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     How     Einsteinian   Gravitons   &  Gravitata   Replace     the    dying  

Quantum Models    

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Theoretical Physics  Once  Advanced  Science  

Gravity Physics (General Relativity

) was published in 1915. It predicted a

socially unwanted expansion of our universe. In1918 it was proved that it had correctly predicted the bending of light by gravitation in curved space-time. In the1920s Hubble discovered that it had also correctly predicted that our universe expands. FACT.

Sitting, from  left:    I.  Langmuir,  M.  Planck,  Marie  Curie,  H.A.  Lorentz,  A.  Einstein,  P.  Langevin,  Ch.-­‐E.   Guye,  C.T.R.  Wilson,  O.W.  Richardson   2nd  Sitting:      P.  Debye,  M.  Knudsen,  W.L.  Bragg,  H.A.  Kramers,  P.A.M.  Dirac,    A.H.  Compton,  L.  de   Broglie,  M.  Born,  N.  Bohr;   Standing:        A.  Piccard,  E.  Henriot,  P.  Ehrenfest,  E.  Herzen,  Th.  de  Donder,  E.  Schrödinger,  J.E.   Verschaffelt,  W.  Pauli,  W.  Heisenberg,  R.H.  Fowler,  L.  Brillouin.     1927,  Inst.  Int'l    de  Physique  Solvay  

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                               The  Einstienian  Heritage  is  Alive      

                                                                         

                                                     Painting    by    Evelyne    Katz,    1987.    By  Permission    

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More than ever before, this happens today Physicists Fool other Physicists: Nobel Laureate Feynman: "The first principle is that you must not fool yourself – and you are the easiest person to fool. So you have to be very careful about that. After you’ve not fooled yourself, it’s easy not to fool other scientists. You just have to be honest in a conventional way.” You should not fool the layman when you’re talking as a scientist." I am not trying to tell you what to do about cheating on your wife, or fooling your girlfriend, or something like that, when you’re not trying to be a scientist, but just trying to be an ordinary human being. … I’m talking about a specific, extra type of integrity that is not lying, but bending over backwards to show how you are maybe wrong, that you ought to have when acting as a scientist.

And this is our responsibility as scientists, certainly to other scientists, and to the laymen.

"WHAT DO  YOU  CARE WHAT  OTHER  PEOPLE  THINK".   One  of  his  books

   

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Preface  

Explorations  of  expanding  dark  spaces  vs.  non-­‐expanding  super-­‐clusters  of   galaxies,  as  conducted  by  astronomers  and  astrophysicists,  have  generated   a   revolution   in   our   understanding   of   the   expanding   universe   and   the   quantum   phenomena   in   small   scales;   a   factual   scientific-­‐cosmological   revolution   without   parallel   in   the   whole   recorded   history   of   mankind;   a   fresh   look   at   nature,   which   opened   up   new   horizons   and   generated   new   needs   to   re-­‐examine   all   previous   axioms,   definitions,   assertions,   models,   theories   and   traditional   science   education   related   to   or   based   on   the   quantum  philosophy  of  physics.     At  the  very  core  of  this  astrophysical  revolution  we  find  the  deterministic,   general   relativity   (Gravity   Physics),   the   indispensible,   curved-­‐space-­‐time-­‐ based   Einsteinian   physics   for   understanding   the   large-­‐scale   verified   expansion   of   the   universe   vs.   the   smallest   scale   of   the   probabilistic,   size-­‐ arrested,   standard   quantum   model   and   its   various,   un-­‐verifiable,   associated   string   formulations,   dark   energy   and   endless   other   speculations.     Eventually   only   one   of   these   two   different   fundamental   outlooks   of     nature,   science   and   philosophy   of   science   is   to   survive   all   updated   experimentations   and   observations;   only   one   is   to   finally   account   for   all   verified   observations   ranging   from   the   multi-­‐verified   cosmic   expansion   of   all  dark-­‐cold  (270  degrees  below  zero  C)  expanding-­‐cooling  voids  between   all   expanding   super-­‐clusters   of   galaxies   (NASA   records   below)   but   non-­‐ expanding  galaxies,  stars  and  planets,  down  to  the  smallest,  unobservable,   claimed  string  vibrations  claimed  at  the  smallest  Planck  length.    

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A   first   deduced   Feynman's   principle   requires   to   stop   smuggling   contrabands   into   axioms,   definitions,   assertions,   mathematical   pre-­‐fitted   that   a   priori   lead   to   deluded   "proofs"   of   what   armies   of   theoretical   physicists   wish   to   contribute,   often   in   vain.     Examples   were   published   before   (booklet-­‐end).   This   time   we   selected   to   avoid   any   mathematical   formulation.      

CONTENTS

1.                Error  Principle  I:  "Prcecise  Quantum  Definitions"  introduce  error.     2..              Error  Principle  II:  "Particle  Physics"  fails  to  predict  &  account  the   verified  Expansion  of  the  Universe,  which  Gravity  Physics  had   predicted  in  1915,  has  been  verified  since  the  1920s  and  thus  it  fails   as  the  very  fundamental  of  science,  its  philosophy  and  education  at   any  level.     3.                Error    Principle  III:  Different  pre-­‐edited  "proofs"  in  particle  physics   which  smuggle  as  contrabands,  without  decleration,  the  wished   results:  E.g.,  in  rejecting  retrodiction,  advanced  waves,  final  to  initial   integration  in  order  to  "prove"  time  asymmetries,  "entropy  growth",   electromagnetic  irrevrsibility,  etc.     4.                  Error  Principle  IV:  Associated  with  different  quantum-­‐deduced   String  models  and  "Dark-­‐Energy"  postulations  that  do  not  even  rise   to  the  scientific  level  of  being  wrong.  The  same  applies  to  quantum-­‐ deduced  "THEORY  of  EVERYTHING".     5.                An  Old  Issue:  Riemannian  Mathematics:  "Discovered",  or  "Provided"?     6.                How  theoretical  physics  died  by  Its  own  armies  of  proponents.                5.1        Bohm's  Hidden  Variables  

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         5.2        M-­‐Model    

         5.3.      D-­‐Branes                5.4        Closed  or  Open  Strings?                5.5        Landscapes-­‐Inside-­‐Landscapes                  5.6        Symmetry-­‐Asymmetry                    5.7        String  Mathematical  Games  Face  Endless  Criticism       6.        Do  Dark-­‐Energy  proponents  fool  themselves,  other  scientists,  media   editors  and  the  laymen?     7.        How  DARK-­‐ENERGY  is  smuggled  into  science?     8.          Gravitism                  8.1        In  Education  and  Philosophy                  8.2        In  Astrophysics  it  can  prevent  errors     9.          Redefined  Thermodynamics  prevents  Entropic  Errors     10.    Thought-­‐Experiment  prevents  conceptual  arrows  of  time  errors     11.    The  Hubble  Space  Telescope     12.      Key  Tools  of  Astronomy  

Author

 

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Introduction      

1.  Error  Principle  I:  "Prcecise  Quantum  Definitions"   introduce  errors.  

Precise definitions   in  probabilistic  quantum  models  and  in  deduced  string   formulations   a   priori   erect   externally   rejecting   virtual   walls   outside   their   domain,   thus   a   priori   rejecting,   often   without   a   due   declaration,   any   deterministic  gravity  physics  that  is  needed  for  grand  unification.     In  contrast,  gravity  physics  (Einsteinian  general  Relativity)  applied  to  space   dynamics   of   the   entire   universe,   does   not   erect   externally   rejecting   virtual   wall  for  there  is  no  "outside"  into  which  it  expand.      

Wherefore-­‐I, science  should  NOT  start  with  quantum  definitions.    

Wherefore-­‐II, science  starts  by  verified  fact:    Our  universe  expands.   In   gravity   physics   this   multiple-­‐verified   expansion   is  NOT   a   priori   enforced   on  any  "precise  definition",  axiom  and  assertion.                

