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In this Issue... Nevada Cattlemen’s Assn.......... pgs. 3-4

BLM News................................... pg. 23

Cow Camp Chatter, ....................... pg. 5

How to Research Land & Water for Proof of Vested Water Right Claims.pgs. 24-25

Eye on the Outside......................... pg. 6 Progressive Rancher Persons of the Year......................... pg. 7 Bobcat Angus Ranch Sale Report.. pg. 8 Fumes from the Farm................... pg. 11 Look Up: Acts of Unity................. pg. 12 Horse Snorts & Cow Bawls ........ pg. 13 Control or Eradication of BVD from a Beef Herd................... pgs. 14-15 Beef Checkoff News.................... pg. 15

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Debt For Nature – Financing American Endangered Species On Foreign Soil ................................. pg. 16 Member SIPC

Restoring Rangeland Following Catastrophic Wildfire............. pgs. 20-21

Hage vs US – A Historical Perspective Timeline................................. pgs. 24-25 NEPA Information........................ pg. 26 Grass Hay Meadow Fertilization: Yes or No?.................................... pg. 28 Coloring Page............................... pg. 29 Management of Native Hay Meadows After Herbicide Treatment for Noxious Weeds..................................... pgs. 30-31 Equine Podiatry: A Glossary of Therapeutic Farriery Terms.. pgs. 34-36 Poem: Under the Hunter Moon.... pg. 38 Pearls from the Past: Great Grandma Maggie’s Story-Growing Up on the Diamond A.................................... pg. 39

The Progressive Rancher Owner/Editor/Publisher - Leana Stitzel progressiverancher@elko.net

Graphic Design/Layout/Production - Julie Eardley julie@jeprographics.com

Cover Photo: Anderson Cows, by Leana Stitzel Artistic Composition: Julie Eardley

Wishing All a Healthy and Prosperous Year!

Mailed to more than 6,000 individuals with approved addresses each month. The Progressive Rancher is published monthly. The views and opinions expressed by writers of articles appearing in this publication are not necessarily those of the editor. Letters of opinion are welcomed by The Progressive Rancher. Rates for advertising are available upon request. Advertising in The Progressive Rancher does not necessarily imply editorial endorsement. Liability for any errors or omissions in advertisements shall not exceed the cost of the space occupied by the error or omission. The Progressive Rancher is free to people working and active in the livestock industry. The Progressive Rancher is donated to the agricultural industry. If you are not currently receiving this magazine on a regular basis, and would like to be a part of The Progressive Rancher family, contact us by e-mail at progressiverancher@elko.net, today, so we can include you on our mailing list. If you have moved or changed addresses, please notify us, by e-mail, so we can keep you informed. All requests for the magazine must be made by e-mail.

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2 January 2013

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able, and decisions are made based upon this. Those permit owners who actually have science-based data to contest the decisions of the management agencies are better able to protect their interests. As cuts are proposed based upon drought and utilization, operations must have data that shows the true conditions of the resource. Let’s not look at the world through rose-colored glasses either. We all know that there are going to be good years and bad years. The goal of all permit holders is to show an upward trend in rangeland health. Just like the highs and lows of the stock market, we will have good and bad. The desired result is a graph that shows the upward from trend over years and decades. With the momentum of the environmental groups building, they are now making frequent phone calls to agency directors to accompany their photos and data submissions. When the time for litigation comes, and it is coming, the evidence table against livestock grazing will be filled with photos and testimonials of people who ruined their sandals by stepping in fertilizer near a water source. If we are to have any chance of pushing back and winning a court case that protects our industry, we must start now by flooding the agencies with data and photos of our own. I hear the sighs and groans from across the state as you read this. “They aren’t going to listen to us”, “they won’t use our data”, etc. I make the argument that data and photos sent to agency heads that are also sent to lawmakers, state agencies, and industry associations will have to be dealt with. Just as the environmental groups recommend alternatives in their comment letters that must to be dealt with, our data must be taken into consideration. Even individuals who don’t respect or care for our way of life and our industry must recognize and consider our data. I have said it time and time again over the last year. We must be prepared to help ourselves and fight back. If it isn’t clear to everyone that we don’t have the support of the agencies, you are looking through rose-colored glasses. It isn’t about playing defense and trying to hold what we have. It is about going on the offensive. I was asked recently, “What can livestock operators live with? Where can we agree to cut to and be ok?” My answer was candid and honest. “We have passed that point long ago, and we will not accept more cuts without a fight. If you need to know where we need to be to do the right thing, we need to back up several years.” I was then told that I shouldn’t have to wake up each morning and start worrying about how to play defense for the day. I responded with, “I don’t need to wake up to do that. You need to spend a night in my head”. Many of us are feeling the pressures of increased regulations, proposed permit reductions, fire closures, and the uncertainty of what the agencies will do next. We are in this together and this association is standing with you. Please remember that no matter how tough the battle gets, we have our families and friends. We are fortunate enough to live in a country that we can still push back and fight. As we enter 2013, I pledge to you that I will work harder to defend our industry and to represent all of you. I ask that you make a resolution to do the same. Please collect data and share the data you have. Call the Nevada Cattlemen’s Association office at 775738-9214 or email us at nca@nevadabeef.org and we will assist you in sharing your information.

BLM Approves SNWA Water Pipeline Project, see page 23. Complete information along with the Record of Decision (ROD): Clark, Lincoln, and White Pine Counties Groundwater Development Project Decision to Grant a Right-of-Way to the Southern Nevada Water Authority, can be found on the internet at www.blm.gov/5w5c and http://www.blm.gov/nv/st/en/prog/planning/groundwater_projects/snwa_groundwater_project/record_of_decision.html

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The Progressive Rancher

UPDATE UPDATE

uring a recent meeting with federal agency directors in Reno, it became even more apparent to me that the livestock industry is the largest targets in the war on public land use. The new war to save the Sage Hen has given critics of grazing new found ammunition. Those of us engaged in the daily management of resources truly understand the connection between healthy natural resources and balanced multiple uses. We rely almost exclusively upon the health and resilience of rangelands, both private and federal, during the spring and summer months to sustain our way of life. We are not allowed the flexibility of our management decisions not affecting our pay checks. By this I mean we are truly financially tied to the decisions we make based upon range management. Our pay checks will not continue to come if the range burns, if it is inappropriately grazed and cannot sustain our livestock, or if we are removed for the sake of winning litigation. The primary, and therefore most crucial to address, threats against the Greater Sage Grouse in our area are fire and invasive plant species. We all know that cheat grass follows fire if there is a nidus for its spread anywhere near the fire disturbance. We all realize that grazing is KEY to eliminating fuels and preventing large catastrophic fires. Proper livestock grazing is the most cost effective means of reducing fuel load and especially reducing cheat grass. So why am I going down this same trail? “We” the men and women who rely upon our lands to provide for us, “we” the providers of water, “we” the true managers of the land are not being listened to. The digital age of cell phone cameras and email has greatly aided federal agencies in their quest for data against livestock. Daily emails by radical environmental groups are sent to federal agency decision makers. These emails contain pictures of atrocities against the land. Livestock trails to water, disturbed soils near water sources, cheat grass around water sources and extending into surrounding areas, are examples of these so called atrocities. So what? We all are aware that these groups cherry pick areas. We are all aware of areas on our own ranches that show trails to water, show dirt next to water sources. This is a natural occurrence with grazing. The problem is that these are the only photos looked at daily by agency heads. The countless articles and research papers that cite the need to remove all livestock to save the west are read like scripture. We must, as the users of the land, provide our own data to defend grazing. Will it be used in an effective manner immediately? Maybe, maybe not, but one thing is for certain. It won’t be used if it stays in your phone, your camera, or in your file at home. The push for cooperative monitoring is not something new. The BLM in particular has been asking for cooperative monitoring agreements for years. Unfortunately, many of these are still not approved or met with so much skepticism from the livestock industry, that we are not seeing a positive result. We all know that the federal land management agencies have extreme difficulty in getting on the ground and doing actual monitoring. This has been blamed on everything from budget cuts, to litigation, to endangered species. The result is that they rely heavily upon under-trained part time interns and staff that often provide subjective “data”. This “data” becomes the best avail-

J.J.

G oicoechea DVM

Nevada Cattlemen’s Association President January 2013 3


Nevada Cattlemen’s Association By Desiree Seal, Nevada Cattlemen’s Association Executive Director

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or anything you would like the Association to address, please let year ago, I started working for Nevada Cattlemen’s, me know. and what a year it has been. I’ve learned a lot in that “I cannot stress enough to you Well, I hope you all read last month’s article and learned year. Politics, well, they aren’t all that easy to stomach somehow important it is to educate what we have changed within each committee. This past month times. Trying to solve an issue takes more time than I usually has been a whirlwind of coordinating with each party recognized think it will. Networking may require a phone call at 6 a.m. or yourself on the NEPA process within renewed and new resolutions. As we approach legislative on the Bluetooth traveling to another family function. Most of session, we have been reviewing bill draft requests (BDRs) that all, this is a great Association to work for and thank you to all and especially, how a drought will affect the cattle industry. Public lands issues are still plentithe members for making my job worth it! I’ve learned a lot and EA will affect your operation.” ful. As such, a concern of the Association is the drought EAs that even with the challenges we face as a ranching industry, when have been ordered to be issued in each BLM District. I think it is we do solve an issue and it makes our members’ businesses See NEPA information on page 26. important for public lands ranchers to understand, as much as this run that much smoother, can’t help but put a smile on my face is being presented as beneficial to you, there are many issues to be and make me really appreciate working for this industry. And thank you to the leadership of this Association for all the support and mentorship. addressed. First concern, they are being completed on a blanket approach not case by case. They fight for you day in and day out and knowing that they have done it for years; I We all have seen the opposition to the first drought EA and the other EAs being produced will follow the same “one size fits all” approach. Secondly, these EAs DO NOT address know I can manage just fine. So here’s to a great year and many more! Cheers! For those of you that have received your dues notices, you are aware that dues have specific situations that occur during a drought. For example, a temporary water haul may increased. The cost of business continues to increase, for you and for the Association. The still need further assessment and a decision before implementation. The drought EA is Association usually hosts an annual fundraiser and has chosen instead to raise dues to simply an assessment. And, many of the Battle Mtn. permittees can explain to you how a meet our bottom line. Rest assured, we have increased dues, but, we have also increased “decision” is being pitched to permittees. We are working on this issue and will continue opportunities available to you. NCA will be teaming up with affiliates and allied members to, but I cannot stress enough to you how important it is to educate yourself on the NEPA to provide educational seminars to our members throughout the year. We have revamped process and especially, how a drought EA will affect your operation. Furthermore on public lands issues, while we all thought we hurried up to wait on the the newsletter to provide more information at a lower cost allowing for funds to be distributed bettering other areas of the Association. Satisfying our memberships’ needs is top sage grouse issue, things are slowly but surely moving along. The Governor and his cabiof our list. If there is something you would like to see being done within the Association net are working to get the Sage Grouse Advisory Council members appointed and hiring members of the Technical Team as established by Executive Order 2012-09. January should bring more developments to the State’s sage grouse plan. For more information, please check out the official website of the Governor’s Sage Grouse http://sagegrouse.nv.gov/ . More for Association news, the Fallon All Breeds Bull Sale will be another full sale. Consignments brought quality, range ready bulls from Hereford, Red Angus, Limousin and Angus. Aside from our traditional bull sale, this past month brought the 9th Annual Silver State Classic Special Calf and Yearling Sale. This year’s sale was a full sale and was held December 8th at Fallon Livestock Exchange. This sale not only provides great calves and yearlings, a portion of the sale proceeds support the Nevada Cattlemen’s Association. Finally, we continue to wait for Congress to pass a Farm Bill and, as we would like to see, the repeal of the Estate Tax. News, news and more news. As you can see, we have been LEATHER: so busy; I can barely fit everything into one article. Stay tuned next month for more updates. If you are not currently a member of Nevada Cattlemen’s Association, we encourage • Outlasts Fabric Four-To-One you to join. Become part of an Association that is working to protect the future of ranching in Nevada. To learn more about the Association or to become a member, please call the • Offers Year Round Comfort office at 1-775-738-9214 or visit our webpage www.nevadacattlemen.org. We look forward to hearing from you! If you are currently a member, thank you for your continued support. • Is Extremely Durable Without your membership, the Association’s voice could not be as strong as it is today.

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COW CAMP

Chatter

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any of the conversations those of us in the cattle business have around the branding fire or over the hood of a truck often center around the behavior and internal workings of the bovine. When something out of the ordinary happens to spark our curiosity we may question if there actually might be a possible explanation. Consider the following thought provoking cow tales some of which have been substantiated by research. ◆◆ Nearly every cow person at one time or another has questioned why some cows will eat the afterbirth after they’ve calved (placentophagia). One theory is that they eat it for bonding purposes. This may be true but then again there are a large percentage of cows that bond with their calves without eating the afterbirth. Some believe they eat it out of hunger or because they crave specific nutrients postpartum that are contained in the placenta. With that said, there are many well-fed cows that eat the afterbirth who have been and remain on a nutritionally sound feed program. The most probable theory for placentophagia is the cow’s natural instinct for predator avoidance – hiding her newborn calf from predators such as coyotes and wolves. Regardless of the reason there have been isolated cases where cows have choked and died from eating the placenta. This is especially true with first calf heifers who are inexperienced with the calving process. Because of this it helps if cattle producers remove the placenta from the calving area when possible. ◆◆ Occasionally a cow will give birth to a freemartin, a sterile female calf that is twinborn with a male. Why did they start calling these calves freemartins? Folklore dating back to the mid-1600’s claims that when European farmers had a set of male/female twin calves they would donate the sterile heifer to the annual St. Martin celebration. They knew from past experience that these females were generally infertile and of no use for breeding. For this reason they would donate the heifer to be slaughtered and consumed during the festivities. The free heifers donated to St. Martin became known as freemartins. Incidentally it has been scientifically proven that a freemartin heifer is sterile 92% of the time as a result of exposure to masculinizing hormones produced by the male calf while in the womb. Freemartins develop physically like castrated males and are used for beef in the same way. ◆◆ Have you ever wondered if the sex of a calf has an influence on how quickly a cow will rebreed? Research by Cow Tek Inc. utilized data collected from seven major beef

COW TALES

breeding associations representing more than 400,000 young cows. Their research was specifically designed to evaluate calving intervals in beef cows through age five. Cow Tex Inc. found that “ females weaning steer calves exhibit significantly shorter calving intervals compared to those with either bull or heifer calves at side, possibly due to an interruption in normal suckling patterns brought about by castration. It seems logical that castration could be similar to short-term calf removal in terms of its impact on the postpartum cow.” Cow Tek Inc. confirmed that young cows raising bull calves take a day or two longer to breed back compared to similar-age cows nursing heifer calves. This extended postpartum interval is possibly due to bull calves suckling their dams more aggressively. ◆◆ Does shipping bred cows affect pregnancy retention? Colorado State University researchers artificially inseminated cows over a three-day period and randomly allotted them to one of three shipment groups. One-third were shipped at less than12 days after insemination. One-third were shipped after 12 days and one-third were shipped after 30 days of insemination. A depression in fertility was realized in the group that was shipped between 12 and 30 days after insemination. Researchers theorized that the reason for reduced problems for those cattle bred less than 12 days of shipping dealt with maternal recognition of pregnancy. Maternal recognition of pregnancy occurs at approximately 12 days. Their reasoning for reduced problems with shipping at over 30 days of pregnancy dealt with implantation of the fetus to the uterine wall. Implantation of the embryo to the uterine wall occurs at 30 days. Bottom line, the best time to ship after a breeding program is at less than 12 days of pregnancy or more than 30 days. ◆◆ Are hair whorls – the spiral of hair that forms on the forehead of cattle –a sign of fertility and/or temperament? Research by Colorado State University looked at the location of hair whorls and found that the configuration of the whorl is an indication of a bull’s fertility. Bulls with a round epicenter had a significantly higher percentage of normal sperm than bulls with an elongated, straight-line hair whorl pattern. Research also showed that cattle with a whorl above the eyes are more excitable than those that have a whorl below the eyes. ◆◆ Does color influence the performance of cattle? Texas A & M evaluated factors that might enhance feedlot gain. They looked at various colors of pens and feed bunks to see how color affected feed consumption. Results published in the Texas A&M Beef Cattle Short Course Proceedings showed that the color tan had the biggest influence. Cattle were more relaxed and calm. They also ate more and performance was enhanced. Does this subject require further research? ◆◆ It’s been said that cattle facing north or south when grazing or resting are reacting to the planet’s magnetic influence when doing so. It’s an interesting theory but sometimes good old-fashioned common sense is the only explanation when you hear or see something out of the ordinary. That’s enough for this month. A special thanks to my wife Jackie for her part in writing Cow Camp Chatter. As always, if you would like to discuss this article or simply want to talk cows, do not hesitate to contact me at 775-385-7665 or rtbulls@frontier.com.

