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The only way to make full use of ATARI USER is to become one. And the easiest way to do that is with ATARI Personal Computer Racks. There isn’t a better way to get into computers. ‘ There isn ta more comprehenswe starter pack. ‘e Only ATARI could give you a 64 Ram memory, cassette ‘soundthrough’ capabilities, a maximum of 256 colours on the screen at one time and 4 ‘sound’ voices.

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Pack BOOXL; 1050 Disk Drive; 1

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A ATARI BUDXL PEHSU


A choice of a 1050 Disk Drive ora 1010 Cassette Programmer

Recorder and additional software. No one else could offer you all this power at these prices. And, as everything comes together, you can make the most of the unbeatable ATARI 8OOXL straight away. Without doubt, ATARl Personal Computer Packs are the easiest way to get into computers. The only difficulty is deciding which one. Now read on.

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No. 5 September

Mike Bibby’s regular series continues

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Technica/Editor: ProductionEditar: LayoutDesign: News editor: Advertisement/Manager: Advertising Sales: Editorin Chief." ,

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M'k" B“WY Ah“? mchch'“ Kevm Edwards Pete Bibby Andre Willey Peter Glover Heather Sheldrick Mike Cowley John Riding John Snowden Peter Brameld .

This month

things

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explains why some equal than others.

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Editorial. 061—456 8835 Administration: 061-456 8383 Advertising: 0617456 8500 Subscriptions: 061—4800173 Telecom Gold: 79:MAGOOl Telex: 265871 MONREF G Quoting Ref. 79:MAGOOl Prestel Mailbox: 614568383

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Beginners

to take the pain out of programming.

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1985

FeaturesEditars:

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Ink

ManagingEditor: Derek Msakin

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This month's Update on news from Britain's electronic mail service.

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advertisements. "Atari User" is an independent publication andAtari Corp (UK) Ltd are not responsible for any of the articles in this issue or for any of the opinions expressed. News trade'diStribution: Eumpress Sales and Distribution Limited, 11 Brighton 27053. Road,Crawley,WestSussexRHlO6AF.Tel:0293

4 ATARI USER

September 7985

_

and Hijack, Archon for the strategists ”q Wlshbrlnger for aspiring POSt Of?ce workers everyWhere-

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all—rights basis. 0 1985 Database Publications Ltd. No material may be reproduced in whole or in part without written permission. While every care is taken, the publishers cannot be held legally responsible for any errors in articles, listings or

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"Atari User“ welcomes program “listings and articles for publication. Material should be typed or computer—printed, and preferably double—spaced. Program listings should be “accompanied by cassette tape or disc. Please enclose a stamped, self-addressed envelope, otherwise the return of material cannot be guaranteed. Contributions accepted for publication by Database Publications Ltd will be on an

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.

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Subscrtptton rates for 12 issues, post free:

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at WhICh ENNIS. meIOOIS(S CO“ Arse amsgaméas a ventures com With Marvel comic characters and there's the solution to last month's

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Gr ap h 1 CS Dave Russell's Stl“ wo'r king his way through the Atari graphics modes Th'IS t h M 0 d es 4 an d 6 recelve h'ls _

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Dump those Mode 8 pictures to your Atari 1029 printer with the aid of Michael King's program.

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Hardware

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Mike Cook describes the extensive addressing modes of the powerful 68000 chip.

Game Help Horace the Blob avoid the Maze Monsters in this fast—action version of the arcade classic.

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Four pages of your letters the the praise, the questions, they re all here. —

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Binders for your back issues, disc doublers, dust covers for your micro and a free T—shirt for all new subscribers.

September 7985 ATARI USER

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ATARI— COMPUTER SYSTEM COMES COMPLETE WITH 372"500K DISK DRIVE HI-RES MONOCHROME MONITOR MOUSE, TOS, BOS, LOGO

DISKS

BASIC,GEMWRITE,GEM DRAW

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GEM DESK TOP, DEMO

HABA CHEQUE KEEPER Prersonnol

Finance Program 52OST to Centronics Printer. .£24.99

HABA COM Communication Software) HABA HIPPO ’C’ Powerful 'C' Language

.

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MIDI to MIDI LEADS “995

HABA CALC

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HABA WORD .

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Coming Soon Call for more Software

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MODEM LEAD .

£19.95

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TO ORDER YOUR 5208T WRITE OR PHONE TO

50 ARE EXPRES?/l/

[NTERNA

31 STONEYHURST ROAD,

T/ONAL

ERDINGTON,BIRMINGHAM TELEPHONE(021)384 5080 ~

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TELEPHONE ORDERS NOW BEING TAKEN

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I’IIASI NOTT AII ORDTRS TAKIN WITH IITIIFR FULL» PAVMI NT OR DF POSIT WII NOT HI CI I ARI D UNTIL VOUR ORDFR ls READY To RI I)I SPATCHI D. I

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ATARI IS THE REG. TRADEMARK OF ATARI CORP. LTD. ALL IMFORMATION CORRECT AT TIME OF GOING TO mess


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for the

support ON the eve of the consumer launch in the UK of the SZOST Atari chief Jack Tramiel has pledged con— tinuing support for all the company's current machine range. In an exclusive interview with Atari User, the controversial former boss of Commodore insisted thatthe arrivalofthe16 bit micro will not mark the beginning of the end for Atari's less powerful

models.

"We intend to support all lines which Atari has manufactured and are selling", said Jack Tramiel. Th|s |nc|udes the VSZSOO games machine,thel30XEand 8OOXL computers, the ST line and all future machines”. .

about the Questioned number of 5208Ts Atari hopes to sell in the first 12months,the outspoken head of the Atari clan replied: “Sales projections are high. ”We believe that any com— pany which has smaller than 20 per cent share of the personal computer market will be out of

business in the long run". as he is Battling Jack known in the States—went on to deny claims that the ST was aimed primarily at the business market. ”Since started in this business, I've always sold- per— sonal computers", he said. "People have the imagination to —

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on

the way

ATARI hard disc: for the 520s1. a’e to have a -

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States in October. This was the message from Jack Tramiel when User. he spoke toAtari However he did point out thatUKpurchesersof the 52051-- will have to wait until November for the British versions to be made available.

Jack Tramiel. Pro/actions are

do what

.

.

"our sales

high”

they like with my

products”. made by a UK retailer that the 5205T was too cheap with not enough profit in it for dealers to provide the necessary back up also met with a similar rebuke. A

exit"

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suggestion

leading

"The

profit margins

we

provide for retailers are compar— able to any in the computer industry", he said. Asked about stories emana— ting from the US that STs are already being sold before any software is available, he said:

"Why people

are

without

buying it

is because for software machine there are stages.

"

every;n the first

5 p readsheet

released DISC and cassette versions of Audiogenic’s spreadsheet Micro Swift are being released this month for the Atari 8OOXL and 130XE. The machine code programis operated by pop—up menus and

incorporates advanced

stage the

program developers buy mach— ines. in the second stage the computer enthusiasts and hobbyists buy the machines. "Then, as software is developed, comes the third stage the consumer buys”. What will follow the ST? "If you are in Las Vegas in Novemberplease visit our booth at Comdex. You will see quite a line of new products —

.

.

func—

tions such as definable column widths and a selectable system of cell formatting. Price will be around £20.

1

3OXE DEAL .

COMPU MART has stolen a march on other dealers by

offering

a cut-price package incorporating the Atari 130XE. The company is offering savings of £80 on its Atari

package

containing the

130XE, 1050 disc drive and ten blank discs which now costs —

£299.95.

ATARI has achievedadramatic breakthrough in Europe withthe newsthatthe Dutch government hasselectedthe 800XL as its recommended micro for the country’s schools. The company now predicts that this will result in sales of 100,000 machines to edu— cational outlets in Holland over the next two to three years. Atari was given the blessing

of the Dutch after months of negotiations and in the face of intense competition from major rivals. This is now being seen as the key to unlock the door to similar deals all over Europe. However France remains the one country where Atari is unlikely to make much headway, thanks to the

chauvinistic

attitude

of the

French themselves. As part of the Dutch deal the

BOOXL Computer

named

British Micro Awards 1985 featured there.

as

Home

of the Year in the

Computing —

is now

in a television

to be series

pioneering

BBC series.

“This

award is a major breakthrough for Atari com— puters in Holland", says Rob Harding, Atari UK sa|es man_ ager. "It was won in the face of

Breakthrough

formidable competition from

This, according to the company, is being designed to introduce school children in Holland to the intricacies of computing, similar to the

facturer. “We believe that this will

Philips, the indigenous

manu—

lead to the 800XLbecomingthe leading 8—bit micro in edu—

cation”.

— September 7985 ATARI USER

7


Games I’ n k

’**'&s ??s

th

w,

joined forces manufacturer

with

toy comics a

and

publisher indevelopingits latest release for the Atari 8-bit machines. In mid—October it will be The Battle launching Zoids Begins, the first in a series of computer games based on a range of Zoid robot toys made by Tomy. Both manufacturers are keeping in close touch with Marvel, which is bringing out a comic based on the Zoids’ adventures. Martech says Tomy has orders from all over the world for its dinosaur—like robots —

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sales of the toys have already reached the two-million mark in the UK. Tomy is also planning to spend in excess of £1.5m on television advertising alone in the run—up to Christmas. Martech is hoping its partner's promotions will help sales of its own game. ”Zoids have clearly captured theimagination ofthe same kids who buy computergames",said a spokesman for the company. The Battle Begins is an arcade game which centres on the battle for supremacy bet— ween two warring factions of Zoids. Martech says itinvolvesa lot of strategy.

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Spokesmen at Atari's head— quarters in Sunnyvale, California, and at Slough have confirmed the product is under and will be released before Christmas with

development

rates.

The CD ROM player is based on a Philips drive unit and is designed to run with the Atari ST range. It will be capable of storing 500 mbytes of memory on one 12 cm optical laser disc. A spokesman toldAtar/User:

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“We are also thinking of making it an audio product so it will double as an audio player". A prototype previewed in America recently, running with the ST, stored 20 volumes ofan

encyclopaediaononethirdofits capacity. There was the full index of the encyclopaedia on another third and high quality graphics

SOFTWARE IMPORTS FROM USA I

B

UTOR

Software importing four

is utilities and five games for the Atari 8 bit range from the United States. Homepack is a three—in—one package which includes word processor,information manager and telecommunications program. Price is £49.95. A

word processor

3 ATARI USER

called

September 7985

Paper Clip will costaround £50. It enables the user to merge Touch Tablet and other pictures with text and also to print out. Broderbund's Print Shop, price £40, enables users to create Ietterheads, greetings, messages, signs and displays. Extra data files cost £20. Last in the utilities section is B-Graph, a graphics construc—

tion program which allows bar or pie charts to be made. The games are Epyx's Rescue on Fractalus and Ballblazer, Broderbund's book—based Mind Wheel game for an Atari with twin drive, and Microprose's strategic war game, Crusade in Europe, and its Great American Road Race. Cost per program ranges from £30 to £40.

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ATARI is set to become the first micro manufacturer to introduce a laser-read compact disc system in this

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related to the material other third.

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on the

It took approximately three seconds to locate any particular reference using laser scanning. Drive units developed by Philips and disc and tape manufacturer 3M have been available to North American

original equipment manufac— turers for several months. Nigel Murphy, 3M's disc products manager in the UK, has said that CD data storage is

stitute for all forms

of recording media in 10 IO 15 years time". His company believes optical memory systems Will take Of'f within the next few years, with annual disc sales expected to reach half a billion by 1990The discs will be able to store a

variety of information

standard computer data, gra— phics, digitised TV pictures and audio.


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TE LEV'SION’S Micro Live series is returning to BBC 2 as a result Of pressure from com— puter buffs. Starting 0” OF‘Obet 13 the

,

.

ATARI

boss Jac’k Tramiel is to spearhead the consumerlaunch of the SZOST on the first day of W'“ the Personal Computer World COVE” now weekly.series from electronic ShOWl on September 4. SUbeiCtS ranging musrc, micros m SChOOIS' the The fact that he is to appear Data “59 with his American entourage is Pmtecm," A???“dthe Of computers m timing races. being seen as a demonstration The battle for of the importance attached to the. personal be the new machine's showingon market ,'5 to. the UK market. With?’ ue an {sitar/ea? e, g irritatitlarioss 'gfilérlt g It was because of this that 7 the first ST machines were theM‘OO[ID-warvesl. shipped to Britain some weeks in-delgrtzIggkwat ivscnilfalgeeisg ago, much to the irritation of done by the Carnegie-Mellon would—be developers StatesUniversity in the States on side. molecular memories and robots, this Wh .en questioned about communications and network— Tramiel said the deClSIon had ing been made based on the These , to gether With other in overwhelminginterestshown items still to be filmed, will take the ST when it was unveiled at the series up to December 13 the Hanover Show earlier this when it Will take a break for year. It will return for Christmas. ”As an international marketanother 10 weeks starting on company we put emphaSis mg January 17.

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on all our

markets, but especially Europe”, Jack Tramiel told

Atari

User. In recent weeks UK software houses, like their US counter— parts, have been involved in a

to provide

mad scramble

products ready for the

ST con-

launch here. Such has been the interest generated by the machine that most major British companies got caught up in the rush to actually buy ST development

'

sumer

systems.

We'even had to wait in line to pay for one", bemoaned a

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products, so ft ware

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than 80 featur-

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ing their wares on the Atari stand at the POW Show at London's Olympia"There has been nothing quite like it since the gold rush", said one industry observer. "lt’s as though Jack Tramiel had invited them all to the opening of the Klondike".

TOP VALUE A REVIEWER in Popular Com— puting Weekly has described

the as—yet-to-be-released Commodore Amiga as the main challengerto the Atari ST range. However the writer, Andrew ,

k esman f or one

company a little slowoff the mark. Programmers have been working round the clock in an attempt to beat the September deadline. Although many wrll ,. ,. unfinished only be showmg spo

H

_

Pennell,concludesthattheSTis .

I'k ey t 0 score h eaVi.| yon price i

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£400 cheaper for the

some bastc .

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.

model, which includes a does monitor when the Amiga. not — and the fact that it has .

m ore

.

RAM

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The program's producers have also taken heed of the viewer’s mailbag by introducing ,.

puters. But air time will also be given to the growing business and communications sectors. Of the program lPresenters W'“ be Lesley Judd, Ian Fred MCNaught-Davies and Harris. Micro Live Wi" 90 W" 0” BBC 2 at 7.30pm each Friday. —‘—‘—‘

'

Two-In-one ‘

cassette A

CASSETTE offering two

versions of the same game Boulder Dash—onefortheAtari 48k and the other the Amstrad, has been launched by Mirror— —

soft.

Said executive Pat Bitten: "It makes sense for dealers to stock only one product catering for two machine markets. “The two-in—one will not affect the customers who will still be getting the game for the normal £9.95".

.

.

Atari brrd

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have been ATARI owners invited to help fill a gap in our national heritage‘caused bythe likes of Henry VIII and Oliver Cromwell. Because of these and other iconoclasts there is no British history of Nativity art as there is in other European countries. But that is something archivists and historians Count and Countess Andrzej von Staufer intend to correct. They have organised the First British National Nativity Competition to put Britain alongside the other countries of the world who already have a longstand— ing tradition of Nativity—making. lt coincides with the Twelfth World Congress of Nativitists, which is hosted by a different country every three years and this yearis atlnnsbruck,Austria, in December. The competition, in two .

will be held at parts, Cathedral on Westminster December8andattheChristian Resources Exhibition at the Horticultural Halls in London on February 8. Count and

Countess von have been working closely with their international counterparts for eight years, as well as with British crafts— Staufer

people, artists, photographers and - during the past two years computer graphics artists. They have been helped by Epson UK, which was involved in the Christmas Archives Exhibition, Folk Nativities of the World, at the Barbican Centre last winter. The Epson connection with the National Nativity Competition is in the specialcategoryfor the best computer-generated image of the Nativity. Any part of the Christmas

story may be represented, and will be judged on

entries

originality,

content

and

approach. Epson will judge this section of the competition and award a prize to the winning computer artists. "The winner in the computer category will also compete for the overall Best in Show trophy”, Count von Staufer told Atari User. “And it is likely to be given a place in the British Nativity archives which will be going on tour to the United States and counleading Commonwealth tries shortly". Atari owners who want to enter the competition should write to National Nativitists Christmas ArchCompetition, ives, 64 Severn Road, Cardiff CF1 9EA enclosing a 24p stamp. "

.

September 7985 ATARI USER

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021

84


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m.

September 1985

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in association with

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Other than expensive long—distance phone calls, the two men had to rely on the

seconds rather than days. MicroLink has paid off for

them

in another

way

aware

high-speed two—way

five-day-minimum airmail service to keep in touch.

exchange

of up—to—the—minute that

business information

Until MicroLink, that is. Now both Gearing and Ishikawa are subscribers of the fast-growing inter— national mail service, and news about Britain’s motor industry gets to Japan in

to join

-

5

full

Pate" ‘es abounheslive over Storl nic mitied be own eleCf?freem trinsk's the

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e

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electronics engineer Jeff Gearing has been UK correspondent of aJapanese moto—

What Sir George was dorng wrong was trying to

Elec—

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MicroLink NEW commercial ties between Britain and Japan are being forged by MicroLink’s speed and efficiency. For several years Bristol

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friendlxl than other electronic .mai 5. , and Its vices,it’s informative, ,. fun to use , he says.

Parliament

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Page 45 r,

»


___—_________

_

STRAIGHT to work this month. Have a look at Program I. I don't think it should cause you too many problems. We're just assigning the values 1, 2, 3 to three numeric variables,

l

does" t ma all th’n s

NUMBERTHREE, and printing out the value of the variable immediately after each assignment.

.

10 NEH PNOGNM! I

20 PRINT CHRSUZS) 30

Nlll?ENnNizl

40 PRINT NIIIBERONE so unmentuozz 60 PRINT NllllEltTlNl 70 NlllBEllTllllEE=3 80 PRINT NlllIERTllNEE

e

P’”-""”"’ The end result

is

that:

1

2 3

appears on our screen.Along-winded way of doing things, | admit, but easy enough to fo||ow_ Program II is a different kettle of fish, but, believe it or not, its out ut is |_ exac?y the same as in Prograrr? It's sensible enough down to line 40. We clear the screen in line 20, assign the value to numericvariable

. l l

66

As

gu1de through mlCl'O

that

_

jungle has been

used on the samelabel $8 itseI-Iifoguzagn:?n'll'jl:2$2rvr?:ate?ilrjizl it Just updates NUMBER

seems to be saying, after all. The fact is that equals sign doesn't mean equals here lt Just tells the _

,

,

do somethin 9 The equals sugn instructs the computer to do whatever task is given on its right

computer

.