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2.          Error  Principle  II:  "Particle  Physics"  fails  to  predict  &  

account for  the  verified  Expansion  of  the  Universe,  which   gravity  physics  had  predicted  in  1915  and  was  verified  in   the  1920s.    Thus  it  fails  as  the  first  fundamental  principle  of   Science,  its  philosophy  and  education  at  any  level.  

                       Neither  a  fundamental  or  embedded  space  expansion  of  the   observable  universe  (thus  also  of  its  "genesis"  or  "beginning"),  nor   the  verified  original  source  of  all  time  asymmetries  in  nature,  or  the   origin  of  irreversibility  in  any  real  process,  are  found  at  or  provided   by  the  probabilistic  standard  quantum  model  -­‐-­‐  an  established  fact   that  has  caused  armies  of  quantum  theorists  to  seek,  so  far  in  vain,   correcting  their  standard  model  by  resorting  to  Einstein's  gravity   physics  or,  failing  that,  to  try,  in  vain,  to  replace  it  with  their  string   mathematical  games,  briefly  reviewed  below.        

3.          Error  Principle  III:  Pre-­‐edited  mathematical  or  words-­‐

based "proofs"  in  particle  physics  smuggle  into  the   formulations  "illegal"  contrabands  without  decleration:   E.g.,  rejecting  retrodiction,  advanced  waves,  final  to  initial   integration  to  "extract"  time  asymmetries,  entropy   growth,  electromagnetic  irrevrsibility,  etc.  

                     RECAP:  Nowadays,  more  than  ever  before,  armies  of  "theoretical   physicists",  without  declaring  their  "illegal"  contraband,  smuggle  into   their  published  attempts  to  bridge  their  size-­‐arrested/virtual-­‐wall-­‐ isolated  mathematical  or  wording  "proofs"  to  unify  physics  but  in  fact   are  doing  nothing  but  fooling  themselves,  other  scientists,  the  media   and  the  laymen.  

4.          Errror  Principle  IV:  Different  quantum-­‐deduced  String  

models and  "Dark-­‐Energy"  postulations  do  not  even  rise  to    

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the scientific  level  of  being  wrong.  The  same  conclusion   applies  to  quantum-­‐deduced  "THEORY  of  EVERYTHING".   Recap.  

5.              An  Old  Issue:  Riemannian  Mathematics:  "Discovered",  or   "Provided"?         Education   at   any   level   beyond   9   years   olds,  may  begin  by  2  questions:       What  is  the  familiar  "gravitation"?     Are  mathematics  "discovered"  or   "introduced  to  our  world"  integrated   with  the  "laws  of  physic"?       Riemannian  Geometry  plays  a  central  role  in  Einstein's  Gravity  Physics.   In  a  complete,  simply  connected  Riemannian  manifold,  symmetric  space  is   valid  when  its  curvature  tensor  is  invariant  under  parallel  transport.     Lorentzian   symmetric   spaces   become   important   in   Einstein's   physics   and   cosmology,   i.e.   as   (i)   Minkovsky   Space   and   (ii)   De   Sitter   Space.   Geodesic   symmetries  may  next  be  defined  as  affine  diffeomorphisms  in  Riemannian   and  pseudo-­‐Riemannian  situations.   De   Sitter   universe    is   one   of   various   cosmological    solutions   to   EFE   (Einstein's   Field   equations)     a   flat,   spatially   un-­‐curved   universe   containing   low  space-­‐densities  of  matter.  

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6.    Did  theoretical  physics  die  by  Its  own  proponents?  

The first   to   add   a   fifth   spatial   dimension   to   Einstein's   general   relativity   were   Theodor   Kaluza   (in   1919)   and   Oskar   Klein   (in   1926).   These   attempts   attracted   Einstein’s   attention   in   his   attempts   to   develop   a   unified   field   theory.  But  Einstein  died  prior  to  being  successful  in  this  domain.     The   current   proponents   of   string   theories   claim,   inter   alia,   that   on   very   small   sub-­‐atomic   scales,   all   fundamental   field-­‐forces   consist   of   vibrating   strings  or  membranes  of  energy.       The   spectrum,   or   zoo,   of   subatomic   particles   then   emerges   (mathematically)   as   small   vibrating   strings   that   by   altering   their   mode   of   vibration   transform,   say,   an   electron   into   a   neutrino,   a   quark,   or   other   particles,  while  causing  space-­‐time  to  curve  around  these  entities  so  as  to   give  rise  to  Einsteinian  relativistic  gravity.     Despite  three  decades  of  intensive   attempts  to  provide  experimental  proof   of  string  theories,  as  conducted  by  armies  of  physicists,  there  is  not  a  single,   direct  verification  test  that  the  theory  is  correct.  And  none  is  expected.       While  the  various  equations  of  string  theories  have  survived  mathematical   challenges,   each   solution   represents   an   entire   set   of   unverifiable   predictions;   a   mysticism   of   scientists,   which,   when   combined   with   the   fundamental   issue   of   a   priori   smuggling   into   these   theories   what   is   to   be   proved,   makes   them   what   they   are.   Einstein’s   anti-­‐probabilistic   views   remain   un-­‐falsified.   Similarly,   the   acclaimed   “Theory   of   Everything”   is   misleading.     Some   of   the   string   theories   proponents   claim   that   prior   to   Genesis   a   pre-­‐ Genesis  world  contraction  had  turned  into  a  black  hole  that,  at  the  moment  

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of Genesis,  had  created  many  WHITE  HOLES,  namely,  our  world  is  just  one   of  them  –  indeed  a  beautiful  mathematical  music  play.    

6.1 Bohm's  Hidden  Variables   Hidden  variable  are  postulated  in  string  theories  as  extra  [beyond  3  space   and  one  time  dimensions]  6,  7  or  higher  spatial  dimensions.  Postulated  by   David  Bohm,  these  ideas  are  now  driving  string  theories.     These,  inter  alia,  by-­‐pass  the  embarrassing  point-­‐like  feathers  of  ‘particles’   in   quantum   theories     Such   variables   also   allow   theorists   to   get   closer   to   Einstein’s  dream  of  a  deterministic  world  outlook  of  general  relativity  that  is   unified  with  quantum  physics.   Investigating  how  a  string  theory  may  include  fermions  led  to  the  concept   of   supersymmetry   a   mathematical   collection   of   ideas   relating   bosons   and   fermions   (every   particle   has   superpartner   that   is   not   observable.   Superpartners  are  called  squarks,  selectrons  and  gluinos.      

6.2 M-­‐Model   One  group  of  string  game-­‐plays  postulates  ‘Landscapes-­‐Inside-­‐landscapes’   in  10,  11  or  26  space  dimensions  so  as  to  harbor  a  large  number  of  hidden   variables,  different  vacua  and  endless  other  universes.    The  theoretical  limit   of   the   M-­‐theory   infers   that   protons,   electrons,   neutrons   and   their   antimatter   counterparts,   may   be   converted   to   photons   and   then   converted   to  other  particles,  i.e.,  to  particles  such  as  protons  that  may  be  changed  to   other  particles,  such  as  electrons.    It  is  not  yet  a  fully  understood  theory.    

6.3.   D-­‐Branes   are   membranes   of   different   spatial   dimensionality.   The   membranes   are   postulated   to   be   gravitational   sources,   so   that   one   may   end-­‐up  with  a  modified  gravitational  model  within  the  framework  of  string  

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and quantum  standard  models  (See  below  on  their  real  standing  in  science   today).     They   may   emit   and   absorb   closed   strings   and   are   postulated   to   emit   gravitons  and  also  to  emit  charge  since  they  emit  closed  strings,  which  are   gauge  bosons.     Pre-­‐supposed   tiny   entities   are   postulated   to   contract   to   minimize   their   potential   energy.   But   conservation   of   energy   prevents   them   from   disappearing.  Instead  they  are  postulated  to  oscillate-­‐vibrate.     By   pre-­‐assuming   the   "reality   of   vibrating   strings",   one   may   deduce   different   vibrational   modes   that   are   further   postulated   to   represent   different   sub-­‐atomic   particles.     Such   postulated   strings   may   split   and   combine,   which   may   resemble   particles   emitting   and   absorbing   other   particles,   as   in   standard   quantum   model   interactions   between   sub-­‐atomic   particles.    