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The Progressive Rancher

January 2013 5


By Joe Guild

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hope all of the readers of this publication had wonderful Christmas and you will have a prosperous and wet 2013. This winter is shaping up to have much more moisture than we had in 2012. Some of the storms hitting the west coast are actually making it across Nevada and depositing some snow on the higher peaks. More needs to be done to make up for the terribly dry year we had this year, but I think we are seeing a good start. Traditionally, as many of you know who have lived here your whole lives as I have, December is not that wet a month anyway, with most of our winter storms coming in January, February and March. These are the kind of storms we hope for and wish for all year long, because without them, ranges suffer for lack of moisture and hay crops do not get grown to help our livestock winter in good condition. What about the storms we do not wish for and which we dread? Recently there was a small article in the Reno paper which got me thinking and caused me to do some more research. In that article, it was reported the Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack, the former Democratic Governor of Iowa, and a farmer himself, said some truthful, but disturbing things about the industry he represents in the Obama administration. A little over a month after the election, Vilsack gave a speech to some leaders from across the farm belt. The forum at which he spoke was sponsored by the Farm Journal. So, the audience and message were pre-ordained, as it were to have some resonance, and yet, other than the small article I mentioned, I haven’t seen anything else about the speech. What Vilsack said should disturb anyone with any ties whatsoever to production agriculture. “Why is it that we don’t have a Farm Bill?” said Vilsack. “It isn’t just the differences in policy. It’s the fact that rural America with a shrinking population is becoming less and less relevant to the politics of this country and we had better recognize that and we better begin to reverse it.” It is well-known; particularly in the affected places, that almost half of the nation’s rural counties have lost population recently and that there is more poverty in rural areas than in cities. Furthermore, and perhaps even more important than these facts, at least for the short term, rural voters only accounted for about 14% of the turnout in the last election. Irrelevant? It certainly appears so to me, if we are only talking about the relevance of political clout. Let’s discuss other kinds of relevance below. So how should people in agriculture react to the news they are increasingly irrelevant; and this from the one person who should champion agriculture and the entire nation’s farmers and ranchers do to create real wealth and feed and clothe the rest of the population? Well I, for one, am more than a little put off

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by the Secretary’s assertion. How do you make yourself relevant if you are a small part of the political population? Last time I checked agriculture has something no other sector of our society has. It is something every human being needs at least every week or so. It is something even politicians need and cannot create. Are most of you irrelevant folks close to an answer yet? Food!!!! Here’s a tip on how to make yourself real relevant, real fast. Everyone in the production chain of agriculture withhold the distribution of what you raise, grow, process, deliver or sell for just one day and see how quickly the shoppers at your local super market or convenience store understand your relevance. See how quickly your local politician stops taking you and what you do for granted and understands your relevance. As a society, we have learned to take agriculture for granted, while knowing less and less about agriculture with each succeeding generation. Now obviously, it would be nearly impossible to shut down the agricultural pipeline with all its various branches and feeder lines to try and make the point about relevance above. However, there is a way to become more relevant in the eyes of the public and the policy decision makers. The Secretary, in his speech, recognized the problem. That is the first step in solving a problem. I do not believe he was being critical in his speech. I think he was sounding the warning bell. The last election and the failure of Congress to pass a farm bill in an election year are indicators or symptoms, which if not corrected, will spell an even greater danger for the agricultural sector as time moves each of our fellow citizens further and further away from the rural roots many of them may not even know they have. Reversing the trend of agriculture becoming less and less relevant is a more difficult proposition. Trade and industry associations are important vehicles to disseminate information to others outside an industry about that industry’s relevance to their daily lives. People in small town and rural America know how important their local industries are including agriculture because there are so few industries and the jobs they create are held dear in places where there are few good paying jobs. The people involved in agriculture are the best ambassadors and tell the most credible and honest story about the industry. Unfortunately, the ones most qualified to talk are usually the hardest working and have the least amount of time to devote to getting the word out. The word must get out though and thus, it is left to those with the least amount of time, as it always is, to tell the story. There must be a renewed pledge to participate and a new challenge to add one more task to the endless list however, if agriculture is to re gain its importance and relevance in the political arena and in the public opinion arena. Without everyone shouldering a bit of the burden, the relevance gap will widen and people such as Secretary Vilsack are going to find it more and more difficult to tell the good news story about American agriculture all by themselves. Another aspect of this story which occurred to me is, if the Secretary is right, where does agriculture fit on the list of administration priorities as we begin another four years with the re-elected President. Obviously, the current Agricultural Secretary is concerned about the decline in political relevance, but will he stay for another four years, and if he doesn’t, who will be taking his place. Will it be someone with the same concern, or will it be a person with more focus on social rather than agricultural programs. After all, to use the Farm Bill as an example, the 2012 fight wasn’t over how to provide more drought assistance, crop insurance or EQUIP programs; it was over the 80% plus money in the Farm Bill devoted to food stamps. So where are we? I have said this before; if the people in agriculture do not tell the great story about how they provide the safest, most inexpensive on a per capita basis and most abundant food supply to America’s citizens in the world, no one is going to tell the story for them. So it is up to us to join the associations, put up the money for messaging and reach out to others who are not in agriculture and tell the good story. We must continue to fight to be relevant in all the areas of our society, including the political arena, because without food people are relevantly dead. I’ll see you soon.

The Progressive Rancher

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R anchi

Upcoming Sales

ng Industry of Neva d a

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he ranching industry of Nevada is multi-generational, historical, traditional, economically supports itself and surrounding areas as well as helps to feed and clothe the U.S. and the world. Our industry achieves this by having the will of iron and the self-sufficient attitude of the original settlers who arrived to stake their homesteads decades ago. We start our education the moment we can listen to our parents, grandparents and hired help sharing the day’s work plan at the breakfast table, and we should have received our doctorate in common sense by the age of thirty as that is the length of time we’ve been in “school.” Our books are in our DNA and our knowledge is for all to see in well-managed land and the livestock it sustains! Without that dedicated stewardship of our land, we would not still be here. And we will still be here! Regardless! Thank you! Leana Stitzel

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Friday, January 4th Internet Video Sale at Shasta Livestock Cottonwood, CA Consignment Deadline: Thursday, December 27th

Thursday, January 24th Video Sale in conjunction with the Red Bluff Replacement Female Sale Red Bluff, CA WATCH & LISTEN TO THE SALE on the Web at:

The Progressive Rancher

January 2013 7


8th Production Sale By Alan Sears, Field Editor

Bryan & Ernie Ratzburg, Galata, MT and John Goggins, Billings, MT Monday, Nov 19, 2012 Western Livestock Auction, Great Falls, MT Auctioneer: Joe Goggins, Billings, MT 39 Coming Two-Year-Old Bulls Ave $4,231 44 Fall Yearling Bulls Ave $4,028 55 Bull Calves Ave $3,318 138 Angus Bulls Ave $3,803 25 Reg. 7-10 Year-Old Angus Cows Ave $1,760 247 Commercial Bred Heifers Ave $1,655 33 Commercial 10 Year-Old Cows Ave $1,241

Top Selling Bulls: Lot 115 at $12,250 for two-thirds interest & possession was Bobcat Tundra, February ’11, sired by WK Bobcat out of Bobcat Lady 898 by Vermilion Special Order. He sold to Rick Sampsen, Dagmar, MT. Lot 26 at $8,500 was Bobcat Consensus Z39, March ’12, sired by Conneally Consensus 7229 out of WK Miss Angus 1403 by Bon View New Design 1407. He sold to Chris Drakos, Blackfoot, ID. Lot 62 at $7,750 was Bobcat X-Factor Y123, August ’11, sired by Vermilion X-Factor out of Vermilion Barbara 9828 by Leachman Right Time. He sold to Maury Murnion, Jordan, MT. Lot 116 at $7,750 was Bobcat X-Factor Y47, March ’11, sired by Vermilion X-Factor out of Diamond R Lass 101 by Woodhill Triple Threat. He sold to Trent Goettlich, Hilger, MT. Lot 118 at $7,000 was Bobcat X-Factor Y51, March ’11, sired by Vermilion X-Factor out of Bobcat Lass 6142 by Vermilion Nebraska M424. He sold to Allen Birkeland, Warwick, ND.

Top Selling Cow: Lot 180 at $2,100 was Bobcat Lass 4032, Oct ’04, sired by Bon View New Design 878 out of Leachman Pride G3134 by GDAR Traveler 9161. She sold bred to Bobcat Tundra carrying a heifer calf and went to Paul Turner, Shelby, MT. Top Commercial Bred Heifers: Lot 190 at $1,825 was 44 head of Angus Commercial Heifers bred to WK Bobcat carrying heifer calves due February 18-28, 2013. They sold to Casey Danelson, Scobey, MT. Lot 188 Solutions_Qtr at $1,800 was 18ad_1_redSans.pdf head of Angus Commercial Heifers Hometown Page 1 7/21/11 2:23 PM bred to WK Bobcat carrying heifer calves due February 18-28. They sold to Schuler Ranch, Inc., Dutton, MT.

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OFFICE: 775-423-7760 JACK PAYNE

Cell: 775-217-9273 Alt: 775-225-8889

Email: nevadalm@yahoo.com

Full-Service Cattle Sales & Marketing serving the Fallon, Nevada and Outlying Areas. Sales Results from

REGULAR SALE

December 19 & 20, 2012 Regular Butcher Cow, Bull and Feeder Sale City

# Head

Desc.

Type

Weight Price CWT

Truckee River Ranch LLC

Fallon

15

BLK

Bred Hfr

985 $1,400.00/ hd

Truckee River Ranch LLC

Fallon

26

BLK

Broken Mouth

1109

$990.00/ hd

Douglas Quintero Jr

Schurz

10

BLK

STR

340

$221.00

Sim Quintero

Schurz

8

BLK

STR

340

$221.00

Shane Mathews

Panaca

20

BLK

STR

424

$210.00

Shane Mathews

Panaca

23

BLK

STR

522

$173.50

Coyote Creek Ranch

Imlay

16

BLK

STR

448

$209.00

Coyote Creek Ranch

Imlay

12

BLK

STR

530

$172.00

Seller

David C Piquet

Winnemucca 49

MIX

STR

421

$194.50

David C Piquet

Winnemucca

BBF

STR

787

$133.50

Gene Heckman

Winnemucca 10

CHAR

STR

433

$190.00

Gene Heckman

Winnemucca 24

MIX

STR

518

$172.00

11

Henry & Joi Brackenbury

Yerington

20

MIX

STR

458

$184.00

Henry & Joi Brackenbury

Yerington

9

MIX

STR

603

$146.00

C-Punch Ranch

Lovelock

4

BLK

STR

473

$179.00

C-Punch Ranch

Lovelock

4

BLK

STR

656

$146.00

Jack Tatum

Bishop

83

BLK

STR

478

$178.00

Jack Tatum

Bishop

28

BLK

STR

636

$154.00

Scott Nygren

Fallon

3

BLK

B/C

455

$175.00

Truckee River Ranch LLC

Fallon

12

MIX

STR

500

$173.50

Blake & Dawneen Lambert

Winnemucca

7

BLK

STR

438

$172.50

Pete Marvel

Winnemucca

4

BLK

STR

524

$169.00

Home Ranch LLC

Orovada

1

CHAR

STR

520

$168.00

Sunrise Ranch LLC

Yerington

9

MIX

STR

504

$168.00

UC Cattle Company

Orovada

1

CHAR

STR

520

$168.00

Hiko

7

BLK

STR

530

$163.00

Kelly & Melody Johnson

Every Wednesday Small Barn at 10:30 AM Cows at 11:30 AM Feeder Cattle at 1:00 PM

Sales Results from

December 19 & 20, 2012 Regular Butcher Cow, Bull and Feeder Sale City

# Head

Desc.

Type

Fallon

3

MIX

STR

483

$159.00

Renfroe Ranch

Lovelock

8

BLK

STR

551

$155.00

Dennis Carl Lee

Fallon

6

MIX

STR

673

$144.00

Harriman & Son

Fallon

12

CHAR

STR

704

$141.50

BLK

STR

625

$141.00

Seller

Aaron & Donnell Williams

Windy R Ranch

CafĂŠ

Ronald Lee Berg

Open on Sale Days Stop by and have a Homestyle Burger

SALES Feeder Sale in conjunction with our Regular Wednesday sale

January 2nd & 3rd January 16th & 17th

Round Mountain

8

BLK

STR

668

$138.50

Roy & Dorothy Heise

Fallon

12

WF

STR

551

$137.50

Guy Fowler

Fallon

13

BLK

STR

743

$135.00

Guy Fowler

Fallon

5

BLK

STR

874

$127.50

Hendrix Ranch

Fallon

2

MIX

STR

750

$131.00

Wesley F Viera

Fallon

3

BLK

STR

918

$121.00

C-Punch Ranch

Lovelock

5

BLK

HFR

367

$185.00

Espil Sheep Co

Gerlach

16

BLK

HFR

356

$183.50

Henry & Joi Brackenbury

Yerington

5

BLK

HFR

418

$176.00

Renfroe Ranch

Lovelock

3

BBF

HFR

463

$161.00

Gene Heckman

Winnemucca 37

MIX

HFR

416

$160.00

Jake & Lydia Dempsey

Winnemucca

3

BLK

HFR

383

$160.00

Shane Mathews

Panaca

23

BLK

HFR

461

$157.25

Scott Nygren

Fallon

4

BLK

HFR

595

$140.00

Bruce Bruns

Markleeville

2

BLK

HFR

543

$139.00

Fallon

10

BLK

HFR

708

$130.50

Paradise Valley

15

BLK

HFR

611

$129.50

Walter J Burrus

Winnemucca

4

BLK

HFR

645

$128.00

Aaron & Donnell Williams

Fallon

3

MIX

HFR

663

$124.00

Home Ranch LLC

Orovada

7

BLK

COW

1134

$88.00

UC Cattle Company

Orovada

46

BLK

HFRTT

1058

$86.00

Peraldo Brothers

February 20 & 21 th

st

Butcher cows on Wednesday Feeder cattle on Thursday starting at 11 AM

Washoe Valley 3

Weight Price CWT

Kenneth Buckingham

Look for Weekly Market Reports at www.nevadalivestock.us We have 4 cattle trains available for your cattle hauling needs. We can haul approx. 80,000# of cattle per load either to our sale or in the country. Give us a call for pricing.

TO ALL OF OUR CONSIGNORS & BUYERS www.progressiverancher.com

The Progressive Rancher

January 2013 9


Ship ’Em To

LLON A F

MARKET REPORT December 8th, 2012

TOP OFFERINGS Steer

Weight

300-400 194.00-217.00 400-500 173.00-198.00 500-600 161.00-190.00 600-700 135.00-145.00 700-800 130.00-138.50 Lite Holstein (under 600#) Heavy Holstein (over 600#)

Heifer

139.00-172.00 145.00-170.00 137.00-155.50 122.00-130.00 106.00-112.00 75.00-83.00 65.00-83.00

*Single, Small Framed or Plainer Cattle 15.00 to 20.00 less than top offerings

BUTCHER COWS & BULLS

Livestock exchange, Inc. Sale Every Tuesday at 11:00 AM Selling All Classes of Livestock: • Cattle • Horses • Sheep • Goats • Pigs

ANNOUNCING

Calf & Yearling Sale Saturday, January 12, 2013 at 1:00 p.m. Ranchers, Pen space is limited, so call and consign your good cattle today! Please have your heifer calves bangs vacc. prior to arrival, this benefits you.

You can bring your cattle in on Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday at no extra charge — only feed!! We will not accept any cattle after 10:00 Saturday morning due to pen space. The market is good right now and we will have buyers in the seats. We would like to say thank you to all of our consignors and buyers, for your continued support.

Fallon Livestock exchange, Inc.

2055 Trento Lane • Fallon, Nevada 89406 • 775-867-2020

10 January 2013

The Progressive Rancher

Breakers (Fat Cows) 62.00-68.00 Boners (Med Flesh) 67.00-75.000 Cutters (Lean) 50.00-60.00 Holstein Cows 35.00-66.50 Butcher Bulls 65.00-75.00 Shelly (Thin) Bulls 40.00-60.00 Shelly Cutters (Thin) 20.00-40.00 Young Feeder Cows 60.00-65.00 Heiferettes 70.00-83.00 Holstein Heiferettes 72.00-87.00 Holstein Bulls 60.00-65.00 Feeder Bulls 65.00-75.00 Cutting Bulls 80.00-95.00 Used Roping Steers 72.00-85.00 Preg Tested Cows (3, 4, 5 yr. old solid mouth) NT Pairs (solid mouth) 3-6 yrs NT Pairs (broken mouth) NT

TODAY’S COWS Top Cow Top 10 Cows Top 50 Cows Top 100 Cows Top Butcher Bull

Avg. Wt 1175 1150 1240 1111 1750

Avg. Cost 84.00 74.98 66.50 62.17 85.50

CALVES-SHEEP-GOATS-PIGS-HORSES

Beef Calves (HD) Dairy Calves Feeder Lambs Fat Lambs Ewes (CWT) Bucks (CWT) Small Goats (under 65 lbs.) (HD) Large Goats (over 70 lbs.) (HD) Weaner Pigs Feeder Pigs Top Hogs Butcher Sows Horses (under 1100 lbs.) Horses (over 1100 lbs.)

60.00-340.00 2.00-35.00 105.00-115.00 85.00-95.00 25.00-40.00 45.00-68.00 20.00-90.00 95.00-145.00 45.00-95.00 60.00-130.00 60.00-75.00 20.00-40.00 10.00-20.00 22.00-31.00

MARKET TREND: Feeder cattle sold steady to 15.00 higher than our last special with very strong buyer demand. Cattle were consigned from Oregon, California and Nevada with over 3200 head sold this week. Fallon Livestock is a key market for the livestock industry, where buyers and sellers meet each week with a professional staff with over 50 years of experience in marketing livestock. PLEASE call us ahead with your consignments. It helps us market your cattle. We talk to buyers all the time–they want you to know what’s coming in. We have trucks available for your hauling needs, pasture to pasture or here to the sale yard.