F0

10 RE" PROGRAM II 20 PRINT menus)

3. W'Elhl 40 PRINT gm.“

5. magnum“ so PRINT misfit 7. lull?tzlml?t? 80 ”INT mm Program // 12 ATARI USER

September 7985

both

Let’s take this idea a little further. Have a look at Program I”. The first five lines should be fairly familiar. When we run it the screen clears, line 20, we set NUMBER equal to zero, line 30, increase it by one, line print it. line Since

_

.

the

sides,

With Its value. ”ev‘f The pract|cal effect of line 50 .

,

SOTO

40

GOTO 40 tells the to line 40 the next the micro make line it does. ThlS increases NUMBER by one, as we've seen, so NUMBER takes the value two. Line 50 then prints out the 2 and we encounter line

60

you

ll recall,

again,

,

us back to line 40’ Th's WhICh increases NUMBER. Line 50 , prints out the new figure, 3, then we're back at line 60 ' which takes us , to “he 40' Wh'Ch increases NUMBER and so on. I think you can see that the sends

.

IS

to

NUMBER one two. increase by to Line 60 then duly prints out this new value Of NUMBER Line 70 is identical to line 50. Starting at the right ofthe equals sign it takes the value of NUMBER, increases it by one, then re-Iabels it NUMBER. That is, lNlth NUMBER from two to three. Line 80 increases then prints out the new value of NUMBER The thing to remember is that the it equals Sign doesn't mean equals means assign. You “do" what's on the right of the equals sign, and then .

.

~

,

,

program will produce the steadily 1. 2. 3. 4. s. 6.

.

label on the

1

_

l

the result to the

left.

we ve zero, an 530. increased it by one, the result will be that appears on th? screen. Once 5 done we the program come to line 60 Wh'Ch reads.this,

made easy Pa r t V Of MlKE BlBBY’s _

assign

N%ll3anngn was

'

Programm’ng

1

+

ua

and then label the result of that task with the label on its left. In this case the micro interprets ?ne 50 as starting on the right of the equals sign, take the valuelabelled by NUMBER and add one to it. Then label the answer with the variable NUMBER. The micro doesn't bother

NUMBER in line 30, then PRINT NUMBER in line 40. Line 50 looks decidedly odd, though: 50 NUHBER = NUHBER

9

Program //I

NE" "Mun"

III ”INT emsuzs, NIIIBEltzo

nut-{utilitarian PRINT NIIIDEIt

“m


,

,

.

————_—Beginners increasing sequence of numbers 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and so on.

1éjfl/tDIrurtlnin?.] Cjttan'zj 0 oseet.hatouh'll e is by $0breaeksue;of the r;])rc\;\g/';ram Sligy llf'eeye;Ze thin thifapébysri‘imledwzrriat‘; S

for aymomenrtjvivhile ou examine tlge out ut p ress the Cg’mrol and the 't tth t' p) k, SS $2212;in ‘Tlvfevsviéi gin: thin assirzel ress Control+1 a ain A98waif/Z ”mentioned whgn 5 ro ram kee s oin round in circles Fketgh'ls, we cap”?lta lg oop. W ecant "h en 1

(

3in

l

we don’t need to go up in one. Have a lOOk at line 50 Of

Actually Of

steps

Program

V1 =

NUHBER

§

3

B rea k

press

,

or

h

f

f

reeze

t

t

f

Remembering that micros start on the right of the equals sign, the Atari takes the value labelled by NUMBER, adds three to it, and gives the result the label NUMBER. The effect is that line 50 increases the value Of NUMBER by three each'time round the loop, so numbers are printed out on our screen going up in steps of three.

'

1° m mm" "1 20 "I" wanna 30 muf?n“ 40 "1" “BER 5. “Ufklm'?‘l 60 com 40

Eisfvalue SSAZTLme’l‘é‘Lillsiéil;3.2

of NUMBER printed out is one, and not zero as y0u might think. All right, we assigned zero to NUMBER in line 30, but we increased it-by one immediately, before ever printing it out. But what

,

if

we wante d t h e zero

printing out? Well, a sneaky method would be to make line 30 of Program lll' .

pmgmm

.

,

so

NUllBER=-l

What happens

here is

that

line

40

and so on

,

.

The crux

.

.

,

h ere ls

make

lt

(—I +

zero

1

=0).

Llne

50 then prlnts lt out. _

.

10 am "on“ I” 2. PRINT “?n-£5, 30 IlllBEltzo 48 PRINT “mam

50 NUHBER = NUMBER

-

Try running it if you won't take my word for it! In fact we can write a general program that will start at any number and go up or down in whatever steps we want by using the INPUT statement we met last month. Pr 09 r a m VII does the tri C k.

Program N

First of all the program asks us the number we want to start printing from which we label START. NOtiCG how Ilne 30 politely prints °Ut a message to tell us, what we re SUpposed to INPUT' mm 40 does the —

Another way round isjust to swap lines 40 and 50, so we PRINT before we increase NUMBER. This is what I've done in Program IV. Try running if you're quick it and you'll see enough that 0 does appear on your screen.

,

.,-.

,_

l

.

u R RE" c“ “25, 2. "I." PM“?! 30 IIII'IEIKO 40 PRINT III'IER 5. “BERT-lll?f?? so can 40

l ,

’ T

‘1

011 1. REM "on“ 2. PRINT CHRSHZS) to start 10 PRINT "Inner u IIPIIT sun “Incremt 5. “I" “f"; 5. III?!" Inn!" 7. WHERISTMIT so PRINT UMBER 90 “muzlllmmllc??i? no com an

w

Program

V

and so on. _7_

you have dlfflculty vrsuallsmg this try substituting sets of real ,

,

,

For instance, if you mentally input 25 forSTART and 5 for/NCREMENT, line 70 would give NUMBER the value 25, which line 80 would then print out. Line 90 would then add 5 to this, giving NUMBER the value 30 then we'd loop back to 80 via 100. The figure 30 would then be printed out, I'me 90 would lncrease lt by 5 .

,

-

-

-

5° an

5“goo d

.

,

b ut h avmg

to

from these loops by pressing Break isn't very elegant is it? Ideally the program should stop of its own accord. In other words, we should give it a condition to finish on. The haven’t loops we've met 50_ tar had so they re f'"'5h'”9 condition any“ known as uncondltlonal loops: We need to create a condltlonal loop, and Program VIII shows us how escape

1

-

50 IIII'BERIIIIIBEIH'I 5. com 40

.

39m we “I"

immediately increases NUMBERby

one, to

.

I

round the loop.

you ll see Wlthout too much dlf‘flculty, starts at 1000, then prlnts out 999,

998 997 line 50:

70

23???fSJhsafAl?ZZZis’Nai???ff

V/

,

down to business. then get aSSlgns the value Of.STARTt° NUMBER-WWW" pr'mthfs va'ue °f llne so we re Off to a NUMBER"? {39 9°°d Sta“ 'f V°“ ” Dam”. the pun' have to Increase NUYAZERhen by the “me °f (”035 MENT to next value. 100 blne th getghe ack to 80’ then lumps en YVthh the value. Llne 90then prlnts updated lncreases lt agaln by INCREMENT We

.

Line

If

_

lt the

to 90 up,

agelnnzeir/WBR?M¥N¢HS

getting larger. Program VI,

'

Lines 50 and 60 then prompt for, and INPUT the increment, or step, by '

NUMBER

Nor do the numbers always have [make creases c statzmegtsezuzhmaqselrl/OUIMGBQZ yo e to be as

loci?you

actual INPUT, labelling it as START.

at";

.

.

.

we go

a b out

'

lt'

'

10 RE" PROGIMHVIII 20 "I“ cullsuzsx

3’

7

until

"I'll

“99

you enter 4. IIPIIT llIIIEI! 5. IF mean” 60 com 30

“I

going

”9" “It!

STOP

P’Og’a’" V’”

The idea is that we keep on looping round, printing out the same inane message, until we enter 999. That is, the condition for ending the loop is that we INPUT 999 any other —

———————>

Program V// September 1935 ATARI USER

13


*

number will

cause

repeated.

the loop to be '

-

.

see how we ach|evethis. Llne clears the screen, then line 30

Let

'

-

5

enough to avoid this. Later on we'll how to f'idiot proof" ourinput, as see it 3 known. Try running Program VIII, and enter 999 to stop it. Then enter:

20 prompts for the INPUT, untr Will keep on gomgsayinggtgg CONT program IS entered. The program will restart CONT (In case you're wondering what stands for continue. The same trick the ? is in line 30, it’s the Atari’s works after you've pressed Break. abbreviation for PRINT. If you want to The IF. .THEN statement isn’t substitute ?for PRINT, then go ahead. hard to use. just remember: too it out the clarity spelling gives prefer condition you're testing for The 0 you.) comes directly after the IF. Line 40 then INPUTS into the 0 You can put any valid Basic variable NUMBER. Line 50 is the instruction after the THEN. heart of the matter—this is where we 0 The mstructron after the THEN IS test for our cond/t/on. It reads. —

'

.

I

50

Line 55

reads:

NUMBERO???

IF

Here

THEN ,

.

condition

our

GOTO

30

that

_

‘S

10 HEN ”on“ In 2° PHI" CHRSHZS) 3‘ '-’ "I'" “GP 0" going “Nil you enter ”9" 40 HP!" WEBER 50 IF “HERO”? THEN com 30 60 El»

'

50 ‘

IF

NUMBER-999

THEN

2232: /F some condition what follows the THEN. [F that condition isn’t TRUE, ignore what’s after the THEN and carry on with the next line, In the case of line 50, this boils down to: IF NUMBER does indeed equal 999 THEN STOP. /F NUMBER isn’t 999, THEN drop through to the next line line 60 in this case. So if when prompted by line 30, we’d INPUT a value of 999 for is TRUE, do

Smaller

numbers

NUMBER, we would do what's after THEN and STOP. We haven't met STOP before, butl don't think you'll be too surprised to learn that it stops the micro dead in its tracks. It also prints out a message indicating the line it was stopped at. In this case it would be STOPPED AT LINE 50_

|fl however, we entered a value for NUMBER other than 999, our condition hasn’t been met, so we carry on with the next line of the program, line 60, which then sends us back to our prompt for INPUT again. In other words, the IF...THEN that we keep on the enter looping until number got ourselves a condl

statement ensures we

Actually there are other ways of stopping IT, SUCh as pressmg Break or entering a word when it's expecting a number. For the moment we'll assume that you're good-mannered .

Lhnadti aggiEfrfenaaseflégt?985736

truequ—that is condition's we NUMBER isn't equal to 999 our

_

6“

the

at

sharp end

'

'

'

inequalities, come

only carried out ifthe condition has been met that is, if it’s true. .

If

‘the condition

micro

THEN

is

not true, the

what's after the continues With the next

lgnores

and

the program. Take a |°°k at Program IX h0WThis does exactly the same I°b as Program VIII but in a different way. This time we test to see ifthe number is NOT equal to 999, and, if this is so, we loop back to our prompt for INPUT. Lines 20 to 40 are identical. The vital bits are lines 50 and 60. line

Of

Inequality

Meaning

f

;EIS—

> < < > >: <:

as

they're known, that in combination

in very useful

.THEN statements. Table summarises them. If you're anything like me, you'll get confused between > and <_ The trick is to remember that, for both symbols, the larger number goes opposite the bigger end Of the with

0

END

We met this before. As its name suggests, it simply ends proceedings, this time without any message, unlike STOP. The not equal to symbol, < >, may be new to you. It's just one of a set of

.

,

,

|OOD back to line 30On the other hand, if the condition in line 30isn't met—that is NUMBER through to me9%%— '° simply rea S'drop is ’W vze

STOP

Stafe‘ uses the ”Cy-THEN one we haven t met before. It

'

.

THEN

The

2225x253]?

Program/x

IF

.

.

I

symbol, Whereas the smaller number 9005 opposite the sharp, or smaller, end. It may h0t be the way EihSteIh remembered it, bUt it's 90°d enough for me! Program X uses what we've learned about IF .THEN state— ments, as they’re known, to add a finishing point to Program VII. Lines 10 to 40 are identical. We clear the

greater than less than not equal to greater than or equal to less than or equal to

.

.

Example 7_7 is true—8—_7i_sfalse 7>5 true, 3>4 is false is 3<4 '5 7<7 is ."ue' fa!” 4< >5 IS true, 4< >4 rs false 6>:5 is true, 6>=9 is false 7<:7 is true, 7<=6 is false

Tab/e,_.,,,equa,,-?es 4

74 ATARI USER

September 7985


Beginners

screen and IN PUT a value for START, b er we 5 t a rt f rom. hum Llnes 50 and 60 then prompt for and INPUT the number we wish to end at, FIN/SH. 70 and 80 then INPUT INCREMENT,the value of our step. As in program VII, the value of START is assigned to NUMBER, line 90, and then printed, line 100. Next, we increase the value of NUMBER by INCREMENTand store it in NUMBER at 10again line’l Una 120 'S the CfUXIF

NUHBER)FINISH

,

2. PRINT CHRSUZS) 30 PM '" .. "““"°" t“ “a" at u i “ I'm" SW" 5° "I" “W“? to finish at"; 5. It?!“ “315" 70 PRINT “INFORM Of"; 80 IIPIIT IICREIEIIT 90 IIIIBEnzsmnr 100 PRINT INNER no numfnzlmmenuucm?r no IF IIIIBERN‘IIIISII Till-Ill Elm 1“ 5°", 1"

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v

m ?

.

.

This unique comms package gives ATARI“ users full Prestel‘ facilities, including graphics, and allows access to Micronet‘", Viewdata systems, telex, electronic mail, bulletin boards and databases. Datatari handles baud rates of1200/75, 75/1200, 1200/1200, 300/300. 850 interface not required. For models 400, 800, 600XL, 800XL, 65XE, 65XEM and 130XE used with suitable modems.

,

0 Well that’s a// for this month. Next month we’l/be continuing with loops, but in an entirely different way.

with the Multi-Viewtenn/Datatari modem serial interface plus software package from Miracle Technology.

~

,

However a start Of 50 and a finish 55 With an increment of 3 will result in:

Of

Experiment with different values for START, F/N/SH and INCREMENT and see ifyou can understand what’s happening. This program is quite fundamental, and we'll be using its ideas a lot, so it's worth an effort. For instance, if you start at 25, set

C EN ’ R O N I CS IN I ER FA CE /

0" your SCfeen-

line 100.

.

25 30 35

Programx

What this says is, if we’ve incremented NUMBER past F/N/SH end the program here and now. If not, then continue with the next line, which will loop back to 100 and print the newly—incremented number. Notice that if we have exceeded the limit we don't actually print that value of NUMBER since we don't loop back to the PRINT statement of

g

the finish to 35 and prescribe a step of 5, you ll get:

10 RE" PROGIMHK

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To get your ATARI on—Iine, all the way,

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The transformation from Hulk to Bruce

for Sett'ng the standard adventure graph'cs AS promised last month, let's take a look at the Scott Adams Quest Probe series. Unfor— tunately, The Fantastic Four next in the series of Marvel Super Heroes to be put into adventure form has not yet arrived from Adventure International so I shall only be able to look at the first two games of the series, The Incredible Hulk and Spiderman. -

BRI LLIG takes

first look at adventures lnsplred by those Marvel comlc heroes _

a

_

_

The Quest Probe series

is Scott

Adams' first major venture into graphics from the off, although his earlier games have had graphics added in some cases. Hence the games are availableeither as text only cassettes or on disc with graphics, with a commensurate price dif— ference. The graphic versions also containa "graphics off" command for any text fans who prefer the faster loading of discs.

Now

have in earlier columns expressed myviewson whatgraphics add to and subtract from a game. In the case of Quest Probe have to say that the graphics do add to the game I

l

for two main reasons. Firstly the characters portrayed are cartoon characters in their own right. Hence the impression given in the 76 ATARI USER

September 7985

games is an entirely accurate one, and nothing jars with the players’

perception of the central figure. This is reinforced by the inclusion of an actual Marvel comic in the package, designed to introduce the characters to newcomers. Secondly the text in the games tends to be fairly sparse and a little

repetitive, presumably a reflection on

the amount of memory taken up by the graphics. For instance, in The Hulk most of the action takes place in or around a series of large domes, while in Spiderman the action takes place in a large office building.

The graphics themselves, par— ticularly in The Hulk, are the best have seen in any Atari adventure, giving an excellent representation of the original cartoon characters. If graphic adventures are to be the way forward then this is the standard to beat for any new contenders. The games have a slightly disappointing quality, in that the actual I

story line behind each is similar, as you send your Super Hero on a feel that gem-collecting mission. I

with a little more imagination and variety the characters could have been set some slightly more challeng— —

“L<.


Adventu l" in9

—————————

their amazing powers. The Quest Probe series to date provides some good challenging hunt—and—find problems and as this is series it will an interconnected presumably follow the same pattern in the Fantastic Four. Worth buying for the graphics for sure, and any Scott Adams adventure is worth a look, but the text only versions are a little on the dry side. Now on to some of the nitty gritty adventuring problems. Picture the scene. There you are strolling contentedly through your adventure, a nice full inventory, when suddenly everything looks the same. No matter which exit you take your surroundings never vary. In short you have hit what every adventurer dreads a maze. This is the sort of problem that is going to confront you in probably seven games out of ten, so we had better make sure that there isaway of dealing with it. Richard Burke, of Gwent, has come up against just such a problem in Escape from Pulsar 7, written by Brian Howarth as one of the now Mysterious Adventures marketed byAdventureInternational. Richard’s problem is that he cannot open the locker in the storeroom, or indeed always find the ing tasks to tax

,

storeroom. The storeroom in Pulsar

What

you ”36d Is paint Of reference '

a

forms part of'a double

maze in the

game. The first part of the maze is that several rooms are exits from a series

of air ducts. The second part, in with several of the other Mysterious Adventures, is the total lack of geographical logic in the

common

game. ln adventures

today there is absolutely no excuse for an exit leading north to a location and yet the south exit from that new location leading somewhere completely dif— ferent.Thisis the case in Pulsar 7, and probably explains why Richard cannot always find the storeroom. The Brillig patent maze mapping method can, however, solve the problems caused by encountering games writers with no sense of direction. The first sign of a maze is when, despite the plethora of exits in many directions, the player cannot The location appear to move. remains the same. But description has the location? The problem isthatyoucannottell. Everything looks the same. What you need is a point of reference, so start

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suggest after the inventory item you drop, as the geography of the maze is pure nonsense. But by persistencewith my method can promise Richard will find something that will be a smash hit with that locker. Mind you,some adventure writers have got smart to this system, so don't be too surprised ifyour mapping items start disappearing while you I

I

are away.

