rancher

July / August 2013 41


attle are driven by nutrition, comfort, and safety, they are simple minded and often mis-understood.

Low Stress Stockmanship

If we can see things from their perspective, it can give us a better understanding of their mental process and response to situations. — Martin Black


Martin Black — Presents —

Low Stress Stockmanship on Horseback Clinic Saturday, September 14 Immediately following the Van Norman and friends Production Sale — Auction begins at 1:00 p.m. —

lot of times people have trouble understanding cattle because the cattle are so simple-minded. Their decisions are made for comfort, nutrition, or survival reasons. Unlike people cattle are not driven by greed or humiliation, and they don’t care who looks better or what others think about them. The more we can understand things from the cow’s perspective, the better we can anticipate what they are going to do when working with them. For example, from the time a calf is young, other cattle will head butt them to discipline them. So they get real keen about reading aggression towards them when another animal’s head is pointed towards them. This is why people can have trouble working cattle from a horse. People don’t realize how easy it is for us to show aggression in our movement, and we are sometimes incognizant as to how the cattle see our body language. Too often while we are working from a horse, our movement is forward as we are looking at the cow in front of us. The cow notices our horse’s head pointed toward them, and if any aggressive movement toward the cow is felt, it is taken as a threat and their survival instincts can take over. I like to use the shotgun analogy to help people understand how the cow feels. The story goes like this: Let’s say you are in a rural area in a local café during hunting season. A man carrying a shotgun walks in with some of his buddies. They are all relaxed just talking to each other and sit down at a table. The man stands the shotgun up against the wall behind them. You may not see him as a threat, but you might keep your attention on him. If he had laid it on the table pointed in your direction, you may keep a little more attention on him. Now let’s say that he had his hand on the trigger, and it was resting over his arm pointed at you, and he had eye contact with you, that would give you a whole different feeling. He may not intend anything by this, but you’re not sure what he is thinking, and you feel like you are in a very vulnerable position that could be life-threatening. As long as the shotgun was pointed away from you, and there wasn’t any attention on you, you could be more at ease, but as the shotgun was pointed at you and you could tell his attention was focused on you, that gave you a whole different sensation. So if you think about the shotgun analogy as you’re working cattle from a horse, it may give you a better idea of why cattle respond the way they do. The cow is only reacting based on its previous experience with other four-legged animals coming toward them. When they see a suspicious looking four-legged animal much taller with something on its back possibly making noise, this only raises their suspicion even more. Understanding this concept can help us understand things from the cow’s perspective. If we can move in a more submissive way like backing our horse away from the cow as we turn, or moving toward the cow with the side of the horse or even the rump of the horse instead of the horse’s head, we can be a lot less threatening to the cow.

Elko County Fairgrounds • Elko, Nevada Don’t Miss Our VIDEO Extras

Cost per participant: $50 • Free to Spectators

The Progressive Rancher is happ to provide video advertising and documentaries on our website.

For more information and to enter contact Linda Bunch:

Stop by to learn about:

775-756-6508 or

Van Norman & friends Production Sale and Rhoads Ranch

Brought to you by

The Progressive Rancher Call for information 1-208-733-1828

42 July / August 2013

The Progressive Rancher

Financial Focus Presented by Sonny Davidson and Jason Land, Financial Advisors, Edward Jones in Elko, Nevada 2213 North 5th Street, Suite A | 775-738-8811

How Can Younger Investors Cope with Tough Times?


s Americans, we’re used to thinking that we will inevitably do better than our parents’ generation. But, for now at least, this type of progress may be facing some roadblocks — and this inability to gain ground, financially, can have real implications for today’s younger people and their approach to investing. Before we get to the investment component, though, let’s quickly review the nature of the problem. In a nutshell, younger Americans — those in their twenties and thirties — have accrued significantly less wealth than their parents did at the same age, according to a recent study by the Urban Institute. Here’s why: • Bursting of housing “bubble” — Many younger people who bought houses shortly before the housing “bubble” began deflating in 2006 now find themselves to be “underwater” on their mortgages — that is, they owe more than their houses are worth. Consequently, they have less opportunity to build home equity — which has been an important means of building wealth for past generations. • Student-loan debt — The median balance among all households with student loan debt is now more than $13,000, according to the Pew Research Center — and debt levels are much higher for recent graduates. It can take years to pay off these debts — and the money being used for debt payments is money that can’t go toward building wealth for long-term goals. • Wage stagnation — For several years, the job market has been pretty bad for younger workers. And even those with jobs aren’t making much headway, because wages, adjusted for inflation, have largely stagnated for over a decade. Less income clearly equates to less opportunities for investing and creating wealth.

this group, what can you do? For starters, pay yourself first. Set up an automatic payment each month from your checking or savings account into an investment vehicle, such as an IRA. At first, you may only be able to afford small sums — but, over time, you may be pleasantly surprised at the amount you’ve saved. Next, every time your salary goes up, try to increase the amount you put into your 401(k) or other employer-sponsored retirement plan. Because you typically contribute pretax dollars to your 401(k) or other plan, the more you put in, the lower your taxable income. Plus, your money can grow on a tax-deferred basis. Here’s another suggestion: Don’t be “over-cautious” with your investments. Many younger investors, apparently nervous due to market volatility of recent years, have become quite conservative, putting relatively large amounts of their portfolio into vehicles that offer significant protection of principal but little in the way of growth potential. Of course, the financial markets will always fluctuate, and downturns will occur — but when you’re young, and you have many decades in which to invest, you have time to overcome shortterm declines. To achieve your long-term goals, such as a comfortable retirement, you will unquestionably need some growth elements in your portfolio, with the exact amount based on your risk tolerance and specific objectives. These aren’t the easiest times for young people. Nonetheless, with diligence, perseverance and a measure of sacrifice, you can gain some control over your financial fortunes — so look for your opportunities. This article was written by Edward Jones for use by your local Edward Jones Financial Advisor.