For more marketing information, or to arrange trucking needs: Call Monte Bruck, Manager at

775-426-8279

www.progressiverancher.com


Fumes From The Farm W

by Hank Vogler

ell if you are reading this, the end of the world on December twenty one was a yawner. Or maybe just maybe the Mayans miscalculated by a couple of months? OH NO!!!!!! I remember nuclear winter was just around the corner in the sixties. I used to go to dances in the local Dentists bomb shelter. We had movies and drills in school depicting what would happen when the Soviets shot a nuclear armed rocket at us. We would get under our desks and wait for the flash of light. I was having enough trouble with trying to figure out puberty and dating and the latest dance step. Rather than hiding under the desk for the world to end, why not a crash course in comparative anatomy? The reality was, we were going to die at the hand of the worst missile battery in the Soviet military. The Soviets that would wipe this little rural school out, had no ability to find the coordinates of Seattle, Portland, or San Francisco, no they were going to hit this little town in the middle of the Oregon desert? What a Jip. My next thought was, after the bomb, I would have to spend a few years in the bomb shelter before it would be safe to go outside. I have five sisters. The oldest had a better right hook than Cassius Clay. My thoughts were, walk toward the light. Walk toward the light. Sure glad that spotted Al Gore got us headed toward global warming. Out here on the high wide and lonesome, the elevation in the valley floor is sixty five hundred feet. A little global warming seems positive this time of the year. So, my skepticism with the end of the world crowd, is grounded in the reality that there is little one can do anyhow, grey hair gets here fast enough without getting the drizzles over the inevitable. Our history is full of scary stuff. The doomsdays have come and gone thousands of times. It keeps us in a common mind set and makes us easier to herd. I have been on the fiscal cliff all my adult life. The trick is, don’t slip. Please name one animal that doesn’t have keener senses than man? They can run faster, jump higher, hear better, a better sense of smell, and dozens of things for survival that man does not possess. During elk season, my friend Pat Wilber always reminds me that it is a good thing that elk don’t pack guns. He says they surely would get a lot more of us than we would of them. The bulge that man has on all other creatures is a large brain. The problem is, man only uses a small portion of his brain and if he is well fed and comfy, he forgets how he got a full belly and a warm place to sleep. He allows others to think for him. The only thing that makes a person come to life is when it is his ox that is being gored. This single flaw is the Achilles Heel that allows us to be drug around by the nose. Our history is full of propaganda that is always distributed by the ruling class. A perfect example of this is the depiction of history by governments. Did you ever hear the term, “grass doesn’t grow where Attila the Hun trod”? Now think about that for a moment. Attila whipped up on a lot of folks. Did he do this by himself? I think not. He had an army like any other conqueror. Those folks liked Attila enough to go with him. Attila just had a bad PR man. On the other hand Cristobel Colon had Ferdinand and Isabella to laud his accomplishments, even though he never reached the East Indies or Columbus Ohio or a lot of places that he got credit for, the press at the time gave him a big high five. He did cause a land rush. He opened a lot of real estate speculation and introduced a slug of new products to the rest of the world. The doomsayers have a litany of his short comings. They are only five hundred years late, SO GET REAL!!! Yes the hand is dealt and if we can get the propaganda machine shut down, we may have a few more centuries before people start volunteering to walk ten abreast into the ocean. The United States is based on private property rights, the rule of law, life, liberty, and the PURSUIT of happiness, no guarantee of happiness, only the pursuit. This is where the confusion sets in. As the West was pushed from the original thirteen colonies toward the Pacific Ocean, competition amongst many countries was in vogue. The Louisiana Purchase didn’t include the Pacific North West, yet Lewis and Clark took a look around. It was kind of like water rights, first in time, first in right. Our fledgling republic needed brave souls to fill in the void. So the federal government decided to make land cheap and available. No place left on earth had such huge expanses of land for the taking. New territories were formed into states. If you go back far enough you will find federal ownership of the land or house or business that you occupy. You will be allowed that right until someone decides that it is in the “best interest” of the nation to take it from you. There are those among us that have decided that central planning and rule by elites makes for a better world, and free enterprise is divisive and selfish, we must be ever vigilant against their propaganda. For those that want to end free enterprise and individual rights, nothing is more deplorable than private property rights. The problem is, many in this country have some ownership of property. If you make all the people mad, the elites still remember the guillotine and the storming of the Bastille. These self-important people bide their time and eat the elephant a small piece at a time. One of their special tools is to divide and conquer. If you went to Kansas and demanded that the property owners of Kansas relinquish their private ownership www.progressiverancher.com

of land, the sky would fall. The Homestead Act worked well there as most of the land would raise enough to feed your family. So no one wants to rock the boat yet. Now go just a little further west and you find land that in the day, no one was too proud of the lands ability to feed your family. It would raise cattle, sheep, and horses but; it took a lot of acres to make a living. The government was very accommodating at the time. The Timber Culture Act, the Swamp Act, the Grazing Homestead Act, Desert Land Entry all contributed to the settling of the West. The pioneers got possession of the water and thus controlled the range. The states charged these grazers to use the lands and granted the grazers water rights, everybody got a taste. Like it or not each state had taxed the lands within its borders for the betterment of the state and the nation. Call it what you like as you revise history, the fact remains the rule of law and the authority of the governments gave split estate rights to grazers. As a matter of fact the anti-free enterprise crowd put all of their emphasis on riparian areas just like the settlers. Of course if you live out here you know that riparian’s is an acronym for, rip a rancher in a Nano second. The endangered species Act and all the rest of the central planning crowd regulations are devised not to help the critters or the air or anything. These onerous Acts are to take the profit out of ranching in the West and make an experiment lab for the unemployable. I do not yearn for the good old days. I bent a pitch fork or two in my day. The modern conveniences of today make us all more efficient. Whether you like the victory of the Hage family or not, the law is the law and they have made some valid points. The court says that they need a permit. The court also seems to be saying that you must give people due process. The Taylor Grazing Act does not allow the federal government to be arbitrary and capricious. The property rights granted over the years to induce people to build permanent facilities is well documented. If you think that your ox is safe, there are more and more examples of over reach by our government. No matter if it is spending money that we don’t have or rule upon rule, or regulations with no end, it is all for the benefit of the government and it is at the expense of the freedom of individuals. “If you trade your freedom for security, you will be neither free nor secure”, Thomas Jefferson. Hang and Rattle Hank Vogler

BULLS AVAILABLE AT THE RANCH AND THE SNYDER LIVESTOCK 21ST CENTURY BULL SALE MARCH 13, 2013

The Progressive Rancher

January 2013 11


LookUP

by Pastor Diana Gonzalez

Acts of Unity

by Pastor Diana Gonzalez

I

’ve been studying in the book of Acts since about the beginning of the year. Those folks in the early Church remind me somewhat of cow country folks. The book of Acts is believed to have been written by Luke and is kind of a continuation of the Gospel of Luke. The Gospel of Luke told us what Jesus began both to do and teach. The book of Acts tells us what the risen Christ continues to do and teach through the Church, with the power of the Holy Spirit. Now why do these folks in the early Church remind me of the ranchers that live out in the open ranges, out in cow country? Well because the folks in the early Church were of the same mind and purpose (in agreement). “These all continued with one accord in prayer.” Acts 1:14 “They were all with one accord in one place.” Acts 2:1 “So continuing daily with one accord in the temple and breaking bread from house to house, they ate their food with gladness and simplicity of heart, praising God and having favor with all the people. And the Lord added to the Church daily those who were being saved.” (Evangelism) Acts 2:46-47 Aren’t most ranchers of the same mind and purpose? Fighting to maintain a lifestyle worth fighting for. Fighting for our land, enduring dry years, cold years, years of low calf

prices, high operating costs, and high taxes. Don’t most neighbors pull together when someone needs help working on the ranch, or when trouble strikes? So folks, let’s make sure that we don’t fight with each other. Let’s purpose in our hearts to be of one accord, one purpose. Then together we can do great things like the early Church. Folks, there’re things going on in our State and in our Country that are just not right. Together, if we’re devoted, we can stop them. Also, there are many good and right things in our Country that we must fight for, but we need to pull together in one accord, one purpose. When we pull together, when right is on our side, and with the power of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit, there’s NO THING that WE can’t accomplish. So what can we learn from the early Church? 1. Study the Word (read your Bible) 2. Fellowship together 3. Pray alone and together 4. Share and care for one another 5. Be a giver 6. Praise, worship and evangelize ————————————— The above was in The Progressive Rancher last year. It was written in January 2011. I wanted to run it again as a reminder to us Ranchers and Farmers, the stewards of the land, that we need to be of the same mind and purpose. In agreement if possible; if we can’t agree, then at least agree to disagree without strife. President Lincoln said a house divided against itself cannot stand. He was quoting from Jesus in Luke 11:17, “Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation, and a house divided against a house falls.” Verse 23 says, “He who is not with Me is against Me, and he who does not gather with Me scatters.” NKJV Let’s purpose in our hearts (choose) to stand together, toe-to-toe for our industry, our lifestyle, our freedom, and our country. God bless you. God bless America and her Ranchers and Farmers – this nation’s producers. Happy trails. May God richly bless you. We love you and would love to hear from you. If you would like someone to pray with, or just have a question, please give us a call at (775) 867-3100. ‘Til next time….

You are invited to COWBOY CHURCH!

Are you having a Rodeo or Livestock event? Give us a call.

1st Saturday of every month Standish, CA @ 6:00 p.m. Hwy. 395 /A3 — Standish 4-H Hall

We would love to come to your event or ranch and host Cowboy Church for you.

Harmony Ranch Ministry 3767 Keyes Way  Fallon, NV 89406 

12 January 2013

The Progressive Rancher

Tom J. Gonzalez Diana J. Gonzalez, Pastor threecrossls@cccomm.net 

(775) 867-3100 Cell (775) 426-1107

www.progressiverancher.com


I

’ve had mixed reactions to my last article. Some good and some not so good. I’ve never been accused of covering up what I think and I am opinionated! So go figure! We, as a Nation, need to get thinking of our future.

Horse Snorts

AND

Cow Bawls

——— ❁ ——— Speaking of and taxes—Capital gains taxes. In 2013 all our taxes are going to take a huge jump unless Congress takes an initiative and stops our esteemed President. I did some checking into capital gains taxes. This is the tax that one pays on the profit gained from the sale of assets used in one’s business. There is a formula that takes into consideration the length of time that asset is held in the business. I didn’t realize the percentage of the tax is based on the income tax bracket one is in. The higher bracket, the higher percentage tax levied on profit from asset sales. The highest rate is the same tax rate as ordinary income! This is another tax destined to jump in 2013 and at a higher rate for higher earners. Thus— you guessed it! Tax the wealthy, penalize them for earning more! Let’s kill the goose that lays the golden egg! That’s O’Bamahas philosophy. Then we can become a socialistic country and he can be the “Oh great one”! I don’t know what we can do about this at this late date. It never hurts to contact your congress-people. That’s what you elect them for. That is their job! Of the five Senators and Representatives I sent letters on the estate – inheritance tax, only two responded. Senator Dean Heller and Congressman Joe Heck. Senator Heller always responds to any correspondence directed at him! Enough of my political whining. Please keep in mind the thoughts I write are my own opinions and not necessarily those of my editor or her magazine! So don’t blame her for anything that pushes your buttons wrong!! ——— ❁ ——— We are receiving some nice wet weather for a change. And not too cold! Beautiful-just ban the wind a bit. But our ground is wet and fairly warm. Gophers are still mildly active! Cows don’t eat as much when it’s warmer. Wish I could say the same for myself!! ——— ❁ ——— By now Christmas has come and gone and Santa Clause is back home at the North Pole taking a well-deserved rest! Hope he treated everyone well!! ——— ❁ ——— We raised a pet deer for a long time quite some time ago. She was very curious as to

by Jeanne King visitors. When I dislocated my hip out at our cow camp, the deer was very protective of me with the ambulance personnel. They were more concerned about the guard deer than the dog that was with me. That was in September. She hauled back and forth with us all fall and moved into our back yard. We had a deck in the back and the floor of it was even with the windows. She knew when someone different was in the house and looked in the window to check them out. Eddies nephew was just at the age when Santa Clause might not be real. Eddie teased him something fierce by stating Santa Clause left his extra reindeer at our house to rest up. Nawww. Non believer! So Eddie bet him a dollar the deer was here. The parents were in on it and knew what was going on so they brought him out that night after dark. As he walked in the house through the kitchen, the deer lined her nose and big ears up in the window to see. He barely got a glimpse when I opened the door and the deer waltzed right in and checked Joe out right close! If I only would have had a camera, the look on his face was priceless!!!!! His jaw dropped and he just fished in his pocket for the dollar and handed it to Eddie, never taking his eyes off Santa’s reindeer!!!!!! That deer lived to be an old deer down at my mom’s ranch and had many offspring, many in her back yard. There are still some gentle deer there. We had to take her away because she was close enough to town here and would go down to the Indian Colony and try to get on the school bus with the kids! She loved to play with little kids! The Indians knew where she belonged and would saddle a horse and she would follow them home. She was a lot of fun, a lot of personality! ——— ❁ ——— Well, enough rambling! Have a prosperous and successful New Year at what ever you do!!!!!

Thoughts About Our Personal Experiences — Newtown — by Barbra Schulte I felt moved to share my thoughts with you. We are all deeply feeling the events in Connecticut. This tragedy has opened all of our hearts. In times like these, there is no where to go but to the heart and to the spirit. Nothing else makes sense. I have some beliefs about grief and I want to share them with you. I believe the loss of these children has brought us all to our knees. It makes us all wonder what we can do ... what we could do. I think there are two main things “to do.”

www.progressiverancher.com

The first is to stand next to all those families in Connecticut in love and support. You don’t have to be physically present. Just send your love. Pray for them. Stand next to them in your heart. Just be there. When someone is in grief, it’s not about saying anything. It’s about sharing the depths of the human spirit just by supporting another, quietly. Standing next to someone in support and not feeling the need to have to say something helps them to feel safe. That support goes through space. It is felt. If you send someone love from a long distance, it is NEVER lost.

The Progressive Rancher

It is always felt, somehow, someway. The second is to reflect. Reflect on what’s important to you and live your life by those values. Life is so precious. In some odd way we would never choose tragedies and difficult situations on our own. Of course not! But when they do happen, if we choose to open our hearts, it can cause us to grow because all the things that are not really that important are stripped away. What’s truly important remains. We see the light of the true diamonds in our lives. Thank you for being a special part of my life.

January 2013 13


Control or Eradication of BVD from a Beef Herd Clell V. Bagley, DVM; Douglas S. Hammon, DVM, Ph.D., Utah State University; and James J. England, DVM, Ph.D., University of Idaho Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is caused by a virus, which herds do. So, for some herds it may be advisable for producis present in many beef herds, and is an extremely costly disers to conduct a herd screening test before launch- ing into an Forms of BVD ease. Acute outbreaks may occur in animals not previously extensive effort to eliminate PI animals. The easiest screening Benign infection/subclinical exposed to BVD, resulting in respiratory or digestive disease, method to determine if BVD is present in the herd is to test for Persistently infected (PI) weight loss, and production loss. BVD suppresses the immune BVD antibody. Producers can do this by selecting 10 calves at Fatal mucosal disease response of cattle and enables other diseases to have a greater 6 months of age or older, which are unvaccinated and which Reproductive failure impact on the herd, even without causing an acute outbreak. have been in direct contact with the animals in the herd. Decreased follicular development BVD is a cause of severe reproductive losses includ- ing If some of these calves have a positive titer, it indi- cates Abortion: early embryonic death early embryonic death, abortion, birth defects, and persistently the presence of acutely infected or PI cattle. If all are negative, infected calves. New strains of BVD may be introduced into it indicates an absence of any cattle shed- ding the BVD virus, Birth defects the herd through purchase of breed- ing animals, which may and the herd is probably free of BVD. (This test for antibody Respiratory disease cause a serious BVD outbreak. involves collection of blood, separation of the serum, and then Weak calf syndrome/immune suppression The tools are now available to eradicate BVD from a a test is con- ducted on the serum for antibody titer.) Diarrhea beef herd and to keep it out, if the herd is reasonably isolated. Control or Eradication of BVD Eradicating BVD will reduce losses and greatly improve the In order to eradicate BVD and keep it out of the herd, the potential for herd profitability. However, before beginning an eradication program the producer must recognize the importance of keeping BVD out herd must be relatively isolated from other cattle. For herds that mix together for common once it has been eradicated. A producer must be committed to preventing re-introduction grazing, eradi- cation is not a reasonable option unless all of the other producers involved also participate in the eradication program. In a common grazing herd it is likely that BVD of BVD into the herd, otherwise the eradication efforts and costs will have been wasted. It has been almost impossible to eradicate BVD from a herd in the past because of dif- exposure will occur, and cattle in the supposed “free” herd would again become infected. ficulty in identifying persistently infected (PI) cattle. This is because a PI animal is infected Control of BVD as a fetus between day 18 to 125 after conception. Instead of dying or being aborted this If a beef herd is not isolated from most other cattle then BVD eradication is unlikely type of infected calf survives but is permanently infected with the BVD virus. because some preg- nant animals may become exposed to the virus and continue the PI The PI animals are the primary reservoir for the BVD virus and the major source of cycle. Those producers may choose to just control BVD and minimize losses to it, rather infection in the herd. The immune system of these animals does not respond to the BVD than trying to eradicate it from the herd. The primary tool for control is a proper vaccinavirus and, as a result, the virus continues to multiply, infect cells in the animal, and be tion program for BVD. Some herds may also be able to benefit by identifying and removing excreted (shed) from the animal throughout its life. Although some PI calves are weak at birth, grow slowly and finally die, approximately PI animals. A producer should vaccinate all replacement heifers with a modified live virus (MLV) half of all BVD, PI calves appear normal, cannot be distinguished by outward appearance, vaccine after heifers are 6 months of age but at least 1 or 2 months before breeding. Proand may survive for several years. This characteristic makes these cattle especially dangertecting heifers is essential. If possible, cows should be vaccinated annually, 30 days before ous to the rest of the herd. beginning breeding. The MLV vaccines have been most effective in preventing fetal infection and PI calves. Key Point Vaccines are now available that have been shown to be effective in providing fetal protecIdentification and strict culling of all BVD, PI animals is essential tion, and it would certainly be advisable to use one of those. Some MLV vaccines are also to successful eradication of BVD from cattle herds. approved for use in pregnant cows, if they have previously received it. However, if these are used late in the reproductive process the exposure of the fetus to BVD may already have PI animals do not shed virus continuously but often shed virus in large amounts when occurred, and some PI calves may be present in the pregnant cows. Some MLV-BVD vacunder stress. The quantity of virus shed may overcome the natural or vaccine immunity of cines are not approved for use in pregnant cows and may cause abortion and fetal defects. other cattle in the herd, so they develop acute BVD. Perhaps the greatest hazard is that the virus shed may infect a fetus, either within the PI cow or in a previously uninfected cow. Key Point This fetus may then become a PI calf and continue the cycle of infectiv- ity in the herd. Vaccination, without identification of and removal of BVD, PI animals, The basic questions for each producer are: may not prevent all BVD problems from developing in cattle herds. 1. Is my herd infected with BVD? 2. Can I eradicate BVD and keep it out of my herd, or do I have to be content with Studies have shown that over 95 percent of fetal infections with BVD come from just controlling it with management to reduce its impact? exposure of dams to PI animals. The dams of most PI, newborn calves are BVD negative, BVD is a complicated disease, and it will be to a producer’s advantage to involve a indicating the dams themselves are not PI. Vaccination will reduce the incidence but is not veterinarian as plans are made to control or eradicate the disease. Some general informa100 percent effective in preventing fetal infections, so tion and guidelines follow, but each producer needs a plan vaccination alone will not eradicate BVD. that is specific for the individual operation.