Jymm Pearson's Curse of Crowley Manor is the Other

Venture causing James Chapman problems, being stuck in the numerical lock room with a monstrous creature. Well, James, follow Rule Number One and examine everything in an adventure, including your transportation to the manor, and you may find some useful liquid refreshment. Finally a letter from M. Woodgate asks me to commit an act of heresy see

If

you map a maze by dropping an it will bea object “a e /ocati0f/: to pic ya‘” way piece 0sievekry

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case of Pulsar 7 each location

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from his letter that he already Atari's The Pay-Off and that he is considering Mask of the Sun by Broderbund which is no bad choice.

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from the inventory, such as a pencil, to identify location No 1. Now go through the available exits, and every time you can still see the pencil you have dropped, mark a dot against that exit. It obviously leads nowhere. If you cannot see the pencil, then you have moved, so drop another item and repeat the process. Continue this until you have mapped the whole maze, and from then on it will be a piece of cake to pick your way through it.

I

(m 9’“‘“\ w J'l

with where you are and callthat No 1. All you have to do is drop an item

has

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and recommend a good disc adventure that is not from Infocom.

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he is after. They should keep him busy for a few months. Since Adventure International has

featured as the bulk of this article Steve Calkin, of Pitsea, wins an Atari User T shirt for his "Glitch of the September 7985 ATARI USER

17


———————Adventuring Month" recounted to him by none other than Scott Adams at last year's PCW show. Adventureland has an obstinate bear to pass. Shou(t) or Scre(am) Bear will work. Now try replacing “am" with "w" as one frustrated American did. Nowonderthe bearwas surprised.

lAKE ONE LA R GE HOD

I

1

at 9:20am

a mi um).bm.itm,tt9) I 2: Fl! 1:0 to ”humans” 30 mt 1:9 to szpmzoinmzomnzna m I “ F“ 5' a"

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man Y bricks did y cu dro ‘7 and (b) H °W many E/VV d'dp. V°u ma k7 m9ves FThe are in the array R, With rooms P as the Domtef 10 the current f00mThere are a generous 700 rooms and '

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Computer Support

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and hardware software A tar: user

A whole newrange

of affordable products for every

80 COLUMN PACK £69.95 At last! 80 columns built in to your Atari, selectable on powerup, works with currently available software.

ULTIMON!

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A built in machine code monitor capable of stopping any program on the fly, examine/alter registers/memory, read from disk, write to disk, return to program and many ome, commands avanable, A must for a“ assembiy |anguage pmgrammers,

THE GAP

£2935

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ROM EMULATOR

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a

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ofATA/il CORPORATION. “ATARIisaregisteredtrademark ‘MACSS is a trademark of 0.3.5. inc,

78 ATARI USER

September 7985

£15.95 £9.95

£19.95 £16.95 £10.95 £12 95

l£895

£495

SERIALFLYLEADH metre) £1 SERIAL FLYLEAD (2 metres) SERIALl/O PLUG

1.95 £12.95 £3 9°"' '

Coming soon:

128k BANK SELECT

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Select from any one of up to eight eproms from includes board and ROM-

£14.95

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ease spear make and model of monitor. m9NITOR CQfCJNECTION CONNECTION LEAD lease specrfy make and model Of h"f’}' IFILI'FI REPLACEMENTAER'AL LEAD £295

PORTPmNT

FILE LOADER

{8-95

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An extra 64k Of user memory

£2935

£7.95 .

A hardware modification. Write bad sectors to any diskette, can be used for custom creation of bad sectors or to backup some protected disks.

Run a standard centronics compatible parallel printer from the joysticks ports of any Atari computer, includes a relocatable handler, runs with any 1300t program, comes complete With connection lead. SUPERDISASSEMBLER £24.95 Disassemble any disk, cassette or cartridge, uses system labels, separate input to pre—determine data bytes, the end result file can be customised me“ fe'assemb'ed ”st 3" assemble“

Disk

Cass £6.95 £6.95

DISK DUPLICATOR DISC DUPLICATOR

LEAD

£29.95

and debug cartridge software quickly and effectively, just flick switch and cartridge RAM becomes ROM, can also be used in conjunction with CARTRIDGE DUPLICATOR to backup those internally protected cartridges the“ produce a custom copy. Develop

Use the other side of all your diskettes,

bounds

. . .

THOSE of you who solved last month's Bricks puzzle will know that you needed rather a large hod. The program we present here provides a means of arriving at answers to the questions (a) How

switch.

STOP causes the array Cto exceed its and so the TRAP command causes the value of the number of moves—to be printed out. The array R is then searched for 55, the number of these corresponding to the number of bricks dropped. If you run the program you should get answers of 134,468 moves and 501 bricks. Be warned though, Atari Basic is so slow that the program takes about an hour to run.

starts in room 20. The data correspond to the cards described last month. Each set of three numbers provides the instruc~ tions to: 0 Drop a brick or clear the room drop 5 or O in RiPI. or —1 0 Move East or West— add to P. 0 Get the next three data items and count moves. Reaching the equivalent of the P

EPROM SELECTOR .

.

f0f the 800x'—-

.

CARTRIDGE SELECTOR .

.

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menu on powerup,

.

Select from any one of up to four ready plugged

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.

ONE of the classic arcade' games, often emulated but in my opinion sur— never passed, is Boulderdash. The concept is simplicity itself. You control Rockford, a handy little mole who whizzes through the boulder—riddled sub soil collecting diamonds as fast as his little paws will carry him. Collect enough diamonds and a door opens up. Reach the door to the transported to the next level up, and start again in a different cave. ln practice it isn’t that simple is it ever? as there is a stringent time limit with a really off—putting, panic—induc— ing 10 second countdown. Rockford is well aware of this, as any pause in the action leaves him frowning and tapping his foot impatiently. This is quite apart from the fact that the more subsoil you remove the more Rockford is likely to receive a boulder on his head as he strives for the next gem. The caves themselves are —

Sparkling arcade -

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before the Shi'ite Muslims decided to play the game for real. Otherwise they might

have laid themselves open to charges of opportunism. As it is, the worst one could level against them is a Charge of premeditated plagiarism. saw ever if YOU Broderbund's Choplifter, then Hijack will give youa remarkable feeling Of déié VUThe innovative aspect ofthe scenario is that it is a train that has been hijacked. “HY this train to Waterloo" doesn't sound quite right, does it? There are 10 VlPs aboard

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turn into diamonds when you casually drop a rock on their heads is a theme in several caves, together with flooding them and avoiding nasty little “warps" set to chase you around the screen.

over

title

is page jolly rendi-

accompanied by a tion ofThe Runaway Train, but the game sounds consist largely of the tacka—tacka—

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dous

Pete Sleeman

.

tacka helicopter rotor and

again!

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the train and the roof of the safety of in them deposit the rear carriage. Meanwhile, Off

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of course, there are hazards to be avoided. Guns fire at you and trees suddenly offer themselves as targets for you to crash into. It’s like learning to drive all ,

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a good iOb English Software released Hijack

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of varying degrees of difficulty, from not too easy to downright impossible. Cave A lets you zoom around and acclimatise to the perils of the plummeting boul— ders you inadvertently induce. Cave B does more of the same, while Cave C wiped me out for about a fortnightas I struggled to clear all 24 diamonds and find the exit in time. Expert boulderdashers have shown me that there is a technique to every screen, although to assist the unworthy there is a facility to flip forward four caves at a time, or a pause button to allow you to plan your route through the earth. Trapping Butterflies which

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gunshots. One nice feature is that following a wipe-out you can start from the level you were on when killed. You can also restart from the beginning if you really want to. lt's not one of the most compulsive games I’ve ever played. In fact in my opinion the cleverest part is the way the title is written in an appropriate shape on the cassette inlay. It's a lot more colourful than Choplifter, and if you never saw Broderbund's classic you may well one Hijack. For my money, though, I prefer the original. Talking of money, the 48k cassette costs £7.95 and the disc version is £10.95.

Dave RUSSG“ September 7985 ATARI USER

19


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ONCE upon a time there was a nasty Queen who, as the law governing fairy stories dictates, had a beautiful and virtuous stepdaughter. Now the Queen, being the crabby, cantankerous and malicious monarch that she was, decreed that no one should marry the fair Princess Morning

Star until they first proved

themselves worthy. Naturally Queenie devised tests that would ensure that none of the macho knights that sought the Princess's hand would live to tell the tale. One besotted wretch was even sent deep into the Mines of Mendon, there to slaya Grue and drag the carcass up where all might see it. Now any lnfocom adventurer worth his or her salt could have told the poor sucker that he'd have been better off staying at home reading a good magazine like Atari User but no off he went. Darkness soon overcame the hapless knight who, lost .

.

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$3

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You

not as

begin

a

knightin shining armourbut asa humble Post Office worker. The game begins atop a hillside in the coastal town of Festeron. You may wish to explore the town before or after going to the

post office

the cinema,

cemetery, police station, light— house, pleasure wharf, park, library and church are well worth a visit. Your boss, Mr Crisp, is not m“,,,.tj-.njn~t*“‘ 5"

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happened

to be

a

rum—

maging through the ruined tombs of monarchs and chan— ced across a glowing object amid the dust and decrepitude. It was the Princess' heart, now long since turned to stone but shining brightly with the unfulfilled wishes of a lifetime. And that, dear reader, was how the Magick Stone of Dreams was discovered. ln Wishbringer, from 20 ATARI USER

September 7985

the most pleasant of postmasters when you first meet him, he’s reading other people’s and will tell you in postcards no uncertain terms what he thinks of you. Your first job is to deliver a letter to the proprietor of Ye Olde Magick Shoppe, way up on a cliff top on the other side of town. You can't afford to hang about too long - the Magick Shoppe shuts at 5pm and the game starts at 3pm. Getting there can present a —

devoured by a lurking Grue. Since nobody ever survived the ordeals, the Princess was condemned to a life of loneliness and died without ever seeingasingle knight make it to the finals.

"My youth, my home and family all were forfeited for its protection. And now, now it

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concealit from the Evil One and

looking and pale "as a faded signature in an antique book" receives your delivered letter. She is clearly upset when she sees the writing on the envelope: "It has been a long, long time since I last saw this never handwriting.., Hoped would again The letter turns out to be a ransom note. Somebody signing themself as the Evil One has kidnapped the old lady’s cat and wants the Magick Stone in return. The lady is evidently distressed. in a voice breaking with emotion, she whispers "Many seek to gain the Stone of Dreams yet few canimagine the price. For years have fought to l

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messengers in the shape of a vicious poodle blocks the main route, and even if you do manage to pacify it the Pooch doesn't stay tranquil for long. Once at the Magick Shoppe an old lady who is as fragile—

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claims my only companion". Guess who's about to be entrusted with the Stone and the task of rescuing Chaos the cat? Right first time! Before you know it, you’re thrust out of the shop and into

thick

Fortunately; -—

Wishbringer

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l'VE got some good news and some bad news. First the bad news. If, like me, you were one of the ?rst to spend your hard—earned cash on an old 800, then you might

can help.

Bob Chappell

a

a

.

$-

as.

assess

be

forgiven for thinking that

you had some terrible personal came to buying cheap quality software. But this is where the good news comes in. Now, thanks to a few enterprising software

“problem when it

dealers

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With it, you can wish for advice, darkness, flight, freedom, luck,

,

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Magic"

foresight and rain. You can only WiSh once for eaCh' 5° mils" choose the occasion with care. You must also have certain objects in order to make the wish effective. For example, and most appropriately, 10 WiSh for darkness you must first have drunk some Grue’s miikWishbringer is ranked as an introductory level adventure the other lnfocom gradings in order Of diffiCUHY are standard, advanced and expert — WhiCh means it is more suitable for the apprentice adventurer. Nevertheless, even seasoned advent— urers Wiii find it a by to play. The package comes handsomely boxed with glossy manual, map and yourveryown Wishbringer stone. Wishbringer is not intended as the sequel to the marvellous Sorcerer and Enchanter as some people thought it might be — that pleasure is still to come. Yet once again Infocom has come up trumps. Wishbringer is filled with humour, excitement, detail and atmosphere. its high stan— It maintains dards and keeps lnfocomin pole position as the best adventure publishers in the world. Defin— itely not to be missed.

s

s

7.54 .

through it, all you can see is the summit of Post Office hill. Only trouble is, there's now a massive tower where the Post Office used to be. lfyou make it through thefog without falling to your death off the cliff, you'll find the whole scene has changed. Where birds once sang, vultures now croak. Trolls lurk. Your beloved town now seems to be in the grip of decay and despair. And if you thought a nip on the trouser seat from a poodle was bad enough, what are you going to think about being chewed up by the enormous heIlhound which has usurped the poodle's position? Stone

s

v

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fog. When you peer

the

s

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and the growing

potential of our own software writers, we can at last enjoy of the best Atari some software at a portion of the price. Archon by Electronic Arts, is one of these classics to filter through. It's distributed in the UK by Ariolasoft and costs £11.95 tape or £14.95 disc. It is at first glance similar to chess, not only in its board layout but in the movements of some of its players. But that is where the similarity ends. Archon is a two-screen game, The main screen is a chequered board, of light and dark squares. There are also squares which vary between light and dark, but most important there are the power points — five squares which, if totally controlled by one side,will end the game. The second screen is the scene of fierce battles to

-

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decide the right to own a square. So much for the layout. Now on with the game itself. Archon can either be a one or two player game. You are given the choice of being either the light force or the dark force and this is where the squares matter. If you are the light side, the light squar‘es will give you more strength than the dark squares and vice versa for the dark side. The revolving squares will —

give

a

different amount of

strength depending on your colour and its colour. Each side has an army of equal strength but different in their fighting styles, Thus tactics play a major part in

Archon. The most important ele— ment is the Wizard who can cast spells ranging from heal— ing your player to reviving a dead piece. This usually encourages an onslaught on the Wizard from the word go, but it can prove a very costly attack and is

p r Ic 2

generally not preferred by the more experienced player. My only complaint about this excellent game is that you do not have any skill-level selection in the one-player mode so found myself I

beating the computer time after time. The manual is well laid out on playing the game and a thorough explan-

giving hints

ation of your spell-casting ability. The one i received was a Commodore 64 version which was accompanied by a photo— copy ofthe Atari key functions. Ifind thisatouch strange as Archon was released first on the Atari, then on the 64. Perhaps this wasapre-release version of the manual. All in all an original gamE, well written and a pleasure to play.

Paul Irvine 0 The review Of M-U-L-E f" theJu/y issue was 3/30 by Paul Irvine and we’re sorry we Oil/Y managed to 98150 per cent Of his name

right!

September 1985 ATARI USER

27


m

I WE looked last month at Modes 3, 5 and 7 and saw how they were four-colour modes. This month we’ll take a look at the modes we missed out, 4 and 6. These are still “map" modes, but they only allow two colours to be used. If you’re wondering why anyone should want to limit themselves to two colours, the answer is memory. By way of a slight digression, let’s see why this should be so. We talk about a bit of information and because the word bit is used in everyday language it's easy to forget that it has a precise meaning in this

-

-

context.

When someone offers you some food and you say “Well, maybe just a bit more, please",, you're using the word in a very imprecise way. In information processing terms, bit is a contraction of the two words binary digit. We say that one bit of information has been transmitted if the number of possible outcomes has been halved. more

Suppose

I

toss a com and tell you

that the outcome is heads. I've given you one bit of information because i've reduced the possibilities from tWO to one. Before transmitted any information, the outcome could have i

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been heads or tails.

Suppose your task is to guess which square on an otherwise empty chess—board contains a pawn. If tell you that it isn'tin the left-hand half of the board, once again I've given you one bit of information. In the case of the chess board I've reduced the possibilities from 64 to 32. With the coin reduced the possibilities from two to one. In both cases have provided the same amount of information one bit. If you've been following Mike Bibby's Bit Wise series, you’ll be quite familiar with binary notation, so let's work our way back towards the graphics screen. If you think about a simple I

l

I

black—and-white screen, each pixel can either be white lit — or black — —

unlit. That

is,

we

can

describe the

pixel’s stair. using only one binary digit. Let's say represents lit and O represents unlit. We could now describeacomplete screen asa string of lsand Os and we 1

22 ATARI USER

September 1985

could store

this information

in

memory. Suppose now we have the option of each pixel not only being lit but being coloured red. That is, each pixel can be lit or unlit, and if lit can be

white or red. Our single binary digit can't convey all this information, so we need to introduce another one. We could then describe each pixel's state as 00 white lit or red lit. unlit, 01 There is another possible combination, 10— red unlit—but in this case it doesn't make much sense. It's easy to see that ifwe wanted to describe a screen containing this much information we'd need a bigger string of is and Os. If even more colours were possible, we'd need an even bigger string. This information is held in the micro's RAM memory and so we can see that if we want more colours available we have to allocate more memory to hold the possible colour —

1

1

information. The other variable in the equation

the size of the pixel or the resolution. A high resolution screen has many pixels per row of screen and therefore needs more information— holding space than a low resolution is

screen.

Mode4has the same resolution as Mode 5 40 rows x 80 columns plus atextwindow.Howeverbecause only two colours are availablein Mode 4, it takes up less memory than Mode 5. Similarly Mode 6 has the same resolution as Mode 7 80 rows X 160 columns plus text window but again with only two available colours. —

We can do much the same as we did in

Modes 3,5and 7.Forexamp|e,

type GR.4 and the screen should clear to black with the blue text window at the bottom. |f you now enter:

COLOR you’ll

1

see our old

_

'

PLOT 5'5 friend the orange


,

.

,

_—E square. To give us at, enter:

bit more to look

a

way to erase part Of a display is to re-plOt it in the background colour. F°' examp'e' ”V emermg'

DRAWTO 30,9. The colour Of the plotted point defaults to orange but we can alter it by setting register 0. If you enter.

coggiiiiTZI-ggssli ' the

SETCOLOR 074 ' ’ you alter register luminance 4 Change t°

a

and ”‘C?

0 to

still PRINT¢$6 as we did in Mode 5. For example, enter: _

colour 7, blocks

POSITION 20,20: PRINT

(the 63” ogange .“e'

The colour information for the background is held in register 4,50 if you type:

the black should change into a purple —colour5—withluminance 6. The colours for the plotted points and the background are the two colours. We could also change the colour of the text window via register 2. Try:

SETCOLOR 2'12'4 for example. You should now have blue blocks, purple background and revolting, isn't green text window _

it?

that's three haven't dis—' covered an undocumented aspect of Mode 4. We've cheated by counting the colour ofthe text window which is really a bit of Mode 0. If we used a full—screen Mode 4, the text window would disappear and we'd be back tO .

.

.