6.4    Closed  or  Open  Strings?   Quantum   strings   models   are   postulated   to   harbor   tension,   like   regular   strings  of  a  violin;  a  tension  that  is  related  to  their  size  and  shape.     A   closed   loop   string,   left   to   move   without   external   forces,   will   contract   into   a  smaller  loop.  But  it  is  further  postulated  that  it  would  not  shrink  to  a  zero-­‐ sized  point.     Open  strings  have  two  distinct  end-­‐points,  while  closed  strings  are  joined  to   make   a   complete   loop.   The   two   types   may   allow   speculations   about   two   different   spectra   of   ‘elementary-­‐particle’.   For   example,   one   of   the   closed   string  modes  is  the  graviton,  and  in  the  open  string  mode  it  is  a  photon.        

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6.5      Landscapes-­‐Inside-­‐Landscapes   These   worlds-­‐inside-­‐worlds   are   claimed   to   run   the   world   in   10,   11   or   26   space   dimensions.   In   these   mathematical   games   they   may   harbor   a   large   number   of   hidden   variables,   different   vacua   and   endless   other   universes.     Such   models,   which   are   misleadingly   called   theories   by   their   proponents,   are  also  being  postulated  to  be  the  theoretical  limit  of  the  M-­‐MODEL.   Some   of   the   string   theories   proponents   claim   that   prior   to   Genesis   a   pre-­‐ Genesis  world  contraction  had  turned  into  a  black  hole  that,  at  the  moment   of  Genesis,  had  created  many  WHITE  HOLES,  namely,  our  world  is  just  one   of  them  –  indeed  a  beautiful  mathematical  music  play.    

6.6    Symmetry-­‐Asymmetry     All   laws   of   physics,   except   in   thermodynamics,   are   space   and   time   symmetric,  namely,  there  is  no  distinction  between  any  direction  in  space   and  in  time.    However,  the  2nd  law  of  thermodynamics,  in  its  fundamental   form,   states   that   in   using   the   time   coordinate   in   reality,   one   can   only   proceed  from  past  to  future  and  never  in  reverse.       Accordingly,   some   theorists   claim,   in   contradiction   with   thermodynamics,   that   if   the   universe   is   eternal   into   the   future,   it   must   be   eternal   into   the   past.     Hence,   they   also   claim,   that   prior   to   the   “big-­‐bang”,   there   was   a   symmetrical  world  contraction  into  an  all-­‐containing  black  holes.     As   the   density   “had”   increased   during   that   pre-­‐creation   contraction,   gigantic   black   holes   had   been   formed,   and,   at   the   instant   of   maximum   contraction,   they   all   switched   to   expnasion,   the   interior   of   one   of   them   has   become  “our  universe”.    

 

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6.7      String  Mathematical  Games   Face  Endless  Criticism  

Despite  the  aforestated  known  set  backs  to  ever  verifiy  these  mathematical   games-­‐models,   the   proponents   of   these   claims   still   hope   that   some   upcoming   observations,   say,   by   the   Planck   Sattelite   and   by   the   ground-­‐ based   LIGO   and   VIRGO   observatories,   may   reveal   slight   variations   in   gravitational   radiation   that   might   be   detected   by   their   effect   on   the   polarization  of  the  cosmic  black  body  radiation;  perhaps  conferring  some   supportive  evidence.  But  that  remains  to  be  proven,  if  at  all.                                          

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6.8        Do  Dark-­‐Energy  Proponents     Fool  Themselves,  Other  Scientists,    Media  Editors  and  the  Laymen?  

                         

Historical  events  associated  with  the  UNVERIFIABLE  DARK-­‐ENEGY  HOAX?     No   proof   was   ever   established   that   the   historical   "Hail-­‐Cannons"   had   accomplished  anything  but  raise  loud  noise,  fool  media  editors,  the  public,   donors   and   governments   to   fund   their   unverifiable   claims,   somewhat   similar  to  the  unverifiable  string  mathematical  games  discussed  above.    

 

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7.  How  DARK-­‐ENERGY  is  smuggled  into  science?  

Claims made   today   to   Extract   Donors   and   Government   Funding   by   about   400   theorists   at   Fermilab,   Universities   of   Chicago,   Pennsylvania,   Ohio   State,   UCL   &   Argonne   National   Lab,   DOE,   NSF,   IEEC,   IFAE,   OzDEZ,   NOAD,   NCSA,   SLAC,   CTIO,   LMU   in   Germany,   UK   Consortium,   universities   in   London,  and  supported  by  SCIENCE-­‐AAAS,  are  voided  by     (a)          applying  simple  momentum   conservation  which   unequivocally  proves  that   "dark  energy"  is  nothing  but   Chimera  (right),     (b)          resorting  to  Chimerian  base   &  immeasurable  "dark   energy",  to  claim  that   Einstein  Gravity  Physics  is   wrong,     (c)          maintaining  (a)  &  (b)  results  in  the  greatest  mistake  in  science,   generated  by  theorists  and  supported  by  SCIENCE-­‐AAAS.     Early  dark  energy  proponents  may  have  attracted  popular  media  and  public   support  by  throwing  up  alleged  "Dark-­‐Hail",  which  instead  of  falling  back  by   gravity,  is  speeding  up  to  the  sky,       Thereby   fooling   main   media   editors,   the   public,   donors     and   international   governments,  to  raise  astronomical  funds  for  spacecraft  &  instrumentation   aimed   to   measure   the   immeasurable   "dark   hail",     or   exploit   the   1998-­‐ discovery   that   the   universe   is   NOT   slowing   down   its   expansion   by   gravity,   but,   by   "dark   hail",   is   accelerating,   or   help   sell   computer-­‐simulations   as   "tests"   of   claimed   Chimera   properties   that   dictate   to   "correct"   Einstein   Gravity  Physics.  

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7.1    Has  a  version  of  ESOTERICISM  invaded  Academia?     In  ESOTERICISM,  for  instance,  AGARTHA  is  a  great  city  claimed  to  be  located   inside   an  earth's   hole.   Probably   invented   by   the   European   A.   Saint-­‐Yves   D'Alveydre,   who   had   claimed   his   writing   are   "reliable"   and   mean   that   all   wisdom   and   wealth   "will   be   accessible   for   all   mankind,   when   Christianity   lives  up  to  the  Hebrew  10  commandments  "drafted  by  Moses  and  God"  and   absolutely,   applicable   "When   the   Anarchy   which   exists   in   our   world   is   replaced   by   the   SYNARCHY".   Some   other   followers   claim   that   Agartha   is   located  in  the  high  Tibet-­‐Himalayas,  with  "pictorial  evidence".    