Is My Herd Infected with BVD? Herds can be considered at low risk if they have excellent reproductive performance (a high percent of cows exposed to a bull actually weaning a calf), and if the appropriate herd samples have been submitted to a diagnostic laboratory to search for BVD, and it has not been detected. Herds at high risk of being infected are those that have previously had a laboratory confirmed diagnosis of BVD infection in herd animals; have reduced repro- ductive performance despite good nutrition and bull fertility; and have a higher rate of calf illness and death despite good nutrition and sanitation. Many herds have some infected animals, but not all

14 January 2013

Testing Individual Animals for BVDV

What test should be used? Immunohistochemistry on skin samples Virus isolation/serology What animals should be tested? Young stock Purchased animals (cows, heifers, replacement bulls) When should animals be tested? Before purchase or upon arrival (for purchased animals) Before mixing with breeding/pregnant cows The Progressive Rancher

BVD Eradication Program A BVD eradication program has three important parts. The following program and procedures are recommended to eradicate the BVD virus from a herd and keep it out: 1. Enhance immunity with vaccination Vaccinate as described under “Control of BVD.” 2. Eliminate persistently infected (PI) carriers These animals are the main reservoirs of BVD infection in the herd. Test to identify all PI animals and then cull them from the herd, to slaughter only. It has now become possible to identify BVD infected cattle by collecting a small piece of skin, usually with an ear notcher, and the laboratory performs an immunohistochemistry test on www.progressiverancher.com


this skin. The tissue needs to be preserved in buffered formalin, and the laboratory test conducted within 1 week of collection, to avoid test failures. The immunohistochemistry test will show the presence of virus at the time of testing but cannot differentiate acutely infected from PI animals, so further testing may be needed to confirm those PI and avoid needless culling. Note: Other methods of testing are available but are more complicated and expensive. A “test at weaning” program could be implemented, but some of the dams would already be carrying infected, PI calves so this would delay progress for another year. • Test after calving and before the breeding season (use a skin sample, such as an ear notch). The following categories should include all cattle in the herd except the dams of calves that tested negative: -- Test all calves present in the herd. The dams of negative calves do not have to be tested as they will be negative also. This plan results in reduced test costs, compared to testing every animal. Test dams of any calves that are positive on the skin test (use the skin test for dams). -- Test all cows without calves; any that calve later should be isolated from bred cows until the calf is tested (soon after birth) and found negative. -- Test all bulls. -- Test all replacement heifers (yet to be bred). • Re-Test: If desired, all animals that tested positive on the first test could be retested. This re-test would rule out any cattle that were acutely infected, so they were not culled needlessly; only those persistently infected need to be culled. Preferably, wait 30 days between the two tests, but this test needs to be completed before breeding. It is advisable to use a whole blood and virus isolation test for the second test. All positive animals should be considered as PI animals and should be sold

to slaughter only or euthanized. Be sure they are all removed from the herd before any breeding. • Test all calves by the skin test again the next year, to find and remove any PI animals, in case some- thing was missed and a fetus became exposed. 3. Implement a plan for BVD biosecurity (to keep BVD out) • Prevent direct contact with non-tested cattle. Co-mingle and test all incoming animals to be sure they are not PI carriers. • Prevent new infections or exposure to BVD virus (especially of pregnant animals): -- Isolate and test bulls at purchase (or before purchase); return them if positive. -- Use semen only from test negative bulls. -- Buy only non-bred heifers; isolate and test at purchase (or prior); return if positive (or, pur- chase from proven BVD-free herds). -- Keep free herd separate from all other cattle. -- Avoid fence line contact as much as possible. -- Keep cattle separate from sheep and ruminant wildlife. -- Establish an effective biosecurity program for personnel, clothing, footwear, and vehicles. -- Continue to vaccinate at least the replacement heifers with a MLV BVD vaccine.

Conclusion Implementation of a BVD eradication program involves significant planning, labor, and financial costs for testing. But, for those herds that are sufficiently isolated and that can manage a systematic program, the future benefits will be well worth the initial costs. Western Beef Resource Committee, Cattle Producer’s Library, Animal Health Section, CL650

BEEF CHECKOFF NEWS News From the Nevada Beef Council: CHECKING-IN ON YOUR BEEF CHECKOFF Simplifying Beef Quality Assurance Training

guest bloggers are also featured. The beef ambassador blog pulls in more than 1,000 page views each month on average, helping to extend positive beef messages. Social media impressions from the NBAP continue reach new audiences. Since January 2012, Twitter followers have increased by 47% (2,047 followers). Facebook friends have increased by 14% (3,257 friends), and YouTube channel views have increased 98% (2, 206 views).

In cooperation with the Iowa Beef Council, the checkoff-funded Beef Quality Assurance program has developed a new On Farm Training Manual. Designed as a quick reference guide, this booklet is perfect for use while performing important on-farm tasks. The information in this manual will help you identify critical points in your beef production business so consumers’ expectations for both food safety and eatAddressing Environmental Myths ing satisfaction continue to be met. Tear out cards are A beef checkoff-funded ad debunking the myth that included at the end of the book and serve as general cattle significantly contribute to greenhouse gas emissions reminders of important best management practices. recently ran in a special environmental edition of NewsPro. For more information about the Beef Quality AssurThis magazine for journalists was also distributed at the ance program, visit www.bqa.org. Society for Environmental Journalists’ (SEJ) annual conference. Checkoff staff also helped prepare for and staff a ranch tour in advance of the conference, which provided nearly 20 Market Research Focus on New Cuts environmental journalists hands-on experience with how beef is raised. Additionally, a recent FactsAboutBeef.com Several checkoff program areas recently colpost, which addresses the myth that Meatless Mondays are laborated with a channel partner to test three new beef better for the environment and public health, continues to be cuts with the potential to increase carcass value while one of the highest ranking pages on the checkoff’s online hub providing foodservice operators with new ways to put for issues response. It is also the second most viewed myth beef on the menu. The Product Enhancement Team, on the web site. Beef Innovations Group, Business to Business Marketing Team and Market Research Team worked with a restaurant chain to test three cuts with customers in one of the chain’s restaurants. The three cuts are boneless country style ribs, the Denver cut and the top sirloin filet (one of beef’s extra lean cuts). USFRA Elevates

Telling the Beef Story The new 2013 National Beef Ambassador team has begun blogging on behalf of beef! Visit www.beefambassador.org to get to know more about this year’s team and their thoughts about a variety of beef topics. New posts from the team are added weekly and www.progressiverancher.com

USFRA the “Source” on Food Issues The U.S. Farmers and Ranchers Alliance (USFRA), funded in part by the beef checkoff, recently held The Food Dialogues: New York, the latest in a series of panel discussions about how food is grown and raised. The Food Dialogues furthered conversations related to Healthy Choices, Biotechnology and Antibiotics. Panelist Dr. Keith Ayoob, a participant in the 2011 checkoff funded On the Ranch “Work Days” program, expressed confidence in farmer and rancher use of antibiotics. In addition, USFRA launched Food Source, an online database of resources and information on the most talked about topics in food production, which has received nearly 30,000 views just since late October.

the Faces of Farming and Ranching

USFRA has partnered with Anderson Live! to answer viewer questions about how food is raised. The first episode about crop farming appeared in October. In addition, the finalists for USFRA’s national search for the “Faces of Farming and Ranching” were announced at the New York Food Dialogues in November. The candidates met with a panel of judges in New York and the public was able to participate in voting until Dec. 15. The winners will be announced in January.

The Progressive Rancher

January 2013 15


Letter to the Editor Note: The opinions expressed herein are strictly those of the author. The Progressive Rancher neither seeks or endorses these submissions, but allows all to voice their views.

Debt For Nature – Financing American Endangered Species On Foreign Soil By Karen Budd-Falen, Budd-Falen Law Offices, Llc

Let me see if I have gotten this straight: 1. President Obama has stated that America is going to be more restrained in foreign internal affairs. 2. Yet the U.S. federal government has listed 615 foreign species on the Endangered Species Act (“ESA”). These are species who never set one paw or foot or leg on American soil, ever. 3. And once listed, the ESA authorizes the U.S. Treasury to spend American taxpayer money acquiring foreign land, water and other property interests to “protect” these species. 4. As one way for America to spend money on foreign property, Congress and the federal bureaucracy have also authorized several “Debt for Nature swaps” which allow the U.S. Treasury to forgive (“trade”) foreign debt or loans made by the American taxpayers to foreign countries with the hope that the foreign country will stop property use and development to protect species on the American endangered species list. 5. Some of these Debt for Nature swaps include non-governmental organizations like The Nature Conservancy or World Wildlife Fund buying the foreign debt to the U.S. for “pennies on the dollar.”

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There are several types of Debt for Nature programs which are being used to exert the opinions of a small group of radical environmentalists that “nature is more important than people.” Debt for Nature was modeled after a program started in the early 1990s called Enterprise for the Americas Initiative (“EIA”). Under that program, the U.S. restructured, and in one case sold, debt owed to the American taxpayers by Latin American countries equivalent to a face value of nearly $1 billion. Basically the U.S. Treasury forgave or restructured monetary debt owed to American taxpayers for the Latin American country’s adoption of certain social and property use goals related to environmental, natural resources, health protection, and child development projects. An official governmental “Debt for Nature” bill was passed by Congress in 1998 called the Tropical Forest Conservation Act (“TFCA”). Since passage of the TFCA, although the reports are somewhat conflicting, at least $128.4 million has been used to fund 15 separate transactions which allegedly “conserve” tropical forests within 13 debtor foreign countries. For example, on August 12, 2010, the U.S. Treasury agreed to cut Brazil’s debt payments by $21 million under a Debt for Nature swap related to “protecting” coastal rainforests. Other foreign countries who no longer have to repay their debts to the American taxpayers are Bangladesh, Botswana, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador,

Guatemala, Indonesia, Jamaica, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and the Philippines. Funds under these latest Debt for Nature swaps go toward “activities to conserve protected areas, improve natural resource management, and develop sustainable livelihoods for communities that rely on forests.” According to the U.S. Treasury Department, these foreign lands are “under threat from clearing for cattle ranching and agriculture, as well as charcoal production and timber harvesting.” A second type of Debt for Nature program is financed through private environmental non-governmental organizations (“NGO”). The two groups who have specifically participated and strongly advocated for these swaps are The Nature Conservancy (“TNC”) and the World Wildlife Fund (“WWF”). Similar to the federal government’s program, an NGO purchases a foreign country’s debt for pennies on the dollar and then negotiates the transfer of the remaining debt back to the debtor country. In exchange for not having to pay the American taxpayers the money owed to them, the foreign country agrees to either enact certain environmental policies or endow a government bond in the name of a conservation organization to fund some type of conservation program. Debt for Nature swaps under this system can include either purchase of the foreign debt from a international bank (called three-party swaps) or a bilateral Debt for Nature swaps that are brokered by the NGO but take place between two governments. For example in one bilateral swap, the U.S. totally forgave a portion of Jamaica’s debt obligations and then allowed Jamaica’s payments on the balance to go into a fund to finance environmental conservation. It appears that these NGOs are very proud that they are ensuring that money loaned to a foreign government by the American taxpayers is never repaid to the American taxpayers. One example of a Debt for Nature swap, brokered by TNC, allowed TNC to payoff Panama’s debt of $10 million to the American taxpayers for a payment of $1.16 million. Although I have not been able to find a legally enforceable contact, the money “given” to Panama based upon the forgiveness of the debt is supposed to focus on preservation on the Chagres River in the Chagres National Park to protect species listed on the American endangered species list. And this is but one example. In Guatemala, according to TNC’s website, TNC has provided around $1 million to purchase anywhere from $10 million to $24 million of the Guatemala’s debt from the U.S. Treasury. The federal government then forgave the remaining portion of Guatemala’s remaining debt for the “promise” that the money would go into a Conservation Trust Fund which is used to finance forest related projects. TNC has also financed these pennies on the dollar debt buy-outs from the American Treasury in Belize (spending $1.3 million to eliminate a $1.4 million debt), Panama (spending $1.3 million to eliminate an $11 million debt) and Jamaica (spending $1.3 million to eliminate a $13 million debt). The WWF is also heavily involved in Debt for Nature swaps. WWF’s website boasts that it “pioneered commercial debt-swaps” with the first being in Ecuador in 1987. WWF also strongly supports and negotiates Debt for Nature swaps under the Tropical Forest Conservation Act in places like Madagascar, an island off the coast of Africa in the Indian Ocean, and in Peru, where the U.S. government has forgiven a total of $40 million to protect species on the U.S. endangered species list. Even though statutes like the TFCA require yearly accounting to Congress, like so many other programs, such accounting either does not occur or is not available to the public. Title 22 U.S.C. § 812 states, “The President shall consult with the appropriate congressional committees on a periodic basis” to review programs or projects funded under the Act and § 813 requires that the President prepare and transmit to Congress an annual report regarding these programs, including the taxpayer money spent. The question for the American taxpayer is whether these types of expenditures are important and beneficial to America. While some may think America has unlimited financial resources and the national debt is only on paper or like a slot machine ticker on a computer, others believe that America has to prioritize its spending and gain back its strength. There is also a question that if the United States is going to finance issues around the world, should that money be spent on feeding children or on insects and reptiles. The American taxpayers need an accounting of all programs such as these so we can make an informed choice.

The Progressive Rancher

www.progressiverancher.com


Under the Hunter Moon by Linda Hussa

I slip the rifle sling over my shoulder and step into the silence of dawn Geese move through the darkened sky toward the pond Wings cut the quiet with an oddly mechanical sound and then their voices set me right

Stern in my resolve I wait while the sun creeps to the edge of the day Slain lambs, guts ripped open Magpies and blow flies Blatting ewes with swollen bags searching the flock A lamb a day for two weeks I grip the rifle tighter

I open the gate The sheep rise from their beds as if I commanded it so Lambs rush to thump flanks for milk kept warm through the autumn night

A shadow comes toward me through the moonlight grey and tan,she arches in a mouse pounce and works her way toward the barrel of my rifle, toward the bullet I will hurl at her heart

I fall in with their march up the meadow to find clover that grew while they slept Stalks of blue chicory and tiny golden trefoil fold inside pink lips, and chewing they walk on At the fence line I know the place where the soft pads left prints in the dust by a hole in the woven wire and I am a warrior hunched in rose briars their scent pale, and their thorns pick at my wool coat

I watch her snatch mice out of the grass flip them up like popcorn, down the hatch. She is a comic this coyote, playing, laughing making her way steadily toward me my finger soft on the cold steel trigger Coyote stops looks directly at me Her eyes hold me accountable

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January 2013 17


Lameness or Stiffness

Reduced Weaning Weights

Smaller or Weaker Calves

Poor Overall Herd Health

Grass Tetany

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This chart helps to clearly show what can happen if cattle get inadequate amounts—or unbalanced amounts—of certain key minerals:

◆ ◆

◆ Archived Cow and Calf Education

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January 2013 19


Restoring Rangeland Following Cata by Jeremy James and Missy Merrill

C

atastrophic wildfire is a constant concern on western rangeland. This concern moves front and center following fire seasons like 2012 where within the span of a few weeks over a million acres of rangeland burned in southeast Oregon and northern Nevada. Impacts of these fires are numerous and include loss of livestock, suspended grazing on allotments, soil erosion and expansion of noxious weeds that increase the likelihood of fire reoccurrence. Seeding rangeland following catastrophic wildfire can facilitate rangeland recovery. However, seeding is an expensive and risky practice containing a number of contentious issues such as seeding native versus introduced bunchgrasses. As we emerge from one of the most serious rangeland fire seasons on record and reflect on the potential of these types of fire seasons to become increasingly common it might be helpful to outline some of the key issues related to post-fire restoration. This article outlines the general post-fire rangeland restoration program by the BLM, the major factors that influence seeding success, and some ideas about how we might direct and refine our dialogue about restoration and management in the future.

seeding can help rangelands recover from wildfire, under the current scenario much of the current investment may not be yielding the ecological benefits stakeholders anticipate. Given these large failure rates it makes sense to ask questions about what factors tend to limit seeding establishment and how can this understanding can be used to enhance management.

Limitations to seedling establishment Research on seedling establishment on western rangeland has been going on for about a century and researchers and managers have made meaningful headway in that time period. We have improved our understanding of the ability of different species to establish and persist on different types of rangelands, we have selected and developed different varieties of native and non-native species for restoration, we have improved the equipment used for seeding and we have increased the variety and amount of seed available to purchase for restoration. Despite this progress our failure rates on post-fire seeding project remain alarmingly high. There are two general approaches to address this problem. The BLM approach to post-fire seeding, seeding cost and success rates first is to reduce the amount of resources allocated to these high risk activities. The second To set the stage for understanding how we might enhance our ability to facilitate would be to improve our understanding of the factors causing these failures and then use rangeland recovery following wildfire it makes sense to first examine the general way the this understanding to identify tools and management strategies that could mitigate these BLM approaches these activities. The BLM and other federal land management agencies factors. Given that we know rangelands have limited ability to recover on their own folhave three major categories for post-fire management activities. Emergency stabilization lowing catastrophic fire, the first approach generally would not provide an opportunity to activities address immediate threats to life, property and natural resources and must be conserve and protect our already limited base of healthy productive rangeland. If we are completed within one year of the fire. Rehabilitation activities focus on repairing lands interested in protecting what healthy rangeland we have, then it is critical that we improve damaged by fire and not likely to recover on their own and must be completed within 3 years our ability to restore these systems following fire. This requires an understanding of the of the fire and. Restoration activities extend rehabilitation activities beyond the 3 years. factors limiting seedling establishment. The important point about these definitions is these activities are funded from different The factors that limit seedling establishment on arid rangeland may seem obvious, pots of money. The consequence of this is that there tends to be relatively more money for namely lack of water during critical growth periods. Certainly very wet years are conshort-term reactive seeding treatments through Emergency Stabilization programs but less ducive to seedling establishment. However, in many cases there may not be a direct cormoney for long-term proactive treatments and adaptive management through Rehabilita- respondence between seedling establishment and precipitation. For example, at a planting tion and Restoration activities. site near Burns, OR over 7 native bunchgrasses per square foot established in 2007 with 6 BLM allocates a substantial amount of money to emergency stabilization seeding. inches of precipitation. In 2009, less than 1 bunchgrass per square foot established with 9 In 2007 for example, the BLM spent more than $60 million seeding rangeland following inches of precipitation. Likewise, in BLM post fire seedings around Burns in 2009, in some wildfire. The per acre seeding costs can be substantial, ranging from around $25 to more sites more than 4 plants per square foot established and at other sites almost no seedlings than $150 per acre depending on established. We cannot control the equipment needs, seed costs and amount of water Mother Nature labor. Given the high per acre provides each year and clearly treatment cost, and the fact that fire water is not the only factor limitimpacts are not uniform across the ing seedling establishment on arid landscape, not all burned rangeland rangeland. A more comprehensive is reseeded. The BLM treatment understanding of what factors conplanning process emphasizes treattribute to this year to year and site ment on portions of the landscape to site variation in seedling estabwhere seeding will have the greatlishment is warranted. est likelihood of success and the One recent line of work has greatest positive impact on rangeasked the question: When do most land recovery following wildfire. seeds/seedlings die following postUnfortunately, most of us know fire restoration? If we can identify that even when ideal sites are sethe time of the growing season that lected (low amounts of weeds, good most death occurs we might be soils, flat topography) rangeland able to link this to certain environseeding is a high risk practice. A mental factors. Once these factors recent scientific synthesis through are identified, we will be in a good the NRCS put some numbers beposition to identify potential tools hind this general observation and and management strategies that found that in many cases seeding could mitigate these factors. To success rates were less than 10% fully understand this approach it and in some situations could be less helps to think about all the hurdles This NASA satellite photo shows the burn scars from the recent fires Southeast Oregon and than 5%. While we know rangeland a seed goes through trying to beNevada, from space.