\\

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r

an ‘

LOCATE 40,201: PRINT Z the number should be printed in the text window. If you now enter: .

1

in

signified that location 40,20 contained a coloured pixel whereas the O in the second case signified an unlit

LOCATE X,Y,Z where X and Y are the coordinates Of the screen location and the contents of the location are stored in Z. If you press Reset and enter GR.4

1

pixel.

You can use the information gained from looking at the screen to determine what happens nextin your program. For example, if your ball has

hit a wall, you must change its direction to simulate a bounce. For example, enter: _

_

azingggézg'L34225—g ’ ' the effect. Because we plotted a point at 40.20 the LOCATE command assigned a value of1 to the variable 2. The IF Z=1 test returns a value of ”true" so the THEN part Of the command is carried out. In this case the colour in register 4 is altered and the background once again becomes purple. The LOCATE command is very useful but behaves slightly differently depending on which mode you've selected. If you're in Modes 0,1 or 2 the LOCATE returns a value between O and 255. If you've selected Modes 3, 5 or 7 then LOCATE will return a value Of 0, 1, 2 or 3. As we've just seen, in Modes 4 and a the LOCATE command returns either 0 or 1. If you recall the earlier articles in this series, you've probably worked Out the correspondence between the characteristics of the mode and the values that LOCATE returns. and see

Even so, out suggest you try the LOCATE command in all the graphics I

l .

you’ll once again be confronted by orange square. If you now type:

the number 0 should appear in the text window. In the first case, the

v~ ‘1Q

f,

COLOR 1: PLOT 40,20

and you should see lines appear where the is are printed and a space

b

§

clear Mode 4 screen,

LOCATE 40,19,z: PRINT 2

takes is:

two colours. If we specify COLOR 2 for the in the we them plotted points, plot background colour. If there's nothing already on the screen we wouldn't see any effect of this. However, one

a

#6;"111110000011111" between them where the Os are. If you're looking for ways Of saving memory, it’s worth noting that using PRINT=t=t6 is generally more economical than PLOTting pairs Of data points. This means that a combination of Mode 4 and PRINT 116 can be a very economical way of producing a display. Although we can see the dis Ia simply by looking, there are times] when your program needs to "see" the diSp|aY~ That iSi it needs to know whether a particular screen location contains anything. For example. you may be bouncing a ball around the screen and need to know if it has hit a wall. Atari Basic pfOVideS a graphics command WhiCh Will |00k at a screen location and say what iS there. The command is LOCATE and the form it

SETCOLOR 4’5’6

Blue, purple, green colours. However, we

should disappear. to we can PLOTting,

line andn addition

to get back to then enter:

#h'T'_u

’.

".

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a.

¢

firm/1,3...mrlx/l/r/?r

Guess the square the pawn is on— just one bit of information is a help.

modes that we’ve covered so far and get iiimiiiar with iis resuie. 0 That's your homework for this next month we'// look at month Mode 8, —

.

.

September 7.985 ATARI USER

23


ROLA ND WA DDILO VE goes do wn the road that leads to artif1c1al Intelligence With this that modifies .tself program

THE assembler published in the

August issue of AB". User

very useful tool for developing short machine code " routines. you've been using lt’ you might How can well-be 33m"? these be incorporated m a routines Basic program? best

Th? way WOU|d be to store the “Chm" °°de '" data '" Wtemems. the program. Then a routine srmple used to read each item and couldbe It m memory. store he problem With met h 0d '5 “PS how to get the code into the Slate statements. it would be very tedious to do it yourself surely there must be an easier way? Well, there is. Just ask your Atari to do it for ‘you! Data Maker was designed to take any section of memory and to convert it into data statements. All you have to do is tell it where to start and how .

.

.

.

.

many bytes to convert. The program constructs all‘ the data Statements and types them in for you. It then deletes itself, leaving just the linesofdata.

Quite a clever technique is used by the program and it's worth studying. What the program does is to clear the screen and print a line number followed by "DATA". This is carried out in line 70-

It then Peeks the memory and gets 20 bytes of data. These are printed with commas between by lines 80 to 24 ATARI USER

September 7985

1

10. Finally, it

is a

moved on to the next line. lt'S Still in input mode remember,

prints: 13.

SOTO

The next line, 120 is “the most important line. It Pokes memory location 342 With 13 and ends the program.

What this does is tO pm the Atari editor into input mode when the program ends. it's as if you had just pressed Return when entering a line. Anything printed 0" that “he is entered. The clever part is positioning the CUFSOT lUSt before the program ends so that it lands on the line of data that it just printed. It then enters it as ifyou had typed it in. The cursor is then ,

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m a W‘m ht: M" 10 if“ m “3 “CH user in: 3. was ’ “ 7 5? W3 at: w”'""" * m"""” L 5. ’ 3? "St‘" g? a." m w'" ”I"! ,

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Program/

80 it enters: BOTO

1“

which it does. This line sends it back to line 70 to print another data statement if it hasn’t finished. When it's done this, it stops, enters it and goes round again.

When it's entered all the data, it 140 which puts it back into normal keyboard mode. All the line numbers used by the data maker itself are printed on the screen f0||owed by: goes on to line

PUKE

“2:12

150. Again the cursor is positioned and the editor put into input mode. The program ends, at which point the editor takes over and enters all the line numbers, deleting the program in line

itself. Finally it enters the poke which sets the editor back to normal keyboard mode. All that remains are the data statements. As you can see, it's a powerful

technique that's worth mastering. find programs that modify themselves quite interesting and there must be many other appli— cations of this clever trick. How about an artificial intelligence program? It could grow like a living creature, building up its data as it learned I

.

.

.


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(D ealer Enquiries Welcome) September 1985 ATARI USER

25


Part III of MIKE your

ROWE's

dlsplays

program

serles

how

on

to

give

the professuonal touch

It

AN interrupt, in computer terms, is when the computer temporarily

ma‘" “Wm“ s‘°"“"°°“““9“‘e Basic, machine code or any and executes other language in memory another program before returning to the original program. There are several types of interrupt which are useful for different functions, and they can be divided

at at

n

s

_

NMI

non-maskable interrupts

-

I nterru

cannot be disabled by the 6502 processor and include vertical blank VBI interrupts display list —

pt

and Reset. interrupts DLI The VBI occurs during the screen blank after drawing one screen and before starting the next. These occur —

I I

.

every 50th of

a

,

-

<

Q

.

0

and PlA chips. But we are only interested in DLIs for now. A DLI can occur every time a line is drawn on the screen.Therefore, because it enables you to have a small program running each time a DLI occurs, it means you can change various parameters as the screen is

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peripheral and serial bus input/output interrupts, the Break key and 6502 Break instructions. NMIs are handled by the Antic chip while IRQs are handled by the Pokey

writing your own. The first point is that timing is critical. Only a relatively short amount of time is available in a DLl, so the routine must be short. It must start by storing any registers it uses—A, X and Y—on the stack, as the mam program WI“ require these back after the interrupt, and it must restore them at the end of the routine.

(K75"4f”) D) "

second. A DLI can occur after each line is drawn on the screen and takes place in the small delay between drawing each line on the screen. The other type of interrupts are called IRQ interrupt request. These are maskable, which means they can be disabled by the 6502 processor. These are several timer interrupts,

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The result of this is that you can change, for example, the colour ofany of the registers part way down the screen once or many times. This allows many more colours to be displayed at once. Other possible uses are to change the character set in use part way down, change sound or music, move players orsplit players several times, fine scrolling in different directions such as in —

Frogger—anddiffering screen widths. Any of these without interfering with September 7985

.

Also note that many locations for colour or other functions have two locations, the hardware register and the shadow register. In these cases you would normally POKE to the shadow register and the OS transfers the number to the hardware register during the vertical blank. Any registers changed by the

routine should

be

the hardware

registers, not the shadow registers

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used

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For

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26 ATARI USER

0

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into two types. —

e

ru

a

your main program at all. All this sounds too good to be true and there has to be a drawback. Well, if you are purely a Basic programmer there is. The interrupts must be in machine code. However, don’t panic. There is no reason why you cannot use DLI routines from other sources in your own program because using them is very easy. Let's begin by looking at the routine itself, should you decide to try .

Basic.

example, to change the

background colour in Basic you would POKE 712 with a number. This is the shadow of the hardware colour register for the background 53274. However if you POKEd directly to this the operating system would reset it to the value in 712 during the VBI. This can be used to your advantage in that any colour change in a DLI wiII be reset to normal each time the screen is redrawn, thus keeping the change just below the DLI. Any colour change on a line will not occur in a constant position on that line. This can be overcome by storing the value in WSYNC 54282 —


.

DusplayL.15t

—————————

-

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Don

be

!

before the colour register. This delays the interrupt until the end of the line making a neat boundary.

code

machine

m

most other operations. POKE in the code from 1536 and POKE 512 and 513 with 0 and 6 respectively 6*256+0=1536. Finally POKE 54286 with 192 to enable the DLI to

change the address as each is executed. If this seems complicated, it isn't really, as the following examples

occur.

First you can change colours part way down the screen. Program changes the background colour half

show.

Note there is only one address for DLI routines and if more than one is to be used then the interrupts must

to em on exams 2. RED! 119 “m a

‘ll'h1s.1nvolves changingeach dlsplay list the DLI 1s requ1red by l1ne where sett1ng b1t 7. In other words add 128 $80 _" to the "ne- Thls can be a —_ s1ngle I1ne or several lines. Next POKE 51 2 and 51 3

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The best way to write your own DLI is to examine the ones in the examples in this article first. Having got your DLI routine — written or borrowed it is used as follows. First modify the display list.

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Send a cheque/PO. for £4,001 made payable to the ‘U.K. Atari Computer Owners Club’, for yourlour Issues subscription now. Or send £1-30p(wh1ch1ncludes P&P) for a samp|e copy, 10 see what the magazme offers. .

Don’t delay do It "May” _

THE

U,|(, ATAR| CQMPUTER OWNERS CLUB P.

0 . Box

35

Raylelgh’

Esse x

_

lndepehdem User Group

' "

September 7985 ATARI USER

27


o

o

DisplayList

——-—————

in

Figure

I.

This shows

a

the colours rotate. Program III pdeUCGS a gradual change in 00|0Uf rotating up the screen as seen in numerous Atari demos. Spectacular isn't it? And so easy. Graphics 0 is rather plain and boring normally. By using a DLI on each line a spectacular multicolour

changed several times down the

way down a Graphics 2 screen. Note that more than one colour register could have been changed. The machine code for the DLI in this program disassembles as shown

screen. In Program

II we increase the colour of the foreground by 4 on each line to produce a multicoloured design. The next step from this is to make

single

change of colour. The colour can be

Decimal 72

Hex $48

Disassembly

$A9,16

LDA

PHA

'

169,22

$16

_

141,10212 $8D,0A,D4 STA $D4OA 141,26,208 $8D,1A,DO STA $001A $68 $40

104 64

PLA TIR

48—colour Graphics 0 screen can be made as in Program IV. You can alter the colours by changing the Data statements in lines 210 and 230. —

;Save accumulatoron to stack ;Load accumulatorwith‘ change in colour ;St0re3n WSYNC :Store in background hardware register :Restore accumulator value ;Retum from interrupt

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September 7985

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All these examples inVOIVe ahering colours on screen, but other uses are just as easy. As mentioned before, you can change character set part way down screen You can run sound effects or music

1: £3: 2:2“"”“‘"

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THE 5208T is about to take its first public bow amid scenes never before witnessed in the micro industry anywhere in the world. In the UK alone some 80 houses have been software the clock to around working on the ST launch programs

bandwagon. A similar

number

of com—

panies havealreadycommitted

it

themselves to the new machine States—side making this the biggest pre-Iaunch build up

machine, but THE machine for 1985 and the foreseeable future. The 5208T has caught the the of both imagination alike. the critics and industry And after its formal launch at this month's PCW Show it is expected to take the buying

ever

seen.

Billed as revolutionary both in power and price, the 5208T has already lived up to its name in the opinion of all leading British computer magazine reviewers. According to them

is

longer just

no

public by

storm

.

.

a

new

.

September 7985 ATAR/ USER

29


t ‘

u v,

the are in

.de

.

Phil“:e

LANGUAGES and shoulat the at Metacomco dem°“5“a“°“ ready for . Show. W‘“ bimg W“; PCW _

e ran

The company

e

‘50 Standard assembler S1a“ for the " lCt compiler

full c compl‘e" macro Pascal, tull Lisp

.

Atari develot’mem

An

WSW“New“? 3“? exampe‘ editor. manual

will

programs,

_

Metacomcos

says

£80,

for

retail

-

abou Peter

Mackeonis.

'

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.

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and have been d LOQ‘C" \S\a“ re\eaSe S‘-mu\atorl°‘by or mom‘sed “0 prices t. be

A muS-‘AC

“5:22:51

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.

Talent is of SOFTWARE publisher Kingdom Lost converting ST. Zkull for the is set in of The text adventure has hundreds real time, vocabu— large a tasks, locations and many traps, and lary, and mazes. to puzzles also plans The company a data

Flex?le, bring out with system

new to

management of user interfacing techniques facilities range of offer a wide for program— without the need

thoughhaVe dates

been

The mus“: 5‘s Loglc's

sim'\\3l Commodol and “missing ‘he\ a by

willbe

qupmer '“1 SOu rce

”bl“ °l

version capabilities

10 \s\ane

GEM

to

available tixF‘Ec'r-ED Public in ibe October Ce ?le On s

M“ Siam BBC

a

of

deb“gg

and?

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t0 the SgT'tE should bor rte (?lms? 'mpfessiv e _lt -

users rea\ \and5°.apesc’apab\\ities.

With windowe‘ in Or? facilitiesn ComDUt er 5 Chris Béniays “? C languagéey' be Jle Package Will Shovfmonstratedat the pew

51-5 graphlcs the companV'

-

GEM

ming.

under the lt will run for single file system

operating

applications

—-

lists,

OASIS S OftWare Certa'”“Y be br'

medical

_

Vlflll almc,s

Ont at as'geg'”9 mbler and mOnFi’t’ehensiVe °’ to 00m

histories, records, personnel records, on stock credit and

°per

383e

index. single card Flex?le is menu-driven,inte— environ— with the GEM grated drop—down icons, uses ment of mouse, and win— menus and overiapping variable sized

ana’mbler nger-

_

AtariSTCOmpany Version

Util'?ies

with tha leg“;

to simate ”late a

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aimingliz 02? 34,139 F’l'Oduct

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dows at the keyboard, Data entry is other operations in— with most

Chm" stmas.

also d 0

Ws.°f‘t5 graphOn

at least,

tget e market

Optional

mouse—driven. windows prompt no screen help stage with every at the user languages

programming

card is‘ userThe record any size up to be of

required.

de?ned, can screen, and the limit ofasingleof?elds such can holdanumber class varidates, as numbers, strings. ables and demonintends to ,

Talent at the strate both programs PCW Show.

talk about F WP!“ alggggoV°"'°“ °f the best— game Elite “Hi“ h°|d over the Acorng3° gr.“ 3_ any plans name ‘°W“0d software the B?mp|'°at°9 hous_e may have for an Atari version.

B'" F'febil'd has 00mmissan independent authm Itoned 0 write an sT game it h o P33 _

.

-

be wr|1|_ his

lust as good. substantia| proiect, _

— 30 ATAR/ USER

September 7985

w°""“9 title Shauld be

which

has th °

Star

Glid

says

Fires;rd

_

fe|eased est;y'next year, 3

wright

Herbert

I.“ has a | at more In it than th e usual arcade or adventure game, ‘ncmding Some flaShV graphics", ome of the w° rk tha Prestty been done on “1:er at the pew alredady _

_

szoalhonstmted

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Microdeal of pipped some e panies to the post vili?izi— news th t' be game, Ling: zfcligS:dYemure r. released this Septemct?leSte This cam 6 only a matter of Weeks afte r A ta” made deAtari",

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5203 T Atarl aSked us to bring the game to them" revealed John Symes. "They

the velopment new maChinZyasit/girrilfor e.

fxftitfiicé?i?ti,

have been impressed

gill“ Wham wiiaiiffti"°““eysaw ey agreed to proVide _

Atari User

as ka ed

the success

It was

a

deve'°pme"f

5 Of Havoc boas“ Wit—3:11. -

2000

screens. The ob-JeCt |S to b ”"9 abOUt the downfan of the have turned Lords Who 33monce bountifu| land into a ace p I8 Of.de‘°‘°|a?°"The disc costs £19.95. -

of the re—

sulted in it moving over t 0 t h e

.

Micro—

:

W'rt'h

is

,

original versions which

-

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houses to an “Ounce

the ?rst pro r 5208T has Sam

?t

..

deals John Symes how his Company was able to be SO quick Off the mark, "Lands of Havcc Was already available for the Commodore and the Qt" he explained, "and altho 100k 3 year ‘0 dwells?if? game the Program was written on a Vax mini computer so w 9 co u ld easily adapt |t for th e

U K

/

QUESTi nt -e'”at'0naiis we rking 0" tWo majorbuSineSs software packages, both ConVersions of moVen pro Cash TrgfiZTs' ' 3" aCCOUnting package des; for smaller businesses shgoned u'd be ready for demonstratin g the P CW shoW. Th eSTVe ?t Cost less t h a" rs'onlsukeiyto the E t 39 On _195 priCe mew-GUS vers'OnSThe P adede b consVStem ' a fullus'"ess -

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Pro] "’ is fwrgodule accourrts'fgaeg’rated age, thirds f sa V5 QUest' s ready Or the ST ,

8-bit Atari AN ST version of its is Colourspace light synthesiser Llamasoft. by being developed special— The multi-coloured by effects generator is operated of keyboard and a combination the kind of joystick to produce shows seen at rock

m

-

A NEW page

~

,

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.

tot'yp esettlng dere include full an d Wl“ system HR ”Y for users_ MUST-fa graphics andthqa own develop their

light

concerts. for The planned syntheSiser even provide should the ST says more spectacular displays, Llamasoft. -

a

full

pho

_

to tio ns. in March. Due for releasein the region costing and db 1 986

'

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W.

MoN ulty saYs Qu est is Comm'itted to prod“ for Smelling PUSiness rm'c"°S and zOftware Vested “as-a interest in Signin 9 programs for the STde-

company

The

.

sc??DUL “3

eaf‘V

be on ED to is

“b

reSponsible to generate page being used Group Of the Mirror _ make up for are newspapers-ft state they de—

a“

yes? com“ large and ST “om

1&1

"extremdv h“ the plot game" “very M3“sch. ogl‘a‘“ |s

further . M‘_”°"S° definitely planning ST,belieV|ng the for .