8.  Gravitism  vs.  Gravitons  and  Gravitata     Based  on  Einstein-­‐Feynman-­‐Popper  methodologies-­‐theories  and  confirmed   by   recent   observations   in   astronomy,   biophysics,   geophysics   and   archeology,   this   new   philosophy;   Gravitism,   concludes   that   theoretical   physics  has  already  died  by  its  own  proponents  and  are  gradually  replaced   by   cosmological   verifications   of   Einsteinian   deterministic   gravity   physics   (the  original  1915  General  relativity),  gravitons  and  gravitata.     WHEREFORE,   the   aim   and   scope   of   Gravitism   remains   positive   and   constructive.  These  include     (i)          a  fresh  new  outlook  at  nature,     (ii)        a  new  philosophy  of  physics,     (iii)      a  modified  educational  methodology  based  on:     (A)     Multi-­‐verified   expansion   of   the   Cosmos   as   first   predicted   by   Einsteinian   Gravity   Physics   in   1915   vs.   the   current   debates   summarized   by   Gravitism,   which   inter   alia   claims   that   science   starts   with   astronomy   and   cosmology  

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and not   by   the   verified,   probabilistic,   size-­‐arrested,   standard   quantum   model,  namely,  science,  science  philosophy  and  education  should  start  with   the   original,   Einsteinian   deterministic   curved   space   time,   not   by   a   priori   erecting  virtual  wrong  fire-­‐walls  and  conceptual  fences  forced  on  it  by  said   "Precise   Definitions",   which   only   introduce   errors   outside   their   limited   axiomatic,  model  domains.           (B)                      Updating    our    "Cosmology,    Physics    and    Philosophy"  worldwide     acclaimed    book  with  well-­‐confirmed  observations  on  the  coldest  world  sink   of  galactic  and  stellar  radiation-­‐winds  (270  degrees  C  below  zero  in  SPACE-­‐ 1)  caused  and  controlled  by  multi-­‐verified  expanding-­‐cooling  VOIDS  located   between  all  super-­‐clusters  of  galaxies.  (See  below).     (C)                 Under   Einsteinian   gravity,   the   expanding-­‐VOIDS/SPACE-­‐1   control   all   stellar  evolution  that  generates  new  particles  and  atoms,  which,  eventually,   build  all  chemical  elements  that  lead  to                      (i)  Amino-­‐acids,  RNA  and  DNA  at  least  on  this  gravity-­‐structured  planet,                          (ii)   Gravity-­‐Natural-­‐Selection   of   the   fittest   bio-­‐atmosphere,   bio-­‐ structures,   gravity-­‐induced   skeletons,   gravity-­‐based   written   symbols,   languages,   gravity-­‐induced   organized   religions   village   and   city   structures,   transportation   systems,   geo-­‐technologies,   arts   and   sciences   as   presented   below.    

8.1      Gravitism  in  Education  and  Philosophy     Carefully   assessed   pro   and   cones   reasons   of   the   most   fundamental   and   traditional   concepts   also   lead   to   our   revolution   in   education   via   this   CCC,   which  had  been  prepared  and  is  presented  for      

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             (i)  the  young,  aged  9  and  above,                      (ii)  the  self-­‐educating  adults,                      (iii)   scientists   who   often   fool   themselves,   other   scientists,   media   editors  and  the  laymen  as  stated  above,  or  associated  with:     (1)         Quantum-­‐based   "String   Theories"   that   start   with   unverifiable   definitions,   (2)       "Dark   energy"   claims   advocated   by   armies   of   fooling   themselves  proponents,   (3)            Claims  that  Einsteinian  Gravity  Physics  ought  to  be  replaced   with  theirs,   (4)     Claims   that   mathematics   is   invented   by   mortals,   not   discovered,   (5)            Claims  that  the  1998  verified  accelerated  expansion  of  the   universe  affirms  their  unverifiable    "dark  energy"  hoax,     (6)               Speculations   about   the   origin   of   amino  acids,  RNA,   DNA   from  the  ashes  of  a  dead-­‐mother  –  a  supernova?                            When?  Where?        

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                                                                 Gravitism.      Painting  by  Monica  C.  Fernandez,  2012                                              

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8.2  Gravitism  redefines  deep  spaces     to  avoid  errors  

                            What  Expands  vs.  What   Does  Not      

2

                 Cold  SPACE-­‐  wraps   all  galaxies.  It  includes  all   galactic  winds.  

SPACE-­‐3  

wraps all stars and planets and includes all stellar winds. Stellar winds are enhanced by shocks as explored by VOYAGERS 1 and 2 (their paths are marked). Most stellar winds,

cosmic rays, by-pass the stars, including our solar system, and "flow" to SPACE-2. Eventually these winds are irreversibly including

dissipated in the coldest (270 degrees C below zero), expanding, dark cosmological

SPACE-1,

which is composed of almost empty

VOIDS

EXPANDING, INTERGALACTIC

located between all super-clusters of galaxies. NASA records are provided next below. All images are taken from the author's advances in COSMOLOGY, PHYSICS and PHILOSOPHY [1-5] or from Wikipedia.

 

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“ly”  marks  the  distance  light  travels  in  almost  empty  SPACES  1,  2  and  3  during  one   year:  300,000  km/sec  times  3600  sec/hr  times  24  hrs/day  times  365  days/year.  

         

How  Intergalactic  Jet-­‐Winds   (yellow)  enter  into  all  Voids     and  cause  each  to  expand?          

 

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The Low   energy   density   inside   the   expanding-­‐cooling   VOIDS   absorb   galactic-­‐stellar   winds   entering   them   from   all   directions,   as   marked   in   the   images  above  and  which  are  located  inside  expanding  SPACE-­‐1.   BASIC   CLASSICAL   PHYSICS:   A   simple   Momentum   Conservation   for   all     galactic   jets-­‐winds   that   enter   each   void   from   all   directions   provides   unequivocal  proof  of  a  recently  confirmed  by  Hubble  Telescope  accelerated   expansion  of  the  universe.  Note  that  the  galactic  clusters  and  the  stars  do   not  expand  with  the  expanding  universe,  only  the  dark  voids  in  between  do,   as  marked.  But  as  explained  below,  various  different  rotations  take  place   simultaneously  inside  the  various  spaces  redefined  herein.   The   "3rd   Cosmological   ARROW   OF   TIME"   marked   represents   stellar   and   galactic   winds,   which   non-­‐stop   enter   any   VOID   from   all   directions   and   forever  dissipate  and  irreversibly  stay  there.     RECAP:  The  "filaments"  of  super  clusters  of  galaxies  recorded  above  wrap   around   each   void.   Under   he   conservation   of   momentum   all   are   non-­‐stop   being  reaction-­‐forced-­‐pushed-­‐out  by  the  galactic-­‐stellar  jets-­‐winds  entering   each  void  from  all  directions  and  thus  accelerate  the  left  over  inertia  of  the   the  expansion  of  the  universe  since  the  "Big  Bang".  

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BASIC CLASSICAL   PHYSICS:   The   marked   VOIDS/SPACE-­‐1   function   as   the   LARGEST   DARK-­‐COLD   "THERMODYNAMIC   SINK"   in   the   entire   visible   universe.   Each   of   these   gigantic   expanding   voids   acts   as   part   of   the   largest   cosmological  sink  of  radiations  removed  away  from  active  stars,  a  removal   away   from   core-­‐generated   energy   by   external,   outgoing   "winds",   thus   allowing   the   stars   to   evolve   and   produce   additional   heavy   chemical   element  from  light  ones,  as  elaborated  further  below.   NOTE:   The   more   massive   a   star   is,   the   faster   it   converts   low   to   higher   elements.   This   fact   is   due   to   higher   internal   gravitational   pressures   inside   the   cores   of   the   more   massive   stars,   thus   causing   the   conversion   rate   to   accelerate  by  the  resulting  higher  core  temperatures.   Once   out   of   the   core   hydrogen   "fuel",   gravitationally   collapse   ends   their   lives,  some  undergoing  a  gigantic  explosion  termed  supernova.     The   dust,   debris   and   gas   spread   by   this   explosion   in   SPACE-­‐3   may   end   up   forming   planets   in   orbit   around   stars   like   our   sun   and   gradually,   by   gravitationally-­‐induced  "natural  selection"  eject  gases  from  their  interiors   to  form  atmospheres  and  generate  geophysical  processes  that  lead  to  life.    

9. Redefined  Entropy-­‐Free  Thermodynamics to avoid errors   The   origin   of   irreversibility   in   nature,   namely,   the   origin   of   the   physics   of   thermodynamics  is  observationally  supported  by  three  cosmic  processes:                    (a)     The   irreversible   cooling   of   the   expanding   universe   during   the   radiation   dominated   era   whereby   the   structure-­‐less   medium   density   and   temperature   is   reduced,   the   1st   Cosmological-­‐Thermodynamic   Arrow   of   Time.  (Diagram  above).                  (b)     The   earliest   formation   of   -­‐Thermodynamic   Arrow   of   Time.   (Diagram).      