20 January 2013

The Progressive Rancher

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astrophic Wildfire come an established plant. Once seeds are sown with a drill the seed in the soil can do one of three things; it can germinate (initiate root growth from the seed), it can die, or it can remain dormant in the soil. Once a seed commits to germination the clock starts and the seed needs to then extend a leaf through the soil. This process is called emergence. For grasses, once seedlings emerge they need to grow and produce tillers to survive the dry season and winter. Over the last 5 years, seedlings in southeast Oregon have been closely followed to identify when most the death occurs and the answers were surprising. For native bunchgrasses, across multiple sites and multiple years, germination of sown seeds was 60% or higher but less than 10% of the seed that germinated emerged from the soil. The few seedlings that did emerge, however, showed very high long-term survival. Emergence in the Intermountain region typically occurs between February and March. This means that factors such as grazing, weeds or summer drought are not killing most of the seedlings. These patterns of seedling death suggest factors early in the growing season, such as freeze-thaw events, fungal attacks on seeds, or winter drought might be killing seedlings. Interestingly, and in line with our current understanding, the introduced bunchgrass, crested wheatgrass, showed greater seedling establishment than the native bunchgrasses at all sites and all years. The reason for the greater success of crested wheatgrass over the natives was because crested wheatgrass had a greater ability to emerge through the soil than the natives, not due to a greater ability to germinate or survive summer drought. This suggests that the same factors that influence variation in native grass establishment likely are the same factors that contribute to the difference between crested wheatgrass and native bunchgrass establishment. Three lines of work are currently being explored as ways to overcome factors limiting seedling establishment. This includes development of seed coats that can protect seeds from freeze-thaw events and fungal pathogens, breeding of plant varieties that have superior emergence, as well as identification of rangeland soil types that favor emergence. If we can manage these factors, then we will have a huge opportunity to improve our restoration outcomes for both native and introduced grasses. Enhancing rangeland seeding impacts Given our understanding of the factors limiting seedling establishment and the current policies and procedures for post-fire rangeland seeding, how might we enhance our rangeland seeding practices? As a starting point, we might consider how the widely recognized risk of seeding failures links to funding priorities. Although maintaining Emergency Stabilization support is critical, it will likely be even more cost effective to proactively treat susceptible rangelands to reduce fuel loads and decrease fire risk. Preventive treatment does not guarantee these sites will not burn (and therefore we need to maintain Emergence Stabilization support) but increased support to proactive, long-term and adaptive fuels management programs will provide the greatest return on our resource management dollar. In Emergency Stabilization situations we are beginning to understand the science and environmental conditions that drive variation in seedling establishment and contribute to the differences in establishment success between crested wheatgrass and Post fire seeding.

native bunchgrasses. This information can be used to provide the scientific basis for decision making on post-fire seeding efforts. Namely, we understand why certain environmental conditions will favor crested wheatgrass and other introduced perennials over native perennials as well as the environmental conditions that increase the likelihood of native bunchgrass establishment. Mangers can use this information to weigh the risks and benefits of different seed mixtures. Lastly, with these recent advances we should expect that over the next decade we will see significant practical improvements in our ability to use seeding to restore rangeland following fire and enhance rangelands threatened by fire. Useful References BLM (2007) Burned Area Emergency Stabilization and Rehabilitation Handbook. H-1742-1 United States Government Accountability Office (2003) Wildland fires. GAO-03-430 Hardegree SP, Jones TA, Roundy BA, Shaw NL, Monaco TA (2011) Assessment of range planting as a conservation practice. In: Briske DD (ed) Conservation Benefits of Rangeland Practices: Assessment, Recommendations, and Knowledge Gaps. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, pp 171-212 Knutson KC, Pyke DA, Wirth TA, Pilliod DS, Brooks ML, Chambers JC (2009) A Chronosequence Feasibility Assessment of Emergency Fire Rehabilitation Records within the Intermountain Western United States-Final Report to the Joint Fire Science Program. Open file report 2009-1099 Sheley RL, James JJ, Rinella MJ, Blumenthal DM, DiTomasso JM (2011) A Scientific assessment of invasive plant management on anticipated conservation benefits. In: Briske DD (ed) Conservation Benefits of Rangeland Practices: Assessment, Recommendations, and Knowledge Gaps. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, pp 291-335

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The Progressive Rancher

January 2013 21


47 th Annual

FALLON

All Breeds

BULL SALE Saturday, February 16, 2013 Sifting: Friday, February 15, 2013

SALE STARTS

Fallon Livestock Exchange

AT

11:30 A.M.

Fallon, Nevada

For more information or a sale catalog, call the sale office

Nevada Cattlemen’s Association 775-738-9214 22 January 2013

P.O. Box 310, Elko, NV 89803 nca@nevadabeef.org The Progressive Rancher

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BLM News

For the Ranchers Information File

BLM Approves SNWA Water Pipeline Project

Reno, Nev.—The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will publish a notice in the Federal Register on Friday, Dec. 28, announcing the availability of the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) Clark, Lincoln, and White Pine Counties Groundwater Development Project. The notice is available on the Federal Register electronic desk on Thursday, Dec. 27. The purpose of the project is to construct a groundwater delivery system to the Las Vegas Valley. The Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation and Development Act of 2004 (Public Law 108-424), directed the Secretary of the Interior to issue a right-of-way grant on Federal land in Lincoln and Clark counties, Nev., to construct a groundwater delivery system. After extensive environmental analysis, consideration

of public comments, and application of pertinent Federal laws and policies, the Department of the Interior has decided to grant the SNWA a right-of-way for the construction, operation, maintenance, and termination of the mainline water pipeline, main power lines, pump stations, regulating tanks, water treatment facility and other ancillary facilities of the project. The decision authorizes the BLM to issue a right-ofway grant to the SNWA for the preferred alternative as analyzed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement issued in August 2012. The BLM will conduct subsequent environmental analyses for the future facilities and groundwater development. The Nevada State Engineer is the authority for approving or denying water right applications. Up to 83,988 acre-

feet per year (afy) of groundwater could be transported through the proposed facilities from the SNWA’s water rights in Spring, Delamar, Dry Lake, and Cave valleys, and up to 41,000 afy of water rights from the SNWA’s private ranches and agreements with Lincoln County. No water would be developed in Snake Valley. The ROD, signed by Deputy Secretary of the Interior David Hayes, constitutes the final decision of the Department of the Interior. Any challenge to the decision must be brought in Federal district court. A copy of the ROD is available from the BLM Nevada State Office by calling 775-861-6681, sending an e-mail request (please note “ROD copy request” in the subject line) to: nvgwprojects@blm.gov or by downloading from the internet at www.blm.gov/5w5c.

BLM Holds Public Scoping Meetings for New Vegetation Treatments on Public Lands in Western U.S.

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) today announced opportunities for the public to share ideas on the potential utilization of three new vegetation treatments to be evaluated in the national, programmatic Environmental Impact Study (EIS) to Evaluate the Use of New Herbicides on Public Lands in 17 Western States. The public may submit comments for the EIS via fax to (206)-623-3793, email to

BLM Approves County Request for Gravel Pits

Winnemucca, Nev.—The Bureau of Land Management, Winnemucca District, Humboldt River Field Office will issue the Pershing County Road Department free-use permits for mineral materials for maintenance activities, and is streamlining the process for mineral material sales to members of the public. In signing the Decision Record and Finding of No Significant Impact for the Pershing County Road Department Free Use Permit Renewals, Expansions, and Community Pit Designations Environmental Assessment, the BLM selected the Proposed Action to issue 33 Free-Use Permits to the County and designate 33 material sites as new community pits. The decision includes exceptions, which are subject to mitigation for the Big Five and Big Meadows material sites and for the proposed Humboldt River Ranch Community pit. “This decision provides much needed sand and gravel to the Pershing County Road Department for their maintenance activities, it also streamlines the process for sales to members of the public,” said BLM Winnemucca District Manager Gene Seidlitz. “I would also like to thank the Pershing County Commissioners for their support, understanding and patience during the time it has taken BLM to complete this important project.” The documents are available online at the Winnemucca website at www.blm.gov/nv/ st/en/fo/wfo/blm_information/nepa0.html. Printed copies of the documents are available at the BLM Office, 5100 East Winnemucca Blvd., Winnemucca, Nevada, during regular business hours, 7:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, except federal holidays, or will be provided upon request. For additional information, please contact Daniel Atkinson at (775) 623-1525, or at the above address. www.progressiverancher.com

VegEIS@blm.gov, or attend any of three public scoping meetings between January 7 and 10, 2013 at locations detailed at the bottom of this release. The public comment period for the scoping process extends 60 days from today. The BLM is undertaking this EIS to augment the existing list of approved treatments to include herbicides that will grant greater flexibility to vegetation management in the field. In association with the 2007 Vegetation Treatments EIS which provides a full review and analysis of herbicide use and impacts on human and natural environments, the proposed new herbicides programmatic EIS will evaluate only aminopyralid, fluroxypyr, and rimsulfuron as potentially viable treatments. The treatments are designed to help the BLM manage vegetation on more than 6 million acres of public land by providing options for controlling noxious weeds and other invasive species, and conserving and restoring native vegetation, watersheds, and fish and wildlife habitat. The EIS will cover a range of issues including the effects of the herbicides and its inert ingredients on human, vegetation, fish and wildlife, livestock, and wild horse and burro health; water quality, Native American Resources and resource use; and the cumulative use of these and other herbicides by the BLM and other landowners in the Western U.S. The analysis area will include all surface estate public lands administered by the BLM in Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nevada, North and South Dakota, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. The BLM welcomes identification of additional issues and concerns by the public. A reasonable range of alternatives will be developed to respond to the issues identified at the outset of the NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) process. Each alternative will outline solutions to the issues and concerns brought out through public scoping to develop reasonable approaches for using these new treatment options. To check the status of the EIS, or access associated documents and updates, visit www. blm.gov/3kvd. Dates and locations for the BLM public scoping meetings are • Worland Community Center Complex, 1200 Culbertson Avenue, Worland, WY, (307)-347-8616, January 7, 2013, 7 pm local • Hyatt Place Reno Airport, 1790 East Plumb Lane, Reno, NV (775)-826-2500, January 9, 2013, 7 pm local • Albuquerque District Office, 435 Montano Road NE, Albuquerque, NM, (505)761-8700, January 10, 2013, 7 pm local

The Progressive Rancher

January 2013 23


How to Research Land & Water for By Katie Marvel DeLong* and Sarah R. Liljefelt, Therese A. Ure, Schroeder Law Offices, P.C.† (Editor’s Note: Because of the timeliness of this topic, we have opted to reprint Part I of the original three part series which was printed in The Progressive Rancher Magazine in 2012.) Introduction The phrase “vested water rights” will grab the attention of most Nevada Ranchers, as well as ranchers all across the western United States. This is because Nevada’s water laws, like other states in the West, are founded on what is called the “prior appropriation doctrine.”1 The prior appropriation doctrine allocates water based on the “first in time, first in right” principle. 2 Therefore, the first person to divert water and put it to beneficial use has the superior right and may take their water before junior water rights are satisfied in times of water shortage. Nevada’s water allocation system evolved over time. Initially, the prior appropriation system arose based on the customs of early settlers rather than being based on state laws. Nevada’s surface water code came into existence on March 1, 1905.3 Statutory provisions relating to artesian 1 Nevada Division of Water Planning, Nevada State Water Plan, Part 1, Section 6, Glossary of Terminology, available at http://water.nv.gov/programs/planning/stateplan/documents/ pt1-sec6.pdf, last viewed September 27, 2011. See also, Nevada Division of Water Resources, Nevada Water Law: Water Law Overview, available at: http://water.nv.gov/waterrights/waterlaw/index.cfm, last viewed September 27, 2011. 2 Id. 3 Nevada Division of Water Resources, Nevada Water Law: The Role of the State, available at: http://water.nv.gov/waterrights/ waterlaw/state_role.cfm, last viewed September 27, 2011.

groundwater sources developed on March 22, 1913, and a percolating groundwater code was passed on March 22, 1939.4 As a result, water rights arising after those dates must comply with Nevada’s statutory scheme, including the requirement to apply to the State of Nevada for the issuance of a water right permit prior to using waters of the state.5 But what about surface water rights that arose prior to 1905, artesian rights prior to 1913 and groundwater rights prior to 1939? Prior to Nevada’s water code, water users did not need to apply to the state to obtain water right permits. All that was necessary was that users diverted the water and placed it to beneficial use.6 Thus, persons who began using water before Nevada started issuing water right permits for the particular water sources still have valid water rights.7 Pre-code water rights are called “vested water rights.”8 Vested water rights can be extremely valuable because 4 Id. 5 Nevada Division of Water Resources, Nevada Water Law: Water Permits, available at: http://water.nv.gov/waterrights/waterlaw/ water_permits.cfm, last viewed September 27, 2011. 6 Anderson Family Associates v. Hugh Ricci, P.E., 124 Nev. 182, footnote 13 (2008).

they have the earliest priority dates. That means that the owners of vested water rights may take water before junior water users when there is not enough water to satisfy all existing water rights from a particular source. Nevada is the driest state in the nation (measured by average annual precipitation),9 and thus vested water rights are highly coveted by Nevada water users. Vested water rights start as vested water right “claims.” Persons using water rights dating back prior to the Nevada water code must make a claim of right with the Nevada State Engineer.10 Although claims are typically submitted to the State Engineer after the initiation of a stream adjudication, they can be made at any time11 A stream adjudication is the process by which the state can determine all the water rights along a particular waterway or within a particular water basin, including individual water rights, Indian water rights and federal water rights.12 All persons with water rights must submit claims to the State Engineer in order to be issued a 9 US Geological Survey, Nevada Water Science Center, SurfaceWater Information and Data, available at: http://nevada.usgs. gov/water/infodata/surfacewater.htm, last viewed September 27, 2011.

7 Bureau of Land Management, Nevada Water Rights Fact Sheet, available at http://www.blm.gov/nstc/WaterLaws/nevada.html, last viewed September 27, 2011. NRS 533.024(2) 2011.

11 Id.

8 Id; see also, Anderson Family Associates, 124 Nev. at 188.

12 Id.; NRS 533.024(2) 2011.

10 Bureau of Land Management, Nevada Water Rights Fact Sheet, supra note 9.

* Katie DeLong is a fifth generation cattle rancher in northern Nevada. She ranches with her family near the Black Rock Desert. Katie is a teacher, wife, and mother of three. She can be contacted at (775) 941-0196. † Schroeder Law Offices, P.C. is a law firm with offices in Reno, Nevada and Portland, Oregon. Its attorneys are licensed to practice law in Nevada, Oregon, California and Washington. Schroeder Law Offices focuses mainly on water law, property law and public lands issues. Please visit the firm’s website at www.water-law.com, or contact the firm at (503) 281-4100, (775) 786-8800, or by email at counsel@ water-law.com. Sarah Liljefelt and Therese Ure are attorneys with Schroeder Law Offices.

Hage vs US – A Historical Perspective 1978: Wayne Hage and his wife Jean buy the 7,000 acre Pine Creek Ranch, adjacent to the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest in central Nevada. The ranch has roughly 752,000 acres of grazing allotments on federal lands plus water rights predating federal ownership(1866).

1978

1979

The Nevada Department of Wildlife, with Forest Service approval, release non-native elk on their allotments, which compete with their cattle for grass and water and damage fences.

24 January 2013

More of Hage’s grazing permits are cancelled. Three other ranchers who had also lost grazing permits also filed lawsuits, all of which failed.

The Hages are told to move cattle out of overgrazed areas and fix fences. Maintenance of ditches and ditch right-ofways(for which he held a vested water right) by Hage becomes an issue. The Forest Service insists on Hage’s obtaining a special use permit to perform this work. Hage fails to comply.

1980 — 1990

1979:

1994:

1980-1990:

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1991: The Forest Service cancels some of the Hages’ grazing permits, and impounds and auctions off more than 100 cows. The Hages bring suite against the US government for Fifth Amendment takings, breach of contract and seek $28 million in compensation for range improvements and loss of economic value of their ranching operation. They argue that government actions kept them from using their water and forage rights and the improvements they’d built, such as corrals, spring boxes and fences, and destroyed the economic value of their ranch.

The Progressive Rancher

1996: Jean Hage dies.

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Proof of Vested Water Right Claims “decreed” or “determined” right upon the conclusion of the stream adjudication with the earliest priority date of use taking precedence.13 It is vital for a vested water right holder to prove his claim with sufficient records and documentation. A claimant must prove that the claimed water use began prior to the relevant water code date, and must prove continual use up to the present time.14 This can prove to be a daunting task given the historical proof that is required in order to prove a pre-code, vested water right. Proof of continuous use is important in order to prove that a water right has not been forfeited or abandoned. Abandonment may occur when a water user fails to use his water and manifests his intent to abandon the water right.15 Forfeiture may occur when a water user fails to exercise his water right for a period of five or more consecutive years.16 All types of water rights, whether permitted, certificated, vested, adjudicated, or un-adjudicated, are subject to abandonment and forfeiture.17 When a water right is abandoned or forfeited the right reverts to the state to hold for the public, and may be appropriated by another water user.18 If the State Engineer determines that a water right is about to be forfeited or appears to have been abandoned, they will send notification by mail to the record owner of the

water right in order to allow the owner to correct the situation.19 For this reason, it is very important that water right owners send a Report of Conveyance (“ROC”)20 to the State Engineer when they obtain property with appurtenant water rights. The ROC allows the State Engineer to update the state’s records concerning ownership. If the records are not updated, the most current owner will not receive notification regarding potential abandonment or forfeiture.21 Additionally, the State Engineer will not take any action regarding requested changes to the water right unless the ownership is up to date.