-

The P_" to graphics cat);l 52051, fns he?lf‘vs “sf the s‘”““.‘“.?“, ' several shame“ “wow type 50°“ano in a V“

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Daniei McN i less mart”? t e c £1,245'”h00st arged f0r 0th er ver— siOns n

mak?-‘ép?fg?et

be 0.6 deforthe ST, to 15 ebein 9 Street Editor, Mirrorsoft will veloped bY 33V.s it

velopmen‘s it to be a major

_

A

1986.

in

machine

‘5

?ight S‘mulam'

already planned.

,

said-

spokesman aids

PROGRAM development and the serious for professionals from on the way hobbyist are Systems. Computer GST

A POWE

er,

September

”Om late promised by e

i

successful C compi from the linker assembler and

KUma COmp u tsers. ,, Th

0L.

sofTWSrevsillllhencompassing” of e'eCtronic ctindie all. 1Miles mmun'Cations including Mic r Telec0m Gold, bulletin ZLink, p,oards, eSte'

will

ST product three com— encompass all company is and the ponents macro . the also likely to issue togetherat assembler andlinker GSTs Ch“I'lS says date, later a The

first

.

,

Sheybeller. be announced Prices should Show. POW at the certainly The firm is almost a low cost to produce going which should be GEM toolkit, and has out before Christmas,

and f.lle transfer Also availabi. e at the Same time Will be word Spreadsheet and p'OCessing databasé

are with Some ve nice Says the COmDFV éureS, a_ny. uma has b in 6800 machine 5:12 f‘éVOrking coupie and is really ima DreSSed givears the 52081‘ lib and Other t °°' tyP eanguageS SOftwarei 5 Well alon h e pipel'me too, the Spokegt Sman i sa'd .

fea

,

.

The first KUma prod Ucts for th ST will be demons trated at thee F’Cw Show_ .

_

plans

tools

for cross-compilation smaller to help the

.

w a t h At

.

u

MM September 1985 ATARI USER

37


seen

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4

FORMER miner who first beCame interested in computers through playing arcade games in pubs is the author of Microdeal's Lands of Havoc. Steve Bak of Mans?eld graduated from zapping aliens to writing complex programs in six machine languages. Now his former credits include the Cuthbert series well known to Dragon and Commodore 64 users and Scramble for the Tandy colour computer. But how did he go about creating a program such as Lands of Havoc? Bak told Atari User: "The first stage involves a lot of sitting down and thinking while an idea comes to you. Once the idea is there you have to think about structuring the game so it is both interesting and progressive to play. "Presentation is the next thing to worry about, how the game should appear on screen. The story line also needs filling in". This stage took Bak four months, working 50 hoursaweek“plus stealinga few hours of other people's time”. it was at this point he realised the game would not be able to compete with many other bigger games on the market for it then only had 80 screens. He enlarged it by developing the storyline further and eventually added another 1,920 screens. This part was not a solo effort, however. “I try to involve people who are not A

REA!

a

How

ST

an .

or"

's

game

programmers asa scientific mind usually white, whereas more creative story", he said. Only then did Bak start the actual programming. The original game for the Commodore took three months, the Spectrum version two, and the latest, for the ST, another two. Bak had to write routines for every step of the game. “I do not write more than 100 lines 3 night so I am fresh enough to go through it all at the end to ensure there are no bugs", he says. "The last stage is ?tting each small routine into a whole, fully integrated program, then passing it on for others to pick to pieces. ”if they believe there are any problems I sort them out and, when everyone is satisfied, turn out the final program and put it in Microdeal’s hands while I sit back. “And that's how the SZOST version of Lands of Havoc was born

sees things in black and non—programmers seem and are able to add to a

,

.

.

~

,

'

THOSE who have followed Digital Research'sfortunes from the launch of CP/M in 1975 through to

Concurrent PC—DOS in 1984 will appreciate that as a systems house,

3 ;:

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32 ATARI USER

2-2

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H°Wevefcwe a'e tak'"9 a d'ffefem approach wrth GEM because it IS a user interface Wthh IS compatible with a wide range of applications, operating systems, languages and hardware. GEM will have more impact on the end—user market than any other product which we, or any other .

*Frank Iveson

.

is

.

.

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European Operations, Digital Research (UK).

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By

Artistic work made easy with GEM applications packages

F RAN K IVESO N

software house, have sofar produced. A working definition of the term “user interface" is "the repertory of commands a user needs to know to make his or her machine work to satisfaction". Command repertories which require the memorisation of obscure sequences of keystrokes are difficult to retain and the full power of the system may never be fully appreci— ated by the non-technical user. This is true of the command of CP/M, MS—DOS, structures PC—DOS and especially of some variants of Unix, which contain certain innocent-looking commands which can destroy the integrity of the system if used at the wrong time. There is also confusion among users who regularly work at different machines. Often a user has to

interrupt work to decide if the command he or she is about to enter does in fact belong to the system in use.

More resistance to personal computer use stems from the obscurity factor than any other non—cost consideration especially among women. Menu-driven applications are also affected by obscurity. Menus provide more clues than commands, but a major difficulty for the novice is the disappearance of the subject matter from the screen while choosing a menu option. Even for experienced users, this causes continuing frustra— tion with the software. Users are ready for something better. The GEM user interface remedies these frustrations and eliminates obscurity. More than 50 software —

houses have stated their intention to publish GEM—based packages by the end of the current year. Among these are Chang Labs, Compsoft, Pegasus, Thorn EMI Lifetree, Computer Software, Infocom and ABC Software. The available GEM applications include G EM Desktop, which replaces operating system com— mands, an advanced word processor, GEM Write, graphics programs such as GEM Graph and GEM Draw and several business packages including SPI’s well-known Open Access suite. The SZOST is now shipping with

Desktop, GEM Paint and DR Logo under GEM. GEM Paint is a drawing and design package and DR Logo is the Digital Research version of Logo ______________> September 1985 ATARI USER

33


which

won a European computer award presented last year by West Germany's Chip magazine. The fundamental research behind the GEM concept was done in the early ’70s by Xerox PARC in the US and was first implemented on Xerox's Star network, and later by Apple on Lisa and Macintosh. GEM is therefore based on a long history of user

press

experience.

Xerox's recent commitment to is a further indication of the maturity of the product, and rein— forces the approach of this special interface as an industry standard. GEM Desktop, the operating system metaphor, is the first GEM application" that most users will come across. Visually, its screen resembles a bird’s—eye view of a desk, with documents, folders, disc drives and a rubbish bin. These objects are called GEM

icons.

Analogues of real world accessories such as calculators and clocks are also available.At the top of the screen is a menu bar. in GEM Desktop and all other GEM applications the

user selects a resource by using a mouse or the cursor keys to move a pointer on the screen over an icon or desk

accessory. Clicking the mouse

or keyboard selects the resource represented. Moving the pointer to a command on the menu bar causes a sub—menu to drop down into the top quarter of the screen. Thus, in GEM Desktop, selecting a disc drive icon and moving the pointer

equivalent

to the File command on the menu bar reveals the File dropdown menu. Clicking on the command Open in this dropdown menu displays the con— tents of the drive in a directory window, and the dropdown menu

The directory window contains icons named folders and documents, representing files and applications. By moving the pointer overafolder and clicking, the folder is selected. Repeatingthe menu bar procedure as above, or double clicking, opens up the folder into a second icon—filled window which overlaps the first and contains a catalogue of the folder more

contents. Pornter movements can delete or files and groups of files in the save Window by dragging them to the rubbish bin or to a disc drive, can change the sizes of the desktop area and the WlndOWS and can scroll their contents. They select ‘the whole range of commands available in DesktOp via 34 ATARI USER

September 7985

is

ATARI’S decision to bundle the 5208T with GEM has been described as a brilliant marketing ploy by UK computer market observers. This is due to the fact that GEM allows the ST to offer similar working environments to mach— ines like the Macintosh which are more than double the price. Even the market leading IBM is

getting in

on

the act. GEM is

currently available in 70 retail applications for the IBM PC. Meanwhile the numberofmajor manufacturers who have become licensed to distribute GEM and GEM applications with theirmach— ines has risen to more

back to DOS and the

runs Co—exrstence

normally. IS

possrble

because

the functionality of GEM software is based on a system extension which does not interfere with the workings of the underlying operating system. The GEM system extension and GEM software can be implemented on any 6 a nd 32 bit CP U configuration, for CP/M, MS—DOS, PC-DOS and Concurrent DOS operating systems. GEM's applicability to a wide range of hardware configurations and operating systems will help good GEM applications to spread fast from one machine to another and/or between operating systems. Moving GEM itself to another machine only requires minor modifi— cations to peripheral parts of the GEM software. For example, a software developer 1

'

than 20.

the

menu bar and dropdown menus. No command has to be typed in, or memorised. Errors are explained in full in dialogue boxes which contain

options for recovery. For drawing and painting appli— cations, use of a bitpad or tablet and pen are even more intuitive to users. Having mastered the simple skills of hand and eye co—ordination in moving the pointerwith the mouse or other pointerdevice,the userhasonly to become familiar with the simple logic of GEM's visual command structure in Desktop to know how to get started with all other applications, because GEM is a highly consistent user interface. Non—GEM applications coexist with GEM applications written to the same operating system. Running a non—GEM application is simply a matter of opening the appropriate application folder icon, when control I

S eedm

handed application

.

wishing to

TO speed the development of versiOns of GEM applications by manufacturers and software developers, Digital Research has intro— duced the GEM ProgrammersToolkit. The Toolkit itself uses a GEM interface, and programmers are pleased with it. They expect the graphics to be slow, but in factGEM's fast code doesn't sacrifice perfor— mance.

The Toolkit allows programmersto interactively design GEM icons and other objects without resorting to calculations or back—of—envelope special coding. With Toolkit's icon editor, for example, the programmers paint and edit an object at the pixel level until satisfied, and the Toolkit

an

application

calls to convert it to

GEM,followed-by recompilation for another operating

system.

Because lBM dictates in the personal computer market, other manufacturers, software houses, dealers and users all need astandard IBM compatible user interface. GEM is such a standard and it will migrate to all conceivable 16 and 32 bit configurations of the future. in the US, amid claims made for Microsoft’s Windows and lBM's Topview, GEM Desktop is the only machineindependenticon based user interface on the market and selling in volume. l

a

move

written for the Macintosh's 68000 environment to a more popular computer, need only implement minor modifications of subroutine

l

"cations generates the code automatically. Similarly, text for custom dialogue boxes is installed simply by typing it in, using any of the major West European languageswhose character set is supported by the operating system in question. GEM applications are also possible in a number of high—level languages for which the Toolkit can be equipped Demonstration programs may be produced in a matter of days, and full—scale implementations within a few months. The Toolkit also comes with good licensing agreements allowing software houses and manufacturers to bundle GEM Desktop with their own applications or machines.

‘ -

.

.

2


THE ST has many remarkable features, not least of all its operating the GEM Graphics system. To most users, the ST is controlled by Environment Manager and that is the means by which users will communicate with the machine. However, buried away from sight is the TOS Tramiel Operating System When or what most people understand to be a DOS —disc operating system. the ST is booted up, which at the moment is done from the TOS system disc, the machine not only loads the TOS into RAM but also loads the GEM is complete. Desktop, which is the screen that appears when loading disc" is The name "TOS system slightly misleading, as you can see, because it contains far more than merely the TOS. Despite the name TOS and the state of the art hardware, the DOS is in fact a virtual clone of CP/M 68k. say virtual as there are differences which are not strictly part of CP/M and it would appear to mix in some of the better features of MS—DOS. But more of that later. Designed by Digital Research, CP/M 68k, as its name suggests, is a version of CP/M which runs on a 68000 processor, the chip at the _ heart of the ST. Now all this may seem to be confusing. Which is the operating —

——

J

-

Into

the inner workings Of the -

Atari

BZOST to .

explain the '

'

Of

lnteraCtlon

TOS and GEM

GEM or TOS?

To understand the function of these systems it’s important to realise the purpose of a DOS. Stated simply, it is a program, or more accurately a number of programs, that process commands inside the micro. As these operations are related to accessing the disc drive, though not exclusively, the term is DOS rather than OS operating system. The function of the DOS is to see that commands and ?les of data are processed and in general take away from the user the headachesof what is happening inside the machine. From the user’s point of view, the DOS is a convenient method of helping him to manage his files on __

disc.

of control are by typing a command line, say, DlR, for a directory offiles. But as useful as that is, systems like CP/M have not been renowned for their friendliness. Command lines like: The means

PIP B:=A:’.’ -

command line merely tells the system to copy all files from disc drive A to drive B. And this is what salesmen have called user—friendly systems... To make life easier, these functions of a DOS copying, formatting. and are presented by a GEM so on _

_

——-——-———_

Jeremy Vine is a freelance writer and author of several books including ST, The ST one on the Atari Companion. *

MY Vl N E

-

dlgs deep

I

system

ERE

-

system in. pictures, .or to be more accurate, icon graphics. .

Just

.

pomt

.

the

mouse, drag the

icons, click and the files are copied. OK, so far,'but if the GEM system the does all with this why bother as not Well it s qmte Simple as TOS? so far. Ive made

out The TOS IS far more complicated, and those developing professronal Will need the command software faCiIities of TOS to_probe the inner depths of the machine. for the enthusmstic Unfortunately made “us easyand has user, '.‘°‘ Am" no is there straightforward method of TOS. entering But more importantly, the TOS is THE operating System of the ST. _

.

.

operating system Wh'Ch ls under the control Of TOS and the ST' DOS: also developed eY _GEM needs certain Digital Research, to in order reqmrements work. At least 128k of RAM is needed and of course the 5208T rneets this more than adequately. This reqmrement explainswhy the 1308T—128k has not and might not be RAM —

released.

.

Within the machine. This would of .

.

.

release valuable space within and increase speed. the requirement is for a Although minimum 128k, the TOS and GEM Desktop together on the system disc

course

the memory

account for around 200k of code.This also explains why the machine takes about 30 seconds to boot. The TOS is an interesting beast as one thing or the other. it is not quite Afirst glance at it suggests that it . '5 merely a copy Of CP/M 68k and considering DR's involvement in the entire package — GEM and LOGO _ _

this would hardly be surprising. But unlike CP/M 68k the filing system can be hierarchical, which is a definite improvement. This feature is than “St a nice touch. The Desktop allows the user 9?” of different foldersforstorage to open folders are in effect files. ”These sub—directories under the main directory.

.

afolder be seen if This opening can from Within a present directory. The window display shows the contents sub-directory ‘within that folder and closing the window returns the .

.

Atari has the intention of placing the TOS and GEM system in ROM,

September 7985 ATAR/ USER

35


the directory above. In this hierarchical directory structure

user to

way

a

can be created. As GEM has

, :

this structure the parent DOS as will refer to TOS also has a hierarchical nature. So it is more than just cosmetic. Creating directories within directories is a convienient method of splitting up and finding files. But what else happens when you boot up the machine with the system —

l

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The purpose of booting the ST is not only to load TOS and GEM but to initialise the entire system and carry out certain status checks. These determine what kind of monitor is being used— mono, colour and so on — whether there are applications in cartridge memory that can be run, that is, a cartridge is inserted, setting various registers to default values, and a host of other

vital functions. Of course this

7

As?

NEWS of exciting software

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The 16-bit program is expec— 36 ATARI USER

g

A

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September 7985

'

x

11341...

..

“so

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Gett’ng '

flrst

AN enterprising

UK distributor went Transatlantic to ensure it would be the first company to be able to deliver software for the 5208T. Faced with the

'

on

.//

‘~

we!” ,

,

.,

information is set up by the user with the INSTALL APPLlCATlON option on the desktop screen. And that just about concludes this brief look at the TOS and GEM. Fortunately for the user, these two systems work in unison and together provide a powerful and easy means of control over the main operations of the micro. The overall manager is the TOS,

planning to convert its entire line of text adventures. And Sierra On—Line intends to bring out top—selling favour— ites. King’s Quest and Ultima ll for the new machine.

w“,

,

\\

be adventure games. Infocom is

~<

,

T‘"""~Cs:*?~s;sz

STshortIy.Thesearebelievedto

E. s“

,

U

ted to cost about$50.Microbits is also developing a 3D battle— zone game for the ST. Spinnaker Software expects to have eight products, for the

'n

’V

: '

'

A

'

American software being developed forthe Atari ST is beginning to filter through from the United States. Noted producer of the best— selling DB Master database, has reached an Stoneware, agreement with Atari Corp to devel0p a new filing program for the ST. The company promises it will be “extremely easyforthe entry level home or business user". Users will be able to select colours and change fonts, as well as lay out files to suit individual needs. Microbits is developing the telecommunications Omega package for the ST and existing 8-bit Atari computers. It will have icons, windows and pull— down menus and will use either

e

-

is

i

"

transparent to the user and all you will see is the pretty desktop display once booted or the particular application if using a cartridge. The status of the desktop can be saved at any point and this is stored in a file called DESKTOPJNF. This contains all the startup conditions of the desktop, these being the number if any their of windows open positions on the screen, which drivels) to access and the labels assigned to the disc identifiers. It also provides information to the system about the way in which an application should be run. This

a mouse

sum

g

«s;

with the GEM system as a second level operating system. GEM is the friendly face of the ST and the one part of the ST all users will come to know and understand well, but behind the icons and windows is another system which maintains order within the machine. A case of two systems in perfect well, that's the theory harmony anyway —

.

.

.

the

prospect of shortages here for time to come, Software Express arranged to import programs from Haba Systems of Vannuys, California, itself breaking new ground as the initial company to produce software for the new machine some

States—side.