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             (c)     The   earliest   formation   of   "filaments"   (or   sort   of   cosmic   walls)   composed  of  SUPER-­‐CLUSTERS  OF  GALXIES  AROUND  EACH  VOD,  leading  to  

the 3rd  Cosmological-­‐Thermodynamic  Arrow  of  Time.   (Diagram  and   list  at  book  end).  

RECAP: Expanding   VOIDS/SPACE-­‐1   constitute     (i)   the   root-­‐cause   of   the   Second   Law   of   Thermodynamics,   time-­‐asymmetries   and   verifiable   unified   world  order  controlled  and  structured  by  gravitation.  

Zooming In  Zooming-­‐into   a   single   dark-­‐cold   expanding   void   illustrates   the   non-­‐stop,   entering   from   all   directions,   super-­‐fast,   highly   energized   Galactic-­‐Stellar   Winds-­‐Jets.   This   process   causes   simultaneous   expansion   of   each   and   all   voids   under   momentum   conservation-­‐reaction   on   all   "filaments-­‐Walls"   around   each   expanding-­‐cooling  void.  

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10.  A  Thought-­‐Experiment  that  prevents  errors     and  misunderstanding Imagine   a   room   made   of   flexible   walls,   floors   and   ceiling   into   which   high-­‐ speed,   galactic-­‐stellar-­‐winds,   as   jets-­‐of-­‐radiation,   pour   in   from   all   directions,  non-­‐stop.   By  propulsion  force  ("thrust  of  rockets  and  fighter  aircraft  by  jet-­‐engine")  in   the   opposite   direction,   these   "jets"   expand   the   volume   of   the   room   in   analogy   to   the   detected   increased   volume   of   Voids/SPACE-­‐1,   causing   the   flexible  walls,  floors  and  ceiling  to  recede  away.    

11.        The  Hubble  Space  Telescope   Since  2016,  the  Hubble  Space  Telescope  has  confirmed  the  1998  discovery   of   the   accelerated   expansion   of   the   Universe.   The   confirmed   mechanism   thus  involves  two  simultaneous  processes:   PROCESS   A:   Regions   of   space   populated   with   denser   galaxies   increasingly   attract   matter   into   them   by   the   force   of   gravity,   which,   in   turn,   further   empties  the  less  dense  regions  that  includes  large  expanding  voids  between   all  super-­‐clusters  of  galaxies.  with  ever  larger  voids  in  between.     PROCESS   B:    Cold-­‐dark  voids  between  all  super-­‐clusters  of  galaxies  acting  as   final  sinks  for  all  radiation  emerging  from  all  active  galaxies  and  stars.                      

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Further Zooming  In   Zooming   in   further   to   the   resolution   indicated   by   1   Million   ly   reveals   Our     SPACE-­‐2    "Neighborhood”,  which    is  home  to  thousands  of  galaxies.     Even   at   this   scale   our   entire   solar   system   is   less   than   a   visible   dot   somewhere  in  the  marked  “Local  Group”.  Our  home  cluster  is  marked  in   Astronomy  Virgo.  

Our  Solar  System  is  still  less  than  a  visible  dot  in  this  Record    

The Andromeda  galaxy  is  marked  in  yellow.     It  is  2,200,000  light-­‐years  away  and  is  almost  similar  to  our  galaxy.     It  is  also  characterized  by  a  spiral  structure.      

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We see  it  today  as  it  was  when  the  earliest  hominids  left  East  Africa  to  arrive  at  the   "promised  land".   Both   galaxies   are   the   largest   in   our   Local  Group,   which   is   about   10,000,000   light-­‐ years  in  its  largest  spatial  ‘diameter’.      

The    "Local  Group"    includes  M49,  M58,  M59,  M60,                                                                M61,  M84,  M86,  M87,  M89  and  M31  (Andromeda).    

Andromeda’s system  consists  of  Cassiopeia  Dwarf,  Pegasus  dSph,  M32,   M110,   NGC   147,   NGC195,   AND   I-­‐V,   etc.   The   Triangulum   Galaxy,   the   3rd   largest   galaxy   in   ‘our’   local   group,   also   includes   the   Pisces   Dwarf   as   a   satellite.     ‘Our’   satellite   galaxies   consist   of   the   Large   and   Small   Magellanic   Clouds,   Ursa   Minor   Dwarf,   Darco   Dwarf,   Sculptor   Dwarf,   Canis   Major   Dwarf,  Fornax  Dwarf,  Carina  Dwarf,  Sextans  Dwarf,  Tucana  Dwarf,  Leo  I,   Leo  II,  Leo  A,  Sag  DEG,  etc.                                    

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"Fog" in   Galactic  Images

“Fog”   visible   inside   galactic   records   are   actually   records   of   billions   of   stars   like   our   sun,   or   more  massive  ones.   Our   Solar   System   extends   far   beyond   the   farthest   planets,   asteroid  belt,  Kuiper  belt,  comets,     rocks   and   dust   in   ‘our’   community.   It   is   located   inside   non-­‐expanding   SPACE-­‐   2   that   wraps   our   entire  galaxy  and  is  spatially  interconnected  with  expanding  VOIDS/SPACE-­‐ 1.     Gravitational   structures   of   clusters   and   superclusters   of   galaxies   vary   considerably   -­‐-­‐   from   that   of   Virgo,   Leo,   Ursa,   Coma   and   Hercules   to   long   ‘filaments’.                                      

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12.      The  Key  Tools  of  Astronomy  and   Cosmology     How  Red  Shifts  help  prove  that  the  Voids  in  SPACE-­‐1  Expand?     Red   Shifts   in  astronomy  serve  as  key  tools   in  making  scientific  discoveries.     These   are   based   on   wavelength   change   of   photons   propagating   through   the   expanding   VOIDS  in  SPACE-­‐1.

There is,  however,  a  distinction  between  various   red  shifts.   The   color   spectrum   on   the   right   illustrates   a   redshift  –  light  waves  marked  as  horizontal  black   lines  are  "shifted  up”     (white  arrows)  in  the  direction  of  the  red  region.   It   is   caused   when   objects   exhibit   a   simple   local   Doppler-­‐Effect  redshift  (Image  above)  or  a  space   expansion.     Rather   than   resulting   from   relative   velocities   vis-­‐à-­‐vis   earth,   the   photons   undergoing   increase   in   wavelength   because   of   the   expansion   of  a  medium  through  which  they  are  traveling.  

Hubble  Cosmic  Expansion  Law:  Uo  =  Hor   where  “r”  is  distance  from  earth  to  “CLUSTER  I”  (image),  which  represents  super-­‐ clusters  of  galaxies,  Ho  the  Hubble  Constant  and  Uo  the  recession  velocity  calculated,    

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namely, the  recession  velocity  of  super-­‐clusters  as  they  move-­‐away  from  an  observer  on   earth,  and/or  from  each  other.  

Why  Hubble  was   refused  to  be   awarded  the   Nobel?   Hubble’s   astronomical   observations   in   the   1920s   have   revolutionized  not  only  physics,   but   the   traditional   perceptions   of  billion  around  the  world.     Yet   he   was   refused   to   be   awarded   what   he   so   much   deserved:   A   NOBEL,   allegedly   for   similar   non-­‐ethical   reasons   that   Einstein   had   also   been   refused   the   Nobel   for   his   (i)   Special   relativity,   (ii)   General   Relativity,   (iii)   Peace   on   Earth,   which   have   revolutionaized   not   only   physics,   but  the  traditional  perceptions  of  scientists  and  billions  around  the  globe.     FACTUAL  BACKGROUND                  Post   Einstein's   forcing   a   socially   unwanted   expansion   of   the   universe   number  to  stop  the  expansion  of  the  universe,  as  predicted  by  his  Gravity   Physics   Equations,   allegedly   most   Nobel   Committee   Members   wrongly   assumed  that  Einstein  had  been  defeated  by  that  non-­‐scientific  addition  of   a  wrong  and  misleading  number  to  his  equations.    