15 See generally, Revert v. Ray, 95 Nev. 782 (1979); NRS 534.090(4).

Why should land records and water rights be researched? Researching land records and water rights is essential to knowing what rights are held by the property owner. A thorough inquisition into land records and water rights will produce evidence affirming the ownership of those rights. Furthermore, the evidence obtained will be instrumental in proving which rights have the earliest priority dates, which is important if a vested water right claim is challenged or adjudicated. Documentation to support a vested water right claim may protect a water right holder from forfeiture. More and more people are realizing the significance of getting their records, documentation, and vested water claims filed prior to any initiation of adjudication in order to protect and validate their rights. When researching land records and water rights, it is important to gather as much information as possible. The research is similar to doing a jigsaw puzzle; one piece taken by itself does not yield a significant amount of information,

16 NRS 534.090(1); see also, Preferred Equities Corp. v. State Engineer, State of Nevada, 119 Nev. 384 (2003).

19 NRS 534.090(1) and (4).

17 Id. However, not all water rights from certain sources are subject to abandonment. NRS 533.060.

20 The Report of Conveyance form is available online at: http:// water.nv.gov/forms/.

18 Id.

21 Division of Water Resources v. Foley, 121 Nev. 77, 82 (2005).

13 Bureau of Land Management, Nevada Water Rights Fact Sheet, supra note 9; NRS 533.430(1) 2011. 14 Id.

but all of the pieces together provide a clear and complete picture of historical land and water use. In addition, when dealing with vested water claims for stock watering, it is essential to keep in mind a few basic historic facts regarding cattle ranching in Nevada. First, in the late 1800s and early 1900s, fences were virtually nonexistent, particularly in remote areas. Fences that did exist were few and far between. Water sources were, and continue to be, scarce in the arid, dry climate. Out of necessity, it was vital for cattle to find and use all water sources on the range in which they occupied and for cattle ranchers to maintain this water. Furthermore, limited water also made it crucial for ranchers to provide additional livestock water sources through hand dug wells and the use of perforated well-points to create artesian water sources. By providing evidence of cattle use on range land, the land owner can provide evidence for beneficial use of water, stock watering, to support the vested water claim. What is involved in researching property? Research is a time consuming task which requires that the researcher be highly motivated. It can often be difficult for one person to thoroughly research a vested water right claim, especially when competing with the required work to run and maintain a ranch or other full-time job. In addition, researching land records and water rights is not free; fees are generally charged for obtaining copies of records, and research professionals, if utilized, must be compensated. However, there are many resources and people available that can assist with research projects of this nature, including internet sites, informative books, independent researchers, and title companies, to name a few. Enlisting help in your research endeavor can yield significant benefits, so do not be afraid to engage support, either paid or volunteer, for this project!

2002:

2008:

Judge Loren Smith of the U.S. Court of Federal Claims rejects Hage’s claim that he owns the surface estate on his grazing allotments, but rules that Hage owns private-property rights to water and forage, and that he doesn’t need a grazing or special use permit to access those rights.

The Claims Court decides the issue of whether a government takings had occurred. The Court held that, “The Forest Service’s construction of fences of federal land around water and streams in which ranch owners had a vested water right constituted a physical taking.” The Claims Court also awarded the Hage Estate $4.2 million in compensation for improvements made to federal lands whose utility had expired with the revocation of the grazing permits. The government appeals the decision.

1998

1999

2000

2001

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit overturns the award of 2008.

2012

Aug. 2012:

2006: Wayne Hage dies at the age of 69.

2002

July 2012:

2010 Judge Smith increases the award by $152,000 to compensate for some ditches and pipelines. The government again appeals.

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Federal judge Robert C. Jones in Reno rules in the Hages’ favor in a separate but related court battle that began in 2007, when the BLM and Forest Service sued Hage’s estate and his son, Wayne N. Hage, claiming the ranch had run cattle without a permit. Judge Jones cites a BLM manager and a Forest Service ranger for contempt of court, saying they improperly carried out enforcement actions against the Hages during the litigation process and threatens to order them to pay damages. This ruling will also likely be appealed. Judge Jones also orders Wayne Hage Jr. executor of the Hage Estate to file for the winter grazing AUMS for the Ralston allotment, and for the Federal Government to issue them. (This information was extrapolated from a Range magazine press release.) Judge Jones’ written opinion is still pending. The Progressive Rancher

January 2013 25


National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Basic Information The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.] was signed into law on January 1, 1970. The Act establishes national environmental policy and goals for the protection, maintenance, and enhancement of the environment and provides a process for implementing these goals within the federal agencies. The Act also establishes the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). The complete text of the law is available for review at NEPAnet (http://nepa.gov/nepa/nepanet.htm).

NEPA Requirements Title I of NEPA contains a Declaration of National Environmental Policy which requires the federal government to use all practicable means to create and maintain conditions under which man and nature can exist in productive harmony. Section 102 requires federal agencies to incorporate environmental considerations in their planning and decision-making through a systematic interdisciplinary approach. Specifically, all federal agencies are to prepare detailed statements assessing the environmental impact of and alternatives to major federal actions significantly affecting the environment. These statements are commonly referred to as environmental impact statements (EISs). Title II of NEPA establishes the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ).

Oversight Of NEPA The Council on Environmental Quality, which is headed by a fulltime Chair, oversees NEPA. A staff assists the Council. The duties and functions of the Council are listed in Title II, Section 204 of NEPA and include: • Gathering information on the conditions and trends in environmental quality • Evaluating federal programs in light of the goals established in Title I of the Act • Developing and promoting national policies to improve environmental quality • Conducting studies, surveys, research, and analyses relating to ecosystems and environmental quality.

Implementation In 1978, CEQ promulgated regulations [40 CFR Parts 1500-15081] implementing NEPA which are binding on all federal agencies. The regulations address the procedural provisions of NEPA and the administration of the NEPA process, including preparation of EISs. To date, the only change in the NEPA regulations occurred on May 27, 1986, when CEQ amended Section 1502.22 of its regulations to clarify how agencies are to carry out their environmental evaluations in situations where information is incomplete or unavailable. CEQ has also issued guidance on various aspects of the regulations including: an information document on “Forty Most Asked Questions Concerning CEQ’s National Environmental Policy Act,” Scoping Guidance, and Guidance Regarding NEPA Regulations. Additionally, most federal agencies have promulgated their own NEPA regulations and guidance which generally follow the CEQ procedures but are tailored for the specific mission and activities of the agency.

The NEPA Process The NEPA process consists of an evaluation of the environmental effects of a federal undertaking including its alternatives. There are three levels of analysis: categorical exclusion determination; preparation of an environmental assessment/finding of no significant impact (EA/FONSI); and preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS). • Categorical Exclusion: At the first level, an undertaking may be categorically excluded from a detailed environmental analysis if it meets certain criteria which a federal agency has previously determined as having no significant environmental impact. A number of agencies have developed lists of actions which are normally categorically excluded from environmental evaluation under their NEPA regulations. • EA/FONSI: At the second level of analysis, a federal agency prepares a written environmental assessment (EA) to determine whether or not a federal undertaking would significantly affect the environment. If the answer is no, the agency issues a finding of no significant impact (FONSI). The FONSI may address measures which an agency will take to mitigate potentially significant impacts. • EIS: If the EA determines that the environmental consequences of a proposed federal undertaking may be significant, an EIS is prepared. An EIS is a more detailed evaluation of the proposed action and alternatives. The public, other federal agencies and outside parties may provide input into the preparation of an EIS and then comment on the draft EIS when it is completed. If a federal agency anticipates that an undertaking may significantly impact the envi-

26 January 2013

ronment, or if a project is environmentally controversial, a federal agency may choose to prepare an EIS without having to first prepare an EA. After a final EIS is prepared and at the time of its decision, a federal agency will prepare a public record of its decision addressing how the findings of the EIS, including consideration of alternatives, were incorporated into the agency’s decision-making process.

EA And EIS Components An EA is described in Section 1508.9 of the CEQ NEPA regulations. Generally, an EA includes brief discussions of the following: • The need for the proposal • Alternatives (when there is an unresolved conflict concerning alternative uses of available resources) • The environmental impacts of the proposed action and alternatives • A listing of agencies and persons consulted. An EIS, which is described in Part 1502 of the regulations, should include: • Discussions of the purpose of and need for the action • Alternatives • The affected environment • The environmental consequences of the proposed action • Lists of preparers, agencies, organizations and persons to whom the statement is sent • An index • An appendix (if any)

Federal Agency Role The role of a federal agency in the NEPA process depends on the agency’s expertise and relationship to the proposed undertaking. The agency carrying out the federal action is responsible for complying with the requirements of NEPA. • Lead Agency: In some cases, there may be more than one federal agency involved in an undertaking. In this situation, a lead agency is designated to supervise preparation of the environmental analysis. Federal agencies, together with state, tribal or local agencies, may act as joint lead agencies. • Cooperating Agency: A federal, state, tribal or local agency having special expertise with respect to an environmental issue or jurisdiction by law may be a cooperating agency in the NEPA process. A cooperating agency has the responsibility to assist the lead agency by participating in the NEPA process at the earliest possible time; by participating in the scoping process; in developing information and preparing environmental analyses including portions of the environmental impact statement concerning which the cooperating agency has special expertise; and in making available staff support at the lead agency’s request to enhance the lead agency’s interdisciplinary capabilities. • Council of Environmental Quality (CEQ): Under Section 1504 of CEQ’s NEPA regulations, federal agencies may refer to CEQ on interagency disagreements concerning proposed federal actions that might cause unsatisfactory environmental effects. CEQ’s role, when it accepts a referral, is generally to develop findings and recommendations, consistent with the policy goals of Section 101 of NEPA.

EPA’s Role The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), like other federal agencies, prepares and reviews NEPA documents. However, EPA has a unique responsibility in the NEPA review process. Under Section 309 of the Clean Air Act, EPA is required to review and publicly comment on the environmental impacts of major federal actions, including actions which are the subject of EISs. If EPA determines that the action is environmentally unsatisfactory, it is required by Section 309 to refer the matter to CEQ. In accordance with a Memorandum of Agreement between EPA and CEQ, EPA carries out the operational duties associated with the administrative aspects of the EIS filing process. The Office of Federal Activities in EPA has been designated the official recipient in EPA of all EISs prepared by federal agencies.

The Public’s Role The public has an important role in the NEPA process, particularly during scoping, in providing input on what issues should be addressed in an EIS and in commenting on the findings in an agency’s NEPA documents. The public can participate in the NEPA process by attending NEPA-related hearings or public meetings and by submitting comments directly to the lead agency. The lead agency must take into consideration all comments received from the public and other parties on NEPA documents during the comment period.

The Progressive Rancher

www.progressiverancher.com


Applications for Conservation Funding Due Feb. 15

RENO, December 21, 2012 — The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has received more than $8 million in financial assistance for the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) for fiscal year 2013. The funds help Nevada producers implement conservation practices under the agency’s largest Farm Bill conservation program. Applications must be received by Feb. 15 to be considered in the next round of funding. “EQIP offers farmers, ranchers and forestland managers a variety of options to conserve natural resources while boosting production on their lands,” said State Conservationist Bruce Petersen. “This investment in conservation helps improve environmental health and the economy of rural communities in Nevada.” EQIP provides financial assistance for a variety of conservation activities, such as irrigation water management, rotational grazing systems, pest control and much more. Additionally, NRCS offers special initiatives through EQIP, including: • On-Farm Energy Initiative: helps producers conserve energy on their operations. • Seasonal High Tunnel Initiative: helps producers install high tunnels designed to extend the growing season into the cold months, increase productivity, keep

plants at a steady temperature and conserve water and energy. • Organic Initiative: helps producers to install conservation practices on certified organic operations or those working toward organic certification. • Sage-Grouse Initiative – helps sustain working ranches and conserve greater sage-grouse in the West • Working Lands for Wildlife – helps restore habitat for the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher in southern Nevada EQIP applications are accepted on a continuous basis but periodic closing dates are announced so that the applications can be ranked and funded. The next closing date is Feb. 15, 2013. To participate in EQIP, an applicant must be an individual, entity or joint operation that meets EQIP eligibility criteria. Applicants can sign up at their local NRCS service center. For more information, contact your local USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service or visit the national Web site at www.nrcs.usda.gov.

NRCS Accepting Applications for Conservation Easements under Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program Applications Due March 1, 2013

RENO, Dec. 21 — The USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) is accepting applications for fiscal year 2013 funding for the Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program (FRPP). The purpose of FRPP is to protect agricultural use and related conservation values of eligible land by limiting non-agricultural uses of the land with conservation easements. The deadline to submit applications is Friday, March 1, 2013 to be considered in the first ranking period for fiscal year 2013 funding. However, applications are accepted on a continual basis. Applications received after that date will be accepted and considered for funding if funds are available after first cycle applications are processed.

Nevada Goat Producers Association

The Nevada Goat Producers Association was formed because Nevada goat breeders and producers felt a need for an organization to represent them all collectively and to provide a means of communication between producers throughout the state. Our goal is to educate the public about goats and goat products of all kinds including meat and dairy goats as food producers, fiber goats as sources of wool and fiber products, 4H and FFA projects, and hobby goats as pets, and pack animals. In addition, we want to educate goat producers themselves in the latest methods of maintaining high quality, healthy animals that are profitable and well taken care of. There is a lot of misinformation in the public realm about goats and their care, and we feel correct factual information is beneficial to both goat owners and the goats themselves. Many of our members have been involved with dairy and meat goats for 25 or more years. Others are beginners just starting out as meat goat producers or hobby breeders. Meat goats are an important industry nationally as a source of quality, low fat, grass fed and chemical free meat, and production and demand is growing yearly. Nevada has many producers of meat goats with more people interested in becoming involved in this industry as demand continues to grow. Dairy goats are becoming popular as home milk producers, even in large cities such as Seattle. They are small enough to be easy to handle, house, and feed, and their milk can be used raw or pasteurized for drinking or made into cheese and yogurt products for the family. The NGPA plans to sponsor educational events for goat producers and for the general public on the care and use of goats and goat products. We want to support more meat and dairy goat shows here in Nevada, both in open classes and youth events for 4H and FFA. We also want to be a united force to show how important the goat industry is to Nevada agriculture and to influence lawmakers to support legislation important to the success of small family farm enterprises, and to ensure that these family businesses continue to flourish. We welcome goat producers from all of Nevada to join us. Our website is http://www.nevadagoatproducers.webs.com Contact information: Gloria Montero 775-427-8210 www.progressiverancher.com

Landowners interested in participating in the program work through an eligible nongovernmental organizations, State, Tribal, or local government that has an existing farm or ranch land protection program. The eligible nongovernmental organization, State, Tribal, or local government then submits the FRPP proposal to NRCS State Conservationist Bruce Petersen. Participating organizations are required to provide at least 25% matching funds with NRCS contribution not to exceed 50% of the fair market value determined by an appraisal of the property offered for the program. Nongovernmental organizations, State, Tribal, or local governments that have an existing farm or ranch land protection programs are encouraged to contact their local NRCS District Conservationist or call Gary Roeder, Assistant State Conservationist for Programs, at (775) 857-8500 x 103 to obtain more information to determine if the FRPP is a good fit to their land preservation objectives. NRCS also announced that authorizations for the Grassland Reserve Program (GRP) and the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) expired on Sept. 30, 2012. “No new applications for these programs can be accepted but we will continue to service prior-year contracts,” said Petersen. For more information, contact Roeder at (775) 857-8500 x 103, your local USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service office or visit the national Web site at www.nrcs. usda.gov.

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January 2013 27


Grass Hay Meadow Fertilization: Yes or No? Brad Schultz, Humboldt County Extension Educator

S

harpen your shovels and your pencils. Many producers question whether they should purchase expensive hay in the fall or expensive fertilizer this spring? Irrigation and fertilizer management determine which plants are most common in a hay field and their effect on the quality, quantity and long-term production of forage from grass-hay meadows. Hay quality depends on the type of forage plants in the field, fertilization practices, irrigation management, and the growth stage at harvest. Proper management can increase the biomass of desired plant species and improve their nutritional quality. Continuous irrigation occurs on most meadow hay lands in the Intermountain West. Meadows remain saturated during much of the growing season and dry out in mid to late summer. Prolonged saturation increases sedges and rushes, which are low quality forage plants. Intermittent irrigation allows the soil to periodically dry out, become warmer and have more soil oxygen. These factors increase desirable grass species, which improves hay quality. The specific soil type (e.g., clay, loam or sand) determines the frequency and duration of irrigation. Soil fertility, particularly available nitrogen, also influences the plant composition of a meadow. Unfertilized meadows, with few desirable grasses and mostly sedges and rushes, can become mostly desired grasses with proper fertilization. The conversion to grasses may take several years or more, and can be reversed if fertilization stops. Applying higher rates of fertilizer can speed up the process, with good cutting or grazing management Nitrogen (N) is the most important element for plant growth. The amount applied affects production more than the type applied. Usually 80 to 100 pounds of actual nitrogen per acre results in optimum forage production. Higher rates can result in more hay production and quicker conversion to desired grasses, but usually are not economical. Nitrogen should be applied in the fall unless the fields remain saturated from a high water table or flooding. For fields grazed in the spring, N should be applied after livestock are removed. Nitrogen concentrates in the forages’ leaves and when livestock graze the leaves some of the nitrogen is lost. If fertilization occurs after livestock are moved from meadows, there must be enough irrigation water to move the fertilizer into the root zone for plant uptake and full plant growth. Phosphorus (P) often has low levels in western hay meadows. High soil pH can further limit its availability to the plant. Phosphorus, particularly in combination with N, can dramatically increase forage production and forage quality. When phosphorous is deficient, producers should apply three parts N to one part P (i.e. 30-10-0). All other nutrients required for plant growth are normally not deficient in the west. Percent crude protein and total digestible nutrients (TDN) are useful indicators of hay quality. As their percentages increase, hay quality improves. Crude protein is the nitrogen content (from all sources) of a forage multiplied by 6.25. The larger the value, the better the forage quality for ruminant livestock. TDN is a calculated figure representing the sum of all the digestible organic nutrients in the feed. Sixty years of forage testing in northeastern Nevada show that fertilizing meadows usually improves forage quality. Additional research in Colorado, Oregon, and Idaho had similar results. At N application rates greater than 80 pounds per acre, the additional N increased crude protein levels. When N application rates were under 80 pounds per acre, crude protein levels decreased. The amount of N applied was enough to increase forage production but the N became diluted across the increased biomass, reducing their protein content. An analysis of over 300 hay samples from northeastern Nevada found that crude Sonny Davidson protein was 2.6 percent higher on fertilized Jason B. Land meadows. Fertilized, early cut hay (before 2213 N. 5th St. , Elko, NV 89801 July 15) averaged 5.0 percent more crude 775-738-8811, 800-343-0077 protein than non-fertilized, late cut hay www.edwardjones.com (after July 15).

Call or Stop By!

Have a Prosperous New Year!