The distributors' ?rst con— signment, which was due to arrive in August, included Haba Check Minder, HabaCom and Haba Hippo “C". Check Minder is a money

which program the user to monitor income and expenses and

move Haba Hippo

program,

””,C

the third

is a

complete Ian— system consisting of

guage compiler, assembler and linker. It supports GEM DOS calls and functions. Depending on the rate of

exchange between the two countries, prices for Check Minder and HabaCom are expected to be around £50, while Hippo "C" will cost in the region of £60. This month Software Express is expecting delivery of two

manager

more

enables

word processor with large document capabilities, and a versatile HabaCalc, spreadsheet. Prices have yet to be fixed. The company “is currently negotiating for more American software forthe ST but the deals have yet to be finalised.

prepare tax returns. The second, HabaCom, is a telecommunications program which supports terminal emulation, direct link to the computer, and VT100,TTY/CRT and full/half duplex baud rates.

programs—HabaWord,a


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we have been successfully dedicated to Atari ever since their products first appeared on the UK which we practice and to the user market. We can attribute our success largely to the Atari specialisation back-up we provide. Rest assured that when you buy a piece of Atari hardware at Silica you Will be fully and software releases developmentsWIII keep you up to date with supported.Our mailings giving news of the Atari market and our technical support team and sales staff are at the end ol the telephone line to of bias. we aim to keep stocks deal with your problems and supply your every need. With our specralist We also stock a Wide range of all the available Atari hardware. software. peripherals and accessories. Atari the owners on our list can subscribe to several and books us, through American Atari‘dedicated as dedicated magazines, We can preyide a lull service to all Atari owners and are now firmly established Here are just some oi the things we can offer to our customers. the UK‘s NUMBER ONE Atari specialists. it FREE POST Bi PACKING ON MAIL ORDERS [I you would llke to be registered on our malllng llsl as an Marl computer owner, or as a person tr FREE NEXT DAY SECURICOR DELIVERY interested in buying an Atari machine, let u: it INFORMATION MAILING SERVICE We will be pleasedfo keepyou up to dale know. it TECHNICAL SUPPORT TEAM with newMarl development: free of charge. So, it HIGHLY COMPETITIVE PRICES return the coupon today and begin eirperienclng i AFTER SALES SUPPORT SERVICE Atari service that Is second to none. a specialist t REPAIR SERVICE ON ATARI PRODUCTS

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'ThenearAlari ST computers truly represent io the consumer what Jack Trpmigi iii slymg easy-to-uu computing pmr without the price." March tees Ammo commie

"The electronics in the machine area mom of art .The heart Motorola 66000. one at the most powerlul la the only pmonai computer know of that comes with of the szesr la and in many respect: it is close to around 16-bit processors Midi inter-taco as standard.“ COMPUTER woau; being - 32-bll chip when the machine appears in the shopa. Peter Bright March 1985 meow “ "m" ”a “M” "m (GEM) union rum-ma on the Atari snow iii-china mil “Ln“: “9” ”mg“ 2”, °° mm"m m "° 1“ nm the man-mi mat»- of leaving the PC version PC is signi?cantly modal landing.” Apniettt lees mural. comments "3.0: tats mar: thigh-nme. “TEISYMICI’IIR; epossi ieiedesignasore-irewinningma 'M W "It would seem new: it," lith ises moo-rural May r owniineuarstw' ”m mLGF-xsm the m ol GEM makes the m range or Atari computefa M " (GEM? "WWW. "97 .‘" ““ ‘"° m“. "'Y so srmillr w the Maintain (with the 064“ attractinn "' '°""° " colour). that ll’wy are already being called 'Jackinloshes’ urtace. the'way zit-kin:- ur r‘i‘gdlwux‘xo'u?'?evé'v wara anvglhopera-rigs lng un lhmg?rdmd a m Y 2 " o ices commie core-urn worru: rsrteotuu. Faoises PeterBrighl

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TOS-Tw'g?' Manager by igital Research (DR) giving a WIMP (Window. Icon. Mouse. Pull down menu) environment. 3) DR GEM Paint for creating graphics masterpieces. 4) DR GEM Write for word processing. 5) Logo leeming language to enable you to write your own programs easily using turtle graphics, 6) DR Personal Basic a powerlul user iriendly of the Basic version programming language. 7) 308 operating system giving you access to dozens of business applications packages already avail-bin on the market. with lulure expansion in mind. the ST also leatures a host of different Designed interfaces to the outside world and an impressive list at accessories ls planned. Atari will soon be releasing a weak llMB) 3-1, inch disk drive. and a ISMB hard disk storage system as well as a mass storage compact disk (CD) player capable of storing an entire 20 volume encyclopedia on one disk. A full range of inexpensive printers are With its dot matrix. daisyarheei and thermal colour printers. planned including unbeatable graphics. speed and software at a price which is far below that of any comparable personal computer currently on the market, the ST is all set to do battle with the competition. To receive further details of the 57 from silica Shop. iust ?ll in the coupon below with your name and address details and post it to us.

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16 EDLESTON ROAD, CREWE, CHESHIRE. 0270-214118 September 7985 ATARI USER

47


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I

EOR —A way to ?nd out

hO’S t H. g the

awl“? a”

I

Excluswe truth _

IN the last article we looked at the AND and OR operations on

binary numbers logical operations, as they are known. These were simply rules for combining numbers bit by bit. We shall continue our exploration this —

month with

a

stands for Exclusive OR sometimes people call it XOR. Either way it's the same thing. EOR is a variant on the way we normauy use the term OR. For example, if say: , M/ke OR Pete wears g/asses EOR

this is true

if Mike wears glasses, OR Pete wears glasses, OR both Mike and Pete wear glasses. Now it’s this last case ofOR we're interested in, where they both wear glasses. EORworksjustlike OR up to this point. However, EOR does not

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Case 2

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Case 4

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Tab/e /

42 ATARI USER

September 7985

P!“ I 1

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Mike OR Pete wears g/asses be true M/ke EOR glasses Pete wears

would

.

would is

continues

his

blnary numbers give Pete the value 0. Table shows the idea, applied to each combination of spectacle user. The ones and zeros are known as truth values, states or I

conditions. can see, there are four cases asfar as Mike and Pete wearing glasses are concerned: nelther can them as in case 1, wear where both Mike and Pete has 0 AS

YOU

possible

downnght lie! We could srgnify that a statement true with the letter T, and use F for be a

false. At school our teachers used ticks for truth and crosses for false. Since we're using computers,though, we'll use numbers: will denote true andOwiIIdenote false. We've chosen and 0 because they fit in so well with the binary system. So, in the above example, if Mike has glasses we can give Mike the value 1. If Pete hasn't glasses we can 1

1

glam:

"1“

serles

while:

|

BIBBY

"allow” both of them to wearglasses. Either one does, or the other, but not both. To put it another way, the one who wears the glasses does so exclusive/y. If both are wearing glasses then

look at the EOR

operation.

MIKE

nlithrr "in gun" Pet: rims glam

value. Then again,.Pete may wear them (1) whereas Mike does not (0), case _

2, and

SO

on.

Ifyou look carefully at the numbers involved in all four cases, YOU see that pairs of bits we can combine. Each pair of bits is made up of the “truth bit” for Mike and the ”truth bit" for Pete. What I’ve done in Table II is to combine these pairs for all four cases

we've got four

in accordance with our We’ve stored the result

Hike unr;

Pit! mu

Hill

9mm

glasses

marl

Nike wear:

glasses Both wear glasses Tab/e //

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have a look at how we EOR binary pairs of numbers. It’s the same as for OR and AND just apply the rules for EORing to each pair of bits in succession. For example: Let’s

Tab/e

To put it another way, if the bits are identical the result is 0, otherwise the

///

illilliil

corumn_ We call such a table a Truth Table. In this case, it's the truth table for OR. We can use it to work out the' result for any OR combination of two bits. A” we have do '5 to the row

find. starts the two b't _"V_'th that values re we comblnlng and then looklnthe th'rd column for the result. Table “| shows a S'm'|a" table for: Mike AND Pete wear glasses Again the first two columns are identical, covering all four possible cases. The third column combines them according to the AND rules. Look again at Table II. This corresponds in a sense to our binary rule for OR: you get a if either or both bits you combine contain a 1_ However if when talking about Mike and Pete you mean on in the exclusive sense, EOR, then the combination of Mike wearing glasses and Pete also wearing glasses would have to be false_ This is because EOR means either one or the other wears glasses, but not both—it's exclusive/y one or the other. If we do mean EOR in this exclusive sense we'd write our statement about them as: Mike EOR Pete wears glasses Its Truth table is given in Table IV:

5?“

W“

Take a look at what happens when you EOR a number with zero:

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Egg

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when you EOR a number with it leaves that number unchanged. Also something interesting happens when you EOR a number with itself: is,

zero

lililllll mum"

EUR

gives

MT.

Whenever you EOR a number with itself, the result is zero. This is as it should be:remember, when you EOR two identical bits the result is zero. Now

EOR has a property which quite useful —let's look what happens when we take a number, EOR it with a second number and then go on to EOR the result once more with that second number. makes it

Ftrst .

nunlur

Second nunber

EOR

Result

numr Second Fm“ result

EUR

gm

I l

I

z

:

it“.

em“,

i

on.

Sometimes we blank the character out by printing it again in the same place but in the background colour. We can, however, use EOR. If we use EOR to place our characteron the screen never mind exactly how for the moment when it comes to rid of we can just repeat it, wanting —

ourselves.

That is, we just EOR the character on again. As we've seen, the effect of is each other out.

“11010“ 1101.11“

ItwohE_0Rs tohcancel

magically re-appeared! This always happenswhen you EOR twice with the same number as, in a sense, the two EORings cancel each other out. V summarises

SO

llillllll lllllllll

has

Table

Taking the underlined part first, we’ve already seen that any number E0 Red With itself gives a zero result. 50 what we're really doing iSI first number EOR 0 which, as we've also seen,mustleave just the first number, since EORing with zero leaves a number un— changed. All this may seem rather abstruse, but actually it’s quite useful. in fact we tend to use AND, OR and EOR often in graphics, particularlyin quite anlmation. T0 simulate movement we frequently prlnt somethlng 0" the screen, then after Ieavmglt there fora while to register on the eye, we blank it OUt and print itina HEW DOSi?OH and

110mm

As you can see, the first number

it“.

Mil

"I'm“

for all four possible pairs of one-bit numbers. As you can see, for all the cases the final resulting bit (when the first bit has been EORed twice with the second) is identical to the first bit. Another way to think of it is that we are doing: ?rst number EOR second number EOR second number

the

process

ttb]: onrigilnsafabea'ctkgyo?irdcel—ogb

character disappears. The point is, logical operators, as OR and EOR are known, can be AN D, to both the Basic and invaluable machlne code programmer. 0 Next month we’ll take a brief look at the idea of masks.

/V

If you look at each case, you’ll see that the only time Mike EOR Pete is true is when either one or the other wears glasses, but not both (or neither). More formally, if both bits are 0, or both bits are the result is 0. If either is and the other is 0 the result is 1.

Hf“ M

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September 7985 ATARI USER

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44 ATARI USER

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of the telegram is the telemessage. Send it before 10pm and delivery is guaranteed by ?rst post the following day (except Sunday). The service was intended for people phoning their message to the operator, and it costs £3.50 for 50 words. But you can now use it via MicroLink for only £1.25 for up to 350 words!

The modem equivalent

The number of bulletin boards is growing rapidly. New ones are springing up in all parts of Britain and all over the world, with people of like minds chatting to each other on all manner of subjects. The only snag is that the vast majority are WhiCh means lots Of other single-user boards people are also trying to make contact and all too often all you get 15 the engaged tone. But with the MicroLink bulletin board there is no limit to the number Of people using it at the same time. And no limit to the number of categories that can be displayed on the board.

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MicroLink is in operation 24 hours a day, every day. That means you can access your mailbox

whenever you want, and from wherever you are even a hotel bedroom home, office, airport or golf club! No-one needs to know where you are when you send your message. —

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Considering all the services you have on tap, MicroLink is remarkably inexpensive. You pay a once-only registration fee of £5, and then a standing charge of just £3 a month. On-line costs are 3.5p a minute (between 7pm and 8am) or 10.5p a minute dunng office hours. There 15 an additional 2p a minute PSS charge if you are calling from OUtSide the 01‘ LOHdOH call area. Charges for telex, tele—messages and storage of files are given on the next page. .

.

.

September 7985 ATARI USER

.

45

s


.

.

How much it costs

Software over the telephone

-

to use MicroLmk

_______...___

MicroLink is setting up a central store

Initial registration

fee: £5.

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part.

Connect charge: 3.51) per minute or part cheap rate; 10,513 per minute or part— standard rate _

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connection

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Applicable for duration of Minimum 1 minute. charge: Cheap ”re 's from 7pm to 8am, Monday F0 Friday. all gr:"Gr jagurdtay mezs (frnd om iundgyfnd?ubéic am O p m, and y hogggys. W excluding public holidays. ,

It is not possible to deliver a telex without a mailbox a telex without a reference. If is} received. mailbox will o/ non-delivery refsrenfedthe an as e to provi sendgr e 0 mai belbadvissg ox a ress. Each user validated for telex and using the facility will incur a charge of 6 storage units a month. Further storage charges could be incurred depending on the amount of telex storage and the use made of short COde and message ?le (“C'lmes'

T a [k t 0 th W or 1d e. by satellite

20p per unit of 2,048 characters per month. Applicable for storage Of information. such a lelex. short codes and mail ?les. The numberof units used is

Filing charge:

_ an average calculated by reference to

Telemessages: £1.25 for up to 350 words. Radiopaging: No charge. If you have a BT Radiopager you can be paged automatically whenever a message is waiting in your mailbox. ,

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Information Databases:

software programs which you’ll be able to download directly into your micro. The range will include games, utilities, educational and business programs, and will cover all the most popular makes of micros.

telex:

lncomlng

Standing charge: £3 per calendar month or

of

50p for each correctly addressed telex delivered to your mailbox. Obtaining a mailbox reference from the sender incurs a further charge of 50p.

.

daily sample.

Various charges.

MicroLink is part of the international Dialcom

network. In the USA, Australia and a growrng number of other countries there are many thousands of users with electronic mailboxes just like yours. You can contact them just as easily as the on] y difference is you do users in Britain that from the messages your_keyboafd 9° speeding around the world Via satellite. _

Any charges that may be applicable are shown to you before you Obtain access to the database.

lntemational Mail: For the first 2,048 characters 20p to Germany and Denmark; 30p to USA, Australia, Canada. Singapore, 2213321563155). szeggcgéermpfstgmgiitga‘z Ho Kon a d Israel. F ° r additional 1,024 (1200/75 baud). charfgctersg 18p' 1513 O n yapp I‘res t 0 users ou ts'idet h e 01- London call area .

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charges relate to the transmission of information by the Dialcom semlce to other Dialcom services outside the UK and the Isle of Man. Multiple copies toaddresseson thesame system hostincuronly one transmission charge.

———————————————

These

Telex registration: £10

telex:

5.5p per 100 characters (UK); llp per 100 (Europe); 16.5p per 100 (N. Amenca),£1.15 per 400 (Reg ofworld);£2.75 per 400 (Ships at sea).

Outgoing ~

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Billing and Paymentle charges quoted are exclusive of VAT.Currently all bills are rendered monthly. _

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Whilst Database Publications Ltd is the supplier of all the services to you, the commission and billing thereof will be handled by Telecom Gold as agents for Database Publications Ltd. Date of first to be of month following commencement. payment on. 15th Please complete billing authorisation form A, B or C below:

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enclose my cheque for £5 payable to Database Publications as registration fee to MicroLink.

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You must have three things in order to use MicroLink: a computer (it can be any make of micro hand-held device or even an electronic ’. typewriter provrded it has communications facilities), a modem (it can be a simple Prestel type using 1200/75 baud or a more sophisticated one operating at 300/300 or 1200/1200 baud) and appropriate communications software.

September 7985

DIEEDZDIEEEEED ,

l/We authorise you until further notice in writing to charge to my/our account with you on or immediately after 15th day of each month unspecified amounts which may be debited thereto at the instance of British Telecommunicationsplc TELECOM GOLD. Bills are issued 10 days before charge is applied to your account. —

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September 7985 ATARI USER

47


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WHAT Atari is

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today. After swapping my good and trusty 800 for a 130XE recently, which was a bit of a wrench, decided to go the whole hog and increase my collection of Atari paraphernalia by one printer. The problem was, which one? There were a number of choices, of course, from the Atari range of printers to Epson, Alphacom and Star, to name but a few. In the end decided to stick to the company known and loved so Iono Why? Well, how about because they plug straight into the back of your the need fee ee eemeeeee When extra interface? But which one should go for? Should it be the letter quality 1027? No, lacking graphic ability. What about the 1020 or the 1025, 1029? In the end decided upon the new 1029, It's inexpensiveat under £200. It is capable of printing five or 10 characters per inch and graphics among other things as well as looking I

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September

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very nice.

48 ATARI USER

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confess that was a little disappointed that could not dump a screen to the printer straight away. Why, do hear you ask? Well, the 1029 is a dot matrix

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information, sta nda rd 8 bit horizontal bytes, to the 7 bit vertical bytes understood by the 1029. That's a lot of bit manipulation if you want to print out a whole screen. Well, for all of you who have been out and parted with your well-earned cash for the 1029, look no further.

screen

Type in Program I and save it to disc before putting it to use. This is only a subroutine and must be used together With your own program to set up your own picture r

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OGRAM ST

RUCTURE the Sc 'OCB to Use addresS, sets th e :zen to See if ”Umber1 and variable OFFSZ;OCB is check S w'ithyn ”7 160 8 range 0 to USeSalittIe tri 0 k th at QlVes At ar THEN Finds

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in Program II, which W||I set up a graphics 8 screen with a basic design scribbled all over it see Figure I. Just set the variable OFFSET to a value between 0 and 160. This is the offset of the picture on the paper left to right. If you wish your masterpiece to occupy the left edge of the paper, .

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RUN. The whole screen dumped to the printer.

will

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September 7985 ATARI USER

49


m

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LAST month we looked at the instruction set of the 68000 microprocessor. And, just as man cannot live by bread alone, neither can a microprocessor live by instruction alone. What gives an instruction set its power is the addressing modes associated with it. This is because an instruction identifies the operation to be perfor-

I

med such as add and subtract —but the addressing mode explains where the operation is to be performed. The best instruction set in the world is no good without a variety of —

2 OOO

addressing modes. Basically the action of an instruc— tion can be based in one of two places either an on—chip register or an

off—chip memory location. There are two different types on on—chip registers in the 68000. These are the address registers and the data registers. Off—chip memory can be

specified with

a

In Part I l of his series the p0werfU| exam|n|ng 68000 Chip at the heart Of the Atari ST, MlKE COOK examlnes “5 versatlle addreSSIng mOdes .

32 bit address

although only 24 bits 68000.

are used in the

Registers can be thought of as temporary storage to be used while bit patterns are being manipulated, whereas off—chip memory is used for more permanent data as well as storing the program and accessing the hardware. So why do we need different types ofaddressing mode?The answer isto cope with different programming problems. The best way to understand the different modes is to look at each in turn and see how they can help us. First, the form most assemblers use when handling address information for this processor. This consists of three basic parts 0 The instruction mnemonic and length of operation byte, word, —

~

long word. 0 The source where the data is to be taken from. . The destination where the feSU“ is to be placed. The art of programming is to tie these three things together to perform as YOU want WithOU’f tying yourself in knots. The manner in which the source and destination are specified is known as the addressing mode. This calculates an address WhiCh is known

.

.

.

.