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             In   fact,  Einstein  later  stated  that  adding  that  number  to  his  equations   because  of  what  other  think,  was  the  "worse  mistake  of  my  life".                      Einstein  stated  that  only  after  Hubble  has  unequivocally  proved  that,  in   fact,   he,   Einstein's,   by   his   1915   gravity   physics,  had  already  predicted   what   he,   HUBBLE,   has   empirically   discovered   and   proved   a   few   years   later,   a   grand   cosmological   discovery   that   has   made   both   the   most   celebrated   world   heros   of   science,   education   and   organized   religions   against   all   mediocre  minds  and  ulterior,  stealthy  haters.                      HUBBLE  in   fact   had   unequivocally   proved   that   (clusters)   of   galaxies   are   moving   away   from   each   other.   Hence,   the   universe   had   a   very   hot   and   dense   "beginning"   at   the   very   start   of   the   world   expansion   –   a   beginning   that   is   called   Big-­‐Bang,   but   historically   should   be   termed   "EINSTEIN-­‐ HUBBLE  GENESIS"  (or    -­‐  BANG").              

 Local  vs.  cosmological  tools  of  Astronomy     (1)             Special   relativity   effects   are  valid   locally   in   small   regions   of   space-­‐time  that  are  approximately  ‘flat’,  i.e.,  are  under  low  gravity  values,   like  on  Earth.     (2)        The  universe  is  not  expanding  "into"  anything  outside  itself.  (we   return  to  this).   (3)          Galaxies    move  and  rotate  individually  in  SPACE-­‐2,  but  do  not   expand.   (4)          ONLY  the  Coldest  Dark  VOIDS  in  SPACE-­‐1  Expand.   The   explosive   expansion   of   the   entire   universe   since   its   beginning   had   started   about   13.8   billion   years   ago.   It   is   detected   today   by    

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astronomical methods  (see  below)  as  left  over  inertia  expansion  from  the   initial  EINSTEIN-­‐HUBBLE  GENESIS    "explosion".    

 

VOIDS/SPACE-­‐1 expansion   is   independently  confirmed-­‐verified  

cosmic microwave  blackbody    Radiation.     by  

the

Our  complex  motions  in  deep  space   (i)            Earth  rotates  and  travels  around  the  sun,     (ii)          The  sun  travels  around  the  galactic  center,     (iii)        Our  galaxy  rotates  about  250  km/hr  at  our  Orion  Arm.     These   motions   should   not   be   confused   with   the   recession   speed   of   clusters  and  super-­‐clusters  of  galaxies  away  from  each  other.     [R(t)   [main   diagram].   This   motion   is   also   termed   ”the   Hubble   Expansion”.  Our  galaxy  is  deviating  from  this  uniform  expansion  motion   by  about  600  km/sec.  

         

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What, within  half  a  page,   Is  "Einsteinian  Gravity  Physics"?                                                                            

Einstein’s   General   Relativity  (EGR,  or  Gravity  Physics]  is  formulated  in  the   same   form   for   all   "observers"   –   accelerating,   linearly   moving,   rotating,   standing  on  a  minor  astronomical  body,  like  earth,  or  on  a  massive  star.  For   that   aim   one   needs   ‘translators’   from   one   observer-­‐coordinate-­‐system   to   another.       These   ‘translators’   are   energy-­‐momentum   metric   tensors   that   include   first   and   second   mathematical   derivatives   in   three   space   coordinates   and   in   one   time   coordinate   of   any   local   physical   properties:   mass,  energy  and  momentum.     Changes  in  the  gravitational  force  are  accounted  for  by  changes  in  the   curvature   of   space-­‐time,   on   one   hand,   and   by   changes   in   local   mass-­‐ energy   and   momentum   on   the   other   side   of   Einstein’s   Field   Equations,   EFE.    Acceleration  is  equivalent  to  gravity.     EGR  includes   Einstein’s  Special  Relativity   and   conservation   equations   of   mass,  energy  and  momentum.     Under   low   gravitational   fields,   like   on   earth,   Einsteinian   Gravity   is   approximated  by  NEWTONIAN  GRAVITY.      

     

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Einstein’s Gravity    Lens     Gravitational   Lens   were   predicted   by   Einstein   in   1936.   [Image   below].   These  help  reveal  early  (far-­‐away)  galaxies.  HOW?      

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The brown-­‐orange  arrows  show  the  magnified  source,  while  the  gray-­‐white   arrows  show  the  actual  path  of  light  from  the  hidden  source.     Einstein  calculated  such  effect  for  future  astronomy.  And  today  the  “lens”   become   very   useful   when   the   gravity   of   a   massive   cosmic   object   curves   space-­‐time   between   the   observer   and   a   hidden,   far-­‐away   galaxy,   that   by   Einstein's  Lens  can  be  discovered.                   The  key  point  is  that  this  effect  magnifies  early  galaxies  and  it  is  important   in  astronomical  efforts  to  study  the  "Early  Age  of  the  Universe”,  which  had   started  about  200,000  to  350,000  years  after  the  “Big  Bang”.        “Expansion  of  the  universe”  or  “expansion  of  space  itself”  may  be  defined  as   the  expansion  of  the  cold-­‐dark  voids  shown  above.  This  issue  has  confused   many  theorists.       Most   important   is   the   solid   evidence   that   has   been   accumulated   by  NASA’s   Hubble   Space   Telescope   and   by   two   Voyager   Space-­‐Probes   (identified   in   #24)   as   well   as   by   ground-­‐based   LIGO   and   VIRGO   observatories,   and   by   others.                            

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Nuclear Fusion     The  most  important   “chemical”  processes  in   the  universe  are  caused   by  GRAVITY.    

Gravity causes   extremely   high   pressures   in   the   inner   cores   of   active   stars.   Inside   these   hot   cores   all   chemical   elements   beyond   hydrogen,   are   generated   by   transforming   (fusing)   hydrogen   plasma,  [H],  into  heavier  elements  like  Helium  [He],  carbon  [C],  oxygen  [O],  nitrogen   [N],  phosphor  [P]]  of  active  stars.         A   typical   sun-­‐Like   star   is   a   “factory”   for   producing   new   chemical   elements   like   the   ones   marked   on   the   right,   all   the  way  heavy  one,  IRON,  at  its   very  hottest  core.    

STELLAR   WINDS   are   Energy-­‐material   streams   in   the   sun   interior   shown   above   include   convection   currents   from   the   very   hot,   thermo-­‐nuclear   reacting   core,   "up"   to   the   colder   sun   surface,   including  various  types  of  radiations  and  particles  pouring  out  into  non-­‐ expanding,  colder  SPACE-­‐3  as  INTERSTELLAR  WINDS.    

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These winds   are   mixed   in   Space-­‐2   with   similar   winds   to   form   intergalactic   winds   that   eventually   dissipate   irreversibly   in   the   coldest   spaces  in  the  universe:  VOIDS/SPACE-­‐1.     (A)       According   to   both   Einsteinian   and   Newtonian   physics,   the   bigger   the  mass  of  a  star,  the  higher  are  its   core   pressures   and   temperatures   and   faster   are   the   nuclear   fusion   processes  in  its  interior,       (B)       All   active   stars   (billions   detected   in   each   of   the   detected   billion   galaxies   in   the   visible   universe)  generate  in  their  interiors   the   basic   chemical   elements   beyond  hydrogen  and  helium;       (C)        All  basic  elements  of  life  had     been   generated   in   the   cores   of   a   now   dead   Mother   that   had   died   in   a   violent  explosion  termed  Supernova.                      

How Chemical  Evolution  of  Stars  was  verified?  

On  both  fusion  and  fission  scientists  know  much  today.     Fusion   is   the   reaction   in   hydrogen-­‐bomb   explosions,   while   fission   is   the   reaction  in  atomic  reactors  and  in  ‘regular’  atomic  weapons.       When  a  certain  amount  of  iron  is  formed  in  the  interiors  of  any  active  star,   endothermic   reaction   replaces   the   exothermic   one.   (The   exothermic   reaction  generates  energy,  while  the  endothermic  consumes  it.)    