28 January 2013

Table 1 summarizes the average chemical analysis for fertilized and non-fertilized hay samples, across a wide variety of treatments. The fertilized hays received varying amounts and types of nutrients. The figures shown in Table 1 represent a combination of hays cut early and late. The quality differences become important when they are compared with the nutrient requirements of a pregnant, 1000-pound cow in the second and third trimester (Table 2). Non-fertilized hay clearly does not meet a cow’s nutrient requirements, except for calcium. Fertilized hay, however, is adequate in every category. Hay yields are usually expressed as tons of hay harvested per acre. Pounds of crude protein harvested per acre may be a more meaningful production figure. Fertilized hay has about 2.6 percent more crude protein than non-fertilized hay; therefore, one ton of fertilized hay has 52 more pounds of crude protein than a ton of non-fertilized hay. Also, the fertilized hay will produce significantly more forage from the same acreage. Several factors determine the economic returns from a fertilization program. Typically, fields with deep, loamy soil and abundant, manageable water supplies will have the best economic return. However, low quality hay fields can produce economic returns if fertilizer prices are not too high. Producers are advised to follow recommended irrigation practices and test fertilization on a small scale. Production increases should then be compared with the cost of the fertilizer. Producers should remember that changing plant species with fertilizer and water management takes time. A two to three-year trial may be necessary. Summary Nitrogen fertilization often more than doubles grass hay yield and increases the hay’s nutritional quality. High prices for purchased hay and soaring feed costs suggest that better yields of high quality grass hay are an important consideration— probably more important than high fertilizer prices. Grass hay producers in the Intermountain West can produce high quality hay with proper management, which should include intermittent irrigation, proper fertilization, and harvesting hay at the proper growth stage. Each individual practice helps, but application of all three practices yields the highest quantity and quality of hay at the lowest price. Table 1. Average quality of fertilized and non-fertilized northeastern Nevada grass hay 1946-2009. Data in tables 1 and 2 are from Torell et al. (1988), Improving Grass Hay through Fertilizer and irrigation Management (UNCE Fact Sheet 88-44). % Crude Protein

% Phosphorus

% Calcium

%Crude Fiber

% TDN*

Fertilized

10.10

0.21

0.45

30.90

55.10

Nonfertilized

7.51

0.17

0.54

31.20

51.30

Treatment

Difference

-2.59

-0.04

0.09

0.30

-3.80

% Change

-25.60

19.70

20.00

0.10

-6.90

*TDN = Crude Protein x 1.454 + 40385 Table 2. Nutrient requirements of a 1000-pound cow during the last two-thirds of pregnancy compared to the nutritive value of fertilized and non-fertilized northeastern Nevada hays Nutrient Requirements Middle 3rd

Nutrient Requirements Last 3rd

Nutrient Value Fertilized

Nutrient Value Non-Fertilized

Crude protein %

7.00

7.90

10.10

(7.50)*

TDN %

48.80

53.60

55.10

(51.30)

Calcium %

0.18

0.26

0.45

0.54

Phosphorus %

0.18

0.20

0.21

(0.17)

The Progressive Rancher

*Figures in parenthesis do not meet the nutrient requirements of a 1000-pound pregnant cow. www.progressiverancher.com


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January 2013 29


Management of Native Hay Meadows After Herbicide Treatment for Noxious Weeds Brad Schultz, University of Nevada Cooperative Extension, Extension Educator Kent McAdoo, University of Nevada Cooperative Extension, Natural Resources Specialist

N

ative grass-hay meadows and pastures are an essential component of most Great Basin ranches. These areas frequently become infested with noxious weeds. The first few weeds have little effect on hay production or quality. Left uncontrolled, however, weeds rapidly spread and cause significant declines in forage quantity and/or quality in the future. A decrease in the forage resource eventually reduces operational flexibility and the long-term stability and viability of the ranch. Property values may decline by 50% or more. The most commonly used tool for weed control is herbicides. Modern herbicides are powerful and quick acting. Treated weeds will often show symptoms within a week and die shortly thereafter. The following spring, weed populations often have 85 to 95 fewer plants and it appears that the weed has become a thing of the past. But, have we successfully controlled the weed? Unfortunately, the answer is no. After a successful herbicide application several conditions exist. First, there often large areas of bare ground and/ or a thin stand of desired forage species. Russian knapweed, perennial pepperweed and other deep-rooted perennial species often form large patches that crowd out other species. As a result, when the weed is removed a substantial amount of bare ground is left. It may take several growing seasons

113 Ranch in Panaca, Nevada. Good money maker in great country! This 631 acre farm borders the scenic Rainbow Canyon State Park. Alfalfa Production averages 4 cuttings/yr in this area yet the 5,000’ elevation still provides the high protein and TDN valued by the Dairies. Exceptionally nice improvements including a 3700 sq. ft. home, concrete horse barn, hay storage for over 3000 ton, a 400 hd. Feedlot made of pipe and concrete, livestock scales, and large shop and storage buildings. 5 pivots, three of which are in new alfalfa this year. Price: $2.8 million. Clover Valley Farm No. 2: 242 Acres of which 160 are water righted. Two irrigation wells and a stock well plus the main residential well. Nice newer manufactured home, a 5 car detached garage, a 5000 sq. ft. metal building with concrete floor, a 2400 sq. ft. pole barn with gravel floor, green house. Priced to sell at $500.000. Tent Mountain Ranch, Starr Valley, Nevada. 3500 Deeded acres at the foot of the majestic East Humboldt Range the Northern extension of the Ruby Mountains. Several perennial Streams flow through the ranch and wildlife are a daily part of the scenery. Improvements are good with a large home approx. 5,000. sq.ft., plus a second modular home and beautiful Mountain Cabin. Barn with water, hay barn, and other storage. Access onto paved road. Actually 18 legal parcels and parcel pricing would start at $1,200 AC. Price: REDUCED AGAIN TO $3,700,000.

MASON MOUNTAIN RANCH – SOLD

or more for the residual forage species to fully occupy the treated areas. The actual rate will depend upon the size of the bare areas, the availability of irrigation water and the vigor of the remaining forage species. Drill-seeding barren areas with desired forage species can often help to speed the recovery process. Second, large mature stands of deep-rooted perennial weeds are seldom fully controlled with one herbicide application. Most deep rooted perennial weeds have roots with many buds and some of the buds will survive and produce new shoots. Surviving roots probably are those furthest from the leaves where herbicide uptake occurs, which suggests the deeper roots have the best chance of surviving. If you have noticed substantially more new shoots from weeds the second year after treatment, these shoots are probably from deep roots. It just took a full growing season for their regrowth to reach the surface of the soil. Third, once a weed has gone to seed once, the weed will be present for many years. Seeds from weed species can remain viable several years to decades, depending upon the species. This fact alone tells us why producers must kill weeds as soon as they occur. Once seed is produced and dispersed, the weed will likely be a problem on the ranch for decades. Additional information about seedbanks and

Steptoe Valley Farm: Nice Alfalfa and Grass Hay Farm in beautiful country! Approx. 1000 acres with around 700 acres of water rights. Six wells pump water to 5 center pivots and a field flooded or ready for wheel-line hookup. Nice manufactured home for a residence. $3,000,000. Price Reduced to $2,750,000. Can add grazing land!

Pristine Locations PARADISE VALLEY 2,290 acres plus BLM and USFS grazing. 300 plus acres of cropland for winter feed. Surface and groundwater. River frontage. $2,400,000

BUTTE VALLEY +/-7,200 acres plus summer and winter grazing for 600+ cows and 5,000 sheep. Many springs, creeks and meadows. 4 pivots for additional winter feed. $6,500,000

ANTELOPE PEAK RANCH – SOLD CLOVER VALLEY FARM – SOLD

Note: Need more Ranches to sell!

Paul D. Bottari, Broker

Home: 775-752-3809 • Fax: 775-752-3021

Contact:

Kelton & Associates Real Estate

Work: 775-752-3040

paul@bottarirealty.com

30 January 2013

FOR SALE

Elko County 10,705 Deeded acres with BLM permit and 50% of the mineral rights. Only $1,391,650. Existing income from minerals lease and grazing lease. This may be the best 401K ever and an excellent target for a 1031 Exchange!

Z BAR RANCH – SOLD

1222 6th St., P.O. Box 368 Wells, NV 89835

NEVADA RANCHES

Over 650 deeded acres on the Humboldt River near Elko and adjoining the new Port of Elko Industrial Park. Over 300 acres of Surface water rights out of the Humboldt River, lots of sand and gravel, adjoins I-80 and has access at Exit. Price: $1,200,000. May be a good fit with the Elko Co. 10,705 deeded acres with BLM permit offered below.

Indian Creek Ranch: White Pine County , Nevada Super hunting property surrounded by Public lands and has plentiful Mule Deer, Antelope and Elk. There is a large Spring arising on high ground that could provide pressure for hydro power, or gravity flow domestic or irrigation water. Price REDUCED TO SELL to $275,000. For the 126 acres with spring at foot of Mtn or $325,000 for the 206 acres.

seed viability of many noxious weeds can be found in Nevada Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet 12-01 available at http: http://www.unce.unr.edu/publications/search/details. asp?searchby=authorsearch&searchtext=Schultz&submit= Search. Click on the publication titled The Noxious Weed Seedbank: Out of Sight – Out of Mind and Eventually Out of Control. Abundant bare ground and weak stands of forage species creates the ideal environment for weeds to establish and grow. Neither the roots of the surviving plants or germinating seedlings face competition from desired forage plants. The lack of competition is a weeds best friend. That alone, is why meadow and pasture management after weed control is important for the long-term success of both weed management and forage production. All too often, producers think that once the drought breaks the forage plants will return and the weeds will die off. This seldom happens. After the initial weed control effort, the management of a meadow or pasture cannot be the same as before treatment occurred. Managers must ask the question, “Why did the weed problem occur?” Yes, a drought can affect our vegetation, but management of the vegetation resource, typically when and how often it’s harvested, must be changed to accommodate the drought.

www.bottarirealty.com The Progressive Rancher

Tom Gunn 775-343-0200 www.NevadaFarmland.com

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ous growing season. Remember the flexibility concept: this is where it becomes critical. Producers canSecond, if the bud survives the winter not control the timing, duration, or intenit must use additional stored energy to sity of a drought, but they can control how produce the first 2 or 3 green leaves on the the vegetation is managed during and after tiller. Inadequate stored energy for either a drought, and/or other stress. If managers process results in death of the bud and tiller do not apply flexible management toward and less forage. Only after the tiller producthe desired forage species, so the desired es 2 to 3 leaves does the plant have enough plants can accommodate their natural leaf area for photosynthesis to produce adstresses, the only outcome will be weak equate carbohydrates for both growth (adforage plants. Weak forage plants facilitate ditional leaves for forage) and energy storthe establishment of weeds and continage, for the next dormant period. Plants that ued improper management only facilitates are repeatedly harvested have insufficient more weeds. leaf area to produce enough carbohydrates Harvest of the forage species must to keep all buds on the root crown alive. be managed so that the desirable species The result is fewer roots, smaller plants, can increase their root biomass, tillers Photo 1. This area is infested with Russian knapweed and was treated in October 2004. more bare ground and ultimately many (stems) and leaf area. Grass plants actu- The bare areas are sites where the knapweed had formed dense patches and eliminated weeds. If harvest management before weed ally have several similarities with cattle all desired forage species. Grazing this pasture throughout the growing season the first control weakened the desired forage plants, and other livestock.. Both require stored spring after it was treated will prevent the residual forage species from colonizing the bare continuing the same management strategy energy reserves to be productive the fol- spots and thickening the weakly vegetated areas. Often, large barren areas like this one after weed control will only guarantee the should be seeded to increase the rate of recovery of the desired vegetation. Without rapid lowing spring. For the cow, stored energy is return of weeds to the site. re-establishment of desired forage species, the return of the Russian knapweed and/or other essential for lactation and rebreeding. For noxious weeds is inevitable. Successful weed control management a perennial forage plant, stored energy enonly begins with an herbicide treatment. sures the plant’s very survival. The leaves Perennial weeds with large, deep root of perennial grass plants photosynthesize and produce pasture grasses typically are dormant for 6 to 9 months. carbohydrates. Most of the carbohydrates are used to pro- Buds on dormant plants develop into the new leaves and systems will require annual follow-up treatment for several duce additional leaves, stems and roots; but a small amount roots the following spring. In order to survive dormancy, to many years. Furthermore, harvest management of the becomes stored energy. This energy is stored in the plant’s these buds use stored energy all winter through a process desired forage species must be changed to ensure that their called respiration. The energy for respiration, the essential physiological needs for growth and energy storage are met. buds, crowns and roots. Stored energy has two important roles that are critical process that keeps buds, hence plants’ alive during dor- Only then will the establishment and spread of noxious to a plant’s survival (i.e., sustained forage production). First, mancy comes from carbohydrates stored during the previ- weeds be slowed to a manageable level.

Tuesday, January 22 Range-Ready Bull Show Wednesday, January 23 Haltered Bull Show Thursday, January 24 25th Annual Female Sale Sifting of Geldings Friday, January 25 Geldings - Working Classes Stock Dogs - Final Work 35th Annual Stock Dog Sale 51st Annual Gelding & Mule Sale Saturday, January 26 72nd Annual Bull Sale

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www.redbluffbullsale.com January 2013 31


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32 January 2013

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Financial Focus Presented by Sonny Davidson and Jason Land, Financial Advisors, Edward Jones in Elko, Nevada 2213 North 5th Street, Suite A | 775-738-8811

Make Some New Year’s (Financial) Resolutions for 2013

O

nce again, it’s time to make some New Year’s resolutions. This year, in addition to promising yourself that you’ll hit the gym more often, learn a new language or take up a musical instrument — all worthy goals, of course — why not set some financial resolutions? Consider these suggestions: • Boost your retirement account contributions. If your income will rise this year, consider putting more money into your employer-sponsored retirement plan, such as a 401(k), 403(b) and 457(b). You typically contribute pre-tax dollars to your plan, so, the more you put in, the lower your taxable income. Plus, your money can have tax-deferred growth potential. • Don’t over-react to the headlines. Lately, you’ve heard a lot about the “fiscal cliff,” political paralysis, the debt ceiling and other Really Scary Topics. These issues are not insignificant — but should they keep you from investing? After all, in any given year, you won’t have to look hard to find warnings and negative news events — and many people do use these ominous-sounding headlines as a reason to head to the investment “sidelines” for a while. But if you’re not investing, you’re unquestionably missing out on opportunities to make progress toward your financial goals. So, instead of focusing on the news of the day, make your investment decisions based on the fundamentals of those investments you may be considering, along with your goals, risk tolerance and time horizon. • Keep whittling away your debt. Over the past few years, Americans have done a good job of lowering their debt burdens. Of course, the economy is still tough, and it can be challenging to avoid taking on new debts. But the less debt you have, the more you can invest for your retirement and other important objectives. • Rebalance your portfolio to accommodate your risk tolerance. If you spend too much time worrying about the ups and downs of your investments, then your portfolio’s potential for volatility may be too great for your individual risk tolerance. On the other hand, if you continually see little growth in your holdings, even when the financial markets are going strong, you may be investing too conservatively — especially if you are willing to take on some calculated risk to potentially boost your returns. So review your portfolio at least once in 2013 to see if it needs to be “rebalanced” to fit your risk tolerance. • Get some help — Navigating the investment world by yourself is not easy. For one thing, there’s a lot to know — different types of investments, changing tax laws, the effects of inflation, interest rate movements, and much more. Furthermore, when you’re making investment decisions on your own, you may have a hard time being objective — so you might end up investing with your heart, and not your head. The need for knowledge and objectivity point to the advantages of working with an experienced financial professional — someone who understands both the financial markets and your individual needs and goals. These aren’t the only financial resolutions you could make for 2013 — but if you follow through on them, you may well need to make fewer ones when 2014 rolls around.

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Bismarck Predestined

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en tlem t a da C a v e rN ht fo g i r d o pe l e v de and t h ig ed r c i r P

This article was written by Edward Jones for use by your local Edward Jones Financial Advisor.

Millie Spratling 775-934-9754

P.O. Box 44, Deeth, Nevada 89823 email: aspratling@crinet.com www.progressiverancher.com

The Progressive Rancher

January 2013 33


Equine Podiatry by Stephen E. O’Grady, DVM, MRCVS

A Glossary of Therapeutic Farriery Terms S. E. O’GRADY*, A. H. PARKS†, R. F. REDDEN‡ AND T. A. TURNER§ Reprinted with permission of the American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) Original published in Equine Veterinary Education, Vol. 19, June 2007

INTRODUCTION The importance of Therapeutic Farriery as a part of equine veterinary practice is well recognised. Cooperation and the symbiotic relationship between the veterinary and farrier professions continue to grow and improve. Historically, there has not been a standardization of Therapeutic Farriery terms that can be used for communication, both verbal and written, between veterinarians, farriers and horse owners. Furthermore, a uniform list of Therapeutic Farriery terms should benefit veterinarians and farriers in their record keeping

Term

Therapeutic Nomina Farriery term anatomica category veterinaria (NAV)

Definition

and help augment their written reports. Authors writing in veterinary and farrier journals should be encouraged to adhere to recognized terms and to qualify their descriptions wherever possible. The authors of this article have attempted to create a glossary of Therapeutic Farriery terms that will form the basis for a common language related to the equine foot. This glossary provides an accurate basis of Therapeutic Farriery terms that, with revisions and additions, will continue to evolve in the future.

Term

Therapeutic Nomina Farriery term anatomica category veterinaria (NAV)

Definition

Abaxial

Anatomical

Away from the axis of a body part. In Therapeutic Farriery refers to the digit or foot.

Bilateral

Anatomical

Pertaining to both sides of the body, i.e. left and right limb.

Abscess

Pathological process

An accumulation of purulent exudate. In the foot, this usually refers to a localised accumulation of exudate between the germinal and keratinised layers of the epithelium, most commonly subsolar or submural.

Breakover

Descriptive (clinical)

The phase of the stride between the time the heel lifts off the ground and the time the toe lifts off the ground.

Breakover point (point of breakover)

Descriptive (clinical)

The most dorsal part of the ground surface, either the hoof capsule in the unshod horse or the shoe in the shod horse that is in contact with the ground at the moment the heels begin to rise off the ground.

Broken-back foot-pastern axis

Descriptive (clinical)

The angle that the dorsal hoof wall makes with the ground is lower than the angle the dorsum of the pastern makes with the ground. This angle can be measured using radiographs but it is difficult to measure accurately because it changes with positioning and weightbearing.

Brokenforward footpastern axis

Descriptive (clinical)

The angle that the dorsal hoof wall makes with the ground is greater than the angle the dorsum of the pastern makes with the ground. This angle can be measured using radiographs but it is difficult to measure accurately because it changes with positioning and weightbearing.

Bruise

Pathological process

Haemorrhage within tissues usually caused by blunt trauma. In the foot most commonly occurs in the solar dermis and is seen when extravasated blood migrates into the epidermis. May be focal or diffuse.

Buttress

Anatomical

The most palmar/plantar aspect of the hoof wall at the heels. Formed at the point of inflexion of the wall at the heels. Synonym: angle of the wall.

Buttress foot

Descriptive (clinical)

A change in shape of the foot characterised by a prominence at the dorsal coronet caused by an exostosis on the extensor process of the distal phalanx.

Canker

Disease

A chronic, hypertrophic, moist podermatitis that usually affects the frog, bars and adjacent sole. Often accompanied by a foul odour.

Acute laminitis

Angle of the sole

Disease

Anatomical

1) The initial stages of clinical laminitis. 2) The phase of laminitis beginning with the onset of clinical signs that lasts until either resolution or displacement of the distal phalanx occurs. Angulus soleae (medialis and lateralis)

Palmarmost or plantarmost part of the crura of the sole between the hoof wall at the heel and the bar. Synonym: seat of corn.