'

as the effective address. It is this effective address that is used. Let’s take the simplest addressing mode, that of Register Direct. This simply uses the registers to hold the data. For example, if you wanted to move the data from data register D3 to address register A5, you would use the register direct addressing mode for both source and destination. Assemblers might differ in syntax, but typically the form would be:

housekeepingpartsofa program orto operate on temporary storage areas. Now in order to write any type of program you need to be able to cope with constants, even if only to set up the initial value of a variable. A constant is avalue that is known at the time you write the program we say that it is "known at compile —

time".

50 ATARI USER

September 7985

MOVE'W

D3’A5

which means move the word 16 bits FROM data register 3 T0 address register 5. In fact there are two variants ofthe same mode being used here.They are Data Register Direct for the data register and Address Register Direct for the address register. The Address Register Direct addressingmode is used mainly in the —

,

So when the assembler turns all the mnemonics into the binary bit patterns of machine code instructions, the number we want to use is known. What happens is that the assembler places these numbers alongside the instructions in the body of the program. The values to use follows immediately after the instruc— tion, Hence the name of Immediate Data Addressing. Its main use is to initialise counters or variables. For

example, suppose we want to set up


data register D1 with the value 9 we would write:

MOVE'B

#9'D1

that

is, move the byte data register D1. The

8 bits

into

before the number tells the assembler to treat what follows as an immediate =I=f=

decimal value. In fact there are two types of immediate addressing mode Immediate and Quick lmmediate;The quick mode incorporates the value into the instruction, whereas the normal mode adds the value at the end of the instruction bytes. Only limited number values can be used with the quick mode, but any _

assembler worth its salt will choose the quick mode if the numbers are within the restricted range. Therefore you do not have to worry too much about the difference

between them. To handle a variable you must be able to access off—chip memory. Most of the time you know what address you want to use,just as in a high level language you know what name the variable is. We say the address is known at compile time. To do this you can use the Direct Memory Addressing mode.This takes a value and compiles it next to the instruction just like the immediate mode. The difference is that when the number is used it is taken not as a value but as the address where a value is to be found. For example, to move the value in memory location 8 into data register D4 you would use:

MOVE'B

&8'D4

where $ indicates that what follows is the hexadecimal value of the memory address from which to take the data.

Again there are two types of this Absolute Short addressing mode and Absolute Long. The difference lies in how many extra bytes are used to specify the address. Basically, the short mode is used when you want to address the first or .Iast 32k or memory where you can get away with specifying the address in two bytes—otherwise you need the long mode which specifies the address in four bytes. Again, any semi-decent assembler should —

choose the correct one for you. In many cases the address of a variable is not known at compile time. This may be where you want to apply the same operation» to many

different variables. in high level languages YOU W0U|d use an array with a fixed name and a variable subscript. In machine code you would use a form of indirect memory addressing of which there are five different variants. Indirect Memory Addressing is therefore the most complicated ofthe addressing modes. The simplest of this complex bunch is the Register Indirect mode. In this mode a register holds not the value but the address of a value. We say that the register points to a memory location. of course before this mode is used the register must be set up to point to the area you want. For example, suppose we wanted to cleara section ofmemory. Then we could set up the address ofthe start of our section in memory in address register A0 and then perform: MOVE'B

#0,(A1)

The brackets indicate not to use the register itself as the destination but what the register points to. We can then increment the register, jump back and perform the same instruction. This time we clear the second byte of our memory. We can add a constant on to the value in a register by using the Register Indirect with Displacement Addressing mode. This allows you to access memory locations up to 32k either side of that pointed to by the register. This can be useful if we want to access a particular element of an array whose address is variable. Note that the displacement can be zero, in which case the addressing mode would be in effect the same as the simple register indirect mode. To indicate this it is usual to place the displacement outside the brackets, so:

MOVE'B

#0'#6(A1)

which clears the byte six locations away from that pointed at by the address register. Perhaps the most complex addressing mode of all is Register

With

and

Index. Indirect Displacement This works like Register Indirect

with Displacement but with the addition of another value. The effective address is the sum of the the contents of an displacement. address register and the contents ofa data register—the index bit. When all three have been added the result defines the location to use. AS it is qurtea complex mode,any example to illustrate it is going to be complex, but here is one case v'.‘1"f"9re| have used this mode in anger. had a digitised picture and wanted to count how many pixels had of each brightness level. So set up an address register (A3)to point at the start of an array whose elements were the brightness levels and whose contents were the number of pixels at that level. lthen put the pixel brightness level into a data register (D3) and performed: i

I

I

I

ADD'B

#1'#°(A3'DZ)

This added the value to the memory pointed at by the sum Of A3 and DZ. The displacement was not needed and so could be zero. As there were many such arrays in my system, once A3 was primed with the correct value the same code could be used for all arrays. There are two more modes in this section Post-increment Register 1

Indirect and Pre—decrement Register Indirect. They are quite a mouthful but basically are variants of the simple form of indirect addressing. One mode increments the actual register after performing the oper— ation, and the other mode decrements the register before performing the operation. These two modes are usually used a push—down stack in memory. As any of the address registers can be used in this mode it gives us up to eight different stacks. This allows us to pass parameters to subroutines on stacks. This is just what is ”639de when implementing the high—level language Forth. BaSicaiiyl to DUSh data from DO on to a stack pointed at by A5 YOU

together to form

————>

September 7985 ATARI USER

51


WOUId “551

MOVE.L To then:

different instructions. The purpose of this is to enable you to write code that is position independent. That means that the code can run when placed anywhere in memory. This is necessary in overlay systems where memory to run programs is dynamically allocated by a memory allocation program. Code can be moved in from disc to an area of memory when needed. It can then stayin the memory after use unless some other program needs more space in which case it is purged (removed). As the free memory known as a is always changing it is heap essential that programs must be position independent. There are two types of relative one that specifies a addressing displacement and one which uses an index value as well as a displacement. Normally you will access these through labels in your assembler

D0,—(A5)

the data back into D2

recover

MOVE.L

+(A5),DZ

As you can specify byte, word or long word operations the increment siz e s a re 0 n e, two a nd fo u r respectively. This also allows you to process an array or string a single element at a time. Relative addressingdoes not mean "Dear Aunty Flo" but is a way of specifying an address relative to the

in the program. I am sure you have played Monopoly and receivedthe card "Go back three places”. Well, that is

relative addressing, your destination depends upon where you are. In most processors this is reserved for program branching, but in the 68000 it can be used with many

I I I I | I I

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

STOCKSOFT

TWO WAYS TO E N S U R E YO U G ET

&‘i r'&Q U @$@@ )

.

EVE RY M 0 N T H Complete and mail subscription

1.

form on Page 61. 2. Hand this form to your newsagent. Please reserve me a copy of Atari User magazrne every month until further notice. .

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I I I

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4 discs crammed with graphics. pictures demo’s to world Atari's No. show the two double sided discs at only £15.

(16k).

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CRACKER WiII list M/C pings to screen, you edit, download version with or without m/c your personalised knowledge. Hours ol fun changing text to leave on Stuck on an screen. personal messages adventure search Ior clues. Also acts to back up your Atari tapes. All for only £10 on T.D.K. Tape Post FREE.

BIND Moves binary liles to auto boot tape or disc. Games on double sided disc at £10. Post FREE.

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52 ATAR/ USER

-

-

September 7.985

-

-

-

-

884

B-

J

-

h am BS 2’NB

gown

$g '

COMPACT

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460303232letilxtall? version

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instruction

r

program and the assembler will look after calculating the displacements at compile time. The final addressing mode is the simplest one Implied Register to is Addressm'g. The register use specrfied in the instruction. This IS a catch-all mode for those instructions that alter the status register, program counter or stack pointer. The register to use is part of the instruction itself, so will not trouble you further. Mastering the addressingmodes is 90 per cent of being a good machine code programmer and sound knowledge of what each one does is essential. As you can see, the 68000 provides a comprehensive collection of addressing modes which can be used as both source and destination in many instructions. 0 Next time we will look at the overall environment the 68000 presents to the programmer.

EI'Id ’

\

\\


_—

E

LANGUAG WORDS and lists are what makes Logo tick. They may not be as well known as turtle graphics, but it is worth remembering that turtle graphics was developedina word and list environment. In Atari Logo almost all aspects of list processing are present, the exceptions being TEXT and DEFINE. The purpose of this article is to show something of what is possible in Logo, using words and lists. To begin with, Logo is an extensible language. You can make the system larger and more powerful. Iwill illustrate what mean by looking at its conditional test. LOQO'S test is one found in many programming languages, the it: condition true THEN do this and, optionally, ELSE do this. Let's illustrate this: I

says DEREK

IF to check two conditions and output true if either is found. It is possible for OR to take more than two inputs. To do this, OR has to be preceded by a parenthesis, (, and the list of conditions terminated by a closing parenthesis, ).

When a tLogo primitive, which normally takes two inputs, is used in this way with more than two inputs, it's known as a “greedy procedure". These might make writing procedures easier, but they havetheir error price when things go wrong messages tend to be misleading. Now one thing which is useful to have is a conditional test which allows an action to be carried out once before a test is invoked. The structure for this is DO action UNTIL condition. It is quite easy to write —

such

test in Logo.

a

RADBURN

backslash. This stops the Logo interpreter from processing the character following it. Another point to note is the use of NOT in the lF test. Finally, OP is short for OutPut which causes the procedure to

terminate, sending back the item to the calling procedure or command level toplevel, The DO procedure is an example of

following OutPut

tail recursion. Recursion

is a

process

which often gives problems in getting to grips with understanding it. Essentially, recursion exists in ordin— ary everyday life. Think about walking: “At-K

TO

MVE

DPPBSTTE

FBOT

Ill

FRONT

OTHER

OF

MLK TO

ENTER

TO

TYPE [What shape do you want?

Til

MAKE “KEY

IS or

RC

tACTIBlI zE?NDTTI?N

DO

END

sACTIllII

RUN

IF

RUN

Dli

MCTIBR tC?RMTIO?

{STOP}

tCGNDTTIDR

do not su ggest you type this into yourAtari, but it does, I suggest,puta Logo type of form to an everyday .

.

I

IF ll?T

BR

zKEY

=

‘8

{You oust respond

=

‘T H’RIRT

S

or T]

{REY

sxtll

Elli)

UAIT SR ENTER]

_

two “Sts PO takes Lets put 't to use:

END

All that this very trivial procedure for some input, create a variable called KEY to hold the response, and then test the value of that variable to ensure that it's what is does is to ask

W [59

T0 59

END

ELSE list is not present.

T0 HERE?

handled by RC, ReadCharacter, which always out— puts a single character word. Notice also the use ofTYPE instead of PRINT can you work out why? Third, by using OR it is possible for

RT 271

REPEAT 4 {F0

TYPE

5!

quain‘.“

3

RT

93]

"ME

1; um ngY a ty mp

“(EV

RC

“mun

mp

"ERLSET END

is

not the same

as a

REPEAT

|OOD- Recursion produces many images and uses a let Of memory. The REPEAT loop does not. Often, in explanations of Logo, recursion is used to do trivialthings in turtle graphics where the use Of the REPEAT |OOD W0U|d be far more appropriate and economical. is an of recursion lHere example belng used to manlpulate a word or

_—>

Notice

recursive activity. As you have probably noticed, the particular quality of a recursive procedure is that it has, as part Of its definition, a call to itself. This

END

There are several things to note about this. First, in this example the THEN branch is a list and the optional is

,

"3 inputs.

SPIN“

T0

asked for_

Second, input

_

as

here the

use

of the September 7985 ATARI USER

53


—Logo to ether with

list,

6 The Logo system

me new

Lo 9 0

commagnds, w

IF EHPIYP ‘

[OP

I

[IF

:BBJECI

IDRDP

[III

[OP

REV BF

REV

”351

:DBJECII

|f you're not clear what this procedure does try typing pR REV [I LOVE ATARI LOGO].

Let's try to analyse and explain what’s happening. First, notice REV needs to be given two things.The first is something which can use any output which arises from REV, the second is an input for REV to operate upon. The first line of REV, as distinct from its title line, checks to see whetherthe input :OBJECT is empty. |f it is, it causes either an empty word or list to be output, which terminates that call to the procedure. The second line tests to see if the input to REV isa word. |f it is, it builds a new word by taking the last letter of the input and joins it to the results which come from using REV with the ButLast everything but the last letter of the input. The third line tests to see if the input is a list. in this event the first item of the list is subjected to another call to REV and then a new list is built up by placing the results at the end LastPUT and then using LPUT ButFirst of using REV on the BF the original input. This application of

data type may be used. WORD joins only words together to form one word. SE, or SENTENCE, joins either words or lists. If it's word to word, or word and list, or list to list, the result output is one list. With either FPUT, FirstPUT, or LPUT there are also two inputs. The first can be a word or a list, but the second must be

a list. The resultant output is either, in the case of word to list, a list with an embedded list and a word, or in the case of list to list, a list with two lists embedded in it.

want to finish by showing how Logo and lists can be used for numeric manipulation. The three procedures which follow will generate all of the prime numbers up to a chosen level. Try using PR PRIME 50. You should get your results very i

Ill

recursion is known as totalrecursion. If this example seems rather complex it is because it is a very generalised procedure capable of handling both words and lists, without the user needing to dis—

tin guns h them. It is important here to note that the Logo system sees words and lists as being verydifferent.Try this example: .

"9th]

(SlEVE

The function of this procedure is to takea number and check whether itis a multiple of any of the prime factors provided in the second input. If there is no remainder after division then the number is not prime and “FALSE is output. By recursion, the procedure runs down the list offactors until,ifthellst is empty, then the number must be prime an d ”TRUE is 0 ut pu t. .

:l.

IF :N (

[DP

AND

:L

1

-

:N

LPUT '

YOU

is no

apparent

6

:u

l :L +

1

PRIHEP LPUT

:n

:ll -

,

,

'5

qf‘h'sf’mcedure present SlEVE W'th suttably prepared inputs—notice one ofthoseisactually

a

call to

The

SlEVE itself:

.f'r5t input

IS

a

comp ex I

when evaluated, multiple Of 6 above the initial-inputcf PRIME second input ls the output The results from a to Whl.Ch C?” SIE.VE’ Wh'Ch the “St Of prime produces expressron Wh'Ch’ gives SIE\/_E.the.next

factors, thIS- early call has 2 and 3 as ”S factors. "NU?” prime Ata” L090 not have a does. QUQT operator, so you erI have to write it.

.

l

,

moguiirlt‘u'i -n

{U 1

IF.SR[;2I:§§HE: 7741+”; filglEIPP ?g"; ‘

[PR

“DIFFEREHTJ '

'

i SlEVE i" ' IN l SlEVE {N ' OP SlEVE ’" ' 6 ‘L :N

+

'

6 6

3“ WP NJ]

LPUT

'

know!

it is important to know where each 54 ATARI USER

53

,

:LI

PRIHEP

[or

+

END

,

T0 SlEVE :N

6) 6) ; 5

:N) 6) i 6 [2

(SQRT

3] l _

END

NOW

(QUUT

-

END

[ATARI]

[PR

iiqijm i:N

up SIEVE

‘TRUEI

The f“”°“°"

SlEVE {N

But now, try this: "9mm

[GP

m

[ATARI]

=

:PRIHELIST

EHPTYP

1

"ATARI

T0 PRIHE g"

EQUAL? D (REMINDER :N FIRST :PRIHELISI) [OP 'FALSEI op PRIHEP til BF :PRIHELIST

IF

difference. IF

IF

and this;

What you should see

that,apartfrom2and 3,a||primes are adjacent to multiples of 6, hence the progressive subtraction of 6, and the examination of numbers one more or one less than :N. There are three conditions which the procedure has to handle. The first is where both adjacent numbers are prime, this is dealt with in the second line, the second is where only one adjacent number is prime line three —and finally where neither is prime— line four. At the end of each of these lines there is a recursive call to SlEVE with :N decremented by 6.

5" ‘PRWEUST

PRIHEP

IF

the editor, by typing ED “SlEVE, since there is not the limit on individual line length there which exists at toplevel. This is the procedure where the ”business" is done. The algorithm being used here makes use of the fact

quickly.

PR

being

LAST

END

PR

as

.

:llBJECT [DP HERD :OBJECI REV BL :QBJECII IF “519 :UBJECT [up LPUT HORDP

:OBJECT

'

and lists different 9

very

:DBJECT

sees

'

words

WNW

REV

IF

——————

September 7985

It will be necessary to type this in

Try this out, and see what the largest number is that it can handle before the system runs out Of memmyTry out some procedures of your own.| would be interested in hearing about what you produce.


————————Mailbog FEEL I must write to explain to beginners who are having difficulty getting programs to run which they have typed in from magazines. When I started typing in /

programs

_ .

from magazines

three years ago l encountered exactly the same problems. / would check the listing and my typing dozens of times and not find any errors, so I would write off to the magazine concerned.

would receive a reply / had made a mistake. Sol would check my /

saying that

listing again and again and sometimes after hours / would spot a silly typing error, say a letter 0, which should have been azero. All / can say is check your typing very very carefully and l _

willfindthe error eventual/y. l still make typing errors even now. I can’t understand why Mr N. Buckle from Kent does not like Antic’s checksum meth— ods. / and thousands of other Atari owners find Typo II a godsend in pin pointing typing errors. Paul Carfoot, Burton-on-Trent. 0 We're thinking of reprinting this letter every month! If you canguarantee

YOU

are one

of the many

people

who have written with prob— lems in getting the listed programs to run, believe us Paul is right. When we find genuine bugs in the programs we'll print corrections.

Wanted full list

__

a

User and to say that you have nowfi/leda void on the shelves of my local newsagents.

ofowninganymber

“boa/<5 0” mama” ("lems/l have notbeenable tof/ndafull list of error messages, and even with some of the ones that I do have I have been the to decipher short— hand/n which theyare written. / would suggest that If you could rectify this shortcoming in future issues ofAtari User you would earn the gratitude unable

.

— ofmany of yourreaders.—T.J. Hurley, Liverpool.

0 Some of the error mess— ages are pretty inscrutable, aren't they? Our favourite is DEViCE NAK. We'll bear VOUl' in mind.

suggestion

Clean out of R EMS

these games without bother— ing to type in the REM statements.

With many listings this would be fine, but in both these cases the program auth— ors have chosen to jump to a REM. Typing in the missing line numbers With iUSt the word REM on them Should cure your WithOU'f tOO much problems extra typing.

WHEN/bought theJu/y issue

of Atari User / typed Bomb Run inonmy800Xl. andatthe end I typed RUN. Every time I pressed the Return button the computer kept putting up “Error 72 at line 50". I know that the 72 means that it cannot find line 50. It did it on the Submarine game and this time it said "Error 72 at line 90". / have checked these two games over and over again. Could you tel/meplease tell me how I can make these Paul Lynch, games run. —

Birmingham.