 

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"Natural Selection”  is,  in  Fact,   "Gravity    Natural  Selection”    

All galaxies,  stars  and  supernovas  are  primary  structures  in  our  expanding   world  are  gravity-­‐generated.     Secondary  generated  gravity   structures,  include  planetary   systems  around  stars,  stellar   winds,  galactic  winds,  black   holes,  SPACES  1,  2,  3.     Third  generated  gravity   structures  include  gravity-­‐ induced  atmospheres,  biological   evolution,  geo-­‐structures,  time   systems,  village,  city  and   transportation  systems,  up-­‐down/gravity-­‐oriented  symbols,  written   languages,  lines,  books,  mind  perception  of  time-­‐space,     sky-­‐earth,  high-­‐rise  buildings,  high  priests,  tall  minarets  and     church  towers,  "High"  cultural  elite  vs.  "Low  social  circles",     archeology  and  history  main  events.  

 

The 2nd   generated   gravity   structures   include   supernova   explosions   which   throw   into   SPACE-­‐3   Hot   debris,   rocks   and   gas.   Floating   in   Space-­‐3,   post   the   explosion,   the   debris,   dust   and   gas   where   located   near   the   path   of   our   sun.   Captured   into   orbit   around   it,   gravity   next   further   dictated   the   evolution   of   life.   Gravity   compressed   some   debris   to   form   the   observed   spherical   planets  in  the  Solar  system.  Life  followed  as  detailed  below.      Is  a  dead  star-­‐supernova  our  mother?        

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Revisiting "Precise  Definition"      

Precise definitions  erect  external  VIRTUAL  FENCES,  or  a  sort  of  a  FIRE-­‐WALL   that  CAUSEs  MISTAKES  OUTSIDE  THE  AXIOMS  DOMAINS  defined  and  forced   by   their   proponents   if   they   add   corrections   that   fit   with   what   facts   they   wish   to   smuggle   into   their   activity   domain   without   declaring   the   contraband.     Einsteinian   General   Relativistic   Universe   does   NOT   erect   external   virtual   fences   or   any   sort   of   "fire-­‐walls"   outside   its   domain,   because   there   is   no   "outside"  to  its  domain,  for  it  does  not  expand  into  any  other  extant  space   that  may  be  a  priori  rejected  by  wrong  precise  definitions  or  axioms  or  the   various   postulates   of   the   standard   quantum   model   or   associated   theories   that  preserve  it  in  their  fundamental  base.      

Revisiting The  EXPANDING  VOIDS  

Based  on  the  factual  evidence  and  Gravitism,  we  can  now  reexamine                      (i)          The  dynamics  and  thermodynamics  of  the  expanding  voids,                      (ii)       The   verified   factual   background   reviewed   above   vs.   an   emerging   possibility  to  replace  or  modify  misleading  definitions,  axioms,  models  and   claims  of  the  various  quantum  proponents.          

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WHAT ARE  THE  CO-­‐STRUCTURES  AND  INTER-­‐DYNAMICS  OF  THE   EXPANDING  VOIDS  AND  EACH  "ASSOCIATED    GALACTIC  FILAMENT"?                    The   verified   expansion   of   each   and   all   observed   VOIDS/SPACE-­‐1   is   independent   of   the   Einsteinian   1915   prediction   of   the   expansion   of   the   universe,  in  fact  it  accelerate  it,  as  proved  above.                    The  so  established  physical  link  between  the  observed  VOIDS/SPACE-­‐1   and   each   "ASSOCIATED     GALACTIC   FILAMENT"   generates   both   radial   AND   tangential  expansion  of  each  filament  of  super  clusters  of  galaxies,  which,   simultaneously,   under   the   gravitation   attraction   of   the   material   galaxies   inside  each  filament,  attracts  or  contracts  the  filament  "Thickness".                      On  this  observed  largest  scale  of  the  visible  universe  we  are  allowed  to   term   this   integrated   dynamics   and   thermodynamics   by   a   name,   and   we   select   "gravitata"   and   proceed   to   follow   its   control   down   the   world   deterministic  curved-­‐space-­‐time  scales  perhaps  even  down  to  15  orders  of   magnitude   below   the   ability   of   contemporary   scientific   measurements,   to   the  planck  scale,  and  on  these  we  elaborate  in  another  volume.      

Author   Cf.  References  below,  especially  Ref.  6  where  the  citations  had  been   published   "Gal-­‐Or   launches   a   new   spirit   of   inquiry   by   his   excellent   and   thought   provoking   writings.  I  would  recommend  awarding  a  prize  and  would  hope  that  this  would  serve   to  focus  attention  on  a  most  important  subject.”    

N.Y. Academy  of  the  Sciences  in  support  of  the  Gold  Award.          

"This  book  has  generated  a  large  number  of  responses  from  around  the  world,     some  declaring  that  it  has  turned  them  into  “Gal-­‐Orians”.     Since  the  thought  presented  by  this  book  is  so  rich,  translators  of  our  country  should   recommend  this  book  with  all  their  intellectual  power."    

Chinese Academy  of  Sciences      

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"A Master  Piece.  The  well-­‐known  author  bases  his  philosophy  on  a  very  sound   knowledge  of  present-­‐day  scientific  theories."  

Indian Journal  of  Physics     "This  is  a  great  book,  and  an  exciting  book;   readable,  worth  reading  and  enlightening."    

Sir Karl  Popper,  One  of  the  greatest  philosophers  of  modern   science        

"I do  not  know  a  better  modern  expression  of  science,  philosophy  and  classical   humanism  than  that  of  Gal-­‐Or’s  book."    

HaAretz Newspaper     "We  are  all  Gal-­‐Orians  !  "    

Editor, Foundations  of  Physics    

"The works  of  scientists  like  Gal-­‐Or,  Bohm,  and  (Noble  Prize-­‐Winner)  Prigogine   provide  important  resources.  Prigogine's  formalisms  do  not  really  tell  us  how   irreversible  change  emerges  from  reversible  [mathematics].  (in  this  Gal-­‐Or  is   superior)."  

The Crisis  of  the  Sciences  

"Appeals  to  scientists  of  all  disciplines  who  are  prepared  to  open  their  minds.     Shines  a  welcome  light  in  some  dark  corners  of  science.     Sir  Karl  Popper,  in  a  Foreword,  correctly  describes  it  “a  great  book”.    

New Scientist  Magazine  

"Gal-­‐Or’s  “beauty”  has  always  been  the  object  of  science,  which,  he  lyrically  observes  as   “a  most  fundamental  aesthetic  frame  of  mind,     a  longing  for  the  run-­‐away  horizons  of  truth  and  symmetry     that  we  always  try  to  reach.”    

Order Amidst  Chaos,  Enlightenment  Aesthetics    

"Einstein's time-­‐symmetric  tensor  was  elevated  by  Gal-­‐Or’s  “New  Astronomical  School   of  Unified  Thermodynamics”  to  the  status  of  the  source  of  “Master  Asymmetry”   controlling  not  only  irreversible  thermodynamics,  but  all  physical  and  biological   phenomena!   Gal-­‐Or  calls  “GRAVITISM”  (his  philosophy)  that  gravitation  is  the  prime  cause  of   structures,  irreversibility,  time,  geo-­‐chemical  and  biological  evolution  -­‐-­‐  that  the   expansion  of  the  universe  is  the  cause  of  the  second  law  of  thermodynamics  -­‐-­‐  that   microscopic  physics,  and  thermodynamics  in  particular,  cannot  be  understood  without   reference  to  cosmology.  

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He ties  “irreversibility”  to  the  “expansion  of  space  itself”,  i.e.  as  far  as  space  is   expanding,  the  contribution  of  all  kinds  of  radiation  in  space  is  weakened  “irreversibly”   due  to  the  expansion  phenomenon  itself.   Such  loss,  or  “degradation”  of  energy  in  the  depth  of  inter-­‐cluster  expanding  space,   may  then  be  considered  as  a  universal  sink  for  all  the  radiation  flowing  out  of  the   material  bodies  in  the  expanding  universe.”    