Still, even given these somewhat grim realities, younger people can help themselves build resources for the future and make progress toward their long-term goals. If you’re in

Sixty-Eight Cents a Week Creates More Than $100 Million of Economic Growth in Nevada Buying local food helps to stimulate the state economy Sparks, NV- Nevada’s three million people will spend approximately $10.3 billion on food this year. By shifting one percent of what is normally spent on food to purchases from farmers market, restaurants, that serve locally grown products, and the locally grown food section of grocery stores, Nevadans can put $103 million back into their economy. According to United States Census data, the average per capita disposable income each year in Nevada is $33,536. If every Nevadan spends $37.89 a year on local agriculture purchases, more than $100 million will stay within Nevada’s economy. This spending amounts to only 68 cents each week. In addition to putting money back into the state, Nevadans’ contribution can also create more than 1,000 new jobs (based off of figures used in the 2008 Civic Economics study for Michigan). The Nevada Department of Agriculture (NDA) and NevadaGrown, a local non-profit organization, support local food purchases for their economic and health benefits. “Most people support efforts that stimulate our state economy and purchasing local food is an easy way to accomplish that,” said Jeff Sutich, International Marketing coordinator for the NDA. “Aside from the economic benefits, the taste and health benefits associated with eating food locally grown or raised in Nevada merit the shift of 68 cents a week from non-local food purchases to locally grown ones.” To learn more about the benefits of local food as well as locations of farmers markets and restaurants, which purchase locally grown food, visit

Clover Valley Farm: 243 Acres with 160 acres with underground water rights, two irrigation wells, a stock well and a good domestic well. Large modern home with detached 5 car garage, 4000 and 5000 sq. ft metal buildings and greenhouse. All for only $500,000. Tent Mountain Ranch: Approx. 3500 deed acres in Starr Valley. Nice larger home on paved road plus mountain cabin. Great summer range with water from numerous creeks and seeps. This ranch is made of up of over 20 separate parcels if a buyer were more interested in Investment property vs. Agricultural property. Over 135 acres with surface water rights. Price $3.7 million based on recent appraisal. Indian Creek Ranch: 126 acre Homestead with large Spring and at the foot of the Cherry Creek Range in White Pine County. Certificated and permitted water rights on the spring for 60 acres. Price reduced to $275,000.

Elko Co. 10,706 deeded with BLM grazing permit: These private sections are in the checkerboard area and are intermingled with public lands. The ranch has historically been a Spring Sheep range. The BLM permit is only 29% public lands. Price includes 50% of the mineral rights on all but 320 acres. Price:$130/acre. Or $1,392,000. Considering adding the property below to it to make a year around unit. Elko Co. Humboldt River Property: 650 acres located between the Ryndon and Osino Exits on I-80. This property has over 300 acres of surface water rights out of the Humboldt River. The BLM permit for the 10,706 acres above is a short distance from this property with a stock driveway on this property. Price: $1.2 million. Steptoe Valley Farm: 1000+ acres with 6 wells and 5 center pivots. Approx. 700 acres with permits and approx. 600 acres in production. Nice manufactured home. Take advantage of the good hay market! Price: $2,750,000.

For additional information on these properties go to: BOTTARIREALTY.COM

We need more Ranch and Farm listings!

Paul D. Bottari, Broker

Work: 775-752-3040

1222 6th St., P.O. Box 368 Wells, NV 89835

The Progressive Rancher

Home: 775-752-3809 • Fax: 775-752-3021 July / August 2013 43

PRSRT STD U.S. POSTAGE PAID Permit # 3280 Salt Lake City, UT

17th Annual

PRODUCTION SALE 13 0 2 , 4 1 – 3 1 r e b m e t p e S tember 13 Challenge Friday, Sep Van Norman Stockhorse 9:00 5:00

Rodeo J.M. Capriola

ptember 14 kfast e S , y a d r tu rea Sa Buckaroo B 7:00 8:00 1:00

dle s under sad e rs o h f o w Previe Auction

presents artin Black M — E L A S ING THE back Clinic e LY FOLLOW rs o H n o IMMEDIATE anship

Stockm Low Stress


n ds u o r g r i a F County a da Elko, Nev

Pre-Catalog Internet Sale

On-line bidding dates: July 15-24 View horses on-line beginning June 25

Live Webcast of Preview and Sale by Absentee bidding via phone and internet

ww nn or ma ns ale .co m Visit us on Facebook Linda Bunch 775-756-6508 • 44 July / August 2013

The Progressive Rancher

The Progressive Rancher | July-August 2013  

This issue includes a variety of topics of interest to the livestock and agricultural industry.

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