0 Both line 50 of Bomb Run and line 90 of Submarine GOSUB to a REM statement. We suspect you've entered

WIT/{LEI reading theJune Of Atari User / noticed edit/on that /n Random on Thoughts Page 54 the two dice are

wrong/y printed. 0" all dice opposite sides _

to 7' From the numbers both dice th’s rule not apply. Ph|||p _

Smith, Walsall. n shows that At_leastl '3" tone Of

.

ourwces.

gambling

'

Poor serV|ce HOWp/easedl am to see that we have now got a great magazine, Atari User. lwas feeling sorry that/had

I” um ' n a t'lo" lHA VE owned anAtari 800XL for tWO months and have lUSI‘ seen your series on graphic ”100'6?

(issue

7/-

.

luminance. in

handy

I

think it will come for other Atari

beginners. 7-0 pause use Contra/+7.

C.M.

Hempsall,

What had got was the ignorance

me fed up ofAtari UK

in Slough.

ananuary of this year/ sent a tape

of a program that/ was with and

having trouble

no—one had the decency to reply or send my tape back.

After trying loads of times to contact

Helpline

by

phone

it

always

-—

to

/

was

tele—

did manage

to

who would be written to someone

promised I in two weeks. I don’t know which century they meant the two weeks to be in, because/still have heard nothing. Ten weeks ago I got in touch with customer relations at Slough, who toldmeif/ sent another copy of the program

they would give it urgent attention. Silence. But then again in my opinion, if Jack Tramie/ wants to sell his —-

computer in the UK he should and sort things out at

come

_—_-*—_’

l u m ’'n a n 03

0" _

10 PRINT

“ms

0:0

(125)

15mm 0:0 To 14 STEP 2 If our. THE! ssrcomn 144,14 40 IF we THEN sstcown 1.0.0 5. POSITION 13,12:PRIIT 0,8 50 905171“ "COLOUR LIIHI 11;¥1=PRINT ”tutti" 79 SETCOLOR 2,0,B:FOR 0:9 T0 1.0“.5,“ NIEKT MPRINT cms‘usn?m n 80 GRM’HICS 0:90511'10! 16,12:PRIHT “T" M'5 all" 20 FOR

10

so

,

beg'm’e’ t’fped’" 56mg hSt/ng 2 and found It only showed one luminance, so I sat down and worked out a listing for each colour and 6

_

6751 up vrsrb/e 0"

does

edition.

speak _

was

changed my computer to the Atari until I got your first

engaged

.

Odd dlce

'

I WOULD like to say thank you for a fine ?rst issue of Atari

ln spite

an r 0a

0

Not-

_

I i

i

tingham. September 7985 ATARI USER

55


M—

Atari

UK. It's no wonder Warners had to go down with the service Atari gives. I don’t suppose / am the only one who has suffered these difficulties with Atari. lf

.

hiicergt?igfh/YZng/fwz

Chlldpl'OOf .

.

.

userhas

the notgota/oystrck, can Breakdlzey ent 93/53”?b? V a

.

17251559 t h us 3" vecrfy e promg t husrastlc

zralfnjl ~

If you the insert followmg lines they .wrll stop this from

Mailbag Editor

(I’ll/?zzlzzxaglsvir?z’f/‘Magj

_

Atari User Europa House 68 Chester Road Hazel Grove StOCkPOI't SK7 5NY

chester.

for

-

happening. Lines 150 8!

915, POKE 16,64: POKE 53774,64

As the program takes up nearly all of the 76k, it will be necessary to delete some of the REM statements if the user

Improvement I WOULD /'ke I t

.0

37;

congr at ual te

335535333323gggg

luv/g for the future. But/feel that the magazine could be improvedin several ways. Although it is well presented / feel the subjects are aimed too much at novice and beginning computerists rather than the veteran Atari programmers. So please could you try to broaden your horizons and show us what the Atari real/y is capable of. Topics you could cover are

scrolling, display list interrupts, vertical blank interrupts, '

32?’Zg%p;zgg gig;”201222? niqu es.

Also, how about

some photographs in your software reviews section. Other than that / feel that your magazine is excellent value and is just what we A tari owners need / mean, who wants to pay three quid for an American Atari magazine? __ _

Steven

Hurst,

Lanes.

Horwich,

and this can make me quite

mad, eeeeuee

.

Lawton, Stoke—on-Trent. 0 If

your machine “locks up", to you should take it'back your

dealer and explaln the prob— Iem. Forlnformationon the Help key, see our July issue, Page 57' ,

'

Not for homework you tell me if it is possible to record sounds produced by my computer in the audio channel on my 7070 cassette recorder, and then to use these sounds while load—

ing programs? This was intimated by Elisabeth Dennis in her review of "Snowball" by Level 9 in

l/VHEN l.use myAtar/ 800XL, It sometimes locks up. It just stops— you can't type anything at. all. Even if you press Reset it will not clear the screen. The only th/ng you can do IS to swrtch off the computer — September 7985

David

E.

0 No, it's not possible to record sounds from your programs onto your recorder.

.

.

a gOOd Idea

_

_

quest.lons CAN

Elisabeth was referring to programs like Atari's conver— sational language series which have an audio track alongside the program track on the tape. 'This audio track is put on recording usnng specialised — not the sort of egmpment thing you could do at home.

plug

”7 a

”7°_”°'

fg’ lehfe monltfgr 108.

”gig/Cap ”3 "70'700 h rome mon-. ”0’3 can be theAtar/

pro-

thing check—sum IS a gram good Idea. l was to write and “19995!the gomg bUt/ 901 beaten 10 l'dea myself

_

usedW/th have which Sta".’f connecting cables

800XL’ and

327? .

save a lot of time and They. frustration and newcomers are often put off as l was if a program doesn’t work after hours of typing. Please get one soon. l have a of suggescouple trons. My ?rst IS that your

Do

programs be made available on as cassette as disc. / th/nk this IS'well a great Idea having all the programs on a disc, but as not many of us can afford disc drives I think a cassette would please many people. In future issues! wouldlike to see a private for ads'page readers to advert/se their

equipment and

games. I have seen this sort of thing in other magazines andl think it is a good idea. Apart from these two suggestions I think younmagazine isgreat.—Luke

qullngberyi Kirby Mallory.

Leicestershire.

80-co/umn

monitors

ShOW 40 character lines? /3 there any way ofmakrng '

the

show

80

800K!" an We a suitable character on MON/(Of by (IS/"9 and 388k Of a Poke, machine—code routine? —J- Smart, Hitchl?,

_

unwanted

.

YOU

chrome and ’t at men/tor use the same as a TVdIsp/ay time text and the

fun.

a

cum.

Monltor

lHA VE now both received my May and June /ssues ofAtar/ User and found them very interesting. / particularly liked the 72 page feature on computer communications, and wish / could afford a modem, because it/oaks great ,

a ”730/717"? over

Kelvin a. __ Rayhlght Essex.

,

/

got

76k.

It.

COULD

7.

has not

Check-sum

.

Barker, Derby.

Wh Y am I locked out?

56 ATARI USER

lose the

program on the computer. p explain legse Wheath/ff y t is hyou app ens. me Second/y, COU/d YOU what the Help button tell [t Is? does not to do anything. seem P- Cartlldge, Church

issue No.

.

/

.

?g757 {22171942 rflfljnip7?’f5;

—~

-

R0 0 m

'

WE welcome letters from readers about your experiences using the Atari micros, about tips you would like to pass on to other users and about what to see in future issues. YOU T ryvouldjlike e ad ress to write to is:

send their complaints along, with my own, to friends in America who are personal -

Making it

ATA R l Mallbog USER

Harts. 0

can connect a Yes, you and a TV at the same monitor time, but you WI“ get the same picture on both —one in colour, one in black—and~white.

Any monitor with

com—

a

posite input connection that is, almost any monochrome monitor will work. Cables will probably be wired up as extras, or contact an Atari dealer for a ready~made cable stating the make of monitor you have decided on. The picture is generated by the computer, and the monitor just displays it. Hence, any monitor. Whatever the number of characters it can display, —

r


19 11380

11117111

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_—————Mailbag disc-based Gem systems, probably in the autumn. The answer to your second question is not known at present. The Basic manual might contain some form of memory map, but the Gem manual certainly doesn’t. We

d o n

't

k n o w

of

recently received news of one. You need Visicalc or Syn— calc to do what you require. Visicalc is not as good as Syncalc but will do what you want with no problems.

3

Personal Basic review either. Try writing to Digital Research themselves.

A tarl

but try calling the Atari Helpline just in case they've

.

Looking for a hook

give t h e its

the Atari and owners deserve. P.D. Little, Carshal ton. support

.

.

Ilnk_up HAVE an Atari 400 and am hOPBfU/W 90/779 to buy a 65XEM when it is released. i would like to knowif there is any way/ can connect these fWO together for a computer Peter DUMOP, East link-up.

/

Kilbride. 0 YOU can connect the tWO machines via thejoystick ports to send information from one to the other. However YOU'” be able to or use the same cassettes discs that you’ve used 0" your 400Of course this assumes that the 65XEM ever sees the light Of day-

User group

a User there was the listing _of game Submarine by Vince Apps’ 0”. Of 40 .Ed”°a“°”a/

games listed

”7

a

b0.0k

published by Granada Col/ins. unable to far/ have bee," 3? Of ”713 bOOk' and Obta'" a WP” tell me I wonder If you can one. where I may obtain —

R.H. Cook, Leicester. . An y decent booksho p should be able to order 't for .

a"d some suftware .

-

58 ATARI USER

September 7985

wonderifyou could

tell

/ WOULD like to congratulate you on a fine magazine for the Atari. I’ve got it on prescription (also subscription} as I’ve felt

I WRITE to correct whatl feel to be a misconception in your answer to Nigel Ward (Mail-

Leeds. Q There doesn‘t seem to be a user group in the Leeds area,

.

if there is an additional RAM pack for the 800XL to hopefully boost it up past that point. Not only RAM is there one for ROM? Also do you knowifthere are anyprograms

“GEde

moving annual total and project what the 7985 total F.J. Savage, figure will be.

IHAVE anAtari800XL having upgraded from a 400. This step in the available RAM has increased my programming me

LAST Christmas I treated myself to the 800XL 7050 disc drive and the 7027 printer. It is all very confusing, but I am enjoying myself enormously trying to understand it all. I would be very grateful if

to save

skills. So I

.

July

985). You are wrong in saying that games on tape and the same game on disc are of the bag,

same

7

size.

Zaxxon

was

specifically mentioned, and in this case the disc version contains missiles and movement in 3D in the dogfight screen which the tape version lacks. Now without getting too technical, the disc format for such a game does not contain any form of DOS. Instead the first 6 bytes of sector 7 contain first/y a dummy byte, then the number

country

Baud rate on the 1010 recorder can be changed up to about 900 baud from its current 600 baud. BEYOHd this, reliability SUffers severely. Programs have in the computer appeared press to achieve this but if any of our readers have written one we'd be glad to take a look at it. -

Packlng l“ the R AM .

HAVE an Atari 600XL and a 7070 tape recorder, but I cannot save programs that l have typed in, Can you please help me so that / can save greatprograms/ike yourBomb Run on tape .? E oin M F'Intray, Ab er _ aewre, deenshlre. 0 Unless you have faulty I

you.

sick about the lack of support the Atari seems to get. On a recent visit to Boots/

you could possibly help me with the following: 0 How dol find out if there is anAtari user group in my area? 0 Could you advise me the best software package to insert separate 72 month's sales figures for 7 984 with the annual total then as each month's 7985 figures are fed in drop the corresponding 7984 figure, calculate the

-

Fallure

.

in this

'

ea ers, p ease var;0,dizappointeld.

IN the June edition of Atari

-

found they stocked the 800XL but little software, yet for the Commodore and Spectrum there was plenty. What is the point of stocking the hardware if YOU don’t stock software? There are many‘ products for the Atari available by mail order, the problem being that unless you have tried the product before you buy it you can be

available to increase the baud 7070 data rate on the recorder? Craig Brankin. Q ROM is expanded via the cartridge port on top of the machine. At the moment 64k is the maximum for an 800XL —

of 728 blocks of memory to load, then the memory address to start the load in lo/hi format, and lastly the initialisation address, again in lo/hi format. The operating system extracts this information and proceeds to load the indicated number of blocks. This is the same format as used for a boot tape, however it does not take any account of any protection scheme that may be present. Now sucharecord is called sequential, as each block is loaded in one by one serially until it is fully loaded, so the disc requires no directory nor VTOC, so no DOS needs to be loaded to handle these entries.

equipment there should be no problem. With a program in memory and the Ready prompt on the screen, press the Record and Play buttons together on your 1010 then type CSAVE and press Return twice. The pro— gram will then be saved to tape. To load it back in, re-wind the tape, press Play on the 1010 and then type CLOAD and press Return twice.

A Basic load file on the other hand requires both. Such a file is called a linked ?le, the main difference being that each sector only contains 725 bytes of program with the last 3 bytes containing information about the number of bytes in that sector, the file number and where the next sector/s to be found on the disc. No doubt this will be covered in these pages in the future. Information from ”De-Re Atari" and ”Technical User's

Notes", although both are heavy reading. Many thanks for your support for the most superior home

computer.

Croker, Wembley.

Derryck


WE

HOMEWORD personaIWORD PROCESSOR 1984 outstanding AWARD

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DOCUMENT/ UNDERLINE and JUSTIFICATION. A full 80 ;_I\IIE()I<_I.I.’UDE characters per line enables you to view your documents as they will appear in printed format. Use with any printer. Many other fine features make HOMEWORD a great WORD PROCESSOR

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Can graphlc up your plctures to wall snzed posters. Special option lets you centre the picture on the page.

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the whole screen or any selected portion of the screen. FREE with every MAGNIPRINT II PRINTALL. PRINTALL prints your

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an d

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Simple versatile effective_ HOMEWORD is a writing tool designed for the home. It offers the power of a sophisticated word processor without the complications. use HOMEWORD t° write s°h°°' assignments, shopping lists, letters, business

LL

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1

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ATARI graphic characters including INVERSE characters. This alone is

worth the price. Disk £25.95

S E E YO U R Lo CA L D EA L E R N0 W! TRADE ENQUIRIES Tel: 01-723 0562

All products are available from: SILICA SHOP 01-309 1111, SOFTWARE EXPRESS 021-384 5080, SILICON CHIP 0753 70639, A.S. WOTTON & SONS 0270 214118, PEATS ELECTRONICS IRELAND 01-749972/3/4, RADFORD HI-FI Ltd. 0272 428247 MICROBYTE 051-630 6933, THE AMV SHOP SUNARO SOFTWARE and other If

good computer shops. can order direct. All you have problems in obtaining any of these products then you Post to: to ZOOMSOFT. made be should payable cheques/P.0.s

ZOOMSOFT 46 Huntsworth

Mews. London N.W.1 6DB September 7985 ATARI USER

59


fOI‘ 0”

1 ‘thll'f

FREE as i...

{

41;

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f:

is

new

Here’s

a

really

for all Atari

.

o

users!

This top-qualityT-shirt, woven in an attractive shade of grey with the Atari logo in red, is a genuine American ‘Fruit of the Loom’ product, made from

'

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7

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Keying

long programs

in

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AUGUST: Assembler: Make machine code programming easier. Fruiti Gambler. Save money with this fruit machine simulation. Mandala: Complex patterns made easy. Protection: Routines to protect your programs from prying eyes. Display List: Demonstration programs. Raider 1997: Futuristic text adventure. Touch Tablet:

.

/

I,

A

//

/

.

f

.

5-

5

5

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r.

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the mess of ropes in the belfry? JUNE: Frog Jump: Guide the frog across the road and river to his home in this version of the arcade classic. 1300XE Ram Power: Use the extra 64k of memory to good effect, or use the drawing routines to produce some pretty displays. Submarine: Scuttle the submarines.

, ;

..‘

W i'

‘;

® . \

:

0

‘ a

'

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-

_

60 ATARI USER

of

a

chore?

Etcha-Sketch: Draw pretty pictures with only a joystick. Random Numbers: Get random numbers from machine code. Filthy Fifteen: Can you keep the Filthy Fifteen happy in their cells? MAY: Alphabet Train: The combination of colour, sound and animation makes this early learning game a winnerwith the children. Sounds Interesting: Drive your neighbours potty with these ready-made sounds. Hexer. Enter, display and run machine code programs with this hexadecimal loader. Attack Squash: A fast-action game to keep you on your toes. Reaction Timer. See how fast your reactions really are. Binary: Use this program to convert denary numbers to binary notation. Horace the Blob munch the maze monsters' morsels. Data Maker: Convert your machine code routines to DATAstatements.

SH’TEMBER: Maze Munch: Help

Display List: Demonstration programs. Screen Dumps: Dump your Mode 8 screens to a 1029 printer. Bricks: Solve the Bricks problem.

Double the capacity of your discs with this money-saving offer! .

‘\

programs.

JULY: Bomb Run: Flatten the deserted city and land safely. Disassembler: Find out what's going on deep inside your Atari. Treasure Hunt: Use logical thinking to find the treasure. Password Generator. Keep generating passwords till you find one you like. Keyboard: Convert your micro into an organ. Quasimodo: Can you sort out

'

_

F'

"3 in)

ig‘

f.“

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Demonstration

1,4;-

(\

much

Then give your ?ngers a rest by sending for our monthly disc, containing all the programs from each issue of Atari User. See orderform opposite.

.

NA @“

too

4

September 7985

a

88

CDEDBlliaB

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Back

4

Issues

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,

ORDER FORM 1 ,: .

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130XE. Submarine, Adventuring, Random numbers, Software reviews, Frog Jump, Microscope, Sounds, Atari Insights regular series of tutorials: Bit —

Wise, Beginners and Graphics, special

12 Page feature on Communications, PLUS New and Mailbag. July issue: Disassembler, Bomb Run,

Proctect your 130XEwith our luxury dust cover made of soft, pliable, clear and water-resismnt vinyl, bOUHd With “TONS C°?°n With the and

decoratled 090magazine’s

\’7

t

* t

7033

.

Mix]:

£425 UK £525 Overseas

532; 7099

Large

TOTAL (

130XE on y)

7031

1

E TOTAL

I I Disk

£500 Overseas

Doubler

+

free DOS 2.5

I I

TOTAL TOTAL __

Access/Mastercard/Eurocard

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Profile for Paul Rixon

Atari User Magazine Vol 1 Issue 05  

Atari User Magazine Vol 1 Issue 05 - magazine for Atari home computer users, published by Database Publications.

Atari User Magazine Vol 1 Issue 05  

Atari User Magazine Vol 1 Issue 05 - magazine for Atari home computer users, published by Database Publications.

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