Advancement of  Physics  

“Gal-­‐Or's  remarkable  book  sees  and  seizes  the  world  whole.  He  emphasizes  that  all   scientists  operate  under  some  set  of  philosophical  prejudices,  and  that  failure  to   acknowledge  this  is  self-­‐delusion.  Furthermore,  he  argues  that  a  failure  to  attend  to   the  philosophical  base  of  physics  leads  to  an  empty  scientism.   His  work  is  challenging  on  many  levels,  constituting  a  review  'with  derivations'  of   general  relativity  'as  applied  to  cosmology',  thermodynamics,  the  current  state  of   theoretical  particle  physics,  astrophysics,  as  well  as  a  summary  history  of  western   philosophy,  'especially  the  philosophies  of  time  and  mind'  and  critiques  of  western   society,  the  intelligentsia  and  the  relationship  between  academic  science  and   government.   One  'and  perhaps  the  central'  theme  explored,  is  that  of  the  interplay  between   symmetry  and  asymmetry.   His  primary  interest  is  not  in  the  recent  progress  in  the  unification  of  forces  in  gauge   theory,  although  he  finds  support  in  it  for  his  Einsteinian  outlook,  but  is  rather  time,   time's  arrow,  and  the  asymmetry  between  past  and  future.  Around  time  are   accumulated  discussions,  both  mathematical  and  philosophical,  of  thermodynamic   reversibility,  time  reversibility,  the  nature  of  causality,  and  the  use  of  advanced  and   retarded  solutions  to  wave  equations.   The  second  major  theme  is  that  of  gravity  and  its  overwhelming  domination  of  the   actual  form  of  the  universe,  at  all  scales.   The  combination  of  these  themes  is  not  accidental;  they  are  point  and  counterpoint  to   his  thesis  that  the  time  asymmetries  are  connectable  to  and  perhaps  even  determined   by  the  master  asymmetry  given  by  the  gravity  of  general  relativity:  the  remorseless   cosmological  expansion.   He  argues  that  only  the  expansion  can  provide  the  unification  of  time  asymmetries.   The  expansion  provides,  among  other  things,  an  unsaturable  sink  for  radiation,  which,   in  turn,  permits  the  establishment  of  gradients  in  temperature  and  density,  which   provide  the  basis  for  the  physical  process  that  leads  to  life.   He  also  criticizes  the  sloppy  and  improper  use  of  the  concepts  of  entropy  'and  the   related  notions  in  information  theory'  and  quantum  indeterminism,  especially  as   covers  for  an  inadequate  understanding  of  temporal  asymmetries.   Taking  an  Einsteinian  position  on  the  interpretation  of  quantum  mechanics,  he  looks   forward  to  revitalization  of  Einstein's  quest  for  a  deterministic  interpretation  of   quantum  events.   The  value  of  this  book  lies  in  the  challenging  combination  of  ideas  which  Gal-­‐Or   presents,  which  goes  far  beyond  what  can  be  sensibly  described  in  a  review.  

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All rights  reserved  to  the  author.  Nothing  can  be  quoted  without  a  clear  written  permission.        

[This] work  may  be  too  large  to  digest  as  a  text  in  these  days  of  the  decline  of  academic   institutions  "as  Gal-­‐Or  describes  them",  but  that  will  be  the  loss  of  both  the  faculty  and   the  students.”    

AMERICAN JOURNAL  OF  PHYSICS  

Recommended  by  Encyclopedia  Britannica,  "Nature,  Philosophy  of"  

"Tour de  force.  A  magnificent  and  sustained  piece  of  work!‫ ״‬   

A. Cottrell,  V.  Chancellor,  Cambridge  University       “One  of  the  best  books  on  the  totality  of  the  sciences  &  the  universe.  It  was  one  of  the   favorite  books  of  Sir  Karl  Popper.  It  looks  at  physics  and  the  universe  as  a  totality  of   the  mathematical  philosophical  understanding.  It  also  combines  the  physical  concept   of  time  with  human  psychological  perception  and  brain  understanding  of  languages.”    

Robin forumhub.com/expr/@202.54.92.222     “I  have  in  the  meantime  studied  your  book,  with  great  interest,  and  made  pages  of   notes  on  it.  I  feel  as  if  I  had  been  on  numerous  walks  and  talks  with  you  on  the  great   questions,  and  know  that  would  be  great  to  go  on  with  them!     Who  cannot  be  impressed  by  your  love  for  the  great  men  of  all  times  and  all  countries,   by  your  phrase  “working  back  and  forth  between  theory  and  fact”,  by  your  belief  that   philosophy  is  too  important  to  be  left  to  the  philosophers,  by  your  concern  for  where   thought  and  language  lie  in  the  scheme  of  things  –  and  by  so  much  more!   I  continue  to  reflect,  again  and  again,  on  your  central  thesis  that  expansion  is  the   origin  of  all  asymmetry  in  time.   What  an  ingenious  phrase  is  your,  “smuggle  irreversibility  in  without  declaring  the   contraband”!   I  regard  your  book  as  seeking  to  accomplish  two  tasks  –  and  being  two  books  –  at  the   very  least  One  is  the  exposition  of  your  central  thesis,  with  clarity,  and  careful   mustering  of  every  argument  pro  and  con  that  can  lead  to  testable  consequences.   I  don’t  see  how  it  is  possible  to  do  proper  justice  to  a  thesis  of  such  importance  by   mixing  it  in  with  the  other  great  task.   That  is  to  give  students  an  appreciation  of  the  unity  of  philosophy  and  modern  physics.   You  do  both  tasks  far  better  than  I  could  hope  to.   I  give  you  my  personal  thanks  for  putting  the  two  books  into  a  package  that  I   personally  have  found  most  thought-­‐provoking.”  

Prof. John   A.   Wheeler,   Institute   for   Advanced   Studies,   Princeton   University  

“An interesting  and  original  book,  easy  to  read,  interesting  and  fascinating.”                                                                                                  

Novo Cimento  Science  Magazine  

"Interesting  to  read,  integrating  much  of  scientific  material."  

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Deutsche Literatur-­‐zeitung   “A  comprehensive  explication  of  a  large  area  of  science  which  the  reader  may  study  in   many  subjects.”          Contemporary  Philosophy   "Your  book  “was  /  is  an  inspiration  in  my  life”              European  reader,  2011/   Facebook    

"This is one of the most beautiful books that I have read." Outstanding Books List

References   1. B.  Gal-­‐Or,  [Editor]  "Critical  Review  of  the  Foundations  of   Relativistic  and  Classical  Thermodynamics",  The  Pittsburgh   Conference,  Pa.  April  7-­‐8,  (1969),  proceeding  published  by   Mono  Book,  (1970);       2. Ibid.,  On  The  Origin  of  Irreversibility,  Science,  176,  11   (1972);  178,  119  (1972);     3. Ibid.,  Nature  230,  1971);  234,  217  (1971);     4. Ibid.,  Entropy,  Fallacy,  and  the  Origin  of  Irreversibility:  An   Essay  on  the  New  Astrophysical  Revolutionary  School  of   Thermodynamics.  Annal.  N.Y.  Acad.  Sci.,  196  (A6)  305   (1972)  (Gold  Medal);     5. Ibid.,  "Cosmological  Origin  of  Irreversibility,  Time  and  Time-­‐ Anisotropies-­‐  I,  Found.  Phys.  6,  407  (1976);  6,  623  (1976);   7,  50  (1977);     6. Ibid.,  "Cosmology,  Physics  and  Philosophy"  (CPP),   Volumes  I  and  II,  Springer  Verlag,  New  York,  1981,  1983,   1987  Eds.;  160  Online  updates  by  ISSU,  2015-­‐Present.  

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gravitons and gravitata replace the dying quantum philosophy  
gravitons and gravitata replace the dying quantum philosophy  
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