Arteriovenous Anatomical anastomosis

A direct communication between the arterial and venous circulations without an intervening capillary bed.

Axial

Anatomical

Towards the axis of a body part. In Therapeutic Farriery refers to the digit or foot.

Balance

Descriptive (clinical)

An anatomical and functional concept that describes the relationship between the hoof capsule, the underlying musculoskeletal system and the ground. Can be considered as a subclassification or a separate definition to conformation. ‘In balance’ is best described as a harmonious relationship between the hoof capsule and the deep musculoskeletal structures that is most likely to permit lasting soundness.

Bar

Basement membrane

1) The inflexion of the hoof wall that lies between the crura of the sole and paracuneal sulcus; 2) Any part of a shoe that extends from one branch towards the other. May be partial or complete. Anatomical

A thin membrane underlying a layer of epithelial cells. In the foot it underlies the stratum basale of the epidermis. It conforms to the surface of the dermal papillae and lamellae.

Northern Virginia Equine, 8170 Patrickswell Lane, Marshall, Virginia 20115; †University of Georgia, College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens, Georgia 30602; ‡International Equine Podiatry Center, PO Box 507, Versailles, Kentucky 40386; and §Anoka Equine Hospital,16645 70th St NE, Elks River, Minnesota 55330, USA.

34 January 2013

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Term

Therapeutic Nomina Farriery term anatomica category veterinaria (NAV)

Definition

Capsular rotation

Descriptive (clinical)

Describes the divergence of the dorsal hoof wall from the dorsal parietal surface of the distal phalanx independent of the relationship of the distal phalanx with the phalangeal axis. Results from laminitis or white line disease.

Chronic laminitis

Disease

The phase of laminitis that begins with separation of the dermal and epidermal lamellae resulting in mechanical collapse of the foot. Results in displacement of the distal phalanx relative to its normal relationship with the hoof capsule.

Club foot

Descriptive (clinical)

An upright conformation of the foot associated with a flexural deformity of the distal interphalangeal joint. The dorsal hoof wall angle is steep accompanied by a broken-forward footpastern axis. The distance between the heels is normal.

Conformation Descriptive (clinical)

The size and shape of the distal limb determined by the shape and size of the individual structures of the limb and the spatial relationship between them.

Contracted heels

Descriptive (clinical)

Decreased width of the palmar/plantar aspect of the foot so that the heel bulbs and buttresses are closer together than normal. Associated with a decrease in frog width relative to the length. May be associated with elongated or collapsed heels.

Corium

Anatomical

Synonym for dermis.

Corn

Disease

Bruise in the angle of the sole.

Corona

Anatomical

Corona

Band-like proximal portion of the hoof, including epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue deep and distal to the limbus.

Coronal

Anatomical

Coronalis

Pertaining to a coronal structure. Specifically, the corona of the foot.

Coronary band

Anatomical

Corona

Synonym for corona.

Coronary groove

Anatomical

Sulcus coronalis

A groove in the proximal border of the hoof capsule that contains the germinal layers of the epidermis, the dermis, and subcutaneous tissue of the coronary integument. Synonym: coronary sulcus.

Coronet

Anatomical

Margo coronalis

Proximal border of the hoof capsule wall.

Crena

Anatomical

Crena marginis solearis

A shallow notch in the dorsal solar margin of the distal phalanx (P3).

Cuneate

Anatomical

Cuneus

Pertaining to the frog.

Dermal lamellae

Anatomical

Lamellae dermales

Lamellae formed by the parietal dermis, which interdigitate with the epidermal lamellae.

Dermis

Anatomical

Dermis

Layer of integument between the subcutaneous tissue and the epidermis. Composed of connective tissue, vessels and nerves.

Derotation

Descriptive (clinical)

See realignment of distal phalanx.

Developmental Disease laminitis

The phase of laminitis between the initiating cause and the development of lameness. Synonym: prodromal laminitis.

Digit

The extremity of the limb distal to the metacarpophalangeal joint.

Anatomical

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January 2013 35


Equine Podiatry Therapeutic Nomina Farriery term anatomica category veterinaria (NAV)

Term

Digital cushion

Anatomical

Distal displacement of the third phalanx

Pathological process

Distal phalanx

Anatomical

Dorsal

Anatomical

Pulvinus digitalis

A Glossary of Therapeutic Farriery Terms Definition

Term

Modified subcutaneous tissue composed of fat, connective, and elastic tissue. The digital cushion is the sum of the cuneate (frog) and toric (bulbar) cushions. Forms the bulbs of the heels. Thought to function by dissipating energy. Even movement of the distal phalanx distally within the hoof capsule in horses with laminitis such that the distal phalanx remains in alignment with the dorsal hoof wall and the phalangeal axis. Often referred to as a ‘sinker’. As opposed to rotation of the distal phalanx.

Phalanx distalis

Most distal bone of the limb. Encased within the hoof capsule. Synonyms: third phalanx, coffin bone, os ungulare and P3. In the limbs this refers to the cranial facing surfaces from the carpus and hock distally. Opposite to ventral, palmar and plantar.

Dropped sole

Pathological process

Collapse of the normal arch or concavity of the sole so that the sole is flat or convex.

Duckett’s bridge

Descriptive (farrier)

Refers to a transverse line drawn across the centre of the foot. The bridge lies on an imaginary line drawn vertically through the centre of rotation of the distal interphalangeal joint and corresponds to the widest part of the foot. Provides a good reference point for trimming the foot.

Duckett’s dot

Descriptive (farrier)

An external reference point located 10 mm behind the apex of the trimmed frog on the average size foot. Reference point which is used to locate the centre of the distal phalanx.

Dynamic balance

Descriptive (clinical)

The concept of balance applied to feet of an animal in motion. Mediolateral dynamic balance describes the relationship between the medial and lateral side of the foot as it lands. Dorsopalmar dynamic balance describes the relationship between the toe and the heels as the foot lands.

Therapeutic Nomina Farriery term anatomica category veterinaria (NAV)

Definition

Flare

Descriptive (clinical)

A local or general deviation of the hoof wall away from the central axis of the foot.

Flat footed

Descriptive (clinical)

A hoof capsule that has no concavity to the sole.

Flexural

Descriptive (clinical)

Abnormal flexion of a joint, frequently the distal deformity interphalangeal or metacarpophalangeal joint, caused by relative shortening of the musculotendinous structures on the flexor surface of the limb.

Floating

Descriptive (farrier)

To unload a section of the foot by creating a space between the foot and the shoe.

Foot

Anatomical

The specialised extremity of the digit. The hoof and all structures enclosed within it.

Foot-pastern axis FPA

Descriptive (clinical)

The axis formed by the dorsal surface of the hoof wall and axis FPA the dorsal surface of the pastern viewed from the lateral aspect.

Founder

Pathological process

A lay term for chronic laminitis: the latter term is preferred.

Frog

Anatomical

Gravel

Descriptive (clinical)

A lay term for a variety of abscesses involving the dermal, soft tissue structures of the foot, especially those that drain at the coronary band.

Heel

Anatomical

Palmar portion of the foot that includes the bulbs and the palmarmost aspects of the wall, sole and frog.

Heel bulb

Anatomical

Torus ungulae

Integument immediately proximal to the point of inflexion of the wall palmarly/plantarly. The stratum corneum forms the bulbs of the hoof capsule and the subcutaneous tissue forms the palmar part of the digital cushion.

Hoof

Anatomical

Ungula

Integument of the foot and includes the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue (tela subcutanea).

Cuneus ungulae

The ‘digital pad’ of the horse which includes the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue. It lies between medial and lateral bars and crura of the sole.

Epidermal lamellae

Anatomical

Lamellae epidermales

Lamellae formed by the parietal epidermis.

Hoof angle

Descriptive (clinical)

Epidermis

Anatomical

Epidermis

Most superficial layer of the skin or integument.

Hoof capsule

Anatomical

False sole

Descriptive (clinical)

Hoof-pastern axis

Anatomical

Synonym: foot-pastern axis

Hoof rings

Descriptive (clinical)

Rings formed in the hoof wall distal to the coronet that are associated with variations in hoof wall growth.

A false sole is a layer of cornified epithelium that is detached from an underlying layer of cornified solar epithelium that is attached to germinal epithelium and dermis in the normal fashion. May result from a previous abscess.

Annual B Bar B Ranch and CSI Equine Department

David Glaser Van Greenwell Shane Prescott

Judging Clinic

Topics:

February 16, 2013 10:00 am to 3:00 pm

Any New Rules

Twin Falls CSI Campus — Taylor Building

Showmanship How to Read and Work Cattle

Clinic - $20.00, includes lunch Reservations appreciated For information: Katie Breckenridge 208-488-4424

36 January 2013

The angle the dorsal hoof wall makes with the ground. Capsula ungulae

Horny hoof, formed by the cornified or horny epidermis (stratum corneum) of the limbus, corona, wall, sole, frog and heel bulbs.

The specialised terminology found in equine Therapeutic Farriery should be used to keep records for both veterinarians and farriers. It can be used to verbally communicate on a day-to-day basis, to express ideas informally in personal written communication, and to express ideas formally in the literature. As such, it is obvious that it is most important that the meaning of language used in the practice of Therapeutic Farriery be clear and unambiguous. This language is often based on colloquial jargon. Words often arise to fill a conceptual void, either perceived or real, and the meaning of words may change. However, it is important that language used in the literature is consistent, precise and preferably as closely related as possible to the currently accepted norm. The terms described in this glossary refer to various areas including the gross anatomic morphology of the foot, the shape or conformation of the foot, the function of the foot, and pathological changes associated with diseases of the foot. This glossary is inevitably incomplete. It is our intention that this should be a dynamic document to which new terms will be added, inaccurate terms clarified and colloquial words and expressions deprecated in favour of more scientifically rigorous terms. Additional Terms will be in next month’s Progressive Rancher.

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The Progressive Rancher Magazine is so very proud to announce its 2013 photo contest!

The Winner will receive an iPod,* to read the magazine on. Photo topics can be: • Cattle in fields

• Wildlife on your Ranch

• Cattle turned out in aums

• Ranchers and Crews working together

• Range Health • Sage Grouse on your Ranch

Winner to be determined February 28th, 2013 Email your photos taken digitally to: progressiverancher@elko.net Photos must be sent before February 28, 2013 Please send high quality images, no less than 1800x1200 pixels (or 6x4 at 300 dpi). Please do not compress photos for “quick” emailing. All photos become property of The Progressive Rancher Magazine. The Progressive Rancher will have the right to publish and/ or use the photos and/or images in any way, including, but not limited to: editorial content, advertisements, and cover photos. *iPod is a registered trademark of Apple, Inc. and is not affiliated with this contest.

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January 2013 37


Shaw Cattle Co. Production Sale

February 20, 2013 - 12 p.m. (MST)

500 Hereford, Angus & Red Angus Bulls and Heifers

SITZ DIMENSION 8607 42 Sons Sell

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53 Sons Sell

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THR THOR 4029

22993 Howe Rd. Caldwell, ID 83607 www.shawcattle.com greg@shawcattle.com The 38 January 2013

CONNEALY FINAL PRODUCT

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18 Sons Sell

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Bull Business Brandsm

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Greg: (208) 459-3029 Sam: (208) 453-9790 Tucker: (208) 455-1678 www.progressiverancher.com


Great Grandma Maggie’s StoryGrowing Up on the Diamond A by Lyndsie McDermott

The person I chose for my interview is my grandma Margaret Larios O’Carroll Dipp who is eighty-six years old and lives in Elko, Nevada. Her parents were Benjamin Larios who was born in 1866 in Monterey, California, and Daniella Elizaguirre Larios who was born in 1885 in Berriatua, Spain. Grandma Maggie was born in their house and delivered by her dad on the Diamond A Ranch which is about ninety miles north of Elko, Nevada, on February 22, 1923. While Ben was riding horseback from Montana to Nevada, he was looking for land to buy that was not near any town. As he passed through northeastern Nevada below the Idaho border along Buck Creek he spotted smoke coming out of the chimney of a little cabin. He stopped to talk to the man who lived in the cabin and told him that he was looking for a ranch to buy, and that he would like to buy a place like his. The man told him for $200 he would sell the ranch, and he would pack all of his belongings and leave. Ben paid the $200 and was the new owner of the Diamond A Ranch. Daniella’s sister Matilde Juarague owned The Star Hotel, a Basque hotel and restaurant in Elko, Nevada, which is still one of the most popular restaurants in Elko today. In 1907 Matilde sent for her sister Daniella to migrate from Spain to work at The Star. She was working there when Ben came to town in his horse-drawn buggy to buy lumber to build a cabin on his ranch. Ben stayed at The Star where he met Daniella. He told her he could speak Spanish and started talking to her in Spanish to impress her. He told her about his ranch and asked if she would marry him and move to the Diamond A with him. She fell in love with him and married him on December 20, 1907. Her sister was mad at Daniella and didn’t want her to marry Ben as she barely knew him. After they were married in Elko, it took them three days in their horse-drawn buggy to get to the Diamond A Ranch. They finished building the cabin out of lumber that was held together by mud and started their family. Ben and Daniella had eleven kids: Adam, Bernardo, Dan, Fred, Jules, Alice, Eva, Jessie, Josephine, Louisa, and Margaret. All five of her brothers fought in World War II. Adam who was the youngest boy did not have to go to the war since his four older brothers were already enlisted, but he decided to enlist anyway because he did not like ranching. Adam was the only one of Grandma Maggie’s brothers that died in the war. Grandma told me that as her mom and dad had more kids, they didn’t have room for everyone in the cabin so her dad had to build a bigger house. While he was building the bigger house they did not have enough room for everyone to sleep in the cabin, so most of the kids had to sleep outside in tents. In the summer Grandma’s mom always cooked big meals for people who were traveling by and stopped at the ranch. During the winter months from November to April, there was so much snow that they did not leave the ranch or see people. The snow would drift as high as the roofs of the house, cellar, and barns so they would have to dig tunnels through the snow to get out of the house and into the different buildings on the ranch. Grandma Maggie told me that her mom used to make moonshine and would sell it to people in Jarbidge, Nevada, which was ten miles away from the ranch, but one time she got caught by the cops and was put in jail. Because the ranch was so far from Elko, Grandma’s parents hired teachers to live on the ranch and teach their kids from

first through eighth grades. When she wasn’t at school during the day, Grandma would have to milk cows, herd sheep, haul wood and help with any other chores that her mom or dad wanted her to do. Her mom Daniella had worked very hard as a kid in Spain and all of her life so she expected her kids to work hard every day. If the kids weren’t minding or were crying because they didn’t want to do something, she would make them work harder. Grandma said her dad would tell the kids once a day to go play for a while. Grandma told me that once the kids turned eighteen, her mom changed and let the kids do what they wanted and supported them in whatever they decided to do. One of Grandma Maggie’s favorite things to play with her brothers and sisters was to cut limbs off trees and tie string to one end of them and pretend that was their horse. Then they would get a bunch of tin cans and pretend the cans were cows. They would kick the cans all around and pretend they were herding cows. Grandma remembers that one time her dad came back from Idaho with one bicycle for them to share. They were all so excited to learn how to ride a bike When Grandma Maggie was a teenager, she loved to dance, so during the summer months her mom would take all of the kids to the dances in Jarbidge. The car Grandma learned to drive was Model A. One of her chores was to get the mail . She had to drive about six miles down a steep canyon called Deer Creek on a road that was only wide enough for one car. When Grandma was old enough to get her driver’s license, she went to Elko to take the test. The guy that was giving the test told her that he knew that she learned how to drive on the Buck Creek Road, so he didn’t make her take the driving test. She only had to take the written test. Grandma was glad she didn’t have to take the driving test because she didn’t know how to parallel park. My great great uncle Jim O’Carroll was working for the Elko County Road Department grading the county roads by the Diamond A Ranch and stopped in to talk with Daniella. He told her that his brother Charlie worked for the County too and could he stay in their bunkhouse during the summer while working on roads in the area. My great grandpa Charlie O’Carroll stayed at the Diamond A that summer and went to dances with Grandma Maggie, her mom, and her sister every Saturday night and always danced with Great Grandma. One night when they were all sitting on the porch, Daniella asked Charlie if he was married, and when he said “no” , she told him she had two girls left on the ranch that weren’t married. Daniella would have Grandma and her sister Eva take lunch to Charlie everyday wherever he was working on the road. One day Grandma Maggie took lunch to him by herself and they sat in the car and talked. One morning after one of the dances in Jarbidge he asked Grandma to marry him, and she told him she didn’t know if she wanted to get married, but she would think about it. He asked her twice that summer, and she gave him the same answer each time. At the end of summer Charlie went back to Elko to work. In his spare time he build new kitchen cabinets for Grandma Maggie’s brother in Elko. After he finished the cabinets he saw Grandma again and this time she said yes when he asked her to marry him. They got married on December 28, 1950, at the Diamond A Ranch, moved to Elko, and my grandma Linda McDermott was born January 15, 1952. I enjoyed talking to my Great Grandma Maggie about her family. She shared memories that she hadn’t thought of in years, and there were stories that my dad didn’t know and got to hear too.

(Editor’s Note: Lyndsie is the daughter of Chad and Jamie (Ardans) McDermott and is now in junior high grade in Henderson, NV. Her grandparents Steve and Linda McDermott live on the Chevalier Ranch near Halleck and her maternal grandparents Jim and Linda Ardans live in Elko. She wrote the story of her Great Grandma Maggie as a 5th grade class assignment. I heard the story read by Lyndsie’s dad Chad McDermott at Maggie’s memorial in April of 2012. I’m sure Maggie would have loved hearing it again. — Linda Bunch) www.progressiverancher.com

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January 2013 39


PRSRT STD U.S. POSTAGE PAID Permit # 3280 Salt Lake City, UT

Angus and Hereford Bull Sale Monday, March 11th, 2013 1:00 PM at Spring Cove Ranch in Bliss, Idaho

Selling 160 Angus Bulls Yearlings & Falls

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Selling sons & daughters of JWR 024P Sara’s Prince 153T Reg P42862086 BEPD+5.1 WEPD+67 YEPD+107 MEPD +26 SC EPD +1.1 MARB +.04 RE+.66 $CHB+34

Selling sons of SLL Overload T18 Reg 15843888 CED+6 BEPD+1.0 WEPD+63 YEPD+109 MEPD+18 SC+.97 CW+54 MARB+.55 RE+.63 $B+82.67

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CED+7 BEPD-.4 WEPD+56 YEPD+103 MEPD+30 SC+.05 CW+36 MARB+1.04 RE+.56 $B+84.26

For Catalogs Call: 208-352-4332 www.springcoveranch.com

40 January 2013

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Progressive Rancher January 2013 Issue